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  1. Understanding Puerto Rican Culture Using Puerto Rican Children's Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freiband, Susan; Figueras, Consuelo

    2002-01-01

    Presents examples of Puerto Rican children's literature, explaining how these books facilitate understanding of Puerto Rican culture. Describes criteria used to evaluate Puerto Rican children's literature and how to acquire the books using Puerto Rican bookstores, publishers, and distributors. Discusses how to use the books in school library media…

  2. Puerto Rican Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mapp, Edward, Ed.

    The contents of this compendium are organized in four parts, as follows. Part one, "From Education," includes the following essays: "A Positive View of Bilingualism," Bejamin Pacheco; "Puerto Rican Children and the New York City Public Schools," Luis Fuentes; "Why Puerto Rican Students Drop Out of School: An Explanatory Analysis," Alexander…

  3. Growing up Puerto Rican.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Paulette, Ed.

    This volume contains the narratives of 17 Puerto Rican young adults, describing the major events in their life histories to the editor. They were interviewed in their homes and schools, at work, and in the streets. Among the narratives are the accounts of Fernanda, who was told she was too stupid to bother studying, and who now has a master's…

  4. Puerto Rican Return Migrant Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carrasquillo, Angela; Carrasquillo, Ceferino

    Among Puerto Ricans who have migrated to the United States, a significant number have returned to Puerto Rico, while others shuttle between Puerto Rico and the United States. These groups of people are identified as return migrants. Studies suggest that return migrant youth in Puerto Rico have had to make environmental and cultural adjustments…

  5. UNDERSTANDING THE PUERTO RICAN AND HIS FAMILY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    THOMAS MARIE, SISTER

    AN UNDERSTANDING OF TRADITIONAL PUERTO RICAN FAMILY CUSTOMS AND BASIC DIFFERENCES BETWEEN PUERTO RICAN AND OTHER LIFE STYLES SHOULD HELP PROFESSIONAL WORKERS SOLVE THE PROBLEMS CREATED BY MIGRATION TO THE UNITED STATES. THE CULTURE OF THE PUERTO RICAN CAN BE DESCRIBED IN RELATION TO THREE CONCEPTS--DIGNIDAD (SELF-ESTEEM OR SELF-WORTH), RESPETO…

  6. The New Wave of Puerto Rican Immigrants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bray, Howard

    1983-01-01

    Examines economic and other reasons for Puerto Rican migration to the United States; describes the life styles, employment opportunities, and problems of middle class, professional and skilled Puerto Ricans who count among the new wave of migrants to the mainland; and suggests that more Puerto Ricans will migrate in the near future. (MJL)

  7. Alsophinase, a new P-III metalloproteinase with α-fibrinogenolytic and hemorrhagic activity from the venom of the rear-fanged Puerto Rican Racer Alsophis portoricensis (Serpentes: Dipsadidae).

    PubMed

    Weldon, Caroline L; Mackessy, Stephen P

    2012-05-01

    Metalloproteinases from snake venoms are often multi-domain enzymes involved in degradation of a variety of structural proteins. Hemorrhage and tissue necrosis are common manifestations of viperid envenomations in humans, largely due to the actions of prominent metalloproteinases, and envenomation by rear-fanged snakes may also cause hemorrhage. We purified the major metalloproteinase in Alsophis portoricensis (Puerto Rican Racer) venom through HPLC size exclusion and ion exchange chromatography. Named alsophinase, it is the first protein purified and characterized from the venom of Alsophis. Alsophinase is a single polypeptide chain protein, and based on mass, activity and complete inhibition by 1,10-phenanthroline, it is a class P-III snake venom member of the M12 ADAM family of metalloproteinases. Alsophinase has a molecular mass of 56.003kDa and an N-terminal sequence of QDTYLNAKKYIEFYLVVDNGMFxKYSxxFTV, with 67% sequence identity to a metalloproteinase isolated from venom of Philodryas olfersii (another rear-fanged species). Alsophinase rapidly catalyzed cleavage of only the Ala14-Leu15 bond of oxidized insulin B chain, had potent hemorrhagic activity in mice, and degraded only the α-subunit of human fibrinogen in vitro. Alsophinase is responsible for hemorrhagic and fibrinogenolytic activity of crude venom, and it may contribute to localized edema and ecchymosis associated with human envenomations by A. portoricensis. It may be more specific in peptide bond recognition than many well-characterized viperid P-III metalloproteinases, and it could have utility as a new protein fragmentation enzyme for mass spectrometry studies. PMID:22349739

  8. Boricuas: The Puerto Ricans. Manual for Inservice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mir, Margarita; Trillas, Elba Pietri

    This document is a teachers' guide to the television series, "Boricuas: The Pureto Ricans." The manual provides additional information to help teachers understand the adjustment problems and special educational needs of Puerto Rican students. The program order is as follows: Puerto Rican studies, island of Borinquen, nineteenth century, golden…

  9. Puerto Rican Women as Workers and Writers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vazquez, Blanca, Ed.

    1989-01-01

    This theme issue of the "Centro Bulletin" highlights recent studies by and about employed Puerto Rican and Latina women. "La mujer en el Puerto Rico del siglo XIX" (O. Jimenez de Wagenheim), in Spanish, reviews the contributions of women to Puerto Rican economic, political, and social life during the nineteenth century. "Notas sobre el desarrollo…

  10. Feminist Therapy with Mainland Puerto Rican Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comas-Diaz, Lillian

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the use of feminist therapy with mainland Puerto Rican women, presenting clinical vignettes. Emphasizes the consideration of sociocultural context, including the experience of cross-cultural translocation, transculturation, the colonial background of Puerto Rico, Puerto Rican sex roles, power issues and Puertorriquenas' sense of…

  11. Puerto Rican Women: Some Biographical Profiles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Votaw, Carmen Delgado

    Compiled in this document are brief biographical sketches of over sixty Puerto Rican women who have made significant contributions to society. Meant to serve as role models for young men and women, and to raise the consciousness of people about the merits and character of the Puerto Rican woman, these sketches present aspects of the imprints these…

  12. Leyendas Puertorriquenas, Adaptaciones (Puerto Rican Legends, Adaptations).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Aurea; Puigdollers, Carmen

    The Puerto Rican legends presented here have been adapted for use in a bilingual education setting. They are presented in the framework of a Puerto Rican child's first visit to the island with his family. The four legends are: (1) "Carabali"; (2) "Guanina"; (3) "El Penon de las Palomas"; and (4) "La Garita del Diablo." The book is illistrated with…

  13. Puerto Rican Gangs: A Historical Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torres-Rivera, Edil; Phan, Loan T.

    2005-01-01

    This article presents the problem of gangs on the island of Puerto Rico from a historical, economical, and political perspective. Some Puerto Rican historians are convinced that the gang problem in Puerto Rico is due to the political ambiguity and human rights violations of prison inmates (F. Pico, 1998). Some social scientists believe that gangs…

  14. Mainland Puerto Rican Communities: A Psychosocial Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torres-Matrullo, Christine

    Successful delivery of mental health services to Hispanic Americans depends on understanding the sociocultural variables that produce conflict for this group. For Puerto Ricans on the United States mainland, identity problems arising from Puerto Rico's historical and social circumstances are aggravated by the need to deal with cultural and…

  15. THE LOWER STATUS PUERTO RICAN FAMILY. REVISED.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BRAM, JOSEPH

    THIS SOCIOLOGICAL ANALYSIS DESCRIBES THE LOWER-STATUS URBAN AND RURAL FAMILIES IN PUERTO RICO. THE "JIBAROS," THE RURAL POOR OF THE HIGHLANDS, ARE LANDLESS AGRICULTURAL WORKERS WHO ARE MORE ISOLATED, LESS LITERATE, AND LESS ACCULTURATED TO URBAN LIFE THAN OTHER PUERTO RICANS. THEY TEND TO BE IDEALIZED AS THE PROTOTYPES OF THE ISLAND FOLK CULTURE.…

  16. A Bicentennial Without a Puerto Rican Colony

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Piri

    1975-01-01

    The United States revolution of 1776 is said to lose validity in light of Puerto Rico's colonial situation under American rule. The plight of the Puerto Rican people is compared to that of the Euro-American settlers under the thumb-screw of British imperialism. (Author/AM)

  17. The Puerto Rican Return Migrant Student: A Challenge to Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivera-Medina, Eduardo J.

    1984-01-01

    The two-way migration phenomenon of Puerto Ricans is examined, focusing on how Puerto Rican schools deal with children returning from the mainland with varying degrees of English and having become acculturated to some mainland behaviors. (BS)

  18. Sexual Prejudice among Puerto Rican young adults

    PubMed Central

    Bauermeister, José A.; Morales, Mercedes M.; Seda, Gretchen; González-Rivera, Milagritos

    2014-01-01

    Sexual prejudice is linked to hate crimes, mental health, risk behaviors, and stigma. Few studies have examined sexual prejudice among Latinos. We surveyed 382 college students in Puerto Rico. A structural model tested whether contact and positive experiences with homosexuals, perceived similarities with peers' attitudes toward homosexuality, and religiosity were predictive of sexual prejudice among Puerto Rican young adults. Sex differences in the structural model were explored. With the exception of peers' attitudes toward homosexuality, all study variables predict sexual prejudice. No sex differences were found. Implications for decreasing sexual prejudice among Puerto Rican youth in a college setting are discussed. PMID:18689195

  19. Directory of Puerto Rican Elected Officials in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Puerto Rican Coalition, Washington, DC.

    This directory of Puerto Rican elected officials in the United States is intended to serve as a benchmark of Puerto Rican political participation and to encourage community leaders to run for public office. The survey conducted for this directory identified 123 elected officials in 11 states with Puerto Rican populations of 10,000 or more.…

  20. Dos Puertorriquenos Visitan Puerto Rico (Two Puerto Ricans Visit Puerto Rico).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuttle, Harry Grover

    These materials for Spanish instruction are based on the meeting and friendship of two Puerto Ricans arriving in Puerto Rico for visits to their hometowns, their discussions of Puerto Rican life, and a sightseeing tour of San Juan. Introductory passages to the visitors' dialogues are in English, and dialogues are in Spanish, with photographs,…

  1. PUERTO RICAN MATERNAL AND INFANT HEALTH PROJECT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The high neonatal and post neonatal mortality rates of Puerto Rican infants have led to the identification of this subgroup as a target for special attention by the Public Health Service. This survey will provide the rich data necessary to examine this important health issue. Vit...

  2. Puerto Ricans in the Promised Land

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Piri

    1973-01-01

    An account of the hearing on Puerto Rican problems held by the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights in New York City on Feb 14 and 15, 1972 which provides not only a description of the hearing but is also interspersed with recollections by Mr. Thomas of his experience of growing up in the New York barrio. (EH)

  3. PUERTO RICO AND THE PUERTO RICANS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    STERNAU, HERBERT

    PUERTO RICO WAS DISCOVERED BY CHRISTOPHER COLUMBUS IN 1493. THE PROCESS OF COLONIZATION BEGAN IN 1508, WITH THE ARRIVAL OF PONCE DE LEON AND HIS SPANISH SOLDIERS. PUERTO RICO WAS GOVERNED BY SPAIN FOR ABOUT 400 YEARS, AND THE GREAT MASS OF PEOPLE REMAINED POVERTY-STRICKEN, UNDERNOURISHED, AND ILLITERATE. THE ISLAND WAS CEDED TO THE UNITED STATES…

  4. Images and Identities: The Puerto Rican in Two World Contexts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez de Laguna, Asela, Ed.

    The essays and articles in this collection were presented at a conference on "the Puerto Rican in Literature" that addressed, among other issues, the duality of the Puerto Rican experience and the constant oscillation between mainland and the island. The essays represent the vitality, diversity, and distinctiveness of contemporary Puerto Rican…

  5. TOWARD A BALANCE SHEET OF PUERTO RICAN MIGRATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SENIOR, CLARENCE; WATKINS, DONALD O.

    PATTERNS OF MIGRATION WITHIN PUERTO RICO AND TO AND FROM THE UNITED STATES ARE EXAMINED IN DEPTH IN THIS DISCUSSION. SUCH PROBLEMS AS THE HIGH MOBILITY OF PUERTO RICAN SCHOOL CHILDREN IN THE UNITED STATES (NEW YORK CITY ESPECIALLY) AND PUERTO RICAN EMPLOYMENT PATTERNS ARE ELABORATED ON IN THE DISCUSSION, AND DATA ON THE "SELECTIVITY PROCESS" IN…

  6. Health disparities between island and mainland Puerto Ricans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to detect health disparities among three populations—Puerto Ricans living in Puerto Rico as well as Puerto Ricans and non-Hispanic whites living on the United States (U.S.) mainland. Data from two similarly designed surveys conducted in 1999-2000 were analyzed. The Be...

  7. Puerto Rican migrant farmworkers: an untold story.

    PubMed

    Bonilla Santiago, G

    1986-01-01

    Thousands of Puerto Rican farmworkers have annually migrated to the US mainland. In 1947, the inhuman conditions that the Puerto Rican farmworker faced on the mainland forced a crisis on the island where in 1948 the Puerto Rican government established the Migration Division of its Department of Labor and specifically mandated that it oversee the annual outflow of farmworkers. The Farmworkers' Support Committee (CATA) involves and educates farmworkers in various ways, as well as has organizers visit camps on a regular basis as soon as the farm season has begun. CATA convenes regional meetings organized by worker committees in the different regions of Southern New Jersey where farm workers from different farms can get together and discuss common problems. The large majority of New Jersey farm-workers are Hispanic from Puerto Rico and Mexico. In 1978, the average annual income for a farmworker's family of 4 was $3000, over 40% below the poverty line. During the harvest of 1980, CATA was involved in several labor disputes, but the big one was the Sunny Slope strike in South Jersey. Puerto Rican farmworkers employed on farms in southern New Jersey face living and working conditions, exploitation, and a host of problems that are much worse than other workers face, and that stem, ultimately from their powerlessness. Although there is a lack of funding, training for staff, and organization and communication between areas of work, CATA's final goal is to become a movement to support and advocate for the formation of a farm workers union, "controlled and directed by farmworkers." PMID:12341432

  8. Modular Sequence: Puerto Rican Pupils in Mainland Schools. TTP 003.10. Prominent Puerto Ricans. Teacher Corps Bilingual Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartford Univ., West Hartford, CT. Coll. of Education.

    This module contains representative examples of native Puerto Rican men and women who have gained distinction in Puerto Rico. Following a pre- and postassessment test and list of learning alternatives are narratives presenting a brief biography of 27 Puerto Ricans. (MJM)

  9. Physiogenomic analysis of the Puerto Rican population

    PubMed Central

    Ruaño, Gualberto; Duconge, Jorge; Windemuth, Andreas; Cadilla, Carmen L; Kocherla, Mohan; Villagra, David; Renta, Jessica; Holford, Theodore; Santiago-Borrero, Pedro J

    2009-01-01

    Aims Admixture in the population of the island of Puerto Rico is of general interest with regards to pharmacogenetics to develop comprehensive strategies for personalized healthcare in Latin Americans. This research was aimed at determining the frequencies of SNPs in key physiological, pharmacological and biochemical genes to infer population structure and ancestry in the Puerto Rican population. Materials & methods A noninterventional, cross-sectional, retrospective study design was implemented following a controlled, stratified-by-region, random sampling protocol. The sample was based on birthrates in each region of the island of Puerto Rico, according to the 2004 National Birth Registry. Genomic DNA samples from 100 newborns were obtained from the Puerto Rico Newborn Screening Program in dried-blood spot cards. Genotyping using a physiogenomic array was performed for 332 SNPs from 196 cardiometabolic and neuroendocrine genes. Population structure was examined using a Bayesian clustering approach as well as by allelic dissimilarity as a measure of allele sharing. Results The Puerto Rican sample was found to be broadly heterogeneous. We observed three main clusters in the population, which we hypothesize to reflect the historical admixture in the Puerto Rican population from Amerindian, African and European ancestors. We present evidence for this interpretation by comparing allele frequencies for the three clusters with those for the same SNPs available from the International HapMap project for Asian, African and European populations. Conclusion Our results demonstrate that population analysis can be performed with a physiogenomic array of cardiometabolic and neuroendocrine genes to facilitate the translation of genome diversity into personalized medicine. PMID:19374515

  10. The Ecological Effects in Acculturation of Puerto Rican Migrants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez-Ramirez, Norma Iris

    Various studies discuss the influences on and effects of the process of adjustment to a new environment among Puerto Rican migrants to the United States mainland. In confronting cultural differences, Puerto Ricans may experience culture shock and identity problems and suffer disassociation leading to schizophrenia and hysteria, stress,…

  11. Mexican American and Puerto Rican Prospective Engineering Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry-Caban, Cristobal S.

    Data pertaining to Puerto Rican and Mexican American prospective engineering students, obtained from a 1978 survey conducted by the Minority Engineering Education Effort, are analyzed. Of the total population of 2,423 respondents, 426 were Mexican American and 122 were Puerto Rican. The study population was identified as interested in attending a…

  12. Puerto Ricans in Historical and Social Science Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Clara E.

    This review of the literature on Puerto Ricans in historical and social science research focuses on major English-language books. The review finds that colonialism has been a major factor in, an orienting influence of, and a focus for critical writing about Puerto Ricans. In general, books published before 1970 were reflective, implicitly or…

  13. Puerto Rican Migrants on the Mainland of the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Gertrude S.; Gordon, Edmund W.

    1968-01-01

    This bulletin on the Puerto Rican migrant consists primarily of (1) a review of research which examines the social science literature dealing with the island background of the Puerto Rican immigrant as well as his life on "La Vida" which questions whether the family described by Lewis is representative of slum dwellers in urban San Juan who…

  14. Education Programs for Puerto Rican Students [Jersey City Public Schools].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cordasco, Francesco; Bucchioni, Eugene

    This report has a descriptive and evaluative delineation of those programs which have been (or are being) developed for Puerto Rican students in the public schools of Jersey City. The data of the report have been gathered in those schools with large Puerto Rican constituencies, and have been cast in the perspectives afforded by discussions with…

  15. Cuento Therapy: A Culturally Sensitive Modality for Puerto Rican Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costantino, Giuseppe; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Investigated the effectiveness of a modeling therapy designed to be sensitive to Hispanic culture using cuentos (folktales) from Puerto Rican culture to present models of adaptive behavior and folktales tailored to bridge Puerto Ricans' bicultural conflict. Cuento therapy significantly reduced children's trait anxiety relative to traditional…

  16. Speaking Out Loud: Conversations with Young Puerto Rican Men.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez, Sonia M.; Cruz, Steven

    The combination of poverty, inadequate attention, and the difficult period of young adulthood has serious implications for young Puerto Rican men. To draw attention to their strengths, needs, and status, the National Council of La Raza Poverty Project conducted a two-year community-based study on young Puerto Rican men and family poverty. This…

  17. Puerto Ricans: Breaking Out of the Cycle of Poverty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cruz, Jose E., Ed.

    This report contains three background papers for reports presented at the ninth annual conference of the National Puerto Rican Coalition (NPRC) in 1989 and a discussion concerning Puerto Rican Americans and the cycle of poverty originally presented at a conference. The first paper, "Beyond the Census Data: A Portrait of the Community" (C. E.…

  18. The Puerto Ricans: Their History, Culture, and Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Adalberto, Ed.

    Articles in this book cover Puerto Rican history from the Spanish colonization to the present day experience of Puerto Ricans in the United States. Political, social, economic, cultural, and historical issues are addresed by the following authors: Edna Acosta-Belen, Frank Bonilla, Juan Manuel Carrion, Diana Christopulos, Sandra Messinger Cypess,…

  19. Puerto Rican Literature, 1988-96: An Annotated Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ortiz-Marquez, Maribel

    1996-01-01

    Presents a 108-item annotated bibliography of works by Puerto Ricans born and raised in the United States to complement and update Edna Acosta-Belen's "The Literature of Puerto Rican Migration in the United States: An Annotated Bibliography." Includes sections on anthologies, prose fiction, poetry, drama, autobiographies, criticism, and journals.…

  20. The Characteristics of Recent Puerto Rican Migrants: Some Further Evidence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivera-Batiz, Francisco L.

    1989-01-01

    Examines the demographic characteristics, educational attainment, and occupational distribution of a sample of Puerto Rican out-migrants and in-migrants during 1984. Discusses the similarities of in-migrants and out-migrants and concludes that there is a massive outflow of technical and related Puerto Rican workers, but there is also a massive…

  1. Puerto Ricans: Born in the U.S.A.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Clara E.

    This social history of the post-World War II Puerto Rican community in the United States focuses mainly on New York City. Each of the following chapters can be read separately: (1) "The Colonial Relationship: Migration and History" examines the factors leading to the migration of Puerto Ricans to the United States and their choice of communities;…

  2. Why "Nuyoricans" Are Given the Cold-Shoulder by Other Puerto Ricans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verin-Shapiro, Penny

    Based on ethnographic research on Puerto Ricans on the island and mainland, this paper examines why Nuyoricans' identities are disparaged by island and mainland Puerto Ricans. Nuyoricans are Puerto Ricans, especially in New York, who mix North American and Puerto Rican cultural traits. Many have grown up traveling between the island and mainland.…

  3. Modular Sequence: Puerto Rican Pupils in Mainland Schools. TTP 003.05. The Puerto Rican Family. Teacher Corps Bilingual Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartford Univ., West Hartford, CT. Coll. of Education.

    This module provides the participant with an overview of the structure of the Puerto Rican family and the forces which have affected it. It is believed that the learning alternatives in this module will provide the reader with greater insight into the family lives of Puerto Rican children. Upon completion of this module, the participant will be…

  4. A Call to Action. A Partnership Between Puerto Ricans, Government and the Private Sector. Puerto Rican New Yorkers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mizio, Emelicia, Ed.

    This report describes the status of New York's Puerto Rican community and calls for greater corporate, philanthropic, government and community support for change. A brief introduction argues that Puerto Ricans represent a vast resource and must be assisted in gaining their rightful access to the mainstream, for the benefit of all society. The need…

  5. Characteristics of New Hispanic Immigrants to New York City: A Comparison of Puerto Rican and Non-Puerto Rican Hispanics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mann, Evelyn S.; Salvo, Joseph J.

    1985-01-01

    Data from the 1980 Census were used in a study of the major demographic and socioeconomic differences between Puerto Ricans and "Other Hispanics" (excluding Cubans and Mexicans) residing in New York City. The research was conducted partly to understand whether the Puerto Rican population, with a much longer residence history in New York City, has…

  6. Modular Sequence: Puerto Rican Pupils in Mainland Schools. TTP 003.01. The Puerto Rican in Puerto Rico. Teacher Corps Bilingual Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartford Univ., West Hartford, CT. Coll. of Education.

    This module provides the participant with an overview of life and living conditions in Puerto Rico so that as a teacher he may better understand the lives of Puerto Rican children in mainland schools. Upon completion of this module, the participant will be able to (a) list major cultural forces in the lives of Puerto Ricans on the island and (b)…

  7. Pilot Study of Puerto Rican Junior Colleges. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia-Kuenzli, Pablo

    Despite an arduous effort to cope with modern Puerto Rico's societal needs, Puerto Rican junior colleges' educational offerings are inadequate and often irrelevant. The complexity and peculiarities of the junior college system in Puerto Rico cannot be fully grasped within the existing models for educational research designed for the educational…

  8. Monitoring Puerto Rican avifauna using roadside surveys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pardieck, K.L.; Peterjohn, B.G.

    2005-01-01

    In 1997 we began investigating the use of roadside point counts to monitor the long-term status and trends of Puerto Rican bird populations. If such a methodology proves feasible it may provide the empirical data needed for the development of sound conservation plans for the island's avifauna in much the same way that North American Breeding Bird Survey data are used by the avian conservation prioritization process of Partners in Flight, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, and the Canadian Wildlife Service. By the end of the 2003 field season, we will have the data needed to quantitatively evaluate the utility of the program for tracking the population trends of Puerto Rican avifauna. Here we present data from the 2001 and 2002 field seasons to demonstrate the potential utility of these data for quantifying and portraying avian distributions, abundances, and population trend estimates. In 2001, 27 of the 44 available 5-mile roadside routes (11 stops/route) were sampled between 15 April and 15 May. At each stop a 5-minute point count was conducted. The surveys detected 5,471 individuals representing 70 species. Distribution and abundance maps are depicted for seven endemic species. In 2002, 29 routes were sampled. A total of 6,252 individuals was detected representing 79 species. Significantly fewer species and individuals were detected on wet zone routes as compared to moist and dry zone routes.

  9. Modular Sequence: Puerto Rican Pupils in Mainland Schools. TTP 003.11. Puerto Ricans and Their Mores. Teacher Corps Bilingual Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartford Univ., West Hartford, CT. Coll. of Education.

    This module provides readers who are not familiar with Puerto Ricans with information regarding certain Puerto Rican mores which seem outstanding to people of Anglo-Saxon background. Pre- and postassessment tests, a bibliography, learning alternative strategies, and a narrative concerning Puerto Ricans and their mores are presented. (MJM)

  10. The Puerto Ricans of Hawaii: On Becoming Hawaii's People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silva, Milton N.; Souza, Blase Camacho

    1982-01-01

    Reviews the history of Puerto Rican migration to and settlement in the Hawaiian islands at the turn of the century, and describes the cultural adaptation and social life of this group and their descendants. (GC)

  11. Teaching Puerto Rican Authors: Identity and Modernization in Nuyorican Texts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cruz-Malave, Arnaldo

    1988-01-01

    Focuses on the Nuyorican stage of Puerto Rican immigrant literature, suggesting topics and structural characteristics to discuss and teach along with other American literary traditions. Points out that Nuyorican literature shares many of the concerns of these other traditions. (SR)

  12. Puerto-Ricans: A Multi-Racial Group in a Bi-Racial Country.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Clara E.

    The question of race among Puerto Ricans in the United States in the 20th century is explored in this paper. The multiracial character of Puerto Ricans is examined by reviewing Puerto Rico's migration history. Eighteen major works written between 1917 and 1971 on Puerto Ricans are reviewed to discern common racial themes. The methodology of the…

  13. Therapeutic aspects of Puerto Rican cult practices.

    PubMed

    Koss, J D

    1975-05-01

    This paper seeks to explore the phenomenon of possession trance in the ritual context from still another tack, complementary to the studies cited above, by analyzing it as an active and perhaps necessary component in the development of significant personal relationships basic to the organization and goals of some religous cults.-1 This view has been suggested by data gathered in study of social process in Puerto Rican Spiritist cults-2 which examined the relationship between patterns of cult social organization and the cult execution of a culturally patterned psychotherapeutic process for committed adherents whose emotional problems are diagnosed by cult headers as manifestations of developing "faculties" for communication with the spirit world-3 (see Koss; Rogler and Hollingshead, 1965, pp. 244-254; Seda Bonilla, 1964). PMID:1144571

  14. Successful nesting behavior of Puerto Rican parrots

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, K.A.; Field, R.; Wilson, M.H.

    1995-01-01

    We analyzed nesting behavior of five pairs of the endangered Puerto Rican Parrot (Amazona vittata) during eight successful nesting attempts. Each stage of the nesting cycle (egg laying, incubation, early chick rearing, and late chick rearing) was characterized by distinct trends or levels of behavior. During egg laying, female attentiveness to tile nest increased, and male attentiveness decreased. Throughout incubation and the first several days of early chick rearing, females were highly attentive to their nests, whereas males rarely entered the nest cavities. Female attentiveness then began to decline. Male attentiveness to the nest was sporadic until chicks were 10-12 days old. when all males began to enter their nests at least once each day. During late chick rearing, both male and female attentiveness were erratic and highly variable. Biologists may be able to use these results to identify nest problems and the need for management intervention when patterns of nest attentiveness deviate from the limits described in this study..

  15. Puerto Ricans: White or Non White: A Study of the Paradox of Race Perceptions among Mainland Bred and Island Bred Puerto Ricans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Robert A.

    This paper discusses the paradoxes of racial perceptions among Puerto Ricans who were born and bred in Puerto Rico and those born in the mainland United States. The first section deals with the history of different races in Puerto Rico and discusses some of the ways in which Puerto Ricans classify themselves in terms of race. In order to clarify…

  16. Sex Differences in Trajectories of Offending among Puerto Rican Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennings, Wesley G.; Maldonado-Molina, Mildred M.; Piquero, Alex R.; Odgers, Candice L.; Bird, Hector; Canino, Glorisa

    2010-01-01

    Although sex is one of the strongest correlates of crime, contentions remain regarding the necessity of sex-specific theories of crime. The current study examines delinquent trajectories across sex among Puerto Rican youth socialized in two different cultural contexts (Bronx, United States; and San Juan, Puerto Rico). Results indicate similar…

  17. Study of the Development of the Puerto Rican Cultural Identity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Echevarria-Hernandez, Aurea

    This dissertation presents a phenomenological analysis of the concept of Puerto Rican cultural identity. The body of the thesis is in Spanish, but it includes an appended summary in English. In chapter one, the concept of identity, self-evaluation and culture are analyzed. Chapter two studies the ethno-historical perspective of the Puerto Rican…

  18. Research Issues concerning the Puerto Rican Child and Family.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogler, Lloyd H.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    This journal issue is a collection of papers describing research on Hispanic families conducted at the Hispanic Research Center, Fordham University, New York. The first article, "Research Issues concerning the Puerto Rican Child and Family," by Lloyd H. Rogler, reviews two research projects on health conditions and the plight of Puerto Rican…

  19. Puerto Rican Return Migration: Its Implications for Bilingual Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cafferty, Pastora San Juan

    1975-01-01

    Evidence is cited to indicate that the ebb and flow of migration between Puerto Rico and the mainland results in ever increasing numbers of Puerto Rican children being the outcasts of two monolingual educational systems, each of which denies them their complex identity. The establishment of bilingual education programs is advocated in both the…

  20. Modular Sequence: Puerto Rican Pupils in Mainland Schools. TTP 003.08. Puerto Rican Spanish. Teacher Corps Bilingual Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartford Univ., West Hartford, CT. Coll. of Education.

    Of the multitude of dialects which exemplify the Spanish language, Puerto Rican Spanish has suffered the most severe rejection by language purists and pseudolinguists. The need to take a clear and open look at Spanish spoken in Puerto Rico is preeminent. It is the purpose of this module to clarify some major points of controversy regarding Puerto…

  1. Sociodemographic Variables, Childhood Characteristics, and Family Risk Factors for Homelessness: A "Puerto Rican Paradox?"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torres, Aileen; Garcia-Carrasquillo, Aida; Nogueras, Juan

    2010-01-01

    This study explored sociodemographic variables, childhood characteristics, and family factors in the Puerto Rican homeless. The study is a secondary analysis in which a Puerto Rican homeless sample (N = 113) is compared with a Puerto Rican primary care patient group (N = 102). Discriminant function analysis was employed to determine if family and…

  2. 40 CFR 409.80 - Applicability; description of the Puerto Rican raw cane sugar processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Puerto Rican raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.80 Section 409.80 Protection of Environment... CATEGORY Puerto Rican Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.80 Applicability; description of the Puerto Rican raw cane sugar processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable...

  3. Puerto Ricans: Growing Problems for a Growing Population. A First Friday Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barreto, Julio, Jr.; And Others

    This report provides statistical evidence of worsening conditions facing Puerto Ricans in America in the areas of (1) unemployment, (2) poverty, (3) demographics, and (4) education. It concludes with recommendations from the National Puerto Rican Forum. The unemployment rate for Puerto Ricans is the highest among Hispanic population groups. The…

  4. Cancer screening participation: comparative willingness of San Juan Puerto Ricans versus New York City Puerto Ricans.

    PubMed Central

    Claudio, Cristina; Katz, Ralph V.; Green, B. Lee; Kressin, Nancy R.; Wang, Min Qi; Russell, Stefanie L.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The specific aim of this study was to determine the self-reported likelihood of New York Puerto Ricans (NYPR) and San Juan Puerto Ricans (SJPR) to participate in: 10 site-specific cancer screenings, cancer-screenings conducted by different specific persons/agencies and cancer-screening under specific conditions of what one was asked to do as a part of cancer screening. METHODS: The Cancer Screening Questionnaire (CSQ) was administered via random-digit-dial telephone interviews to 154 adults living in San Juan, PR and 155 in New York, NY. RESULTS: Although the self-reported willingness to participate across the 10 site-specific cancer screening exams was consistently high in both cities, SJPR had higher rates, as compared to NYPR for all 10 site-specific cancer screening exams in the unadjusted analyses. A similar pattern was observed regarding the influence of both "who conducts the cancer-screening exam" and "what one is asked to do in a cancer-screening exam" as factors in the willingness to participate in such exams. Adjusted multivariate analysis showed that the odds of SJPR participating in skin cancer screening as compared to NYPR, were three-fold higher to participate in skin cancer screening and were two-fold higher to participate in a cancer screening where they have to be interviewed about their alcohol habits. These two observed differences might reflect the effect of acculturation in the NYPR. PMID:17534012

  5. Asthma and Suicidal Ideation and Behavior among Puerto Rican Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Bandiera, Frank C.; Ramirez, Rafael; Arheart, Kristopher L.; Canino, Glorisa; Goodwin, Renee D.

    2013-01-01

    There is growing evidence of a positive association between asthma and suicidal ideation and behavior in the general community, although information on this potential association is scarce among adolescents and Puerto Ricans, groups at-risk for both conditions. Data came from wave three of the Boricua Youth Study, a longitudinal study of youth in the Bronx and San Juan conducted from 2000–2004. Logistic regressions for correlated data (GEE) were conducted with asthma predicting suicidal ideation and behavior among participants aged 11 years or older. After adjustment for survey design, age, gender, poverty, DSM-IV mental disorders, cigarette smoking, and stressful life events, asthma was positively associated with suicidal ideation and behavior among Puerto Rican adolescents. Public health interventions targeting Puerto Rican adolescents with asthma and future studies investigating potential biological and psychological mechanisms of association are warranted. PMID:23817156

  6. Survival and causes of mortality in juvenile Puerto Rican parrots

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lindsey, G.D.; Arendt, W.J.; Kalina, J.

    1994-01-01

    Fifteen juvenile Puerto Rican Parrots (Amazona vittata) from wild nests in 1985, 1986 and 1987 were radio monitored an average of 110 +- 15.9 (SE) d (range 4-209 d) post-fledgling. Minimum survival was 67% (n = 3) in 1985, 100% (n = 4) in 1986 and 43% (n = 7) in 1987. Most mortality (three of five deaths) occurred during the first 35 d following fledgling. A major cause of mortality was predation by raptors. This research shows that additional studies are needed to define mortality causes to juvenile and adult free-flying Puerto Rican Parrots and to develop management guidelines to increase survival.

  7. Peer Norms and Sharing of Injection Paraphernalia among Puerto Rican Injection Drug Users in New York and Puerto Rico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andia, Jonny F.; Deren, Sherry; Robles, Rafaela R.; Kang, Sung-Yeon; Colon, Hector M.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the influence of peer norms on sharing of injection paraphernalia (e.g., indirect sharing behaviors, including sharing of cookers, cotton, rinse water and back/front loading) among Puerto Rican injection drug users (IDUs) in Bayamon, Puerto Rico, and East Harlem, New York City. Data were collected from 873 Puerto Rican IDUs…

  8. Cancer Disparities between Mainland and Island Puerto Ricans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cancer incidence is generally lower in Hispanics than non-Hispanic whites in the U.S. These data should be interpreted with caution, as Hispanics are ethnically heterogeneous. This study examined cancer rates in a single Hispanic subgroup – Puerto Ricans – and compared incidence rates among mainla...

  9. Puerto Rican Phenotype: Understanding Its Historical Underpinnings and Psychological Associations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Irene

    2008-01-01

    The following is a historically informed review of Puerto Rican phenotype. Geared toward educating psychologists, this review discusses how various psychological issues associated with phenotype may have arisen as a result of historical legacies and policies associated with race and racial mixing. It discusses how these policies used various…

  10. Parenting Practices among Dominican and Puerto Rican Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guilamo-Ramos, Vincent; Dittus, Patricia; Jaccard, James; Johansson, Margaret; Bouris, Alida; Acosta, Neifi

    2007-01-01

    This study presents descriptive qualitative data about Latino parenting practices in an urban context. Focus groups were conducted with Dominican and Puerto Rican mother-adolescent pairs in the Bronx borough of New York City. When parenting style typologies are integrated with the Latino cultural components "familismo," "respeto," "personalismo,"…

  11. Dimensions of Career Indecision among Puerto Rican College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corkin, Danya; Arbona, Consuelo; Coleman, Nicole; Ramirez, Romilia

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was (a) to explore the factor structure of a Spanish version of the Career Decision Scale (CDS; Osipow, Carney, Winer, Yanico, & Koschier, 1976) with Puerto Rican college students, (b) to examine the relation of trait anxiety to the identified dimensions of career indecision, and (c) to explore differences in anxiety and…

  12. A Model of Fertility Control in a Puerto Rican Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schensul, Stephen L.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Studied fertility control among Puerto Rican women in Hartford, Connecticut, utilizing data gathered from structured interviews. Found that sterilization is the overwhelming preference in this community and that number of children--rather than age or availability of accurate information--is usually the factor that precipitates the decision to…

  13. Cuentos Folkloricos as a Therapeutic Modality with Puerto Rican Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costantino, Giuseppe; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Therapeutic techniques using Puerto Rican folktales to promote identification with culturally familiar characters and themes were used with 208 children in grades K-3. Cuento therapies significantly increased WISC-R comprehension scores uniformly across grades K-3 and significantly reduced trait anxiety of first graders. (DC)

  14. Ladrillo and Tales of Juan Bobo: Puerto Rican Folk Tales.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matos, Reinaldo; Matos, Ana

    These two illustrated elementary readers contain the Spanish and English versions of the Puerto Rican folk tales, "Ladrillo" and "Cuentos de Juan Bobo." They are part of a series of reading materials for elementary-level migrant children. These materials are intended to help the child relate to his culture, develop interest in knowing about it and…

  15. Early Childbearing and Educational Attainment among Mainland Puerto Rican Teens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diez, Virginia; Mistry, Jayanthi

    2010-01-01

    We report the results of a study about how early childbearing affected the educational trajectories of nine Puerto Rican teenage mothers living in New England. Raised largely on the mainland, participants chose to carry pregnancies to term and to participate in a parenting program for young mothers. Upon examination of shared meaning-making around…

  16. Acculturation and Depression among Puerto Ricans in the Mainland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramos, Blanca M.

    2005-01-01

    The relationship between acculturation and depression in a sample of 1,510 Puerto Ricans residing in the U.S. was examined. Acculturation was measured by assessing subjects' spoken, preferred, read, and written language. Depression was evaluated by the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale. The scale yielded a three-factor structure…

  17. Implementing the Family Support Act: Perspectives of Puerto Rican Clients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cruz, Jose E.

    An assessment of welfare-related experiences and perspectives of Puerto Rican Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) recipients in New York City (New York), Newark (New Jersey), and Philadelphia (Pennsylvania) was conducted. Data were developed through 8 self-contained focus groups involving 63 participants. An additional focus group was…

  18. The Support Needs and Resources of Puerto Rican Elders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cruz-Lopez, Miguel; Pearson, Richard E.

    1985-01-01

    Examined the support needs, resources, and natural systems of a sample of island Puerto Rican elderly using the Personal Support System Survey. The findings are used to explore issues in the interfacing of trained helpers with the natural support systems of these and other elders. (Author/BL)

  19. Puerto Rican History, Civilization, and Culture: A Mini-Documentary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dissemination and Assessment Center for Bilingual Education, Austin, TX.

    This publication was compiled from a number of smaller manuscripts dealing with various aspects of Puerto Rican history, civilization, and culture. The book is designed to: (1) provide teachers of middle school and high school students with instructional material which covers all these aspects in a related sequential manner; and (2) provide…

  20. Social Networks and Depression among Older Puerto Ricans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Puerto Rican population has excess risk of many health problems like diabetes, cognitive impairment, physical frailty, and disability. They also exhibit high rates of depression symptoms. Research suggests that support from social networks may mediate the effects of social and environmental stre...

  1. Modular Sequence: Puerto Rican Pupils in Mainland Schools. TTP 003.09. Puerto Rican English. Teacher Corps Bilingual Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartford Univ., West Hartford, CT. Coll. of Education.

    The dialect of English as spoken by native Puerto Rican Spanish speakers is estensively influenced by interference from the speakers' native language. Since exposure to a language affects one's ability to use it, the speaker's position might affect his access to English and/or his willingness to speak it, and, therefore, his proficiency in it. It…

  2. The disablement process among elderly Puerto Ricans: Findings from the Boston Puerto Rican Center on Population Health and Health Disparities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Puerto Ricans on the U.S. mainland have been shown to have excess disability. We examined the prevalence of impairment (handgrip strength

  3. "i saw puerto rico once": A Review of the Literature on Puerto Rican Families and School Achievement in the United States. Report No. 12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hidalgo, Nitza M.

    Representing part of the first phase of a 5-year ethnographic research project, this report investigates the ways in which Puerto Rican families influence their children's school achievement. The report examines the history of Puerto Rico and the migration of Puerto Ricans to the United States. Puerto Rican community organizations, both local and…

  4. Modular Sequence: Puerto Rican Pupils in Mainland Schools. TTP 003.04. The Puerto Rican in Hartford. Teacher Corps Bilingual Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartford Univ., West Hartford, CT. Coll. of Education.

    This module provides an overview of the life of the Puerto Rican in Hartford, Connecticut, focusing on the issue of employment in order to provide participants with a better understanding of Puerto Rican workers' occupational and economic reality. Upon completion of the module, participants will be able to describe (a) living conditions of Puerto…

  5. Modular Sequence: Puerto Rican Pupils in Mainland Schools. TTP 003.06. Prejudice and the Puerto Rican. Teacher Corps Bilingual Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartford Univ., West Hartford, CT. Coll. of Education.

    This module presents an overview of the kinds of problems Puerto Ricans encounter because of prejudice. Upon completion of this module, participants will be able to (a) list and describe physical characteristics of Puerto Ricans which can make them subject to prejudice and (b) identify results of prejudice in terms of housing, jobs, education,…

  6. The Conflicts in In-School Cultural Behaviors of the Puerto Rican Migrant Children on the Mainland. Working Papers on Issues in Puerto Rican Education, No. 105.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prewitt Diaz, Joseph O.

    Difficulties of Puerto Rican children in adjusting to school in the U.S. mainland can be attributed to their family background and early schooling experience. Unlike the isolated, independent nuclear family unit usually found on the mainland, Puerto Rican families are extended and prize cooperation, socialization, respect for the male patriarch,…

  7. 27 CFR 19.415 - Marks on containers of Puerto Rican and Virgin Islands spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Puerto Rican and Virgin Islands spirits. 19.415 Section 19.415 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms... of Puerto Rican and Virgin Islands spirits. (a) Packages from Puerto Rico. When a proprietor receives... from the Virgin Islands. When a proprietor receives packages of Virgin Islands spirits on...

  8. Puerto Rican Migration: The Return Flow = La Migracion Puertorriquena: El Reflujo a la Isla.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vivo, Paquita, Comp.

    This is a guide to materials and research on Puerto Ricans who have returned to Puerto Rico after living in the United States. Part 1 is an annotated bibliography of books, journal articles, printed documents, doctoral dissertations, master's theses, journalistic accounts, and unpublished papers on characteristics of Puerto Rican return migrants;…

  9. The Remigration of the Puerto Rican Student as a Factor in School Adjustment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nogueras, Juan A.; Prewitt-Diaz, Joseph O.

    The growing number of Puerto Rican return migrants (those who return to Puerto Rico after having lived in the United States mainland for several years) face sociological, psychological, and linguistic and social adaptation problems. To meet these students' linguistic needs, the Puerto Rican Department of Education has developed several bilingual…

  10. The Insular Vision: Pedreira's Interpretation of Puerto Rican Culture. Centro Working Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flores, Juan

    In an attempt to assess and provide an understanding of many aspects of Puerto Rican culture in the United States and in Puerto Rico, this document contains a detailed critical treatment of Antonio S. Pedreira's "Insularismo: Ensayos de interpretacion puertorriquena." Described as being the single most influential study of Puerto Rican culture…

  11. Social Practices of Ethnic Identity: A Puerto Rican Psycho-Cultural Event.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez-Cortes, Carmen

    1990-01-01

    Examines social practices of ethnic identity among 60 students in 2 groups, Puerto Rican migrants' descendants (PRMD) and Puerto Ricans, following face-to-face experiences in Puerto Rico. Results indicate PRMD base ethnic identity on motivational (thinking, feeling) criteria; islanders on behavior. Reveals contrast- and resentment-based social…

  12. Puerto Ricans in Continental United States: A Bibliography, Selected and Annotated.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Velazquez, Rene

    This annotated bibliography contains approximately 900 citations of material written about Puerto Ricans residing in the mainland United States. Also included is a section listing published bibliographies that cover literature on Puerto Rico and Puerto Ricans. Citations within each section are listed in alphabetical order by author or sponsoring…

  13. A traditional rice and beans pattern is associated with metabolic syndrome in Puerto Rican older adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was approximately 50% for Puerto Rican elders living in Massachusetts. Diet is known to be associated with metabolic syndrome. Little information exists regarding the dietary intakes of Puerto Ricans. We aimed to characterize the dietary patterns of 1167 Puerto...

  14. The street/treatment barrier: treatment experiences of Puerto Rican injection drug users.

    PubMed

    Porter, J

    1999-12-01

    This study describes, through ethnographic interviews, the treatment experiences of Puerto Rican long-term heroin users who are at extremely high risk for HIV infection and the barriers they perceive to drug treatment. On the basis of this information we suggest policy recommendations for increasing drug treatment access for Puerto Rican long-term injectors of heroin. It is critical that Puerto Rican populations access drug treatment facilities given their risk factors for HIV infection and the high rate of poverty in Puerto Rican communities that exacerbates drug use. PMID:10573300

  15. Behavior of Puerto Rican parrots during failed nesting attempts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, K.A.; Wilson, M.H.; Field, R.

    1997-01-01

    We compared patterns of nesting behavior of four pairs of Puerto Rican Parrots (Amazona vittata) that experienced failed nesting attempts to behavior of four pairs of parrots that experienced no substantial nest problems and successfully fledged young without management intervention. Only changes in female parrots' behavior were clearly associated with nest failure. During incubation, decreases in nest attendance, increases in duration of recesses, and increases in frequency of nest entries by female parrots were associated with imminent abandonment of nests. During early chick rearing, similar behavior was associated with the loss of broods. Low nest attendance and long recesses by female parrots during incubation were also associated with successful hatching of eggs followed by death of young several days later. The behavior patterns and changes in Puerto Rican Parrot nesting behavior described in this paper may alert biologists to nest problems that might be mitigated by management intervention.

  16. Genome empowerment for the Puerto Rican parrot - Amazona vittata.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Stephen J

    2012-01-01

    A unique community-funded project in Puerto Rico has launched whole-genome sequencing of the critically endangered Puerto Rican Parrot (Amazona vittata), with interpretation by genome bioinformaticians and students, and deposition into public online databases. This is the first article that focuses on the whole genome of a parrot species, one endemic to the USA and recently threatened with extinction. It provides invaluable conservation tools and a vivid example of hopeful prospects for future genome assessment of so many new species. It also demonstrates inventive ways for smaller institutions to contribute to a field largely considered the domain of large sequencing centers. PMID:23587407

  17. Genome empowerment for the Puerto Rican parrot – Amazona vittata

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    A unique community-funded project in Puerto Rico has launched whole-genome sequencing of the critically endangered Puerto Rican Parrot (Amazona vittata), with interpretation by genome bioinformaticians and students, and deposition into public online databases. This is the first article that focuses on the whole genome of a parrot species, one endemic to the USA and recently threatened with extinction. It provides invaluable conservation tools and a vivid example of hopeful prospects for future genome assessment of so many new species. It also demonstrates inventive ways for smaller institutions to contribute to a field largely considered the domain of large sequencing centers. PMID:23587407

  18. The Neuropsychological Performance of Nondemented Puerto Rican Nonagenarians

    PubMed Central

    Carrión-Baralt, José R.; Meléndez-Cabrero, Josefina; Schnaider Beeri, Michal; Sano, Mary; Silverman, Jeremy M.

    2009-01-01

    Background/Aims While the oldest old are the fastest growing segment of the US population, normative neuropsychological data for nondemented oldest old Spanish speakers are nonexistent. This study sought to evaluate the neuropsychological performance of nondemented nonagenarians residing in Puerto Rico and to compare their results with those of a similar English-speaking sample from New York. Methods We studied 81 subjects who had a complete CERAD neuropsychological assessment in Spanish. We used multiple regression analysis to predict performance on the CERAD battery and ANCOVA to compare the Puerto Rico and New York samples. Results In 10 out of the 13 neuropsychological tests administered, education was a significant predictor of performance. There were significant differences between the Puerto Rico and New York groups only in the Trail Making Tests. Conclusions In this Puerto Rican sample, education was the strongest predictor of neuropsychological performance, which is consistent with previous studies. When education level is properly accounted for, the performance of Puerto Rican nonagenarians in the CERAD battery does not differ from the performance of US English-speaking nonagenarians. PMID:19293568

  19. Migration and premarital childbearing among Puerto Rican Women.

    PubMed

    Landale, N S; Hauan, S M

    1996-11-01

    This paper examines the relationship between migration and premarital childbearing in a highly migratory Latino subgroup, Puerto Rican women. Using pooled origin-destination data from surveys conducted in Puerto Rico and in the New York metropolitan area, we find that first- and second-generation migrants to the U.S. mainland face substantially higher risks of conceiving and bearing a first child before marriage than do nonmigrants in Puerto Rico. This pattern is due largely to the relatively early transition to sexual activity among mainland women. Given the negative long-term consequences of premarital childbearing for women and their children, our findings call into question the assumption that migrants necessarily experience only positive outcomes as a result of the assimilation process. PMID:8939416

  20. Migration and Marriage among Puerto Rican Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ortiz, Vilma

    1996-01-01

    Examines the effect of family indicators, including marriage, on migration from, and return to, Puerto Rico in the 1980s using data from surveys of 3,175 and 2,032 women. Single women apparently use migration to gain independence, but married women often follow men in the migration stream. (SLD)

  1. The Puerto Ricans: An Annotated Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vivo, Paquita, Ed.

    The initial selection of titles for this bibliography was based on a survey of library catalogs as well as numerous existing lists and partial bibliographies on Puerto Rico. Careful search led to a bibliography that, although selected, is also retrospective, broad, and balanced. It is retrospective in the sense that the first known published works…

  2. Cultural Adjustment and the Puerto Rican.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prewitt-Diaz, Joseph O.

    This review of the literature on cultural adjustment is divided into four sections: the nature of cultural adjustment; acculturation as a model of cultural adjustment; psychological responses to acculturation; and a model of cultural adjustment developed by the author as a result of his immigration from Puerto Rico to the United States mainland.…

  3. Puerto Rican Women and Children: Issues in Health, Growth, and Development. Topics in Social Psychiatry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamberty, Gontran, Ed.; Coll, Cynthia Garcia, Ed.

    Noting that most socioeconomic and demographic indicators are negative for Puerto Rican mothers and children, this book enhances the current knowledge about the growth and development of Puerto Rican mothers and children, and discusses the likely social origins of their suboptimal experiences. Thirteen papers are presented. The opening chapter…

  4. Aging and Generational Patterns of Alcohol Consumption among Mexican Americans, Cuban Americans and Mainland Puerto Ricans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Sandra A.; Markides, Kyriakos S.

    1994-01-01

    Used data from Hispanic Health and Nutrition Examination Survey to describe life-course patterns of alcohol consumption among Mexican Americans, Cuban Americans, and Puerto Ricans residing in mainland United States. Found age differences in patterns of consumption among Mexican American and Puerto Rican males that reflect aging effects. Found…

  5. Home Style Puerto Rican: A Study of Language Maintenance and Use in New England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urzua, Alfredo; Gomez, Edwin

    2008-01-01

    This study explores Spanish language maintenance in Southbridge, Massachusetts, a suburban town with a vibrant Puerto Rican community. The investigation focuses on the extent to which Southbridge Puerto Ricans use Spanish and English at home, and their attitudes toward Spanish language maintenance. Survey data, especially the impact of factors…

  6. Perceptions of Dominican Spanish and Dominican Self-Perception in the Puerto Rican Diaspora

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Budenbender, Eva-Maria Suarez

    2009-01-01

    The contact between Dominicans and Puerto Ricans is targeted for study as much for its linguistic import as for its social context. Dominican and Puerto Rican Spanish are considered varieties of Caribbean Spanish that differ only by a few phonological and syntactic patterns and a small number of lexical items. Although both varieties are heavily…

  7. Building Bridges of Learning and Understanding: A Collection of Classroom Activities on Puerto Rican Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez-Selles, Marla E., Ed.; And Others

    This collection of 35 self-contained teaching activities about Puerto Rican culture for elementary school students is designed for teachers who wish to incorporate multicultural concepts into their curriculum or make their teaching more relevant to Puerto Rican students. All lesson plans and student worksheets needed for immediate classroom use…

  8. Food Insecurity Is Associated with Acculturation and Social Networks in Puerto Rican Households

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dhokarh, Rajanigandha; Himmelgreen, David A.; Peng, Yu-Kuei; Segura-Perez, Sofia; Hromi-Fiedler, Amber; Perez-Escamilla, Rafael

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine whether acculturation and social networks influence household food insecurity in an inner-city Puerto Rican community. Methods: A survey was administered to 200 low-income female Puerto Rican caregivers with at least 1 child 12-72 months old living in Hartford, CT. Food insecurity was measured with the Radimer/Cornell Hunger…

  9. Education and Imperialism: The Puerto Rican Experience in Higher Education, 1898-1986. Working Paper Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez-Fraticelli, Carlos

    An integrated historical account of the Puerto Rican experience in higher education is presented by the Higher Education Task Force of the Centro de Estudios Puertorriquenos of Hunter College, City University of New York. The present situation of Puerto Ricans in higher education on the Island and in the United States reflects the plight Puerto…

  10. Seduced by Images: Identity and Schooling in the Lives of Puerto Rican Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rolon-Dow, Rosalie

    2004-01-01

    Based on a two-year ethnographic study at an urban middle school, this article describes the power that images created by and about Puerto Rican girls hold in shaping their schooling experiences. Using a black, critical, feminist framework, I show how dichotomizing the sexuality of Puerto Rican females against their intellectual development…

  11. Co-Evolution in an Outlying Ethnic Community: The Puerto Ricans of Hartford, Connecticut.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Backstrand, Jeffrey R.; Schensul, Stephen

    1982-01-01

    Utilizing a model of ethnic community/host community co-evolution, describes interactions between the host environment and the Puerto Rican community of Hartford. Proposes a model for understanding smaller Puerto Rican communities--those outside the large urban centers usually studied. (GC)

  12. The American Pressure Cooker...The Puerto Rican on the Mainland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soy, Rosa H.; Sanchez, Isabel

    The purpose of this essay is to uncover the factors which have so greatly affected the educational and social aspect of the Puerto Rican's life in the New York metropolitan area. It is concluded that school systems are obviously not going to foster disorder or encourage criticism. The initiative is up to the community. The Puerto Rican community…

  13. Cuento Therapy. Folktales as a Culturally Sensitive Psychotherapy for Puerto Rican Children. Monograph No. 12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Constantino, Giuseppe; And Others

    A seven-year project developing and testing cuento therapy, a form of child psychotherapy in which Puerto Rican mothers recount to their children folktales taken from Puerto Rican culture, is described and evaluated in this monograph. Chapter 1 explains how the research presented in later chapters fits into substantially broader patterns of…

  14. Puerto Rican Students in U.S. Schools. Sociocultural, Political, and Historical Studies in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nieto, Sonia, Ed.

    This collection of papers presents scholarly writings and personal reflections on Puerto Rican students in American schools. Following "Introduction and Overview" (Sonia Nieto), there are 12 chapters in five parts. Part 1, "Historical and Sociopolitical Context," includes: (1) "Puerto Rican Students in U.S. Schools: A Brief History" (Sonia Nieto);…

  15. Book Reading Interactions between African American and Puerto Rican Head Start Children and Their Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammer, Carol Scheffner; Nimmo, Diana; Cohen, Risa; Draheim, Heather Clemons; Johnson, Amy Achenbach

    2005-01-01

    In keeping with a sociocultural view of children's literacy development, this study investigated the book reading behaviors of African American and Puerto Rican mothers and their Head Start children. Ten African American and 10 Puerto Rican mothers and their children participated. The communicative behaviors of the mothers and children produced…

  16. Childhood Asthma Prevalence among Puerto Ricans and Mexican Americans: Implications for Behavioral Intervention Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurtado, A. Magdalena

    1995-01-01

    Data from the Hispanic Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1982-84, were used to examine lifetime prevalence (LTP) of childhood asthma among Mexican Americans and Puerto Ricans. LTP was related to Puerto Rican ethnicity, birth outside U.S. mainland, low weight for age, male gender, poverty, urban residence, and single parenthood. Implications…

  17. "Passing Time": An Exploration of School Engagement among Puerto Rican Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dow, Rosalie Rolon

    2007-01-01

    This article presents data from an ethnographic study focused on the school engagement of Puerto Rican girls. I explore the school engagement of Puerto Rican girls through the metaphor of "passing". The findings demonstrate that despite variation between individual girls in academic achievement, all of the girls in the study suffered negative…

  18. Dominican and Puerto Rican Women in Partnerships and Their Sexual Risk Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreno, Claudia L.; El-Bassel, Nabila

    2007-01-01

    This study compares demographic characteristics, sexual risk factors for HIV/STI, and cultural predictors of sexual risk among 254 Dominican and 1,012 Puerto Rican women using outpatient health care in New York City. More Dominicans were born outside continental United States and were employed, whereas more Puerto Ricans were single and less…

  19. Association between sleep duration, insomnia symptoms and bone mineral density in older Puerto Rican adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: To examine the association between sleep patterns (sleep duration and insomnia symptoms) and total and regional bone mineral density (BMD) among older Boston Puerto Rican adults. Materials/Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study including 750 Puerto Rican adults, aged 47–79 y livi...

  20. The Puerto Ricans--Two Communities, One Culture. (Los Puertorriquenos--Dos Comunidades, Una Cultura.)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vivo, Paquita

    1980-01-01

    Puerto Rican roots stem from the ethnic mixture of Indians, Europeans, and Africans. This article describes the advent of each of the groups on the island, the historical and cultural impact each made, and the retention of heritage among Puerto Rican migrants to the U.S. (DS)

  1. 40 CFR 409.80 - Applicability; description of the Puerto Rican raw cane sugar processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Puerto Rican raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.80 Section 409.80 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Puerto Rican Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.80 Applicability; description of...

  2. 40 CFR 409.80 - Applicability; description of the Puerto Rican raw cane sugar processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Puerto Rican raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.80 Section 409.80 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Puerto Rican Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.80 Applicability; description of...

  3. 40 CFR 409.80 - Applicability; description of the Puerto Rican raw cane sugar processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Puerto Rican raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.80 Section 409.80 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Puerto Rican Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.80 Applicability; description of...

  4. 40 CFR 409.80 - Applicability; description of the Puerto Rican raw cane sugar processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Puerto Rican raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.80 Section 409.80 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Puerto Rican Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.80 Applicability; description of...

  5. Young Puerto Rican Children's Exploration of Racial Discourses within the Figured Worlds of Literature Circles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castrodad-Rodriguez, Patricia Margarita

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the racial discourses of six and seven year old Puerto Rican children participating in small group literature circles over one academic year. The main research question is "How do Puerto Rican young children in a multiage classroom construct race through dialogue within the figured worlds of literature circles?" This study…

  6. The Social Psychological Adjustment of Migrant and Non-Migrant Puerto Rican Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diaz, Joseph O. Prewitt; Seilhamer, Emily Stella

    1987-01-01

    Reviews research literature on Puerto Rican youth and summarizes findings on factors influencing return migration and the cultural and physical adjustment of return migrants. Presents findings of a survey of Puerto Rican students, non-migrants and return migrants, which attempted to determine whether there was a relationship between reading…

  7. Equal Access to Income and Union Dissolution among Mainland Puerto Ricans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oropesa, R. S.; Landale, Nancy S.

    2005-01-01

    This study investigates the implications for union stability of different methods for providing access to income in cohabiting and marital unions among mainland Puerto Ricans. Using the Puerto Rican Maternal and Infant Health Study (N= 836), we show that union dissolution is associated with both union type and type of method. The relatively high…

  8. Prevalence of cardiovascular disease risk factors among older Puerto Rican adults living in Massachusetts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There remains limited research on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in Puerto Rican adults. We compared lifestyle and CVD risk factors in Puerto Rican men and women with normal fasting glucose (NFG), impaired fasting glucose (IFG), or type 2 diabetes (T2D), and investigated achievement of Am...

  9. Association between BDNF-rs6265 and obesity in the Boston Puerto Rican Health Study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study is to examine a functional variant (rs6265) in the BDNF gene interacting with dietary intake modulate obesity traits in the Boston Puerto Rican Health Study population. BDNF rs6265 was genotyped in 1147 Puerto Ricans (aged 45-75 years), and examined for association with o...

  10. Family ecology and HIV sexual risk behaviors among African American and Puerto Rican adolescent males.

    PubMed

    Voisin, Dexter R

    2002-04-01

    This study examined the relationship between family ecology and HIV sexual risk behavior among African American and Puerto Rican adolescent males. Family, psychosocial, and HIV risk factors were assessed in 171 African American and 187 Puerto Rican adolescent males. Findings suggest that family ecology, culture, and gender role variables may differentially affect HIV sexual risk behaviors within these groups. PMID:15792069

  11. Puerto Rican Americans: The Meaning of Migration to the Mainland. Ethnic Groups in American Life Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzpatrick, Joseph P.

    The meaning of the Puerto Rican migration can be initially understood only by perceiving it as a continuation of the experience New York City has always had with newcomers. The focus of the present study is the quest of the Puerto Ricans for identity. This is the feature of their migration which they share most intimately with all other immigrant…

  12. Perspectives of Puerto Rican Adults about Heart Health and a Potential Community Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Todorova, Irina L. G.; Tejada, Shirley; Castaneda-Sceppa, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    Background: Puerto Ricans are the second largest Hispanic group in the United States, and older adults have significant health disparities. Educational programs that address heart disease risk for this population have rarely been developed and implemented. Purpose: To address this gap, the Heart Healthy Initiative for Puerto Rican adults is being…

  13. Longitudinal Development of Antisocial Behaviors in Young and Early Adolescent Puerto Rican Children at Two Sites

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bird, Hector R.; Shrout, Patrick E.; Davies, Mark; Canino, Glorisa; Duarte, Cristiane S.; Shen, Sa; Loeber, Rolf

    2007-01-01

    Objective: This report provides descriptive longitudinal findings over three waves of a study designed to assess the development of antisocial behaviors in young and early adolescent Puerto Rican children at two sites. Method: Through the use of standard assessment measures, representative samples of Puerto Rican children of both genders 5 to 13…

  14. The Puerto Ricans: On the Island, On the Mainland, In Connecticut. The Peoples of Connecticut Multicultural Ethnic Heritage Series, Number Four.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burdette, Barbara; Echevarria, Francisco

    This 11-unit curriculum guide on Puerto Rican culture is intended for both Puerto Rican and and non-Puerto Rican teachers and students living in Connecticut. Although the materials are written for use in grades six through nine, they can be adapted for older or younger students. Topics include Puerto Rican history, ethnology, geography, economy,…

  15. An Examination of Neighborhood Effects on Patterns of High School Attrition among Puerto Rican Youth in the New York Metropolitan Area.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flores, Ronald J. O.

    2002-01-01

    Examined effects of spatial concentration of Puerto Ricans on the likelihood of high school attrition among Puerto Rican adolescents. Using census data, found that neighborhoods with very high concentrations of Puerto Ricans did significantly increase the risk of high school attrition among adolescent Puerto Ricans regardless of family background…

  16. The Puerto Rican Community and Its Children on the Mainland: A Source Book for Teachers, Social Workers and Other Professionals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cordasco, Francesco; Bucchioni, Eugene

    This collection of readings is organized in four parts. Part I, "Aspects of Puerto Rican culture," includes the following articles: "Explicit and implicit culture in Puerto Rico: a case study in educational anthropology," T. Brameld; "Respeto, relajo, and interpersonal relations in Puerto Rico," A. Lauria; "Puerto Rican spiritualist as a…

  17. Puerto Rican sons as primary caregivers of elderly parents.

    PubMed

    Delgado, M; Tennstedt, S

    1997-03-01

    During the past decade the fields of gerontology and social work have paid close attention to Latino elders in the United States. This article reports on the findings of a study examining the needs of Puerto Rican elders in a New England city and the role of sons in the caregiving process. Sons as primary caregivers have not been addressed in depth in the literature. Recommendations are made for social workers working in gerontology to maximize outreach and support to caregiving sons. PMID:9092080

  18. Traditionalism in the prevention of substance misuse among Puerto Ricans.

    PubMed

    Cuadrado, M; Lieberman, L

    1998-12-01

    Data are presented from a multicluster stratified sample of 1,084 Puerto Rican households in the New York City area. Researchers examined the impact of loss of traditional Hispanic family-oriented gender role values and degree of acculturation upon drug use. Sociodemographic variables are presented. Indices of "traditionalism" and "acculturation" were created, validated, and correlated with drug use. Traditionalism was found to covary negatively with drug use, but more so for women. The positive relationship between acculturation and drug use was found to be influenced by different levels of traditionalism. Implications for treatment and prevention are discussed. PMID:9869441

  19. Sex Differences in Trajectories of Offending Among Puerto Rican Youth.

    PubMed

    Jennings, Wesley G; Maldonado-Molina, Mildred M; Piquero, Alex R; Odgers, Candice L; Bird, Hector; Canino, Glorisa

    2010-07-01

    Although sex is one of the strongest correlates of crime, contentions remain regarding the necessity of sex-specific theories of crime. The current study examines delinquent trajectories across sex among Puerto Rican youth socialized in two different cultural contexts (Bronx, United States and San Juan, Puerto Rico). Results indicate: similar substantive offending trajectories across males and females within each cultural context; that males exhibit a higher frequency of offending and higher levels of risk factors for delinquency; and there more similarities than differences in how risk/protective factors relate to patterns of offending across male versus female youth. Study limitations and implications for sex-specific criminological theories are also discussed. PMID:21701603

  20. [Psychosocial characteristics of an initial sample of Puerto Rican centenarians].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Gómez, José R; Martínez-Taboas, Alfonso; Cruz, Abdiel

    2009-01-01

    This is the first research done in Puerto Rico presenting a basic socio-demographic profile of a sample of Puerto Rican centenary elderly that also includes psychological characteristics. The sample consist of eleven subjects, divided in five women and six men (mean age sample = 102.4 years) evaluated with a battery of psychological instrument that include the Symptom Checklist 90-R (SCL-90-R); the Beck Depressive Inventory (BDI-II); the Beck Suicide Scale (BSS); the Beck Hopelessness Scale (BHS); the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) and the Folstein Mini-Mental. Main findings demonstrate that, with the exception of anxiety and hopelessness symptomatology, this particular sample is with a good psychological health. It is recommended to continue this type of research with a bigger sample and include other psychological and psychiatric screening instruments. PMID:19954093

  1. Sex Differences in Trajectories of Offending Among Puerto Rican Youth

    PubMed Central

    Jennings, Wesley G.; Maldonado-Molina, Mildred M.; Piquero, Alex R.; Odgers, Candice L.; Bird, Hector; Canino, Glorisa

    2011-01-01

    Although sex is one of the strongest correlates of crime, contentions remain regarding the necessity of sex-specific theories of crime. The current study examines delinquent trajectories across sex among Puerto Rican youth socialized in two different cultural contexts (Bronx, United States and San Juan, Puerto Rico). Results indicate: similar substantive offending trajectories across males and females within each cultural context; that males exhibit a higher frequency of offending and higher levels of risk factors for delinquency; and there more similarities than differences in how risk/protective factors relate to patterns of offending across male versus female youth. Study limitations and implications for sex-specific criminological theories are also discussed. PMID:21701603

  2. Perceived Discrimination and Antisocial Behaviors in Puerto Rican Children

    PubMed Central

    Rivera, Fernando; López, Irene; Guarnaccia, Peter; Ramirez, Rafael; Canino, Glorisa; Bird, Hector

    2011-01-01

    This study examined whether perceived discrimination was related to antisocial behaviors (ASB) in a probability sample of Puerto Rican children living in the South Bronx, New York and the San Juan Metropolitan area of Puerto Rico (N= 1,271). After adjusting for a host of well-known factors associated with ASB, such as sociodemographic variables (i.e., age, gender, household composition), psychosocial stressors (i.e., stressful life events, exposure to violence), and various forms of violence and abuse (i.e., coercive parental discipline, verbal, psychological, physical and sexual abuse), perceived discrimination remained a robust correlate of ASB among both samples. Findings are discussed with reference to the detrimental associations of perceived discrimination. PMID:21113817

  3. Modular Sequence: Puerto Rican Pupils in Mainland Schools. TTP 003.12. The Puerto Rican and the Arts. Teacher Corps Bilingual Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartford Univ., West Hartford, CT. Coll. of Education.

    This module provides readers a broad view of the development of music and the plastic arts in Puerto Rico. At the same time, the module includes the names of Puerto Ricans who have found distinction in these fields of endeavor. A preassessment test, learning alternatives, postassessment test, and various narratives concerned with the theme of the…

  4. Dominican, Mexican, and Puerto Rican prostitutes: drug use and sexual behaviors.

    PubMed

    Deren, S; Shedlin, M; Davis, W R; Clatts, M C; Balcorta, S; Beardsley, M M; Sanchez, J; Des Jarlais, D

    1997-05-01

    HIV-related behaviors are reported in three groups of Hispanic prostitutes recruited in the US: 77 Dominicans recruited in the Washington Heights/Inwood section of New York City; 151 Mexicans recruited in El Paso, Texas; and 48 Puerto Ricans recruited in East Harlem, New York City, during 1989-91 in streets and brothels. Ethnographic interviews were conducted with a subsample of subjects (10 Puerto Ricans, 20 Mexicans, and 20 Dominicans) to examine the cultural meaning of risk behaviors. Structured interviews based on the NIDA AIDS Initial Assessment were conducted with the subjects to describe demographic characteristics and summarize levels of risk behaviors. Qualitative data showed that for the Mexican women in El Paso poverty, violence, drug dealing and transport, tourist clients, and an environment of illegality were the realities more than for the Dominican and Puerto Rican prostitutes. The Dominican sample in New York City transported to their new environment strong family values and proscriptions against drug use as well as prostitution in brothels on account of poverty-related motivations for the support of their children. The Puerto Rican women reflected acculturation evolved in two locations, as well as illicit drugs, violence, and abuse. 92% of the Dominican women, 71% of the Mexican women, and only 25% of the Puerto Rican women were born in their native countries. Only 10% of the Puerto Ricans, 36% of the Mexicans, and 53% of the Dominicans always used condoms. 58% of the Puerto Ricans, 21% of the Mexicans, and 13% of the Dominicans reported ever having a sexually transmitted disease (p 0.001). Of those tested by the project, only 2% of the Mexicans vs. 8% of the Dominicans were HIV positive. Among drug-addicted Puerto Ricans, the HIV seroprevalence rate was 40-50%. 79% of the Puerto Rican prostitutes were sex partners of iv drug users. For effective prevention, cultural diversity must be taken into account. PMID:12292462

  5. Interpretations of cigarette advertisement warning labels by Philadelphia Puerto Ricans.

    PubMed

    Morris, Nancy; Gilpin, Dawn R; Lenos, Melissa; Hobbs, Renee

    2011-09-01

    This study examined Philadelphia Puerto Ricans' interpretations of the Surgeon General's warnings that appear on cigarette packaging and in advertisements. In-home family focus groups in which participants were asked to comment on magazine cigarette advertisements showed a great variety of interpretations of the legally mandated warning labels. These findings (a) corroborate and add to research in public health and communications regarding the possibility of wide variations in message interpretations and (b) support the call for public health messages to be carefully tested for effectiveness among different social groups. The article's focus on Puerto Ricans addresses the problem of misleading conclusions that can arise from aggregating all Latino subpopulations into one group. The use of a naturalistic setting to examine interpretations of messages about smoking departs from the experimental methods typically used for such research and provides new evidence that even a seemingly straightforward message can be interpreted in multiple ways. Understanding and addressing differences in message interpretation can guide public health campaigns aimed at reducing health disparities. PMID:21534024

  6. Development of the Inventario de Comportamiento Escolar (IDCE) for Puerto Rican Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauermeister, Jose J.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    The "Inventario de Comportamiento Escolar" is a teacher rating inventory for the assessment of Puerto Rican children, particularly those with a behavior pattern indicative of attention deficit disorder, learning disabilities, or academic underachievement. (JHZ)

  7. Pain: anxiety and attitudes in Black, white and Puerto Rican patients.

    PubMed

    Weisenberg, M; Kreindler, M L; Schachat, R; Werboff, J

    1975-01-01

    Reactions of black, white and Puerto Rican patients were studied in an outpatient dental emergency clinic. Measures used included the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, palmar sweat prints, an interview to obtain patient characteristics and attitudes toward pain, Dental Anxiety Scale and a posttreatment dentist rating. No differences between ethnic and racial groups were obtained in amount of pain, number or type of symptoms patients had. Significant Trait Anxiety differences were obtained. Puerto Ricans had the highest level of Trait Anxiety, whites the lowest, with blacks in the middle. The Dental Anxiety Scale also yielded differences with Puerto Ricans scoring highest, blacks lowest and whites in between. Attitude differences reflected a relative willingness to deny, get rid of or avoid dealing with the pain. The Puerto Ricans scored highest, whites lowest, with blacks in between. No physiological differences were obtained with palmar sweat prints. PMID:1135359

  8. Voices: Bilingual Youth Constructing and Defending Their Identities across Borders, a Binational Study of Puerto Rican Circular Migrant Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Jesus, Ramon Vega; Sayers, Dennis

    2007-01-01

    This article summarizes an interview-based investigation of Puerto Rican circular migrant students (CMSs) between Puerto Rico and the Northeastern United States. The goals of the study were (1) to identify the perceptions of Puerto Rican CMSs related to the reasons for migration (M) and circular migration (CM), and (2) to identify their…

  9. Masculinity and gender roles among Puerto Rican men: machismo on the U.S. mainland.

    PubMed

    Torres, J B

    1998-01-01

    The literature on masculinity and gender roles in American life has mostly over-looked Latino men, or has stereotyped them by means of a distorted concept of machismo. A reconceptualization of masculinity and machismo among Puerto Rican men is presented, based on a multidimensional view of their historical and current sociocultural reality. Relevant clinical and social services for Puerto Rican men are discussed and directions for future research are suggested. PMID:9494638

  10. Mothering through addiction: a survival strategy among Puerto Rican addicts.

    PubMed

    Hardesty, M; Black, T

    1999-09-01

    In this article, the importance of motherhood in the lives of Puerto Rican addicts is examined. Using a life history method, the authors interviewed 20 Latina females in various stages of recovery from addiction to crack-cocaine or heroin. Their lives as mothers took place in a context of poverty, marginalization, and abuse. Motherhood provided an identity and a line of work that grounded them amidst this dislocation. As their life options became more restricted over time, motherhood provided a lifeline through addiction and into recovery. While using drugs, they relied on a number of strategies to maintain mothering. In recovery, children became the markers of success in a treatment program. These findings challenge public images of female addicts as parents. PMID:10558370

  11. Major U.S. Foundations' and Corporations' Responsiveness to Puerto Rican Needs and Concerns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Puerto Rican Coalition, Inc., Alexandria, VA.

    This report assesses the responsiveness of major private foundations, community foundations, and corporate philanthropies in the United States to Puerto Rican needs and concerns. The private sector has increased its financial support of non-profit institutions in both the United States and Puerto Rico in an effort to mitigate the effects of the…

  12. Trajectories of Delinquency among Puerto Rican Children and Adolescents at Two Sites

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maldonado-Molina, Mildred M.; Piquero, Alex R.; Jennings, Wesley G.; Bird, Hector; Canino, Glorisa

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the trajectories of delinquency among Puerto Rican children and adolescents in two cultural contexts. Relying on data from the Boricua Youth Study, a longitudinal study of children and youth from Bronx, New York, and San Juan, Puerto Rico, a group-based trajectory procedure estimated the number of delinquency trajectories,…

  13. Sexual Risk Factors for HIV and Violence among Puerto Rican Women in New York City

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreno, Claudia L.; Morrill, Allison C.; El-Bassel, Nabila

    2011-01-01

    The authors examined sexual factors for HIV risk in 1,003 women of Puerto Rican heritage who attended a community-based New York City hospital clinic. Participants' ages ranged from 18 to 73 years. Half were born in the continental United States, and half were born in the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico. All were sexually active within the past 90…

  14. Inferring Cultural Learning Styles--Puerto Ricans in the U.S.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milburn, Trudy

    People learn differently. One model for instruction does not suit all participants well, especially when those participants are from different cultural backgrounds. Based on research into the speaking patterns of Puerto Ricans in the United States, as well as in Puerto Rico, inferences can be drawn about how those patterns of communication would…

  15. A Study of Disruptive Behavior Disorders in Puerto Rican Youth: I. Background, Design, and Survey Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bird, Hector R.; Canino, Glorisa J.; Davies, Mark; Duarte, Cristiane S.; Febo, Vivian; Ramirez, Rafael; Hoven, Christina; Wicks, Judith; Musa, George; Loeber, Rolf

    2006-01-01

    Objective: This is the first of two related articles on a study carried out between 2000 and 2003 designed to assess the prevalence, associated comorbidities, and correlates of disruptive behavior disorders in two populations of Puerto Rican children: one in the Standard Metropolitan Areas of San Juan and Caguas in Puerto Rico, and the other in…

  16. Assessing the Personality Structure of the Puerto Rican Secondary School Student.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poggio, John P.; Nuttall, Ronald L.

    The study dealt with the personality structure of Puerto Rican junior and senior high school students examined in one school district in Puerto Rico. The instrument used was a translated and adapted form of the HSPQ, Form A. From a scree test, more than 14 factors, probably 16 factors were to be found in the data. Rotating 14 factors to an oblique…

  17. National Culture and Migration: Perspectives from the Puerto Rican Working Class. Centro Working Papers No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campos, Ricardo; Flores, Juan

    In this paper Puerto Rico's history as one of colonial oppression and a struggle for national self-definition is described. The divergent conceptions of patriotism, national liberation, and human freedom as voiced by leaders of the national elite and of the Puerto Rican working class are discussed in terms of traditional themes in the culture.…

  18. English Language Training for Puerto Rican Navy Recruits: Evaluation of Pilot Program. Technical Report 155.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Copeland, D. Robert; And Others

    An evaluation of the effectiveness of the English language training for Navy recruits at the English Technical Language School (ETLS) in Puerto Rico is reported. The study covers the period of December 7, 1981, to September 30, 1983. It tracked Puerto Rican Army National Guard (PRANG) personnel from completion of English language training through…

  19. Modular Sequence: Puerto Rican Pupils in Mainland Schools. TTP 003.02. Migration Patterns of the Puerto Rican. Teacher Corps Bilingual Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartford Univ., West Hartford, CT. Coll. of Education.

    This module presents an overview of the background of Puerto Rican migration to the U.S. and an explanation of the migrant's current situation. Upon completion of this module the participant will be able to (a) describe the cultural roots of the migrants, (b) list reasons for the migration after 1898, (c) characterize the migration since 1950, and…

  20. Puerto Ricans and Higher Education Policies. Volume 1: Issues of Scholarship, Fiscal Policies and Admissions. Higher Education Task Force Discussion Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Camille, Ed.; Bosque-Perez, Ramon, Ed.

    This volume explores issues of scholarship, fiscal policies, and admissions in the higher education of Puerto Ricans, with the emphasis on Puerto Ricans on the U.S. mainland and a particular focus on Puerto Rican admissions to the City University of New York. The first paper, "The Centro's Models of Scholarship: Present Challenges to Twenty Years…

  1. Carbohydrate nutrition differs by diabetes status and is associated with dyslipidemia in Boston Puerto Rican adults without diabetes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Puerto Rican adults have a greater prevalence of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and lower HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) than the general U.S. population. Carbohydrate nutrition may play a role in this disparity. Cross-sectional analyses included data from 1219 Puerto Ricans aged 45-75 y enrolled in the Boston Puer...

  2. Puerto Ricans in California: A Staff Report of the Western Regional Office, United States Commission on Civil Rights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montez, Philip; Pilla, Thomas V.

    This study was undertaken to provide insight into the circumstances of California's Puerto Ricans who are only now surfacing as a distinct Latino bloc within the State's larger Hispanic population. Research methods consisted of a demographic analysis of Puerto Ricans in California and interviews with community representatives and public officials…

  3. 26 CFR 1.401(a)-50 - Puerto Rican trusts; election to be treated as a domestic trust.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Puerto Rican trusts; election to be treated as a... Plans, Etc. § 1.401(a)-50 Puerto Rican trusts; election to be treated as a domestic trust. (a) In... have made the election referred to in section 1022(i)(2) are to be treated as trusts created...

  4. Empirically derived dietary fatty acid patterns and metabolic syndrome risk factors: the Boston Puerto Rican Health Study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Combinations of fatty acids may affect risk of metabolic syndrome. Puerto Ricans, the second largest US Hispanic subgroup, endure a disproportionate number of chronic conditions compared with other Hispanic groups. We aimed to characterize the fatty acid patterns of 1207 Boston Puerto Rican adults a...

  5. The Influence of Generational Status and Psychosocial Variables on Marijuana Use among Black and Puerto Rican Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chappin, Sean R.; Brook, Judith S.

    2001-01-01

    A longitudinal study assessed the relationship between Black and Puerto Rican adolescent generational status (since immigration) and psychosocial factors predicting later marijuana use. Interviews with 108 Blacks and 392 Puerto Ricans at ages 14 and 19 indicate that the impact of generational status was mediated by psychosocial variables such as…

  6. Parenting practices among Dominican and Puerto Rican mothers.

    PubMed

    Guilamo-Ramos, Vincent; Dittus, Patricia; Jaccard, James; Johansson, Margaret; Bouris, Alida; Acosta, Neifi

    2007-01-01

    This study presents descriptive qualitative data about Latino parenting practices in an urban context. Focus groups were conducted with Dominican and Puerto Rican mother-adolescent pairs in the Bronx borough of NewYork City. When parenting style typologies are integrated with the Latino cultural components familismo, respeto, personalismo, and simpatía, Latino parenting practices and their underlying styles are better understood. Content analysis of parents' focus groups revealed five essential Latino parenting practices: (1) ensuring close monitoring of adolescents; (2) maintaining warm and supportive relationships characterized by high levels of parent-adolescent interaction and sharing; (3) explaining parental decisions and actions; (4) making an effort to build and improve relationships; and (5) differential parenting practices based on adolescents' gender. Mothers reported concerns related to the risks associated with living in an urban area, exposure to different cultural values, and opportunities for engaging in risky behaviors. Adolescents' recommendations for effective parenting strategies were similar to the practices reported by their mothers. The study has important applied implications for culturally competent social work practice with Latino adolescents and their families. PMID:17388080

  7. Home range and movements of juvenile Puerto Rican parrots

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lindsey, G.D.; Arendt, W.J.; Kalina, J.; Pendleton, G.W.

    1991-01-01

    We studied home range and movements of 15 radio-marked, juvenile Puerto Rican parrots (Amazona vittata) fledging from wild nests during summer and fall, 1985-87. When juvenile parrots remained in the nest valley, home ranges during 1986 (.hivin.x = 32 .+-. 10 [SE] ha, n = 4) were larger (P = 0.0079) than during 1987 (.hivin.x = 13 .+-. 6 ha, n = 5). After radio-marked parrots integrated into adult flocks, home ranges during 1986 (.hivin.x = 1,075 .+-. 135 ha, n = 3) were similar (P = 0.10) to 1987 (.hivin.x = 416 .+-. 62 ha, n = 2). Juvenile parrots restricted their movements to nest valleys an average of 58 .+-. 29 days following fledging. After joining adult flocks, juvenile parrots routinely flew between the east and west slopes of the Luquillo Mountains but did not exhibit a seaonal pattern of movement. We recommend that captive-raised, juvenile parrots used in release programs be .gtoreq. 5 months old to ensure they are mature enough to integrate into wild flocks.

  8. The nightmares of Puerto Ricans: an embodied 'altered states of consciousness' perspective.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, C Jeffrey

    2009-06-01

    This article examines nightmare narratives collected as part of a person-centered ethnographic study of altered states of consciousness (ASCs) and supernaturalism in a mainland Puerto Rican community in the late 1990s. Utilizing a descriptive backdrop informed by cross-cultural studies of ASCs and highlighting the relevance of recent insights from the cognitive sciences of religion and from the anthropology of embodiment or cultural phenomenology, I examine the lived experience and psychocultural elaboration of diverse Puerto Rican nightmare events. Taking the nightmare to be a trauma in its waking-nightmare sense (i.e., through the extreme fright caused by sleep paralysis) as well as an intrusive, traumatic memory in its posttraumatic sense (i.e., a reliving of trauma themes in dreams), I show how the perceptual and interpretive processes evoked by intensely affective ASCs both inform and are informed by Puerto Rican religious and spiritualistic orientations and values. PMID:19326194

  9. Puerto Rican families' experiences of asthma and use of the emergency department for asthma care.

    PubMed

    Coffey, Jean; Cloutier, Michelle; Meadows-Oliver, Mikki; Terrazos, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    Puerto Ricans have been found to have higher asthma prevalence rates than non-Hispanic whites, blacks, and all other Hispanic subgroups. They also have the highest rates of emergency department (ED) use for the management of their asthma. Using a hermeneutic phenomenological approach, the aim of this study was to describe the lived experience of Puerto Rican families caring for their child's asthma and using the ED for asthma care. Six themes were generated from in-depth interviews with 10 Puerto-Rican caregivers: (1) The Folklore of Asthma, (2) Culture and the Medicine Woman, (3) In Awe of Asthma, (4) Praying to God, (5) The Decision-Time to Go, and (6) The ED Environment. The findings emphasize the necessity of establishing and maintaining a therapeutic partnership between primary care providers and families of children with asthma. The results may be used as a foundation for understanding motivations for seeking asthma care in the ED. PMID:22920777

  10. Exploratory study of the role of family in the treatment of eating disorders among Puerto Ricans

    PubMed Central

    Guadalupe-Rodríguez, Elizabeth; Reyes-Rodríguez, Mae Lynn; Bulik, Cynthia M.

    2012-01-01

    In Latino culture, the family is a major source of social support. We explored the needs and the role of the Puerto Rican eating disorders patient’s family in the treatment process by conducting a focus group with five close relatives of youth with eating disorders. Qualitative analyses indicated the need to integrate the family into treatment and to provide management guidelines to assist with the resolution of situations that emerge frequently during recovery. These results underscored the importance of developing and incorporating psychosocial interventions that include family support and guidance for relatives of Puerto Rican youth patients with eating disorders. PMID:24971160

  11. Health and Reproductive Assessment of Selected Puerto Rican Parrots ( Amazona vittata ) in Captivity.

    PubMed

    Clubb, Susan; Velez, Jafet; Garner, Michael M; Zaias, Julia; Cray, Carolyn

    2015-12-01

    The Puerto Rican parrot ( Amazona vittata ) has become an iconic and high-profile conservation species. The cornerstone of the recovery plan for this critically endangered species is an active captive breeding program, management of the wild population, and a long-term reintroduction program. In 2002, 40 adult Puerto Rican parrots that had not produced viable offspring were selected for reproductive assessment at 2 aviary populations in Puerto Rico (Iguaca and Río Abajo), which are the only sources of parrots for release. The goal was to enhance reproductive potential and produce productive pairings in an attempt to augment the population growth and provide ample individuals for reintroduction. Seven Hispanolian Amazon parrots ( Amazona ventralis ) that were used as surrogate parents for the Puerto Rican parrots were also included in the study. This assessment included physical examination, endoscopic evaluation, hematologic and plasma biochemical profiles, viral screening, and hormonal assays. Results of general physical examination and hematologic and plasma biochemical testing revealed overall good health and condition of this subset of the population of Puerto Rican parrots; no major infectious diseases were found. Endoscopic examination also revealed overall good health and condition, especially of females. The apparent low fertility of male birds warrants further investigation. The findings helped to define causes of reproductive failure in the selected pairs and individual birds. New pairings resulting from the assessment helped to augment reproduction of this critically endangered species. PMID:26771321

  12. "But you don't look Puerto Rican": the moderating effect of ethnic identity on the relation between skin color and self-esteem among Puerto Rican women.

    PubMed

    López, Irene

    2008-04-01

    This exploratory study investigated whether ethnic identity, as assessed by Phinney's (1992) Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure, functioned as a moderator in the relation between skin color (as measured by masked interviewer evaluation, participant self-report, and skin reflectance data) and self-esteem (as measured by Rosenberg's 1989 Self-Esteem Scale). In a sample of 53 English-speaking Puerto Rican women, a hierarchical multiple regression indicated that among lighter skinned women, those who felt less attached to their culture had less self-esteem than those who were more culturally embedded. Similarly, among darker skinned women, greater attachment to Puerto Rican culture was associated with greater self-esteem than a less defined ethnic identity. Findings are discussed in light of the beneficial effects of ethnic identity. PMID:18426282

  13. Reach Out and Touch Someone: Tactile Communication in Selected Puerto Rican Novels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Mara, Joan

    The importance and varieties of human touch have been the subject of much research. Touching varies from culture to culture and is a way of talking in most Latin American countries. Three Puerto Rican novels provide examples of this nonverbal communicative style: "Mambru se fue a la guerra," by Jose Luis Gonzalez; "La vispera del hombre," by Rene…

  14. A Brief Culturally Tailored Intervention for Puerto Ricans with Type 2 Diabetes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osborn, Chandra Y.; Amico, K. R.; Cruz, Noemi; O'Connell, Ann A.; Perez-Escamilla, Rafael; Kalichman, Seth C.; Wolf, Scott A.; Fisher, Jeffrey D.

    2010-01-01

    The information-motivation-behavioral skills (IMB) model of health behavior change informed the design of a brief, culturally tailored diabetes self-care intervention for Puerto Ricans with type 2 diabetes. Participants (n = 118) were recruited from an outpatient, primary care clinic at an urban hospital in the northeast United States. ANCOVA…

  15. Some Learning Disabilities of Socially Disadvantaged Puerto Rican and Negro Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, S. Alan

    The findings of several tests are used to describe some learning disabilities and patterns common in lower-class Puerto Rican and Negro children. In particular, perceptual dysfunction is pointed to as a major causal factor in the reading problems of the disadvantaged. In one urban slum school, 40 percent of first graders showed serious dysfunction…

  16. Extended Family Ties among Mexicans, Puerto Ricans, and Whites: Superintegration or Disintegration?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarkisian, Natalia; Gerena, Mariana; Gerstel, Naomi

    2006-01-01

    Addressing recent theoretical debates, this study examined the differences in extended family integration among Mexicans, Puerto Ricans, and Whites, as well as the importance of culture and structure in explaining these differences. Our findings showed Whites and Latinos/as have distinctive patterns of extended family integration: Mexicans and…

  17. Predicting Child Maltreatment among Puerto Rican Children from Migrant and Non-Migrant Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sledjeski, Eve M.; Dierker, Lisa C.; Bird, Hector R.; Canino, Glorisa

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: The objectives of the present study were to (1) describe the prevalence of child maltreatment among migrant and non-migrant Puerto Rican families and (2) identify socio-demographic and cultural (i.e., acculturation pattern, familismo) predictors of maltreatment within these two samples. Method: Representative community samples of…

  18. 27 CFR 19.269 - Puerto Rican and Virgin Islands spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Islands spirits. 19.269 Section 19.269 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... and Virgin Islands Spirits § 19.269 Puerto Rican and Virgin Islands spirits. (a) The provisions of 26... Islands with respect to the following: (1) Spirits lost while in TTB bond; (2) Voluntary destruction...

  19. 27 CFR 19.269 - Puerto Rican and Virgin Islands spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Islands spirits. 19.269 Section 19.269 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... and Virgin Islands Spirits § 19.269 Puerto Rican and Virgin Islands spirits. (a) The provisions of 26... Islands with respect to the following: (1) Spirits lost while in TTB bond; (2) Voluntary destruction...

  20. 27 CFR 19.269 - Puerto Rican and Virgin Islands spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Islands spirits. 19.269 Section 19.269 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... and Virgin Islands Spirits § 19.269 Puerto Rican and Virgin Islands spirits. (a) The provisions of 26... Islands with respect to the following: (1) Spirits lost while in TTB bond; (2) Voluntary destruction...

  1. 27 CFR 19.269 - Puerto Rican and Virgin Islands spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Islands spirits. 19.269 Section 19.269 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... and Virgin Islands Spirits § 19.269 Puerto Rican and Virgin Islands spirits. (a) The provisions of 26... Islands with respect to the following: (1) Spirits lost while in TTB bond; (2) Voluntary destruction...

  2. Health Characteristics as Precursors of Substance Abuse in Puerto Rican Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haran, Elizabeth M.; And Others

    In a longitudinal study of precursors of drug usage, data collected in 1968 on health variables was related to substance usage patterns obtained in 1975-76. Some 657 young Puerto Ricans were interviewed for this study, drawn from a pool of about 5,000 questionnaired in 1968. The major findings were that the health factors associated with drug…

  3. Taking a Diasporic Stance: Puerto Rican Mothers Educating Children in a Racially Integrated Neighborhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rolon-Dow, Rosalie

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the perspectives of second-generation Puerto Rican mothers as they discuss their experiences educating their children in a working class, lower-middle class, racially diverse neighborhood. The article examines the racialization processes that the women and their families face, despite experiencing geographic and socioeconomic…

  4. Acculturation and sociocultural influences on dietary intake and health status among Puerto Rican adults in Massachusetts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous studies have shown negative consequences of acculturation on lifestyle factors, health status, and dietary intake of Hispanic immigrants in the US. Despite prevalent type 2 diabetes and low socioeconomic status (SES) among Puerto Rican adults living on the US mainland, little is known about...

  5. African American and Puerto Rican American Parenting Styles, Paternal Involvement, and Head Start Children's Social Competence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fagan, Jay

    2000-01-01

    Examined similarities and differences in parenting styles and paternal involvement within and between African American and Puerto Rican American parent groups and the relationship between parenting styles, child care involvement, and Head Start children's social competence. Found a significant relationship between high levels of parental…

  6. Vida/SIDA: A Grassroots Response to AIDS in Chicago's Puerto Rican Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanabria, Roberto

    2004-01-01

    Chicago's Puerto Rican community in West Town had a unique reaction to the spread of AIDS within its limits. They created their own institutions and tackled the epidemic themselves. In its infancy, Vida/SIDA, which translates as Life/AIDS, was solely an alternative health clinic for people with AIDS. Free of charge, it provided services such as…

  7. Exploring the Concept of Respect among Turkish and Puerto Rican Migrant Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harwood, Robin L.; Yalcinkaya, Alev; Citlak, Banu; Leyendecker, Birgit

    2006-01-01

    The cultural patterning of respect is examined in two first- and second-generation migrant groups: Puerto Rican mothers in Connecticut and Turkish mothers in Bochum, Germany. Cultural and generational influences were found for three aspects of respect: proper interpersonal behavior, relations within the family, and esteem within the community.…

  8. Racial Identity Attitudes and Ego Identity Statuses in Dominican and Puerto Rican College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez, Delida

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the relation between racial identity attitudes and ego identity statuses in 94 Dominican and Puerto Rican Latino college students in an urban public college setting. Simultaneous regression analyses were conducted to test the relation between racial identity attitudes and ego identity statuses, and findings indicated that…

  9. Influences of Puerto Rican, Black, and Anglo Parents' Career Behavior on Their Adolescent Children's Career Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dillard, John M.; Campbell, N. Jo

    1981-01-01

    Examined the relationships between Puerto Rican, Black, and Anglo adolescent children's career aspirations, expectations, and maturity and their parents' career values and career aspirations for them. Results suggest that career behavior differentially affects adolescent children's career development and that parent-child interaction may be…

  10. Music Education in Puerto Rican Elementary Schools: A Study from the Perspective of Music Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    López-León, Ricardo; Lorenzo-Quiles, Oswaldo; Addessi, Anna Rita

    2015-01-01

    This article presents, for the first time, descriptive research on the status of music education in Puerto Rican public elementary schools. General music education at elementary schools on the island has been part of the school offering for more than 50 years. As yet, music education at this level has not been recognized as an essential discipline…

  11. Youth Labor Markets for Puerto Rican-Latin American Youth Labor Market in New York City.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molina, Charles, Jr.

    An integrated job preparation model with development rationale is presented for use by social action agencies in serving Puerto Rican/Hispanic youth clientele. Findings of background research to isolate demographic and cultural variables of the primary target audiences are summarized. An organizational evaluation is also described which studied…

  12. Urinary 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine and cognitive function in Puerto Rican adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    DNA oxidative stress has been suggested as an important pathogenic mechanism in cognitive impairment and dementia. We, therefore, examined whether urinary 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), a biomarker of global DNA oxidation, was associated with cognitive function in a sample of Puerto Rican adul...

  13. Phonological Development of Two-Year-Old Monolingual Puerto Rican Spanish-Speaking Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Raquel; Smith, Bruce L.

    1987-01-01

    Phonetic and phonological analysis of spontaneous speech of six 2-year-old monolingual Puerto Rican Spanish-learning children revealed several sound usage patterns similar to those found in English and other language-learning children, supporting the claim that certain universal patterns exist in phonological development. (Author/CB)

  14. Greater variety in fruit and vegetable intake is associated with lower inflammation in Puerto Rican adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    BACKGROUND: Puerto Rican adults have prevalent metabolic abnormalities, but few studies have explored fruit and vegetable (FV) intake and coronary heart disease (CHD) risk in this population. OBJECTIVE: Researchers tested the hypothesis that greater FV intake and variety are associated with a lower...

  15. Dominican and Puerto Rican Mother-Adolescent Communication: Maternal Self-Disclosure and Youth Risk Intentions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guilamo-Ramos, Vincent

    2010-01-01

    A communication framework was developed to examine the influence of maternal use of self-disclosure on adolescent intentions to smoke cigarettes and to engage in sexual intercourse. Data were collected from 516 Dominican and Puerto Rican mother-adolescent dyads. Statistical analyses were conducted in AMOS using structural equation modeling.…

  16. 1973 ATLAS Curriculum Guide for Mexican-American and Puerto Rican Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Teachers of Latin American Studies, Brooklyn, NY.

    This curriculum guide, developed by the Association of Teachers of Latin American Studies, provides an interdisciplinary, inquiry-oriented approach to Mexican-American and Puerto Rican Studies. Unit one contains a list of cognitive and affective objectives and evaluation suggestions. Units two through six provide content materials and include a…

  17. Puerto Rican Participation in Job Opportunities and Basic Skills (JOBS) Programs. A Preliminary Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cruz, Jose E.

    This report presents the findings of a preliminary assessment of the strengths and weaknesses of the Job Opportunities and Basic Skills (JOBS) programs, the welfare-to-work centerpiece of the Family Support Act, for moving Puerto Rican welfare recipients closer to self-sufficiency. Programs in Newark (New Jersey), New York City, and Philadelphia…

  18. Puerto Ricans in Children's Literature and History Texts: A Ten-Year Update.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nieto, Sonia, Ed.

    1983-01-01

    This is a collection of articles in which the treatment of Puerto Ricans in published children textbooks over the past 10 years is reviewed. The collection is preceded by an editorial responding to an "American Educator" article branding the Council on Interracial Books for Children as a "leftist extremist" organization. The articles which follow…

  19. Incorporating Origin and Process in Migration-Fertility Frameworks: The Case of Puerto Rican Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singley, Susan G.; Landale, Nancy S.

    1998-01-01

    Life history data from both origin and destination areas were used to examine the relationship between migration and fertility among Puerto Rican women. Migration to the U.S. mainland had opposite effects on childbearing for single versus married or cohabiting women. For all migrants, migration played an integral part in the family formation…

  20. "Turning the Sugar": Adult Learning and Cultural Repertoires of Practice in a Puerto Rican Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Laura Ruth; Stribling, Colleen; Almburg, Anne; Vitale, Gail

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the processes of knowledge acquisition and transmission among adults within two "communities of practice" in Humboldt Park/"Paseo Boricua," a Puerto Rican community located on Chicago's near-northwest side. In particular, we examine the ways in which two adult women engaged in learning processes and…

  1. English Proficiency Required for Puerto Rican Students to Succeed in University Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez-Iznaga, Rene

    2013-01-01

    Ninety percent of Puerto Rican public school students who graduate from high school lack the basic English skills needed to succeed in university studies. This lack may be the result of Spanish being used as the major language of instruction at all levels in the public school system; when students graduate, they are limited English proficient…

  2. Support Networks of Single Puerto Rican Mothers of Children with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Correa, Vivian I.; Bonilla, Zobeida E.; Reyes-MacPherson, Maria E.

    2011-01-01

    The social support networks of 25 Puerto Rican single mothers of young children with disabilities were examined and compared with current models of family support for children with disabilities. This study was designed to assess the support systems of Latino single mothers in light of dominant models of family support. The Family Support Scale,…

  3. Housing Dependence and Intimate Relationships in the Lives of Low-Income Puerto Rican Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Sherri Lawson; Burton, Linda M.; Flippen, Chenoa A.

    2011-01-01

    Using longitudinal ethnographic data from the Three-City Study, the authors examined the relationship between 16 low-income Puerto Rican mothers' housing dependencies and their intimate partner relations. This study traced mothers' dependent housing arrangements and entree to marital or cohabiting relationships from their teens through their…

  4. Stigma and Discrimination: Perspectives from Mexican and Puerto Rican Mothers of Children with Special Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McHatton, Patricia Alvarez; Correa, Vivian

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the experiences of stigma-related discrimination in 50 Puerto Rican and Mexican single mothers of young children with disabilities. Mothers were interviewed on issues related to raising a child with disabilities. This was a preliminary exploration of the stories mothers told specifically related to…

  5. Income Allocation in Marital and Cohabiting Unions: The Case of Mainland Puerto Ricans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oropesa, R. S.; Landale, Nancy S.; Kenkre, Tanya

    2003-01-01

    The rise of cohabitation and the growing share of births to cohabiting couples have led to speculation that the boundary between marriage and cohabitation is blurring. Examines this issue with an analysis of the financial arrangements of fathers of mainland Puerto Rican children. Reveals that married fathers are more likely than cohabiting fathers…

  6. Ethnolinguistic Identity and Spanish Proficiency in a Paradoxical Situation: The Case of Puerto Rican Return Migrants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clachar, Arlene

    1997-01-01

    Addresses the social psychological paradox of learning a language, which in one interethnic situation represents the "ingroup" language, while in another interethnic context, it represents the "outgroup" language, a situation characterizing the language-learning experience of most Puerto Rican return migrants (PRRMs). (25 references) (Author/CK)

  7. Sociocultural Influences on the Explanation of Delinquency for Puerto Rican Youths.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sommers, Ira; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Among 1,077 Puerto Rican male adolescents in New York City, familism (values emphasizing family bonds and obligations) was a powerful contributor to the avoidance of deviance, whereas acculturation was positively associated with participation in interpersonal violence and theft and negatively associated with illicit drug use. The pattern differs…

  8. The Puerto Ricans: Culture Change and Language Deviance. Viking Fund Publications in Anthropology, Number 51.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leavitt, Ruby Rohrlich

    This anthropological study examines whether sociocultural factors are basic to the etiology of stuttering through (1) an investigation of the incidence of stuttering in a single ethnic group, Puerto Rican rural migrants living in two different cultural milieus (San Juan and New York City), and (2) a comparison of the sociocultural variables in the…

  9. Programs, Services, Materials of the New York State Education Department for Black and Puerto Rican Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany.

    This booklet provides a brief descriptive listing of programs and services, and materials and resources for black and Puerto Rican studies available at present, to be available in 1970-71, and in the planning stage. The services described are those of research, advisory, consulting, funding, and supportive categories. Part of the research services…

  10. Puerto Rican History and Culture: A Study Guide and Curriculum Outline.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aran, Kenneth; And Others

    The document consists of teacher-developed resource units on Puerto Rican history and culture for junior and senior high school students. The objective is to help students understand and appreciate cultural diversity which can serve as a source of unity and pride rather than divisiveness and enmity. Teaching techniques include class discussion,…

  11. Guias para los carteles puertorriquenos (Guides for the Puerto Rican Posters).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colon, Luisa; Rivera, Carlos

    These teacher's guides are designed to accompany four Puerto Rican posters by Juan Maldonado. Each narrative or biographical essay in the guides is followed by lists of suggested learning objectives, materials needed for the lesson, instructions for presentation to the students, vocabulary, and classroom learning activities. The four guides and…

  12. The Puerto Rican Prison Experience: A Multicultural Understanding of Values, Beliefs, and Attitudes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivera, Edil Torres; Wilbur, Michael P.; Roberts-Wilbur, Janice

    1998-01-01

    Counselors are challenged to use a nontraditional, multicultural approach with Puerto Rican inmates, to strive to understand their values, beliefs, experiences, and behaviors; and to question their own underlying assumptions and linear models of therapy. Five specific recommendations are made, and a comparison of beliefs and values is appended.…

  13. Longitudinal Mental Health Service and Medication Use of ADHD among Puerto Rican Youth in Two Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bird, Hector R.; Shrout, Patrick E.; Duarte, Cristiane S.; Shen, Sa; Bauermeister, Jose J.; Canino, Glorisa

    2008-01-01

    The study discusses the differences in the prevalence of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) among Puerto Rican children and the influence of risk factors on mental health services, medication and psychostimulant use among them in two different contexts. The conclusion states that prevalence was similar regardless of context and…

  14. Sociolinguistic Aspects of Assimilation: Puerto Rican English in New York City.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfram, Walt

    This book looks at the essential dynamics of language contact and linguistic assimilation from a current sociolinguistic perspective by focusing on the English of second generation Puerto Rican teen-agers in New York City. General sociolinguistic principles are extrapolated from the author's detailed investigation of several linguistic variables…

  15. Puerto Rican Families Caring for an Adult with Mental Retardation: Role of Familism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magana, Sandra M.

    1999-01-01

    A study involving 72 Puerto Rican mothers with children with mental retardation living at home found better maternal well-being was predicted by larger social support networks, greater satisfaction with social support, and more minor children living in the household. Mothers faced many socioeconomic challenges and were in poor health. (Contains…

  16. Speech and Ways of Speaking in a Bilingual Puerto Rican Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alvarez, Celia; And Others

    A collection of papers resulting from a research project on the role of language in the life of a Puerto Rican community in New York City focuses on the discourse of English and Spanish speakers, especially conversational interaction, speech events, and narratives. The papers include: "Toward a Social Theory of Language Variability" (Alicia…

  17. Substance Use and HIV Risk in a Sample of Severely Mentally Ill Puerto Rican Women

    PubMed Central

    Sajatovic, Martha; Mendez, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    Latinos, and Puerto Ricans in particular, have been disproportionately impacted by HIV/AIDS. Severe mental illness (SMI) is associated with an increase in HIV risk. Relatively little research has focused on the role of SMI among Puerto Rican injection drug users (IDUs) and non-IDUs in susceptibility to and transmission of HIV and there are few published reports on HIV risk among Latina SMI. We conducted a longitudinal mixed methods study with 53 Puerto Rican women with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, or major depression to examine the cultural context of HIV risk and HIV knowledge, beliefs, and behaviors among a larger study with Puerto Rican and Mexican women with serious mental illness (SMI). There was a high prevalence of past and current substance use and a high prevalence of substance use-associated HIV risk behaviors, such as unprotected sexual relations with an IDU. The violence associated with substance use frequently increased participants’ HIV risk. Choice of substance of abuse depended on cost, availability, and use within the individual participant's network. Participants attributed their substance use to the need to relieve symptoms associated with their mental illness, ameliorate unpleasant feelings, and deaden emotional pain. HIV prevention interventions for poorer Puerto Rican women with SMI must target the individuals themselves and others within their networks if the women are to be supported in their efforts to reduce substance use-related risk. The content of any intervention must address past and current trauma and its relationship to substance use and HIV risk, as well as strategies to prevent HIV transmission. PMID:21327967

  18. Latina girls of Puerto Rican origin who are successful in science and mathematics high school courses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oquendo-Rodriguez, Aida L.

    Professions and careers related to science and mathematics lack representation of minorities. Within these underrepresented minority populations there is no other group more affected than Latina women and girls. Women in general, are still underrepresented in many areas of our society. While women's roles are changing in today's society, most changes encourage the participation of more White/Anglo women in traditionally male roles. Latina women are still more disadvantaged than White women. There is no doubt that education is significant in increasing the participation of minorities in the fields of science and mathematics, especially for minority girls (Oakes, 1990; Rodriguez, 1993). This study explored the interests, life experiences, characteristics and motivations of Latina girls of Puerto Rican origin who are successful in science and mathematics high school courses. The study identifies factors that can influence the interest of Latina girls of Puerto Rican origin in science and mathematics career choices. This research is significant and relevant to educators and policy makers, especially to science and mathematics educators. The research is primarily descriptive and exploratory. It explores the social characteristics of Latina girls and professional women who have been successful in science and mathematics high school courses. The research offers the reader a visit to the participants' homes with descriptions and the opportunity to explore the thoughts and life experiences of Latina girls, their mothers and young Latina professionals of Puerto Rican origin. This research reveals the common characteristics of successful students found in the Latina girls of Puerto Rican origin who where interviewed. Creating a portrait of Latina girls of Puerto Rican origin who are successful in science and mathematics high school courses in one of the school districts of western Massachusetts. The research findings reveal that teacher relationships, family expectations

  19. Time since migration and HIV risk behaviors among Puerto Ricans who inject drugs in New York City

    PubMed Central

    Gelpí-Acosta, C; Pouget, ER; Reilly, KH; Hagan, H; Neaigus, A; Wendel, T; Marshall, D

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Among people who inject drugs (PWID) in the U.S., those who initiated drug injection in Puerto Rico (immigrant Puerto Rican PWID) engage in more injection and sexual risk behaviors, and have higher HIV incidence than non-Hispanic whites. OBJECTIVE Understand the persistence of HIV risk behaviors. METHODS In a cross-sectional study conducted in New York City (NYC) in 2012 (National HIV Behavioral Surveillance), PWID aged ≥ 18 years were recruited using Respondent-Driven Sampling, interviewed, and tested for HIV. Participants were categorized into 5 different groups: (1) US-born non-Hispanic PWID, (2) US-born Puerto Rican PWID, (3) recent immigrant Puerto Rican PWID (≤ 3 years in NYC), (4) medium-term immigrant Puerto Rican PWID (> 3 and ≤ 10 years in NYC), and (5) long-term immigrant Puerto Rican PWID (> 10 years in NYC). We examined the relationship between time since migrating on sexual and injection risk behaviors among immigrant Puerto Rican PWID, compared with U.S.-born Puerto Rican PWID and US-born non-Hispanic PWID. Adjusted odds ratios (aOR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were estimated using logistic regression. RESULTS A total of 481 PWID were recruited. In adjusted analyses using US-born non-Hispanic PWID as the comparison group, syringe sharing was significantly more likely among medium-term immigrants; and unprotected sex with casual partners was more likely among recent and long-term immigrants. CONCLUSIONS The risk-acculturation process for immigrant Puerto Rican PWID may be non-linear and may not necessarily lead to risk reduction over time. Research is needed to better understand this process. PMID:27100322

  20. The social psychological adjustment of migrant and non-migrant Puerto Rican adolescents.

    PubMed

    Prewitt Diaz, J O; Seilhamer, E S

    1987-01-01

    The great migration of Puerto Ricans to the US occurred during the 1950s, when there was promise of employment in the US. Migration decreased in the 1960s when the promise of employment decreased. Many Puerto Ricans returned to the island during the 1960s and 1970s because they could not find work on the mainland; return migration has continued for the last 12 years. The migrant student population in Puerto Rico is composed of migrants, return migrants, and circulatory migrants. The circulatory migrants are those children of Puerto Rican parents who have traveled to and from the island to the mainland several times; these migrants are not served by either educational system. A program that serves the circulatory migrant students is the Puerto Rico Migrant Education Program. 3 factors influence return migration: 1) the shorter the distance of emigration, the higher the incidence of return migration; 2) the longer the emigrants stay away, the less chance they will return; and 3) changes in the economic balance between the place of origin and the place of destination directly affect the volume of return migration. A source of conflict in the adjustment of Puerto Rican return migrants is the difference in cultural values of the 2 settings in which the return migrant student has to live. This study of 273 students shows that there were differences between nonmigrants and circulatory migrants in reading achievement. There were a large number of young people with serious reading problems in their primary school language (English) and the 2nd language (Spanish). A negative relationship between physical adjustment and reading achievement suggests that achievement in reading will increase as soon as the physical adjustment takes place. PMID:12341276

  1. Longitudinal Mental Health Service and Medication Use for ADHD Among Puerto Rican Youth in Two Contexts

    PubMed Central

    Bird, Hector R.; Shrout, Patrick E.; Duarte, Cristiane S.; Shen, Sa; Bauermeister, José J.; Canino, Glorisa

    2008-01-01

    Objective The study describes prevalence and rates of service and medication use and associated factors over time among Puerto Rican youth with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Methods Longitudinal data are obtained on Puerto Rican children aged 5 through 13 years in the South Bronx (SB) in New York (n=1,138) and two Metropolitan Areas in Puerto Rico (PR) (n=1,353). The DISC-4 is the diagnostic tool. Five composite measures of risk factors: negative family influences, ineffective structuring, environmental risks, child risks, and maternal acceptance are constructed to relate service patterns and medication use to demographic and risk variables. Results ADHD prevalence is similar in PR and SB. Overall mental health service, medication and psychostimulant use are lower in PR across three time points. The vast majority of the participants never received treatment at any time point. More environmental risks, negative child traits and lack of maternal warmth are associated with more service, even after adjusting for comorbidity. When risk variables are controlled, the effects of ADHD on service use decrease. Previous treatment is a strong predictor of subsequent treatment. Conclusions Rates of service and medication use are lower in PR. Context seems to be more important than ethnicity in predicting mental health service and medication use among Puerto Rican children with ADHD. Other psychiatric diagnoses and general risk variables are important correlates of services and medication use. PMID:18596555

  2. Predicting child maltreatment among Puerto Rican children from migrant and non-migrant families

    PubMed Central

    Sledjeski, Eve M.; Dierker, Lisa C.; Bird, Hector R.; Canino, Glorisa

    2009-01-01

    Objective The objectives of the present study were to 1) describe the prevalence of child maltreatment among migrant and non-migrant Puerto Rican families and 2) identify socio-demographic and cultural (i.e. acculturation pattern, familismo) predictors of maltreatment within these two samples. Method Representative community samples of Puerto Rican children (ages 5-13 at baseline) and their adult caretakers were interviewed at two sites: the South Bronx in New York City (n=631 families) and the Standard Metropolitan Areas of San Juan and Caguas in Puerto Rico (n=859 families). Participants were re-interviewed one and two years following the baseline assessment. Results While prevalence rates of maltreatment (physical abuse, 10%; sexual abuse 1 %; neglect, 10%; and multi-type, 6%) did not differ between the two sites at baseline assessment, site differences emerged over time. Rates of physical abuse at follow-up were significantly higher in the Bronx compared to Puerto Rico. Further, for families living in the Bronx, living in poverty predicted chronic maltreatment, whereas living above the poverty line predicted new cases of maltreatment at follow-up. For families living in Puerto Rico, those who experienced physical abuse or multi-type maltreatment at baseline were more likely to report chronic maltreatment at follow-up regardless of poverty level. Cultural factors were not related to baseline or follow-up maltreatment at either site. Conclusion Findings suggest that while rates of child maltreatment may be similar in migrant and non-migrant Puerto Rican families and when compared to prevalence rates in the US, predictors of maltreatment may differ. Practice Implications Since predictors of maltreatment may vary across population subgroups, studying homogenous samples will lead to more effective and targeted interventions. PMID:19457554

  3. Anthropology in a postcolonial colony: Helen I. Safa's contribution to Puerto Rican ethnography.

    PubMed

    Duany, Jorge

    2010-01-01

    This article assesses Helen I. Safa's legacy to anthropological thought in Puerto Rico. The first part of the article locates Safa's research on the Island within a long tradition of fieldwork by U.S. scholars since the early twentieth century. More recent research, conducted mostly by Puerto Rican women anthropologists and other social scientists, has expanded upon Safa's insights on gender and work. The second part of the essay analyzes Safa's major empirical work, The Urban Poor of Puerto Rico: A Study in Development and Inequality. Above all, this book helped overcome the theoretical impasse over the culture of poverty that characterized much of urban anthropology during the 1960s and 1970s. The article concludes with an appraisal of the relevance of Safa's work for the ethnography of contemporary Puerto Rico. PMID:22073441

  4. Stress and the Social Determinants of Maternal Health among Puerto Rican Women: A CBPR Approach

    PubMed Central

    Bermúdez-Millán, Angela; Damio, Grace; Cruz, Joan; D’Angelo, Karen; Segura-Pérez, Sofia; Hromi-Fiedler, Amber; Pérez-Escamilla, Rafael

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative research project explores how poverty, the built environment, education, working conditions, health care access, food insecurity and perceived discrimination are experienced by Puerto Rican Latinas through the course of their lives. Five focus groups were conducted with the primary objective of documenting community experiences and perspectives regarding: 1) stress, including perceived discrimination based on race/ethnicity (racism); 2) the impact of stress on Puerto Rican women of reproductive age, their families, and/or their community; and 3) stressors that affect maternal health. Focus groups were conducted in English and Spanish in the two cities with the highest rates of premature birth and low infant birthweight in the state of Connecticut. Focus group findings indicate that participants perceived poverty, food insecurity, lack of access to quality education, and unsafe environments as significant life stressors affecting maternal and child health. PMID:22080712

  5. Home asthma triggers: barriers to asthma control in Chicago Puerto Rican children.

    PubMed

    Martin, Molly A; Thomas, Ann Marie; Mosnaim, Giselle; Greve, Matthew; Swider, Susan M; Rothschild, Steven K

    2013-05-01

    We sought objectively to measure, summarize, and contextualize the asthma triggers found in the homes of urban high-risk Puerto Rican children and adolescents with asthma in Chicago. Data were from the baseline home assessments of Project CURA. Research assistants interviewed caregivers, conducted a home visual inspection, and collected saliva samples for cotinine analysis. A trigger behavior summary score was created. The housing inspected was old with multiple units and obvious structural deficiencies. Many allergic and irritant triggers were observed. Having a controller medicine or private insurance was associated with lower trigger behavior summary scores; caregiver depression, caregiver perceived stress, and child negative life events were associated with high trigger scores. The final multivariate model retained had a controller medicine, private insurance, and caregiver perceived stress. The data from this high-risk cohort identified modifiable areas where environmental interventions could reduce morbidity in Puerto Rican children and adolescents. PMID:23728047

  6. Surveys of Puerto Rican screech-owl populations in large-tract and fragmented forest habitats

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pardieck, K.L.; Meyers, J.M.; Pagan, M.

    1996-01-01

    We conducted road surveys of Puerto Rican Screech-Owls (Otus nudipes) by playing conspecific vocalizations in secondary wet forest and fragmented secondary moist forest in rural areas of eastern Puerto Rico. Six paired surveys were conducted bi-weekly beginning in April. We recorded number of owl responses, cloud cover, wind speed, moon phase, and number of passing cars during 5-min stops at 60 locations. Owls responded in similar numbers (P > 0.05) in both habitat types. Also, we detected no association with cloud cover, wind speed, moon phase, or passing cars.

  7. My Cousin Talks Bad like You: Relationships between Language and Identity in a Rural Puerto Rican Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazak, Catherine M.

    2012-01-01

    This ethnographic case study uses participant observation and interviewing to explore the multiple, complex relationships between language and identities in a particular Puerto Rican community. Participants included students and teachers from a K-9 school-turned-community center in a rural municipality in Puerto Rico. Participants did not think…

  8. Pintando Tambien se Aprende. Aspectos de la Cultura Puertorriquena (One Can Also Learn From Coloring. Aspects of Puerto Rican Culture).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cadilla de Ruibal, Carmen Alicia

    This workbook-style text is intended to introduce the Puerto Rican child and Spanish speaking children generally to the history, geography, customs and traditions of Puerto Rico. The introduction in the form of a teacher's guide provides objectives, suggested procedures, and additional activities. The student portion of the text is divided into…

  9. "Que Assimilated, Brother, Yo Soy Asimilao": The Structuring of Puerto Rican Identity in the U.S.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flores, Juan

    1985-01-01

    Discusses the cultural identity and experiences of Puerto Ricans residing in New York City. Explores, through excerpts of poetry by "Nuyoricans," the themes of assimilation, attachment to the island of Puerto Rico, relations with Black and White New Yorkers, and bilingualism. (GC)

  10. Marine geodetic control for geoidal profile mapping across the Puerto Rican Trench

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fubara, D. M.; Mourad, A. G.

    1975-01-01

    A marine geodetic control was established for the northern end of the geoidal profile mapping experiment across the Puerto Rican Trench by determining the three-dimensional geodetic coordinates of the four ocean-bottom mounted acoustic transponders. The data reduction techniques employed and analytical processes involved are described. Before applying the analytical techniques to the field data, they were tested with simulated data and proven to be effective in theory as well as in practice.

  11. Knowledge and Use of Ethnomedical Treatments for Asthma Among Puerto Ricans in an Urban Community

    PubMed Central

    Zayas, Luis E.; Wisniewski, Angela M.; Cadzow, Renee B.; Tumiel-Berhalter, Laurene M.

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE Puerto Ricans have higher lifetime and current asthma prevalence than other racial and ethnic groups in the United States. A great many Hispanics use ethnomedical therapies for asthma. This study elicited participant knowledge of ethnomedical therapies, developed a typology of the therapies, and considered whether some types are used or deemed efficacious based, in part, on information source. METHODS Eligible participants were randomly selected from the medical records of an inner-city primary care clinic serving a predominantly Hispanic community in Buffalo, New York. Thirty adult Puerto Ricans who had asthma or were care-givers of children with asthma were interviewed in person using a semistructured instrument. Qualitative data analysis followed a content-driven immersion-crystallization approach. Outcome measures were ethnomedical treatments for asthma known to participants, whether these treatments were used or perceived effective, and the participant’s information source about the treatment. RESULTS Participants identified 75 ethnomedical treatments for asthma. Behavioral strategies were significantly more likely to be used or perceived effective compared with ingested and topical remedies (P <.001). Among information sources for ingested and topical remedies, those recommended by community members were significantly less likely to be used or perceived effective (P <.001) compared with other sources. CONCLUSIONS This sample of Puerto Ricans with a regular source of medical care was significantly more likely to use or perceive as effective behavioral strategies compared with ingested and topical remedies. Allopathic clinicians should ask Puerto Rican patients about their use of ethnomedical therapies for asthma to better understand their health beliefs and to integrate ethnomedical therapies with allopathic medicine. PMID:21242561

  12. Importance of Vitamin D and Vitamin D levels Status in Puerto Ricans

    PubMed Central

    Suárez- Martínez, Edu B.; Pérez, Cynthia M.; Cruz, Sofia K.; Khorsandi, Shayan; Chardón, Camile; Ferder, Leon

    2014-01-01

    There is growing and compelling evidence demonstrating the extra-skeletal role of vitamin D and the importance of maintaining adequate levels of this nutrient. Currently, there is very limited information available on the vitamin D status in children and adults in underserved groups, including Puerto Ricans. We assessed the vitamin D status of 4,090 Puerto Ricans living in six geographical regions in the island. Only 31.5% of the studied population had sufficient vitamin D levels (>30 ng/ml). The 18–39 year age group and the females showed inadequate (<30 ng/ml) levels of vitamin D (76.9% and 69.8%, respectively). Participants aged 60 or older showed the highest mean values of serum 25(OH)D (28.8 ng/ ml) and the highest percentage (37.1%) of suffi cient levels (>30 ng/ml). Future studies are certainly warranted to understand the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and influencing factors (including obesity) in Puerto Ricans. PMID:24241259

  13. Elevated asthma morbidity in Puerto Rican children: a review of possible risk and prognostic factors.

    PubMed Central

    Lara, M; Morgenstern, H; Duan, N; Brook, R H

    1999-01-01

    Latino children represent a significant proportion of all US children, and asthma is the most common chronic illness affecting them. Previous research has revealed surprising differences in health among Latino children with asthma of varying countries of family origin. For instance, Puerto Rican children have a higher prevalence of asthma than Mexican American or Cuban American children. In addition, there are important differences in family structure and socioeconomic status among these Latino populations: Cuban Americans have higher levels of education and family income than Mexican-Americans and Puerto Ricans; mainland Puerto Rican children have the highest proportion of households led by a single mother. Our review of past research documents differences in asthma outcomes among Latino children and identifies the possible genetic, environmental, and health care factors associated with these differences. Based on this review, we propose research studies designed to differentiate between mutable and immutable risk and prognostic factors. We also propose that the sociocultural milieus of Latino subgroups of different ethnic and geographic origin are associated with varying patterns of risk factors that in turn lead to different morbidity patterns. Our analysis provides a blue-print for future research, policy development, and the evaluation of multifactorial interventions involving the collaboration of multiple social sectors, such as health care, public health, education, and public and private agencies. PMID:10063393

  14. Longitudinal precursors of young adult light smoking among African Americans and Puerto Ricans

    PubMed Central

    Fagan, Pebbles; Rubenstone, Elizabeth; Zhang, Chenshu; Brook, David W.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Studies have consistently documented the importance of examining light smoking among African American and Latino adolescent and adult smokers. Little is known, however, about the psychosocial antecedents of adolescent and young adult light smoking in these racial/ethnic minority groups. Methods: This study examined the longitudinal interrelationships and pathways leading to light smoking among African Americans (n = 288) and Puerto Ricans (n = 262). Specifically, we assessed parental factors, perceived discrimination, peer smoking, personality factors, and light smoking in late adolescence as precursors to light smoking among African American and Puerto Rican young adults. Results: The results of structural equation modeling showed that a history of greater parental smoking, less parental educational attainment, and more perceived discrimination were each mediated by peer smoking and the youth's maladaptive personality and behavior in late adolescence. The youth's maladaptive personality and behavioral characteristics and light smoking in late adolescence, in turn, predicted light smoking in young adulthood. There were no significant racial/ethnic or gender differences in the pathways to light smoking. Discussion: Findings highlight the longitudinal pathways to light smoking among African Americans and Puerto Ricans. The results suggest that effective prevention and cessation programs must address peer and parental social influences, perceived discrimination, and especially, emotional and behavioral problems in late adolescence to reduce light smoking among late adolescents and young adults in these racial/ethnic groups. PMID:19251769

  15. Application of DNA fingerprinting to the recovery program of the endangered Puerto Rican parrot

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brock, M.K.; White, B.N.

    1992-01-01

    The Puerto Rican parrot was reduced to 13 animals in 1975 and as a conservation measure, a captive population was established from a few founders taken from the wild between 1973 and 1983. The number of successful breeding pairs in captivity has been !ow, and the captive breeding program has not been as productive as that of the closely related Hispaniolan parrot. Therefore, a genetic study was initiated to examine the relative levels of relatedness of the captive founders using levels of bandsharing in DNA fingerprints. Unrelated captive founder Puerto Rican parrots had the same average level of bandsharing (0.41) as second-degree relatives of the Hispaniolan parrot (0.38, P > 0,05), with an inbreeding coefficient of 0.04. High levels of bandsharing (>40%) between pairs of males and females correlated with reproductive failure, suggesting that inbreeding depression is partly responsible for the !ow number of' breeding pairs. Consequently, DNA profiling can be used to guide the captive breeding program for the Puerto Rican parrot, and other endangered species, by identifying pairs of males and females with low levels of bandsharing.

  16. Asi Son los Puertorriquenos (These Are the Puerto Ricans).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Joan K.

    "Asi Son los Puertorriquenos" immerses the student of Spanish in the language and culture of Puerto Rico. The program is designed to simultaneously improve language skills and develop understanding and appreciation of the culture. The reading selections are challenging for the intermediate level, and provide valuable insight into many aspects of…

  17. Puerto Rican Children's Informal Education at Home. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacob, Evelyn

    Observations of children's daily activities and interviews with the children's caretakers provided information on preschool children's informal home education in Utuado, Puerto Rico. Three kinds of skills were examined: literacy, chores, and rule-bound games. The unit of analysis was the "Potential Learning Activity" (PLA), a behavior/sequence of…

  18. Puerto Rican Vocational Students' Experiences Regarding Standardized Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segui, Nomara I.

    2016-01-01

    Vocational high school students are not passing state tests and are not meeting adequate yearly progress (AYP) requirements in Puerto Rico. Limited qualitative research has been conducted to examine the experiences of vocational high school students regarding mandated standardized tests. Using a qualitative case study, the experiences of Puerto…

  19. The "Puerto Rican Exception": Persistent Poverty and the Conservative Social Policy of Linda Chavez. IPR Policy Forums Proceedings (New York, New York, November 6, 1991).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falcon, Angelo, Ed.; Santiago, John, Ed.

    A policy forum featured a presentation by Linda Chavez on the public policy needs of the Puerto Rican community. The forum also included a panel of experts from the Puerto Rican community to provide critical feedback on Chavez's presentation. Chavez argued that Hispanic Americans can move into the mainstream of United States society, and that…

  20. A Profile of Puerto Rican Health in the United States: Data from the Hispanic Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1982-84.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munoz, Eric; And Others

    The health conditions and health status of Hispanic Americans will assume increased importance as their population increases. The goal of this book of charts is to present data from the Hispanic Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (HHANES) on Puerto Ricans. The Puerto Rican HHANES sampling procedure is a multi-stage probability sample of…

  1. The Effects of Child-Centered Group Play Sessions on Social-Emotional Growth of Four- and Five-Year-Old Bilingual Puerto Rican Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trostle, Susan Louise

    This study was designed to investigate the effects of child-centered group play sessions (using the play therapy interaction approach) and sex differences on self-control, free play, and sociometric ratings in young bilingual Puerto Rican children. The participants in the study were 48 bilingual Puerto Rican four- and five-year-old children from…

  2. Puerto Rican Bilingual Professionals Parents: Their Expectations, Motivations, and Practices in Support of Their Children's Education and Their Perceptions of Their Children's School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinones, Norma Victoria Cordova Escalera de

    2010-01-01

    This research was designed as a qualitative study as it sought to address Puerto Rican bilingual professional parents' perceptions of their children's school experiences based in North Carolina. In this study, 6 Puerto Rican bilingual professional parents who live in the North Carolina Research Triangle Park (RTP) area were interviewed about their…

  3. Intersections between nativity, ethnic density, and neighborhood SES: using an ethnic enclave framework to explore variation in Puerto Ricans' physical health.

    PubMed

    Roy, Amanda Leigh; Hughes, Diane; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu

    2013-06-01

    Although past research has demonstrated a "health disadvantage" for Puerto Rican adults, very little is known about correlates of health among this group. Given Puerto Ricans' unique experiences of migration and settlement, an ethnic enclave framework that integrates nativity, ethnic density, and neighborhood SES may offer insight into factors influencing Puerto Ricans' health. This study uses a sample of 449 adult mainland- and island-born Puerto Ricans living in New York City and Chicago. The data, collected as a part of the MIDUS Survey of Minority Groups, are stratified by neighborhood ethnic density and neighborhood SES, allowing for the examination of the individual and joint influences of neighborhood characteristics on physical health. Results revealed that ethnic density and neighborhood SES were not independently or interactively related to physical health for mainland-born Puerto Ricans. However, the interaction between ethnic density and neighborhood SES was related to self-reported health, functional limitations, and health symptoms for island-born Puerto Ricans. Island-born Puerto Ricans living in ethnically dense, low SES neighborhoods reported worse health than island-born Puerto Ricans living in other types of neighborhoods. This may be a result of isolation from resources both within and outside the neighborhood. PMID:23314837

  4. Differences in Learning Styles of Dominican and Puerto Rican Students: We Are Latinos from the Caribbean; Our First Language Is Spanish, However; Our Learning Preferences Are Different

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maldonado-Torres, Sonia E.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between Dominican and Puerto Rican students' learning style. Findings of the study demonstrated differences between the learning preferences of Dominican and Puerto Rican students in the elements of Motivation (t = 2.846, p = 0.005), Several Ways of Learning (t = 2.351, p = 0.020), and…

  5. Association of child maltreatment and depressive symptoms among Puerto Rican youth.

    PubMed

    Jaschek, Graciela; Carter-Pokras, Olivia; He, Xin; Lee, Sunmin; Canino, Glorisa

    2016-08-01

    This article compares multiple types of child maltreatment among Puerto Rican youth. We seek to expand the limited knowledge of the effects of multiple types of maltreatment on depressive symptoms in a specific Latino population as emerging studies indicate that children who are exposed to one type of maltreatment are often exposed to other types. This study examines the predictive strength of different and multiple types of lifetime child maltreatment (i.e., physical, sexual, and emotional abuse; and neglect), and the effect of youth support from parents, youth coping, youth self-esteem, and place of residence on depressive symptoms among Puerto Rican youth. Secondary data analyses were performed using three annual waves (2000-2004) of data from the Boricua Youth Study. The analytic sample consists of 1041 10-13 year old Puerto Rican youth living in New York and Puerto Rico. Results indicate that: (1) youth who experienced 'sexual abuse only', 'multiple maltreatment' (2 or more types of maltreatment), 'physical abuse only' have a significant increase in depressive symptoms (75.1%, 61.6%, and 40.5% respectively) compared to those without maltreatment; and (2) place of residence, exposure to violence, and mental disorders were significant risk factors. When developing psychosocial interventions, professionals should particularly focus on youth who report past lifetime experience with child maltreatment. Particular attention should be given to children living in the Bronx, New York and similar urban low-income areas who report past lifetime experience with multiple types of child maltreatment and who present symptoms or a diagnosis of co-occurring mental health problems. PMID:27344268

  6. Addressing the HIV/AIDS epidemic among Puerto Rican people who inject drugs: the need for a multiregion approach.

    PubMed

    Deren, Sherry; Gelpí-Acosta, Camila; Albizu-García, Carmen E; González, Ángel; Des Jarlais, Don C; Santiago-Negrón, Salvador

    2014-11-01

    High levels of HIV risk behaviors and prevalence have been reported among Puerto Rican people who inject drugs (PRPWID) since early in the HIV epidemic. Advances in HIV prevention and treatment have reduced HIV among people who inject drugs (PWID) in the United States. We examined HIV-related data for PRPWID in Puerto Rico and the US Northeast to assess whether disparities continue. Injection drug use as a risk for HIV is still overrepresented among Puerto Ricans. Lower availability of syringe exchanges, drug abuse treatment, and antiretroviral treatment for PWID in Puerto Rico contribute to higher HIV risk and incidence. These disparities should be addressed by the development of a federally supported Northeast-Puerto Rico collaboration to facilitate and coordinate efforts throughout both regions. PMID:25211722

  7. Addressing the HIV/AIDS Epidemic Among Puerto Rican People Who Inject Drugs: The Need for a Multiregion Approach

    PubMed Central

    Deren, Sherry; Gelpí-Acosta, Camila; Albizu-García, Carmen E.; González, Ángel; Des Jarlais, Don C.; Santiago-Negrón, Salvador

    2014-01-01

    High levels of HIV risk behaviors and prevalence have been reported among Puerto Rican people who inject drugs (PRPWID) since early in the HIV epidemic. Advances in HIV prevention and treatment have reduced HIV among people who inject drugs (PWID) in the United States. We examined HIV-related data for PRPWID in Puerto Rico and the US Northeast to assess whether disparities continue. Injection drug use as a risk for HIV is still overrepresented among Puerto Ricans. Lower availability of syringe exchanges, drug abuse treatment, and antiretroviral treatment for PWID in Puerto Rico contribute to higher HIV risk and incidence. These disparities should be addressed by the development of a federally supported Northeast–Puerto Rico collaboration to facilitate and coordinate efforts throughout both regions. PMID:25211722

  8. Contextual Risk and Promotive Processes in Puerto Rican Youths’ Internalizing Trajectories in Puerto Rico and New York

    PubMed Central

    Ramos Olazagasti, María A.; Shrout, Patrick E.; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu; Canino, Glorisa J.; Bird, Héctor R.

    2012-01-01

    Research on ethnic-minority youths’ mental health has rarely examined developmental trajectories for the same ethnic group in contexts where they are a minority vs. where they are the majority, or mechanisms accounting for differences in trajectories across such contexts. This study examines Puerto Rican youth residing in two contexts -- one in which they are in their home culture of Puerto Rico, and one in which they are a minority group, in New York. We explore the relationship between social context, minority status, risk, resilience, and trajectories of internalizing symptoms after adjusting for factors related to migration. We found that youths’ reports of internalizing symptoms declined over time. Youth in New York had higher levels of internalizing symptoms than youth in Puerto Rico, but similar trajectories. Differences in internalizing symptoms across the two social contexts were accounted for by experiences of discrimination and exposure to violence. Parental monitoring was associated with fewer internalizing symptoms across the two sites, although this effect diminished over time. Contrary to what was expected, family religiosity was associated with higher levels of internalizing symptoms. This association was stronger in the New York than in the Puerto Rico site. PMID:23880390

  9. Contextual risk and promotive processes in Puerto Rican youths' internalizing trajectories in Puerto Rico and New York.

    PubMed

    Ramos-Olazagasti, María A; Shrout, Patrick E; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu; Canino, Glorisa J; Bird, Héctor R

    2013-08-01

    Research on ethnic-minority youths' mental health has rarely examined developmental trajectories for the same ethnic group in contexts where they are a minority versus where they are the majority or mechanisms accounting for differences in trajectories across such contexts. This study examines Puerto Rican youth residing in two contexts, one in which they are in their home culture of Puerto Rico and one in which they are a minority group, in New York. We explore the relationship among social context, minority status, risk, resilience, and trajectories of internalizing symptoms after adjusting for factors related to migration. We found that youths' reports of internalizing symptoms declined over time. Youths in New York had higher levels of internalizing symptoms than did youths in Puerto Rico, but they had similar trajectories. Differences in internalizing symptoms across the two social contexts were accounted for by experiences of discrimination and exposure to violence. Parental monitoring was associated with fewer internalizing symptoms across the two sites, although this effect diminished over time. Contrary to what was expected, family religiosity was associated with higher levels of internalizing symptoms. This association was stronger in New York than in the Puerto Rico site. PMID:23880390

  10. Predicting Heroin and Alcohol Usage Among Young Puerto Ricans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nuttall, Ronald L.; Nuttall, Ena Vazquez

    Using 1968 data collected from junior and senior high school students in Bayamon, Puerto Rico, substance usage patterns for heroin and alcohol were predicted for 1975-6. A sample of 1,000 of the initial 5,000 students were selected for re-interview; half were selected to be at high risk of substance abuse and half were selected randomly. Some 657…

  11. Exploring the role of ethnic identity on the attitudes towards HPV vaccine advertising among Puerto Ricans: A qualitative analysis

    PubMed Central

    Calo, William A.; Fernández, Maria E.; Fernández-Espada, Natalie; Colón-López, Vivian

    2013-01-01

    Despite the existence of guidelines recommending vaccination against the human papillomavirus (HPV) and widespread availability of the vaccine through the Vaccines for Children program, HPV vaccination rates among island Puerto Ricans are suboptimal. Advertising plays a central role in promoting HPV vaccination by increasing awareness of and knowledge about the vaccine; however, little is known about the influence of cultural factors on the impact of HPV messages delivered through the media. The aim of this qualitative study was to explore the role of ethnic identity on the attitudes towards HPV vaccine advertising among island Puerto Ricans. Five focus groups (n=23) were conducted with parents and non-vaccinated females. Our analysis found several themes that may influence attitudes towards HPV vaccine advertising among this population: physical ethnic similarity, relevance of information, and sociocultural congruence. Findings may assist in developing culturally appropriate health promotion programs and media to promote HPV vaccination among Puerto Ricans. PMID:24052477

  12. Migration, social support and perinatal health: an origin-destination analysis of Puerto Rican women.

    PubMed

    Landale, N S; Oropesa, R S

    2001-06-01

    Using pooled origin-destination data from the Puerto Rican Maternal and Infant Health Study, we investigate linkages between migration, social support, and perinatal health. We document differences in social support between three groups of Puerto Rican women: non-migrant women in Puerto Rico, first-generation migrants to the U.S. mainland, and mainland-born women. The role of social support in producing differences in perinatal health outcomes between the groups is assessed. The analysis shows striking differences in social support between island and mainland women, but little systematic variation among mainland women by generation of U.S. residence. The lower level of social support available to mainland women is not reflected in the health outcomes examined, which do not generally worsen with migration to the United States (with the exception of maternal smoking). Nonetheless, we show that social support has important implications for stress, which in turn increases the risk of poor health behavior and compromised infant health. PMID:11467251

  13. Development of a treatment protocol for Puerto Rican adolescents with suicidal behaviors.

    PubMed

    Duarté-Vélez, Yovanska; Torres-Dávila, Paloma; Spirito, Anthony; Polanco, Norka; Bernal, Guillermo

    2016-03-01

    Adolescents in Puerto Rico are at an increased risk for suicide attempts, though evidence-based treatments specifically for this group have not been tested. The current study was designed to develop and pilot test a culturally sensitive, manualized outpatient treatment for Puerto Rican adolescents who have experienced a suicidal crisis. The study was divided into phases. Phase 1 consisted of developing a socio-cognitive behavioral treatment for suicidal behavior. Phase 2 tested the treatment protocol in an open trial with 11 (6 male and 5 female) Puerto Rican adolescents. Active treatment had an approximate duration of 3-6 months. An initial assessment, process measures, and posttreatment assessment were completed with each participant to measure treatment feasibility as well as suicidality, symptoms, and risk factors. Participants were very satisfied with treatment and reported relevant clinical benefits. The retention rate was 73% (8 out of 11). For those who completed the treatment protocol, the goal of reducing further suicide risk was achieved; 2 showed reliable clinical changes in suicidal ideation, while 6 maintained low levels during treatment. All treatment completers had either a partial or total remission of their pretreatment diagnosis and half had reliable improvements in at least 1 risk factor. A theory-driven treatment protocol was developed according to patient's needs, but further research is needed to continue its development and to explore its efficacy. PMID:26928136

  14. Acculturation and Adverse Birth Outcomes in a Predominantly Puerto Rican Population

    PubMed Central

    de Mendoza, Veronica Barcelona; Harville, Emily; Theall, Katherine; Buekens, Pierre; Chasan-Taber, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Latinas in the United States on average have poorer birth outcomes than Whites, yet considerable heterogeneity exists within Latinas. Puerto Ricans have some of the highest rates of adverse outcomes and are understudied. The goal of this study was to determine if acculturation was associated with adverse birth outcomes in a predominantly Puerto Rican population. Methods We conducted a secondary analysis of Proyecto Buena Salud, a prospective cohort study conducted from 2006 to 2011. A convenience sample of pregnant Latina women were recruited from a tertiary care hospital in Massachusetts. Acculturation was measured in early pregnancy; directly via the Psychological Acculturation Scale, and via proxies of language preference and generation in the United States. Birth outcomes (gestational age and birthweight) were abstracted from medical records (n = 1362). Results After adjustment, psychological acculturation, language preference, and generation was not associated with odds of preterm birth. However, every unit increase in psychological acculturation score was associated with an increase in gestational age of 0.22 weeks (SE = 0.1, p = 0.04) among all births. Women who preferred to speak Spanish (β = −0.39, SE = 0.2, p = 0.02) and who were first generation in the US (β = −0.33, SE = 0.1, p = 0.02) had significantly lower gestational ages than women who preferred English or who were later generation, respectively. Similarly, women who were first generation had babies who weighed 76.11 g less (SE = 35.2, p = 0.03) than women who were later generation. Discussion We observed a small, but statistically significant adverse impact of low acculturation on gestational age and birthweight in this predominantly Puerto Rican population. PMID:26694041

  15. Infant mortality, season of birth and the health of older Puerto Rican adults.

    PubMed

    McEniry, Mary

    2011-03-01

    The increasing prevalence of heart disease and diabetes among aging populations in low and middle income countries leads to questions regarding the degree to which endogenous early life exposures (exposures in utero) are important determinants of these health conditions. We devised a test using infant mortality (IMR) to verify if season of birth is a good indicator of early life (in utero) conditions that precipitate adult onset of disease. We linked annual IMR at the municipality (municipio) level from the late 1920s to early 1940s with individual birth year and place using a representative sample of older Puerto Rican adults (n = 1447) from the Puerto Rican Elderly: Health Conditions (PREHCO) study. We estimated the effects of season of birth on adult heart disease and diabetes for all respondents and then for respondents according to whether they were born when IMR was lower or higher, controlling for age, gender, obesity, respondent's educational level, adult behavior (smoking and exercise) and other early life exposures (childhood health, knee height and childhood socioeconomic status (SES)). The pattern of effects suggests that season of birth reflects endogenous causes: (1) odds of heart disease and diabetes were strong and significant for those born during the lean season in years when IMR was lower; (2) effects remained consistent even after controlling for other childhood conditions and adult behavior; but (3) no seasonality effects on adult health for adults born when IMR was higher. We conclude that in this population of older Puerto Rican adults there is continued support that the timing of adverse endogenous (in utero) conditions such as poor nutrition and infectious diseases is associated with adult heart disease and diabetes. It will be important to test the validity of these findings in other similar populations in the developing world. PMID:20980087

  16. Acculturation and Adverse Birth Outcomes in a Predominantly Puerto Rican Population.

    PubMed

    Barcelona de Mendoza, Veronica; Harville, Emily; Theall, Katherine; Buekens, Pierre; Chasan-Taber, Lisa

    2016-06-01

    Introduction Latinas in the United States on average have poorer birth outcomes than Whites, yet considerable heterogeneity exists within Latinas. Puerto Ricans have some of the highest rates of adverse outcomes and are understudied. The goal of this study was to determine if acculturation was associated with adverse birth outcomes in a predominantly Puerto Rican population. Methods We conducted a secondary analysis of Proyecto Buena Salud, a prospective cohort study conducted from 2006 to 2011. A convenience sample of pregnant Latina women were recruited from a tertiary care hospital in Massachusetts. Acculturation was measured in early pregnancy; directly via the Psychological Acculturation Scale, and via proxies of language preference and generation in the United States. Birth outcomes (gestational age and birthweight) were abstracted from medical records (n = 1362). Results After adjustment, psychological acculturation, language preference, and generation was not associated with odds of preterm birth. However, every unit increase in psychological acculturation score was associated with an increase in gestational age of 0.22 weeks (SE = 0.1, p = 0.04) among all births. Women who preferred to speak Spanish (β = -0.39, SE = 0.2, p = 0.02) and who were first generation in the US (β = -0.33, SE = 0.1, p = 0.02) had significantly lower gestational ages than women who preferred English or who were later generation, respectively. Similarly, women who were first generation had babies who weighed 76.11 g less (SE = 35.2, p = 0.03) than women who were later generation. Discussion We observed a small, but statistically significant adverse impact of low acculturation on gestational age and birthweight in this predominantly Puerto Rican population. PMID:26694041

  17. Social and economic factors associated with recent and lifetime incarceration among Puerto Rican drug users.

    PubMed

    de Saxe Zerden, Lisa; Lundgren, Lena M; Chassler, Deborah; Horowitz, Amanda C; Adorno, Elpidio; Purington, Timothy

    2013-01-01

    Using a sample of 280 Puerto Rican drug users with a history of incarceration residing in Massachusetts, we explore whether a significant association exists between social and economic factors (maintaining social network contacts, receiving public assistance) and lifetime incarceration. Analysis of survey data using regression methods shows that respondents who live in their own home, receive public assistance, and have recent familial contact are significantly less likely to have been incarcerated in the past 6 months. Among study participants, men and those who initiated heroin use at younger ages are more likely to have greater lifetime incarceration totals. Practice implications are discussed. PMID:23768433

  18. Granular cell tumor in an endangered Puerto Rican Amazon parrot (Amazon vittata)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Quist, C.F.; Latimer, K.S.; Goldade, S.L.; Rivera, A.; Dein, F.J.

    1999-01-01

    A 3 cm diameter mass from the metacarpus of a Puerto Rican Amazon parrot was diagnosed as a granular cell tumour based on light microscopy. The cytoplasmic granules were periodic-acid Schiff positive and diastase resistant. Ultrastructural characteristics of the cells included convoluted nuclei and the presence of numerous cytoplasmic tertiary lysosomes. This is only the second granular cell tumour reported in a bird. We speculate that most granular cell tumours are derived from cells that are engaged in some type of cellular degradative process, creating a similar morphologic appearance, but lacking a uniform histogenesis.

  19. Trajectories of Delinquency among Puerto Rican Children and Adolescents at Two Sites

    PubMed Central

    Maldonado-Molina, Mildred M.; Piquero, Alex R.; Jennings, Wesley G.; Bird, Hector; Canino, Glorisa

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the trajectories of delinquency among Puerto Rican children and adolescents in two cultural contexts. Relying on data from the Boricua Youth Study, a longitudinal study of children and youth from Bronx, New York, and San Juan, Puerto Rico, a group-based trajectory procedure estimated the number of delinquency trajectories, whether trajectories differed across contexts, and the relation of risk and protective factors to each. Five trajectories fit the Bronx sample, and four fit the San Juan sample. Differences and similarities were observed. The Bronx sample had a higher rate of delinquency and sensation seeking and violence exposure strongly discriminated offender trajectories. In San Juan, the results were substantively the same. Thus, while the youth lived in different contexts, and the nature and level of delinquency varied across the sites, the effects of most risk factors were more similar than different. PMID:24078746

  20. Trajectories of Delinquency among Puerto Rican Children and Adolescents at Two Sites.

    PubMed

    Maldonado-Molina, Mildred M; Piquero, Alex R; Jennings, Wesley G; Bird, Hector; Canino, Glorisa

    2009-05-01

    This study examined the trajectories of delinquency among Puerto Rican children and adolescents in two cultural contexts. Relying on data from the Boricua Youth Study, a longitudinal study of children and youth from Bronx, New York, and San Juan, Puerto Rico, a group-based trajectory procedure estimated the number of delinquency trajectories, whether trajectories differed across contexts, and the relation of risk and protective factors to each. Five trajectories fit the Bronx sample, and four fit the San Juan sample. Differences and similarities were observed. The Bronx sample had a higher rate of delinquency and sensation seeking and violence exposure strongly discriminated offender trajectories. In San Juan, the results were substantively the same. Thus, while the youth lived in different contexts, and the nature and level of delinquency varied across the sites, the effects of most risk factors were more similar than different. PMID:24078746

  1. Puerto Rican drug users experiences of physical and sexual abuse: comparisons based on sexual identities.

    PubMed

    Finlinson, H Ann; Robles, Rafaela R; Cólón, Héctor M; Soto López, Mayra; del Carmen Negrón, María; Oliver-Vélez, Denise; Deren, Sherry; Andía, Jonny F; Cant, John G H

    2003-08-01

    This study integrates the results of quantitative and qualitative methods to elucidate the association between sexual identity and physical and sexual abuse among Puerto Rican drug users. A structured questionnaire was administered to 800 subjects in New York and 399 in Puerto Rico. A total of 93 subjects (7.9%) self-identified as homosexual or bisexual. Gay males were significantly more likely than heterosexual males to report first occurrence of physical abuse by a family member in childhood. Both gay and bisexual males were more likely than their heterosexual counterparts to report first experiencing unwanted sex in childhood and intimate partner physical abuse later in life. Lesbians were more likely than female heterosexuals to report unwanted sex in childhood. Qualitative data were collected through in-depth life histories with 21 subjects and suggest that gay and lesbian subjects perceive antihomosexual prejudice on the part of family members as one cause of childhood physical and sexual abuse. PMID:14533022

  2. Subverting culture: promoting HIV/AIDS prevention among Puerto Rican and Dominican women.

    PubMed

    Ortiz-Torres, B; Serrano-García, I; Torres-Burgos, N

    2000-12-01

    This article discusses the challenges faced by researchers and interventionists when attempting to promote change in social norms and normative beliefs that promote HIV/AIDS risk-related behaviors among Puerto Rican and Dominican women. The article focuses on the role of culture in HIV/AIDS prevention with women by analyzing the sociohistorical context of some cultural beliefs and by illustrating the tension between risk-related and protective cultural beliefs in research conducted by the authors with women in both New York and Puerto Rico. The authors propose that promoting changes in sex-related social norms and normative beliefs might be constructed as a subversive act and present the challenge this analysis poses for community psychology. They conclude that this conceptualization might be construed as subversive because rather than idealizing culture, it promotes changes that respect diversity within the culture and foster participation in the development of new cultural values, beliefs and norms. PMID:11109482

  3. Brown skin disease: A syndrome of dysecdysis in Puerto Rican crested toads (Peltophryne lemur).

    PubMed

    Crawshaw, Graham; Pienkowski, Maria; Lentini, Andrew; Dutton, Christopher; Delnatte, Pauline; Russell, Deanna; Berkvens, Charlene; Barker, Ian; Smith, Dale

    2014-01-01

    The endangered Puerto Rican crested toad (Peltophryne [Bufo] lemur) has been held and bred in zoos for release into protected areas in Puerto Rico since 1982. In 2004, several cases of a novel syndrome of skin changes in toads were noticed at the Toronto Zoo. A total of 21 toads were found to have similar lesions and the condition has been seen in several other groups of toads in subsequent years. Affected toads show an uncharacteristic sheen of dark-brown leathery skin, followed by recurring dysecdysis, reduced appetite, weight loss, and death from secondary causes. Histologically the condition is characterized by epithelial hyperplasia and hyperkeratosis, ulceration, and the presence of superficial mats of bacterial and fungal agents. No etiology has been identified and to date toads have not permanently responded to treatment with various pharmaceutical and nutritional therapies. PMID:25234808

  4. Dissociation as a mediator of posttraumatic symptoms in a Puerto Rican university sample.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez Wang, Lisa; Cosden, Merith; Bernal, Guillermo

    2011-01-01

    The present study examined the role of dissociation as a mediator in the relationship between self-reported childhood abusive experiences and adult posttraumatic symptomatology in a nonclinical, Spanish-speaking Latino sample. Participants were 208 (144 female, 64 male) students at the University of Puerto Rico. It was hypothesized that dissociation would mediate the relationship between childhood abusive experiences and adult posttraumatic symptomatology. Dissociation was measured using the Dissociative Experiences Scale, and posttraumatic distress was measured using 9 of the 10 clinical scales of the Trauma Symptom Inventory (TSI). Results indicated that dissociation fully mediated the relationship between childhood abusive experiences and the Anxious Arousal and Dysfunctional Sexual Behavior scales of the TSI. Dissociation also partially mediated the relationship between childhood exposure and the other TSI clinical scales used in the analyses. Implications for clinicians working with Puerto Rican survivors of childhood abuse are discussed. PMID:21667379

  5. [Anthropometric and physiologic profile of Puerto Rican athletes: female softball].

    PubMed

    Rivera, M A; Ramírez-Marrero, F A; Rivas, C A; Rivera-Brown, A M

    1994-12-01

    This study was conducted to describe and compare various anthropometric, body composition, cardiorespiratory, metabolic and neuromuscular characteristics of 12 female athletes, members of the Puerto Rico national softball team. The subjects were divided into three categories according to their game specific requirements (game position): infielders (n = 5), outfielders (n = 4), and pitchers (n = 3). The mean and standard deviations of all the variables in each group was calculated. These athletes demonstrated high levels of body fat and below optimal levels of flexibility, cardiorespiratory endurance, and muscular strength and endurance. The results revealed deficiencies in the health related fitness components and in the physical preparation for sports competition. These results also suggest that the subjects are at risk for the development of cardiovascular diseases, sport injuries, and poor sport performance. PMID:7899544

  6. Trematodes associated with mangrove habitat in Puerto Rican salt marshes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lafferty, K.D.; Hechinger, R.F.; Lorda, J.; Soler, L.

    2005-01-01

    Batillaria minima is a common snail in the coastal estuaries of Puerto Rico. This snail is host to a variety of trematodes, the most common being Cercaria caribbea XXXI, a microphallid species that uses crabs as second intermediate hosts. The prevalence of infection was higher (7.1%) near mangroves than on mudflats away from man-groves (1.4%). Similarly, there was a significant positive association between the proportion of a site covered with mangroves and the prevalence of the microphallid. The association between mangroves and higher trematode prevalence is most likely because birds use mangroves as perch sites and this results in local transmission to snails. ?? American Society of Parasitologists 2005.

  7. Perspectives of Puerto Rican Adults about Heart Health and a Potential Community Program

    PubMed Central

    Todorova, Irina L.G.; Tejada, Shirley; Castaneda-Sceppa, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    Background Puerto Ricans are the second largest Hispanic group in the U.S. and older adults have significant health disparities. Educational programs that address heart disease risk for this population have rarely been developed and implemented. Purpose To address this gap, the Heart Healthy Initiative for Puerto Rican adults is being developed. To develop it as a participatory program, the community members were asked about their perspectives. Methods Five focus groups with 28 participants, aged 45–60, were conducted, transcribed and analyzed using Thematic Analysis. In-depth analysis of meanings of health promoting behaviors, in the context of cultural beliefs and values was carried out. Results The following themes were identified: Health as balance and integration; Health as connection of self, connection with others; Cultural meanings of lifestyle choices; Stresses and struggles. Participants suggested that the program should have significant variety and a holistic perspective, be sensitive to different needs and motivations, stimulate mutual understanding and shared cultural meanings. Discussion The program needs to support lifestyle changes which maximally preserve traditions and to introduce multi-level changes. Translation to Health Education Practice The identified cultural meanings of diet, physical activity and relationships were taken into account to develop the educational curriculum. PMID:26161165

  8. Cultural influences on antiretroviral therapy adherence among HIV-infected Puerto Ricans.

    PubMed

    Robbins, Reuben N; D'Aquila, Erica; Morgello, Susan; Byrd, Desiree; Remien, Robert H; Mindt, Monica Rivera

    2012-01-01

    Adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) is integral to the successful treatment of HIV infection. Research has indicated that HIV-infected Latinos may have difficulty adhering to ART. While studies have demonstrated strong relationships between numerous psychosocial factors and ART adherence, no research has examined if cultural factors are also involved in ART adherence among Latinos. Our study examined the relationship between acculturation to mainstream U.S. culture, bicultural self-efficacy, and ART adherence among HIV-infected Puerto Rican adults living in the United States. Participants with ≥ 95% adherence scored higher on U.S.- and Latino-involvement acculturation scales and on a measure of bicultural self-efficacy compared to those with suboptimal adherence. Among bicultural HIV-infected Puerto Ricans, both acculturation and self-efficacy to navigate between cultures were positively related to adherence. Understanding the role of an individual's sociocultural experience may help elucidate why HIV-infected Latinos have difficulties achieving optimal ART adherence and improve ART adherence interventions. PMID:22525858

  9. Puerto Rican-Born Women in the United States: Contextual Approach to Immigration Challenges.

    PubMed

    Bekteshi, Venera; Van Hook, Mary; Matthew, Lenore

    2015-11-01

    This study focused on how acculturative stress and psychological distress affect Puerto Rican-born women residing in the United States. Mediation path analysis was used to estimate relationships between contextual factors, acculturative stress, and psychological distress. The fit of the data to the final model was adequate as estimated using chi-square analysis, comparative fit index, Tucker-Lewis Index, and root-mean-square error of approximation. Racial discrimination (b = 0.38, p = .01), difficulties visiting family abroad (b = 0.26, p = .03), and age at immigration (b = 0.19, p = .03) were positively associated with acculturative stress. The factor English skills (b = -0.31, p = .02) was negatively associated with acculturative stress. Racial discrimination had the strongest effect on acculturative stress, followed by English skills, difficulties visiting family abroad, and age at immigration. Racial discrimination (b = 0.39, p = .01) and financial constraints (b = 0.30, p = .01) were positively associated with psychological distress. Racial discrimination affected the women's psychological distress the most, followed by economic contexts (financial constraints). This study informs practitioners in considering the significant contextual factors relevant to the psychological distress of Puerto Rican-born women. PMID:26638506

  10. Machos and sluts: gender, sexuality, and violence among a cohort of Puerto Rican adolescents.

    PubMed

    Asencio, M W

    1999-03-01

    During the past decade, interpersonal violence increasingly has become a public health concern. As a result, prevention programs now aim to decrease violence among diverse populations. This article describes the beliefs and rationale for gender-based violence among a cohort of low-income, predominantly second-generation, mainland Puerto Rican adolescents. Based on a three-year (1989-91) ethnographic study, the findings describe how these young people, through the use of gender-based social constructs such as "machos" and "sluts," justify violence by linking it to beliefs about gender roles, sexuality, and biology, and thus perpetuate gender-role conformity, particularly heterosexual male dominance. The findings suggest that if the public health community is going to reduce gender-based violence among Puerto Rican youth, it needs to acknowledge that gender and sexuality are important ingredients that support violence and avoid a simplified and stereotypical model of culture that ignores other social factors and changes in traditional Latino gender roles. PMID:10322604

  11. The Toa Baja Drilling Project and current studies in Puerto Rican geology: Introduction and summary

    SciTech Connect

    Larue, D.K. )

    1991-03-01

    This volume concerns information learned by drilling the Toa Baja well on the north coast of Puerto Rico, and current studies of Puerto Rican geology and tectonics. The Toa Baja Drillsite is located in the North Coast basin of Puerto Rico about 10 km west of San Juan. The hole was spudded on August 23, 1989, and plugged and abandoned on November 7, 1989 at a total depth of 2,704m. Two lithologies were encountered during drilling: an upper series consisting of Oligocene-Miocene shallow-water limestone and sandstone facies, and a lower series consisting of Eocene deep-water volcaniclastic strata, including some lava flows or shallow intrusions, pelagic marls, and altered igneous rocks or coarse-grained sandstones. Principal findings made during drilling include: (1) the important unconformity separating the upper and lower series at about 579 m; (2) 8 faults defined clearly by dipmeter log; (3) changes in rock type probably associated with reflection events in seismic reflection profiles crossing the drillsite; (4) confirmation of overall low geothermal gradients and heat flow, but presence of a thermal anomaly near 2683 m; (5) documentation of high paleogeothermal gradients using petrographic, isotopic, X-Ray diffraction and electron microprobe studies; (6) presence of fractures indicating a current extensional tectonic setting. Current studies in the Puerto Rico region include: (1) paleomagnetic evidence for late Miocene counterclockwise rotation; (2) geochemical evolution of Cretaceous and Eocene igneous rocks; (3) evidence of transtension in the northeast Caribbean plate boundary zone; (4) results of studies of ancient fault zones on Puerto Rico; and (5) stratigraphic studies of the Tertiary of Puerto Rico.

  12. A Study of Disruptive Behavior Disorders in Puerto Rican Youth: II. Baseline Prevalence, Comorbidity, and Correlates in Two Sites

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bird, Hector R.; Davies, Mark; Duarte, Cristiane S.; Shen, Sa; Loeber, Rolf; Canino, Glorisa J.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: This is the second of two associated articles. The prevalence, correlates, and comorbidities of disruptive behavior disorders (DBDs) in two populations are reported. Method: Probability community samples of Puerto Rican boys and girls ages 5-13 years in San Juan, and the south Bronx in New York City are included (n = 2,491). The…

  13. Puerto Rican Adolescents' Disclosure and Lying to Parents about Peer and Risky Activities: Associations with Teens' Perceptions of Latino Values

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villalobos, Myriam; Smetana, Judith G.

    2012-01-01

    Disclosure and lying to mothers and fathers about different activities, as defined within social domain theory, were examined as a function of Latino family values in 109 Puerto Rican lower socioeconomic status middle adolescents (M = 15.58 years, SD = 1.18) living in the United States. Questionnaires revealed that teens sometimes disclosed to…

  14. 27 CFR 19.624 - Removal of Puerto Rican and Virgin Islands spirits and rum imported from all other areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Removal of Puerto Rican and Virgin Islands spirits and rum imported from all other areas. 19.624 Section 19.624 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY...

  15. 27 CFR 19.624 - Removal of Puerto Rican and Virgin Islands spirits and rum imported from all other areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Removal of Puerto Rican and Virgin Islands spirits and rum imported from all other areas. 19.624 Section 19.624 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY...

  16. 27 CFR 19.624 - Removal of Puerto Rican and Virgin Islands spirits and rum imported from all other areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Removal of Puerto Rican and Virgin Islands spirits and rum imported from all other areas. 19.624 Section 19.624 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY...

  17. 27 CFR 19.624 - Removal of Puerto Rican and Virgin Islands spirits and rum imported from all other areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Removal of Puerto Rican and Virgin Islands spirits and rum imported from all other areas. 19.624 Section 19.624 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY...

  18. Theory-Based Predictors of Intention to Engage in Precautionary Sexual Behavior among Puerto Rican High School Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collazo, Andres A.

    2004-01-01

    Predictors of intention to abstain from sexual intercourse or use condoms consistently with both main and other partners were investigated in 431 Puerto Rican high school students. The basis for this study was the theories of reasoned action (TRA) and planned behavior (TPB), and two predictors from the theory of interpersonal behavior (TIB). As…

  19. Language Learning Motivation for the Class of 2002: Why First-Year Puerto Rican High School Students Learn English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Frank A.

    2001-01-01

    Examined the motivation to learn English among first-year Puerto Rican high school students. Attempted to isolate discrete clusters of motivation and sought to investigate the relationship between type and strength of motivation. Factor analysis revealed two motivation clusters that resembled instrumental and integrative motivation. (Author/VWL)

  20. Sociocultural Differences in Eating Disordered Behaviors and Body Image Perception: A Comparison between Puerto Rican and American College Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Encarnacion-Garcia, Haydee

    This study investigated whether differences attributable to sociocultural factors existed in the eating-disorder behaviors and body image perception of Puerto Rican and U.S. college women. Participants (n=440) completed the Eating Disorder Inventory-2 and provided demographic information. Results indicated significant differences between the…

  1. A Study of the Predictive Validity of the Children's Depression Inventory for Major Depression Disorder in Puerto Rican Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivera-Medina, Carmen L.; Bernal, Guillermo; Rossello, Jeannette; Cumba-Aviles, Eduardo

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the predictive validity of the Children's Depression Inventory items for major depression disorder (MDD) in an outpatient clinic sample of Puerto Rican adolescents. The sample consisted of 130 adolescents, 13 to 18 years old. The five most frequent symptoms of the Children's Depression Inventory that best predict the…

  2. No Case for Convergence: The Puerto Rican Spanish Verb System in a Language Contact Situation. Centro Working Papers 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pousada, Alicia; Poplack, Shana

    This study examines quantitatively the systems of tense, mood, and aspect in Puerto Rican Spanish spoken in the United States. In the community under investigation, code-switching is an integral part of the communicative repertoire; also, the codes tend to be switched at points around which the surface structures of Spanish and English map onto…

  3. Gateway Polydrug Use among Puerto Rican and Dominican Adolescents Residing in New York City: The Moderating Role of Gender.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epstein, Jennifer A.; Botvin, Gilbert J.; Diaz, Tracy

    2002-01-01

    Examines polydrug use among adolescents residing in an inner-city region by Hispanic ethnicity (Puerto Rican versus Dominican) and gender. Results indicate that in the first year of middle school, gender moderated the effect of Hispanic ethnicity on lifetime polydrug use. Concludes that both Hispanic ethnicity and gender mattered in determining…

  4. Cultural Persistence, Political Resistance, and Hope in the Community and School-Based Art of a Puerto Rican Diaspora Neighborhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker-Raymond, Eli; Rosario-Ramos, Enid M.; Rosario, Maria L.

    2011-01-01

    The authors describe themes of cultural persistence, political resistance, and hope in the art of one Puerto Rican neighborhood in the Midwestern United States. The themes are described across three contexts: community mural art, poetry from students in an alternative high school, and poetry from seventh grade students in a neighborhood middle…

  5. Selected measures of health status for Mexican-American, mainland Puerto Rican, and Cuban-American children.

    PubMed

    Mendoza, F S; Ventura, S J; Valdez, R B; Castillo, R O; Saldivar, L E; Baisden, K; Martorell, R

    1991-01-01

    The 1987 National Vital Statistics System and the Hispanic Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1982 through 1984) were used to assess the health status of Mexican-American, mainland Puerto Rican, and Cuban-American children by examining the prevalences of pregnancy outcomes and chronic medical conditions. The low-birth-weight rate among Hispanics (7.0%) compared favorably with that of non-Hispanic whites (7.1%) despite the greater poverty and lower levels of education among Hispanics. When examined by Hispanic subgroup, however, significant differences were present, with mainland Puerto Ricans having the highest prevalences of low-birth-weight infants. Premature births were more common among all three Hispanic subgroups than among non-Hispanic whites. Mexican-American and Cuban-American children had a similar prevalence of (3.9% and 2.5%, respectively) chronic medical conditions compared with non-Hispanic white children; Puerto Rican children had a higher prevalence of chronic medical conditions (6.2%). When assessed by these health status indicators, Hispanic children seem to have a health status similar to non-Hispanic white children. However, mainland Puerto Rican children seem at greater risk for poor health, reflecting the US Hispanic population's heterogeneity. Health programs targeted at US Hispanics should appropriately consider these group differences. PMID:1984152

  6. Island Puerto Rican and Continental American Responses to Critical Incidents: An Intercultural Study of Language, Norms, and Values.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebsworth, Timothy; Ebsworth, Miriam Eisenstein

    1997-01-01

    Examines the processes and interpretations underlying communication in English between Island Puerto Ricans and continental Americans. The article views cross-cultural communication through a lens incorporating the way members of each group interpret their own language and behavior as well as those of the other group. (50 references) (CK)

  7. Culture and Psychiatric Symptoms in Puerto Rican Children: Longitudinal Results from One Ethnic Group in Two Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duarte, Cristiane S.; Bird, Hector R.; Shrout, Patrick E.; Wu, Ping; Lewis-Fernandez, Roberto; Shen, Sa; Canino, Glorisa

    2008-01-01

    Background: The development of youth psychopathology may be associated with direct and continuous contact with a different culture (acculturation) and to distress related to this process (cultural stress). We examine cultural experiences of Puerto Rican families in relation to youth psychiatric symptoms in two different contexts: one in which…

  8. Retardation in Intellectual Development of Lower-Class Puerto Rican Children in New York City. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Alexander

    To study the home environment of the Puerto Rican as it relates to the children's academic achievement, 45 working class families were interviewed and these variables were investigated: achievement, classroom behavior inventory in relation to academic achievement, the effect of bilinguality on academic achievement, the influence of examiner…

  9. Multifrequency radiometer detection of submarine freshwater sources along the Puerto Rican coastline

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blume, H.-J. C.; Kendall, B. M.; Fedors, J. C.

    1981-01-01

    The surface area above submarine springs of fresh water exhibit temperatures and salinities lower than the surrounding sea waters. A multifrequency radiometer system which earlier demonstrated an accuracy of 1 degree C and 1 part per thousand in remotely detecting the surface temperature and salinities, respectively, was used to detect submarine freshwater springs. The first mission on February 4, 1978, consisted of overflight measurements over three fourths of the coastal areas around the Island of Puerto Rico. During the second mission on February 6, 1978, special attention was directed to the northwest portion of Puerto Rico where several submarine springs had been reported. The previously reported spring locations correlated well with the locations detected by the radiometers. After separating the surface runoffs such as rivers, lagoons, marshes, and bays, 44 submarine freshwater springs were identified which indicates that the submarine freshwater outflow locations are more numerous around the island than had earlier been estimated. The majority of the submarine springs are located at the northwest and southeast portion of the Puerto Rican coastline. The success of detecting the same submarine springs during both missions at the northwest portion of the island was 39%.

  10. Investigating the Role of Gender and Delinquency in Exposure to Violence Among Puerto Rican Youth.

    PubMed

    Reingle, Jennifer M; Jennings, Wesley G; Maldonado-Molina, Mildred M; Piquero, Alex R; Canino, Glorisa

    2011-08-01

    Using a longitudinal sample of Puerto Rican adolescents living in the Bronx, New York, this study examines the predictors of exposure to violence within gender. Results from a series of negative binomial regressions suggested (a) sensation seeking, peer delinquency, coercive discipline, and initial delinquency increased the likelihood of exposure to violence for both males and females at multiple time points and (b) initial delinquency was the only consistent predictor of exposure to violence at all time points. Regarding the role of gender, the results indicated that some risk factors were similar across genders (e.g., sensation seeking, coercive discipline, peer delinquency, and delinquent behavior), whereas other risk factors differed across gender (e.g., age and welfare among males and school environment for females). Study limitations and implications are discussed. PMID:23914125

  11. Investigating the Role of Gender and Delinquency in Exposure to Violence Among Puerto Rican Youth

    PubMed Central

    Reingle, Jennifer M.; Jennings, Wesley G.; Maldonado-Molina, Mildred M.; Piquero, Alex R.; Canino, Glorisa

    2013-01-01

    Using a longitudinal sample of Puerto Rican adolescents living in the Bronx, New York, this study examines the predictors of exposure to violence within gender. Results from a series of negative binomial regressions suggested (a) sensation seeking, peer delinquency, coercive discipline, and initial delinquency increased the likelihood of exposure to violence for both males and females at multiple time points and (b) initial delinquency was the only consistent predictor of exposure to violence at all time points. Regarding the role of gender, the results indicated that some risk factors were similar across genders (e.g., sensation seeking, coercive discipline, peer delinquency, and delinquent behavior), whereas other risk factors differed across gender (e.g., age and welfare among males and school environment for females). Study limitations and implications are discussed. PMID:23914125

  12. Aspartylglucosaminuria in a Puerto Rican family: additional features of a panethnic disorder.

    PubMed

    Chitayat, D; Nakagawa, S; Marion, R W; Sachs, G S; Hahm, S Y; Goldman, H S

    1988-11-01

    We report on 3 Puerto Rican brothers with the clinical and laboratory findings of aspartylglucosaminuria (AGU). Their parents were first cousins. The affected sibs have the "cardinal" manifestations of AGU, including developmental disabilities, progressive "coarsening" of the face, and early onset of hepatosplenomegaly. Biochemical studies showed elevated levels of urinary aspartylglucosamine and very low activity of aspartylglucosaminidase(AGA) in cultured fibroblasts. With long term follow-up, previously undescribed manifestations were noted, including radiographic evidence of spondylolysis and spondylolisthesis in early childhood and development of macro-orchidism during puberty. This family shows that AGU is not limited to individuals of Finnish background, but that the gene is panethnic in distribution and that additional changes, not previously noted, may present with advancing age. PMID:3228136

  13. Habitat association, size, stomach contents, and reproductive condition of Puerto Rican boas (Epicrates inornatus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wiley, J.W.

    2003-01-01

    The Puerto Rican boa occurs in a variety of habitats, including wet montane forest, lowland wet forest, mangrove forest, wet limestone karst, and offshore cays, and from sea level to 480 m. Mean SVL of 49 encountered boas (live and road-killed) was 136.9 ?? 35.1 (range = 38.8-205 cm), with a mean mass of 952.1 ?? 349.0 g (n = 47; range = 140-1662 g). Prey in digestive tracts (n = 29) included remains of black rats, house mice, three species of anoles, bats, common ground-doves, domestic fowl chicks, and invertebrates. Females were in reproductive condition in late April through mid-August and had an average brood size of 21.8 ?? 6.0 (n = 9, range = 13-30 ).

  14. A Profile of Mexican American, Puerto Rican, and Other Hispanic STEM Doctorates: 1983 TO 1997

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quintana-Baker, Maricel

    This article describes the characteristics of Hispanic U. S. citizens who earned doctoral degrees in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) from institutions in the United States between 1983 and 1997. The data on this population •were disaggregated by gender and by Hispanic subgroup (i.e., Mexican American, Puerto Rican and other Hispanic). The profile for this population includes parental education, type of financial assistance during time of study, and level of debt on receipt of doctorate. In addition, this research identified and ranked the doctorate-granting institutions according to the absolute number of STEM doctoral degrees they granted to Hispanics during the 15-year period of the study. The results indicate that there are differences among the Hispanic subgroups in this study. Therefore, it is critical thai future researchers understand that studies that analyze Hispanics as one single homogeneous group produce results that are not truly representative and that research, policy, and programmatic efforts must be targeted accordingly.

  15. Coping strategies and depression in Puerto Rican adolescents: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Colomba, M V; Santiago, E S; Rosselló, J

    1999-02-01

    The use of inadequate coping strategies in stressful situations results in the development of depression in adolescents. This study identified coping strategies used by Puerto Rican adolescents and evaluated the relationship between coping and depression. Fifty-one adolescents participated in the study. Results indicated that the most frequently used coping strategy was developing positive perceptions about life situations. Significant differences were observed according to the severity of depressive symptoms. Investing in family relationships and developing positive perceptions about life situations seemed to reduce depression. Furthermore, the strategies of investing in family relationships and relieving tension through diversion were the variables with more predictive value for depression. The importance of exploring coping responses within the cultural context of the adolescent is discussed. PMID:15603240

  16. Culturally responsive health promotion in puerto rican communities: a structuralist approach.

    PubMed

    Idalí Torres, María; Marquez, David X; Carbone, Elena T; Stacciarini, Jeanne-Marie R; Foster, Jennifer W

    2008-04-01

    This literature review discusses the value of the structuralist approach as an integrated theoretical and methodological framework for participatory cultural assessments designed to capture the cultural dynamics of those affected by health disparities. Drawing from principles of the Lévi-Straussian strand of structural anthropology found in contemporary cultural studies, and using the Puerto Rican cultural experience as an example, the authors present the distinction between deep and surface structures of cultural knowledge and meaning and highlight information-processing and behavioral systems influenced by the complexity of cognitive and social representations of cultural structures. To understand and address the deeply rooted web of ideology, norms, and practices that influence health decision making and behavioral responses, the authors show the need for ethnographic narrative inquiry beyond surface manifestations of culture. Finally, the authors discuss the implications of the structuralist approach for culturally responsive health education and other health promotion interventions. PMID:18340090

  17. Housing Dependence and Intimate Relationships in the Lives of Low-Income Puerto Rican Mothers*

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Sherri Lawson; Burton, Linda M.; Flippen, Chenoa A.

    2011-01-01

    Using longitudinal ethnographic data from the Three-City Study, we examined the relationship between sixteen low-income Puerto Rican mothers’ housing dependencies and their intimate partner relations. We traced mothers’ dependent housing arrangements and entrée to marital or cohabiting relationships from their teens through their procurement of independent housing while entering and maintaining intimate partner unions as adults. Findings indicated that various trigger factors led women out of their natal homes and into expedited cohabitation with romantic partners which frequently resulted in unstable unions in which mothers had little power and autonomy. As mothers became eligible for housing subsidies they obtained housing independent from their male partners, potentially increasing the propensity for greater relationship power. Housing independence, however, was not without problems. Spillover effects, such as shadowing partners, threatened housing stability and mothers’ independence. The relevance of these findings for future research is discussed. PMID:21785522

  18. Nest guarding from observation blinds: strategy for improving Puerto Rican parrot nest success

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lindsey, G.D.

    1992-01-01

    The effectiveness of 17 yr of nestguarding from observation blinds for increasing reproductive success of the endangered Puerto Rican Parrot (Amazona vittata) is described. As personnel and time allowed, active nests were guarded part-time during the nest site exploration and selection s stage of the breeding cycle, and part-time to full-time when a nest contained eggs or chicks. Biologists identified nine categories of threat to the success of parrot nests. Since 1973, a minimum of 20 nests, which otherwise would have failed, successfully produced fledglings as a direct result of nest guarding and intervention. Nest success averaged 66% with nest guarding compared to an estimated 38% without guarding. Nest guarding from blinds can help maintain a wild population of a critically endangered species while other management techniques are being developed to stimulate population growth.

  19. 'The problem here is that they want to solve everything with pills': medication use and identity among Mainland Puerto Ricans.

    PubMed

    Adams, Wallis E; Todorova, Irina L G; Guzzardo, Mariana T; Falcón, Luis M

    2015-07-01

    Taking medications are complex symbolic acts, infused with diverse meanings regarding body and identity. This article focuses on the meanings of medications for older Puerto Ricans living on the United States mainland, a population experiencing stark health disparities. We aim to gain an understanding of the way multiple cultural and personal meanings of medications are related to and integrated in identity, and to understand how they are situated within Puerto Rican culture, history and circumstance on the US mainland. Data is drawn from thirty qualitative interviews, transcribed and translated, with older Puerto Ricans living on mainland United States. Thematic Analysis indicated four prevalent themes: embodiment of medication use; medications redefining self through the fabric of daily life; healthcare experience defined through medication; and medicine dividing the island and the mainland. While identity is impacted by experience of chronic illness, the experience of medication prescription and consumption is further related to the construction of the sense of self in distinct ways. For these individuals, medication use captures the dilemma of immigration. While cultural belonging and well-being remains on the island of Puerto Rico, the mainland hosts both easier access to and excess reliance on medication. PMID:25720591

  20. Factors associated with regional rheumatic pain disorders in a population of Puerto Ricans with diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Font, Yvonne M.; Castro-Santana, Lesliane E.; Nieves-Plaza, Mariely; Maldonado, Mirna; Mayor, Ángel M.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence and factors associated with bursitis/tendonitis disorders in Puerto Ricans with diabetes mellitus (DM). A cross-sectional study was performed in 202 adult Puerto Ricans (100 DM patients and 102 non-diabetic subjects). For each participant, a complete medical history and a musculoskeletal exam were systematically performed. Socio-demographic parameters, health-related behaviors, comorbidities, and pharmacotherapy were determined for all subjects. For DM patients, disease duration, glycemic control, and DM long-term complications were also examined. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to determine the factors associated with bursitis/tendonitis disorders. The mean (SD) age for DM patients and non-diabetic controls were 53.3 (12.9) and 50.0 (13.1) years; 64.0 and 64.7 % of DM patients and controls were females, respectively. Overall, the prevalence of bursitis/tendonitis was higher in DM patients than among non-diabetics (59.0 % vs. 29.4 %, p<0.01). In multivariate analyses, DM patients had 2.47 (95 % CI 1.05, 5.84) the odds of having bursitis/tendonitis as compared to non-diabetics. Specifically, DM patients had a higher frequency of flexor tenosynovitis, De Quervain’s tenosynovitis, lateral epicondylitis, medial epicondylitis, trochanteric bursitis, and anserine bursitis than non-diabetic subjects (p<0.05). Among DM patients, multivariate analyses showed that those with bursitis/tendonitis were more likely to be female [OR (95 % CI) 4.55 (1.42, 14.55)] and have peripheral vascular disease [OR (95 % CI) 8.48 (1.71, 41.93)]. In conclusion, bursitis/tendonitis disorders were common in this population of Hispanics with DM. Among DM patients, bursitis/tendonitis disorders were more frequent in women and those with long-term complications such as peripheral vascular disease. PMID:24522480

  1. Puerto Rican parrot (Amazona vittata) reproductive behavior: a guideline for management of active nests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, K.A.

    1993-01-01

    One explanation for the failure of intensively monitored Puerto Rican Parrot nests is that observers may lack the information needed to evaluate pair behavior and to recognize behaviors indicative of nest problems. I examined the behavior of Puerto Rican Parrots during eight non-problematic and six problematic nesting attempts to 1) describe behavior of pairs that experienced no notable nest problems and 2) to identify and describe behaviors associated with nest problems. I examined nest attendance, duration of attentive periods, and frequency of nest visits for both males and females, and duration of periods away from the nest for females only. Adult behavior during incubation and early chick rearing at non-problematic nests was well-defined. Females spent an average of 93.2 to 97.3% of the observation period in their nests during incubation and generally left their nests for average periods of 5 to 12 min. Female nest attendance generally declined and recesses became longer as chick rearing progressed. Males rarely entered their nests during incubation, but they generally established a regular pattern of nest visits within seven to 10 days of hatching of their young. In some cases, incidents of human disturbance to nest pairs during incubation and early chick rearing were associated with sudden changes in behavior. The key indicator of nest problems (abandonment during incubation or loss of young) was unexpected declines in female nest attendance. Declines were often accompanied by unexpected increases in female recesses or frequency of female nest visits, and sometimes by increases in male nest visits. Abandonment of nests during incubation was associated with repeated incidents of potentially disturbing activities (e.g., nest inspections). Deaths of embryos and young were associated with behaviors that allowed increased cooling of embryos.

  2. Food safety knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors among Puerto Rican caretakers living in Hartford, Connecticut.

    PubMed

    Bermúdez-Millán, Angela; Pérez-Escamilla, Rafael; Damio, Grace; González, Anir; Segura-Pérez, Sofia

    2004-03-01

    Household food safety education is needed to minimize the risk of exposure to foodborne pathogens. The Latino population in the United States is growing at a fast rate and has become the largest minority group in this country. However, little research has been done to identify the food safety behavioral risks faced by Puerto Ricans. Ten in-depth household observations and a quantitative survey on food safety knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors (n = 100) were conducted to understand food-handling techniques among Puerto Rican caretakers of young children. This was followed by two focus groups (n = 12) to further characterize food safety knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors and the proper media channels for the delivery of food safety education. Even though 97% of survey participants reported washing their hands with soap and water before preparing foods, only 1 of the 10 participants in the household observations actually did it. About 60% of the household participants washed the cutting boards with soap and water compared with 89% of survey participants who claimed to do it. In the survey, 5% reported to know the meaning of cross-contamination, and 71% (n = 80) to use the same cutting board for meats and vegetables. Overall, 96% of survey participants did not use a thermometer to check if meats were cooked properly and only 10% defrosted their meats in the refrigerator. Statistically significant relationships (P < 0.05) were found between speaking English and knowing the meaning of cross-contamination and how to use a meat thermometer. Employed individuals and those with higher education were also more likely to be familiar with the term pasteurization. These results fully justify the delivery of culturally appropriate food safety education in this community. PMID:15035366

  3. Frequencies of Functional Polymorphisms in Three Pharmacokinetic Genes of Clinical Interest within the Admixed Puerto Rican Population

    PubMed Central

    Orengo-Mercado, Carmelo; Nieves, Bianca; López, Lizbeth; Vallés-Ortiz, Nabila; Renta, Jessicca Y.; Santiago-Borrero, Pedro J.; Cadilla, Carmen L.; Duconge, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    Objective This cross-sectional study was aimed at determining the allele frequencies for the CYP2C19*2, CYP2C19*3, CYP2D6*10 and PON1 (rs662) polymorphisms in the Puerto Rican population. The CYP2C19, CYP2D6 and PON1 genes are known to be associated with functional changes in drug metabolism and activation. Individuals carrying the aforementioned polymorphisms are at a higher risk of suffering from drug-induced adverse events and/ or unresponsiveness from a variety of drugs that includes antidepressants, atypical antipsychotics and antiplatelet compounds. Information on the frequency of these polymorphisms is more commonly found on homogeneous populations, but is scarce in highly heterogeneous populations like Hispanics, as in the case of Puerto Ricans. Method Genotyping was carried out in 100 genomic DNA samples from dried blood spots supplied by the Puerto Rican Newborn Screening program using Taqman® Genotyping Assays. Results The Minor Allele Frequencies (MAF) obtained were 9% for CYP2C19*2 and CYP2D6*10, 50% for PON1 (rs662), while the CYP2C19*3 variant was not detected in our study. Furthermore, Hardy Weinberg equilibrium analysis was assessed as well as a comparison between Puerto Rico and other reference populations using a Z-test for proportions. Conclusion The observed allele and genotype frequencies on these relevant pharmacogenes in Puerto Ricans were more closely related to those early reported in two other reference populations of Americans (Mexicans and Colombians). PMID:24040574

  4. Description of a domestic violence measure for Puerto Rican gay males.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez Madera, Sheilla; Toro-Alfonso, Jose

    2005-01-01

    A sample of 302 Puerto Rican gay males living in Puerto Rico and New York participated in this study with the objective of assessing the prevalence of domestic violence. A self-administered questionnaire was developed addressing issues of intergenerational violence, addictive behaviors, and domestic violence in three dimensions: emotional, physical, and sexual violence. The results concluded that close to half of the participants had experienced some sort of violence in their intimate relationships, have a history of being witness to domestic violence in their family of origin, and had identified in themselves and their families, addictive behaviors. Other variables measured are HIV and sexual coercion, drug and alcohol abuse, and levels of acculturation among participants living in the United States. The main objective of this work is to describe the development of the instrument used in the study. Based on the results of this study we describe the psychometric characteristics and content of the final questionnaire. Final recommendations are made for other researchers interested in doing domestic violence studies with Latino gay men and men who have sex with men. PMID:16368669

  5. FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH TENDER POINT COUNT IN PUERTO RICANS WITH FIBROMYALGIA SYNDROME

    PubMed Central

    Ríos, Grissel; Estrada, Marcos; Mayor, Angel M.; Vilá, Luis M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine the factors associated with fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) tender point count (TPC) in a group of Hispanic patients from Puerto Rico. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed in 144 FMS patients as determined using American College of Rheumatology [ACR] classification). Socio-demographic features, clinical manifestations, comorbidities, and pharmacologic agents were determined during the study visit. Tender points were assessed as described in the ACR classification for FMS. A t-test and one-way ANOVA test were used to examine the relationships between continuous, dichotomous, and nominal variables. Results The mean (standard deviation, [SD]) age of the FMS patients in this study was 50.2 (9.9) years; 95.1% were females. The mean (SD) TPC was 15.0 (4.7). Dysmenorrhea, the sicca syndrome, subjective swelling, increased urinary frequency, shortness of breath, headache, constipation, paresthesia, cognitive dysfunction, arthralgia, tiredness, morning stiffness, depression, and anxiety were associated with higher TPC. No associations were seen between socio-demographic features and FMS pharmacologic therapies. Conclusion In this group of Puerto Ricans with FMS, TPC was associated with several FMS symptoms and comorbidities. This study suggests that TPC may be a simple and effective tool for assessing disease severity in FMS patients. PMID:25244879

  6. The Puerto Rican parrot reintroduction program: sustainable management of the aviary population.

    PubMed

    Earnhardt, Joanne; Vélez-Valentín, Jafet; Valentin, Ricardo; Long, Sarah; Lynch, Colleen; Schowe, Kate

    2014-01-01

    The cornerstone of the recovery plan for the critically endangered Puerto Rican parrot (Amazona vitatta) is an actively managed, long-term reintroduction program. One captive population distributed across two aviaries in Puerto Rico is the sole source for release but its ability to persist as a managed resource has not been evaluated since 1989. We conducted an assessment for sustainable management of the aviary population while harvesting for release. To assess demographic rates such as population growth, vital rates, and age/sex structure, we compiled a studbook database on all living, dead, and released individuals in the aviary population. Using an individual-based risk assessment model we applied population specific data based on the management period from 1993 to 2012 to simulate future aviary population dynamics and evaluate future potential production. We modeled four potential management strategies to harvest parrots for proposed releases; these scenarios vary the number of parrots and the life stage. Our simulations revealed that the aviary population can be simultaneously managed for sustainability and harvesting of parrots for release. However, without cautious management, overharvesting can jeopardize sustainability of the aviary population. Our analysis of the aviary breeding program provides a rare opportunity to review progress relative to conservation program objectives after four decades of active management. The successful growth of the aviary population and its ability to serve as a sustainable source for reintroductions supports the 1973 decision to build a breeding program from a small population of 13 parrots. PMID:24395187

  7. Prevalence of sensory modulation disorder among Puerto Rican preschoolers: an analysis focused on socioeconomic status variables.

    PubMed

    Román-Oyola, Rosa; Reynolds, Stacey

    2013-09-01

    The purposes of this study were to determine the prevalence of sensory modulation disorder (SMD) in a sample of Puerto Rican preschoolers and to examine differences in the prevalence of SMD based on socioeconomic status (SES) variables. Caregivers of children from Head Start programs and private preschools were recruited from three regions in Puerto Rico (PR) to participate in the study. Each caregiver completed a Short Sensory Profile (SSP) and a demographic data sheet. Total scores on the SSP were used to establish diagnosis of SMD. The total sample included 141 participants (response rate of 64%). Prevalence of SMD among the total PR sample (19.9%) was higher than previously reported estimates on the US mainland (5-16%). Statistical results indicated no difference in the overall prevalence of SMD based on SES. However, significant differences in scores based on caregivers' educational degree were found on the SSP sub-domain of Movement sensitivity and Under-responsive/seeks sensation; differences in scores based on caregiver household income were also found for the SSP sub-domain of Under-responsive/seeks. Although SMD appears to be prevalent in preschoolers in PR, variables associated with SES do not appear to contribute to an overall SMD diagnosis. However, additional research linking specific sub-domains of SMD to SES variables may be warranted. PMID:23696328

  8. Diversity of form in the amphibian papilla of Puerto Rican frogs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, E. R.; Hecht, E. I.; Narins, P. M.

    1992-01-01

    In modern frogs, the amphibian papilla exhibits a caudal extension whose shape, relative length, and proportion of hair cells vary markedly from species to species. Tuning in the caudal extension is organized tonotopically and evidently involves the tectorium. In terms of the proportion of amphibian-papillar hair cells in the caudal extension, we report more diversity among 8 species of a single genus (Eleutherodactylus) on a single island (Puerto Rico) than has been found so far among all of the (more than 50) other modern anurans examined for this feature from around the world. These 8 Puerto Rican species have overlapping habitat and conspicuous diversity in the male advertisement call. For 7 of the 8 species, we report that the call has transient spectral components in the frequency range of the amphibian papilla, and that the proportion of caudal extension hair cells and the frequency distribution of those components are correlated. Thus one might conclude that the selective pressures that led to diversity of calls among the 8 species also led to diversity in form of the amphibian papilla.

  9. Survival of captive-reared Puerto Rican Parrots released in the Caribbean National Forest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, T.H., Jr.; Collazo, J.A.; Vilella, F.J.

    2005-01-01

    We report first-year survival for 34 captive-reared Puerto Rican Parrots (Amazona vittata) released in the Caribbean National Forest, Puerto Rico between 2000 and 2002. The purpose of the releases were to increase population size and the potential number of breeding individuals of the sole extant wild population, and to refine release protocols for eventual reintroduction of a second wild population elsewhere on the island. After extensive prerelease training, we released 10 parrots in 2000, 16 parrots in 2001, and eight parrots in 2002 ranging in age from 1-4 years old. All birds were equipped with radio-transmitters to monitor survival. The overall first-year survival estimate for the 34 parrots was 41% (CI = 22%-61%). Only one parrot died within the first week postrelease, with most (94%) surviving for at least eight weeks after release. Most (54%) documented mortalities were due to raptor predation, which claimed 21% of all released parrots. A captive-reared bird (male, age one), released in 2001, paired with a wild female and fledged two young in 2004. We also calculated survival based on 0% and 50% of observed predation losses and found hypothetical survival rates of 72% and 54%, respectively. Rigorous prerelease training and acclimation was believed to have improved initial postrelease parrot survival, and releasing mixed age-class groups suggests the potential for shortening the time to recruitment. ?? The Cooper Ornithological Society 2005.

  10. Clinical Manifestations Associated with Overweight/Obesity in Puerto Ricans with Fibromyalgia Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Fred-Jiménez, Ruth M.; Arroyo-Ávila, Mariangelí; Mayor, Ángel M.; Ríos, Grissel; Vilá, Luis M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To determine the clinical manifestations associated with overweight/obesity in Hispanics from Puerto Rico with fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS). Methods. A cross-sectional study was performed in 144 patients with FMS (per American College of Rheumatology (ACR) classification criteria). Sociodemographic features, FMS-related symptoms, tender points (per ACR criteria), comorbidities, and FMS treatment were examined. BMI was calculated and patients were grouped into two categories: BMI ≤ 24.9 kg/m2 (nonoverweight/obese) and BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2 (overweight/obese). Bivariate and multivariate analyses were used to evaluate differences between the study groups. Results. The mean (standard deviation (SD)) age of patients was 50.2 (9.9) years; 95.1% were females and 75.7% were overweight/obese. In the bivariate analysis, overweight/obese patients were more likely to have self-reported memory impairment, anxiety, shortness of breath, and urinary frequency than nonoverweight/obese patients. In addition, the tender point count was higher in the overweight/obese group. In the logistic regression analyses, self-reported memory impairment and urinary frequency differences remained significant after adjusting for confounding variables. Conclusion. In this population of Puerto Ricans with FMS, overweight/obese patients experienced more FMS-related manifestations than nonoverweight/obese individuals. However, prospective studies are needed to confirm these associations and to elucidate if weight reduction interventions could favorably impact the severity of FMS. PMID:26885384

  11. Association of gender and length of stay among Puerto Ricans hospitalized with decompensated heart failure.

    PubMed

    Alnajashi, Mohammad A; Almasoud, Mohammed A; Aldaham, Sami A; Acuña, Juan Manuel; Zevallos, Juan C

    2016-07-01

    Heart failure (HF) is a serious, chronic, and progressive condition which may require hospitalization if decompensated. Each year, in the UnitedStates, there are approximately 1 million hospitalizations due to decompensated HF at a cost of $39 billion. Because limited information examining the association between gender and length of stay (LOS) is available in the published literature for Puerto Ricans hospitalized with decompensated HF, we aim to investigate gender differences related to LOS in this population.This study is a secondary data analysis of the Puerto Rico Cardiovascular Disease Surveillance System database, which is a nonconcurrent prospective study carried out in 2007 and 2009. LOS was dichotomized into ≤5 days or ≥6 days (extended) categories. The χ test was used to examine associations between categorical variables. Binary logistic regression was used to estimate unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios of extended LOS. Collinearity was assessed using Pearson correlation coefficients. A P value of 0.05 and 95% confidence intervals were used to evaluate statistical significance.A total of 1724 patients (47.6% women) comprised our study population. The average age of women was 72.5 ± 13.4 years; the average age of men was 67.2 ± 14.5 years. For both women and men, median LOS was 5 days (interquartile range = 5 days). Women were more likely than men to have diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and dyslipidemia, but current smoking was higher in men than in women. The proportion of patients with extended LOS was similar for men (43.3%) and women (45.1%) (P = 0.448). Likewise, the odds for extended LOS was comparable for both genders (OR = 1.1, 95% CI = 0.9, 1.4). Patients admitted with recurrent decompensated HF hospitalizations had shorter LOS than patients with initial episodes (OR = 0.7, 95% CI = 0.6, 0.9). However, factors that prolonged the LOS included the presence of renal failure (OR = 1.7; 95% IC = 1.3, 2

  12. A Study of the Spanish Translation of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised with Puerto Rican Children and Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Maria D.; And Others

    Two studies were performed with Puerto Rican children and adolescents in Puerto Rico and Connecticut to determine the reliability and predictive validity of the Spanish translation of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised, the Escala de Inteligencia Wechsler para Ninos-Revisada (EIWN-R). Results suggest that the EIWN-R is a reliable…

  13. The Information Behavior of Puerto Rican Migrants to Central Florida, 2003-2009: Grounded Analysis of Six Case Studies Use of Social Networks during the Migration Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez-Mori, Howard

    2009-01-01

    The study of the information behavior of Puerto Ricans and their reliance on personal social networks to procure needed information upon their migration to Central Florida is the core of this research. Life experiences of the researcher, as well as unstructured observations made in Puerto Rico from 1980 to 1996, and in Central Florida from 1996 to…

  14. Female employment and the social reproduction of the Puerto Rican working class.

    PubMed

    Safa, H I

    1984-01-01

    The rapid industrialization, migration and urbanization processes in Puerto Rico since 1940 have been responsible for the increase in the rate of female employment from 22.1% in 1960 to 27.8% in 1980, while the rate of male employment has fallen. This rise in female employment is significant in an era of growing unemployment and economic crises. There is a tendency for management to prefer young, single women workers over the older, married or formerly married women. The former tend to be better educated, work harder, complain less and are likely to be burdened with household or childcare responsibilities, which can lead to fatigue or even absenteism on the job. Their strong background in patriarchal rural traditions makes it easier for them to accept the authority of thier employers without question. With a knowledge that they can find other, similar work, the younger women are not troubled by plant problems such as production cutbacks, and layoffs. Their primary concern is not job stability, but money, which is used for future plans which include marriage, children and a new home. In contrast, older women view job security as more important. Their years of being in the labor force and the sense of self worth they have acquired as a result of it, tend to make them critical of authority. The contribution of working women to the household economy in Puerto Rican working class families varies with age and marital status. Older, married and formerly married women carry a heavier financial burden, assume a larger share of household responsibilities, and are often the sole supporters of their families. Younger women usually share their responsibilities with a relatively large number of siblings. Export-led industrialization has contributed to male outmigration from Puerto Rico, but as women lose their factory jobs due the factories being relocaged elsewhere as part of Operation Bootstrap, women too may join the migration flows. PMID:12340233

  15. The prevalence of refractive conditions in Puerto Rican adults attending an eye clinic system

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Neisha M.; Romero, Angel. F.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To determine the prevalence of refractive conditions in the adult population that visited primary care optometry clinics in Puerto Rico. Methods A retrospective cross-sectional study of patients examined at the Inter American University of Puerto Rico School of Optometry Eye Institute Clinics between 2004 and 2010. Subjects considered had best corrected visual acuity by standardized subjective refraction of 20/40 or better. The refractive errors were classified by the spherical equivalent (SE): sphere+½ cylinder. Myopia was classified as a SE>−0.50 D, hyperopia as a SE>+0.50  D, and emmetropia as a SE between −0.50 and +0.50, both included. Astigmatism equal or higher than 0.25 D in minus cylinder form was used. Patients with documented history of cataract extraction (pseudophakia or aphakia), amblyopia, refractive surgery or other corneal/ocular surgery were excluded from the study. Results A total of 784 randomly selected subjects older than 40 years of age were selected. The estimated prevalence (95%, confidence interval) among all subjects was hyperopia 51.5% (48.0–55.0), emmetropia 33.8% (30.5–37.2), myopia 14.7% (12.1–17.2) and astigmatism 69.6% (68.8–73.3). Hyperopia was more common in females than males although the difference was not statistically significant. The mean spherical equivalent values was hyperopic until 70 y/o and decreased slightly as the population ages. Conclusion Hyperopia is the most common refractive error and its prevalence and seems to increase among the aging population who visited the clinics. Further programs and studies must be developed to address the refractive errors needs of the adult Puerto Rican population. PMID:25000872

  16. Genetic Counseling for Hereditary Breast and Ovarian Cancer Among Puerto Rican Women Living in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Scherr, Courtney L.; Vasquez, Elsa; Quinn, Gwendolyn P.; Vadaparampil, Susan T.

    2015-01-01

    Background Little is known about barriers to Hereditary Breast and Ovarian Cancer (HBOC) genetic counseling among Puerto Rican women. Objective This study reviews existing literature to identify individual, interpersonal, and systems level factors that may impact the use of HBOC genetic services among Puerto Rican women living in the United States. Methods A systematic search of articles published between the years 1995–2014 was performed in PubMed and ISI Web of Science. Additionally, the bibliography of relevant articles was reviewed for additional potential articles. Results Individual level barriers most frequently identified included: a lack of knowledge or awareness about HBOC or genetic counseling and testing, and facilitators included high levels of interest in genetic counseling/genetic testing. Interpersonal level barriers included worry about knowing a family member’s risk, and conversely, a facilitator was the ability to help family members. Systems level barriers included concerns about the cost, having competing life demands, whereas facilitators included holding private insurance. Conclusion Puerto Rican women are a unique ethnic minority group with specific perceptions, beliefs and levels of education about genetic counseling and testing for HBOC. Addressing individual, interpersonal and systems level factors unique to this group may improve knowledge and awareness. Policy and structural changes may be needed to improve system level barriers. PMID:25626062

  17. Preliminary Genetic Analysis Supports Cave Populations as Targets for Conservation in the Endemic Endangered Puerto Rican Boa (Boidae: Epicrates inornatus)

    PubMed Central

    Revell, Liam J.

    2013-01-01

    The endemic Puerto Rican boa (Epicrates inornatus) has spent 42 years on the Endangered Species List with little evidence for recovery. One significant impediment to effective conservation planning has been a lack of knowledge of the distribution of genetic variability in the species. It has previously been suggested that boas might best be protected around caves that harbor large populations of bats. Prior study has found Puerto Rican boas at relatively high densities in and around bat caves, which they use both to feed and seek shelter. However, it is unknown whether these behaviorally distinctive populations represent a distinct evolutionary lineage, or (conversely) whether caves harbor representative genetic diversity for the species across the island. We provide the first genetic study of the Puerto Rican boa, and we examine and compare genetic diversity and divergence among two cave populations and two surface populations of boas. We find three haplogroups and an apparent lack of phylogeographic structure across the island. In addition, we find that the two cave populations appear no less diverse than the two surface populations, and harbor multiple mtDNA lineages. We discuss the conservation implications of these findings, including a call for the immediate protection of the remaining cave-associated populations of boas. PMID:23691110

  18. Predicting the Invasion Potential of a Puerto Rican Frog in Hawaii using MODIS Satellite Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bisrat, S. A.; White, M. A.

    2008-12-01

    The Puerto Rican coqui frog (Eleutherodactylus coqui, hereafter coqui), which was introduced into Hawaii accidentally via commercial nurseries, is an aggressive invasive species in Hawaii. The coqui threatens Hawaii's unique ecological communities because it predates upon endemic invertebrates, which comprise the large majority of Hawaii's endemic fauna. Coqui frogs also affect real estate valuations because of their loud mating calls. Despite this widespread problem, the potential coqui range in Hawaii is currently unknown, making control and management efforts difficult. We fitted linear discriminant analysis (LDA), logistic regression (LR) via generalized linear models (GLMs), generalized additive models (GAMs), classification trees (CTs), random forests (RF), and support vector machine (SVM) to model the species distribution and map their invasion potential. We used five MODIS satellite imagery-derived biophysical variables as explanatory variables: leaf area index (LAI), fraction of photosynthetically active radiation absorbed by vegetation (FPAR), enhanced vegetation index (EVI), normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), and land surface temperature (LST) from three MODIS products: MOD11 (LST), MOD13 (LAI and FPAR), and MOD15 (Vegetation Index) (collection 4). We used 2000-2005 MODIS data from Aqua and Terra satellites to generate monthly climatologies for each biophysical variable. We collected presence/absence data from Puerto Rico and Hawaii using a 1 km grid overlaid over the entire islands of Puerto Rico and the Island of Hawaii by sampling every other pixel of the grid intersecting with the road network. We then used the dataset from Puerto Rico to train the six models while the Hawaii dataset was used as a test set. All six models predicted the invasion potential of coqui frogs in Hawaii with a moderate success with mean Kappa value of 0.31, mean area under the curve of receiver operating characteristics (AUC) of 0.75 and mean classification

  19. Autosomal-dominant inheritance of the prothrombin gene mutation in a Puerto Rican family: A case study.

    PubMed

    Morales-Borges, Raúl H

    2012-12-01

    Splenic infarction is rare and the prothrombin gene mutation (PGM) is not commonly observed in Puerto Rico. PGM is present in 1% of the general population, and in 7% of the people with deep venous thrombosis (DVT); it is found in up to 40% of patients with splenic-portal-mesenteric thrombosis. Our study has identified a Puerto Rican family of four generations whose members all have inherited PGM in an autosomal dominant manner. The eldest member of the family, an 82-year-old male, presented with DVT of the lower extremity. The man's 62-year-old daughter had suffered a splenic infarction; his 37-year-old grandson presented with superficial and deep vein thrombosis (SDVT), and his great-grandson of 8 years was asymptomatic at the time of the report. This is the second report of PGM as the cause of a hypercoagulable state and the first reported PGM-related splenic infarction in Puerto Rico. We need to test for genetic hypercoagulable states in the members of Puerto Rican families with thromboembolism. Once testing has revealed the existence of such states in a given family, it is important that the family members receive genetic counseling. PMID:23844473

  20. Knowledge of viral hepatitis among Puerto Rican adults: implications for prevention.

    PubMed

    Soto-Salgado, Marievelisse; Suárez, Erick; Ortiz, Ana P; Adrovet, Sandra; Marrero, Edmir; Meléndez, Marytere; Colón, Héctor M; Albizu, Carmen; Del C Santos, María; Torres, Esther; Pérez, Cynthia M

    2011-08-01

    Although primary prevention of HAV and HBV can be achieved through vaccination, the burden of HCV can only be reduced through behavioral interventions to reduce its risk factors. This study evaluated knowledge regarding transmission, clinical manifestations and prevention of viral hepatitis in Puerto Rico. We assessed the level of knowledge about HAV (six questions), HBV (12 questions) and HCV (eight questions) among non-institutionalized Puerto Rican adults aged 21-64 years. Demographic characteristics and self-reported knowledge of these infections were determined through a face-to-face interview. A mean knowledge score was computed by summing correct responses to each scale. Mean knowledge scores according to demographics were compared using ANOVA or the Kruskal-Wallis test. Mean knowledge scores for HAV, HBV and HCV infections were 2.6 ± 1.5, 6.1 ± 2.4, and 3.6 ± 1.1, respectively. For HAV and HBV infections, the mean knowledge score significantly (P < 0.05) increased with age, level of counseling received and number of sources of information. However, for HCV infection the mean knowledge score significantly increased with decreasing age, increased educational level and increased annual family income. Contrary to HBV, a higher HAV and HCV knowledge score was observed among individuals with history of vaccination for HAV and HBV, seropositive status for HAV and HCV, and history of drug use. A sizeable proportion of adults in this study demonstrated an inadequate level of knowledge, especially about transmission routes. Health education must be focused on transmission and prevention methods, including the availability of a vaccine for HAV and HBV, especially among those with chronic liver disease. PMID:21125319

  1. A cultural model of infidelity among African American and Puerto Rican young adults.

    PubMed

    Macauda, Mark M; Erickson, Pamela I; Singer, Merrill C; Santelices, Claudia C

    2011-12-01

    Having concurrent sexual partners is a risk factor for STIs and HIV/AIDS, yet few studies have investigated the cultural meanings and functions of concurrency. A multi-method qualitative/quantitative study of sexual ideas, attitudes, and behaviors among inner-city Puerto Rican and African American emergent adults (age 18-25) in Hartford, Connecticut, USA, suggests that having concurrent partners is common in this population. Using data from 12 focus groups and 40 participants in systematic data collection techniques (e.g., pile sorts), the underlying cognitive structure of concurrency and cheating/infidelity are explored. Results suggest that participants are less tolerant of multiple partners in more committed relationships, but that very few relationships can be considered committed. Furthermore, participants see cheating as inevitable even in committed relationships. Sexual transgressions are considered the most severe form of cheating. Having an outside partner for emotional reasons or to have access to one's child were seen as more acceptable/forgivable than doing so for sexual satisfaction, social status or material goods. Multiple partnerships must be seen in the context of the inner city where resources and opportunities are scarce and young adults attempt to protect themselves from emotional injury. Documenting new and changing social constructions of infidelity is important for understanding the social context of sexual behavior in our global world and for designing culturally appropriate health interventions. PMID:22060128

  2. Habitual sugar intake and cognitive function among middle-aged and older Puerto Ricans without diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Xingwang; Gao, Xiang; Scott, Tammy; Tucker, Katherine L.

    2016-01-01

    Intake of added sugars, mainly fructose and sucrose, has been associated with risk factors for cognitive impairment, such as obesity, the metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. The objective of this analysis was to examine whether habitual intakes of total sugars, added sugars, sugar-sweetened beverages or sweetened solid foods are associated with cognitive function. The present study included 737 participants without diabetes, aged 45–75 years, from the Boston Puerto Rican Health Study, 2004–9. Cognitive function was measured with a battery of seven tests: Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), word list learning, digit span, clock drawing, figure copying, and Stroop and verbal fluency tests. Usual dietary intake was assessed with a validated FFQ. Greater intakes of total sugars, added sugars and sugar-sweetened beverages, but not of sugar-sweetened solid foods, were significantly associated with lower MMSE score, after adjusting for covariates. Adjusted OR for cognitive impairment (MMSE score <24) were 2·23 (95 % CI 1·24, 3·99) for total sugars and 2·28 (95 % CI 1·26, 4·14) for added sugars, comparing the highest with lowest intake quintiles. Greater intake of total sugars was also significantly associated with lower word list learning score. In conclusion, higher sugar intake appears to be associated with lower cognitive function, but longitudinal studies are needed to clarify the direction of causality. PMID:21736803

  3. Reaction of Ten Cultivars of Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) to a Puerto Rican population of Meloidogyne incognita

    PubMed Central

    Montalvo, A. E.; Esnard, J.

    1994-01-01

    Ten cultivars of watermelon were evaluated for their response to a Puerto Rican population of Meloidogyne incognita under greenhouse conditions in a 2-year study (1989 and 1990). Ten-day-old seedlings were planted in steam-sterilized soil in 15-cm-d plastic pots. The nematode inoculum consisted of 10,000 eggs and (or) second-stage juveniles (J2)/plant. The cultivars were Sugar Baby, Charleston Gray, Seedless, Prince Charles, Charleston 76, Jubilee, Florida Giant, Royal Charleston, Royal Sweet, and Royal Jubilee, with tomato cv. Rutgers included as a susceptible check. A completely randomized design with 10 replications was used. Fifty-five days after soil infestation, root-gall indices, numbers of nematode eggs per root system, and J2 per 250 cm³ of soil were recorded. All cultivars were susceptible. Sugar Baby had the lowest root-gall index, egg and J2 numbers, and a reproductive factor (Rf) of 2.89. Rf differed (P ≤ 0.05) among cultivars and ranged up to 7.36. Sugar Baby, Seedless, and Florida Giant showed the lowest susceptibility to M. incognita, whereas Charleston 76 and Charleston Gray were the most susceptible. PMID:19279940

  4. Reaction of Ten Cultivars of Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) to a Puerto Rican population of Meloidogyne incognita.

    PubMed

    Montalvo, A E; Esnard, J

    1994-12-01

    Ten cultivars of watermelon were evaluated for their response to a Puerto Rican population of Meloidogyne incognita under greenhouse conditions in a 2-year study (1989 and 1990). Ten-day-old seedlings were planted in steam-sterilized soil in 15-cm-d plastic pots. The nematode inoculum consisted of 10,000 eggs and (or) second-stage juveniles (J2)/plant. The cultivars were Sugar Baby, Charleston Gray, Seedless, Prince Charles, Charleston 76, Jubilee, Florida Giant, Royal Charleston, Royal Sweet, and Royal Jubilee, with tomato cv. Rutgers included as a susceptible check. A completely randomized design with 10 replications was used. Fifty-five days after soil infestation, root-gall indices, numbers of nematode eggs per root system, and J2 per 250 cm(3) of soil were recorded. All cultivars were susceptible. Sugar Baby had the lowest root-gall index, egg and J2 numbers, and a reproductive factor (Rf) of 2.89. Rf differed (P

  5. Childhood obesity among Puerto Rican children: discrepancies between child's and parent's perception of weight status.

    PubMed

    Rivera-Soto, Winna T; Rodríguez-Figueroa, Linnette

    2012-04-01

    Public concern about childhood obesity and associated health problems calls for the identification of modifiable factors that could halt this epidemic. Parental perceptions of their children's weight status could be associated to how parents influence children's eating patterns. We aimed to identify the perceptions Puerto Rican parents have of their children's weight and children's own perceptions of weight status as compared to real weight. A cross sectional survey was performed in a representative sample of 1st-6th grade students. Only half of the children correctly identified their weight, and only 62.4% of the parents correctly classified their children's weight. Most obese/overweight children did not perceive themselves as such. Almost half of obese/overweight children were identified by the parents as normal weight while over half of the underweight children were perceived by their parents at normal weight. More girls than boys perceived themselves as obese/overweight and more parents of girls than of boys perceived them as such. Higher-educated parents were better at recognizing overweight/obesity among their children compared to less-educated parents. This study suggests an influence of parents' SES characteristics on their perceptions of children's weight status as well as on children's own perceptions of their weight status. PMID:22690203

  6. Gender Differences In Social And Developmental Factors Affecting Puerto Rican Adolescents During The Early Stage

    PubMed Central

    Figueroa-Cosme, Wanda I.; Miranda, Christine; Fernandez, Diana M.; Maysonet, Johanna; Ramon, Raul O.

    2011-01-01

    Background Adolescence is associated with risky behaviors related with social and developmental factors. Objectives were to describe social and developmental factors affecting Puerto Rican early adolescent by gender and type of school at study entry. Methods Cross-sectional study design. The study group was composed by 168 seventh grade adolescents from private and public schools. Descriptive and non-parametric comparisons were performed. Results Significance differences among proportions for gender by type of school were found in the following variables: self-esteem and HIV/AIDS attitudes in public school and peer pressure and sensation seeking in private school Discussion Our study revealed that public school adolescents are characterized by males with higher self-esteem and less attitude for HIV/AIDS, while in private school the males has more peer pressure and seeking sensation than females. Future studies could analyze factors related with changes in developmental factors, this step is important to evaluate the effectiveness of ASUMA interventions. PMID:23875519

  7. Development and Validation of a Culturally Appropriate HIV/AIDS Stigma Scale for Puerto Rican Health Professionals in Training

    PubMed Central

    Díaz, Nelson Varas; Neilands, Torsten B.

    2009-01-01

    HIV/AIDS stigma continues to be an obstacle for primary and secondary HIV prevention. Its consequences for the lives of people living with the disease have been well documented and continue to be of great concern for health care providers and researchers in the field. These consequences are worsened when such stigma emanates from health professionals, as this can limit access to services. One of the main obstacles for HIV/AIDS Stigma research in Puerto Rico is the absence of quantitative measures to assess HIV/AIDS stigma manifestations among health professionals. In light of this gap in the scientific literature, the main objective of this study was to develop and test the psychometric properties of a culturally appropriate HIV/AIDS stigma scale for Puerto Rican health care providers and to develop a reduced form of the scale suitable for use in time-limited clinical settings. The developed measure was based on previous qualitative evidence gathered from Puerto Rican health professionals (Varas-Díaz, Serrano-García & Toro-Alfonso, 2005) and administered to a sample of 421 health professionals in training. The scale addresses 12 HIV/AIDS stigma dimensions. In quantitative analyses 11 of these dimensions demonstrated satisfactory validity and reliability. These dimensions in turn were subcomponents of a higher-order general stigma factor. Implications and limitations of these findings are discussed. PMID:20024702

  8. "Chronicity," "nervios" and community care: a case study of Puerto Rican psychiatric patients in New York City.

    PubMed

    Swerdlow, M

    1992-06-01

    The role of ethnicity, community structure, and folk concepts of mental illness in facilitating the adaptation of long term psychiatric patients to community living has received little attention. This article examines the cultural concepts of mental illness and the community involvement of 30 Puerto Rican psychiatric patients participating in a New York City treatment program. It is shown that many of the attributes usually associated with chronic mental illness do not apply to this population. It is argued that the folk concept of nervios helps to foster the integration of these patients in a wide range of community networks. The impact of gentrification on these patients' community integration is also discussed. PMID:1395696

  9. Assessment of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Contamination of Breeding Pools Utilized by the Puerto Rican Crested Toad, Peltophryne lemur

    PubMed Central

    Gjeltema, Jenessa; Stoskopf, Michael; Shea, Damian; De Voe, Ryan

    2012-01-01

    Habitat preservation and management may play an important role in the conservation of the Puerto Rican crested toad, Peltophryne lemur, due to this species' small geographic range and declining native wild population. Bioavailable water concentrations of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) contaminants within breeding pools at 3 sites were established using Passive Sampling Devices (PSDs) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). A more diverse population of PAH analytes were found in higher concentrations at the breeding site that allowed direct vehicular access, but calculated risk quotients indicated low risk to toad reproduction associated with the current PAH analyte levels. PMID:23762634

  10. Anatomy of a bottleneck: diagnosing factors limiting population growth in the Puerto Rican parrot

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beissenger, S.R.; Wunderle, J.M., Jr.; Meyers, J.M.; Saether, B.-E.; Engen, S.

    2008-01-01

    The relative importance of genetic, demographic, environmental, and catastrophic processes that maintain population bottlenecks has received little consideration. We evaluate the role of these factors in maintaining the Puerto Rican Parrot (Amazona vittata) in a prolonged bottleneck from 1973 through 2000 despite intensive conservation efforts. We first conduct a risk analysis, then examine evidence for the importance of specific processes maintaining the bottleneck using the multiple competing hypotheses approach, and finally integrate these results through a sensitivity analysis of a demographic model using life-stage simulation analysis (LSA) to determine the relative importance of genetic, demographic, environmental, and catastrophic processes on population growth. Annual population growth has been slow and variable (1.0 6 5.2 parrots per year, or an average k?1.05 6 0.19) from 16 parrots (1973) to a high of 40-42 birds (1997-1998). A risk analysis based on population prediction intervals (PPI) indicates great risk and large uncertainty, with a range of 22?83 birds in the 90% PPI only five years into the future. Four primary factors (reduced hatching success due to inbreeding, failure of adults to nest, nest failure due to nongenetic causes, and reduced survival of adults and juveniles) were responsible for maintaining the bottleneck. Egghatchability rates were low (70.6% per egg and 76.8% per pair), and hatchability increased after mate changes, suggesting inbreeding effects. Only an average of 34% of the population nested annually, which was well below the percentage of adults that should have reached an age of first breeding (41-56%). This chronic failure to nest appears to have been caused primarily by environmental and/or behavioral factors, and not by nest-site scarcity or a skewed sex ratio. Nest failure rates from nongenetic causes (i.e., predation, parasitism, and wet cavities) were low (29%) due to active management (protecting nests and fostering

  11. Puerto Rican parrots and potential limitations of the metapopulation approach to species conservation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, Marcia H.; Kepler, Cameron B.; Snyder, Noel F.R.; Derrickson, Scott R.; Dein, F. Josh; Wiley, James W.; Wunderle, Joseph M., Jr.; Lugo, Ariel E.; Graham, David L.; Toone, William D.

    1994-01-01

    Population viability analyses for a number of endangered species have incorporated a metapopulation approach. The risk assessments of these viability analyses have indicated that some extant populations should be subdivided into numerous subgroups with exchange of individuals among them in order to reduce the chance of catastrophic loss of the species. However, routine application of a policy of extensive subdivision may have detrimental consequences for certain endangered species. We examine the Puerto Rican Parrot as a case history in which this policy is ill-advised. In 1989, a population viability analysis was conducted for the parrot. The document recommended subdivision of the existing small captive flock into three groups. One of these captive flocks would consist of individuals transferred to a multi-species facility in the continental United States. Subsequently, individuals from this facility would be exchanged with the insular captive population(s) and the relict wild flock. For two reasons, implementation of this recommendation might have led to serious repercussions. First, this parrot, like many endangered species, has gone through a genetic bottleneck and may have a heightened susceptibility to disease. Multi-species facilities are a high-risk environment favoring the transmission of pathogens, especially when the facilities are located outside the natural ranges of a particular species. Second, the parrot is a K-selected species for which mate selection is idiosyncratic. This type of species often proves difficult to breed in captivity in small groups. Part of the problem in mate selection may be reduced by a policy allowing frequent transfers of individuals among facilities, but such movements increase the chances of spreading disease in the metapopulation. Thus, population viability analyses need to acknowledge that proliferation of captive subgroups accompanied by exchanges of individuals can in themselves carry substantial risks that must be

  12. Determinants of environmental tobacco smoke in a population of Puerto Rican children.

    PubMed

    Preston, A M; Rodríguez, C; Rivera, C E; Sahai, H

    2001-02-01

    This study was designed to determine among various personal, socioeconomic, and environmental factors those which had the greatest influence on exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) in a population of children residing in a tropical environment and to compare these results with those obtained in the literature of tobacco exposed children in temperate climates. Urine specimens were collected from 606 healthy Puerto Rican children (2-12 years) living in an industrial area and analyzed for cotinine, a quantitative biomarker for exposure to ETS. Parents completed a questionnaire covering smoking habits and socioeconomic information. Seventy per cent of the children were reported to be exposed to ETS, 50% resulting from exposure to smoke from either or both parents. Major determinants to ETS exposure were found to be presence of smoker, number of smokers, identity of smoker, number of cigarettes smoked in the household and child age with the youngest children suffering twice the exposure of older children. Non-determinants were exposure to smoke other than from the parent, sex of the child, season of the year and several socioeconomic factors including civil and employment status of the mother, mother's age and educational background and whether food stamps were being received. Results of a multiple regression analysis showed that our predictors accounted for 40% of cotinine appearing in the urine. Reasons for this relatively low value may be due in part to precision of our analytic method and lower levels of ambient smoke in our population vs. others that reported higher R(2) values. Predictions from questionnaire information for high ETS exposure were not always the same as those indicated by urinary cotinine emphasizing that the bioindicator, which indicates the actual inhalation of ETS, is a better predictor of exposure than responses from a questionnaire. PMID:11260812

  13. Modular Sequence: English as a Second Language, Methods and Techniques. TTP 001.07 Puerto Rican Spanish. Teacher Corps Bilingual Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernandez, Alberto

    The purpose of this learning module is to clarify some major points of controversy regarding Puerto Rican Spanish. It is part of a series of modules developed by the Teacher Corps Bilingual Project to aid the prospective teacher of English as a second language. The objectives of this module are to enable the student to: (a) determine the…

  14. Modular Sequence: Puerto Rican Pupils in Mainland Schools. TTP 003.03. Living Conditions in the U.S.: New York. Teacher Corps Bilingual Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartford Univ., West Hartford, CT. Coll. of Education.

    This module provides the participant with an overview of living conditions of the Puerto Rican in New York, so that as a teacher he may better understand the conflicts and emerging values of both parents and children on the mainland. Upon completion of this module, the participant will be able to list and describe the advantages and disadvantages…

  15. The Federal Role in Meeting the Education Needs of Chicanos and Puerto Ricans with Special Emphasis on Higher Education. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miranda (L.) and Associates, Bethesda, MD.

    Federal efforts to meet higher educational needs of Chicanos and Puerto Ricans are analyzed in this report. As part of a study conducted by L. Miranda and Associates, 15 Federal agencies were surveyed to determine their programs and their financial commitment to Hispanic postsecondary education, and the participation of Hispanics in each agency's…

  16. 27 CFR 19.778 - Removal on or after January 1, 1987 of Puerto Rican and Virgin Islands spirits, and rum imported...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Removal on or after January 1, 1987 of Puerto Rican and Virgin Islands spirits, and rum imported from all other areas. 19.778 Section 19.778 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU,...

  17. Social Support and HIV-Related Injection Risk among Puerto Rican Migrant and Nonmigrant Injection Drug Users Recruited in New York City

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mino, Milton; Deren, Sherry; Yeon-Kang, Sung

    2006-01-01

    This study compared the associations between social support and HIV injection risk among Puerto Rican migrant (n = 221) and nonmigrant (n = 340) injection drug users in New York City. Practical and emotional support scales were developed from 8 items and examined by migrant status as predictors of risk. Bivariate and regression analysis were…

  18. Comparison of Scores on the WAIS and Its Puerto Rican Counterpart, Escala de Inteligencia Wechsler para Adultos, in an Institutionalized Latin American Psychiatric Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Todd McLin; Rodriguez, Vene L.

    1979-01-01

    Compared vocabulary and block design subtests of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) and its Puerto Rican counterpart, the Escala de Inteligencia Wechsler para Adultos (EIWA), in hospitalized Latins and Trans-Caribbean Blacks. EIWA scores were significantly higher than WAIS scores. Equivalence of EIWA and WAIS estimates is questioned.…

  19. Reproductive Health of Urban Adolescents: Differences in the Behaviors, Cognitions, and Social Context of African-American and Puerto Rican Females

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milan, Stephanie; Ethier, Kathleen; Lewis, Jessica; Kershaw, Trace; Niccolai, Linda; Ickovics, Jeannette

    2006-01-01

    Although ethnic and racial disparities exist in adolescent reproductive health, few studies have examined differences between members of different minority groups. This paper describes differences in measures of reproductive health behaviors, cognitions and social context between African-American (n=170) and Puerto Rican (n=150) adolescent females…

  20. Project CASE. Career Aspiration and Self Congruence in the Education of Puerto Rican Youth. Meeting the Vocational Education Needs of Special Populations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartford Public Schools, CT.

    A study was conducted to assess the career aspiration and self-congruence of Puerto Rican Youth, as well as to develop a pilot curriculum designed to increase these students' awareness of the world of work. A pre-post control group design was used. All students involved in the research were seventh- and eighth-graders in the Bilingual Cluster at…

  1. Challenging "Best Practices" in Family Literacy and Parent Education Programs: The Development and Enactment of Mothering Knowledge among Puerto Rican and Latina Mothers in Chicago

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Laura Ruth

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses the findings of an ethnographic research study exploring the experiences of Puerto Rican women attending a family literacy program in Chicago. In particular, the study investigated the repositories of knowledge and information available to participating women that figured into the development of their notions about…

  2. Event Analysis as a Methodology for Urban Anthropology; Volume 2, Part 2. Anthropological Study of Disability from Educational Problems of Puerto Rican Youths. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnett, Jacquetta H.

    Cultural event analysis assists traditional social science methodologies--ethnographies and survey instruments--in the study of urban life. Testing a hypothesis--that educational problems arise and persist for Puerto Rican youth because of contrast, contrariety, and noncomplementarity between the cultural forms and patterns of their home life and…

  3. Intonational Interference in the Speech of Puerto Rican Bilinguals, an Instrumental Study Based on Oral Readings of a Juan Bobo Story.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nash, Rose

    This paper examines three aspects of phonological interference observable in the speech of Puerto Rican bilinguals: (1) segmentation patterns, (2) accentual patterns, and (3) pitch patterns. Ten representative speakers, including nine students and one faculty member, were selected to read a story in the original Spanish and in English translation.…

  4. Geography of Service Delivery: On the Role of Mental Health Service Structure in Community Senior Services for Puerto Rican Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Velez Ortiz, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to examine the role of mental health services structure in community senior centers and how it interacts with Puerto Rican older adults' historical, social, and cultural experiences to relate to their perceptions, awareness, and utilization of mental health services. The study was carried out within a concurrent…

  5. The Effects of Migration on Reading Achievement, Physical, Social and School Adjustment on a Group of Migrant and Non-Migrant Puerto Rican Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prewitt Diaz, Joseph O.; Seilhamer, Emily Stella

    Almost 300 non-migrant, migrant, return migrant, and circulatory migrant high school students participated in a study of the relationship of the level of adjustment to mainstream Puerto Rican society and the frequency of migration. No direct relationship between reading achievement and physical adjustment was found. However, as the level of…

  6. Association between History of Childhood Sexual Abuse and Adult HIV-Risk Sexual Behavior in Puerto Rican Men Who Have Sex with Men.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carballo-Dieguez, Alex; Dolezal, Curtis

    1995-01-01

    This study with 182 homosexually active adult men of Puerto Rican ancestry in New York City found that men who had been sexually abused by an older sexual partner before the age of 13 were significantly more likely to engage in high-risk sexual behavior without protection than other homosexually active men. (Author/DB)

  7. Facilitating the Adjustment to and Participation in the Life of the School and Community by Newly Arrived Puerto Rican Pupils and their Parents. Maxi I Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon, Margaret A.; Duncan, Nellie R.

    This document describes the planning and implementation of a comprehensive program to facilitate the adjustment of newly arrived Puerto Rican pupils and parents to the school and the surrounding East New York community. The program encompassed the following areas: improvement of school atmosphere, training of teachers and para-professionals, more…

  8. The Anthropology of the People of Puerto Rico. Studies of Puerto Rican Society and Culture, No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Ronald J., Ed.

    This monograph contains seven papers presented at a 1977 symposium held to reevaluate the 1947 research work, "The People of Puerto Rico." (1) Sidney Mintz discusses the role of Puerto Rico in modern social science. (2) Eric Wolf, one of the authors of the 1947 work, comments retrospectively on some of the conceptual and methodological strengths…

  9. CYP2C9 and VKORC1 Genotypes in Puerto Ricans: A Case for Admixture-Matching in Clinical Pharmacogenetic Studies

    PubMed Central

    Villagra, David; Duconge, Jorge; Windemuth, Andreas; Cadilla, Carmen L; Kocherla, Mohan; Gorowski, Krystyna; Bogaard, Kali; Renta, Jessica Y; Cruz, Irelys A; Mirabal, Sara; Seip, Richard L; Ruaño, Gualberto

    2010-01-01

    Backgrounds Admixture is of great relevance to the clinical application of pharmacogenetics and personalized medicine, but unfortunately these studies have been scarce in Puerto Ricans. Besides, allele frequencies for clinically relevant genetic markers in warfarin response (i.e., CYP2C9 and VKORC1) have not yet been fully characterized in this population. Accordingly, this study is aimed at investigating whether a correlation between overall genetic similarity and CYP2C9 and/or VKORC1 genotypes could be established. Methods 98 DNA samples from Puerto Ricans were genotyped for major CYP2C9 and VKORC1 polymorphisms and tested on a physiogenomic (PG)-array to infer population structure and admixture pattern. Results Analysis affirmed that Puerto Ricans are broadly admixed. A genetic distance dendrogram was constructed by clustering those subjects with similar genetic profiles. Individual VKORC1 and CYP2C9 genotypes were visually overlaid atop the three dendrogram sectors. Sector-1, representing Amerindian ancestry, showed higher VKORC1-1639G>A variant frequency than the rest of the population (p=0.051). Although CYP2C9*3 allele frequencies matched the expected HapMap values, admixture may explain deviations from published findings regarding VKORC1-1639G>A and CYP2C9*2 allele frequencies in sector-3. Conclusions Results suggest that the observed inter-individual variations in ancestral contributions have significant implications for the way each Puerto Rican responds to warfarin therapy. Our findings provide valuable evidence on the importance of controlling for admixture in pharmacogenetic studies of Puerto Rican Hispanics. PMID:20488169

  10. A Healthy Lifestyle Score Is Associated with Cardiometabolic and Neuroendocrine Risk Factors among Puerto Rican Adults123

    PubMed Central

    Sotos-Prieto, Mercedes; Bhupathiraju, Shilpa N; Falcón, Luis M; Gao, Xiang; Tucker, Katherine L; Mattei, Josiemer

    2015-01-01

    Background: Although individual healthy lifestyle behaviors may reduce cardiovascular disease risk, few studies have analyzed the combined effect of multiple lifestyle components as one all-inclusive measure on such outcomes, much less in minority populations. Objective: We aimed to develop a Healthy Lifestyle Score (HLS) that included several lifestyle recommendations and to test its association with metabolic syndrome (MetS) and allostatic load (AL) and their cardiometabolic and neuroendocrine factors in Puerto Ricans. Methods: In a cross-sectional study in 787 Puerto Ricans living in Boston (aged 45–75 y), we developed an HLS that ranged from 0 to 190 (higher score indicative of healthier lifestyle) and included 5 components (diet, physical activity and sedentary behaviors, smoking, social support and network, and sleep). Multivariable-adjusted models were used to test associations between the HLS and biomarkers of dysregulation and odds of MetS and high AL (≥4 out of 10 components). Results: The HLS showed adequate internal consistency (ρ = 0.31–0.69) and was inversely associated with urinary cortisol (β ± SE = −0.22 ± 0.11; P = 0.042), epinephrine (−0.20 ± 0.09; P = 0.017), and norepinephrine (−0.26 ± 0.11; P = 0.016); waist circumference (−0.014 ± 0.004; P = 0.003); and serum insulin (−0.30 ± 0.13; P = 0.028) and positively associated with plasma HDL cholesterol (0.007 ± 0.003; P = 0.021) after adjustment for potential confounders. For each 20-unit increase in HLS, participants had 19% (95% CI: 2%, 33%) and 25% (11%, 36%) lower odds of MetS or AL, respectively. Healthier scores for social support and network and smoking components were associated with lower odds of high AL (P < 0.005). No significant associations were observed for other individual lifestyle components. Conclusions: Following an overall healthy lifestyle that comprises a combination of multiple behaviors may provide stronger protection against MetS and AL in Puerto

  11. The social context and meaning of virginity loss among African American and Puerto Rican young adults in Hartford.

    PubMed

    Erickson, Pamela I; Badiane, Louise; Singer, Merrill

    2013-09-01

    We describe virginity loss experiences of inner-city minority youth to understand the meaning attributed to first sex and the social and structural factors that contribute to early sexual debut. We interviewed 62 18-25-year-old African American and Puerto Rican Hartford men and women about their sexual and romantic life histories. Transcripts were coded in ATLAS.ti and analyzed for themes about virginity and sexual debut. We found different conceptions of virginity as a stigma to be lost, a normal part of growing up, and a gift to be given. The normative experience was consensual, early, and unplanned sexual debut. Inner-city minority youth have similar feelings, motivations, and experiences of sexual debut as non-ethnic youth reported in the literature except they are far younger. We discuss structural factors that affect inner-city sexual scripts for early sexual debut and identify it as a health inequity. PMID:24105907

  12. Psychosocial correlates of HIV sexual protective behavior among Puerto Rican women residing in the Bronx, New York.

    PubMed

    Dixon, Denise; Saul, Janet; Peters, Michael

    2010-03-01

    In this study, correlates of HIV sexual protective behavior, in the form of condom use, were examined within a population of urban women identified as at increased heterosexual risk for HIV infection. Hierarchical regression analyses were used to analyze data collected via structured interviews for 187 Puerto Rican women recruited from the waiting areas of a comprehensive health clinic in the Bronx, New York. Increased condom use with primary partners was associated with higher levels of mastery, more non-Hispanic acculturation, and greater adherence to traditional female gender roles. Increased condom use with nonprimary partners was associated with higher HIV/AIDS prevention self-efficacy. Thus, primary versus nonprimary relationships appeared to represent distinct contexts for HIV sexual risk behavior, with implications for different intervention strategies based upon relationship contexts for Latina women. PMID:20390652

  13. Histories of Puerto Rican parrot nests in the Caribbean National Forest/Luquillo Experimental Forest, 1973-2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wunderle, J.M., Jr.; Snyder, N.F.R.; Muiznieks, B.; Wiley, J.W.; Meyers, J.M.

    2003-01-01

    This publication summarizes the histories of all known Puerto Rican parrot nests in the Caribbean National Forest/Luquillo Experimental Forest from 1973 through 2000. Included for each nest, when known, are the identifies of the pair, clutch size, known fertile and infertile eggs, number of eggs that hatched, number of chicks that survived, sources of mortality, fostering (source, destination. or both), number of young fledged from the pair and from the nest, and percentage of days the nest was guarded. This information is useful for detecting and assessing potential changes in reproductive output and nest threats and is fundamental for understanding some of the demographic and genetic factors influencing the wild parrot population.

  14. Joint trajectories of victimization and marijuana use and their health consequences among urban African American and Puerto Rican young men.

    PubMed

    Pahl, Kerstin; Brook, Judith S; Lee, Jung Yeon

    2013-06-01

    We examined the joint trajectories of violent victimization and marijuana use from emerging adulthood to the early thirties and their health consequences in the early thirties among urban African American and Puerto Rican men. Data were collected from a community sample of young men (N = 340) when they were 19, 24, 29, and 32 years old. The joint trajectories of violent victimization and marijuana use were extracted using growth mixture modeling. Three distinct joint trajectory groups of violent victimization and marijuana use were identified: high violent victimization/consistently high marijuana use; low violent victimization/increasingly high marijuana use, and low violent victimization/low marijuana use. Group comparisons using regression analyses showed that men who had experienced high levels of violent victimization and were high frequency marijuana over time users experienced the most adverse psychological and physical health outcomes, including more health problems, psychological maladjustment, and substance use disorders. PMID:22532191

  15. Joint Trajectories of Victimization and Marijuana Use and Their Health Consequences Among Urban African American and Puerto Rican Young Men

    PubMed Central

    Pahl, Kerstin; Brook, Judith S.; Lee, Jung Yeon

    2012-01-01

    We examined the joint trajectories of violent victimization and marijuana use from emerging adulthood to the early thirties and their health consequences in the early thirties among urban African American and Puerto Rican men. Data were collected from a community sample of young men (N=340) when they were 19, 24, 29, and 32 years old. The joint trajectories of violent victimization and marijuana use were extracted using growth mixture modeling. Three distinct joint trajectory groups of violent victimization and marijuana use were identified: high violent victimization/consistently high marijuana use; low violent victimization/increasingly high marijuana use, and low violent victimization/low marijuana use. Group comparisons using regression analyses showed that men who had experienced high levels of violent victimization and were high frequency marijuana over time users experienced the most adverse psychological and physical health outcomes, including more health problems, psychological maladjustment, and substance use disorders. PMID:22532191

  16. Sea level, topography and island diversity: phylogeography of the Puerto Rican Red-eyed Coquí, Eleutherodactylus antillensis.

    PubMed

    Barker, Brittany S; Rodríguez-Robles, Javier A; Aran, Vani S; Montoya, Ashley; Waide, Robert B; Cook, Joseph A

    2012-12-01

    Quaternary climatic oscillations caused changes in sea level that altered the size, number and degree of isolation of islands, particularly in land-bridge archipelagoes. Elucidating the demographic effects of these oscillations increases our understanding of the role of climate change in shaping evolutionary processes in archipelagoes. The Puerto Rican Bank (PRB) (Puerto Rico and the Eastern Islands, which comprise Vieques, Culebra, the Virgin Islands and associated islets) in the eastern Caribbean Sea periodically coalesced during glaciations and fragmented during interglacial periods of the quaternary. To explore population-level consequences of sea level changes, we studied the phylogeography of the frog Eleutherodactylus antillensis across the archipelago. We tested hypotheses encompassing vicariance and dispersal narratives by sequencing mtDNA (c. 552 bp) of 285 individuals from 58 localities, and four nuDNA introns (totalling c. 1633 bp) from 173 of these individuals. We found low support for a hypothesis of divergence of the Eastern Islands populations prior to the start of the penultimate interglacial c. 250 kya, and higher support for a hypothesis of colonization of the Eastern Islands from sources in eastern Puerto Rico during the penultimate and last glacial period, when a land bridge united the PRB. The Río Grande de Loíza Basin in eastern Puerto Rico delineates a phylogeographic break. Haplotypes shared between the PRB and St. Croix (an island c. 105 km south-east of this archipelago) likely represent human-mediated introductions. Our findings illustrate how varying degrees of connectivity and isolation influence the evolution of tropical island organisms. PMID:23163292

  17. “The problem here is that they want to solve everything with pills”: Medication use and identity among Mainland Puerto Ricans

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Wallis E.; Todorova, Irina L. G.; Guzzardo, Mariana T.; Falcon, Luis M.

    2014-01-01

    Taking medications are complex symbolic acts, infused with diverse meanings regarding body and identity. This paper focuses on the meanings of medications for older Puerto Ricans living on the United States mainland, a population experiencing stark health disparities. We aim to gain an understanding of the way multiple cultural and personal meanings of medications are related to and integrated in identity, and to understand how they are situated within Puerto Rican culture, history and situation on the US mainland. Data is drawn from thirty qualitative interviews, transcribed and translated, with older Puerto Ricans living on mainland United States. Thematic Analysis indicated four prevalent themes: Embodiment of medication use; Medications redefining self through the fabric of daily life; Healthcare experience defined through medication; and Medicine dividing the island and the mainland. While identity is impacted by experience of chronic illness, the experience of medication prescription and consumption is further related to the construction of the sense of self in distinct ways. For these individuals, medication use captures the dilemma of immigration. While cultural belonging and well-being remains on the island of Puerto Rico, the mainland hosts both easier access to and excess reliance on medication. PMID:25720591

  18. Greater variety in fruit and vegetable intake is associated with lower inflammation in Puerto Rican adults123

    PubMed Central

    Bhupathiraju, Shilpa N

    2011-01-01

    Background: Puerto Rican adults have prevalent metabolic abnormalities, but few studies have explored fruit and vegetable (FV) intake and coronary heart disease (CHD) risk in this population. Objective: We tested the hypothesis that greater FV intake and variety are associated with a lower 10-y risk of CHD and C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations. Design: In a cross-sectional study of ≈1200 Puerto Rican adults aged 45–75 y, we assessed FV intake with a food-frequency questionnaire. The 10-y risk of CHD was assessed with the Framingham risk score (FRS) in participants free of cardiovascular disease. CRP was measured in fasting serum. Results: Variety, but not quantity, of FV intake was inversely associated with FRS after adjustment for the following: sex; waist circumference; perceived stress; alcohol use; intakes of energy, trans fatty acids, and saturated fatty acids; and use of supplements, cardiovascular medications, and diabetes medications (P = 0.02). However, the association was attenuated after adjustment for income (P = 0.11). Variety, but not quantity, was associated with a lower serum CRP concentration after adjustment for age, sex, smoking status, alcohol use, servings of FV, white blood cell count, diastolic blood pressure, diabetes, nonsteroidal antiinflammatory medication use, intakes of energy and vitamin B-6, waist circumference, perceived stress, and income. The adjusted odds of a high CRP concentration for those in the highest compared with the lowest tertile of FV variety was 0.68 (95% CI: 0.49, 0.94). Conclusions: FV variety, but not quantity, appears to be important in reducing inflammation. Although the results are suggestive, larger studies are needed to confirm a possible association with CHD risk score. PMID:21068354

  19. A Proposal for an Individualized Pharmacogenetic-Guided Warfarin Dosage Regimen for Puerto Rican Patients Commencing Anticoagulation Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Bosch, Luis Ángel Bermúdez

    2014-01-01

    Warfarin is the current standard of care in oral anticoagulation therapy. It is commonly prescribed to treat venous thromboembolism, pulmonary embolism, acute myocardial infarction, and to decrease the risk of stroke in atrial fibrillation. Warfarin therapy is challenging because of marked and often unpredictable inter-individual dosing variations that effectively reach and maintain adequate anticoagulation. Several researchers have developed pharmacogenetic-guided maintenance dose algorithms that incorporate genetics and individual patient characteristics. However, there is limited information available concerning dosing during warfarin initiation. This is considered the most clinically challenging therapeutic phase. In such, the risk of recurrent thromboembolism and hemorrhage are elevated. The objective of this retrospective study is to predict the individual initial doses for Puerto Rican patients (n=175) commencing anticoagulation therapy at Veterans Affairs Caribbean Healthcare System (VACHS) using pharmacogenetic/pharmacokinetic-driven model. A pharmacogenetic driven model (R2=0.4809) was developed in Puerto Rican patients and combined with pharmacokinetic formulas that enabled us to predict the individual initial doses for patients (n=121) commencing anticoagulation therapy. WinNonlin® pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic simulations were carried out to determine the predictability of this model. This model demonstrated promising results with few (n=10) simulations outside of their respective therapy range. A customized pharmacogenetic-based warfarin maintenance dose algorithm (R2=0.7659) was developed in a derivation cohort of 131 patients. The predictability of this developed pharmacogenetic algorithm was compared with the International Warfarin Pharmacogenomics Consortium (IWPC) algorithm and it demonstrated superior predictability within our study population. PMID:25285240

  20. Borinquen: A Bilingual List of Books, Films and Records on the Puerto Rican Experience. Third Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York Public Library, NY.

    This third edition of a bibliography originally published in 1963 under the title "Puerto Rico" is a selected list of significant materials in both Spanish and English. The title of this new edition, "Borinquen," is the Spanish form of the original Indian name of the island which was later called Puerto Rico. The contents are organized into nine…

  1. English Proficiency and Admission and Graduation of Post-Secondary Students at a Puerto Rican University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alea, Jamie

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation has examined English proficiency as a mediating social factor within the occupational structure of Puerto Rico. It included an analysis of the educational records of 641 students majoring in industrial engineering, nursing, education and finance of the University of Puerto Rico, Mayaguez from 1998-2000. The investigation…

  2. Pilot study of mold populations inside and outside of Puerto Rican residences

    EPA Science Inventory

    Puerto Rico has the highest asthma prevalence in the US. In the states, mold exposures have been linked to the development and exacerbation of asthma. For a pilot study of mold populations in Puerto Rico, dust and air samples were collected in January 2013 inside and outside of...

  3. Pilot study of mold population inside and outside of Puerto Rican residences

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract: Puerto Rico has the highest asthma prevalence in the US. In the states, mold exposures have been linked to the development and exacerbation of asthma. For a pilot study of mold populations in Puerto Rico, dust and air samples were collected in January 2013 inside and ou...

  4. Female Employment and the Social Reproduction of the Puerto Rican Working Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Safa, Helen I.

    1984-01-01

    Assesses the contribution women make to the social reproduction of working class families in Puerto Rico. Analyzes the role of women in the industrialization of Puerto Rico (especially since 1940) and the impact of women's earnings on the household economy. Suggests that increased female migration may result from the continuing export-led…

  5. Molecular phylogeny of the Puerto Rican Lepidocyrtus and Pseudosinella (Hexapoda: Collembola), a validation of Yoshii's "color pattern species".

    PubMed

    Soto-Adames, Felipe N

    2002-10-01

    Color pattern was one of the most important characters used to diagnose species in the genus Lepidocyrtus until the introduction of chaetotaxy to Collembola taxonomy. Chaetotaxy confirmed most species diagnoses based only on color patterns, but a number of populations with distinct pigmentation patterns have been found to be identical in all other morphological characters. The absence of individuals showing intermediate color patterns prompted Yoshii to suggest that, despite chaetotaxic identity, populations with distinct color forms represent valid species (implying reproductive isolation and therefore biological species) in what he designated as "color pattern species." In Puerto Rico Lepidocyrtus biphasis, L. dispar, and L. caprilesi show a remarkable variation in pigmentation and as a group include 11 different color forms. Here I present a phylogenetic analysis of the cytochrome oxidase I gene (COI) in 17 species of Lepidocyrtus and Pseudosinella, including 11 species and 10 color forms of Puerto Rican Lepidocyrtus, to test Yoshii's color pattern species concept. The analysis shows large genetic distances between species defined based on morphology alone (morphospecies) and between most color variants within morphospecies. The most often used calibration for the COI molecular clock (2.3% sequence divergence per million years) suggests that morphospecies diverged between 20 and 25 million years before present while color forms within morphospecies diverged between 8 and 19 million years ago. This indicates that changes in climate and sea levels during the Pleistocene were irrelevant to the speciation process in the Puerto Rican Lepidocyrtus. Examination of the genetic variation, phylogenetic relationships, and collection data in light of the biological and phylogenetic species concepts supports the hypothesis that most populations of morphospecies differing only in color pattern are distinct species, thus validating Yoshii's color pattern species concept. As a

  6. [Difficulties and concerns identified by Puerto Rican youth with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM): their relationship with metabolic control, hopelessness, social support, and depressive symptoms].

    PubMed

    Rosselló, Jeannette; Maysonet Guzmán, Marielisa

    2006-12-01

    Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) is a chronic health condition that affects 18 of every 100,000 Puerto Rican youth. Few research studies have been performed on the problems that youth with diabetes encounter and how they are related to adherence to treatment and adequate metabolic control. Adequate metabolic control is associated with fewer short and long-term medical complications, as well as better quality of life. Adapting to the demands and stressors associated with IDDM and its treatment is a task that can prove to be difficult for youth with diabetes due to having to make adjustments, alterations, and following a prescribed regimen in their daily activities. The main purpose of this investigation was to explore difficulties and worries identified by Puerto Rican youth with IDDM. This study examined whether there is a relationship between difficulties and worries, and adequate metabolic control, hopelessness, social support and depressive symptomatology. One hundred and one youth with IDDM between the ages of 8 and 17 (45 male, 56 female) were evaluated. Analysis of frequencies, correlations, and comparison tests were performed by group (gender, age, diabetes duration, and metabolic control. Results reveal that some of the difficulties identified by Puerto Rican youth with IDDM were: not eating candy and/or cake, self-monitoring blood glucose at school, doing things on time, and waking up early. Among the worries they reported were: insulin reactions and thinking that they might have to go to the hospital. PMID:17550100

  7. A slowly progressive form of limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2C associated with founder mutation in the SGCG gene in Puerto Rican Hispanics

    PubMed Central

    Al-Zaidy, Samiah A; Malik, Vinod; Kneile, Kelley; Rosales, Xiomara Q; Gomez, Ana Maria; Lewis, Sarah; Hashimoto, Sayaka; Gastier-Foster, Julie; Kang, Peter; Darras, Basil; Kunkel, Louis; Carlo, Jose; Sahenk, Zarife; Moore, Steven A; Pyatt, Robert; Mendell, Jerry R

    2015-01-01

    Limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2C (LGMD2C) is considered one of the severe forms of childhood-onset muscular dystrophy. The geographical distribution of founder mutations in the SGCG gene has a prominent effect on the prevalence of LGMD2C in certain populations. The aim of this study was to confirm the hypothesis that the c.787G>A (p.E263K) mutation in the SGCG gene is a founder mutation among Puerto Rican Hispanics and to characterize the associated clinical and immunohistochemical phenotype. Genotyping of six polymorphic microsatellite markers internal to (D13S232) and flanking (D13S175, D13S292, D13S787, D13S1243, D13S283) the SGCG gene was performed on four unrelated Puerto Rican patients with LGMD2C. Preserved ambulation to the second decade of life was observed in at least two subjects. Immunostaining of skeletal muscle demonstrated absence of γ-sarcoglycan in all affected subjects. Two markers, D13S232 and D13S292, were highly informative and confirmed that all four families share the haplotype of the mutant allele. Our findings confirm that the E263K missense mutation in the SGCG gene is a founder mutation in Puerto Rican Hispanics. A slowly progressive disease course with prolonged preservation of ambulation can be seen in association with this mutation, providing evidence for phenotypic variability. PMID:25802879

  8. Changes in host-seeking behavior of Puerto Rican Aedes aegypti after colonization.

    PubMed

    Clark, Gary G; Bernier, Ulrich R; Allan, Sandra A; Kline, Daniel L; Golden, Frances V

    2011-05-01

    The effects of colonization on host-seeking behavior of mosquitoes was examined by comparing attraction responses of newly colonized Aedes aegypti (L.) from field-collected eggs in Puerto Rico to that of the Gainesville (Florida) strain, originally from Orlando (Florida) and in colony since 1952. Females from the Orlando and the F0 through F10 generations of the Puerto Rico strain were evaluated using attractant odors in a triple-cage dual-port olfactometer. Two attractant sources were used: odors from the hand of a volunteer and a standard blend of L-lactic acid, acetone, and dimethyl disulfide. Convergence of the percentage of attraction responses occurred around the F4-F6 generations of the Puerto Rico strain. Both the Orlando and Puerto Rico strains exhibited similar responses for tests with the remaining F7-F10 generations. A temporal effect on mosquito responses was observed for both strains regardless of the attractant blend used in tests. This study indicates that Ae. aegypti host-seeking behavior changes significantly over the first four to six generations after introduction into the laboratory, whereas the field-collected strain increases in attraction response until it stabilizes at a new level. PMID:21661313

  9. Are Ataques de Nerviosa in Puerto Rican Children Associated with Psychiatric Disorder?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guarnaccia, Peter J.; Martinez, Igda; Ramirez, Rafael; Canino, Glorisa

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To provide the first empirical analysis of a cultural syndrome in children by examining the prevalence and psychiatric correlates of ataques de nervios in an epidemiological study of the mental health of children in Puerto Rico. Method: Probability samples of caretakers of children 4-17 years old in the community (N = 1,892; response…

  10. Examining the Success Factors of High-Achieving Puerto Rican Male High-School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrett, Tomas; Antrop-Gonzalez, Rene; Velez, William

    2010-01-01

    This article works to dispel the myth that Latino urban high-school students are not capable of performing at high academic levels. Whereas much educational research emphasizes the academic underachievement of urban Latino students, this article counteracts this research by describing the four success factors that three working-class Puerto Rican…

  11. Changes in host-seeking behavior of Puerto Rican Aedes aegypti (L.) following colonization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of colonization on host-seeking behavior of mosquitoes was examined by comparing attraction responses of newly colonized Aedes aegypti (L.) from field-collected eggs in Puerto Rico to that of the Gainesville (Florida) strain, originally from Orlando (Florida) and in colony since 1952. Fe...

  12. Acculturative Stress and Self-Esteem among Puerto Rican Migrant Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diaz, Joseph O. Prewitt; Santiago, Nilza

    1998-01-01

    Studied how acculturative stress affects self-esteem of 240 upper elementary school children in Puerto Rico, half of whom had never migrated, and half of whom had spent at least one academic year in the United States. Data suggest lower self-esteem for migrants and more disadvantages because they are placed in second-language programs and delayed…

  13. Natural Disaster and Risk of Psychiatric Disorders in Puerto Rican Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felix, Erika; Hernandez, Lino A.; Bravo, Milagros; Ramirez, Rafael; Cabiya, Jose; Canino, Glorisa

    2011-01-01

    We examined the persistence of psychiatric disorders at approximately 18 and 30 months after a hurricane among a random sample of the child and adolescent population (4-17 years) of Puerto Rico. Data were obtained from caretaker-child dyads (N = 1,886) through in person interviews with primary caretakers (all children) and youth (11-17 years)…

  14. Delinquents and Non-delinquents in the Puerto Rican Slum Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferracoti, Franco; And Others

    This report narrates the attempt carried out in Puerto Rico to study the differential characteristics of juvenile delinquency by way of an exhaustive and meticulous research into the living conditions, family history, social, economic, educational circumstances, and physiological and psychological variables of 101 matched pairs of delinquent and…

  15. Changes in language usage of Puerto Rican mothers and their children: Do gender and timing of exposure to English matter?

    PubMed Central

    HAMMER, CAROL SCHEFFNER; LAWRENCE, FRANK; RODRIGUEZ, BARBARA; DAVISON, MEGAN DUNN; MICCIO, ADELE W.

    2012-01-01

    This longitudinal study investigated changes in reported language usage between Puerto Rican mothers and their preschoolers over a 4-year period. It also examined whether differences in language usage occurred depending on the timing of children’s exposure to English and children’s gender. Seventy-six mothers reported the languages they and their children used when talking to each other during 2 years in Head Start, kindergarten, and first grade. Mothers of children who were exposed to Spanish and English prior to preschool entry reported using more English to their children than mothers of children who were not exposed to English until after preschool entry. The language usage of the children followed the same patterns as their mothers. The difference between the groups was maintained over the 4 years, although both groups increased their English usage. A gender effect was observed. Mothers of girls were five times more likely to use “More or All Spanish” than mothers of sons. In addition, girls who were exposed to Spanish only prior to preschool entry were six times more likely to speak to their mothers in “More or All Spanish” than other participating children. The bidimensional model of acculturation is used to present and interpret the findings. PMID:23258946

  16. Comparing Two Approaches to Acquiring HIV-Risk Data from Puerto Rican Women with Severe Mental Illness

    PubMed Central

    Heaphy, Emily L. G.; Loue, Sana

    2010-01-01

    Renewed interest has been expressed by researchers in mixed-method assessment that employs both quantitative and qualitative techniques in an expansive style that utilizes a variety of tactics to address research questions. Participants consisted of Puerto Rican women with severe mental illness living in Cuyahoga County, Ohio. The women were shadowed over a 2-year period to observe and verify behaviors that were self-reported using standardized instruments in semi-structured interviews. Concurrent criterion-related validity was employed to determine the extent of the correlation between responses obtained from the two approaches. Forty-four percent of the women were diagnosed with major depression and the mean overall GAF score was 58.5 ± 14.5. A comparison of the data collected using the different methodologies revealed that inconsistent and contradictory responses are not uncommon. The mixed-method design provided a more complete way of obtaining HIV-risk behavior data. Researchers and clinicians could benefit from mixed methods research that can provide greater opportunities to obtain data of a sensitive nature. PMID:19373553

  17. Breastfeeding ambivalence among low-income African American and Puerto Rican women in north and central Brooklyn.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, Leslie; Deenadayalan, Swarna; Karpati, Adam

    2010-09-01

    This study explores low-income African American and Puerto Rican women's conceptions and practices around breastfeeding. It examines the impact of such diverse factors as social constructions of the body, local mores around infant care, the practicalities of food availability, in the context of interactions with family members and friends, institutions, and others in women's neighborhoods. The study employed ethnographic methods, including interviews and participant observation, with 28 families in two low-income Brooklyn neighborhoods. While women in this study felt that breastfeeding was the best way to feed their infants, their commitment turned to ambivalence in the face of their perceptions about the dangers of breast milk, the virtues of formula, and the practical and sociocultural challenges of breastfeeding. Women's ambivalence resulted in a widespread complementary feeding pattern that included breast milk and formula, and resulted in short breastfeeding durations. Findings suggest the critical role of breastfeeding "ambivalence" in driving thought and action in women's lives. Ambivalence erodes the permanence of breastfeeding intention, and makes feeding practices provisional. Ambivalence challenges breastfeeding promotion strategies, resulting in weakened public health messages and a difficult-to-realize public health goal. PMID:19644744

  18. Racer efficacy study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Racer (ammonium nonanoate) is a non-selective contact herbicide that controls several weed species. Racer has been labeled by EPA in the past year for weed control in food crops and is close to receiving approval for use by organic producers. The objective of this study was to verify results from ...

  19. Mediterranean diet, healthy eating index 2005, and cognitive function in middle-aged and older Puerto Rican adults.

    PubMed

    Ye, Xingwang; Scott, Tammy; Gao, Xiang; Maras, Janice E; Bakun, Peter J; Tucker, Katherine L

    2013-02-01

    Adherence to a Mediterranean diet has recently been shown to protect against cognitive decline and dementia. It remains unclear, however, whether such protection extends to different ethnic groups and middle-aged individuals and how it might compare with adherence to the US Department of Agriculture's 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans (measured with Healthy Eating Index 2005 [HEI 2005]). This study examined associations between diet quality, as assessed by the Mediterranean diet and HEI 2005, and cognitive performance in a sample of 1,269 Puerto Rican adults aged 45 to 75 years and living in the Greater Boston area of Massachusetts. Dietary intake was assessed with a food frequency questionnaire specifically designed for and validated with this population. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet was assessed with a 0- to 9-point scale, and the HEI 2005 score was calculated with a maximum score of 100. Cognitive performance was measured with a battery of seven tests and the Mini Mental State Examination was used for global cognitive function. Greater adherence to the Mediterranean diet was associated with higher Mini Mental State Examination score (P trend=0.012) and lower likelihood (odds ratio=0.87 for each additional point; 95% CI 0.80 to 0.94; P<0.001) of cognitive impairment, after adjustment for confounders. Similarly, individuals with higher HEI 2005 score had higher Mini Mental State Examination score (P trend=0.011) and lower odds of cognitive impairment (odds ratio=0.86 for each 10 points; 95% CI 0.74 to 0.99; P=0.033). In conclusion, high adherence to either the Mediterranean diet or the diet recommended by the US Department of Agriculture 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans can protect cognitive function in middle-aged and older adults. PMID:23351632

  20. Dating, marriage, and parenthood for HIV-positive heterosexual Puerto Rican men: normalizing perspectives on everyday life with HIV.

    PubMed

    Sastre, Francisco; Sheehan, Diana M; Gonzalez, Arnaldo

    2015-03-01

    HIV-positive men are living long and healthier lives while managing HIV as a chronic illness. Although research has extensively documented the experiences of illness of people living with HIV, dating, marriage, and fatherhood among heterosexual Latino men has not been examined. To address this gap, this study used a qualitative study design to examine patterns and strategies for dating, marriage, and parenthood among 24 HIV-positive heterosexual Puerto Rican men living in Boston. The findings in our study indicate that an HIV diagnosis does not necessarily deter men from having an active sexual life, marrying, or having children. In fact, for some of the men, engaging in these social and life-changing events is part of moving on and normalizing life with HIV; these men planned for, achieved, and interpreted these events in the context of establishing normalcy with HIV. Although the HIV diagnosis discouraged some men from engaging in sexual relations, getting married, or having children, others fulfilled these desires with strategies aimed to reconciling their HIV status in their personal life, including dating or marrying HIV-positive women only. Additional important themes identified in this study include the decision to disclose HIV status to new sexual partners as well as the decision to accept the risk of HIV transmission to a child or partner in order to fulfill desires of fatherhood. Understanding the personal struggles, decision-making patterns, and needs of HIV-positive heterosexual men can aid in designing interventions that support healthy living with HIV. PMID:24794822

  1. Dating, Marriage, and Parenthood for HIV-Positive Heterosexual Puerto Rican Men: Normalizing Perspectives on Everyday Life With HIV

    PubMed Central

    Sastre, Francisco; Sheehan, Diana M.; Gonzalez, Arnaldo

    2014-01-01

    HIV-positive men are living long and healthier lives while managing HIV as a chronic illness. Although research has extensively documented the experiences of illness of people living with HIV, dating, marriage, and fatherhood among heterosexual Latino men has not been examined. To address this gap, this study used a qualitative study design to examine patterns and strategies for dating, marriage, and parenthood among 24 HIV-positive heterosexual Puerto Rican men living in Boston. The findings in our study indicate that an HIV diagnosis does not necessarily deter men from having an active sexual life, marrying, or having children. In fact, for some of the men, engaging in these social and life-changing events is part of moving on and normalizing life with HIV; these men planned for, achieved, and interpreted these events in the context of establishing normalcy with HIV. Although the HIV diagnosis discouraged some men from engaging in sexual relations, getting married, or having children, others fulfilled these desires with strategies aimed to reconciling their HIV status in their personal life, including dating or marrying HIV-positive women only. Additional important themes identified in this study include the decision to disclose HIV status to new sexual partners as well as the decision to accept the risk of HIV transmission to a child or partner in order to fulfill desires of fatherhood. Understanding the personal struggles, decision-making patterns, and needs of HIV-positive heterosexual men can aid in designing interventions that support healthy living with HIV. PMID:24794822

  2. Differences in Smoking Behavior and Attitudes Among Puerto Rican, Dominican, and Non-Latino White Caregivers of Children With Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Borrelli, Belinda; Hayes, Rashelle B.; Gregor, Kristin; Lee, Christina S.; McQuaid, Elizabeth L.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose No studies have examined the differences in smoking attitudes and behavior between Dominicans (DRs) and Puerto Ricans (PRs). Identification of pretreatment differences is important for cultural adaptation of evidenced-based smoking cessation treatments. Design Secondary analysis. Setting/Intervention Three home visits for asthma education and smoking cessation. Subjects Caregivers who smoke and have a child with asthma: DRs (n = 30), PRs (n = 67), and non-Latino whites (n = 128; NLWs). Measures Baseline assessment of psychosocial variables. Analyses Controlled for age, education, and acculturation. Results Compared with DRs, PRs were more acculturated, more nicotine dependent, less motivated and confident to quit, and identified more pros of smoking (all p < .05). Compared with NLWs, PRs were less likely to be employed, smoked fewer cigarettes per day, and had lower education, greater depressed mood, greater pros and cons of smoking, less social support, and higher child asthma morbidity (all p < .05). Compared with NLWs, DRs were less nicotine dependent, more confident to quit, and less likely to live with a smoker; reported greater cons of smoking and greater stress; and were more likely to have a household smoking ban (DRs 60% vs. NLWs 33.6%). Only 3.3% of DRs were precontemplators vs. 16.4% (PRs) and 10.9% (NLWs). Conclusions PRs appear to have more factors associated with risk of smoking treatment failure; DRs appear to have more protective factors. Examination of the role of these smoking attitudes as potential moderators and mediators of smoking behavior are needed to guide the cultural adaptation of evidenced-based treatments. PMID:21510794

  3. Biological Screening of Select Puerto Rican Plants for Cytotoxic and Antitumor Activities

    PubMed Central

    Campos, Karla Claudio; Rivera, Janibeth Hernández; Gutierrez, Jaymie Rivera; Rivera, Isamar Ortiz; Velez, Augusto Carvajal; Torres, Marianela Pérez; Ortiz, Mayra Pagán; Millán, Claudia A. Ospina

    2015-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxic and anticancer activities of extracts from 7 species of endemic and native plants from Puerto Rico. Methods The plant species selected for this study were Canella winterana, Croton discolor, Goetzea elegans, Guaiacum officinale, Pimenta racemosa, Simarouba tulae, and Thouinia striata. The dried plant material was extracted with a 1:1 mixture of CH2Cl2-MeOH. The resulting crude extract was suspended in water and extracted with solvents of different polarities. The extracts were evaluated for their cytotoxic effects against Artemia salina and 3 breast cancer cell lines. Results About 50% of the extracts evaluated against Artemia salina exhibited LC50 values of less than or equal to 200 µg/mL. The strongest activity was detected in the chloroform and ethyl acetate extracts of Guaiacum officinale, with lethality values below 10 µg/mL. The extracts were further evaluated for their bioactivity as possible inhibitors of several breast cancer cell lines, with the extracts from Simarouba tulae and Croton discolor showing the highest percentages of growth inhibition. The dose-effect data analysis for the crude extracts of the different plants also confirms the high cytotoxicities of Guaiacum officinale, Simarouba tulae, and Croton discolor. Conclusion Based on our results, we concluded that the Simarouba, Croton, and Guaiacum plant extracts show cytotoxic and anticancer activities that merit closer investigation in order to identify the chemical compounds responsible for these bioactivities. PMID:25856874

  4. Tanycytic ependymoma in a 76-year-old Puerto Rican male.

    PubMed

    Ortiz, Yvis del Mar; Pérez Berenguer, Juan L; Mercado Acosta, Juan; Polo, Mario; de Jesús-Garces, Orlando; Vega, Irving E

    2014-01-01

    Ependymoma is a slowly growing tumor in children and young adults originating from the wall of the ventricles or from the spinal canal that is composed of neoplastic ependymal cells. Tanycytic ependymoma is a rare variant of ependymoma usually arising in the intra medullary spine. The World Health Organization classifies the tanycytic ependymoma as a grade II tumor. The diagnosis of tanycytic ependymoma is challenging since the morphology of the lesions resemble those found in schwannoma and astrocytomas. In the present study, we show a case of a 76 years old male with a progressive paraparesis for 8 years, due to a spinal tumor. Radiological and histological studies were used to classify the tumor as tanycytic ependymoma. Therefore, it is important to be aware of tanycytic ependymoma and its immunohistochemistry profile in older patients, especially within the Caribbean Hispanic population. To our knowledge this is the oldest patient known to have this rare tumor and the first case reported in Puerto Rico. PMID:25550817

  5. Avian fruit preferences across a Puerto Rican forested landscape: pattern consistency and implications for seed removal.

    PubMed

    Carlo, Tomás A; Collazo, Jaime A; Groom, Martha J

    2003-01-01

    Avian fruit consumption may ensure plant reproductive success when frugivores show consistent preference patterns and effectively remove and disperse seeds. In this study we examined avian fruit preferences and their seed-removal services at five study sites in north-central Puerto Rico. At each site, we documented the diet of seven common fruit-eating avian species from February to September 1998. Using foraging observations and area-based estimates of fruit abundance, we examined preference patterns of birds. We found that 7 out of 68 fleshy-fruited plant species were responsible for most of the fruit diet of birds. Seventeen plant species were preferred and four of them were repeatedly preferred across several study sites and times by at least one avian species. Preferred plant species comprised a small percentage of fleshy fruits at each site (<15% in four out of five study sites), but showed extended phenology patterns. The quantity of seeds removed by frugivore species was not strictly related to preferences. Some frugivores showing no preference could effectively remove more seeds from plants at some locations than species exhibiting constancy in their patterns of preference. Only two frugivores, Euphonia musica and Vireo altiloquous, removed most of the seeds of plants for which they exhibited repeated preference across the landscape. Preference patterns, particularly those exhibiting consistency in space and time for plant species having prolonged fruiting periods, may have important mechanistic consequences for the persistence, succession, and regeneration of tropical plant communities. PMID:12647189

  6. Stigmatization of Illicit Drug Use among Puerto Rican Health Professionals in Training1

    PubMed Central

    Varas-Díaz, Nelson; Negrón, Salvador Santiago; Neilands, Torsten B.; Bou, Francheska Cintrón; Rivera, Souhail Malavé

    2010-01-01

    Social stigma continues to be a barrier for health promotion in our society. One of the most stigmatized health conditions in our time continues to be addiction to illicit drug use. Although it has been widely recognized as a health concern, criminalizing approaches continue to be common in Puerto Rico. Health professionals need to engage in challenging the stigma of illicit drug use in order to foster policies and government efforts with health-oriented approaches. Still, personal stigmatizing attitudes among them continue to be a barrier for the implementation of this agenda. Therefore, the main objectives of this study were to document stigma towards illicit drug use among a sample of health professionals in training, and explore differences in such attitudes among participants from different areas of training. In order to achieve this objective we carried out a sequential mixed method approach with a sample of 501 health professionals in training or practice from the disciplines of medicine, nursing, psychology and social work. Results evidence the continued existence of stigmatizing attitudes among this population. We discuss some of the implications for public health and potential strategies for action. PMID:20496525

  7. Avian fruit preferences across a Puerto Rican forested landscape: Pattern consistency and implications for seed removal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carlo, T.A.; Collazo, J.A.; Groom, M.J.

    2003-01-01

    Avian fruit consumption may ensure plant reproductive success when frugivores show consistent preference patterns and effectively remove and disperse seeds. In this study we examined avian fruit preferences and their seed-removal services at five study sites in north-central Puerto Rico. At each site, we documented the diet of seven common fruit-eating avian species from February to September 1998. Using foraging observations and area-based estimates of fruit abundance, we examined preference patterns of birds. We found that 7 out of 68 fleshy-fruited plant species were responsible for most of the fruit diet of birds. Seventeen plant species were preferred and four of them were repeatedly preferred across several study sites and times by at least one avian species. Preferred plant species comprised a small percentage of fleshy fruits at each site (<15% in four out of five study sites), but showed extended phenology patterns. The quantity of seeds removed by frugivore species was not strictly related to preferences. Some frugivores showing no preference could effectively remove more seeds from plants at some locations than species exhibiting constancy in their patterns of preference. Only two frugivores, Euphonia musica and Vireo altiloquous, removed most of the seeds of plants for which they exhibited repeated preference across the landscape. Preference patterns, particularly those exhibiting consistency in space and time for plant species having prolonged fruiting periods, may have important mechanistic consequences for the persistence, succession, and regeneration of tropical plant communities.

  8. Additive effects of vertebrate predators on insects in a Puerto Rican coffee plantation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Borkhataria, R.R.; Collazo, J.A.; Groom, M.J.

    2006-01-01

    A variety of studies have established the value of shaded coffee plantations as habitat for birds. While the value of birds as biological controls in coffee has received some attention, the interactions between birds and other predators of insects have not been tested. We used exclosures to examine the effects of vertebrate predators on the arthropods associated with coffee, in particular the coffee leafminer (Leucoptera coffeella) and the flatid planthopper Petrusa epilepsis, in a shaded coffee plantation in Puerto Rico. We used a 2 x 2 factorial design with four treatments: exclusion of birds, lizards, birds and lizards, and control (no exclusion). Abundance of insects >5 mm increased when birds or both birds and lizards were removed. Birds and lizards had an additive effect for insects <5 mm and for all insects combined. Coffee leafminers showed a weak response to removal of predators while planthopper abundance increased significantly in the absence of avian predators. Arthropod predators and parasitoids did not differ significantly between treatments. Our findings suggest that vertebrate insectivores have an additive effect on insects in coffee and may help control abundances of some coffee pests. Equally important, we present evidence suggesting that they do not interfere with other known natural enemies of coffee pests. ?? 2006 by the Ecological Society of America.

  9. Additive effects of vertebrate predators on insects in a Puerto Rican coffee plantation.

    PubMed

    Borkhataria, Rena R; Collazo, Jaime A; Groom, Martha J

    2006-04-01

    A variety of studies have established the value of shaded coffee plantations as habitat for birds. While the value of birds as biological controls in coffee has received some attention, the interactions between birds and other predators of insects have not been tested. We used exclosures to examine the effects of vertebrate predators on the arthropods associated with coffee, in particular the coffee leafminer (Leucoptera coffeella) and the flatid planthopper Petrusa epilepsis, in a shaded coffee plantation in Puerto Rico. We used a 2 x 2 factorial design with four treatments: exclusion of birds, lizards, birds and lizards, and control (no exclusion). Abundance of insects > 5 mm increased when birds or both birds and lizards were removed. Birds and lizards had an additive effect for insects < 5 mm and for all insects combined. Coffee leafminers showed a weak response to removal of predators while planthopper abundance increased significantly in the absence of avian predators. Arthropod predators and parasitoids did not differ significantly between treatments. Our findings suggest that vertebrate insectivores have an additive effect on insects in coffee and may help control abundances of some coffee pests. Equally important, we present evidence suggesting that they do not interfere with other known natural enemies of coffee pests. PMID:16711056

  10. Benthic foraminifera of Puerto Rican mangrove-lagoon systems: Potential for paleoenvironmental interpretations

    SciTech Connect

    Culver, S.J. )

    1990-02-01

    Recent foraminiferal assemblages from four traverses across mangrove-lagoonal environments off Puerto Rico exhibit patterns of distribution that should be useful in paleoenvironmental interpretations. Variations in sediment substrate type, abundance and distribution of marine vegetation, and degree of exposure to wave and current activity appear to be important factors related to foraminiferal distributions and abundances. Cluster analysis of foraminiferal abundance data distinguishes four major assemblages. Other generally recognizable trends in foraminiferal assemblages include: offshore increase in species diversity; offshore increase in percent miliolids while percent rotaliids remain more or less constant; small peaks in percent textulariids immediately adjacent to mangrove growth; almost 100% agglutinated assemblages in fully mangrove environments; offshore increase in foraminiferal number except in areas of abundant Halimeda plate production where numbers of foraminifera are diluted; restriction of high abundances of Fissurina, Nonionella, Fursenkoina and Helenina to lagoons behind mangrove islands; restrictions of high abundances of Rosalina, Cibicides, Discorbis, Spiroloculina, Cyclogyra, Quinqueloculina, Amphistegina, Peneroplis and Archaias to lagoons seaward of mangrove islands. These trends provide a micropaleontological link between a potential petroleum source, mangrove swamps, and the potential petroleum reservoir, reef rocks.

  11. The "new masculinity": addiction treatment as a reconstruction of gender in Puerto Rican evangelist street ministries.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Helena

    2012-06-01

    This article, based on ethnographic fieldwork including twelve months of participant observation and 428 interviews with 84 converts and leaders in Pentecostal ministries founded and run by former addicts in Puerto Rico, describes redefined masculinity as a treatment for addiction. Industrial disinvestment and resulting unemployment and drug trade in urban North and Latin America have led to narcotic addiction among Latino and African American men and attendant homicide, infection, and incarceration. Pentecostal-evangelical street ministries are prevalent in these regions. Their alternative vision of masculine honor and power addresses a cultural crisis of men's social space. They replace the unachievable ideal of the male breadwinner with an image of male spiritual power. In place of the violence of the drug trade, they cultivate male domesticity and responsibility for the home. In place of a deleterious drug economy, they offer the social and cultural capital of ministry networks and biblical knowledge. Yet the trajectories of ministry converts reveal the limits, as well as the promise, of evangelist masculinity as a treatment for addiction. In the course of building leadership among their converts, the ministries create their own, internal hierarchies, fall short of the spiritual democracy they espouse, and lead to relapse among those left at the bottom. PMID:21911274

  12. Family Influences on the Long Term Post-Disaster Recovery of Puerto Rican Youth

    PubMed Central

    Felix, Erika; You, Sukkyung; Vernberg, Eric; Canino, Glorisa

    2014-01-01

    This study focused on characteristics of the family environment that may mediate the relationship between disaster exposure and the presence of symptoms that met DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for symptom count and duration for an internalizing disorder in children and youth. We also explored how parental history of mental health problems may moderate this meditational model. Approximately 18 months after Hurricane Georges hit Puerto Rico in 1998, participants were randomly selected based on a probability household sample using 1990 US Census block groups. Caregivers and children (N=1,886 dyads) were interviewed with the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children and other questionnaires in Spanish. Areas of the family environment assessed include parent-child relationship quality, parent-child involvement, parental monitoring, discipline, parents’ relationship quality and parental mental health. SEM models were estimated for parents and children, and by age group. For children (4–10 years old), parenting variables were related to internalizing psychopathology, but did not mediate the exposure-psychopathology relationship. Exposure had a direct relationship to internalizing psychopathology. For youth (11–17 years old), some parenting variables attenuated the relation between exposure and internalizing psychopathology. Family environment factors may play a mediational role in psychopathology post-disaster among youth, compared to an additive role for children. Hurricane exposure had a significant relation to family environment for families without parental history of mental health problems, but no influence for families with a parental history of mental health problems. PMID:22688681

  13. Building Community Research Capacity: Process Evaluation of Community Training and Education in a Community-Based Participatory Research Program Serving a Predominately Puerto Rican Community

    PubMed Central

    Tumiel-Berhalter, Laurene M.; Mclaughlin-Diaz, Victoria; Vena, John; Crespo, Carlos J.

    2009-01-01

    Background Education and training build community research capacity and have impact on improvements of health outcomes. Objectives This manuscript describes the training and educational approaches to building research capacity that were utilized in a community-based participatory research program serving a Puerto Rican population and identifies barriers and strategies for overcoming them. Methods A process evaluation identified a multitiered approach to training and education that was critical to reaching the broad community. Results This approach included four major categories providing a continuum of education and training opportunities: networking, methods training, on-the-job experience, and community education. Participation in these opportunities supported the development of a registry, the implementation of a survey, and two published manuscripts. Barriers included the lack of a formal evaluation of the education and training components, language challenges that limited involvement of ethnic groups other than Puerto Ricans, and potential biases associated with the familiarity of the data collector and the participant. The CBPR process facilitated relationship development between the university and the community and incorporated the richness of the community experience into research design. Strategies for improvement include incorporating evaluation into every training and educational opportunity and developing measures to quantify research capacity at the individual and community levels. Conclusions Evaluating training and education in the community allows researchers to quantify the impact of CBPR on building community research capacity. PMID:19649164

  14. Relationship between perceived stress and dietary and activity patterns in older adults participating in the Boston Puerto Rican Health Study☆,☆☆

    PubMed Central

    Laugero, Kevin D.; Falcon, Luis M.; Tucker, Katherine L.

    2016-01-01

    Previous research supports a relationship between psychological stress and chronic disease in Puerto Rican adults living in the Boston, Massachusetts area. Stress may affect health by influencing dietary and physical activity patterns. Therefore, perceived stress and two hypothesized mediators of stress-related food intake, insulin and cortisol, were examined for possible associations with dietary and activity patterns in >1300 Puerto Ricans (aged 45–75 years; 70% women) living in the Boston, Massachusetts area. Data were analyzed using multiple linear regression and ANCOVA. Greater perceived stress was associated with lower fruit, vegetable, and protein intake, greater consumption of salty snacks, and lower participation in physical activity. Stress was associated with higher intake of sweets, particularly in those with type 2 diabetes. Cortisol and stress were positively associated in those without diabetes. Cortisol was associated with higher intake of saturated fat and, in those with diabetes, sweet foods. Independent of diabetes, perceived stress was associated with higher circulating insulin and BMI. Our findings support a link between stress, cortisol, and dietary and activity patterns in this population. For high-sugar foods, this relationship may be particularly important in those with type 2 diabetes. Longitudinal research to determine causal pathways for these identified associations is warranted. PMID:21070827

  15. Oral Testimony from the Hispanic Community of Greater Boston; Programa Para el Desarrollo de un Curriculo Universitario en Estudios Etnicos Puertorriquenos y Cubanos (Program for the Development of a University Curriculum in Puerto Rican and Cuban Ethnic Studies).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forbes, Robert J., Ed.

    The oral testimony presented in this document was designed to supplement materials, strategies, and recommendations contained in "Guidelines for the Development of a Program in Puerto Rican and Cuban Ethnic Heritage Studies at the Post-Secondary Level" (Curry College, 1976). Part 1, "The Hispanic Media," consists of interviews with various…

  16. Socio-Cognitive Correlates to School Achievement Using the TEMAS (Tell-Me-A-Story) Culturally Sensitive Test with Sixth, Seventh and Eighth Grades At Risk Puerto Rican Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardalda, Elsa B.; Costantino, Giuseppe

    The Tell-Me-A-Story (TEMAS) Culturally Sensitive Test was administered to 74 Puerto Rican students in a New York City school in order to measure such personality resources as conflict resolution skills and cognitive structuring of narratives. The resulting data was used to examine the degree to which these early adolescents' personality resources…

  17. Distribution and determinants of urinary biomarkers of exposure to organophosphate insecticides in Puerto Rican pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Ryan C; Cantonwine, David E; Del Toro, Liza V Anzalota; Calafat, Antonia M; Valentin-Blasini, Liza; Davis, Mark D; Montesano, M Angela; Alshawabkeh, Akram N; Cordero, José F; Meeker, John D

    2015-04-15

    Globally, human exposures to organophosphate (OP) insecticides may pose a significant burden to the health of mothers and their developing fetuses. Unfortunately, relevant data is limited in certain areas of the world concerning sources of exposure to OP insecticides in pregnant populations. To begin to address this gap in information for Puerto Rico, we studied repeated measures of urinary concentrations of 10 OP insecticide metabolites among 54 pregnant women from the northern karst region of the island. We also collected demographic data and self-reported information on the consumption of fruits, vegetables, and legumes in the past 48 h before urine collection and home pest-related issues. We calculated the distributions of the urinary biomarkers and compared them to women of reproductive age from the general U.S. population. We also used statistical models accounting for correlated data to assess within-subject temporal variability of the urinary biomarkers and to identify predictors of exposure. We found that for all but two metabolites (para-nitrophenol [PNP], diethylthiophosphate [DETP]), 50th or 95th percentile urinary concentrations (the metric that was used for comparison was based on the biomarker's detection frequency) of the other eight metabolites (3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol [TCPY], 2-isopropyl-4-methyl-6-hydroxy-pyrimidine, malathion dicarboxylic acid, diethylphosphate, diethyldithiophosphate, dimethylphosphate, dimethylthiophosphate [DMTP], dimethyldithiophosphate) were somewhat lower in our cohort compared with similarly aged women from the continental United States. TCPY, PNP, DETP, and DMTP, which were the only urinary metabolites detected in greater than 50% of the samples, had poor reproducibility (intraclass correlation coefficient range: 0.19-0.28) during pregnancy. Positive predictors of OP insecticide exposure included: age; marital or employment status; consumption of cherries, grape juice, peanuts, peanut butter, or raisins; and

  18. Diet quality, social determinants and weight status in 12-year-old Puerto Rican children

    PubMed Central

    Torres, Roxana; Santos, Elvia; Orraca, Luis; Elias, Augusto; Palacios, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Diet quality may be influenced by social determinants and weight status. This has not been studied in Puerto Rico (PR); therefore, this cross-sectional study examined if diet quality, assessed by the Healthy Eating Index-2005 (HEI-2005), differs by social determinants (gender, school type and region) and weight status in children in PR. As part of an “island-wide” study to evaluate oral health in 1,550 12-year-old children, dietary intake was assessed in a representative subset (n=796) using a 24-hr diet recall. Diet quality was evaluated from the diet recall results using the HEI-2005. Overall mean HEI-2005 score was 40.9, out of a total maximum score of 100. Girls had significantly higher scores for whole fruit, total vegetables, whole grains, and sodium but lower scores for total grains and milk compared to boys (p<0.05). Children from public schools had higher scores for total fruit, whole fruit, dark-green and orange vegetables and legumes, but lower scores for whole grains and milk compared to those from private schools (p<0.05). Children from the Central Mountains had higher scores for the dark-green and orange vegetables and legumes and whole fruit compared to the other regions (p<0.05). Overweight children had significantly higher scores for total vegetables and milk but lower scores for total fruit and sodium as compared to non-overweight children (p<0.01). In conclusion, some components of diet quality were associated with the social determinants studied and with weight status in this sample. Overall diet quality needs improvement in PR children so that it is better aligned with dietary recommendations. PMID:24656710

  19. Antenatal screening for Down syndrome with special considerations in the Puerto Rican population.

    PubMed

    López-Cepero, Ronald; Lynch, Lauren; Zorrilla, Carmen; Leavitt, Karla; de la Vega, Alberto

    2011-12-01

    Down syndrome is the most studied chromosomal abnormality, and the risk of having a child with Down syndrome increases as maternal age increases. The prevalence of Down syndrome has been increasing in the last decade because more women older than 35 years of age are having children. In recent decades, the rate of identification of fetal anomalies in the uterus has substantially increased. Diagnostically speaking, serious concerns yet remain within the obstetrical community regarding who should be recommended for invasive procedures. The FASTER, SURUSS, and BUN studies have attempted to address this issue. In the United States, the quadruple screen for Down syndrome (hcG, AFP, estriol, and inhibin-A) is the most commonly used test today. During the first trimester, the nuchal translucency measurement combined with serum markers hcG and PAPP-A (pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A) results in high detection rates and low false-positive rates. For Down syndrome screening, new methods of evaluation have been proposed; among these are integrated, sequential, and contingent modalities. Different trials have demonstrated that first-trimester screening for Down syndrome is very effective, but all conclude that combining screening during both trimesters allows for lower false-positive values and higher detection rates. In Puerto Rico, in spite of the fact that a large proportion of the population undergoes serum screening, the rate of Down syndrome live births remains steady. One important aspect that appears to limit prenatal diagnosis of Down syndrome in our population is a poor acceptance rate of diagnostic testing techniques such as amniocentesis. Also, a limited efficiency in the implementation of these screening methods as well as their diagnostic success has been observed for our patient population. PMID:22263303

  20. Distribution and determinants of urinary biomarkers of exposure to organophosphate insecticides in Puerto Rican pregnant women

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Ryan C.; Cantonwine, David E.; Anzalota Del Toro, Liza V.; Calafat, Antonia M.; Valentin-Blasini, Liza; Davis, Mark D.; Montesano, M. Angela; Alshawabkeh, Akram N.; Cordero, José F.

    2015-01-01

    Globally, human exposures to organophosphate (OP) insecticides may pose a significant burden to the health of mothers and their developing fetuses. Unfortunately, relevant data is limited in certain areas of the world concerning sources of exposure to OP insecticides in pregnant populations. To begin to address this gap in information for Puerto Rico, we studied repeated measures of urinary concentrations of 10 OP insecticide metabolites among 54 pregnant women from the northern karst region of the island. We also collected demographic data and self-reported information on the consumption of fruits, vegetables, and legumes in the past 48-hr before urine collection and home pest-related issues. We calculated the distributions of the urinary biomarkers and compared them to women of reproductive age from the general U.S. population. We also used statistical models accounting for correlated data to assess within-subject temporal variability of the urinary biomarkers and to identify predictors of exposure. We found that for all but two metabolites (para-nitrophenol [PNP], diethylthiophosphate [DETP]), 50th or 95th percentile urinary concentrations (the metric that was used for comparison was based on the biomarker’s detection frequency) of the other eight metabolites (3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol [TCPY], 2-isopropyl-4-methyl-6-hydroxy-pyrimidine, malathion dicarboxylic acid, diethylphosphate, diethyldithiophosphate, dimethylphosphate, dimethylthiophosphate [DMTP], dimethyldithiophosphate) were somewhat lower in our cohort compared with similarly aged women from the continental United States. TCPY, PNP, DETP, and DMTP, which were the only urinary metabolites detected in greater than 50% of the samples, had poor reproducibility (intraclass correlation coefficient range: 0.19–0.28) during pregnancy. Positive predictors of OP insecticide exposure included: age; marital or employment status; consumption of cherries, grape juice, peanuts, peanut butter, or raisins; and

  1. Modular Sequence: Puerto Rican Pupils in Mainland Schools. TTP 003.07. The Educational System in Puerto Rico. Teacher Corps Bilingual Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartford Univ., West Hartford, CT. Coll. of Education.

    This module provides readers with a comprehensive view of the historical development of education in Puerto Rico, including the present. Upon completion of this module, participants will be able to (a) describe significant historical developments of the educational system in Puerto Rico, (b) compare/contrast philosophical and structural…

  2. Strategies for Managing the Dual Risk of Sexually Transmitted Infections and Unintended Pregnancy Among Puerto Rican and African American Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Hock-Long, Linda; Kraft, Joan Marie; Henry-Moss, Dare; Hatfield-Timajchy, Kendra; Singer, Merrill

    2012-01-01

    Although young adults in the United States are at increased risk for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and unintended pregnancy, they do not report high rates of dual-method use (condoms plus other contraception) for prevention. We used prospective qualitative data from 69 urban Puerto Rican and African American individuals aged 18 to 25 years to determine how they managed these risks in their heterosexual relationships during a 4- to 8-week period. Hormonal or long-acting contraceptive use, condoms, and withdrawal were the most common unintended pregnancy prevention strategies; condoms, STI testing, and perceived fidelity were dominant among STI prevention strategies. We need to shift the focus from dual-method use toward a broader concept of dual protection to be more responsive to young adults’ concerns, perceptions, and priorities. PMID:22390507

  3. Puerto Rican founder mutation G787A in the SGCG gene: a case report of 2 siblings with LGMD 2C.

    PubMed

    DiCapua, Daniel; Patwa, Huned

    2014-03-01

    We describe 2 siblings who are homozygous for the G787A mutation in the γ-sarcoglycan gene (SGCG), who presented with a severe childhood onset limb-girdle muscular dystrophy, and share a similar clinical phenotype and disease course consistent with LGMD 2C. The siblings' mother is asymptomatic and is heterozygous for the same mutation. The father is estranged but presumably was also an asymptomatic heterozygous carrier as the father's sister (siblings' aunt) died of complications related to a muscular dystrophy at the age of 14. The paternal grandparents of these siblings were first cousins. All members of the family are of Puerto Rican ancestry supporting the theory that this is a founder mutation, as has been previously suggested by Duncan et al The clinical presentation, workup, and course of our patients are described in detail. These 2 cases effectively double the reported cases of this founder mutation. PMID:24534832

  4. Hermansky-Pudlak Syndrome Type 3 in Ashkenazi Jews and Other Non–Puerto Rican Patients with Hypopigmentation and Platelet Storage-Pool Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Huizing, Marjan; Anikster, Yair; Fitzpatrick, Diana L.; Jeong, Anna B.; D’Souza, Maria; Rausche, Melanie; Toro, Jorge R.; Kaiser-Kupfer, Muriel I.; White, James G.; Gahl, William A.

    2001-01-01

    Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome (HPS), consisting of oculocutaneous albinism and a bleeding diathesis due to the absence of platelet dense granules, displays extensive locus heterogeneity. HPS1 mutations cause HPS-1 disease, and ADTB3A mutations cause HPS-2 disease, which is known to involve abnormal intracellular vesicle formation. A third HPS-causing gene, HPS3, was recently identified on the basis of homozygosity mapping of a genetic isolate of HPS in central Puerto Rico. We now describe the clinical and molecular characteristics of eight patients with HPS-3 who are of non–Puerto Rican heritage. Five are Ashkenazi Jews; three of these are homozygous for a 1303+1G→A splice-site mutation that causes skipping of exon 5, deleting an RsaI restriction site and decreasing the amounts of mRNA found on northern blotting. The other two are heterozygous for the 1303+1G→A mutation and for either an 1831+2T→G or a 2621-2A→G splicing mutation. Of 235 anonymous Ashkenazi Jewish DNA samples, one was heterozygous for the 1303+1G→A mutation. One seven-year-old boy of German/Swiss extraction was compound heterozygous for a 2729+1G→C mutation, causing skipping of exon 14, and resulting in a C1329T missense (R396W), with decreased mRNA production. A 15-year-old Irish/English boy was heterozygous for an 89-bp insertion between exons 16 and 17 resulting from abnormal splicing; his fibroblast HPS3 mRNA is normal in amount but is increased in size. A 12-year-old girl of Puerto Rican and Italian background has the 3,904-bp founder deletion from central Puerto Rico on one allele. All eight patients have mild symptoms of HPS; two Jewish patients had received the diagnosis of ocular, rather than oculocutaneous, albinism. These findings expand the molecular diagnosis of HPS, provide a screening method for a mutation common among Jews, and suggest that other patients with mild hypopigmentation and decreased vision should be examined for HPS. PMID:11590544

  5. African Dust Storms Reaching Puerto Rican Coast Stimulate the Secretion of IL-6 and IL-8 and Cause Cytotoxicity to Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells (BEAS-2B)

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Cotto, Rosa I.; Ortiz-Martínez, Mario G.; Rivera- Ramírez, Evasomary; Méndez, Loyda B.; Dávila, Julio C.; Jiménez-Vélez, Braulio D.

    2014-01-01

    African dust storm events (ADE) travel across the Atlantic Ocean (ADEAO) and reach the Puerto Rican coast (ADEPRC), potentially impacting air quality and human health. To what extent seasonal variations in atmospheric particulate matter (PM) size fractions, composition and sources trigger respiratory-adverse effects to Puerto Ricans is still unclear. In the present study, we investigated the pro-inflammatory and cytotoxic effects of PM samples harvested during ADEAO (PM10), ADEPRC (PM2.5 and PM10) and Non-ADE (Preand Post-ADEAO and Non-ADEPRC), using BEAS-2B cells. Endotoxins (ENX) in PM2.5 and PM10 extracts and traces of metals (TMET) in PM2.5 extracts were also examined. IL-6 and IL-8 secretion and cytotoxicity were used as endpoints. ADEAO and ADEPRC extracts were found to be more cytotoxic than Non-ADE and ADEAO were more toxic than ADEPRC extracts. PM10 extracts from ADEAO and Post-ADEAO caused significant secretion of IL-8. IL-6 and IL-8 secretion was higher following treatment with PM10 and PM2.5 ADEPRC than with Non-ADEPRC extracts. ENX levels were found to be higher in PM10 ADEAO than in the rest of the samples tested. TMET levels were higher in PM2.5 ADEPRC than in Non-ADEPRC extracts. Deferoxamine significantly reduced cytotoxicity and IL-6 and IL-8 secretion whereas Polymyxin B did not. TMET in PM2.5 fractions is a major determinant in ADEPRC-induced toxicity and work in conjunction with ENX to cause toxicity to lung cells in vitro. ENX and TMET may be responsible, in part, for triggering PM-respiratory adverse responses in susceptible and predisposed individuals. PMID:25002916

  6. African Dust Storms Reaching Puerto Rican Coast Stimulate the Secretion of IL-6 and IL-8 and Cause Cytotoxicity to Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells (BEAS-2B).

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Cotto, Rosa I; Ortiz-Martínez, Mario G; Rivera-Ramírez, Evasomary; Méndez, Loyda B; Dávila, Julio C; Jiménez-Vélez, Braulio D

    2013-10-01

    African dust storm events (ADE) travel across the Atlantic Ocean (ADEAO) and reach the Puerto Rican coast (ADEPRC), potentially impacting air quality and human health. To what extent seasonal variations in atmospheric particulate matter (PM) size fractions, composition and sources trigger respiratory-adverse effects to Puerto Ricans is still unclear. In the present study, we investigated the pro-inflammatory and cytotoxic effects of PM samples harvested during ADEAO (PM10), ADEPRC (PM2.5 and PM10) and Non-ADE (Preand Post-ADEAO and Non-ADEPRC), using BEAS-2B cells. Endotoxins (ENX) in PM2.5 and PM10 extracts and traces of metals (TMET) in PM2.5 extracts were also examined. IL-6 and IL-8 secretion and cytotoxicity were used as endpoints. ADEAO and ADEPRC extracts were found to be more cytotoxic than Non-ADE and ADEAO were more toxic than ADEPRC extracts. PM10 extracts from ADEAO and Post-ADEAO caused significant secretion of IL-8. IL-6 and IL-8 secretion was higher following treatment with PM10 and PM2.5 ADEPRC than with Non-ADEPRC extracts. ENX levels were found to be higher in PM10 ADEAO than in the rest of the samples tested. TMET levels were higher in PM2.5 ADEPRC than in Non-ADEPRC extracts. Deferoxamine significantly reduced cytotoxicity and IL-6 and IL-8 secretion whereas Polymyxin B did not. TMET in PM2.5 fractions is a major determinant in ADEPRC-induced toxicity and work in conjunction with ENX to cause toxicity to lung cells in vitro. ENX and TMET may be responsible, in part, for triggering PM-respiratory adverse responses in susceptible and predisposed individuals. PMID:25002916

  7. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase variants associated with hypertension and cardiovascular disease interact with dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids to modulate plasma homocysteine in puerto rican adults.

    PubMed

    Huang, Tao; Tucker, Katherine L; Lee, Yu-Chi; Crott, Jimmy W; Parnell, Laurence D; Shen, Jian; Smith, Caren E; Ordovas, Jose M; Li, Duo; Lai, Chao-Qiang

    2011-04-01

    Although methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) genetic variants are associated with plasma homocysteine (Hcy) and cardiovascular disease (CVD), little is known whether dietary fatty acid intake modulates these associations. The goal was to examine the interaction of MTHFR variants with dietary fatty acids influencing plasma Hcy in 995 Boston Puerto Rican adults. We found that plasma Hcy concentration was negatively correlated with (n-3) PUFA intake (r = -0.117; P = 0.022), and the ratio of (n-3):(n-6) PUFA in the diet (r = -0.122; P = 0.009). Further, 2 functional MTHFR variants, 1298A>C and 677C>T, which are not in linkage disequilibrium in this population, were significantly associated with hypertension (OR = 1.72, P = 0.024, and OR = 1.60, P = 0.002, respectively). In addition, the 1298A>C variant was significantly associated with CVD (OR = 3.32; P = 0.030). Importantly, this variant exhibited significant interactions with intakes of total and (n-6) PUFA and the (n-3):(n-6) PUFA ratio of the diet. The plasma Hcy concentration of carriers of risk allele 1298C was greater than that of noncarriers only when participants had consumed a high-PUFA diet (>7.8% energy) but was not greater when they had low intake of PUFA (≤7.8% energy). In addition, participants with combined genotypes of both SNP (677 TT with 1298 AC or CC) who consumed high levels of (n-3) PUFA (>0.66% energy) had lower plasma Hcy compared with those who had the same genotype and consumed low levels of (n-3) PUFA (≤0.66% energy). Our study suggests that dietary PUFA intake modulates the effect of 2 MTHFR variants on plasma Hcy in Boston Puerto Rican adults. PMID:21270364

  8. No effects of low and high consumption of dairy products and calcium supplements on body composition and serum lipids in Puerto Rican obese adults

    PubMed Central

    Palacios, Cristina; Bertrán, José J.; Ríos, Ruth E.; Soltero, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    Objective Epidemiologic studies have shown that a high calcium intake is related to lower body weight, fat, and serum lipids in obese individuals. However, clinical studies have shown inconclusive results. The present study was conducted to determine if dairy or calcium supplementation alters body composition or serum lipids in Puerto Rican obese adults without dietary energy restriction or exercise. Methods A 21-wk randomized clinical trial was conducted in 30 obese adults, aged 21–50 y, with usual calcium intakes <700 mg/d. Subjects were randomly assigned to the following: high dairy (~1300 mg/d of calcium from dairy products by substituting foods); high calcium (~1300 mg/d of calcium; ~700 mg/d from diet and 600 mg/d from a supplement); or placebo. Subjects were asked to continue their established dietary intake (except for the high dairy group) and their physical activity during the study. Body weight was measured monthly; body fat, bone, and serum lipids (total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein, and triacylglycerol) were measured at baseline and at 21 wk. Pairwise differences in study endpoints among the groups were assessed using ANOVA and post-hoc analysis. Results Grand mean calcium intake was 1200 ± 370 (median 1187) mg/d in the high dairy group, 1171 ± 265 (median 1165) mg/d in the high calcium group, and 668 ± 273 (median 691) mg/d in the control group, which was significantly lower compared to the two treatment groups (P < 0.001). There were no significant group effects in any of the outcome variables. Conclusion A high dairy or calcium diet alone did not alter body composition or serum lipids profile in a sample of Puerto Rican obese adults. PMID:20579848

  9. The effect of supplementation with vitamin A on serum and liver concentrations in Puerto Rican crested toads (Peltophryne lemur) and its lack of impact on brown skin disease.

    PubMed

    Dutton, Christopher; Lentini, Andrew; Berkvens, Charlene; Crawshaw, Graham

    2014-01-01

    "Brown skin disease" (BSD) is a clinical syndrome of dysecdysis, chronic weight loss and death, previously reported in Puerto Rican crested toads (Peltophryne lemur). Although vitamin A deficiency has been suggested, its cause remains unknown and multiple treatments have failed to prevent or reverse the condition. This study compared the efficacy of vitamin A supplementation, administered in different forms and by different routes, in 48 captive born Puerto Rican crested toads fed from metamorphosis on gut-loaded, dusted, commercially raised crickets. Forty-five toads started to show clinical signs of BSD at 9 months of age; all toads were treated orally with an oil-based vitamin A formulation twice weekly for 2 months but continued to deteriorate. Two treatment groups were then compared: Animals in one group (n=19) received 2 IU injectable vitamin A (Aquasol-A) per gram bodyweight subcutaneously twice weekly for 3 months with no change in diet. Toads in the other group (n=22) received a single oral dose of vitamins A, D3 , and E, and were fed on earthworms and crickets gut-loaded with produce and a finely-ground alfalfa-based pellet, dusted with the same vitamin/mineral supplement. All affected animals developed severe BSD equally and died during, or were euthanized at the end of, the treatment regimen, with no clinical improvement. Animals supplemented with Aquasol-A had significantly higher liver vitamin A concentrations compared with the other treatment group, whereas serum retinol concentrations showed no significant difference. Vitamin A supplementation does not appear a successful treatment once BSD symptoms have developed. PMID:25183002

  10. Hablamos! Puerto Ricans Speak.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yurchenco, Henrietta

    This narrative comprises the stories, opinions, and beliefs of the following people: Dona Lola--an octogenarian who still remembers her childhood; Minnie Roses--daughter of the owner of a once flourishing coffee plantation; Noberto Cedeno--a sculptor of popular artifacts; Castor Ayala--in his sixties, he is Loiza Aldea's most famous mask-maker and…

  11. Reduced Functional Connectivity within the Mesocorticolimbic System in Substance Use Disorders: An fMRI Study of Puerto Rican Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Posner, Jonathan; Amira, Leora; Algaze, Antonio; Canino, Glorisa; Duarte, Cristiane S.

    2016-01-01

    Studies of the mesocorticolimbic reward system (MCLS) and its relationship with impulsivity and substance use disorders (SUD) have largely focused on individuals from non-minority backgrounds. This represents a significant gap in the literature particularly for minority populations who are disproportionately affected by the consequences of SUD. Using resting-state functional MRI (fMRI), we examined the coherence of neural activity, or functional connectivity, within the brain’s MCLS in 28 young adult Puerto Ricans (ages 25–27) who were part of a population-based cohort study. Half of the sample lived in San Juan, Puerto Rico; the other half lived in the South Bronx, New York. At each of the two sites, half of the sample had a history of a SUD. Relative to those without SUD, individuals with SUD had decreased connectivity between the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) and several regions within the MCLS. This finding was true irrespective of study site (i.e., San Juan or South Bronx). Reduced connectivity within the MCLS was also associated with higher self-reported levels of impulsivity. Path analysis suggested a potential mechanism linking impulsivity, the MCLS, and SUD: impulsivity, potentially by chronically promoting reward seeking behaviors, may contribute to decreased MCLS connectivity, which in turn, may confer vulnerability for SUD. Expanding upon prior studies suggesting that alterations within the MCLS underlie SUD, our findings suggest that such alterations are also related to impulsivity and are present in a high-risk young minority population. PMID:27252633

  12. Racer efficacy study, Fall 2008

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Research in 2007 demonstrated the effectiveness of Racer (ammonium nonanoate) for burn-down control of several weed species. Racer has been labeled by EPA in the past year for burn-down weed control in food crops and is close to receiving approval for use by organic producers. The objective of thi...

  13. HIV/AIDS in a Puerto Rican/Dominican Community: A Collaborative Project with a Botanical Shop.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delgado, Melvin; Santiago, Jorge

    1998-01-01

    Presents an overview of the literature concerning HIV/AIDS in Latino communities in the United States and Puerto Rico. Discusses the presence of botanical shops (where herbal medicines and other healing paraphernalia can be purchased) in Latino culture. Describes Projecto Cooperacion, a project that utilized botanical shops as a means of…

  14. Integration of Instructional Design Principles to Online Courses and Faculty Training in Three Puerto Rican Institutions of Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez, Wanda W.

    2011-01-01

    Research on how the principles of instructional design are taught in faculty training courses for online teaching and how faculty members incorporate these principles into their online courses is limited. This gap in the research literature is especially pronounced when considering the relatively new online learning context of Puerto Rico's higher…

  15. Relationship of Non-Economic Variables to Patterns of Saving of Farm Families in a Puerto Rican County.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segarra-Ortiz, Hilda

    This study examined the relationship between income and saving patterns in rural Puerto Rico. It was hypothesized that social and psychological variables are related to saving habits of families. The level of living as measured by a scale based on possessions was found to be significantly (.33) associated with the saving patterns of the family.…

  16. Stable isotope investigation of insect and plant use in the diets of two Puerto Rican bat species

    EPA Science Inventory

    We used stable isotope (δ13C, δ15N) analysis to estimate the importance of plants and insects to the diet of two nectar-feeding bats on Puerto Rico, the brown flower bat (Erophylla bombifrons) and the Greater Antillean long-tongued bat (Monophyllus redmani). Stable carbon and nit...

  17. Unexpected Benefits: Pathways From Smoking Restrictions in the Home to Psychological Well-Being and Distress Among Urban Black and Puerto Rican Americans

    PubMed Central

    Brook, Judith S.; Koppel, Jonathan; Lee, Jung Yeon

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: This study examined the pathways from smoking policies in the home (no ban, partial ban, and total ban on smoking) to psychological well-being (e.g., self-esteem) and psychological symptoms (e.g., depressive symptoms) as mediated by a healthy lifestyle (engaging in exercise, eating healthful foods, and sleeping enough) and cigarette smoking among a sample of urban Black and Puerto Rican Americans. Methods: Questionnaire data were collected from 816 participants (mean age = 32 years). Structural equation modeling (SEM) was employed to examine the pathways of restrictions on smoking in the home to a healthy lifestyle, cigarette smoking, psychological well-being, and psychological distress. Results: The SEM showed mediational pathways linking higher levels of restrictions on smoking in the home with a healthy lifestyle, which in turn was related negatively to psychological distress and positively to psychological well-being. Higher levels of restrictions on smoking in the home were also related inversely to cigarette smoking, which was related positively to psychological distress and negatively to psychological well-being. Conclusions: Findings show that higher levels of restrictions on smoking in the home are associated with a healthier lifestyle and less cigarette smoking, which in turn are associated with better psychological functioning. Greater restrictions on smoking in the home may thus support positive lifestyle choices, including exercise and nutrition, as well as psychological functioning. PMID:21498429

  18. Sexual identity formation and AIDS prevention: an exploratory study of non-gay-identified Puerto Rican MSM from working class neighborhoods.

    PubMed

    Finlinson, H Ann; Colón, Héctor M; Robles, Rafaela R; Soto, Mayra

    2006-09-01

    As a subgroup of men who have sex with men (MSM), non-gay-identified (NGI) behaviorally bisexual Latino MSM are associated with heightened probabilities of HIV transmission, yet they have eluded HIV/AIDS interventionists. This exploratory study of Puerto Rican MSM drug users employed multi-session qualitative interviews to examine early life experiences related to gender identity and sexual orientation, and the place of risky drug and sexual behaviors in the process of sexual identity formation. NGI participants experienced sexual debut between ages 13 and 20, and most were recruited to prostitution as young teens by NGI age mates who were also members of drug use networks. Participants emphasized their role as insertive sexual partners and that they maintained relationships with pasivo biological males. It is feasible to recruit NGI MSM through primary male sexual partners and drug use networks. HIV/AIDS prevention based on awareness of developmental histories holds promise for intervening before NGI youth engage in male prostitution or injection drug use. PMID:16736111

  19. Adolescent Self-Control Predicts Joint Trajectories of Marijuana Use and Depressive Mood into Young Adulthood Among Urban African Americans and Puerto Ricans

    PubMed Central

    Pahl, Kerstin; Brook, Judith S.; Lee, Jung Yeon

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have identified an association between depressive mood and marijuana use. We examined adolescent self-control as a predictor of membership in joint developmental trajectories of depressive mood and marijuana use from adolescence to young adulthood. Urban African Americans and Puerto Ricans (N=838) were sampled when participants were on average 14, 19, 24, and 29 years old. Using growth mixture modeling, four joint trajectory groups of depressive mood and marijuana use were established: low marijuana use/low depressive mood, low marijuana use/intermediate depressive mood, high marijuana use/low depressive mood, and high marijuana use/high depressive mood. Weighted logistic regression analysis showed that self-control at age 14 distinguished the high marijuana use/high depressive mood group and the low marijuana use/low depressive mood group from each of the other groups. Findings show that the co-occurrence of high levels of marijuana use and depressive mood from adolescence into young adulthood is predicted by low levels of self-control in adolescence. On the other hand, high selfcontrol is associated with low marijuana use and low levels of depression over time. Thus, while deficits in self-control in adolescence constitute a significant risk for maladjustment over time, high self-control exerts a protective factor with regard to marijuana use and depressive mood into young adulthood. PMID:23670644

  20. Estudio Cultural de Puerto Rico. A Cultural Study of Puerto Rico.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santiago, Jorge; And Others

    This book presents resource materials for teaching the cultural heritage of the Puerto Rican student. It includes biographical sketches of outstanding figures in Puerto Rican history from colonial times to the twentieth century. It also contains descriptions of national festivities and holidays, as well as poetry representative of Puerto Rican…

  1. The Role of Peers in the Relation between Hurricane Exposure and Ataques de Nervios among Puerto Rican Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Rubens, Sonia L.; Felix, Erika D.; Vernberg, Eric M.; Canino, Glorisa

    2014-01-01

    Although a relation between disaster exposure and ataques de nervios (ataques) has been established in adult samples, little is known about this among youth, including factors that may moderate this relation. This study examined the role of the peer context in the relation between exposure to Hurricane Georges and experiencing a past year and lifetime ataques among a representative community sample of 905 youth (N = 476 boys and 429 girls; ages 11–18) residing in Puerto Rico. Data were gathered from 1999–2000 in Puerto Rico, 12–27 months following Hurricane Georges. Logistic regression analyses found that peer violence significantly predicted experiencing an ataque in the past year. Hurricane exposure and peer violence were both significant predictors of a lifetime experience of an ataque. An interaction was found between hurricane exposure and peer violence, indicating that hurricane exposure was significantly related to a lifetime experience of an ataque among adolescents who do not report associating with violent peers. For participants reporting high levels of peer violence, hurricane exposure did not add additional risk for a lifetime experience of an ataque. Understanding the influence of peers in the relation between hurricane exposure and experiencing an ataque may assist in planning developmentally and culturally sensitive response plans. PMID:25436037

  2. A New Destination for "The Flying Bus"?: The Implications of Orlando-Rican Migration for Luis Rafael Sanchez's "La guagua aerea"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barreneche, Gabriel Ignacio; Lombardi, Jane; Ramos-Flores, Hector

    2012-01-01

    Puerto Rican author Luis Rafael Sanchez's "La guagua aerea" explores the duality, hybridity, and fluidity of US-Puerto Rican identity through the frequent travel of migrants between New York City (the traditional destination city for Puerto Rican migrants) and the island. In recent years, however, the "flying bus" has adopted a new number one…

  3. 600 yr High-Resolution Climate Reconstruction of the Atlantic Multidecadal Variability deduced from a Puerto Rican Speleothem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winter, A.; Vieten, R.

    2015-12-01

    A multi-proxy speleothem study tracks the regional hydrological variability in Puerto Rico and highlights its close relation to the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation. Our proxy record extends instrumental observations 600 years into the past, and reveals the range of natural hydrologic variability for the region. A detailed interpretation and understanding of the speleothem climate record is achieved by the combination of multi-proxy measurements, thin section petrography, XRD analysis and cave monitoring results. The speleothem was collected in Cueva Larga, a one mile-long cave system that has been monitored since 2012. MC-ICPMS 230Th/U-dating reveals that the speleothem grew constantly over the last 600 years. Trace element ratios (Sr/Ca and Mg/Ca) as well as stable isotope ratios (δ18O and δ13C) elucidate significant changes in atmospheric precipitation at the site. Monthly cave monitoring results demonstrate that the epikarst system responds to multi-annual changes in seepage water recharge. The drip water isotope and trace element composition lack short term or seasonal variability. This hydrological system creates favorable conditions to deduce decadal climate variability from Cueva Larga's climate record. The speleothem time series mimics the most-recently published AMO reconstruction over the last 200 years with a time lag of 10-20 years. The time lag seems to results from slow atmospheric signal transmission through the epikarst but the effect of dating uncertainties cannot be ruled out. Warm SSTs in the North Atlantic are related to drier conditions in Puerto Rico. During times of decreased rainfall a relative increase in prior calcite precipitation seems to be the main process causing increased Mg/Ca trace element ratios. High trace element ratios correlate to higher δ13C values. The increase in both proxies indicates a shift towards time periods of decreased rainfall. Over the past 600 years there are two intervals of increased Mg/Ca and δ13C values

  4. 600 yr High-Resolution Climate Reconstruction of the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation deduced from a Puerto Rican Speleothem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieten, Rolf; Winter, Amos; Scholz, Denis; Black, David; Spoetl, Christoph; Winterhalder, Sophie; Koltai, Gabriella; Schroeder-Ritzrau, Andrea; Terzer, Stefan; Zanchettin, Davide; Mangini, Augusto

    2016-04-01

    A multi-proxy speleothem study tracks the regional hydrological variability in Puerto Rico and highlights its close relation to the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) describing low-frequency sea-surface temperature (SST) variability in the North Atlantic ocean. Our proxy record extends instrumental observations 600 years into the past, and reveals the range of natural hydrologic variability for the region. A detailed interpretation and understanding of the speleothem climate record is achieved by the combination of multi-proxy measurements, thin section petrography, XRD analysis and cave monitoring results. The speleothem was collected in Cueva Larga, a one mile-long cave system that has been monitored since 2012. MC-ICPMS 230Th/U-dating reveals that the speleothem grew constantly over the last 600 years. Trace element ratios (Sr/Ca and Mg/Ca) as well as stable isotope ratios (δ18O and δ13C) elucidate significant changes in atmospheric precipitation at the site. Monthly cave monitoring results demonstrate that the epikarst system responds to multi-annual changes in seepage water recharge. The drip water isotope and trace element composition lack short term or seasonal variability. This hydrological system creates favorable conditions to deduce decadal climate variability from Cueva Larga's climate record. The speleothem time series mimics the most recent AMO reconstruction over the last 200 years (Svendsen et al., 2014) with a time lag of 10-20 years. The lag seems to results from slow atmospheric signal transmission through the epikarst but the effect of dating uncertainties cannot be ruled out. Warm SSTs in the North Atlantic are related to drier conditions in Puerto Rico. During times of decreased rainfall a relative increase in prior calcite precipitation seems to be the main process causing increased Mg/Ca trace element ratios. High trace element ratios correlate to higher δ13C values. The increase in both proxies indicates a shift towards time

  5. "That's True Love:" Lived Experiences of Puerto Rican Perinatally HIV-Infected Youth within Their Families' Context.

    PubMed

    Silva-Suárez, Georgina; Bastida, Elena; Rabionet, Silvia E; Beck-Sagué, Consuelo; Febo, Irma; Zorrilla, Carmen D

    2016-01-01

    The burden of HIV affects not only HIV-infected patients but also their families and caregivers. It is also known that family support is crucial for people living with HIV. A qualitative study was conducted to explore the life experiences, within the family context, of perinatally HIV-infected (pHIV-I) youth in Puerto Rico. Twenty in-depth interviews were performed and audio-recorded. Within the family context, study participants experienced acceptance, love and support but also stigma and discrimination. They reported that family is an essential component in their lives and treatment. Losing one or both parents at a young age was considered more difficult than having HIV. Most participants who lost their parents lived with other family members. This was a challenging situation for both pHIV-I youth and their caregivers. Participants described their healthcare providers as part of their families and would like to keep in touch as they transition to adult care. Despite the challenges, participants expressed a desire to have children. Services targeted to this population should stress social support, incorporate family members into the medical process, provide special guidance and support while transitioning to adult care, and provide them with the latest information regarding HIV and reproductive options. PMID:26703639

  6. Association between Dietary Patterns and Body Composition in a Group or Puerto Rican Obese Adults: a Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Soltero, Sandra M.; Palacios, Cristina

    2012-01-01

    Objective Obesity is a public health problem in Puerto Rico. Dietary patterns that include high intakes of energy and sweetened drinks and low consumption of fruits, vegetables and fiber are associated with obesity. The aim of this study is to relate dietary patterns with body composition in obese subjects. Methods Dietary patterns were evaluated using 3-day food records. Body composition was assessed by body weight, hip and waist circumferences and % body fat, and then used to classify subjects by obesity stages using BMI and by low or high risk using WHR or % body fat. The resulting comparison groups were associated with energy, macronutrients, fruits, vegetables, fiber, and sweetened drinks intake and with meal energy density and meal frequency intake. Kruskal Wallis and Mann Whitney tests were used to compare groups and Spearman correlations were used for continuous variables. Results Thirty subjects completed the study. By BMI, 30% were obese type I, 33% type II and 37% type III; by WHR, 43% were low risk and 57% high risk; by % body fat, all were high risk. Dietary patterns were similar between groups. WHR was positively correlated with fiber consumption (r=0.42; p<0.05) and CHO intake (r=0.35; p=0.057). Conclusion In this pilot study, dietary patterns appeared similar between groups and sound with nutritional recommendations; however, we observed a poor quality of the diet due to very low intakes of fruits, vegetables and fiber and high intakes of sweetened drinks. PMID:21449494

  7. Ontogenetic patterns of concentration indicate lagoon nurseries are essential to common grunts stocks in a Puerto Rican bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burke, John Selden; Kenworthy, W. Judson; Wood, Lisa L.

    2009-03-01

    Estimates of abundance and size of three commercially exploited grunt species indicate ontogenetic changes in habitat utilization concentrate their juveniles within the lagoon of the Bay of La Parguera, Puerto Rico. Eleven biotopes, defined by four benthic structures (reef, mangrove, vegetation beds and unconsolidated sediments) and three geographic zones (inner lagoon, outer lagoon and bank shelf) were sampled randomly by visual surveys. French, bluestriped and white grunt ( Haemulon flavolineatum, Haemulon sciurus and Haemulon plumeri) were common in the bay and appeared to exhibit similar life history patterns of cross-shelf migration and habitat selection. Recently settled grunts were dispersed over vegetated and unconsolidated soft-bottom sediments of the bay. The juvenile stage occurred in highest densities in shallow lagoon biotopes among the submerged prop-roots of mangrove stands and on inshore reefs. Length data indicates that grunts migrate offshore to adult habitat via increasingly deep reefs. Indices of biotope nursery function based on standing stock estimates of juveniles identified three biotopes, all within the inner lagoon as essential habitat for juveniles of 5-10 cm length interval. This concentration of juveniles within biotopes of the lagoon could represent a bottleneck to recruitment for grunt stocks. Evidence that quantity and quality of lagoon nurseries may limit recruitment indicates that these areas represent a key component of a marine protected area designed to restore fisheries within the bay.

  8. A gene causing Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome in a Puerto Rican population maps to chromosome 10q2

    SciTech Connect

    Wildenberg, S.C.; Oetting, W.S.; King, R.A.

    1995-10-01

    Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome (HPS) is an autosomal recessive disorder that affects pigment production and platelet function and causes the deposition of a ceroid like material in various tissues. Variability in the phenotype and the presence of several potential mouse models suggest that HPS may be a heterogeneous disorder. In order to identify a gene responsible for HPS, we collected blood samples from a relatively homogeneous population in Puerto Rico where the HPS carrier frequency is estimated to be 1 in 21. Analysis of pooled DNA samples allowed us to rapidly screen the genome for candidate loci, and significant evidence for linkage was detected for a marker on chromosome 10q. This region of the human genome is conserved syntenically with the region on mouse chromosome 19 where two possible mouse models for HPS, pale ear and ruby eye, are located. This linkage result was verified with additional markers, and a maximum LOD score of 5.07 at {theta} = .001 was calculated for marker D10S198. Haplotype analysis places the HPS gene in a region of {approximately} 14 cM that contains the markers D10S198 and D10S1239. 41 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  9. The “New Masculinity”: Addiction Treatment as a Reconstruction of Gender In Puerto Rican Evangelist Street Ministries

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Helena

    2011-01-01

    This article, based on ethnographic fieldwork including twelve months of participant observation and 428 interviews with 84 converts and leaders in Pentecostal ministries founded and run by former addicts in Puerto Rico, describes redefined masculinity as a treatment for addiction. Industrial disinvestment and resulting unemployment and drug trade in urban North and Latin America have led to narcotic addiction among Latino and African American men and attendant homicide, infection, and incarceration. Pentecostal-evangelical street ministries are prevalent in these regions. Their alternative vision of masculine honor and power addresses a cultural crisis of men’s social space. They replace the unachievable ideal of the male breadwinner with an image of male spiritual power. In place of the violence of the drug trade, they cultivate male domesticity and responsibility for the home. In place of a deleterious drug economy, they offer the social and cultural capital of ministry networks and biblical knowledge. Yet the trajectories of ministry converts reveal the limits, as well as the promise, of evangelist masculinity as a treatment for addiction. In the course of building leadership among their converts, the ministries create their own, internal hierarchies, fall short of the spiritual democracy they espouse, and lead to relapse among those left at the bottom. PMID:21911274

  10. Trends in the HIV and AIDS epidemic in a Puerto Rican cohort of patients: 1992-2005.

    PubMed

    Báez-Feliciano, Doris V; Quintana, Rafael; Gómez, María A; Fernández, Diana M; Velázquez, Miriam; Olivares, Eddy; León Valiente, Carlos; Mayor, Angel M; Hunter-Mellado, Robert F

    2006-01-01

    The HIV epidemic is a significant global health care issue. With increasing knowledge and improved therapeutics the natural history of the infection has been modified. In this paper we aim to present the general socio-demographic profile and the clinical and therapeutic spectrum of patients with HIV infection who have visited the Bayamón Health Care facilities over the last 12 years and who are part of the Retrovirus Research Center (RRC). The objectives of the study are: 1) describe changes in the demographic, risk factors and clinical stage of patients with HIV infection initially seen in our center; 2) assess changing trends from the clinical and immunological perspective across time; 3) describe mortality risk of patients particularly after the introduction of antiretroviral therapy (ART). This is a cross-sectional study of 3,569 patients admitted to the RRC at the Universidad Central del Caribe between years 1992 through 2005. The variables studied were demographic, risk factors exposure, HIV status at baseline, clinical and immunological parameters, ART and the mortality risk. Chi square with Cramer's coefficient, Kaplan Meier and Cox proportional hazard ratio analysis were performed. The study revealed that individuals presenting at our health care facilities are older and that the proportion of females has increased. The risk factor profile shows increase in heterosexual contact with the disease. The study found that patients treated with ART had significantly lower mortality risk than those without ART. Patients who arrive to RRC with AIDS and Intravenous Drug Users (IDU) had a higher mortality risk than participants with HIV. The analysis of the trends showed changes in the demographic and clinical profile of patients across the years. HIV/AIDS prevention programs and policies need to be continued in Puerto Rico in order to better control the spread of the epidemic. PMID:19610556

  11. Decadal- to interannual-scale source water variations in the Caribbean Sea recorded by Puerto Rican coral radiocarbon

    SciTech Connect

    Kilbourne, K H; Quinn, T M; Guilderson, T P; Webb, R S; Taylor, F W

    2006-12-05

    Water that forms the Florida Current, and eventually the Gulf Stream, coalesces in the Caribbean from both subtropical and equatorial sources. The equatorial sources are made up of, in part, South Atlantic water moving northward and compensating for southward flow at depth related to meridional overturning circulation. Subtropical surface water contains relatively high amounts of radiocarbon ({sup 14}C), whereas equatorial waters are influenced by the upwelling of low {sup 14}C water and have relatively low concentrations of {sup 14}C. We use a 250-year record of {Delta}{sup 14}C in a coral from southwestern Puerto Rico along with previously published coral {Delta}{sup 14}C records as tracers of subtropical and equatorial water mixing in the northern Caribbean. Data generated in this study and from other studies indicate that the influence of either of the two water masses can change considerably on interannual to interdecadal time scales. Variability due to ocean dynamics in this region is large relative to variability caused by atmospheric {sup 14}C changes, thus masking the Suess effect at this site. A mixing model produced using coral {Delta}{sup 14}C illustrates the time varying proportion of equatorial versus subtropical waters in the northern Caribbean between 1963 and 1983. The results of the model are consistent with linkages between multidecadal thermal variability in the North Atlantic and meridional overturning circulation. Ekman transport changes related to tradewind variability are proposed as a possible mechanism to explain the observed switches between relatively low and relatively high {Delta}{sup 14}C values in the coral radiocarbon records.

  12. A Social-Ecological View of Barriers and Facilitators for HIV Treatment Adherence: Interviews with Puerto Rican HIV Patients

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To identify perceived barriers and facilitators for HAART adherence among people living with HIV/AIDS in Southern Puerto Rico using a Social Ecological framework. Patients and Methods Individual in-depths interviews were conducted with 12 HIV patients with a history of HAART non-adherence. Interviews were audio-taped and transcribed. Content analysis was performed for each transcribed interview by three independent coders using a codebook. Using Atlas TI, super-codes and families were generated to facilitate the categorization tree as well as grounded analyses and density estimates Results Most participants reported a monthly income of $500 or less (n = 7), a high school education level (n = 7), being unemployed (n = 9) and being recipients of government health insurance (n = 11). Three out of six women reported living alone with their children and most men informed living with their parents or other relatives (n = 4). For the grounded analyses, the top four sub-categories linked to high number of quotations were mental health barriers (G = 32) followed by treatment regimen (G = 28), health system (G = 24) and interpersonal relations (G = 16). The top four sub-categories linked to high number of codes are treatment regimen (D = 4), health status perception (D = 3), interpersonal relations (D = 3) and health system (D = 3). Conclusion The results of this study suggest the interconnection of HIV treatment adherence barriers at various system levels. Future studies on HIV treatment barriers should explore these interactions and investigate the possible synergistic effect on non-adherent behavior PMID:26422049

  13. On the relative importance of pool morphology and woody debris to distributions of shrimp in a Puerto Rican headwater stream

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pyron, M.; Covich, A.P.; Black, R.W.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, we report the sizes and distributional orientation of woody debris in a headwater rainforest stream in the Luquillo Experimental Forest (LEF), Puerto Rico. We also provide results of a 4-month study of a wood addition experiment designed to increase cover for benthic macroinvertebrates (freshwater shrimp). We added branch-sized woody debris to 20 pools in three streams. We trapped four species of freshwater shrimp (two species of benthic detritivores and two predatory shrimp species) during each of the 4 months following wood additions. An analysis of pool morphology (maximum depth, surface area and volume) provided a useful predictor of shrimp abundances. In general, numbers of shrimps increased with sizes of stream pools. A repeated measures ANOVA demonstrated no effect of woody debris additions on total numbers of shrimp per pool area. Two detritivore species (Atya lanipes, a filter feeder and Xiphocaris elongata, a shredder) decreased in abundance with increased woody debris and there was no statistical relationship between woody debris additions and predators (Macrobrachium carcinus and M. crenulatum). Small woody debris additions may have altered flow velocities that were important to filter-feeding Atya at the microhabitat scale, although the overall velocities within pools were not altered by wood additions. Lower numbers of Atya and Xiphocaris in two of the three streams may result from the occurrence of two predaceous fishes (American eel and mountain mullet) and more predatory Macrobrachium in these streams. One likely interpretation of the results of this study is that the stream pools in these study reaches had sufficient habitat structure provided by numerous rock crevices (among large rocks and boulders) to provide refuge from predators. Addition of woody debris did not add significantly to the existing structure. These results may not apply to stream channels with sand and gravel substrata where crevices and undercut banks are lacking

  14. Bee Line BR-1 Racer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1926-01-01

    Bee Line BR-1 Racer: The Bee Line BR-1 was a racing aircraft used to compete in the 1922 Pulitzer Air Race. The aircraft and its sister ship, the Bee Line BR-2, came to Langley and the NACA in 1926. The BR-1 is shown in the NACA hangar at Langley Field in early 1926.

  15. Children in Puerto Rico: Results from the 2000 Census. A KIDS COUNT/PRB Report on Census 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mather, Mark

    This report provides data on children in Puerto Rico based on the 2000 U.S. Census. It compares the situation of Puerto Rico's children with that of children living in the 50 states and the District of Columbia, noting how characteristics of Puerto Rican children have changed over time. Between 1990-2000, the number of Puerto Rican children…

  16. The Struggle for Puerto Rico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez-Cardona, Victor; And Others

    1975-01-01

    Since the 1940's, Operation Bootstrap, an economic development program, has changed Puerto Rico from an undeveloped country to one with increasing energy demands, decreasing natural resources, and alarming environmental degredation. The Puerto Rican government is presently supporting high-energy industrial facilities without regard to…

  17. Racer efficacy study – Lane, Fall 2007

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Racer (ammonium nonanoate) is labeled for non-food use and efforts are currently underway to label it as a bio-herbicide for organically grown food crops. The main component of Racer is ammonium nonanoate which occurs in nature and is primarily formed from biodegradation of higher fatty acids. The...

  18. The Identity Development and Coming out Process of Gay Youth in Puerto Rico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fankhanel, Edward H.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to gather basic exploratory-descriptive data regarding the self-perceptions and behaviors of Puerto Rican gay youth (16 to 24 years old) during their gay identity development and coming out process. The study was conducted in Puerto Rico to eliminate ethnic minority influences that may be present in Puerto Rican gay…

  19. Students' Reflections on the Social, Political, and Ideological Role of English in Puerto Rico.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clachar, Arlene

    1997-01-01

    Eight students taking English as a Second Language in a Puerto Rican university kept dialog journals in which they discussed English as a symbol of U.S. colonial domination of Puerto Rico and the erosion of Puerto Rican cultural identity, the relative importance of English and Spanish, and contradictions related to U.S. citizenship and the need…

  20. AN ANALYSIS OF UPWARD MOBILITY IN LOW-INCOME FAMILIES--A COMPARISON OF FAMILY AND COMMUNITY LIFE AMONG AMERICAN NEGRO AND PUERTO RICAN POOR.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SAFA, HELEN ICKEN

    A STUDY WAS CONDUCTED TO ANALYZE THE SOCIAL ISOLATION AND UPWARD MOBILITY OF FAMILIES LIVING IN A SHANTY TOWN AND A PUBLIC HOUSING PROJECT IN PUERTO RICO, AND OF NEGRO FAMILIES IN A GHETTO IN SYRACUSE, NEW YORK. DATA WERE COLLECTED BY MEANS OF PARTICIPANT OBSERVERS AND INTERVIEW SCHEDULES. IT WAS FOUND THAT THE POOR DO NOT LIVE IN A SUBCULTURE…

  1. The Spanish of Ponce, Puerto Rico: A Phonetic, Phonological, and Intonational Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luna, Kenneth Vladimir

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates four aspects of Puerto Rican Spanish as represented in the Autonomous Municipality of Ponce: the behavior of coda /[alveolar flap]/, the behavior of /r/, the different realizations of coda /s/, and its intonational phonology. Previous studies on Puerto Rican Spanish report that coda /[alveolar flap]/ is normally realized as…

  2. The Prejudice of Having No Prejudice in Puerto Rice; Part II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Betances, Samuel

    1973-01-01

    Second part of a two-part series which began in the Winter 1972 issue of The Rican.'' The issue of identity as it relates to race and color in Puerto Rican life is very important. The myth that Puerto Rico is a kind of human relations paradise where racism is nonexistent has to be exploded. (Author/RJ)

  3. Datos Historicos de Puerto Rico (Historical Facts on Puerto Rico). Preliminary Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chicago Board of Education, IL. Dept. of Curriculum.

    A volume of information about Puerto Rican history and culture is designed for use by teachers in the bilingual education program of the Chicago public schools to support cultural awareness among native Spanish-speaking students. Six chapters outline important information concerning: the history of Puerto Rico, some aspects of the life of the…

  4. Final Draft of RACER Audit

    SciTech Connect

    Paige, Karen Schultz; Gomez, Penelope E.

    2011-01-01

    This document describes the approach Waste and Environmental Services - Environmental Data and Analysis plans to take to resolve the issues presented in a recent audit of the WES-EDA Environmental Database relative to the RACER database. A majority of the issues discovered in the audit will be resolved in May 2011 when the WES-EDA Environmental Database, along with other LANL databases, are integrated and moved to a new vendor providing an Environmental Information Management (EIM) system that allows reporting capabilities for all users directly from the database. The EIM system will reside in a publicly accessible LANL cloud-based software system. When this transition occurs, the data quality, completeness, and access will change significantly. In the remainder of this document, this new structure will be referred to as the LANL Cloud System In general, our plan is to address the issues brought up in this audit in three ways: (1) Data quality issues such as units and detection status, which impinge upon data usability, will be resolved as soon possible so that data quality is maintained. (2) Issues requiring data cleanup, such as look up tables, legacy data, locations, codes, and significant data discrepancies, will be addressed as resources permit. (3) Issues associated with data feed problems will be eliminated by the LANL Cloud System, because there will be no data feed. As discussed in the paragraph above, in the future the data will reside in a publicly accessible system. Note that report writers may choose to convert, adapt, or simplify the information they receive officially through our data base, thereby introducing data discrepancies between the data base and the public report. It is not always possible to incorporate and/or correct these errors when they occur. Issues in the audit will be discussed in the order in which they are presented in the audit report. Clarifications will also be noted as the audit report was a draft document, at the time of this

  5. “That’s True Love:” Lived Experiences of Puerto Rican Perinatally HIV-Infected Youth within Their Families’ Context

    PubMed Central

    Silva-Suárez, Georgina; Bastida, Elena; Rabionet, Silvia E.; Beck-Sagué, Consuelo; Febo, Irma; Zorrilla, Carmen D.

    2015-01-01

    The burden of HIV affects not only HIV-infected patients but also their families and caregivers. It is also known that family support is crucial for people living with HIV. A qualitative study was conducted to explore the life experiences, within the family context, of perinatally HIV-infected (pHIV-I) youth in Puerto Rico. Twenty in-depth interviews were performed and audio-recorded. Within the family context, study participants experienced acceptance, love and support but also stigma and discrimination. They reported that family is an essential component in their lives and treatment. Losing one or both parents at a young age was considered more difficult than having HIV. Most participants who lost their parents lived with other family members. This was a challenging situation for both pHIV-I youth and their caregivers. Participants described their healthcare providers as part of their families and would like to keep in touch as they transition to adult care. Despite the challenges, participants expressed a desire to have children. Services targeted to this population should stress social support, incorporate family members into the medical process, provide special guidance and support while transitioning to adult care, and provide them with the latest information regarding HIV and reproductive options. PMID:26703639

  6. Racer efficacy study - Bixby, Fall 2007

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Weed competition is a primary concern for conventional and organic vegetable producers. Racer (ammonium nonanoate) is labeled for non-food use and efforts are currently underway to label it as a bio-herbicide for organically grown food crops. The objective of this study was to investigate differen...

  7. Medical Concerns among Wheelchair Road Racers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Santos F.

    1989-01-01

    Results of a questionnaire administered to 43 wheelchair road racers suggest that their medical problems may lead to complications while training or racing. The study looked at the effects of training, injuries, bladder management, medications, and spasms. Sports medicine professionals are provided with information on handling disabled athletes.…

  8. Do Cloud Properties in a Puerto Rican Tropical Montane Cloud Forest Depend on Occurrence of Long-Range Transported African Dust?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spiegel, Johanna K.; Buchmann, Nina; Mayol-Bracero, Olga L.; Cuadra-Rodriguez, Luis A.; Valle Díaz, Carlos J.; Prather, Kimberly A.; Mertes, Stephan; Eugster, Werner

    2014-09-01

    We investigated cloud properties of warm clouds in a tropical montane cloud forest at Pico del Este (1,051 m a.s.l.) in the northeastern part of Puerto Rico to address the question of whether cloud properties in the Caribbean could potentially be affected by African dust transported across the Atlantic Ocean. We analyzed data collected during 12 days in July 2011. Cloud droplet size spectra were measured using the FM-100 fog droplet spectrometer that measured droplet size distributions in the range from 2 to 49 µm, primarily during fog events. The droplet size spectra revealed a bimodal structure, with the first peak ( D < 6 µm) being more pronounced in terms of droplet number concentrations, whereas the second peak (10 µm < D < 20 µm) was found to be the one relevant for total liquid water content (LWC) of the cloud. We identified three major clusters of characteristic droplet size spectra by means of hierarchical clustering. All clusters differed significantly from each other in droplet number concentration (), effective diameter (ED), and median volume diameter (MVD). For the cluster comprising the largest droplets and the lowest droplet number concentrations, we found evidence of inhomogeneous mixing in the cloud. Contrastingly, the other two clusters revealed microphysical behavior, which could be expected under homogeneous mixing conditions. For those conditions, an increase in cloud condensation nuclei—e.g., from processed African dust transported to the site—is supposed to lead to an increased droplet concentration. In fact, one of these two clusters showed a clear shift of cloud droplet size spectra towards smaller droplet diameters. Since this cluster occurred during periods with strong evidence for the presence of long-range transported African dust, we hypothesize a link between the observed dust episodes and cloud characteristics in the Caribbean at our site, which is similar to the anthropogenic aerosol indirect effect.

  9. Variables Associated with Successful Learning-to-Read Experiences of Children When they Enter School in Puerto Rico.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borges, Francisca

    The relative effectiveness of several testing instruments in predicting the reading achievement of Puerto Rican first graders was investigated in this dissertation. One hundred seventy-four students were tested by the "Reading Readiness Test (Prueba de Apresto)," the "Collective Puerto Rican Test of Mental Capacity (Prueba Colectiva de Capacidad…

  10. Pharmacogenetics of healthy volunteers in Puerto Rico

    PubMed Central

    Claudio-Campos, Karla; Orengo-Mercado, Carmelo; Renta, Jessicca Y.; Peguero, Muriel; García, Ricardo; Hernández, Gabriel; Corey, Susan; Cadilla, Carmen L.; Duconge, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Puerto Ricans are a unique Hispanic population with European, Native American (Taino), and higher West African ancestral contributions than other non-Caribbean Hispanics. In admixed populations, such as Puerto Ricans, genetic variants can be found at different frequencies when compared to parental populations and uniquely combined and distributed. Therefore, in this review, we aimed to collect data from studies conducted in healthy Puerto Ricans and to report the frequencies of genetic polymorphisms with major relevance in drug response. Filtering for healthy volunteers or individuals, we performed a search of pharmacogenetic studies in academic literature databases without limiting the period of the results. The search was limited to Puerto Ricans living in the island, excluding those studies performed in mainland (United States). We found that the genetic markers impacting pharmacological therapy in the areas of cardiovascular, oncology, and neurology are the most frequently investigated. Coincidently, the top causes of mortality in the island are cardiovascular diseases, cancer, diabetes, Alzheimer’s disease, and stroke. In addition, polymorphisms in genes that encode for members of the CYP450 family (CYP2C9, CYP2C19, and CYP2D6) are also available due to their relevance in the metabolism of drugs. The complex genetic background of Puerto Ricans is responsible for the divergence in the reported allele frequencies when compared to parental populations (Africans, East Asians, and Europeans). The importance of reporting the findings of pharmacogenetic studies conducted in Puerto Ricans is to identify genetic variants with potential utility among this genetically complex population and eventually move forward the adoption of personalized medicine in the island. PMID:26501165

  11. Pharmacogenetics of healthy volunteers in Puerto Rico.

    PubMed

    Claudio-Campos, Karla; Orengo-Mercado, Carmelo; Renta, Jessicca Y; Peguero, Muriel; García, Ricardo; Hernández, Gabriel; Corey, Susan; Cadilla, Carmen L; Duconge, Jorge

    2015-12-01

    Puerto Ricans are a unique Hispanic population with European, Native American (Taino), and higher West African ancestral contributions than other non-Caribbean Hispanics. In admixed populations, such as Puerto Ricans, genetic variants can be found at different frequencies when compared to parental populations and uniquely combined and distributed. Therefore, in this review, we aimed to collect data from studies conducted in healthy Puerto Ricans and to report the frequencies of genetic polymorphisms with major relevance in drug response. Filtering for healthy volunteers or individuals, we performed a search of pharmacogenetic studies in academic literature databases without limiting the period of the results. The search was limited to Puerto Ricans living in the island, excluding those studies performed in mainland (United States). We found that the genetic markers impacting pharmacological therapy in the areas of cardiovascular, oncology, and neurology are the most frequently investigated. Coincidently, the top causes of mortality in the island are cardiovascular diseases, cancer, diabetes, Alzheimer's disease, and stroke. In addition, polymorphisms in genes that encode for members of the CYP450 family (CYP2C9, CYP2C19, and CYP2D6) are also available due to their relevance in the metabolism of drugs. The complex genetic background of Puerto Ricans is responsible for the divergence in the reported allele frequencies when compared to parental populations (Africans, East Asians, and Europeans). The importance of reporting the findings of pharmacogenetic studies conducted in Puerto Ricans is to identify genetic variants with potential utility among this genetically complex population and eventually move forward the adoption of personalized medicine in the island. PMID:26501165

  12. Racer (Ammonium Nonanoate) weed control evaluation for onions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Racer has been labeled as a herbicide for food use and is currently under consideration as an organic herbicide for organically grown food crops. The main component (40%) of Racer is ammonium nonanoate (ammonium pelargonate), which occurs in nature and primarily formed from biodegradation of higher...

  13. Mental Health of Two-Way Migrants: From Puerto Rico to the United States and Return.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prewitt Diaz, Joseph O.; Draguns, Juris G.

    The mental health needs of two-way migrants from Puerto Rico to the United States and back again are discussed in this paper. Four factors affecting Puerto Rican migrants are outlined. First, the relationship between migration and stress is considered. Often, it is noted, in migrating away from stressful economic conditions, the Puerto Rican…

  14. Diversity of Papaya ringspot virus isolates in Puerto Rico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) devastates papaya production worldwide. In Puerto Rico, papaya fields can be completely infected with PRSV within a year of planting. Information about the diversity of the Puerto Rican PRSV population is relevant in order to establish a control strategy in the island. T...

  15. Puerto Ricans' Health Lags Behind Other Hispanics

    MedlinePlus

    ... in the United States may share a common language, there is considerable variation among subgroups" when it comes to culture, economics and even their attitudes toward seeking out health care, the researchers wrote. ...

  16. AIDS prevention program for Puerto Rican women.

    PubMed

    Castro de Alvarez, V

    1990-04-01

    Historically women are considered the family's primary care provider and biologically, they are the link in the transmission of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus. Because of this dual role, they need programs that are culturally sensitive and effective. Many Latinas do not perceive themselves to be at risk despite the educational resources available to them. This article examines cultural factors that influence risk perception and behavioral changes in response to educational intervention. Interviews and literature review were used in assessing availability, applicability and cultural sensitivity of AIDS prevention programs. Effective programs need to be culturally sensitive to gender role expectation and the role of motherhood for Latinas. Educators expressed the belief that women benefit most from programs that help them implement the behaviors that will help protect them. Programs must be cognizant of the cultures' demand for respect and modesty while providing factual information/instruction. PMID:2270255

  17. Puerto Ricans' Health Lags Behind Other Hispanics

    MedlinePlus

    ... likely to be in worse health than non-Hispanic Americans, but they "were also generally more likely to ... or poor health" more often than their non-Hispanic American peers, at about 17 percent and 12 percent, ...

  18. Puerto Rican Psychology: A Review of Issues Pertaining to Assessment and Counseling = La Psicologia Puertorriquena: Una Revision de la Problematica Relacionada con la Medicion y la Consejeria. Monograph #135.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prewitt-Diaz, Joseph O., Ed.

    This is a collection of papers related to psychological assessment and counseling in Puerto Rico. Included are: (1) an introduction (in Spanish), by Joseph O. Prewitt-Diaz; (2) "A Procedure for Constructing Valid Cross-Cultural Attitude Measures for Use in Puerto Rico," by Cecil R. Trueblood; (3) "Perfil de Personalidad en el Adolescente…

  19. Important Considerations for Recruiting Women to Cancer Genetics Studies in Puerto Rico

    PubMed Central

    August, Euna M.; Quinn, Gwen P.; Perales, Rossybelle; Closser, Zuheily; Dutil, Julie; Puig, Marieva; Vadaparampil, Susan T.

    2015-01-01

    A goal of the Minority Institution/Cancer Center Partnership between the Ponce School of Medicine in Puerto Rico and the H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center & Research Institute in Florida is to provide cross-cultural training in cancer research. This is achieved through a collaborative summer exchange program, which provides US students with an opportunity to conduct research in Puerto Rico. As part of this program, students recruited participants and collected data for a study to enhance the understanding of sociocultural factors among Puerto Rican women regarding genetic testing for hereditary breast/ovarian cancer. Limited studies have examined cancer genetics issues among Latinos, particularly those specific to the various Latino subgroups, such as Puerto Ricans. As a result of the student training experience, culturally appropriate strategies for the recruitment of women in Puerto Rico have been identified. These recommendations can inform the design of cancer research projects and interventions targeting the Puerto Rican population. PMID:21866412

  20. Life Styles of Puerto Rico's Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wingfield, Roland

    A representative sampling of male Puerto Rican youths was studied in order to analyze post-counterculture attitudes toward family, society, school, drugs, use of leisure time and future aspirations. The counterculture of the 1960s is described, with the implication that changes brought about by this movement influenced current youth attitudes in…

  1. Comparison of Ontology Reasoners: Racer, Pellet, Fact++

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, T.; Li, W.; Yang, C.

    2008-12-01

    In this paper, we examine some key aspects of three of the most popular and effective Semantic reasoning engines that have been developed: Pellet, RACER, and Fact++. While these reasonably advanced reasoners share some notable similarities, it is ultimately the creativity and unique nature of these reasoning engines that have resulted in the successes of each of these reasoners. Of the numerous dissimilarities, the most obvious example might be that while Pellet is written in Java, RACER employs the Lisp programming language and Fact++ was developed using C++. From this and many other distinctions in the system architecture, we can understand the benefits of each reasoner and potentially discover certain properties that may contribute to development of an optimal reasoner in the future. The objective of this paper is to establish a solid comparison of the reasoning engines based on their system architectures, features, and overall performances in real world application. In the end, we expect to produce a valid conclusion about the advantages and problems in each reasoner. While there may not be a decisive first place among the three reasoners, the evaluation will also provide some answers as to which of these current reasoning tools will be most effective in common, practical situations.

  2. DOCTORAL RESEARCH ON PUERTO RICO AND PUERTO RICANS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DOSSICK, JESSE J.

    THIS BIBLIOGRAPHY IS A COMPILATION OF DISSERTATIONS WRITTEN SINCE 1900, MOST OF THEM IN UNIVERSITIES IN THE UNITED STATES. THEY ARE LISTED BY AUTHOR AND TITLE UNDER 21 HEADINGS COVERING THE FIELDS OF THE NATURAL SCIENCES, THE SOCIAL AND BEHAVIORIAL SCIENCES, EDUCATION, THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES, AND RELIGION. ABOUT ONE-THIRD HAVE BEEN WRITTEN IN…

  3. La Ninez en Puerto Rico: Resultados del Censo 2000. Un informe de KIDS COUNT/PRB sobre el Censo 2000 (Children in Puerto Rico: Results from the 2000 Census. A KIDS COUNT/PRB Report on Census 2000).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mather, Mark

    This Spanish-language report provides data on children in Puerto Rico based on the 2000 U.S. Census. It compares the situation of Puerto Rico's children with that of children living in the 50 states and the District of Columbia, noting how characteristics of Puerto Rican children have changed over time. Between 1990-2000, the number of Puerto…

  4. La ensenanza de idiomas en Puerto Rico (Language Teaching in Puerto Rico)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Llorens, Washington

    1976-01-01

    The poor command of Spanish common to many Puerto Ricans is due, not to the teaching of English as a second language, but to the poor instruction of the native language and the lack of emphasis on reading good Spanish literature. The two languages can coexist. (Text is in Spanish.) (CHK)

  5. Self-Identity and Bilingualism among Adolescent Return Migrants to Puerto Rico.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucca-Irizarry, Nydia; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Migrant Puerto Rican children born or raised in the United States who moved to Puerto Rico during adolescence experienced drastic changes in their self-esteem and self-identity; in family and interpersonal relations; and in their relations with broader aspects of the new environment, including its physical, interpersonal, and cultural dimensions.…

  6. Plant Exploration in tropical forests of Puerto Rico to collect ornamental germplasm.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In May, 2005, an ornamental plant exploration trip was conducted in remnant forests of Puerto Rico. The main focus of this collection trip was Tabebuia haemantha, a rare Puerto Rican endemic that has many features of interest to horticulture. It is a small-statured tree, evergreen, red-flowered an...

  7. Breast Self-Examination: Attitude and Knowledge of Female College Students from USA, Thailand, Costa Rica, and Puerto Rico.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kay, Noy S.; Torabi, Mohammad R.; Ding, Kele; Fernandez, Xinia; Encarnacion, Haydee

    2002-01-01

    Examined attitudes and knowledge among U.S., Thai, Costa Rican, and Puerto Rican female college students regarding breast self-examination (BSE). Students completed surveys before and after watching an instructional video on BSE. BSE practice was low in all four countries. Students considered BSE a necessary part of individual healthy behaviors.…

  8. The Puerto Rico Healthcare Crisis.

    PubMed

    Roman, Jesse

    2015-12-01

    The Commonwealth of Puerto Rico is an organized nonincorporated territory of the United States with a population of more than 3.5 million U.S. citizens. The island has been the focus of much recent attention due to the recent default on its debt (estimated at more than $70 billion), high poverty rates, and increasing unemployment. Less attention, however, has been given to the island's healthcare system, which many believe is on the verge of collapsing. Healthcare makes up 20% of the Puerto Rican economy, and this crisis affects reimbursement rates for physicians while promoting the disintegration of the island's healthcare infrastructure. A major contributor relates to a disparity in federal funding provided to support the island's healthcare system when compared with that provided to the states in the mainland and Hawaii. Puerto Rico receives less federal funding for healthcare than the other 50 states and the District of Columbia even though it pays its share of social security and Medicare taxes. To make matters worse, the U.S. Center for Medicaid and Medicare Services is planning soon to implement another 11% cut in Medical Advantage reimbursements. This disparity in support for healthcare is considered responsible for ∼$25 billion of Puerto Rico's total debt. The impact of these events on the health of Puerto Ricans in the island cannot be entirely predicted, but the loss of healthcare providers and diminished access to care are a certainty, and quality care will suffer, leading to serious implications for those with chronic medical disorders including respiratory disease. PMID:26551268

  9. The Music of Puerto Rico; A Classroom Music Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Lloyd; Toro, Leonor

    With the assumption that the teacher of students with identifiable ethnic or cultural background must be prepared to deal with each student's heritage in a meaningful way, the document provides resource materials for Connecticut classroom teachers and/or music specialists with responsibilities for teaching children of Puerto Rican heritage. The…

  10. Puerto Rico: On the Horns of a Language Planning Dilemma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pousada, Alicia

    1996-01-01

    Examines factors contributing to the Puerto Rican conflict between Spanish and English. These include American heavy-handedness, party politics, socioeconomic tensions and the educational bureaucracy. The article notes how language planning could defuse the conflict and specifies concrete planning roles for English language professionals. (25…

  11. Consequences of Return Migrant Status for Employment in Puerto Rico.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muschkin, Clara G.

    1993-01-01

    Explores the individual-level relationship of return migrant status to employment outcomes, taking into account local and regional factors such as the Puerto Rican level of employment. Findings using 1970 and 1980 Census data support a negative influence of return migrant status. Mediating factors are discussed. (SLD)

  12. Non-Verbal Communication in Puerto Rico. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curt, Carmen Judith Nine

    Observations of the contrasts between Puerto Rican and Anglo nonverbal communication patterns, and their relevance in the classroom, are outlined and discussed. A general observation is that what is acceptable and permissible in one culture is usually not in the other, and teachers are urged to develop ways of making Anglo and Latin American…

  13. Understanding the Barriers that Reduce the Effectiveness of HIV/AIDS Prevention Strategies for Puerto Rican Women Living in Low-income Households in Ponce, PR: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Abreu, S.; Sala, A. C.; Candelaria, E. M.

    2014-01-01

    Background The HIV/AIDS epidemic has been strongly felt in Hispanic/Latino communities. Estimates of AIDS prevalence among Latinos in the US reveal that just nine States and the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico account for 89% of the Latinos living with AIDS in 2004. Previous research reveals social and cultural factors play an important role in HIV prevention. Methods Four focus groups were conducted, with 39 women, ages 21–67, participating in the discussions. The objectives of this research were to assess knowledge regarding HIV transmission among women living in low-income households, to ascertain barriers to safe sex in this population, and to elicit opinions about effective prevention strategies. Results Our results suggest that participants recognized HIV/AIDS modes of transmission and risk behaviors, as well as their barriers to practicing safe sex. They identified promiscuity, unprotected sex, infidelity, drug and alcohol use, and sharing syringes as behaviors which would place them at risk of HIV/AIDS transmission. They specifically identified lack of negotiating skills, fear of sexual violence, partner refusal to use condoms, and lack of control over their partner’s sexual behavior as barriers to practicing safe sex. Finally results also indicate that current HIV/AIDS prevention strategies in Puerto Rico are inadequate for these women. Discussion To address these issues the authors suggest cultural and social factors to be considered for the development of more effective HIV/AIDS prevention programs. PMID:18712603

  14. Racer as a potential organic herbicide: Application volumes and herbicide rates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Racer (40% ammonium pelargonate/ammonium nonanoate) is labeled for non-food use and efforts are currently underway to label it as a bio-herbicide for organically grown food crops. The main component of Racer is ammonium pelargonate which occurs in nature and is primarily formed from biodegradation ...

  15. The Individual and Collective Effect of US Colonialism in Puerto Rico: A Scale Construction and Validation, with Implications for Social Work Education and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez Aviles, Maria de Lourdes

    2011-01-01

    "Understanding the individual and collective psychology of the people of Puerto Rico requires an understanding of both the history of its colonialism and the U.S. laws that have helped shaped the social world of the Puerto Rican people, in the United States and in the colony itself" (Rivera Ramos, 2001, p. 4). This research presents…

  16. RACER: Effective Race Detection Using AspectJ

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bodden, Eric; Havelund, Klaus

    2008-01-01

    The limits of coding with joint constraints on detected and undetected error rates Programming errors occur frequently in large software systems, and even more so if these systems are concurrent. In the past, researchers have developed specialized programs to aid programmers detecting concurrent programming errors such as deadlocks, livelocks, starvation and data races. In this work we propose a language extension to the aspect-oriented programming language AspectJ, in the form of three new built-in pointcuts, lock(), unlock() and may be Shared(), which allow programmers to monitor program events where locks are granted or handed back, and where values are accessed that may be shared amongst multiple Java threads. We decide thread-locality using a static thread-local objects analysis developed by others. Using the three new primitive pointcuts, researchers can directly implement efficient monitoring algorithms to detect concurrent programming errors online. As an example, we expose a new algorithm which we call RACER, an adoption of the well-known ERASER algorithm to the memory model of Java. We implemented the new pointcuts as an extension to the Aspect Bench Compiler, implemented the RACER algorithm using this language extension and then applied the algorithm to the NASA K9 Rover Executive. Our experiments proved our implementation very effective. In the Rover Executive RACER finds 70 data races. Only one of these races was previously known.We further applied the algorithm to two other multi-threaded programs written by Computer Science researchers, in which we found races as well.

  17. Scores on psychoticism of adolescent girls in Puerto Rico.

    PubMed

    Porrata, J L

    1995-06-01

    This study concerns 425 Puerto Rican adolescent girls whose scores on personality factors are not consistent. When the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire Junior was standardized for Puerto Rico values of factorial comparisons for the female adolescents were as low as .65 for Psychoticism. This result points to girls' confusion in showing toughness. This might be explained by high expectations but there are few opportunities for lower-class girls in a society in which women are taught to live around men and not to develop themselves as workers. PMID:7568593

  18. A New Miocene-Divergent Lineage of Old World Racer Snake from India.

    PubMed

    Mirza, Zeeshan A; Vyas, Raju; Patel, Harshil; Maheta, Jaydeep; Sanap, Rajesh V

    2016-01-01

    A distinctive early Miocene-divergent lineage of Old world racer snakes is described as a new genus and species based on three specimens collected from the western Indian state of Gujarat. Wallaceophis gen. et. gujaratenesis sp. nov. is a members of a clade of old world racers. The monotypic genus represents a distinct lineage among old world racers is recovered as a sister taxa to Lytorhynchus based on ~3047bp of combined nuclear (cmos) and mitochondrial molecular data (cytb, ND4, 12s, 16s). The snake is distinct morphologically in having a unique dorsal scale reduction formula not reported from any known colubrid snake genus. Uncorrected pairwise sequence divergence for nuclear gene cmos between Wallaceophis gen. et. gujaratenesis sp. nov. other members of the clade containing old world racers and whip snake is 21-36%. PMID:26934509

  19. A New Miocene-Divergent Lineage of Old World Racer Snake from India

    PubMed Central

    Vyas, Raju; Maheta, Jaydeep

    2016-01-01

    A distinctive early Miocene-divergent lineage of Old world racer snakes is described as a new genus and species based on three specimens collected from the western Indian state of Gujarat. Wallaceophis gen. et. gujaratenesis sp. nov. is a members of a clade of old world racers. The monotypic genus represents a distinct lineage among old world racers is recovered as a sister taxa to Lytorhynchus based on ~3047bp of combined nuclear (cmos) and mitochondrial molecular data (cytb, ND4, 12s, 16s). The snake is distinct morphologically in having a unique dorsal scale reduction formula not reported from any known colubrid snake genus. Uncorrected pairwise sequence divergence for nuclear gene cmos between Wallaceophis gen. et. gujaratenesis sp. nov. other members of the clade containing old world racers and whip snake is 21–36%. PMID:26934509

  20. Adaptation and Validation of the Spanish-Language Trauma Symptom Inventory in Puerto Rico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutierrez Wang, Lisa; Cosden, Merith; Bernal, Guillermo

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This research was conducted to assess the Spanish-language Trauma Symptom Inventory's (Briere, 1995) suitability for use with a Puerto Rican sample. Minor revisions were made to the original instrument following a comprehensive appraisal involving a bilingual committee and pilot focus group. The present study outlines the review and…

  1. NCI-supported facility to conduct cancer trials breaks ground in Puerto Rico

    Cancer.gov

    The Puerto Rican government has allocated $196 million dollars to build a 287,000 sq. ft., 96-bed, cancer hospital in San Juan. The new hospital, which will provide cancer treatment and conduct clinical trials, is the first of its kind in the Caribbean.

  2. A Narrative Study of Perspectives of Puerto Rican Doctoral Graduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rapp, Doreen Rivera

    2010-01-01

    A review of the literature indicates that Latinos lag behind Whites and Blacks in college degree attainment. This educational disparity is of concern because Latinos are currently the largest minority group in the United States, and the Latino population is expected to increase exponentially in the future. College degree attainment for Latinos is…

  3. Awakening Minorities: American Indians, Mexican Americans, Puerto Ricans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, John R.; And Others

    As noted in the Preface, social scientists are entering a period of shared realization that the United States is in a crucial period of transition. "Trans-action" magazine, a pioneer in social programs for changing the society, has dedicated itself for 7 years to the task of reporting the strains and conflicts within the American system and has…

  4. Teacher Student Interaction in the Puerto Rican School System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Velazquez, Clara

    This paper is based on the premise that an evaluation of teacher performance should consist of an evaluation of the teacher's presentation of subject matter and of the teacher's interaction with the students. In order to develop a balanced evaluation methodology, four English as a Second Language (ESL) classes in two schools on the island of…

  5. Trematodes associated with mangrove habitat in Puerto Rican salt marshes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lafferty, K.D.; Hechinger, R.F.; Lorda, J.; Soler, L.

    2005-01-01

    A study of molt and changes in body weight of American Woodcock was conducted to better understand the summer and fall behavior of these birds and to indicate periods of physiological stress. The postnuptial molt of adults was a complete molt beginning in late June and ending by the middle of October. In contrast, the postjuvenal molt was a less intensive partial molt beginning in mid-July but also extending to the middle of October. Both male and female adult birds experienced weight loss in August during peak molt. Young birds gradually gained weight throughout the summer. Fat deposition was negatively correlated with molt while fall body weights were positively correlated with fat deposition. The data indicated that the majority of Maine woodcock are not physiologically prepared for migration until mid-October. Weights of adult males during the spring suggested that this is an important period of stress for these birds.

  6. El espanol: La lengua de Puerto Rico. Aprecio y defensa de nuestra lengua materna en la ciudad de Nueva York (Spanish: Language of Puerto Rico. Appreciation and Defense of our Mother Tongue in New York City).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramirez de Arellano, Diana

    The author presents her appreciation and defense of Spanish as it is spoken in New York City, especially among Puerto Ricans. She believes that the institution of bilingual education in the city's schools is an important first step in elevating Spanish to the position it deserves as a means of instruction and communication. The instructional…

  7. Yo misma fui mi ruta: La mujer en la historia y cultura de Puerto Rico [I Was My Own Path: Women in the History and Culture of Puerto Rico].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pico, Isabel; And Others

    This teaching guide on women in Puerto Rican history and culture is intended for use in third and fourth grade social studies classes. The book begins with a discussion of the omission of women's roles from most history textbooks and points out the implications of this omission for the knowledge and socialization of both male and female Puerto…

  8. La Hipotesis Funcional y la Aparicion de Sujeto no Nominal: El Espanol de Puerto Rico (The Functional Hypothesis and the Appearance of a Non-Nominative Subject: The Spanish of Puerto Rico).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morales, Amparo

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the Puerto Rican dialect and its peculiar placement of subject pronouns. Notes the linguistic variety in the dialect as well as its use of verbs connotating mental and communicative activity and constructions of relativity. These distinctions give rise to the functional hypothesis to account for the peculiarities of Spanish in the…

  9. Anal Cancer Incidence and Mortality in Puerto Rico

    PubMed Central

    Colón-López, Vivian; Ortiz, Ana P.; Soto-Salgado, Marievelisse; Torres-Cintrón, Mariela; Mercado-Acosta, Juan José; Suárez, Erick

    2013-01-01

    Objective Anal cancer is a rare tumor that is associated with oncogenic HPV genotypes. This study aims to compare the age-standardized rates (ASRs) of anal cancer incidence and mortality in men and women living in Puerto Rico (PR) with those of non-Hispanic whites (NHW), non-Hispanic blacks (NHB), and Hispanics (USH) living in the continental United States (US). Methods ASRs were calculated based on cancer data that came from the PR Cancer Central Registry and from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program. The age-specific relative risks (RR) and 95% Confidence Interval (95% CI) were estimated using Poisson regression models. Results Comparing the period of 2001 to 2004 to that of 1992 to 1996, the incidence of anal cancer increased among NHW, NHB, and PR men. In females, an increase in the incidence was observed for all racial groups except for Puerto Rican women. When evaluating findings by age groups, Puerto Rican men younger than 60 years old had a 20% higher incidence of anal cancer than did USH men of the same age strata (RR: 2.20; 95% CI = 1.48–3.29). However, Puerto Rican females had a lower incidence of anal cancer than NHW and NHB women. An increased percent change in mortality was observed only in NHW and NHB men. A decreasing trend was observed in all racial/ethnic groups except for NHW women. Conclusion Our results support the notion that there are racial/ethnic differences in anal cancer incidence and mortality, with potential disparities among men and women in PR compared with USH men and women. Given the increasing incidence trends in anal cancer, particularly among PR, NHW, and NHB men, further investigation is needed to better elucidate screening practices that can aid in the prevention of anal cancer. PMID:23781623

  10. Adult Basic Education Project: Career Centers Program: Division of Extension and Continuing Education: University of Puerto Rico: Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puerto Rico Univ., Rio Piedras. Div. of Extension and Continuing Education.

    The demonstration project, running from June 1971 to June 1974, sought to reduce the educational and occupational disadvantages of Puerto Rican unemployed and underemployed adults. The program served 1,241 participants, ranging in age from 16 to 60 and in grade level from zero to approximately twelfth grade. Average attendance was 24 days, on a…

  11. Cultural Tailoring and Feasibility Assessment of a Sexual Health Middle School Curriculum: A Pilot Test in Puerto Rico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Escobar-Chaves, Soledad Liliana; Shegog, Ross; Moscoso-Alvarez, Margarita R.; Markham, Christine; Tortolero-Luna, Guillermo; Peskin, Melissa; Tortolero, Susan

    2011-01-01

    Background: To assess the need for cultural tailoring of an effective sexual health middle school curriculum, "It's Your Game: Keep It Real" (IYG), prior to implementation in Puerto Rican (PR) middle schools. Methods: Seventy-three seventh-grade bilingual students participated in IYG curriculum activities (both group-based and computer-based) in…

  12. Impact of over-the-top broadcast applications of Racer® on onion weed control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The weed control challenges for onion production are formidable; however, these challenges are even greater for those considering organic crop production. Organic onion producers need organic herbicides that can effectively provide post-emergent weed control. Racer (registered trademark) is a poten...

  13. RACER: dynamic use of environmental measurement data for decision making and communication.

    PubMed

    Mohler, H Justin; Grogan, Helen A; Rocco, James R; Kiefer, Ryan F; Till, John E

    2012-02-01

    To facilitate access to and use of environmental measurement data, Risk Assessment Corporation has developed a data management system as part of its Risk Analysis, Communication, Evaluation, and Reduction process. The concepts of data consistency are not new, but many data management applications are developed around managing the entire data life cycle, rather than on using the data to reach meaningful conclusions. The RACER process is specifically focused on the efficient use of available data to promote sound decision making. The RACER data management system provides a means of understanding trends in data, comparing data to frequently referenced comparison values, and organizing environmental measurement data for use by other components of the RACER process that evaluate human health impacts. Data transfers to the system can be automated to occur frequently for facilities collecting large volumes of data to achieve a dynamic point of access to measurement data that reflects the most recently available information. Because the RACER process is designed around the most common uses of data, its utility spans a broad range of potential applications, from routine monitoring and reporting to emergency response decision making based on potential human health impacts. Because it is portable and flexible, the elements of the system can be used in any situation where there is a need to efficiently access and interpret environmental measurement data. Its output and functions are equally relevant for small datasets with hundreds of measurements or large and complex datasets with millions of measurements. PMID:22249468

  14. Osseous Metaplasia in a Free-living Snake (Patagonian Green Racer; Philodryas patagoniensis) in Brazil, 2012.

    PubMed

    Nogueira, Carlos H O; Jerdy, Hassan L; Silveira, Leonardo S

    2016-04-28

    We describe an osseous metaplasia in a wild Patagonian green racer (Philodryas patagoniensis). The 5.5×1.5-cm lesion of irregular contour on the right dorsolateral surface proximal to the snake's cloaca was raised, hard, ulcerated centrally, and radiopaque and interfered with mobility. Microscopy revealed osseous metaplasia on skin and muscle. PMID:26981689

  15. RacerGISOnline: Enhancing Learning in Marketing Classes with Web-Based Business GIS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Fred L.; Mangold, W. Glynn; Roach, Joy; Brockway, Gary; Johnston, Timothy; Linnhoff, Stefan; McNeely, Sam; Smith, Kathy; Holmes, Terence

    2014-01-01

    Geographic Information Systems (GIS) offer geospatial analytical tools with great potential for applications in marketing decision making. However, for various reasons, the rate of adoption of these tools in academic marketing programs has lagged behind that of marketing practitioners. RacerGISOnline is an innovative approach to integrating these…

  16. The Effectiveness of Reason Racer, a Game Designed to Engage Middle School Students in Scientific Argumentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ault, Marilyn; Craig-Hare, Jana; Frey, Bruce; Ellis, James D.; Bulgren, Janis

    2015-01-01

    Reason Racer is an online, rate-based, multiplayer game that applies specific game features in order to engage middle school students in introductory knowledge of and thinking related to scientific argumentation. Game features include rapid and competitive play, timed performance, immediate feedback, and high rates of response across many…

  17. Racer (40% ammonium nonanoate) broadcast application for broadleaf weed control in spring-transplanted onions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Racer (40% ammonium nonanoate) is a newly approved herbicide for organically grown food crops. Ammonium nonanoate occurs in nature and is primarily formed from biodegradation of higher fatty acids. Field research was conducted in southeast Oklahoma (Atoka County, Lane, OK) to determine the effect ...

  18. Tectonic and Climatic Controls on Landscape Development of Puerto Rico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, R. D.; Salas, M.; Colon, A.

    2007-12-01

    The northeastern Caribbean island of Puerto Rico is an exhumed Cenozoic island arc situated between the inactive Muertos trench to the south and the highly oblique Puerto Rican Trench to the north that forms the left- lateral strike-slip plate margin with North America. The rectangular island's long axis of 175 km parallels the east trending strike of the trenches with a near constant width of between 50 and 60 km. Puerto Rico receives the NE trade winds and has a tropical monsoonal climate. Puerto Rico has a distinct midline asymmetry with north draining watershed about twice the length and five times as large as south draining watershed. This midline asymmetry is more pronounced along the islands eastern third than the central or western thirds. River outlet spacing, mountain front sinuosity, and comparative hypsometry display similar east to west variability consistent with greater denudation in the eastern parts of the island. The southwestern fifth of the island is underlain by serpentinized ocean crust that forms the large diapiric Monte del Estado uplift. Active diapirism is indicated by highly asymmetric watersheds of the surrounding rivers and tributaries. Stream length gradient index calculated from 1:20,000 scale map data and compared to fault locations show little correlation suggesting that active faults does not significantly control Puerto Rico's landscape. Quantified morphologic data from the eastern two-thirds of Puerto Rico are consistent with a landscape developed in response to the precipitation derived from NE trade winds while serpentinite diapirism dominates the western third of the island. Individual active faults of Puerto Rico do not control the landscape development.

  19. Detecting emotion in others: increased insula and decreased medial prefrontal cortex activation during emotion processing in elite adventure racers.

    PubMed

    Thom, Nathaniel J; Johnson, Douglas C; Flagan, Taru; Simmons, Alan N; Kotturi, Sante A; Van Orden, Karl F; Potterat, Eric G; Swain, Judith L; Paulus, Martin P

    2014-02-01

    Understanding the neural processes that characterize elite performers is a first step to develop a neuroscience model that can be used to improve performance in stressful circumstances. Adventure racers are elite athletes that operate in small teams in the context of environmental and physical extremes. In particular, awareness of team member's emotional status is critical to the team's ability to navigate high-magnitude stressors. Thus, this functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study examined the hypothesis that adventure racers would show altered emotion processing in brain areas that are important for resilience and social awareness. Elite adventure racers (n = 10) were compared with healthy volunteers (n = 12) while performing a simple emotion face-processing (modified Hariri) task during fMRI. Across three types of emotional faces, adventure racers showed greater activation in right insula, left amygdala and dorsal anterior cingulate. Additionally, compared with healthy controls adventure racers showed attenuated right medial prefrontal cortex activation. These results are consistent with previous studies showing elite performers differentially activate neural substrates underlying interoception. Thus, adventure racers differentially deploy brain resources in an effort to recognize and process the internal sensations associated with emotions in others, which could be advantageous for team-based performance under stress. PMID:23171614

  20. Environmental policy and industrialization: The politics of regulation in Puerto Rico

    SciTech Connect

    Concepcion, C.M.

    1990-01-01

    The effects of economic development on environmental regulation in Puerto Rico are examined. In particular, the research analyzes how the Puerto Rican industrialization process has affected implementation of the environmental-review process. Puerto Rico exemplifies an acute conflict between an industrialization process based on capital-intensive, highly polluting industries, and a regulatory framework of insular and US environmental laws and regulations. While industrialization has not solved unemployment problems on the island, environmental and health hazards have increased significantly, despite environmental regulations. The study focuses on a change in the environmental review process in response to economic development concerns. In particular, it examines the growth and extensive use of a new environmental review document, the Environmental Assessment. This study explains this policy shift and, more fundamentally, analyzes how and under what circumstances this change came about.