These are representative sample records from Science.gov related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at Science.gov.
1

Reconnaissance study of late quaternary faulting along cerro GoDen fault zone, western Puerto Rico  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Cerro GoDen fault zone is associated with a curvilinear, continuous, and prominent topographic lineament in western Puerto Rico. The fault varies in strike from northwest to west. In its westernmost section, the fault is ???500 m south of an abrupt, curvilinear mountain front separating the 270- to 361-m-high La CaDena De San Francisco range from the Rio A??asco alluvial valley. The Quaternary fault of the A??asco Valley is in alignment with the bedrock fault mapped by D. McIntyre (1971) in the Central La Plata quadrangle sheet east of A??asco Valley. Previous workers have postulated that the Cerro GoDen fault zone continues southeast from the A??asco Valley and merges with the Great Southern Puerto Rico fault zone of south-central Puerto Rico. West of the A??asco Valley, the fault continues offshore into the Mona Passage (Caribbean Sea) where it is characterized by offsets of seafloor sediments estimated to be of late Quaternary age. Using both 1:18,500 scale air photographs taken in 1936 and 1:40,000 scale photographs taken by the U.S. Department of Agriculture in 1986, we iDentified geomorphic features suggestive of Quaternary fault movement in the A??asco Valley, including aligned and Deflected drainages, apparently offset terrace risers, and mountain-facing scarps. Many of these features suggest right-lateral displacement. Mapping of Paleogene bedrock units in the uplifted La CaDena range adjacent to the Cerro GoDen fault zone reveals the main tectonic events that have culminated in late Quaternary normal-oblique displacement across the Cerro GoDen fault. Cretaceous to Eocene rocks of the La CaDena range exhibit large folds with wavelengths of several kms. The orientation of folds and analysis of fault striations within the folds indicate that the folds formed by northeast-southwest shorTening in present-day geographic coordinates. The age of Deformation is well constrained as late Eocene-early Oligocene by an angular unconformity separating folDed, Deep-marine middle Eocene rocks from transgressive, shallow-marine rocks of middle-upper Oligocene age. Rocks of middle Oligocene-early Pliocene age above unconformity are gently folDed about the roughly east-west-trending Puerto Rico-Virgin Islands arch, which is well expressed in the geomorphology of western Puerto Rico. Arching appears ongoing because onshore and offshore late Quaternary oblique-slip faults closely parallel the complexly Deformed crest of the arch and appear to be related to exTensional strains focused in the crest of the arch. We estimate ???4 km of vertical throw on the Cerro GoDen fault based on the position of the carbonate cap north of the fault in the La CaDena De San Francisco and its position south of the fault inferred from seismic reflection data in Mayaguez Bay. Based on these observations, our interpretation of the kinematics and history of the Cerro GoDen fault zone incluDes two major phases of motion: (1) Eocene northeast-southwest shorTening possibly accompanied by left-lateral shearing as Determined by previous workers on the Great Southern Puerto Rico fault zone; and (2) post-early Pliocene regional arching of Puerto Rico accompanied by normal offset and right-lateral shear along faults flanking the crest of the arch. The second phase of Deformation accompanied east-west opening of the Mona rift and is inferred to continue to the present day. ?? 2005 Geological Society of America.

Mann, P.; Prentice, C.S.; Hippolyte, J.-C.; Grindlay, N.R.; Abrams, L.J.; Lao-Davila, D.

2005-01-01

2

Further Evidence for Medieval Faulting along the Puerto Rico Trench  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Has the Antilles Subduction Zone produced thrust or outer-rise earthquakes east of Hispaniola? An affirmative answer is suggested by tiered evidence for overwash 120 km south of the Puerto Rico Trench. The evidence comes from Anegada, British Virgin Islands, 200 km east-northeast of San Juan, Puerto Rico. PREVIOUS FINDINGS* suggested that a medieval overwash event had greater geologic effects at Anegada than did a Lisbon(?) event, and that both events outrank recent storms. The medieval overwash, in AD 1200-1450, dislodged brain corals from a reef, moved them as much as 500 m across a shallow subtidal flat, and scattered them as solitary boulders as much as 1000 m inland. Gentler overwash in 1650-1800, called Lisbon(?) because it may represent the 1755 tsunami, laid down a sheet of sand and island-derived shells as much as 1500 m from the north shore. A recent hurricane of category 4 left no durable geologic record other than sandy fans within 40 m of the south shore. NEW FINDINGS reinforce the ranking medieval > Lisbon(?) > storm: (1) The medieval event washed ashore marine shells that the Lisbon(?) event did not. An articulated marine bivalve (Codakia orbicularis), probably deposited live, is part of an overwash fan 400 m inland from Windlass Bight. The shell dates to the same time window as the medieval coral boulders. Additional articulated Codakia shells and a conch shell adjoin the buried base of one of these coral boulders 1500 m south of the fringing reef from which the coral was probably derived. (2) Lisbon(?) overwash used breaches that the medieval event had cut through beach ridges of the north shore. The re-use is marked by sand: on the muddy floor of a partly filled breach, on an organic soil in another such breach, and on a pre-existing fan south of an area of beach-ridge dissection. The buried organic soil, inset into a old breach, is 500 m inland from an area, near Cow Wreck High Point, where young beach ridges may have been breached for the first time during the Lisbon(?) event. (3) A storm berm of coral rubble lies seaward of a field of coral boulders that marks the medieval overwash. The berm rises as much as 3 m above fair-weather high tides along Anegada's north shore at Soldier Wash, a sand-free stretch of coast 100 m from the fringing reef. The berm consists of imbricated, well-rounded fragments 15-30 cm in diameter on average. This rubble differs in preservation, size, and distribution from the brain-coral heads 1 m in diameter that the medieval overwash scattered hundreds of meters inland from Soldier Wash. *REFERENCES link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11069-010-9622-6; 2012 fall AGU abs OS32A-05 T41A-2562, and T41A-2566.

Atwater, B. F.; Ten Brink, U. S.; Fuentes, Z.; Halley, R. B.; Spiske, M.; Tuttle, M. P.; Wei, Y.

2013-12-01

3

URBAN EXTENTS Puerto Rico  

E-print Network

URBAN EXTENTS Colombia Puerto Rico Venezuela GRUMPv1 Copyright 2009. The Trustees of Columbia Internacional de Agricultura Tropical (CIAT). Global Rural-Urban Mapping Project (GRUMP), Population Density Km Lambert Azimuthal Equal Area Projection C a r i b b e a n S e a Urban Extent Administrative Units

Columbia University

4

University of Puerto Rico at Mayagez Mayagez, Puerto Rico  

E-print Network

innovation and continuous improvement in engineering education3 . The core of EC 2000 is an outcomes, Engineering Criteria 2000: A Bold New Change Agent, ASEE PRISM, September, 1997. #12;Curricular InnovationsUniversity of Puerto Rico at Mayagüez Mayagüez, Puerto Rico Curricular Innovations Outcomes

Lamancusa, John S.

5

Manatee Mortality in Puerto Rico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trichechus manatus) in Puerto Rico is mortality due to human activities. We assessed 90 cases of manatee strandings in Puerto Rico based on\\u000a historical data and a coordinated carcass salvage effort from 1990 through 1995. We determined patterns of mortality, including\\u000a type of event, condition of carcasses, spatial and temporal distribution, gender, size\\/age class, and the cause of death.\\u000a The

Antonio A. Mignucci-Giannoni; Ruby A. Montoya-Ospina; Nilda M. Jimnez-Marrero; Marta A. Rodrguez-Lpez; Robert K. Bonde

2000-01-01

6

Public Water Supplies in Puerto Rico, 1983.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A compilation was made of public water supply facilities serving Puerto Rico's 78 municipios(municipalities). Information was obtained at the Puerto Rico Aqueduct and Sewer Authority which is responsible for development and operation of the island's publi...

F. Gomez-Gomez, F. Quinones, M. Lopez, R. Munoz-Candelario

1984-01-01

7

Puerto Rico Tsunami Warning and Mitigation Program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The circum-Caribbean region has a documented history of large damaging tsunamis that have affected coastal areas, including the events of the Virgin Islands in 1867 and Mona Passage in 1918. These tsunamis have been triggered by large tsunamigenic earthquakes that deformed the ocean floor. The seismic water waves originating in the prominent fault system around PR are considered to be a near-field hazard for Puerto Rico and the Virgin islands (PR/VI) because they can reach coastal areas within a few minutes after the earthquake. Sources for regional and tele tsunamis have also been identified. To help mitigate the risk of potential tsunamis on the coastal communities of Puerto Rico, with initial funding from the Federal Emergency Management Administration (FEMA) and the University of Puerto Rico (UPR), the Puerto Rico Tsunami Warning and Mitigation Program (PRTWMP) was established in 2000. Three of the main tasks are to evaluate the possibility of establishing a Tsunami Warning System (TWS), prepare tsunami flood maps and education. The need to establish a system of rapid notification for tsunami alerting in the Caribbean region has been recognized by the emergency management and scientific community. Presently, the Puerto Rico Seismic Network (PRSN) of the University of Puerto Rico at Mayag\\x81ez is establishing a Tsunami Warning System (TWS) for PR/VI. Part of the TWS is the EarlyBird system, developed by the West Coast/Alaska Tsunami Warning Center, which has been running in the PRSN since January, 2003. This program automatically locates and disseminates information on potentially tsunamigenic earthquakes. Also, the existing protocol for exchanging data and information on potentially tsunamigenic events in the PR/VI is currently being reviewed by the concerned institutions. Tsunami flood maps were prepared for all of Puerto Rico, including the island municipalities of Vieques and Culebra. These flood maps were generated in three phases. First, hypothetical tsunami scenarios on the basis of the parameters of potential underwater earthquakes were developed. Secondly, each of these earthquakes source scenarios was simulated. The third step was to determine the worst case scenario for a tectonically generated tsunami throughout Puerto Rico. The runups were drawn on GIS referenced topographic maps and aerial photographs. These products are being used by the local, state and federal emergency managers to educate the public and develop mitigation strategies. Based on these maps tsunami warning signs are being installed throughout the potentially affected zones and are a very important component of the TWS.

Huerfano, V. A.; Mercado, A.; von Hillebrandt, C. G.

2003-12-01

8

POSSIBILITIES for OYSTER CULTURE in PUERTO RICO  

E-print Network

POSSIBILITIES for OYSTER CULTURE in PUERTO RICO and the VIRGIN ISLANDS Marine Bioio 'i- «I FEB 1 3 OF THE INTERIOR FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE ^ #12;#12;POSSIBILITIES for OYSTER CULTURE in PUERTO RICO and the VIRGIN, Director Special Soientiflo Report - Fisheries No. 9 POSSIBILITIES FOR OYSTER CULTURE IN PUERTO RICO

9

Puerto Rico wind energy resource assessment project  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Puerto Rico Office of Energy initiated a Wind Energy Resource Assessment Project in September 1982 to gather reliable, quantitative data on the wind resource of Puerto Rico for making decisions on the deployment of single, small wind energy conversion systems throughout the Island and on the viability of installing wind turbine clusters and windfarms interconnected with the Puerto Rico

R. D. Scott; P. Borgo

1983-01-01

10

Dos Puertorriquenos Visitan Puerto Rico (Two Puerto Ricans Visit Puerto Rico).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These materials for Spanish instruction are based on the meeting and friendship of two Puerto Ricans arriving in Puerto Rico for visits to their hometowns, their discussions of Puerto Rican life, and a sightseeing tour of San Juan. Introductory passages to the visitors' dialogues are in English, and dialogues are in Spanish, with photographs,

Tuttle, Harry Grover

11

University of Puerto Rico, at Mayagez Puerto Rico Water Resources and  

E-print Network

condition. This index represent the water quality at a point on a day of sample collection. The WQI canUniversity of Puerto Rico, at Mayagüez Puerto Rico Water Resources and Environmental Research Institute PRWRERI is... The Puerto Rico Water Resources and Environmental Research Institute (PRWRERI

Gilbes, Fernando

12

PUERTO RICO WATER RESOURCES AND ENVIRONMENTAL  

E-print Network

of water and water-related phenomena in Puerto Rico, and (D) the dissemination of research results to water, and riverine zones among others. 2. Drinking Water Quality Research: Fluoride as a health agent, controlPUERTO RICO WATER RESOURCES AND ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE REQUEST FOR PROPOSAL FY 2011 WATER

Gilbes, Fernando

13

PUERTO RICO WATER RESOURCES AND ENVIRONMENTAL  

E-print Network

of water and water-related phenomena in Puerto Rico, and (D) the dissemination of research results to water, and riverine zones among others. 2. Drinking Water Quality Research: Fluoride as a health agent, controlPUERTO RICO WATER RESOURCES AND ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE REQUEST FOR PROPOSAL FY 2012 WATER

Gilbes, Fernando

14

Manatee mortality in Puerto Rico  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The most pressing problem in the effective management of the West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus) in Puerto Rico is mortality due to human activities. We assessed 90 cases of manatee strandings in Puerto Rico based on historical data and a coordinated carcass salvage effort from 1990 through 1995. We determined patterns of mortality, including type of event, condition of carcasses, spatial and temporal distribution, gender, size/age class, and the cause of death. The spatial distribution of stranding events was not uniform, with the north, northeast, and south coasts having the highest numbers. Six clusters representing the highest incidence included the areas of Fajardo and Ceiba, Bahia de Jobos, Toa Baja, Guayanilla, Cabo Rojo, and Rio Grande to Luquillo. The number of reported cases has increased at an average rate of 9.6%/yr since 1990. The seasonality of stranding events showed a bimodal pattern, from February through April and in August and September. Most identified causes of death were due to human interaction, especially captures and watercraft collisions. Natural causes usually involved dependent calves. From 1990 through 1995, most deaths were attributed to watercraft collisions. A reduction in anthropogenic mortality of this endangered species can be accomplished only through education and a proactive management and conservation plan that includes law enforcement, mortality assessment, scientific research, rescue and rehabilitation, and inter- and intraagency cooperation.

Mignucci-Giannoni, A. A.; Montoya-Ospina, R. A.; Jimenez-Marrero, N. M.; Rodriguez-Lopez, M.; Williams, E.H., Jr.; Bonde, R.K.

2000-01-01

15

40 CFR 131.40 - Puerto Rico  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS WATER QUALITY STANDARDS Federally Promulgated Water Quality Standards 131.40 Puerto Rico ...site-specific log standard deviation. (c) Water quality standard variances. (1) The...

2013-07-01

16

Collisional zones in Puerto Rico and the northern Caribbean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Puerto Rico is an amalgamation of island arc terranes that has recorded the deformational and tectonic history of the North American-Caribbean Plate boundary. Four collisional zones indicate the contractional events that have occurred at the plate boundary. Metamorphism and deformation of Middle Jurassic to Early Cretaceous oceanic lithosphere during the Early Cretaceous indicate the earliest collisional event. Then, an ophiolitic mlange, mostly comprised of blocks of the metamorphosed oceanic lithosphere, was formed and emplaced in the backarc region during the Turonian-Coniacian deformational event. A possible collision with a buoyant block in the North American Plate caused late Maastrichtian-early Paleocene contraction that created fold-and-thrust belts and the remobilization and uplift of serpentinite bodies in the Southwest Block. Late Eocene-early Oligocene transpression was localized along the Southern and Northern Puerto Rico fault zones, which occur north and south of large granodiorite intrusions in the strong Central Block. The deformation was accommodated in pure shear domains of fold-and-thrust belts and conjugate strike-slip faults, and simple shear domains of large mostly left-lateral faults. In addition, it reactivated faults in the weak Southwest Block. This island-wide transpression is the result of a Greater Antilles arc and continental North American collision. The kinematic model of the structures described in Puerto Rico correlate with some structures in Hispaniola and Cuba, and shows how the northern boundary of the Caribbean Plate was shortened by collisions with continental lithosphere of the North American Plate throughout its history. The tectonic evolution of the Greater Antilles shows a history of collisions, in which the latest collision accretes Cuba to the North American Plate, reorganizes the plate boundary, and deforms with transpression Hispaniola and Puerto Rico. The latest collision in Puerto Rico shows the case in which an arc collides obliquely with buoyant crust producing left-lateral transpression and converges obliquely with dense oceanic lithosphere.

La-Dvila, Daniel A.

2014-10-01

17

A Collector's Vision of Puerto Rico  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Smithsonian Institution's National Museum of American History provides this site, a glimpse of Puerto Rican history and culture as seen through 175 artifacts from the 3,200-artifact collection of Teodoro Vidal, an aide to Puerto Rico's first governor Luis Munoz Marin. Vidal's collecting activities span more than 40 years, and his artifacts date from the 18th through the 20th centuries. The collection can be browsed or searched (the easiest access to the entire collection is through the index browse), and it is contextualized through explanatory sections on Puerto Rican history, religion, every day life, carnivals, music, tourism, and "the Great Puerto Rican family."

2001-01-01

18

27 CFR 26.126 - Taxpayment in Puerto Rico.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL LIQUORS AND ARTICLES FROM PUERTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS Liquors and Articles Purchased by Tourists in...126 Taxpayment in Puerto Rico. Liquors upon which all Federal...

2013-04-01

19

27 CFR 26.126 - Taxpayment in Puerto Rico.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LIQUORS AND ARTICLES FROM PUERTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS Liquors and Articles Purchased by Tourists in Puerto Rico 26.126 Taxpayment in...

2012-04-01

20

27 CFR 26.126 - Taxpayment in Puerto Rico.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LIQUORS AND ARTICLES FROM PUERTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS Liquors and Articles Purchased by Tourists in Puerto Rico 26.126 Taxpayment in...

2010-04-01

21

27 CFR 26.126 - Taxpayment in Puerto Rico.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LIQUORS AND ARTICLES FROM PUERTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS Liquors and Articles Purchased by Tourists in Puerto Rico 26.126 Taxpayment in...

2011-04-01

22

27 CFR 26.126 - Taxpayment in Puerto Rico.  

...DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL LIQUORS AND ARTICLES FROM PUERTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS Liquors and Articles Purchased by Tourists in...126 Taxpayment in Puerto Rico. Liquors upon which all Federal...

2014-04-01

23

University of Puerto Rico School of Pharmacy and Walgreens Community Pharmacy Residency Program (PGY1), San Juan, Puerto Rico  

E-print Network

University of Puerto Rico School of Pharmacy and Walgreens Community Pharmacy Residency Program (PGY1), San Juan, Puerto Rico University of Puerto Rico and Walgreens Community Pharmacy Residency pharmacy setting. The residency is aca- demically affiliated and financially supported, in part

Quirk, Gregory J.

24

University of Puerto Rico at Mayaguez Mayaguez, Puerto Rico  

E-print Network

Control Baseline Database for the Puerto Mosquito Watershed, Vieques, PR Progress Report Submitted by of the areas could explain the sedimentation trends found during this study. A baseline database has been

Gilbes, Fernando

25

SWIM - A Scientific CubeSat from Puerto Rico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Under the sponsorship of PRIDCO and Puerto Rico NASA Space Grant, a 3U scientific cubesat is being designed and built in Puerto Rico. The cubesat will have 2 scientific instruments: a scientific fluxgate magnetometer from Royal Institute of Technology being deployed on an AFRL deployable boom and a retarding potential analyzer from Virginia Tech University. Aside from contributing essential space weather products to space physics, the project is providing hand on aerospace engineering training for Puerto Rico work force. New aerospace companies in Puerto Rico such as Honeywell Aerospace of Puerto Rico and Infotech has hired graduating students from the program.

Vo, H.; Ivchenko, N. V.; Earle, G. D.; Wiens, G.; Murphrey, T.; Tibert, G.

2012-12-01

26

UNIVERSITY OF PUERTO RICO MAYAGUEZ COLLEGE CAMPUS  

E-print Network

study shows that Arecibo is undergoing coastal erosion. However, the study does not display a detailed: Coastlines, Shorelines, GIS, Eolian Deposits, DSAS, Aerial Photographs, Coastal Erosion 1. Introduction of the coastal environment (Rodríguez et al., 2009). Coastlines changes in Puerto Rico due to erosion

Gilbes, Fernando

27

Puerto Rico Disaster Decision Support Tool  

E-print Network

Puerto Rico Disaster Decision Support Tool: An innovative step towards community resilience They are "processes/events involving the combination of a potentially destructive agent(s) from the natural, modified and social needs for physical survival, social order, and meaning" (Oliver-Smith, 1998). #12;Disaster

Firestone, Jeremy

28

Food, Culture and History of Puerto Rico  

Microsoft Academic Search

LEARNING OUTCOME: To examine the design components of an intercampus study program in Puerto Rico for the undergraduate dietetics student.Dietitians are being challenged more frequently by the diverse cultural backgrounds of their clients. Developing an appreciation for the differences encountered is beneficial early in one's education, as students can then directly apply their newly gained perspectives to learning in the

C. Estes; A. Cruz de Ruiz; C. M. Sanchez; N. Hernndez

1997-01-01

29

Sex Differences and Depression in Puerto Rico.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined sex differences in rates of depressive disorders and depressive symptomatology, as measured by the Diagnostic Interview Schedule, for an island-wide probability sample of Puerto Rico. Found depression significantly more prevalent among women than men. Discusses risk factors from a sex-role and cultural perspective. (Author/KS)

Canino, Glorisa J.; And Others

1987-01-01

30

Puerto Ricos Position within the United States System of Government  

Microsoft Academic Search

This talk will deal with the position Puerto Rico occupies within the system of government of the United States. In a nutshell, Puerto Rico's relationship to the United States is quite similar to that of one of the fifty states, with a very important exception: the inhabitants of Puerto Rico do not vote in federal elections. They do not vote

Jos Julin lvarez Gonzlez

2010-01-01

31

Paleomagnetic evidence for tertiary anticlockwise rotation in southwest Puerto Rico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Late Cretaceous and Eocene paleomagnetic results from calcareous mudstone, limestone, and volcaniclastic rocks in southwest Puerto Rico yield a significant anticlockwise discordance in magnetization direction relative to North American reference data. Progressive thermal demagnetization has revealed stable, characteristic high blocking temperature magnetization components that display an intrasite bipolarity. The direction of this stable magnetization in tilt-corrected coordinates is consistently either northwest and down, or southeast and up. The pole position (39.4 N.Lat.; 209.6 E.Long.; dp = 9.3 dm = 16.7 N = 10) suggests post Eocene anticlockwise rotation of the sampling region relative to North America by 45 about a vertical axis. A rotating block domain model in which north-south compression is superimposed on WNW-ESE strike-slip faults in SW Puerto Rico can explain the inferred rotation.

Van Fossen, Mickey C.; Channell, James E. T.; Schellekens, Johannes H.

1989-08-01

32

Modelo Hidrulico Operacional del Oeste de Puerto Rico  

E-print Network

Puerto Rico Introducción El Instituto de Investigaciones Sobre Recursos de Agua y el Ambiente de Puerto del Modelo Hidráulico Operacional del Sistema de Distribución de Agua del Oeste de Puerto Rico. El agua. · Reserva Nodos que representan una fuente de agua externa del sistema. · Tanques Nodos con

Gilbes, Fernando

33

Assessing the interplay of tectonics, sedimentology and lithology in coastline development of Puerto Rico using a GIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors used a GIS to characterize the coastline morphology of Puerto Rico at different length scales as a function of lithology, sedimentology, and tectonics in order to assess the contribution of each to coastline development. Independent variables considered include orientation and density of mapped onshore faults and geology. Puerto Rico was divided into four coastline segments: north, south, east,

D. Torres-Pulliza; Pamela E. Jansma; Glen S. Mattioli

2000-01-01

34

78 FR 16465 - Foreign-Trade Zone 7-Mayaguez, Puerto Rico, Authorization of Production Activity, Pepsi Cola...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Mayaguez, Puerto Rico, Authorization of Production Activity, Pepsi Cola Puerto Rico Distributing, LLC (Soft Drink and Fruit Drink Beverages), Toa Baja, Puerto Rico On November 5, 2012, the Puerto Rico Industrial Development...

2013-03-15

35

77 FR 48504 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Economic Value of Puerto Rico's Coral Reef...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Request; Economic Value of Puerto Rico's Coral Reef Ecosystems for Recreation-Tourism...non-market economic values of Puerto Rico's coral reef ecosystems. Estimates will be made...recreation-tourism for all of Puerto Rico's coral reef ecosystems. The required...

2012-08-14

36

Puerto Rico Aqueduct and Sewer Authority General Consulting Services and Technical Support  

E-print Network

Puerto Rico Aqueduct and Sewer Authority General Consulting Services and Technical Support projects, assessment of potential new environmental engineering markets for services within Puerto Rico, 2008. #12;Puerto Rico Aqueduct and Sewer Authority General Consulting Services and Technical Support

Gilbes, Fernando

37

Fertility and contraception in Puerto Rico.  

PubMed

A contraceptive service was established in Puerto Rico in 1937. Detailed study of the reproductive history of low income families admitted to the service provides information for the basis of the present high fertility of the population and the likelihood of its continuance. The experience of these families following admission to the contraceptive service shows the impact of the service upon their fertility, testing the view that Puerto Rico might respond to an organized birth control effort. The sample consisted of 1962 families selected not randomly but on the basis of indigence and interest in contraceptive advice. 1/3 of the couples reported some previous effort at contraception, with most of the contraceptive practice depending on withdrawal. Residence, education, occupation, and income are all associated with the marked variation in the proportions who reported contraceptive experience. The percentages are 26 and 52 for rural and urban residence; 21, 27, 44, and 59 for the educational groupings with less than 5 to 7 and 8 or more completed grades. For the low, medium, and high occupational groups, the percentages are 20, 45, and 69, and for the corresponding income classes they are 22, 42, and 66. Women aged 25 to 29 and 30 to 34 report contraceptive practice with much greater relative frequency than younger women. Clearly marked differences are found in the rates for contraceptors of different social and economic classes. Although the reason for high fertility in Puerto Rico is due to lack of cultural and economic pressure to limit families, there is evidence to suggest that use of birth control has begun. It appears that fertility reduction would be implemented if the population possessed better knowledge of birth control measures and readier access to contraceptive materials, particularly condoms. A clinical program to encourage the use of contraception might also prove effective. PMID:12275792

Beebe, G W; Belaval, J S

1942-09-01

38

The Dos Bocas dam in Puerto Rico.  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Dos Bocas dam in Puerto Rico was constructed in 1942 to generate hydroelectric power. Dams in this region prevent the migration of shrimp and fish to areas upstream of the dam. As a result, compared to similar reaches of undammed streams, areas that are upstream of dammed rivers have higher amounts of organic and inorganic nutrients as well as altered invertebrate populations. Loss of migratory shrimp and fish upstream from dams alters basal resources and assemblages of invertebrate competitors and prey. This photograph originally appeared on the cover of Ecological Applications (16:1) in February of 2006.

Klemow, Kenneth

2010-02-11

39

DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING UNIVERSITY OF PUERTO RICO -MAYAGUEZ  

E-print Network

DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING UNIVERSITY OF PUERTO RICO - MAYAGUEZ CURRICULUM VITAE NAME of Antonio Hern�ndez Virella & Associates; Period 1983 to 1986 -Civil Engineer at the Puerto Rico Aqueduct And Sewer Authority, San Juan, PR; Period 1978-1983 -Civil Engineer at the Department of Transportation

Gilbes, Fernando

40

29 CFR 510.20 - Wage surveys in Puerto Rico.  

...Manufacturing Industries. The Bureau of Labor Statistics of Puerto Rico regularly gathers...Non-manufacturing industries. The Bureau of Labor Statistics of Puerto Rico designed and executed...gathered for the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (i.e., that included in the...

2014-07-01

41

Development of earthquake ground motion relations for Puerto Rico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Empirical ground motion relations are a key input to seismic hazard analysis. Ground motion relations describe the peak ground amplitudes and frequency response characteristics of seismic waves as a function of magnitude and distance. This thesis provides the first region-specific ground motion relations for Puerto Rico. This work is important because Puerto Rico is a region of high seismic hazard

Dariush Motazedian

2002-01-01

42

Puerto Rico Trench: Cruise Summary and Results  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This text reports on the two expeditions of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) Office of Ocean Exploration to map the Puerto Rico Trench, the deepest part of the Atlantic Ocean. Multibeam bathymetry and acoustic backscatter data were acquired as the expedition mapped the Caribbean plate, an entire tectonic province of the Earth. The featured section of the report is on the trench area and contains a three dimensional bathymetrical map of the trench. Other sections include observations of marine mammals, an introduction to and background information about the members of the expedition, a slide show that shows daily activities, and a summary of the trip containing a warning of the possibility of a tsunami producing underwater landslides in the area. The site is enhanced with photographs and maps.

Brink, Uri

43

Molluscicidal activity of plants from Puerto Rico.  

PubMed

Overall, 173 tropical plants from 72 different families, collected from the north-western and western regions of Puerto Rico, were screened for their molluscicidal properties against Biomphalaria glabrata, the intermediate host of Schistosoma mansoni. Six plant extracts were effective at 50 ppm. The two most effective extracts were those from the leaves of Didymopanax morototoni (Araliaceae) and Mammea americana (Guttiferae), which, at 50 ppm, killed all snails after 24 h of exposure and a day for recovery. Under the same conditions, extracts of Furcraea tuberosa, Argemone mexicana and Paullinia pinnata killed 50% of the snails and that of Solanum americanum killed 33%. The most effective extracts (or their active components or compounds based on them) may have potential as molluscides for the relatively cheap control of human schistosomiasis. PMID:12080983

Melndez, P A; Capriles, V A

2002-03-01

44

Wind Power Resource Assessment in Ohio and Puerto Rico  

E-print Network

Wind Power Resource Assessment in Ohio and Puerto Rico: A Motivational and Educational Tool Juan occurring with wind power: specifically environmental concerns and benefits, the economics of small wind the general population in wind power. #12;

Womeldorf, Carole

45

General Vulnerability and Exposure Profile to Tsunami in Puerto Rico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Puerto Rico archipelago, located in the seismically active Caribbean region, has been directly affected by tsunamis in the last two centuries. The M 7.3 tsunamigenic earthquake, which occurred on October 11, 1918, caused $29 million in damage, death of 116 people and 100 residents were reported as missing. Presently, deficiencies on urban planning have induced an increase on the number of vulnerable people living inside the tsunami flood areas. Tsunami-prone areas have been delimited for Puerto Rico based on numerical tsunami modeling. However, the demographic, social and physical (e.g. critical and essential facilities) characteristics of these areas have not been documented in detail. We are conducting a municipality and community-level tsunami vulnerability and exposure study using Geographical Information System (GIS) tool. The results of our study are being integrated into the Puerto Rico Disaster Decision Support Tool (DDST). The DDST is a tool that brings access, at no cost, to a variety of updated geo-referenced information for Puerto Rico. This tool provides internet-based scalable maps that will aid emergency managers and decision-makers on their responsibilities and will improve Puerto Rico communities' resilience against tsunami hazard. This project aims to provide an initial estimate of Puerto Rico vulnerability and exposure to tsunami and brings to the community a technological tool that will help increase their awareness of this hazard and to assist them on their decisions.

Ruiz, R.; Hurfano-Moreno, V.

2012-12-01

46

REPLICATION OF "UNRAVELING JUVENILE DELINQUENCY" IN PUERTO RICO.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THE 1ST YEAR OF A 5- TO 6-YEAR PROJECT TO REPLICATE A BOSTON STUDY OF JUVENILE DELINQUENCY IN PUERTO RICO WAS REPORTED. THIS FINAL REPORT COVERS ONLY THE PILOT PHASE OF THE PROJECT. THE PROBLEM ON WHICH THE RESEARCH IS FOCUSED IS TO DETERMINE WHICH OF THE FINDINGS OF "UNRAVELING JUVENILE DELINQUENCY," AS THE STARTING POINT FOR THE PUERTO RICAN

GLUECK, SHELDON; AND OTHERS

47

78 FR 28800 - Foreign-Trade Zone 61-San Juan, Puerto Rico; Application for Subzone; Parapiezas Corporation; San...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...S-65-2013] Foreign-Trade Zone 61--San Juan, Puerto Rico; Application for Subzone; Parapiezas Corporation; San Juan, Puerto Rico An application has been...Parapiezas Corporation located in San Juan, Puerto Rico. The application...

2013-05-16

48

Puerto Rico at the Dawn of the Modern Age  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The process by which Puerto Rico became a modern nation is a complex one, and visitors interested in learning more about this subject would do well to examine this website created by the American Memory Project at the Library of Congress. As with many collections in this series, this particular archive contains historically important writings from a variety of notable personages, such as a clutch of well-known Puerto Rican political activists and historians from the early 19th century to 1929. Visitors who might be a less familiar with the contours and general historical development of Puerto Rico would do well to read the extensive essay offered here by Marisabel Bras, who is a senior analyst at the Department of Defense. The archive also contains a nice selection of historic maps of the general Caribbean region and Puerto Rico. Finally, visitors can also search the materials here by title, author, or subject.

49

Legionella in Puerto Rico cooling towers  

SciTech Connect

Water samples from air conditioning cooling towers receiving different treatment protocols on five large municipal buildings in San Juan, Puerto Rico were assayed for various species and serogroups of Legionella spp. using direct immunofluorescence. Several water quality parameters were also measured with each sample. Guinea pigs were inoculated with water samples to confirm pathogenicity and recover viable organisms. Legionella pneumophila (1-6), L. bozemanii, L. micdadei, L. dumoffii, and L. gormanii were observed in at least one of the cooling towers. L. pneumophila was the most abundant species, reaching 10{sup 5} cells/ml, within the range that is considered potentially pathogenic to humans. A significantly higher density of L. pneumophila was observed in the cooling tower water that was not being treated with biocides. Percent respiration (INT) and total cell activity (AODC), were inversely correlated with bacterial density. This study demonstrates that Legionella spp. are present in tropical air-conditioning cooling systems, and without continuous biocide treatment may reach densities that present a health risk.

Negron-Alviro, A.; Perez-Suarez, I.; Hazen, T.C. [Univ. of Puerto Rico, Rio Piedras (Puerto Rico)

1988-12-31

50

The quest for a job: an analysis of underemployment among Puerto Rican workers in Puerto Rico  

E-print Network

The utilization of labor in Puerto Rico is a continuing problem. Researchers have focused their attention on the unemployed but not on the quality of employment. The Labor Utilization Framework (LUF) used in this study examines underemployment...

Lugo Ramos, Nancy

2012-06-07

51

Studying the anthropogenic radionuclides in Puerto Rico: Preliminary Result  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Local introduction of anthropogenic radionuclides to Puerto Rico's terrestrial and aquatic environments began in 1962 as a result of US government-sponsored research activities. Some of the earlier experiments examined the effects of radiation in tropical rainforests and the potential of superheated boiling nuclear reactor technology. More recent activities involved the use of depleted uranium during military exercises on Vieques. While the presence of radionuclides in Puerto Rico is documented, little research has been done to assess the environmental impact of this anthropogenic material. After entering Puerto Rico's environment, it is likely that some radionuclides are transported away from initial introduction sites. It is important that the distributions and behavior of radionuclides in Puerto Rico be determined. As such an investigation of this material throughout Puerto Rico was initiated. Sediment Cs-137 and Pb-210 activities, as well as ancillary geochemistry data are presented. These preliminary findings will be utilized as part of an ongoing study to determine radionuclide distributions and behaviors, with respect to aquatic geochemistry and dominant transport processes.

Ithier-Guzmn, W.; Pyrtle, A. J.; Smoak, J.

2004-12-01

52

42 CFR 412.220 - Special treatment of certain hospitals located in Puerto Rico.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Special treatment of certain hospitals located in Puerto Rico. 412...PROSPECTIVE PAYMENT SYSTEMS FOR INPATIENT HOSPITAL SERVICES Prospective Payment System for Inpatient Operating Costs for Hospitals Located in Puerto Rico ...

2010-10-01

53

42 CFR 412.204 - Payment to hospitals located in Puerto Rico.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Payment to hospitals located in Puerto Rico. 412...PROSPECTIVE PAYMENT SYSTEMS FOR INPATIENT HOSPITAL SERVICES Prospective Payment System for Inpatient Operating Costs for Hospitals Located in Puerto Rico ...

2013-10-01

54

42 CFR 412.220 - Special treatment of certain hospitals located in Puerto Rico.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Special treatment of certain hospitals located in Puerto Rico. 412...PROSPECTIVE PAYMENT SYSTEMS FOR INPATIENT HOSPITAL SERVICES Prospective Payment System for Inpatient Operating Costs for Hospitals Located in Puerto Rico ...

2013-10-01

55

42 CFR 412.204 - Payment to hospitals located in Puerto Rico.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Payment to hospitals located in Puerto Rico. 412...PROSPECTIVE PAYMENT SYSTEMS FOR INPATIENT HOSPITAL SERVICES Prospective Payment System for Inpatient Operating Costs for Hospitals Located in Puerto Rico ...

2010-10-01

56

42 CFR 412.220 - Special treatment of certain hospitals located in Puerto Rico.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Special treatment of certain hospitals located in Puerto Rico. 412...PROSPECTIVE PAYMENT SYSTEMS FOR INPATIENT HOSPITAL SERVICES Prospective Payment System for Inpatient Operating Costs for Hospitals Located in Puerto Rico ...

2011-10-01

57

42 CFR 412.204 - Payment to hospitals located in Puerto Rico.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Payment to hospitals located in Puerto Rico. 412...PROSPECTIVE PAYMENT SYSTEMS FOR INPATIENT HOSPITAL SERVICES Prospective Payment System for Inpatient Operating Costs for Hospitals Located in Puerto Rico ...

2012-10-01

58

42 CFR 412.204 - Payment to hospitals located in Puerto Rico.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Payment to hospitals located in Puerto Rico. 412...PROSPECTIVE PAYMENT SYSTEMS FOR INPATIENT HOSPITAL SERVICES Prospective Payment System for Inpatient Operating Costs for Hospitals Located in Puerto Rico ...

2011-10-01

59

42 CFR 412.220 - Special treatment of certain hospitals located in Puerto Rico.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Special treatment of certain hospitals located in Puerto Rico. 412...PROSPECTIVE PAYMENT SYSTEMS FOR INPATIENT HOSPITAL SERVICES Prospective Payment System for Inpatient Operating Costs for Hospitals Located in Puerto Rico ...

2012-10-01

60

33 CFR 165.758 - Security Zone; San Juan, Puerto Rico.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Security Zone; San Juan, Puerto Rico. 165.758 Section...District 165.758 Security Zone; San Juan, Puerto Rico. (a) Location...moored or anchored in the Port of San Juan, Puerto Rico. The security zone...

2010-07-01

61

Mobile Livelihoods: The Sociocultural Practices of Circular Migrations between Puerto Rico and the United States.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Documented livelihood practices of migrants based on a recent field study of population flows between Puerto Rico and the United States, comparing characteristics of multiple movers, onetime movers, and nonmovers residing in Puerto Rico. Results suggest that circular migration does not entail major losses in human capital for Puerto Rico, but can

Duany, Jorge

2002-01-01

62

Public Opinion in Puerto Rico on Alcohol Control Policies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses the first study to assess public opinion of alcohol policies in Puerto Rico. In 2001, a telephone survey of 514 adults on the island assessed levels of support for 20 alcohol control policies covering five domains: (a) raising alcohol taxes, (b) restricting alcohol consumption in public places, (c) punishing adult providers

Harwood, Eileen M.; Bernat, Debra H.; Lenk, Kathleen M.; Vazquez, Mary Jo; Wagenaar, Alexander C.

2004-01-01

63

The Demand for Higher Education in Puerto Rico.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Uses time-series data to estimate empirical enrollment functions for three Puerto Rico university systems. Measures opportunity cost and benefits to education as expected wage rates and tests a market segmentation process. Results show that the universities are not substitutes for one another. To cope with continuing revenue shortfalls,

King, Jonathan

1993-01-01

64

Language and Identity in Twentieth Century Puerto Rico.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews the history of the language controversy in Puerto Rico from the United States takeover of the island in 1898 through the 1991 and 1993 language laws that eliminated and then restored English as an official language. The article emphasizes the shifting ways that language has served as a symbolic maker. (47 references) (Author/CK)

Morris, Nancy

1996-01-01

65

Land Tenure Development in Puerto Rico Cathy Bryan  

E-print Network

there has always been someone meddling in their economy and political affairs. If it wasn Puerto Rico's economic, political, and social history that has molded its land tenure system over time in the central West Indies (see Figure 1). Along with Cuba, Jamaica, and Hispaniola (Dominican Republic and Haiti

Onsrud, Harlan J.

66

Impact of information technology certifications in Puerto Rico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose The purpose of this paper is to determine if the professional information technology (IT) in Puerto Rico has had an impact during the job search process, financial compensation and success in the industry, from the point of view of management, with the emergence of certification. Design\\/methodology\\/approach The design used in this research was the cross-sectional and not

Orlando Flix Rodrguez; Fernando Fernndez; Ren Soto Torres

2011-01-01

67

Relations between Study and Employment: Music Graduates in Puerto Rico  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Higher education programs in Puerto Rico include undergraduate degrees in music, music education, composition, popular music, jazz and Caribbean music, and, most recently, a masters degree in music education. However, little is known about what music graduates do after concluding college. Do they work in music-related areas? Are they satisfied

Latorre, Ileana S.; Lorenzo, Oswaldo

2013-01-01

68

Frontiers in Education Conference 1 San Juan, Puerto Rico  

E-print Network

Frontiers in Education Conference ­ 1 San Juan, Puerto Rico Different Degrees of Distance the media used in one aspect of distance education, on-line discussion, can affect the learning outcomes be discussed. The Use of Distance Learning in Higher Education Distance Education is instructional delivery

Larkin, Teresa L.

69

ASSESSING THE CONDITION OF THE COASTAL RESOURCES OF PUERTO RICO  

EPA Science Inventory

Forty seven stations located in the coastal estuaries of Puerto Rico were sampled during the summer of 2000 using a probabilistic design. Fourteen estuaries were classified as "large" at 4.19 km2, 25 "medium" at 3.46 km2, and 8 "small" at 0.55 km2. Samples were successfully coll...

70

Urban influences on the nitrogen cycle in Puerto Rico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anthropogenic actions are altering fluxes of nitrogen (N) in the biosphere at unprecedented rates. Efforts to study these impacts have concentrated in the Northern hemisphere, where experimental data are available. In tropical developing countries, however, experimental studies are lacking. This paper summarizes available data and assesses the impacts of human activities on N fluxes in Puerto Rico, a densely populated

Jorge R. Ortiz-Zayas; Elvira Cuevas; Olga L. Mayol-Bracero; Loreto Donoso; Ivonne Trebs; Debora Figueroa-Nieves; William H. McDowell

2006-01-01

71

Historical Shoreline Changes at Rincon, Puerto Rico, 1936-2006.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The coast from Punta Higuero to Punta Cadena in Rincon, Puerto Rico is experiencing long-term erosion. This study documents historical shoreline changes at Rincon for the period 1936-2006 and constitutes a significant expansion and revision of previous wo...

E. A. Himmelstoss, E. R. Thieler, R. W. Rodriguez

2007-01-01

72

Policies for Early Childhood Music Education in Puerto Rico  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, the author, aware of the importance of music education from the earliest age, especially in the emotional, expressive, cultural, social, intellectual, and creative needs of all children, analyzes the status of music education for the young child in Puerto Rico. She examines whether and how local education policies impact the quality of education for children and their

Marta Hernndez-Candelas

2007-01-01

73

Studying the anthropogenic radionuclides in Puerto Rico: Preliminary Result  

Microsoft Academic Search

Local introduction of anthropogenic radionuclides to Puerto Rico's terrestrial and aquatic environments began in 1962 as a result of US government-sponsored research activities. Some of the earlier experiments examined the effects of radiation in tropical rainforests and the potential of superheated boiling nuclear reactor technology. More recent activities involved the use of depleted uranium during military exercises on Vieques. While

W. Ithier-Guzmn; A. J. Pyrtle; J. Smoak

2004-01-01

74

1997 Economic Census of Outlying Areas: Puerto Rico Manufacturing  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Highlights of this newly released report from the US Census Bureau include that Puerto Rico's manufacturing industries shipped $46.9 billion worth of goods and employed 163,605 persons at 2,092 locations in 1997. Pharmaceutical preparations were the top chemicals and allied products shipped, while beverages ranked first among food products, amounting to $2.3 billion in shipments.

75

76 FR 59179 - Puerto Rico Disaster Number PR-00014  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

This is an amendment of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico (FEMA-4017-DR), dated 08/27/2011. Incident: Hurricane Irene. Incident Period: 08/21/2011 through 08/24/2011. Dates: Effective Date: 09/13/2011. Physical Loan Application Deadline Date: 10/26/2011. EIDL Loan Application Deadline Date:...

2011-09-23

76

The distribution of pollution and environmental justice in Puerto Rico  

EPA Science Inventory

Because few empirical studies on environmental justice and pollution distribution exit, we examine both issues in Puerto Rico. This research is part of a larger US EPA project related to sustainability issues. We use an environmental Gini coefficient with Toxic Release Inventory ...

77

University of Puerto Rico -Ro Piedras May 16, 2013  

E-print Network

University of Puerto Rico - Río Piedras May 16, 2013 Synthetic Biology Fits Naturally A. Malcolm.davidson.edu/projects/gcat/Synthetic/What_Is_SynBio.html Saturday, May 18, 13 #12;Synthetic Biology: Win uncover basic biology Win #1: your design functions as expected. Synthetic Biology: Win-Win Saturday, May

Campbell, A. Malcolm

78

Frontiers in Education Conference 1 San Juan, Puerto Rico  

E-print Network

Frontiers in Education Conference ­ 1 San Juan, Puerto Rico Teaching to Students' Learning Styles developed from two independent learning style models will be described. The first learning style model to be described is the Dunn and Dunn Learning Style Model. The Dunn and Dunn Learning Style Model is employed

Larkin, Teresa L.

79

Puerto Rico - 2002 : field studies to resolve aerosol processes.  

SciTech Connect

A number of questions remain concerning homogeneous aerosol formation by natural organics interacting with anthropogenic pollutants. For example, chlorine has been proposed as a potential oxidant in the troposphere because of its very high reactivity with a wide range of organics (Finlayson-Pitts, 1993). Indeed, sea salt aerosol in the presence of ozone has been shown to produce chlorine atoms in heterogeneous photochemical reactions under laboratory conditions. Whether chlorine can initiate oxidation of natural organics such as monoterpene hydrocarbons and can generate homogeneous nucleation or condensable material that contributes to aerosol loadings needs to be assessed. The nighttime reactions of ozone and nitrate radical can also result in monoterpene reactions that contribute to aerosol mass. We are currently planning field studies in Puerto Rico to assess these aerosol issues and other atmospheric chemistry questions. Puerto Rico has a number of key features that make it very attractive for a field study of this sort. The principal feature is the island's very regular meteorology and its position in the Caribbean Sea relative to the easterly trade winds. This meteorology and the island's rectangular shape (100 x 35 miles) make it highly suitable for simplification of boundary layer conditions. In addition, the long stretch between Puerto Rico and the nearest pollution sources in Africa and southern Europe make the incoming background air relatively clean and constant. Furthermore, Puerto Rico has approximately 3.5 million people with a very well defined source region and a central area of rain forest vegetation. These features make Puerto Rico an ideal locale for assessing aerosol processes. The following sections describe specific areas of atmospheric chemistry that can be explored during the proposed field study.

Gaffney, J. S.; Marley, N. A.; Ravelo, R.

1999-10-05

80

Sedimentation Survey of Lago Guerrero, Puerto Rico, May 2001  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Lago Guerrero, a small reservoir owned by the Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority, is part of the Isabela Hydroelectric System and is located in Aguadilla, in northwestern Puerto Rico. The reservoir had a storage capacity of about 127,376 cubic meters in May 2001 and a maximum depth of about 5.8 meters. Records on dam construction and original topography and storage capacity were not available; therefore, sedimentation rates could not be determined. However, Lago Guerrero resumably was constructed during the 1930?s because it receives water from lago Guajataca, which was constructed in 1928. The May 2001 bathymetric survey of Lago Guerrero established baseline data that are essential to calculate sedimentation rates, sediment yields, storage loss, and sediment deposition sites within the reservoir.

Soler-Lpez, Luis R.

2002-01-01

81

Media complementarity and health information seeking in Puerto Rico.  

PubMed

This investigation incorporates the Orientation1-Stimulus-Orientation2-Response model on the antecedents and outcomes of individual-level complementarity of media use in health information seeking. A secondary analysis of the Health Information National Trends Survey Puerto Rico data suggests that education and gender were positively associated with individual-level media complementarity of health information seeking, which, in turn, was positively associated with awareness of health concepts and organizations, and this awareness was positively associated with a specific health behavior: fruit and vegetable consumption. This study extends the research in media complementarity and health information use; it provides an integrative social psychological model empirically supported by the Health Information National Trends Survey Puerto Rico data. PMID:24377383

Tian, Yan; Robinson, James D

2014-01-01

82

Sedimentation Survey of Lago Patillas, Puerto Rico, March 2007  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Lago Patillas is a reservoir located on the confluence of Rio Grande de Patillas and Rio Marin, in the municipality of Patillas in southern Puerto Rico, about 3 kilometers north of the town of Patillas and about 8 kilometers northeast of the town of Arroyo (fig. 1). The dam is owned and operated by the Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority (PREPA) and was constructed in 1914 for the irrigation of croplands in the southern coastal plains of Puerto Rico along the towns of Arroyo, Guayama, Patillas, and Salinas. Irrigation releases are made through the outlet works into the Patillas Irrigation Canal that extends 32.2 kilometers from the Patillas dam to Rio Salinas. The dam is a semi-hydraulic earthfill with a structural height of 44.80 meters, a top width of 4.57 meters, a base width of 190.49 meters, and a crest length of 325.21 meters. The spillway structure is physically separated from the earthfill dam, has an elevation of 58.21 meters above mean sea level, and has three radial arm gates (Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority, 1979). The reservoir impounds the waters of the Rio Grande de Patillas and Rio Marin. The reservoir has a drainage area of 66.3 square kilometers. Additional information and operational procedures are listed in Soler-Lopez and others (1999). During March 14-15, 2007, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Caribbean Water Science Center (CWSC), in cooperation with the PREPA conducted a bathymetric survey of Lago Patillas to update the reservoir storage capacity and update the reservoir sedimentation rate by comparing the 2007 bathymetric survey data with previous 1997 data. The purpose of this report is to update the reservoir storage capacity, sedimentation rates, and areas of substantial sediment accumulation since April 1997.

Soler-Lpez, Luis R.

2010-01-01

83

RED-TAILED HAWK NEST SITES IN PUERTO RICO  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT.-We describe Red-tailed Hawk,(Buteo jamaicensis) nest sites in four habitats in Puerto Rico. Forty-nine nests were located in 2 1 species of trees. Red-tailed Hawks nested in trees that were taller than the mean,canopy,height of trees in surrounding,plots and that allowed a view of at least 50% of their territory. Most nests were in the upper,third of the tree on

Eduarixi Santana C; J Eddie N. Laboy; James A. Mosher; Stanley A. Temple

84

DISTRIBUTION AND ABUNDANCE OF RAPTORS IN PUERTO RICO  

Microsoft Academic Search

hOtI3 July 1986 to June 1988, I counted all raptors (Falconiformes and Stri- giformes) seen or heard along 1.5 g-km routes in the three major life zones of Puerto Rico (moist, wet, and dry). Red-tailed Hawks (Buteo jamaicensis) and American Kestrels (F&o sparverius) were the most abundant year-round residents. Red-tailed Hawks were more abundant in the moist zone than in

FRANK F. RIVERA-MILAN

1995-01-01

85

Physical, chemical, and biological measurements off Puerto Rico. Appendices  

SciTech Connect

Physical, chemical, and biological data are tabulated for three quarterly cruises to the PROTEC Benchmark site off the southeast coast of Puerto Rico at approximately 17/sup 0/57'N and 65/sup 0/48'W. Physical data include temperature, conductivity, and salinity. Chemical data include dissolved oxygen and various nutrients. Biological measurements include phytoplankton, zooplankton, micronekton, and fish, mammal and bird sightings. (LEW)

Vargo, S.; Fanning, K.; Hopkins, T.; Michel, H.; Vargo, G.; Hartwig, E.; Jones, A.

1981-10-30

86

Urban influences on the nitrogen cycle in Puerto Rico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anthropogenic actions are altering fluxes of nitrogen (N) in the biosphere at unprecedented rates. Efforts to study these\\u000a impacts have concentrated in the Northern hemisphere, where experimental data are available. In tropical developing countries,\\u000a however, experimental studies are lacking. This paper summarizes available data and assesses the impacts of human activities\\u000a on N fluxes in Puerto Rico, a densely populated

Jorge R. Ortiz-Zayas; Elvira Cuevas; Olga L. Mayol-Bracero; Loreto Donoso; Ivonne Trebs; Debora Figueroa-Nieves; William H. McDowell

87

Urban heat island effect analysis for San Juan, Puerto Rico  

Microsoft Academic Search

A climatological analysis of the differences of air temperature between rural and urban areas (dT(UR)) corroborates the existence of an urban heat island (UHI) in the tropical coastal city of San Juan, Puerto Rico that has been increasing at a rate of 0.06Cyear?1 for the last 40 years with predicted differences as high as 8C for the year 2050. The

Alexander Velazquez-Lozada; Jorge E. Gonzalez; Amos Winter

2006-01-01

88

Structure and tectonics of the upper Cenozoic Puerto Rico-Virgin Islands carbonate platform as determined from seismic reflection studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Puerto Rico-Virgin Islands carbonate platform was deposited over an area of 18,000 km2 from early Oligocene to Holocene on top of an inactive and subsiding Cretaceous-earliest Oligocene island arc. Regional single-channel and multichannel seismic reflection lines presented in this study provide the first information on the regional stratigraphy and structure of this platform that has previously been known mainly from onshore stratigraphic sections of a relatively small (2250 km2) portion of the platform exposed by late Neogene tectonic uplift along the north coast of Puerto Rico. Seismic reflection lines are used to map the thickness of the carbonate platform strata and to correlate this thickness with onshore outcrop and well data from northern and southern Puerto Rico, St. Croix (U.S. Virgin Islands), and the Saba Bank. Limestone thickness variations from a little over 2 km to almost zero are used to subdivide the Puerto Rico-Virgin Islands platform into five distinct carbonate provinces: (1) north Puerto Rico area including the onshore exposures; (2) Virgin Islands area; (3) St. Croix and Saba Bank area; (4) south Puerto Rico area; and (5) Mona Passage area. Carbonate thickness and structural information from each area are used to test five previously proposed models for the deformation and vertical movements of the platform. The most prominent feature of the platform in the Puerto Rico-Virgin Islands area is a large, east-west trending arch. The northern limb of this arch exhibits a smoother, more uniform dip than the steeper, more abruptly faulted, southern limb. The core of the arch is responsible for the exposure of arc basement rocks on Puerto Rico. The origin of this arch, which occurs over a 300 km wide area, is best explained by north-south shortening and arching, caused by interaction at depth of subducted slabs of the North America and Caribbean plates. Other important evidence for this model can be found in the Benioff zones observed in the earthquake profiles. Loading of the Caribbean plate results in downward flexing of the North America plate and causes the 4 km subsidence of the carbonate platform north of Puerto Rico.

van Gestel, Jean-Paul; Mann, Paul; Dolan, James F.; Grindlay, Nancy R.

89

U.S. Trade with Puerto Rico and U.S. Possessions 1998  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Census Bureau report entitled US Trade with Puerto Rico and US Possessions lists shipments to and from Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands by commodity and method of transportation in four detailed tables. According to this report, shipments from US possessions to the US totalled almost $2.5 billion, and shipments from the US to Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands totalled over $13 billion for all methods of transportation.

1999-01-01

90

Endometrial cancer in Puerto Rico: incidence, mortality and survival (1992-2003)  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Endometrial cancer is the most common gynecologic malignancy in Puerto Rico and the United States (US). METHODS: We compare the age-specific and age-adjusted incidence and mortality rates and the survival of endometrial cancer in Puerto Rico with that of non-Hispanic whites (NHW), non-Hispanic blacks (NHB) and Hispanics in the US. Data from the Puerto Rico Central Cancer Registry and

Ana Patricia Ortiz; Javier Prez; Yomayra Otero-Domnguez; Omar Garca-Rodrguez; Sheyla Garced-Tirado; Frances Escalera-Maldonado; Sadja Gaud-Quintana; Elvis Santiago-Rodrguez; Katherine Svensson; Jos L Vergara-Arroyo; Karen Ortiz; Mariela Torres; Guillermo Tortolero-Luna; Nayda Figueroa-Valls

2010-01-01

91

40 CFR 81.77 - Puerto Rico Air Quality Control Region.  

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Puerto Rico Air Quality Control Region. 81.77 Section 81...CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions 81.77 Puerto...

2014-07-01

92

Paleomagnetic evidence for Late Miocene counterclockwise rotation of north coast carbonate sequence, Puerto Rico  

SciTech Connect

A paleomagnetic study of the essentially undeformed middle Tertiary carbonate sequence along the north coast of Puerto Rico reveals statistically significant pre-Pliocene discordance of characteristic component directions against those expected from cratonic North America for much of the section. Despite generally weak to moderately weak magnetic intensities, confirmation of the magnetization as primary in origin comes from the presence of two distinct components of magnetization, intrasite bipolarity, and/or the reproducibility of measurements. The mean geographic direction for the upper Oligocene to middle Miocene strata is 335.2{degree}/32.9{degree} and the corrected mean paleomagnetic pole is 207.6{degree}/66.5{degree}, (N = 3, {alpha}95 = 4.3{degree}). This suggests a counter-clockwise (CCW) block rotation of Puerto Rico and its microplate of 24.5{degrees} ({plus minus} 5.8{degrees}) during the late Miocene. Using a width of 250 km for the Northern Caribbean Plate Boundary Zone (NCPBZ) between the North American Plate and Caribbean Plate, the mean left lateral displacement implied is 1.8 to 2.4 cm/yr, which agrees fairly well with published relative motion rates for the two plates. Average rotation rate for 50 Ma to 20 Ma was 0.7{degree}/my but perhaps as great as 4{degree}/my in the Miocene. Resolution of mean paleolatitude indicates northward motion of a degree or less during the period of rotation. Causes of this short-lived rotation may include (1) tectonic escape from the inhibiting presence of the Bahama Banks and Beata Ridge during eastward motion of Puerto Rico along the sinistral transpressive Puerto Rico Trench and Muertos Trough fault systems or (2) changes in relative plate motions of the Caribbean and North American Plate during the late Miocene.

Reid, J.A.; Plumley, P.W. (Syracuse Univ., NY (United States)); Schellekens, J.H. (Univ. of Puerto Rico, Mayaguez (Puerto Rico))

1991-03-01

93

Evaluation of the eradication program for Amblyomma variegatum (Acari:Ixodidae) on Puerto Rico.  

PubMed

A cooperative effort between the United States Department of Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, Veterinary Services, the Agricultural Research Service, and the Department of Agriculture, Commonwealth Government of Puerto Rico has been successful in eradicating Amblyomma variegatum (Fabricius) from the islands of Puerto Rico and Vieques (an island municipality of Puerto Rico). Application of acaricides to livestock and dogs at 14-day intervals for an 18-month period eliminated foci of tick infestation on 188 farms in four different locations without additional aerial or ground treatment. Reasons for the success and some of the costs associated with the eradication program on Puerto Rico are presented. PMID:2707108

Garris, G I; Bokma, B H; Strickland, R K; Combs, G P

1989-02-01

94

Puerto Rico Tsunami Warning and Mitigation Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

The circum-Caribbean region has a documented history of large damaging tsunamis that have affected coastal areas, including the events of the Virgin Islands in 1867 and Mona Passage in 1918. These tsunamis have been triggered by large tsunamigenic earthquakes that deformed the ocean floor. The seismic water waves originating in the prominent fault system around PR are considered to be

V. A. Huerfano; A. Mercado; C. G. von Hillebrandt

2003-01-01

95

75 FR 41819 - Reorganization/Expansion of Foreign-Trade Zone 61 San Juan, Puerto Rico, Area  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Expansion of Foreign-Trade Zone 61 San Juan, Puerto Rico, Area Pursuant to its...proposed Sites 14, 15 and 16) in the San Juan, Puerto Rico, area within and adjacent to the San Juan Customs and Border Protection...

2010-07-19

96

78 FR 30862 - Foreign-Trade Zone 61-San Juan, Puerto Rico; Application for Subzone; Janssen Ortho LLC; Gurabo...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board [S-71-2013] Foreign-Trade Zone 61--San Juan, Puerto Rico; Application for Subzone; Janssen Ortho LLC; Gurabo, Puerto Rico An application has been submitted...

2013-05-23

97

78 FR 75332 - Foreign-Trade Zone 61-San Juan, Puerto Rico Application for Subzone, Parapiezas Corporation...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board [S-65-2013] Foreign-Trade Zone 61--San Juan, Puerto Rico Application for Subzone, Parapiezas Corporation Amendment of Application The Puerto Rico Trade &...

2013-12-11

98

Sedimentation Survey of Lago La Plata, Puerto Rico, July 2006  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Lago La Plata dam is located between the municipalities of Naranjito and Toa Alta in north central Puerto Rico, about 5 kilometers south of the town of Toa Alta and about 5 kilometers north of the town of Naranjito. The reservoir impounds the waters of the Rio de La Plata, the Rio Guadiana, and the Rio Ca?as, and is part of the San Juan Metropolitan Water District, which provides about 35 percent of the total water demand for the area (Soler-Lopez and others, 2000). The reservoir has a drainage area of about 469 square kilometers. The dam was constructed in 1974 and is a concrete gravity structure with a normal pool elevation of 52.00 meters above mean sea level (Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority, 1979). During October 1998, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Caribbean Water Science Center, in cooperation with the Puerto Rico Aqueduct and Sewer Authority (PRASA) conducted a bathymetric survey of Lago La Plata to assess the impact of Hurricane Georges on the storage capacity of the reservoir. Between July 17 and 20, 2006, the USGS and the PRASA conducted an additional bathymetric survey of Lago La Plata to update the reservoir storage capacity and determine the reservoir sedimentation rate by comparing the 2006 survey data with the 1998 survey data.. The purpose of this report is to update the reservoir storage capacity, sedimentation rates, and areas of substantial sediment accumulation since 1998. Historical (1974) data are referenced as needed to account for long-term storage capacity loss trends...

Soler-Lpez, Luis R.

2008-01-01

99

Landslide Deposits, Cookie Bites, and Crescentic Fracturing Along the Northern Puerto Rico-Virgin Islands Margin: Implications for Potential Tsunamigenesis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The seismogenic North America-Caribbean oblique-slip plate boundary forms the 8-km-deep Puerto Rico trench north of the densely populated islands of Puerto Rico and Virgin Islands (combined population of just over 4 million people). The southern slope of the Puerto Rico trench adjacent to the Puerto Rico-Virgin Islands (PRVI) carbonate platform is characterized by frequent seismicity, rapid trenchward tilting, oversteepened slopes, and mass wasting. We present high-resolution bathymetry, HMR1 sidescan imagery, and single-channel seismic data to document extensive landslide deposits that we infer to have been the result of multiple slide events capable of producing prehistoric tsunamis along the coasts of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. Landslide deposits can be traced upslope to two, 45-55 km-wide arcuate-shaped embayments or "cookie bites" carved out of the PRVI platform. Three-dimensional visualization of the debris field and the slope of the largest of the arcuate-shaped embayments centered at 66 40' constrain volume removal to 1.1 km3 of the PRVI carbonate platform and underlying volcanic and volcaniclastic basement. Sidescan sonar and single-channel seismic data reveal crescentic cracks in the seafloor of the PRVI platform 35-45 km in length located 35 km offshore the northwestern tip of Puerto Rico. These cracks, interpreted to represent the sites of future breakaway scarps and landslides, are similar in shape and length to the head wall scarps of the amphitheaters to the east. An 500 km2 section of the PRVI platform (750 m thick) has begun to detach and slump trenchward along the larger of these cracks. Investigation of the existing arcuate-shaped embayments is essential because massive (tens to hundreds of km3) and instantaneous slope failure has the potential to be tsunamigenic. Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands were inundated by tsunamis in 1867 (mainly affecting St. Thomas and St. Croix, 7 m of runup, casualties in the hundreds) and 1918 (mainly affecting western and northwestern Puerto Rico; 6 m of runup, 120 casualties). Calculation of the potential volume, runout extent, and triggering mechanisms of past submarine landslides will better constrain the tsunamigenic potential of the newly discovered crescentic faults.

Hearne, M. E.; Grindlay, N. R.; Mann, P.

2003-12-01

100

Factors associated with drug treatment dropout among injection drug users in Puerto Rico  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined factors associated with drug treatment dropout among injection drug users (IDUs) in Puerto Rico, a group that has contributed significantly to the self-sustaining AIDS epidemic in the island since the mid-1980s. A total of 557 IDUs were recruited from communities in a semirural region of Puerto Rico, as part of a longitudinal study testing the efficacy of

C. Amalia Marrero; Rafaela R. Robles; Hctor M. Coln; Juan C. Reyes; Toms D. Matos; Hardeo Sahai; Jos M. Caldern; Elizabeth W. Shepard

2005-01-01

101

Eliciting stakeholder values for coral reef management tasks in the Gunica Bay watershed, Puerto Rico  

EPA Science Inventory

The EPA is developing a valuation protocol for southwest Puerto Rico that will support the US Coral Reef Task Force?s (USCRTF) Partnership Initiative in the Gunica Bay/Rio Loco (GB/RL) Watershed. The GB/RL watershed is located in southwestern Puerto Rico and includes the urbaniz...

102

77 FR 52310 - Expansion of Foreign-Trade Zone 61, San Juan, Puerto Rico  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Order No. 1848] Expansion of Foreign-Trade Zone 61, San Juan, Puerto Rico Pursuant to its authority under the Foreign-Trade...include a site in Aguadilla, Puerto Rico, adjacent to the San Juan U.S. Customs and Border Protection port of entry...

2012-08-29

103

Puerto Rico's PLATO Learning Program: An Independent Evaluation of the PLATO Learning Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Comprehensive School Reform (CSR) program has become a valuable resource in the implementation of the Puerto Rico Department of Education's educational reform process. To support the process, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico granted computerized equipment, reading and mathematics software and training designed for schools. This included reading

Shillady, Lucinda; Miller, Libbie

2004-01-01

104

Teacher Preparation for the Visually Handicapped in Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented is the report of a project to train teachers of the visually handicapped in Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. Stressed are differences in demographic patterns and needs between the continental United States and the Carribbean islands. Results of a review of demographic data and a survey of Puerto Rico revealed a higher (than in the

Puerto Rico Univ., San Juan. Coll. of Education.

105

But Where Are The People? Unfinished Agendas in The People of Puerto Rico  

Microsoft Academic Search

The People of Puerto Rico is a comprehensive ethnography of major types of rural communities in pre-1950 Puerto Rico but was less successful in reconnecting those localities in a coherent portrayal of the island's social formation. A reexamination of this work's best-known subcultures, Santa Isabel (Sidney Mintz' Caamelar) and Ciales (Eric Wolf's San Jos), offers entry points to these communities,

Juan A. Giusti-Cordero

2011-01-01

106

Studying the radiogeochemistry of the Caribbean National Forest and the BONUS Power Plant in Puerto Rico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental impact studies on anthropogenic radionuclides have been conducted worldwide since the initiation of above ground nuclear weapons testing over 5 decades ago. During the 1960's Puerto Rico was the site of two ecological studies involving the release of radionuclides into the rainforest. More recently, radionuclides were introduced in Puerto Rico on the island of Vieques via military activities involving

W. Ithier-Guzman; A. J. Pyrtle

2006-01-01

107

ANLISIS DE CAMBIOS EN LA CALIDAD DEL AGUA EN PUERTO RICO UTILIZANDO SISTEMAS DE INFORMACIN GEOGRFICA  

E-print Network

ANÁLISIS DE CAMBIOS EN LA CALIDAD DEL AGUA EN PUERTO RICO UTILIZANDO SISTEMAS DE INFORMACI?N maduros son beneficiosos para la calidad del agua en Puerto Rico. Este resultado se obtuvo de agua de los ríos; (2) mapas de cobertura y uso de terreno; (3) valores de precipitación; y (4

Gilbes, Fernando

108

Anlisis de cambios en la calidad del agua en Puerto Rico utilizando Sistemas de  

E-print Network

An�lisis de cambios en la calidad del agua en Puerto Rico utilizando Sistemas de Informaci�n Geogr � Calidad del agua (Puerto Rico) � Maria Uriarte de Columbia University � Charles B. Yackulic , Yili Lim � Calidad del agua (Cuenca Guavate) � Keyla Torres, Elizabeth Pab�n y Fredmarie Oyola, Alexandra Rivera

Gilbes, Fernando

109

5 CFR 532.275 - Special wage schedules for ship surveyors in Puerto Rico.  

...2014-01-01 false Special wage schedules for ship surveyors in Puerto Rico. 532.275...532.275 Special wage schedules for ship surveyors in Puerto Rico. (a) The...special wage schedules for nonsupervisory ship surveyors and supervisory ship...

2014-01-01

110

NESTING ECOLOGY AND BEHAVIOR OF BROAD-WINGED HAWKS IN MOIST KARST FORESTS OF PUERTO RICO  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Puerto Rican Broad-winged Hawk (Buteo platypterus brunnescens) is an endemic and endangered subspecies inhabiting upland montane forests of Puerto Rico. The reproductive ecology, behavior, and nesting habitat of the Broad-winged Hawk were studied in Rio Abajo Forest, Puerto Rico, from 2001-02. We observed 158 courtship displays by Broad-winged Hawks. Also, we recorded 25 ter- ritorial interactions between resident Broad-winged

DEREK W. HENGSTENBERG; FRANCISCO J. VILELLA

111

Sedimentation survey of Lago Loco, Puerto Rico, March 2000  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Lago Loco, a small reservoir property of the Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority and part of the Southwestern Puerto Rico Project, has lost 64 percent of its original storage capacity. In 1951, the original storage capacity was about 2.40 million cubic meters, decreasing to 1.43 million cubic meters in 1986 and to 0.87 million cubic meters in March 2000. The storage loss or longterm sedimentation rate increased from 27,714 cubic meters per year from the period of 1951 to 1986 to 31,224 cubic meters per year for the period of 1951 to 2000. This represents a capacity loss of about 1.1 percent per year for the period of 1951 to 1986 and 1.3 percent per year for 1951 to 2000. The trapping efficiency of the reservoir was about 92 percent in 1951, decreasing to about 87 percent in 1986, and to about 80 percent in March 2000. The sediment yield of the net sediment- contributing drainage area increased from 1,504 megagrams per square kilometer per year between 1951 and 1986 to 1,774 megagrams per square kilometer per year between 1951 and 2000, or about 18 percent. At the current sedimentation rate of the reservoir, the life expectancy of Lago Loco is about 28 more years or until the year 2028.

Soler-Lpez, Luis R.

2002-01-01

112

Epidemiology of coronary heart disease: the Puerto Rico heart health program revisted.  

PubMed

Coronary heart disease (CHD) remains as the main cause of death in most countries of the world including Puerto Rico. Due to the importance of gathering knowledge regarding the harmful effects and risk factors associated with the development of CHD some basic information is reviewed to stimulate the institution of measures for reduction of the prevalence of clinical CHD and its ultimate consequences. Special attention is given in the manuscript of the Puerto Rico Heart Health Program conducted in men aged 45-64 residing in four rural and three urban areas. The Puerto Rico and the Honolulu Study confirmed the initial publication on the epidemiology of coronary heart disease by the Framingham study. The presentation of some data collected among the three studies strengthen the message of avoiding the development of CHD by installing preventive measures for control and reduction of the risk factors. Concurrent data obtained in the three studies is presented. Although the degree of the involvement of the populations is higher in Framingham than in Puerto Rico and Honolulu, the deleterious effects of specific risk factors are harmful in all the three populations. Difference in the prevalence of risk factors among the urban and rural males in Puerto Rico is also illustrated. It is our hope that more intense measures be instituted in Puerto Rico at all levels in order to control risk factors and reduce the incidence of coronary disease in Puerto Rico. PMID:23767390

Garca-Palmieri, Mario R

2013-01-01

113

CDF and PDF Comparison Between Humacao, Puerto Rico and Florida  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The knowledge of the atmospherics phenomenon is an important part in the communication system. The principal factor that contributes to the attenuation in a Ka band communication system is the rain attenuation. We have four years of tropical region observations. The data in the tropical region was taken in Humacao, Puerto Rico. Previous data had been collected at various climate regions such as desserts, template area and sub-tropical regions. Figure 1 shows the ITU-R rain zone map for North America. Rain rates are important to the rain attenuation prediction models. The models that predict attenuation generally are of two different kinds. The first one is the regression models. By using a data set these models provide an idea of the observed attenuation and rain rates distribution in the present, past and future. The second kinds of models are physical models which use the probability density functions (PDF).

Gonzalez-Rodriguez, Rosana

2004-01-01

114

Physical, chemical, and biological measurements off Puerto Rico  

SciTech Connect

Physical, chemical, and biological measurements were made during three quarterly sampling cruises at the PROTEC benchmark site on the southeast coast of Puerto Rico. Physical measurements at the site were expendable bathythermographs (XBT), conductivity/temperature/depth (CTD) profiles, and temperature profiles using reversing thermometers. Chemical measurements made at the site were salinity, dissolved oxygen, and nutrients (phosphate, silicate, ammonia, nitrate + nitrite, organic phosphorous, and organic nitrogen). Biological measurements were made on phytoplankton, zooplankton, and micronekton. Both structural (biomass, species abundance, and species composition) and functional (primary production) measurements were made. Measurements indicate that the thermal resource is adequate for OTEC plant operation during all seasons. The physical, chemical, and biological measurements made at the site were generally within values reported for other tropical-subtropical regions. There was considerable seasonal and diurnal variability in the data. (LEW)

Vargo, S.; Fanning, K.; Hopkins, T.; Michel, H.; Vargo, G.; Hartwig, E.; Jones, A.

1981-06-01

115

AIDS-Related Stigma and Health Professionals in Puerto Rico  

PubMed Central

This study addresses an important issue in the AIDS epidemic in Puerto Rico: AIDS stigma among health professionals and health profession students. AIDS stigma has been documented among health services providers such as doctors, nurses, psychologists, and social workers. It has detrimental effects of the services provided and the lives of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). The main objective of this study was to explore AIDS stigma manifestations among a sample composed of eighty health professionals and health profession students who participated in in-depth qualitative interviews. Four thematic categories stemmed from the data analysis process. These addressed the following subjects: social manifestations of stigma, stigma manifestations in the workplace, use of sensitive information to control PLWHA, and surveillance of PLWHA. Participants manifested instances of stigmatization they had witnessed in their work and training scenarios. Furthermore, they elaborated on the need to place effective surveillance mechanism on PLWHA in order to control the epidemic. PMID:21423837

Ruiz-Torres, Yamilette; Cintrn-Bou, Francheska N.; Varas-Daz, Nelson

2009-01-01

116

Sequential episodes of dengue--Puerto Rico, 2005-2010.  

PubMed

Of 53,633 suspected dengue cases reported to a passive dengue surveillance system in Puerto Rico during 2005-2010, 949 individuals were reported on more than one occasion and 21 had laboratory-confirmed dengue on two separate occasions. Median time between illness episodes was 2.9 years (range: 62 days-5.3 years). Seventeen (81%) individuals with sequential episodes of dengue were male, and seven (33%) were adults. All 21 individuals experienced one episode and seven (33%) individuals experienced both episodes during a large epidemic that occurred in 2010. These observations show that heterotypic dengue virus immunity that protects against illness may have considerable variability but typically does not last longer than 3 years. PMID:24891464

Sharp, Tyler M; Hunsperger, Elizabeth; Muoz-Jordn, Jorge L; Margolis, Harold S; Tomashek, Kay M

2014-08-01

117

Introduction to the High-Rate GPS Network of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Puerto Rico Seismic Network at the University of Puerto Rico at Mayagez is a regional earthquake and tsunami monitoring institute. One of its primary objective is to provide timely and reliable earthquake and tsunami information and warning to the state (Puerto Rico) and local governments, the US and British Virgin Islands, as well as to the general public. In the past five years, it has been expanding its operations for the establishment of a Caribbean Tsunami Warning Center. With funding of the Puerto Rico government and NOAA, it is operated 24 hours per day and 7 days per week. Broadband seismometers are generally unable to capture the full bandwidth of long period ground motions following very large earthquakes. As a result, it is difficult to rapidly estimate the true magnitudes of large earthquakes using only seismic data. High-rate GPS has been justified as a very useful tool in recording long-period and permanent earthquake ground motions. Estimation of the true magnitude (and therefore tsunami potential) of large earthquakes may be determined more accurately in a timely manner (minutes after the quake) using high rate GPS observations. With the major aim of improving the ability of the PRSN in rapidly and precisely monitoring large earthquakes, NSF funded a Major Research Instrumentation (MRI) project, Acquisition of 9 High-rate GPS Units for Developing a Broadband Earthquake Observation System in Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands (EAR-0722540, August 1, 2007-July 31, 2009). The major purpose of this project is to build a high-rate GPS network in Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands. The GPS network includes 3 campaign and 6 permanent GPS stations. These campaign stations were designed to use in emergency response after large earthquakes to get co-seismic and post-seismic displacement. These six permanent stations were designed to complement current seismic observation system of Puerto Rico and U.S. Virgin Islands. We have installed three permanent GPS stations in May, 2008. They locate in Arecibo Observatory, Bayamon Science Park, and Caja de Muertos Island. We will install the other three stations in October, 2008. They will be located in Mona, Culebra, and St. Thomas islands. All of these permanent GPS stations are colocated with seismic stations operated by the Puerto Rico Seismic Network and the Puerto Rico Strong Motion Program. They are also very-closely spaced to the Tide Gauge stations operated by PRSN and NOAA. Therefore they will also complement the tide gauge sea-level observation system to get accurate absolute sea-level changes after large earthquakes. The integrated velocitymeter-accelerometer- GPS earthquake observation system will advance knowledge of seismic wave propagation, the kinematics and dynamics of fault rupture process, pre-seismic, co-seismic and post-seismic deformation, and is also likely to be useful for improving building and critical structure designs. It will support earthquake and tsunami hazards research and mitigation in Puerto Rico and the surrounding region. High-rate GPS observations can also be used for real time tropospheric water vapor tomography which is useful for weather prediction, including improved hurricane track forecasting. Raw GPS data are freely available through the UNAVCO archive. As a result, a large number of researchers can potentially benefit from the data for research and applications ranging from neotectonics to atmospheric science to civil engineering.

Wang, G.; Hillebrandt, C. V.; Martinez, J. M.; Huerfano, V.; Schellekens, J.

2008-12-01

118

Sedimentation History of Lago Guayabal, Puerto Rico, 1913-2001  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Lago Guayabal dam, located in the municipality of Villalba in southern Puerto Rico, was constructed in 1913 for irrigation of croplands in the southern coastal plains and is owned and operated by the Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority. The reservoir had an original storage capacity of 11.82 million cubic meters and a drainage area upstream of the dam of 112 square kilometers. Sedimentation has reduced the storage capacity to 6.12 million cubic meters in 2001, which represents a storage loss of about 48 percent. However, the actual sediment accumulation in the reservoir during the 88 years is greater, because some sediment removal was conducted between 1940 and 1948 by dredging and sluicing. This report summarizes the historical data from a 1913 land survey and eight bathymetric surveys conducted between 1914 and 2001, and the relation of high sedimentation to agricultural land practices within the Lago Guayabal basin and six major hurricanes which made landfall on the island. The reservoir had an area-normalized sedimentation rate of about 1,863 cubic meters per square kilometer per year between 1913 and 1936 from a 112 square kilometer basin. In 1972, a new dam upstream along the Rio Toa Vaca impounded runoff from 57.5 square kilometers, and sediment transport to Lago Guayabal was reduced. A comparison of bathymetric survey results between 1972 and 2001 indicates an area-normalized sedimentation rate of 1,120 cubic meters per square kilometer per year or about 60 percent of the rate between 1913 and 1936. The significant reduction (almost half) of the sedimentation rate after the Toa Vaca dam was built may indicate that erosion susceptibility of the Rio Toa Vaca watershed is about twice that of the Rio Jacaguas watershed impounded by Lago Guayabal.

Soler-Lpez, Luis R.

2003-01-01

119

Sedimentation survey of Lago de Matrullas, Puerto Rico, December 2001  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Lago de Matrullas reservoir, constructed in 1934, is located at an altitude of approximately 730 meters above mean sea level in the municipality of Orocovis in central Puerto Rico, and has a drainage area of 11.45 square kilometers. The reservoir is part of the Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority Toro Negro Hydroelectric Project, which also includes the Lago El Guineo reservoir and a hydroelectric plant to the south of the insular hydrographic divide. Historically, the drainage area had been protected from soil erosion by dense vegetation and the lack of basin development. However, transportation, potable water, and electric power infrastructure construction has facilitated development in rural areas resulting in the clearing of land. This trend in land-use changes is impacting the useful life of Lago de Matrullas. The reservoir storage capacity has been reduced from 3.71 million cubic meters in 1934 to 3.08 million cubic meters in 2001. This represents a total storage-capacity loss of 0.63 million cubic meters by 2001 (17 percent), or a long-term annual storage loss of 0.25 percent per year. The sediment trapping efficiency of Lago de Matrullas has been estimated at approximately 90 percent. If the current long-term sedimentation rate continues, Lago de Matrullas would fill by the year 2328. However, this life expectancy could be reduced at a faster than predicted rate as a result of rural development in the Lago de Matrullas basin and the high sediment trapping efficiency of the reservoir.

Soler-Lpez, Luis R.

2003-01-01

120

Sedimentation Survey of Lago de Cidra, Puerto Rico, August 2007  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Lago de Cidra is a reservoir located on the confluence of Rio de Bayamon, Rio Sabana, and Quebrada Prieta, in the municipality of Cidra in east-central Puerto Rico, about 3.0 kilometers northeast of the town of Cidra. The dam is owned and operated by the Puerto Rico Aqueduct and Sewer Authority (PRASA), and was constructed in 1946 as a 6.54-million-cubic-meter supplemental water supply for the San Juan metropolitan area. The reservoir impounds the waters of Rio de Bayamon, Rio Sabana and Quebrada Prieta. The reservoir has a drainage area of 21.4 square kilometers. The dam is a concrete gravity and earthfill structure with a length of approximately 165 meters and a structural height of 24 meters. The spillway portion of the dam is an ungated ogee crest about 40 meters long with a crest elevation of 403.00 meters above mean sea level. Additional information and operational procedures are listed in Soler-Lopez (1999). During August 14-15, 2007, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Caribbean Water Science Center (CWSC), in cooperation with the PRASA, conducted a bathymetric survey of Lago de Cidra to update the reservoir storage capacity and actualize the reservoir sedimentation rate by comparing the 2007 data with the previous 1997 bathymetric survey data. The purpose of this report is to describe and document the USGS sedimentation survey conducted at Lago de Cidra during August 2007, including the methods used to update the reservoir storage capacity, sedimentation rates, and areas of substantial sediment accumulation since 1997.

Soler-Lpez, Luis R.

2010-01-01

121

42 CFR 412.374 - Payments to hospitals located in Puerto Rico.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-10-01 false Payments to hospitals located in Puerto Rico. 412.374...PROSPECTIVE PAYMENT SYSTEMS FOR INPATIENT HOSPITAL SERVICES Prospective Payment System for Inpatient Hospital Capital Costs Special Rules for...

2012-10-01

122

42 CFR 412.374 - Payments to hospitals located in Puerto Rico.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-10-01 false Payments to hospitals located in Puerto Rico. 412.374...PROSPECTIVE PAYMENT SYSTEMS FOR INPATIENT HOSPITAL SERVICES Prospective Payment System for Inpatient Hospital Capital Costs Special Rules for...

2011-10-01

123

42 CFR 412.370 - General provisions for hospitals located in Puerto Rico.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false General provisions for hospitals located in Puerto Rico. 412.370...PROSPECTIVE PAYMENT SYSTEMS FOR INPATIENT HOSPITAL SERVICES Prospective Payment System for Inpatient Hospital Capital Costs Special Rules for...

2013-10-01

124

42 CFR 412.370 - General provisions for hospitals located in Puerto Rico.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false General provisions for hospitals located in Puerto Rico. 412.370...PROSPECTIVE PAYMENT SYSTEMS FOR INPATIENT HOSPITAL SERVICES Prospective Payment System for Inpatient Hospital Capital Costs Special Rules for...

2011-10-01

125

42 CFR 412.370 - General provisions for hospitals located in Puerto Rico.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false General provisions for hospitals located in Puerto Rico. 412.370...PROSPECTIVE PAYMENT SYSTEMS FOR INPATIENT HOSPITAL SERVICES Prospective Payment System for Inpatient Hospital Capital Costs Special Rules for...

2010-10-01

126

42 CFR 412.374 - Payments to hospitals located in Puerto Rico.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-10-01 false Payments to hospitals located in Puerto Rico. 412.374...PROSPECTIVE PAYMENT SYSTEMS FOR INPATIENT HOSPITAL SERVICES Prospective Payment System for Inpatient Hospital Capital Costs Special Rules for...

2013-10-01

127

42 CFR 412.370 - General provisions for hospitals located in Puerto Rico.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false General provisions for hospitals located in Puerto Rico. 412.370...PROSPECTIVE PAYMENT SYSTEMS FOR INPATIENT HOSPITAL SERVICES Prospective Payment System for Inpatient Hospital Capital Costs Special Rules for...

2012-10-01

128

42 CFR 412.374 - Payments to hospitals located in Puerto Rico.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-10-01 false Payments to hospitals located in Puerto Rico. 412.374...PROSPECTIVE PAYMENT SYSTEMS FOR INPATIENT HOSPITAL SERVICES Prospective Payment System for Inpatient Hospital Capital Costs Special Rules for...

2010-10-01

129

Alternative energy systems for Puerto Rico : analysis and comparison of anaerobic waste digestion  

E-print Network

Energy prices in Puerto Rico are increasing constantly, making evident the need for alternative energy sources. Several methods to produce power have been developed as alternatives to burning petroleum, such as solar energy ...

Cuevas, Emil A. (Emil Andr Cuevas Melndez)

2006-01-01

130

Laboratory characterization of a highly weathered old alluvium in San Juan, Puerto Rico  

E-print Network

The old alluvium underlying much of metropolitan San Juan was formed in early Pleistocene and has undergone substantial post-depositional weathering in the tropical climate of Puerto Rico, resulting in a special combination ...

Zhang, Guoping, 1968-

2002-01-01

131

Hydrologic Characteristics of Limestone in Northern Puerto Rico in Relation to Depositional Environments and Diagenesis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this work was to describe the stratigraphy and depositional environments of the Tertiary limestone belt, northwestern Puerto Rico and to determine their lineaments and sinkholes. The petrography, macrofossils and foraminifers of the Tertiar...

G. A. Seiglie, M. T. Moussa

1983-01-01

132

Coral reef condition and benthic sedimentation threat in four regions of south Puerto Rico  

EPA Science Inventory

Scleractinian corals, gorgonian octocorals, sponges and fishes were assessed near the cities of LaParguera, Gunica, Guayanilla, and Jobos along the southern coast of Puerto Rico in November December 2010. Survey sites were targeted near areas with varying benthic...

133

40 CFR 282.102 - Puerto Rico State-Administered Program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...CONTINUED) APPROVED UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANK PROGRAMS Approved State...administer and enforce an underground storage tank program in lieu of the...Commonwealth of Puerto Rico underground storage tank program concurrently...

2012-07-01

134

40 CFR 282.102 - Puerto Rico State-Administered Program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...CONTINUED) APPROVED UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANK PROGRAMS Approved State...administer and enforce an underground storage tank program in lieu of the...Commonwealth of Puerto Rico underground storage tank program concurrently...

2011-07-01

135

40 CFR 282.102 - Puerto Rico State-Administered Program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...CONTINUED) APPROVED UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANK PROGRAMS Approved State...administer and enforce an underground storage tank program in lieu of the...Commonwealth of Puerto Rico underground storage tank program concurrently...

2013-07-01

136

7 CFR 318.13-24 - Sweet potatoes from Puerto Rico.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE STATE OF HAWAII AND TERRITORIES QUARANTINE NOTICES Regulated Articles From Hawaii and the Territories 318.13-24 Sweet potatoes from Puerto Rico....

2010-01-01

137

Development of a landslide hazard map for the island of Puerto Rico  

E-print Network

This thesis describes the development of a landslide hazard map for the island of Puerto Rico through the use of Graphical Information System (GIS) tools. Parameters considered in this study are elevation, slope aspect, ...

Kamal, Sameer A. (Sameer Ahmed)

2008-01-01

138

Health effects associated with cyanobacteria exposure among beach attendees in Puerto Rico  

EPA Science Inventory

Cyanobacteria and their toxins are associated with adverse human health effects, although among marine waters, the pyrrhophyta, including dinoflagellates are more recognized as health hazards. We recruited beach attendees during summer 2009, at Boquern Beach, Puerto Rico...

139

Desarrollo y Aplicacin de un ndice de Calidad de Agua para ros en Puerto Rico  

E-print Network

Desarrollo y Aplicación de un Índice de Calidad de Agua para ríos en Puerto Rico por Francisco J trabajo presenta la elaboración de un Índice de Calidad de Agua (ICA) para los ríos en Puerto Rico. Dicho índice pretende clasificar en una escala de 0 a 100 la calidad representativa del agua, según los

Gilbes, Fernando

140

The Ecological Consequences of Socioeconomic and Land-Use Changes in Postagriculture Puerto Rico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contrary to the general trend in the tropics, forests have recovered in Puerto Rico from less than 10% of the landscape in the late 1940s to more than 40% in the present. The recent Puerto Rican history of forest recovery provides the opportunity to study the ecological consequences of eco- nomic globalization, reflected in a shift from agriculture to manufacturing

H. RICARDO GRAU; T. MITCHELL AIDE; JESS K. ZIMMERMAN; JOHN R. THOMLINSON; EILEEN HELMER; XIOMING ZOU

2003-01-01

141

LONGITUDINAL PATTERNS IN STREAM CHANNEL GEOMORPHOLOGY AND AQUATIC HABITAT IN THE LUQUILLO MOUNTAINS OF PUERTO RICO  

E-print Network

OF PUERTO RICO Andrew Stephen Pike A DISSERTATION in Earth and Environmental Science Presented Fred. Second, I would like to thank each member of my graduate committee. I extend special thanks RICO Andrew S. Pike Frederick N. Scatena The hydrologic, geomorphic, and ecological dynamics

142

HIV Transmission Behaviors in Jail\\/Prison Among Puerto Rican Drug Injectors in New York and Puerto Rico  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined HIV risk behavior in jail\\/prison among Puerto Rican drug injectors in New York (NY, n?=?300) and Puerto Rico (PR, n?=?200), and its relationship with later drug and sex risk behaviors. During 3 years prior to interview, 66% of NY and 43%\\u000a of PR samples were incarcerated at least once. While incarcerated, 5% of NY and 53% of

Sung-Yeon Kang; Sherry Deren; Jonny Andia; Hector M. Coln; Rafaela Robles; Denise Oliver-Velez

2005-01-01

143

Radar investigation of barium releases over Arecibo Observatory, Puerto Rico  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite (CRRES) El Coqui rocket campaign was successfully carried out in Puerto Rico during the period 18 May through 12 July 1992. This report describes five chemical release experiments in the upper ionosphere supported by Geospace Research, Inc. during the El Coqui campaign. Additional spin-off science is also discussed. The El Coqui releases are designated AA-1 (rocket 36-082), AA-2 (rocket 36-081), AA-3b (rocket 36-064), AA-4 (rocket 36-065), and AA-7 (rocket 36-083). Particular attention is paid to releases AA-2 and AA-4. These two experiments involved the illumination of ionospheric release regions with powerful high-frequency (HF) radio waves transmitted from the Arecibo HF facility. In the AA-2 experiment, microinstabilities excited by the HF wave in a Ba(+) plasma were examined. This release yielded a smooth plasma cloud that helped clarify several fundamental issues regarding the physics of wave plasma instabilities. During AA-2 extremely strong HF-induced Langmuir turbulence was detected with the Arecibo 430 MHz radar. CF3Br was released in the AA-4 study to create an ionospheric hole that focused the HF beam. This experiment successfully explored wave-plasma coupling in an O(+) ionosphere under conditions of very high HF electric field strengths.

Djuth, Frank T.

1995-01-01

144

Effects of Aerosol PSD on Precipitation in Puerto Rico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The influence of aerosols on clouds and on the climate remains an uncertainty, however, it is of great importance to determine their effects on the formation of clouds and on precipitation. The objective is to study the effects of aerosol particle concentrations on precipitation. The is goal is, by using the aerosols particle size distribution (PSD) data from the Island of Puerto Rico (PR) located in the Caribbean, to better predict precipitation in PR and other Caribbean regions that are heavily exposed to naturally occurring maritime and continental aerosols (ex. Sea Salt, Saharan Dust). The aerosol PSD, and precipitation data values for the study was collected, respectively, from the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) and the National Climatic Data Center (NCDC). The data from three sites, Mayaguez (Western Region), La Parguera (Southwestern Region) and San Juan (Northeastern Region), was analyzed to determine and formulate seasonal and intra-seasonal relationships. PSD's were analyzed for fine and coarse mode size distributions and seasonal concentrations. Correlations between these variables with precipitation climatologies were identified. Correlations of concentrations of fine/course modes with suppression/enhancement of Caribbean precipitation in early rainfall, mid-summer droughts and rainfall seasons are formulated and hypotheses are established to comprehend these effects. Episodic and mean events are analyzed to justify these observations.

Bracho, S. M.; Hosannah, N.

2013-12-01

145

Sedimentation Survey of Lago El Guineo, Puerto Rico, October 2001  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Lago El Guineo has lost about 17.5 percent of its original storage capacity in 70 years because of sediment accumulation. The water volume has been reduced from 2.29 million cubic meters in 1931, to 2.03 million cubic meters in 1986, and to 1.89 million cubic meters in 2001. The average annual storage-capacity loss (equal to the sedimentation rate) of Lago El Guineo was 4,727 cubic meters for the period of 1931 to July 1986 (or 0.21 percent per year), increasing to 5,714 cubic meters for the period of 1931 to October 2001 (or 0.25 percent per year). Discrepancies that could lead to substantial errors in volume calculations in a small reservoir like Lago El Guineo, were found when transferring the field-collected data into the geographic information system data base 1:20,000 U.S. Geological Survey Jayuya, Puerto Rico quadrangle. After verification and validation of field data, the Lago El Guineo shoreline was rectified using digital aerial photographs and differential global positioning data.

Soler-Lpez, Luis R.

2003-01-01

146

Haloterrigena thermotolerans sp. nov., a halophilic archaeon from Puerto Rico.  

PubMed

An extremely halophilic Archaeon belonging to the order Halobacteriales was isolated from the solar salterns of Cabo Rojo, Puerto Rico. The organism, designated strain PR5T, is rod-shaped, non-motile and requires at least 12% (w/v) NaCl to grow. The strain is highly thermotolerant: its temperature optimum is 50 degrees C and growth is possible up to 60 degrees C. Polar lipid analysis revealed the presence of the bis-sulfated glycolipid S2-DGD-1 as sole glycolipid and the absence of the glycerol diether analogue of phosphatidylglycerosulfate. Both C20,C20 and C20,C25 core lipids are present. The G+C content of the DNA is 63.3 mol%. According to 16S rDNA sequence data, strain PR5T is closely related to the representatives of the genera Haloterrigena and Natrinema, but on the basis of its phenotypic properties, 16S rDNA sequence and DNA-DNA hybridization studies, strain PR5T cannot be assigned to any of the recognized species within these genera. On the basis of its polar lipid composition, the isolate has been assigned to the genus Haloterrigena. The creation of a new species, Haloterrigena thermotolerans, is therefore proposed to accommodate this isolate. The type strain is strain PR5T (= DSM 11552T = ATCC 700275T). PMID:10843046

Montalvo-Rodrguez, R; Lpez-Garriga, J; Vreeland, R H; Oren, A; Ventosa, A; Kamekura, M

2000-05-01

147

Assessment of undiscovered technically recoverable oil and gas resources of Puerto Rico and the Puerto Rico-U.S. Virgin Islands Exclusive Economic Zone, 2013  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated means of 19 million barrels of undiscovered, technically recoverable oil and 244 billion cubic feet of undiscovered natural gas in the Puerto RicoU.S. Virgin Islands Exclusive Economic Zone.

Schenk, Christopher J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Klett, Timothy R.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Pitman, Janet K.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Wandrey, Craig J.; Weaver, Jean N.

2013-01-01

148

Los Jovenes en Puerto Rico: ?Quienes Son y Que Hacen? (The Youth of Puerto Rico: Who Are They and What Do They Do?).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Answers questions about young people in Puerto Rico, drawing on governmental databases. Demographic characteristics and how young people fit into the social structure are described. A description of the physical and mental health of this population presents data on mortality, morbidity, adolescent pregnancy, and drug and alcohol use. (SLD)

Roldan, Norma Rodriguez

1993-01-01

149

Genetic structure of the gentle Africanized honey bee population (gAHB) in Puerto Rico  

PubMed Central

Background The Africanized honey bee is one of the most spectacular invasions in the Americas. African bees escaped from apiaries in Brazil in 1956, spread over Americas and by 1994 they were reported in Puerto Rico. In contrast to other places, the oceanic island conditions in Puerto Rico may mean a single introduction and different dynamics of the resident European and new-coming Africanized bees. To examine the genetic variation of honey bee feral populations and colonies from different locations in Puerto Rico, we used eight known polymorphic microsatellite loci. Results In Puerto Rico, gAHB population does not show any genetic structure (Fst?=?0.0783), and is best described as one honey bee population, product of hybridization of AHB and EHB. The genetic variability in this Africanized population was similar to that reported in studies from Texas. We observed that European private allele frequencies are high in all but one locus. This contrasts with mainland Africanized populations, where European allele frequencies are diminished. Two loci with European private alleles, one on Linkage Group 7, known to carry two known defensiveness Quantitative Trait Loci (QTLs), and the other on Linkage Group 1, known to carry three functionally studied genes and 11 candidate genes associated with Varroa resistance mechanisms were respectively, significantly greater or lower in European allele frequency than the other loci with European private alleles. Conclusions Genetic structure of Puerto Rico gAHB differs from mainland AHB populations, probably representing evolutionary processes on the island. PMID:23915100

2013-01-01

150

The Great Puerto Rico ShakeOut - A Communications and Media Perspective  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On October 18, 2012 the Puerto Rico Seismic Network (PRSN) in collaboration with Puerto Rico Emergency Management Agency (PREMA) and the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) will be conducting the first Great Puerto Rico ShakeOut. Adequate communications strategies and redundant dissemination methods are a key component for the success of this earthquake exercise. EAS and NOAA Radio messages, indicating the beginning of the earthquake drill, will help emergency managers and the general public better coordinate their practices. Dissemination tools routinely used as part of PRSN earthquake and tsunami protocols, such as PRSNDANIS Broadcast, Ring Down, Ham Radio, RSS, SMS, fax and email service lists, will also be tested. Emergency Management and First Response Agencies at local, regional and state level are being asked to report the times the messages are received, thus allowing us to better assess the effectiveness of our dissemination methods and to establish a baseline for next year ShakeOut. In addition, a partnership with the Puerto Rico Radiobroadcaster Association allows a direct access through this media, facilitating PRSN staff participation on radio programming targeting diverse audiences. Radio spots have been developed to inform the public about the exercise, how to participate, what to do to be safe during an earthquake and how to develop or improve their safety plans. A media approach is critical for the success of the 2012 Puerto Rico ShakeOut since our earthquake drill takes place 2 weeks prior to the Island general election and on the peak-period of the hurricane season.

Soto-Cordero, L.; Hurfano-Moreno, V.; Gmez, G.; Gimnez-Porrata, A.; Ramos-Gmez, W.; Coln-Daleccio, N.

2012-12-01

151

Bibliometric assessment of cancer research in Puerto Rico, 1903-2005  

PubMed Central

Objective The analysis of scientific production in Puerto Rico is largely unexplored. The main aim of this study is to present the characteristics and trends of cancer publications in Puerto Ricos biomedical journals and their relationship with the islands cancer mortality. Methods A PubMed and a hard-copy search were performed to retrieve cancer-related articles published in the Puerto Rico Health Sciences Journal and the Boletn de la Asociacin Mdica de Puerto Rico from 1903 to 2005. Bibliometric indicators studied included the number of authors and references by article, first authors institutional affiliation and country, document type, and language. The study type and tumor classification were also recorded. Cancer proportional mortality (M%) in Puerto Rico and the proportion of cancer-related articles (P%) published were also evaluated. The annual percent change (APC) was estimated to assess trends. Results A total of 369 articles were retrieved. The institutions with the majority of publications were universities (39.6%), English was the predominant publication language (72.1%), and the principal document type was original papers (69.6%). Epidemiologic studies were the dominant study type (62.1%), and the most studied cancers were digestive (15.4%) and gynecologic (9.6%). Although the P% has increased since 1913 (APC = 1.2%), the M% increased at a faster pace (APC = 2.7%). Conclusions Although a growth in the number of cancer publications is observed in these journals, it does not parallel the increase in proportional mortality. A better understanding of the cancer publications in Puerto Rico is essential to establish priorities, define future areas of research, and develop cancer control strategies. PMID:19531324

Ortiz, Ana P.; Calo, William A.; Suarez-Balseiro, Carlos; Maura-Sardo, Mariano; Suarez, Erick

2010-01-01

152

Clouds and aerosols in Puerto Rico - a new evaluation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The influence of aerosols, both natural and anthropogenic, remains a major area of uncertainty when predicting the properties and behaviour of clouds and their influence on climate. In an attempt to better understand warm cloud formation in a tropical marine environment, a period of intensive measurements using some of the latest developments in online instrumentation took place in December 2004 in Puerto Rico. Simultaneous online measurements of aerosol size distributions, composition, hygroscopicity and optical properties were made near the lighthouse of Cape San Juan in the north-eastern corner of the island and at the top of East Peak mountain (1040 m a.s.l.), the two sites separated by 17 km. Additional measurements of the cloud droplet residual and interstitial aerosol properties were made at the mountain site, accompanied by measurements of cloud droplet size distributions, liquid water content and the chemical composition of cloud and rain water samples. Both aerosol composition and cloud properties were found to be sensitive to wind sector. Air from the east-northeast (ENE) was mostly free of anthropogenic influences, the submircron fraction being mainly composed of non-sea salt sulphate, while that from the east-southeast (ESE) was found to be moderately influenced by populated islands upwind, adding smaller (<100 nm), externally mixed, carbonaceous particles to the aerosol that increased the number concentrations by over a factor of 3. This change in composition was also accompanied with a reduction in the measured hygroscopicity and fractional cloud activation potential of the aerosol. At the mountain site, the average cloud droplet concentrations increased from 193 to 519 cm-3, median volume diameter decreased from 20 to 14 ?m and the liquid water content increased from 0.24 to 0.31 g m-3 when the winds shifted from the ENE to ESE. Larger numbers of interstitial particles were recorded, most notably at sizes greater than 100 nm, which were absent during clean conditions. The average size of the residual particles and concentrations of cloudwater nitrate, sulphate and insoluble material increased during polluted conditions. Previous studies in Puerto Rico had reported the presence of a significant non-anthropogenic organic fraction in the aerosols measured and concluded that this was a factor controlling the in situ cloud properties. However, this was not observed in our case. In contrast to the 1.000.14 ?g m-3 of organic carbon measured in 1992 and 1995, the organic matter measured in the current study of 0.170.35 ?g m-3 is many times lower, most of which can be attributed to anthropogenic sources. During clean conditions, the submicron aerosol was observed to be almost entirely inorganic, an observation supported by the hygroscopicity measurements. This suggests that organic aerosols from marine sources may not be completely ubiquitous (either spatially or temporally) in this environment and requires further investigation to quantify their true extent and implications, with more extensive, longer-term sampling in conjunction with back trajectory analyses.

Allan, J. D.; Baumgardner, D.; Raga, G. B.; Mayol-Bracero, O. L.; Morales-Garca, F.; Garca-Garca, F.; Montero-Martnez, G.; Borrmann, S.; Schneider, J.; Mertes, S.; Walter, S.; Gysel, M.; Dusek, U.; Frank, G. P.; Krmer, M.

2007-08-01

153

Clouds and aerosols in Puerto Rico - a new evaluation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The influence of aerosols, both natural and anthropogenic, remains a major area of uncertainty when predicting the properties and behaviour of clouds and their influence on climate. In an attempt to better understand warm cloud formation in a tropical marine environment, a period of intensive measurements took place in December 2004 in Puerto Rico, using some of the latest developments in online instrumentation such as aerosol mass spectrometers, cloud condensation nuclei counters and a hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyser. Simultaneous online measurements of aerosol size distributions, composition, hygroscopicity and optical properties were made near the lighthouse of Cape San Juan in the north-eastern corner of the island and at the top of East Peak mountain (1040 m a.s.l.), the two sites separated by 17 km. Additional measurements of the cloud droplet residual and interstitial aerosol properties were made at the mountain site, accompanied by measurements of cloud droplet size distributions, liquid water content and the chemical composition of cloud and rain water samples. Both aerosol composition and cloud properties were found to be sensitive to wind sector. Air from the east-northeast (ENE) was mostly free of anthropogenic influences, the submicron fraction being mainly composed of non-sea salt sulphate, while that from the east-southeast (ESE) was found to be moderately influenced by populated islands upwind, adding smaller (<100 nm), externally mixed, carbonaceous particles to the aerosol that increased the number concentrations by over a factor of 3. This change in composition was also accompanied with a reduction in the measured hygroscopicity and fractional cloud activation potential of the aerosol. At the mountain site, the average cloud droplet concentrations increased from 193 to 519 cm-3, median volume diameter decreased from 20 to 14 ?m and the liquid water content increased from 0.24 to 0.31 g m-3 when the winds shifted from the ENE to ESE. Larger numbers of interstitial particles were recorded, most notably at sizes greater than 100 nm, which were absent during clean conditions. The average size of the residual particles and concentrations of cloudwater nitrate, sulphate and insoluble material increased during polluted conditions. Previous studies in Puerto Rico had reported the presence of a significant non-anthropogenic organic fraction in the aerosols measured and concluded that this was a factor controlling the in situ cloud properties. However, this was not observed in our case. In contrast to the 1.000.14 ?g m-3 of organic carbon measured in 1992 and 1995, the organic matter measured in the current study of 0.170.35 ?g m-3 is many times lower, most of which can be attributed to anthropogenic sources. During clean conditions, the submicron aerosol was observed to be almost entirely inorganic, an observation supported by the hygroscopicity measurements. This suggests that organic aerosols from marine sources may not be completely ubiquitous (either spatially or temporally) in this environment and requires further investigation to quantify their true extent and implications, with more extensive, longer-term sampling in conjunction with wind field analyses.

Allan, J. D.; Baumgardner, D.; Raga, G. B.; Mayol-Bracero, O. L.; Morales-Garca, F.; Garca-Garca, F.; Montero-Martnez, G.; Borrmann, S.; Schneider, J.; Mertes, S.; Walter, S.; Gysel, M.; Dusek, U.; Frank, G. P.; Krmer, M.

2008-03-01

154

Puerto Rican Families Who Have Children with Disabilities: A Comparison between Families Living in Puerto Rico and Families Living in Florida. Final Performance Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report discusses the outcomes of a study that compared family needs and sources of support perceived by 55 Puerto Rican mothers of young children (ages birth to 5 years) with disabilities residing in Puerto Rico and 39 of their Puerto Rican counterparts living in Florida. The relationship among perceived family needs, sources of support, and

Reyes-Blanes, Maria E.

155

The implementation of the triple helix model of industry-university-government relations in Puerto Rico to promote knowledge-based regional economic development  

E-print Network

Puerto Rico, an island in the Caribbean, has long sought to develop a high-tech economy and has struggled in the process. Two initiatives, Puerto Rico TechnoEconomic Corridor (PRTEC) and the Eastern Central Technological ...

Ramos-Malts, Ana Lorena

2010-01-01

156

33 CFR 334.1450 - Atlantic Ocean off north coast of Puerto Rico; practice firing areas, U.S. Army Forces Antilles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean off north coast of Puerto Rico; practice firing...ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS 334.1450 Atlantic Ocean off north coast of Puerto Rico; practice...

2011-07-01

157

33 CFR 334.1450 - Atlantic Ocean off north coast of Puerto Rico; practice firing areas, U.S. Army Forces Antilles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean off north coast of Puerto Rico; practice firing...ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS 334.1450 Atlantic Ocean off north coast of Puerto Rico; practice...

2010-07-01

158

33 CFR 334.1450 - Atlantic Ocean off north coast of Puerto Rico; practice firing areas, U.S. Army Forces Antilles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean off north coast of Puerto Rico; practice firing...ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS 334.1450 Atlantic Ocean off north coast of Puerto Rico; practice...

2012-07-01

159

33 CFR 334.1450 - Atlantic Ocean off north coast of Puerto Rico; practice firing areas, U.S. Army Forces Antilles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean off north coast of Puerto Rico; practice firing...ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS 334.1450 Atlantic Ocean off north coast of Puerto Rico; practice...

2013-07-01

160

Energy Integrated dairy Farm System in Puerto Rico  

SciTech Connect

Principles of energy-integrated farming were applied to the Rio Canas Dairy Farm, a privately-owned dairy farm and one of the largest dairy farms in Puerto Rico with a milking herd of 400 cows. Animal wastes were fed to two anaerobic digesters where methane gas was produced by bacterial degradation of organic material. The methane gas fueled an engine-generator to produce electricity for farm use and for sale to the public utility. The Wastes were partially stabilized by bacterial action with the digesters and the digester effluent passed to a liquid-solid separator. Solid fraction was composted and either used as bedding material for the cows or marketed as soil conditioner. The liquid fraction flowed to a storage pond and was used in the Greenfeed subsystem to fertilize forage crops for the cows. Estimated energy savings of the system were 1705 MBtu for the first two subsystems and 7,718 MBtu's for all three subsystems. Simple payback for the first two subsystems was very long (20 years) because facilities for effective manure recovery did not exist on the farm at the outset of the project, operational costs for manure collection were charged against the project, and system components were oversized. Including the Greenfeed subsystem, simple payback for the project was 8.2 years. Assuming that manure collection facilities and practices already existed and assuming proper sizing of all components, simple payback for the Anaerobic Digestion and Electrical Production subsystem and the Farm Waste Management subsystem was 5.8 years. Using data from this project, an estimate of the return on investment was projected for different herd sizes. Results suggested that for dairy farms with less than 500 cows, anaerobic digester systems are only marginally profitable.

Sasscer, D.S.; Morgan, T.O.

1986-10-01

161

The ecology of Australorbis glabratus in Puerto Rico  

PubMed Central

Variations in the distribution of the water-snail Australorbis glabratus, intermediate host of Schistosoma mansoni, have been studied in Puerto Rico, and an attempt made to correlate the distribution with environmental factors. The main sources of bilharziasis infection are flowing waters, but the evidence indicates that the snail is not found in fast-flowing, high-gradient reaches with falls of more than 20 meters per kilometre. The influence of physiographical features on stream gradient is examined and these findings correlated with the biota, water chemistry and human use of the stream. The alluvial areas of the island have many habitats favourable to A. glabratus and constitute the major foci for the transmission of bilharziasis. In general, artificial reservoirs and puddles do not appear to be suitable habitats for the snail. The numerous sink ponds in the Tertiary limestone area on the north coast contain the snail, yet the area is relatively free from bilharziasis, possibly because the ponds are little used. Although the size of A. glabratus populations is limited by many natural enemies, no organism has been found which could be deemed useful for artificial control. Some migratory birds, insects and amphibians may aid the dispersal of the snail. There are indications that the ionic composition of the water may be an important factor in limiting the distribution of A. glabratus. It is suggested that large amounts of carbonates and bicarbonates relative to the amounts of chlorides and sulfates may account for the absence of the snail from some habitats (e.g., limestone streams) and that copper and zinc may be limiting agents in some waters containing small amounts of dissolved solids. Concentrations of 0.050-0.100 p.p.m. of zinc, copper, cadmium or silver in distilled water produce a distress syndrome in the snails, and concentrations of more than 1.0 p.p.m. are rapidly fatal in most cases. PMID:13573114

Harry, Harold W.; Aldrich, David V.

1958-01-01

162

Ecohydrology of the Luquillo Mountains of Northeast Puerto Rico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coastal humid tropical mountains are major sources of sediment, particulate organic carbon, and dissolved fluxes to the ocean. They are also important sources of food, fiber, municipal and agricultural water. Unlike water-limited drylands their ecohydrology is influenced by excess water and a high frequency of natural and hydrologically induced disturbances. However, like water-limited drylands, the spatial distribution of water across the landscape can play a fundamental role on biogeochemical and ecological processes. This paper reviews the influence of water on the critical zones and ecohydrology of the Luquillo Mountains of Northeastern Puerto Rico. Over a horizontal distance of 10 to 20 km, Luquillo life zones change from subtropical dry conditions at the coast to cloud enshrouded mountain peaks where the vegetation is stunted, evapotranspiration is reduced, and cloud water interception adds to annual precipitation such that annual rainfall approaches annual runoff. Along this elevational gradient there are systematic changes in climate, vegetation structure and diversity, gross and net primary productivity, carbon storage, and hydrologic and biogeochemical cycles. At the scale of hillslopes within the elevational gradients, soil nutrients, soil moisture, and soil oxygen vary systematically from ridge tops to adjacent valleys and topographic position is correlated to landscape stability and vegetation composition and structure. At landscape scales, hurricanes are the major control on forest age and structure and their associated defoliation and biomass loss can have large influences on both hydrologic and biogeochemical cycles. Nevertheless, because of the rapid re-growth of hurricane disturbed forests, the fluxes of most hydrologic pathways return to pre-hurricane rates within a year. Biogeochemical can take years to decades to return to pre-hurricane conditions. This presentation reviews these relationships and the challenges and opportunities related to measuring hydrologic and ecohydrologic properties in this and similar humid tropical mountains.

Scatena, F. N.

2012-12-01

163

PRO-FAMILIA -- projects for today's social realities. Puerto Rico.  

PubMed

The Central Office of AIDS Issues of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico reported in September 1992 that 26% of the island's known cases of AIDS occur in people younger than 29 years old. Since approximately 10 years are needed for an initial HIV infection to develop into AIDS, it is logical to assume that young adults of less than 29 years old. Since approximately 10 years are needed for an initial HIV infection to develop into AIDS it is logical to assume that young adults of less than 29 years with AIDS were infected during adolescence. The Executive Director of PROFAMILIA notes also the significant public health problems tied to the increase in unwanted adolescent pregnancies, the beginning of sexual activity in people younger than 12 years old, and the increase in AIDS cases among people younger than 29 years old. In response, the organization mounted a program of preventive education enabling youths and adults to use peer counseling techniques to teach young people about responsible sexual practices, sexually transmitted diseases (STD), and the prevention of HIV/AIDS. The AIDS Project for Adolescents is a new initiative in which young people, through peer education, learn about STDs and HIV/AIDS prevention. The design is innovative due to its departure from a model in which the adult provides sex education from an authoritative point of view. PROFAMILIA has also formed 8 Family Planning Information Centers strategically located around the island to increase residents' accessibility to family planning. These successful and well-accepted centers offer a range of medical and laboratory services, as well as affordably priced contraceptives. PMID:12179845

1993-05-01

164

Culture and home health care policy implementation: A comparative study of the United States and Puerto Rico  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines home health care programs formulated in an Anglo dominated American culture when they are implemented in two settings with distinct cultural traditions, Puerto Rico and Indiana. Puerto Rico is a predominantly Hispanic territory of the United States that is subject to American national laws, and Indiana is a Midwestern state that is immersed in American culture, mostly

Minerva Cruz

2008-01-01

165

78 FR 45894 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Reef Fish Fishery of Puerto Rico...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Reef Fish Fishery of Puerto Rico and the U.S...the Fishery Management Plan for the Reef Fish Fishery of Puerto Rico and the U.S...sustainable_fisheries/caribbean/reef_fish/reg_am4/index.html. FOR...

2013-07-30

166

14 CFR 399.34 - Intra-Hawaii and Intra-Puerto Rico/Virgin Islands fare flexibility.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Intra-Puerto Rico/Virgin Islands fare flexibility. 399.34 Section 399.34 Aeronautics...Intra-Puerto Rico/Virgin Islands fare flexibility. For scheduled service within Hawaii...certificated air carriers have the fare flexibility set forth in 399.32 and...

2013-01-01

167

14 CFR 399.34 - Intra-Hawaii and Intra-Puerto Rico/Virgin Islands fare flexibility.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Intra-Puerto Rico/Virgin Islands fare flexibility. 399.34 Section 399.34 Aeronautics...Intra-Puerto Rico/Virgin Islands fare flexibility. For scheduled service within Hawaii...certificated air carriers have the fare flexibility set forth in 399.32 and...

2012-01-01

168

Cross-Cultural Adaptation of the Disability of Arm, Shoulder, and Hand Questionnaire: Spanish for Puerto Rico Version  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to perform a cross-cultural adaptation of the Disability of Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (DASH) questionnaire to Spanish for Puerto Rico. Five steps were followed for the cross-cultural adaptation: forward translations into Spanish for Puerto Rico, synthesis of the translations, back translations into English, revision by

Mulero-Portela, Ana L.; Colon-Santaella, Carmen L.; Cruz-Gomez, Cynthia

2009-01-01

169

Multi-Channel Seismic Images of Neogene Rifting in the Northern Mona Passage Between Puerto Rico and Hispaniola  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Highly oblique (70) convergence is occurring along the northeastern North America-Caribbean plate boundary offshore northern Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. Complicating the tectonic setting is the oblique collision of the 20 km-thick SE Bahamas carbonate platform that impedes the northeasterly movement of Hispaniola, leaving Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands to separate along north-trending extensional structures in the Mona Passage. Over 220 km of multi-channel seismic data collected in 1995 on the R/V Maurice Ewing were processed to investigate the geometry and timing of the opening of the Mona Canyon, a 20-30-km-wide, 120-km-long, and 2-3-km-deep basinal feature within the northern Mona Passage and Puerto Rico trench. Multibeam bathymetry and sidescan sonar data were combined with the profile data to evaluate the activity of faults at the seafloor. These data reveal that the Mona Canyon is underlain by a half-graben structure that is imaged to 5.5 seconds two-way travel time (stwt), ~11 km below seafloor (bsf). The master fault bounding the eastern edge of the canyon forms a continuous fault over a distance of tens of kms, exhibits a throw of up to 5 stwt, and dips an average of 70 to the west. An antithetic fault forms the western edge of the Mona Canyon, can also be traced for tens of kms, exhibits a throw of up to 2 stwt, and has a large slump deposit along its base. The history and kinematics of fault motions can be deduced from the late Oligocene-Pliocene carbonate platform present on both sides of the faulted Mona Canyon. To the east (footwall of the master fault), the carbonate platform is ~0.7 km thick and horizontal. To the west (footwall of the antithetic normal fault) the platform is twice as thick (~1.4 km) and also horizontal. The thicker platform section to the west indicates that space was created by sub-horizontal sliding along the listric master fault at depth; the thinner platform section to the east suggests that this area was the upthrown footwall block. These relations indicate the age of the normal faulting is the same as the late Oligocene-Pliocene age of the carbonate platform. Normal faulting may be a consequence of early oblique-slip movements in the highly curved Caribbean arc and may precede the late Miocene-recent phase of oblique collision of the SE Bahamas carbonate platform. Future analysis will investigate the contribution of mass wasting and seafloor rupture associated with the canyon- bounding faults to the 1918 M 7.5 earthquake and tsunami that inundated western Puerto Rico.

Mondziel, S. A.; Grindlay, N. R.; Mann, P.; Escalona, A.

2006-12-01

170

Contextual Risk and Promotive Processes in Puerto Rican Youths' Internalizing Trajectories in Puerto Rico and New York  

PubMed Central

Research on ethnic-minority youths mental health has rarely examined developmental trajectories for the same ethnic group in contexts where they are a minority vs. where they are the majority, or mechanisms accounting for differences in trajectories across such contexts. This study examines Puerto Rican youth residing in two contexts -- one in which they are in their home culture of Puerto Rico, and one in which they are a minority group, in New York. We explore the relationship between social context, minority status, risk, resilience, and trajectories of internalizing symptoms after adjusting for factors related to migration. We found that youths reports of internalizing symptoms declined over time. Youth in New York had higher levels of internalizing symptoms than youth in Puerto Rico, but similar trajectories. Differences in internalizing symptoms across the two social contexts were accounted for by experiences of discrimination and exposure to violence. Parental monitoring was associated with fewer internalizing symptoms across the two sites, although this effect diminished over time. Contrary to what was expected, family religiosity was associated with higher levels of internalizing symptoms. This association was stronger in the New York than in the Puerto Rico site. PMID:23880390

Ramos Olazagasti, Maria A.; Shrout, Patrick E.; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu; Canino, Glorisa J.; Bird, Hector R.

2012-01-01

171

Insects of the Luquillo Mountains, Puerto Rico. Forest Service general technical report  

SciTech Connect

In this review of the literature on forest entomology in Puerto Rico, emphasis is given to research conducted in the Luquillo Experimental Forest (LEF). This review should serve as an introduction to the insects inhabiting the LEF for researchers and as a guide for the identification of possible insect pests. There are three sections to this review. The first deals with basic insect ecology; the second, forest insect pests; and the third, insect attacks on dry wood and during wood seasoning. The reference section and appendices contain information on the systematics and taxonomy of different insect orders found in Puerto Rico.

Torres, J.A.

1994-07-01

172

La variedad linguistica de la mujer del Area Metropolitana de San Juan, Puerto Rico  

E-print Network

, . . . . 1V ACKNOWLEDGMENTS . . TABLA DE CONTENIDO. LISTA DE FIGURAS. CAPfTULO I INTRODUC CION. , V Fondo hist6rico. Puerto Rico. . Qea metropolitana de San Juan. . . . Diferenciacion sexual. . Metodologia de la investigaci6n. . . . II FONETICA Y... de la actualidad en fonetica y fonologia, morfologia, sintaxis y lexicografia con el fin de estudiar a fondo los diferentes aspectos de la lengua. METODOLOGfA DE LA INVESTIGACION Una vez obtenida la aprobaci6n de la Junta Revisora Institucional...

Pratt-Panford, Comfort

2012-06-07

173

Assessing the Ability of Soils and Sediment to Adsorb and Retain Cs137 in Puerto Rico  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of the radioactive exercises taking place around the world anthropogenic\\u000aradionuclides were introduce to Puerto Ricos terrestrial and aquatic environments\\u000abeginning in 1962. Two major projects took place in the island, the Rain Forest Project\\u000aand the construction of a Boiling Superheat Nuclear Power Plant (BONUS). While in\\u000aoperation several accidental shutdowns occurred at the BONUS facility. One

Warner Ithier-Guzman

2010-01-01

174

Determinacin de Criterios Numricos de Nutrimentos para Lagos y Reservas de Agua en Puerto Rico*  

E-print Network

Determinación de Criterios Numéricos de Nutrimentos para Lagos y Reservas de Agua en Puerto Rico inventario Nacional de Calidad de Agua de los Estados Unidos identifica los nutrimentos como la principal causa de contaminación de las aguas. Más de 3.4 millones de acre de lagos y 84,000 millas de ríos están

Gilbes, Fernando

175

Geologic evidence for a tsunami source along the trench northeast of Puerto Rico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coral boulders of medieval age at Anegada, British Virgin Islands, calibrated to local geologic effects of far-field tsunamis and hurricanes, provide tangible evidence for the generation of a tsunami by faulting along the eastern Puerto Rico Trench. SETTING: Anegada is 120 km south of the Puerto Rico Trench and 200 km east-northeast of San Juan. It is fringed on the north and east by a coral reef 100-1200 m offshore; founded on Pleistocene carbonate with a cemented cap; rimmed on much of its perimeter by sandy Holocene beach ridges; and bermed with coral-rubble on a rocky stretch of its north shore. CORAL BOULDERS: Scores of coral heads up to 2 m in diameter were moved across the north shore in medieval time. Some crossed the line of the modern storm berm, continued over a limestone rise 4 m above sea level, and came to rest on lower ground hundreds of meters farther south. Others traversed beach ridges, and two of these boulders are now 1.5 km from the fringing reef. Most of the boulders are Diploria strigosa, an endemic of reef flanks. Some retain enough of their originally rounded, dimpled shape to have been deposited live. The likely time of emplacement of freshly dislodged, still-living heads is AD 1200-1450. This range is based on radiocarbon dating of outer growth bands of 18 heads from 5 separate areas. The youngest of the ages is 89025 14C yr BP, and the ?R assumed is 0 to -200 14C yr. CALIBRATION TO A FAR-FIELD TSUNAMI: Deposits dated to 1650-1800 at Anegada represent either the largest known far-field tsunami in the Caribbean (1755 Lisbon) or some other tsunami or unusual storm that surpassed the Lisbon tsunami in its local geologic effects. The water cut or freshened breaches in north-shore beach ridges and poured into a marine pond, where it moved limestone boulders and laid down a sheet of sand and shell that extends as much as 1.5 km inland [refs 1-4]. Many of the limestone boulders were probably inherited from the higher, earlier overwash that created the coral-boulder fields. We had expected the coral boulders to date from 1650-1800, but instead obtained only the pre-Columbus ages cited above. CALIBRATION TO HURRICANES: Hurricanes Donna (1960) and Earl (2010) rank below the 1650-1800 overwash in their Anegada effects. Their coarse deposits are limited to sandy spillover fans that extend a few tens of meters inland from the south shore, where Anegada is most vulnerable to storm surge, and to the coral-rubble berm on the north shore, where the medieval overwash ran hundreds of meters farther inland. Both Donna and Earl approached or attained category 4 as their eyes passed within 35 km of the island. If a larger hurricane managed to produce the inland fields of scattered coral boulders, the coral ages limit this perfect storm to pre-Columbus time. NEARBY TSUNAMI SOURCES. The likely source is a belt of normal faults scarps on the outer rise 200 km to Anegada's north. A giant thrust earthquake on the North America - Caribbean plate boundary is unlikely according to a GPS-based model of interplate coupling [5]. No submarine slides are apparent in multibeam bathymetry of the submarine slope that descends northward from Anegada's fringing reef to the Puerto Rico Trench floor [6). COMPANION ABSTRACTS: Coral-boulder ages (Weil Accardo), storm and tsunami modeling (Wei). REFERENCES: [1-4] Natural Hazards 63 (1), 51-149; [5] GRL 39, L10304; [6] Eos 85 (37), 349.

Atwater, B. F.; Ten Brink, U. S.; Feuillet, N.; Fuentes, Z.; Robert, H.; Tuttle, M. P.; Wei, Y.; jennifer, W.

2012-12-01

176

Rise of Public Works and Sanitation in San Juan, Puerto Rico, 1765-1823  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this thesis is to evaluate and understand the growth of public works as part of urban development in San Juan, Puerto Rico, between 1765 and 1823. In San Juan, attaining basic provisions was complicated by distinctive circumstances such as the increasing population, administrative decisions, and financial limitations. This thesis draws from demography, medicine, urban studies, and primary

Monica Lynn Crowe

2012-01-01

177

A Decision Framework to Protect Coral Reefs in Gunica Bay, Puerto Rico  

EPA Science Inventory

A Watershed Management Plan (WMP) for Gunica Bay, Puerto Rico, was introduced in 2008 by a nonprofit organization, the Center for Watershed Protection, with the intent of protecting coral reefs from damage related to watershed discharges. The plan was initially generated with th...

178

Indirect Upstream Effects Of Dams: Consequences Of Migratory Consumer Extirpation In Puerto Rico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large dams degrade the integrity of a wide variety of ecosystems, yet direct downstream effects of dams have received the most attention from ecosystem managers and researchers. We investigated indirect upstream effects of dams resulting from deci- mation of migratory freshwater shrimp and fish populations in Puerto Rico, USA, in both high- and low-gradient streams. In high-gradient streams above large

Effie A. Greathouse; Catherine M. Pringle; William H. McDowell; Jeff G. Holmquist

2006-01-01

179

Coverage of Mangrove Ecosystem along Three Coastal Zones of Puerto Rico using IKONOS Sensor  

E-print Network

importance since they serve as natural barriers for coastal erosion in atmospheric events. Mangroves importance since they serve as stabilizers and as natural barriers against coastal erosion from atmosphericCoverage of Mangrove Ecosystem along Three Coastal Zones of Puerto Rico using IKONOS Sensor

Gilbes, Fernando

180

West Nile Virus from Blood Donors, Vertebrates, and Mosquitoes, Puerto Rico, 2007  

PubMed Central

West Nile virus (WNV) was isolated from a human blood donor, a dead falcon, and mosquitoes in Puerto Rico in 2007. Phylogenetic analysis of the 4 isolates suggests a recent introduction of lineage I WNV that is closely related to WNV currently circulating in North America. PMID:19751597

McElroy, Kate L.; Bessoff, Kovi; Coln, Candimar; Barrera, Roberto; Muoz-Jordn, Jorge L.

2009-01-01

181

The condition of scleractinian corals and associated reef fauna in La Parguera, Puerto Rico  

EPA Science Inventory

Scleractinian corals, octocorals, sponges, fishes, and foraminifera were assessed at 24 sites near La Parguera, Puerto Rico in fall 2008. Sites were selected to coincide with locations sampled by NOAA in 2005 for sediment contaminants. Our goals were to evaluate the sensitivity o...

182

Making an outreach movie The Puerto Rico Trench: Exploring the deepest place in the Atlantic Ocean  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new movie will be screened that describes the exploration of the Puerto Rico trench with a multibeam echosounder and its significance to scientific research and tsunami hazard assessment. The movie audience is the general public including high school students. It aims to stimulate interest in Oceanography and to demonstrate scientific processes as they are applied in Geological Oceanography. The

J. Ten Brink

2004-01-01

183

NAZARIO D. RAMIREZ-BELTRAN Industrial Engineering Department, University of Puerto Rico, Mayaguez, PR 00680  

E-print Network

NAZARIO D. RAMIREZ-BELTRAN Industrial Engineering Department, University of Puerto Rico, Mayaguez Engineering, Texas A&M University 1988 M.S., Industrial Engineering, Texas A&M University 1983 B.S., Industrial Engineering, Instituto Tecnologico de Celaya, Celaya, Gto., México 1976 Quality Control Training

Gilbes, Fernando

184

Changing Space, Making Race: Distance, Nostalgia, and the Folklorization of Blackness in Puerto Rico  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, I critique some of the discursive terms in which blackness is folklorized and celebrated institutionally as part of the nation in Puerto Rico. I examine a government-sponsored housing project that meant to revitalize and stylize the community of San Ant n, in Ponce, as a historic black site. Although government officials tried to preserve what they considered

Isar Godreau

2002-01-01

185

76 FR 70703 - Foreign-Trade Zone 61-San Juan, Puerto Rico; Application for Expansion  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...72-2011] Foreign-Trade Zone 61--San Juan, Puerto Rico; Application for Expansion...F. Kennedy Avenue and Km 3.9, San Juan; Site 11 (32 acres)--Mayaguez...Inc., 275 Cesar Gonzalez Avenue, San Juan; and, Site 23 (16.9 acres,...

2011-11-15

186

Ship Navigation Simulation Study, San Juan Harbor, San Juan, Puerto Rico.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A real-time ship simulation investigation of the proposed design for deepening and widening the manmade San Juan Harbor channels, San Juan, Puerto Rico, was conducted. The purposes of the study were to determine the required channel width and alignment to...

D. W. Webb

1993-01-01

187

Neighborhood Disorganization, Substance Use, and Violence among Adolescents in Puerto Rico  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates the role of neighborhoods in adolescent violence in poor neighborhoods in San Juan, Puerto Rico. The study is part of a larger longitudinal project examining risk and resilience in adolescents' ages 12 to 15 years old and their caregivers. Using a cross-sectional design, a self-completion questionnaire, and an interviewer

Reyes, Juan C.; Robles, Rafaela R.; Colon, Hector M.; Negron, Juan; Matos, Tomas D.; Calderon, Jose; Perez, Olga M.

2008-01-01

188

40 CFR 131.42 - Antidegradation Implementation Methods for the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico.  

...definitions included in Article 1 of the Puerto Rico Water Quality Standards...The projected water quality of the...applicable provisions of Articles 5 and 10 of the...applicable provisions of Article 5 regarding mixing...the lowering of water quality in...

2014-07-01

189

A successful applied physics program at the University of Puerto Rico at Humacao  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe the innovative ideas that have been incorporated into the applied physics program at the Humacao Campus of the University of Puerto Rico since 1981. The program was designed as a professional (terminal) one with mechanisms to guide students who wish to pursue graduate studies. Dwindling student registration in the program led to an aggressive recruitment\\/retention plan in the

Rafael J. Muller; Claudio Guerra-Vela

2003-01-01

190

A Successful Applied Physics Program at the University of Puerto Rico at Humacao.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents innovative ideas that have been incorporated into the applied physics program at the Humacao Campus of the University of Puerto Rico since 1981. Describes a program that was designed as a professional (terminal) one with mechanisms to guide students who wish to pursue graduate studies. (Author/YDS)

Muller, Rafael J.; Guerra-Vela, Claudio

2003-01-01

191

AIDS/HIV among Hispanics in the Northeast and Puerto Rico: Report of Findings and Recommendations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses six findings of the Northeast Hispanic Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) consortium's assessment of 2,527 members of the Hispanic community of the northeast United States and Puerto Rico. Highlights the subjects' needs for information, education, risk reduction, and services related to AIDS and the human immunodeficiency virus

Amaro, Hortensia

1991-01-01

192

Citizen-volunteer and professional monitoring to identify fecal sources of contamination in southwestern Puerto Rico  

EPA Science Inventory

High concentrations of nutrients, fecal microorganisms, and sediments in surface waters can be a public health threat and can impact fringing coral reefs in Gunica Bay in southwestern Puerto Rico. Yet, the main factors and sources contributing to water quality degradation...

193

Cassava and Carrying Capacity in Aboriginal Puerto Rico: Revisiting the Taino Downfall at Conquest  

Microsoft Academic Search

How many aborigines lived in late Borikén (modern Puerto Rico) at the inception of the Spanish conquest? The question has raised much controversy both because of the lack of primary data and the disparate research approaches employed by practitioners of different academic disciplines. However, available surrogate sources of information make possible a heuristic model of former population, grounded in the

Francisco Watlington

2009-01-01

194

ADHD Treatment Patterns of Youth Served in Public Sectors in San Diego and Puerto Rico  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article investigates geographic variation in stimulant medication use by youth with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) served by public mental health and/or drug and alcohol programs in San Diego (n = 790) during 1997-1998 and in Puerto Rico (n = 726) during 1998. Youth were stratified into four groups: (a) ADHD, (b) ADHD--not

Leslie, Laurel K.; Canino, Glorisa; Landsverk, John; Wood, Patricia A.; Chavez, Ligia; Hough, Richard L.; Bauermeister, Jose J.; Ramirez, Rafael

2005-01-01

195

Progress in the development of a national noise action plan for the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico  

Microsoft Academic Search

This presentation describes the strategies taken for the development of a noise plan for Puerto Rico. One of the most important initiatives was the establishment of an interagency committee to work on the plan. This committee identified as first priorities the need of information from studies on environmental noise levels and data from noise attitude surveys. The Environmental Quality Board

Jose Alicea-Pou; Milagros Navon-Rivera

2005-01-01

196

Genetic analysis of a novel invasion of Puerto Rico by an exotic constricting snake  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The tropical island Puerto Rico is potentially vulnerable to invasion by some species of exotic snakes; however, until now no established populations had been reported. Here we report and genetically characterize the nascent invasion of Puerto Rico by an exotic constricting snake of the family Boidae (Boa constrictor) using mtDNA and microsatellite data. Over 150 individual B. constrictor have been removed from Mayagez municipality since May 2011, and our results from the genetic analysis of 32 individuals suggest that this population was recently founded by individuals of one subspecies from a genetic lineage common to zoo and breeding collections, but that the potential propagule pool consists of two subspecies. We also suggest that anthropogenic long-distance dispersal within the island of Puerto Rico may be occurring from the established population, with implications for further establishment across the island. This study represents the first report of the naturalization of an invasive species of boid snake in Puerto Rico and will be important in determining mitigation strategies for this invasion as well as providing a basis for comparison to other on-going studies of invasive snakes.

Reynolds, R. Graham; Puente-Roln, Alberto R.; Reed, Robert N.; Revell, Liam J.

2013-01-01

197

Northwest Corner of Puerto Rico Showing Shallow Waters and Coral Reefs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This scene shows the southwestern corner of the island of Puerto Rico as seen by the three Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) visible light sensors. The detectors have a limited ability to see through shallow water, detecting the coral reefs and shallow sand areas around the edge of the island.

Allen, Jesse; Williams, Darrel

1999-04-09

198

Paradise lost: An introduction to the geography of water pollution in Puerto Rico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rapid industrialization has transformed the agricultural economy of Puerto Rico, creating employment opportunities and raising standards of living. Success, however, is marred by widespread pollution that outstrips the infrastructural capacity necessary for the preservation of environmental quality and of human health. The result today is a landfill crisis, a heritage of toxic dumps, and an advancing tide of pollution. Rivers

John M. Hunter; Sonia I. Arbona

1995-01-01

199

Multiethnic Education across Cultures: United States, Mexico, Puerto Rico, France, and Great Britain  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Relates the goals, nature, and extent of programs related to multicultural education in the United States, Mexico, Great Britain, France, and Puerto Rico. Most of the programs were developed in response to the ethnic movements of the 1960s and are dominated by a strong assimilationist ideology. (Author/AV)

Banks, James A.

1978-01-01

200

University-Industry Partnership: An Important Cornerstone for Puerto Rico's Biotechnology Cluster Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Successful knowledge-based economic models rely on synergy between government, industry and academia. This paper reviews the efforts to convert the island of Puerto Rico from a manufacturing to a high-tech manufacturing/research and development economy, with information technology and biotechnology as the main development strongholds. The

Saliceti-Piazza, L.; Buxeda, R.; Rivera, E.; Hormaza, M.; Morell, L.

2003-01-01

201

On the sociobiology of some hermaphroditic serranid fishes, the hamlets, in Puerto Rico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three species of hamlets, Hypoplectrus chlorurus, H. unicolor, and H. puella (Pisces: Serranidae) were observed underwater off the west coast of Puerto Rico. They are predaceous fishes, feeding on small benthic organisms, and live in close association with the coral reef. Hamlets are highly aggressive and defend large territories, excluding their own and all other species of hamlets. They are

G. W. Barlow

1975-01-01

202

The distribution of pollution and environmental justice in Puerto Rico: a quantitative analysis  

EPA Science Inventory

Because few empirical studies on environmental justice and pollution distribution exist, we examine both issues in Puerto Rico. This research is part of a larger US EPA project related to sustainability issues. We calculate an environmental Gini coefficient using Toxic Release In...

203

Modernization and Changing Sex Role Orientation: The Case of Puerto Rico.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To examine differential sex role orientations as one conceptual area indicative of psychological adjustments to modernization, questionnaires were administered to agriculture and home economics students at the University of Puerto Rico. There were two types of independent variables: parental (residence, educational attainment levels, family

Gilbert, Elmira O.

204

Acropora Nursery Operations in Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands 2012 Annual Report  

E-print Network

NOAA's Coral Reef Conservation Program, the Restoration Center, and Protected Resources Division. Each year, coral outplants are transplanted from the nurseries to reefs impacted by groundings or other: Location of coral nursery operations in Puerto Rico and the U.S Virgin Islands during 2012: 1) Cabo Rojo, 2

205

Language Officialization in Puerto Rico: Group-Making Discourses of Protectionism and Receptivity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article applies social constructionism and groupism theory to discourses on language officialization in Puerto Rico. It examines three argumentative texts presented prior to the passage of Law #4 in 1991 making Spanish the sole official language of the island. Grounded critical discourse theory maintains that language form and content are

Shenk, Elaine

2011-01-01

206

Management of pest mole crickets in Florida and Puerto Rico with a nematode and parasitic wasp  

SciTech Connect

Non-indigenous invasive mole crickets, Scapteriscus vicinus Scudder (Orthoptera: Gryllotalpidae) in Florida and S. didactylus (Latreille) (the 'changa') in Puerto Rico, are being managed with an entomopathogenic nematode, Steinernema scapterisci (Nguyen and Smart) (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae), and a parasitic wasp, Larra bicolor L. (Hymenoptera: Sphecidae). Pest mole cricket populations have declined by 95% in north central Florida since these specialist natural enemies were released and established in the 1980s. Commercial production of the nematode was initiated, nearly 70 billion were applied in 34 Florida counties, and their establishment, spread, and impact on mole crickets were monitored. The infected mole crickets dispersed the nematode rapidly, so that within 6 months these parasites were present in most of the insects trapped in experimental pastures. Three years later, mole cricket populations were reduced to acceptable levels and the bahiagrass had recovered. The nematode was released for the first time in Puerto Rico during 2001 and has persisted; the wasp was introduced in the late 1930s. The geographical distribution of the wasp is being expanded in Florida and Puerto Rico by planting plots of Spermacoce verticillata (L.), a wildflower indigenous to Puerto Rico and widely distributed in southern Florida. Pastures, sod farms, golf courses, landscapes, and vegetable farms in Florida and Puerto Rico are benefiting from biological control of invasive mole crickets. (author) [Spanish] Los grillotopos invasores no indigenas, Scapteriscus vicinus (Orthoptera: Gryllotalpidae) en el estado de Florida y S. didactylus ('changa') en Puerto Rico, estan siendo manejados por el nematodo entomopathogeno, Steinernema scapterisci (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae) y la avispa parasitica, Larra bicolor (Hymenoptera: Sphecidae). Las poblaciones de los grillotopo plagas han declinado un 95% en el norte central de la Florida desde que estos enemigos naturales especialistas fueron liberados y establecidos en los 80s. Consecuentemente, la produccion comercial del nematodo fue iniciada, casi 70 billones fueron aplicados en 34 condados de la Florida, y se realizo un monitoreo para evaluar su establecimiento, dispersion e impacto sobre los grillotopos. Los gillotopos infectados dispersaron los nematodos rapidamente, tanto que despues de 6 meses estos parasitos estaban presentes en la mayoria de los insectos atrapados en los pastos experimentales. Tres anos despues, las poblaciones de los grillotopos fueron reducidas a niveles aceptables y los campos de pasto 'bahia' se recuperaron. El nematodo fue liberado para la primera vez en Puerto Rico durante del 2001 y ha persistido; la avispa fue introducida al final de los 30s. La distribucion geografica de la avispa se esta extendiendo en la Florida y Puerto Rico por medio de la siembra de parcelas de Spermacoce verticillata, una flor silvestre indigena a Puerto Rico y distribuida ampliamente en el sur de la Florida. Los campos de pasto, las operaciones comerciales de cesped, los campos de golf, los paisajes y las fincas de hortalizas en la Florida y Puerto Rico se estan beneficiando del control biologico de los grillotopos invasores. (author)

Leppla, N.C.; Frank, J.H. [University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, Department of Entomology and Nematology, P.O. Box 110630, Gainesville, FL 32611-0630 (United States); Adjei, M.B. [University of Florida, Range Cattle Research and Education Center, 3401 Experiment Station, Ona, FL 33865-9706 (United States); Vicente, N.E. [University of Puerto Rico, Agricultural Experiment Station, P.O. Box 9030, Mayaguez, PR 00681-9030 (Puerto Rico)

2007-03-15

207

A Ten-year Assessment of Anabolic Steroid Misuse among Competitive Athletes in Puerto Rico  

PubMed Central

Objective Little is known about anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) misuse in the Caribbean region in spite of increased popularity among athletes and adolescents. The present study examines the usage of AAS among competitive athletes in Puerto Rico. Methods Doping test results of competitive athletes obtained by random sampling out of competition during the 20002009 period were analysed. Doping tests were executed by the Centre for Sports, Health and Exercise Sciences (Albergue Olmpico, Salinas, Puerto Rico). A total of 550 athletes were monitored during 20002009. Information was collected with regard to competitive sport, gender and AAS compounds whenever a positive test result was encountered. Results From the total sample of monitored cases during the past decade, 5.4% showed adverse analytical findings. Anabolic androgenic steroids misuse was detected among male (62%) and female (38%) athletes. Weightlifting showed the greatest percentage of positive AAS doping test results (70% of total cases) and stanozolol was the most commonly misused exogenous androgen (60% of abused AAS whether alone or as part of a cocktail). Testosterone was the most common endogenous misused steroid (10% of misused compounds). Conclusion In Puerto Rico, AAS misuse was detected across competitive sports for both genders. Although AAS misuse among Puerto Rican athletes shares some features that are consistent with the international sports community, it is imperative to address AAS misuse in the Caribbean region. PMID:22519228

Acevedo, P; Jorge, JC; Cruz-Sanchez, A; Amy, E; Barreto-Estrada, JL

2012-01-01

208

Atmospheric inputs to watersheds of the Luquillo Mountains in eastern Puerto Rico: Chapter D in Water quality and landscape processes of four watersheds in eastern Puerto Rico  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Twenty years of precipitation-chemistry data from the National Atmospheric Deposition Program site at El Verde, Puerto Rico, demonstrate that three major sources control the composition of solutes in rain in eastern Puerto Rico. In order of importance, these sources are marine salts, temperate contamination from the Northern Hemisphere, and Sahara Desert dust. Marine salts are a source of roughly 82 percent of the ionic charge in precipitation; marine salt inputs are greatest in January. Evaluation of 15 years of U.S. Geological Survey data for four watersheds in eastern Puerto Rico suggests that large storms, including hurricanes, are associated with exceptionally high chloride concentrations in stream waters. Some of these storms were missed in sampling by the National Atmospheric Deposition Program, and therefore its data on the marine contribution likely underestimate chloride. The marine contribution is a weak source of acidity. Temperate contamination contributes about 10 percent of the ionic charge in precipitation; contaminants are primarily nitrate, ammonia, and sulfate derived from various manmade and natural sources. Peak deposition of temperate contaminants is during January, April, and May, months in which strong weather fronts arrive from the north. Temperate contamination, a strong source of acidity, is the only component that is increasing through time. Sahara Desert dust provides 5 percent of the ionic charge in precipitation; it is strongly seasonal, peaking in June and July during times of maximum dust transport from the Sahara and sub-Saharan regions. This dust contributes, on average, enough alkalinity to neutralize the acidity in June and July rains.

Stallard, Robert F.; Murphy, Sheila F.

2012-01-01

209

Hydrology and climate of four watersheds in eastern Puerto Rico: Chapter C in Water quality and landscape processes of four watersheds in eastern Puerto Rico  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Puerto Rico lies directly in the path of the easterly trade winds, which deliver steady rainfall to the mountains and steer tropical wave systems toward the island. Hurricanes and tropical storms derived from these tropical waves differ in frequency and intensity, contributing to substantial interannual variation in precipitation and stream discharge. Puerto Rico's steep topography and small water-storage capacity leave the island's water supply and developed flood plains vulnerable to extreme weather events, such as hurricanes, floods, and droughts. This vulnerability may increase in the future owing to ongoing change, both local (such as land-cover shifts, water-supply projects, and construction of roads and other infrastructure) and regional (climate variability and change). Climate change, which could lead to more intense and prolonged droughts as well as an increase in the magnitude and frequency of destructive storms in the Caribbean, may alter temperature and affect the availability of water for human and ecosystem needs. Accurate assessment of hydrologic regimes and water budgets is therefore crucial for effective management of water resources. As part of the U.S. Geological Survey's Water, Energy, and Biogeochemical Budgets program, hydrologic and geomorphologic processes and stream chemistry of four small watersheds in eastern Puerto Rico, which differ in geology and land cover, have been studied since 1991. Spatial and temporal characteristics of precipitation and stream discharge, along with water budgets, were determined for the watersheds for the period 1991 to 2005. The locations of the watersheds relative to the Luquillo Mountains and the range's associated rain shadow dominate hydrological processes, dwarfing influences of land cover. The influence of geology is reflected in recession characteristics of the rivers (recession is faster in soils overlying volcaniclastic bedrock) and in hillslope geomorphic processes (sediment is delivered at higher rates from soils overlying granitic bedrock).

Murphy, Sheila F.; Stallard, Robert F.

2012-01-01

210

78 FR 58273 - Foreign-Trade Zone (FTZ) 7-Mayaguez, Puerto Rico: Notification of Proposed Production Activity...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Activity; Patheon Puerto Rico, Inc. (Pharmaceutical Products); Caguas and Manat[iacute...Inc. (Patheon) (formerly MOVA Pharmaceutical Corporation), located in Caguas...Patheon already has authority to produce pharmaceutical products at both sites, located...

2013-09-23

211

33 CFR 165.776 - Security Zone; Coast Guard Base San Juan, San Juan Harbor, Puerto Rico  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Security Zone; Coast Guard Base San Juan, San Juan Harbor, Puerto Rico 165.776 Section 165.776 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD,...

2010-07-01

212

77 FR 75145 - Foreign-Trade Zone 61-San Juan, Puerto Rico; Application for Subzone; Sea World, Inc.; Guaynabo, PR  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board [S-138-2012] Foreign-Trade Zone 61--San Juan, Puerto Rico; Application for Subzone; Sea World, Inc.; Guaynabo, PR An application has been submitted to the...

2012-12-19

213

Contrasting responses of coral reef fauna and foraminiferal assemblages to human influence in La Parguera, Puerto Rico  

EPA Science Inventory

Coral reef biota including stony corals, sponges, gorgonians, fish, benthic macroinvertebrates and foraminifera were surveyed in coastal waters near La Parguera, in southwestern Puerto Rico. The goal was to evaluate sensitivity of coral reef biological indicators to human distur...

214

The use of a distributed hydrologic model to predict dynamic landslide susceptibility for a humid basin in Puerto Rico  

E-print Network

This thesis describes the use of a distributed hydrology model in conjunction with a Factor of Safety (FS) algorithm to predict dynamic landslide susceptibility for a humid basin in Puerto Rico. The Mameyes basin, located ...

Kamal, Sameer A. (Sameer Ahmed)

2009-01-01

215

78 FR 54623 - Foreign-Trade Zone (FTZ) 7-Mayaguez, Puerto Rico; Notification of Proposed Production Activity...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Activity; Puma Energy Caribe, LLC (Biodiesel Blending); Bayamon, Puerto Rico Puma...current request would add the blending of biodiesel to the scope of authority. Pursuant...methyl ester meeting the specification of biodiesel (B100) (duty...

2013-09-05

216

33 CFR 80.738 - Puerto Rico and Virgin Islands.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...S. Virgin Islands. (b) A line drawn from Puerto San Juan Light to position 1828?30? N, 06608?24...northwest extent of Isla de Cabras across the entrance of San Juan Harbor. [CGD 77-118a, 42 FR 35784, July...

2010-07-01

217

THE PEOPLE OF PUERTO RICO, A STUDY IN SOCIAL ANTHROPOLOGY.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THIS BOOK REPORTS A CULTURAL-HISTORICAL STUDY OF THE ENVIRONMENT AND BEHAVIOR PATTERNS OF CERTAIN PUERTO RICAN SUBCULTURES. THE AIMS OF THE STUDY WERE TO ANALYZE THE CONTEMPORARY CULTURE AND TO EXPLAIN IT IN TERMS OF THE HISTORICAL CHANGES WHICH HAVE OCCURRED ON THE ISLAND, AND TO DETERMINE HOW THESE HISTORICALLY DERIVED PATTERNS HAVE BEEN ADAPTED

STEWARD, JULIAN H.; AND OTHERS

218

Histoplasmin sensitivity of young men in Alaska, Hawaii, the Philippines and Puerto Rico*  

PubMed Central

The author describes results of a continuing study of skin sensitivity to histoplasmin among United States Navy recruits from Alaska, Hawaii, the Philippine Islands and Puerto Rico. For comparison, material is also included for several groups of recruits from different states of mainland United States. The evidence is interpreted as indicating that the frequent large reactions in Puerto Rican and Filipino recruits represent specific infection with Histoplasma, whereas the small reactions in recruits from Hawaii and the Philippines represent cross-reactions due to sensitization with a presently unknown agent or agents. PMID:14178032

Edwards, Phyllis Q.

1964-01-01

219

Near-Surface Shear Wave Velocity Versus Depth Profiles, VS30, and NEHRP Classifications for 27 Sites in Puerto Rico  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 2004 and 2005 the Puerto Rico Seismic Network (PRSN), Puerto Rico Strong Motion Program (PRSMP) and the Geology Department at the University of Puerto Rico-Mayaguez (UPRM) collaborated with the U.S. Geological Survey to study near-surface shear-wave (Vs) and compressional-wave (Vp) velocities in and around major urban areas of Puerto Rico. Using noninvasive seismic refraction-reflection profiling techniques, we acquired velocities at 27 locations. Surveyed sites were predominantly selected on the premise that they were generally representative of near-surface materials associated with the primary geologic units located within the urbanized areas of Puerto Rico. Geologic units surveyed included Cretaceous intrusive and volcaniclastic bedrock, Tertiary sedimentary and volcanic units, and Quaternary unconsolidated eolian, fluvial, beach, and lagoon deposits. From the data we developed Vs and Vp depth versus velocity columns, calculated average Vs to 30-m depth (VS30), and derived NEHRP (National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program) site classifications for all sites except one where results did not reach 30-m depth. The distribution of estimated NEHRP classes is as follows: three class 'E' (VS30 below 180 m/s), nine class 'D' (VS30 between 180 and 360 m/s), ten class 'C' (VS30 between 360 and 760 m/s), and four class 'B' (VS30 greater than 760 m/s). Results are being used to calibrate site response at seismograph stations and in the development of regional and local shakemap models for Puerto Rico.

Odum, Jack K.; Williams, Robert A.; Stephenson, William J.; Worley, David M.; von Hillebrandt-Andrade, Christa; Asencio, Eugenio; Irizarry, Harold; Cameron, Antonio

2007-01-01

220

A giant submarine slope failure on the northern insular slope of Puerto Rico  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A large amphitheater-shaped scarp, approximately 55 km across, was imaged on the northern insular slope of Puerto Rico using long-range sidescan sonar and bathymetric data. This scarp results from the removal of more than 1500 km3 of Tertiary strata. A review of seismic-reflection profiles, stratigraphic data, and subsidence models of the northern insular margin of Puerto Rico were used to infer that large-scale slope failure was induced by the tectonic oversteepening of the insular slope and was responsible for the formation of the scarp. The oversteepening probably was caused by the most recent episode of convergence of the Caribbean and North American plates, which began between approximately 4 and 2.5 m.y. ago. The Tertiary strata have been tilted approximately 4.5?? to the north in the last 4 m.y. ?? 1991.

Schwab, W.C.; Danforth, W.W.; Scanlon, K.M.; Masson, D.G.

1991-01-01

221

Wind energy resource atlas. Volume 12. Puerto Rico and US Virgin Islands  

SciTech Connect

The Puerto Rico/US Virgin Island atlas assimilates three collections of wind resource data: one for the region as a whole and one each for both the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico and the US Virgin Islands. For the two subregions, features of the climate, topography and wind resource are discussed in greater detail than is provided in the regional discussion, and the data locations on which the assessment is based are mapped. Variations, over several time scales, in the wind resource at selected stations in both subregions are shown on graphs of monthly average and interannual wind speed and power, and hourly average wind speed for each season. Other graphs present speed, direction and duration frequencies of the wind at these locations.

Wegley, H.L.; Elliott, D.L.; Barchet, W.R.; George, R.L.

1981-01-01

222

``From Earth to the Solar System'' Traveling Exhibit Visits Puerto Rico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Puerto Rico was selected as one of the venues for the exhibit From Earth to the Solar System (FETTSS) during the month of October 2011. A set of outreach activities were organized to take place during the month of October aligned with the FETTSS themes. These activities included the following: 1) Main Exhibit, 2) Guided tours for school groups, 3) Planet Festival, 4) Film Festival and 5) Astronomy Conferences. We describe this experience and in particular the work with a group of undergraduate students from the University of Puerto Rico (UPR) that assisted in the outreach events. Among this group were three blind students. The FETTSS exhibit included a set of tactile and Braille images for the blind and visually impaired. A special exhibit was prepared with additional adapted materials for the visually impaired. This allowed blind visitors to participate and the general public to become more aware of the needs of this population.

Pantoja, C. A.; Lebrn, M. E.; Isidro, G. M.

2013-04-01

223

Human Papillomavirus-Related Cancers Among People Living With AIDS in Puerto Rico  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to estimate the incidence of cancer and human papillomavirus (HPV)related cancers and the risk of death (by cancer status) among people living with AIDS (PLWA) in Puerto Rico. We used data from the Puerto Rico AIDS Surveillance Program and Central Cancer Registry (19852005). Cancers with highest incidence were cervix (299.6/100,000) for women and oral cavity/oropharynx for men (150.0/100,000); the greatest excess of cancer incidence for men (standardized incidence ratio, 86.8) and women (standardized incidence ratio, 52.8) was for anal cancer. PLWA who developed a cancer had decreased survival and increased risk of death compared with those who did not have cancer. Cancer control strategies for PLWA will be essential for improving their disease survival. PMID:24831284

Perez-Irizarry, Javier; Soto-Salgado, Marievelisse; Suarez, Erick; Perez, Naydi; Cruz, Maritza; Palefsky, Joel; Tortolero-Luna, Guillermo; Miranda, Sandra; Colon-Lopez, Vivian

2014-01-01

224

Testing 300 patients for alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency in Caguas, Puerto Rico.  

PubMed

Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency (AATD) is an inherited disorder that can cause lung and liver disease in adults and children. Homozygosity for the Z phenotype is the principal cause of AATD. There are about 100,000 people with AATD in the United States (not including the Island of Puerto Rico), and about the same number in Europe. Despite being one of the most common potentially lethal genetic diseases among Caucasian adults, AATD often remains unidentified, in part because related pulmonary symptoms often do not manifest until midlife when significant pulmonary functional degradation has already occurred. Our study aims to determine what is the prevalence of AATD in a specific population in Puerto Rico. PMID:22111466

Correa, Ramonita; Prez, Jorge; Brugal, Yocasta; Terrasa, Jos; Prez Gum, Jos; Santana, Arnulfo; Coln, Edwin; Puig, Gisela

2011-01-01

225

Discovering the Universe from the Caribbean: Puerto Rico Prepares for the IYA2009  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A committee has been established at the University of Puerto Rico (UPR) to organize the local International Year of Astronomy {http://www.astronomy2009pr.org} (IYA2009) activities in the island and coordinate the international global activities. We are coordinating efforts with the members of the PR-NASA Space Grant Consortium, local government agencies, and non-profit organizations interested in education. We plan to have events throughout the island taking care to facilitate the participation of families and youth from economically disadvantaged communities. We wish that all the activities in 2009 emphasize the value of personal effort in reaching your goals, the importance of mathematics in modern life and the development of scientific awareness. Aligned with the IYA2009 major goals and considering the particular needs of our community, we have selected eight core activities for Puerto Rico. This poster describes how we will celebrate.

Lebrn Santos, M. E.; Pantoja, C. A.; Alonso, J. L.; Altschuler, D. R.; Olmi, L.

2008-11-01

226

Puerto Rico Dental and Other Health Professions Student Orientation and Recruitment Program. Executive Summary and Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A report on the Puerto Rico Dental and Other Health Professions Student Orientation and Recruitment program is presented. Project objectives were to: (1) plan, develop, implement, and assess a formal recruitment program designed to enroll and train a higher proportion of highly qualified Puerto Rican high school and baccalaureate students for the

Puerto Rico Univ., San Juan. Medical Sciences Campus.

227

14 CFR 399.34 - Intra-Hawaii and Intra-Puerto Rico/Virgin Islands fare flexibility.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...For scheduled service within Hawaii, and within and between Puerto...percent above the SIFL, and for Hawaii is 30 percent above the SHFL...not apply to service within Hawaii. Appendix A to 399.34United States-Puerto Rico Entity...

2010-01-01

228

Lithic reduction trajectories at La Hueca and Punta Candelero sites, Puerto Rico  

E-print Network

of MASTER OF ARTS August 2001 Major Subject: Anthropology LITHIC REDUCTION TRAJECTORIES AT LA HUECA AND PUNTA CANDELERO SITES, PUERTO RICO A Thesis by RENIEL RODRIGUEZ RAMOS Submitted to Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF ARTS Approved as to style and content by: David L. Carlson (Chair of Committee) David L. Carlson (Head of Department) arry J. hafer (Member) Michael R. Waters (Member) August 2001 Major Subject: Anthropology...

Ramos, Reniel Rodriquez

2012-06-07

229

A needs assessment of health department employees in Puerto Rico and Florida.  

PubMed

Public health training centers were established to enhance competencies in skills required to meet 21st-century public health challenges. In 2011, the Puerto Rico-Florida Public Health Training Center conducted surveys to assess the training needs of two populations of public health workers serving Hispanic communities: Florida Department of Health employees and workers at the regional and central offices of the Puerto Rico Department of Health. The two surveys were similar, but not identical in content and administration. A 52.6% response rate was achieved in the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, where limited computer access necessitated use of a pen-and-paper survey. A 20.7% response rate was achieved in Florida, where an online survey was used and incomplete responses were problematic. Puerto Rico respondents (n = 1,414) were similar in age (Mdn age = 48 years) to Hispanic Florida respondents (n = 546, Mdn age =45 years). They also reported higher levels of academic achievement and more years of experience in public health. Nevertheless, self-assessed public health competency scores were in the low- to mid-range for Hispanic respondents in both locales. Although self-assessed training priorities differed, Hispanic employees in both jurisdictions preferred hands-on and face-to-face training to distance learning. Findings indicate a need for training based on adult learning theory, targeted to entry-level employees, and addressing the top five self-assessed training needs, especially health promotion and disease prevention and public health law and policy, which emerged as priority training areas in both survey populations. PMID:24578362

Capriles-Quirs, Jos A; McCoy, H Virginia; Darrow, William W; Ros, Ruth E; Rubens, Muni; Silva-Suarez, Georgina; Hughes, Shannon

2014-03-01

230

MAPA DE RIESGO DE EROSIN DE SUELO PARA LA CUENCA DEL RIO YAGEZ EN PUERTO RICO  

E-print Network

MAPA DE RIESGO DE EROSI?N DE SUELO PARA LA CUENCA DEL RIO YAG?EZ EN PUERTO RICO Nelson M. Anaya de los suelos en las cuencas hidrográficas. La Ecuación de Pérdidas de Suelo Universal Revisada, RUSLE (por sus siglas en ingles), es comúnmente utilizada para la estimación anual de pérdida de suelos

Gilbes, Fernando

231

Storage capacity and sedimentation trends of Lago Garzas, Puerto Rico, 1996-2007  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Lago Garzas is located in west-central Puerto Rico, about 3.5 kilometers southwest of the town of Adjuntas, in the confluence of the Ro Vacas and three other unnamed tributaries (fig. 1). The dam is owned and operated by the Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority (PREPA), and was constructed in 1943 for hydroelectric power generation and municipal water use along the southern coast. The dam is a semi-hydraulic earthfill embankment lined with boulders, and has a height of 61.57 meters, a top width of 9.14 meters, a base width of 365.76 meters, and a crest length of 227.37 meters; State Road PR-518 crosses the top of the dam. A morning-glory-type spillway is located near the west abutment of the dam at an elevation of 736.12 meters above mean sea level (Puerto Rico Water Resources Authority, 1969). Figure 2 shows an aerial photograph of the Lago Garzas earthfill dam and the morning-glory spillway section. Additional information and operational procedures are provided in Soler-Lpez and others (1999). During July 17-18, 2007, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Caribbean Water Science Center, in cooperation with the Puerto Rico Aqueduct and Sewer Authority, conducted a bathymetric survey of Lago Garzas to update the reservoir storage capacity and update the reservoir sedimentation rate by comparing the 2007 data with the previous 1996 bathymetric survey results. The purpose of this report is to describe and document the USGS sedimentation survey conducted at Lago Garzas during July 2007, including the methods used to update the reservoir storage capacity, sedimentation rates, and areas of substantial sediment accumulation since 1996.

Soler-Lopez, L.R.

2012-01-01

232

Contributions of dust to phosphorus cycling in tropical forests of the Luquillo Mountains, Puerto Rico  

Microsoft Academic Search

The input of phosphorus (P) through mineral aerosol dust deposition may be an important component of nutrient dynamics in\\u000a tropical forest ecosystems. A new dust deposition calculation is used to construct a broad analysis of the importance of dust-derived\\u000a P to the P budget of a montane wet tropical forest in the Luquillo Mountains of Puerto Rico. The dust deposition

Julie C. Pett-Ridge

2009-01-01

233

Microfungi from decaying leaves of two rain forest trees in Puerto Rico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fungal species richness and abundance were compared in leaf litter of two tree species,Guarea guidonia andManilkara bidentata, in the Luquillo Mountains of Puerto Rico. Four litter samples yielded a total of 3337 isolates, ranging from 591 to 1259 isolates\\/sample. The number of species\\/sample ranged from 134 to 228. Many uncommon litter hyphomycetes were recovered as well as coelomycetes, sterile strains,

J D Polishook; G F Bills; D J Lodge

1996-01-01

234

Studying the radiogeochemistry of the Caribbean National Forest and the BONUS Power Plant in Puerto Rico.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Environmental impact studies on anthropogenic radionuclides have been conducted worldwide since the initiation of above ground nuclear weapons testing over 5 decades ago. During the 1960's Puerto Rico was the site of two ecological studies involving the release of radionuclides into the rainforest. More recently, radionuclides were introduced in Puerto Rico on the island of Vieques via military activities involving the use of depleted uranium shell casings. An investigation of radionuclide distribution and behavior throughout Puerto Rico was initiated in the fall of 2003. Two sampling sites for this investigation are the Caribbean National Forest (CNF) and the region immediately surrounding a prototype nuclear power plant (BONUS) in Rincon, PR. Samples collected from these sites have been analyzed using gamma spectroscopy, grain size analysis and X-ray diffraction techniques. Gamma analysis indicated the presence of Cs-137 at both sites. Cs-137 activities at the CNF ranges from 0.361 Bq/g to below detection limits. Cs-137 activities determined from the BONUS reactor site were lower than those at CNF ranging from below detection limits to 0.011 Bq/g. Grain size analysis revealed that the clay size particles present at CNF are between the range of 27.17% and 6.84%. In most cases the clay size particle concentrations for samples collected near the BONUS Reactor volume were relatively high (22.39% maximum), however some samples contained concentrations as low as 2.79%. Cesium preferentially absorbs to small grain size particles. Correlations between particle size and cesium concentrations were derived. Major outcomes from this on-going investigation will include the determination of local radionuclide concentrations, distributions and behaviors, with respect to aquatic geochemistry, dominant transport processes and ecological characteristics in Puerto Rico.

Ithier-Guzman, W.; Pyrtle, A. J.

2006-12-01

235

Silica Sources and Water Flowpaths During Storm Events at Rio Icacos, Puerto Rico  

Microsoft Academic Search

We employ germanium\\/silicon (Ge\\/Si) ratios as a novel tracer in hydrology, in conjunction with oxygen isotopes, hydrometric measurements, and physics-based models of water routing in the Rio Icacos watershed, Puerto Rico. Ge\\/Si ratios provide additional information on Si sources, an improvement over Si concentration- based models traditionally used to understand flowpaths. We hypothesize that at baseflow, streams deliver solutes derived

F. Lugolobi; A. C. Kurtz; G. D. Salvucci

2006-01-01

236

Facility Energy Decision System (FEDS) Assessment Report for Fort Buchanan, Puerto Rico  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the findings of the Facility Energy Decision System (FEDS) assessment at Fort Buchanan, Puerto Rico, by a team of PNNL engineers under contract to the Installation Management Agency (IMA) Southeast Region Office (SERO). Funding support was also provided by the Department of Energy's Federal Energy Management Program. The purpose of the assessment was to determine how energy is consumed at Fort Buchanan, identify the most cost-effective energy retrofit measures, and calculate the potential energy and cost savings.

Chvala, William D.; Solana, Amy E.; Dixon, Douglas R.

2005-02-01

237

Association of NOD2 and IL23R with Inflammatory Bowel Disease in Puerto Rico  

PubMed Central

The Puerto Rico population may be modeled as an admixed population with contributions from three continents: Sub-Saharan Africa, Ancient America, and Europe. Extending the study of the genetics of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) to an admixed population such as Puerto Rico has the potential to shed light on IBD genes identified in studies of European populations, find new genes contributing to IBD susceptibility, and provide basic information on IBD for the care of US patients of Puerto Rican and Latino descent. In order to study the association between immune-related genes and Crohns disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) in Puerto Rico, we genotyped 1159 Puerto Rican cases, controls, and family members with the ImmunoChip. We also genotyped 832 subjects from the Human Genome Diversity Panel to provide data for estimation of global and local continental ancestry. Association of SNPs was tested by logistic regression corrected for global continental descent and family structure. We observed the association between Crohns disease and NOD2 (rs17313265, 0.28 in CD, 0.19 in controls, OR 1.5, p?=?910?6) and IL23R (rs11209026, 0.026 in CD, 0.0.071 in controls, OR 0.4, p?=?3.810?4). The haplotype structure of both regions resembled that reported for European populations and local continental ancestry of the IL23R gene was almost entirely of European descent. We also observed suggestive evidence for the association of the BAZ1A promoter SNP with CD (rs1200332, 0.45 in CD, 0.35 in controls, OR 1.5, p?=?210?6). Our estimate of continental ancestry surrounding this SNP suggested an origin in Ancient America for this putative susceptibility region. Our observations underscored the great difference between global continental ancestry and local continental ancestry at the level of the individual gene, particularly for immune-related loci. PMID:25259511

Ballester, Veroushka; Guo, Xiuqing; Vendrell, Roberto; Haritunians, Talin; Klomhaus, Alexandra M.; Li, Dalin; McGovern, Dermot P. B.; Rotter, Jerome I.; Torres, Esther A.; Taylor, Kent D.

2014-01-01

238

Disseminated toxoplasmosis in Antillean manatees Trichechus manatus manatus from Puerto Rico.  

PubMed

Necropsies were conducted on 4 Antillean manatees Trichechus manatus manatus that were stranded in single events on the coastal beaches of Puerto Rico from August 2010 to August 2011. Three manatees were emaciated and the gastrointestinal tracts were devoid of digesta. Microscopically, all manatees had severe widespread inflammatory lesions of the gastrointestinal tract and heart with intralesional tachyzoites consistent with Toxoplasma gondii identified by histological, ultrastructural and immunohistochemical techniques. The gastrointestinal lesions included severe, multifocal to diffuse, chronic-active enteritis, colitis and/or gastritis often with associated ulceration, necrosis and hemorrhage. Enteric leiomyositis was severe and locally extensive in all cases and associated with the most frequently observed intralesional protozoans. Moderate to severe, multifocal, chronic to chronic-active, necrotizing myocarditis was also present in all cases. Additionally, less consistent inflammatory lesions occurred in the liver, lung and a mesenteric lymph node and were associated with fewer tachyzoites. Sera (n = 30) collected from free-ranging and captive Puerto Rican manatees and a rehabilitated/released Puerto Rican manatee from 2003 to 2012 were tested for antibodies for T. gondii. A positive T. gondii antibody titer was found in 2004 in 1 (3%) of the free-ranging cases tested. Disease caused by T. gondii is rare in manatees. This is the first report of toxoplasmosis in Antillean manatees from Puerto Rico. Additionally, these are the first reported cases of disseminated toxoplasmosis in any sirenian. The documentation of 4 cases of toxoplasmosis within one year and the extremely low seroprevalence to T. gondii suggest that toxoplasmosis may be an emerging disease in Antillean manatees from Puerto Rico. PMID:23135141

Bossart, Gregory D; Mignucci-Giannoni, Antonio A; Rivera-Guzman, Antonio L; Jimenez-Marrero, Nilda M; Camus, Alvin C; Bonde, Robert K; Dubey, Jitender P; Reif, John S

2012-11-01

239

Sedimentation survey of Lago Dos Bocas, Utuado, Puerto Rico, January 2010  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Lago Dos Bocas reservoir was completed in 1942 to provide water for hydroelectric power generation along the northern coast of Puerto Rico. The reservoir had an original storage capacity of 37.50 million cubic meters (Mm3). The dam is located about 9 kilometers (km) northeast of the town of Utuado, immediately downstream of the original confluence of the Ro Grande de Arecibo and the Ro Caonillas (fig. 1). The Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority (PREPA) owns and operates the Lago Dos Bocas reservoir, and since 1996, the reservoir has become an essential part of the Puerto Rico Aqueduct and Sewer Authority (PRASA) North Coast Superaqueduct Project. The Superaqueduct is supplied by controlled releases for hydroelectric power generation that replenish the public-supply raw-water intake pool located about 10 km downstream from the Lago Dos Bocas Dam (fig. 1). As of 2005, the Superaqueduct supplies about 4.03 cubic meters per second (m3/s) (348,192 cubic meters per day [m3/d]) of potable water to communities along the northern coast, from Arecibo to the San Juan metropolitan area. Because of the importance of the reservoir to the North Coast Superaqueduct, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with PRASA, conducted a sedimentation survey of Lago Dos Bocas in January 2009. The results of this survey were used to estimate the useful life and the firm yield of the reservoir, and evaluate the need to dredge the reservoir.

Soler-Lpez, Luis R.

2014-01-01

240

Host breadth and parasitoids of fruit flies (Anastrepha spp.) (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Puerto Rico.  

PubMed

Twenty fruit species representing 12 families were collected from various regions in western Puerto Rico and monitored for the emergence of Anastrepha spp. pupae. We collected 14,154 tephritid pupae from 16 fruit species representing 10 families. The relative infestations of these fruits (pupae per kilogram of fruit) were recorded. Recorded host ranges were not in complete agreement with those reported in the literature. This host-use pattern should give pause to regulators of fruit importation and exportation that base their decisions on literature from regions other than those of immediate interest to them. We recovered the braconid parasitoid Utetes anastrephae (Viereck) from tephritid pupae collected from Mangifera indica L., Spondias mombin L., Psidium guajava L., Chrysobalanus icacos L., Terminalia catappa L., and Garcinia intermedia (Pittier) Hammel. We collected one specimen of the parasitoid Doryctobracon aerolatus (Szepligeti) from the west coast (Aasco), which had not been previously reported in Puerto Rico. We present a preliminary phenology of what are probably the primary fruit hosts of the Anastrepha spp. of Puerto Rico. We also present the first report of Garcinia intermedia (Pittier) Hammel and Coffea arabica L. as reproductive hosts of A. suspensa. PMID:18348802

Jenkins, David A; Goenaga, Ricardo

2008-02-01

241

Summary of selected characteristics of large reservoirs in the United States and Puerto Rico, 1988  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report presents selected characteristics of 2,728 reservoirs and controlled natural lakes located within the 50 States of the United States and the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico. Data are presented for reservoirs that have normal capacities of at least 5,000 acre-ft or maximum capacities of at least 25,000 acre-ft and that were completed as of January 1, 1988. Reservoir data include: location, maximum capacity, normal capacity, surface area, drainage area, year completed, and use. The normal capacities of the 2,728 reservoirs and controlled natural lakes total more than 467 million acre-ft, and the combined surface areas for 2,362 of those reservoirs total almost 16 million acres. More than 9% (259) of the reservoirs are located in California. The total normal capacity of reservoirs in California is more than 40 million acre-ft (about 8.6% of the total normal capacity for the United States and Puerto Rico), and the total surface area is almost 700,000 acres (about 4.4% of the listed total surface area for the United States and Puerto Rico). (USGS)

Ruddy, B.C.; Hitt, K.J.

1990-01-01

242

Sedimentary Characteristics and Ages of Submarine Mass Movements around Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Submarine landslides and earthquakes in close proximity to Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands have the potential to trigger tsunamis, which could cause significant damage to coastal communities in the region, as was the case both in 1867 and again in 1918. Evidence of substantial failure of the carbonate platform that rims Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands is revealed by geophysical data, yet little is known about the temporal occurrence, size, triggers, and failure processes. Gravity cores collected in 2008 and pre-existing core and seafloor samples from the Puerto Rico Trench and deep basins south of the Virgin Islands (Whiting, Vieques, and Virgin Islands basins) provide insight into the recent mass movement history of the region. In the Puerto Rico trench, a lack of coarse carbonate debris or chaotic deposition in the upper upper 10 m of sediment suggests that there has not been massive catastrophic collapse of the edge of the carbonate platform and underlying material within the last 30 kyr. Rather, progressive scalloping of the margin may be the primary failure process, resulting in turbidite-dominated transport. Turbidite deposits, which can be correlated across semi-enclosed basins along the southern slope and axis of the Puerto Rico trench, have calibrated radiocarbon ages between 25 and 7 ka. Cores from the Virgin Islands basin show marked variations in the stratigraphy over short distances. In the south-eastern corner of the basin, turbidite and coarse-grained intervals are common, reflecting basin-wall destabilization or shelf-derived input driven by hurricane activity. Along the northern and southern margins of the basin, homogeneous clay, almost entirely free of biogenic material, reminiscent of a unifite facies, is common in the upper 2 m of sediment. The origin and age of this clay-facies is currently unclear, although it may be the distal deposit of a mass movement which entered the eastern or western end of the basin, or it may be the only material able to bypass entrapment by small depositional sinks during destabilization of the steep basin walls.

Chaytor, J. D.; ten Brink, U. S.

2010-12-01

243

Nesting ecology and behavior of Broad-winged Hawks in moist karst forests of Puerto Rico  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Puerto Rican Broad-winged Hawk (Buteo platypterus brunnescens) is an endemic and endangered subspecies inhabiting upland montane forests of Puerto Rico. The reproductive ecology, behavior, and nesting habitat of the Broad-winged Hawk were studied in Ri??o Abajo Forest, Puerto Rico, from 2001-02. We observed 158 courtship displays by Broad-winged Hawks. Also, we recorded 25 territorial interactions between resident Broad-winged Hawks and intruding Red-tailed Hawks (Buteo jamaicensis jamaicensis). Broad-winged Hawks displaced intruding Red-tailed Hawks from occupied territories (P = 0.009). Mayfield nest survival was 0.67 across breeding seasons (0.81 in 2001, N = 6; 0.51 in 2002, N = 4), and pairs averaged 1.1 young per nest (years combined). The birds nested in mixed species timber plantations and mature secondary forest. Nests were placed in the upper reaches of large trees emerging from the canopy. Nest tree DBH, understory stem density, and distance to karst cliff wall correctly classified (77.8%) nest sites. ?? 2005 The Raptor Research Foundation, Inc.

Hengstenberg, D.W.; Vilella, F.J.

2005-01-01

244

Physician Survey to Determine How Dengue Is Diagnosed, Treated and Reported in Puerto Rico  

PubMed Central

Dengue is a major cause of morbidity in Puerto Rico and is well-known to its physicians. Early case identification and timely initiation of treatment for patients with severe dengue can reduce medical complications and mortality. To determine clinical management and reporting practices, and assess knowledge of dengue and its management, a survey was sent to 2,512 physicians with a medical license in Puerto Rico. Of the 2,313 physicians who received the survey, 817 (35%) completed the questionnaire. Of the respondents, 708 were currently practicing medicine; 138 were board certified (Group 1), 282 were board eligible (Group 2), and 288 had not finished residency (Group 3). Although respondents clinically diagnosed, on average, 12 cases of dengue in the preceding three months, 31% did not report any suspected cases to public health officials while about half (56%) reported all cases. Overall, 29% of respondents correctly identified early signs of shock and 48% identified severe abdominal pain and persistent vomiting as warning signs for severe dengue with the proportion of correct respondents highest in Group 1. Reportedly about sixty percent (57%) appropriately never give corticosteroids or prophylactic platelet transfusions to dengue patients. One third (30%) of respondents correctly identified administration of intravenous colloid solution as the best treatment option for dengue patients with refractory shock and elevated hematocrit after an initial trial of intravenous crystalloids, and nearly one half (46%) correctly identified administration of a blood transfusion as the best option for dengue patients with refractory shock and decreased hematocrit after a trial of intravenous crystalloids. Even though dengue has been endemic in Puerto Rico for nearly 4 decades, knowledge of dengue management is still limited, compliance with WHO treatment guidelines is suboptimal, and underreporting is significant. These findings were used to design a post graduate training course to improve the clinical management of dengue. PMID:25299251

Tomashek, Kay M.; Biggerstaff, Brad J.; Ramos, Mary M.; Perez-Guerra, Carmen L.; Garcia Rivera, Enid J.; Sun, Wellington

2014-01-01

245

Potential effects of runoff, fluvial sediment, and nutrient discharges on the coral reefs of Puerto Rico  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Coral reefs, the foundation and primary structure of many highly productive and diverse tropical marine ecosystems, have been degraded by human activity in much of the earth's tropical oceans. To contribute to improved understanding of this problem, the potential relation between river sediment and nutrient discharges and degradation of coral reefs surrounding Puerto Rico was studied using streamflow, suspended-sediment, and water-quality data. Mean annual runoff for the 8711 km2 island is 911 mm, about 57% of mean annual precipitation (1600 mm). Mean annual suspended-sediment discharge from Puerto Rico to coastal waters is estimated at 2.7-9.0 million metric tonnes. Storm runoff transports a substantial part of sediment: the highest recorded daily sediment discharge is 1-3.6 times the mean annual sediment discharge. Hurricane Georges (1998) distributed an average of 300 mm of rain across the island, equivalent to a volume of about 2.6 billion m3. Runoff of more than 1.0 billion m3 of water and as much as 5 to 10 million metric tonnes of sediment were discharged to the coast and shelf. Nitrogen and phosphorous concentrations in river waters are as much as 10 times the estimated presettlement levels. Fecal coliform and fecal streptococcus concentrations in many Puerto Rico rivers are near or above regulatory limits. Unlike sediment discharges, which are predominantly episodic and intense, river-borne nutrient and fecal discharge is a less-intense but chronic stressor to coral reefs found near the mouths of rivers. Negative effects of riverderived sediment and nutrient discharge on coral reefs are especially pronounced on the north, southwest, and west coasts.

Larsen, M. C.; Webb, R. M. T.

2009-01-01

246

Variations of the spatiotemporal patterns of CVOCs concentrations in northern karst of Puerto Rico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The northern Puerto Rico is characterized as karst topography, where the groundwater is a major source of water use to the island. Various types of Chlorinated Volatile Organic Compounds (CVOCs), which are due to improper disposal of industrial waste, are detected in these karst aquifers. It is important to study the spatiotemporal distribution patterns of the CVOCs in this region, which are posing a serious threat to both the ecological and human health. In this study, various historical CVOCs data from 264 wells across the northern karst region from January 1982 to December 2000 were collected from a number of reports and studies. We found that 38% (99 out of 264) of the sites had at least one sample with CVOC concentration above the standards established to protect human health over the study period. We found that the distribution of the CVOCs spatially varied with areas containing clusters of sites contaminated by different organic compound. The response of CVOC concentrations were occasionally retarded even though they were depleted significantly in the source zones. The study confirmed that the measured CVOC concentrations decreased during the study period at most of the sites. The source origin (toxics release locations and quantities) and the intrinsic characteristics of the karst (high heterogeneity and complex hydraulic behavior) are most likely related with the spatial and temporal distribution patterns of CVOCs. The study of the spatiotemporal patterns of CVOCs concentrations in the northern karst aquifers has important implications on the public water use, especially when it coincides with the recent population growth in this region. Locations of Puerto Rico, the northern karst region of Puerto Rico and 264 sampling sites in the karst region.

Yu, X.; Ghasemizadeh, R.; Padilla, I. Y.; Irizarry, C.; Yegen, C.; Kaeli, D.; Alshawabkeh, A. N.

2013-12-01

247

Prevalence of systemic lupus erythematosus and associated comorbidities in Puerto Rico  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine the prevalence of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and its associated comorbidities in patients from Puerto Rico using a database from a health insurance company. Methods The insurance claims submitted by physicians in 2003 to a health insurance company of Puerto Rico were examined. Of 552,733 insured people, 877 had a diagnosis of SLE (code 710.0) per the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9). Demographic parameters and selected comorbidities were determined. The diagnosis of comorbities was ascertained using the ICD-9 code, the Current Procedural Terminology-4 (CPT-4) code (for disease specific procedures) and/or the Medi-Span Therapeutic Classification System (for disease specific pharmacologic treatment). Fisher exact test and Chi-square were used to evaluate differences between SLE patients groups. Results The mean age was 42.0 13 and the female to male ratio was 12.5:1. The overall prevalence of SLE was 159 per 100,000 individuals. The prevalence for females was 277 per 100,000 women and for males it was 25 per 100,000 men. The most common comorbidities were high blood pressure (33.7%), osteopenia/osteoporosis (22.2%), hypothyroidism (19.0%), diabetes mellitus (11.6%) and hypercholesterolemia (11.6%). Overall, high blood pressure, diabetes mellitus, hypercholesterolemia, and coronary artery disease were more prevalent in SLE patients older than 54 years. Osteopenia/osteoporosis was more prevalent in women than in men. Conclusions The prevalence of SLE in Puerto Rico is very high. High blood pressure, diabetes mellitus, hypercholesterolemia, hypothyroidism and osteopenia/osteoporosis are common comorbidities in these patients. Identification and management of these comorbidities are critical for optimal medical care to this population. PMID:17762454

Molina, Maria J.; Mayor, Angel M.; Franco, Alejandro E.; Morell, Carlos A.; Lopez, Miguel A.; Vila, Luis M.

2013-01-01

248

[Blood derivatives in Puerto Rico: History of the transfusion services and estimate of the consumption of blood units].  

PubMed

Puerto Rico has eight hospital blood banks and three community blood banks for a population around four million. The Red Cross has been in existence in Puerto Rico since 1893 under the Spanish Governance but it was not until 1907 which became the American Red Cross (ARC). Since then it has been serving Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands. About 171.222 blood components, which 45% are of the ARC, are used. There are a number of variations in utilization and a number of factors that are influencing us at the national and local level and that is why collaboration is required in the management plan of blood components at each hospital and implementation of maximum units required for each case of surgery. PMID:25065055

Morales-Borges, Ral H

2014-01-01

249

Prevalence of the microbiologic flora in contact lens wearers at the Puerto Rico Medical Center.  

PubMed

The prevalence of microbioogic flora was determined in a convenience sample of contact lens wearers at the Puerto Rico Medical Center, ophthalmology clinics obtaining cultures from the conjunctival fornices. Gram positive bacterial prevalence was 100% in the control group, as well as in rigid gas permeable lens wearers. In the soft contact lens group, gram positive bacterial prevalence was 94.7%. On the other hand prevalence of Gram negative bacteria is null in the soft contact lens wearer population, being only 2.5% in control group, and 45.5% for Rigid Gas Permeable wearers. These contact lens wearers were using different disinfection systems. PMID:1854385

Izquierdo, N; Daz Mendoza, S; Townsend, W; Carro, J

1991-03-01

250

First record of the cleptoparasitic bee genus Sphecodes from Puerto Rico (Hymenoptera: Halictidae)  

E-print Network

Journal of Melittology Bee Biology, Ecology, Evolution, & Systematics The latest buzz in bee biology No. 39, pp. 16 26 September 2014 Copyright M.S. Engel & S.G. Prado. Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported License (CC...]: St. Isabel, N1800.017 W06626.115, N.W. River, 13 Mar. [March], 2013, S.G. Prado, [each individually numbered as #174, #298, and #161] (MEBT). 1? USA: PR [Puerto Rico]: St. Isabel, N1758.632 W06623.096, Portalatin, 29 Jan. [January], 2013...

Engel, Michael S.; Prado, Sara G.

2014-09-26

251

Terrestrial Sediment and Nutrient Discharge, and Their Potential Influence on Coral Reefs, Puerto Rico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sediment and nutrient discharge to the insular shelf of Puerto Rico (18 degrees latitude), augmented by anthropogenic activity, is believed to have contributed to widespread degradation of coral reefs of Puerto Rico during the 20th century. Sediment deposition degrades coral reefs because it reduces the area of sea floor suitable for growth of new coral, diminishes the amount of light available for photosynthesis by symbiotic algae that live within individual coral animals, and in extreme cases, buries coral colonies. Land-use history and data from 30 water-discharge, 9 daily and 15 intermittent sediment-concentration, and 24 water-quality gaging stations were analyzed to investigate the timing and intensity of terrestrial sediment and nutrient discharge into coastal waters. Watersheds in Puerto Rico generally are small (10's to 100's of square km), channel gradients are steep, and stream valleys are deeply incised and narrow. Major storms are usually brief (<24 h) but intense such that the majority of the annual sediment discharge occurs in a few days. From 1960 through 2000 the highest mean daily discharge for a water year (October - September) accounted for 20 to 60 percent of the total annual sediment discharge. Major storms, with a return frequency of approximately a decade, were capable of discharging up to 30 times the median annual sediment-discharge volume. Prior to agricultural and industrial development, coastal waters are believed to have been relatively transparent, with strong currents and seasonal high-energy swells assisting corals in the removal of minor amounts of sediment deposited after storms. Land clearing and modification, first for agriculture and later for urban development, have increased sediment and nutrient influx to the coast during the 19th and 20th centuries. Although forest cover has increased to approximately 30 percent of the surface of Puerto Rico during the past 60 years, sediment eroded from hillslopes during the agricultural period is still being episodically transported from upland valleys to downstream floodplains and the coast. In response to better land management, the quality of water has improved significantly since the 1980s. Nitrogen and phosphorous concentrations in river waters are now well within regulatory limits, although current concentrations are as much as 10 times the estimated pre-settlement levels. Concentrations of pathogens also are improved but continue to be near or above regulatory limits. Unlike sediment discharge, which is episodic and intense, the discharge of river-borne nutrients and pathogens is a less intense but chronic stressor to coral reefs located near the mouths of rivers.

Larsen, M. C.; Webb, R. M.; Warne, A. G.

2004-12-01

252

Creating Career Ladders in University Systems: The Accelerated Associate's Degree Program for Unemployed Licensed Nurses at the Inter-American University of Puerto Rico.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document describes the Accelerated Associate's Degree Program for Licensed Practical Nurses (LPN) at the Inter-American University of Puerto Rico. The program, targeting unemployed LPNs living in San Juan, Puerto Rico, allows students to complete an associate's degree in one year. Fifty-four students enrolled during the first year and 50% of

Melendez, Edwin; Suarez, Carlos

253

33 CFR 334.1480 - Vieques Passage and Atlantic Ocean, off east coast of Puerto Rico and coast of Vieques Island...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Vieques Passage and Atlantic Ocean, off east coast of Puerto Rico and coast of Vieques...AREA REGULATIONS 334.1480 Vieques Passage and Atlantic Ocean, off east coast of Puerto Rico and coast of...

2012-07-01

254

33 CFR 334.1480 - Vieques Passage and Atlantic Ocean, off east coast of Puerto Rico and coast of Vieques Island...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Vieques Passage and Atlantic Ocean, off east coast of Puerto Rico and coast of Vieques...AREA REGULATIONS 334.1480 Vieques Passage and Atlantic Ocean, off east coast of Puerto Rico and coast of...

2013-07-01

255

33 CFR 334.1480 - Vieques Passage and Atlantic Ocean, off east coast of Puerto Rico and coast of Vieques Island...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Vieques Passage and Atlantic Ocean, off east coast of Puerto Rico and coast of Vieques...AREA REGULATIONS 334.1480 Vieques Passage and Atlantic Ocean, off east coast of Puerto Rico and coast of...

2011-07-01

256

33 CFR 334.1480 - Vieques Passage and Atlantic Ocean, off east coast of Puerto Rico and coast of Vieques Island...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vieques Passage and Atlantic Ocean, off east coast of Puerto Rico and coast of Vieques...AREA REGULATIONS 334.1480 Vieques Passage and Atlantic Ocean, off east coast of Puerto Rico and coast of...

2010-07-01

257

The correlation of the highest temperature and fire weather forecast with detection of wildfires around Puerto Rico using the Landsat 7 ETM+ images  

E-print Network

. In this research it is proposed to present the areas of Puerto Rico affected by wild fires. The images used were flora lacking adaptations to arise fire, pollute the air and cause accidents due to loss of visibility more susceptible to be affected are primarily the southern region of Puerto #12;Rico. These includes

Gilbes, Fernando

258

16. STATUS OF CORAL REEFS IN THE U.S. CARIBBEAN AND GULF OF MEXICO: FLORIDA, FLOWER GARDEN BANKS, PUERTO RICO, U.S. VIRGIN ISLANDS, NAVASSA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mapping, monitoring, and management of coral reefs of Florida, the Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary (FGBNMS) northwestern Gulf of Mexico, Puerto Rico, U.S. Virgin Islands and Navassa have all improved with increased awareness and funding from the Government of the USA. Quantitative baseline surveys of coral reef communities have been completed in Puerto Rico at three current or proposed

RUTH KELTY; KATHERINE ANDREWS; JENNY WHEATON; LARRY NALL; CARL BEAVER; WALT JAPP; BRIAN KELLER; V. R. LEEWORTHY; J. A. BOHN; TOM MATTHEWS; JERALD AULT; FLEUR FERRO; GABRIEL DELGADO; DOUGH HARPER; JOHN HUNT; CHRISTY PATTENGIL-SEMMENS; STEVE SMITH; RICHARD SPIELER; R. E. DODGE; D. GILLIAM; BILL GOODWIN; GEORGE SCHMAHL; JORGE R. GARCIA; CRAIG LILYESTROM; RICHARD APPELDOORN; ANDY BRUCKNER; ERNEST WILLIAMS

259

Validation study of a multidimensional hydrologic model of rainfall, and the simulation of orographic influences, using data from Puerto Rico  

E-print Network

VALIDATION STUDY OF A MULTIDIMENSIONAL HYDROLOGIC MODEL OF RAINFALL, AND THE SIMULATION OF OROGRAPHIC INFLUENCES, USING DATA FROM PUERTO RICO A Thesis by ROBERTO GARCIA-HIRALDO Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas ABM... DATA FROM PUERTO RICO A Thesis by ROBERTO GARCIA-HIRALDO Approved as to style and content by: Dennis M. Driscoll (Co-Chair of Committee) Ju n B. Valdes (Co-Chair of Committee) '; C . '~! Jo'hn F. GriH'i'ths (Member) ~'-~ Edward J. Zipser...

Garcia-Hiraldo, Roberto

2012-06-07

260

Vertebrate hosts of Aedes aegypti and Aedes mediovittatus (Diptera: Culicidae) in rural Puerto Rico.  

PubMed

The distribution of Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti (L.), the main vector of dengue viruses (DENV) worldwide, overlaps with Aedes (Gymnometopa) mediovittatus (Coquillett), the Caribbean treehole mosquito, in urban, suburban, and rural areas. Ae. mediovittatus is a competent vector of DENV with high rates of vertical DENV transmission in the laboratory. This study determined whether Ae. mediovittatus feeds on humans and compared its feeding patterns with co-occurring Ae. aegypti in two rural communities of Puerto Rico. Adult mosquitoes were captured for three consecutive days every week from July 2009 to May 2010 using BG-Sentinel traps with skin lures that were placed in the front yard of houses in both communities. Three methods were used to identify the 756 bloodmeals obtained in this study: a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for humans and dogs targeting cytochrome b; a PCR targeting the 16S rRNA; and a nested PCR targeting cytochrome b. Ae. mediovittatus fed mostly on humans (45-52%) and dogs (28-32%) but also on cats, cows, horses, rats, pigs, goats, sheep, and chickens. Ae. aegypti fed mostly on humans (76-79%) and dogs (18-21%) but also on cats, horses, and chickens. Our results indicate that Ae. mediovittatus may have a relatively high rate of vector-human contact, which might facilitate virus transmission or harborage in rural areas of Puerto Rico. PMID:22897052

Barrera, Roberto; Bingham, Andrea M; Hassan, Hassan K; Amador, Manuel; Mackay, Andrew J; Unnasch, Thomas R

2012-07-01

261

Water-quality reconnaissance of Laguna Tortuguero, Vega Baja, Puerto Rico, March 1999-May 2000  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Laguna Tortuguero, a slightly saline to freshwater lagoon in north-central Puerto Rico, has a surface area of about 220 hectares and a mean depth of about 1.2 meters. As part of a water-quality reconnaissance, water samples were collected at about monthly and near bi-monthly intervals from March 1999 to May 2000 at four sites: three stations inside the lagoon and one station at the artificial outlet channel dredged in 1940, which connects the lagoon with the Atlantic Ocean. Physical characteristics that were determined from these water samples were pH, temperature, specific conductance, dissolved oxygen, dissolved oxygen saturation, and discharge at the outlet canal. Other water-quality constituents also were determined, including nitrogen and phosphorus species, organic carbon, chlorophyll a and b, plankton biomass, hardness, alkalinity as calcium carbonate, and major ions. Additionally, a diel study was conducted at three stations in the lagoon to obtain data on the diurnal variation of temperature, specific conductance, dissolved oxygen, and dissolved oxygen saturation. The data analysis indicates the water quality of Laguna Tortuguero complies with the Puerto Rico Environmental Quality Board standards and regulations.

Soler-Lopez, Luis; Guzman-Rios, Senen; Conde-Costas, Carlos

2006-01-01

262

Sedimentation Survey of Lago Toa Vaca, Puerto Rico, June-July 2002  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Lago Toa Vaca dam is located in the municipality of Villalba in southern Puerto Rico, and is owned and operated by the Puerto Rico Aqueduct and Sewer Authority. Construction was completed in 1972 as the first phase of a multi-purpose project that contemplated four possible diversions from other basins to mitigate the rapid storage capacity loss of Lago Guayabal, located immediately downstream of the Toa Vaca dam. The latter phases of the intra-basin diversions were cancelled, and currently, the reservoir receives runoff from only 56.8 square kilometers of its drainage area. Lago Toa Vaca reservoir when constructed was to be used for irrigation of croplands in the southern coastal plain. The reservoir had an original storage capacity of 68.94 million cubic meters. Sedimentation has reduced the storage capacity by only 7 percent between 1972 and 2002 to 64.08 million cubic meters. This represents a long-term sedimentation rate of about 162,000 cubic meters per year. Based on the 2002 sedimentation survey, Lago Toa Vaca has a sediment trapping efficiency of about 98 percent and a drainage area-normalized sedimentation rate of about 3,086 cubic meters per square kilometer per year between 1972 and 2002. At the current long-term sedimentation rate the reservoir would lose its storage capacity by the year 2400.

Soler-Lpez, Luis R.

2004-01-01

263

The breeding ecology of sea birds on Monito Island, Puerto Rico  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Monito Island, a 15-ha plateau surrounded by steep undercut cliffs, lies halfway between Puerto Rico and the Dominican Republic. Seven of the 9 sea birds are known to breed, and 2 (Blue-faced Booby and Laughing Gull) are here recorded as breeders in Puerto Rico for the first time. The Pelecaniformes are represented by 5 species, the White-tailed Tropicbird, the 3 pan-tropical boobies, and the Magnificent Frigatebird. The boobies all have long but annual breeding seasons, from fall through spring, showing a distinct breeding hiatus in the hot summer months, although some late-nesters may care for chicks during this period. The Magnificent Frigatebird has the most synchronous breeding, with a laying peak from late October to early December, when 70% of the population lay eggs. Four larids (Laughing Gull, Bridled Tern, Sooty Tern, and Brown Noddy) are summer residents vacating the island in August-September, and returning again in March-April. In general, they nest during the pelecaniform non-breeding season. The sea birds show a great range in nest site preference, with little overlap among them. Their diversity results from a combination of isolation, rugged cliffs, and the structural diversity of Monito Island. Although currently one of the outstanding sea bird colonies in the West Indies, Monito is threatened, and the colonies could be lost unless they are legally protected.

Kepler, C.B.

1978-01-01

264

Reconstructing the population history of Puerto Rico by means of mtDNA phylogeographic analysis.  

PubMed

The haplogroup identities of 800 mtDNAs randomly and systematically selected to be representative of the population of Puerto Rico were determined by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP), revealing maternal ancestries in this highly mixed population of 61.3% Amerindian, 27.2% sub-Saharan African, and 11.5% West Eurasian. West Eurasian frequencies were low in all 28 municipalities sampled, and displayed no geographic patterns. Thus, a statistically significant negative correlation was observed between the Amerindian and African frequencies of the municipalities. In addition, a statistically highly significant geographic pattern was observed for Amerindian and African mtDNAs. In a scenario in which Amerindian mtDNAs prevailed on either side of longitude 66 degrees 16' West, Amerindian mtDNAs were more frequent west of longitude 66 degrees 16' West than east of it, and the opposite was true for African mtDNAs. Haplogroup A had the highest frequency among Amerindian samples (52.4%), suggesting its predominance among the native Tanos. Principal component analysis showed that the sub-Saharan African fraction had a strong affinity to West Africans. In addition, the magnitudes of the Senegambian and Gulf of Guinea components in Puerto Rico were between those of Cape Verde and So Tom. Furthermore, the West Eurasian component did not conform to European haplogroup frequencies. HVR-I sequences of haplogroup U samples revealed a strong North African influence among West Eurasian mtDNAs and a new sub-Saharan African clade. PMID:15693025

Martnez-Cruzado, Juan C; Toro-Labrador, Gladys; Viera-Vera, Jorge; Rivera-Vega, Michelle Y; Startek, Jennifer; Latorre-Esteves, Magda; Romn-Coln, Alicia; Rivera-Torres, Rebecca; Navarro-Milln, Iris Y; Gmez-Snchez, Enid; Caro-Gonzlez, Hctor Y; Valencia-Rivera, Patricia

2005-09-01

265

Capacity Needs in Community-Based Organizations for Enhancing Translational Research in Puerto Rico  

PubMed Central

Background In an effort to form and sustain communityacademic partnerships (CAPs) to enhance clinical and translational research, an assessment of needs for selecting and implementing evidence-based programs (EBPs) was conducted among a group of community-based organizations (CBOs) throughout Puerto Rico. Methods The survey was based on an instrument developed by the Cancer Prevention and Control Research Network. It assessed specific service information, program selection/implementation processes, knowledge and perception of EBPs, funding venues, evaluation processes, and capacity and training needs. Recruitment consisted of contacting 100 nonprofit organizations in Puerto Rico that work or address specific health areas, namely, cancer, neurological disorders, HIV, and cardiovascular health. Results The survey revealed wide variability in understanding what constitutes an EBP. Training needs for building a productive translational research process also were identified. Prominent among these were securing funding for ongoing operations, utilizing data for decision making, developing collaborations, managing information, conducting community needs assessments, and program evaluation. Conclusions These findings point to important implications for promoting communitycampus partnerships for advancing clinical and translational research. PMID:24859102

Martinez, Giovanni; Sardinas, Lili M.; Acosta-Perez, Edna; Medina, Lizbeth; Rivera, Mirza; Pattatucci, Angela

2014-01-01

266

Incorporating urban infrastructure into biogeochemical assessment of urban tropical streams in Puerto Rico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urban development alters catchment hydrology and the subsequent delivery of solutes to streams and downstream ecosystems. The extent to which the impacts of urban development vary by biome is uncertain, and the impacts are poorly understood in tropical catchments. In a previous study (Helton et al. 2011), downstream changes in nitrogen (N) in the highly urbanized Rio Piedras catchment in Puerto Rico (42% urban land use) were found to be greater than predicted (23%) in a simple river network model that uses land use and in-stream N loss to predict spatial patterns in N fluxes. Here we evaluate the deviations of the biogeochemical patterns in this urban catchment through synoptic sampling of hydrology and water quality collected annually at approximately 40 sites over 8 years (2004 - 2011) coupled with spatial analysis of the urban infrastructure in the catchment. Results indicate that urbanization leads to an increase in most solute concentrations measured (DOC, DON, NH4, PO4), but not NO3. The lack of urban influence on NO3 is inconsistent with findings in other biomes, but consistent with previous studies in Puerto Rico. Conservative tracers (Cl and F) indicate that the source of the organic solutes increase is likely from sewage inputs. We suggest that stream nutrient cycling models that assume topographically driven flow accumulation need to be changed in urban catchments to include different delivery mechanisms such as sewer and water lines, especially in tropical regions where this infrastructure is often inadequate.

Potter, J.; McDowell, W. H.; Daley, M. L.; Helton, A. M.

2012-12-01

267

Population dynamics of Eleutherodactylus coqui in cordillera forest reserves of Puerto Rico  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Various aspects of population structure and dynamics of Eleutherodactylus coqui in two forest reserves (Maricao and Guilarte) of the central mountain range of Puerto Rico were determined between July 1997 and June 1998. Adult density ranged from 8-25 animals/100 m2 for the wet season and 3-19 animals/100 m2 for the dry season. Abundance of froglets and juveniles was also greater in the wet season compared to the dry season. By contrast, egg mass counts were greater in the dry season compared to the wet season. Adult body size increased from wet to dry season as population density declined and was found to differ significantly between forests. Adult E. coqui trapped at similar elevations were larger in Guilarte compared to those in Maricao. Average body size for Maricao and Guilarte populations were smaller than those reported for populations in eastern Puerto Rico. Comparing average snout-vent length among frogs from the Luquillo Mountains, Guilarte Forest, and Maricao Forest, a gradient of decreasing body size was observed from east to west across the island.

Fogarty, J. H.; Vilella, F. J.

2002-01-01

268

Progress in the development of a national noise action plan for the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This presentation describes the strategies taken for the development of a noise plan for Puerto Rico. One of the most important initiatives was the establishment of an interagency committee to work on the plan. This committee identified as first priorities the need of information from studies on environmental noise levels and data from noise attitude surveys. The Environmental Quality Board is currently investigating the levels of environmental noise in different locations in the city of San Juan. The preliminary results reinforce the need of actions to control emitters of community noise, like recreational sounds (radios, TV, night clubs) and noise from vehicles with modified mufflers and boom cars. Additionally, to achieve the implementation of the plan and the development of local noise research, we developed an interagency agreement to establish a common fund to support those projects. This year we celebrated the second annual Puerto Rico Noise Awareness Day. The activities included the second symposium on noise pollution, the first art posters contest on noise in our environment for elementary school kids, and the award ceremony, ``Amigos del Menos Ruido.'' All these activities were developed to promote public awareness of this important social and environmental issue.

Alicea-Pou, Jose; Navon-Rivera, Milagros

2005-09-01

269

Caracteristicas de los Estudiantes de Ciencias Agricolas y de Economia Domestica de la Universidad de Puerto Rico (Characteristics of the Agricultural Science and Home Economics Students of the University of Puerto Rico). Publicacion 135.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As part of a U.S. Department of Agriculture research project on young adults, a questionnaire was distributed in the fall of 1977 to all agriculture science and home economics students at the University of Puerto Rico in order to determine their personal and parental backgrounds; work, college, and high school experiences; life goals and attitudes

Lube, Edna Droz; Calero, Reinaldo

270

The Puerto Rico Trench,the deepest part of the Atlantic Ocean,is located where the North  

E-print Network

seismic and tsunami haz- ards to Puerto Rico and the U.S.Virgin Islands, where 4 million U to be the result of a magnitude 8 earthquake north of the islands [McCann et al.,2004].A tsunami killed 40 people Plate The trench wall north of the ea

ten Brink, Uri S.

271

Health disparities between the United States mainland and Puerto Rico, Guam, and the United States Virgin Islands (United States territories)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Health disparities have been documented for the United States mainland. No literature was found comparing the mainland population to that of Puerto Rico, Guam, and the United States Virgin Islands (United States territories). Using Healthy Lifestyle Characteristics of non-smoking, maintaining a healthy weight, consuming fruits\\/vegetables daily, and exercising regularly, the health of the mainland was compared to United States territories.

Dena Shugart

2010-01-01

272

Stable isotope techniques to investigate cloud water in forested mountain watersheds in the trade wind latitudes - Hawaii and Puerto Rico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fog and cloud water can contribute to stream flow, soil moisture, groundwater recharge and plant uptake in mountain watersheds in the trade wind latitudes. Results from three island sites, two in Hawaii and one in Puerto Rico, are discussed to evaluate the utility of isotopic methods in studies of fog and cloud water in watersheds. In forests that are immersed

M. A. Scholl; T. W. Giambelluca

2010-01-01

273

Comienza la construccin de instalacin patrocinada por el NCI en Puerto Rico para realizar estudios clnicos sobre el cncer  

Cancer.gov

El gobierno de Puerto Rico ha destinado $196 millones de dlares para construir un hospital oncolgico de 287 000 pies cuadrados en San Juan, que contar con 96 camas. El nuevo hospital es el primero en su clase en la regin caribea y en l se llevarn a cabo tratamientos para el cncer y estudios clnicos.

274

Lunar tides in noon electron density at fixed real heights in the ionosphere over Puerto Rico and Huancayo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lunar semi-monthly oscillations in the electron density at fixed real heights of the ionosphere at noon over Puerto Rico and Huancayo during the periods March 1959 to December 1961 and January 1960 to December 1961 respectively, have been computed. The amplitude of the tide, M2, for both the stations is found to increase monotonically with height during each of the

R. P. Sharma; R. G. Rastogi

1968-01-01

275

Puerto Rico Experimental Model Dental Auxiliary Training Program. The Comprehensive Report, October 22, 1976-February 24, 1980.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Dental Auxiliary Department of the University of Puerto Rico designed a career option dental auxiliary training program which is a step ladder program with three exit points over a period of two academic years. The first option is a six-month track to train a traditional chairside dental auxiliary. The second option is a nine-month track to

Puerto Rico Univ., San Juan. School of Dentistry.

276

Impact on diarrhoeal illness of a community educational intervention to improve drinking water quality in rural communities in Puerto Rico  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Waterborne disease is a major risk for small water supplies in rural settings. This study was done to assess the impact of an educational intervention designed to improve water quality and estimate the contribution of water to the incidence of diarrhoeal disease in poor rural communities in Puerto Rico a two-part study was undertaken. METHODS: An educational intervention was

Paul R Hunter; Graciela I Ramrez Toro; Harvey A Minnigh

2010-01-01

277

Nitrate isotopic composition between Bermuda and Puerto Rico: Implications for N2 fixation in the Atlantic Ocean  

E-print Network

in the Atlantic Ocean Angela N. Knapp,1,2 Peter J. DiFiore,1 Curtis Deutsch,3 Daniel M. Sigman,1 and Fredric between Bermuda and Puerto Rico: Implications for N2 fixation in the Atlantic Ocean, Global Biogeochem Atlantic Ocean, and the Sargasso Sea in particular [Dugdale et al., 1964; Carpenter and McCarthy, 1975

Sigman, Daniel M.

278

HIV-Testing Practices and a History of Substance Use among Women Living in Public Housing in Puerto Rico  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between HIV testing practices and history of substance use among a large sample of women living in public housing in Puerto Rico and the relationships among HIV testing and history of substance abuse. A total of 1138 women were surveyed between April and August 2006 using a self-administered survey instrument.

Lisa R. Norman; Jessy G. Dvieux; Rhonda Rosenberg; Robert M. Malow

2011-01-01

279

Nitrate isotopic composition between Bermuda and Puerto Rico: Implications for N2 fixation in the Atlantic Ocean  

Microsoft Academic Search

N and O isotope analyses of water column nitrate between Bermuda and Puerto Rico document a bolus of low-?15N nitrate throughout the Sargasso Sea thermocline, which we attribute primarily to the input of recently fixed N. Although previous work suggests southward increases in N2 fixation and ventilation age, no meridional trend in nitrate ?15N is apparent. In the upper 200

Angela N. Knapp; Peter J. DiFiore; Curtis Deutsch; Daniel M. Sigman; Fredric Lipschultz

2008-01-01

280

The Toa Baja Drilling Project, Puerto Rico: Scientific drilling into a non-volcanic island arc massif  

SciTech Connect

The Toa Baja Drilling Project was a broad, interdisciplinary experiment to document the in situ geology and geophysics of a non-volcanic island arc massif. This overview provides a brief summary of oil exploration on Puerto Rico that lead up to the present investigation, and summarizes some of the problems addressed by drilling.

Larue, D.K. (Univ. of Puerto Rico, Mayaguez (Puerto Rico))

1991-03-01

281

Modern Nutrient Limitation and Geologic Record of Organic Matter Sources in the Bioluminescent Bays of Vieques, Puerto Rico  

Microsoft Academic Search

The factors contributing to the success of the bioluminescent dinoflagellate, Pyrodinium bahamense var. bahamense in the bays of Vieques, Puerto Rico, are not fully understood, although the dinoflagellates success is closely tied to its environment and the nutrients within that environment. Exploring the present and past nutrient concentrations and sources of organic material within the bioluminescent bays of Vieques assists

Erin Algeo

2008-01-01

282

Spatial dependence and the relationship of soil organic carbon and soil moisture in the Luquillo Experimental Forest, Puerto Rico  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used geo-spatial statistical techniques to examine the spatial variation and relationship of soil organic carbon (SOC) and soil moisture (SM) in the Luquillo Experimental Forest (LEF), Puerto Rico, in order to test the hypothesis that mountainous terrain introduces spatial autocorrelation and crosscorrelation in ecosystem and soil properties. Soil samples (n = 100) were collected from the LEF in the

Hongqing Wang; Charles A. S. Hall; Joseph D. Cornell; Myrna H. P. Hall

2002-01-01

283

Stratigraphy, Structure, and Geologic and Coastal Hazards in the Peuelas to Salinas Area, Southern Puerto Rico: A Compendium of Published Literature  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Puerto Rico Electrical Power Authority has proposed construction of a pipeline to convey natural gas from the municipio of Pe?uelas to the Aguirre thermoelectric power plant in the municipio of Salinas in southern Puerto Rico. To ensure that the geologic conditions along the possible routes do not represent a threat to the physical integrity of the natural gas pipeline, and thus comply with State and Federal regulations, the Puerto Rico Electrical Power Authority requested the U.S. Geological Survey to provide a synthesis of published literature of the geology of the coastal plain in the Pe?uelas to Salinas area. The study area is located in part of the Southern Coastal Plain of Puerto Rico. In the area that extends from the municipio of Pe?uelas eastward to the Laguna de las Salinas at Ponce, a distance of about 5 miles, the study area is underlain by middle Tertiary carbonate units. Eastward from the Laguna de las Salinas to the pipeline terminus at the Aguirre power plant in Salinas, a distance of about 30 miles, the terrain is underlain by fan-delta deposits of Quaternary age. The carbonate units and the fan-delta deposits are underlain by early Tertiary and older-age volcaniclastics with subordinate sedimentary rocks and lavas. The Great Southern Puerto Rico Fault Zone is the principal geologic structural feature in southern Puerto Rico. At present, the Great Southern Puerto Rico Fault Zone is considered largely quiescent, although it apparently is associated with minor earthquakes. There is no evidence of terrestrial, late Quaternary faulting within the Pe?uelas to Salinas area. Seismic activity in this area mostly originates from extension zones of more distal shallow sources such as Mona Canyon to the northwest and the Anegada Trough northeast of the island of Puerto Rico. The magnitude of completeness of earthquakes in the study area ranges from 2.0 to 2.5. The seismic density for the southern coast including the study area is about 0.128 earthquakes per square mile, which is close to the average for southwestern Puerto Rico. The estimated maximum peak ground acceleration most likely to occur in the study area, due to shallow depth seismicity with 2 percent probability of exceedance in 50 years, is 9 feet per second squared, as obtained by modeling results. The estimated peak ground acceleration with 2 percent probability of exceedance in 50 years, due to deep seismicity is 7 feet per second squared. In Ponce, the probability of exceedance per year is higher than 0.1 for the peak ground acceleration values less than 1 that result from shallow depth seismicity sources such as the Mona Passage extension zone. The potential for liquefaction due to seismic activity may exist in areas near the coastline that have loosely to poorly consolidated sedimentary deposits and a water table close to or at the land surface. Slope failure susceptibility within the study area, due to rainfall and seismic activity, may be limited to the area that extends westward from Laguna de las Salinas to Pe?uelas. In this area, foothills with slopes exceeding 10 degrees are close to the coastline and are underlain by clayey limestone and marls. In the remaining part of the study area, eastward from Laguna de las Salinas to Salinas, the land is either nearly flat or has a slope of less than 10 degrees; consequently, the susceptibility to landsliding (slope failure) caused by seismic activity and rainfall is considered to be minimal or nonexistent. Based on modeling results from a previous study, the estimated maximum inland extent of tsunami-induced flooding is 2,600 feet in the Laguna de las Salinas and Boca Chica, located in Ponce and Juana Diaz, respectively. Flooding about 3,000 and 2,800 feet from the coastline are estimated for areas near Punta Cabullon and Jobos areas, respectively. According to the modeling results, the estimated maximum runup of the tsunami-induced flooding ranges from 9 to 14 feet for the Boca Chica and Pu

Rodrguez-Martnez, Jess

2007-01-01

284

Comparison of Storage Capacity and Sedimentation Trends of Lago Guayabal, Puerto Rico-December 2001 and October 2006  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Lago Guayabal dam is located on the Rio Jacaguas in the municipality of Villalba in southern Puerto Rico, about 4 kilometers north of the town of Juana Diaz and about 5 kilometers south of Villalba (fig. 1). The dam is owned and operated by the Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority (PREPA) and was constructed in 1913 for the irrigation of croplands in the southern coastal plains of Puerto Rico. The reservoir impounds the waters of the Rio Jacaguas and those of the Rio Toa Vaca, when the Toa Vaca dam overflows or releases water. The reservoir has a drainage area of 53.8 square kilometers. The dam is a concrete gravity structure with a normal pool (at top of flashboards) elevation of 103.94 meters above mean sea level (Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority, 1988). During October 2006, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Caribbean Water Science Center, in cooperation with the Puerto Rico Aqueduct and Sewer Authority (PRASA) conducted a bathymetric survey of Lago Guayabal to update the reservoir storage capacity and actualize the reservoir sedimentation rate by comparing the 2006 data with the previous 2001 bathymetric survey results. The purpose of this report is to describe and document the USGS sedimentation survey conducted at Lago Guayabal during October 2006, including the methods used to update the reservoir storage capacity, sedimentation rates, and areas of substantial sediment accumulation since December 2001. The Lago Guayabal sedimentation history up to 2001 was published by the USGS in 2003 (Soler-Lopez, 2003); therefore, this report focuses on the comparison between the 2001 and current bathymetric surveys of Lago Guayabal.

Soler-Lopez, Luis R.

2008-01-01

285

Characterizing Manatee habitat use and seagrass grazing in Florida and Puerto Rico: Implications for conservation and management  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Indian River Lagoon on the Atlantic coast of Florida, USA, and the east coast of Puerto Rico provide contrasting environments in which the endangered West Indian Manatee Trichechus manatus experiences different thermal regimes and seagrass communities. We compare Manatee feeding behaviour in these two regions, examine the ecological effects of Manatee grazing on a seagrass community in the Indian River Lagoon, describe the utility of aerial surveys, radio tracking, and seagrass mapping to study Manatee feeding patterns, and develop hypotheses on sirenian feeding strategies in temperate and tropical seagrass communities. In both the Indian River Lagoon and Puerto Rico, Manatees were typically observed grazing in water depths = 2.0 m and more frequently on the most abundant seagrasses present in the community: Halodule wrightii in the Indian River Lagoon and Thalassia testudinum in eastern Puerto Rico. Where both H. wrightii and Syringodium filiforme were consumed in the Indian River Lagoon, Manatees tended to remove more S. filiforme than H. wrightii rhizome + root biomass. Even though 80 to 95% of the short-shoot biomass and 50 to 67% of the rhizome + root biomass were removed, grazed patches of H. wrightii and S. filiforme recovered significantly between February and August. H. wrightii may be both more resistant and resilient than S. filiforme to the impacts of Manatee grazing. Despite the significantly greater abundance of T. testudinum in Puerto Rico, Manatees exhibited selective feeding by returning to specific sites with abundant H. wrightii. They also appeared to feed selectively on T. testudinum shoots associated with clumps of the calcareous alga Halimeda opuntia. We hypothesize that Florida Manatees are less specialized seagrass grazers than Manatees in tropical regions like Puerto Rico. Continued research on Manatee grazing ecology in temperate to tropical seagrass communities will enable better protection and management of these vital and unique marine resources.

Lefebvre, L.W.; Reid, J.P.; Kenworthy, W.J.; Powell, J.A.

2000-01-01

286

Characterizing Manatee habitat use and seagrass grazing in Florida and Puerto Rico: Implications for conservation and management  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Indian River Lagoon on the Atlantic coast of Florida, USA, and the east coast of Puerto Rico provide contrasting environments in which the endangered West Indian Manatee Trichechus manatus experiences different thermal regimes and seagrass communities. We compare Manatee feeding behaviour in these two regions, examine the ecological effects of Manatee grazing on a seagrass community in the Indian River Lagoon, describe the utility of aerial surveys, radio tracking, and seagrass mapping to study Manatee feeding patterns, and develop hypotheses on sirenian feeding strategies in temperature and tropical seagrass communities. In both the Indian River Lagoon and Puerto Rico, Manatees were typically observed grazing in water depths = 2.0 m and more frequently on the most abundant seagrasses present in the community: Halodule wrightii in the Indian River Lagoon and Thalassia testudinum in eastern Puerto Rico. Where both H. wrightii and Syringodium filiforme were consumed in the Indian River Lagoon, Manatees tended to remove more S. filiforme than H. wrightii rhizome + root biomass. Even though 80 to 95% of the short-shoot biomass and 50 to 67% of the rhizome + root biomass were removed, grazed patches of H. wrightii and S. filiforme recovered significantly between February and August. H. wrightii may be both more resistant and resilient than S. filiforme to the impacts of Manatee grazing. Despite the significantly greater abundance of T. testudinum in Puerto Rico, Manatees exhibited selective feeding by returning to specific sites with abundant H. wrightii. They also appeared to feed selectively on T. testudinum shoots associated with clumps of the calcareous alga Halimeda opuntia. We hypothesize that Florida Manatees are less specialized seagrass grazers than Manatees in tropical regions like Puerto Rico. Continued research on Manatee grazing ecology in temperate to tropical seagrass communities will enable better protection and management of these vital and unique marine resources.

Lefebvre, L.W.; Reid, J.P.; Kenworthy, W.J.; Powell, J.A.

1999-01-01

287

Gap model development, validation, and application to succession of secondary subtropical dry forests of Puerto Rico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Because of human pressures, the need to understand and predict the long-term dynamics and development of subtropical dry forests is urgent. Through modifications to the ZELIG simulation model, including the development of species- and site-specific parameters and internal modifications to the model, the capability to model and predict forest change within the 4500-ha Guanica State Forest in Puerto Rico can now be accomplished. Published datasets and additional data from the U.S. Forest Service Forest Inventory Analysis were used to parameterize the new gap model, ZELIG-TROP. We used data from a 1.44-ha permanent plot located inside the Guanica State Forest in Puerto Rico to test the model. Our first objective was to accurately re-create the observed forest succession for a Puerto Rican subtropical dry forest using ZELIG-TROP. For this objective, the model testing was successful. Simulated total basal area, species composition, total stem density, and biomass all closely resembled the observed Puerto Rican forest. Leaf area index was the variable predicted least accurately. Our second objective was to test the capability of ZELIG-TROP to predict successional patterns of secondary forests across a gradient of abandoned fields currently being reclaimed as forests. Abandoned fields that are on degraded lands do recover and have the potential to reach a mature forest status, but there is a delayed time period of lag time of 50-100 years. The forest recovery trends matched predictions published in other studies; attributes involving early resource acquisition (canopy height, canopy coverage, density) were the fastest to recover, but attributes used for structural development (biomass, basal area) were relatively slow in recovery. Recovery of abandoned fields, especially degraded systems, may take longer time periods, as simulated here. Biomass and basal area, two attributes that tend to increase during later successional stages in some studies, are significantly lower throughout 200 years of simulation than in a mature forest, suggesting that the time scale of resilience in subtropical dry forests needs to be partially redefined.

Holm, J. A.; Shugart, H. H.; Van Bloem, S.; Larocque, G. R.

2011-12-01

288

Organic and metal contamination in marine surface sediments of Gunica Bay, Puerto Rico.  

PubMed

Land based sources of pollution have the potential to adversely impact valuable coral reef ecosystems. In Gunica Bay (Puerto Rico) sediment samples collected and analyzed in 2009 demonstrate unusually high concentrations of total chlordane, total PCBs, nickel and chromium. A variety of other contaminants (total DDT, total PAHs, As, Cu, Hg, and Zn) were also at levels which may indicate sediment toxicity. With the exception of chromium, all of these contaminants were detected in coral tissues (Porites astreoides), although it is unclear at what level these contaminants affect coral health. PCBs and chlordane are environmentally persistent and likely represent legacy pollution from historical uses in close geographic proximity to the Bay. We hypothesize that the high nickel and chromium levels are due to a combination of naturally high Ni and Cr in rock and soils in the watershed, and enhanced (human driven) erosional rates. PMID:24447634

Whitall, David; Mason, Andrew; Pait, Anthony; Brune, Lia; Fulton, Michael; Wirth, Ed; Vandiver, Lisa

2014-03-15

289

[EMTALA: what it is, its origins, and how it functions in Puerto Rico].  

PubMed

EMTALA (Emergency Medical Treatment and Active Labor Act) is a law born during the mid-eighties as an anti-discrimination law. Initially, its intention was to protect the uninsured population from being denied medical care due to inability to pay medical bills. Presently, EMTALA helps assure that patients get a screening evaluation about their medical condition, that they are stabilized or transferred to an appropriate medical facility, and that hospitals are obliged to accept patient's in transfer if they offer the medical services needed and have the capacity to manage the patient's condition. EMTALA is a Federal Law that has been interpreted and adapted for its use in Puerto Rico. It is the intention of this article to describe the events that led to the Law's creation, explains how it is applied in our hospitals, and describes the implications of EMTALA in our daily practice. PMID:20120981

Mercado-Alvarado, Joanna; Oliveras Garca, Carene

2009-01-01

290

Reef structure drives parrotfish species composition on shelf edge reefs in La Parguera, Puerto Rico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Shelf edge reefs that exist in coral reef ecosystems provide essential habitats for a large variety of fish and other marine organisms. Marine herbivores act as differential algal grazers that advocate coral reef colonization. In the Caribbean basin parrotfishes make up a large contingency of such herbivores and act as important ecological ichthyofauna. By investigating parrotfish relationship with habitat, this study aims to aid in future predictive mapping techniques that will outline parrotfish distributions via benthic quantification. Parrotfish communities were evaluated on the shelf edge reef off of La Parguera, Puerto Rico. Parrotfish abundances were found to positively correlate with high values of overall reef structure. High values of coral cover and of rugosity were strong indicators of most parrotfish species. The lone exception, Scarus taeniopterus, negatively correlated with these factors and positively correlated with algal cover. Indications exist that Scarus taeniopterus and Scarus iseri are sympatric species and can be found in abundance at opposite locations.

Tzadik, Orian E.; Appeldoorn, Richard S.

2013-02-01

291

[Projections for the prevalence of psychiatric disorders. Puerto Rico, year 2000].  

PubMed

Projections for the prevalence of psychiatric disorders were calculated for the estimated population between 17 and 64 years of age in Puerto Rico for the year 2000. These projections were based on the results of an epidemiologic research study conducted in 1984 using a community based sample and the population estimate for the year 2000. The psychiatric disorders included affective and anxiety disorders, somatization, schizophrenic disorders, and alcohol abuse and/or dependence. The prevalence of each of these disorders will increase by the year 2000. The prevalence of affective and anxiety disorders, in particular, will have a relative increase of 5%. The simultaneous increase in the prevalence of psychiatric disorders and the increase in the population will have the combined effect of increasing the number of expected psychiatric cases by 25%. PMID:2087553

Avils, L A; Canino, G; Rubio-Stipec, M

1990-12-01

292

Analysis of The Surface Radiative Budget Using ATLAS Data for San Juan, Puerto Rico  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The additional beating of the air over the city is the result of the replacement of naturally vegetated surfaces with those composed of asphalt, concrete, rooftops and other man-made materials. The temperatures of these artificial surfaces can be 20 to 40 C higher than vegetated surfaces. This produces a dome of elevated air temperatures 5 to 8 C greater over the city, compared to the air temperatures over adjacent rural areas. Urban landscapes are a complex mixture of vegetated and nonvegetated surfaces. It is difficult to take enough temperature measurements over a large city area to characterize the complexity of urban radiant surface temperature variability. The NASA Airborne Thermal and Land Applications Sensor (ATLAS) operates in the visual and IR bands was used in February 2004 to collect data from San Juan, Puerto Rico with the main objective of investigating the Urban Heat Island (UHI) in tropical cities.

Luvall, Jeffrey C.; Rickman, D. L.; Gonzalez, J.; Comarazamy, Daniel; Picon, Ana

2007-01-01

293

Atrazine fate and transport within the coastal zone in southeastern Puerto Rico.  

PubMed

Agrichemical transport to coastal waters may have adverse ecological impact. This work examined atrazine fate and transport in a field adjacent to Puerto Rico's Jobos Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve. The herbicide's use was linked to residue detection in shallow groundwater and movement toward the estuary; however, data indicated that transport via this pathway was small. In contrast, surface runoff as tropical storm systems moved through the area appeared to have high potential for atrazine transport. In this case, transport to the estuary was limited by runoff event timing relative to atrazine application and very rapid atrazine dissipation (DT(50)=1-3 days) in field soil. Soil incubation studies showed that accelerated degradation conditions had developed in the field due to repeated atrazine treatment. To improve weed management, atrazine replacement with other herbicide(s) is recommended. Use of products that have greater soil persistence may increase runoff risk. PMID:23321597

Potter, Thomas L; Bosch, David D; Dieppa, Angel; Whitall, David R; Strickland, Timothy C

2013-02-15

294

Halogeometricum borinquense gen. nov., sp. nov., a novel halophilic archaeon from Puerto Rico.  

PubMed

A novel extremely halophilic archaeon was isolated from the solar salterns of Cabo Rojo, Puerto Rico. The organism is very pleomorphic, motile and requires at least 8% (w/v) NaCl to grow. Polar lipid composition revealed the presence of a novel non-sulfate-containing glycolipid and the absence of the glycerol diether analogue of phosphatidylglycerosulfate. The G + C content of the DNA is 59 mol%. On the basis of 16S rRNA sequence data, the new isolate cannot be classified in one of the recognized genera, but occupies a position that is distantly related to the genus Haloferax. All these features justify the creation of a new genus and a new species for the family Halobacteriaceae, order Halobacteriales. The name Halogeometricum borinquense gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is ATCC 700274T. PMID:9828431

Montalvo-Rodrguez, R; Vreeland, R H; Oren, A; Kessel, M; Betancourt, C; Lpez-Garriga, J

1998-10-01

295

Endurance, Refuge, and Reemergence of Dengue Virus Type 2, Puerto Rico, 1986-2007  

PubMed Central

To study the evolution of dengue virus (DENV) serotype 2 in Puerto Rico, we examined the genetic composition and diversity of 160 DENV-2 genomes obtained through 22 consecutive years of sampling. A clade replacement took place in 19941997 during a period of high incidence of autochthonous DENV-2 and frequent, short-lived reintroductions of foreign DENV-2. This unique clade replacement was complete just before DENV-3 emerged. By temporally and geographically defining DENV-2 lineages, we describe a refuge of this virus through 4 years of low genome diversity. Our analyses may explain the long-term endurance of DENV-2 despite great epidemiologic changes in disease incidence and serotype distribution. PMID:21192856

McElroy, Kate L.; Santiago, Gilberto A.; Lennon, Niall J.; Birren, Bruce W.; Henn, Matthew R.

2011-01-01

296

Fishes associated with mesophotic coral ecosystems in La Parguera, Puerto Rico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fishes associated with mesophotic coral ecosystems (MCEs) of the La Parguera shelf-edge were surveyed between 2007 and 2011 using mixed-gas rebreather diving. Fishes were identified and counted within belt transects and roving surveys at 30, 40, 50, 60 and 70 m depth. Vertical transects from 70 to 30 m depth helped determine depth distribution ranges. One hundred and three species were identified at MCEs (40-70 m), with high abundances and species richness, though both varied greatly among transects. Most species at MCEs were common inhabitants of shallow reefs, but some were restricted to mesophotic depths. An additional 15 species were added to those previously classified as indicator species of mesophotic areas in Puerto Rico. The MCE fish assemblage was distinct from shallow areas (30 m), with taxonomic composition, abundance and the proportion of trophic guilds varying with increasing depth. The dominant trophic guild within MCEs was the zooplanktivores, while herbivores dominated shallow reefs. Both herbivores and zooplanktivores responded strongly, and oppositely, to depth. The few herbivores associated with deep MCEs are small-bodied species. The largest changes within the mesophotic fish community along the depth gradient occurred at 60 m, similar to that reported for algae and corals, and seem to represent both a response to reduced light and variations in herbivory. The presence of commercially important fishes at MCEs, many considered to be threatened by fishing pressure in shallow areas, suggests that MCEs are important for the conservation of these species. This study represents the first quantitative in situ observations and descriptions of fishes inhabiting MCEs at depths of 50-70 m in Puerto Rico and highlights the role of MCEs as valuable habitats for reef fishes. The composition and distribution of the MCEs fish community should be incorporated when planning for the spatial management of coral reef resources.

Bejarano, I.; Appeldoorn, R. S.; Nemeth, M.

2014-06-01

297

Viabilidad de la independencia de la red en areas residenciales de Puerto Rico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The energy situation is one of the most talked about and controversial problems worldwide. The heavy reliance on fossil fuels and all the implications that they bring in our social, political, economic and environmental stability are issues that should be treated with responsibility and sensitivity. Unfortunately, Puerto Rico relies almost 99% of fossil fuels, which directly or indirectly affects various sectors of our society and of our natural environment. Ideally, appropriate steps should be considered to achieve a real change in our energy public policy in order to promote and encourage the use of renewable energy sources as part of sustainable development for the island. In this work, the technical, economic and social aspects are studied and analyzed to determine how feasible may be some of the decisions already taken and the ones to be made regarding our energy situation. Casa Pueblo is the model used to demonstrate that the determined will of a self-managed community group in the town of Adjuntas has been instrumental in the energy transition, along with the educational collaboration of the Mayaguez Campus of the University of Puerto Rico. An assessment of the situation of the energy public policy regarding our power system has been performed from an ethical and moral perspective to determine how sustainable it has been and how sustainable is the projected long term future. In these times where most issues like climate change and sustainable development predominate, it is essential that the vision of engineers be one that highlights and takes responsibility with moral and ethical values when evaluating for decision making. Ethics theory concepts have been integrated to provide a framework that represents a basis of excellence in the profession of engineering.

Zamot Ayala, Hector Rene

298

Slope failures and timing of turbidity flows north of Puerto Rico  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The submerged carbonate platform north of Puerto Rico terminates in a high (3,0004,000 m) and in places steep (>45) slope characterized by numerous landslide scarps including two 3050 km-wide amphitheater-shaped features. The origin of the steep platform edge and the amphitheaters has been attributed to: (1) catastrophic failure, or (2) localized failures and progressive erosion. Determining which of the two mechanisms has shaped the platform edge is critically important in understanding landslide-generated tsunami hazards in the region. Multibeam bathymetry, seismic reflection profiles, and a suite sediment cores from the Puerto Rico Trench and the slope between the trench and the platform edge were used to test these two hypotheses. Deposits within trench axis and at the base of the slope are predominantly composed of sandy carbonate turbidites and pelagic sediment with inter-fingering of chaotic debris units. Regionally-correlated turbidites within the upper 10 m of the trench sediments were dated between ?25 and 22 kyrs and ?1819 kyrs for the penultimate and most recent events, respectively. Deposits on the slope are laterally discontinuous and vary from thin layers of fragmented carbonate platform material to thick pelagic layers. Large debris blocks or lobes are absent within the near-surface deposits at the trench axis and the base of slope basins. Progressive small-scale scalloping and self-erosion of the carbonate platform and underlying stratigraphy appears to be the most likely mechanism for recent development of the amphitheaters. These smaller scale failures may lead to the generation of tsunamis with local, rather than regional, impact.

ten Brink, Uri S.; Chaytor, Jason D.

2014-01-01

299

Prevalence of overweight and obesity and their cardiometabolic comorbidities in Hispanic adults living in Puerto Rico  

PubMed Central

This study characterized the prevalence of overweight and obesity and assessed their cardiometabolic comorbidities in the population aged 2179 years living in the San Juan Metropolitan Area of Puerto Rico. We analyzed data from a household survey conducted in Puerto Rico between 2005 and 2007 that used a representative sample of 840 non-institutionalized adults living in the San Juan Metropolitan Area. Body mass index categories were classified as normal weight, overweight and obese. Poisson regression model with robust variance was used to estimate the prevalence ratio to assess the association of each cardiometabolic comorbidity (hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes, prediabetes, systemic inflammation, prothrombotic state, and coronary heart disease) with overweight and obesity. Age-standardized prevalence of overweight and obesity was 35.9% and 41.5%, respectively, figures higher than the combined prevalence for the U.S. adult population (68.8%) but similar to all mainland Hispanics (78.8%). Men were more likely to be overweight than women (40.4% versus 33.4%), whereas more women than men were obese (43.7% versus 37.6%). Prevalence of all cardiometabolic comorbidities was significantly (p<0.05) higher among overweight and obese adults than those of normal weight after adjusting for age, sex, years of education, smoking status, alcohol consumption and physical activity. A considerable proportion of adults in this population are overweight or obese. In view of the wide-ranging effects that overweight and obesity have on health, preventive actions to avert the rise of excess body weight as well as the design of lifestyle interventions are largely needed in this population. PMID:23846388

Prez, Cynthia M.; Snchez, Hesmy; Ortiz, Ana P.

2013-01-01

300

Symptoms and Quality of Life for People Living with HIV Infection in Puerto Rico  

PubMed Central

Background People living with HIV infection are confronted with physical and psychological symptoms that impact their quality of life. This study explored the symptom experience of people living with HIV infection in Puerto Rico and its correlation with quality of life. Methods A cross-sectional descriptive design was used to survey 44 men, women, and transgender people living with HIV infection. Measures included a demographic questionnaire, sign and symptom checklist, and a quality of life instrument. Results The sample was 50% male with a mean age of 42.1 years; the participants had been living with HIV infection on average for 9.8 years. The top five symptoms reported by the sample included: muscle aches (81.8%), depression (77.2%), weakness (70.5%), fear/worries (70.5), and difficulty with concentration (65.9%). Symptom frequency was significantly related to four dimensions of quality of life: overall function (r=?0.58), life satisfaction (r=?0.59), health worries (r=0.32) and HIV medication worries (r=0.59). The symptom experience was not related to financial worries, disclosure worries, or sexual functioning. Individuals who reported taking HIV medications reported significantly fewer symptoms than those not taking HIV medications (t=3.061, df=42, p<0.01). Conclusions These results suggest that people living with HIV infection in Puerto Rico experience a wide array of physical and psychological symptoms and that these symptoms have a correlation with their perceived quality of life. Better management of symptoms may have an impact on perceived quality of life for people living with HIV infection. PMID:19266741

Rivero-Mendez, Marta; Portillo, Carmen; Solis-Baez, Solymar S.; Wantland, Dean; Holzemer, William L.

2009-01-01

301

Discovering The Universe From The Caribbean: Puerto Rico Prepares For The IYA2009.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A committee has been established at the University of Puerto Rico to organize the local IYA2009 activities in the island and coordinate the international global activities. We are coordinating efforts with the members of the PR-NASA Space Grant Consortium, local government agencies, and non-profit organizations interested in education. We plan to have events throughout the island taking care to facilitate the participation of families and youth from economically disadvantaged communities. We wish that all the activities in 2009 emphasize the value of personal effort in reaching your goals, the importance of mathematics in modern life and the development of scientific awareness. Aligned with the IYA2009 major goals and considering the particular needs of our community, we have selected 8 core activities for Puerto Rico. This poster describes how we will celebrate. The inauguration event will be at the UPR with an invited guest speaker. During the year we will have a conference cycle throughout the island. A prototype insert is presented that will serve as model for a collectible Astronomy series to be published each month in the newspaper. We are planning to commemorate the 40th anniversary of the first human on the Moon with an astronaut as a special guest. An Astronomy fair centered on the exhibit "From Earth to the Universe is being organized. During the year we will have a theatrical performance "La Vida en Marte y Otras Crueles Realidades by Roberto Ramos-Perea and a musical performance of Gustav Holst's "The Planets with the presentation of astronomical videos by Dr. Salgado from Adler Planetarium. Star parties will be held at different strategic locations. A group of volunteer undergraduate students ("Starry Messengers") will assist in these activities. The details of these events may be found at http://www.astronomypr.org .

Lebron Santos, Mayra E.; Pantoja, C. A.; Alonso, J. L.; Altschuler, D. R.; Olmi, L.

2008-05-01

302

Fishing a superfund site: Dissonance and risk perception of environmental hazards by fishermen in Puerto Rico  

SciTech Connect

Risk perception studies show that individuals tend to underestimate significant risks, overestimate negligible ones, and distrust authorities. They also rely on a variety of strategies or heuristics to reach decisions regarding their risk-taking behavior. The authors report on a survey of fishermen and crabbers engaged in recreational and substance fishing in a Puerto Rican estuary (near Humacao), which has been declared a Superfund site because of suspected contamination by mercury, and at ecologically similar control sites. Nearly everyone interviewed at the Humacao site was aware of the mercury contamination, but either denied its importance, believed the contamination was restricted to a distant part of the estuary, or assumed that the estuary would be closed by the authorities if the threat was real. All site-users consumed the fish and crabs they caught. At Humacao, the average catch was 7 fish per fishermen (mostly tilapia, Tilapia mossambica, and tarpon, Megalops atlantica) and 13 crabs per crabber (all blue crabs, Callinectes sapidus). On average, the site-users returned to the lagoons about 3-4 times per month. At control sites, fewer fish were eaten. The worst case consumption of tarpon, a species which concentrated mercury at Eastern Puerto Rico, provided an exposure exceeding the EPA reference dose, whereas consumption of one tarpon per week did not entail excess exposure. Fortunately, few individuals caught tarpon exclusively. Unlike counterparts in the northeastern United States, they trusted authorities and indicated that they would have heeded warnings of mercury contamination posted where they fished.

Burger, J.; Gochfeld, M. (Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (USA))

1991-06-01

303

Evaluation of ultramafic deposits in the Eastern United States and Puerto Rico as sources of magnesium for carbon dioxide sequestration  

SciTech Connect

In this report, the authors evaluate the resource potential of extractable magnesium from ultramafic bodies located in Vermont, the Pennsylvania-Maryland-District-of-Columbia (PA-MD-DC) region, western North Carolina, and southwestern Puerto Rico. The first three regions occur in the Appalachian Mountains and contain the most attractive deposits in the eastern United States. They were formed during prograde metamorphism of serpentinized peridotite fragments originating from an ophiolite protolith. The ultramafic rocks consist of variably serpentinized dunite, harzburgite, and minor iherzolite generally containing antigorite and/or lizardite as the major serpentine minor phases. Chrysotile contents vary from minor to major, depending on occurrence. Most bodies contain an outer sheath of chlorite-talc-tremolite rock. Larger deposits in Vermont and most deposits in North Carolina contain a core of dunite. Magnesite and other carbonates are common accessories. In these deposits, MgO ranges from 36 to 48 wt % with relatively pure dunite having the highest MgO and lowest H{sub 2}O contents. Ultramafic deposits in southwestern Puerto Rico consist of serpentinized dunite and harzburgite thought to be emplaced as large diapirs or as fragments in tectonic melanges. They consist of nearly pure, low-grade serpentinite in which lizardite and chrysotile are the primary serpentine minerals. Chlorite is ubiquitous in trace amounts. Magnesite is a common accessory. Contents of MgO and H{sub 2}O are rather uniform at roughly 36 and 13 wt %. Dissolution experiments show that all serpentinites and dunite-rich rocks are soluble in 1:1 mixtures of 35% HCl and water by volume. The experiments suggest that low-grade serpentinites from Puerto Rico are slightly more reactive than the higher grade, antigorite-bearing serpentinites of the Appalachian Mountains. The experiments also show that the low-grade serpentinites and relatively pure dunites contain the least amounts of undesirable insoluble silicates. Individual ultramafic bodies in the Appalachian Mountains are as great as 7 km{sup 3} although typically they are {le}1 km{sup 3}. In contrast, ultramafic deposits in southwestern Puerto Rico have an estimated volume of roughly 150 km{sup 3}. Based on the few detailed geophysical studies in North Carolina and Puerto Rico, it is evident that volume estimates of any ultramafic deposit would benefit greatly from gravity and magnetic investigations, and from corehole drilling. Nevertheless, the data show that the ultramafic deposits of the eastern United States and southwestern Puerto Rico could potentially sequester many years of annual CO{sub 2} emissions if favorable geotechnical, engineering, and environmental conditions prevail.

Fraser Goff; George Guthrie; Bruce Lipin; Melissa Fite; Steve Chipera; Dale Counce; Emily Kluk; Hans Ziock

2000-04-01

304

Shade-grown coffee in Puerto Rico: Opportunities to preserve biodiversity while reinvigorating a struggling agricultural commodity  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Shade-grown coffee contributes to biodiversity conservation and has many ecological benefits. We reviewed historical trends in coffee production and interviewed 100 coffee growers in 1999 to determine current management practices and attitudes toward the cultivation of sun and shade coffee in Puerto Rico. We discuss the outlook for the coffee industry in the 21st century and implications for biodiversity conservation, hoping lessons from Puerto Rico will apply to the international coffee industry. Throughout the 20th century, government intervention, including subsidies and technical assistance, supported coffee farming in Puerto Rico. In an effort to modernize coffee production and increase yields, the conversion from shade to sun coffee plantations was encouraged. Despite government support, the amount of land devoted to this once dominant agricultural commodity declined markedly between 1982 and 2007 (84%), due to labor shortages, low income, and catastrophic hurricanes. We found that a return to shaded plantations would be embraced by most farmers. Growers of shaded coffee were generally happier with their cultivation practices (89.3% satisfied) than growers of sun coffee (60.9% satisfied), valued biodiversity, and were willing to cultivate coffee under shade if given similar incentives to those received for farming sun coffee. The future of the coffee industry in Puerto Rico may depend on government programs that capitalize upon emerging markets for sustainably produced, shade-grown coffee. We conclude that where governments have close ties to the coffee industry, they should strive to wed economic development with the conservation of biodiversity and associated ecological services by providing support and incentives for the production of shade coffee. ?? 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Borkhataria, R.; Collazo, J.A.; Groom, M.J.; Jordan-Garcia, A.

2012-01-01

305

Erosin de suelo y mapa de riesgo para la cuenca del Ro Grande de Aasco, Puerto Rico  

E-print Network

Erosión de suelo y mapa de riesgo para la cuenca del Río Grande de Añasco, Puerto Rico Ángel A hidrográficas. La erosión del suelo es un aspecto que requiere de capital y tiempo para su evaluación. Una serie de modelos paramétricos se han desarrollado para predecir la erosión de los suelos en las cuencas

Gilbes, Fernando

306

USING DISABILITY-ADJUSTED LIFE YEARS TO ASSESS THE ECONOMIC IMPACT OF DENGUE IN PUERTO RICO: 1984-1994  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study presents the disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), a non-monetary economic measure of impact, lost to dengue in Puerto Rico for the period 1984-1994. Data on the number of reported cases, cases with hemorrhagic manifestations, hospitalizations, and deaths were obtained from a surveillance system maintained at the Dengue Branch, Division of Vector-Borne Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

MARTIN I. MELTZER; GARY G. CLARK; PAUL REITER; DUANE J. GUBLER

1998-01-01

307

Incidence and mortality rates of selected infection-related cancers in Puerto Rico and in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: In 2002, 17.8% of the global cancer burden was attributable to infections. This study assessed the age-standardized incidence and mortality rates of stomach, liver, and cervical cancer in Puerto Rico (PR) for the period 1992-2003 and compared them to those of Hispanics (USH), non-Hispanic Whites (NHW), and non-Hispanic Blacks (NHB) in the United States (US). METHODS: Age-standardized rates [ASR(World)

Ana P Ortiz; Marievelisse Soto-Salgado; William A Calo; Guillermo Tortolero-Luna; Cynthia M Prez; Carlos J Romero; Javier Prez; Nayda Figueroa-Valls; Erick Surez

2010-01-01

308

Moment Tensor Inversion of the Mw 5.8 May 16 2010 Deep Earthquake in Puerto Rico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Daily seismicity on the Puerto Rico/Virgin Islands (PR/VI) Region is characterized by shallow micro and minor events in response to the interaction of the Caribbean and North American Plates. This complex and active plate boundary has been responsible for the generation of historical shallow tsunamigenic events (e.g. 1867, 1918, and 1946) that caused extensive damage and loss of life in the Northeastern Caribbean. However, in 2010, three deep (>90 km) moderate earthquakes (Mw>5.4) occurred in this region and were reported as felt moderately strongly by local residents. The largest of these, a M5.8 event, which occurred on May 16, 2010, caused slight damage to reinforced concrete structures. We calculate the complete moment tensor solution for this earthquake using the moment tensor inversion method of Dreger, and compute additional source parameters (stress drop, apparent stress, rise time) from broadband waveform modeling. The 1D Puerto Rico seismic velocity model used for automatic, real-time and reviewed locations by the Puerto Rico Seismic Network is used successfully to generate Green's functions for stations located within the PR/VI. Preliminary results suggest a normal mechanism with a strike slip component. Accurate moment tensor solutions using regional seismic data for these earthquakes will improve our understanding of the deformation of the subducting slab: from possible tearing of the slab to intra-slab shearing.

Soto-Cordero, L.; Convers, J. A.; Dreger, D. S.; Allstadt, K.

2011-12-01

309

Effects of type of health insurance coverage on colorectal cancer survival in Puerto Rico: a population-based study.  

PubMed

Colorectal cancer represents a major health problem and an important economic burden in Puerto Rico. In the 1990's, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico implemented a health care reform through the privatization of the public health system. The goal was to ensure access to health services, eliminate disparities for medically indigent citizens and provide special coverage for high-risk conditions such as cancer. This study estimates the 5-year relative survival rate of colorectal cancer and the relative excess risk of death in Puerto Rico for 2004-2005, by type of health insurance coverage; Government Health Plan vs. Non-Government Health Plan. Colorectal cancer in advanced stages was more common in Government Health Plan patients compared with Non-Government Health Plan patients (44.29% vs. 40.24 had regional extent and 13.58% versus 10.42% had distant involvement, respectively). Government Health Plan patients in the 50-64 (RR?=?6.59; CI: 2.85-15.24) and ?65 (RR?=?2.4; CI: 1.72-4.04) age-groups had the greater excess risk of death compared with Non-Government Health Plan patients. Further studies evaluating the interplay of access to health services and the barriers affecting the Government Health Plan population are warranted. PMID:24796444

Ortiz-Ortiz, Karen J; Ramrez-Garca, Roberto; Cruz-Correa, Marcia; Ros-Gonzlez, Moraima Y; Ortiz, Ana Patricia

2014-01-01

310

Cross-cultural adaptation of the Disability of Arm, Shoulder, and Hand questionnaire: Spanish for Puerto Rico Version  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to perform a cross-cultural adaptation of the Disability of Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (DASH) questionnaire to Spanish for Puerto Rico. Five steps were followed for the cross-cultural adaptation: forward translations into Spanish for Puerto Rico, synthesis of the translations, back translations into English, revision by an expert committee, and field test of the prefinal version. Psychometric characteristics of reliability and construct validity were evaluated for the final version. Internal consistency of the final version was high (Cronbach's ? = 0.97) and item-to-total correlations were moderate (range from 0.44 to 0.85). Construct validity was evaluated by correlating the DASH with the scales of the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy - Breast. Fair to moderate correlations found in this study between the DASH and most scales of the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy - Breast support the construct validity of the Puerto Rico-Spanish DASH. The final version of the questionnaire was revised and approved by the Institute for Work and Health of Canada. Revisions to the original DASH English version are recommended. This version of the DASH is valid and reliable, and it can be used to evaluate outcomes in both clinical and research settings. PMID:19901616

Mulero-Portela, Ana L.; Coln-Santaella, Carmen L.; Cruz-Gomez, Cynthia

2010-01-01

311

Analysis of 20th century rainfall and streamflow to characterize drought and water resources in Puerto Rico  

USGS Publications Warehouse

During the period from 1990 to 1997, annual rainfall accumulation averaged 87% of normal at the 12 stations with the longest period of record in Puerto Rico, a Caribbean island with a 1999 population of 3.8 million. Streamflow in rivers supplying the La Plata and Loi??za reservoirs, the principal water supply of the San Juan metropolitan area, was at or below the 10th flow percentile for 27% to 50% of the time between December 1993 and May 1996. Diminished reservoir levels in 1994 and 1995 affected more than 1 million people in the San Juan metropolitan area. Water rationing was implemented during this period and significant agricultural losses, valued at $165 million, were recorded in 1994. The public endured a year of mandatory water rationing in which sections of the city had their water-distribution networks shut off for 24 to 36 hours on alternate days. During the winter and spring of 1997-1998, water was rationed to more than 200,000 people in northwestern Puerto Rico because water level in the Guajataca reservoir was well below normal for two years because of rainfall deficits. The drought period of 1993-1996 was comparable in magnitude to a drought in 1966-1968, but water rationing was more severe during the 1993-1996 period, indicating that water management issues such as demand, storage capacity, water production and losses, and per capita consumption are increasingly important as population and development in Puerto Rico expand.

Larsen, M.C.

2000-01-01

312

Population Dynamics of Aedes aegypti and Dengue as Influenced by Weather and Human Behavior in San Juan, Puerto Rico  

PubMed Central

Previous studies on the influence of weather on Aedes aegypti dynamics in Puerto Rico suggested that rainfall was a significant driver of immature mosquito populations and dengue incidence, but mostly in the drier areas of the island. We conducted a longitudinal study of Ae. aegypti in two neighborhoods of the metropolitan area of San Juan city, Puerto Rico where rainfall is more uniformly distributed throughout the year. We assessed the impacts of rainfall, temperature, and human activities on the temporal dynamics of adult Ae. aegypti and oviposition. Changes in adult mosquitoes were monitored with BG-Sentinel traps and oviposition activity with CDC enhanced ovitraps. Pupal surveys were conducted during the drier and wetter parts of the year in both neighborhoods to determine the contribution of humans and rains to mosquito production. Mosquito dynamics in each neighborhood was compared with dengue incidence in their respective municipalities during the study. Our results showed that: 1. Most pupae were produced in containers managed by people, which explains the prevalence of adult mosquitoes at times when rainfall was scant; 2. Water meters were documented for the first time as productive habitats for Ae. aegypti; 3. Even though Puerto Rico has a reliable supply of tap water and an active tire recycling program, water storage containers and discarded tires were important mosquito producers; 4. Peaks in mosquito density preceded maximum dengue incidence; and 5. Ae. aegypti dynamics were driven by weather and human activity and oviposition was significantly correlated with dengue incidence. PMID:22206021

Barrera, Roberto; Amador, Manuel; MacKay, Andrew J.

2011-01-01

313

Making an outreach movie -The Puerto Rico Trench: Exploring the deepest place in the Atlantic Ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new movie will be screened that describes the exploration of the Puerto Rico trench with a multibeam echosounder and its significance to scientific research and tsunami hazard assessment. The movie audience is the general public including high school students. It aims to stimulate interest in Oceanography and to demonstrate scientific processes as they are applied in Geological Oceanography. The extensive use of 3-D visualization fly-bys over the dramatic ocean floor of the Puerto Rico trench should be particularly appealing to a generation growing up on video games and 3-D visualizations. The film is the product of close cooperation between a film maker and a scientist through all stages of its production and post production. This level of close cooperation is necessary because scientists' and film makers' approaches to presentation of information can differ greatly. In making an educational or outreach movie, the scientist must be responsible for the contents of the message, but the film maker has to design an effective delivery method. The creation of this movie was the result of following stages: (1) live action filming during a short research cruise; (2) generating 3-D fly-by using Fledermausr software; (3) rendering the fly-by sequences to a high-definition film; (4) collecting still photos and other supporting material; (5) generating graphs illustrating crucial scientific information and concepts; (6) preparing the script for voiceover narration; (7) working with a professional actor in order to ensure accurate delivery of the information. The biggest challenge in making the movie was the editing stage when the different elements of the movie were put together, incorporating music and voiceover into an aesthetically pleasing, interesting, and above all, scientifically accurate and coherent movie. Post-editing steps included replication of the master copy, package design, and distribution. The movie was completed in several weeks on a modest budget, thanks to modern desktop digital video, editing, voice recording, mixing, and replication technologies. Free copies of the film can be obtained by contacting the second author.

ten Brink, J.; ten Brink, U. S.

2004-12-01

314

Sedimentation survey of Lago Loza, Trujillo Alto, Puerto Rico, July 2009  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Lago Loza is a reservoir formed at the confluence of Ro Gurabo and Ro Grande de Loza in the municipality of Trujillo Alto in central Puerto Rico, about 10 kilometers (km) north of the town of Caguas, about 9 km northwest of Gurabo, and about 3 km south of Trujillo Alto (fig. 1). The Carraizo Dam is owned and operated by the Puerto Rico Aqueduct and Sewer Authority (PRASA), and was constructed in 1953 as a water-supply reservoir for the San Juan Metropolitan area. The dam is a concrete gravity structure that is located in a shallow valley and has a gently sloping left abutment and steep right abutment. Non-overflow sections flank the spillway section. Waterways include an intake structure for the pumping station and power plant, sluiceways, a trash sluice, and a spillway. The reservoir was built to provide a storage capacity of 26.8 million cubic meters (Mm3) of water at the maximum pool elevation of 41.14 meters (m) above mean sea level (msl) for the Sergio Cuevas Filtration Plant that serves the San Juan metropolitan area. The reservoir has a drainage area of 538 square kilometers (km2) and receives an annual mean rainfall that ranges from 1,600 to 5,000 millimeters per year (mm/yr). The principal streams that drain into Lago Loza are the Ro Grande de Loza, Ro Gurabo, and Ro Caas. Two other rivers, the Ro Bairoa and Ro Cagitas, discharge into the Ro Grande de Loza just before it enters the reservoir. The combined mean annual runoff of the Ro Grande de Loza and the Ro Gurabo for the 19602009 period of record is 323 Mm3. Flow from these streams constitutes about 89 percent of the total mean annual inflow of 364 Mm3 to the reservoir (U.S. Geological Survey, 2009). Detailed information about Lago Loza reservoir structures, historical sediment accumulation, and a dredge conducted in 1999 are available in Soler-Lpez and Gmez-Gmez (2005). During July 815, 2009, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Caribbean Water Science Center (CWSC), in cooperation with PRASA, conducted a bathymetric survey of Lago Loza to update the reservoir storage capacity and estimate the reservoir sedimentation rate by comparing the 2009 data with the previous 2004 bathymetric survey data. The purpose of this report is to document the methods used to update and present the results of the reservoir storage capacity, sedimentation rates, and areas of substantial sediment accumulation since 2004.

Soler-Lpez, Luis R.; Licha-Soler, N.A.

2014-01-01

315

Toxic evaluation of organic extracts from airborne particulate matter in Puerto Rico.  

PubMed Central

In recent years, several hypotheses have emerged to explain the toxicologic activity of particulate matter. Organic compounds, ultrafine particles, biologic components, and transition metals are some of the constituents that reportedly exert some type of adverse effect on human health. A considerable fraction of the urban particulate matter consists of carbon compounds, which originate mostly from anthropogenic sources. The toxicity of organic fractions from particulate matter have been mainly evaluated by considering their mutagenic activity. This research expands on the toxicologic profile of organic compounds adsorbed to particulate matter, specifically in Puerto Rico, by using the cytotoxic neutral red bioassay (NRB). The NRB uses normal human epidermal keratinocytes or other types of cells to measure the effect on cell viability when exposed to organic compounds associated to the particles in the air. We validated the NRB for particulate matter by using a standard reference material (SRM 1649). We used the NRB to determine toxicologic differences of extracts between an urban industrialized site with anthropogenic activity versus a coastal region with less human activity. The cytotoxicity associated with organic compounds in particulate matter collected at the urban industrialized site was detected in both the particulate matter (3/4) 10 microm in aerodynamic diameter (PM(10)) and particulate matter (3/4) 100 microm in aerodynamic diameter (PM(100)). Greater toxic effects were observed in PM(10) extracts than in PM(100) extracts, but PM(10) toxic effects were not significantly different from those in PM(100). The extracts from the industrialized site were more cytotoxic than the extracts from coastal reference site, although in the summer, extracts from both sites were significantly cytotoxic to normal human epidermal keratinocytes. In addition, the nonpolar extracts of both PM(10) and PM(100) exerted the greatest cytotoxicity, followed by the polar, and, finally, the moderately polar extract. This study demonstrates that extracts from the Guaynabo industrialized site were more toxic than similar extracts obtained from a reference coastal site in Fajardo, Puerto Rico. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:10903617

Reyes, D R; Rosario, O; Rodriguez, J F; Jimenez, B D

2000-01-01

316

History of dredging and filling of lagoons in the San Juan, Puerto Rico  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Laguna La Torrecilla, Laguna de Pinones, Laguna San Jose, and Laguna del Condado, in the San Juan, Puerto Rico area, are located within a metropolitan area of more than 1 million people. Bathymetric maps made during the study, in 1973, showed that Lagunas La Torrecilla, San Jose, and del Condado have been modified by dredging and filling; whereas, Laguna de Pinones has remained in a near natural state. Laguna La Torrecilla has been dredged to a depth, in places, of about 18 meters, and Lagunas San Jose and del Condado, in places to about 11 meters. Dredging in the San Juan lagoons has been harmful, beneficial, and in a few instances has had little or no noticeable effect on the water quality. Usually, dredging in the connecting canals has been beneficial if the water entering the lagoons through the canals was of better quality than the water in the lagoon. Dredging in the mouths of lagoons has been beneficial; whereas, filling or blocking the mouths has been harmful. (Woodard-USGS)

Ellis, S. R.

1976-01-01

317

Assessing climate variability effects on dengue incidence in san juan, puerto rico.  

PubMed

We test the hypothesis that climate and environmental conditions are becoming favorable for dengue transmission in San Juan, Puerto Rico. Sea Level Pressure (SLP), Mean Sea Level (MSL), Wind, Sea Surface Temperature (SST), Air Surface Temperature (AST), Rainfall, and confirmed dengue cases were analyzed. We evaluated the dengue incidence and environmental data with Principal Component Analysis, Pearson correlation coefficient, Mann-Kendall trend test and logistic regressions. Results indicated that dry days are increasing and wet days are decreasing. MSL is increasing, posing higher risk of dengue as the perimeter of the San Juan Bay estuary expands and shorelines move inland. Warming is evident with both SST and AST. Maximum and minimum air surface temperature extremes have increased. Between 1992 and 2011, dengue transmission increased by a factor of 3.4 (95% CI: 1.9-6.1) for each 1 C increase in SST. For the period 2007-2011 alone, dengue incidence reached a factor of 5.2 (95% CI: 1.9-13.9) for each 1 C increase in SST. Teenagers are consistently the age group that suffers the most infections in San Juan. Results help understand possible impacts of different climate change scenarios in planning for social adaptation and public health interventions. PMID:25216253

Mndez-Lzaro, Pablo; Muller-Karger, Frank E; Otis, Daniel; McCarthy, Matthew J; Pea-Orellana, Marisol

2014-01-01

318

An electromagnetic geophysical survey of the freshwater lens of Isla de Mona, Puerto Rico  

USGS Publications Warehouse

An electromagnetic reconnaissance of the freshwater lens of Isla de Mona, Puerto Rico was conducted with both terrain conductivity (TC) and transient electromagnetic (TEM) surface geophysical techniques. These geophysical surveys were limited to the southern and western parts of the island because of problems with access and cultural metallic objects such as reinforced concrete roadways on the eastern part of the island. The geophysical data were supplemented with the location of a freshwater spring found by scuba divers at a depth of about 20 m below sea level along the northern coast of the island. The geophysical data suggest that the freshwater lens has a maximum thickness of 20 m in the southern half of the island. The freshwater lens is not thickest at the center of the island but nearer the southwestern edge in Quaternary deposits and the eastern edge of the island in the Tertiary carbonates. This finding indicates that the groundwater flow paths on Isla de Mona are not radially summetrical from the center of the island to the ocean. The asymmetry of the freshwater lens indicates that the differences in hydraulic conductivity are a major factor in determining the shape of the freshwater lens. The porosity of the aquifer, as determined by the geophysical data is about 33%.

Richards, R. T.; Troester, J. W.; Martinez, M. I.

1998-01-01

319

Assessing Climate Variability Effects on Dengue Incidence in San Juan, Puerto Rico  

PubMed Central

We test the hypothesis that climate and environmental conditions are becoming favorable for dengue transmission in San Juan, Puerto Rico. Sea Level Pressure (SLP), Mean Sea Level (MSL), Wind, Sea Surface Temperature (SST), Air Surface Temperature (AST), Rainfall, and confirmed dengue cases were analyzed. We evaluated the dengue incidence and environmental data with Principal Component Analysis, Pearson correlation coefficient, Mann-Kendall trend test and logistic regressions. Results indicated that dry days are increasing and wet days are decreasing. MSL is increasing, posing higher risk of dengue as the perimeter of the San Juan Bay estuary expands and shorelines move inland. Warming is evident with both SST and AST. Maximum and minimum air surface temperature extremes have increased. Between 1992 and 2011, dengue transmission increased by a factor of 3.4 (95% CI: 1.96.1) for each 1 C increase in SST. For the period 20072011 alone, dengue incidence reached a factor of 5.2 (95% CI: 1.913.9) for each 1 C increase in SST. Teenagers are consistently the age group that suffers the most infections in San Juan. Results help understand possible impacts of different climate change scenarios in planning for social adaptation and public health interventions. PMID:25216253

Mndez-Lzaro, Pablo; Muller-Karger, Frank E.; Otis, Daniel; McCarthy, Matthew J.; Pea-Orellana, Marisol

2014-01-01

320

Genetics and Morphology of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) in Septic Tanks in Puerto Rico  

PubMed Central

Dengue viruses, primarily transmitted by the mosquito Aedes aegypti (L.), affect an estimated 50100 million people yearly. Traditional approaches to control mosquito population numbers, such as the use of pesticides, have had only limited success. Atypical mosquito behavior may be one reason why current vector control efforts have been less efficacious than expected. In Puerto Rico, for example, adult Ae. aegypti have been observed emerging from septic tanks. Interestingly, adults emerging from septic tanks are larger on average than adults collected from surface containers. To determine whether adults colonizing septic tanks constitute a separate Ae. aegypti population, we used 12 previously validated microsatellite loci to examine adult mosquitoes collected from both septic tanks and surface containers, but found no evidence to suggest genetic differentiation. Size differences between septic tank and surface mosquitoes were reduced when nutrient levels were held constant across experimental groups. Despite the absence of evidence suggesting a genetic difference between experimental groups in this study, Ae. aegypti emerging from septic tanks may still represent a more dangerous phenotype and should be given special consideration when developing vector control programs and designing public health interventions in the future. PMID:22238867

SOMERS, GERARD; BROWN, JULIA E.; BARRERA, ROBERTO; POWELL, JEFFREY R.

2012-01-01

321

Characterization of organic chemical contaminants in sediments from Jobos Bay, Puerto Rico.  

PubMed

Jobos Bay, located on the southeastern coast of Puerto Rico, contains a variety of habitats including mangroves, seagrass meadows, and coral reefs. The watershed surrounding the bay includes a number of towns, agricultural areas, and the Jobos Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve (NERR). Jobos Bay and the surrounding watershed are part of a Conservation Effects Assessment Project (CEAP), involving the Jobos Bay NERR, the US Department of Agriculture, and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) to assess the benefits of agricultural best management practices (BMPs) on the terrestrial and marine environments. As part of the Jobos Bay CEAP, NOAA collected sediment samples in May 2008 to characterize over 130 organic chemical contaminants. This paper presents the results of the organic contaminant analysis. The organic contaminants detected in the sediments included polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls, and the pesticide DDT. PAHs at one site in the inner bay near a boat yard were significantly elevated; however, all organic contaminant classes measured were below NOAA sediment quality guidelines that would have indicated that impacts were likely. The results of this work provide an important baseline assessment of the marine environment that will assist in understanding the benefits of implementing BMPs on water quality in Jobos Bay. PMID:21956337

Pait, Anthony S; Whitall, David R; Dieppa, Angel; Newton, Sarah E; Brune, Lia; Caldow, Chris; Mason, Andrew L; Apeti, Dennis A; Christensen, John D

2012-08-01

322

Local and Global Effects of Climate on Dengue Transmission in Puerto Rico  

PubMed Central

The four dengue viruses, the agents of dengue fever and dengue hemorrhagic fever in humans, are transmitted predominantly by the mosquito Aedes aegypti. The abundance and the transmission potential of Ae. aegypti are influenced by temperature and precipitation. While there is strong biological evidence for these effects, empirical studies of the relationship between climate and dengue incidence in human populations are potentially confounded by seasonal covariation and spatial heterogeneity. Using 20 years of data and a statistical approach to control for seasonality, we show a positive and statistically significant association between monthly changes in temperature and precipitation and monthly changes in dengue transmission in Puerto Rico. We also found that the strength of this association varies spatially, that this variation is associated with differences in local climate, and that this relationship is consistent with laboratory studies of the impacts of these factors on vector survival and viral replication. These results suggest the importance of temperature and precipitation in the transmission of dengue viruses and suggest a reason for their spatial heterogeneity. Thus, while dengue transmission may have a general system, its manifestation on a local scale may differ from global expectations. PMID:19221592

Johansson, Michael A.; Dominici, Francesca; Glass, Gregory E.

2009-01-01

323

Late Jurassic to Eocene geochemical evolution of volcanic rocks in Puerto Rico  

SciTech Connect

The Late Jurassic to Eocene deformed volcanic, volcaniclastic and sedimentary rocks of Puerto Rico are divided into three igneous provinces, the southwestern, central, and northeastern igneous province. Based on the stratigraphic position approximate ages could be assigned to the flow rocks in these provinces. Ba/Nb and La/Sm diagrams are presented to illustrate the origin and evolution of the flow rocks. The oldest rock in the southwestern province may include MORB. Early Cretaceous volcanic rocks in the central and northeastern province have low Ba/nb and La/Sm, that are interpreted as an early island arc stage, with none or only minor contribution of slab-derived material. The Late Cretaceous to Eocene volcanic rocks have a wide range of values for the Ba/Nb and La/Sm that are interpreted as the result of admixture of a variable amount of slab-derived material. The Maricao Basalt (Maastrichtian to Eocene) in the southeastern igneous province has the geochemical signature of magmas formed in an extensional setting.

Schellekens, J.H. (Univ. of Puerto Rico, Mayaguez (Puerto Rico))

1991-03-01

324

Landslides and sediment budgets in four watersheds in eastern Puerto Rico: Chapter F in Water quality and landscape processes of four watersheds in eastern Puerto Rico  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The low-latitude regions of the Earth are undergoing profound, rapid landscape change as forests are converted to agriculture to support growing population. Understanding the effects of these land-use changes requires analysis of watershed-scale geomorphic processes to better inform and manage this usually disorganized process. The investigation of hillslope erosion and the development of sediment budgets provides essential information for resource managers. Four small, montane, humid-tropical watersheds in the Luquillo Experimental Forest and nearby Ro Grande de Loza watershed, Puerto Rico (18 20' N., 65 45' W.), were selected to compare and contrast the geomorphic effects of land use and bedrock geology. Two of the watersheds are underlain largely by resistant Cretaceous volcaniclastic rocks but differ in land use and mean annual runoff: the Mameyes watershed, with predominantly primary forest cover and runoff of 2,750 millimeters per year, and the Canvanas watershed, with mixed secondary forest and pasture and runoff of 970 millimeters per year. The additional two watersheds are underlain by relatively erodible granitic bedrock: the forested Icacos watershed, with runoff of 3,760 millimeters per year and the agriculturally developed Cayagus watershed, with a mean annual runoff of 1,620 millimeters per year. Annual sediment budgets were estimated for each watershed using landslide, slopewash, soil creep, treethrow, suspended sediment, and streamflow data. The budgets also included estimates of sediment storage in channel beds, bars, floodplains, and in colluvial deposits. In the two watersheds underlain by volcaniclastic rocks, the forested Mameyes and the developed Canvanas watersheds, landslide frequency (0.21 and 0.04 landslides per square kilometer per year, respectively), slopewash (5 and 30 metric tons per square kilometer per year), and suspended sediment yield (325 and 424 metric tons per square kilometer per year), were lower than in the two watersheds underlain by granitic bedrock. In these granitic watersheds, landslide frequency, slopewash, and suspended sediment yield were 0.43 landslides per square kilometer per year, 20 metric tons per square kilometer per year, and 2,140 metric tons per square kilometer per year, respectively, in the forested Icacos watershed and 0.8 landslides per square kilometer per year, 105 metric tons per square kilometer per year, and 2,110 metric tons per square kilometer per year, respectively, in the agriculturally developed Cayagus watershed. Comparison of sediment budgets from the forested and developed watersheds indicates that human activities increase landslide frequency by as much as factor of 5 and slopewash by as much as a factor of 6. When the difference in annual runoff is considered, the effect of land use on suspended sediment yields is also notable. Sediment concentration, calculated as sediment yield normalized by runoff, was about 2.3 to 3.7 times as great in the two watersheds in secondary forest and pasture compared with sediment concentration in the watersheds in primary forest. Even in the two watersheds with primary forest cover, the Mameyes and Icacos, located in the Luquillo Experimental Forest, the effects of anthropogenic disturbance were marked: 43 to 63 percent of landslide-related erosion was associated with road construction and maintenance.

Larsen, Matthew C.

2012-01-01

325

Puerto Rico Tsunami Warning and Mitigation Program-LANTEX 09 Survey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tsunami warning, assessment, education, mitigation and preparedness efforts seek to reduce losses related to tsunamis in Puerto Rico (PR). The PR Seismic Network (PRSN) works with governmental agencies and local communities to implement these tsunami hazard risk reduction programs. The Caribbean has a a history of destructive tsunamis such as Virgin Islands (1867), PR (1918) and Dominican Republic (1946). Tsunamis originating near PR are a near-field hazard for as they can reach coastal areas within minutes of a generating event. Sources for regional and tele tsunamis have been identified. To mitigate these risks to communities, the PR Tsunami Warning and Mitigation Program (PRTWMP) was established in 2000 with funding from FEMA, the University of Puerto Rico (UPR) and the PR State Emergency Management Agency (PRSEMA). With the support of NTHMP and TsunamiReady (TR), PR continues to seek to mitigate possible tsunami damages and increase community resilience by helping communities meet the TR guidelines by providing them inundation maps, helping them develop evacuation maps and emergency plans, assisting them with community outreach efforts and conducting evacuation drills. Currently 6 of 44 tsunami threatened communities in PR have been recognized as TsunamiReady. As part of this process, the PRSN, PRSEMA and various communities participated in the LANTEX 2009 tsunami exercise. This exercise took place on April 2, 2009 and was based on a scenario in which an earthquake northeast of PR generates a major tsunami which impacts PR and the USVI and threatens the states along the continental US eastern coast. The municipality of Mayagez, a TsunamiReady community since 2006, participated in the exercise by activating its Emergency Operations Center , conducting evacuation drills in schools located within its tsunami exposed area, and activating its warning siren. This presentation highlights findings of UPRM social scientists collaborating with the PRTWMP who conducted a sample survey of residents of the Mayagez tsunami evacuation area to serve as an assessment of the effectiveness of TsunamiReady outreach efforts and of the drill's warning efforts. 166 20-30 minute interviews were conducted during the month of April. Questions explored residents' perceptions of coastal hazards they may face; knowledge about tsunamis and how to react to them; use of mass media to obtain information about potential hazards; tsunami preparation efforts, including knowledge of the existence and location of assembly areas; and whether and how they received and understood the drill's warning messages. The sample's answers to the risk perception questions is compared to those obtained for the same questions from a sample of residents of storm surge areas in 8 municipalities along PR's west coast. This allows comparing tsunami hazard awareness among individuals exposed to the Tsunami Ready program efforts with that of residents of municipalities that are not part of it. This effort serves as an example of the multidisciplinary collaboration between physical and social scientists needed to increase the effectiveness and value of scientific knowledge as a tool to mitigate damages from natural hazards.

Diaz, W.; von Hillebrandt-Andrade, C.

2009-12-01

326

Inpatient Management of Diabetes Mellitus among Noncritically Ill Patients at University Hospital of Puerto Rico.  

PubMed

Objective: To describe the state of glycemic control in noncritically ill diabetic patients admitted to the Puerto Rico University Hospital and adherence to current standard of care guidelines for the treatment of diabetes.Methods: This was a retrospective study of patients admitted to a general medicine ward with diabetes mellitus as a secondary diagnosis. Clinical data for the first 5 days and the last 24 hours of hospitalization were analyzed.Results: A total of 147 noncritically ill diabetic patients were evaluated. The rates of hyperglycemia (blood glucose ?180 mg/dL) and hypoglycemia (blood glucose <70 mg/dL) were 56.7 and 2.8%, respectively. Nearly 60% of patients were hyperglycemic during the first 24 hours of hospitalization (mean random blood glucose, 226.5 mg/dL), and 54.2% were hyperglycemic during the last 24 hours of hospitalization (mean random blood glucose, 196.51 mg/dL). The mean random last glucose value before discharge was 189.6 mg/dL. Most patients were treated with subcutaneous insulin, with basal insulin alone (60%) used as the most common regimen. The proportion of patients classified as uncontrolled receiving basal-bolus therapy increased from 54.3% on day 1 to 60% on day 5, with 40% continuing to receive only basal insulin. Most of the uncontrolled patients had their insulin dose increased (70.1%); however, a substantial proportion had no change (23.7%) or even a decrease (6.2%) in their insulin dose.Conclusion: The management of hospitalized diabetic patients is suboptimal, probably due to clinical inertia, manifested by absence of appropriate modification of insulin regimen and intensification of dose in uncontrolled diabetic patients. A comprehensive educational diabetes management program, along with standardized insulin orders, should be implemented to improve the care of these patients. PMID:24325996

Allende-Vigo, Myriam Zaydee; Gonzlez-Rosario, Rafael A; Gonzlez, Loida; Snchez, Viviana; Vega, Mnica A; Alvarado, Milliette; Ramn, Raul O

2014-05-01

327

Methane flux from mangrove sediments along the southwestern coast of Puerto Rico  

SciTech Connect

Although the sediments of coastal marine mangrove forests have been considered a minor source of atmospheric methane, these estimate have been based on sparse data from similar areas. We have gathered evidence that shows that external nutrient and freshwater loading in mangrove sediments may have a significant effect on methane flux. Experiments were performed to examine methane fluxes from anaerobic sediments in a mangrove forest subjected to secondary sewage effluents on the southwestern coast of Puerto Rico. Emission rates were measured in situ using a static chamber technique, and subsequent laboratory analysis of samples was by gas chromatography using a flame ionization detector. Results indicate that methane flux rates were lowest at the landward fringe nearest to the effluent discharge, higher in the seaward fringe occupied by red mangroves, and highest in the transition zone between black and red mangrove communities, with average values of 4 mg CH[sub 4] m[sup [minus]2] d[sup [minus]1], 42 mg CH[sub 4] m[sup [minus]2] d[sup [minus]1], and 82 mg CH[sub 4] m[sup [minus]2] d[sup [minus]1], respectively. Overall mean values show these sediments may emit as much as 40 times more methane than unimpacted pristine areas. Pneumatophores of Aviciennia germinans have been found to serve as conduits to the atmosphere for this gas. Fluctuating water level overlying the mangrove sediment is an important environmental factor controlling seasonal and interannual CH[sub 4] flux variations. Environmental controls such as freshwater inputs and increased nutrient loading influence in situ methane emissions from these environments. 34 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

Sotomayor, D.; Corredor, J.E.; Morell, J.M. (Univ. of Puerto Rico, Mayagueez (Puerto Rico))

1994-03-01

328

Local annual survival and seasonal residency rates of semipalmated sandpipers (Calidris pusilla) in Puerto rico  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We report seasonal residency and local annual survival rates of migratory Semipalmated Sandpipers (Calidris pusilla) at the Cabo Rojo salt flats, Puerto Rico. Residency rate (daily probability of remaining on the flats) was 0.991 ?? 0.001 (x?? ?? SE), yielding a mean length of stay of 110 days. This finding supports the inclusion of the Caribbean as part of the species' winter range. Average estimated percentage of fat was low but increased throughout the season, which suggests that birds replenish some spent fat reserves and strive for energetic maintenance. Local annual survival rate was 0.62 ?? 0.04, within the range of values reported for breeding populations at Manitoba and Alaska (0.53-0.76). The similarity was not unexpected because estimates were obtained annually but at opposite sites of their annual migratory movements. Birds captured at the salt flats appeared to be a mix of birds from various parts of the breeding range, judging from morphology (culmen's coefficient of variation = 9.1, n = 106). This suggested that origin (breeding area) of birds and their proportion in the data should be ascertained and accounted for in analyses to glean the full conservation implications of winter-based annual survival estimates. Those data are needed to unravel the possibility that individuals of distinct populations are affected by differential mortality factors across different migratory routes. Mean length of stay strongly suggested that habitat quality at the salt flats was high. Rainfall and tidal flow combine to increase food availability during fall. The salt flats dry up gradually toward late January, at the onset of the dry season. Semipalmated Sandpipers may move west to other Greater Antilles or south to sites such as coastal Surinam until the onset of spring migration. They are not an oversummering species at the salt flats. Conservation efforts in the Caribbean region require understanding the dynamics of this species throughout winter to protect essential habitat. ?? The American Ornithologists' Union, 2007.

Rice, S. M.; Collazo, J. A.; Alldredge, M. W.; Harrington, B. A.; Lewis, A. R.

2007-01-01

329

Impacts of Urbanization in the Coastal Tropical City of San Juan, Puerto Rico  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Urban sprawl in tropical locations is rapidly accelerating and it is more evident in islands where a large percentage of the population resides along the coasts. This paper focuses on the analysis of the impacts of land use and land cover for urbanization in the tropical coastal city of San Juan, in the Caribbean island of Puerto Rico. A mesoscale numerical model, the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS), is used to study the impacts of land use for urbanization in the environment including specific characteristics of the urban heat island in the San Juan Metropolitan Area (SJMA), one of the most noticeable urban cores of the Caribbean. The research also makes use of the observations obtained during the airborne San Juan Atlas Mission. Surface and raw insonde data from the mission are used to validate the atmospheric model yielding satisfactory results. Airborne high resolution remote sensing data are used to update the model's surface characteristics in order to obtain a more accurate and detailed configuration of the SJMA and perform a climate impact analysis based on land cover/land use (LCLU) changes. The impact analysis showed that the presence of the urban landscape of San Juan has an impact reflected in higher air temperatures over the area occupied by the city, with positive values of up to 2.5 degrees C, for the simulations that have specified urban LCLU indexes in the model's bottom boundary. One interesting result of the impact analysis was the finding of a precipitation disturbance shown as a difference in total accumulated rainfall between the present urban landscape and with a potential natural vegetation, apparently induced by the presence of the urban area. Results indicate that the urban-enhanced cloud formation and precipitation development occur mainly downwind of the city, including the accumulated precipitation. This spatial pattern can be explained by the presence of a larger urbanized area in the southwest sector of the city, and of the approaching northeasterly trade winds.

Comarazamy, Daniel E.; Gonzalez, Jorge E.; Luvall, Jeffrey C.; Rickman, Douglass

2007-01-01

330

Sedimentation survey of Lago Cerrillos, Ponce, Puerto Rico, April-May 2008  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Lago Cerrillos dam, located in the municipality of Ponce in southern Puerto Rico, was constructed in 1991 as part of the multipurpose Rio Portugues and Bucana Project. This project provides flood protection, water supply, and recreation facilities for the municipio of Ponce. The reservoir had an original storage capacity of 38.03 million cubic meters at maximum conservation pool elevation of 174.65 meters above mean sea level and a drainage area of 45.32 square kilometers. Sedimentation in Lago Cerrillos reservoir has reduced the storage capacity from 38.03 million cubic meters in 1991 to 37.26 million cubic meters in 2008, which represents a total storage loss of about 2 percent. During July 29 to August 23, 2002, 8,492 cubic meters of sediment were removed from the Rio Cerrillos mouth of the reservoir. Taking into account this removed material, the total water-storage loss as of 2008 is 778,492 cubic meters, and the long-term annual water-storage capacity loss rate is about 45,794 cubic meters per year or about 0.12 percent per year. The Lago Cerrillos net sediment-contributing drainage area has an average sediment yield of about 1,069 cubic meters per square kilometer per year. Sediment accumulation in Lago Cerrillos is not uniformly distributed and averages about 3 meters in thickness. This represents a sediment deposition rate of about 18 centimeters per year. On the basis of the 2008 reservoir storage capacity of 37.26 million cubic meters per year and a long-term sedimentation rate of 45,794 cubic meters per year, Lago Cerrillos is estimated to have a useful life of about 814 years or until the year 2822.

Soler-Lpez, Luis R.

2011-01-01

331

Promoting Tobacco Cessation and Smoke-Free Workplaces Through Community Outreach Partnerships in Puerto Rico  

PubMed Central

Background Puerto Rico (PR) has a lower smoking prevalence than the United States (14.8% vs. 21.2%, respectively); nevertheless, the five leading causes of death are associated with smoking. There is a need to implement evidence-based tobacco control strategies in PR. Objectives The Outreach Pilot Program (OPP) was designed to engage communities, health professionals, and researchers in a network to advance health promotion activities and research to increase the use of the PR Quitline (PRQ) among smokers and promoting policies in support of smoke-free workplaces. Methods Using community-based participatory research (CBPR) methods, the OPP mobilized a network of community and academic partners to implement smoking cessation activities including referrals to the PRQ, adoption of evidence-based smoking cessation programs, and promotion of smoke-free legislation. Results Eighty organizations participated in the OPP. Collaborators implemented activities that supported the promotion of the PRQ and smoke-free workplaces policy and sponsored yearly trainings, including tobacco control conferences. From 2005 to 2008, physician referrals to the PRQ increased from 2.6% to 7.2%. The number of annual smokers receiving cessation services through the PRQ also increased from 703 to 1,086. The OPP shepherded a rigorous smoke-free law through participation in the development, promotion, and implementation of the smoke-free workplaces legislation as well as the creation of the PR Tobacco Control Strategic Plan, launched in 2006. Conclusions This project demonstrates the feasibility of developing a successful and sustainable community-based outreach program model that enlists the participation of academic researchers, community organizations, and health care providers as partners to promote tobacco control. PMID:25152097

Daz-Toro, Elba C.; Fernndez, Maria E.; Correa-Fernndez, Virmarie; Calo, William A.; Ortiz, Ana Patricia; Meja, Luz M.; Mazas, Carlos A.; Santos-Ortiz, Mara del Carmen; Wetter, David W.

2014-01-01

332

Temporal and spatial distribution patterns of echinoderm larvae in La Parguera, Puerto Rico.  

PubMed

This study describes temporal and spatial abundance patterns of echinoderm larvae in La Parguera, Puerto Rico. For the temporal study, larvae were sampled by a series of monthly tows taken with a 64 microm mesh net between the new and full moon from April 2005 to July 2006, September 2006 and August 2007. In order to measure spatial variation of echinoderm larval abundances, oblique tows were taken with 64 and 202 microm mesh nets at seven different sites within the shelf, at the shelf-edge, and at a nearby oceanic stations during August 2007. Overall, Echinoidea (sea urchin) exhibited the highest abundance with a total of 11 921 larvae, representing 52.5% of the total collection. Ophiuroidea (brittle star) ranked second in abundance with 45.6% of the total larvae. Holothuroidea (sea cucumber) and Asteroidea larvae (sea star) accounted for less than 2% of the total echinoderm larval collection. Early larval stages (2-8 day old) of Diadema antillarum represented 20% of the total Echinoidea larvae. There was no marked seasonal trend of echinoderm larval abundance; Echinoidea and Ophiuroidea larvae were present in all monthly samples indicating that reproduction occurs year-round. Peak abundances of later-stage Echinoidea larvae were observed during January, July and October and of later-stage Ophiuroidea larvae during June, August and October. The observed peaks of later-stage larval abundances may be indicative of higher recruitment activity during these months. There was a significant difference of echinoderm larval abundance between spatial stations, with higher abundances collected at the shelf-edge. Later-stage (approximately 24 day old) D. antillarum larvae were mostly collected at shelf-edge and oceanic locations. In addition, the 64 microm mesh net was more efficient for collection of echinoderm larvae than the 202 microm mesh net. PMID:21302410

Williams, Stacey M; Jorge, Garca-Sais

2010-10-01

333

Organization and operation of the marine ornamental fish and invertebrate export fishery in Puerto Rico.  

PubMed

This fishery was examined utilizing public records, stakeholder interviews, and operational site visits to describe the fishery for the Puerto Rico Coral Reef Advisory Committee as a first step toward development of policies for the effective management of these natural resources. The fishery is not large, including fewer than 20 licensed fishers operating primarily on the west end of the island. Only three operators export product, with the remaining fishers providing specimens to the exporters based upon customer orders. Most collection of coral reef species occurs over hard rubble zones mixed with relic reef structures and rock, or on the sides and frontal areas of active reefs. Other species are collected from among mangrove prop root zones, tidal flats, and seagrass beds. Collections are made using simple barrier and dip nets for fish and motile invertebrates such as shrimp. Invertebrates such as crabs, starfish, and sea cucumbers are commonly collected by overturning small rocks, gathering the specimens, and then replacing the rocks in their original positions. Specimens are carried to the boat and transferred to individual cup holders to maximize survival. Although statements concerning former use of chemicals to assist capture were noted, no evidence of current chemical use was observed. Specimens are held in re-circulating seawater systems onshore until collections are aggregated and shipped. The fishery strives to operate with mortality of<1%, as mortalities of>3% are described as unacceptable to customers. More than 100 fish species are collected in this fishery, but the top ten species account for >70% of the total numbers and >60% of the total value of the fishery, with a single species, Gramma loreto (Royal Gramma), comprising >40% of the numbers. More than 100 species of invertebrates are collected, but this fishery is also dominated by a handful of species, including anemones, hermit crabs, turbo snails, serpent starfish, and feather duster polychaetes. PMID:17465154

Legorel, Richard S; Hardin, Mark P; Ter-Ghazaryan, Diana

2005-05-01

334

Probing the deep critical zone beneath the Luquillo Experimental Forest, Puerto Rico  

SciTech Connect

Recent work has suggested that weathering processes occurring in the subsurface produce the majority of silicate weathering products discharged to the world s oceans, thereby exerting a primary control on global temperature via the well-known positive feedback between silicate weathering and CO2. In addition, chemical and physical weathering processes deep within the critical zone create aquifers and control groundwater chemistry, watershed geometry and regolith formation rates. Despite this, most weathering studies are restricted to the shallow critical zone (e.g., soils, outcrops). Here we investigate the chemical weathering, fracturing and geomorphology of the deep critical zone in the Bisley watershed in the Luquillo Critical Zone Observatory, Puerto Rico, from two boreholes drilled to 37.2 and 27.0 m depth, from which continuous core samples were taken. Corestones exposed aboveground were also sampled. Weathered rinds developed on exposed corestones and along fracture surfaces on subsurface rocks slough off of exposed corestones once rinds attain a thickness up to ~1 cm, preventing the corestones from rounding due to diffusion limitation. Such corestones at the land surface are assumed to be what remains after exhumation of similar, fractured bedrock pieces that were observed in the drilled cores between thick layers of regolith. Some of these subsurface corestones are massive and others are highly fractured, whereas aboveground corestones are generally massive with little to no apparent fracturing. Subsurface corestones are larger and less fractured in the borehole drilled on a road where it crosses a ridge compared to the borehole drilled where the road crosses the stream channel. Both borehole profiles indicate that the weathering zone extends to well below the stream channel in this upland catchment; hence weathering depth is not controlled by the stream level within the catchment and not all of the water in the watershed is discharged to the stream.

Buss, Heather [University of Bristol, UK] [University of Bristol, UK; Brantley, S. L. [Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA] [Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA; Scatena, Fred [University of Pennsylvania] [University of Pennsylvania; Bazilevskaya, Ekaterina [Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA] [Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA; Blum, Alex [U.S. Geological Survey, Boulder, CO] [U.S. Geological Survey, Boulder, CO; Schulz, M [University of Pennsylvania] [University of Pennsylvania; Jimenez, M [University of Pennsylvania] [University of Pennsylvania; White, Art [U.S. Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA] [U.S. Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA; Rother, Gernot [ORNL] [ORNL; Cole, David [Ohio State University] [Ohio State University

2013-01-01

335

Characterization of stormwater discharges from Las Flores Industrial Park, Rio Grande, Puerto Rico, 1998-99  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Stormwater discharges from Las Flores Industrial Park, Rio Grande, Puerto Rico, were characterized from June 1998 to July 1999 by measuring the flow rate at two outfalls, delineating the drainage areas for each outfall, and calculating the volume of the stormwater discharges. Stormwater-discharge samples were collected and analyzed to determine the quality of the discharges. Constituent loads and loads per area were estimated for each drainage area. The studied drainage subareas covered approximately 46 percent of the total area of the Las Flores Industrial Park. Industrial groups represented in the study areas include manufacturers of textile, electronics, paper, fabricated metal, plastic, and chemical products. The concentrations of oil and grease (1 to 6 milligrams per liter), biochemical oxygen demand (4.7 to 16 milligrams per liter), total organic carbon (5.8 to 36 milligrams per liter), total suspended solids (28 to 100 milligrams per liter), and total phosphorous (0.11 to 0.78 milligrams per liter) from all the samples collected were less than the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency stormwater benchmark concentrations. Concentrations of chemical oxygen demand (15.8 to 157 milligrams per liter) and nitrate and nitrite (0.06 to 1.75 milligrams per liter) exceeded benchmark concentrations at one of the studied drainage areas. Total Kjeldahl nitrogen concentrations (1.00 to 3.20 milligrams per liter) exceeded the benchmark concentrations at the two studied drainage areas. Maximum concentrations for oil and grease, biochemical oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, total organic carbon, total Kjeldahl nitrogen, nitrate plus nitrite, and total phosphorous were detected in an area where electronics, plastics, and chemical products are currently manufactured. The maximum concentration of total suspended solids was detected at an area where textile, paper, plastic, chemical, and fabricated metal products are manufactured.

Rodriguez, Jose M.

2000-01-01

336

Seroprevalence of poliovirus antibodies among children in a Dominican community--Puerto Rico, 2002.  

PubMed

Although the Region of the Americas was certified as polio-free in 1994, an outbreak of paralytic poliomyelitis associated with circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus (cVDPV) occurred during July 2000-July 2001 on the Caribbean island of Hispaniola. A total of 21 cases of paralytic polio associated with type 1 oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) strain were reported in Haiti and the Dominican Republic (DR). Outbreaks from cVDPV occur among children in communities with low immunity levels to polioviruses and the absence of circulation of wild poliovirus (WPV). The U.S. territory of Puerto Rico (PR), located approximately 72 miles east of DR, has not had a case of paralytic polio since 1974. However, because of its proximity to DR and concerns that visitors and immigrants from DR (who tend to live in a separate community in PR) might not be fully vaccinated against polioviruses, the PR Department of Health (PRDH) and CDC assessed the seroprevalence of poliovirus antibodies among children aged 7-60 months in a predominantly DR community of PR. This report describes the results of that assessment, which indicated high levels of seropositivity for all three poliovirus serotypes. If vaccination rates remain high, the risk for a polio outbreak in this community is low. However, until all threats of poliovirus are eliminated globally, high rates of vaccination among preschool children must be ensured to prevent outbreaks of paralytic polio from any source (e.g., imported WPV, laboratory strains, or cVDPV) in the United States and its territories. PMID:15959453

2005-06-17

337

The use of a Stream Visual Assessment Protocol to determine ecosystem integrity in an urban watershed in Puerto Rico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The growing need to protect stream ecosystems in Puerto Rico requires the development of monitoring procedures that help determine management priorities. Physical habitat assessments have been used to make quick evaluations that are cost efficient and easy conduct, yet they need to be studied further to understand their accuracy at predicting stream health. This study evaluated the efficiency of the Hawaii Stream Visual Assessment Protocol (HSVAP) at determining integrity of streams within the highly urbanized Rio Piedras watershed in Puerto Rico. To validate the protocol we compared results from HSVAP assessments conducted at 16 reaches with water quality and macroinvertebrate data collected at the same sites. Results from linear regressions between the water quality measures and HSVAP scores showed that there was no significant relationships ( R2 = 0.48; p = 0.08). This implies that the protocol is not supported by the water quality data. However, results from regressions between macroinvertebrate diversity and the number of families per site showed a significant positive relation with HSVAP scores ( R2 = 0.30; p = 0.02; R2 = 0.24; p = 0.05). In addition, a significant negative relation was observed between HSVAP scores and the Family Biotic Index (FBI) ( R2 = 0.32; p = 0.02). Comparisons between ratings obtained from the FBI and HSVAP scores suggest that the HSVAP classified sites as having higher quality than the biological metric. Based on these results, it can be concluded that the HSVAP is a good tool for a general assessment of the physical characteristics of a stream, but it needs modifications to accurately assess ecological quality of streams in Puerto Rico.

de Jess-Crespo, Rebeca; Ramirez, Alonso

338

Distribution and Correlates of the Metabolic Syndrome in Adults Living in the San Juan Metropolitan Area of Puerto Rico  

PubMed Central

Objectives This study evaluated correlates of the metabolic syndrome among adults living in Puerto Rico, a Hispanic subpopulation disproportionately affected by diabetes. Methods A probability cluster design was used to select a sample of households of the San Juan Metropolitan Area in Puerto Rico. A total of 858 persons aged 2179 years completed a face-to-face interview, blood pressure and anthropometric measurements, blood sampling and spot urine. Logistic regression was employed to assess correlates of the metabolic syndrome. Results Of 368 (42.9%) of adults who met the criteria for metabolic syndrome, elevated fasting glucose (49.8%), abdominal obesity (48.6%), and reduced HDL cholesterol (45.8%) were the most prevalent diagnostic criteria. In a multivariable logistic model that simultaneously adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics and health behaviors, older age, high school educational attainment or less, no alcohol intake, and lack of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity remained significantly (p<0.05) associated to the metabolic syndrome. However, the associations for male gender, some college education, and current smoking ?20 cigarettes/day had borderline significance. Further controlling for inflammatory markers slightly attenuated the strength of most of these associations but remained significantly (p<0.05) associated to the metabolic syndrome with only a few exceptions. Middle and upper tertiles of hs-CRP, fibrinogen, and PAI-1 and an elevated albumin-to-creatinine ratio were also associated (p<0.05) with the metabolic syndrome. Conclusions Enhancing public education regarding modifiable risk factors for the metabolic syndrome and providing optimal medical management of individual metabolic disturbances among those at risk through preventive lifestyle changes should be placed as a public health priority for Puerto Rico. PMID:23038883

Perez, Cynthia M.; Ortiz, Ana P.; Guzman, Manuel; Suarez, Erick

2012-01-01

339

Socio-demographic, behavioral, and health correlates of nutrition transition dietary indicators in San Juan, Puerto Rico  

PubMed Central

Objective To identify socio-demographic, behavioral, and health-related correlates of food preferences in Puerto Rico that will help determine Caribbean-region populations vulnerable to nutrition transition. Methods Data from a cross-sectional study of a representative sample of 858 adults residing in the San Juan Metropolitan Area of Puerto Rico were analyzed. Multivariable ordinal logistic regressions were used to model the frequency of consumption of 1) fruits and vegetables, 2) tubers/starchy root vegetables, 3) fried foods, and 4) Western-style fast foods as a function of socio-demographic, behavioral, and health-related characteristics. Results Higher frequency of consumption of fruits and vegetables was associated with being physically active and older and having a medium to high level of education, whereas intake of tubers was associated with being older, having a low income, not using government insurance, and having elevated levels of triglycerides. Frequency of consumption of fast food was associated with younger age, higher income, 1215 years of formal education, and a higher body mass index (BMI), whereas frequency of consumption of fried food was associated with being younger and male, not being a smoker, and having elevated levels of fasting blood glucose. Conclusions The results indicate a nutrition transition in Puerto Rico with health consequences for the Caribbean region. The characteristics of this nutrition transition seem to be determined by income, education, and age, but may also be dictated by access to various food groups. These results set the stage for needed investigation of environmental and individual-level factors that could shape patterns in food consumption. PMID:24553760

Colon-Ramos, Uriyoan; Perez-Cardona, Cynthia M.; Monge-Rojas, Rafael

2014-01-01

340

GLORIA sidescan sonar field data and navigation data collected off Puerto Rico in 1985 and the eastern United States in 1987  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This CD-ROM contains copies of the navigation and field sidescan sonar data collected within the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) surrounding Puerto Rico and off the eastern United States during cruises aboard the R/V FARNELLA. The survey of the Puerto Rico EEZ was completed during one cruise between 4 November and 3 December, 1985. The survey of the EEZ off the eastern United States was completed during five cruises between 2 February and 30 May, 1987. The data were collected as part of the USGS EEZ-SCAN program which was a cooperative mapping program between the US Geological Survey and the Institute of Oceanographic Sciences of the UK. The survey areas included the entire US EEZ of Puerto Rico and the US Virgin Islands as well as of the eastern United States from the Canadian international boundary at Georges Bank to the Bahamian international boundary east of Florida. GLORIA imagery was collected seaward of approximately 400 m water depth.

Twichell, David C.; Paskevich, Valerie F.; Delorey, Catherine M.

1998-01-01

341

Summary of significant floods in the United States, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands, 1970 through 1989  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This volume is a compilation of significant floods that occurred throughout the United States, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands during 1970 through 1989. A summary of most devastating floods according to amount of damage and lives lost is provided for each year. State-by-state compilations include a description of the general hydroclimatology and conditions that produce significant floods, a description of climate and basin characteristics that significantly affect maximum flows, tables of data that compare each significant flood during 1970 through 1989 with the maximum flood for the entire period of record at selected streamflow-gaging stations, and maps showing the location of the streamflow-gaging stations.

Perry, Charles A.; Aldridge, Byron N.; Ross, Heather C.

2001-01-01

342

An inventory of state natural resources information systems. [including Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Data bases and information systems developed and maintained by state agencies to support planning and management of environmental and nutural resources were inventoried for all 50 states, Puerto Rico, and U.S. Virgin Islands. The information obtained is assembled into a computerized data base catalog which is throughly cross-referecence. Retrieval is possible by code, state, data base name, data base acronym, agency, computer, GIS capability, language, specialized software, data category name, geograhic reference, data sources, and level of reliability. The 324 automated data bases identified are described.

Martinko, E. A. (principal investigator); Caron, L. M.; Stewart, D. S.

1984-01-01

343

Discovering a Beautiful Universe - the IYA2009 Celebration in Puerto Rico. Observa el Gandioso Cielo, Descubre un Bello Universo  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the goals and organization of the IYA2009-Puerto Rico affiliated node. The IYA was celebrated with several events each month during 2009. It involved the effort of astronomers, other scientists, educators, amateurs, and student volunteers. IYA2009-PR received the support of artists, musicians, journalists, and educators of all areas. Thousands of people, including teachers and school children, were exposed to the IYA with some of the outreach projects extending into 2010. We present some of our most successful events and our future plans.

Pantoja, Carmen; Lebron, M. E.; Altschuler, D. R.; Alonso, J. L.

2010-01-01

344

The effects of a professional development geoscience education institute upon secondary school science teachers in Puerto Rico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The geographic and geologic settings of Puerto Rico served as the context to develop a mixed methods investigation on: (1) the effects of a five-day long constructivist and field-based earth science education professional development institute upon 26 secondary school science teachers' earth science conceptual knowledge, perceptions of fieldwork, and beliefs about teaching earth science; and (2) the implementation of participants' newly acquired knowledge and experience in their science lessons at school. Qualitative data included questionnaires, semi-structured interviews, reflective journals, pre-post concept maps, and pre-post lesson plans. The Geoscience Concept Inventory and the Science Outdoor Learning Environment Inventory were translated into Spanish and culturally validated to collect quantitative data. Data was analyzed through a constructivist grounded theory methodology, descriptive statistics, and non-parametric methods. Participants came to the institute with serious deficiencies in earth science conceptual understanding, negative earth science teaching perspectives, and inadequate earth science teaching methodologies. The institute helped participants to improve their understanding of earth science concepts, content, and processes mostly related to the study of rocks, the Earth's structure, plate tectonics, maps, and the geology of Puerto Rico. Participants also improved their earth science teaching beliefs, perceptions on field-based education, and reflected on their environmental awareness and social responsibility. Participants greatly benefited from the field-based learning environment, inquiry-based teaching approaches modeled, the attention given to their affective domain, and reflections on their teaching practice as part of the institute's activities. The constructivist learning environment and the institute's contextualized and meaningful learning conceptual model were effective in generating interest and confidence in earth science teaching. Some participants successfully integrated inquiry-based lessons on the nature of science and earth science at their schools, but were unsuccessful in integrating field trips. The lack of teacher education programs and the inadequacy of earth science conceptual and pedagogical understanding held by in-service teachers are the main barriers for effective earth science teaching in Puerto Rico. This study established a foundation for future earth science education projects for Latino teachers. Additionally, as a result of this investigation various recommendations were made to effectively implement earth science teacher education programs in Puerto Rico and internationally.

Llerandi Roman, Pablo Antonio

345

Flooding and Profuse Flowering Result in High Litterfall in Novel Spathodea campanulata Forests in Northern Puerto Rico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The African tulip tree, Spathodea campanulata, has been introduced to and dominates many post-agricultural secondary forests in the moist tropics, particularly in islands. Some consider these novel forests have null to negative ecological value, yet they appear to restore ecosystem processes on degraded sites. This study describes the litterfall mass and seasonality, canopy phenology, and microclimate of S. campanulata forests on alluvial and karst substrates in northern Puerto Rico. These substrates have different water drainage properties and I hypothesized that (1) annual leaf fall mass and seasonality would differ between substrate types; because (2) leaf fall would be related to water availability and seasonality. I used analysis of variance to compare annual and biweekly litterfall mass across three sites on each substrate type, and multiple linear regression analysis to relate biweekly litterfall to environmental variables. Litterfall mass was high (13.8 Mg/ha/yr, n = 6, SE = 0.60) yet its components did not differ by substrate type except for reproductive part mass which was higher on karst due to more S. campanulata flowers. Leaf fall had a bimodal seasonality and was negatively related to the number of dry days indicating it occurs when water is readily available or in excess as during floods. Observations show systematic leaf senescence in this deciduous species can be caused by water and nutrient demand from flowering. Litterfall mass and seasonality of novel S. campanulata forests is similar to that of native forests in Puerto Rico, yet flower fall appears to be higher than that of tropical forests worldwide. The environmental variables that affect litterfall seasonality and canopy phenology are similar to those in tropical forests in Puerto Rico and elsewhere. Litterfall seasonality and canopy phenology regulate understory microclimate, and influence the establishment and growth of juvenile trees and other organisms within S. campanulata forests. Thus, the forest ecosystem processes and properties restored by novel S. campanulata forests facilitate tree species establishment, growth, and turnover in deforested, abandoned, and degraded agricultural lands in Puerto Rico. This study illustrates how anthropogenic land use change and species transport interact to modify the phenology of current forest cover, and suggests that anthropogenic climate change that modifies seasonal patterns of tempreature and precipitation will have an influence on the litterfall and phenology of novel S. campanulata forests.

Abelleira, O. J.

2011-12-01

346

Genetic diversity in Puerto Rico and its implications for the peopling of the Island and the West Indies.  

PubMed

Puerto Rico and the surrounding islands rest on the eastern fringe of the Caribbean's Greater Antilles, located less than 100 miles northwest of the Lesser Antilles. Puerto Ricans are genetic descendants of pre-Columbian peoples, as well as peoples of European and African descent through 500 years of migration to the island. To infer these patterns of pre-Columbian and historic peopling of the Caribbean, we characterized genetic diversity in 326 individuals from the southeastern region of Puerto Rico and the island municipality of Vieques. We sequenced the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region of all of the samples and the complete mitogenomes of 12 of them to infer their putative place of origin. In addition, we genotyped 121 male samples for 25 Y-chromosome single nucleotide polymorphism and 17 STR loci. Approximately 60% of the participants had indigenous mtDNA haplotypes (mostly from haplogroups A2 and C1), while 25% had African and 15% European haplotypes. Three A2 sublineages were unique to the Greater Antilles, one of which was similar to Mesoamerican types, while C1b haplogroups showed links to South America, suggesting that people reached the island from the two distinct continental source areas. However, none of the male participants had indigenous Y-chromosomes, with 85% of them instead being European/Mediterranean and 15% sub-Saharan African in origin. West Eurasian Y-chromosome short tandem repeat haplotypes were quite diverse and showed similarities to those observed in southern Europe, North Africa and the Middle East. These results attest to the distinct, yet equally complex, pasts for the male and female ancestors of modern day Puerto Ricans. Am J Phys Anthropol 155:352-368, 2014. 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25043798

Vilar, Miguel G; Melendez, Carlalynne; Sanders, Akiva B; Walia, Akshay; Gaieski, Jill B; Owings, Amanda C; Schurr, Theodore G

2014-11-01

347

A Well-Resolved Phylogeny of the Trees of Puerto Rico Based on DNA Barcode Sequence Data  

PubMed Central

Background The use of phylogenetic information in community ecology and conservation has grown in recent years. Two key issues for community phylogenetics studies, however, are (i) low terminal phylogenetic resolution and (ii) arbitrarily defined species pools. Methodology/principal findings We used three DNA barcodes (plastid DNA regions rbcL, matK, and trnH-psbA) to infer a phylogeny for 527 native and naturalized trees of Puerto Rico, representing the vast majority of the entire tree flora of the island (89%). We used a maximum likelihood (ML) approach with and without a constraint tree that enforced monophyly of recognized plant orders. Based on 50% consensus trees, the ML analyses improved phylogenetic resolution relative to a comparable phylogeny generated with Phylomatic (proportion of internal nodes resolved: constrained ML?=?74%, unconstrained ML?=?68%, Phylomatic?=?52%). We quantified the phylogenetic composition of 15 protected forests in Puerto Rico using the constrained ML and Phylomatic phylogenies. We found some evidence that tree communities in areas of high water stress were relatively phylogenetically clustered. Reducing the scale at which the species pool was defined (from island to soil types) changed some of our results depending on which phylogeny (ML vs. Phylomatic) was used. Overall, the increased terminal resolution provided by the ML phylogeny revealed additional patterns that were not observed with a less-resolved phylogeny. Conclusions/significance With the DNA barcode phylogeny presented here (based on an island-wide species pool), we show that a more fully resolved phylogeny increases power to detect nonrandom patterns of community composition in several Puerto Rican tree communities. Especially if combined with additional information on species functional traits and geographic distributions, this phylogeny will (i) facilitate stronger inferences about the role of historical processes in governing the assembly and composition of Puerto Rican forests, (ii) provide insight into Caribbean biogeography, and (iii) aid in incorporating evolutionary history into conservation planning. PMID:25386879

Muscarella, Robert; Uriarte, Mara; Erickson, David L.; Swenson, Nathan G.; Zimmerman, Jess K.; Kress, W. John

2014-01-01

348

Hydrological modification, saltwater intrusion, and tree water use of a Pterocarpus officinalis swamp in Puerto Rico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tidal freshwater forested wetlands occupy a narrow ecological space determined by the balance between saltwater and freshwater inputs to the system. However, this balance is not well understood. In the Caribbean, tidal freshwater-forested wetlands dominated by Pterocarpus officinalis are vulnerable to changes in tidal influence and freshwater inputs. In this setting, the seasonal interactions of saltwater and freshwater inputs create less than ideal conditions for these forests to survive. Hence, it is crucial to have a better understanding of the hydrologic context of these and other tidal freshwater forested wetlands. We examined the extent of tidal forcing and saltwater influence in the largest Pterocarpus swamp of Puerto Rico by installing automated water level and conductivity recorders across a tidal creek transect at four different distances from the ocean, and by using water stable isotopes ratios (?D, ?18O) as natural tracers to determine the most important freshwater sources for tree transpiration. Records of water level and salinity revealed that the amount of rainfall was most influential on saltwater wedge migration in the creek for locations at the front and back of the tidal network, but that tidal dynamics were most influential at the middle section of the tidal network. Saltwater intrusion into the deepest parts of the tidal network was most prominent during sustained dry periods. Isotopic ratios of the surface water samples in the forest revealed that most of the water there was derived from freshwater runoff, but there was a seasonal change in its relative contribution to the forest hydrology. During the dry season, high ? values suggested the presence of runoff-derived water that had undergone evaporation, and saline influences were found in locations where past deforestation created preferential pathways for this water. During both seasons, ? 18O values of groundwater revealed the influence of saline water at depths 60 cm and greater near the adjacent tidal creek. Nonetheless, 18O-enriched stem water and low d-excess values suggested that Pterocarpus officinalis relies primarily on water accessed from unsaturated soil mounds that surround the tree and that are subject to evaporation, as opposed to groundwater at depth. This observation provides further insight to the adaptation mechanisms of Pterocarpus officinalis to survive in flooded ecosystems. In summary, our work demonstrates that for preventing saltwater intrusion, the amount of rainfall and freshwater inflow is more important than the sea level or the existence of an overland hydrological connection to the ocean.

Coln-Rivera, Ricardo J.; Feagin, Rusty A.; West, Jason B.; Lpez, Natalia B.; Bentez-Joubert, Rafael J.

2014-06-01

349

Impacts of Urbanization in the Coastal Tropical City of San Juan, Puerto Rico  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Urban sprawl in tropical locations is rapidly accelerating and it is more evident in islands where a large percentage of the population resides along the coasts. This paper focuses on the analysis of the impacts of land use and land cover for urbanization in the tropical coastal city of San Juan, in the Caribbean island of Puerto Rico. A mesoscale numerical model, the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS), is used to study the impacts of land use for urbanization in the environment including specific characteristics of the urban heat island in the San Juan Metropolitan Area (SJMA), one of the most noticeable urban cores of the Caribbean. The research also makes use of the observations obtained during the airborne San Juan Atlas Mission. Surface and rawinsonde data from the mission are used to validate the atmospheric model yielding satisfactory results. Airborne high resolution remote sensing data are used to update the model's surface characteristics in order to obtain a more accurate and detailed configuration of the SJMA and perform a climate impact analysis based on land cover/land use (LCLU) changes. The impact analysis showed that the presence of the urban landscape of San Juan has an impact reflected in higher air temperatures over the area occupied by the city, with positive values of up to 2.5 C, for the simulations that have specified urban LCLU indexes in the model's bottom boundary. One interesting result of the impact analysis was the finding of a precipitation disturbance shown as a difference in total accumulated rainfall between the present urban landscape and with a potential natural vegetation, apparently induced by the presence of the urban area. Results indicate that the urban enhanced cloud formation and precipitation development occur mainly downwind of the city, including the accumulated precipitation. This spatial pattern can be explained by the presence of a larger urbanized area in the southwest sector of the city, and of the approaching northeasterly trade winds. No significant impacts were found in the sea breeze patterns of the city.

Comarazamy, Daniel E.; Gonzalez, Jorge E.; Luvall, Jeffrey C.; Rickman, Douglas L.; Mulero, Pedro J.

2007-01-01

350

Weathering of the Rio Blanco Quartz Diorite, Luquillo Mountains, Puerto Rico: Coupling Oxidation, Dissolution, And Fracturing  

SciTech Connect

In the mountainous Rio Icacos watershed in northeastern Puerto Rico, quartz diorite bedrock weathers spheroidally, producing a 0.2-2 m thick zone of partially weathered rock layers ({approx}2.5 cm thickness each) called rindlets, which form concentric layers around corestones. Spheroidal fracturing has been modeled to occur when a weathering reaction with a positive {Delta}V of reaction builds up elastic strain energy. The rates of spheroidal fracturing and saprolite formation are therefore controlled by the rate of the weathering reaction. Chemical, petrographic, and spectroscopic evidence demonstrates that biotite oxidation is the most likely fracture-inducing reaction. This reaction occurs with an expansion in d (0 0 1) from 10.0 to 10.5 {angstrom}, forming 'altered biotite'. Progressive biotite oxidation across the rindlet zone was inferred from thin sections and gradients in K and Fe(II). Using the gradient in Fe(II) and constraints based on cosmogenic age dates, we calculated a biotite oxidation reaction rate of 8.2 x 10{sup -14} mol biotite m{sup -2} s{sup -1}. Biotite oxidation was documented within the bedrock corestone by synchrotron X-ray microprobe fluorescence imaging and XANES. X-ray microprobe images of Fe(II) and Fe(III) at 2 {micro}m resolution revealed that oxidized zones within individual biotite crystals are the first evidence of alteration of the otherwise unaltered corestone. Fluids entering along fractures lead to the dissolution of plagioclase within the rindlet zone. Within 7 cm surrounding the rindlet-saprolite interface, hornblende dissolves to completion at a rate of 6.3 x 10{sup -13} mol hornblende m{sup -2} s{sup -1}: the fastest reported rate of hornblende weathering in the field. This rate is consistent with laboratory-derived hornblende dissolution rates. By revealing the coupling of these mineral weathering reactions to fracturing and porosity formation we are able to describe the process by which the quartz diorite bedrock disaggregates and forms saprolite. In the corestone, biotite oxidation induces spheroidal fracturing, facilitating the influx of fluids that react with other minerals, dissolving plagioclase and chlorite, creating additional porosity, and eventually dissolving hornblende and precipitating secondary minerals. The thickness of the resultant saprolite is maintained at steady state by a positive feedback between the denudation rate and the weathering advance rate driven by the concentration of pore water O{sub 2} at the bedrock-saprolite interface.

Buss, H.L.; Sak, P.B.; Webb, S.M.; Brantley, S.L.

2009-05-12

351

A landscape-scale assessment of nutrient limitation in the tropical forests of Luquillo, Puerto Rico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The nature and extent of nutrient limitation in tropical forest primary production has been explored for decades, but empirical data of growth responses to nutrient additions remains sparse. Forest fertilization, while appropriate for exploring plot-scale limitation, has only been implemented in a few sites, and does not lend itself to assessment of the multiple gradients in soil fertility and forest community composition that typify most tropical landscapes. For this reason, little is known about how nutrient limitation varies across tropical landscapes, or how biotic and abiotic factors influence this variation. Here we report on the results of a fertilized root ingrowth core experiment deployed across contrasts in soil parent material and topographic position in the Luquillo Mountains of eastern Puerto Rico. In June 2012, we placed 480 fertilized ingrowth cores filled with a mixture of silica sand and perlite in 8 sub-watersheds in El Yunque National Forest--4 underlain by quartz diorite and 4 by volcaniclastic bedrock. We selected sites to control for forest community type and mean annual precipitation. Fertilizer was supplied by adding pre-loaded weak anion and cation resin beads loaded with NH4+ or PO43- to each core. This technique produced elevated levels of available N and P after two months in the field, and avoided the problem of adding a counter ion (typically Na or K) with the P fertilizer treatment. Within each sub-watershed, we placed 10 cores each of control and both nutrient treatments at each topographic position. We retrieved the cores in January 2013 and quantified the mass of roots (<2mm) that grew into each core. Our data show no significant root growth response to either nutrient relative to control. There are three possible interpretations of our results. First, root ingrowth in Luquillo may only be stimulated by the addition of N and P together. Second, addition of some other nutrient (K, Ca, etc.) might promote root ingrowth, but not N or P. Finally, it is possible that root biomass, which may be dominated by a few large roots, may not be an appropriate metric for root response to fertilization. While root ingrowth experiments in other systems have shown increased mass in fertilized cores, our results are consistent with whole- plot fertilization in El Yunque that produced no response of NPP to N addition.

Sullivan, C. A.; Goldsmith, S. T.; Porder, S.

2013-12-01

352

Development of a questionnaire to assess the determinants of exercise among breast cancer survivors in Puerto Rico.  

PubMed

The Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) serves to understand determinants that predict the intention to exercise. According to this theory, attitudes, subjective norms, and perceptions of behavioral control determine intention. This is the first theory-based tool designed to measure the determinants of exercise among women in Puerto Rico who are breast cancer survivors. Understanding the determinants will assist in planning theory based interventions. The purpose of this study was to develop a TPB-based questionnaire to assess the determinants of exercise of breast cancer survivors in Puerto Rico and to evaluate its psychometric properties. Quantitative and qualitative methods were used for questionnaire development and psychometric testing. Three independent samples were recruited for the phases of item generation, pilot testing, and evaluation of psychometric properties. An initial 97-item questionnaire was constructed. Test-retest reliability was assessed for the indirect subscales; six items were found unreliable and removed. For the direct subscales, seven items with item-to-total correlations <0.30 were removed. The final version consisted of 84 items, with Cronbach's ? ranging from 0.65 to 0.89. Construct validity was demonstrated by significant, fair-to-moderate correlations of all but one of the direct subscales and the multiplied scores of the indirect subscales of similar constructs. PMID:23244037

Mulero-Portela, Ana L; Santaella, Carmen L Coln; Gmez, Cynthia Cruz

2013-07-01

353

Development of a field test environment for the validation of coastal remote sensing algorithms: Enrique Reef, Puerto Rico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Remote sensing is increasingly being used as a tool to quantitatively assess the location, distribution and relative health of coral reefs and other shallow aquatic ecosystems. As the use of this technology continues to grow and the analysis products become more sophisticated, there is an increasing need for comprehensive ground truth data as a means to assess the algorithms being developed. The University of Puerto Rico at Mayaguez (UPRM), one of the core partners in the NSF sponsored Center for Subsurface Sensing and Imaging Systems (CenSSIS), is addressing this need through the development of a fully-characterized field test environment on Enrique Reef in southwestern Puerto Rico. This reef area contains a mixture of benthic habitats, including areas of seagrass, sand, algae and coral, and a range of water depths, from a shallow reef flat to a steeply sloping forereef. The objective behind the test environment is to collect multiple levels of image, field and laboratory data with which to validate physical models, inversion algorithms, feature extraction tools and classification methods for subsurface aquatic sensing. Data collected from Enrique Reef currently includes airborne, satellite and field-level hyperspectral and multispectral images, in situ spectral signatures, water bio-optical properties and information on habitat composition and benthic cover. We present a summary of the latest results from Enrique Reef, discuss our concept of an open testbed for the remote sensing community and solicit other users to utilize the data and participate in ongoing system development.

Goodman, James A.; Vlez-Reyes, Miguel; Hunt, Shawn; Armstrong, Roy

2006-09-01

354

Secondary forest succession and tree planting at the Laguna Cartagena and Cabo Rojo wildlife refuges in southwestern Puerto Rico.  

PubMed

Secondary forest succession and tree planting are contributing to the recovery of the Cabo Rojo refuge (Headquarters and Salinas tracts) and Laguna Cartagena refuge (Lagoon and Tinaja tracts) of the Fish and Wildlife Service in southwestern Puerto Rico. About 80 species, mainly natives, have been planted on 44 ha during the past 25 y in an effort to reduce the threat of grass fires and to restore wildlife habitat. A 2007 survey of 9-y-old tree plantings on the Lagoon tract showed satisfactory growth rates for 16 native species. Multiple stems from individual trees at ground level were common. A sampling of secondary forest on the entire 109 ha Tinaja tract disclosed 141 native tree species, or 25% of Puerto Rico's native tree flora, along with 20 exotics. Five tree species made up about 58% of the total basal area, and seven species were island endemics. Between 1998 and 2003, tree numbers and basal area, as well as tree heights and diameter at breast height values (diameter at 1.4 m above the ground), increased on the lower 30 ha of the Tinaja tract. In this area, much of it subject to fires and grazing through 1996, exotic trees made up 25% of the species. Dry forest throughout the tropics is an endangered habitat, and its recovery (i.e., in biomass, structure, and species composition) at Tinaja may exceed 500 y. Future forests, however, will likely contain some exotics. PMID:19205183

Weaver, Peter L; Schwagerl, Joseph J

2008-12-01

355

The Spanish of Ponce, Puerto Rico: A Phonetic, Phonological, and Intonational Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates four aspects of Puerto Rican Spanish as represented in the Autonomous Municipality of Ponce: the behavior of coda /[alveolar flap]/, the behavior of /r/, the different realizations of coda /s/, and its intonational phonology. Previous studies on Puerto Rican Spanish report that coda /[alveolar flap]/ is normally realized as

Luna, Kenneth Vladimir

2010-01-01

356

Hydrogeology and hydrology of the Punta Cabullones wetland area, Ponce, southern Puerto Rico, 2007-08  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Municipio Autnomo de Ponce and the Puerto Rico Department of Natural and Environmental Resources, conducted a study of the hydrogeology and hydrology of the Punta Cabullones area in Ponce, southern Puerto Rico. (Punta Cabullones is also referred to as Punta Cabulln.) The Punta Cabullones area is about 9 square miles and is an ecological system made up of a wetland, tidal flats, saltflats, mangrove forests, and a small fringing reef located a short distance offshore. The swales or depressions between successive beach ridges became development avenues for saline to hypersaline wetlands. The Punta Cabullones area was designated by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service as a coastal barrier in the 1980s because of its capacity to act as a buffer zone to ameliorate the impacts of natural phenomenon such as storm surges. Since 2003, Punta Cabullones has been set aside for preservation as part of the mitigation effort mandated by Federal and State laws to compensate for the potential environmental effects that might be caused by the construction of the Las Amricas Transshipment Port. Total rainfall measured during 2008 within the Punta Cabullones area was 36 inches, which is slightly greater than the long-term annual average of 32 inches for the coastal plain near Ponce. Two evapotranspiration estimates, 29 and 37 inches, were obtained for the subarea of the Punta Cabullones area that is underlain by fan-delta and alluvial deposits by using two variants of the Penman semi-empirical equation. The long-term water stage and chemical character of the wetland in Punta Cabullones are highly dependent on the seasonal and annual variations of both rainfall and sea-wave activity. Also, unseasonal short-term above-normal rainfall and sea-wave events resulting from passing storms may induce substantial changes in the water stage and the chemical character of the wetland. In general, tidal fluctuations exert a minor role in modifying the water quality and stage of the wetland in Punta Cabullones. The role of the tidal fluctuations becomes important during those times when the outlets/inlets to the sea are not blocked by a sand bar and is allowed to freely flow into the wetland interior. The salinity of the wetland varies from brackish to hypersaline. The hypersaline conditions, including the occurrence of saltflats, within the Punta Cabullones wetland area result from a high evapotranspiration rate. The hypersaline conditions are further enhanced by a sand bar that blocks the inlet/outlet of the wetlands easternmost channel, particularly during the dry season. Groundwater in Punta Cabullones mostly is present within beds of silisiclastic sand and gravel. During the study period, the depth to groundwater did not exceed 4 feet below land surface. The movement and direction of the groundwater flow in Punta Cabullones are driven by density variations that in turn result from the wide range of salinities in the groundwater. The salinity of the groundwater decreases within the first 60 to 100 feet of depth and decreases outward from a mound of hypersaline groundwater centered on piezometer nest PN2. The main groundwater types within the Punta Cabullones area vary from calcium-bicarbonate type in the northernmost part of the study area to a predominantly sodium-potassium-chloride groundwater type southward. According to stable-isotope data, groundwater within the study area is both modern meteoric water and seawater highly affected by evaporation. The chemical and stable-isotopic character of local groundwater is highly influenced by evapotranspiration because of its shallow depth. Equivalent freshwater heads indicate groundwater moves away from a mound centered on piezometer nest PN2, in a pattern similar to the spatial distribution of groundwater salinity. Vertical groundwater flow occurs in Punta Cabullones due to local differences in density. In the wetland subarea of Punta Cabullones, groundwater and surface water are hydraulically coupled. Locally, surface-hypersaline water sinks into

Rodrguez-Martnez, Jess; Soler-Lpez, Luis R.

2014-01-01

357

19 CFR 7.1 - Puerto Rico; spirits and wines withdrawn from warehouse for shipment to; duty on foreign-grown...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...for shipment to; duty on foreign-grown coffee. 7.1 Section 7.1 Customs Duties...for shipment to; duty on foreign-grown coffee. (a) When spirits and wines are...shall be made for all foreign-grown coffee shipped to Puerto Rico from the...

2010-04-01

358

Designing an experimental HIV\\/HCV intervention to promote the safe re-use of drug preparation materials by injection drug users in Puerto Rico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Injection drug users (IDUs) in San Juan, Puerto Rico are characterized by high rates of daily injecting, injection of shared drugs, re-use of injection syringes, and use of shooting galleries. They lack adequate access to new injection syringes and drug preparation equipment, and experience elevated rates of HIV and HCV infection. Between April and August, 2006, researchers and active IDUs

H Ann Finlinson; Hctor M Coln; Juan Negrn; Rafaela R Robles

2008-01-01

359

Ideology in Literature: Images of Social Relationships within Puerto Rico's Historical Context in "Isolda's Mirror," a Short Story by Rosario Ferre.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the ideology contained in Caribbean literature as influenced by Marxism, feminism, politics, and the fragmented sociopolitical history of the region. Examines the short story "Isolda's Mirror" as it relates to the new socioeconomic system in Puerto Rico caused by industrialization and the resulting political and economic dependency on

Gutierrez, Mariela

1992-01-01

360

In Ponce, Puerto Rico, mask makers use papier-mch (shredded paper and glue) to create special masks for the Carnival.  

E-print Network

or string to hold your mask in place 10. Paper towels to clean up! Materials You will need to gatherIn Ponce, Puerto Rico, mask makers use papier-mâché (shredded paper and glue) to create special pieces of posterboard or cardboard (Approximately 12" by 14") 2. 10"­12" disposable paper dinner plate

Mathis, Wayne N.

361

Understanding Optimal Nutrition Among Women of Childbearing Age in the United States and Puerto Rico: Employing Formative Research to Lay the Foundation for National Birth Defects Prevention Campaigns  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neural tube defects (NTDs) are serious birth defects of the brain and spine that affect approximately 3,000 pregnancies in the United States each year and affected 404 pregnancies in Puerto Rico from 1996 to 2002. Consuming the B vitamin folic acid can reduce the incidence of NTDs 50%70%, and recent efforts to reduce NTD rates have focused on increasing the

Lisa L. Massi Lindsey; Heather C. Hamner; Christine E. Prue; Alina L. Flores; Diana Valencia; Elia Correa-Sierra; Jenifer E. Kopfman

2007-01-01

362

A Bayesian Belief Network Approach to Explore Alternative Decisions for Sediment Control and water Storage Capacity at Lago Lucchetti, Puerto Rico  

EPA Science Inventory

A Bayesian belief network (BBN) was developed to characterize the effects of sediment accumulation on the water storage capacity of Lago Lucchetti (located in southwest Puerto Rico) and to forecast the life expectancy (usefulness) of the reservoir under different management scena...

363

Impact of a Workshop on Physiological Sciences in Public High School Students in Puerto Rico - PhUn Week Poster Session EB 2011  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This poster describes a Physiology Understanding (PhUn) Week activity performed with high school students focusing on the Nervous, Cardiovascular, and Respiratory Systems. This poster was presented at the PhUn Week Poster Session, Experimental Biology 2011, by Jose O. Garcia, University of Puerto Rico Medical Sciences Campus.

2011-05-07

364

A Comparison of Two Above-Ground Biomass Estimation Techniques Integrating Satellite-Based Remotely Sensed Data and Ground Data for Tropical and Semiarid Forests in Puerto Rico  

EPA Science Inventory

Two above-ground forest biomass estimation techniques were evaluated for the United States Territory of Puerto Rico using predictor variables acquired from satellite based remotely sensed data and ground data from the U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Inventory Analysis (FIA)...

365

The Puerto Rico Weather Camp 2012 is a summer experience hosted by the NOAA Center for Atmospheric Sciences at UPR Mayagez (UPRM) and co-sponsored by the  

E-print Network

The Puerto Rico Weather Camp 2012 is a summer experience hosted by the NOAA Center for Atmospheric about diverse topics including the complex tropical weather and climate phenomena, the atmosphere observation, and many others. Participants also get to interact with scientists, National Weather Service

Gilbes, Fernando

366

Analysis of Upper Air, Ground and Remote Sensing Data for the Atlas Field Campaign in San Juan, Puerto Rico  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The general climate of the island of Puerto Rico is dominated by the easterly trade winds from the Atlantic Ocean, and during synoptically calm days by the topographic and local land surface characteristics [1]. The urban canopy of the metropolitan area of San Juan, capital city of the Island, may introduce a new microclimate that changes the characteristics of the low atmosphere and interacts with the other microclimates already present in the island. The primitive land cover and land use (LCLU) of the metropolitan area of San Juan was composed by broadleaf trees, moist soils, and very dense vegetation in general. The urban LCLU changes the balance for the mass, momentum and energy between the bottom boundary and the lower atmosphere, creating different climate conditions over urban and rural regions. Some of these differences are low relative humidity and high temperatures observed in urban areas when compared to rural areas. These in turn produces a convective circulation over the urban areas, a phenomenon compared to the sea and land breezes, commonly known as heat islands (UHI). Factors that contribute to the formation of the UHI are anthropogenic heat sources, aerosols from pollutants, fast water canalization due to the presence of buildings and streets, among others. The comparison between urban and rural climates is the most common approach to analyze the UHI. These contrasts are larger in clear and calm conditions and tend to disappear in cloudy and windy weather. The UHI was recognized in the early 1950 s as closed isotherms that separates the city from the general temperature field [2]. The impact of the urban LCLU in San Juan, Puerto Rico, was quantified calculating the difference between historical data sets for the air temperature over an identified urban area and a rural area dT(U-R). The analysis of the climatological data revealed that a UHI exists in the metropolitan area of San Juan, Puerto Rico. The data reveals a permanent urban heat island effect present in the SJMA during the year, which is increasing at a rate of 0.41oC/decade. These findings encouraged the planning and execution of an intense field campaign in February 2004 referred as the ATLAS San Juan mission. The focus of the remaining of this report is the analysis of the data for this field campaign.

Gonzalez-Cruz, Jorge E.

2005-01-01

367

Stabilization of diverse microbial residues in California and Puerto Rico Forest Soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The contribution of C from the turnover of diverse microorganisms to stable C pools remains poorly understood. This study follows the turnover of 13C labeled nonliving residues from diverse microbial groups in situ in a temperate forest in California (CA) and a tropical forest in Puerto Rico (PR), during 5 sampling points per site- over a 3 and 2 year period, respectively. Microbial groups include fungi, actinomycetes, Gm(+) bacteria, and Gm(-) bacteria, isolated from CA and PR soils to obtain temperate and tropical isolates. Results indicated that, despite unique biochemical makeup among groups as determined by Py-GC-MS, microbial residues exhibited similar mean residence times (MRTs) within each site. A density fractionation approach isolated: a "light fraction" (LF), non-mineral aggregate "occluded fraction" (OF), and a "mineral bound fraction" (MF). Microbial C inputs were more stable in the OF and MF than the LF throughout the course of the study at both sites. There were no significant differences in 13C recovery among microbes in any PR fractions, despite minor differences in overall MRTs. In CA, there were some significant differences in 13C recovery among microbial inputs in the LF and OF, which related to 13C recoveries in whole soils. In the CA MF, microbial recoveries did not differ, and low variability among treatments was observed. Results support increased protection of microbial C via association with the mineral matrix; however, differential sorption of some microbial isolates over others was not observed. Overall results suggest that inherent recalcitrance of microbial residues may be more important to determining its stability in CA soils when it is 1) unassociated with the mineral matrix (LF); or 2) occluded within aggregates; compared with that strongly associated with mineral surfaces (MF). The overall composition of SOM in fractions also differed, with a greater concentration of benzene and N compounds in the MF; lignin and phenol compounds in the LF; and aliphatics in the OF. Such differences among fractions in OM chemistry suggest unique stabilization mechanisms for the distinct SOM pools. SOM chemistry was most similar in the LF across sites, compared with the OF and MF, suggesting that differences in SOM chemistry between sites may be more attributed to differential decomposition processes rather than unique litter quality inputs. Compound-specific turnover for temperate fungal isolates suggested conservation and transformation of compounds from input residues. A greater 13C enrichment of N-compounds and polysaccharides in soils relative to other compounds indicated that the composition of original inputs continued to influence the chemistry of residual and/or decomposition products, even after 2 and 3 years in CA and PR, respectively. Evidence for transformation of input compounds was observed in the form of 13C enrichment of novel compounds in soils (that were not present in original residues). Further, several compounds exhibited little change to an increase in 13C/12C over time in soils, serving as further evidence for differential stability of unique compounds at the molecular level.

Throckmorton, H.; Bird, J.; Dane, L.; Firestone, M.; Horwath, W.

2012-04-01

368

Apatite Weathering and Phosphorus Availability in Deep Regolith, Luquillo Mountains, Puerto Rico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rapid weathering and erosion rates in mountainous tropical watersheds lead to highly variable soil and saprolite thicknesses which in turn impact nutrient fluxes and biological populations. Here we investigate the weathering of primary minerals containing iron and phosphorous and the role of resident microorganisms in the cycling of these elements in the deep regolith of the Rio Icacos watershed in the Luquillo Experimental Forest, a tropical montane rainforest in northeastern Puerto Rico. In the Rio Icacos watershed, which has one of the fastest documented chemical weathering rates of granitic rocks in the world, the quartz diorite bedrock weathers spheroidally, producing a complex interface comprised of partially weathered rock layers called rindlets. This rindlet zone (about 0.2-3 m thick) is overlain by saprolite (2-8 m) topped by soil (0.5-1 m). Samples were taken from cores augered to 7.5 m on a ridgetop. The profile included about 5 m of regolith (soil \\p saprolite), and more than 2.5 m of rindlets. A 0.5 m thick rindlet zone was also sampled in a nearby roadcut. Weathering reactions of primary minerals were examined in thin sections made from rindlets. Total chemistry was measured on all solid samples and Fe, Fe(II), and P were measured in 0.1 M NaOH and 0.5 M HCl extractions performed on augered samples. NaOH-extractable P was assumed to include inorganic and organic P that is bioavailable on both short and long timescales including P associated with secondary Fe(III)- (hydro)oxides. Concentrations of NaOH-extractable P are very low throughout the regolith but increase significantly in the rindlet zone (below 5 m depth). Residual P, believed to include primary apatite and occluded, resistant organic and inorganic forms of P, generally increases with depth. Below 5 m depth, this fraction of P is near zero. Solid-state reaction rates can be calculated for minerals in a weathering profile from the elemental distribution in the profile. Here we quantify a weathering rate for apatite using the P distribution across the rindlet zone in the Rio Icacos watershed. The resulting rate of apatite weathering is 1.1 x 10-14 mol m-2 s-1. In the road cut rindlet sequence, apatite dissolves over the entire 0.5 m rindlet zone, beginning just above the un-weathered bedrock. The high concentrations of P in the NaOH extracts from the rindlet zone samples indicate that the P released during apatite weathering remains relatively accessible within this zone and in the deepest overlying saprolite. HCl-extractable total Fe and Fe(II) follow a similar trend to NaOH-extractable P except in the soil zone (0- 0.5 m), where Fe concentrations are relatively high. In the soil zone, low P concentrations in all measured fractions probably indicate intense biological scavenging of P. High densities of microorganisms in the soil decrease with depth in the regolith, but increase again near the bedrock interface. Nutrient and biological cycles in the deep saprolite profiles are decoupled between the surface layers and the saprolite-bedrock interface zone. While surface communities depend on re-cycled nutrients and atmospheric inputs, deep communities survive primarily off of nutrients released by the weathering bedrock and thus are tightly coupled to processes related to saprolite formation including mineral weathering. Extremely low available P may limit microbial growth within the saprolite, leading to the decoupling of surface and deep communities.

Buss, H. L.; Williams, J. Z.; White, A. F.; Brantley, S. L.

2007-05-01

369

Case Series of Fatal Leptospira spp./Dengue Virus Co-Infections-Puerto Rico, 2010-2012.  

PubMed

Co-infection with pathogens that cause acute febrile illness creates a diagnostic challenge as a result of overlapping clinical manifestations. Here, we describe four fatal cases of Leptospira species/dengue virus co-infection in Puerto Rico. Although all patients sought care early, antibiotic administration was delayed for most. Steroids were administered to all patients, in most cases before antibiotics. These cases show the need for clinicians evaluating patients in or recently returned from the tropics with acute febrile illness to consider both dengue and leptospirosis. Furthermore, they illustrate the need for nucleic acid- or antigen-based rapid diagnostic tests to enable timely patient diagnosis and management. In particular, antibiotic therapy should be initiated early for patients with suspected leptospirosis, and steroids should not be administered to patients with suspected dengue. PMID:25092820

Prez Rodrguez, Nicole M; Galloway, Renee; Blau, Dianna M; Traxler, Rita; Bhatnagar, Julu; Zaki, Sherif R; Rivera, Aidsa; Torres, Jose V; Noyd, David; Santiago-Albizu, Xavier E; Garca, Brenda Rivera; Tomashek, Kay M; Bower, William A; Sharp, Tyler M

2014-10-01

370

A gharial from the Oligocene of Puerto Rico: transoceanic dispersal in the history of a non-marine reptile  

PubMed Central

The Indian gharial (Gavialis gangeticus) is not found in saltwater, but the geographical distribution of fossil relatives suggests a derivation from ancestors that lived in, or were at least able to withstand, saline conditions. Here, we describe a new Oligocene gharial, Aktiogavialis puertoricensis, from deltaiccoastal deposits of northern Puerto Rico. It is related to a clade of Neogene gharials otherwise restricted to South America. Its geological and geographical settings, along with its phylogenetic relationships, are consistent with two scenarios: (i) that a single trans-Atlantic dispersal event during the Tertiary explains the South American Neogene gharial assemblage and (ii) that stem gharials were coastal animals and their current restriction to freshwater settings is a comparatively recent environmental shift for the group. This discovery highlights the importance of including fossil information in a phylogenetic context when assessing the ecological history of modern organisms. PMID:17341454

Vlez-Juarbe, Jorge; Brochu, Christopher A; Santos, Hernn

2007-01-01

371

HIV-Testing Practices and a History of Substance Use among Women Living in Public Housing in Puerto Rico  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between HIV testing practices and history of substance use among a large sample of women living in public housing in Puerto Rico and the relationships among HIV testing and history of substance abuse. A total of 1138 women were surveyed between April and August 2006 using a self-administered survey instrument. A total of 82% of the women in the sample group reported a history of HIV testing. Logistic regression analysis revealed that those with a history of alcohol use, marijuana use, and other illicit drug use were more likely to report a history of HIV testing (P < .05). These findings suggest the possibility that women who engage in riskier behaviors may be aware of these risks and therefore make more of an effort to determine their status. Future studies should, however, further examine the risks among women from subpopulations who may be at high risk for HIV. PMID:21508299

Norman, Lisa R.; Devieux, Jessy G.; Rosenberg, Rhonda; Malow, Robert M.

2014-01-01

372

Cervical human papillomavirus infection in a sample of Hispanic women living in Puerto Rico: Comparison with cervical cytology reports  

PubMed Central

Objective Persistent infection with high-risk (HR) HPV is a necessary risk factor for the development of cervical cancer. Information on HPV infection is limited in Puerto Rico. This study determined the distribution of HPV types and the association of HR-HPV types with cervical pathology in a clinic-based sample of women in PR. Methods Data from 92 female participants aged 18 to 34 years and recruited from the University of Puerto Rico-Gynecology Clinic, were analyzed. Cervical cytology was performed. HPV testing was performed using L1 consensus primer PCR with MY09/MY11 primers and typed by dot-blot hybridization. Logistic regression modeling was used to determine the crude and covariate adjusted association between HR-HPV and cervical pathology. Results Twenty percent (n=18) of the patients had abnormal cytology, 45.7% (n=42) were HPV positive, and 30.4% (n=28) were HR HPV-positive. Women infected with HR-risk HPV types were 7.9 (95% CI = 2.525.5) times likely to have abnormal cytology as compared to women without HR infection when adjusted by age and age at first sexual intercourse. Conclusions The burden of HPV infection was high, and, as expected, HR HPVs were strongly associated with dysplasia. A population-based study is needed to estimate HPV prevalence and its association with related malignancies in our population. This will be of great value in determining disease burden and will increase awareness of the HPV vaccination in our population. PMID:23556259

Mendez, Keimari; Romaguera, Josefina; Perez, Cynthia M; Soto-Salgado, Marievelisse; Tortolero-Luna, Guillermo; Palefsky, Joel M.; Ortiz, Ana P

2013-01-01

373

Feeding preferences of West Indian manatees in Florida, Belize, and Puerto Rico as indicated by stable isotope analysis  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The endangered West Indian manatee Trichechus manatus has 2 recognized subspecies: the Florida T. m. latirostris and Antillean T. m. manatus manatee, both of which are found in freshwater, estuarine, and marine habitats. A better understanding of manatee feeding preferences and habitat use is essential to establish criteria on which conservation plans can be based. Skin from manatees in Florida, Belize, and Puerto Rico, as well as aquatic vegetation from their presumed diet, were analyzed for stable carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios. This is the first application of stable isotope analysis to Antillean manatees. Stable isotope ratios for aquatic vegetation differed by plant type (freshwater, estuarine, and marine), collection location, and in one instance, season. Carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios for manatee skin differed between collection location and in one instance, season, but did not differ between sex or age class. Signatures in the skin of manatees sampled in Belize and Puerto Rico indicated a diet composed primarily of seagrasses, whereas those of Florida manatees exhibited greater regional variation. Mixing model results indicated that manatees sampled from Crystal River and Homosassa Springs (Florida, USA) ate primarily freshwater vegetation, whereas manatees sampled from Big Bend Power Plant, Ten Thousand Islands, and Warm Mineral Springs (Florida) fed primarily on seagrasses. Possible diet-tissue discrimination values for 15N were estimated to range from 1.0 to 1.5 per mil. Stable isotope analysis can be used to interpret manatee feeding behavior over a long period of time, specifically the use of freshwater vegetation versus seagrasses, and can aid in identifying critical habitats and improving conservation efforts.

Alves-Stanley, Christy D.; Worthy, Graham A.J.; Bonde, Robert K.

2010-01-01

374

State Alcoholism Profile Information System (SAPIS) National Status Report Update. Volume II. New Hampshire through Wyoming, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, Guam, American Samoa, and the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The states of New Hampshire through Wyoming are covered in this volume of the report, as are the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, Guam, American Samoa, and the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands.

1978-01-01

375

Adaptation and Validation of the Spanish-Language Trauma Symptom Inventory in Puerto Rico  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: This research was conducted to assess the Spanish-language Trauma Symptom Inventory's (Briere, 1995) suitability for use with a Puerto Rican sample. Minor revisions were made to the original instrument following a comprehensive appraisal involving a bilingual committee and pilot focus group. The present study outlines the review and

Gutierrez Wang, Lisa; Cosden, Merith; Bernal, Guillermo

2011-01-01

376

Soil Erosion Calculation using Remote Sensing and GIS in Ro Grande de Arecibo Watershed, Puerto Rico  

E-print Network

Soil Erosion Calculation using Remote Sensing and GIS in Río Grande de Arecibo Watershed, Puerto potentials in the watershed where exist major erosion and to establishment a program to watershed management. Soil erosion assessment is a capital-intensive and time-consuming exercise. A number of parametric

Gilbes, Fernando

377

Floods, Habitat Hydraulics and Upstream Migration of Neritina virginea (Gastropoda: Neritidae) in Northeastern Puerto Rico  

E-print Network

Floods, Habitat Hydraulics and Upstream Migration of Neritina virginea (Gastropoda: Neritidae a detailed study of snail density, size, and hydraulic descriptors in lower Río Mameyes, northeastern Puerto and size dynamics differed between reaches as a function of habitat hydraulics. While juveniles used

378

Fishing a superfund site: Dissonance and risk perception of environmental hazards by fishermen in Puerto Rico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Risk perception studies show that individuals tend to underestimate significant risks, overestimate negligible ones, and distrust authorities. They also rely on a variety of strategies or heuristics to reach decisions regarding their risk-taking behavior. The authors report on a survey of fishermen and crabbers engaged in recreational and substance fishing in a Puerto Rican estuary (near Humacao), which has been

Joanna Burger; Michael Gochfeld

1991-01-01

379

Puerto Rico State Project for Children Who Are Deaf-Blind. Final Performance Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This final report discusses the activities and outcomes of a project designed to provide technical assistance to Puerto Rican public and private agencies, institutions, and organizations providing early intervention, educational, transitional, vocational, early identification, and related services to children with deaf-blindness, to ensure that

Puerto Rico State Dept. of Education, San Juan. Office of Special Education.

380

Performance evaluation and simulation of a Compound Parabolic Concentrator (CPC) trough Solar Thermal Power Plant in Puerto Rico under solar transient conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The increasing fossil fuel costs as well as the need to move in a somewhat sustainable future has led the world in a quest for exploiting the free and naturally available energy from the Sun to produce electric power, and Puerto Rico is no exception. This thesis proposes the design of a simulation model for the analysis and performance evaluation of a Solar Thermal Power Plant in Puerto Rico and suggests the use of the Compound Parabolic Concentrator as the solar collector of choice. Optical and thermal analysis of such collectors will be made using local solar radiation data for determining the viability of this proposed project in terms of the electric power produced and its cost.

Feliciano-Cruz, Luisa I.

381

Ethnicity and genetics are more important than diabetes mellitus and hypertension in producing cardiovascular events in patients with the metabolic syndrome: emphasis in the Puerto Rico population.  

PubMed

Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of risk factors for cardiovascular disease that affects an estimated 50 million Americans. The present article reviews the metabolic syndrome with respect to its definition, epidemiology, pathophysiology and management. A primary focus in research has been to elucidate the processes determined to cause insulin resistance, the fundamental mechanism underlying the metabolic syndrome. Namely, the incidence, component characteristics and complications of the metabolic syndrome in the island of Puerto Rico are described alongside the fact that the metabolic syndrome may be milder in Puerto Rico than in the mainland United States because it is characterized by less aggressive coronary disease and a relatively normal lipid profile. This suggests that the cardiovascular complications are more influenced by genetics and culture than diabetes mellitus and hypertension. PMID:24282924

Altieri, Pablo I; Marcial, Jos M; Banchs, Hctor; Escobales, Nelson; Crespo, Mara

2013-01-01

382

Connectivity of tropical marine ecosystems--An overview of interdisciplinary research to understand biodiversity and trophic relationships in the Virgin Islands and Puerto Rico  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Virgin Islands and Puerto Rico contain marine reserves and protected areas that encompass a variety of tropical ecosystems, including coral reefs, mangroves, and seagrass beds. Reserves and protected areas are established for a variety of reasons, such as preserving nursery habitats and biodiversity, or reducing anthropogenic effects associated with pollution and land use. Questions remain regarding the effectiveness of these designated areas in preserving and protecting spatially connected habitats and associated fishes and invertebrates. Scientists from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), University of Florida, and Arkansas State University are collaborating on interdisciplinary research in the Virgin Islands and Puerto Rico to examine the biodiversity and trophic dynamics of fishes and invertebrates residing in connected mangroves, seagrasses, and coral reefs to discern the effectiveness of current marine reserves and protected areas for conserving reef resources.

McClain-Counts, Jennifer P.; Demopoulos, Amanda W.J.

2012-01-01

383

Technical Report of the NAEP Mathematics Assessment in Puerto Rico: Focus on Statistical Issues. Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics, Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 2003, a trial National Assessment of Educational Progress mathematics assessment was administered in Spanish to public school students in grades 4 and 8 in Puerto Rico. On the basis of preliminary analyses of the 2003 data, changes were made in administration and translation procedures for 2005. This report describes the content and administration of the trial assessments in Puerto

G. P. Baxter; S. Ahmed; E. Sikali; T. Waits; M. Sloan; S. Salvucci

2007-01-01

384

INTEGRACIN DE TECNOLOGA DE PERCEPCIN REMOTA Y GIS EN LA GENERACIN DEL MAPA DE USO DE SUELO PARA PUERTO RICO 2010  

E-print Network

INTEGRACI?N DE TECNOLOGÍA DE PERCEPCI?N REMOTA Y GIS EN LA GENERACI?N DEL MAPA DE USO DE SUELO aplicada para la generación del mapa de uso de suelo para Puerto Rico para el año 2010. La para el año 2010 y una comparación de los cambios de uso de suelo entre el año 2003 y 2010. #12;

Gilbes, Fernando

385

Interactive effects of native and exotic earthworms on resource use and nutrient mineralization in a tropical wet forest soil of Puerto Rico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investigation of single or mixed assemblages of native Estherella sp. and exotic Pontoscolex corethrurus from a rain forest in Puerto Rico was undertaken to understand resource use patterns, and linkages with C and N mineralization in a 19-day incubation. Resource use was explored with addition of 15N-enriched leaf litter and 13C-enriched glucose to reconstructed organic and mineral soil horizons. Juvenile

S. L. Lachnicht; P. F. Hendrix; X. Zou

2002-01-01

386

Spatial distribution of the largest rainfall-runoff floods from basins between 2.6 and 26,000 km2 in the United States and Puerto Rico  

Microsoft Academic Search

We assess the spatial distribution of the largest rainfall-generated streamflows from a database of 35,663 flow records composed of the largest 10% of annual peak flows from each of 14,815 U.S. Geological Survey stream gaging stations in the United States and Puerto Rico. High unit discharges (peak discharge per unit contributing area) from basins with areas of 2.6 to 26,000

Jim E. O'Connor; John E. Costa

2004-01-01

387

Selected Hydrologic, Water-Quality, Biological, and Sedimentation Characteristics of Laguna Grande, Fajardo, Puerto Rico, March 2007-February 2009  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Laguna Grande is a 50-hectare lagoon in the municipio of Fajardo, located in the northeasternmost part of Puerto Rico. Hydrologic, water-quality, and biological data were collected in the lagoon between March 2007 and February 2009 to establish baseline conditions and determine the health of Laguna Grande on the basis of preestablished standards. In addition, a core of bottom material was obtained at one site within the lagoon to establish sediment depositional rates. Water-quality properties measured onsite (temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, specific conductance, and water transparency) varied temporally rather than areally. All physical properties were in compliance with current regulatory standards established for Puerto Rico. Nutrient concentrations were very low and in compliance with current regulatory standards (less than 5.0 and 1.0 milligrams per liter for total nitrogen and total phosphorus, respectively). The average total nitrogen concentration was 0.28 milligram per liter, and the average total phosphorus concentration was 0.02 milligram per liter. Chlorophyll a was the predominant form of photosynthetic pigment in the water. The average chlorophyll-a concentration was 6.2 micrograms per liter. Bottom sediment accumulation rates were determined in sediment cores by modeling the downcore activities of lead-210 and cesium-137. Results indicated a sediment depositional rate of about 0.44 centimeter per year. At this rate of sediment accretion, the lagoon may become a marshland in about 700 to 900 years. About 86 percent of the community primary productivity in Laguna Grande was generated by periphyton, primarily algal mats and seagrasses, and the remaining 14 percent was generated by phytoplankton in the water column. Based on the diel studies the total average net community productivity equaled 5.7 grams of oxygen per cubic meter per day (2.1 grams of carbon per cubic meter per day). Most of this productivity was ascribed to periphyton and macrophytes, which produced 4.9 grams of oxygen per cubic meter per day (1.8 grams of carbon per cubic meter per day). Phytoplankton, the plant and algal component of plankton, produced about 0.8 gram of oxygen per cubic meter per day (0.3 gram of carbon per cubic meter per day). The total diel community respiration rate was 23.4 grams of oxygen per cubic meter per day. The respiration rate ascribed to plankton, which consists of all free floating and swimming organisms in the water column, composed 10 percent of this rate (2.9 grams of oxygen per cubic meter per day); respiration by all other organisms composed the remaining 90 percent (20.5 grams of oxygen per cubic meter per day). Plankton gross productivity was 3.7 grams of oxygen per cubic meter per day, equivalent to about 13 percent of the average gross productivity for the entire community (29.1 grams of oxygen per cubic meter per day). The average phytoplankton biomass values in Laguna Grande ranged from 6.0 to 13.6 milligrams per liter. During the study, Laguna Grande contained a phytoplankton standing crop of approximately 5.8 metric tons. Phytoplankton community had a turnover (renewal) rate of about 153 times per year, or roughly about once every 2.5 days. Fecal indicator bacteria concentrations ranged from 160 to 60,000 colonies per 100 milliliters. Concentrations generally were greatest in areas near residential and commercial establishments, and frequently exceeded current regulatory standards established for Puerto Rico.

Soler-Lpez, Luis R.; Santos, Carlos R.

2010-01-01

388

Heavy metal and selenium levels in young cattle egrets from nesting colonies in the northeastern United States, Puerto Rico, and Egypt.  

PubMed

Colonially-nesting species of herons and egrets breed mainly in coastal areas, along rivers or near other large bodies of water. Such areas are also preferred for human development, exposing nesting birds to various pollutants. From 1989-1991, the concentrations of heavy metals and selenium were studied in the feathers of fledgling cattle egrets Bubulcus ibis, a terrestrially-feeding insectivore, from New York and Delaware in the northeastern United States, from Puerto Rico, and from Egypt. There were geographic differences in the concentrations of lead, mercury, cadmium, manganese, selenium, and chromium in the feathers of these egrets. Lead levels were 41 times higher in the feathers of cattle egrets from Cairo compared to the other sites. This difference was attributed to the continuing use of leaded gasoline and the dense automobile traffic in Cairo. However, other differences remain unexplained. Similarly, levels of chromium and manganese were also higher in Cairo than at any other sites. Cadmium levels were similar at all places except for higher levels in eastern Puerto Rico. Mercury concentrations were twelve times higher in the feathers of cattle egrets at Aswan compared to Cairo. In Puerto Rico, we also compared levels in adult cattle egrets with young and found higher concentrations of mercury and manganese, but lower concentrations of selenium in the adults. Using feathers from young cattle egrets is a potentially sensitive tool for biomonitoring for metals, especially lead, since they reflect the local area surrounding the breeding colony. PMID:1444587

Burger, J; Parsons, K; Benson, T; Shukla, T; Rothstein, D; Gochfeld, M

1992-11-01

389

Chemical weathering in a tropical watershed, Luquillo Mountains, Puerto Rico: I. Long-term versus short-term weathering fluxes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The pristine Rio Icacos watershed in the Luquillo Mountains in eastern Puerto Rico has the fastest documented weathering rate of silicate rocks on the Earth's surface. A regolith propagation rate of 58 m Ma-1 calculated from iso-volumetric saprolite formation from quartz diorite, is comparable to the estimated denudation rate (25-50 Ma-1) but is an order of magnitude faster than the global average weathering rate (6 Ma-1). Weathering occurs in two distinct environments; plagioclase and hornblende react at the saprock interface and biotite and quartz weather in the overlying thick saprolitic regolith. These environments produce distinctly different water chemistries, with K, Mg, and Si increasing linearly with depth in saprolite porewaters and with stream waters dominated by Ca, Na, and Si. Such differences are atypical of less intense weathering in temperate watersheds. Porewater chemistry in the shallow regolith is controlled by closed-system recycling of inorganic nutrients such as K. Long-term elemental fluxes through the regolith (e.g., Si = 1.7 ?? 10-8 moles m-2 s-1) are calculated from mass losses based on changes in porosity and chemistry between the regolith and bedrock and from the age of the regolith surface (200 Ma). Mass losses attributed to solute fluxes are determined using a step-wise infiltration model which calculates mineral inputs to the shallow and deep saprolite porewaters and to stream water. Pressure heads decrease with depth in the shallow regolith (-2.03 m H2O m-1), indicating that both increasing capillary tension and graviometric potential control porewater infiltration. Interpolation of experimental hydraulic conductivities produces an infiltration rate of 1 m yr-1 at average field moisture saturation which is comparable with LiBr tracer tests and with base discharge from the watershed. Short term weathering fluxes calculated from solute chemistries and infiltration rates (e.g., Si = 1.4 ?? 10-8 moles m-2 s-1) are compared to watershed flux rates (e.g., Si = 2.7 ?? 10-8 moles m-2 s-1). Consistency between three independently determined sets of weathering fluxes imply that possible changes in precipitation, temperature, and vegetation over the last several hundred thousand years have not significantly impacted weathering rates in the Luquillo Mountains of Puerto Rico. This has important ramifications for tropical environments and global climate change. Copyright ?? 1998 Elsevier Science Ltd.

White, A. F.; Blum, A. E.; Schulz, M. S.; Vivit, D. V.; Stonestrom, D. A.; Larsen, M.; Murphy, S. F.; Eberl, D.

1998-01-01

390

A frequent tyrosinase gene mutation associated with type I-A (tyroinase-negative) oculocutaneous albinism in Puerto Rico  

SciTech Connect

The authors have determined the mutations in the tyrosinase gene from 12 unrelated Puerto Rican individuals who have type I-A (tyrosinase-negative) oculocutaneous albinism (OCA). All but one individual are of Hispanic descent. Nine individuals were homozygous for a missense mutation (G47D) in exon I at codon 47. Two individuals were heterozygous for the G47D mutation, with one having a missense mutation at codon 373 (T373K) in the homologous allele and the other having an undetermined mutation in the homologous allele. One individual with negroid features was homozygous for a nonsense mutation (W236X). The population migration between Puerto Rico and the Canary Islands is well recognized. Analysis of three individuals with OCA from the Canary Islands showed that one was a compound heterozygote for the G47D mutation and for a novel missense mutation (L216M), one was homozygous for a missense mutation (P81L), and one was heterozygous for the missense mutation P81L. The G47D and P81L missense mutations have been previously described in extended families in the United States. Haplotypes were determined using four polymorphisms linked to the tyrosinase locus. Haplotype analysis showed that the G47D mutation occurred on a single haplotype, consistent with a common founder for all individuals having this mutation. Two different haplotypes were found associated with the P81L mutation, suggesting that this may be either a recurring mutation for the tyrosinase gene or a recombination between haplotypes. 28 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

Oetting, W.S.; Witkop, C.J. Jr.; Brown, S.A.; Fryer, J.P.; Bloom, K.E.; King, R.A. (Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis (United States)); Colomer, R. (Servicio Medico de Empressa de la ONCE, Canary Islands (Spain))

1993-01-01

391

Puerto Rico workshop on land-based sources of marine pollution in the wider Caribbean region. Held in San Huan, Puerto Rico on August 7-9, 1989. US man and the biosphere program  

SciTech Connect

The participants in the conference met August 7-9, 1989, in San Juan, Puerto Rico. The participants divided the report into four major sections, each succeeding section relying for inputs from the preceding sections. They are: inventory of land-based sources of marine pollution. The inventory, divided into point sources and non-point sources of pollutants, establishes the baseline data for dealing with marine pollution, impact of land-based sources of marine pollution. The extent of the impact of pollutants on the ecological and economic life dependent on the marine environment calls for scientific analyses involving the nature of the polluting substances as well as that of the receiving marine areas, development of tropical water quality and effluent standards. Tropical water quality criteria and standards provide essential analytical links between the use of marine waters and the control of marine pollution, and marine pollution control strategy. The means for managing land-based sources of marine pollution can be divided into utilizing marine water quality standards, effluent standards, environmental planning, and best management practices. The writers of the report dealt with only man-made pollution, which is distinct from natural pollution such as oil seepage through ancient fissures in the seabed.

Not Available

1990-04-01

392

Slow erosional response of a steep wet tropical mountain to a pulse of rock uplift in the Luquillo Critical Zone Observatory, Puerto Rico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Luquillo Critical Zone Observatory occupies a 15-km-wide, 1100-m-tall isolated massif at the eastern tip of Puerto Rico. The site receives up to 5,000 mm of annual precipitation over very steep slopes, which are covered by mature primary forests. Remnants of an uplifted, regionally extensive shore platform are perched at mid-elevations around the massif (Fig.1). Rivers flowing over quartz diorite systematically exhibit dramatic knickpoints that separate an upland relict landscape characterized by a thick saprolite and transport-limited streams, from highly dissected lower slopes, thinner soils and detachment-limited rivers. The knickpoint lips lie at the elevation of the uplifted platform and therefore likely represent erosion waves that nucleated at the coast following the uplift the platform millions of years ago. Highly degraded fault scarps and lack of detectable recent coastal uplift suggest that rock uplift has ended. Low erodibility of the quartz diorite combined with fine bedload grain size may account for the slow transmission of the erosional signal and for the persistence of these conspicuous knickpoints. We used Be-10 concentrations in river-borne quartz to compare denudation rates above and below the knickpoints. Integrated over 10-100 kyr, denudation rates are up to three times higher downstream. The change in erosion rate is associated with a change in the dominant erosional processes. Upstream of the knickpoint we observe a strong decoupling between slope erosion and ridge top erosion, which is not observed downstream. The knickpoints separate an upland dominated by chemical weathering from a downstream landscape dominated by mechanical weathering. Figure 1: Correlation between the elevation of the platform and knickpoints on rivers flowing over the quartz diorite

Brocard, G. Y.; Willenbring, J.; Scatena, F. N.

2013-12-01

393

The Puerto Rico Seismic Network Broadcast System: A user friendly GUI to broadcast earthquake messages, to generate shakemaps and to update catalogues  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Puerto Rico Seismic Network (PRSN) has historically provided locations and magnitudes for earthquakes in the Puerto Rico and Virgin Islands (PRVI) region. PRSN is the reporting authority for the region bounded by latitudes 17.0N to 20.0N, and longitudes 63.5W to 69.0W. The main objective of the PRSN is to record, process, analyze, provide information and research local, regional and teleseismic earthquakes, providing high quality data and information to be able to respond to the needs of the emergency management, academic and research communities, and the general public. The PRSN runs Earthworm software (Johnson et al, 1995) to acquire and write waveforms to disk for permanent archival. Automatic locations and alerts are generated for events in Puerto Rico, the Intra America Seas, and the Atlantic by the EarlyBird system (Whitmore and Sokolowski, 2002), which monitors PRSN stations as well as some 40 additional stations run by networks operating in North, Central and South America and other sites in the Caribbean. PRDANIS (Puerto Rico Data Analysis and Information System) software, developed by PRSN, supports manual locations and analyst review of automatic locations of events within the PRSN area of responsibility (AOR), using all the broadband, strong-motion and short-period waveforms Rapidly available information regarding the geographic distribution of ground shaking in relation to the population and infrastructure at risk can assist emergency response communities in efficient and optimized allocation of resources following a large earthquake. The ShakeMap system developed by the USGS provides near real-time maps of instrumental ground motions and shaking intensity and has proven effective in rapid assessment of the extent of shaking and potential damage after significant earthquakes (Wald, 2004). In Northern and Southern California, the Pacific Northwest, and the states of Utah and Nevada, ShakeMaps are used for emergency planning and response, loss estimation, and communication of earthquake information to the public. We develop a tool to help the PRSN personnel on duty with the generation of ShakeMaps for the felt events in Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. Automatic or reviewed locations came from different sources and the user can select the method to broadcast the message using several ways like direct email trough service lists, a server/client tool to push messages to a remote display client, generate shakemap web pages and update the catalogues.

Velez, J.; Huerfano, V.; von Hillebrandt, C.

2007-12-01

394

USGS48 Puerto Rico precipitation - a new isotopic reference material for ?(2)H and ?(18)O measurements of water.  

PubMed

A new secondary isotopic reference material has been prepared from Puerto Rico precipitation, which was filtered, homogenised, loaded into glass ampoules, sealed with a torch, autoclaved to eliminate biological activity, and calibrated by dual-inlet isotope-ratio mass spectrometry. This isotopic reference material, designated as USGS48, is intended to be one of two isotopic reference waters for daily normalisation of stable hydrogen (?(2)H) and stable oxygen (?(18)O) isotopic analysis of water with a mass spectrometer or a laser absorption spectrometer. The ?(2)H and ?(18)O values of this reference water are-2.00.4 and-2.2240.012 , respectively, relative to Vienna Standard Mean Ocean Water on scales normalised such that the ?(2)H and ?(18)O values of Standard Light Antarctic Precipitation reference water are-428 and-55.5 , respectively. Each uncertainty is an estimated expanded uncertainty (U=2uc) about the reference value that provides an interval that has about a 95% probability of encompassing the true value. This isotopic reference water is available by the case of 144 glass ampoules containing 5mL of water in each ampoule. PMID:24735353

Qi, Haiping; Coplen, Tyler B; Tarbox, Lauren; Lorenz, Jennifer M; Scholl, Martha

2014-12-01

395

The Use of ATLAS Data to Quantify Surface Radiative Budget Alteration Through Urbanization for San Juan, Puerto Rico.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The additional heating of the air over the city is the result of the replacement of naturally vegetated surfaces with those composed of asphalt, concrete, rooftops and other manmade materials. The temperatures of these artificial surfaces can be 20 to 40 0 C higher than vegetated surfaces. Materials such as asphalt store much of the sun s energy and remains hot long after sunset. This produces a dome of elevated air temperatures 5 to 8 C greater over the city, compared to the air temperatures over adjacent rural areas. This effect is called the "urban heat island". Urban landscapes are a complex mixture of vegetated and nonvegetated surfaces. It is difficult to take enough temperature measurements over a large city area to characterize the complexity of urban radiant surface temperature variability. However, the use of remotely sensed thermal data from airborne scanners are ideal for the task. The NASA Airborne Thermal and Land Applications Sensor (ATLAS) operates in the visual and IR bands was used in February 2004 to collect data from San Juan, Puerto Rico with the main objective of investigating the Urban Heat Island (UHI) in tropical cities. In this presentation we will examine the techniques of analyzing remotely sensed data for measuring the effect of various urban surfaces on their contribution to the urban heat island effect. Results from data collected from other US cities of Sacramento, Salt Lake City and Baton Rouge will be used to compare the "urban fabric" among the cities.

Luvall, Jeffrey C.; Rickman, Douglas L.; Gonzalez, Jorge; Schiller, Steve

2006-01-01

396

Testing the efficacy of an HIV stigma reduction intervention with medical students in Puerto Rico: the SPACES project  

PubMed Central

Introduction Stigma associated with HIV has been documented as a barrier for accessing quality health-related services. When the stigma manifests in the healthcare setting, people living with HIV receive substandard services or even be denied care altogether. Although the consequences of HIV stigma have been documented extensively, efforts to reduce these negative attitudes have been scarce. Interventions to reduce HIV stigma should be implemented as part of the formal training of future healthcare professionals. The interventions that have been tested with healthcare professionals and published have several limitations that must be surpassed (i.e., lack of comparison groups in research designs and longitudinal follow-up data). Furthermore, Latino healthcare professionals have been absent from these intervention efforts even though the epidemic has affected this population disproportionately. Methods In this article, we describe an intervention developed to reduce HIV stigma among medical students in Puerto Rico. A total of 507 medical students were randomly introduced into our intervention and control conditions. Results The results show statistically significant differences between the intervention and control groups; intervention group participants had lower HIV stigma levels than control participants after the intervention. In addition, differences in HIV stigma levels between the groups were sustained for a 12-month period. Conclusions The results of our study demonstrate the efficacy of the modes of intervention developed by us and serve as a new training tool for future healthcare professionals with regard to stigma reduction. PMID:24242260

Varas-Diaz, Nelson; Neilands, Torsten B; Cintron-Bou, Francheska; Marzan-Rodriguez, Melissa; Santos-Figueroa, Axel; Santiago-Negron, Salvador; Marques, Domingo; Rodriguez-Madera, Sheilla

2013-01-01

397

Toxoplasmic Encephalitis in an AIDS Cohort at Puerto Rico before and after Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART)  

PubMed Central

Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) significantly reduced the toxoplasmic encephalitis (TE) incidence in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients. The TE incidence and mortality were evaluated in an AIDS cohort followed in Puerto Rico before, during, and after HAART implementation in the Island. Of the 2,431 AIDS studied patients 10.9% had TE diagnosis, with an incidence density that decreased from 5.9/100 person-years to 1.1/100 person-years after HAART. Cox proportional hazard analysis showed substantial mortality reduction among TE cases who received HAART. No mortality reduction was seen in those cases who received TE prophylaxis. Although this study shows a TE incidence and mortality reduction in the AIDS cohort after HAART, the incidence was higher than those reported in the United States AIDS patients. Poor TE prophylaxis compliance might explain the lack of impact of this intervention. Strengthening the diagnostic and opportune TE diagnosis and prompt initiation of HAART in susceptible patients is important to control this opportunistic infection. PMID:21540399

Mayor, Angel M.; Fernandez Santos, Diana M.; Dworkin, Mark S.; Rios-Olivares, Eddy; Hunter-Mellado, Robert F.

2011-01-01

398

Perceptional and Socio-Demographic Factors Associated with Household Drinking Water Management Strategies in Rural Puerto Rico  

PubMed Central

Identifying which factors influence household water management can help policy makers target interventions to improve drinking water quality for communities that may not receive adequate water quality at the tap. We assessed which perceptional and socio-demographic factors are associated with household drinking water management strategies in rural Puerto Rico. Specifically, we examined which factors were associated with household decisions to boil or filter tap water before drinking, or to obtain drinking water from multiple sources. We find that households differ in their management strategies depending on the institution that distributes water (i.e. government PRASA vs community-managed non-PRASA), perceptions of institutional efficacy, and perceptions of water quality. Specifically, households in PRASA communities are more likely to boil and filter their tap water due to perceptions of low water quality. Households in non-PRASA communities are more likely to procure water from multiple sources due to perceptions of institutional inefficacy. Based on informal discussions with community members, we suggest that water quality may be improved if PRASA systems improve the taste and odor of tap water, possibly by allowing for dechlorination prior to distribution, and if non-PRASA systems reduce the turbidity of water at the tap, possibly by increasing the degree of chlorination and filtering prior to distribution. Future studies should examine objective water quality standards to identify whether current management strategies are effective at improving water quality prior to consumption. PMID:24586302

Jain, Meha; Lim, Yili; Arce-Nazario, Javier A.; Uriarte, Maria

2014-01-01

399

Using 222Rn to examine groundwater/surface discharge interaction in the Rio Grande de Manati, Puerto Rico  

USGS Publications Warehouse

222Rn was used in the karst drainage basin of the Rio Grande de Manati in Puerto Rico to study groundwater/surface flow relationships. Locations of groundwater influx along two sections of the Rio Grande de Manati were identified. The 222Rn measurements were used together with stream discharge data in a mass balance equation to quantify the groundwater inputs. The investigation established that both of the sections of the Rio Manati surveyed not only gained groundwater, but lost surface flow. It was calculated that the river gained about 1.2m3s-1 and lost 0.5m3s-1 to the aquifer between Ciales and United States Geological Survey gauging station 5. Between United States Geological Survey gauging stations 6 and 7, groundwater influx and stream flow loss occurred simultaneously with groundwater inputs equalling surface discharge losses of 4m3s-1. The study successfully demonstrated the innovative application of 222Rn as a geochemical tracer in examining groundwater/surface flow relationships in a karst system. ?? 1990.

Ellins, K.K.; Roman-Mas, A.; Lee, R.

1990-01-01

400

Sr isotopes as a tracer of weathering processes and dust inputs in a tropical granitoid watershed, Luquillo Mountains, Puerto Rico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sr isotope data from soils, water, and atmospheric inputs in a small tropical granitoid watershed in the Luquillo Mountains of Puerto Rico constrain soil mineral development, weathering fluxes, and atmospheric deposition. This study provides new information on pedogenic processes and geochemical fluxes that is not apparent in watershed mass balances based on major elements alone. 87Sr/ 86Sr data reveal that Saharan mineral aerosol dust contributes significantly to atmospheric inputs. Watershed-scale Sr isotope mass balance calculations indicate that the dust deposition flux for the watershed is 2100 700 mg cm -2 ka -1. Nd isotope analyses of soil and saprolite samples provide independent evidence for the presence of Saharan dust in the regolith. Watershed-scale Sr isotope mass balance calculations are used to calculate the overall short-term chemical denudation velocity for the watershed, which agrees well with previous denudation rate estimates based on major element chemistry and cosmogenic nuclides. The dissolved streamwater Sr flux is dominated by weathering of plagioclase and hornblende and partial weathering of biotite in the saprock zone. A steep gradient in regolith porewater 87Sr/ 86Sr ratio with depth, from 0.70635 to as high as 0.71395, reflects the transition from primary mineral-derived Sr to a combination of residual biotite-derived Sr and atmospherically-derived Sr near the surface, and allows multiple origins of kaolinite to be identified.

Pett-Ridge, Julie C.; Derry, Louis A.; Kurtz, Andrew C.

2009-01-01

401

Diversity and abundance of forest frogs (Anura: Leptodactylidae) before and after Hurricane Georges in the Cordillera Central of Puerto Rico  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Caribbean hurricanes often impact terrestrial vertebrates in forested environments. On 21 September 1998, Hurricane Georges impacted Puerto Rico with sustained winds in excess of 166 km/hr, causing damage to forests of the island's principal mountain range; the Cordillera Central. We estimated forest frog abundance and diversity from call counts conducted along marked transects before and after Hurricane Georges in two forests reserves of the Cordillera Central (Maricao and Guilarte). We used distance sampling to estimate density of Eleutherodactylus coqui and recorded counts of other species. After the hurricane, the abundance of E. coqui increased in both reserves compared to prehurricane levels while abundance of other frog species decreased. In Maricao, relative abundance of E. richmondi (P = 0.013) and E. brittoni (P = 0.034) were significantly lower after the hurricane. Moreover, species richness and evenness of the Maricao and Guilarte frog assemblages declined after the hurricane. Our results on abundance patterns of the forest frog assemblages of Maricao and Guilarte Forests were similar to those reported from the Luquillo Experimental Forest after Hurricane Hugo in September 1989. Long-term demographic patterns of the forest frog assemblages in the Cordillera Central may be associated with changes due to the ecological succession in post-hurricane forests. Copyright 2005 College of Arts and Sciences.

Vilella, F. J.; Fogarty, J. H.

2005-01-01

402

Children's attitudes toward people with AIDS in Puerto Rico: exploring stigma through drawings and stories.  

PubMed

AIDS stigma refers to prejudice and discrimination directed at people or groups perceived to have HIV/AIDS (Herek, 1999). Although AIDS stigma has been found in adolescent and adult populations, few researchers have explored it among children. Misconceptions about people with AIDS (PWA) might lead to negative attitudes toward PWA and obstruct HIV prevention efforts. The authors assessed 110 Puerto Rican children's attitudes toward PWA using drawings (n=65) and stories (n=45). Although participants held stigmatizing attitudes toward PWA across both methods, the approaches captured different beliefs and attitudes. Drawings depicted PWA as physically deteriorated and performing socially condemned behaviors, whereas stories describing PWA highlighted children's fear of contagion and death. Stigma toward PWA was more pronounced than toward other illnesses (e.g., cancer). The study highlights the importance of assessing children's attitudes through creative data collection procedures. PMID:17220395

Gonzlez-Rivera, Milagritos; Bauermeister, Jos A

2007-02-01

403

Report of a Novel Mutation in MLH1 Gene in a Hispanic Family from Puerto Rico Fulfilling Classic Amsterdam Criteria for Lynch Syndrome  

PubMed Central

In Puerto Rico, colorectal cancer (CRC) represents the second leading cause of cancer in men and women. Familial CRC accounts for 1015% of the total CRC cases, while Lynch syndrome accounts for approximately 24% of cases. Limited information is available about the prevalence, clinical manifestations, and genetic mutations of hereditary CRC in US Hispanic individuals. In this paper we report a novel mutation in the hMLH1 gene in a Puerto Rican Hispanic family with Lynch syndrome recruited through the Puerto Rico Familial Colorectal Cancer Registry (PURIFICAR). Our proband was identified by applying Amsterdam and Bethesda criteria for Lynch syndrome, analysis of protein expression by immunohistochemistry, and genetic sequencing of the mismatch repair genes. A novel mutation at c.2044_2045 in hMLH1 consisting of the deletion of two consecutive nucleotides (AT) at exon 18 was identified. This deletion causes a frameshift in the protein coding sequence at p.682 resulting in premature termination and a truncated MLH1 protein. To our knowledge, this mutation has not been previously reported in the literature. The detection of this novel mutation in MLH1 further emphasizes the need for genetic testing in at-risk patients for hereditary CRC from various ethnic and racial backgrounds. PMID:25389437

Marques-Lespier, Juan M.; Diaz-Algorri, Yaritza; Gonzalez-Pons, Maria

2014-01-01

404

Population characteristics of the sea urchin Diadema antillarum in La Parguera, Puerto Rico, 17 years after the mass mortality event.  

PubMed

Recent reports indicate that populations of the black sea urchin Diadema antillarum are slowly coming back in several localities in the Caribbean after 15 years of absence. In La Parguera, Puerto Rico, urchins were totally absent from reef localities until 1996, when isolated, medium size individuals were observed in shallow reef habitats. To assess the status (distribution, densities and size structure) of populations of D. antillarum 17 years after the die-off, twelve 20 m2 (10 x 2 m) band transects in each of four depth interval (0-3, 3-7, 7-11 and >11 m) in each of four fringing coral reefs, and six-eight band-transects in each of two depth intervals (0-3 and >3 m) in three lagoonal mounds were surveyed in 2001. All urchins present in the band transects in two depth intervals (0-3 and 3-8 m) were collected and measured (test diameter) in situ to determine the average size and size (age) structure of populations. Overall, average densities were low and not significantly different (F = 1.29, p = 0.125) across reef sites (0.83-1.39 ind/m2) and the seagrass mounds (1.09 +/- 0.6-1.30 +/- 0.6 ind/m2). Urchins were only found in the shallow areas (<3 m) on the seagrass mounds where they formed tight aggregations during daytime. Densities decreased significantly with increasing depth (r2 = -0.60) in reef sites and were significantly higher (F = 5.97, p < 0.001) in shallow reef platforms (0.89 +/- 0.69 - 1.98 +/- 0.65 ind/m2) (0-3 m), and the upper fore-reef (0.56 +/- 0.14 - 2.33 +/- 1.1 ind/m2) habitats (3-7m), compared to deeper (> 7 m) habitats (0.01 +/- 0.02 - 0.88 +/- 1.06 ind/m2). Enrique reef had a significantly higher (K-W, H = 165.19, p < 0.001) population average size (Median = 7.7) compared to all other sites. Populations in the sea grass mounds were dominated by midsize to large individuals. Within reefs, the average size did not vary significantly across depth intervals with medium to large size urchins dominating. Higher number of aggregations and higher number of urchins per aggregation were correlated with low complexity (rugosity) habitats (Pearson's r = -0.772, p < 0.001 and r = -0.778, p < 0.001 respectively), which supports the idea that this behavior provides protection. Although average densities were well below pre-mass-mortality densities in Puerto Rico, results of this study indicate that Diadema seem to be making a slow come back in La Parguera. PMID:17471614

Weil, Ernesto; Torres, Juan L; Ashton, Mayra

2005-12-01

405

Hydrologic, water-quality, and biological assessment of Laguna de las Salinas, Ponce, Puerto Rico, January 2003-September 2004  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Laguna de Las Salinas is a shallow, 35-hectare, hypersaline lagoon (depth less than 1 meter) in the municipio of Ponce, located on the southern coastal plain of Puerto Rico. Hydrologic, water-quality, and biological data in the lagoon were collected between January 2003 and September 2004 to establish baseline conditions. During the study period, rainfall was about 1,130 millimeters, with much of the rain recorded during three distinct intense events. The lagoon is connected to the sea by a shallow, narrow channel. Subtle tidal changes, combined with low rainfall and high evaporation rates, kept the lagoon at salinities above that of the sea throughout most of the study. Water-quality properties measured on-site (temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, specific conductance, and Secchi disk transparency) exhibited temporal rather than spatial variations and distribution. Although all physical parameters were in compliance with current regulatory standards for Puerto Rico, hyperthermic and hypoxic conditions were recorded during isolated occasions. Nutrient concentrations were relatively low and in compliance with current regulatory standards (less than 5.0 and 1.0 milligrams per liter for total nitrogen and total phosphorus, respectively). The average total nitrogen concentration was 1.9 milligrams per liter and the average total phosphorus concentration was 0.4 milligram per liter. Total organic carbon concentrations ranged from 12.0 to 19.0 milligrams per liter. Chlorophyll a was the predominant form of photosynthetic pigment in the water. The average chlorophyll a concentration was 13.4 micrograms per liter. Chlorophyll b was detected (detection limits 0.10 microgram per liter) only twice during the study. About 90 percent of the primary productivity in the Laguna de Las Salinas was generated by periphyton such as algal mats and macrophytes such as seagrasses. Of the average net productivity of 13.6 grams of oxygen per cubic meter per day derived from the diel study, the periphyton and macrophyes produced 12.3 grams per cubic meter per day; about 1.3 grams (about 10 percent) were produced by the phytoplankton (plant and algae component of plankton). The total respiration rate was 59.2 grams of oxygen per cubic meter per day. The respiration rate ascribed to the plankton (all organisms floating through the water column) averaged about 6.2 grams of oxygen per cubic meter per day (about 10 percent), whereas the respiration rate by all other organisms averaged 53.0 grams of oxygen per cubic meter per day (about 90 percent). Plankton gross productivity was 7.5 grams per cubic meter per day; the gross productivity of the entire community averaged 72.8 grams per cubic meter per day. Fecal coliform bacteria counts were generally less than 200 colonies per 100 milliliters; the highest concentration was 600 colonies per 100 milliliters.

Soler-Lpez, Luis R.; Gmez-Gmez, Fernando; Rodrguez-Martnez, Jess

2005-01-01

406

Recruitment of HIV Positive and Negative Women in Puerto Rico: The Experiences of a Research Team  

PubMed Central

Background Women with HIV positive status are considered a hard to reach population by many. We discuss the experiences of a research team while conducting the recruiting process with both Hispanic Puerto Rican HIV positive and HIV negative populations. Objective To provide strategies and recommendations for conducting research interventions with HIV+ and HIV womell. Methods This study explored the communication skills between HIV+ and HIV mothers and their adolescent daughters regarding disclosure of their status, and the discussion, or lack of, on topics related to sexuality and prevention of HIV/AIDS. This study explored the recruitment, retention and intervention processes of a qualitative research study that used focus groups to understand the communication skills between HIV+ and HIV mothers and their adolecent daughters regarding disclosure of their status, and the discussion, or lack of, on topics related to sexuality and prevention of HIV/AIDS. The goal of this team was to describe the diverse factors and dynamics that influence the process of recruitment and retention when conducting research. Results The process of recruitment entails not only the action but the planning of the interventions with both the community and the participants. Minority women and the HIV positive population have many difficulties complying with study procedures such as attendance and transportation, among other issues. We describe the importance of constant communication with the centers coordinators and prospective participants about the process of planning and recruiting. Conclusions The significance of flexibility within the research team and recognizing the particular characteristics of conducting research with minorities and women with and without HIV+ status should be emphasized. Researchers should recognize that many of the HIV+ women have been exposed to previous studies. In addition, the general population should be informed about the importance of participating in research studies. PMID:20521406

Lopez-Cordova, Nanet M.; Figueroa-Cosme, Wanda I.; Capriles, Jose A.

2013-01-01

407

COMMITTEES: Proceedings of the 13th Gravitational Waves Data Analysis Workshop (GWDAW13), San Juan, Puerto Rico, 19-22 January 2009 Proceedings of the 13th Gravitational Waves Data Analysis Workshop (GWDAW13), San Juan, Puerto Rico, 19-22 January 2009  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Science Organising Committee (SOC) Bruce Allen, AEI, Germany Patrick Brady, University of Wisconsin Milwaukee, USA Deepto Chakrabarty, MIT, USA Eugenio Coccia, INFN, Gran Sasso, Italy James Cordes, Cornell University, USA Mario Daz (Chair), University of Texas Brownsville, USA Sam Finn, Penn State, USA Neil Gehrels, NASA GSFC, USA Fredrick A Jenet, University of Texas Brownsville, USA Nobuyuki Kanda, Osaka City University, Japan Erik Katsavounides, MIT, USA Dick Manchester, ATNF, Australia Soumya Mohanty, University of Texas Brownsville, USA Benoit Mours, LAPP-Annecy, France Maria Alessandra Papa, AEI, Germany Kate Scholberg, Duke University, USA Susan Scott, The Australian National University Alberto Vecchio, University of Birmingham, UK Andrea Vicere, INFN - Sezione di Firenze, Italy Stan Whitcomb, LIGO CALTECH, USA Local Organising Committee (LOC) Paulo Freire (Arecibo Observatory, Puerto Rico) Murray Lewis (Arecibo Observatory, Puerto Rico) Wanda Wiley (University of Texas Brownsville, USA)

2009-10-01

408

A risk assessment of direct and indirect exposure to emissions from a proposed hazardous waste incinerator in Puerto Rico  

SciTech Connect

An Indirect Exposure Assessment (IEA) was conducted, under USEPA`s RCRA Combustion Strategy, as part of the Part B permitting process for a proposed hazardous waste incinerator. The IEA involved identification of constituents of concern, emissions estimations, air dispersion and deposition modeling, evaluation of site-specific exposure pathways/scenarios, and food chain modeling in order to evaluate potential human health and environmental risks. The COMPDEP model was used to determine ambient ground level concentrations and dry and wet deposition rates of constituents of concern. The air modeling results were input into 50th percentile (Central) and 95th percentile (High-End) exposure scenarios which evaluated direct exposure via inhalation, dermal contact, and soil ingestion pathways, and indirect exposure through the food chain. The indirect pathway analysis considered the accumulation of constituents in plants and animals used as food sources by local inhabitants. Local food consumption data obtained from the Puerto Rico USDA were combined with realistic present-day and future-use exposure scenarios such as residential use, pineapple farming, and subsistence farming to obtain a comprehensive evaluation of risk, Overall risk was calculated using constituent doses and toxicity factors associated with the various routes of exposure. Risk values for each exposure pathway were summed to determine total carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic hazard to exposed individuals. A population risk assessment was also conducted in order to assess potential risks to the population surrounding the facility. Results of the assessment indicated no acute effects from constituents of concern, and a high-end excess lifetime cancer risk of approximately 6 in a million with dioxins (as 2,3,7,8-TCDD) and arsenic dominating the risk estimate.

Hallinger, K.; Huggins, A.; Warner, L.

1995-12-31

409

Precipitation isotopes link regional climate patterns to water supply in a tropical mountain forest, eastern Puerto Rico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

many mountainous areas in the tropics, watersheds in the Luquillo Mountains of eastern Puerto Rico have abundant rainfall and stream discharge and provide much of the water supply for the densely populated metropolitan areas nearby. Projected changes in regional temperature and atmospheric dynamics as a result of global warming suggest that water availability will be affected by changes in rainfall patterns. It is essential to understand the relative importance of different weather systems to water supply to determine how changes in rainfall patterns, interacting with geology and vegetation, will affect the water balance. To help determine the links between climate and water availability, stable isotope signatures of precipitation from different weather systems were established to identify those that are most important in maintaining streamflow and groundwater recharge. Precipitation stable isotope values in the Luquillo Mountains had a large range, from fog/cloud water with ?2H, ?18O values as high as +12 , -0.73 to tropical storm rain with values as low as -127 , -16.8 . Temporal isotope values exhibit a reverse seasonality from those observed in higher latitude continental watersheds, with higher isotopic values in the winter and lower values in the summer. Despite the higher volume of convective and low-pressure system rainfall, stable isotope analyses indicated that under the current rainfall regime, frequent trade -wind orographic showers contribute much of the groundwater recharge and stream base flow. Analysis of rain events using 20 years of 15 -minute resolution data at a mountain station (643 m) showed an increasing trend in rainfall amount, in agreement with increased precipitable water in the atmosphere, but differing from climate model projections of drying in the region. The mean intensity of rain events also showed an increasing trend. The determination of recharge sources from stable isotope tracers indicates that water supply will be affected if regional atmospheric dynamics change trade- wind orographic rainfall patterns in the Caribbean.

Scholl, Martha A.; Murphy, Sheila F.

2014-05-01

410

Take-home lead exposure among children with relatives employed at a battery recycling facility - Puerto Rico, 2011.  

PubMed

The recycling of lead has increased during the past 20 years, with more workers and their families potentially being exposed to lead from recycling facilities, including facilities that recycle lead-acid batteries. During November 2010-May 2011, four voluntary blood lead screening clinics for children of employees of a battery recycling facility in Puerto Rico were conducted. A total of 227 persons from 78 families had blood lead tests. Among 68 children aged <6 years, 11 (16%) had confirmed blood lead levels (BLLs) ?10 g/dL, the BLL at which CDC recommended individual intervention to reduce BLLs in 2010, and 39 (57%) children aged <6 years had venous or capillary BLLs ?5 g/dL, the reference value for elevated BLLs in children established by CDC in 2012. To determine whether take-home lead exposure contributed to the children's BLLs of ?10 g/dL, vehicle and household environmental samples were collected and analyzed. Eighty-five percent of vehicle dust samples and 49% of home dust samples exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) level of concern of ?40 g/ft (430.6 g/m) [corrected]. EPA began clean-up of employee homes and vehicles, focusing first on homes with children with BLLs ?10 g/dL. EPA also required that the company set up shower facilities, shoe washes, and clean changing areas at the battery recycling facility. Lastly, CDC assigned a case manager to provide education, environmental follow-up, and case management of all children with BLLs ?5 g/dL. On average, children's BLLs have decreased 9.9 g/dL since being enrolled in case management. PMID:23190570

2012-11-30

411

The Motivations and Experiences of Young Women in a Microbicide Trial in the USA and Puerto Rico  

PubMed Central

Young women are an important target group in microbicide research, yet little is known about why they participate and stay in microbicide trials. Our study examined motivations for participating in a Phase I microbicide trial among 61 women ages 18 - 24 years in the continental USA and Puerto Rico. We also examined their perspectives on study participation. Participants underwent a semi-structured in-depth interview in which they were asked about factors that motivated enrollment and their experiences while participating. They also completed a Web-based Computer Assisted Self Interview in which they were asked to rate study burden (1 = low to 4 = high). Factors that motivated enrollment were altruism (29%), compensation (17%), a combination of altruism and compensation (37%) and free medical exams (17%). Factors that encouraged participants to stay in the study were study staff (95%), confirmation of good health (41%), and the opportunity to learn about their bodies (17%). Mean ratings of study burden ranged from 1.83 (having to travel to site) to 2.41 (colposcopy), indicating that participants were not highly bothered by visits or procedures. Although Phase I trials require invasive procedures, participants were not highly bothered by them and recognized them as necessary. Good relationships with staff and clear information about how procedures contribute to study goals may encourage participants to remain in trials. Young women may be motivated to enter microbicide trials by stressing the role they will play in discovering better HIV-prevention methods and highlighting the comprehensive preventive exams they will receive. PMID:24324918

Giguere, Rebecca; Zimet, Gregory D.; Kahn, Jessica A.; Dolezal, Curtis; Leu, Cheng-Shiun; Mabragana, Marina; McGowan, Ian; Carballo-Dieguez, Alex

2013-01-01

412

Use of Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells (BEAS-2B) to Study Immunological Markers Resulting From Exposure to PM2.5 Organic Extract from Puerto Rico  

PubMed Central

Fine particulate air pollutants, mainly their organic fraction, have been demonstrated to be associated with cardiovascular and respiratory health problems. Puerto Rico has been reported to have the highest prevalence of pulmonary diseases (e.g. asthma) in the US. The aim of this study was to assess, for the first time, the immunological response of human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B) to organic extracts isolated from air-borne particulate matter (PM2.5) in Puerto Rico. Organic extracts from PM2.5 collected throughout an 8-month period (2000-2001) were pooled (composite) in order to perform chemical analysis and biological activity testing. BEAS-2B cells were exposed to PM2.5 organic extract to assess cytotoxicity, levels of cytokines and relative gene expression of MHC-II, hPXR and CYP3A5. Our findings show that organic PM2.5 consist of toxic as well as bioactive components that can regulate the secretion of cytokines in BEAS-2B, which could modulate inflammatory response in the lung. Trace element analyses confirmed the presence of metals in organic extracts highlighting the relative high abundance of Cu and Zn in polar organic extracts. Polar organic extracts exhibited dose-dependant toxicity and were found to significantly induce the release of interleukin 6 (IL-6), IL-1? and IL-7 while significantly inhibiting the secretion of IL-8, G-CSF and MCP-1. Moreover, MHC-II transcriptional activity was up-regulated after 24h of exposure, whereas PXR and CYP3A5 were down-regulated. This research provides a new insight into the effects of PM2.5 organic fractions on specific effectors and their possible role in the development of respiratory inflammatory diseases in Puerto Rico. PMID:20026096

Fuentes-Mattei, Enrique; Rivera, Evasomary; Gioda, Adriana; Sanchez-Rivera, Diana; Roman-Velazquez, Felix R.; Jimenez-Velez, Braulio D.

2010-01-01

413

Addressing Health Disparities among Men: Demographic, Behavioral and Clinical Characteristics of Men who have Sex with Men Living in Puerto Rico  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to compare sociodemographic, behavioral and clinical characteristics associated with HIV among Men who have sex with Men (MSM) and men who have sex with women (MSW) in Puerto Rico. Data from a population-based cross-sectional study in PR (20052008) was analyzed. Descriptive statistics were used to describe the study sample and bivariate analyses were performed to identify differences of sociodemographic, behavioral and clinical characteristics between MSM and MSW. Exact logistic regression models adjusting for age were constructed for each risk behavior associated to MSM in bivariate analysis. Of the 674 men interviewed, 6.1% (n=41) reported ever having sex with men. Age-adjusted logistic regression models indicated that MSM were significantly more likely than MSW to have first sexual intercourse before the age of 15 (POR=2.6; 95%CI= 1.3, 5.3) and have at least 10 lifetime sex partners (POR=2.8; 95%CI= 1.4,5.9). Also, MSM were significantly more likely to report lifetime use of marihuana (POR=2.7; 95%CI= 1.3,5.8), cocaine (POR=2.5; 95%CI= 1.2,5.0), amphetamines (POR=3.8; 95%CI= 1.4,9.2) and sedatives or tranquilizers (POR=3.3; 95%CI= 1.4,7.2). Also, MSM were 13 times more likely to be HIV seropositive as compared to MSW (POR=13.3; 95%CI=1.7,102.0). In this population-based sample of men living in Puerto Rico, self-reported same-sex behavior is strongly associated with HIV, and other behavioral factors associated with HIV. Future targeted research is still necessary for the development of intervention programs among MSM in Puerto Rico. PMID:24288521

Colon-Lopez, Vivian; Soto-Salgado, Marievelisse; Rodriguez-Diaz, Carlos; Suarez, Erick L.; Perez, Cynthia M.

2013-01-01

414

Implications of global warming for regional climate and water resources of tropical islands: Case studies over Sri Lanka and Puerto Rico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The IPCC AR4 identifies small islands as particularly vulnerable to climate change. Here we consider the cases of two tropical islands: Sri Lanka in the Indian Ocean and Puerto Rico in the Caribbean. The islands share a predominantly tropical climate with diverse topography and hence significant spatial variability of regional climate. Seasonal variability in temperatures is relatively small, but spatial variations can be large owing to topography. Precipitation mechanisms and patterns over the two islands are different however. Sri Lanka receives a majority of the annual rainfall from the summer and winter monsoons, with convective rainfall dominating in the inter-monsoon period. Rainfall generating mechanisms over Puerto Rico can range from orographic lifting, disturbances embedded in Easterly waves and synoptic frontal systems. Here we compare the projected changes in the regional and seasonal means and extremes of temperature and precipitation over the two islands during the middle of this century with the present conditions. Two 5-year regional climate model runs for each region, representing the present (2006-2010) and future (2056-2060) conditions, are performed using the Weather Research and Forecasting model with the lateral boundary conditions provided using the output from CCSM4 RCP8.5 greenhouse gas emissions pathway simulation from the CMIP5 ensemble. The consequences of global warming for water resources and the overall economy are examined. While both economies have substantial contributions from tourism, there are major differences: The agricultural sector is much more important over Sri Lanka compared to Puerto Rico, while the latter exhibits no recent growth in population or in urbanization trends unlike the former. Policy implications for water sustainability and security are discussed, which highlight how despite the differences, certain lessons learned may generalize across the two relatively small tropical islands, which in turn have diverse economic, infrastructural, and societal constraints.

Mawalagedara, R.; Kumar, D.; Oglesby, R. J.; Ganguly, A. R.

2013-12-01

415

Perspectives of San Juan healthcare practitioners on the detection deficit in oral premalignant and early cancers in Puerto Rico: a qualitative research study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundIn Puerto Rico, relative to the United States, a disparity exists in detecting oral precancers and early cancers. To identify\\u000a factors leading to the deficit in early detection, we obtained the perspectives of San Juan healthcare practitioners whose\\u000a practice could be involved in the detection of such oral lesions.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a MethodsKey informant (KI) interviews were conducted with ten clinicians practicing in

Douglas E Morse; Carmen M Vlez Vega; Walter J Psoter; Himilce Vlez; Carmen J Bux; Linda S Baek; Augusto Elias; Melba Snchez Ayendez

2011-01-01

416

Commerce, Research and Education: Contributions and Challenges of Marine Extension Work in NOAA Sea Grant Program-Puerto Rico, Michigan and National office  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The National Sea Grant program represents NOAA's nationwide university-based program in support of coastal resource use and conservation. This program is composed of 30 university-based programs that work with local coastal communities. This study focuses on a historical and multi-sited ethnographic approach that analyzes two Sea Grant Programs and their connection to the overarching NOAA national goals from 1980- 2000.The project aims to offer insight on how the extension agent position facilitates the resolution of coastal and marine management and tourism issues. The extension agents are staff who have an extensive knowledge of available coastal resources and have the role of translating this information to coastal stakeholders. Additionally, these agents assess the needs of coastal communities and report back to the program making their role into a position that can effectively alter and/or contribute to institutional and environmental management programs at broader, cross-country and global levels. The extension programs in Michigan and Puerto Rico were examined to understand how local programs respond to cultural and regional processes shaping marine extension and the management of issues faced by coastal stakeholders. A total of 36 semi- structured in-depth interviews were completed at each site, to address the following questions: (1) How do extension agents view their role at the Puerto Rico and Michigan offices and in the Sea Grant program? How do they view the conditions of their work? (2) How do their views compare to the accomplishments by each Sea Grant administration and internal inquiries? How do their views reveal conditions documented in Puerto Rico and Michigan (e.g., social, cultural, political, economic, etc)? (3) What kind of strategies do agents develop for the management of specific coastal and tourism related projects? (4) How do the Puerto Rico and Michigan offices coordinate their work, and collaborate with other "college" programs and with the National office? Although differences based on organizational structure were evident, there were similarities regarding the marine extension work history, practices, and challenges among these local programs. Preliminary findings suggests that current challenges for Sea Grant marine extension include maintenance of non- advocacy and mediation roles among coastal stakeholders, their positioning relative to research especially conducting and delivering of science to public, and development of their multi-faceted skills sets essential to extension. Simultaneously, the Sea Grant program and marine extension agents provide comprehensive ways for integrated resource management like avenues for dialogue and information-technology transfer with bottom up approaches.

Aleman Diaz, A.

2006-12-01

417

Risk assessment and community participation model for environmental asthma management in an elementary public school: a case study in Puerto Rico.  

PubMed

Asthma is a rapidly growing chronic disease in the general population of the world, mostly in children. Puerto Ricans have the highest prevalence of children with asthma among the Hispanic community in the US and its territories. Asthma and air quality are becoming a significant and potentially costly public health issue in Puerto Rico. The CDC has reported that in Puerto Rico, 320,350 adults have asthma and this number represents 11.5% of the island adult population. The north east municipality of Carolina, Puerto Rico, has the highest asthma prevalence in the 0 to 17 year old range (2001 data). In this study, we address the potential relationship between anthropogenic and naturally occurring environmental factors, and asthma prevalence in an urban elementary public school in Carolina in an effort to empower and engage communities to work on their environmental health issues. We integrated geographic information systems (GIS) data of anthropogenic activities near the school as well as the natural resources and geomorphology of the region. We found that as Carolina is close by to Caribbean National Forest (El Yunque), this together with the temperature and precipitation cycles in the zone creates the ideal environmental conditions for increased humidity and pollen, mold and fungi development through out the year. We also collected health and socio economic data to generate an asthma profile of the students, employees and parents from the school community, and through a survey we identified perceptions on environmental asthma triggers, and indoor air quality in the school and homes of the students and employees. Finally, we implemented a workshop on indoor air quality designed to engage the school community in managing asthma triggers and the school environment. Our results showed that nearly 30 % of its student's population has asthma, and from this group 58% are males and 42% are female students. Of all asthmatic children, only 43% receive treatment for the disease. The study also showed that most asthmatic children are between 7 and 9 year old, and live in households with an annual income below 10,000 dollars. It also showed that 25 % of the student's parents have the condition, and that 25% of the employees are also affected by this chronic condition. All these numbers are significantly higher than those reported by the CDC for Puerto Rico. The perception component had a response of 83% of school employees, and a 39% response from parents. It showed that people know asthma as a disease but many can't identify most environmental asthma triggers. Pre and post tests of the workshop protocol showed that before the activity only 21% of participants can identify asthma triggers. At the end of the workshop nearly 80% were able to identify and manage environmental asthma triggers. This work validates the fact that Puerto Rico continues to have a significant number of people with asthma, particularly children asthma, and that schools are an important settings to create community based action plans to manage environmental asthma triggers through outreach and training. PMID:16823079

Seguinot-Medina, Samarys; Rivera-Rentas, Alberto

2006-03-01

418

Effects of earthworms on slopewash, surface runoff, and fine-litter transport on a humid-tropical forested hillslope in eastern Puerto Rico: Chapter G in Water quality and landscape processes of four watersheds in eastern Puerto Rico  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Rainfall, slopewash (the erosion of soil particles), surface runoff, and fine-litter transport were measured in tropical wet forest on a hillslope in the Luquillo Experimental Forest, Puerto Rico, from February 1998 until April 2000. Slopewash data were collected using Gerlach troughs at eight plots, each 2 square meters in area. Earthworms were excluded by electroshocking from four randomly selected plots. The other four (control) plots were undisturbed. During the experiment, earthworm population in the electroshocked plots was reduced by 91 percent. At the end of the experiment, the electroshocked plots had 13 percent of earthworms by count and 6 percent by biomass as compared with the control plots. Rainfall during the sampling period (793 days) was 9,143 millimeters. Mean and maximum rainfall by sampling period (mean of 16 days) were 189 and 563 millimeters, respectively. Surface runoff averaged 0.6 millimeters and 1.2 millimeters by sampling period for the control and experimental plots, equal to 0.25 and 0.48 percent of mean rainfall, respectively. Disturbance of the soil environment by removal of earthworms doubled runoff and increased the transport (erosion) of soil and organic material by a factor of 4.4. When earthworms were removed, the erosion of mineral soil (soil mass left after ashing) and the transport of fine litter were increased by a factor of 5.3 and 3.4, respectively. It is assumed that increased runoff is a function of reduced soil porosity, resulting from decreased burrowing and reworking of the soil in the absence of earthworms. The background, or undisturbed, downslope transport of soil, as determined from the control plots, was 51 kilograms per hectare and the "disturbance" rate, determined from the experimental plots, was 261 kilograms per hectare. The background rate for downslope transport of fine litter was 71 kilograms per hectare and the disturbance rate was 246 kilograms per hectare. Data from this study indicate that the reduction in soil macrofauna population, in this case, earthworms, plays a key role in increasing runoff and soil erosion and, therefore, has important implications for forest and water management.

Larsen, Matthew C.; Liu, Zhigang Liu; Zou, Xiaoming

2012-01-01

419

Land Cover, Land Use of twoLand Cover, Land Use of two bioluminescent bays in Puerto Ricobioluminescent bays in Puerto Ricobioluminescent bays in Puerto Ricobioluminescent bays in Puerto Rico  

E-print Network

Rico areare usedused toto produceproduce LandLand Use/Use/ LandLand CoverCover mapsmaps.. LandLand useuse isis defineddefined asas thethe useuse ofof landland byby humanshumans.. LandLand covercover isis designatesdesignates Cover Maps, 1999 Linda Velez,1999 #12;TheThe BioluminescenceBioluminescence isis thethe emissionemission

Gilbes, Fernando

420

Visiting medical student elective and clerkship programs: a survey of US and Puerto Rico allopathic medical schools  

PubMed Central

Background No published reports of studies have provided aggregate data on visiting medical student (VMS) programs at allopathic medical schools. Methods During 2006, a paper survey was mailed to all 129 allopathic medical schools in the United States and Puerto Rico using a list obtained from the Association of American Medical Colleges. Contents of the survey items were based on existing literature and expert opinion and addressed various topics related to VMS programs, including organizational aspects, program objectives, and practical issues. Responses to the survey items were yes-or-no, multiple-choice, fill-in-the-blank, and free-text responses. Data related to the survey responses were summarized using descriptive statistics. Results Representatives of 76 schools (59%) responded to the survey. Of these, 73 (96%) reported their schools had VMS programs. The most common reason for having a VMS program was "recruitment for residency programs" (90%). "Desire to do a residency at our institution" was ranked as the leading reason visiting medical students choose to do electives or clerkships. In descending order, the most popular rotations were in internal medicine, orthopedic surgery, emergency medicine, and pediatrics. All VMS programs allowed fourth-year medical students, and approximately half (58%) allowed international medical students. The most common eligibility requirements were documentation of immunizations (92%), previous clinical experience (85%), and successful completion of United States Medical Licensing Examination Step 1 (51%). Of the programs that required clinical experience, 82% required 33 weeks or more. Most institutions (96%) gave priority for electives and clerkships to their own students over visiting students, and a majority (78%) reported that visiting students were evaluated no differently than their own students. During academic year 2006-2007, the number of new resident physicians who were former visiting medical students ranged widely among the responding institutions (range, 0-76). Conclusions Medical schools' leading reason for having VMS programs is recruitment into residency programs and the most commonly cited reason students participate in these programs is to secure residency positions. However, further research is needed regarding factors that determine the effectiveness of VMS programs in residency program recruitment and the development of more universal standards for VMS eligibility requirements and assessment. PMID:20529301

2010-01-01

421

Spatial modelling of evapotranspiration in the Luquillo experimental forest of Puerto Rico using remotely-sensed data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SummaryActual evapotranspiration (aET) and related processes in tropical forests can explain 70% of the lateral global energy transport through latent heat, and therefore are very important in the redistribution of water on the Earth's surface [Mauser, M., Schdlich, S., 1998. Modelling the spatial distribution of evapotranspiration on diff