Sample records for puerto rico fault

  1. Researchers investigate submarine faults north of Puerto Rico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grindlay, N.; Mann, P.; Dolan, J.

    A 23-day marine geophysical expedition in the summer of 1996 revealed a previously unidentified strike-slip fault zone within 60-100 km of the densely populated northern coast of Puerto Rico. The purpose of the expedition, which was held aboard the U.S. research vessel Maurice Ewing, was to map the northeastern portion of the North America Caribbean plate boundary.The 3000-km-long North America-Caribbean plate boundary stretches from Guatemala to the Lesser Antilles arc. The dominantly left-lateral strike-slip boundary accommodates slow (1-2.6 cm/yr) eastward motion of the Caribbean plate relative to North America. Distributed interplate motion in the region generates large earthquakes (Figure 1, inset). In 1976, an M 7.5 left-lateral, strike-slip earthquake in Guatemala killed approximately 23,000 people and left a quarter of the nation's population homeless.

  2. Reconnaissance study of late quaternary faulting along cerro GoDen fault zone, western Puerto Rico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mann, P.; Prentice, C.S.; Hippolyte, J.-C.; Grindlay, N.R.; Abrams, L.J.; Lao-Davila, D.

    2005-01-01

    The Cerro GoDen fault zone is associated with a curvilinear, continuous, and prominent topographic lineament in western Puerto Rico. The fault varies in strike from northwest to west. In its westernmost section, the fault is ???500 m south of an abrupt, curvilinear mountain front separating the 270- to 361-m-high La CaDena De San Francisco range from the Rio A??asco alluvial valley. The Quaternary fault of the A??asco Valley is in alignment with the bedrock fault mapped by D. McIntyre (1971) in the Central La Plata quadrangle sheet east of A??asco Valley. Previous workers have postulated that the Cerro GoDen fault zone continues southeast from the A??asco Valley and merges with the Great Southern Puerto Rico fault zone of south-central Puerto Rico. West of the A??asco Valley, the fault continues offshore into the Mona Passage (Caribbean Sea) where it is characterized by offsets of seafloor sediments estimated to be of late Quaternary age. Using both 1:18,500 scale air photographs taken in 1936 and 1:40,000 scale photographs taken by the U.S. Department of Agriculture in 1986, we iDentified geomorphic features suggestive of Quaternary fault movement in the A??asco Valley, including aligned and Deflected drainages, apparently offset terrace risers, and mountain-facing scarps. Many of these features suggest right-lateral displacement. Mapping of Paleogene bedrock units in the uplifted La CaDena range adjacent to the Cerro GoDen fault zone reveals the main tectonic events that have culminated in late Quaternary normal-oblique displacement across the Cerro GoDen fault. Cretaceous to Eocene rocks of the La CaDena range exhibit large folds with wavelengths of several kms. The orientation of folds and analysis of fault striations within the folds indicate that the folds formed by northeast-southwest shorTening in present-day geographic coordinates. The age of Deformation is well constrained as late Eocene-early Oligocene by an angular unconformity separating folDed, Deep-marine middle Eocene rocks from transgressive, shallow-marine rocks of middle-upper Oligocene age. Rocks of middle Oligocene-early Pliocene age above unconformity are gently folDed about the roughly east-west-trending Puerto Rico-Virgin Islands arch, which is well expressed in the geomorphology of western Puerto Rico. Arching appears ongoing because onshore and offshore late Quaternary oblique-slip faults closely parallel the complexly Deformed crest of the arch and appear to be related to exTensional strains focused in the crest of the arch. We estimate ???4 km of vertical throw on the Cerro GoDen fault based on the position of the carbonate cap north of the fault in the La CaDena De San Francisco and its position south of the fault inferred from seismic reflection data in Mayaguez Bay. Based on these observations, our interpretation of the kinematics and history of the Cerro GoDen fault zone incluDes two major phases of motion: (1) Eocene northeast-southwest shorTening possibly accompanied by left-lateral shearing as Determined by previous workers on the Great Southern Puerto Rico fault zone; and (2) post-early Pliocene regional arching of Puerto Rico accompanied by normal offset and right-lateral shear along faults flanking the crest of the arch. The second phase of Deformation accompanied east-west opening of the Mona rift and is inferred to continue to the present day. ?? 2005 Geological Society of America.

  3. Gravity Modeling of the Cerro Goden fault zone, NW Puerto Rico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattei, G. A.; Keranen, K. M.; Asencio, E.

    2010-12-01

    The 2010 M7.0 Haiti earthquake served as a reminder of potential earthquake hazards on upper-crustal fault systems along the northern boundary of the Carribean plate. In this study we modeled the structure of the Cerro Goden and subparallel fault zones in northwestern Puerto Rico, which cross through densely populated areas, using existing and newly collected gravity data. The fault zone had previously been mapped at the surface, but the details of the fault zone in the subsurface and the detailed structure remain poorly constrained. We used our gravity data to extend surface geologic models to greater depth. Specifically, we modeled and interpreted a north-to-south 2-D model perpendicular to the Cerro Goden fault zone. We used horizontal derivative and residual anomaly maps to emphasize edges of subsurface bodies and shallow structures of interest. Our preliminary 2D model constrains the width and depth extent of serpentinite bodies along the fault zones, the relationship of the faults with the Cerro Goden anticline in central Puerto Rico, and confirms the steep NE dip of the faults extrapolated from surface data. Additional data will be collected in the future across the Cerro Goden fault zone to laterally extend our models of subsurface structural features.

  4. URBAN EXTENTS Puerto Rico

    E-print Network

    Columbia University

    URBAN EXTENTS Colombia Puerto Rico Venezuela GRUMPv1 Copyright 2009. The Trustees of Columbia Internacional de Agricultura Tropical (CIAT). Global Rural-Urban Mapping Project (GRUMP), Population Density Km Lambert Azimuthal Equal Area Projection C a r i b b e a n S e a Urban Extent Administrative Units

  5. PUERTO RICO AND THE PUERTO RICANS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    STERNAU, HERBERT

    PUERTO RICO WAS DISCOVERED BY CHRISTOPHER COLUMBUS IN 1493. THE PROCESS OF COLONIZATION BEGAN IN 1508, WITH THE ARRIVAL OF PONCE DE LEON AND HIS SPANISH SOLDIERS. PUERTO RICO WAS GOVERNED BY SPAIN FOR ABOUT 400 YEARS, AND THE GREAT MASS OF PEOPLE REMAINED POVERTY-STRICKEN, UNDERNOURISHED, AND ILLITERATE. THE ISLAND WAS CEDED TO THE UNITED STATES…

  6. A Newly Recognized, 460 km Long and Arcuate, Right-Lateral Strike-Slip Fault Traversing Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loureiro, P.; Mann, P.

    2014-12-01

    We use 830 km of seismic reflection lines and 94,000 km2 of high-resolution multibeam bathymetry to identify a 460-km-long and semi-arcuate strike-slip fault that can be traced to the southwest from the Mona rift west of Puerto, across the onland area of south-central Puerto Rico (Cerro Goden and Great Southern Puerto Rico fault zones), across the Whiting basin southeast of Puerto Rico, across the Virgin Islands basin and to the northeast along the Anegada Passage and Tortola ridge. On multibeam and seismic reflection data the fault is active based on a continuous seafloor scarp ranging in height from 10 to 40 m. Seismic profiles show that the fault is alternatively downthrown to the north and south typical of strike-slip faults. The sense of most recent strike-slip offset on the fault is right-lateral based on offsets at 4 localities that range from 1.5 to3.5 km. Shallow earthquake swarms are associated with the fault trace in the Virgin Islands area but large segments of the fault are aseismic and appear locked. We propose that this fault system forms the southern boundary of an actively CCW-rotating Puerto Rico microplate that is driven by oblique, left-lateral shear of the North America-Caribbean plate boundary. The northern edge of the microplate is inferred to follow left-lateral faults known in the Puerto Rico trench (Bunce and Bowin fault zones) that close the loop around the crudely circular microplate in the area of the Mona rift. We have modeled these boundaries of the rotating block using the Defnode method of finite elements constrained by GPS and earthquake slip vectors.

  7. Manatee Mortality in Puerto Rico

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antonio A. Mignucci-Giannoni; Ruby A. Montoya-Ospina; Nilda M. Jiménez-Marrero; Marta A. Rodríguez-López; Robert K. Bonde

    2000-01-01

    Trichechus manatus  ) in Puerto Rico is mortality due to human activities. We assessed 90 cases of manatee strandings in Puerto Rico based on\\u000a historical data and a coordinated carcass salvage effort from 1990 through 1995. We determined patterns of mortality, including\\u000a type of event, condition of carcasses, spatial and temporal distribution, gender, size\\/age class, and the cause of death.\\u000a The

  8. The northwest trending north Boquerón Bay-Punta Montalva Fault Zone; A through going active fault system in southwestern Puerto Rico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roig?Silva, Coral Marie; Asencio, Eugenio; Joyce, James

    2013-01-01

    The North Boquerón Bay–Punta Montalva fault zone has been mapped crossing the Lajas Valley in southwest Puerto Rico. Identification of the fault was based upon detailed analysis of geophysical data, satellite images, and field mapping. The fault zone consists of a series of Cretaceous bedrock faults that reactivated and deformed Miocene limestone and Quaternary alluvial fan sediments. The fault zone is seismically active (local magnitude greater than 5.0) with numerous locally felt earthquakes. Focal mechanism solutions suggest strain partitioning with predominantly east–west left-lateral displacements with small normal faults striking mostly toward the northeast. Northeast-trending fractures and normal faults can be found in intermittent streams that cut through the Quaternary alluvial fan deposits along the southern margin of the Lajas Valley, an east–west-trending 30-km-long fault-controlled depression. Areas of preferred erosion within the alluvial fan trend toward the west-northwest parallel to the onland projection of the North Boquerón Bay fault. The North Boquerón Bay fault aligns with the Punta Montalva fault southeast of the Lajas Valley. Both faults show strong southward tilting of Miocene strata. On the western end, the Northern Boquerón Bay fault is covered with flat-lying Holocene sediments, whereas at the southern end the Punta Montalva fault shows left-lateral displacement of stream drainage on the order of a few hundred meters.

  9. Puerto Rico Tsunami Warning and Mitigation Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huerfano, V. A.; Mercado, A.; von Hillebrandt, C. G.

    2003-12-01

    The circum-Caribbean region has a documented history of large damaging tsunamis that have affected coastal areas, including the events of the Virgin Islands in 1867 and Mona Passage in 1918. These tsunamis have been triggered by large tsunamigenic earthquakes that deformed the ocean floor. The seismic water waves originating in the prominent fault system around PR are considered to be a near-field hazard for Puerto Rico and the Virgin islands (PR/VI) because they can reach coastal areas within a few minutes after the earthquake. Sources for regional and tele tsunamis have also been identified. To help mitigate the risk of potential tsunamis on the coastal communities of Puerto Rico, with initial funding from the Federal Emergency Management Administration (FEMA) and the University of Puerto Rico (UPR), the Puerto Rico Tsunami Warning and Mitigation Program (PRTWMP) was established in 2000. Three of the main tasks are to evaluate the possibility of establishing a Tsunami Warning System (TWS), prepare tsunami flood maps and education. The need to establish a system of rapid notification for tsunami alerting in the Caribbean region has been recognized by the emergency management and scientific community. Presently, the Puerto Rico Seismic Network (PRSN) of the University of Puerto Rico at Mayag\\x81ez is establishing a Tsunami Warning System (TWS) for PR/VI. Part of the TWS is the EarlyBird system, developed by the West Coast/Alaska Tsunami Warning Center, which has been running in the PRSN since January, 2003. This program automatically locates and disseminates information on potentially tsunamigenic earthquakes. Also, the existing protocol for exchanging data and information on potentially tsunamigenic events in the PR/VI is currently being reviewed by the concerned institutions. Tsunami flood maps were prepared for all of Puerto Rico, including the island municipalities of Vieques and Culebra. These flood maps were generated in three phases. First, hypothetical tsunami scenarios on the basis of the parameters of potential underwater earthquakes were developed. Secondly, each of these earthquakes source scenarios was simulated. The third step was to determine the worst case scenario for a tectonically generated tsunami throughout Puerto Rico. The runups were drawn on GIS referenced topographic maps and aerial photographs. These products are being used by the local, state and federal emergency managers to educate the public and develop mitigation strategies. Based on these maps tsunami warning signs are being installed throughout the potentially affected zones and are a very important component of the TWS.

  10. Canine leptospirosis in Puerto Rico.

    PubMed

    Farrington, N P; Sulzer, K R

    1982-06-01

    Among 116 stray dogs in Puerto Rico surveyed for leptospiral agglutinins, 73 (62.9%) has significant titers to one or more leptospiral serotypes. The most common serogroup identified serologically was icterohaemorrhagiae accounting for 53 (72.6%) of the infections. Although the infection rates were comparable for male and female dogs the older were found to be more frequently infected. The significance of the canine in the epidemiology of leptospirosis in Puerto Rico is probably of paramount importance due to the extensive direct and indirect contact dogs have with rats and the human population. PMID:7174233

  11. Karst Map of Puerto Rico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aleman-Gonzalez, Wilma B., (compiler)

    2010-01-01

    This map is a digital compilation, combining the mapping of earlier geologists. Their work, cited on the map, contains more detailed descriptions of karst areas and landforms in Puerto Rico. This map is the basis for the Puerto Rico part of a new national karst map currently being compiled by the U.S. Geological Survey. In addition, this product is a standalone, citable source of digital karst data for Puerto Rico. Nearly 25 percent of the United States is underlain by karst terrain, and a large part of that area is undergoing urban and industrial development. Accurate delineations of karstic rocks are needed at scales suitable for national, State, and local maps. The data on this map contribute to a better understanding of subsidence hazards, groundwater contamination potential, and cave resources as well as serve as a guide to topical research on karst. Because the karst data were digitized from maps having a different scale and projection from those on the base map used for this publication, some karst features may not coincide perfectly with physiographic features portrayed on the base map.

  12. Manatee mortality in Puerto Rico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mignucci-Giannoni, A. A.; Montoya-Ospina, R. A.; Jimenez-Marrero, N. M.; Rodriguez-Lopez, M.; Williams, E.H., Jr.; Bonde, R.K.

    2000-01-01

    The most pressing problem in the effective management of the West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus) in Puerto Rico is mortality due to human activities. We assessed 90 cases of manatee strandings in Puerto Rico based on historical data and a coordinated carcass salvage effort from 1990 through 1995. We determined patterns of mortality, including type of event, condition of carcasses, spatial and temporal distribution, gender, size/age class, and the cause of death. The spatial distribution of stranding events was not uniform, with the north, northeast, and south coasts having the highest numbers. Six clusters representing the highest incidence included the areas of Fajardo and Ceiba, Bahia de Jobos, Toa Baja, Guayanilla, Cabo Rojo, and Rio Grande to Luquillo. The number of reported cases has increased at an average rate of 9.6%/yr since 1990. The seasonality of stranding events showed a bimodal pattern, from February through April and in August and September. Most identified causes of death were due to human interaction, especially captures and watercraft collisions. Natural causes usually involved dependent calves. From 1990 through 1995, most deaths were attributed to watercraft collisions. A reduction in anthropogenic mortality of this endangered species can be accomplished only through education and a proactive management and conservation plan that includes law enforcement, mortality assessment, scientific research, rescue and rehabilitation, and inter- and intraagency cooperation.

  13. 40 CFR 131.40 - Puerto Rico

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS WATER QUALITY STANDARDS Federally Promulgated Water Quality Standards § 131.40 Puerto Rico ...site-specific log standard deviation. (c) Water quality standard variances. (1) The...

  14. A Chronological History of Puerto Rico.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tovar, Federico Ribes

    This book presents a chronological history of Puerto Rico from prehistory and discovery through December of 1972. It includes information on the persons and events that influenced the course of Puerto Rican history. A table of contents and a selective index are included. (Author/AM)

  15. Vertical motions of the Puerto Rico Trench and Puerto Rico and their cause

    E-print Network

    ten Brink, Uri S.

    pull forces. The Puerto Rico trench (PRT), with water depths of up to 8340 m, is the deepest part. The maximum water depth ($7500 m) and minimum free-air gravity anomaly ($À260 mGal) of the South Sandwich; accepted 15 February 2005; published 22 June 2005. [1] The Puerto Rico trench exhibits great water depth

  16. University of Puerto Rico School of Pharmacy and Walgreens Community Pharmacy Residency Program (PGY1), San Juan, Puerto Rico

    E-print Network

    Quirk, Gregory J.

    . Francisco J. Jiménez Associate Professor University of Puerto Rico School of Pharmacy P.O. Box 365067 San (PGY1), San Juan, Puerto Rico University of Puerto Rico and Walgreens Community Pharmacy Residency for Pharmacy Education Completed on-line application at www.walgreens.jobs Pharmacist license within 180 days

  17. University of Puerto Rico Medical Science Campus

    E-print Network

    Quirk, Gregory J.

    medications or medical devices should include evidence of training in GCP).* d. Curriculum Vitae or Resume 2University of Puerto Rico Medical Science Campus Human Research Subjects Protection Office Main request: 1. Include in a single PDF file the following documents: a. Human Subjects Protection Training

  18. Stormwater Quality in Mayagez, Puerto Rico

    E-print Network

    New Hampshire, University of

    Stormwater Quality in Mayagüez, Puerto Rico Meagan Wengrove Senior ­ Civil Engineering mentor for this research project, he has and continues to help me learn both in the stormwater #12;Objective Does stormwater runoff from urban development affect the water quality of receiving

  19. Disaster and Risk Management for Puerto Rico

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carlos J. RODRÍGUEZ ROSARIO; Carlos R. VEGA SANTOS

    SUMMARY Puerto Rico is a little star in the Caribbean basin which has suffered in the last fifty years a dramatic urban development causing one of the world's highest population densities per square kilometer. Urban development for the eyes of the world means an economic productivity, but in this case it means a risky situation for the coastal communities in

  20. UNIVERSITY OF PUERTO RICO MAYAGUEZ COLLEGE CAMPUS

    E-print Network

    Gilbes, Fernando

    study shows that Arecibo is undergoing coastal erosion. However, the study does not display a detailed: Coastlines, Shorelines, GIS, Eolian Deposits, DSAS, Aerial Photographs, Coastal Erosion 1. Introduction of the coastal environment (Rodríguez et al., 2009). Coastlines changes in Puerto Rico due to erosion

  1. Photovoltaics on Landfills in Puerto Rico

    SciTech Connect

    Salasovich, J.; Mosey, G.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico for a feasibility study of m0treAlables on several brownfield sites. The EPA defines a brownfield as 'a property, the expansion, redevelopment, or reuse of which may be complicated by the presence or potential presence of a hazardous substance, pollutant, or contaminant.' All of the brownfields in this study are landfill sites. Citizens of Puerto Rico, city planners, and site managers are interested in redevelopment uses for landfills in Puerto Rico, which are particularly well suited for solar photovoltaic (PV) installation. The purpose of this report is to assess the landfills with the highest potential for possible solar PV installation and estimate cost, performance, and site impacts of three different PV options: crystalline silicon (fixed-tilt), crystalline silicon (single-axis tracking), and thin film (fixed-tilt). Each option represents a standalone system that can be sized to use an entire available site area. In addition, the report outlines financing options that could assist in the implementation of a system. The feasibility of PV systems installed on landfills is highly impacted by the available area for an array, solar resource, operating status, landfill cap status, distance to transmission lines, and distance to major roads. All of the landfills in Puerto Rico were screened according to these criteria in order to determine the sites with the greatest potential. Eight landfills were chosen for site visits based on the screening criteria and location. Because of time constraints and the fact that Puerto Rico is a relatively large island, the eight landfills for this visit were all located in the eastern half of the island. The findings from this report can be applied to landfills in the western half of the island. The economics of a potential PV system on landfills in Puerto Rico depend greatly on the cost of electricity. Currently, PREPA has an average electric rate of $0.119/kWh. Based on past electric rate increases in Puerto Rico and other islands in the Caribbean, this rate could increase to $0.15/kWh or higher in a relatively short amount of time. In the coming years, increasing electrical rates and increased necessity for clean power will continue to improve the feasibility of implementing solar PV systems at these sites.

  2. Montagnea areharia (agaricaceae, basidiomycota), A new record for Puerto Rico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The euagaric Montagnea radiosa (Basidiomycota) is reported from a dry region of southwestern Puerto Rico. This is a new record for Puerto Rico, and only the second record of this fungus in the Caribbean. The Puerto Rican material is completely described and illustrated, and a brief taxonomic discu...

  3. 77 FR 48504 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Economic Value of Puerto Rico's Coral Reef...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-14

    ...Request; Economic Value of Puerto Rico's Coral Reef Ecosystems for Recreation-Tourism...non-market economic values of Puerto Rico's coral reef ecosystems. Estimates will be made...recreation-tourism for all of Puerto Rico's coral reef ecosystems. The required...

  4. La evolucion del modernismo en Puerto Rico

    E-print Network

    Gonzalez-Hernandez, Miriam Mercedes

    1989-01-01

    en que dio impulso a las letras puertorriquenas y ademas, sus poetas defendieron el idioma en el momento historico- politico mas significativo que haya vivido la isla de Puerto Rico. DEDICATORIA Dedico esta tesis a mis hijos Jorge y Cristina, a... EVOLUCION DEL MODERNISMO. 23 Auge. Revista de las Antillas. 23 24 Poetas que mas influenciaron en el modernismo puertorriqueno. . . . . . . . . . IV MODERNISTAS INSULARES. 27 30 Poetas representativos. 30 CAPITULO pagina Virgilio Davila. Luis...

  5. UNIVERSIDAD DE PUERTO RICO, RECINTO DE CIENCIAS MDICAS UNIVERSITY OF PUERTO RICO, MEDICAL SCIENCES CAMPUS

    E-print Network

    Quirk, Gregory J.

    18L.P.R.A. section 601, et.seq. Public Law No.91-596; Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970, (U.S.): and the Puerto Rico Occupational Safety and Health Act., Act No. 230, of May 12, 1942, as amended. SECTION 1 with experience on a. Microbiology b. Physiology c. Toxicology d. Public Health e. Pharmacy 3. Research Laboratory

  6. Submarine slides north of Puerto Rico and their tsunami potential

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eric L. Geist; Patrick Lynett

    New multibeam bathymetry of the entire Puerto Rico trench reveals numerous retrograde slope failures at various scales at the edge of the carbonate platform north of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. The slumped material comprises carbonate blocks, which fail, at least in initial stages, as a coherent rock mass. This, combined with the fact that the edge of the

  7. Lessons Learned from the Puerto Rico Battery Energy Storage System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JOHN D. BOYES; MINDI FARBER DE ANA; WENCESLANO TORRES

    1999-01-01

    The Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority (PREPA) installed a distributed battery energy storage system in 1994 at a substation near San Juan, Puerto Rico. It was patterned after two other large energy storage systems operated by electric utilities in California and Germany. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Energy Storage Systems Program at Sandia National Laboratories has followed the progress

  8. Floods in Puerto Rico, magnitude and frequency

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lopez, Miguel A.; Colon-Dieppa, Eloy; Cobb, Ernest D.

    1979-01-01

    Annual-peak discharge records at 50 sites in Puerto Rico with five or more years of record were used to determine individual site log-Pearson type III frequency curves. The frequency curve values for 2-, 10-, 25-, 50-, and 100-year recurrence intervals at 37 sites with 10 or more years of record were regressed against basin characteristics. Drainage area and mean annual rainfall proved to be the only independent variables significant at the 95 percent confidence level in these regression equations. (Woodard-USGS)

  9. 78 FR 16465 - Foreign-Trade Zone 7-Mayaguez, Puerto Rico, Authorization of Production Activity, Pepsi Cola...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-15

    ...Puerto Rico, Authorization of Production Activity, Pepsi Cola Puerto Rico Distributing, LLC (Soft Drink and Fruit Drink Beverages...to the Foreign-Trade Zones (FTZ) Board on behalf of Pepsi Cola Puerto Rico Distributing, LLC, in Toa Baja, Puerto...

  10. Morphotectonics of the Southern Puerto Rico Offshore Margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granja Bruna, J.; Carbó-Gorosabel, A.; Llanes Estrada, P.; Ten Brink, U. S.; Munoz Martin, A.; Fuertes Ortega, R.; Druet, M.; Gómez, M.; Martin Davila, J. M.; Pazos, A.; Catalan, M.

    2012-12-01

    The southern insular slope of Puerto Rico is characterized by active tectonics, sedimentary and slope failure processes related to the southward thrusting of the island arc over the Caribbean plate's interior. The east-west trending Muertos fold-and-thrust belt and the Investigator fault zone are the main structural and morphological features along the insular slope. It was suggested that these tectonic features accommodate a highly oblique motion between the Caribbean plate's interior and the North American plate. New systematic multibeam bathymetry data and seismic reflection profiles have allowed us to improve the knowledge of the complex morphologic and structural fabric of this zone of active deformation. We divided the region into morphotectonic slope provinces on the basis of morphological, structural and sedimentological criteria. The lower slope province is occupied by the east-west trending Muertos fold-and-thrust belt. Seismic data image pelagic, hemipelagic and turbiditic sediments of the Venezuelan basin and Muertos Trough basin being partially offscraped and accreted forming a sequence of numerous imbricate thrust slices verging southwards. The surface expression of the imbricate structure is a highly steeped slope characterized by an alternation of narrow troughs and elongate anticline ridges oriented sub-parallel to the deformation front. The upper slope province is occupied by the Investigator fault zone, a broad zone of deformation composed of two straight strands that form narrow E-W trending valleys in the insular slope. Submarine canyons carve through the narrow E-W trending valleys or terminate in them but show no evidence for lateral offsets, indicating an absence of recent strike-slip motion. The seafloor expression of the Investigator fault zone suggests a sub-vertical fault plane accommodating a small amount of N-S extension. This fault zone terminates eastward in Whiting basin and disappears westwards beneath the thick slope deposits on a bathymetric high, named Jaguey Spur. The top and northern sides of Jaguey Spur are deformed by recent extensional fault activity that could have contributed to slope instability observed in a wide area to the north and south of the spur. Much of the seismic activity in the Puerto Rico area is shallow and takes place in the vicinity of the southern Puerto Rico offshore margin. The study of the active deformation zones on the margin and its possible relation with the nucleation zones of shallow intra-arc earthquakes will help to assess the seismic hazard in the region.

  11. Estimated water use in Puerto Rico, 2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Molina-Rivera, Wanda L.

    2014-01-01

    Water-use data were aggregated for the 78 municipios of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico for 2010. Five major offstream categories were considered: public-supply water withdrawals and deliveries, domestic and industrial self-supplied water use, crop-irrigation water use, and thermoelectric-power freshwater use. One instream water-use category also was compiled: power-generation instream water use (thermoelectric saline withdrawals and hydroelectric power). Freshwater withdrawals for offstream use from surface-water [606 million gallons per day (Mgal/d)] and groundwater (118 Mgal/d) sources in Puerto Rico were estimated at 724 million gallons per day. The largest amount of freshwater withdrawn was by public-supply water facilities estimated at 677 Mgal/d. Public-supply domestic water use was estimated at 206 Mgal/d. Fresh groundwater withdrawals by domestic self-supplied users were estimated at 2.41 Mgal/d. Industrial self-supplied withdrawals were estimated at 4.30 Mgal/d. Withdrawals for crop irrigation purposes were estimated at 38.2 Mgal/d, or approximately 5 percent of all offstream freshwater withdrawals. Instream freshwater withdrawals by hydroelectric facilities were estimated at 556 Mgal/d and saline instream surface-water withdrawals for cooling purposes by thermoelectric-power facilities was estimated at 2,262 Mgal/d.

  12. Estimated Water Use in Puerto Rico, 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Molina-Rivera, Wanda L.; Gómez-Gómez, Fernando

    2008-01-01

    Water-use data were compiled for the 78 municipios of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico for 2005. Five offstream categories were considered: public-supply water withdrawals and deliveries, domestic self-supplied water use, industrial self-supplied ground-water withdrawals, crop irrigation water use, and thermoelectric power freshwater use. One water-use category also was considered: power-generation instream water use (thermoelectric-saline withdrawals and hydroelectric power). Freshwater withdrawals and deliveries for offstream use from surface- and ground-water sources in Puerto Rico were estimated at 712 million gallons per day (Mgal/d). The largest amount of freshwater withdrawn was by public-supply water facilities and was estimated at 652 Mgal/d. The public-supply domestic water use was estimated at 347 Mgal/d. Fresh surface- and ground-water withdrawals by domestic self-supplied users were estimated at 2.1 Mgal/d and the industrial self-supplied withdrawals were estimated at 9.4 Mgal/d. Withdrawals for crop irrigation purposes were estimated at 45.2 Mgal/d, or approximately 6.3 percent of all offstream freshwater withdrawals. Instream freshwater withdrawals by hydroelectric facilities were estimated at 568 Mgal/d and saline instream surface-water withdrawals for cooling purposes by thermoelectric-power facilities was estimated at 2,288 Mgal/d.

  13. Puerto Rico Trench: Cruise Summary and Results

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Uri Brink

    This text reports on the two expeditions of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) Office of Ocean Exploration to map the Puerto Rico Trench, the deepest part of the Atlantic Ocean. Multibeam bathymetry and acoustic backscatter data were acquired as the expedition mapped the Caribbean plate, an entire tectonic province of the Earth. The featured section of the report is on the trench area and contains a three dimensional bathymetrical map of the trench. Other sections include observations of marine mammals, an introduction to and background information about the members of the expedition, a slide show that shows daily activities, and a summary of the trip containing a warning of the possibility of a tsunami producing underwater landslides in the area. The site is enhanced with photographs and maps.

  14. 76 FR 60513 - Puerto Rico; Emergency and Related Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-29

    ...DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency [Internal Agency Docket...Docket ID FEMA-2011-0001] Puerto Rico; Emergency and Related Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION:...

  15. UNIVERSIDAD DE PUERTO RICO RECINTO DE CIENCIAS MDICAS

    E-print Network

    Quirk, Gregory J.

    UNIVERSIDAD DE PUERTO RICO RECINTO DE CIENCIAS MÉDICAS ESCUELA DE MEDICINA PLAN DE PRÁCTICA MÉDICA INTRAMURAL El Plan de Práctica Médica Intramural de la Escuela de Medicina del Recinto de Ciencias Médicas

  16. Wind Power Resource Assessment in Ohio and Puerto Rico

    E-print Network

    Womeldorf, Carole

    Wind Power Resource Assessment in Ohio and Puerto Rico: A Motivational and Educational Tool Juan occurring with wind power: specifically environmental concerns and benefits, the economics of small wind the general population in wind power. #12;

  17. 75 FR 39559 - Puerto Rico; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-09

    ...disaster: The municipalities of Arecibo, Barranquitas, Coamo, Corozal, Dorado, Naranjito, Orocovis, Utuado, Vega Alta, and Vega Baja for Public Assistance. All municipalities in the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico are eligible to apply for...

  18. 76 FR 63939 - Puerto Rico; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-14

    ...Carolina, Cayey, Ceiba, Comer[iacute]o, Juncos, Las Mar[iacute]as, Luquillo, Morovis, Naguabo, Orocovis, Utuado, Vega Baja, and Villalba for Public Assistance. All municipalities within the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico are eligible to apply...

  19. 76 FR 56858 - Puerto Rico Disaster Number PR-00014

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-14

    ...declaration of a major disaster for the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico (FEMA-4017-DR), dated 08/27/2011. Incident: Hurricane Irene. Incident Period: 08/21/2011 and continuing. DATES: Effective Date: 09/03/2011. Physical Loan...

  20. 76 FR 55154 - Puerto Rico Disaster #PR-00015

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-06

    ...disaster for Public Assistance Only for the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico (FEMA-4017-DR), dated 08/27/2011. Incident: Hurricane Irene. Incident Period: 08/21/2011 and continuing. Effective Date: 08/27/2011. Physical Loan Application...

  1. Catholicism and fertility in Puerto Rico.

    PubMed

    Herold, J M; Westoff, C F; Warren, C W; Seltzer, J

    1989-09-01

    This paper examines the association between fertility and religious affiliation among Puerto Ricans. Bongaarts' proximate determinants framework is used to compare religious categories on behaviors that directly affect fertility. We found no difference in recent fertility between Catholics and non-Catholics in Puerto Rico (total fertility rate = 2.5). We also found Catholics and non-Catholics to be similar on age at first marriage (23.3 and 23.4 years, respectively), contraceptive use (71 percent and 69 percent of married women currently contracepting), and breast-feeding practices (mean duration of breast-feeding of 4.4 and 4.3 months). Differences were observed between less committed and more committed Catholics in total fertility rate, age at first marriage, and contraceptive use, but these differences were not large and were in the opposite direction from the expected. Our findings support the theory of convergence of Catholic and non-Catholic fertility for the US. Our discrepancy with findings from the National Survey of Family Growth is evidence of the cultural diversity in the US Hispanic population and indicates the importance of disaggregating by ethnicity or national origin when studying this population. PMID:2764204

  2. Cross-section data for selected Puerto Rico streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Colon-Dieppa, Eloy; Gonzalez, Ralph

    1978-01-01

    The data presented are for delineating the inundation which could be expected by floods of selected magnitudes in Puerto Rico. These cross section data can be used in Flood Insurance Administration studies and in other studies related to the planning, development, and management of flood plains. The data were collected by the Caribbean District of the Water Resources Division of the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Puerto Rico Department of Natural Resources. (Woodard-USGS)

  3. BACKGROUND FOR MANAGEMENT OF TROPICAL RESERVOIRS IN PUERTO RICO

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laurence J. Tilly; Jorge R. Garcia

    1984-01-01

    An EPA sponsored lake restoration feasibility study afforded the opportunity to examine the applicability of conventional temperate zone indices and management approaches to tropical Puerto Rican lakes. Major problems in using temperate zone guidelines are anticipated in Puerto Rico because lake events are relatively aseasonal, nitrogen rather than phosphorus may be limiting, heavy rainfall and steep topography result in naturally

  4. 7 CFR 319.73-3 - Conditions for transit movement of certain products through Puerto Rico or Hawaii.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...certain products through Puerto Rico or Hawaii. 319.73-3 Section 319.73-3...certain products through Puerto Rico or Hawaii. (a) Mail. Samples of unroasted coffee that are transiting Hawaii or Puerto Rico en route to...

  5. Brugada syndrome in Puerto Rico: a case series.

    PubMed

    Banchs-Viñas, Hector; Rivera, Norwin; Banchs-Pieretti, Héctor; Altieri, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Brugada syndrome is characterized by ST-segment changes in the right precordial ECG leads and a high incidence of sudden death in patients with strutural norm hearts. Life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias are the hallmark of Brugada syndrome whice incidence and prevalence of BrS in Puerto Rico, to our knowledge, has never been studied and there is only one case report of BrS in Puerto Rico in the literature. We review three cases of BrS in Puerto Rican patients who presented to our institution with syncope reviewing the literature. PMID:26035978

  6. Legionella in Puerto Rico cooling towers

    SciTech Connect

    Negron-Alviro, A.; Perez-Suarez, I.; Hazen, T.C. [Univ. of Puerto Rico, Rio Piedras (Puerto Rico)

    1988-12-31

    Water samples from air conditioning cooling towers receiving different treatment protocols on five large municipal buildings in San Juan, Puerto Rico were assayed for various species and serogroups of Legionella spp. using direct immunofluorescence. Several water quality parameters were also measured with each sample. Guinea pigs were inoculated with water samples to confirm pathogenicity and recover viable organisms. Legionella pneumophila (1-6), L. bozemanii, L. micdadei, L. dumoffii, and L. gormanii were observed in at least one of the cooling towers. L. pneumophila was the most abundant species, reaching 10{sup 5} cells/ml, within the range that is considered potentially pathogenic to humans. A significantly higher density of L. pneumophila was observed in the cooling tower water that was not being treated with biocides. Percent respiration (INT) and total cell activity (AODC), were inversely correlated with bacterial density. This study demonstrates that Legionella spp. are present in tropical air-conditioning cooling systems, and without continuous biocide treatment may reach densities that present a health risk.

  7. Economic Cost of Dengue in Puerto Rico

    PubMed Central

    Halasa, Yara A.; Shepard, Donald S.; Zeng, Wu

    2012-01-01

    Dengue, endemic in Puerto Rico, reached a record high in 2010. To inform policy makers, we derived annual economic cost. We assessed direct and indirect costs of hospitalized and ambulatory dengue illness in 2010 dollars through surveillance data and interviews with 100 laboratory-confirmed dengue patients treated in 2008–2010. We corrected for underreporting by using setting-specific expansion factors. Work absenteeism because of a dengue episode exceeded the absenteeism for an episode of influenza or acute otitis media. From 2002 to 2010, the aggregate annual cost of dengue illness averaged $38.7 million, of which 70% was for adults (age 15+ years). Hospitalized patients accounted for 63% of the cost of dengue illness, and fatal cases represented an additional 17%. Households funded 48% of dengue illness cost, the government funded 24%, insurance funded 22%, and employers funded 7%. Including dengue surveillance and vector control activities, the overall annual cost of dengue was $46.45 million ($12.47 per capita). PMID:22556069

  8. Hydrogeology of the karst of Puerto Rico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Giusti, Ennio V.

    1978-01-01

    About one-fifth of Puerto Rico is covered by a tropical karst formed on a series of six limestone formations ranging in age from middle-Oligocene to middle Miocene. These formations strike east to west and crop out over the north coast of the island. Structurally, the rocks form a simple wedge abutting southward against a mountain chain of volcanic origin and thickening northward to about 1,400 meters by the seashore. All stages of karstification are present: from the incipient, found at the western end of the belt to the residual, found at the eastern end. Maximum development of sinkholes occurs on the Aguada Limestone and upper part of the Aymanom Limestone. These formations have a CaCO3 content range from about 85 to 95 percent. The denudation rate of the Limestone belt through solution is computed as 0.70 mm per year with some evidence that abrasion may increase the denudation rate locally by as much as 40 percent. (Woodard-USGS)

  9. Limnology of Laguna Tortuguero, Puerto Rico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Quinones-Marquez, Ferdinand; Fuste, Luis A.

    1978-01-01

    The principal chemical, physical and biological characteristics, and the hydrology of Laguna Tortuguero, Puerto Rico, were studied from 1974-75. The lagoon, with an area of 2.24 square kilometers and a volume of about 2.68 million cubic meters, contains about 5 percent of seawater. Drainage through a canal on the north side averages 0.64 cubic meters per second per day, flushing the lagoon about 7.5 times per year. Chloride and sodium are the principal ions in the water, ranging from 300 to 700 mg/liter and 150 to 400 mg/liter, respectively. Among the nutrients, nitrogen averages about 1.7 mg/liter, exceeding phosphorus in a weight ratio of 170:1. About 10 percent of the nitrogen and 40 percent of the phosphorus entering the lagoon is retained. The bottom sediments, with a volume of about 4.5 million cubic meters, average 0.8 and 0.014 percent nitrogen and phosphorus, respectively. (Woodard-USGS)

  10. Geology of Isla de Mona, Puerto Rico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frank, E.F.; Wicks, C.; Mylroie, J.; Troester, J.; Alexander, E.C., Jr.; Carew, J.L.

    1998-01-01

    Isla de Mona is a carbonate island located in the Mona Passage 68 km west of Puerto Rico. The tectonically uplifted island is 12 km by 5 km, with an area of 55 km2, and forms a raised flat-topped platform or meseta. The meseta tilts gently to the south and is bounded by near vertical cliffs on all sides. These cliffs rise from 80 m above sea level on the north to 20 m above the sea on the southern coast. Along the southwestern and western side of the island a three- to six-meter-high Pleistocene fossil reef abuts the base of the cliff to form a narrow coastal plain. The meseta itself consists of two Mio-Pliocene carbonate units, the lower Isla de Mona Dolomite and the upper Lirio Limestone. Numerous karst features, including a series of flank margin caves primarily developed at the Lirio Limestone/Isla de Mona Dolomite contact, literally ring the periphery of the island.

  11. The quest for a job: an analysis of underemployment among Puerto Rican workers in Puerto Rico 

    E-print Network

    Lugo Ramos, Nancy

    1993-01-01

    The utilization of labor in Puerto Rico is a continuing problem. Researchers have focused their attention on the unemployed but not on the quality of employment. The Labor Utilization Framework (LUF) used in this study ...

  12. 42 CFR 412.210 - Puerto Rico rates for Federal fiscal years 1989 through 2003.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...located in large urban, other urban, or rural areas within Puerto Rico, as...hospitals in large urban, other urban, and rural areas within Puerto Rico equal...rates for large urban, other urban, and rural hospitals. For each...

  13. Submarine slope failures north of Puerto Rico, their estimated recurrence time, and their tsunami potential

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. L. Geist; P. J. Lynett

    2004-01-01

    New multibeam bathymetry and coincident acoustic backscatter images of the 770-km long Puerto Rico trench reveal numerous slope failures at various sizes north of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. At the edge of the carbonate platform a few tens of km north of Puerto Rico, the failed material comprises carbonate blocks, which slid, at least initially, as coherent rock

  14. Dust vertical distribution in the Caribbean during the Puerto Rico Dust Experiment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeffrey S. Reid; Douglas L. Westphal; John M. Livingston; Dennis L. Savoie; Hal B. Maring; Haflidi H. Jonsson; Daniel P. Eleuterio; James E. Kinney; Elizabeth A. Reid

    2002-01-01

    As part of Puerto Rico Dust Experiment (PRIDE), a Piper Navajo research aircraft, equipped with particle probes and an airborne Sun photometer, was deployed to Puerto Rico in July 2000. During the study, mid-visible optical depths in Puerto Rico due to dust reached 0.5. In the middle of the summer transport season, the vertical distributions of dust were similar to

  15. Testing a Collocated GPS and Tide Gauge Station at Mayagüez, Puerto Rico for Improved Tsunami Monitoring

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Jimenez; C. von Hillebrandt-Andrade; G. Wang

    2008-01-01

    The Puerto Rico Seismic Network (PRSN) of the University of Puerto Rico at Mayagüez is responsible for providing the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands with both earthquake and tsunami information and warnings. Destructive tsunamis, as in the past, could be generated by large local earthquakes associated with the interaction of the North American and Caribbean plates. As

  16. AN OPERATIONAL WATER AND ENERGY BALANCE ALGORITHM FOR PUERTO RICO Eric Harmsen

    E-print Network

    Gilbes, Fernando

    twenty-three hydro-climate variables, available to the public on a daily basis (http://pragwater.com/goes-puerto-rico-water-and-energyAN OPERATIONAL WATER AND ENERGY BALANCE ALGORITHM FOR PUERTO RICO Eric Harmsen Department.com In this study an operational water and energy balance algorithm for Puerto Rico (GOES- PRWEB) was developed

  17. Lessons Learned from the Puerto Rico Battery Energy Storage System

    SciTech Connect

    Boyes, John D.; De Anda, Mindi Farber; Torres, Wenceslao

    1999-08-11

    The Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority (PREPA) installed a battery energy storage system in 1994 at a substation near San Juan, Puerto Rico. It was patterned after two other large energy storage systems operated by electric utilities in California and Germany. The Puerto Rico facility is presently the largest operating battery storage system in the world and has successfully provided frequency control, voltage regulation, and spinning reseme to the Caribbean island. The system further proved its usefulness to the PREPA network in the fall of 1998 in the aftermath of Hurricane Georges. However, the facility has suffered accelerated cell failures in the past year and PREPA is committed to restoring the plant to full capacity. This represents the first repowering of a large utility battery facility. PREPA and its vendors and contractors learned many valuable lessons during all phases of project development and operation, which are summarized in this paper.

  18. The Health Status of Youth in Puerto Rico

    PubMed Central

    Langellier, Brent A; Martin, Molly A; Canino, Glorisa; Garza, Jeremiah R; Ortega, Alexander N

    2013-01-01

    Background Few population-based studies have assessed health outcomes and health care access and utilization among youth in the U.S. Commonwealth of Puerto Rico. Methods Data are from an island population-based sample of 337 youth ages 10 to 17 who participated in the Asthma, Depression, and Anxiety in Puerto Rican Youth Study. In-person interviews with youth and caregivers assessed self-rated physical and mental health, weight status, diagnosed health conditions, and health care access and utilization. Results Island Puerto Rican youth report slightly worse physical and mental health than mainland youth. Puerto Rican youth have high rates of asthma, headaches, and stomachaches. Six in ten island youth use public health insurance and one in three regularly receive care at the emergency department. Conclusions Island Puerto Rican youth are at a health disadvantage compared with mainland youth. Public health research is needed to fully understand and combat health challenges among Puerto Rican youth. PMID:22514193

  19. Survival of Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Puerto Rico

    PubMed Central

    MARRERO, CARLOS ROMERO; ORTIZ, ANA P.; PÉREZ, CYNTHIA M.; PÉREZ, JAVIER; TORRES, ESTHER A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Blacks and Hispanics in the United States (US) have the lowest survival rates of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), mainly associated to the presence of advanced disease at diagnosis when intervention is least beneficial. This study compared the survival distribution and relative survival of HCC in Puerto Rico (PR) during 1988-1992 and 1998-2002. Methods All HCC cases in the PR Central Cancer Registry database for 1988-1992 (n=306) and 1998-2002 (n=333) were identified. Patient characteristics and clinical variables were compared between study periods. Survival by age at diagnosis, sex, tumor stage and treatment was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method, and survival curves were compared using the Wilcoxon test. A Cox proportional hazards model was employed to assess the effect of period of diagnosis on survival, after adjusting for confounders. One- and three-year survival rates were also calculated. Results Patients diagnosed during 1998-2002 (median: 3.08 months, 95% CI: 2.30-4.16) had a longer observed survival than those diagnosed from 1988-1992 (median: 1.80 months, 95% CI: 1.44-2.52). A significant interaction was observed between the variables age and period of diagnosis, where only among persons aged ? 60 years the risk of HCC death was lower (sex-adjusted HR=O.72; 95%CI: 0.59-0.88) in patients diagnosed during 1998-2002 as compared to those diagnosed during 1988-1992. The overall one- and three-year relative survival during 1998-2002 was approximately 6% (22.4% vs.16.6%) and 2% higher (9.0% vs. 6.7%) respectively, as compared to 1988-1992. Conclusion We observed a temporal improvement in the survival of HCC in PR during the last decade. However, this survival is inferior to the one observed in the US population. Further studies are needed to identify factors that explain these disparities. PMID:19530551

  20. Hydrology of Laguna Joyuda, Puerto Rico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Santiago-Rivera, Luis; Quinones-Aponte, Vicente

    1995-01-01

    A study was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey to define the hydraulic and hydrologic characteristics of the Laguna Joyuda system (in southwestern Puerto Rico) and to determine the water budget of the lagoon. This shallow-water lagoon is connected to the sea by a single canal. Rainfall and evaporation, surface-water, groundwater, and tidal-flow data were collected from December 1, 1985, to April 30, 1988. A conceptual hydrologic model of the lagoon was developed and discharge measurements and modeling were undertaken to quantify the different flow components. The water balance during the 29-month study period was determined by measuring and estimating the different hydrologic components: 4.14 million cubic meters rainfall; 5.38 million cubic meters evaporation; 1.1 8 million cubic meters surface water; and 0.34 million cubic meters ground water. A total of 18.9 million cubic meters ebb flow (tidal outflow) was discharged from the lagoon and 14.4 million cubic meters flood flow (tidal inflow) entered through the canal during the study. Seawater inflow accounted for 71 percent of the water into the lagoon. The storage volume of the lagoon was about 1.55 million cubic meters. The lagoon's hydrologic-budget residual was 4.22 million cubic meters, whereas the sum of the estimated errors for the different hydrologic components amounted to 4.51 million cubic meters. Average flushing rate for the lagoon was estimated at 72 days. During the study, the specific conductance of the lagoon water ranged from 32,000 to 52,000 microsiemens per centimeter at 25 degrees Celsius, whereas the specific conductance of local seawater is about 45,000 to 55,000 microsiemens.

  1. Structural analysis of cores and cuttings from the Toa Baja (Puerto Rico) Borehole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lallemant, Hans G. Avé

    Deformation structures in core samples and well cuttings from the Toa Baja borehole in Puerto Rico, obtained from depths of 580 to 2700 meters, can be divided into two major categories: (1) structures resulting from compression and shear and (2) structures formed by extension. Generally, the first ones are older and they are somewhat more abundant at horizons where fault zones occur as deduced from dipmeter readings and televiewer log. These structures may have formed during an Eocene thrusting event, recognized regionally in Puerto Rico. The extensional structures which almost always crosscut the compressional ones are filled with zeolite, calcite, prehnite, or quartz. There is poor correspondence between the abundance of these fractures and the position of the major fault zones. The largest abundance of veins occurs between 1700 and 2100 meters depth. They may be related to a phase of regional extension during the Late Paleogene.

  2. Neotectonics of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands, northeastern Caribbean, from GPS geodesy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pamela E. Jansma; Glen S. Mattioli; Alberto Lopez; Charles DeMets; Timothy H. Dixon; Paul Mann; Eric Calais

    2000-01-01

    The boundary between the North American and Caribbean plates is characterized primarily by left-lateral motion along predominantly east-west striking faults. Seismicity and marine geophysical survey data are consistent with at least two, and possibly three, microplates in the diffuse boundary zone in the northeastern Caribbean: (1) the Gonave, (2) the Hispaniola, and (3) the Puerto Rico-northern Virgin Islands (PRVI). We

  3. Three-dimensional Euler deconvolution and tectonic interpretation of marine magnetic anomaly data in the Puerto Rico Trench

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muszala, S. P.; Grindlay, N. R.; Bird, R. T.

    1999-12-01

    During the summer of 1996 single-channel-seismic, magnetic, gravity, Hydrosweep bathymetric and HMR1 sidescan data were collected north of the island of Puerto Rico to constrain the geologic and tectonic setting of the Puerto Rico trench. Magnetic data from this cruise are merged with other available data, then processed and interpreted with the aid of the Euler deconvolution method. The area north of the island of Puerto Rico is divided into three magnetic anomaly zones. Zone 1 is dominated by northwest to southeast trending magnetic anomalies. Zone 2 consists of an east-west region of relatively low amplitude anomalies and occurs south of zone 1. Zone 3 is dominated by the highest magnetic values in the study area and the source region is roughly centered under the island of Puerto Rico. Respectively, these zones approximate three geologic provinces of the Puerto Rico trench composed of Early Cretaceous ocean crust with sedimentary cover, a blueschist belt and an Oligocene-Cretaceous island arc with a limestone cap. Also mapped are the Main Ridge fracture zone and the Fourth of July fracture zone, both on the North American plate, which correlate with the Main Ridge and Fourth of July Ridge on the Caribbean plate. The 3-D Euler deconvolution facilitates the identification of new faults as well as the mapping of known faults also evident in the seismic and bathymetric data. A model concerning the formation of the Puerto Rico trench is proposed that incorporates the existence of strike-slip faults and the fracture zones associated with the subduction of the North America Plate. Evidence from this study support a tectonic interpretation of subduction followed by more recent strike-slip faulting that is accompanied by only a minimal amount of subduction.

  4. Multibeam Mapping and Remotely Operated Vehicle Exploration of the Puerto Rico and Virgin Islands Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coleman, D. F.; Ten Brink, U. S.; Armstrong, R.; Chaytor, J. D.; Demopoulos, A. W.

    2013-12-01

    During October 2013, an ocean exploration project took place off the coast of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. This project, a collaborative effort between the Ocean Exploration Trust, the US Geological Survey, the University of Puerto Rico at Mayaguez, the University of Rhode Island, and NOAA, was aimed at exploring regions of the US exclusive economic zone (EEZ) south of the Puerto Rico Trench axis, and north of Mona Island, Puerto Rico, and the US and British Virgin Islands, and portions of the Anegada Passage. The research vessel E/V Nautilus and the Hercules/Argus ROV system were used to expand the multibeam sonar bathymetric data coverage of the region, collect high definition video footage of seafloor features, and to collect biological and geological samples along selected transects. Particular areas of interest for targeted ROV dives included: the region where a large M7.2 1918 earthquake produced a tsunami that struck northwestern corner of Puerto Rico; a transect up the vertical wall of the Mona Rift (4000 to 1500 m depth); transects along the Septentrional fault system; dives in areas of suspected fluid flow through faults, fissures, and offshore Karst systems associated with the tilted carbonate platform north of Puerto Rico; dives in the Anegada Passage at the entry points for surface Atlantic waters that circulate into the Caribbean; and in regions to investigate and date sedimentary features offset by fault motion and potential tsunamigenic landslides. Biological sampling of many deep-sea benthic organisms (including deep water corals) have never been attempted before in this area. These samples are being used to understand more about the diversity, population dynamics, genetics, and habitat connectivity of these communities, and to provide an age constraint for disturbed sedimentary features. Until this cruise, the location and distribution of deep coral habitats in the US Caribbean was largely unknown. The available information on benthic communities associated with deep coral ecosystems in this region was mostly limited to taxonomic listings from incidental collections by fish traps, shrimp trawls and coral entanglement devices. We present the results of the first direct observations and sampling of these ecosystems.

  5. Ecophysiology of a Mangrove Forest in Jobos Bay, Puerto Rico

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ARIEL E. LUGO; E RNESTO MEDINA; E LVIRA CUEVAS; G ILBERTO CINTRÓN; EDDIE N. LABOY NIEVES; YARA SCHÄEFFER NOVELLI

    2007-01-01

    We studied gas exchange, leaf dimensions, litter production, leaf and litterfall chemistry, nutrient flux to the forest floor, retranslocation rates, and nutrient use efficiency of mangroves in Jobos Bay, Puerto Rico. The fringe forest had a salinity gradient from the ocean (35‰) to a salt flat (100‰) and a basin (about 80‰). Red (Rhizophora mangle), white (Laguncularia racemosa), and black

  6. 27 CFR 26.126 - Taxpayment in Puerto Rico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...ISLANDS Liquors and Articles Purchased by Tourists in Puerto Rico § 26.126 Taxpayment...wines, or beer are purchased by a tourist for consumption in the United States...receipt. The tax on articles purchased by tourists may be paid in the same manner....

  7. 27 CFR 26.126 - Taxpayment in Puerto Rico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...ISLANDS Liquors and Articles Purchased by Tourists in Puerto Rico § 26.126 Taxpayment...wines, or beer are purchased by a tourist for consumption in the United States...receipt. The tax on articles purchased by tourists may be paid in the same manner....

  8. 27 CFR 26.126 - Taxpayment in Puerto Rico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...ISLANDS Liquors and Articles Purchased by Tourists in Puerto Rico § 26.126 Taxpayment...wines, or beer are purchased by a tourist for consumption in the United States...receipt. The tax on articles purchased by tourists may be paid in the same manner....

  9. 27 CFR 26.126 - Taxpayment in Puerto Rico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...ISLANDS Liquors and Articles Purchased by Tourists in Puerto Rico § 26.126 Taxpayment...wines, or beer are purchased by a tourist for consumption in the United States...receipt. The tax on articles purchased by tourists may be paid in the same manner....

  10. 27 CFR 26.126 - Taxpayment in Puerto Rico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...ISLANDS Liquors and Articles Purchased by Tourists in Puerto Rico § 26.126 Taxpayment...wines, or beer are purchased by a tourist for consumption in the United States...receipt. The tax on articles purchased by tourists may be paid in the same manner....

  11. ASSESSING THE CONDITION OF THE COASTAL RESOURCES OF PUERTO RICO

    EPA Science Inventory

    Forty seven stations located in the coastal estuaries of Puerto Rico were sampled during the summer of 2000 using a probabilistic design. Fourteen estuaries were classified as "large" at 4.19 km2, 25 "medium" at 3.46 km2, and 8 "small" at 0.55 km2. Samples were successfully coll...

  12. Disinfection Alternatives for Small Communities in Puerto Rico

    EPA Science Inventory

    Disinfection Alternatives for Small Communities in Puerto Rico Craig Patterson1, Graciela Ramirez Toro2, Harvey Minnigh2, Cristina Maldonado3, and Rajib Sinha4 1U.S. EPA Office of Research and Development, 2Centro de Educación, Conservación e Interpretación Ambiental (CECIA),...

  13. Spiders associated with papaya, Carica papaya L., in Puerto Rico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The main objective of this work was to study the species composition and population dynamics of spiders associated with papaya plantings in three papaya production areas: Corozal, Isabela, and Lajas, Puerto Rico. Nineteen species representing seven families and 15 genera were identified. Members of ...

  14. LANDSCAPE AND REGIONAL IMPACTS OF HURRICANES IN PUERTO RICO

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emery R. Boose; Mayra I. Serrano; David R. Foster

    2004-01-01

    Puerto Rico is subject to frequent and severe impacts from hurricanes, whose long-term ecological role must be assessed on a scale of centuries. In this study we applied a method for reconstructing hurricane disturbance regimes developed in an earlier study of hurricanes in New England. Patterns of actual wind damage from historical records were analyzed for 85 hurricanes since European

  15. Forest recovery in the karst region of Puerto Rico

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luis W Rivera; T. Mitchell Aide

    1998-01-01

    Widespread deforestation has led to an increase in secondary forest in the tropics. During the late 1940s in Puerto Rico, forest covered only 6% of the island, but a shift from agriculture to industry has led to the increase of secondary forest. This study focuses on the regeneration of forest following the abandonment of pastures and coffee plantations located in

  16. Universidad Politcnica de Puerto Rico Departamento de Ciencias Geomticas

    E-print Network

    Gilbes, Fernando

    Universidad Politécnica de Puerto Rico Departamento de Ciencias Geomáticas Proyecto: Hirangel Precisión. Estas ramas integradas de las Ciencias Geomáticas, unidas a la colaboración de expertos en

  17. Universidad de Puerto Rico Recinto de Ciencias Mdicas

    E-print Network

    Quirk, Gregory J.

    Universidad de Puerto Rico Recinto de Ciencias Médicas Decanato de Enfermería División de Educación Recinto de Ciencias Médicas-UPR PO BOX 365067 San Juan, PR 00936-0567 b. Si lo envía por correo, deberá curso. Recinto de Ciencias Médicas Decanato de Enfermería #12;

  18. Puerto Rico Water Resources and Environmental Research Institute

    E-print Network

    Gilbes, Fernando

    Section 104 of the Water Resources Research Act of 1984, as Amended ANNOUNCEMENT 11HQPA0002 Revised Centre Avenue Fort Collins, CO 80525 or call 970-226-9445. #12;PUERTO RICO WATER RESOURCES under the provisions of section 104 of the Water Resources Research Act of 1984 (Public Law 98

  19. Proceedings of Quantifying Sustainability in Puerto Rico: A Scientific Discussion

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency?s (EPA) Office of Research and Development?s (ORD) symposium/workshop entitled, ?Quantifying Sustainability in Puerto Rico: A Scientific Discussion,? was to establish a dialogue between researchers and decision makers and fa...

  20. 78 FR 4966 - Puerto Rico Disaster #PR-00018

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-23

    ...of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico dated 01/10/2013. Incident: Tropical Storm Sandy. Incident Period: 10/25/2012 through 10/26/2012. Effective Date: 01/10/2013. Physical Loan...

  1. AIDS-Related Stigma and Health Professionals in Puerto Rico

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yamilette Ruiz-Torres; Francheska N. Cintrón-Bou; Nelson Varas-Díaz

    2007-01-01

    This study addresses an important issue in the AIDS epidemic in Puerto Rico: AIDS stigma among health professionals and health profession students. AIDS stigma has been documented among health services providers such as doctors, nurses, psychologists, and social workers. It has detrimental effects of the services provided and the lives of people living with HIV\\/AIDS (PLWHA). The main objective of

  2. Universidad de Puerto Rico Recinto Universitario de Mayagez,

    E-print Network

    Gilbes, Fernando

    consequences to human and ecosystems health, ocean fertilization, climate, and global warming. This work;2 Keywords: ENVI, NDDI, Dust, Aerosol, Puerto Rico, CCN 1. INTRODUCTION Dust storm is one of global scale natural hazard and climatic phenomena that can affect global and regional weather and climatic systems

  3. Community beliefs and practices about dengue in Puerto Rico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In spite of long-term endemicity and repeated government and private efforts, effective, sustained community participation for dengue prevention is still a challenge in Puerto Rico. This study explored differences found in interviews conducted in 2001 in attitudes toward dengue and its prevention by...

  4. Food resource partitioning inb syntopic nectarivorous bats on Puerto Rico

    EPA Science Inventory

    We analyzed stable isotopes (d13C, d15N) to estimate the importance of plants and insects to the diet of two nectar-feeding bats on Puerto Rico, the brown flower bat (Erophylla bombifrons) and the Greater Antillean long-tongued bat (Monophyllus redmani). Concentrations of stable ...

  5. 76 FR 59179 - Puerto Rico Disaster Number PR-00014

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-23

    ...declaration of a major disaster for the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico (FEMA-4017-DR), dated 08/27/2011. Incident: Hurricane Irene. Incident Period: 08/21/2011 through 08/24/2011. Dates: Effective Date: 09/13/2011. Physical...

  6. Tropical cyclones and the flood hydrology of Puerto Rico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, James A.; Sturdevant-Rees, Paula; Baeck, Mary Lynn; Larsen, Matthew C.

    2005-06-01

    Some of the largest unit discharge flood peaks in the stream gaging records of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) have occurred in Puerto Rico. Many of these flood peaks are associated with tropical cyclones. Hurricane Georges, which passed directly over the island on 21-22 September 1998, produced record flood peaks at numerous USGS stations in Puerto Rico. The hydrology and hydrometeorology of extreme flood response in Puerto Rico are examined through analyses of rainfall, based on Weather Surveillance Radar-1988 Doppler (WSR-88D) radar reflectivity observations and USGS rain gage observations and discharge from USGS stream gaging stations. Peak rainfall accumulations of more than 700 mm occurred in the central mountain region of the island. The largest unit discharge flood peaks, however, were located in the eastern portion of the island in areas with smaller storm total rainfall accumulations but markedly larger rainfall rates at 5-60 min timescale. Orographic precipitation mechanisms played an important role in rainfall distribution over the island of Puerto Rico. Amplification of rainfall accumulations was associated with areas of upslope motion. Elevated low-level cloud water content in regions of upslope motion played an important role in the maximum rainfall accumulations in the central mountain region of Puerto Rico. The largest unit discharge flood peaks, however, were produced by a decaying eye wall mesovortex, which resulted in a 30-45 min period of extreme rainfall rates over the eastern portion of the island. This storm element was responsible for the record flood peak of the Río Grande de Lóiza. The role of terrain in development and evolution of the eye wall mesovortex is unclear but is of fundamental importance for assessing extreme flood response from the storm. Hydrologic response is examined through analyses of rainfall and discharge from five pairs of drainage basins, extending from east to west over the island. These analyses point to the importance of short-term rainfall rates for extreme flood response. The hydrologic response of Puerto Rico is compared with two other extreme flood environments, the central Appalachians and Edwards Plateau of Texas. These analyses suggest that the high rainfall environment of Puerto Rico is linked to the development of a hydraulically efficient drainage system.

  7. Puerto Rico - 2002 : field studies to resolve aerosol processes.

    SciTech Connect

    Gaffney, J. S.; Marley, N. A.; Ravelo, R.

    1999-10-05

    A number of questions remain concerning homogeneous aerosol formation by natural organics interacting with anthropogenic pollutants. For example, chlorine has been proposed as a potential oxidant in the troposphere because of its very high reactivity with a wide range of organics (Finlayson-Pitts, 1993). Indeed, sea salt aerosol in the presence of ozone has been shown to produce chlorine atoms in heterogeneous photochemical reactions under laboratory conditions. Whether chlorine can initiate oxidation of natural organics such as monoterpene hydrocarbons and can generate homogeneous nucleation or condensable material that contributes to aerosol loadings needs to be assessed. The nighttime reactions of ozone and nitrate radical can also result in monoterpene reactions that contribute to aerosol mass. We are currently planning field studies in Puerto Rico to assess these aerosol issues and other atmospheric chemistry questions. Puerto Rico has a number of key features that make it very attractive for a field study of this sort. The principal feature is the island's very regular meteorology and its position in the Caribbean Sea relative to the easterly trade winds. This meteorology and the island's rectangular shape (100 x 35 miles) make it highly suitable for simplification of boundary layer conditions. In addition, the long stretch between Puerto Rico and the nearest pollution sources in Africa and southern Europe make the incoming background air relatively clean and constant. Furthermore, Puerto Rico has approximately 3.5 million people with a very well defined source region and a central area of rain forest vegetation. These features make Puerto Rico an ideal locale for assessing aerosol processes. The following sections describe specific areas of atmospheric chemistry that can be explored during the proposed field study.

  8. Annotations on Selected Aspects of the Culture of Puerto Rico and Its People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany.

    Intended for teachers who are currently working with Puerto Rican children, this manuscript provides an orientation to the cultural and historical background of Puerto Rico. The primary purpose of this survey is to depict significant contributions that occurred in Puerto Rico. Contents include information and materials obtained from national…

  9. Counterinsurgency goes to university: the militarisation of policing in the Puerto Rico student strikes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    José Atiles-Osoria; David Whyte

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a case study of the recent student strike at the University of Puerto Rico (held between 2010 and 2011) and the militarisation of the campus that followed. The strike has been a significant site of resistance to the imposition of neo-liberal structural adjustment in Puerto Rico (PR). The response to the strike by the Government of Puerto

  10. Fracture Analysis of Neogene Rocks in Puerto Rico constrains Neogene-Quaternary microplate evolution of the northeastern Caribbean plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hippolyte, J. C.; Mann, P.

    2003-04-01

    The Puerto Rico-Virgin Islands (PRVI) microplate is bounded to the north and south by subduction zones, and to the east and the west by diffuse zones of extension (Mona rift) or probable transtension (Anegada Passage). Paleomagnetic data from Neogene carbonate rocks exposed in Puerto Rico record 24 degrees of counterclockwise rotation since the middle Miocene (Reid et al., 1991). Such largescale counterclockwise rotation would agree with observed Pliocene dextral transtensional movements in the Anegada passage (Jany et al., 1987; 1990; Mauffret and Jany, 1990) and would predict transpression in the area of the Mona Rift. However, recent GPS data (Jansma et al., 2000) reveal E-W extension in the Mona Passage that disagrees with the counterclockwise rotation model. We present the results of the first fault slip measurements from Mio-Pliocene carbonate rocks in Puerto Rico. In northwest Puerto Rico, fracture analysis reveals late Neogene-Quaternary normal faulting post-dating karst landforms and continuous with NS-striking normal faults bounding the eastern margin of the Mona rift. Paleostress analysis of these onshore faults well exposed in quarries and roadcuts confirms that the Mona rift is presently opening in an E-W direction. Along the southern margin of Puerto Rico, the Neogene carbonates of the Ponce formation have recorded two successive transtensional deformations: (1) a NNE-trending dextral transtension; (2) a SE-trending sinistral transtension. The latter event is closely related to WSW to SW-striking normal faults bounding the Anegada Passage. Future work on Neogene rocks exposed on the Virgin Islands flanking the Anegada Passage will determine if polyphase evolution of the Anegada Passage is consistent with (1) Miocene dextral transtension during a counterclockwise rotation of the PRVI microplate and (2) Pliocene-Quaternary E-W to NW-SE extension produced by slower eastward motion of the PRVI microplate relative to the Lesser Antilles arc and Caribbean plate.

  11. The Anthropology of the People of Puerto Rico. Studies of Puerto Rican Society and Culture, No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Ronald J., Ed.

    This monograph contains seven papers presented at a 1977 symposium held to reevaluate the 1947 research work, "The People of Puerto Rico." (1) Sidney Mintz discusses the role of Puerto Rico in modern social science. (2) Eric Wolf, one of the authors of the 1947 work, comments retrospectively on some of the conceptual and methodological strengths…

  12. Structure and tectonics of the upper Cenozoic Puerto Rico-Virgin Islands carbonate platform as determined from seismic reflection studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Gestel, Jean-Paul; Mann, Paul; Dolan, James F.; Grindlay, Nancy R.

    1998-12-01

    The Puerto Rico-Virgin Islands carbonate platform was deposited over an area of 18,000 km2 from early Oligocene to Holocene on top of an inactive and subsiding Cretaceous-earliest Oligocene island arc. Regional single-channel and multichannel seismic reflection lines presented in this study provide the first information on the regional stratigraphy and structure of this platform that has previously been known mainly from onshore stratigraphic sections of a relatively small (2250 km2) portion of the platform exposed by late Neogene tectonic uplift along the north coast of Puerto Rico. Seismic reflection lines are used to map the thickness of the carbonate platform strata and to correlate this thickness with onshore outcrop and well data from northern and southern Puerto Rico, St. Croix (U.S. Virgin Islands), and the Saba Bank. Limestone thickness variations from a little over 2 km to almost zero are used to subdivide the Puerto Rico-Virgin Islands platform into five distinct carbonate provinces: (1) north Puerto Rico area including the onshore exposures; (2) Virgin Islands area; (3) St. Croix and Saba Bank area; (4) south Puerto Rico area; and (5) Mona Passage area. Carbonate thickness and structural information from each area are used to test five previously proposed models for the deformation and vertical movements of the platform. The most prominent feature of the platform in the Puerto Rico-Virgin Islands area is a large, east-west trending arch. The northern limb of this arch exhibits a smoother, more uniform dip than the steeper, more abruptly faulted, southern limb. The core of the arch is responsible for the exposure of arc basement rocks on Puerto Rico. The origin of this arch, which occurs over a 300 km wide area, is best explained by north-south shortening and arching, caused by interaction at depth of subducted slabs of the North America and Caribbean plates. Other important evidence for this model can be found in the Benioff zones observed in the earthquake profiles. Loading of the Caribbean plate results in downward flexing of the North America plate and causes the 4 km subsidence of the carbonate platform north of Puerto Rico.

  13. Real Time Flood Alert System (RTFAS) for Puerto Rico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lopez-Trujillo, Dianne

    2010-01-01

    The Real Time Flood Alert System is a web-based computer program, developed as a data integration tool, and designed to increase the ability of emergency managers to rapidly and accurately predict flooding conditions of streams in Puerto Rico. The system includes software and a relational database to determine the spatial and temporal distribution of rainfall, water levels in streams and reservoirs, and associated storms to determine hazardous and potential flood conditions. The computer program was developed as part of a cooperative agreement between the U.S. Geological Survey Caribbean Water Science Center and the Puerto Rico Emergency Management Agency, and integrates information collected and processed by these two agencies and the National Weather Service.

  14. Populations dynamics of Australorbis glabratus in Puerto Rico

    PubMed Central

    Ritchie, Lawrence S.; Radke, Myron G.; Ferguson, Frederick F.

    1962-01-01

    This report on the population dynamics of Australorbis glabratus in Puerto Rico is based on observations made over about two years at 50 collecting-sites in a representative range of snail habitats. In some places a marked predominance of Tropicorbis was noted. No continuous or seasonal propagation of Australorbis was apparent. Dense populations seldom prevailed for more than a few months, and in most places very low population levels occurred at irregular intervals, and colony decimations were fairly common. A variety of pressures is exerted on Australorbis in Puerto Rico by a multiplicity of natural factors; detailed knowledge of this snail's natural history in the field is necessary for effective bilharziasis control and for a full understanding of the regional epidemiology of this disease. PMID:14492504

  15. Urban heat island effect analysis for San Juan, Puerto Rico

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexander Velazquez-Lozada; Jorge E. Gonzalez; Amos Winter

    2006-01-01

    A climatological analysis of the differences of air temperature between rural and urban areas (dT(U–R)) corroborates the existence of an urban heat island (UHI) in the tropical coastal city of San Juan, Puerto Rico that has been increasing at a rate of 0.06°Cyear?1 for the last 40 years with predicted differences as high as 8°C for the year 2050. The

  16. DISTRIBUTION AND ABUNDANCE OF RAPTORS IN PUERTO RICO

    Microsoft Academic Search

    FRANK F. RIVERA-MILAN

    1995-01-01

    hOtI3 July 1986 to June 1988, I counted all raptors (Falconiformes and Stri- giformes) seen or heard along 1.5 g-km routes in the three major life zones of Puerto Rico (moist, wet, and dry). Red-tailed Hawks (Buteo jamaicensis) and American Kestrels (F&o sparverius) were the most abundant year-round residents. Red-tailed Hawks were more abundant in the moist zone than in

  17. RED-TAILED HAWK NEST SITES IN PUERTO RICO

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eduarixi Santana C; J Eddie N. Laboy; James A. Mosher; Stanley A. Temple

    ABSTRACT.-We describe Red-tailed Hawk,(Buteo jamaicensis) nest sites in four habitats in Puerto Rico. Forty-nine nests were located in 2 1 species of trees. Red-tailed Hawks nested in trees that were taller than the mean,canopy,height of trees in surrounding,plots and that allowed a view of at least 50% of their territory. Most nests were in the upper,third of the tree on

  18. A proposed streamflow-data program for Puerto Rico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lopez, Miguel A.; Fields, Fred K.

    1970-01-01

    The streamflow-data program of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in Puerto Rico has been one of the principal parts of an overall appraisal of the water resources of the Island since the initiation of a cooperative agreement with agencies of the Commonwealth Government in 1957. The streamflow-station network has increased in direct response to demand for data to support planning for the rapidly accelerated industrial and population growth that has occurred since.

  19. Lessons Learned from the Puerto Rico Battery Energy Storage System

    SciTech Connect

    BOYES, JOHN D.; DE ANA, MINDI FARBER; TORRES, WENCESLANO

    1999-09-01

    The Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority (PREPA) installed a distributed battery energy storage system in 1994 at a substation near San Juan, Puerto Rico. It was patterned after two other large energy storage systems operated by electric utilities in California and Germany. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Energy Storage Systems Program at Sandia National Laboratories has followed the progress of all stages of the project since its inception. It directly supported the critical battery room cooling system design by conducting laboratory thermal testing of a scale model of the battery under simulated operating conditions. The Puerto Rico facility is at present the largest operating battery storage system in the world and is successfully providing frequency control, voltage regulation, and spinning reserve to the Caribbean island. The system further proved its usefulness to the PREPA network in the fall of 1998 in the aftermath of Hurricane Georges. The owner-operator, PREPA, and the architect/engineer, vendors, and contractors learned many valuable lessons during all phases of project development and operation. In documenting these lessons, this report will help PREPA and other utilities in planning to build large energy storage systems.

  20. Peer Norms and Sharing of Injection Paraphernalia among Puerto Rican Injection Drug Users in New York and Puerto Rico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andia, Jonny F.; Deren, Sherry; Robles, Rafaela R.; Kang, Sung-Yeon; Colon, Hector M.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the influence of peer norms on sharing of injection paraphernalia (e.g., indirect sharing behaviors, including sharing of cookers, cotton, rinse water and back/front loading) among Puerto Rican injection drug users (IDUs) in Bayamon, Puerto Rico, and East Harlem, New York City. Data were collected from 873 Puerto Rican IDUs…

  1. Paleomagnetic evidence for Late Miocene counterclockwise rotation of north coast carbonate sequence, Puerto Rico

    SciTech Connect

    Reid, J.A.; Plumley, P.W. (Syracuse Univ., NY (United States)); Schellekens, J.H. (Univ. of Puerto Rico, Mayaguez (Puerto Rico))

    1991-03-01

    A paleomagnetic study of the essentially undeformed middle Tertiary carbonate sequence along the north coast of Puerto Rico reveals statistically significant pre-Pliocene discordance of characteristic component directions against those expected from cratonic North America for much of the section. Despite generally weak to moderately weak magnetic intensities, confirmation of the magnetization as primary in origin comes from the presence of two distinct components of magnetization, intrasite bipolarity, and/or the reproducibility of measurements. The mean geographic direction for the upper Oligocene to middle Miocene strata is 335.2{degree}/32.9{degree} and the corrected mean paleomagnetic pole is 207.6{degree}/66.5{degree}, (N = 3, {alpha}95 = 4.3{degree}). This suggests a counter-clockwise (CCW) block rotation of Puerto Rico and its microplate of 24.5{degrees} ({plus minus} 5.8{degrees}) during the late Miocene. Using a width of 250 km for the Northern Caribbean Plate Boundary Zone (NCPBZ) between the North American Plate and Caribbean Plate, the mean left lateral displacement implied is 1.8 to 2.4 cm/yr, which agrees fairly well with published relative motion rates for the two plates. Average rotation rate for 50 Ma to 20 Ma was 0.7{degree}/my but perhaps as great as 4{degree}/my in the Miocene. Resolution of mean paleolatitude indicates northward motion of a degree or less during the period of rotation. Causes of this short-lived rotation may include (1) tectonic escape from the inhibiting presence of the Bahama Banks and Beata Ridge during eastward motion of Puerto Rico along the sinistral transpressive Puerto Rico Trench and Muertos Trough fault systems or (2) changes in relative plate motions of the Caribbean and North American Plate during the late Miocene.

  2. Estudio Cultural de Puerto Rico. A Cultural Study of Puerto Rico.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santiago, Jorge; And Others

    This book presents resource materials for teaching the cultural heritage of the Puerto Rican student. It includes biographical sketches of outstanding figures in Puerto Rican history from colonial times to the twentieth century. It also contains descriptions of national festivities and holidays, as well as poetry representative of Puerto Rican…

  3. 26 CFR 1.876-1 - Alien residents of Puerto Rico, Guam, American Samoa, or the Northern Mariana Islands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false Alien residents of Puerto Rico, Guam, American Samoa, or the Northern Mariana Islands. 1.876-1...876-1 Alien residents of Puerto Rico, Guam, American Samoa, or the Northern Mariana Islands. (a)...

  4. Landslide Deposits, Cookie Bites, and Crescentic Fracturing Along the Northern Puerto Rico-Virgin Islands Margin: Implications for Potential Tsunamigenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hearne, M. E.; Grindlay, N. R.; Mann, P.

    2003-12-01

    The seismogenic North America-Caribbean oblique-slip plate boundary forms the 8-km-deep Puerto Rico trench north of the densely populated islands of Puerto Rico and Virgin Islands (combined population of just over 4 million people). The southern slope of the Puerto Rico trench adjacent to the Puerto Rico-Virgin Islands (PRVI) carbonate platform is characterized by frequent seismicity, rapid trenchward tilting, oversteepened slopes, and mass wasting. We present high-resolution bathymetry, HMR1 sidescan imagery, and single-channel seismic data to document extensive landslide deposits that we infer to have been the result of multiple slide events capable of producing prehistoric tsunamis along the coasts of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. Landslide deposits can be traced upslope to two, 45-55 km-wide arcuate-shaped embayments or "cookie bites" carved out of the PRVI platform. Three-dimensional visualization of the debris field and the slope of the largest of the arcuate-shaped embayments centered at 66° 40' constrain volume removal to 1.1 km3 of the PRVI carbonate platform and underlying volcanic and volcaniclastic basement. Sidescan sonar and single-channel seismic data reveal crescentic cracks in the seafloor of the PRVI platform 35-45 km in length located 35 km offshore the northwestern tip of Puerto Rico. These cracks, interpreted to represent the sites of future breakaway scarps and landslides, are similar in shape and length to the head wall scarps of the amphitheaters to the east. An ˜500 km2 section of the PRVI platform (750 m thick) has begun to detach and slump trenchward along the larger of these cracks. Investigation of the existing arcuate-shaped embayments is essential because massive (tens to hundreds of km3) and instantaneous slope failure has the potential to be tsunamigenic. Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands were inundated by tsunamis in 1867 (mainly affecting St. Thomas and St. Croix, 7 m of runup, casualties in the hundreds) and 1918 (mainly affecting western and northwestern Puerto Rico; 6 m of runup, 120 casualties). Calculation of the potential volume, runout extent, and triggering mechanisms of past submarine landslides will better constrain the tsunamigenic potential of the newly discovered crescentic faults.

  5. Puerto Rico Tsunami Warning and Mitigation Program

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. A. Huerfano; A. Mercado; C. G. von Hillebrandt

    2003-01-01

    The circum-Caribbean region has a documented history of large damaging tsunamis that have affected coastal areas, including the events of the Virgin Islands in 1867 and Mona Passage in 1918. These tsunamis have been triggered by large tsunamigenic earthquakes that deformed the ocean floor. The seismic water waves originating in the prominent fault system around PR are considered to be

  6. Size distribution of submarine landslides and its implication to tsunami hazard in Puerto Rico

    E-print Network

    Size distribution of submarine landslides and its implication to tsunami hazard in Puerto Rico Uri frequency distribution for carbonate submarine slope failures. Using detailed bathymetry along the northern (2006), Size distribution of submarine landslides and its implication to tsunami hazard in Puerto Rico

  7. The Pragmatics of Professionalism: Translation and Interpretation in Puerto Rico and Quebec.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archibald, J.

    The impact of Puerto Rico's and Quebec's laws on official bilingualism of translation and interpreting services is examined. In the case of Puerto Rico, public policy concerning the use of Spanish and English since 1899 is reviewed, focusing on early laws and those passed since 1991. The status of the translation profession is discussed, and it is…

  8. Estimating recharge thresholds in tropical karst island aquifers: Barbados, Puerto Rico and Guam

    E-print Network

    Banner, Jay L.

    Estimating recharge thresholds in tropical karst island aquifers: Barbados, Puerto Rico and Guam of rainfall. The karst aquifers on Barbados, Guam and Puerto Rico have similar rainwater and groundwater therefore speculate that similar recharge-rainfall thresholds may be observed in other tropical karst

  9. INCREASE OF LEPTOSPIROSIS IN DENGUE-NEGATIVE PATIENTS AFTER A HURRICANE IN PUERTO RICO IN 1966

    Microsoft Academic Search

    EDUARD J. SANDERS; HENK L. SMITS; CARMEN C. DESEDA; VANCE A. VORNDAM; TIN AYE; RICHARD A. SPIEGEL; ROBBIN S. WEYANT; SANDRA L. BRAGG

    1999-01-01

    Leptospirosis has rarely been reported in Puerto Rico, although in the period from 1948 to 1952, 208 cases of leptospirosis and an island-wide seroprevalence of antibody to Leptospira of 14% were documented. In Puerto Rico in October 1996, following rainfall and a period of flooding generated by Hurricane Hortense, serum specimens of 4 patients with suspected dengue fever that were

  10. New genus and species of flea beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Galerucinae: Alticini) from Puerto Rico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new genus (Borinken) and five new species (Borinken elyunque, Distigmoptera chamorrae, Kiskeya elyunque, Ulrica eltoro, and U. iviei) from Puerto Rico are described and illustrated. A key to all Caribbean Monoplatini genera, a key to all Kiskeya species and to Ulrica species of Puerto Rico are pro...

  11. RELACIN ENTRE NDVI Y CONTENIDO DE METALES EN RHIZOPHORA MANGLE EN EL SUROESTE DE PUERTO RICO

    E-print Network

    Gilbes, Fernando

    RELACI�N ENTRE NDVI Y CONTENIDO DE METALES EN RHIZOPHORA MANGLE EN EL SUROESTE DE PUERTO RICO Estudiante Graduado ­ Departamento de Ingeniería en Computadoras y Eléctrica Universidad de Puerto Rico. Sirven como fuente de nutrición y hábitat para muchas especies; ayudan contra la erosión en las costas

  12. Sedimentary Characteristics and Ages of Submarine Mass Movements around Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. D. Chaytor

    2010-01-01

    Submarine landslides and earthquakes in close proximity to Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands have the potential to trigger tsunamis, which could cause significant damage to coastal communities in the region, as was the case both in 1867 and again in 1918. Evidence of substantial failure of the carbonate platform that rims Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands is revealed

  13. La Ninez en Puerto Rico: Resultados del Censo 2000. Un informe de KIDS COUNT/PRB sobre el Censo 2000 (Children in Puerto Rico: Results from the 2000 Census. A KIDS COUNT/PRB Report on Census 2000).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mather, Mark

    This Spanish-language report provides data on children in Puerto Rico based on the 2000 U.S. Census. It compares the situation of Puerto Rico's children with that of children living in the 50 states and the District of Columbia, noting how characteristics of Puerto Rican children have changed over time. Between 1990-2000, the number of Puerto

  14. New seafloor map of the Puerto Rico trench helps assess earthquake and tsunami hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brink, Uri ten; Danforth, William; Polloni, Christopher; Andrews, Brian; Llanes, Pilar; Smith, Shepard; Parker, Eugene; Uozumi, Toshihiko

    2004-09-01

    The Puerto Rico Trench, the deepest part of the Atlantic Ocean, is located where the North American (NOAM) plate is subducting under the Caribbean plate (Figure l). The trench region may pose significant seismic and tsunami hazards to Puerto Rico and the U.S.Virgin Islands, where 4 million U.S. citizens reside. Widespread damage in Puerto Rico and Hispaniola from an earthquake in 1787 was estimated to be the result of a magnitude 8 earthquake north of the islands [McCann et al., 2004]. A tsunami killed 40 people in NW Puerto Rico following a magnitude 7.3 earthquake in 1918 [Mercado and McCann, 1998]. Large landslide escarpments have been mapped on the seafloor north of Puerto Rico [Mercado et al., 2002; Schwab et al., 1991],although their ages are unknown.

  15. New seafloor map of the Puerto Rico Trench helps assess earthquake and tsunami hazards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ten Brink, Uri S.; Danforth, William; Polloni, Christopher; Andrews, Brian D.; Llanes Estrada, Pilar; Smith, Shepard; Parker, Eugene; Uozumi, Toshihiko

    2004-01-01

    The Puerto Rico Trench, the deepest part of the Atlantic Ocean, is located where the North American (NOAM) plate is subducting under the Caribbean plate (Figure l). The trench region may pose significant seismic and tsunami hazards to Puerto Rico and the U.S.Virgin Islands, where 4 million U.S. citizens reside. Widespread damage in Puerto Rico and Hispaniola from an earthquake in 1787 was estimated to be the result of a magnitude 8 earthquake north of the islands [McCann et al., 2004]. A tsunami killed 40 people in NW Puerto Rico following a magnitude 7.3 earthquake in 1918 [Mercado and McCann, 1998]. Large landslide escarpments have been mapped on the seafloor north of Puerto Rico [Mercado et al., 2002; Schwab et al., 1991],although their ages are unknown.

  16. Political power and health inequalities in Vieques, Puerto Rico.

    PubMed

    Medina, Catherine K; Pellegrini, Lawrence C; Mogro-Wilson, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between political power and the various pathways to health inequalities in Vieques, Puerto Rico, is explored. The U.S. Navy used the island for 62 years for bombing and other military exercises. The article focuses on the resulting changes to the island's socioeconomic positioning and the health inequalities over six decades. Secondary data analysis of census data using a revised World Health Organization model is used to examine the relationships of political power, labor markets, employment, material deprivation, social and family networks, and health inequalities. Findings are interpreted through a social justice lens and implications suggest the use of political advocacy for social change. PMID:25068606

  17. NESTING ECOLOGY AND BEHAVIOR OF BROAD-WINGED HAWKS IN MOIST KARST FORESTS OF PUERTO RICO

    Microsoft Academic Search

    DEREK W. HENGSTENBERG; FRANCISCO J. VILELLA

    The Puerto Rican Broad-winged Hawk (Buteo platypterus brunnescens) is an endemic and endangered subspecies inhabiting upland montane forests of Puerto Rico. The reproductive ecology, behavior, and nesting habitat of the Broad-winged Hawk were studied in Rio Abajo Forest, Puerto Rico, from 2001-02. We observed 158 courtship displays by Broad-winged Hawks. Also, we recorded 25 ter- ritorial interactions between resident Broad-winged

  18. Climate influence on dengue epidemics in Puerto Rico.

    PubMed

    Jury, Mark R

    2008-10-01

    The variability of the insect-borne disease dengue in Puerto Rico was studied in relation to climatic variables in the period 1979-2005. Annual and monthly reported dengue cases were compared with precipitation and temperature data. Results show that the incidence of dengue in Puerto Rico was relatively constant over time despite global warming, possibly due to the offsetting effects of declining rainfall, improving health care and little change in population. Seasonal fluctuations of dengue were driven by rainfall increases from May to November. Year-to-year variability in dengue cases was positively related to temperature, but only weakly associated with local rainfall and an index of El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Climatic conditions were mapped with respect to dengue cases and patterns in high and low years were compared. During epidemics, a low pressure system east of Florida draws warm humid air over the northwestern Caribbean. Long-term trends in past observed and future projected rainfall and temperatures were studied. Rainfall has declined slowly, but temperatures in the Caribbean are rising with the influence of global warming. Thus, dengue may increase in the future, and it will be necessary to anticipate dengue epidemics using climate forecasts, to reduce adverse health impacts. PMID:18821372

  19. Important considerations for recruiting women to cancer genetics studies in Puerto Rico.

    PubMed

    August, Euna M; Quinn, Gwen P; Perales, Rossybelle; Closser, Zuheily; Dutil, Julie; Puig, Marieva; Vadaparampil, Susan T

    2012-03-01

    A goal of the Minority Institution/Cancer Center Partnership between the Ponce School of Medicine in Puerto Rico and the H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center & Research Institute in Florida is to provide cross-cultural training in cancer research. This is achieved through a collaborative summer exchange program, which provides US students with an opportunity to conduct research in Puerto Rico. As part of this program, students recruited participants and collected data for a study to enhance the understanding of sociocultural factors among Puerto Rican women regarding genetic testing for hereditary breast/ovarian cancer. Limited studies have examined cancer genetics issues among Latinos, particularly those specific to the various Latino subgroups, such as Puerto Ricans. As a result of the student training experience, culturally appropriate strategies for the recruitment of women in Puerto Rico have been identified. These recommendations can inform the design of cancer research projects and interventions targeting the Puerto Rican population. PMID:21866412

  20. A rainfall intensity-duration threshold for landslides in a humid- tropical environment, Puerto Rico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larsen, M.C.; Simon, A.

    1993-01-01

    The leading cause of landslides in Puerto Rico is intense and/or prolonged rainfall. A rainfall threshold for rainfall-triggered landsliding is delimited by 256 storms that occurred between 1959 and 1991 in the central mountains of Puerto Rico, where mean annual rainfall is close to or in excess of 2000mm. Forty-one of the 256 storms produced intense and/or prolonged rainfall that resulted in tens to hundreds of landslides. As storm durations approach 100 h, the rainfall conditions necessary to initiate landsliding in Puerto Rico converge with those defined for temperate regions. -from Authors

  1. Introduction to the High-Rate GPS Network of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, G.; Hillebrandt, C. V.; Martinez, J. M.; Huerfano, V.; Schellekens, J.

    2008-12-01

    The Puerto Rico Seismic Network at the University of Puerto Rico at Mayagüez is a regional earthquake and tsunami monitoring institute. One of its primary objective is to provide timely and reliable earthquake and tsunami information and warning to the state (Puerto Rico) and local governments, the US and British Virgin Islands, as well as to the general public. In the past five years, it has been expanding its operations for the establishment of a Caribbean Tsunami Warning Center. With funding of the Puerto Rico government and NOAA, it is operated 24 hours per day and 7 days per week. Broadband seismometers are generally unable to capture the full bandwidth of long period ground motions following very large earthquakes. As a result, it is difficult to rapidly estimate the true magnitudes of large earthquakes using only seismic data. High-rate GPS has been justified as a very useful tool in recording long-period and permanent earthquake ground motions. Estimation of the true magnitude (and therefore tsunami potential) of large earthquakes may be determined more accurately in a timely manner (minutes after the quake) using high rate GPS observations. With the major aim of improving the ability of the PRSN in rapidly and precisely monitoring large earthquakes, NSF funded a Major Research Instrumentation (MRI) project, Acquisition of 9 High-rate GPS Units for Developing a Broadband Earthquake Observation System in Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands (EAR-0722540, August 1, 2007-July 31, 2009). The major purpose of this project is to build a high-rate GPS network in Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands. The GPS network includes 3 campaign and 6 permanent GPS stations. These campaign stations were designed to use in emergency response after large earthquakes to get co-seismic and post-seismic displacement. These six permanent stations were designed to complement current seismic observation system of Puerto Rico and U.S. Virgin Islands. We have installed three permanent GPS stations in May, 2008. They locate in Arecibo Observatory, Bayamon Science Park, and Caja de Muertos Island. We will install the other three stations in October, 2008. They will be located in Mona, Culebra, and St. Thomas islands. All of these permanent GPS stations are colocated with seismic stations operated by the Puerto Rico Seismic Network and the Puerto Rico Strong Motion Program. They are also very-closely spaced to the Tide Gauge stations operated by PRSN and NOAA. Therefore they will also complement the tide gauge sea-level observation system to get accurate absolute sea-level changes after large earthquakes. The integrated velocitymeter-accelerometer- GPS earthquake observation system will advance knowledge of seismic wave propagation, the kinematics and dynamics of fault rupture process, pre-seismic, co-seismic and post-seismic deformation, and is also likely to be useful for improving building and critical structure designs. It will support earthquake and tsunami hazards research and mitigation in Puerto Rico and the surrounding region. High-rate GPS observations can also be used for real time tropospheric water vapor tomography which is useful for weather prediction, including improved hurricane track forecasting. Raw GPS data are freely available through the UNAVCO archive. As a result, a large number of researchers can potentially benefit from the data for research and applications ranging from neotectonics to atmospheric science to civil engineering.

  2. The Puerto Rico Component of the National Tsunami Hazard and Mitigation Program Pr-Nthmp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huerfano Moreno, V. A.; Hincapie-Cardenas, C. M.

    2014-12-01

    Tsunami hazard assessment, detection, warning, education and outreach efforts are intended to reduce losses to life and property. The Puerto Rico Seismic Network (PRSN) is participating in an effort with local and federal agencies, to developing tsunami hazard risk reduction strategies under the National Tsunami Hazards and Mitigation Program (NTHMP). This grant supports the TsunamiReady program which is the base of the tsunami preparedness and mitigation in PR. The Caribbean region has a documented history of damaging tsunamis that have affected coastal areas. The seismic water waves originating in the prominent fault systems around PR are considered to be a near-field hazard for Puerto Rico and the Virgin islands (PR/VI) because they can reach coastal areas within a few minutes after the earthquake. Sources for local, regional and tele tsunamis have been identified and modeled and tsunami evacuation maps were prepared for PR. These maps were generated in three phases: First, hypothetical tsunami scenarios on the basis of the parameters of potential underwater earthquakes were developed. Secondly, each of these scenarios was simulated. The third step was to determine the worst case scenario (MOM). The run-ups were drawn on GIS referenced maps and aerial photographs. These products are being used by emergency managers to educate the public and develop mitigation strategies. Online maps and related evacuation products are available to the public via the PR-TDST (PR Tsunami Decision Support Tool). Currently all the 44 coastal municipalities were recognized as TsunamiReady by the US NWS. The main goal of the program is to declare Puerto Rico as TsunamiReady, including two cities that are not coastal but could be affected by tsunamis. Based on these evacuation maps, tsunami signs were installed, vulnerability profiles were created, communication systems to receive and disseminate tsunami messages were installed in each TWFP, and tsunami response plans were approved. Also, the existing tsunami protocol and criteria in the PR/VI was updated. This paper describes the PR-NTHMP project, including the real time earthquake and tsunami monitoring as well as the specific protocols used to broadcast tsunami messages. The paper highlights tsunami hazards assessment, detection, warning, education and outreach in Puerto Rico.

  3. Development of Real Time FloodDevelopment of Real Time FloodDevelopment of Real Time FloodDevelopment of Real Time Flood Prediction Capabilities in Puerto RicoPrediction Capabilities in Puerto Rico

    E-print Network

    Gilbes, Fernando

    Sensing of the Atmosphere · Desarrolla un Sistema de Alarma en el Oeste de Puerto Rico utilizando modelos distribuidos Nacional de Percepción Remota y Sistemas de Información GeográficaSéptima Reunión de Nacional de Percepción Remota y Sistemas de Información Geográfica de Puerto Ricode Puerto Rico December 11December 11thth, 2009

  4. CDF and PDF Comparison Between Humacao, Puerto Rico and Florida

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gonzalez-Rodriguez, Rosana

    2004-01-01

    The knowledge of the atmospherics phenomenon is an important part in the communication system. The principal factor that contributes to the attenuation in a Ka band communication system is the rain attenuation. We have four years of tropical region observations. The data in the tropical region was taken in Humacao, Puerto Rico. Previous data had been collected at various climate regions such as desserts, template area and sub-tropical regions. Figure 1 shows the ITU-R rain zone map for North America. Rain rates are important to the rain attenuation prediction models. The models that predict attenuation generally are of two different kinds. The first one is the regression models. By using a data set these models provide an idea of the observed attenuation and rain rates distribution in the present, past and future. The second kinds of models are physical models which use the probability density functions (PDF).

  5. Sedimentation survey of Lago Dos Bocas, Puerto Rico, June 1985

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Quinones, Ferdinand; Melendez, Frank; Bonnet, Carlos

    1989-01-01

    A survey of the sedimentation of Dos Bocas reservoir, in central Puerto Rico, was conducted during July 1985. The survey showed that the capacity of the reservoir has declined from 30,420 acre-ft in 1942 to about 19,620 acre-ft. Sediment is accumulating in the reservoir at an average rate of about 251 acre-ft/yr, or about 0.83%/yr of the original capacity. The expected usable life of the reservoir on the basis of the long-term sedimentation rate is about 78 years. However, the sedimentation rate appears to have increased significantly since 1979. During the last six years, the average sedimentation rate has exceeded 600 acre-ft/yr. If this rate is maintained, the expected usable life of the reservoir would be about 32 years. (Author 's abstract)

  6. Sequential Episodes of Dengue—Puerto Rico, 2005–2010

    PubMed Central

    Sharp, Tyler M.; Hunsperger, Elizabeth; Muñoz-Jordán, Jorge L.; Margolis, Harold S.; Tomashek, Kay M.

    2014-01-01

    Of 53,633 suspected dengue cases reported to a passive dengue surveillance system in Puerto Rico during 2005–2010, 949 individuals were reported on more than one occasion and 21 had laboratory-confirmed dengue on two separate occasions. Median time between illness episodes was 2.9 years (range: 62 days–5.3 years). Seventeen (81%) individuals with sequential episodes of dengue were male, and seven (33%) were adults. All 21 individuals experienced one episode and seven (33%) individuals experienced both episodes during a large epidemic that occurred in 2010. These observations show that heterotypic dengue virus immunity that protects against illness may have considerable variability but typically does not last longer than 3 years. PMID:24891464

  7. AIDS-Related Stigma and Health Professionals in Puerto Rico

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz-Torres, Yamilette; Cintrón-Bou, Francheska N.; Varas-Díaz, Nelson

    2009-01-01

    This study addresses an important issue in the AIDS epidemic in Puerto Rico: AIDS stigma among health professionals and health profession students. AIDS stigma has been documented among health services providers such as doctors, nurses, psychologists, and social workers. It has detrimental effects of the services provided and the lives of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). The main objective of this study was to explore AIDS stigma manifestations among a sample composed of eighty health professionals and health profession students who participated in in-depth qualitative interviews. Four thematic categories stemmed from the data analysis process. These addressed the following subjects: social manifestations of stigma, stigma manifestations in the workplace, use of sensitive information to control PLWHA, and surveillance of PLWHA. Participants manifested instances of stigmatization they had witnessed in their work and training scenarios. Furthermore, they elaborated on the need to place effective surveillance mechanism on PLWHA in order to control the epidemic. PMID:21423837

  8. Sedimentation Survey of Lago Loiza, Puerto Rico, July 1985

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Quinones, Ferdinand; Green, Bruce; Santiago, Luis

    1989-01-01

    A survey of the sedimentation of Lago Loiza (Carraizo), in north-central Puerto Rico was conducted during July 1985. The survey showed that the actual capacity of the reservoir has declined from 21,700 acre-ft in 1953 to about 10,100 acre-ft in 1985. Sedimentation is depleting the reservoir 's capacity at an average rate of about 439 acre-ft/yr, or about 1.8%/yr of the original capacity. The increase in capacity of 2,400 acre-ft produced in 1977 when flashboards were installed, has now been nullified by sedimentation. Under optimal conditions the remaining usable life of the reservoir is estimated to be about 23 years. (Author 's abstract)

  9. 14 CFR 399.34 - Intra-Hawaii and Intra-Puerto Rico/Virgin Islands fare flexibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Intra-Hawaii and Intra-Puerto Rico/Virgin Islands...Rates and Tariffs § 399.34 Intra-Hawaii and Intra-Puerto Rico/Virgin Islands...flexibility. For scheduled service within Hawaii, and within and between Puerto...

  10. 14 CFR 399.34 - Intra-Hawaii and Intra-Puerto Rico/Virgin Islands fare flexibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Intra-Hawaii and Intra-Puerto Rico/Virgin Islands...Rates and Tariffs § 399.34 Intra-Hawaii and Intra-Puerto Rico/Virgin Islands...flexibility. For scheduled service within Hawaii, and within and between Puerto...

  11. 14 CFR 399.34 - Intra-Hawaii and Intra-Puerto Rico/Virgin Islands fare flexibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Intra-Hawaii and Intra-Puerto Rico/Virgin Islands...Rates and Tariffs § 399.34 Intra-Hawaii and Intra-Puerto Rico/Virgin Islands...flexibility. For scheduled service within Hawaii, and within and between Puerto...

  12. 14 CFR 399.34 - Intra-Hawaii and Intra-Puerto Rico/Virgin Islands fare flexibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Intra-Hawaii and Intra-Puerto Rico/Virgin Islands...Rates and Tariffs § 399.34 Intra-Hawaii and Intra-Puerto Rico/Virgin Islands...flexibility. For scheduled service within Hawaii, and within and between Puerto...

  13. 14 CFR 399.34 - Intra-Hawaii and Intra-Puerto Rico/Virgin Islands fare flexibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Intra-Hawaii and Intra-Puerto Rico/Virgin Islands...Rates and Tariffs § 399.34 Intra-Hawaii and Intra-Puerto Rico/Virgin Islands...flexibility. For scheduled service within Hawaii, and within and between Puerto...

  14. "i saw puerto rico once": A Review of the Literature on Puerto Rican Families and School Achievement in the United States. Report No. 12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hidalgo, Nitza M.

    Representing part of the first phase of a 5-year ethnographic research project, this report investigates the ways in which Puerto Rican families influence their children's school achievement. The report examines the history of Puerto Rico and the migration of Puerto Ricans to the United States. Puerto Rican community organizations, both local and…

  15. 19 CFR 10.198b - Products of Puerto Rico processed in a beneficiary country.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. Caribbean Basin Initiative § 10.198b Products of Puerto Rico processed in a beneficiary country. Except in the case...

  16. 19 CFR 10.198b - Products of Puerto Rico processed in a beneficiary country.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. Caribbean Basin Initiative § 10.198b Products of Puerto Rico processed in a beneficiary country. Except in the case...

  17. 19 CFR 10.198b - Products of Puerto Rico processed in a beneficiary country.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. Caribbean Basin Initiative § 10.198b Products of Puerto Rico processed in a beneficiary country. Except in the case...

  18. Development of a landslide hazard map for the island of Puerto Rico

    E-print Network

    Kamal, Sameer A. (Sameer Ahmed)

    2008-01-01

    This thesis describes the development of a landslide hazard map for the island of Puerto Rico through the use of Graphical Information System (GIS) tools. Parameters considered in this study are elevation, slope aspect, ...

  19. Puerto Rico State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-10-01

    The Puerto Rico State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Puerto Rico. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Puerto Rico. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Puerto Rico.

  20. Laboratory characterization of a highly weathered old alluvium in San Juan, Puerto Rico

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Guoping, 1968-

    2002-01-01

    The old alluvium underlying much of metropolitan San Juan was formed in early Pleistocene and has undergone substantial post-depositional weathering in the tropical climate of Puerto Rico, resulting in a special combination ...

  1. 42 CFR 412.208 - Puerto Rico rates for Federal fiscal year 1988.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...patients. (e) Computing urban and rural averages. CMS computes separate...paragraph (d) of this section for urban and rural hospitals in Puerto Rico. ...inpatient operating costs for urban and rural hospitals. For each...

  2. First report of Tomato chlorotic spot virus in lettuce in Puerto Rico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This is the first report of Tomato chlorotic spot virus (TCSV) in lettuce in Puerto Rico. This report provides an overview of this virus for growers, extension workers, crop consultants and research and regulatory scientists....

  3. Coral reef condition and benthic sedimentation threat in four regions of south Puerto Rico

    EPA Science Inventory

    Scleractinian corals, gorgonian octocorals, sponges and fishes were assessed near the cities of LaParguera, Guánica, Guayanilla, and Jobos along the southern coast of Puerto Rico in November – December 2010. Survey sites were targeted near areas with varying benthic...

  4. 7 CFR 318.13-24 - Sweet potatoes from Puerto Rico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...Puerto Rico may be moved interstate to Atlantic Coast ports north of and including Baltimore, MD...standards which do not provide a tolerance for insect infestation or evidence of insect injury and found by such inspectors to...

  5. CLIMATE CHANGE CONNOTATIONS OF A SUITABILITY MAP FOR MIMOSA PIGRA IN PUERTO RICO

    E-print Network

    Gilbes, Fernando

    in the presence/absence of an invasive species. This correspondence is important when evaluating of this invasive species over Puerto Rico. Finally, elasticies defined as the percent change, invasive species, Mimosa pigra #12;

  6. Geographic distribution of risk of death due to homicide in Puerto Rico, 2000–2007

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D Zavala; J R Orengo; M L Charneco

    2010-01-01

    All homicide incidents of Puerto Ricos residents reported by the Institute of Forensic Sciences (IFS) for the period 2000–2007 were included for analysis (6409 deaths). Information for each case include age, sex, municipality, date of death and mechanism. Ballistic forensic data was not available for analysis.Detailed tabulations of crude, sex and age-specific mortalities for Puerto Rico overall and for each

  7. New Seafloor Map of the Puerto Rico Trench Helps Assess Earthquake and Tsunami Hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ten Brink, Uri; Danforth, William; Polloni, Christopher; Andrews, Brian; Llanes, Pilar; Smith, Shepard; Parker, Eugene; Uozumi, Toshihiko

    2004-09-01

    The Puerto Rico Trench, the deepest part of the Atlantic Ocean, is located where the North American (NOAM) plate is subducting under the Caribbean plate (Figure 1). The trench region may pose significant seismic and tsunami hazards to Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands, where 4 million U.S. citizens reside. Widespread damage in Puerto Rico and Hispaniola from an earthquake in 1787 was estimated to be the result of a magnitude 8 earthquake north of the islands. A tsunami killed 40 people in NW Puerto Rico following a magnitude 7.3 earthquake in 1918. Large landslide escarpments have been mapped on the seafloor north of Puerto Rico, although their ages are unknown. The Puerto Rico Trench is atypical of oceanic trenches. Subduction is highly oblique (10°-20°) to the trench axis with a large component of left-lateral strike-slip motion. Similar convergence geometry is observed at the Challenger Deep in the Mariana Trench, the deepest point on Earth. In addition to its extremely deep seafloor, the Puerto Rico Trench is also characterized by the most negative free-air gravity anomaly on Earth, -380 mGal, located 50 km south of the trench, where water depth is 7950 m (Figure 2). A tilted carbonate platform provides evidence for extreme vertical tectonism in the region. This platform was horizontally deposited over Cretaceous to Paleocene arc rocks starting in the Late Oligocene. Then, at 3.5 Ma, the carbonate platform was tilted by 4° toward the trench over a time period of less than 40 kyr, such that its northern edge is at a depth of 4000 m and its reconstructed elevation on land in Puerto Rico is at +1300 m (Figures 1 and 2).

  8. Shoreline changes in Puerto Rico (1936-1993)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barreto-Orta, Maritza

    A study of historic shoreline changes was conducted at 29 selected sites in Puerto Rico from 1936 to 1993, to document changes in shoreline position and describe qualitatively and quantitatively the possible causes that could produce these changes. Shoreline changes were measured by overlays developed from aerial photos. Descriptions of physical and geomorphological variables were done to identify the possible causes of shoreline changes. These were studied using remote sensing techniques, published reports, maps and field observations. Monthly beach profiles were measured at nine of the 29 sites from 1992 to 1993. These data were organized in a databank for ease in understanding the data and to perform statistical tests (Krustal-Wallis and Spearman Rank Correlation). Based on the results, many factors caused shoreline changes on beaches around Puerto Rico from 1964 to 1987. These were: (1) human activities, (2) lack of sand deposits in the nearshore area, (3) variability in the wave regime, (4) flood events of all magnitudes and frequencies, (5) the presence of submarine canyons, and (6) increase in tropical storm occurrence in the vicinity of the island. None of the variables were significant in causing shoreline changes based on the statistical significance at alphasp' of 0.006. According to probability values, however, some general trends were defined. These are: (1) Sediment composition, storm occurrence, wave heights, presence of submarine canyons and dams are most likely to cause shoreline changes; (2) Lithology, beach location, sediment composition, barrier proximity and rainfall are moderately likely to cause shoreline changes on the island; and (3) Human activities such as sand extraction and the presence of coastal structures are moderately likely to have caused shoreline changes from 1977 to 1987 on the beaches. Most of the beaches included in the profiling study were transitional from 1992 to 1993. Reflective and dissipative stages were measured on some occasions on these beaches. Carbonate and mixed nearshore sands were discriminated based on radiance values and the similarities found between the images and sediment maps. Discrimination of bottom marine facies is difficult to conduct with TM due to the small ranges of radiances found in the Puerto Rican nearshore waters.

  9. Environmental Assessment for Authorizing the Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority (PREPA) to allow Public Access to the Boiling Nuclear Superheat (BONUS) Reactor Building, Rincon, Puerto Rico

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    2003-02-24

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to consent to a proposal by the Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority (PREPA) to allow public access to the Boiling Nuclear Superheat (BONUS) reactor building located near Rincon, Puerto Rico for use as a museum. PREPA, the owner of the BONUS facility, has determined that the historical significance of this facility, as one of only two reactors of this design ever constructed in the world, warrants preservation in a museum, and that this museum would provide economic benefits to the local community through increased tourism. Therefore, PREPA is proposing development of the BONUS facility as a museum.

  10. New seismic hazard maps for Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mueller, C.; Frankel, A.; Petersen, M.; Leyendecker, E.

    2010-01-01

    The probabilistic methodology developed by the U.S. Geological Survey is applied to a new seismic hazard assessment for Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands. Modeled seismic sources include gridded historical seismicity, subduction-interface and strike-slip faults with known slip rates, and two broad zones of crustal extension with seismicity rates constrained by GPS geodesy. We use attenuation relations from western North American and worldwide data, as well as a Caribbean-specific relation. Results are presented as maps of peak ground acceleration and 0.2- and 1.0-second spectral response acceleration for 2% and 10% probabilities of exceedance in 50 years (return periods of about 2,500 and 500 years, respectively). This paper describes the hazard model and maps that were balloted by the Building Seismic Safety Council and recommended for the 2003 NEHRP Provisions and the 2006 International Building Code. ?? 2010, Earthquake Engineering Research Institute.

  11. UNIVERSITY OF PUERTO RICO AT MAYAGUEZ PROPOSAL http://centenario.uprm.edu/encuentro Page 1 of 6

    E-print Network

    Gilbes, Fernando

    for the first bio-refinery in Puerto Rico, which will produce bio-fuel and support agricultural development UPRM student who to obtain a Ph. D. in Applied Chemistry, in the Biophysics. · 1st Puerto Rican Bio

  12. Assessment of Genetic Diversity of Sweet Potato in Puerto Rico

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Bonilla, Lorraine; Cuevas, Hugo E.; Montero-Rojas, Milly; Bird-Pico, Fernando; Luciano-Rosario, Dianiris; Siritunga, Dimuth

    2014-01-01

    Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) is the seventh most important food crop due to its distinct advantages, such as adaptability to different environmental conditions and high nutritional value. Assessing the genetic diversity of this important crop is necessary due to the constant increase of demand for food and the need for conservation of agricultural and genetic resources. In Puerto Rico (PR), the genetic diversity of sweet potato has been poorly understood, although it has been part of the diet since Pre-Columbus time. Thus, 137 landraces from different localities around PR were collected and subjected to a genetic diversity analysis using 23 SSR-markers. In addition, 8 accessions from a collection grown in Gurabo, PR at the Agricultural Experimental Station (GAES), 10 US commercial cultivars and 12 Puerto Rican accessions from the USDA repository collection were included in this assessment. The results of the analysis of the 23 loci showed 255 alleles in the 167 samples. Observed heterozygosity was high across populations (0.71) while measurements of total heterozygosity revealed a large genetic diversity throughout the population and within populations. UPGMA clustering method revealed two main clusters. Cluster 1 contained 12 PR accessions from the USDA repository collection, while cluster 2 consisted of PR landraces, US commercial cultivars and the PR accessions from GAES. Population structure analysis grouped PR landraces in five groups including four US commercial cultivars. Our study shows the presence of a high level of genetic diversity of sweet potato across PR which can be related to the genetic makeup of sweet potato, human intervention and out-crossing nature of the plant. The history of domestication and dispersal of sweet potato in the Caribbean and the high levels of genetic diversity found through this study makes sweet potato an invaluable resource that needs to be protected and further studied. PMID:25551388

  13. 10x10 comes full circle: Spanish version back to United States in Puerto Rico.

    PubMed

    Margolis, Alvaro; Joglar, Francisco; de Quirós, Fernán González Bernaldo; Baum, Analía; Fernández, Antonio; García, Sofía; Arredondo, Antonio López; Hersh, William R

    2013-01-01

    The adaptation of the 10x10 certificate program in health information systems for a Puerto Rican audience is described. The 10x10 program was initially developed in the USA by the Oregon Health Sciences University (OHSU), then adapted to Latin America by Hospital Italiano de Buenos Aires. Puerto Rico is in the intersection of the United States and Latin America, in terms of government, health care system, culture and language. Therefore, it seemed reasonable to re-adapt the program back to the USA, in Spanish, taking into account these facts and the experience of the team in delivering blended learning adapted to local needs. Forty professionals from Puerto Rico are currently taking the first version of the course, supported by the Regional Extension Center for Puerto Rico and the US Virgin Islands, and endorsed by the American Medical Informatics Association (AMIA). PMID:23920908

  14. RH: DUBEY ET AL.-TOXOPLASMA GONDII FROM CATS IN PUERTO RICO MOUSE VIRULENT TOXOPLASMA GONDII ISOLATED FROM FERALCATS IN MONA ISLAND, PUERTO RICO

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cats are essential in the life cycle of Toxoplasma gondii because they are the only hosts that can excrete the environmentally-resistant oocysts. Samples of serum, feces, and tissues from cats from Mona, a remote island off the coast of Puerto Rico were examined for T. gondii infection. Antibodies t...

  15. Assessment of undiscovered technically recoverable oil and gas resources of Puerto Rico and the Puerto Rico-U.S. Virgin Islands Exclusive Economic Zone, 2013

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Klett, Timothy R.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Pitman, Janet K.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Wandrey, Craig J.; Weaver, Jean N.

    2013-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated means of 19 million barrels of undiscovered, technically recoverable oil and 244 billion cubic feet of undiscovered natural gas in the Puerto Rico–U.S. Virgin Islands Exclusive Economic Zone.

  16. Use of medicinal plants by ambulatory patients in Puerto Rico.

    PubMed

    Hernández, L; Muñoz, R A; Miró, G; Martínez, M; Silva-Parra, J; Chávez, P I

    1984-10-01

    The use of medicinal plants by the patients at the outpatient clinics of five health-care centers in Puerto Rico was evaluated. Medication histories were obtained for 802 patients ranging in age from two months to 91 years. The most frequent medical diagnosis was cardiovascular disease (54% of the patients). Respiratory and digestive disorders were the least frequent conditions, identified in only 9% and 6% of the cases, respectively. Medicinal plants were used by 57% of the population. Patients 65 years or older tended to use herbal remedies more often. Seven of the 11 most commonly used plants were used to treat gastrointestinal disorders. Other medicinal uses given were for sedation, sleep disorders, elevated blood pressure, kidney disorders, and respiratory ailments. The most frequently used plant was Citrus aurantium L. (sour orange), which was used as a sedative by 39% of the patients and for gastrointestinal disorders by 17%. Two potentially toxic plants, Solanum americanum and Annona muricata, were among the most commonly used plants. Medicinal plants were used widely by the outpatient population studied. Most herbs were used to treat self-limiting conditions but some were used to treat potentially serious medical problems, such as hypertension. PMID:6496496

  17. Radar investigation of barium releases over Arecibo Observatory, Puerto Rico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Djuth, Frank T.

    1995-01-01

    The NASA Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite (CRRES) El Coqui rocket campaign was successfully carried out in Puerto Rico during the period 18 May through 12 July 1992. This report describes five chemical release experiments in the upper ionosphere supported by Geospace Research, Inc. during the El Coqui campaign. Additional spin-off science is also discussed. The El Coqui releases are designated AA-1 (rocket 36-082), AA-2 (rocket 36-081), AA-3b (rocket 36-064), AA-4 (rocket 36-065), and AA-7 (rocket 36-083). Particular attention is paid to releases AA-2 and AA-4. These two experiments involved the illumination of ionospheric release regions with powerful high-frequency (HF) radio waves transmitted from the Arecibo HF facility. In the AA-2 experiment, microinstabilities excited by the HF wave in a Ba(+) plasma were examined. This release yielded a smooth plasma cloud that helped clarify several fundamental issues regarding the physics of wave plasma instabilities. During AA-2 extremely strong HF-induced Langmuir turbulence was detected with the Arecibo 430 MHz radar. CF3Br was released in the AA-4 study to create an ionospheric hole that focused the HF beam. This experiment successfully explored wave-plasma coupling in an O(+) ionosphere under conditions of very high HF electric field strengths.

  18. The productivity of San Cristobal Reef, Puerto Rico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rogers, Caroline S.

    1979-01-01

    San Cristobal Reef, Puerto Rico, was the site of a community metabolism study based on a new upstream-downstream method with experimental channels 4 m deep. Net productivity rates varied from 0.03 to 1.85 g O2m–2 reef area·h­–1 (x = 0.39; n = 59). Respiration measurements of one reef section from which light was excluded ranged from 0.26 to 0.48 g O2·m–2 reef area·h–1. The linear regression equation y = 0.58x – 0.18, where y = g O2·m–2 reef area·h­–1 and x = mEin·m–2·s–1, describes the correlation between light and metabolism at this site. Net primary productivity was 2.45 g O2·m–2 reef area and gross primary productivity 5.42. The ratio of gross primary productivity to 24-h respiration was 0.7. Productivity rates of this heterotrophic zone are lower than those reported for shallower reef zones with greater algal cover.

  19. 33 CFR 334.1450 - Atlantic Ocean off north coast of Puerto Rico; practice firing areas, U.S. Army Forces Antilles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean off north coast of Puerto Rico; practice firing...ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1450 Atlantic Ocean off north coast of Puerto Rico; practice...

  20. 33 CFR 334.1450 - Atlantic Ocean off north coast of Puerto Rico; practice firing areas, U.S. Army Forces Antilles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean off north coast of Puerto Rico; practice firing...ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1450 Atlantic Ocean off north coast of Puerto Rico; practice...

  1. 33 CFR 334.1450 - Atlantic Ocean off north coast of Puerto Rico; practice firing areas, U.S. Army Forces Antilles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean off north coast of Puerto Rico; practice firing...ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1450 Atlantic Ocean off north coast of Puerto Rico; practice...

  2. 33 CFR 334.1450 - Atlantic Ocean off north coast of Puerto Rico; practice firing areas, U.S. Army Forces Antilles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean off north coast of Puerto Rico; practice firing...ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1450 Atlantic Ocean off north coast of Puerto Rico; practice...

  3. 33 CFR 334.1450 - Atlantic Ocean off north coast of Puerto Rico; practice firing areas, U.S. Army Forces Antilles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean off north coast of Puerto Rico; practice firing...ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1450 Atlantic Ocean off north coast of Puerto Rico; practice...

  4. The implementation of the triple helix model of industry-university-government relations in Puerto Rico to promote knowledge-based regional economic development

    E-print Network

    Ramos-Maltés, Ana Lorena

    2010-01-01

    Puerto Rico, an island in the Caribbean, has long sought to develop a high-tech economy and has struggled in the process. Two initiatives, Puerto Rico TechnoEconomic Corridor (PRTEC) and the Eastern Central Technological ...

  5. Genetic structure of the gentle Africanized honey bee population (gAHB) in Puerto Rico

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The Africanized honey bee is one of the most spectacular invasions in the Americas. African bees escaped from apiaries in Brazil in 1956, spread over Americas and by 1994 they were reported in Puerto Rico. In contrast to other places, the oceanic island conditions in Puerto Rico may mean a single introduction and different dynamics of the resident European and new-coming Africanized bees. To examine the genetic variation of honey bee feral populations and colonies from different locations in Puerto Rico, we used eight known polymorphic microsatellite loci. Results In Puerto Rico, gAHB population does not show any genetic structure (Fst?=?0.0783), and is best described as one honey bee population, product of hybridization of AHB and EHB. The genetic variability in this Africanized population was similar to that reported in studies from Texas. We observed that European private allele frequencies are high in all but one locus. This contrasts with mainland Africanized populations, where European allele frequencies are diminished. Two loci with European private alleles, one on Linkage Group 7, known to carry two known defensiveness Quantitative Trait Loci (QTLs), and the other on Linkage Group 1, known to carry three functionally studied genes and 11 candidate genes associated with Varroa resistance mechanisms were respectively, significantly greater or lower in European allele frequency than the other loci with European private alleles. Conclusions Genetic structure of Puerto Rico gAHB differs from mainland AHB populations, probably representing evolutionary processes on the island. PMID:23915100

  6. The Great Puerto Rico ShakeOut - A Communications and Media Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soto-Cordero, L.; Huérfano-Moreno, V.; Gómez, G.; Giménez-Porrata, A.; Ramos-Gómez, W.; Colón-Daleccio, N.

    2012-12-01

    On October 18, 2012 the Puerto Rico Seismic Network (PRSN) in collaboration with Puerto Rico Emergency Management Agency (PREMA) and the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) will be conducting the first Great Puerto Rico ShakeOut. Adequate communications strategies and redundant dissemination methods are a key component for the success of this earthquake exercise. EAS and NOAA Radio messages, indicating the beginning of the earthquake drill, will help emergency managers and the general public better coordinate their practices. Dissemination tools routinely used as part of PRSN earthquake and tsunami protocols, such as PRSNDANIS Broadcast, Ring Down, Ham Radio, RSS, SMS, fax and email service lists, will also be tested. Emergency Management and First Response Agencies at local, regional and state level are being asked to report the times the messages are received, thus allowing us to better assess the effectiveness of our dissemination methods and to establish a baseline for next year ShakeOut. In addition, a partnership with the Puerto Rico Radiobroadcaster Association allows a direct access through this media, facilitating PRSN staff participation on radio programming targeting diverse audiences. Radio spots have been developed to inform the public about the exercise, how to participate, what to do to be safe during an earthquake and how to develop or improve their safety plans. A media approach is critical for the success of the 2012 Puerto Rico ShakeOut since our earthquake drill takes place 2 weeks prior to the Island general election and on the peak-period of the hurricane season.

  7. Nitrate isotopic composition between Bermuda and Puerto Rico: Implications for N2 fixation in the Atlantic Ocean

    E-print Network

    Sigman, Daniel M.

    Nitrate isotopic composition between Bermuda and Puerto Rico: Implications for N2 fixation. [1] N and O isotope analyses of water column nitrate between Bermuda and Puerto Rico document a bolus of low-d15 N nitrate throughout the Sargasso Sea thermocline, which we attribute primarily to the input

  8. Science Technology Engineering and Mathematics K-12 Partnership Circles at the University of Puerto Rico Mayagüez Campus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sonia M. Bartolomei-Suárez; Betty Ramírez; Keith Wayland

    Science Technology Engineering and Mathematics UPRM K-12 Partnership Circles (STEM Circles) is a proposal for an after school program developed by the University of Puerto Rico Mayagüez Campus (UPRM) and submitted to the National Science Foundation. The purpose of the STEM Circles is to create collaboration between the UPRM and the Puerto Rico Department of Education (DE) to develop an

  9. 77 FR 74170 - Foreign-Trade Zone 7-Mayaguez, PR; Application for Subzone; Pepsi Cola Puerto Rico Distributing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-13

    ...Foreign-Trade Zone 7--Mayaguez, PR; Application for Subzone; Pepsi Cola Puerto Rico Distributing, LLC, Toa Baja, PR An application...requesting special-purpose subzone status for the facility of Pepsi Cola Puerto Rico Distributing, LLC, located in Toa Baja,...

  10. Cross-Cultural Adaptation of the Disability of Arm, Shoulder, and Hand Questionnaire: Spanish for Puerto Rico Version

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulero-Portela, Ana L.; Colon-Santaella, Carmen L.; Cruz-Gomez, Cynthia

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to perform a cross-cultural adaptation of the Disability of Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (DASH) questionnaire to Spanish for Puerto Rico. Five steps were followed for the cross-cultural adaptation: forward translations into Spanish for Puerto Rico, synthesis of the translations, back translations into English, revision by…

  11. First report of Raoiella indica Hirst (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) and its damage to coconut palms in Puerto Rico and Culebra Island

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This is the first report of the occurrence of the Red Palm mite Raoiella indica and its damage in Puerto Rico and Culebra island. Raoiella indica is a new invasive pest threatening ornamental palm, coconut, and banana plantations. The mite was observed in eastern Puerto Rico and in Culebra island ...

  12. 78 FR 37208 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Reef Fish Fishery of Puerto Rico...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-20

    ...0648-XC549 Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Reef Fish Fishery of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands; Exempted Fishing Permit AGENCY: National...of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands (FMP). Specimens would be...

  13. The ecology of Australorbis glabratus in Puerto Rico

    PubMed Central

    Harry, Harold W.; Aldrich, David V.

    1958-01-01

    Variations in the distribution of the water-snail Australorbis glabratus, intermediate host of Schistosoma mansoni, have been studied in Puerto Rico, and an attempt made to correlate the distribution with environmental factors. The main sources of bilharziasis infection are flowing waters, but the evidence indicates that the snail is not found in fast-flowing, high-gradient reaches with falls of more than 20 meters per kilometre. The influence of physiographical features on stream gradient is examined and these findings correlated with the biota, water chemistry and human use of the stream. The alluvial areas of the island have many habitats favourable to A. glabratus and constitute the major foci for the transmission of bilharziasis. In general, artificial reservoirs and puddles do not appear to be suitable habitats for the snail. The numerous sink ponds in the Tertiary limestone area on the north coast contain the snail, yet the area is relatively free from bilharziasis, possibly because the ponds are little used. Although the size of A. glabratus populations is limited by many natural enemies, no organism has been found which could be deemed useful for artificial control. Some migratory birds, insects and amphibians may aid the dispersal of the snail. There are indications that the ionic composition of the water may be an important factor in limiting the distribution of A. glabratus. It is suggested that large amounts of carbonates and bicarbonates relative to the amounts of chlorides and sulfates may account for the absence of the snail from some habitats (e.g., limestone streams) and that copper and zinc may be limiting agents in some waters containing small amounts of dissolved solids. Concentrations of 0.050-0.100 p.p.m. of zinc, copper, cadmium or silver in distilled water produce a distress syndrome in the snails, and concentrations of more than 1.0 p.p.m. are rapidly fatal in most cases. PMID:13573114

  14. Maps Showing Composition of Surficial Sediments on the Insular Shelf of Southwestern Puerto Rico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shideler, Gerald L.

    1980-01-01

    The limited availability of onshore sand deposits for use in construction appears to be a future major problem in Puerto Rico (U.S. Bureau of Mines, 1972; Committee on Puerto Rico and the Sea, 1974). Consequently, the mining of offshore sand deposits as supplemental sources of construction aggregate may becom e necessary. For this reason, the U.S. Geological Survey and the Department of Natural Resources of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico have conducted investigations of potential offshore sand deposits on the Puerto Rico insular shelf. This report provides information on the composition of surficial sediments on the southwestern Puerto Rico shelf (fig. 1), an area that may be one of the more favorable potential sites for offshore sand resources. Water depths over most of the study area are less than 22 meters (m). The sea floor is composed of live and dead patch and fringing reefs, areas of rock exposures, and sedim ent-covered areas. The adjacent coastline includes prominent embaym ents and a conspicuous rock promontory (Cabo Rojo) connected by a tombolo to the mainland of Puerto Rico. The study area is in the belt of northeast trade winds. Waves approach the coast predominantly from the southeast, resulting in a predominantly westward littoral drift along the south coast (Grove and Trumbull, 1978). Local sand movement on the southern shelf is shown by an active sand wave field south of Bah1a Sucia in which the sand wave crests have migrated toward the southwest (Grove and Trumbull, 1978). The presence of the sand wave field suggests that large volumes of sand having potential for mining are locally present in the study area.

  15. Contextual Risk and Promotive Processes in Puerto Rican Youths’ Internalizing Trajectories in Puerto Rico and New York

    PubMed Central

    Ramos Olazagasti, María A.; Shrout, Patrick E.; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu; Canino, Glorisa J.; Bird, Héctor R.

    2012-01-01

    Research on ethnic-minority youths’ mental health has rarely examined developmental trajectories for the same ethnic group in contexts where they are a minority vs. where they are the majority, or mechanisms accounting for differences in trajectories across such contexts. This study examines Puerto Rican youth residing in two contexts -- one in which they are in their home culture of Puerto Rico, and one in which they are a minority group, in New York. We explore the relationship between social context, minority status, risk, resilience, and trajectories of internalizing symptoms after adjusting for factors related to migration. We found that youths’ reports of internalizing symptoms declined over time. Youth in New York had higher levels of internalizing symptoms than youth in Puerto Rico, but similar trajectories. Differences in internalizing symptoms across the two social contexts were accounted for by experiences of discrimination and exposure to violence. Parental monitoring was associated with fewer internalizing symptoms across the two sites, although this effect diminished over time. Contrary to what was expected, family religiosity was associated with higher levels of internalizing symptoms. This association was stronger in the New York than in the Puerto Rico site. PMID:23880390

  16. Evaluation of the Ecological Compatibility of Butterfly Peacock Cichlids and Largemouth Bass in Puerto Rico Reservoirs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Wesley Neal; Richard L. Noble; Craig G. Lilyestrom

    2006-01-01

    Introduction of peacock cichlids Cichla spp. into tropical and subtropical systems where they can successfully overwinter and reproduce has been a common practice in fisheries management. We evaluated the compatibility of nonnative butterfly peacock cichlids Cichla ocellaris and largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides in Puerto Rico reservoirs using (1) controlled juvenile interaction experiments, (2) examination of hatching periodicity and diet overlap

  17. Mortality of Largemouth Bass during Catch-and-Release Tournaments in a Puerto Rico Reservoir

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Wesley Neal; Darien Lopez-Clayton

    2001-01-01

    In Puerto Rico, unique protocols are used during fishing tournaments for largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides. Live wells are not required, and many anglers retain their catch on metal stringers. During day tournaments, fish are collected and weighed by a roving weigh-in boat; night tournaments use a central weigh-in station. We monitored 15 fishing tournaments over 1 year in Lucchetti Reservoir,

  18. Dolomitization and evolution of the Puerto Rico North Coast confined aquifer system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wilson R. Ramirez Martinez

    2000-01-01

    The Lares Limestone and Montebello Member of the Cibao Formation form the lower confined aquifer system of the Puerto Rico North Coast. These extensively cored Neogene limestone units dip from 4° to 6° toward the north, are exposed over a broad area, and have a relatively well-known geologic setting and history. Dolomite is absent in the exposed sections of the

  19. Disseminated toxoplasmosis in Antillean manatees (Trichechus manatus manatus) from Puerto Rico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Necropsies were conducted on four Antillean manatees (Trichechus manatus manatus) that were stranded in single events on the coastal beaches of Puerto Rico from August 2010-August 2011. Three manatees were emaciated and the gastrointestinal tracts were devoid of digesta. Microscopically, all manat...

  20. Identificacin de deslizamientos de terreno utilizando fotos areas de Ponce, Puerto Rico

    E-print Network

    Gilbes, Fernando

    Identificación de deslizamientos de terreno utilizando fotos aéreas de Ponce, Puerto Rico Rosimar sobre el área. Para el caso de Ponce, se tenían disponibles fotos aéreas que fueron toma- das por una de esta técnica. Palabras claves: clasificaciones, deslizamientos, ENVI, fotos, percepción remota

  1. Geographic range expansion of Boreioglycaspis melaleucae (hemiptera: psyllidae), to Puerto Rico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Australian tree Melaleuca quinquenervia has been planted throughout much of the Caribbean. In Puerto Rico, for instance, it was planted island-wide in public parks, promenades and along certain highway medians and green areas from the 1970-90s. Not surprisingly, the extensive use of M. quinquene...

  2. The condition of scleractinian corals and associated reef fauna in La Parguera, Puerto Rico

    EPA Science Inventory

    Scleractinian corals, octocorals, sponges, fishes, and foraminifera were assessed at 24 sites near La Parguera, Puerto Rico in fall 2008. Sites were selected to coincide with locations sampled by NOAA in 2005 for sediment contaminants. Our goals were to evaluate the sensitivity o...

  3. THE USE OF FOLIC ACID FOR THE PREVENTION OF BIRTH DEFECTS IN PUERTO RICO

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lourdes Garcia-Fragoso; Ines Garcia-Garcia; Cynthia E. River

    Introduction: The occurrence of neural tube defects (NTDs) varies by race\\/ethnicity, and the highest rates are among women of Hispanic ethnicity. Women of reproductive age are advised to use folic acid to prevent NTDs and other birth defects. Since 1994, Puerto Rico has had a campaign to promote the use of folic acid, and since 1998, enriched grain products have

  4. Settlement effects on Favia fragum (Scleractinia, Faviidae) exposed to different sediment sources from Puerto Rico

    EPA Science Inventory

    Agricultural production and urban development in Puerto Rico have increased the rate of sedimentation to the marine coastal environment, which has the potential to adversely affect coral-reef ecosystems. Settlement and metamorphosis of coral larvae are integral to the maintenance...

  5. Language Officialization in Puerto Rico: Group-Making Discourses of Protectionism and Receptivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shenk, Elaine

    2011-01-01

    This article applies social constructionism and groupism theory to discourses on language officialization in Puerto Rico. It examines three argumentative texts presented prior to the passage of Law #4 in 1991 making Spanish the sole official language of the island. Grounded critical discourse theory maintains that language form and content are…

  6. Parental factors which influence reading development in preschool children in Puerto Rico

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Awilda Rivera-Bermudez

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the preschool home environment factors which influenced reading development in 32 kindergarten children in District 5, Rio Piedras, Puerto Rico. The study was conducted with parents of kindergarten children who were just beginning kindergarten and who had not had formal reading instruction before entering kindergarten. Four factors were studied: articles in the

  7. Earthquakes and tsunamis in Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nealon, J.W.; Dillon, William P.

    2001-01-01

    Many earthquakes and tsunamis have occurred in the northeastern Caribbean, where the movements of the Earth's surface plates are rapid and complicated. Future such events pose serious hazards to the 3.7 million people who live in Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands.

  8. First report of Dolabra nepheliae on rambutan and litchi in Hawaii and Puerto Rico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A stem canker disease on rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum L.) and lychee (Litchi chinensis Sonn. (Sapindaceae) was found on plants in Hawaii and Puerto Rico. The fungus associated with cankers was identified as Dolabra nepheliae C. Booth & Ting. Numerous black, stipitate, elongate ascomata were produc...

  9. Commercial potential of rambutan cultivars grown at two locations in Puerto Rico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Eight rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum) cultivars grown on an Oxisol and Ultisol were evaluated for four years under intensive management at Isabela and Corozal, Puerto Rico, respectively. There were significant differences in number and weight of fruits per hectare between locations and years. Signif...

  10. EFFECTS OF COMPETITION ON SIZE AND GROWTH RATES OF CARACOLUS CARACOLLA (L.) IN PUERTO RICO

    E-print Network

    Willig, Michael

    . In addition, com- petitive effects may manifest in some species by reducing growth rates, rather thanEFFECTS OF COMPETITION ON SIZE AND GROWTH RATES OF CARACOLUS CARACOLLA (L.) IN PUERTO RICO characterized by high species richness or population densities. A 9-year data set was used to assess growth

  11. PARACOCCUS MARGINATUS WILLIAMS AND GRANARA DE WILLINK (HOMOPTERA: PSEUDOCOCCIDAE) AFFECTING PAPAYA IN PUERTO RICO

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The papaya mealybug, Paracoccus marginatus was detected January 10, 2001 infesting papaya plantings in Isabela, Puerto Rico (18°28'23 N; 66°52’18W; 145.4 meters above sea level). This insect is recognized as a pest of papaya, cassava, hibiscus, eggplant, avocado, annona, and sweetpotato. P. margina...

  12. Regeneration filters in post-agricultural fields of Puerto Rico and Ecuador

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Randall W. Myster

    2004-01-01

    To better understand how rainforest regenerates after agriculture I sampled the seed rain and seed bank, and set out seeds and seedlings, on microsites defined by distance to the forest in fields both in Puerto Rico and Ecuador. I found that (1) total seeds, species richness and life-form richness were twice as great in the Ecuador seed rain compared to

  13. Progress in the development of a national noise action plan for the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jose Alicea-Pou; Milagros Navon-Rivera

    2005-01-01

    This presentation describes the strategies taken for the development of a noise plan for Puerto Rico. One of the most important initiatives was the establishment of an interagency committee to work on the plan. This committee identified as first priorities the need of information from studies on environmental noise levels and data from noise attitude surveys. The Environmental Quality Board

  14. Citizen-volunteer and professional monitoring to identify fecal sources of contamination in southwestern Puerto Rico

    EPA Science Inventory

    High concentrations of nutrients, fecal microorganisms, and sediments in surface waters can be a public health threat and can impact fringing coral reefs in Guánica Bay in southwestern Puerto Rico. Yet, the main factors and sources contributing to water quality degradation...

  15. A Decision Framework to Protect Coral Reefs in Guánica Bay, Puerto Rico

    EPA Science Inventory

    A Watershed Management Plan (WMP) for Guánica Bay, Puerto Rico, was introduced in 2008 by a nonprofit organization, the Center for Watershed Protection, with the intent of protecting coral reefs from damage related to watershed discharges. The plan was initially generated with th...

  16. International Year of Astronomy (IYA2009) in Puerto Rico: Progress Report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pantoja, C. A.; Atschuler, D. R.; Lebrón, M. E.; Alonso, J. L.

    2010-08-01

    The IYA2009 inauguration in Puerto Rico was in January 2009. The local organizing committee includes members from the NASA Puerto Rico Space Grant Consortium, the Arecibo Observatory, the two astronomical societies of the island, private and public universities, local government agencies, and non-profit organizations interested in science education. The events are throughout the island, taking care to facilitate the participation of families and youth from disadvantaged communities. All the activities emphasize the value of personal effort to achieve your goals, the importance of mathematics in modern life and the development of scientific awareness. Aligned with the IYA2009 major goals and considering the particular needs of our community, we have selected eight core activities for Puerto Rico. Three of them have been completed (Inauguration, Theatrical performance of "La Vida en Marte y otras Crueles Realidades", 40th Anniversary of the first human on the Moon), three of them are underway (star parties, conference series, "From Earth to the Universe" (FETTU) exhibition) and the other two are under plan for the fall of 2009. A group of volunteer students ("Starry Messengers") are assisting in the activities. We present a project plan for the rest of 2009. The details of the Puerto Rico IYA events may be found at \\url{http://www.astronomy2009pr.org}.

  17. A Successful Applied Physics Program at the University of Puerto Rico at Humacao.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muller, Rafael J.; Guerra-Vela, Claudio

    2003-01-01

    Presents innovative ideas that have been incorporated into the applied physics program at the Humacao Campus of the University of Puerto Rico since 1981. Describes a program that was designed as a professional (terminal) one with mechanisms to guide students who wish to pursue graduate studies. (Author/YDS)

  18. Alternate Hosts of the Whitefly from Tomato Fields in Southern Puerto Rico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alternate hosts of the silverleaf whitefly (WF) Bemisia tabacci, were studied in tomato fields in the south of Puerto Rico. Eighteen weed species were identified as alternate hosts of the WF. The prevalent weeds in the area are Triantema portulacastrum, Portulaca oleracea and Cleome viscose, but th...

  19. AddressBlock J. Carrero Morales HC 02 Box 5522 Rincn, Puerto Rico 00677

    E-print Network

    Gilbes, Fernando

    Sostenible, "Puerto Rico una comunidad hacia el desarrollo sostenible". Fundación Carlos Manuel Amador. Foro Desarrollo en Comunidades Costeras. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Departamento de Recursos Congreso Puertorriqueño de Blogs Educativos. Instituto para el Desarrollo de la Enseñanza y el Aprendizaje

  20. Depressive Symptomatology in Single Women Heads of Households in Puerto Rico

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nilsa M. Burgos; Mary Clare Lennon; Milagros Bravo; Josue Guzman

    1995-01-01

    The present study examines depressive syrnptomatology among women in Puerto Rico, using data from an island wide population-based sample. We focus on single women heads of households (SWHH) defined as divorced, separated, widowed and never married women with no permanent mate who have the main economic responsibility for their households. The study aims to identify social factors such as family

  1. Pathogenic and non-pathogenic fungi associated with longan (Dimocarpus longan L.) in Puerto Rico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Longan (Dimocarpus longan L.) is an exotic tropical fruit native of Southwest Asia which belongs to the Sapindanceae family. In Puerto Rico, it was introduced in 1926 by USDA, Tropical Agriculture Research Station. In 1999 experimental plots were established for evaluation in various agroenvironment...

  2. Economic Impact and Trade Implications of the Introduction of Black Sigatoka (Mycosphaerella figiensis) into Puerto Rico

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carmen I. Alamo; Edward A. Evans; Alba Brugueras; Sikavas Nalampang

    2007-01-01

    This article addresses the issues of the potential impacts of the introduction of black sigatoka into Puerto Rico under situations in which the government assists growers in managing the spread of the disease, with and without prohibitions on imports of plantains and bananas. An equilibrium displacement model is used to quantify the impact of black sigatoka. The results indicate that

  3. Integrated water resources management in the Luquillo mountains, Puerto Rico: an evolving process

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frederick N. Scatena

    2004-01-01

    The ecologically unique forest ecosystems of the Luquillo Mountains in Eastern Puerto Rico and the scenic value of its forests, rivers and surrounding beaches have promoted population growth, tourism and light industry, thus increasing regional water demands. In light of further increases in future water demand, integrated water resources management (IWRM) initiatives are rapidly evolving in this area. In an

  4. 76 FR 24511 - Cabo Rojo National Wildlife Refuge, Cabo Rojo, Puerto Rico; Draft Comprehensive Conservation Plan...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-02

    ...the habitat held for migratory birds and also for its value in providing habitat for resident birds, particularly doves and pigeons. The area is one of the few blocks of land in southwestern Puerto Rico west of the Gu[aacute]nica Commonwealth...

  5. Enhancing Enrollment & Management of Graduate (Postgraduate) Students at the University of Puerto Rico, Mayagüez

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anand D. Sharma; Carmen Figueroa

    The University of Puerto Rico at Mayagüez (UPRM) is taking steps to enhance the enrollment and management of graduate students (or postgraduate students, as referred to in other parts of the world) by better integration of all functions. During the last two years the admission process has evolved from a completely paper-based application process to an on-line process. Though this

  6. The persistence of Gliocephalotrichum bulbilium and G. simplex causing fruit rot of rambutan in Puerto Rico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fruit rot of rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum L.) is a pre and post-harvest disease problem that affects fruit quality. Significant post-harvest losses have occurred worldwide and several pathogens have been identified in Malaysia, Costa Rica, Hawaii, Thailand, and Puerto Rico. In 2011, fruit rot was o...

  7. Identificacin de Humedales en Puerto Rico utilizando Imgenes Multiespectrales Lola Xiomara Bautista Rozo

    E-print Network

    Gilbes, Fernando

    , se utilizó clasificación supervisada con el algoritmo de Distancia Mahalanobis. Se analizaron 14 la vegetación de las áreas cercanas a los humedales. Keywords. Humedales, NDVI, Distancia Mahalanobis el gobierno del Estado Libre Asociado de Puerto Rico en el año de 2002 compró a la empresa Space

  8. STEPS TOWARD MANAGING THE ARMORED SCALE ANDASPIS PUNICAE IN LITCHI IN FLORIDA AND PUERTO RICO

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The exotic scale Andaspis punicae (Homoptera: Diaspididae) was detected in 1993 in Florida invading litchi (Litchi chinensis) groves causing dieback of branches, and reducing tree vigor and eventually killing trees. During 2004 it was detected in Puerto Rico affecting litchis. The scale has also bee...

  9. The Industrial Affiliates Program at the University of Puerto Rico Mayaguez

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Velez-Reyes; M. A. Perez-Quinones; J. L. Cruz-Rivera

    1999-01-01

    The Industrial Affiliates Program (IAP) is an industry sponsored undergraduate research program at the University of Puerto Rico Mayaguez. The program has the support of more than 12 companies, many of them internationally recognized companies. IAP is administered by the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering and has student and professor participation from all departments in the School of Engineering.

  10. Fungal endophyte diversity in coffee plants from Colombia, Hawaii, Mexico and Puerto Rico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A survey of fungal endophytes in coffee plants was conducted in Colombia, Hawaii, Mexico and Puerto Rico. Coffee plant sections were sterilized and fungal endophytes were isolated using standard techniques, followed by DNA extraction and sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer region (ITS) of...

  11. An autecological study of Palicourea riparia Bentham as related to rain forest disturbance in Puerto Rico

    Microsoft Academic Search

    María L. Lebrón

    1979-01-01

    The present study is an attempt to understand biology of Palicourea riparia Bentham relative to the process of recovery following disturbance in a tropical rain forest in Puerto Rico. In this species seed germination and seedling maintenance are favored by environmental conditions associated with disturbance, yet germination and seedling persistence are significant in undisturbed forest conditions. The pattern of seed

  12. Management of pest mole crickets in Florida and Puerto Rico with a nematode and parasitic wasp

    SciTech Connect

    Leppla, N.C.; Frank, J.H. [University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, Department of Entomology and Nematology, P.O. Box 110630, Gainesville, FL 32611-0630 (United States); Adjei, M.B. [University of Florida, Range Cattle Research and Education Center, 3401 Experiment Station, Ona, FL 33865-9706 (United States); Vicente, N.E. [University of Puerto Rico, Agricultural Experiment Station, P.O. Box 9030, Mayaguez, PR 00681-9030 (Puerto Rico)

    2007-03-15

    Non-indigenous invasive mole crickets, Scapteriscus vicinus Scudder (Orthoptera: Gryllotalpidae) in Florida and S. didactylus (Latreille) (the 'changa') in Puerto Rico, are being managed with an entomopathogenic nematode, Steinernema scapterisci (Nguyen and Smart) (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae), and a parasitic wasp, Larra bicolor L. (Hymenoptera: Sphecidae). Pest mole cricket populations have declined by 95% in north central Florida since these specialist natural enemies were released and established in the 1980s. Commercial production of the nematode was initiated, nearly 70 billion were applied in 34 Florida counties, and their establishment, spread, and impact on mole crickets were monitored. The infected mole crickets dispersed the nematode rapidly, so that within 6 months these parasites were present in most of the insects trapped in experimental pastures. Three years later, mole cricket populations were reduced to acceptable levels and the bahiagrass had recovered. The nematode was released for the first time in Puerto Rico during 2001 and has persisted; the wasp was introduced in the late 1930s. The geographical distribution of the wasp is being expanded in Florida and Puerto Rico by planting plots of Spermacoce verticillata (L.), a wildflower indigenous to Puerto Rico and widely distributed in southern Florida. Pastures, sod farms, golf courses, landscapes, and vegetable farms in Florida and Puerto Rico are benefiting from biological control of invasive mole crickets. (author) [Spanish] Los grillotopos invasores no indigenas, Scapteriscus vicinus (Orthoptera: Gryllotalpidae) en el estado de Florida y S. didactylus ('changa') en Puerto Rico, estan siendo manejados por el nematodo entomopathogeno, Steinernema scapterisci (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae) y la avispa parasitica, Larra bicolor (Hymenoptera: Sphecidae). Las poblaciones de los grillotopo plagas han declinado un 95% en el norte central de la Florida desde que estos enemigos naturales especialistas fueron liberados y establecidos en los 80s. Consecuentemente, la produccion comercial del nematodo fue iniciada, casi 70 billones fueron aplicados en 34 condados de la Florida, y se realizo un monitoreo para evaluar su establecimiento, dispersion e impacto sobre los grillotopos. Los gillotopos infectados dispersaron los nematodos rapidamente, tanto que despues de 6 meses estos parasitos estaban presentes en la mayoria de los insectos atrapados en los pastos experimentales. Tres anos despues, las poblaciones de los grillotopos fueron reducidas a niveles aceptables y los campos de pasto 'bahia' se recuperaron. El nematodo fue liberado para la primera vez en Puerto Rico durante del 2001 y ha persistido; la avispa fue introducida al final de los 30s. La distribucion geografica de la avispa se esta extendiendo en la Florida y Puerto Rico por medio de la siembra de parcelas de Spermacoce verticillata, una flor silvestre indigena a Puerto Rico y distribuida ampliamente en el sur de la Florida. Los campos de pasto, las operaciones comerciales de cesped, los campos de golf, los paisajes y las fincas de hortalizas en la Florida y Puerto Rico se estan beneficiando del control biologico de los grillotopos invasores. (author)

  13. The Ecological Consequences of Socioeconomic and Land-Use Changes in Postagriculture Puerto Rico

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    H. RICARDO GRAU, T. MITCHELL AIDE, JESS K. ZIMMERMAN, JOHN R. THOMLINSON, EILEEN HELMER, and XIOMING ZOU (; )

    2003-12-01

    This peer-reviewed article from Bioscience journal is about land usage in Puerto rico and its ecological consequences.Contrary to the general trend in the tropics, forests have recovered in Puerto Rico from less than 10% of the landscape in the late 1940s to more than 40% in the present. The recent Puerto Rican history of forest recovery provides the opportunity to study the ecological consequences of economic globalization, reflected in a shift from agriculture to manufacturing and in human migration from rural to urban areas. Forest structure rapidly recovers through secondary succession, reaching mature forest levels of local biodiversity and biomass in approximately 40 years. Despite the rapid structural recovery, the legacy of pre-abandonment land use, including widespread abundance of exotic species and broadscale floristic homogenization, is likely to persist for centuries.

  14. Hydrogeology of Puerto Rico and the outlying islands of Vieques, Culebra, and Mona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gómez-Gómez, Fernando; Rodríguez-Martínez, Jesús; Santiago, Marilyn

    2014-01-01

    The availability of hydrogeologic maps for Puerto Rico and the outlying islands of Vieques, Culebra, and Mona are important to hydrogeologists, groundwater specialists, and water resource managers and planners. These maps, in combination with the report, serve as a source of information to all users by providing basic hydrogeologic and hydrologic knowledge in a concise illustrated format. Puerto Rico and the outlying islands cover a total area of 8,927 square kilometers (km2). Of this total area, about 3,500 km2 are underlain by hydrogeologic units that are classified as intergranular or fissured. These hydrogeologic units form the principal aquifer systems throughout Puerto Rico and the outlying islands. In Puerto Rico, the most extensive and intensely developed aquifers are the North Coast Limestone aquifer system and the South Coastal Alluvial Plain aquifer system. Withdrawals from these two aquifer systems constitute nearly 70 percent of the total groundwater withdrawn in Puerto Rico. The spatial extent of the North Coast Limestone aquifer system is about 2,000 km2. Within this aquifer system, groundwater development is greatest in the 800-km2 area between the Río Grande de Arecibo and the Río de la Plata. This also is the area for which concern is the highest regarding the future use of groundwater as a primary source of water for domestic and industrial use. With an estimated withdrawal of 280,000 cubic meters per day (m3/d), groundwater constituted the principal source of water within this area providing 100 percent of the water for self-supplied industries and about 85 percent for public water supplies in 1985. By 2005, groundwater withdrawals decreased to 150,000 m3/d. The spatial extent of the South Coastal Alluvial Plain aquifer system is about 470 km2. The estimated consumptive groundwater withdrawal from the aquifer system was 190,000 m3/d in 1980 and 170,000 m3/d in 2005. About 60 percent and 40 percent of the groundwater withdrawal from the South Coastal Alluvial Plain aquifer system was used for public water supply and irrigation, respectively. In the outlying islands of Vieques, Culebra, and Mona, only Vieques is underlain by aquifers of any local importance. The Resolución and Esperanza aquifers underlie an area covering 16 km2 on the island of Vieques. Prior to 1978 when an underwater public water-supply pipeline connecting Vieques to the main island of Puerto Rico was completed, groundwater withdrawal from the two aquifers was as much as 2,500 m3/d. Groundwater withdrawals in Vieques island in 2005 were estimated at less than 100 m3/d. The potential development of relatively untapped groundwater resources in Puerto Rico is limited to the Río Grande de Añasco valley and the Río Culebrinas valley in the western part of the island and to the Río Grande de Arecibo part of the North Coast Limestone aquifer system. In general, the North Coast Limestone and the South Coastal Alluvial Plain aquifer systems, which are the two principal groundwater-flow systems in Puerto Rico, show evidence of aquifer overdraft as indicated by regional increases in concentrations of dissolved solids. Optimization of withdrawals through conjunctive use of both surface-water and groundwater sources and by instituting water conservation measures has the greatest potential to ensure the continued use of groundwater resources. In support of these efforts, programs also could be implemented to improve database information regarding groundwater withdrawals and the contribution of surface-water diversions to surface-water flow, especially within the southern coastal plain of Puerto Rico.

  15. The use of a distributed hydrologic model to predict dynamic landslide susceptibility for a humid basin in Puerto Rico

    E-print Network

    Kamal, Sameer A. (Sameer Ahmed)

    2009-01-01

    This thesis describes the use of a distributed hydrology model in conjunction with a Factor of Safety (FS) algorithm to predict dynamic landslide susceptibility for a humid basin in Puerto Rico. The Mameyes basin, located ...

  16. Contrasting responses of coral reef fauna and foraminiferal assemblages to human influence in La Parguera, Puerto Rico

    EPA Science Inventory

    Coral reef biota including stony corals, sponges, gorgonians, fish, benthic macroinvertebrates and foraminifera were surveyed in coastal waters near La Parguera, in southwestern Puerto Rico. The goal was to evaluate sensitivity of coral reef biological indicators to human distur...

  17. 76 FR 62339 - Notice of Decision To Allow Interstate Movement of Rambutan From Puerto Rico into the Continental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-07

    ...risks of introducing or disseminating plant pests or noxious weeds via the interstate movement of rambutan from Puerto Rico. DATES...Northern Mariana Islands to prevent plant pests and noxious weeds from being introduced into and spread within the...

  18. 78 FR 63448 - Notice of Decision To Allow Interstate Movement of Sapote Fruit From Puerto Rico Into the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-24

    ...risks of introducing or disseminating plant pests or noxious weeds via the interstate movement of sapote fruit from Puerto Rico...Northern Mariana Islands to prevent plant pests and noxious weeds from being introduced into and spread within the...

  19. HABITAT AND BIODIVERSITY MAPPING, FOR THE DETERMINATION OF ALGAL BIOMASS AQUACULTURE SITES IN THE COSTAL AREAS OF PUERTO RICO

    E-print Network

    Gilbes, Fernando

    HABITAT AND BIODIVERSITY MAPPING, FOR THE DETERMINATION OF ALGAL BIOMASS AQUACULTURE SITES production. Here we analyze and map coastal habitats and biodiversity for the optimum the territorial water of Puerto Rico using several factors: benthic habitats, water depth, critical habitat

  20. 78 FR 54623 - Foreign-Trade Zone (FTZ) 7-Mayaguez, Puerto Rico; Notification of Proposed Production Activity...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-05

    ...Activity; Puma Energy Caribe, LLC (Biodiesel Blending); Bayamon, Puerto Rico Puma...current request would add the blending of biodiesel to the scope of authority. Pursuant...methyl ester meeting the specification of biodiesel (B100) (duty...

  1. 50 CFR 20.101 - Seasons, limits and shooting hours for Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...Islands. This section provides for the annual hunting of certain doves, pigeons, ducks, coots, gallinules and snipe in Puerto Rico; and for certain doves, pigeons and ducks in the Virgin Islands. In these Commonwealths, the hunting...

  2. 50 CFR 20.101 - Seasons, limits and shooting hours for Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...Islands. This section provides for the annual hunting of certain doves, pigeons, ducks, coots, gallinules and snipe in Puerto Rico; and for certain doves, pigeons and ducks in the Virgin Islands. In these Commonwealths, the hunting...

  3. POLLUTION PREVENTION INCENTIVES TO THE STATES GRANT: PUERTO RICO SOURCE REDUCTION AND REPLACEMENT OF HAZARDOUS SOLVENTS IN AUTOMOTIVE WORKSHOPS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This activity includes visiting 600 workshops affiliated with the Automotive Mechanics and Technicians Associations of Puerto Rico (AMTAPR) to demonstrate cost-effective strategies for reducing pollution and replacing solvents. Six hundred P2 assessments of automotive repair fa...

  4. Modeling Tsunamis from Potential Submarine Landslides in the Puerto Rico Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez, A. M.; Horrillo, J.; Huerfano Moreno, V. A.; Mercado, A.

    2012-12-01

    Evidence of submarine landslides found on high-resolution bathymetry around the Puerto Rico - Virgin Islands region indicate that tsunamis may have formed in the past, thus affecting coastal zones around Puerto Rico. Furthermore, it suggests that future submarine landslides in the vicinity are likely to occur in the future, resulting in destruction and devastation never seen before for coastal communities in Puerto Rico. With the presence of massive amphitheaters offshore along the northern Puerto Rico coast, and the most recent evidence of the October 11, 1918 tsunami along its northwestern coast, the threat to coastal communities is higher than previously thought. Submarine landslides progress through time as slopes reach their stability. With numerous processes leading to instabilities and subsequent failure, the possibility of experiencing new submarine landslides is real and thus require an assessment as to quantify potential sources, their dimensions, volumes, resulting tsunamis, and their effects onshore. As part of a project to produce evacuation maps from potential sources, the National Tsunami Hazards Mitigation Program funded the Puerto Rico Seismic Network to identify sources, run tsunami simulations and estimate inundation and run-up values. In addition to 15 past submarine landslides observed in the region's bathymetry, 5 scenarios of submarine landslides have been identified as potentially occurring in the future. Whether any or all of these potential case scenarios occur in the upcoming century is unknown, however, results from this study are critical to quantify their effects along coastal areas and therefore prepare communities for their occurrence. Three such cases lie along the northern offshore region, where the Arecibo and Loiza amphitheaters are found, an area where the geology favors such phenomenons. In contrast, the southern offshore region do not show a similar trend and thus seem unlikely to produce large events. We have used available bathymetry for Puerto Rico region from the National Geophysical Data Center and have used the Tsunami3d and NeoWave tsunami software packages for the simulations. The fact that submarine landslides are often triggered by earthquakes, and a large event have not occurred in the region for the past 94 years, quantifying the threats is a priority for tsunami preparedness.

  5. Urinary phthalate metabolite concentrations among pregnant women in Northern Puerto Rico: Distribution, temporal variability, and predictors

    PubMed Central

    Cantonwine, David E.; Cordero, José F.; Rivera-González, Luis O.; Del Toro, Liza V. Anzalota; Ferguson, Kelly K.; Mukherjee, Bhramar; Calafat, Antonia M.; Crespo, Noe; Jiménez-Vélez, Braulio; Padilla, Ingrid Y.; Alshawabkeh, Akram N.; Meeker, John D.

    2013-01-01

    Background Phthalate contamination exists in the North coast karst aquifer system in Puerto Rico. In light of potential health impacts associated with phthalate exposure, targeted action for elimination of exposure sources may be warranted, especially for sensitive populations such as pregnant women. However, information on exposure to phthalates from a variety of sources in Puerto Rico is lacking. The objective of this study was to determine concentrations and predictors of urinary phthalate biomarkers measured at multiple times during pregnancy among women living in the Northern karst area of Puerto Rico. Methods We recruited 139 pregnant women in Northern Puerto Rico and collected urine samples and questionnaire data at three separate visits (18±2 weeks, 22±2 weeks, and 26±2 weeks of gestation). Urine samples were analyzed for eleven phthalate metabolites: mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP), mono-2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl phthalate, mono-2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl phthalate, mono-2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl phthalate, mono-ethyl phthalate (MEP), mono-n-butyl phthalate, mono-benzyl phthalate, mono-isobutyl phthalate, mono-3-carboxypropyl phthalate (MCPP), mono carboxyisononyl phthalate (MCNP), and mono carboxyisooctyl phthalate (MCOP). Results Detectable concentrations of phthalate metabolites among pregnant women living in Puerto Rico was prevalent, and metabolite concentrations tended to be higher than or similar to those measured in women of reproductive age from the general US population. Intraclass correlation coefficients ranged from very weak (MCNP; 0.05) to moderate (MEP; 0.44) reproducibility among all phthalate metabolites. We observed significant or suggestive positive associations between urinary phthalate metabolites concentrations and water usage/storage habits (MEP, MCNP, MCOP), use of personal care products (MEP), and consumption of certain food items (MCPP, MCNP, and MCOP). Conclusions To our knowledge this is the first study to report concentrations, temporal variability, and predictors of phthalate biomarkers among pregnant women in Puerto Rico. Preliminary results suggest several potentially important exposure sources to phthalates in this population and future analysis from this ongoing prospective cohort will help to inform targeted approaches to reduce exposure. PMID:24161445

  6. Atmospheric inputs to watersheds of the Luquillo Mountains in eastern Puerto Rico: Chapter D in Water quality and landscape processes of four watersheds in eastern Puerto Rico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stallard, Robert F.

    2012-01-01

    Twenty years of precipitation-chemistry data from the National Atmospheric Deposition Program site at El Verde, Puerto Rico, demonstrate that three major sources control the composition of solutes in rain in eastern Puerto Rico. In order of importance, these sources are marine salts, temperate contamination from the Northern Hemisphere, and Sahara Desert dust. Marine salts are a source of roughly 82 percent of the ionic charge in precipitation; marine salt inputs are greatest in January. Evaluation of 15 years of U.S. Geological Survey data for four watersheds in eastern Puerto Rico suggests that large storms, including hurricanes, are associated with exceptionally high chloride concentrations in stream waters. Some of these storms were missed in sampling by the National Atmospheric Deposition Program, and therefore its data on the marine contribution likely underestimate chloride. The marine contribution is a weak source of acidity. Temperate contamination contributes about 10 percent of the ionic charge in precipitation; contaminants are primarily nitrate, ammonia, and sulfate derived from various manmade and natural sources. Peak deposition of temperate contaminants is during January, April, and May, months in which strong weather fronts arrive from the north. Temperate contamination, a strong source of acidity, is the only component that is increasing through time. Sahara Desert dust provides 5 percent of the ionic charge in precipitation; it is strongly seasonal, peaking in June and July during times of maximum dust transport from the Sahara and sub-Saharan regions. This dust contributes, on average, enough alkalinity to neutralize the acidity in June and July rains.

  7. Hydrology and climate of four watersheds in eastern Puerto Rico: Chapter C in Water quality and landscape processes of four watersheds in eastern Puerto Rico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Murphy, Sheila F.; Stallard, Robert F.

    2012-01-01

    Puerto Rico lies directly in the path of the easterly trade winds, which deliver steady rainfall to the mountains and steer tropical wave systems toward the island. Hurricanes and tropical storms derived from these tropical waves differ in frequency and intensity, contributing to substantial interannual variation in precipitation and stream discharge. Puerto Rico's steep topography and small water-storage capacity leave the island's water supply and developed flood plains vulnerable to extreme weather events, such as hurricanes, floods, and droughts. This vulnerability may increase in the future owing to ongoing change, both local (such as land-cover shifts, water-supply projects, and construction of roads and other infrastructure) and regional (climate variability and change). Climate change, which could lead to more intense and prolonged droughts as well as an increase in the magnitude and frequency of destructive storms in the Caribbean, may alter temperature and affect the availability of water for human and ecosystem needs. Accurate assessment of hydrologic regimes and water budgets is therefore crucial for effective management of water resources. As part of the U.S. Geological Survey's Water, Energy, and Biogeochemical Budgets program, hydrologic and geomorphologic processes and stream chemistry of four small watersheds in eastern Puerto Rico, which differ in geology and land cover, have been studied since 1991. Spatial and temporal characteristics of precipitation and stream discharge, along with water budgets, were determined for the watersheds for the period 1991 to 2005. The locations of the watersheds relative to the Luquillo Mountains and the range's associated rain shadow dominate hydrological processes, dwarfing influences of land cover. The influence of geology is reflected in recession characteristics of the rivers (recession is faster in soils overlying volcaniclastic bedrock) and in hillslope geomorphic processes (sediment is delivered at higher rates from soils overlying granitic bedrock).

  8. Land use, population dynamics, and land-cover change in eastern Puerto Rico: Chapter B in Water quality and landscape processes of four watersheds in eastern Puerto Rico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gould, William A.; Martinuzzi, Sebastián; Pares-Ramos, Isabel K.; Murphy, Sheila F.; Stallard, Robert F.

    2012-01-01

    We assessed current and historic land use and land cover in the Luquillo Mountains and surrounding area in eastern Puerto Rico, including four small subwatersheds that are study watersheds of the U.S. Geological Survey's Water, Energy, and Biogeochemical Budgets (WEBB) program. This region occupies an area of 1,616 square kilometers, about 18 percent of the total land in Puerto Rico. Closed forests occupy about 37 percent of the area, woodlands and shrublands 7 percent, nonforest vegetation 43 percent, urban development 10 percent, and water and natural barrens total less than 2 percent. The area has been classified into three main land-use categories by integrating recent census information (population density per barrio in the year 2000) with satellite image analyses (degree of developed area versus natural land cover). Urban land use (in this analysis, land with more than 20 percent developed cover within a 1-square-kilometer area and population density greater than 500 people per square kilometer) covered 16 percent of eastern Puerto Rico. Suburban land use (more than 80 percent natural land cover, more than 500 people per square kilometer, and primarily residential) covers 50 percent of the area. Rural land use (more than 80 percent natural land cover, less than 500 people per square kilometer, and primarily active or abandoned agricultural, wetland, steep slope, or protected conservation areas) covered 34 percent of the area. Our analysis of land-cover change indicates that in the 1990s, forest cover increased at the expense of woodlands and grasslands. Urban development increased by 16 percent during that time. The most pronounced change in the last seven decades has been the shift from a nonforested to a forested landscape and the intensification of the ring of urbanization that surrounds the long-protected Luquillo Experimental Forest.

  9. Near-Surface Shear Wave Velocity Versus Depth Profiles, VS30, and NEHRP Classifications for 27 Sites in Puerto Rico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Odum, Jack K.; Williams, Robert A.; Stephenson, William J.; Worley, David M.; von Hillebrandt-Andrade, Christa; Asencio, Eugenio; Irizarry, Harold; Cameron, Antonio

    2007-01-01

    In 2004 and 2005 the Puerto Rico Seismic Network (PRSN), Puerto Rico Strong Motion Program (PRSMP) and the Geology Department at the University of Puerto Rico-Mayaguez (UPRM) collaborated with the U.S. Geological Survey to study near-surface shear-wave (Vs) and compressional-wave (Vp) velocities in and around major urban areas of Puerto Rico. Using noninvasive seismic refraction-reflection profiling techniques, we acquired velocities at 27 locations. Surveyed sites were predominantly selected on the premise that they were generally representative of near-surface materials associated with the primary geologic units located within the urbanized areas of Puerto Rico. Geologic units surveyed included Cretaceous intrusive and volcaniclastic bedrock, Tertiary sedimentary and volcanic units, and Quaternary unconsolidated eolian, fluvial, beach, and lagoon deposits. From the data we developed Vs and Vp depth versus velocity columns, calculated average Vs to 30-m depth (VS30), and derived NEHRP (National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program) site classifications for all sites except one where results did not reach 30-m depth. The distribution of estimated NEHRP classes is as follows: three class 'E' (VS30 below 180 m/s), nine class 'D' (VS30 between 180 and 360 m/s), ten class 'C' (VS30 between 360 and 760 m/s), and four class 'B' (VS30 greater than 760 m/s). Results are being used to calibrate site response at seismograph stations and in the development of regional and local shakemap models for Puerto Rico.

  10. Abstract The northern karst of Puerto Rico is a unique formation that contains one of the island's

    E-print Network

    Aukema, Juliann E.

    Abstract The northern karst of Puerto Rico is a unique formation that contains one of the island plant communities to ensure protection of the widest range of tree species and communities in the karst-006-9169-5 123 ORIGINAL PAPER Landscape assessment of tree communities in the northern karst region of Puerto

  11. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics in the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico

    SciTech Connect

    Salasovich, J.; Mosey, G.

    2011-03-01

    This report presents the results of an assessment of the technical and economic feasibility of deploying a photovoltaics (PV) system on brownfield sites in the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico. All of the assessed sites are landfills. The sites were assessed for possible PV installations. The cost, performance, and site impacts of different PV options were estimated. The economics of the potential systems were analyzed using an electric rate of $0.119/kWh and incentives offered by Puerto Rico and by the serving utility, PREPA. According to the site production calculations, the most cost-effective system in terms of return on investment is the thin-film fixed-tilt technology. The report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of such a system.

  12. ``From Earth to the Solar System'' Traveling Exhibit Visits Puerto Rico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pantoja, C. A.; Lebrón, M. E.; Isidro, G. M.

    2013-04-01

    Puerto Rico was selected as one of the venues for the exhibit “From Earth to the Solar System” (FETTSS) during the month of October 2011. A set of outreach activities were organized to take place during the month of October aligned with the FETTSS themes. These activities included the following: 1) Main Exhibit, 2) Guided tours for school groups, 3) Planet Festival, 4) Film Festival and 5) Astronomy Conferences. We describe this experience and in particular the work with a group of undergraduate students from the University of Puerto Rico (UPR) that assisted in the outreach events. Among this group were three blind students. The FETTSS exhibit included a set of tactile and Braille images for the blind and visually impaired. A special exhibit was prepared with additional adapted materials for the visually impaired. This allowed blind visitors to participate and the general public to become more aware of the needs of this population.

  13. Some Seismic Profiles near the Western End of the Puerto Rico Trench.

    PubMed

    Northrop, J; Ransone, M

    1962-03-01

    A cooperative program of seismic refraction profiling was completed in the vicinity of the Puerto Rico Trench by Hudson Laboratories, Woods Hole, Lamont, and Texas A. & M. Profiles completed near the western end of the Trench were analyzed at Hudson Laboratories. Five seismic layers are indicated below the water layer. The thickness/velocity relationships are as follows: 5.1 km of 1.5 km/sec. (water); 1 km of 1.7 km/sec. (sediment); 1.5 km of 3 km/sec. (metamorphics?); 2 km of 5.5 km/sec. (basement); and 2 km of 7.1 km/sec. (high speed basement). Below these, typical Moho velocities of 8.1 km/sec. were measured. Total depth to Moho ranges from 9 to 12 km below sea level, the greatest variation occurring in the basement layers. The least depth was measured 65 miles north of the Puerto Rico Trench. PMID:19873544

  14. Discovering the Universe from the Caribbean: Puerto Rico Prepares for the IYA2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebrón Santos, M. E.; Pantoja, C. A.; Alonso, J. L.; Altschuler, D. R.; Olmi, L.

    2008-11-01

    A committee has been established at the University of Puerto Rico (UPR) to organize the local International Year of Astronomy {http://www.astronomy2009pr.org} (IYA2009) activities in the island and coordinate the international global activities. We are coordinating efforts with the members of the PR-NASA Space Grant Consortium, local government agencies, and non-profit organizations interested in education. We plan to have events throughout the island taking care to facilitate the participation of families and youth from economically disadvantaged communities. We wish that all the activities in 2009 emphasize the value of personal effort in reaching your goals, the importance of mathematics in modern life and the development of scientific awareness. Aligned with the IYA2009 major goals and considering the particular needs of our community, we have selected eight core activities for Puerto Rico. This poster describes how we will celebrate.

  15. Storage capacity and sedimentation trends of Lago Garzas, Puerto Rico, 1996-2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Soler-Lopez, L.R.

    2012-01-01

    Lago Garzas is located in west-central Puerto Rico, about 3.5 kilometers southwest of the town of Adjuntas, in the confluence of the Río Vacas and three other unnamed tributaries (fig. 1). The dam is owned and operated by the Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority (PREPA), and was constructed in 1943 for hydroelectric power generation and municipal water use along the southern coast. The dam is a semi-hydraulic earthfill embankment lined with boulders, and has a height of 61.57 meters, a top width of 9.14 meters, a base width of 365.76 meters, and a crest length of 227.37 meters; State Road PR-518 crosses the top of the dam. A morning-glory-type spillway is located near the west abutment of the dam at an elevation of 736.12 meters above mean sea level (Puerto Rico Water Resources Authority, 1969). Figure 2 shows an aerial photograph of the Lago Garzas earthfill dam and the morning-glory spillway section. Additional information and operational procedures are provided in Soler-López and others (1999). During July 17-18, 2007, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Caribbean Water Science Center, in cooperation with the Puerto Rico Aqueduct and Sewer Authority, conducted a bathymetric survey of Lago Garzas to update the reservoir storage capacity and update the reservoir sedimentation rate by comparing the 2007 data with the previous 1996 bathymetric survey results. The purpose of this report is to describe and document the USGS sedimentation survey conducted at Lago Garzas during July 2007, including the methods used to update the reservoir storage capacity, sedimentation rates, and areas of substantial sediment accumulation since 1996.

  16. [A new species of the chiton Lepidochitona (Polyplacophora: Ischnochitonidae) from Puerto Rico].

    PubMed

    García-Ríos, Cedar I

    2010-06-01

    The genus Lepidochitona Gray, 1821 has two species in the Caribbean: L. liozonis (Dall & Simpson, 1901) and L. rosea Kaas, 1972. We describe a third species: Lepidochitona rufoi sp. nov. from Puerto Rico. Lepidochitona rufoi differs from both in having a finely granulose tegmentum, smaller size, a very fine central radula tooth, and different anal plate form and color pattern. It also differs from L. liozonis in having longer marginal spicules. PMID:20527464

  17. Climatological data for the rice-growing areas along the North Coast of Puerto Rico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roman-Mas, Angel; Green, Bruce

    1987-01-01

    Rainfall, temperature, wind velocity and pan evaporation data were collected from May 1983 to September 1985, in the rice growing areas of Vega Baja, Manati, and Arecibo in northern Puerto Rico. Daily values and statistics including mean, standard deviation, extremes, and totals for each month of record were compiled. Descriptions of equipment installation and operation, data processing, and significance of climatological data for rice cultivation are presented. (Author 's abstract)

  18. Improving Coral Reef Habitat Mapping of the Puerto Rico Insular Shelf Using Side Scan Sonar

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. C. Prada; R. S. Appeldoorn; José A. Rivera

    2008-01-01

    Use of high resolution (0.1m) side-scan sonar for generating detailed benthic maps (4 m mapping unit) in coral reef environments was investigated by collecting imagery over 60 km of the Puerto Rico insular shelf, from shoreline to shelfedge. Visual interpretation of acoustic imagery resulted in 21 different habitat types classified within broad categories of unconsolidated sediment (7), consolidated bottom (6),

  19. Leptospirosis among patients presenting with dengue-like illness in Puerto Rico

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael G. Bruce; E. J. Sanders; J. A. D. Leake; O. Zaidel; S. L. Bragg; T. Aye; K. A. Shutt; C. C. Deseda; J. G. Rigau-Perez; J. W. Tappero; B. A. Perkins; R. A. Spiegel; D. A. Ashford

    2005-01-01

    Leptospirosis is difficult to distinguish from dengue fever without laboratory confirmation. Sporadic cases\\/clusters of leptospirosis occur in Puerto Rico, but surveillance is passive and laboratory confirmation is rare. We tested for leptospirosis using an IgM ELISA on sera testing negative for dengue virus IgM antibody and conducted a case–control study assessing risk factors for leptospirosis, comparing clinical\\/laboratory findings between leptospirosis

  20. La variedad linguistica de la mujer del Area Metropolitana de San Juan, Puerto Rico

    E-print Network

    Pratt-Panford, Comfort

    1997-01-01

    Antillas, establecieron pequetias colonias en las islas de la Espafiola (actualmente la Repftblica Dominicana y Haiti), Cuba y Boriq~ (ahora Puerto Rico). Desde alii, Hevaron a cabo mas conquistas, adquiriendo gran parte del territorio americano... idioma principal de todas las colonias. Sin embargo, debido a la variedad de culturas y otras influencias tanto lingtiisticas corno de otra indole, hay muchas diferencias en el espanol de las Americas, y hasta la fecha, ni siquiera las indagaciones mas...

  1. Program Spotlight: Ground Broken for NCI-supported Cancer Treatment Center in Puerto Rico

    Cancer.gov

    Groundbreaking ceremonies were held last month in San Juan for a $196-million, 287,000 square foot University of Puerto Rico (UPR) cancer hospital. The 12-storey medical facility, scheduled to open in April 2016 and employ 750 people, will offer state-of-the-art cancer treatment and conduct clinical trials. The hospital is part of the larger UPR Comprehensive Cancer Center (UPRCCC) that opened in 2009.

  2. Response of sponges with autotrophic endosymbionts during the coral-bleaching episode in Puerto Rico

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. P. Vicente

    1990-01-01

    An updated list of sponges with algal endosymbionts including new records for Puerto Rico and the Caribbean, indicates that thirty-five species of common Caribbean sponges possess photosynthetic endosymbionts. Of these, 23 (67.6%) species in seven orders, were found with unicellular chroococcoid cyanobacteria (Aphanocapsa-like) and 5 (14.7%) hadromerid species were found with zooxanthellae. Sponges with other algae as symbionts occur less

  3. Sea surface temperatures and coral reef bleaching off La Parguera, Puerto Rico (northeastern Caribbean Sea)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Winter; R. S. Appeldoorn; A. Bruckner; E. H. Williams Jr.; C. Goenaga

    1998-01-01

    Much recent attention has been given to coral reef bleaching because of its widespread occurrence, damage to reefs, and possible\\u000a connection to global change. There is still debate about the relationship between temperature and widespread bleaching. We\\u000a compared coral reef bleaching at La Parguera, Puerto Rico to a 30-y (1966–1995) record of sea surface temperature (SST) at\\u000a the same location.

  4. Measuring HIV felt stigma: a culturally adapted scale targeting PLWHA in Puerto Rico

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julio Cesar Jimenez; Marieva Puig; Juan Carlos Ramos; Marangelie Morales; Gloria Asencio; Ana Cecilia Sala; Eida Castro; Carmen Vélez Santori; Lydia Santiago; Carmen Zorrilla

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to culturally adapt and validate a scale to measure HIV-related felt stigma in a group of People living with HIV\\/AIDS (PLWHA) in Puerto Rico. The researchers conducted a two-phase cross-sectional study with 216 participants (60, first phase; 156, second phase). The first phase consisted of the cultural adaptation of the scale; the second evaluated

  5. Weathering of the Rio Blanco quartz diorite, Luquillo Mountains, Puerto Rico: Coupling oxidation, dissolution, and fracturing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Heather L. Buss; Peter B. Sak; Samuel M. Webb; Susan L. Brantley

    2008-01-01

    In the mountainous Rio Icacos watershed in northeastern Puerto Rico, quartz diorite bedrock weathers spheroidally, producing a 0.2–2m thick zone of partially weathered rock layers (?2.5cm thickness each) called rindlets, which form concentric layers around corestones. Spheroidal fracturing has been modeled to occur when a weathering reaction with a positive ?V of reaction builds up elastic strain energy. The rates

  6. Identifying population vulnerable to hydrological hazards in San Juan, Puerto Rico

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Derek Azar; David Rain

    2007-01-01

    The hazards of place framework developed by Cutter (1996) has been applied to several areas across the United States. This article tests the applicability of that model for analysis\\u000a of hydrological disasters in the municipio of San Juan, Puerto Rico. San Juan is chosen because it combines many socioeconomic attributes of a developing area while\\u000a offering data availability befitting its

  7. Coral-reef Geology: Puerto Rico and the US Virgin Islands

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dennis K. Hubbard; Randolph B. Burke; Ivan P. Gill; Wilson R. Ramirez; Clark Sherman

    The distribution of Holocene coral reefs around Puerto Rico and the US Virgin Islands reflects the tectonic history of the\\u000a region. By best estimates, the present-day Caribbean formed between 200 and 130 million years (MY) ago, when North and South\\u000a America pushed apart and Pacific crust moved northeastward (Pindell 1994). By late Cretaceous time (80 MY: Fig. 7.1), Caribbean\\u000a plate

  8. Association of NOD2 and IL23R with Inflammatory Bowel Disease in Puerto Rico

    PubMed Central

    Ballester, Veroushka; Guo, Xiuqing; Vendrell, Roberto; Haritunians, Talin; Klomhaus, Alexandra M.; Li, Dalin; McGovern, Dermot P. B.; Rotter, Jerome I.; Torres, Esther A.; Taylor, Kent D.

    2014-01-01

    The Puerto Rico population may be modeled as an admixed population with contributions from three continents: Sub-Saharan Africa, Ancient America, and Europe. Extending the study of the genetics of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) to an admixed population such as Puerto Rico has the potential to shed light on IBD genes identified in studies of European populations, find new genes contributing to IBD susceptibility, and provide basic information on IBD for the care of US patients of Puerto Rican and Latino descent. In order to study the association between immune-related genes and Crohn’s disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) in Puerto Rico, we genotyped 1159 Puerto Rican cases, controls, and family members with the ImmunoChip. We also genotyped 832 subjects from the Human Genome Diversity Panel to provide data for estimation of global and local continental ancestry. Association of SNPs was tested by logistic regression corrected for global continental descent and family structure. We observed the association between Crohn’s disease and NOD2 (rs17313265, 0.28 in CD, 0.19 in controls, OR 1.5, p?=?9×10?6) and IL23R (rs11209026, 0.026 in CD, 0.0.071 in controls, OR 0.4, p?=?3.8×10?4). The haplotype structure of both regions resembled that reported for European populations and “local” continental ancestry of the IL23R gene was almost entirely of European descent. We also observed suggestive evidence for the association of the BAZ1A promoter SNP with CD (rs1200332, 0.45 in CD, 0.35 in controls, OR 1.5, p?=?2×10?6). Our estimate of continental ancestry surrounding this SNP suggested an origin in Ancient America for this putative susceptibility region. Our observations underscored the great difference between global continental ancestry and local continental ancestry at the level of the individual gene, particularly for immune-related loci. PMID:25259511

  9. The frequency and distribution of recent landslides in three montane tropical regions of Puerto Rico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, Matthew C.; Torres-Sánchez, Angel J.

    1998-09-01

    Landslides are common in steep mountainous areas of Puerto Rico where mean annual rainfall and the frequency of intense storms are high. Each year, landslides cause extensive damage to property and occasionally result in loss of life. Average population density is high, 422 people/km 2, and is increasing. This increase in population density is accompanied by growing stress on the natural environment and physical infrastructure. As a result, human populations are more vulnerable to landslide hazards. The Blanco, Cibuco, and Coamo study areas range in surface area from 276 to 350 km 2 and represent the climatologic, geographic, and geologic conditions that typify Puerto Rico. Maps of recent landslides developed from 1:20,000-scale aerial photographs, in combination with a computerized geographic information system, were used to evaluate the frequency and distribution of shallow landslides in these areas. Several types of landslides were documented—rainfall-triggered debris flows, shallow soil slips, and slumps were most abundant. Hillslopes in the study area that have been anthropogenically modified, exceed 12° in gradient, are greater than 300 m in elevation, and face the east-northeast, are most prone to landsliding. A set of simplified matrices representing geographic conditions in the three study areas was developed and provides a basis for the estimation of the spatial controls on the frequency of landslides in Puerto Rico. This approach is an example of an analysis of the frequency of landslides that is computationally simple, and therefore, may be easily transferable to other settings.

  10. Sedimentation survey of Lago Dos Bocas, Utuado, Puerto Rico, January 2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Soler-López, Luis R.

    2014-01-01

    Lago Dos Bocas reservoir was completed in 1942 to provide water for hydroelectric power generation along the northern coast of Puerto Rico. The reservoir had an original storage capacity of 37.50 million cubic meters (Mm3). The dam is located about 9 kilometers (km) northeast of the town of Utuado, immediately downstream of the original confluence of the Río Grande de Arecibo and the Río Caonillas (fig. 1). The Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority (PREPA) owns and operates the Lago Dos Bocas reservoir, and since 1996, the reservoir has become an essential part of the Puerto Rico Aqueduct and Sewer Authority (PRASA) North Coast Superaqueduct Project. The Superaqueduct is supplied by controlled releases for hydroelectric power generation that replenish the public-supply raw-water intake pool located about 10 km downstream from the Lago Dos Bocas Dam (fig. 1). As of 2005, the Superaqueduct supplies about 4.03 cubic meters per second (m3/s) (348,192 cubic meters per day [m3/d]) of potable water to communities along the northern coast, from Arecibo to the San Juan metropolitan area. Because of the importance of the reservoir to the North Coast Superaqueduct, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with PRASA, conducted a sedimentation survey of Lago Dos Bocas in January 2009. The results of this survey were used to estimate the useful life and the firm yield of the reservoir, and evaluate the need to dredge the reservoir.

  11. Land Use Patterns and Fecal Contamination of Coastal Waters in Western Puerto Rico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norat, Jose

    1994-01-01

    The Department of Environmental Health of the Graduate School of Public Health of the Medical Sciences Campus, University of Puerto Rico (UPR-RCM) conducted this research project on how different patterns of land use affect the microbiological quality of rivers flowing into Mayaguez Bay in Western Puerto Rico. Coastal shellfish growing areas, stream and ocean bathing beaches, and pristine marine sites in the Bay are affected by the discharge of the three study rivers. Satellite imagery was used to study watershed land uses which serve as point and nonpoint sources of pathogens affecting stream and coastal water users. The study rivers drain watersheds of different size and type of human activity (including different human waste treatment and disposal facilities). Land use and land cover in the study watersheds were interpreted, classified and mapped using remotely sensed images from NASA's Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM). This study found there is a significant relationship between watershed land cover and microbiological water quality of rivers flowing into Mayaguez Bay in Western Puerto Rico. Land covers in the Guanajibo, Anasco, and Yaguez watersheds were classified into forested areas, pastures, agricultural zones and urban areas so as to determine relative contributions to fecal water contamination. The land cover classification was made processing TM images with IDRISI and ERDAS software.

  12. Physiography, geology, and land cover of four watersheds in eastern Puerto Rico: Chapter A in Water quality and landscape processes of four watersheds in eastern Puerto Rico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Murphy, Sheila F.; Stallard, Robert F.; Larsen, Matthew C.; Gould, William A.

    2012-01-01

    Four watersheds with differing geology and land cover in eastern Puerto Rico have been studied on a long-term basis by the U.S. Geological Survey to evaluate water, energy, and biogeochemical budgets. These watersheds are typical of tropical, island-arc settings found in many parts of the world. Two watersheds are located on coarse-grained granitic rocks that weather to quartz- and clay-rich, sandy soils, and two are located on fine-grained volcanic rocks and volcaniclastic sedimentary rocks that weather to quartz-poor, fine-grained soils. For each bedrock type, one watershed is covered with mature forest, and the other watershed, like most of Puerto Rico, has transformed from relatively undisturbed pre-European forest to intensive agriculture in the 19th and early 20th centuries, and further to ongoing reforestation that began in the middle of the 20th century. The comparison of water chemistry and hydrology in these watersheds allows an evaluation of the effects of land-use history and geology on hydrologic regimes and erosion rates. This chapter describes the physiography, geology, and land cover of the four watersheds and provides background information for the remaining chapters in this volume.

  13. Water resources data, Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands, water year 2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Figueroa-Alamo, Carlos; Aquino, Zaida; Guzman-Rios, Senen; Sanchez, Ana V.

    2006-01-01

    The Caribbean Water Science Center of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with local and Federal agencies obtains a large amount of data pertaining to the water resources of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico and the Territory of the U.S. Virgin Islands each water year. These data, accumulated during many water years, constitute a valuable data base for developing an improved understanding of the water resources of the area. To make these data readily available to interested parties outside the U.S. Geological Survey, the data are published annually in this report series entitled 'Water Resources Data for Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands.' This report includes records on both surface and ground water. Specifically, it contains: (1) discharge records for 89 streamflow-gaging stations, daily sediment records for 13 sediment stations, stage records for 18 reservoirs, and (2) water-quality records for 20 streamflow-gaging stations, and for 38 ungaged stream sites, 13 lake sites, 2 lagoons, and 1 bay, and (3) water-level records for 72 observation wells. Water-resources data for Puerto Rico for calendar years 1958-67 were released in a series of reports entitled 'Water Records of Puerto Rico.' Water-resources data for the U.S. Virgin Islands for the calendar years 1962-69 were released in a report entitled 'Water Records of U.S. Virgin Islands.' Included were records of streamflow, ground-water levels, and water-quality data for both surface and ground water. Beginning with the 1968 calendar year, surface-water records for Puerto Rico were released separately on an annual basis. Ground-water level records and water-quality data for surface and ground water were released in companion reports covering periods of several years. Data for the 1973-74 reports were published under separate covers. Water-resources data reports for 1975 to 2003 water years consist of one volume each and contain data for streamflow, water quality, and ground water.

  14. Nesting ecology and behavior of Broad-winged Hawks in moist karst forests of Puerto Rico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hengstenberg, D.W.; Vilella, F.J.

    2005-01-01

    The Puerto Rican Broad-winged Hawk (Buteo platypterus brunnescens) is an endemic and endangered subspecies inhabiting upland montane forests of Puerto Rico. The reproductive ecology, behavior, and nesting habitat of the Broad-winged Hawk were studied in Ri??o Abajo Forest, Puerto Rico, from 2001-02. We observed 158 courtship displays by Broad-winged Hawks. Also, we recorded 25 territorial interactions between resident Broad-winged Hawks and intruding Red-tailed Hawks (Buteo jamaicensis jamaicensis). Broad-winged Hawks displaced intruding Red-tailed Hawks from occupied territories (P = 0.009). Mayfield nest survival was 0.67 across breeding seasons (0.81 in 2001, N = 6; 0.51 in 2002, N = 4), and pairs averaged 1.1 young per nest (years combined). The birds nested in mixed species timber plantations and mature secondary forest. Nests were placed in the upper reaches of large trees emerging from the canopy. Nest tree DBH, understory stem density, and distance to karst cliff wall correctly classified (77.8%) nest sites. ?? 2005 The Raptor Research Foundation, Inc.

  15. 33 CFR 334.1480 - Vieques Passage and Atlantic Ocean, off east coast of Puerto Rico and coast of Vieques Island...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Vieques Passage and Atlantic Ocean, off east coast of Puerto Rico and coast of Vieques...AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1480 Vieques Passage and Atlantic Ocean, off east coast of Puerto Rico and coast of...

  16. 33 CFR 334.1480 - Vieques Passage and Atlantic Ocean, off east coast of Puerto Rico and coast of Vieques Island...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Vieques Passage and Atlantic Ocean, off east coast of Puerto Rico and coast of Vieques...AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1480 Vieques Passage and Atlantic Ocean, off east coast of Puerto Rico and coast of...

  17. 33 CFR 334.1480 - Vieques Passage and Atlantic Ocean, off east coast of Puerto Rico and coast of Vieques Island...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Vieques Passage and Atlantic Ocean, off east coast of Puerto Rico and coast of Vieques...AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1480 Vieques Passage and Atlantic Ocean, off east coast of Puerto Rico and coast of...

  18. Forest fragments as barriers to fruit fly dispersal: Anastrepha (Diptera: Tephritidae) populations in orchards and adjacent forest fragments in Puerto Rico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    McPhail-type traps baited with ammonium acetate and putrescine were used to monitor populations of Anastrepha obliqua and A. suspensa at four sites in Guánica, Puerto Rico; one forest fragment in Ponce, Puerto Rico; in a commercial mango orchard in Guayanilla, PR; and an experimental carambola orcha...

  19. 7 CFR 305.34 - Irradiation treatment of certain regulated articles from Hawaii, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...treatment of certain regulated articles from Hawaii, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin...treatment of certain regulated articles from Hawaii, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin...the following fruits and vegetables from Hawaii at the specified dose levels:...

  20. 16. STATUS OF CORAL REEFS IN THE U.S. CARIBBEAN AND GULF OF MEXICO: FLORIDA, FLOWER GARDEN BANKS, PUERTO RICO, U.S. VIRGIN ISLANDS, NAVASSA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    RUTH KELTY; KATHERINE ANDREWS; JENNY WHEATON; LARRY NALL; CARL BEAVER; WALT JAPP; BRIAN KELLER; V. R. LEEWORTHY; J. A. BOHN; TOM MATTHEWS; JERALD AULT; FLEUR FERRO; GABRIEL DELGADO; DOUGH HARPER; JOHN HUNT; CHRISTY PATTENGIL-SEMMENS; STEVE SMITH; RICHARD SPIELER; R. E. DODGE; D. GILLIAM; BILL GOODWIN; GEORGE SCHMAHL; JORGE R. GARCIA; CRAIG LILYESTROM; RICHARD APPELDOORN; ANDY BRUCKNER; ERNEST WILLIAMS

    Mapping, monitoring, and management of coral reefs of Florida, the Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary (FGBNMS) northwestern Gulf of Mexico, Puerto Rico, U.S. Virgin Islands and Navassa have all improved with increased awareness and funding from the Government of the USA. Quantitative baseline surveys of coral reef communities have been completed in Puerto Rico at three current or proposed

  1. Psychometric properties of the Cambridge depersonalization scale in Puerto Rico.

    PubMed

    Aponte-Soto, Michell R; Vélez-Pastrana, María; Martínez-Taboas, Alfonso; González, Rafael A

    2014-01-01

    Depersonalization experiences have been studied in the United States and Europe, but there is a dearth of investigations with Latino populations. In the current study we examined the psychometric properties of the Spanish version of the Cambridge Depersonalization Scale (CDS) in 300 adult individuals from the community and compared the results with those reported previously with non-Latino clinical populations. Discrepant findings have been reported with respect to the factor structure of the CDS. We performed exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses on the CDS items and compared our results with published analyses on other populations. Results revealed that the psychometric properties of the CDS, such as reliability, seem adequate, although the factor structure of the CDS seems to be inconsistent across studies. We selected a 4-factor solution that was most parsimonious and best fit our data. Furthermore, we obtained a moderate, statistically significant relationship (r = .64, p = .001) between the CDS and the Dissociative Experiences Scale. Our results, utilizing a nonclinical sample of Puerto Rican adults, suggest that depersonalization experiences can be reliably measured in a Latino and Spanish-speaking population. PMID:24283777

  2. Potential effects of runoff, fluvial sediment, and nutrient discharges on the coral reefs of Puerto Rico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larsen, M.C.; Webb, R.M.T.

    2009-01-01

    Coral reefs, the foundation and primary structure of many highly productive and diverse tropical marine ecosystems, have been degraded by human activity in much of the earth's tropical oceans. To contribute to improved understanding of this problem, the potential relation between river sediment and nutrient discharges and degradation of coral reefs surrounding Puerto Rico was studied using streamflow, suspended-sediment, and water-quality data. Mean annual runoff for the 8711 km2 island is 911 mm, about 57% of mean annual precipitation (1600 mm). Mean annual suspended-sediment discharge from Puerto Rico to coastal waters is estimated at 2.7-9.0 million metric tonnes. Storm runoff transports a substantial part of sediment: the highest recorded daily sediment discharge is 1-3.6 times the mean annual sediment discharge. Hurricane Georges (1998) distributed an average of 300 mm of rain across the island, equivalent to a volume of about 2.6 billion m3. Runoff of more than 1.0 billion m3 of water and as much as 5 to 10 million metric tonnes of sediment were discharged to the coast and shelf. Nitrogen and phosphorous concentrations in river waters are as much as 10 times the estimated presettlement levels. Fecal coliform and fecal streptococcus concentrations in many Puerto Rico rivers are near or above regulatory limits. Unlike sediment discharges, which are predominantly episodic and intense, river-borne nutrient and fecal discharge is a less-intense but chronic stressor to coral reefs found near the mouths of rivers. Negative effects of riverderived sediment and nutrient discharge on coral reefs are especially pronounced on the north, southwest, and west coasts.

  3. Atlas of ground-water resources in Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Veve, Thalia D., (Edited By); Taggart, Bruce E.

    1996-01-01

    This atlas presents an overview of the ground-water resources of the main island of Puerto Rico; two of its larger offshore islands, Isla de Culebra and Isla de Vieques; and the three principal islands of the U.S. Virgin Islands, St. Thomas, St. John, and St. Croix. The atlas presents the most important ground-water information available for these islands, and is written for water managers and the general public. It describes, through the use of maps, graphs, and hydrogeologic sections, the most important aspects of the geohydrology, ground-water flow system, and groundwater withdrawals for the principal aquifers in these islands. Most of the information presented in the atlas is from published reports, although unpublished data from ongoing studies by the U.S. Geological Survey were used to prepare parts of the atlas. This report provides a useful compilation of information concerning major aquifers in Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands and provides a first step in gaining a general knowledge of these aquifers. More detailed information is available from the primary sources referenced in the report. The atlas contains an introductory section and 15 sections describing the ground-water resources of 12 regions within the 7 ground-water areas of the main island of Puerto Rico, Isla de Culebra and Isla de Vieques (described in a single section of the atlas), and the U.S. Virgin Islands (St. Thomas and St. John are described in one section of the atlas and St. Croix in another), and a concluding section describing present and potential problems related to the development of ground-water resources. Information presented in each of 15 descriptive sections of the atlas include the (1) location and major geographic features of the area covered by that section, (2) population and estimated (4) hydrogeology of the area, (5) ground-water levels and movements, and (6) a description of soil permeabilities.

  4. Ethnic conflict and the psychology of liberation in Guatemala, Peru, and Puerto Rico.

    PubMed

    Comas-Di-az, L; Lykes, M B; Alarco-n, R D

    1998-07-01

    Ethnic identity and conflict in Guatemala, Peru, and Puerto Rico are complexly embedded within dynamic systems of class- and race-based geopolitics. Whereas overt violence and terror have permeated both Guatemalan and Peruvian societies, overt conflict has undermined Puerto Rican nationhood. Despite similarities among these 3 countries of Hispano-America, there are important particularities that inform psychological theory and practice. This article explores selected contributions of a psychology of liberation informed by indigenous psychologies and reflexive praxis. The challenges these conflicts and their consequences pose to psychologists seeking to work with populations most deeply affected by these social inequalities are analyzed. It concludes with suggestions of how psychology can move toward the development of community-based responses to psychosocial oppression that foster enhanced individual and collective development in a context of social change. PMID:9735060

  5. Geologic and hydrologic data collected at test hole NC-8, Vega Alta, Puerto Rico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rodríguez-Martínez, Jesús; Scharlach, Richard A.

    1994-01-01

    Test hole NC-8 was drilled in the municipality of Vega Alta as part of a study of the aquifers in the Northern Coastal Province of Puerto Rico. Test hole NC-8 was drilled to a depth of 1,736 feet below land surface. Geologic and hydrologic data collected during drilling included continuous core, water- quality samples, water-level measurements, and estimates of aquifer yields from the water-bearing zones. Test hole NC-8 penetrated five geologic formations of middle Tertiary age: the Aymamon Limestone, the Los Puertos Formation, the Cibao Formation, the Lares Limestone, and the San Sebastian Formation. Test hole NC-8 penetrated a water-table aquifer and seven artesian aquifers.

  6. Estimating soil turnover rate from tree uprooting during hurricanes in Puerto Rico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lenart, M.T.; Falk, D.A.; Scatena, F.N.; Osterkamp, W.R.

    2010-01-01

    Soil turnover by tree uprooting in primary and secondary forests on the island of Puerto Rico was measured in 42 study plots in the months immediately after the passage of a Category 3 hurricane. Trunk basal area explained 61% of the variability of mound volume and 53% of the variability of mound area. The proportion of uprooted trees, the number of uprooted trees, or the proportion of uprooted basal area explained 84-85% of the variation in hurricane-created mound area. These same variables explain 79-85% of the variation in mound volume. The study indicates that the soil turnover period from tree uprooting by Puerto Rican hurricanes is between 1600 and 4800 years. These rates are faster than soil turnover by landslides and background treefall in the same area and provide a useful age constraint on soil profile development and soil carbon sequestration in these dynamic landscapes. ?? 2009 Elsevier B.V.

  7. Improvements of Real Time First Motion Focal Mechanism and Noise Characteristics of New Sites at the Puerto Rico Seismic Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, D. M.; Lopez, A. M.; Huerfano, V.; Lugo, J.; Cancel, J.

    2011-12-01

    Seismic networks need quick and efficient ways to obtain information related to seismic events for the purposes of seismic activity monitoring, risk assessment, and scientific knowledge among others. As part of an IRIS summer internship program, two projects were performed to provide a tool for quick faulting mechanism and improve seismic data at the Puerto Rico Seismic Network (PRSN). First, a simple routine to obtain a focal mechanisms, the geometry of the fault, based on first motions was developed and implemented for data analysts routine operations at PRSN. The new tool provides the analyst a quick way to assess the probable faulting mechanism that occurred while performing the interactive earthquake location procedure. The focal mechanism is generated on-the-fly when data analysts pick P wave arrivals onsets and motions. Once first motions have been identified, an in-house PRSN utility is employed to obtain the double couple representation and later plotted using GMT's psmeca utility. Second, we addressed the issue of seismic noise related to thermal fluctuations inside seismic vaults. Seismic sites can be extremely noisy due to proximity to cultural activities and unattended thermal fluctuations inside sensor housings, thus resulting in skewed readings. In the past, seismologists have used different insulation techniques to reduce the amount of unwanted noise that a seismometers experience due to these thermal changes with items such as Styrofoam, and fiber glass among others. PRSN traditionally uses Styrofoam boxes to cover their seismic sensors, however, a proper procedure to test how these method compare to other new techniques has never been approached. The deficiency of properly testing these techniques in the Caribbean and especially Puerto Rico is that these thermal fluctuations still happen because of the intense sun and humidity. We conducted a test based on the methods employed by the IRIS Transportable Array, based on insulation by sand burial of the sensor. Two Guralps CMG-3T's connected to RefTek's 150 digitizers were used at PRSN's MPR site seismic vault to compare the two types of insulation. Two temperature loggers were placed along each seismic sensor for a period of one week to observe how much thermal fluctuations occur in each insulation method and then compared its capability for noise reduction due to thermal fluctuations. With only a single degree Celsius fluctuation inside the sand (compared to almost twice that value for the foam) the sensor buried in sand provided the best insulation for the seismic vault. In addition, the quality of the data was analyzed by comparing both sensors using PQLX. We show results of this analysis and also provide a site characteristic of new stations to be included in the daily earthquake location operations at the PRSN.

  8. The mineralogy of recent sediments from selected cores along the southeast coast of Puerto Rico 

    E-print Network

    Trivedi, Harshadrai Popatlal

    1968-01-01

    -square test to heavy mineral data for the determination of homogeneity of samples. ()) To interpret the results in terms of the source area. (4) To study clay mineral variation. The mineralogical analyses and clay mineralogy of the noncarbonate Recent... in Puerto Rico and pointed out that four maJ or factors are responsible for beach erosion in this area: (1) change of sea level, (2) diastrophism, (5) erosion of the barrier rock reefs, and. (4) activities of man. Guillou and Glass (1957) made a...

  9. Quantifying discharge uncertainty from remotely sensed precipitation data products in Puerto Rico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weerasinghe, H.; Raoufi, R.; Yoon, Y.; Beighley, E., II; Alshawabkeh, A.

    2014-12-01

    Preterm birth is a serious health issue in the United States that contributes to over one-third of all infant deaths. Puerto Rico being one of the hot spots, preliminary research found that the high preterm birth rate can be associated with exposure to some contaminants in water used on daily basis. Puerto Rico has more than 200 contaminated sites including 16 active Superfund sites. Risk of exposure to contaminants is aggravated by unlined landfills lying over the karst regions, highly mobile and dynamic nature of the karst aquifers, and direct contact with surface water through sinkholes and springs. Much of the population in the island is getting water from natural springs or artesian wells that are connected with many of these potentially contaminated karst aquifers. Mobility of contaminants through surface water flows and reservoirs are largely known and are highly correlated with the variations in hydrologic events and conditions. In this study, we quantify the spatial and temporal distribution of Puerto Rico's surface water stores and fluxes to better understand potential impacts on the distribution of groundwater contamination. To quantify and characterize Puerto Rico's surface waters, hydrologic modeling, remote sensing and field measurements are combined. Streamflow measurements are available from 27 U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) gauging stations with drainage areas ranging from 2 to 510 km2. Hillslope River Routing (HRR) model is used to simulate hourly streamflow from watersheds larger than 1 km2 that discharge to ocean. HRR model simulates vertical water balance, lateral surface and subsurface runoff and river discharge. The model consists of 4418 sub-catchments with a mean model unit area (i.e., sub-catchment) of 1.8 km2. Using gauged streamflow measurements for validation, we first assess model results for simulated discharge using three precipitation products: TRMM-3B42 (3 hour temporal resolution, 0.25 degree spatial resolution); NWS stage-III radar rainfall (~ 5 min temporal resolution and 4 km spatial resolution); and gauge measurements from 37 rainfall stations for the period 2000-2012. We then explore methods for combining each product to improve overall model performance. Effects of varied spatial and temporal rainfall resolutions on simulated discharge are also investigated.

  10. An Overview of the Great Puerto Rico ShakeOut 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez, G.; Soto-Cordero, L.; Huérfano-Moreno, V.; Ramos-Gómez, W.; De La Matta, M.

    2012-12-01

    With a population of 4 million, Puerto Rico will be celebrating this year, for first time, an Island-wide earthquake drill following the Great California ShakeOut model. Most of our population has never experienced a large earthquake, since our last significant event occurred on 1918, and is not adequately prepared to respond to a sudden ground movement. During the moderate-size earthquakes (M5.2-5.8) that have been felt in Puerto Rico since 2010, and despite Puerto Rico Seismic Network education efforts, the general public reaction was inappropriate, occasionally putting themselves and others at risk. Our overarching goal for the Great Puerto Rico ShakeOut is to help develop seismic awareness and preparedness in our communities. In addition, our main objectives include: to teach the public to remain calm and act quickly and appropriately during a seismic event, the identification and correction of potential hazards that may cause injuries, and the development/update of mitigation plans for home, work place and/or school. We are also taking this opportunity to clarify the misconceptions of other methods of protection (e.g. triangle of life) and warning equipment and systems that do not have sound scientific or applicable basis for our country. We will be presenting an overview of the accomplishment of our earthquake drill and the different strategies we are using, such as internet, social media and collaboration with state government agencies and professional groups, to reach diverse age and educational level groups and to promote their participation. One of our main target groups this year are school students since their experience can have a direct and positive impact on their families. The drill webpage was developed in Spanish and English as well as our promotional and educational materials. Being the first time a Spanish-speaking country coordinates a ShakeOut exercise we hope our experience and the materials we are developing could be of use and benefit to other Spanish-speaking countries.

  11. Depositional history of Oligocene-Miocene carbonate rocks of northeastern Puerto Rico

    SciTech Connect

    Scharlach, R. (Univ. of New Orleans, LA (USA))

    1990-05-01

    The apparent tectonic stability of the northern Puerto Rico platform during the late Oligocene and early Miocene allows for the depositional history of subsurface carbonate rocks of northeastern Puerto Rico to be related to major changes in eustatic sea level. During a late Oligocene north to south transgression of sea level, fluvial/deltaic to shallow marine terrigenous sediments (San Sebastian Formation) and, subsequently, open-ramp carbonates (Lares Limestone) accumulated in the central basin. Following a minor regression (third-order cycle ), a more extensive early Miocene( ) transgression resulted in deposition of deeper ramp carbonate mudstone and marl (Mudstone unit) in an apparent trough in the central basin, and open-ramp reefal carbonate (upper Lares) was deposited over a wider area of the basin. The San Sebastian Formation/Lares Limestone/Mudstone Unit sequence was most likely deposited during the second-order supercycle, TB{sub 1}. An early Miocene relative fall in sea level resulted in deposition of interfingering inner-ramp limestone and terrigenous sediments (Cibao Formation) and the development of subaerial costs, especially in the upper part of the unit. During a sea level rise, terrigenous deposition decreased and gave way to inner- and middle-ramp carbonate sediments (Los Puertos Limestone). A middle Miocene highstand in sea level brought basin-wide deposition of open-ramp carbonate sediments (Aymamon Ls). The Cibao Formation/Los Puertos Limestone/Aymamon. Limestone sequence may correspond to the second-order supercycle, TB{sub 2}. During the late middle Miocene( ), the carbonate platform was exposed and extensively karsted, possibly in an event related to the sea level drop at the end of TB{sub 2}.

  12. Validation study of a multidimensional hydrologic model of rainfall, and the simulation of orographic influences, using data from Puerto Rico

    E-print Network

    Garcia-Hiraldo, Roberto

    1990-01-01

    VALIDATION STUDY OF A MULTIDIMENSIONAL HYDROLOGIC MODEL OF RAINFALL, AND THE SIMULATION OF OROGRAPHIC INFLUENCES, USING DATA FROM PUERTO RICO A Thesis by ROBERTO GARCIA-HIRALDO Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas ABM... DATA FROM PUERTO RICO A Thesis by ROBERTO GARCIA-HIRALDO Approved as to style and content by: Dennis M. Driscoll (Co-Chair of Committee) Ju n B. Valdes (Co-Chair of Committee) '; C . '~! Jo'hn F. GriH'i'ths (Member) ~'-~ Edward J. Zipser...

  13. Sociodemographic patterns of household water-use costs in Puerto Rico.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xue; Ghasemizadeh, Reza; Padilla, Ingrid; Meeker, John D; Cordero, Jose F; Alshawabkeh, Akram

    2015-08-15

    Variability of household water-use costs across different sociodemographic groups in Puerto Rico is evaluated using census microdata from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series (IPUMS). Multivariate analyses such as multiple linear regression (MLR) and factor analysis (FA) are used to classify, extract and interpret the household water-use costs. The FA results suggest two principal varifactors in explaining the variability of household water-use costs (64% in 2000 and 50% in 2010), which are grouped into a soft coefficient (social, economic and demographic characteristics of household residents, i.e., age, size, income, education) and a hard coefficient (dwelling conditions, i.e., number of rooms, units in the building, building age). The demographic profile of a high water-use household in Puerto Rico tends to be that of renters, people who live in larger or older buildings, people living in metro areas, or those with higher education level and higher income. The findings and discussions from this study will help decision makers to plan holistic and integrated water management to achieve water sustainability. PMID:25897735

  14. HISTORICAL CONTAMINATION OF GROUNDWATER RESOURCES IN THE NORTH COAST KARST AQUIFERS OF PUERTO RICO

    PubMed Central

    Padilla, Ingrid; Irizarry, Celys; Steele, Katherine

    2012-01-01

    The North Coast Karst Aquifer System of Puerto Rico is the island’s most productive aquifer. The characteristics that make it highly productive also make it vulnerable to contamination. This research, which addresses the historical contamination of groundwater resources in the northern karst region was conducted through integration of spatial hydrogeologic and contaminant concentration data in the La Plata-Arecibo area. The study used GIS technologies and focused on phthalates and chlorinated volatile organic compounds (CVOCs) and phthalates due to their ubiquitous presence in the environment as well as their presence in listed and potential superfund sites in Puerto Rico and U.S. and potential for exposure and health impacts. Results show an extensive historical contamination of the groundwater resources in the northern karst aquifers. Long-term contamination indicates the aquifers’ large capacity for storing and releasing contaminants and reflects a long-term potential for exposure. The degradation of this important water resource has resulted in a subsequent reduction of the extraction capacity and an increase in the cost of use. PMID:24772197

  15. Population dynamics of Eleutherodactylus coqui in cordillera forest reserves of Puerto Rico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fogarty, J.H.; Vilella, F.J.

    2002-01-01

    Various aspects of population structure and dynamics of Eleutherodactylus coqui in two forest reserves (Maricao and Guilarte) of the central mountain range of Puerto Rico were determined between July 1997 and June 1998. Adult density ranged from 8-25 animals/100 m2 for the wet season and 3-19 animals/100 m2 for the dry season. Abundance of froglets and juveniles was also greater in the wet season compared to the dry season. By contrast, egg mass counts were greater in the dry season compared to the wet season. Adult body size increased from wet to dry season as population density declined and was found to differ significantly between forests. Adult E. coqui trapped at similar elevations were larger in Guilarte compared to those in Maricao. Average body size for Maricao and Guilarte populations were smaller than those reported for populations in eastern Puerto Rico. Comparing average snout-vent length among frogs from the Luquillo Mountains, Guilarte Forest, and Maricao Forest, a gradient of decreasing body size was observed from east to west across the island.

  16. Drug treatment disparities among Hispanic drug-using women in Puerto Rico and New York City.

    PubMed

    Robles, Rafaela Rivera; Matos, Tomás David; Deren, Sherry; Colón, Héctor Manuel; Sahai, Hardeo; Marrero, Carmen Amalia; Reyes, Juan Carlos; Andía, Jonny; Shepard, Elizabeth Winfield

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports findings on 334 out-of-treatment drug users in Puerto Rico and 617 in New York City, at the 6-month follow-up interview of a Longitudinal Survey. Main outcomes were health care and drug treatment utilization since baseline, assessed by asking participants if they had received physical or mental health services (including HIV medications), and if they had been in methadone maintenance, inpatient or outpatient drug treatment, or drug treatment while incarcerated. Chi-square tests were used to evaluate associations between gender and the various correlates. Logistic regression was used to calculate the contribution of each variable in predicting use of drug treatment. The analysis suggests that women in both sites were likely to suffer from disparities in both health care and drug treatment utilization when compared with men, albeit women in New York utilized more drug treatment resources and were more embedded in the immediate family than their female peers in Puerto Rico. Further research to specify the impact of contextual factors at the organizational and community levels, among members of the same ethnic group residing in different sites, may prove valuable in identifying the health needs and the factors that impede or facilitate drug-using women in obtaining the most appropriate treatment. Findings from these studies can help in developing appropriate public health policy and science-based drug treatment programs to eliminate disparities such as the ones detected in this study. PMID:16338479

  17. Progress in the development of a national noise action plan for the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alicea-Pou, Jose; Navon-Rivera, Milagros

    2005-09-01

    This presentation describes the strategies taken for the development of a noise plan for Puerto Rico. One of the most important initiatives was the establishment of an interagency committee to work on the plan. This committee identified as first priorities the need of information from studies on environmental noise levels and data from noise attitude surveys. The Environmental Quality Board is currently investigating the levels of environmental noise in different locations in the city of San Juan. The preliminary results reinforce the need of actions to control emitters of community noise, like recreational sounds (radios, TV, night clubs) and noise from vehicles with modified mufflers and boom cars. Additionally, to achieve the implementation of the plan and the development of local noise research, we developed an interagency agreement to establish a common fund to support those projects. This year we celebrated the second annual Puerto Rico Noise Awareness Day. The activities included the second symposium on noise pollution, the first art posters contest on noise in our environment for elementary school kids, and the award ceremony, ``Amigos del Menos Ruido.'' All these activities were developed to promote public awareness of this important social and environmental issue.

  18. Water-quality reconnaissance of Laguna Tortuguero, Vega Baja, Puerto Rico, March 1999-May 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Soler-Lopez, Luis; Guzman-Rios, Senen; Conde-Costas, Carlos

    2006-01-01

    The Laguna Tortuguero, a slightly saline to freshwater lagoon in north-central Puerto Rico, has a surface area of about 220 hectares and a mean depth of about 1.2 meters. As part of a water-quality reconnaissance, water samples were collected at about monthly and near bi-monthly intervals from March 1999 to May 2000 at four sites: three stations inside the lagoon and one station at the artificial outlet channel dredged in 1940, which connects the lagoon with the Atlantic Ocean. Physical characteristics that were determined from these water samples were pH, temperature, specific conductance, dissolved oxygen, dissolved oxygen saturation, and discharge at the outlet canal. Other water-quality constituents also were determined, including nitrogen and phosphorus species, organic carbon, chlorophyll a and b, plankton biomass, hardness, alkalinity as calcium carbonate, and major ions. Additionally, a diel study was conducted at three stations in the lagoon to obtain data on the diurnal variation of temperature, specific conductance, dissolved oxygen, and dissolved oxygen saturation. The data analysis indicates the water quality of Laguna Tortuguero complies with the Puerto Rico Environmental Quality Board standards and regulations.

  19. Measuring HIV felt stigma: a culturally adapted scale targeting PLWHA in Puerto Rico.

    PubMed

    Jimenez, Julio Cesar; Puig, Marieva; Ramos, Juan Carlos; Morales, Marangelie; Asencio, Gloria; Sala, Ana Cecilia; Castro, Eida; Velez Santori, Carmen; Santiago, Lydia; Zorrilla, Carmen

    2010-11-01

    The objective of this study was to culturally adapt and validate a scale to measure HIV-related felt stigma in a group of People living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in Puerto Rico. The researchers conducted a two-phase cross-sectional study with 216 participants (60, first phase; 156, second phase). The first phase consisted of the cultural adaptation of the scale; the second evaluated its psychometric properties. After conducting a factor analysis, a 17-item scale, the HIV Felt-Stigma Scale (HFSS), resulted. Participants completed the Puerto Rico Comprehensive Center for the Study of Health Disparities Socio-demographic Questionnaire, the HFSS, the Beck Depression Inventory-II, and the Sexual Abuse dimension of the History of Abuse Questionnaire; the case managers completed the Case Manager Stigma Guide with subjects. The HFSS measures four dimensions: personalized stigma, disclosure concerns, negative self-image, and concern with public attitudes. The alpha and Pearson correlation coefficients (0.91 and 0.68, respectively) indicated satisfactory validity and reliability; the scale suggested adequate convergent validity. The HFSS is a culturally sensitive instrument that fills the existing gap in the measurement of felt stigma in Spanish-speaking PLWHA. PMID:20665283

  20. Water resources data, Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands, Water Year 1998

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Diaz, Pedro L.; Aquino, Zaida; Figueroa-Alamo, Carlos; Vachier, Ricardo J.; Sanchez, Ana V.

    1999-01-01

    The Water Resources Division of the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with local and federal agencies obtains a large amount of data pertaining to the water resources of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico and the Territory of the U.S. Virgin Islands each water year. These data, accumulated during many water years, constitute a valuable data base for developing an improved understanding of the water resources of the area. To make these data readily available to interested parties outside the U.S. Geological Survey, the data are published annually in this report series entitled 'Water Resources Data for Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands, 1998.' This report includes records on both surface and ground water. Specifically, it contains: (1) discharge records for 76 streamflow gaging stations, daily sediment records for 27 streamflow stations, 99 partial-record or miscellaneous streamflow stations, stage records for 17 reservoirs, and (2) water-quality records for 16 streamflow-gaging stations, and for 42 ungaged stream sites, 11 lake sites, 2 lagoons, and 1 bay, and (3) water-level records for 97 observation wells.

  1. Water Resources Data, Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands, Water Year 2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Diaz, Pedro L.; Aquino, Zaida; Figueroa-Alamo, Carlos; Garcia, Rene; Sanchez, Ana V.

    2004-01-01

    The Water Resources Division of the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with local and Federal agencies obtains a large amount of data pertaining to the water resources of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico and the Territory of the U.S. Virgin Islands each water year. These data, accumulated during many water years, constitute a valuable data base for developing an improved understanding of the water resources of the area. To make these data readily available to interested parties outside the U.S. Geological Survey, the data are published annually in this report series entitled 'Water Resources Data for Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands, 2002.' This report includes records on both surface and ground water. Specifically, it contains: (1) discharge records for 95 streamflow gaging stations, daily sediment records for 28 streamflow stations, 27 partial-record or miscellaneous streamflow stations, stage records for 17 reservoirs, and (2) water-quality records for 17 streamflow-gaging stations, and for 42 ungaged stream sites, 11 lake sites, 2 lagoons, and 1 bay, and (3) water-level records for 102 observation wells.

  2. Water Resources Data, Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands, Water Year 2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Diaz, Pedro L.; Aquino, Zaida; Figueroa-Alamo, Carlos; Garcia, Rene; Sanchez, Ana V.

    2002-01-01

    The Water Resources Division of the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with local and Federal agencies obtains a large amount of data pertaining to the water resources of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico and the Territory of the U.S. Virgin Islands each water year. These data, accumulated during many water years, constitute a valuable data base for developing an improved understanding of the water resources of the area. To make these data readily available to interested parties outside the U.S. Geological Survey, the data are published annually in this report series entitled 'Water Resources Data for Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands, 2001.' This report includes records on both surface and ground water. Specifically, it contains: (1) discharge records for 95 streamflow gaging stations, daily sediment records for 23 streamflow stations, 20 partial-record or miscellaneous streamflow stations, stage records for 18 reservoirs, and (2) water-quality records for 17 streamflow-gaging stations, and for 42 ungaged stream sites, 11 lake sites, 2 lagoons, and 1 bay, and (3) water-level records for 103 observation wells.

  3. Water Resources Data, Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands, Water Year 1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Diaz, Pedro L.; Aquino, Zaida; Figueroa-Alamo, Carlos; Vachier, Ricardo J.; Sanchez, Ana V.

    2000-01-01

    The Water Resources Division of the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with local and federal agencies obtains a large amount of data pertaining to the water resources of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico and the Territory of the U.S. Virgin Islands each water year. These data, accumulated during many water years, constitute a valuable data base for developing an improved understanding of the water resources of the area. To make these data readily available to interested parties outside the U.S. Geological Survey, the data are published annually in this report series entitled 'Water Resources Data for Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands, 1999.' This report includes records on both surface and ground water. Specifically, it contains: (1) discharge records for 76 streamflow gaging stations, daily sediment records for 25 streamflow stations, stage records for 18 reservoirs, and (2) water-quality records for 16 streamflow-gaging stations, and for 42 ungaged stream sites, 11 lake sites, 2 lagoons, and 1 bay, and (3) water-level records for 107 observation wells.

  4. Water Resources Data, Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands, Water Year 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Diaz, Pedro L.; Aquino, Zaida; Figueroa-Alamo, Carlos; Vachier, Ricardo J.; Sanchez, Ana V.

    2001-01-01

    The Water Resources Division of the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with local and federal agencies obtains a large amount of data pertaining to the water resources of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico and the Territory of the U.S. Virgin Islands each water year. These data, accumulated during many water years, constitute a valuable data base for developing an improved understanding of the water resources of the area. To make these data readily available to interested parties outside the U.S. Geological Survey, the data are published annually in this report series entitled 'Water Resources Data for Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands, 2000.' This report includes records on both surface and ground water. Specifically, it contains: (1) discharge records for 85 streamflow gaging stations, daily sediment records for 26 streamflow stations, 21 partial-record or miscellaneous streamflow stations, stage records for 18 reservoirs, and (2) water-quality records for 16 streamflow-gaging stations, and for 42 ungaged stream sites, 11 lake sites, 2 lagoons, and 1 bay, and (3) water-level records for 108 observation wells.

  5. Population Declines of Mountain Coqui (Eleutherodactylus portoricensis) in the Cordillera Central of Puerto Rico

    PubMed Central

    Barker, Brittany S.; Ríos-Franceschi, Alejandro

    2014-01-01

    The Mountain Coqui (Eleutherodactylus portoricensis) is a frog endemic to montane rainforests in the Cordillera Central and Luquillo Mountains of Puerto Rico. Classified as endangered by the IUCN Red List and as vulnerable by the Department of Natural and Environmental Resources of Puerto Rico, this species has undergone considerable decline in the Luquillo Mountains. To evaluate the population status of E. portoricensis across its entire range, we conducted ~87 hours of surveys at 18 historical localities and 25 additional localities that we considered suitable for this species. We generated occupancy models to estimate the probability of occurrence at surveyed sites and to identify geographic and climatic factors affecting site occupancy. We also constructed a suitability map to visualize population status in relation to the presence of land cover at elevations where the species has been documented, and determined the dates when populations were last detected at historical localities. Eleutherodactylus portoricensis was detected at 14 of 43 localities, including 10 of 18 historical localities, but it was not detected at any localities west of Aibonito (western Cordillera Central). Occupancy models estimated the probability of occurrence for localities in the western Cordillera Central as zero. Site occupancy was positively associated with montane cloud forest, and negatively associated with the western Cordillera Central, maximum temperature, and precipitation seasonality. The suitability map suggests that declines have occurred despite the presence of suitable habitat. We suggest upgrading the extinction risk of E. portoricensis and potentially developing a captive breeding program for this species. PMID:25685250

  6. Rehabilitation of a 410-MW utility boiler at Costa Sur, Puerto Rico

    SciTech Connect

    Rosado, R.; Salmeron, M.

    1995-12-31

    To increase unit reliability and availability and to meet the current and future electric power demands in Puerto Rico, the Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority (PREPA) recently performed a scheduled outage rehabilitation of Costa Sur Power Station Unit 5. This major rehabilitation of a 23-year-old, 410 MW, oil-fired boiler was accompanied by the upgrading of the low-pressure turbine with new rotors. The boiler rehabilitation included the replacement of all waterwall floor panels from just below the burner windbox, down to the lower drum. Temporary support was provided for the lower drum and its structural system during the panel replacement. The steam drum internals were completely rehabilitated, with the installation of a new liner and cleaning and repair of other internals as required. The superheater and reheater desuperheater liners were also replaced. In addition, all major components of both the firing system and the air preheaters were replaced. The gas recirculation fan was rehabilitated, and its discharge duct was replaced.

  7. The breeding ecology of sea birds on Monito Island, Puerto Rico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kepler, C.B.

    1978-01-01

    Monito Island, a 15-ha plateau surrounded by steep undercut cliffs, lies halfway between Puerto Rico and the Dominican Republic. Seven of the 9 sea birds are known to breed, and 2 (Blue-faced Booby and Laughing Gull) are here recorded as breeders in Puerto Rico for the first time. The Pelecaniformes are represented by 5 species, the White-tailed Tropicbird, the 3 pan-tropical boobies, and the Magnificent Frigatebird. The boobies all have long but annual breeding seasons, from fall through spring, showing a distinct breeding hiatus in the hot summer months, although some late-nesters may care for chicks during this period. The Magnificent Frigatebird has the most synchronous breeding, with a laying peak from late October to early December, when 70% of the population lay eggs. Four larids (Laughing Gull, Bridled Tern, Sooty Tern, and Brown Noddy) are summer residents vacating the island in August-September, and returning again in March-April. In general, they nest during the pelecaniform non-breeding season. The sea birds show a great range in nest site preference, with little overlap among them. Their diversity results from a combination of isolation, rugged cliffs, and the structural diversity of Monito Island. Although currently one of the outstanding sea bird colonies in the West Indies, Monito is threatened, and the colonies could be lost unless they are legally protected.

  8. Caracteristicas de los Estudiantes de Ciencias Agricolas y de Economia Domestica de la Universidad de Puerto Rico (Characteristics of the Agricultural Science and Home Economics Students of the University of Puerto Rico). Publicacion 135.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lube, Edna Droz; Calero, Reinaldo

    As part of a U.S. Department of Agriculture research project on young adults, a questionnaire was distributed in the fall of 1977 to all agriculture science and home economics students at the University of Puerto Rico in order to determine their personal and parental backgrounds; work, college, and high school experiences; life goals and attitudes…

  9. TECHNICAL REPORT ON STANDARDIZATION OF THE GENERAL APTITUDE TEST BATTERY, GENERAL WORKING POPULATION NORMS STUDY FOR PUERTO RICO.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Employment Security (DOL), Washington, DC.

    THE POSSIBILITY OF PREDICTIVE ERROR WHEN APPLYING U.S. MAINLAND NORMS FOR THE GENERAL APTITUDE TEST BATTERY TO THE EMPLOYMENT COUNSELING AND SELECTION PROCESS IN PUERTO RICO, PROMPTED A STUDY TO ESTABLISH LOCAL NORMS FOR THE SPANISH LANGUAGE VERSION, BATERIA GENERAL DE PRUEBAS DE APTITUD. A STRATIFIED QUOTA SAMPLE OF 1,500 PERSONS WAS SELECTED…

  10. Land Use and Land Cover Analyses from the North Coast of Puerto Rico Using AVIRIS Images: from Arecibo to Quebradillas

    E-print Network

    Gilbes, Fernando

    ;2 According to NASA, an image spectrometer is an object designed to detect, measure and analyze the spectral1 Land Use and Land Cover Analyses from the North Coast of Puerto Rico Using AVIRIS Images: from INTRODUCTION Image spectroscopy is the practice that collects images with a sensor that measures the energy

  11. Possible environmental factors underlying amphibian decline in eastern Puerto Rico: Analysis of U.S. government data archives

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stallard, R.F.

    2001-01-01

    The past three decades have seen major declines in populations of several species of amphibians at high elevations in eastern Puerto Rico, a region unique in the humid tropics because of the degree of environmental monitoring that has taken place through the efforts of U.S. government agencies. I examined changes in environmental conditions by examining time-series data sets that extend back at least into the 1980s, a period when frog populations were declining. The data include forest cover; annual mean, minimum, and maximum daily temperature; annual rainfall; rain and stream chemistry; and atmospheric-dust transport. I examined satellite imagery and air-chemistry samples from a single National Aeronautics and Space Administration aircraft flight across the Caribbean showing patches of pollutants, described as thin sheets or lenses, in the lower troposphere. The main source of these pollutants appeared to be fires from land clearing and deforestation, primarily in Africa. Some pollutant concentrations were high and, in the case of ozone, approached health limits set for urban air. Urban pollution impinging on Puerto Rico, dust generation from Africa (potential soil pathogens), and tropical forest burning (gaseous pollutants) have all increased during the last three decades, overlapping the timing of amphibian declines in eastern Puerto Rico. None of the data sets pointed directly to changes so extreme that they might be considered a direct lethal cause of amphibian declines in Puerto Rico. More experimental research is required to link any of these environmental factors to this problem.

  12. Factors of Significant Impact on Proficiency Levels of Adult ESL Learners within Post-Secondary Education in Puerto Rico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez, Ramon

    2011-01-01

    This qualitative case study seeks to identify factors that have a significant impact on the second language proficiency levels of adult English as a Second Language (ESL) learners at a four-year university in Puerto Rico. Current data indicate that a significant percentage of adult ESL learners encounter major difficulties within the process of…

  13. Groundwater flow, variability, and transport pathways in the Mar Negro of the Jobos Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve, Puerto Rico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Jobos Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve (JBNERR) is a semi-enclosed ecosystem along the southeast coast of Puerto Rico. Agriculture, including vegetable, row crop, tree fruit, pasture, and poultry, is an important land use within the watershed. To better understand the potential impact of ...

  14. Spanish through Authentic Literature and Traditional Art (of Puerto Rico and the Dominican Republic). A Teacher's Resource Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Columbia Univ., New York, NY. Inst. for Urban and Minority Education.

    This guide was compiled of instructional materials designed by teachers of Spanish at the elementary and secondary levels. The materials consist of lesson plans and readings, each with a slightly different perspective, which collectively give a comprehensive view of the history and culture of Puerto Rico and the Dominican Republic. Many lessons…

  15. A Qualitative Study of Providers' Perception of Adherence of Women Living with HIV/AIDS in Puerto Rico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivero-Mendez, Marta; Dawson-Rose, Carol S.; Solis-Baez, Solymar S.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines healthcare providers' perceptions regarding experiences and factors that contribute to adherent and non-adherent behaviors to HIV treatment among women living with HIV infection in Puerto Rico and describes strategies implemented to improve adherence. Providers' accounts revealed that women with HIV infection are living "beyond…

  16. Investigation of in situ weathering of quartz diorite bedrock in the Rio Icacos basin, Luquillo Experimental Forest, Puerto Rico

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Benjamin F. Turner; Robert F. Stallard; Susan L. Brantley

    2003-01-01

    The Rio Icacos basin, in Puerto Rico, is the site of the highest measured chemical solute fluxes for a catchment on granodiorite; this is partly attributable to high annual rainfall (4300 mm), high average temperature (23 °C), and moderate relief. The bulk of these fluxes is contributed by dissolution of plagioclase and amphiboles in zones of partially weathered rock (0.5–1.5

  17. The Constitutive Force of the "Catecismo del Pueblo" in Puerto Rico's Popular Democratic Party Campaign of 1938-1940

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cordova, Nathaniel I.

    2004-01-01

    This paper explores the formation of a political order, a constituency, during the 1938-1940 senatorial campaign of the "Partido Popular Democratico" in Puerto Rico. In particular it examines the constitutive force of the "Catecismo del Pueblo," a small booklet in the form of questions and answers regarding the party's basic assumptions and…

  18. Effects of land management and a recent hurricane on forest structure and composition in the Luquillo Experimental Forest, Puerto Rico

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jess K. Zimmerman; T. Mitchell Aide; Maydee Rosario; Mayra Serrano; Luis Herrera

    1995-01-01

    We compared the long-term effects (60 years) of land use practices and short-term effects (5 years) of a hurricane on forests in abandoned pastures, abandoned coffee plantations, and forested stands in the Luquillo Mountains of eastern Puerto Rico. There was no effect of management practices on species richness of trees and shrubs, nor on species diversity, species evenness, stem density,

  19. Hurricane Disturbance Alters Secondary Forest Recovery in Puerto Rico Dan F.B. Flynn1,7

    E-print Network

    Uriarte, Maria

    Hurricane Disturbance Alters Secondary Forest Recovery in Puerto Rico Dan F.B. Flynn1,7 , Mar structure and composition. How introduced species respond to disturbances such as hurricanes in post-agriculture forest recovery is of particular interest. To examine the effects of hurricane disturbance and previous

  20. Las Nuevas Tecnologias de la Informacion en las Bibliotecas Publicas de Puerto Rico: Impacto en el Personal Bibliotecario

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diaz-Suarez, Damalin Judith

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to determine the status of Puerto Rico's public libraries to new information technologies. Obtaining the views of library staff working in the same, characteristics and attitudes and knowledge in new information technologies needed to serve as information specialists in libraries. To know the opinion of the…

  1. Introducing ShakeMap to potential users in Puerto Rico using scenarios of damaging historical and probable earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huerfano, V. A.; Cua, G.; von Hillebrandt, C.; Saffar, A.

    2007-12-01

    The island of Puerto Rico has a long history of damaging earthquakes. Major earthquakes from off-shore sources have affected Puerto Rico in 1520, 1615, 1670, 1751, 1787, 1867, and 1918 (Mueller et al, 2003; PRSN Catalogue). Recent trenching has also yielded evidence of possible M7.0 events inland (Prentice, 2000). The high seismic hazard, large population, high tsunami potential and relatively poor construction practice can result in a potentially devastating combination. Efficient emergency response in event of a large earthquake will be crucial to minimizing the loss of life and disruption of lifeline systems in Puerto Rico. The ShakeMap system (Wald et al, 2004) developed by the USGS to rapidly display and disseminate information about the geographical distribution of ground shaking (and hence potential damage) following a large earthquake has proven to be a vital tool for post earthquake emergency response efforts, and is being adopted/emulated in various seismically active regions worldwide. Implementing a robust ShakeMap system is among the top priorities of the Puerto Rico Seismic Network. However, the ultimate effectiveness of ShakeMap in post- earthquake response depends not only on its rapid availability, but also on the effective use of the information it provides. We developed ShakeMap scenarios of a suite of damaging historical and probable earthquakes that severely impact San Juan, Ponce, and Mayagüez, the 3 largest cities in Puerto Rico. Earthquake source parameters were obtained from McCann and Mercado (1998); and Huérfano (2004). For historical earthquakes that generated tsunamis, tsunami inundation maps were generated using the TIME method (Shuto, 1991). The ShakeMap ground shaking maps were presented to local and regional governmental and emergency response agencies at the 2007 Annual conference of the Puerto Rico Emergency Management and Disaster Administration in San Juan, PR, and at numerous other emergency management talks and training sessions. Economic losses are estimated using the ShakeMap scenario ground motions (Saffar, 2007). The calibration tasks necessary in generating these scenarios (developing Vs30 maps, attenuation relationships) complement the on-going efforts of the Puerto Rico Seismic Network to generate ShakeMaps in real-time.

  2. Stratigraphy, Structure, and Geologic and Coastal Hazards in the Peñuelas to Salinas Area, Southern Puerto Rico: A Compendium of Published Literature

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rodríguez-Martínez, Jesús

    2007-01-01

    The Puerto Rico Electrical Power Authority has proposed construction of a pipeline to convey natural gas from the municipio of Pe?uelas to the Aguirre thermoelectric power plant in the municipio of Salinas in southern Puerto Rico. To ensure that the geologic conditions along the possible routes do not represent a threat to the physical integrity of the natural gas pipeline, and thus comply with State and Federal regulations, the Puerto Rico Electrical Power Authority requested the U.S. Geological Survey to provide a synthesis of published literature of the geology of the coastal plain in the Pe?uelas to Salinas area. The study area is located in part of the Southern Coastal Plain of Puerto Rico. In the area that extends from the municipio of Pe?uelas eastward to the Laguna de las Salinas at Ponce, a distance of about 5 miles, the study area is underlain by middle Tertiary carbonate units. Eastward from the Laguna de las Salinas to the pipeline terminus at the Aguirre power plant in Salinas, a distance of about 30 miles, the terrain is underlain by fan-delta deposits of Quaternary age. The carbonate units and the fan-delta deposits are underlain by early Tertiary and older-age volcaniclastics with subordinate sedimentary rocks and lavas. The Great Southern Puerto Rico Fault Zone is the principal geologic structural feature in southern Puerto Rico. At present, the Great Southern Puerto Rico Fault Zone is considered largely quiescent, although it apparently is associated with minor earthquakes. There is no evidence of terrestrial, late Quaternary faulting within the Pe?uelas to Salinas area. Seismic activity in this area mostly originates from extension zones of more distal shallow sources such as Mona Canyon to the northwest and the Anegada Trough northeast of the island of Puerto Rico. The magnitude of completeness of earthquakes in the study area ranges from 2.0 to 2.5. The seismic density for the southern coast including the study area is about 0.128 earthquakes per square mile, which is close to the average for southwestern Puerto Rico. The estimated maximum peak ground acceleration most likely to occur in the study area, due to shallow depth seismicity with 2 percent probability of exceedance in 50 years, is 9 feet per second squared, as obtained by modeling results. The estimated peak ground acceleration with 2 percent probability of exceedance in 50 years, due to deep seismicity is 7 feet per second squared. In Ponce, the probability of exceedance per year is higher than 0.1 for the peak ground acceleration values less than 1 that result from shallow depth seismicity sources such as the Mona Passage extension zone. The potential for liquefaction due to seismic activity may exist in areas near the coastline that have loosely to poorly consolidated sedimentary deposits and a water table close to or at the land surface. Slope failure susceptibility within the study area, due to rainfall and seismic activity, may be limited to the area that extends westward from Laguna de las Salinas to Pe?uelas. In this area, foothills with slopes exceeding 10 degrees are close to the coastline and are underlain by clayey limestone and marls. In the remaining part of the study area, eastward from Laguna de las Salinas to Salinas, the land is either nearly flat or has a slope of less than 10 degrees; consequently, the susceptibility to landsliding (slope failure) caused by seismic activity and rainfall is considered to be minimal or nonexistent. Based on modeling results from a previous study, the estimated maximum inland extent of tsunami-induced flooding is 2,600 feet in the Laguna de las Salinas and Boca Chica, located in Ponce and Juana Diaz, respectively. Flooding about 3,000 and 2,800 feet from the coastline are estimated for areas near Punta Cabullon and Jobos areas, respectively. According to the modeling results, the estimated maximum runup of the tsunami-induced flooding ranges from 9 to 14 feet for the Boca Chica and Pu

  3. Comparison of Storage Capacity and Sedimentation Trends of Lago Guayabal, Puerto Rico-December 2001 and October 2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Soler-López, Luis R.

    2008-01-01

    Lago Guayabal dam is located on the Rio Jacaguas in the municipality of Villalba in southern Puerto Rico, about 4 kilometers north of the town of Juana Diaz and about 5 kilometers south of Villalba (fig. 1). The dam is owned and operated by the Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority (PREPA) and was constructed in 1913 for the irrigation of croplands in the southern coastal plains of Puerto Rico. The reservoir impounds the waters of the Rio Jacaguas and those of the Rio Toa Vaca, when the Toa Vaca dam overflows or releases water. The reservoir has a drainage area of 53.8 square kilometers. The dam is a concrete gravity structure with a normal pool (at top of flashboards) elevation of 103.94 meters above mean sea level (Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority, 1988). During October 2006, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Caribbean Water Science Center, in cooperation with the Puerto Rico Aqueduct and Sewer Authority (PRASA) conducted a bathymetric survey of Lago Guayabal to update the reservoir storage capacity and actualize the reservoir sedimentation rate by comparing the 2006 data with the previous 2001 bathymetric survey results. The purpose of this report is to describe and document the USGS sedimentation survey conducted at Lago Guayabal during October 2006, including the methods used to update the reservoir storage capacity, sedimentation rates, and areas of substantial sediment accumulation since December 2001. The Lago Guayabal sedimentation history up to 2001 was published by the USGS in 2003 (Soler-Lopez, 2003); therefore, this report focuses on the comparison between the 2001 and current bathymetric surveys of Lago Guayabal.

  4. Characterizing Manatee habitat use and seagrass grazing in Florida and Puerto Rico: Implications for conservation and management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lefebvre, L.W.; Reid, J.P.; Kenworthy, W.J.; Powell, J.A.

    1999-01-01

    The Indian River Lagoon on the Atlantic coast of Florida, USA, and the east coast of Puerto Rico provide contrasting environments in which the endangered West Indian Manatee Trichechus manatus experiences different thermal regimes and seagrass communities. We compare Manatee feeding behaviour in these two regions, examine the ecological effects of Manatee grazing on a seagrass community in the Indian River Lagoon, describe the utility of aerial surveys, radio tracking, and seagrass mapping to study Manatee feeding patterns, and develop hypotheses on sirenian feeding strategies in temperature and tropical seagrass communities. In both the Indian River Lagoon and Puerto Rico, Manatees were typically observed grazing in water depths = 2.0 m and more frequently on the most abundant seagrasses present in the community: Halodule wrightii in the Indian River Lagoon and Thalassia testudinum in eastern Puerto Rico. Where both H. wrightii and Syringodium filiforme were consumed in the Indian River Lagoon, Manatees tended to remove more S. filiforme than H. wrightii rhizome + root biomass. Even though 80 to 95% of the short-shoot biomass and 50 to 67% of the rhizome + root biomass were removed, grazed patches of H. wrightii and S. filiforme recovered significantly between February and August. H. wrightii may be both more resistant and resilient than S. filiforme to the impacts of Manatee grazing. Despite the significantly greater abundance of T. testudinum in Puerto Rico, Manatees exhibited selective feeding by returning to specific sites with abundant H. wrightii. They also appeared to feed selectively on T. testudinum shoots associated with clumps of the calcareous alga Halimeda opuntia. We hypothesize that Florida Manatees are less specialized seagrass grazers than Manatees in tropical regions like Puerto Rico. Continued research on Manatee grazing ecology in temperate to tropical seagrass communities will enable better protection and management of these vital and unique marine resources.

  5. Characterizing Manatee habitat use and seagrass grazing in Florida and Puerto Rico: Implications for conservation and management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lefebvre, L.W.; Reid, J.P.; Kenworthy, W.J.; Powell, J.A.

    2000-01-01

    The Indian River Lagoon on the Atlantic coast of Florida, USA, and the east coast of Puerto Rico provide contrasting environments in which the endangered West Indian Manatee Trichechus manatus experiences different thermal regimes and seagrass communities. We compare Manatee feeding behaviour in these two regions, examine the ecological effects of Manatee grazing on a seagrass community in the Indian River Lagoon, describe the utility of aerial surveys, radio tracking, and seagrass mapping to study Manatee feeding patterns, and develop hypotheses on sirenian feeding strategies in temperate and tropical seagrass communities. In both the Indian River Lagoon and Puerto Rico, Manatees were typically observed grazing in water depths = 2.0 m and more frequently on the most abundant seagrasses present in the community: Halodule wrightii in the Indian River Lagoon and Thalassia testudinum in eastern Puerto Rico. Where both H. wrightii and Syringodium filiforme were consumed in the Indian River Lagoon, Manatees tended to remove more S. filiforme than H. wrightii rhizome + root biomass. Even though 80 to 95% of the short-shoot biomass and 50 to 67% of the rhizome + root biomass were removed, grazed patches of H. wrightii and S. filiforme recovered significantly between February and August. H. wrightii may be both more resistant and resilient than S. filiforme to the impacts of Manatee grazing. Despite the significantly greater abundance of T. testudinum in Puerto Rico, Manatees exhibited selective feeding by returning to specific sites with abundant H. wrightii. They also appeared to feed selectively on T. testudinum shoots associated with clumps of the calcareous alga Halimeda opuntia. We hypothesize that Florida Manatees are less specialized seagrass grazers than Manatees in tropical regions like Puerto Rico. Continued research on Manatee grazing ecology in temperate to tropical seagrass communities will enable better protection and management of these vital and unique marine resources.

  6. Occurrences of alunite, prophyllite, and clays in the Cerro La Tiza area, Puerto Rico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hildebrand, Fred Adelbert; Smith, Raymond J.

    1959-01-01

    A deposit of hydrothermally altered rocks in the Cerro La Tiza area located between the towns of Comerio and Aguas Buenas, approximately 25 kilometers southwest of San Juan, Puerto Rico, was mapped and studied to determine the principal minerals, their extent distribution and origin, and the possibility of their economic utilization, especially in Puerto Rico. The Cerro la Tiza area is about 7? kilometers long, has an average width of about 1? kilometers and embraces a total area of approximately 15 square kilometers. The principal mineralized zone, a dike-like mass of light-colored rocks surrounded by dark-colored volcanic country rocks, occupies the crest and upper slopes of east-trending Cerro La Tiza ridge and is believed to be of Late Cretaceous or Eocene age. This zone is approximately 5,300 meters long, 430 meters wide and has an area of approximately 225 hectares (556 acres). The rocks of the mineralized zone are of mixed character and consist mainly of massive quartzose rocks and banded quartz-alunite rocks closely associated with foliated pyrophyllitic, sericitic and clayey rocks. The principal minerals in probably order of abundance are quartz, alunite, pyrophyllite, kaolin group clays (kaolinite and halloysite) and sericite. Minerals of minor abundance are native sulfure, diaspore, svanbergite (?), sunyite (?), hematite, goethite, pyrite, rutile (?) and very small quantities of unidentified minerals. The mineralized zone has broken down to deposits of earth-rock debris of Quaternary age that cover much of the slopes and flanks of Cerro La Tiza. This debris consists generally of fragments and boulders with a very large size range embedded in a clayey matrix. The distribution of the earth-rock debris with respect to the present topography and drainage suggests that it may have undergone at least two cycles of erosion. Underlying the earth-rock debris and completely enclosing the mineralized zone are country rocks of probably Late Cretaceous age. These consist principally of low flows and volcanic and flow breccias but contain thin interbedded siltstones and sandstones. The lavas are generally predominant at the western end of the area and the breccias at the eastern end. The mineralized zone and the country rocks are sheared along two predominant directions that are approximately N 70 degrees E and N 70 degrees W. The ridge of Cerro La Tiza appears to be a broad shear zone through which hydrothermal emanations gained access to the country rocks. The emanations are believed to have originated from intrusive rocks that probably underlie the area. The surrounding area contains both large and small exposed intrusive bodies. The largest one is the San Lorenzo batholith of Late Cretaceous or Eocene age whose exposed northwest edge is approximately 19 kilometers southeast of the eastern end of the Cerro La Tiza area. Other zones of hydrothermally altered rocks were discovered along a mineralized belt extending eastward from Cerro La Tiza through the Rio Gurabo Valley nearly to the Vieques Passage bordering the east coast of Puerto Rico. Other zones were discovered north and south of this belt and still others were found circumventing the San Lorenzo batholith. The most abundant minerals of the mineralized zone can be exploited for economic utilization in Puerto Rico. Alunite can be utilized in the manufacture of aluminum sulfate for water purification. It can also be used in the manufacture of alumina refractory materials. Pyrophyllite can be used as a carrier for insecticides and fungicides. It can also be utilized for the manufacture of ceramic products, as a filler in the soap industry and as a carrier for paint pigments. Kaolinite can be used in the ceramic industry and in the manufacture of glass as a substitute for feldspar. Halloysite might be utilized as a catalyst support in the cracking of petroleum. Tonnages of reserve ore on Cerro La Tiza are calculated to be 1,590,000 inferred short tons (1,4

  7. Palivizumab compliance by infants in Puerto Rico during the 2009-2010 respiratory syncytial virus season.

    PubMed

    Matías, Israel; García-García, Inés; García-Fragoso, Lourdes; Valcárcel, Marta

    2014-12-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading viral pathogen responsible for bronchiolitis and pneumonia in infants. We assessed palivizumab prophylaxis compliance for infants in Puerto Rico. We retrospectively studied data from 868 infants (409 females, 459 males) during the 2009-2010 RSV season. The infants had a mean gestational age of 33 weeks (range 23-41) and a mean birth weight of 1,767 g (range 509-4,120). Only 74 % of the infants with indications received prophylaxis. The main reasons for noncompliance were non-approval by the medical insurance (53 %), parents' unavailability (31 %), and infant sickness (11 %). Infants with the government medical insurance were more likely to be denied prophylaxis and to receive fewer doses. Parents need to be educated on the importance of RSV prophylaxis. Physicians should be aware that many infants are not being dosed appropriately and that strategies need to be established to improve compliance. PMID:24756837

  8. Size distribution of trace metals in Ponce, Puerto Rico air particulate matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Infante, Rafael; Acosta, Iris L.

    The atmospheric particulate size distribution of nine heavy metals was measured in Ponce, a moderately industrial city in the south of Puerto Rico. Samples were collected in the city center and outlying suburban and rural locations during 1986. The size measurements were done with a cascade impactor. The elemental content of the size fractionated aerosol samples was determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. The particle size distributions observed for Cu, Cd, Pb, Mn and Fe were bimodal with a gradual progression from mainly coarse mode to mainly fine mode. Al, Ni and Zn were mostly associated with coarse particles and V size distribution was unimodal with maxima associated with fine particles. The particle size distribution did not vary significantly with the sites sampled in the urban area although some regional characteristics are observed. The data obtained strongly suggest motor vehicle traffic and fuel combustion as the principal pollution pources in Ponce aerosol.

  9. Feasibility Study of Solar Photovoltaics on Landfills in Puerto Rico (Second Study)

    SciTech Connect

    Salasovich, J.; Mosey, G.

    2011-08-01

    This report presents the results of an assessment of the technical and economic feasibility of deploying a solar photovoltaics (PV) system on landfill sites in Puerto Rico. The purpose of this report is to assess the landfills with the highest potential for possible solar PV installation and estimate cost, performance, and site impacts of three different PV options: crystalline silicon (fixed tilt), crystalline silicon (single-axis tracking), and thin film (fixed tilt). The report outlines financing options that could assist in the implementation of a system. According to the site production calculations, the most cost-effective system in terms of return on investment is the thin-film fixed-tilt technology. The report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of such a system. The landfills and sites considered in this report were all determined feasible areas in which to implement solar PV systems.

  10. Geohydrologic descriptions of selected solid waste disposal sites in Puerto Rico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Torres-Gonzalez, Arturo; Gómez-Gómez, Fernando

    1982-01-01

    Fifty solid-waste disposal sites in Puerto Rico were examined in 1977 and ranked according to their potential for degradation of the water resources. Twenty-five of the sites show significant leachate pollution potential. The cover material at 21 sites is relatively permeable and offers insignificant attenuation to leachates. Thirty-six sites are adjacent to streams and nine of these are located in headwater areas. Rainfall is abundant and at 40 of the sites exceeds 1,500 millimeters per years. General descriptions of the 50 disposal sites are given with their geohydrologic setting. Baseline data consisting of specific conductance, pH, temperature, dissolved oxygen, and common ions were obtained at many of the sites. Such information provides a technical basis for assessing future effects of those solid-waste disposal sites on the quality of water resources. (USGS)

  11. Parasites and commensals of the West Indian manatee from Puerto Rico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mignucci-Giannoni, A. A.; Beck, C.A.; Montoya-Ospina, R. A.; Williams, E.H., Jr.

    1999-01-01

    Metazoan parasites and commensals were collected from dead manatees salvaged in Puerto Rico. Thirty-five manatees were examined between 1980 and 1998. Parasites and commensals were identified in 20 (57%) manatees and included 3 species of helminths, 1 nematode (Heterocheilus tunicatus) and 2 digeneans (Chiorchis fabaceus and Cochleotrema cochleotrema). Two species of commensals were also associated with manatees: a barnacle (Chelonibia manati) and a fish (whitefin remora, Echeneis neucratoides). The 3 species of helminths found in manatees constitute the first records of these parasite-host relationships for the study area. The record of C. manati is the first for the Caribbean, and thus the species is not endemic to the Gulf of Mexico as previously described. The speculation that West Indian manatees closer to the center of their geographic distribution would have a greater diversity of parasites was found not true for these insular specimens but perhaps could be true for continental South American specimens.

  12. Dengue Fever Trends and Climate Change in San Juan, Puerto Rico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muller-Karger, F. E.; Mendez-Lazaro, P.; Otis, D. B.; McCarthy, M.; Pena-Orellana, M.

    2014-12-01

    Climate change has important implications for public health. We developed and tested the hypothesis that conditions for dengue fever transmission in San Juan (Puerto Rico, USA) are becoming favorable as a result of meteorological drivers being modified with climate change. Sea level pressure, mean sea level (MSL), wind, sea surface temperature (SST), air surface temperature (AST), rainfall, and confirmed dengue cases were variables examined over the past 30 years, or longer for some variables. Statistical tools used included Principal Component Analysis, Pearson correlation coefficient, Mann-Kendall trend tests, and logistic regressions. Results show that dry days are increasing and that wet days are decreasing. MSL is steadily increasing, which increases the risk of dengue cases along the coast, as the perimeter of the San Juan Bay estuary expands and the shoreline moves inland. Warming is evident in both SST and AST. Maximum and minimum air surface temperature extremes have also increased. Incidence of dengue is accelerating along with environmental change. For example, between 2000-2011, dengue transmission increased by a factor of 3.4 (95% CI: 1.9-6.1) for each 1ºC increase in SST. Between 2007 and 2011, this risk factor increased to 5.2 (95% CI: 1.9-13.9) for every 1ºC increase in SST. An important but difficult to examine problem is how social and economic factors affect such dengue fever transmission rates in light of environmental change. A concern is that the patterns observed in San Juan are representative of potential incidence of dengue virus in other parts of the island of Puerto Rico and in other Caribbean nations. These results help understand patterns of disease spreading, and allow public health officials to evaluate scenarios and interventions intended to mitigate the impacts of climate change.

  13. Slope failures and timing of turbidity flows north of Puerto Rico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ten Brink, Uri S.; Chaytor, Jason D.

    2014-01-01

    The submerged carbonate platform north of Puerto Rico terminates in a high (3,000–4,000 m) and in places steep (>45°) slope characterized by numerous landslide scarps including two 30–50 km-wide amphitheater-shaped features. The origin of the steep platform edge and the amphitheaters has been attributed to: (1) catastrophic failure, or (2) localized failures and progressive erosion. Determining which of the two mechanisms has shaped the platform edge is critically important in understanding landslide-generated tsunami hazards in the region. Multibeam bathymetry, seismic reflection profiles, and a suite sediment cores from the Puerto Rico Trench and the slope between the trench and the platform edge were used to test these two hypotheses. Deposits within trench axis and at the base of the slope are predominantly composed of sandy carbonate turbidites and pelagic sediment with inter-fingering of chaotic debris units. Regionally-correlated turbidites within the upper 10 m of the trench sediments were dated between ?25 and 22 kyrs and ?18–19 kyrs for the penultimate and most recent events, respectively. Deposits on the slope are laterally discontinuous and vary from thin layers of fragmented carbonate platform material to thick pelagic layers. Large debris blocks or lobes are absent within the near-surface deposits at the trench axis and the base of slope basins. Progressive small-scale scalloping and self-erosion of the carbonate platform and underlying stratigraphy appears to be the most likely mechanism for recent development of the amphitheaters. These smaller scale failures may lead to the generation of tsunamis with local, rather than regional, impact.

  14. Variations in Modeled Dengue Transmission over Puerto Rico Using a Climate Driven Dynamic Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morin, Cory; Monaghan, Andrew; Crosson, William; Quattrochi, Dale; Luvall, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    Dengue fever is a mosquito-borne viral disease reemerging throughout much of the tropical Americas. Dengue virus transmission is explicitly influenced by climate and the environment through its primary vector, Aedes aegypti. Temperature regulates Ae. aegypti development, survival, and replication rates as well as the incubation period of the virus within the mosquito. Precipitation provides water for many of the preferred breeding habitats of the mosquito, including buckets, old tires, and other places water can collect. Because of variations in topography, ocean influences and atmospheric processes, temperature and rainfall patterns vary across Puerto Rico and so do dengue virus transmission rates. Using NASA's TRMM (Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission) satellite for precipitation input, ground-based observations for temperature input, and laboratory confirmed dengue cases reported by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention for parameter calibration, we modeled dengue transmission at the county level across Puerto Rico from 2010-2013 using a dynamic dengue transmission model that includes interacting vector ecology and epidemiological components. Employing a Monte Carlo approach, we performed ensembles of several thousands of model simulations for each county in order to resolve the model uncertainty arising from using different combinations of parameter values that are not well known. The top 1% of model simulations that best reproduced the reported dengue case data were then analyzed to determine the most important parameters for dengue virus transmission in each county, as well as the relative influence of climate variability on transmission. These results can be used by public health workers to implement dengue control methods that are targeted for specific locations and climate conditions.

  15. Discovering The Universe From The Caribbean: Puerto Rico Prepares For The IYA2009.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebron Santos, Mayra E.; Pantoja, C. A.; Alonso, J. L.; Altschuler, D. R.; Olmi, L.

    2008-05-01

    A committee has been established at the University of Puerto Rico to organize the local IYA2009 activities in the island and coordinate the international global activities. We are coordinating efforts with the members of the PR-NASA Space Grant Consortium, local government agencies, and non-profit organizations interested in education. We plan to have events throughout the island taking care to facilitate the participation of families and youth from economically disadvantaged communities. We wish that all the activities in 2009 emphasize the value of personal effort in reaching your goals, the importance of mathematics in modern life and the development of scientific awareness. Aligned with the IYA2009 major goals and considering the particular needs of our community, we have selected 8 core activities for Puerto Rico. This poster describes how we will celebrate. The inauguration event will be at the UPR with an invited guest speaker. During the year we will have a conference cycle throughout the island. A prototype insert is presented that will serve as model for a collectible Astronomy series to be published each month in the newspaper. We are planning to commemorate the 40th anniversary of the first human on the Moon with an astronaut as a special guest. An Astronomy fair centered on the exhibit "From Earth to the Universe” is being organized. During the year we will have a theatrical performance "La Vida en Marte y Otras Crueles Realidades” by Roberto Ramos-Perea and a musical performance of Gustav Holst's "The Planets” with the presentation of astronomical videos by Dr. Salgado from Adler Planetarium. Star parties will be held at different strategic locations. A group of volunteer undergraduate students ("Starry Messengers") will assist in these activities. The details of these events may be found at http://www.astronomypr.org .

  16. Endangered and Threatened Animal Species and Subspecies of U.S., Puerto Rico, Virgin Islands, American Samoa, Guam, and Trust Territory. 1979 and 1980 Editions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Wildlife Federation, Washington, DC.

    Presented is a listing of threatened and endangered animal species and subspecies both by State and collectively for the United States, Puerto Rico, Virgin Islands, American Samoa, Guam, and Trust Territory. (BW)

  17. Religion and HIV/AIDS stigma: Implications for health professionals in Puerto Rico

    PubMed Central

    Varas-Díaz, N.; Neilands, T.B.; Malavé Rivera, S.; Betancourt, E.

    2009-01-01

    HIV/AIDS stigma continues to be a barrier for prevention efforts. Its detrimental effects have been documented among people living with HIV/AIDS and encompass loss of social support and depression. When it is manifested by health professionals, it can lead to suboptimal services. Although strides have been made to document the effects of HIV/AIDS stigma, much needs to be done in order to understand the structural factors that can foster it. Such is the case of religion’s role on HIV/AIDS stigma in Puerto Rico. The Caribbean Island has a Judeo-Christian based culture due to years of Spanish colonisation. This religious influence continued under Protestantism as part of the Island’s integration as a non-incorporated territory of the USA. The main objective of this study was to explore the role of religion in HIV/AIDS stigma manifested by Puerto Rican health professionals in practice and in training. Through a mixed method approach, 501 health professionals completed qualitative interviews (n=80) and self-administered questionnaires (n=421). Results show that religion plays some role in conceptualisations of health and illness among participants in the study. Furthermore, the importance placed on religion and participation in such activities was related to higher levels of HIV/AIDS stigma. PMID:20087809

  18. Evaluation of ultramafic deposits in the Eastern United States and Puerto Rico as sources of magnesium for carbon dioxide sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Fraser Goff; George Guthrie; Bruce Lipin; Melissa Fite; Steve Chipera; Dale Counce; Emily Kluk; Hans Ziock

    2000-04-01

    In this report, the authors evaluate the resource potential of extractable magnesium from ultramafic bodies located in Vermont, the Pennsylvania-Maryland-District-of-Columbia (PA-MD-DC) region, western North Carolina, and southwestern Puerto Rico. The first three regions occur in the Appalachian Mountains and contain the most attractive deposits in the eastern United States. They were formed during prograde metamorphism of serpentinized peridotite fragments originating from an ophiolite protolith. The ultramafic rocks consist of variably serpentinized dunite, harzburgite, and minor iherzolite generally containing antigorite and/or lizardite as the major serpentine minor phases. Chrysotile contents vary from minor to major, depending on occurrence. Most bodies contain an outer sheath of chlorite-talc-tremolite rock. Larger deposits in Vermont and most deposits in North Carolina contain a core of dunite. Magnesite and other carbonates are common accessories. In these deposits, MgO ranges from 36 to 48 wt % with relatively pure dunite having the highest MgO and lowest H{sub 2}O contents. Ultramafic deposits in southwestern Puerto Rico consist of serpentinized dunite and harzburgite thought to be emplaced as large diapirs or as fragments in tectonic melanges. They consist of nearly pure, low-grade serpentinite in which lizardite and chrysotile are the primary serpentine minerals. Chlorite is ubiquitous in trace amounts. Magnesite is a common accessory. Contents of MgO and H{sub 2}O are rather uniform at roughly 36 and 13 wt %. Dissolution experiments show that all serpentinites and dunite-rich rocks are soluble in 1:1 mixtures of 35% HCl and water by volume. The experiments suggest that low-grade serpentinites from Puerto Rico are slightly more reactive than the higher grade, antigorite-bearing serpentinites of the Appalachian Mountains. The experiments also show that the low-grade serpentinites and relatively pure dunites contain the least amounts of undesirable insoluble silicates. Individual ultramafic bodies in the Appalachian Mountains are as great as 7 km{sup 3} although typically they are {le}1 km{sup 3}. In contrast, ultramafic deposits in southwestern Puerto Rico have an estimated volume of roughly 150 km{sup 3}. Based on the few detailed geophysical studies in North Carolina and Puerto Rico, it is evident that volume estimates of any ultramafic deposit would benefit greatly from gravity and magnetic investigations, and from corehole drilling. Nevertheless, the data show that the ultramafic deposits of the eastern United States and southwestern Puerto Rico could potentially sequester many years of annual CO{sub 2} emissions if favorable geotechnical, engineering, and environmental conditions prevail.

  19. The Puerto Rico Seismic Network Broadcast System: A user friendly GUI to broadcast earthquake messages, to generate shakemaps and to update catalogues

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Velez; V. Huerfano; C. von Hillebrandt

    2007-01-01

    The Puerto Rico Seismic Network (PRSN) has historically provided locations and magnitudes for earthquakes in the Puerto Rico and Virgin Islands (PRVI) region. PRSN is the reporting authority for the region bounded by latitudes 17.0N to 20.0N, and longitudes 63.5W to 69.0W. The main objective of the PRSN is to record, process, analyze, provide information and research local, regional and

  20. A rare cause of altered mental status and fever in a young military recruit in Puerto Rico.

    PubMed

    Boodosingh, Dev Richard; Robles-Arias, Carlos; Alemán-Ortiz, Jesse R; Rodríguez-Cintrón, William

    2014-12-01

    Heat stroke (HS) is a medical emergency characterized by increased core body temperature with associated systemic inflammatory response leading to a syndrome of multi-organ damage in which encephalopathy predominates. We describe a case of a 29 year old male recruit presenting with altered mental status during military training in Puerto Rico. Associated symptoms included high grade fever, dizziness, nausea, vomiting, blurred vision and profuse sweating followed by loss of consciousness. Upon arrival to medical evaluation the patient was found with dry skin and depressed Glasgow Coma Score. Initial laboratories, clinical evolution of symptoms and imaging studies were consistent with the diagnosis of HS. Patient was managed with mechanical ventilatory support, intravenous fluids and external cooling measures. He was later discharged home without any neurological sequelae. To our knowledge this is the first documented case of HS in Puerto Rico. PMID:25563039

  1. Shade-grown coffee in Puerto Rico: Opportunities to preserve biodiversity while reinvigorating a struggling agricultural commodity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Borkhataria, R.; Collazo, J.A.; Groom, M.J.; Jordan-Garcia, A.

    2012-01-01

    Shade-grown coffee contributes to biodiversity conservation and has many ecological benefits. We reviewed historical trends in coffee production and interviewed 100 coffee growers in 1999 to determine current management practices and attitudes toward the cultivation of sun and shade coffee in Puerto Rico. We discuss the outlook for the coffee industry in the 21st century and implications for biodiversity conservation, hoping lessons from Puerto Rico will apply to the international coffee industry. Throughout the 20th century, government intervention, including subsidies and technical assistance, supported coffee farming in Puerto Rico. In an effort to modernize coffee production and increase yields, the conversion from shade to sun coffee plantations was encouraged. Despite government support, the amount of land devoted to this once dominant agricultural commodity declined markedly between 1982 and 2007 (84%), due to labor shortages, low income, and catastrophic hurricanes. We found that a return to shaded plantations would be embraced by most farmers. Growers of shaded coffee were generally happier with their cultivation practices (89.3% satisfied) than growers of sun coffee (60.9% satisfied), valued biodiversity, and were willing to cultivate coffee under shade if given similar incentives to those received for farming sun coffee. The future of the coffee industry in Puerto Rico may depend on government programs that capitalize upon emerging markets for sustainably produced, shade-grown coffee. We conclude that where governments have close ties to the coffee industry, they should strive to wed economic development with the conservation of biodiversity and associated ecological services by providing support and incentives for the production of shade coffee. ?? 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  2. Nurturing the Citizens of the Future: Milk Stations and Child Nutrition in Puerto Rico, 1929–60

    PubMed Central

    González, Elisa M.

    2015-01-01

    Between the 1930s and 1960s Puerto Rico was transformed from a marginal United States territory into an industrialised ‘showcase of development’. This article investigates the organisation of milk station programmes on the island during this crucial period and how these reflected the circulation of child welfare knowledge, nutrition expertise and public health practices. During the Depression, these perspectives fostered a recast of the eugenic regeneration ideologies motivating medical assessments of and sanitary interventions with Puerto Rico’s rural poor since the nineteenth century. Innovations in nutrition knowledge and an emerging rural hygiene movement highlighted the negative health effects of the island’s monocrops economy. In this context, the nourishment of children’s bodies assumed symbolic and instrumental significance for the reconfiguration of colonial and developmental models promoted by the new Popular Democratic Party (PPD). The experience of public health professionals in relief work during the 1930s contributed to the articulation of food and nutrition as key elements of this party’s populist discourse. Programmes like milk stations became part of strategies to rear and manage the labour force needed in the industrial development model promoted by the PPD. From the perspective of poor Puerto Ricans, however, they were part of the materialisation of its promise of social justice for the poorer classes. PMID:25766539

  3. Effects of type of health insurance coverage on colorectal cancer survival in Puerto Rico: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Ortiz-Ortiz, Karen J; Ramírez-García, Roberto; Cruz-Correa, Marcia; Ríos-González, Moraima Y; Ortiz, Ana Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Colorectal cancer represents a major health problem and an important economic burden in Puerto Rico. In the 1990's, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico implemented a health care reform through the privatization of the public health system. The goal was to ensure access to health services, eliminate disparities for medically indigent citizens and provide special coverage for high-risk conditions such as cancer. This study estimates the 5-year relative survival rate of colorectal cancer and the relative excess risk of death in Puerto Rico for 2004-2005, by type of health insurance coverage; Government Health Plan vs. Non-Government Health Plan. Colorectal cancer in advanced stages was more common in Government Health Plan patients compared with Non-Government Health Plan patients (44.29% vs. 40.24 had regional extent and 13.58% versus 10.42% had distant involvement, respectively). Government Health Plan patients in the 50-64 (RR?=?6.59; CI: 2.85-15.24) and ?65 (RR?=?2.4; CI: 1.72-4.04) age-groups had the greater excess risk of death compared with Non-Government Health Plan patients. Further studies evaluating the interplay of access to health services and the barriers affecting the Government Health Plan population are warranted. PMID:24796444

  4. Analysis of 20th century rainfall and streamflow to characterize drought and water resources in Puerto Rico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larsen, M.C.

    2000-01-01

    During the period from 1990 to 1997, annual rainfall accumulation averaged 87% of normal at the 12 stations with the longest period of record in Puerto Rico, a Caribbean island with a 1999 population of 3.8 million. Streamflow in rivers supplying the La Plata and Loi??za reservoirs, the principal water supply of the San Juan metropolitan area, was at or below the 10th flow percentile for 27% to 50% of the time between December 1993 and May 1996. Diminished reservoir levels in 1994 and 1995 affected more than 1 million people in the San Juan metropolitan area. Water rationing was implemented during this period and significant agricultural losses, valued at $165 million, were recorded in 1994. The public endured a year of mandatory water rationing in which sections of the city had their water-distribution networks shut off for 24 to 36 hours on alternate days. During the winter and spring of 1997-1998, water was rationed to more than 200,000 people in northwestern Puerto Rico because water level in the Guajataca reservoir was well below normal for two years because of rainfall deficits. The drought period of 1993-1996 was comparable in magnitude to a drought in 1966-1968, but water rationing was more severe during the 1993-1996 period, indicating that water management issues such as demand, storage capacity, water production and losses, and per capita consumption are increasingly important as population and development in Puerto Rico expand.

  5. The prevalence, correlates and impact of anaemia among older people in Cuba, Dominican Republic, Mexico, Puerto Rico and Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Bryce, Renata M; Salas, Aquiles; Acosta, Daisy; Jimenez-Velazquez, Ivonne Z; Llibre-Rodriguez, Juan J; Sosa, Ana Luisa; Teruel, Beatriz Marcheco; Valhuerdi, Adolfo; Ferri, Cleusa P; McKeigue, Paul; Prince, Martin J

    2013-02-01

    Anaemia among older people is increasingly recognized as a matter of public health concern. Data from low- and middle-income countries are sparse. We surveyed 10915 people aged 65 years and over (8423 with blood tests) in catchment areas in Cuba, Dominican Republic, Puerto Rico, Venezuela and Mexico, to assess prevalence and correlates of anaemia and impact on disability. Prevalence varied widely between sites, from 6·4% in rural Mexico to 9·2% in urban Mexico, 9·8% in Venezuela, 19·2% in Cuba, 32·1% in Puerto Rico and 37·3% in Dominican Republic. Prevalence was higher in men and increased with age, but sociodemographic composition did not account for prevalence differences between sites. Standardized morbidity ratios indicated a much higher prevalence in Cuba (173), Puerto Rico (280) and Dominican Republic (332) compared with USA National Health and National Examination Surveys. Anaemia was associated with undernutrition, physical impairments, and serum creatinine. There was an association with greater African admixture in Dominican Republic but not in Cuba. African admixture is therefore unlikely to fully explain the high prevalence in the Caribbean islands, which may also arise from environmental, possibly dietary factors. Given an important independent contribution of anaemia to disability, more research is needed to identify preventable and treatable causes. PMID:23228064

  6. The floods of May 17-18, 1985 and October 6-7, 1985 in Puerto Rico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Quinones, Ferdinand; Johnson, K.G.

    1987-01-01

    Severe floods occurred in Puerto Rico twice in 1985. During May 15-19, 1985, as much as 25 in. of rainfall produced significant floods along north and north-central basins in the island. A nearly stationary tropical depression affected Puerto Rico during October 5-8, 1985, resulting in 24-hr precipitation totals of as much as 23 in. and severe floods along the south-central coastal areas. During the May 17-18, 1985 event, the areas most seriously affected by flooding were along the north coast. These included the lower reaches of the Rio Grande de Manati and the Rio Grande de Arecibo. Significant flooding also occurred at Utuado and Jayuya. The recurrence interval of most of the flood peaks was generally < 25 yr. The floods of October 6-7, 1985, affected mostly rural areas in southern Puerto Rico, but caused significant loss of life and widespread property damages. Landslides near Ponce, the collapse of a bridge at Rio Coamo, and the destruction of homes near Ponce resulted in about 170 fatalities and > 125 million dollars in damages. Flooding was also severe at Barceloneta on the north coast. Recurrence intervals = or > 100 yr were estimated for peak discharges at several index stations. (Author 's abstract)

  7. The Puerto Rico-New York airbridge for drug users: description and relationship to HIV risk behaviors.

    PubMed

    Deren, Sherry; Kang, Sung-Yeon; Colón, Hector M; Robles, Rafaela R

    2007-03-01

    This study examined mobility on the airbridge between New York (NY) and Puerto Rico (PR) for Puerto Rican drug users and its relationship to HIV risk. Over 1,200 Puerto Rican injection drug users (IDUs) and crack smokers were recruited by outreach workers in NY and PR; interview data included questions on mobility (lifetime residences and recent trips). Two-thirds of the NY sample had lived in PR; one-quarter of the PR sample had lived in NY; the most commonly sited reasons for moving were family-related. Fewer than 10% had visited the other location in the prior 3 years. Variables related to risk were number of moves, recent travel, and having used drugs in PR (all with p < 0.05). Implications included the need to enhance risk reduction efforts for IDUs in PR and address sexual risk among mobile drug users. PMID:17216570

  8. Observations of Sprites above Haiti/Dominican Republic Thunderstorms from Arecibo Observatory, Puerto Rico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasko, V. P.; Stanley, M.; Mathews, J. D.; Inan, U. S.; Wood, T. G.; Cummer, S. A.; Williams, E. R.; Heavner, M. J.

    2002-12-01

    In August-September 2001 an experimental campaign has been conducted in Puerto Rico to perform correlative studies of lightning and lightning-induced ionospheric effects. The campaign, which was sponsored by a Small Grant for Exploratory Research from the National Science Foundation to Penn State University, had a broad range of scientific goals including studies ionospheric effects of thunderstorms, studies of VHF-quiet positive leaders and studies of large scale optical phenomena above ocean thunderstorms in tropics. As part of this program we conducted night time video recordings of lightning and large scale luminous phenomena above thunderstorms using a SONY DCR TRV 730 CCD video camera equipped with a blue extended ITT Night Vision GEN III NQ 6010 intensifier with 40 deg field of view. The intensifier provided a monochrome (predominantly green) image output. The video system was deployed at the Lidar Laboratory on the grounds of Arecibo Observatory, Puerto Rico (18.247 deg N, 66.754 deg W, elevation 305 m above the sea level). In this talk we report results of observations conducted between 01 and 03 UT on September 3, 2001. A total of 7 sprite events have been detected above a large thunderstorm system (cloud area exceeding 104 km2) located approximately 500 km from the observational site above Haiti/Dominican Republic. The observed events exhibited typical sprite features documented in other parts of the globe, including single columns, groups of columns, relatively small horizontal glows confined to higher altitudes, as well as two large and impulsive events with the transverse extent ~eq50 km. In this talk we will also report results of preliminary analysis of available ELF electromagnetic signatures associated with the observed events recorded by Stanford University at Palmer Station, Antarctica, Duke University, MIT and Los Alamos Sferic Array in Florida. Acknowledgments: The GEN III intensifier has been provided by ITT Night Vision Industries. We are grateful to M. Robinson of ITT Industries for support of our program. We thank W. Lyons for useful discussions. We are indebted to S. Gonzalez, Q. Zhou, M. Sulzer, C. Tepley, J. Friedman, E. Robles, A. Venkataraman and E. Castro for support of our observations at Arecibo Observatory.

  9. Response of Ocean Circulation to Different Wind Forcing in Puerto Rico and US Virgin Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solano, Miguel; Garcia, Edgardo; Leonardi, Stafano; Canals, Miguel; Capella, Jorge

    2013-11-01

    The response of the ocean circulation to various wind forcing products has been studied using the Regional Ocean Modeling System. The computational domain includes the main islands of Puerto Rico, Saint John and Saint Thomas, located on the continental shelf dividing the Caribbean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean. Data for wind forcing is provided by an anemometer located in a moored buoy, the Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Mesoscale Prediction System (COAMPS) model and the National Digital Forecast Database (NDFD). Hindcast simulations have been validated using hydrographic data at different locations in the area of study. Three cases are compared to quantify the impact of high resolution wind forcing on the ocean circulation and the vertical structure of salinity, temperature and velocity. In the first case a constant wind velocity field is used to force the model as measured by an anemometer on top of a buoy. In the second case, a forcing field provided by the Navy's COAMPS model is used and in the third case, winds are taken from NDFD in collaboration with the National Centers for Environmental Prediction. Validated results of ocean currents against data from Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers at different locations show better agreement using high resolution wind data as expected. The response of the ocean circulation to various wind forcing products has been studied using the Regional Ocean Modeling System. The computational domain includes the main islands of Puerto Rico, Saint John and Saint Thomas, located on the continental shelf dividing the Caribbean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean. Data for wind forcing is provided by an anemometer located in a moored buoy, the Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Mesoscale Prediction System (COAMPS) model and the National Digital Forecast Database (NDFD). Hindcast simulations have been validated using hydrographic data at different locations in the area of study. Three cases are compared to quantify the impact of high resolution wind forcing on the ocean circulation and the vertical structure of salinity, temperature and velocity. In the first case a constant wind velocity field is used to force the model as measured by an anemometer on top of a buoy. In the second case, a forcing field provided by the Navy's COAMPS model is used and in the third case, winds are taken from NDFD in collaboration with the National Centers for Environmental Prediction. Validated results of ocean currents against data from Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers at different locations show better agreement using high resolution wind data as expected. Thanks to CariCOOS and NOAA.

  10. Sarcodon in the Neotropics I: new species from Guyana, Puerto Rico and Belize.

    PubMed

    Grupe, Arthur C; Baker, Anthony D; Uehling, Jessie K; Smith, Matthew E; Baroni, Timothy J; Lodge, D Jean; Henkel, Terry W

    2015-01-01

    Four species of the ectomycorrhizal (ECM) genus Sarcodon (Bankeraceae, Thelephorales, Basidiomycota) are described as new to science. Sarcodon pakaraimensis sp. nov. is described from forests dominated by the ECM trees Pakaraimaea dipterocarpacea (Dipterocarpaceae) and Dicymbe jenmanii (Fabaceae subfam. Caesalpinioideae) in the Pakaraima Mountains of Guyana. Sarcodon portoricensis sp. nov. is described from lower montane wet forest within the El Yunque National Forest of Puerto Rico. Sarcodon quercophilus sp. nov. and Sarcodon umbilicatus sp. nov. are described from Quercus (Fagaceae) cloud forests within the Maya Mountains of Belize. The discovery of these species is significant given that the majority of the approximately 87 described Sarcodon species are north temperate or boreal in distribution and frequently associate with coniferous host plants; these constitute the most recent records for Sarcodon from the greater Neotropics. Each of the new species is morphologically consistent with accepted diagnostic characters for Sarcodon: pileate-stipitate stature, a dentate hymenophore, determinate basidiomatal development, fleshy, non-zonate context and brown, tuberculate basidiospores. DNA (ITS) sequence analysis corroborated the generic placement of S. pakaraimensis, S. portoricensis, S. quercophilus and S. umbilicatus and, along with morphological differences, supported their recognition as distinct species. Macromorphological, micromorphological, habitat and DNA sequence data from the nuc rDNA internal transcribed spacer region (ITS) are provided for each of the new species. A key to Neotropical Sarcodon species and similar extralimital taxa is provided. PMID:25661714

  11. A well system to recover usable water from a freshwater-saltwater aquifer in Puerto Rico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zack, Allen L.

    1988-01-01

    Aquifers in coastal areas of Puerto Rico commonly contain limited quantities of freshwater that occur as a thin layer at the surface of the water table. Many wells have been abandoned because well screens were inadvertently placed in saltwater parts of the aquifer. A scavenger/production well couple that can be installed in an abandoned well, screened in both freshwater and saltwater parts of the aquifer, provides an effective method for extracting freshwater from the well. Withdrawal of a sufficient quantity of water having low chloride concentrations, by use of a well couple, depends on the upward movement of saltwater within the aquifer when the well is pumped. Upward movement of saltwater depends on the relative concentrations of chloride in the borehole and on the distribution of horizontal and vertical hydraulic conductivity of the aquifer. For any well screened in an aquifer that contains both freshwater and saltwater, a family of curves can be constructed to represent all combinations of pumping rates and corresponding chloride loads when the scavenger well and the production well are being pumped simultaneously. The curves permit estimates of optimal withdrawals of freshwater based on the desired pumping rates and the levels of chloride concentration required for each well.

  12. Meloidogyne mayaguensis n. sp. (Meloidogynidae), a Root-knot Nematode from Puerto Rico

    PubMed Central

    Rammah, Abdallah; Hirschmann, Hedwig

    1988-01-01

    Meloidogyne mayaguensis n. sp. is described and illustrated from specimens obtained from galled roots of eggplant, Solanum melongena L., from Puerto Rico. The perineal pattern of females is round to ovoid with fine, widely spaced striae. It has occasional breaks of striation laterally and a circular tail tip area lacking striae. The stylet, 15.8 ?m long, has reniform knobs that merge gradually with the stylet shaft. Males have a high, rectangular, smooth head region, not set off from the body contour. The labial disc is continuous with the medial lips which do not slope posteriorly. The styler, 22.9 ?m long, has large rounded backward sloping knobs; the shaft is of uneven diameter. Mean body length of second-stage juveniles is 453.6 ?m. The truncate head region is not annulated, and the rounded, slightly raised labial disc and the crescentic medial lips form dumbbell-shaped lip structures. The stylet, 11.6 ?m long, has rounded, posteriorly sloping knobs. The slender tail, 54.4 ?m long, gradually tapers to a bluntly pointed tip. Tomato, tobacco, pepper, and watermelon are good hosts; cotton and peanut are not hosts. M. mayaguensis n. sp. reproduces by mitotic parthenogenesis and has a somatic chromosome number of 2n = 44-45. The enzyme patterns are unique among Meloidogyne species. PMID:19290185

  13. Estimation of undiscovered deposits in quantitative mineral resource assessments-examples from Venezuela and Puerto Rico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cox, D.P.

    1993-01-01

    Quantitative mineral resource assessments used by the United States Geological Survey are based on deposit models. These assessments consist of three parts: (1) selecting appropriate deposit models and delineating on maps areas permissive for each type of deposit; (2) constructing a grade-tonnage model for each deposit model; and (3) estimating the number of undiscovered deposits of each type. In this article, I focus on the estimation of undiscovered deposits using two methods: the deposit density method and the target counting method. In the deposit density method, estimates are made by analogy with well-explored areas that are geologically similar to the study area and that contain a known density of deposits per unit area. The deposit density method is useful for regions where there is little or no data. This method was used to estimate undiscovered low-sulfide gold-quartz vein deposits in Venezuela. Estimates can also be made by counting targets such as mineral occurrences, geophysical or geochemical anomalies, or exploration "plays" and by assigning to each target a probability that it represents an undiscovered deposit that is a member of the grade-tonnage distribution. This method is useful in areas where detailed geological, geophysical, geochemical, and mineral occurrence data exist. Using this method, porphyry copper-gold deposits were estimated in Puerto Rico. ?? 1993 Oxford University Press.

  14. Data Resolution Effects on Landslides Hazard and Susceptibility Assessment of Puerto Rico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lepore, C.; Kamal, S.; Bono, E.; Noto, L. V.; Shanahan, P.; Bras, R. L.

    2008-12-01

    Landslides are a major geologic hazard. Typical triggering causes are rainfall, earthquakes, volcanoes and human activity. Rainfall-induced landslides are the most common type in Puerto Rico with 1 or 2 large events per year. Landslide susceptibility and hazard assessment methods are common in the literature. Generally they require a good knowledge of the territory and its characteristics for ad-hoc sub-regional or local modeling of the involved quantities, but when carried out at global scale assumptions and simplifications are necessary. In this work we present the results of 2 methods: the Bivariate and Logistic Regression, for the definition of the Susceptibility Index over the island. We focus on the role of resolution and data quality and how these factors affect the final assessment of landslide susceptibility. DEM resolution determines (1) the level of detail of the analyzed surface and of the final map and (2) the accuracy and reliability of DEM-derived quantities (slope angle and aspect). Precipitation is also included in the hazard assessment. We use satellite precipitation (TRMM products) as well as ground radar and raingages. The questions of necessary spatial and temporal resolution and necessary downscaling techniques are addressed.

  15. Sediment Monitoring at Vieques National Wildlife Refuge in Puerto Rico: Assessing the Current Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ithier-Guzmán, W.; Mayo, M.; Pyrtle, A. J.

    2007-05-01

    Environmental monitoring and assessment of the current conditions of the sediment quality at the municipality of Vieques, Puerto Rico has been conducted during the past three years. Vieques underwent military practices since the creation of the US NAVY Atlantic Fleet Weapons Training Facility, resulting in the release of several contaminants, including heavy metals and depleted uranium. US Navy activities began during the 1960's and cease in 2001. Former US Navy lands were transferred to the US Fish and Wildlife Service creating the Vieques National Wildlife Refuge in 2003. This ongoing project focuses on the characterization of the sediment properties of the region. Surface and downcore sediment analysis has been conducted indicating the presence of Cs-137 in the sediments of the island of Vieques. Activity ranges from below detection limits to 0.01 Bq/g. Currently, ICP-OES analysis is being conducted to determine profiles and the likelihood of oxic, suboxic or anoxic conditions. Cs-137 retention is strongly influenced by particle grain size and clay mineralogy. X-ray diffraction analysis is being conducted to investigate adsorption and retention capacities of local sediment particles. Research findings will help guide future management practices and determine if this area serves as a sink for anthropogenic contaminants that could negatively impact the environmental quality.

  16. Severity of alcohol use and problem behaviors among school-based youths in Puerto Rico

    PubMed Central

    Latimer, William W.; Rojas, Vanessa Cecilia; Mancha, Brent Edward

    2009-01-01

    Objectives The present study sought to: (a) categorize youths into groups based on their level of alcohol use and number of symptoms of alcohol abuse and dependence defined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV), and (b) examine whether these categories were associated with other problem behaviors in which youths engage (marijuana use, sexual intercourse, and having been arrested or having trouble with the law). Methods The study is based on a cross-sectional survey administered to 972 school-based youths from one middle school and one high school in San Juan, Puerto Rico. Youths were categorized based on their alcohol use and alcohol problems. These categories were then examined for associations with lifetime marijuana use, lifetime sexual intercourse, and having been arrested or having had trouble with the law in the past year. The original eight categories of alcohol use were collapsed into six categories based on the results. Results For virtually every group characterized by higher severity of alcohol use and alcohol problems, researchers found an increasing prevalence of marijuana use in their lifetimes, increasing odds of sexual intercourse in their lifetimes, and having had trouble with the law in the past year. Conclusions Knowing about variations in alcohol use and alcohol problems may be instrumental in measuring the degree to which youths may also be engaging in a range of other elevated risk behaviors and a progression to more serious forms of alcohol and drug use. PMID:18510792

  17. Meloidogyne mayaguensis n. sp. (Meloidogynidae), a Root-knot Nematode from Puerto Rico.

    PubMed

    Rammah, A; Hirschmann, H

    1988-01-01

    Meloidogyne mayaguensis n. sp. is described and illustrated from specimens obtained from galled roots of eggplant, Solanum melongena L., from Puerto Rico. The perineal pattern of females is round to ovoid with fine, widely spaced striae. It has occasional breaks of striation laterally and a circular tail tip area lacking striae. The stylet, 15.8 mum long, has reniform knobs that merge gradually with the stylet shaft. Males have a high, rectangular, smooth head region, not set off from the body contour. The labial disc is continuous with the medial lips which do not slope posteriorly. The styler, 22.9 mum long, has large rounded backward sloping knobs; the shaft is of uneven diameter. Mean body length of second-stage juveniles is 453.6 mum. The truncate head region is not annulated, and the rounded, slightly raised labial disc and the crescentic medial lips form dumbbell-shaped lip structures. The stylet, 11.6 mum long, has rounded, posteriorly sloping knobs. The slender tail, 54.4 mum long, gradually tapers to a bluntly pointed tip. Tomato, tobacco, pepper, and watermelon are good hosts; cotton and peanut are not hosts. M. mayaguensis n. sp. reproduces by mitotic parthenogenesis and has a somatic chromosome number of 2n = 44-45. The enzyme patterns are unique among Meloidogyne species. PMID:19290185

  18. An electromagnetic geophysical survey of the freshwater lens of Isla de Mona, Puerto Rico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Richards, R.T.; Troester, J.W.; Martinez, M.I.

    1998-01-01

    An electromagnetic reconnaissance of the freshwater lens of Isla de Mona, Puerto Rico was conducted with both terrain conductivity (TC) and transient electromagnetic (TEM) surface geophysical techniques. These geophysical surveys were limited to the southern and western parts of the island because of problems with access and cultural metallic objects such as reinforced concrete roadways on the eastern part of the island. The geophysical data were supplemented with the location of a freshwater spring found by scuba divers at a depth of about 20 m below sea level along the northern coast of the island. The geophysical data suggest that the freshwater lens has a maximum thickness of 20 m in the southern half of the island. The freshwater lens is not thickest at the center of the island but nearer the southwestern edge in Quaternary deposits and the eastern edge of the island in the Tertiary carbonates. This finding indicates that the groundwater flow paths on Isla de Mona are not radially summetrical from the center of the island to the ocean. The asymmetry of the freshwater lens indicates that the differences in hydraulic conductivity are a major factor in determining the shape of the freshwater lens. The porosity of the aquifer, as determined by the geophysical data is about 33%.

  19. Leptospirosis among patients presenting with dengue-like illness in Puerto Rico.

    PubMed

    Bruce, Michael G; Sanders, E J; Leake, J A D; Zaidel, O; Bragg, S L; Aye, T; Shutt, K A; Deseda, C C; Rigau-Perez, J G; Tappero, J W; Perkins, B A; Spiegel, R A; Ashford, D A

    2005-10-01

    Leptospirosis is difficult to distinguish from dengue fever without laboratory confirmation. Sporadic cases/clusters of leptospirosis occur in Puerto Rico, but surveillance is passive and laboratory confirmation is rare. We tested for leptospirosis using an IgM ELISA on sera testing negative for dengue virus IgM antibody and conducted a case-control study assessing risk factors for leptospirosis, comparing clinical/laboratory findings between leptospirosis (case-patients) and dengue patients (controls). Among 730 dengue-negative sera, 36 (5%) were positive for leptospirosis. We performed post mortem testing for leptospirosis on 12 available specimens from suspected dengue-related fatalities; 10 (83%) tested positive. Among these 10 fatal cases, pulmonary hemorrhage and renal failure were the most common causes of death. We enrolled 42 case-patients and 84 controls. Jaundice, elevated BUN, hyperbilirubinemia, anemia, and leukocytosis were associated with leptospirosis (p < .01 for all). Male sex, walking in puddles, rural habitation, and owning horses were independently associated with leptospirosis. Epidemiological, clinical, and laboratory criteria may help distinguish leptospirosis from dengue and identify patients who would benefit from early antibiotic treatment. PMID:16083836

  20. Late Jurassic to Eocene geochemical evolution of volcanic rocks in Puerto Rico

    SciTech Connect

    Schellekens, J.H. (Univ. of Puerto Rico, Mayaguez (Puerto Rico))

    1991-03-01

    The Late Jurassic to Eocene deformed volcanic, volcaniclastic and sedimentary rocks of Puerto Rico are divided into three igneous provinces, the southwestern, central, and northeastern igneous province. Based on the stratigraphic position approximate ages could be assigned to the flow rocks in these provinces. Ba/Nb and La/Sm diagrams are presented to illustrate the origin and evolution of the flow rocks. The oldest rock in the southwestern province may include MORB. Early Cretaceous volcanic rocks in the central and northeastern province have low Ba/nb and La/Sm, that are interpreted as an early island arc stage, with none or only minor contribution of slab-derived material. The Late Cretaceous to Eocene volcanic rocks have a wide range of values for the Ba/Nb and La/Sm that are interpreted as the result of admixture of a variable amount of slab-derived material. The Maricao Basalt (Maastrichtian to Eocene) in the southeastern igneous province has the geochemical signature of magmas formed in an extensional setting.

  1. Size distribution measurements of suspended particulate matter in Ponce, Puerto Rico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Infante, Rafael; Carrasquillo, Arnaldo; Pérez, Vidal

    Size distribution measurements using a high volume sampler with a cascade impactor have been obtained for the city of Ponce, Puerto Rico from 1985 to 1987. The data indicate that the concentration of particles < 2 ?m in diameter remained constant during the sampling period while the concentration of particles > 7 ?m showed time variations. Aerosol from this area is greatly composed of particles > 7 ?m in diameter, they accounted for over 45% of the Total Suspended Particulate (TSP) of this area. Over 75% of the aerosol concentration is from particles > 3.3 ?m, approximately only 20% of the aerosol concentration is from particles < 2 ?m in diameter. A linear relationship was observed between the different particle size and the TSP, except for those particles < 1.1 ?m in size. The size distribution and its time variation are explained in terms of local sources such as agriculatural burning, natural contributions and industrial activities, as well as contribution from the Sahara haze that crosses the Atlantic from Africa and reaches the Caribbean region during the summer.

  2. Local and global effects of climate on dengue transmission in Puerto Rico.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Michael A; Dominici, Francesca; Glass, Gregory E

    2009-01-01

    The four dengue viruses, the agents of dengue fever and dengue hemorrhagic fever in humans, are transmitted predominantly by the mosquito Aedes aegypti. The abundance and the transmission potential of Ae. aegypti are influenced by temperature and precipitation. While there is strong biological evidence for these effects, empirical studies of the relationship between climate and dengue incidence in human populations are potentially confounded by seasonal covariation and spatial heterogeneity. Using 20 years of data and a statistical approach to control for seasonality, we show a positive and statistically significant association between monthly changes in temperature and precipitation and monthly changes in dengue transmission in Puerto Rico. We also found that the strength of this association varies spatially, that this variation is associated with differences in local climate, and that this relationship is consistent with laboratory studies of the impacts of these factors on vector survival and viral replication. These results suggest the importance of temperature and precipitation in the transmission of dengue viruses and suggest a reason for their spatial heterogeneity. Thus, while dengue transmission may have a general system, its manifestation on a local scale may differ from global expectations. PMID:19221592

  3. Disclosure model for pediatric patients living with HIV in Puerto Rico: design, implementation, and evaluation.

    PubMed

    Blasini, Ileana; Chantry, Caroline; Cruz, Catherine; Ortiz, Laura; Salabarría, Iraida; Scalley, Nydia; Matos, Beatriz; Febo, Irma; Díaz, Clemente

    2004-06-01

    The American Academy of Pediatrics strongly encourages the disclosure of HIV status to school-age children and further recommends that adolescents know their HIV status. Limited information exists on the impact of disclosure. We designed and implemented a disclosure model hypothesized to be associated with healthy psychological adjustment and improved medication adherence. We report the model's design and implementation and results of a quasi-experimental study of the disclosure's effects on health care professionals (n = 16), caregivers (n = 39), and HIV-infected youth (n = 40) in Puerto Rico. Information was collected from youth, caregivers, and professionals by semistructured interviews and questionnaires. Most youth (70%) had feelings of normalcy 6 months post-disclosure, and most also improved their adherence to therapy after disclosure as reported by both patients (58%) and caregivers (59%). Eighty-five percent of youth and 97% of caregivers considered disclosure a positive event for themselves and their families. Fewer health care professionals reported feelings of fear, discomfort, and insecurity after protocol participation. PMID:15194903

  4. Assessing climate variability effects on dengue incidence in San Juan, Puerto Rico.

    PubMed

    Méndez-Lázaro, Pablo; Muller-Karger, Frank E; Otis, Daniel; McCarthy, Matthew J; Peña-Orellana, Marisol

    2014-09-01

    We test the hypothesis that climate and environmental conditions are becoming favorable for dengue transmission in San Juan, Puerto Rico. Sea Level Pressure (SLP), Mean Sea Level (MSL), Wind, Sea Surface Temperature (SST), Air Surface Temperature (AST), Rainfall, and confirmed dengue cases were analyzed. We evaluated the dengue incidence and environmental data with Principal Component Analysis, Pearson correlation coefficient, Mann-Kendall trend test and logistic regressions. Results indicated that dry days are increasing and wet days are decreasing. MSL is increasing, posing higher risk of dengue as the perimeter of the San Juan Bay estuary expands and shorelines move inland. Warming is evident with both SST and AST. Maximum and minimum air surface temperature extremes have increased. Between 1992 and 2011, dengue transmission increased by a factor of 3.4 (95% CI: 1.9-6.1) for each 1 °C increase in SST. For the period 2007-2011 alone, dengue incidence reached a factor of 5.2 (95% CI: 1.9-13.9) for each 1 °C increase in SST. Teenagers are consistently the age group that suffers the most infections in San Juan. Results help understand possible impacts of different climate change scenarios in planning for social adaptation and public health interventions. PMID:25216253

  5. Urinary Phthalate Metabolite Associations with Biomarkers of Inflammation and Oxidative Stress Across Pregnancy in Puerto Rico

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Phthalate exposure during pregnancy has been linked to adverse birth outcomes such as preterm birth, and inflammation and oxidative stress may mediate these relationships. In a prospective cohort study of pregnant women recruited early in gestation in Northern Puerto Rico, we investigated the associations between urinary phthalate metabolites and biomarkers of inflammation, including C-reactive protein, IL-1?, IL-6, IL-10, and TNF-?, and oxidative stress, including 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (OHdG) and 8-isoprostane. Inflammation biomarkers were measured in plasma twice during pregnancy (N = 215 measurements, N = 120 subjects), and oxidative stress biomarkers in urine were measured three times (N = 148 measurements, N = 54 subjects) per woman. In adjusted linear mixed models, metabolites of di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) were associated with increased IL-6 and IL-10 but relationships were generally not statistically significant. All phthalates were associated with increases in oxidative stress markers. Relationships with OHdG were significant for DEHP metabolites as well as mono-n-butyl phthalate (MBP) and monoiso-butyl phthalate (MiBP). For 8-isoprostane, associations with nearly all phthalates were statistically significant and the largest effect estimates were observed for MBP and MiBP (49–50% increase in 8-isoprostane with an interquartile range increase in metabolite concentration). These relationships suggest a possible mechanism for phthalate action that may be relevant to a number of adverse health outcomes. PMID:24845688

  6. Landslides and sediment budgets in four watersheds in eastern Puerto Rico: Chapter F in Water quality and landscape processes of four watersheds in eastern Puerto Rico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larsen, Matthew C.

    2012-01-01

    The low-latitude regions of the Earth are undergoing profound, rapid landscape change as forests are converted to agriculture to support growing population. Understanding the effects of these land-use changes requires analysis of watershed-scale geomorphic processes to better inform and manage this usually disorganized process. The investigation of hillslope erosion and the development of sediment budgets provides essential information for resource managers. Four small, montane, humid-tropical watersheds in the Luquillo Experimental Forest and nearby Río Grande de Loíza watershed, Puerto Rico (18° 20' N., 65° 45' W.), were selected to compare and contrast the geomorphic effects of land use and bedrock geology. Two of the watersheds are underlain largely by resistant Cretaceous volcaniclastic rocks but differ in land use and mean annual runoff: the Mameyes watershed, with predominantly primary forest cover and runoff of 2,750 millimeters per year, and the Canóvanas watershed, with mixed secondary forest and pasture and runoff of 970 millimeters per year. The additional two watersheds are underlain by relatively erodible granitic bedrock: the forested Icacos watershed, with runoff of 3,760 millimeters per year and the agriculturally developed Cayaguás watershed, with a mean annual runoff of 1,620 millimeters per year. Annual sediment budgets were estimated for each watershed using landslide, slopewash, soil creep, treethrow, suspended sediment, and streamflow data. The budgets also included estimates of sediment storage in channel beds, bars, floodplains, and in colluvial deposits. In the two watersheds underlain by volcaniclastic rocks, the forested Mameyes and the developed Canóvanas watersheds, landslide frequency (0.21 and 0.04 landslides per square kilometer per year, respectively), slopewash (5 and 30 metric tons per square kilometer per year), and suspended sediment yield (325 and 424 metric tons per square kilometer per year), were lower than in the two watersheds underlain by granitic bedrock. In these granitic watersheds, landslide frequency, slopewash, and suspended sediment yield were 0.43 landslides per square kilometer per year, 20 metric tons per square kilometer per year, and 2,140 metric tons per square kilometer per year, respectively, in the forested Icacos watershed and 0.8 landslides per square kilometer per year, 105 metric tons per square kilometer per year, and 2,110 metric tons per square kilometer per year, respectively, in the agriculturally developed Cayaguás watershed. Comparison of sediment budgets from the forested and developed watersheds indicates that human activities increase landslide frequency by as much as factor of 5 and slopewash by as much as a factor of 6. When the difference in annual runoff is considered, the effect of land use on suspended sediment yields is also notable. Sediment concentration, calculated as sediment yield normalized by runoff, was about 2.3 to 3.7 times as great in the two watersheds in secondary forest and pasture compared with sediment concentration in the watersheds in primary forest. Even in the two watersheds with primary forest cover, the Mameyes and Icacos, located in the Luquillo Experimental Forest, the effects of anthropogenic disturbance were marked: 43 to 63 percent of landslide-related erosion was associated with road construction and maintenance.

  7. Effect of channelization of Rio Puerto Nuevo on ground-water levels in the San Juan metropolitan area, Puerto Rico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Padilla, Ingrid

    1991-01-01

    Channelization and concrete lining of the Rio Puerto Nuevo and its tributaries in the San Juan Metropolitan area has been proposed to control flooding in low lying areas adjacent to the stream. Concern about the effect of these channel modifications on the ground-water system prompted the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers to conduct an investigation of surface-water and ground-water interactions in the Rio Puerto Nuevo basin in 1988. A principal objective of this investigation was to determine the potential effect of channelization of the Rio Puerto Nuevo on ground-water levels.

  8. Transcriptional analysis of four family 4 P450s in a Puerto Rico strain of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) compared with an Orlando strain and their possible functional roles in permethrin resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A field strain of Aedes aegypti was collected from Puerto Rico (PR) in October 2008. Based on LD50 values by topical application, the PR strain was 73-fold resistant to permethrin compared to a susceptible Orlando strain. In the presence of piperonyl butoxide (PBO), the resistance of Puerto Rico str...

  9. UNlllERSIDAD DE PUERTO RICO, RECINTO DE CIENCIAS MEDICAS PO BOX ~7 SAN JUAN PA ~~ .TEl7B7.758-2525 EXI: 171 SECRETARiA JUNTA ADMINISTRATIVA

    E-print Network

    Quirk, Gregory J.

    UNlllERSIDAD DE PUERTO RICO, RECINTO DE CIENCIAS MEDICAS PO BOX ~7 SAN JUAN PA ~~ .TEl7B7AZ, SecretariaEjecutiva de la Junta Administrativa del Recintode CienciasMedicas de la Universidad de Puerto Rico y acechol' del Recinto de Ciencias Medicas y luego de la discusion de rigor, ACORO6: APROBAR la

  10. Socio-demographic, behavioral, and health correlates of nutrition transition dietary indicators in San Juan, Puerto Rico

    PubMed Central

    Colón-Ramos, Uriyoán; Pérez-Cardona, Cynthia M.; Monge-Rojas, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    Objective To identify socio-demographic, behavioral, and health-related correlates of food preferences in Puerto Rico that will help determine Caribbean-region populations vulnerable to nutrition transition. Methods Data from a cross-sectional study of a representative sample of 858 adults residing in the San Juan Metropolitan Area of Puerto Rico were analyzed. Multivariable ordinal logistic regressions were used to model the frequency of consumption of 1) fruits and vegetables, 2) tubers/starchy root vegetables, 3) fried foods, and 4) Western-style fast foods as a function of socio-demographic, behavioral, and health-related characteristics. Results Higher frequency of consumption of fruits and vegetables was associated with being physically active and older and having a medium to high level of education, whereas intake of tubers was associated with being older, having a low income, not using government insurance, and having elevated levels of triglycerides. Frequency of consumption of fast food was associated with younger age, higher income, 12–15 years of formal education, and a higher body mass index (BMI), whereas frequency of consumption of fried food was associated with being younger and male, not being a smoker, and having elevated levels of fasting blood glucose. Conclusions The results indicate a nutrition transition in Puerto Rico with health consequences for the Caribbean region. The characteristics of this nutrition transition seem to be determined by income, education, and age, but may also be dictated by access to various food groups. These results set the stage for needed investigation of environmental and individual-level factors that could shape patterns in food consumption. PMID:24553760

  11. Groundwater-Quality Survey of the South Coast Aquifer of Puerto Rico, April 2 through May 30, 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rodriguez, Jose M.; Gómez-Gómez, Fernando

    2009-01-01

    The increased potential for variability of groundwater quality in the South Coast aquifer of Puerto Rico due to saline water encroachment from the Caribbean Sea and from deep parts of the aquifer has become a major concern of water planners and managers. In an effort to determine the extent and sources of this encroachment, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Puerto Rico Department of Natural and Environmental Resources conducted a synoptic groundwater-quality survey from April 2 through May 30, 2007, for the South Coast aquifer between Ponce and Arroyo (fig. 1). Groundwater resources in this aquifer extend 150 square miles in south-central Puerto Rico and provide an estimated 44.2 million gallons per day (Mgal/d) or about 61 percent of the total water needs. This amount includes: 15.3 Mgal/d for irrigation, 27.4 Mgal/d for public supply, and 1.5 Mgal/d for industrial and other uses (W.L. Molina-Rivera, U.S. Geological Survey, written commun., 2007). Since 1980 when most of the south coastal plain was intensively cultivated for sugarcane, total groundwater withdrawals have declined about 32 Mgal/d with the greatest decline occurring in irrigation (37.2 Mgal/d) and the greatest increase occurring in public supply (5.5 Mgal/d). Although withdrawals have declined substantially, a major concern is that aquifer recharge provided by irrigation return flow from surface-water irrigation canals has essentially dropped to zero because of the large-scale implementation of groundwater drip irrigation systems.

  12. Self-Reported Ethnicity and Genetic Ancestry in Relation to Oral Cancer and Pre-Cancer in Puerto Rico

    PubMed Central

    Erdei, Esther; Sheng, Huiping; Maestas, Erika; Mackey, Amanda; White, Kirsten A.; Li, Lin; Dong, Yan; Taylor, Justin; Berwick, Marianne; Morse, Douglas E.

    2011-01-01

    Background Hispanics are known to be an extremely diverse and genetically admixed ethnic group. The lack of methodologies to control for ethnicity and the unknown admixture in complex study populations of Hispanics has left a gap in understanding certain cancer disparity issues. Incidence rates for oral and pharyngeal cancer (OPC) in Puerto Rico are among the highest in the Western Hemisphere. We conducted an epidemiological study to examine risk and protective factors, in addition to possible genetic susceptibility components, for oral cancer and precancer in Puerto Rico. Methodology/Principal Findings We recruited 310 Puerto Rico residents who had been diagnosed with either an incident oral squamous cell carcinoma, oral precancer, or benign oral condition. Participants completed an in-person interview and contributed buccal cells for DNA extraction. ABI Biosystem Taqman™ primer sets were used for genotyping 12 ancestry informative markers (AIMs). Ancestral group estimates were generated using maximum likelihood estimation software (LEADMIX), and additional principal component analysis was carried out to detect population substructures. We used unconditional logistic regression to assess the contribution of ancestry to the risk of being diagnosed with either an oral cancer or precancer while controlling for other potential confounders. The maximum likelihood estimates showed that study participants had a group average ancestry contribution of 69.9% European, 24.5% African, and 5.7% detectable Native American. The African and Indigenous American group estimates were significantly higher than anticipated. Neither self-identified ethnicity nor ancestry markers showed any significant associations with oral cancer/precancer risk in our study. Conclusions/Significance The application of ancestry informative markers (AIMs), specifically designed for Hispanics, suggests no hidden population substructure is present based on our sampling and provides a viable approach for the evaluation and control of ancestry in future studies involving Hispanic populations. PMID:21897864

  13. Ionospheric Effects of Sudden Stratospheric Warming During Solar Maximum and Minimum Periods: What Do We See from Puerto Rico?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez-Espiet, A.; Goncharenko, L. P.; Spraggs, M. E.; Coster, A. J.; Galkin, I. A.; Aponte, N.

    2014-12-01

    Some of the main factors that contribute to changes in multiple ionospheric parameters are solar flux, geomagnetic activity, seasonal behavior, and coupling with lower atmosphere, which is particularly strong during sudden stratospheric warming events (SSW). Studying the way that these factors induce changes in the ionosphere is important, since these changes can have a negative effect on different types of communication systems. Multiple case studies have demonstrated large variations in ionospheric electron density in association with SSW in the low-latitude ionosphere, in particular near the crests of the equatorial ionization anomaly. However, the latitudinal extend of these variations was not addressed. In this study, we utilize data obtained in Puerto Rico by three instruments - Ramey digisonde, Arecibo Incoherent Scatter Radar (ISR) and GPS receivers to analyze four winter-time periods: two years with major SSW events (2005-2006, 2012-2013) and two years with minor SSW events (2006-2007, 2013-2014). In addition, selected cases represent two winters with low solar activity and two winters with moderate to high solar activity. The study focuses on the location of Arecibo, Puerto Rico (18.34°N, 66.75°W), ~15° to the north of the northern crest of the equatorial ionization anomaly. We report good agreement in ionospheric parameters between all three instruments. To investigate possible association with SSW events, we remove influences of seasonal behavior, solar flux, and geomagnetic activity by building empirical model and subtracting expected variations from the observational data. The analysis of residuals between the data and the model shows that ionospheric disturbances were observed in Puerto Rico for both minor and major SSW events in the ISR, digisonde and GPS Total Electron Content (TEC) data. We report 20-60% variations in NmF2 and TEC due to SSW effects. Large variations are also observed in electron density, electron temperature and plasma velocity during both daytime and nighttime.

  14. Probing the deep critical zone beneath the Luquillo Experimental Forest, Puerto Rico

    SciTech Connect

    Buss, Heather [University of Bristol, UK] [University of Bristol, UK; Brantley, S. L. [Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA] [Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA; Scatena, Fred [University of Pennsylvania] [University of Pennsylvania; Bazilevskaya, Ekaterina [Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA] [Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA; Blum, Alex [U.S. Geological Survey, Boulder, CO] [U.S. Geological Survey, Boulder, CO; Schulz, M [University of Pennsylvania] [University of Pennsylvania; Jimenez, M [University of Pennsylvania] [University of Pennsylvania; White, Art [U.S. Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA] [U.S. Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA; Rother, Gernot [ORNL] [ORNL; Cole, David [Ohio State University] [Ohio State University

    2013-01-01

    Recent work has suggested that weathering processes occurring in the subsurface produce the majority of silicate weathering products discharged to the world s oceans, thereby exerting a primary control on global temperature via the well-known positive feedback between silicate weathering and CO2. In addition, chemical and physical weathering processes deep within the critical zone create aquifers and control groundwater chemistry, watershed geometry and regolith formation rates. Despite this, most weathering studies are restricted to the shallow critical zone (e.g., soils, outcrops). Here we investigate the chemical weathering, fracturing and geomorphology of the deep critical zone in the Bisley watershed in the Luquillo Critical Zone Observatory, Puerto Rico, from two boreholes drilled to 37.2 and 27.0 m depth, from which continuous core samples were taken. Corestones exposed aboveground were also sampled. Weathered rinds developed on exposed corestones and along fracture surfaces on subsurface rocks slough off of exposed corestones once rinds attain a thickness up to ~1 cm, preventing the corestones from rounding due to diffusion limitation. Such corestones at the land surface are assumed to be what remains after exhumation of similar, fractured bedrock pieces that were observed in the drilled cores between thick layers of regolith. Some of these subsurface corestones are massive and others are highly fractured, whereas aboveground corestones are generally massive with little to no apparent fracturing. Subsurface corestones are larger and less fractured in the borehole drilled on a road where it crosses a ridge compared to the borehole drilled where the road crosses the stream channel. Both borehole profiles indicate that the weathering zone extends to well below the stream channel in this upland catchment; hence weathering depth is not controlled by the stream level within the catchment and not all of the water in the watershed is discharged to the stream.

  15. High-resolution studies of atmosphere-ionosphere coupling at Arecibo Observatory, Puerto Rico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Djuth, F. T.; Sulzer, M. P.; Elder, J. H.; Wickwar, V. B.

    1997-11-01

    Very accurate measurements of electron density can be made at Arecibo Observatory, Puerto Rico, by applying the coded long-pulse (CLP) radar technique [Sulzer, 1986a] to plasma line echoes from daytime photoelectrons [Djuth et al., 1994]. In the lower thermosphere above Arecibo, background neutral waves couple to the ionospheric plasma, typically yielding ˜1-3% electron density "imprints" of the waves. These imprints are present in all observations made to date; they are decisively detected at 30-60 standard deviations above the "noise level" imposed by the measurement technique. Complementary analysis and modeling efforts provide strong evidence that these fluctuations are caused by internal gravity waves. Properties of the neutral waves such as their period and vertical wavelength are closely mirrored by the electron density fluctuations. Frequency spectra of the fluctuations exhibit a high-frequency cutoff consistent with calculated values of the Brunt-Väisälä frequency. Vertical half wavelengths are typically in the range 2-25 km between 115- and 160-km altitude, and the corresponding phase velocities are always directed downward. Some waves have vertical wavelengths short enough to be quenched by kinematic viscosity. In general, the observed electron density imprints are relatively "clean" in that their vertical wavelength spectrum is characteristically narrow-banded. It is estimated that perturbations in the horizontal wind field as small as 2-4 m/s can give rise to the observed electron density fluctuations. However, the required wind speed can be significantly greater depending on the orientation of the neutral wave's horizontal wave vector relative to the geomagnetic field. Limited observations with extended altitude coverage indicate that wave imprints can be detected at thermospheric heights as high as 500 km.

  16. Determinacion de periodos fundamentales del suelo mediante vibraciones ambientales en el municipio de Humacao, Puerto Rico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cintron Aponte, Rommel

    La tecnica de Nakamura ha sido utilizada a nivel mundial para determinar periodos fundamentales del suelo. La tecnica consiste en calcular y graficar cocientes espectrales H/V de vibraciones ambientales registradas sobre el suelo. Mediciones de vibraciones ambientales fueron tomadas en 151 lugares dentro del municipio de Humacao, localizado al este de Puerto Rico. Los datos se procesaron utilizando espectros de Fourier y espectros de potencia. La tecnica fue validada al compararla con los resultados de cocientes espectrales H/V de registros de sismos debiles y tambien con una modelacion numerica realizada con datos de un ensayo "downhole". Las graficas de los cocientes espectrales H/V fueron divididas en casos y grupos, los cuales dependen de la facilidad para identificar el periodo fundamental pico y amplitudes en frecuencias menores de 1 Hz, respectivamente. Los resultados obtenidos con ambos espectros fueron comparados y se concluye que los mismos se complementan para proveer resultados mas confiables. Se crearon mapas de periodos fundamentales, factores de amplitud, isoperiodos y clasificacion sismica de sitio. Los mapas de isoperiodos fueron realizados en las zonas mas pobladas sobre depositos de suelo. El mapa de periodos fundamentales del suelo mostro buena correlacion con la geologia local. El mapa de clasificacion sismica derivado de periodos de sitio fue comparado con el mapa de clasificacion sismica derivado de barrenos geotecnicos. El mapa de clasificacion obtenido de periodos puede sobreestimar un poco algunas clasificaciones del suelo. Sin embargo, este mapa puede proveer un estimado aproximado de la velocidad de onda de corte promedio del suelo hasta una profundidad de 100 pies (30 metros).

  17. Promoting Tobacco Cessation and Smoke-Free Workplaces Through Community Outreach Partnerships in Puerto Rico

    PubMed Central

    Díaz-Toro, Elba C.; Fernández, Maria E.; Correa-Fernández, Virmarie; Calo, William A.; Ortiz, Ana Patricia; Mejía, Luz M.; Mazas, Carlos A.; Santos-Ortiz, María del Carmen; Wetter, David W.

    2014-01-01

    Background Puerto Rico (PR) has a lower smoking prevalence than the United States (14.8% vs. 21.2%, respectively); nevertheless, the five leading causes of death are associated with smoking. There is a need to implement evidence-based tobacco control strategies in PR. Objectives The Outreach Pilot Program (OPP) was designed to engage communities, health professionals, and researchers in a network to advance health promotion activities and research to increase the use of the PR Quitline (PRQ) among smokers and promoting policies in support of smoke-free workplaces. Methods Using community-based participatory research (CBPR) methods, the OPP mobilized a network of community and academic partners to implement smoking cessation activities including referrals to the PRQ, adoption of evidence-based smoking cessation programs, and promotion of smoke-free legislation. Results Eighty organizations participated in the OPP. Collaborators implemented activities that supported the promotion of the PRQ and smoke-free workplaces policy and sponsored yearly trainings, including tobacco control conferences. From 2005 to 2008, physician referrals to the PRQ increased from 2.6% to 7.2%. The number of annual smokers receiving cessation services through the PRQ also increased from 703 to 1,086. The OPP shepherded a rigorous smoke-free law through participation in the development, promotion, and implementation of the smoke-free workplaces legislation as well as the creation of the PR Tobacco Control Strategic Plan, launched in 2006. Conclusions This project demonstrates the feasibility of developing a successful and sustainable community-based outreach program model that enlists the participation of academic researchers, community organizations, and health care providers as partners to promote tobacco control. PMID:25152097

  18. Methane flux from mangrove sediments along the southwestern coast of Puerto Rico

    SciTech Connect

    Sotomayor, D.; Corredor, J.E.; Morell, J.M. (Univ. of Puerto Rico, Mayagueez (Puerto Rico))

    1994-03-01

    Although the sediments of coastal marine mangrove forests have been considered a minor source of atmospheric methane, these estimate have been based on sparse data from similar areas. We have gathered evidence that shows that external nutrient and freshwater loading in mangrove sediments may have a significant effect on methane flux. Experiments were performed to examine methane fluxes from anaerobic sediments in a mangrove forest subjected to secondary sewage effluents on the southwestern coast of Puerto Rico. Emission rates were measured in situ using a static chamber technique, and subsequent laboratory analysis of samples was by gas chromatography using a flame ionization detector. Results indicate that methane flux rates were lowest at the landward fringe nearest to the effluent discharge, higher in the seaward fringe occupied by red mangroves, and highest in the transition zone between black and red mangrove communities, with average values of 4 mg CH[sub 4] m[sup [minus]2] d[sup [minus]1], 42 mg CH[sub 4] m[sup [minus]2] d[sup [minus]1], and 82 mg CH[sub 4] m[sup [minus]2] d[sup [minus]1], respectively. Overall mean values show these sediments may emit as much as 40 times more methane than unimpacted pristine areas. Pneumatophores of Aviciennia germinans have been found to serve as conduits to the atmosphere for this gas. Fluctuating water level overlying the mangrove sediment is an important environmental factor controlling seasonal and interannual CH[sub 4] flux variations. Environmental controls such as freshwater inputs and increased nutrient loading influence in situ methane emissions from these environments. 34 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Dengue Deaths in Puerto Rico: Lessons Learned from the 2007 Epidemic

    PubMed Central

    Tomashek, Kay M.; Gregory, Christopher J.; Rivera Sánchez, Aidsa; Bartek, Matthew A.; Garcia Rivera, Enid J.; Hunsperger, Elizabeth; Muñoz-Jordán, Jorge L.; Sun, Wellington

    2012-01-01

    Background The incidence and severity of dengue in Latin America has increased substantially in recent decades and data from Puerto Rico suggests an increase in severe cases. Successful clinical management of severe dengue requires early recognition and supportive care. Methods Fatal cases were identified among suspected dengue cases reported to two disease surveillance systems and from death certificates. To be included, fatal cases had to have specimen submitted for dengue diagnostic testing including nucleic acid amplification for dengue virus (DENV) in serum or tissue, immunohistochemical testing of tissue, and immunoassay detection of anti-DENV IgM from serum. Medical records from laboratory-positive dengue fatal case-patients were reviewed to identify possible determinants for death. Results Among 10,576 reported dengue cases, 40 suspect fatal cases were identified, of which 11 were laboratory-positive, 14 were laboratory-negative, and 15 laboratory-indeterminate. The median age of laboratory-positive case-patients was 26 years (range 5 months to 78 years), including five children aged <15 years; 7 sought medical care at least once prior to hospital admission, 9 were admitted to hospital and 2 died upon arrival. The nine hospitalized case-patients stayed a mean of 15 hours (range: 3–48 hours) in the emergency department (ED) before inpatient admission. Five of the nine case-patients received intravenous methylprednisolone and four received non-isotonic saline while in shock. Eight case-patients died in the hospital; five had their terminal event on the inpatient ward and six died during a weekend. Dengue was listed on the death certificate in only 5 instances. Conclusions During a dengue epidemic in an endemic area, none of the 11 laboratory-positive case-patients who died were managed according to current WHO Guidelines. Management issues identified in this case-series included failure to recognize warning signs for severe dengue and shock, prolonged ED stays, and infrequent patient monitoring. PMID:22530072

  20. Characterization of stormwater discharges from Las Flores Industrial Park, Rio Grande, Puerto Rico, 1998-99

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rodriguez, Jose M.

    2000-01-01

    Stormwater discharges from Las Flores Industrial Park, Rio Grande, Puerto Rico, were characterized from June 1998 to July 1999 by measuring the flow rate at two outfalls, delineating the drainage areas for each outfall, and calculating the volume of the stormwater discharges. Stormwater-discharge samples were collected and analyzed to determine the quality of the discharges. Constituent loads and loads per area were estimated for each drainage area. The studied drainage subareas covered approximately 46 percent of the total area of the Las Flores Industrial Park. Industrial groups represented in the study areas include manufacturers of textile, electronics, paper, fabricated metal, plastic, and chemical products. The concentrations of oil and grease (1 to 6 milligrams per liter), biochemical oxygen demand (4.7 to 16 milligrams per liter), total organic carbon (5.8 to 36 milligrams per liter), total suspended solids (28 to 100 milligrams per liter), and total phosphorous (0.11 to 0.78 milligrams per liter) from all the samples collected were less than the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency stormwater benchmark concentrations. Concentrations of chemical oxygen demand (15.8 to 157 milligrams per liter) and nitrate and nitrite (0.06 to 1.75 milligrams per liter) exceeded benchmark concentrations at one of the studied drainage areas. Total Kjeldahl nitrogen concentrations (1.00 to 3.20 milligrams per liter) exceeded the benchmark concentrations at the two studied drainage areas. Maximum concentrations for oil and grease, biochemical oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, total organic carbon, total Kjeldahl nitrogen, nitrate plus nitrite, and total phosphorous were detected in an area where electronics, plastics, and chemical products are currently manufactured. The maximum concentration of total suspended solids was detected at an area where textile, paper, plastic, chemical, and fabricated metal products are manufactured.

  1. Impacts of Urbanization in the Coastal Tropical City of San Juan, Puerto Rico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Comarazamy, Daniel E.; Gonzalez, Jorge E.; Luvall, Jeffrey C.; Rickman, Douglass

    2007-01-01

    Urban sprawl in tropical locations is rapidly accelerating and it is more evident in islands where a large percentage of the population resides along the coasts. This paper focuses on the analysis of the impacts of land use and land cover for urbanization in the tropical coastal city of San Juan, in the Caribbean island of Puerto Rico. A mesoscale numerical model, the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS), is used to study the impacts of land use for urbanization in the environment including specific characteristics of the urban heat island in the San Juan Metropolitan Area (SJMA), one of the most noticeable urban cores of the Caribbean. The research also makes use of the observations obtained during the airborne San Juan Atlas Mission. Surface and raw insonde data from the mission are used to validate the atmospheric model yielding satisfactory results. Airborne high resolution remote sensing data are used to update the model's surface characteristics in order to obtain a more accurate and detailed configuration of the SJMA and perform a climate impact analysis based on land cover/land use (LCLU) changes. The impact analysis showed that the presence of the urban landscape of San Juan has an impact reflected in higher air temperatures over the area occupied by the city, with positive values of up to 2.5 degrees C, for the simulations that have specified urban LCLU indexes in the model's bottom boundary. One interesting result of the impact analysis was the finding of a precipitation disturbance shown as a difference in total accumulated rainfall between the present urban landscape and with a potential natural vegetation, apparently induced by the presence of the urban area. Results indicate that the urban-enhanced cloud formation and precipitation development occur mainly downwind of the city, including the accumulated precipitation. This spatial pattern can be explained by the presence of a larger urbanized area in the southwest sector of the city, and of the approaching northeasterly trade winds.

  2. TRAMIL Ethnopharmacological Survey: Knowledge Distribution of Medicinal Plant Use in the Southeast Region of Puerto Rico

    PubMed Central

    ALVARADO-GUZMÁN, JOSÉ A.; GAVILLÁN-SUÁREZ, JANNETTE; GERMOSÉN-ROBINEAU, LIONEL

    2014-01-01

    Background TRAMIL network aims to understand, validate and expand health practices based on the use of medicinal plants in the Caribbean, a “biodiversity hotspot” due to high species endemism, intense development pressure and habitat loss. Objectives The purpose of this study was to document both the medicinal plants that are frequently used to treat health conditions prevalent in the southeastern region of the archipelago of Puerto Rico and the trends in their use among the study population. Methods An ethnopharmacological survey was conducted in the study region. The results were analyzed using univariate and multivariate statistical analyses. Results Overall, 118 medicinal plants were recorded as being used to treat depression, nervousness, chronic sinusitis, gastritis, gastroesophageal reflux disease, allergic rhinitis, rhinofaryngitis, asthma, arthritis and migraine. The plant species with significant use were Citrus aurantium L., Citrus aurantifolia (Christm.) Swingle, Pluchea carolinensis (Jacq.) G. Don in Sweet, and Mentha piperita L. The use of medicinal plants is more frequent among single women with a high educational level, a trend similar to the use of CAM in the US. Conclusion Ethnopharmacological knowledge and the use of medicinal plants is decreasing in the study region due to an increase in the use of conventional medical care and to self-medication with over-the-counter pharmaceutical products. Four botanical species with significant uses that were not previously recorded in the Caribbean Herbal Pharmacopoeia have been identified. This report will be followed by the scientific validation and toxicity studies of these plant species and the TRADIF activities in the study region. PMID:19999241

  3. The effects of a professional development geoscience education institute upon secondary school science teachers in Puerto Rico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Llerandi Roman, Pablo Antonio

    The geographic and geologic settings of Puerto Rico served as the context to develop a mixed methods investigation on: (1) the effects of a five-day long constructivist and field-based earth science education professional development institute upon 26 secondary school science teachers' earth science conceptual knowledge, perceptions of fieldwork, and beliefs about teaching earth science; and (2) the implementation of participants' newly acquired knowledge and experience in their science lessons at school. Qualitative data included questionnaires, semi-structured interviews, reflective journals, pre-post concept maps, and pre-post lesson plans. The Geoscience Concept Inventory and the Science Outdoor Learning Environment Inventory were translated into Spanish and culturally validated to collect quantitative data. Data was analyzed through a constructivist grounded theory methodology, descriptive statistics, and non-parametric methods. Participants came to the institute with serious deficiencies in earth science conceptual understanding, negative earth science teaching perspectives, and inadequate earth science teaching methodologies. The institute helped participants to improve their understanding of earth science concepts, content, and processes mostly related to the study of rocks, the Earth's structure, plate tectonics, maps, and the geology of Puerto Rico. Participants also improved their earth science teaching beliefs, perceptions on field-based education, and reflected on their environmental awareness and social responsibility. Participants greatly benefited from the field-based learning environment, inquiry-based teaching approaches modeled, the attention given to their affective domain, and reflections on their teaching practice as part of the institute's activities. The constructivist learning environment and the institute's contextualized and meaningful learning conceptual model were effective in generating interest and confidence in earth science teaching. Some participants successfully integrated inquiry-based lessons on the nature of science and earth science at their schools, but were unsuccessful in integrating field trips. The lack of teacher education programs and the inadequacy of earth science conceptual and pedagogical understanding held by in-service teachers are the main barriers for effective earth science teaching in Puerto Rico. This study established a foundation for future earth science education projects for Latino teachers. Additionally, as a result of this investigation various recommendations were made to effectively implement earth science teacher education programs in Puerto Rico and internationally.

  4. Fetal and infant origins of diabetes and ill health: evidence from Puerto Rico's 1928 and 1932 hurricanes.

    PubMed

    Sotomayor, Orlando

    2013-07-01

    A natural experiment is employed to analyze the relationship between living standards, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Results show that shocks generated by two powerful tropical storms striking Puerto Rico during the late 1920s and early 1930s had long-term consequences consistent with the fetal origins hypothesis. Individuals in the womb or early infancy in the aftermath of the storms are more likely to report a diagnosis of hypertension, high cholesterol, diabetes, and are considerably more likely to have no formal schooling. PMID:22445329

  5. Stable isotope (?18O and ?2H) data for precipitation, stream water, and groundwater in Puerto Rico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scholl, Martha A.; Torres-Sanchez, Angel; Rosario-Torres, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Puerto Rico is located in the northeastern Caribbean Sea (18.2 °N, 66.3 °W), with the Atlantic Ocean on its northern coast. The U.S. Geological Survey’s Water, Energy, and Biogeochemical Budgets (WEBB) program study area in which most of these data were collected comprises the El Yunque National Forest and surrounding area of eastern Puerto Rico. Samples were collected in two forested watersheds, the Rio Mameyes and the Rio Icacos/Rio Blanco, on opposite sides of a ridge in the Luquillo Mountains on the eastern end of the island (fig. 1). Elevation in both watersheds ranges from sea level to approximately 1,000 meters (m). Near sea level, land use is mixed pasture, moist forest, and residential, grading to completely forested within the boundaries of El Yunque National Forest. Forest type changes with elevation from tabonuco to palo colorado to sierra palm to cloud forest above approximately 950 m (Murphy and others, 2012). The Rio Mameyes watershed is oriented north-northeast, and the basin is underlain by volcaniclastic bedrock (basaltic to andesitic volcanic sandstone/mudstone/conglomerate/breccia). The Rio Icacos/Rio Blanco watershed is oriented south-southeast. The Rio Icacos is one of the headwaters of the Rio Blanco and is underlain by quartz diorite. The lower Rio Blanco basin is underlain by andesitic volcaniclastic bedrock. This report also contains a long-term rain isotope dataset from the San Agustin site, in north-central Puerto Rico (fig. 1). Puerto Rico has a tropical climate dominated by easterly trade winds, and seasonal climate patterns affect the hydrology of the study area. The summer wet season is characterized by convective precipitation from tropical easterly waves, troughs, and cyclonic low-pressure systems, including tropical storms and hurricanes; in contrast, the drier winter season is characterized by trade-wind showers and frontal systems. The highest single-event rainfall totals tend to be associated with tropical storms, hurricanes, and cold fronts, although frequent low-intensity orographic showers occur throughout the year in the mountains. The stable isotope signatures of rainfall (?2H and ?18O) are broadly correlated with the weather type that produced the rainfall (Scholl and others, 2009; Scholl and Murphy, 2014).

  6. An inventory of state natural resources information systems. [including Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martinko, E. A. (principal investigator); Caron, L. M.; Stewart, D. S.

    1984-01-01

    Data bases and information systems developed and maintained by state agencies to support planning and management of environmental and nutural resources were inventoried for all 50 states, Puerto Rico, and U.S. Virgin Islands. The information obtained is assembled into a computerized data base catalog which is throughly cross-referecence. Retrieval is possible by code, state, data base name, data base acronym, agency, computer, GIS capability, language, specialized software, data category name, geograhic reference, data sources, and level of reliability. The 324 automated data bases identified are described.

  7. Genetic diversity in Puerto Rico and its implications for the peopling of the Island and the West Indies.

    PubMed

    Vilar, Miguel G; Melendez, Carlalynne; Sanders, Akiva B; Walia, Akshay; Gaieski, Jill B; Owings, Amanda C; Schurr, Theodore G

    2014-11-01

    Puerto Rico and the surrounding islands rest on the eastern fringe of the Caribbean's Greater Antilles, located less than 100 miles northwest of the Lesser Antilles. Puerto Ricans are genetic descendants of pre-Columbian peoples, as well as peoples of European and African descent through 500 years of migration to the island. To infer these patterns of pre-Columbian and historic peopling of the Caribbean, we characterized genetic diversity in 326 individuals from the southeastern region of Puerto Rico and the island municipality of Vieques. We sequenced the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region of all of the samples and the complete mitogenomes of 12 of them to infer their putative place of origin. In addition, we genotyped 121 male samples for 25 Y-chromosome single nucleotide polymorphism and 17 STR loci. Approximately 60% of the participants had indigenous mtDNA haplotypes (mostly from haplogroups A2 and C1), while 25% had African and 15% European haplotypes. Three A2 sublineages were unique to the Greater Antilles, one of which was similar to Mesoamerican types, while C1b haplogroups showed links to South America, suggesting that people reached the island from the two distinct continental source areas. However, none of the male participants had indigenous Y-chromosomes, with 85% of them instead being European/Mediterranean and 15% sub-Saharan African in origin. West Eurasian Y-chromosome short tandem repeat haplotypes were quite diverse and showed similarities to those observed in southern Europe, North Africa and the Middle East. These results attest to the distinct, yet equally complex, pasts for the male and female ancestors of modern day Puerto Ricans. PMID:25043798

  8. Publications of the U.S. Geological Survey, Water Resources Division, for Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands, 1946-1984

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Quinones-Marques, Ferdinand; Lopez, Marisol

    1984-01-01

    A bibliography of water-resources investigations conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey, Water Resources Division in Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands was compiled. The bibliography includes an alphabetical listing by author as well as listings by general and specific areas in Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands. The publications are also classified by type of report: Open File, Open-File Data Report, KWater-Supply Paper, Water-Resources Investigations, and Professional Paper. (USGS)

  9. INFORMS International, July 8-11, 2007, Puerto RicoINFORMS International, July 8-11, 2007, Puerto Rico Dynamics of Supply Chain Networks with Corporate

    E-print Network

    Nagurney, Anna

    Rico Dynamics of Supply Chain Networks with Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) through Integrated in the Community defines CSR as: "a company's positive impact on society and the environment, through its: Responsibility of the businessman (Bowen, 1953). From 1970 to 1980: Characteristics of socially responsible

  10. Parasitism in Pterois volitans (Scorpaenidae) from coastal waters of Puerto Rico, the Cayman Islands, and the Bahamas.

    PubMed

    Ramos-Ascherl, Zullaylee; Williams, Ernest H; Bunkley-Williams, Lucy; Tuttle, Lillian J; Sikkel, Paul C; Hixon, Mark A

    2015-02-01

    Recently, Pterois volitans, a Pacific species of lionfish, invaded the Atlantic Ocean, likely via the aquarium trade. We examined for internal and external parasites 188 individuals from 8 municipalities of Puerto Rico collected during 2009-2012, 91 individuals from Little Cayman, Cayman Islands, collected during the summers of 2010 and 2011, and 47 individuals from Lee Stocking Island, Bahamas, collected during the summer of 2009. In total, 27 parasite taxa were found, including 3 previously reported species from lionfish, the digenean Lecithochirium floridense, the leech Trachelobdella lubrica, and an Excorallana sp. isopod. We also report another 24 previously unreported parasite taxa from lionfish, including digeneans, monogeneans, cestodes, nematodes, isopods, a copepod, and an acanthocephalan. Among these parasites, several were previously unreported at their respective geographic origins: We report 5 new locality records from Puerto Rico, 9 from Cayman Islands, 5 from the Bahamas, 5 from the Caribbean, and 3 from the subtropical western Atlantic region. Three parasites are reported to associate with a fish host for the first time. The parasite faunas of P. volitans among our 3 study sites were quite different; most of the species infecting lionfish were generalists and/or species that infect carnivorous fishes. Although our study did not assess the impact of parasites on the fitness of invasive lionfish, it provides an important early step. Our results provide valuable comparative data for future studies at these and other sites throughout the lionfish's invaded range. PMID:25302790

  11. Map showing landslide susceptibility in the municipality of Ponce, Puerto Rico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larsen, Matthew C.; Santiago, Marilyn; Jibson, Randall W.; Questell, Eduardo

    2004-01-01

    The risk of landslides during intense or prolonged rainfall is high in steeply sloping areas such as the municipality of Ponce, where 56 percent of the 301-square-kilometer municipality has slopes 10 degrees or greater. These are areas where the possibility of landsliding increases when triggering conditions such as heavy rainfall or excavation and construction occur. Using a 30-meter digital elevation model to classify hillslope angle, a digital map of bedrock geology, and maps showing the locations of landslides associated with a severe storm in October 1985, the municipality was classified into areas of low, moderate, and high susceptibility to landslides triggered by heavy rainfall. Areas defined by geology as having 0-0.1 landslides per square kilometer were mapped as having low landslide susceptibility, areas having 0.1-0.5 landslides per square kilometer were mapped as having moderate susceptibility, and areas having more than 0.5 landslides per square kilometer were mapped as having high landslide susceptibility. Areas with hillslope angles of 5 degrees or less were not classified as they are considered too flat for significant landslide susceptibility. The result of this classification indicates that 34 percent of the municipality has high susceptibility to rainfall-triggered landsliding, 24 percent has moderate susceptibility, and 9 percent has low susceptibility. Approximately 34 percent of the municipality, mainly areas with slopes of 5 degrees or less and water bodies, was not classified. Because of the uncertainties inherent in the susceptibility classification of extensive landscape areas as well as timing of landslide triggers, landslide susceptibility maps should be used with caution. The results of this study are valid for generalized planning and assessment purposes, but may be less useful at the site-specific scale where local geologic and geographic heterogeneities may occur. Construction in areas of moderate to high landslide susceptibility should proceed only after site evaluation by engineering geologists. Large magnitude earthquakes, which occur rarely in Puerto Rico, are the other major trigger of landslides for Caribbean islands; however, this factor was not considered in the development of this map.

  12. Flood of September 22, 1998, in Arecibo and Utuado, Puerto Rico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Torres-Sierra, Heriberto

    2002-01-01

    Hurricane Georges made landfall on the southeastern part of Puerto Rico during September 21, 1998. Georges, with maximum sustained winds of 185 kilometers per hour and gusts to 240 kilometers per hour, produced 24-hour total rainfall amounts of 770 millimeters on the island's mountainous interior. Severe flooding affected almost half of the island's 78 municipios during September 21-22, 1998. The most affected municipios were Adjuntas, Aguada, Aguadilla, A?asco, Arecibo, Cayey, Ciales, Comerio, Barceloneta, Dorado, Jayuya, Manati, Mayaguez, Morovis, Orocovis, Patillas, Toa Alta, Toa Baja, and Utuado. The combination of strong winds, intense rainfall and severe flooding caused widespread property damages. More than 20,000 houses were destroyed and more than 100,000 houses sustained damage. Floodwaters and landslides destroyed or damaged many bridges and roads throughout the island. Records indicate that Hurricane Georges induced flood discharges in the Rio Grande de Arecibo Basin that were the largest on record. Floodwaters inundated urban and rural areas, affecting urban subdivisions, businesses, vehicles, bridges, roads, and high-tension electric power lines. To define the extent and depth of inundation, more than 280 high-water marks were identified and surveyed in Arecibo and Utuado. In addition estimates of flood magnitude and frequency were made at selected gaging stations, and flood profiles were developed for certain stream reaches. Flooding was most severe in the towns of Arecibo and Utuado. In Arecibo, the most affected communities were the rural area of San Francisco, the urban subdivisions of Martell, Nolla, and Arecibo Gardens, and the low-lying areas of downtown Arecibo. In these areas, the water depths ranged from 0.6 to 1.8 meters. In Utuado, floodwaters from the Rio Vivi and the Rio Grande de Arecibo inundated the downtown area affecting homes, public facilities, and businesses. In the urban subdivision of Jesus Maria Lago, the depth of flooding exceeded 2.5 meters. Frequency analysis indicates that flood-peak discharges equaled or exceeded the 100-year recurrence interval at five streamflow-gaging stations in the Rio Grande de Arecibo Basin.

  13. Downscaled climate change impacts on agricultural water resources in Puerto Rico

    SciTech Connect

    Harmsen, E.W.; Miller, N.L.; Schlegel, N.J.; Gonzalez, J.E.

    2009-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to estimate reference evapotranspiration (ET{sub o}), rainfall deficit (rainfall - ET{sub o}) and relative crop yield reduction for a generic crop under climate change conditions for three locations in Puerto Rico: Adjuntas, Mayaguez, and Lajas. Reference evapotranspiration is estimated by the Penman-Monteith method. Rainfall and temperature data were statistically downscaled and evaluated using the DOE/NCAR PCM global circulation model projections for the B1 (low), A2 (mid-high) and A1fi (high) emission scenarios of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Special Report on Emission Scenarios. Relative crop yield reductions were estimated from a function dependent water stress factor, which is a function of soil moisture content. Average soil moisture content for the three locations was determined by means of a simple water balance approach. Results from the analysis indicate that the rainy season will become wetter and the dry season will become drier. The 20-year mean 1990-2010 September rainfall excess (i.e., rainfall - ET{sub o} > 0) increased for all scenarios and locations from 149.8 to 356.4 mm for 2080-2100. Similarly, the 20-year average February rainfall deficit (i.e., rainfall - ET{sub o} < 0) decreased from a -26.1 mm for 1990-2010 to -72.1 mm for the year 2080-2100. The results suggest that additional water could be saved during the wet months to offset increased irrigation requirements during the dry months. Relative crop yield reduction did not change significantly under the B1 projected emissions scenario, but increased by approximately 20% during the summer months under the A1fi emissions scenario. Components of the annual water balance for the three climate change scenarios are rainfall, evapotranspiration (adjusted for soil moisture), surface runoff, aquifer recharge and change in soil moisture storage. Under the A1fi scenario, for all locations, annual evapotranspiration decreased owing to lower soil moisture, surface runoff decreased, and aquifer recharge increased. Aquifer recharge increased at all three locations because the majority of recharge occurs during the wet season and the wet season became wetter. This is good news from a groundwater production standpoint. Increasing aquifer recharge also suggests that groundwater levels may increase and this may help to minimize saltwater intrusion near the coasts as sea levels increase, provided that groundwater use is not over-subscribed.

  14. Sedimentation History of Lago Dos Bocas, Puerto Rico, 1942-2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Soler-López, Luis R.

    2007-01-01

    The Lago Dos Bocas Dam, located in the municipality of Utuado in north central Puerto Rico, was constructed in 1942 for hydroelectric power generation. The reservoir had an original storage capacity of 37.50 million cubic meters and a drainage area of 440 square kilometers. In 1948, the construction of the Lago Caonillas Dam on the Rio Caonillas branch of Lago Dos Bocas reduced the natural sediment-contributing drainage area to 310 square kilometers; therefore, the Lago Caonillas Dam is considered an effective sediment trap. Sedimentation in Lago Dos Bocas reservoir has reduced the storage capacity from 37.50 million cubic meters in 1942 to 17.26 million cubic meters in 2005, which represents a storage loss of about 54 percent. The long-term annual water-storage capacity loss rate remained nearly constant at about 320,000 cubic meters per year to about 1997. The inter-survey sedimentation rate between 1997 and 1999, however, is higher than the long-term rate at about 1.09 million cubic meters per year. Between 1999 and 2005 the rate is lower than the long-term rate at about 0.13 million cubic meters per year. The Lago Dos Bocas effective sediment-contributing drainage area had an average sediment yield of about 1,400 cubic meters per square kilometer per year between 1942 and 1997. This rate increased substantially by 1999 to about 4,600 cubic meters per square kilometer per year, probably resulting from the historical magnitude floods caused by Hurricane Georges in 1998. Recent data indicate that the Lago Dos Bocas drainage area sediment yield decreased substantially to about 570 cubic meters per square kilometer per year, which is much lower than the 1942-1997 area normalized sedimentation rate of 1,235 cubic meters per square kilometer per year. The impact of Hurricane Georges on the basin sediment yield could have been the cause of this change, since the magnitude of the floods could have nearly depleted the Lago Dos Bocas drainage area of easily erodible and transportable bed sediment. This report summarizes the historical change in water-storage capacity of Lago Dos Bocas between 1942 and 2005.

  15. A landscape-scale assessment of nutrient limitation in the tropical forests of Luquillo, Puerto Rico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sullivan, C. A.; Goldsmith, S. T.; Porder, S.

    2013-12-01

    The nature and extent of nutrient limitation in tropical forest primary production has been explored for decades, but empirical data of growth responses to nutrient additions remains sparse. Forest fertilization, while appropriate for exploring plot-scale limitation, has only been implemented in a few sites, and does not lend itself to assessment of the multiple gradients in soil fertility and forest community composition that typify most tropical landscapes. For this reason, little is known about how nutrient limitation varies across tropical landscapes, or how biotic and abiotic factors influence this variation. Here we report on the results of a fertilized root ingrowth core experiment deployed across contrasts in soil parent material and topographic position in the Luquillo Mountains of eastern Puerto Rico. In June 2012, we placed 480 fertilized ingrowth cores filled with a mixture of silica sand and perlite in 8 sub-watersheds in El Yunque National Forest--4 underlain by quartz diorite and 4 by volcaniclastic bedrock. We selected sites to control for forest community type and mean annual precipitation. Fertilizer was supplied by adding pre-loaded weak anion and cation resin beads loaded with NH4+ or PO43- to each core. This technique produced elevated levels of available N and P after two months in the field, and avoided the problem of adding a counter ion (typically Na or K) with the P fertilizer treatment. Within each sub-watershed, we placed 10 cores each of control and both nutrient treatments at each topographic position. We retrieved the cores in January 2013 and quantified the mass of roots (<2mm) that grew into each core. Our data show no significant root growth response to either nutrient relative to control. There are three possible interpretations of our results. First, root ingrowth in Luquillo may only be stimulated by the addition of N and P together. Second, addition of some other nutrient (K, Ca, etc.) might promote root ingrowth, but not N or P. Finally, it is possible that root biomass, which may be dominated by a few large roots, may not be an appropriate metric for root response to fertilization. While root ingrowth experiments in other systems have shown increased mass in fertilized cores, our results are consistent with whole- plot fertilization in El Yunque that produced no response of NPP to N addition.

  16. Chemical, Physical and Optical Properties of Saharan Dust Aerosols at a Marine Site in Puerto Rico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortiz Montalvo, D. L.; Mayol Bracero, O. L.; Morales, F.; Sheridan, P.; Ogren, J. A.

    2005-12-01

    Atmospheric dust particles blown from the Sahara across the Atlantic into the Caribbean have an impact on its climate and public health. These particles may play a significant role in radiative forcing, affecting the extinction of solar radiation and thus having an influence on climate. About half of the dust that travels from Africa contains particles that are small enough to inhale. Human breathe them into the respiratory system and they settle in the lungs causing respiratory problems. To have a better understanding of these effects, information is needed on the properties of these aerosols. As part of this study, chemical, physical and optical characterization is being performed on aerosol samples collected at a marine site on the northeastern tip of Puerto Rico (Cabezas de San Juan, Fajardo), during periods with and without Saharan incursions. Stacked-filter units (SFU) are used to collect particles with diameters smaller than 1.7 ?m, using Nuclepore, quartz and Teflon filters. These filter samples are analyzed to obtain the chemical composition of the particles. Initially we are focusing on the carbonaceous fraction (elemental and organic carbon, EC, and OC) of the aerosol using thermal/optical analysis. Online measurements of total particle number concentrations and aerosol light scattering coefficients are performed using a condensation particle counter and an integrating nephelometer, respectively. In addition, a sunphotometer, part of AERONET (http://aeronet.gsfc.nasa.gov/), is used to obtain the aerosol optical thickness (AOT). Preliminary results include only samples collected from air masses under the influence of Saharan dust, as signified by AOT satellite images from MODIS and the results from the air masses backward trajectories calculated with the NOAA HYSPLIT (HYbrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory) model. In terms of the chemical composition, EC concentrations were at low-to-undetectable levels, indicating that OC concentrations were equivalent to those of total carbon (TC), on average 0.35 ?g of carbon per m-3. Samples without the influence of Saharan dust are under analysis and results will be presented in the conference. Additional results, including particle and black carbon concentrations, as well as scattering coefficients will also be presented together with associated air mass back trajectories and MODIS satellite images.

  17. Impacts of Urbanization in the Coastal Tropical City of San Juan, Puerto Rico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Comarazamy, Daniel E.; Gonzalez, Jorge E.; Luvall, Jeffrey C.; Rickman, Douglas L.; Mulero, Pedro J.

    2007-01-01

    Urban sprawl in tropical locations is rapidly accelerating and it is more evident in islands where a large percentage of the population resides along the coasts. This paper focuses on the analysis of the impacts of land use and land cover for urbanization in the tropical coastal city of San Juan, in the Caribbean island of Puerto Rico. A mesoscale numerical model, the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS), is used to study the impacts of land use for urbanization in the environment including specific characteristics of the urban heat island in the San Juan Metropolitan Area (SJMA), one of the most noticeable urban cores of the Caribbean. The research also makes use of the observations obtained during the airborne San Juan Atlas Mission. Surface and rawinsonde data from the mission are used to validate the atmospheric model yielding satisfactory results. Airborne high resolution remote sensing data are used to update the model's surface characteristics in order to obtain a more accurate and detailed configuration of the SJMA and perform a climate impact analysis based on land cover/land use (LCLU) changes. The impact analysis showed that the presence of the urban landscape of San Juan has an impact reflected in higher air temperatures over the area occupied by the city, with positive values of up to 2.5 C, for the simulations that have specified urban LCLU indexes in the model's bottom boundary. One interesting result of the impact analysis was the finding of a precipitation disturbance shown as a difference in total accumulated rainfall between the present urban landscape and with a potential natural vegetation, apparently induced by the presence of the urban area. Results indicate that the urban enhanced cloud formation and precipitation development occur mainly downwind of the city, including the accumulated precipitation. This spatial pattern can be explained by the presence of a larger urbanized area in the southwest sector of the city, and of the approaching northeasterly trade winds. No significant impacts were found in the sea breeze patterns of the city.

  18. Scientific education curricular reforms for undergraduate programs of higher education in Puerto Rico: 1995--2005

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pena-Carrion, Zulma M.

    The knowledge society requires the acquisition of certain competencies for the development of social capital; some of these competencies are related to the development of a scientific culture. This qualitative research was carried out through a descriptive case study that analyzed, compared and contrasted the curricular reform processes and institutional policies modifications that occurred in undergraduate level programs of two higher education institutions in Puerto Rico. Modifications established between 1995 and 2005 were included in the research, with particular interest on changes affecting the undergraduate profile, as related to the development of a scientific culture. The theoretical framework used included the identification of general competencies related to the development of a scientific culture. Through qualitative content analysis of official and public documents of each participating institution a determination was made on the existence or absence of the general competencies previously identified and established. The development of a scientific culture was not an institutional goal in any of the participating institutions. No direct evidence was found that institutional policies existed toward the development of a scientific culture. Competencies related to the theoretical framework used by this research were found in some of the institutional goals and in General Education courses. The General Education component was identified as a common or core curriculum in all undergraduate programs; its purpose was the development in students of the general competencies and characteristics that favor the acquisition of an integrated education in individuals. The research found that one of the participating institutions included, within the General Education component, the general competencies that are directly related to the development of a scientific culture. The creation of a scientific culture, and its development and contribution, will depend upon mastery acquired of competencies and their operational capabilities, application and use; and not upon the advancement and growth of scientific knowledge. Therefore, we propose that to prepare an undergraduate student that possesses the necessary competencies that will boost the development of the knowledge society, curricula must be designed in a manner that includes and enhances the competencies that are related to the advancement of a scientific culture.

  19. Terrigenous Sedimentation Patterns at Reefs Adjacent to the Guanica Bay Watershed, Southwest Puerto Rico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherman, C.; Whitall, D.

    2014-12-01

    Guanica Bay is an estuary on the southwest coast of Puerto Rico with numerous nearshore reefs located in adjacent coastal waters. As part of the multi-agency Guanica Bay Watershed Project, a study was undertaken to establish baseline levels of terrigenous sedimentation reaching reefs adjacent to the Guanica Bay watershed as well as establish spatial and temporal patterns in its delivery. To characterize and quantify sedimentation patterns, sediment traps were established at nine reef sites occurring along an ~ 14 km stretch of coastline centered on the outlet of the bay. Sites were located at shallow reefs within 2 km of the shore at depths of ~ 10 m. Two additional sites were located at the mouth of the Rio Loco where it empties into Guanica Bay and at the mouth of the bay where it opens into adjacent coastal waters. Traps were collected monthly from August 2009 through July 2012 to determine both the amount of sediment accumulation (mg cm-2 day-1) and its composition. Composition is expressed in terms of relative amounts of calcium carbonate (in situ production), organic material and terrigenous material. Average trap accumulation rates among the reef sites ranged from ~ 3 to 28 mg cm-2 day-1. Average percent terrigenous material within reef accumulation ranged from ~ 20% to 30%. While trap accumulation rates are highly variable on both spatial and temporal scales, the composition of sediments and relative amount of terrigenous material is fairly uniform. Similar temporal patterns in accumulation rates among the sites without corresponding changes in composition of sediments point to resuspension of bottom sediments by wave action as a primary driver of sedimentary dynamics at these reefs. Sites closest to Guanica Bay display the highest degree of terrigenous influence in terms of trap accumulation rates and percent terrigenous material, which is consistent with Guanica Bay serving as a local source of terrigenous material to coastal waters. However, the lack of east-west trends relative to the bay mouth in either trap accumulation rates or percent terrigenous material indicates that Guanica Bay is not the sole or necessarily primary source of terrigenous materials reaching nearshore reefs.

  20. Weathering of the Rio Blanco quartz diorite, Luquillo Mountains, Puerto Rico: Coupling oxidation, dissolution, and fracturing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buss, H.L.; Sak, P.B.; Webb, S.M.; Brantley, S.L.

    2008-01-01

    In the mountainous Rio Icacos watershed in northeastern Puerto Rico, quartz diorite bedrock weathers spheroidally, producing a 0.2-2 m thick zone of partially weathered rock layers (???2.5 cm thickness each) called rindlets, which form concentric layers around corestones. Spheroidal fracturing has been modeled to occur when a weathering reaction with a positive ??V of reaction builds up elastic strain energy. The rates of spheroidal fracturing and saprolite formation are therefore controlled by the rate of the weathering reaction. Chemical, petrographic, and spectroscopic evidence demonstrates that biotite oxidation is the most likely fracture-inducing reaction. This reaction occurs with an expansion in d (0 0 1) from 10.0 to 10.5 A??, forming 'altered biotite'. Progressive biotite oxidation across the rindlet zone was inferred from thin sections and gradients in K and Fe(II). Using the gradient in Fe(II) and constraints based on cosmogenic age dates, we calculated a biotite oxidation reaction rate of 8.2 ?? 10-14 mol biotite m-2 s-1. Biotite oxidation was documented within the bedrock corestone by synchrotron X-ray microprobe fluorescence imaging and XANES. X-ray microprobe images of Fe(II) and Fe(III) at 2 ??m resolution revealed that oxidized zones within individual biotite crystals are the first evidence of alteration of the otherwise unaltered corestone. Fluids entering along fractures lead to the dissolution of plagioclase within the rindlet zone. Within 7 cm surrounding the rindlet-saprolite interface, hornblende dissolves to completion at a rate of 6.3 ?? 10-13 mol hornblende m-2 s-1: the fastest reported rate of hornblende weathering in the field. This rate is consistent with laboratory-derived hornblende dissolution rates. By revealing the coupling of these mineral weathering reactions to fracturing and porosity formation we are able to describe the process by which the quartz diorite bedrock disaggregates and forms saprolite. In the corestone, biotite oxidation induces spheroidal fracturing, facilitating the influx of fluids that react with other minerals, dissolving plagioclase and chlorite, creating additional porosity, and eventually dissolving hornblende and precipitating secondary minerals. The thickness of the resultant saprolite is maintained at steady state by a positive feedback between the denudation rate and the weathering advance rate driven by the concentration of pore water O2 at the bedrock-saprolite interface. ?? 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Sensitivity Analysis and Validation of SWAT Model for Prediction of Stream Flow and Sediment Yield in the Rio De La Plata Basin, Puerto Rico

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. M. Melesse; S. G. Setegn; M. E. McClain; X. Wang

    2009-01-01

    Many reservoirs of Puerto Rico are rapidly losing their water storage capacity because of high rates of sediment influx from the upstream watersheds and accumulation. The main reasons for high sedimentation in the reservoirs are land use changes, steep mountainous topography, and most importantly, the humid tropical environment, magnitude and frequencies of rain fall and other climatic variables. Moreover, major

  2. Predicting the temporal and spatial probability of orographic cloud cover in the Luquillo Experimental Forest in Puerto Rico using generalized linear (mixed) models

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wei Wu; Charles Hall; Lianjun Zhang

    2006-01-01

    We predicted the spatial pattern of hourly probability of cloud cover in the Luquillo Experimental Forest (LEF) in North-Eastern Puerto Rico using four different models. The probability of cloud cover (defined as “the percentage of the area covered by clouds in each pixel on the map” in this paper) at any hour and any place is a function of three

  3. The coontie’s new clothes: asymmetric genetic diversification within Zamia (Cycadales: Zamiaceae) on Puerto Rico, and an hypothesis of multiple introductions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three distinctive Zamia species occur on Puerto Rico: Z. erosa on the north coast, and Z. portoricensis and Z. pumila, both in the south. Their relationships are largely unknown. We tested an hypothesis of multiple introductions and explored whether the three species show divergent patterns of ge...

  4. Impact of a Workshop on Physiological Sciences in Public High School Students in Puerto Rico - PhUn Week Poster Session EB 2011

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2011-05-07

    This poster describes a Physiology Understanding (PhUn) Week activity performed with high school students focusing on the Nervous, Cardiovascular, and Respiratory Systems. This poster was presented at the PhUn Week Poster Session, Experimental Biology 2011, by Jose O. Garcia, University of Puerto Rico Medical Sciences Campus.

  5. The Puerto Rico Weather Camp 2012 is a summer experience hosted by the NOAA Center for Atmospheric Sciences at UPR Mayagez (UPRM) and co-sponsored by the

    E-print Network

    Gilbes, Fernando

    The Puerto Rico Weather Camp 2012 is a summer experience hosted by the NOAA Center for Atmospheric about diverse topics including the complex tropical weather and climate phenomena, the atmosphere observation, and many others. Participants also get to interact with scientists, National Weather Service

  6. Influence of a Commercial Fertilizer and Tropic Sunn (Crotalaria juncea) as a Cover Crop on Soil Microbial Communities Under Organic Sweet Pepper Produciton in Puerto Rico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Organic production in Puerto Rico is at an early stage and research is needed to validate the sustainability of different management practices. This research initiated evaluation of selected soil properties including the microbial communities and enzyme activities in order to evaluate the effects o...

  7. Silt fraction heavy-mineral distributions in a lateritic environment: the rivers and insular shelf of north-central Puerto Rico

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. J. Poppe; J. A. Commeau; Gretchen Luepke

    1995-01-01

    Mineralogical studies of sediments from the rivers and insular shelf in north-central Puerto Rico examine the effects of lateritic weathering and assess the silt fraction for economically important heavy minerals. This fraction, which is enriched in heavy minerals relative to the sand fraction, is mainly detrital but contains a strong authigenic component. The detrital silt heavy-mineral fraction in the rivers

  8. A Bayesian Belief Network Approach to Explore Alternative Decisions for Sediment Control and water Storage Capacity at Lago Lucchetti, Puerto Rico

    EPA Science Inventory

    A Bayesian belief network (BBN) was developed to characterize the effects of sediment accumulation on the water storage capacity of Lago Lucchetti (located in southwest Puerto Rico) and to forecast the life expectancy (usefulness) of the reservoir under different management scena...

  9. Food-based lure performance in three locations in Puerto Rico: attractiveness to Anastrepha suspensa and A. obliqua (Diptera;Tephritidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lures based on odors released by hydrolyzed protein were assessed for their attractiveness to Anastrepha obliqua and A. suspensa at three locations in Puerto Rico in August through October 2009. Lures compared included ammonium acetate combined with putrescine, hydrolyzed corn protein (Nulure) with ...

  10. Seasonal variability in the vertical attenuation coefficient at 490 nm (K490) in waters around Puerto Rico and US Virgin Islands.

    E-print Network

    Gilbes, Fernando

    Virgin Islands, MODIS Aqua, ENVI #12;INTRODUCTION The vertical diffuse attenuation coefficient (Kd properties. The vertical diffuse attenuation coefficient (Kd) was evaluated for the waters around Puerto Rico and the US Virgin Islands. The MODIS K490 of Band 3 Level-2 daily images were processed with a resolution

  11. FIELD TRIALS OF LURES TO ATTRACT FRUIT FLIES (DIPTERA: TEPHRIDITIDAE) IN COMMERCIAL SAPODILLA, MAMEY SAPOTE, AND CARAMBOLA ORCHARDS IN PUERTO RICO

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field trials in Puerto Rico were conducted to compare the attractiveness of the standard bait of pelletized torula yeast/borax with a two component (ammonium acetate and putrescine) synthetic lure for Anastrepha spp. within orchards of sapodilla, mamey sapote, and carambola. In addition, the trappi...

  12. Hydrology and water quality of a field and riparian buffer adjacent to a mangrove wetland in Jobos Bay Watershed, Puerto Rico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Models that estimate the effects of agricultural conservation practices on water quantity and quality have become increasingly important tools for short- and long-term assessments. In this study, we simulated the water quality and hydrology of a portion of the Jobos Bay watershed, Puerto Rico using...

  13. First report of sooty mold of longan (Dimocarpus longan L.) caused by Tripospermum porosporiferum Matsushima and T. variabile Matsushima in Puerto Rico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A sooty mold disease on longan (Dimocarpus longan L.) was found on trees growing close to bodies of water in Puerto Rico. On the basis of the morphological characters the fungi associated with this disease were identified as Tripospermum porosporiferum Matsushima and T. variabile Matsushima. T. por...

  14. Translation, Adaptation, and Validation of the Stanford Hypnotic Clinical Scale in Puerto Rico

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yazmín Deynes-Exclusa; Sean K. Sayers-Montalvo; Alfonso Martínez-Taboas

    2011-01-01

    The only hypnotizability scale that has been translated and validated for the Puerto Rican population is the Barber Suggestibility Scale (BSS). In this article, the Stanford Hypnotic Clinical Scale (SHCS) was translated and validated for this population. The translated SHCS (“Escala Stanford de Hipnosis Clínica” [ESHC]) was administered individually to 100 Puerto Rican college students. There were no significant differences

  15. The Spanish of Ponce, Puerto Rico: A Phonetic, Phonological, and Intonational Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luna, Kenneth Vladimir

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates four aspects of Puerto Rican Spanish as represented in the Autonomous Municipality of Ponce: the behavior of coda /[alveolar flap]/, the behavior of /r/, the different realizations of coda /s/, and its intonational phonology. Previous studies on Puerto Rican Spanish report that coda /[alveolar flap]/ is normally realized as…

  16. Hydrogeology and hydrology of the Punta Cabullones wetland area, Ponce, southern Puerto Rico, 2007-08

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rodríguez-Martínez, Jesús; Soler-López, Luis R.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Municipio Autónomo de Ponce and the Puerto Rico Department of Natural and Environmental Resources, conducted a study of the hydrogeology and hydrology of the Punta Cabullones area in Ponce, southern Puerto Rico. (Punta Cabullones is also referred to as Punta Cabullón.) The Punta Cabullones area is about 9 square miles and is an ecological system made up of a wetland, tidal flats, saltflats, mangrove forests, and a small fringing reef located a short distance offshore. The swales or depressions between successive beach ridges became development avenues for saline to hypersaline wetlands. The Punta Cabullones area was designated by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service as a coastal barrier in the 1980s because of its capacity to act as a buffer zone to ameliorate the impacts of natural phenomenon such as storm surges. Since 2003, Punta Cabullones has been set aside for preservation as part of the mitigation effort mandated by Federal and State laws to compensate for the potential environmental effects that might be caused by the construction of the Las Américas Transshipment Port. Total rainfall measured during 2008 within the Punta Cabullones area was 36 inches, which is slightly greater than the long-term annual average of 32 inches for the coastal plain near Ponce. Two evapotranspiration estimates, 29 and 37 inches, were obtained for the subarea of the Punta Cabullones area that is underlain by fan-delta and alluvial deposits by using two variants of the Penman semi-empirical equation. The long-term water stage and chemical character of the wetland in Punta Cabullones are highly dependent on the seasonal and annual variations of both rainfall and sea-wave activity. Also, unseasonal short-term above-normal rainfall and sea-wave events resulting from passing storms may induce substantial changes in the water stage and the chemical character of the wetland. In general, tidal fluctuations exert a minor role in modifying the water quality and stage of the wetland in Punta Cabullones. The role of the tidal fluctuations becomes important during those times when the outlets/inlets to the sea are not blocked by a sand bar and is allowed to freely flow into the wetland interior. The salinity of the wetland varies from brackish to hypersaline. The hypersaline conditions, including the occurrence of saltflats, within the Punta Cabullones wetland area result from a high evapotranspiration rate. The hypersaline conditions are further enhanced by a sand bar that blocks the inlet/outlet of the wetland’s easternmost channel, particularly during the dry season. Groundwater in Punta Cabullones mostly is present within beds of silisiclastic sand and gravel. During the study period, the depth to groundwater did not exceed 4 feet below land surface. The movement and direction of the groundwater flow in Punta Cabullones are driven by density variations that in turn result from the wide range of salinities in the groundwater. The salinity of the groundwater decreases within the first 60 to 100 feet of depth and decreases outward from a mound of hypersaline groundwater centered on piezometer nest PN2. The main groundwater types within the Punta Cabullones area vary from calcium-bicarbonate type in the northernmost part of the study area to a predominantly sodium-potassium-chloride groundwater type southward. According to stable-isotope data, groundwater within the study area is both modern meteoric water and seawater highly affected by evaporation. The chemical and stable-isotopic character of local groundwater is highly influenced by evapotranspiration because of its shallow depth. Equivalent freshwater heads indicate groundwater moves away from a mound centered on piezometer nest PN2, in a pattern similar to the spatial distribution of groundwater salinity. Vertical groundwater flow occurs in Punta Cabullones due to local differences in density. In the wetland subarea of Punta Cabullones, groundwater and surface water are hydraulically coupled. Locally, surface-hypersaline water sinks into

  17. High-Mg andesites and related lavas from southwest Puerto Rico (Greater Antilles Island Arc): Petrogenetic links with emplacement of the Late Cretaceous Caribbean mantle plume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jolly, Wayne T.; Schellekens, Johannes H.; Dickin, Alan P.

    2007-10-01

    Two-pyroxene-bearing high-Mg andesite, hornblende basalt and andesite, and high-Fe augite basalt were erupted simultaneously in southwest Puerto Rico between 85 and 65 Ma. An analogy with geologic settings in Cenozoic arcs indicates that hornblende-bearing lavas and high-Mg andesites, restricted to the southwestern-most corner of Puerto Rico, represent the forearc assemblage, whereas high-Fe basalts, concentrated in an adjacent volcanic belt toward the northeast, represent the arc-axis suite. This arrangement implies northeast-dipping subduction of refractory Jurassic chert from the Caribbean Basin, and is, therefore, consistent with relatively low Sr-isotope ratios in all three lava suites compared with correlative strata in Eastern Puerto Rico. Moreover, Pb- and Nd-isotope ratios and trace element melting models for both high-Mg andesites and hornblende-bearing lavas are consistent with the presence of a slab melt component generated by high-pressure fusion of incompatible element-enriched plateau basalts. The most likely source for such a basaltic component is the Caribbean basalt plateau, which is represented in southwest Puerto Rico by the Upper Cajul Formation. The models indicate that up to 5% slab melt was added to the source of hornblende-bearing lavas, but higher proportions, as much as 10%, are required to generate high-Mg andesites. The elevated buoyancy of the more enriched and siliceous high-Mg andesite source apparently destabilized the mantle wedge and induced combined mantle-mass assimilation and fractional crystallization of orthopyroxene (AFC ? 1), which ultimately produced elevated MgO and low Al 2O 3 concentrations characteristic of the high-Mg andesites. The tectonic setting in southwest Puerto Rico was unlike Cenozoic analogues, because the pre-arc basement was already old (Early Jurassic, 185-155 Ma) at the time of initial island arc volcanism (˜ 85 Ma). However, geothermal gradients in the region were increased again immediately preceding arc volcanism by emplacement of the Caribbean mantle plume (92-88 Ma), during which the original N-MORB-type upper mantle in the region was replaced by incompatible element-enriched material. The elevated heat flow produced by plume emplacement, supplemented by ascent of plume basalts from depth and associated gabbroic underplating, is inferred to have promoted slab melting. The presence of a low Zr/Sm component in both plateau basalts and arc lavas in southwest Puerto Rico is consistent with the incorporation of a small biogenic supra-subduction zone component of Atlantic origin, introduced into the back-arc region of an older (from 115 Ma) southwest-dipping subduction zone in eastern Puerto Rico.

  18. Analysis of Upper Air, Ground and Remote Sensing Data for the Atlas Field Campaign in San Juan, Puerto Rico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gonzalez-Cruz, Jorge E.

    2005-01-01

    The general climate of the island of Puerto Rico is dominated by the easterly trade winds from the Atlantic Ocean, and during synoptically calm days by the topographic and local land surface characteristics [1]. The urban canopy of the metropolitan area of San Juan, capital city of the Island, may introduce a new microclimate that changes the characteristics of the low atmosphere and interacts with the other microclimates already present in the island. The primitive land cover and land use (LCLU) of the metropolitan area of San Juan was composed by broadleaf trees, moist soils, and very dense vegetation in general. The urban LCLU changes the balance for the mass, momentum and energy between the bottom boundary and the lower atmosphere, creating different climate conditions over urban and rural regions. Some of these differences are low relative humidity and high temperatures observed in urban areas when compared to rural areas. These in turn produces a convective circulation over the urban areas, a phenomenon compared to the sea and land breezes, commonly known as heat islands (UHI). Factors that contribute to the formation of the UHI are anthropogenic heat sources, aerosols from pollutants, fast water canalization due to the presence of buildings and streets, among others. The comparison between urban and rural climates is the most common approach to analyze the UHI. These contrasts are larger in clear and calm conditions and tend to disappear in cloudy and windy weather. The UHI was recognized in the early 1950 s as closed isotherms that separates the city from the general temperature field [2]. The impact of the urban LCLU in San Juan, Puerto Rico, was quantified calculating the difference between historical data sets for the air temperature over an identified urban area and a rural area dT(U-R). The analysis of the climatological data revealed that a UHI exists in the metropolitan area of San Juan, Puerto Rico. The data reveals a permanent urban heat island effect present in the SJMA during the year, which is increasing at a rate of 0.41oC/decade. These findings encouraged the planning and execution of an intense field campaign in February 2004 referred as the ATLAS San Juan mission. The focus of the remaining of this report is the analysis of the data for this field campaign.

  19. Bathymetric terrain model of the Puerto Rico Trench and the northeastern Caribbean region for marine geological investigations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Andrews, Brian D.; ten Brink, Uri S.; Danforth, William W.; Chaytor, Jason D.; Granja Bruña, José-Luis; Llanes Estrada, Pilar; Carbó-Gorosabel, Andrés

    2014-01-01

    Records were obtained for 305 wells and 1 spring in northwestern Lee and southeastern Chatham counties, NorMultibeam bathymetric data collected in the Puerto Rico Trench and northeastern Caribbean region are compiled into a seamless bathymetric terrain model for broad-scale geological investigations of the trench system. These data, collected during eight separate surveys between 2002 and 2013 and covering almost 180,000 square kilometers, are published here in large-format map sheet and digital spatial data. This report describes the common multibeam data collection and processing methods used to produce the bathymetric terrain model and corresponding data-source polygon. Details documenting the complete provenance of the data are provided in the metadata in the Data Catalog section.

  20. A gharial from the Oligocene of Puerto Rico: transoceanic dispersal in the history of a non-marine reptile.

    PubMed

    Vélez-Juarbe, Jorge; Brochu, Christopher A; Santos, Hernán

    2007-05-22

    The Indian gharial (Gavialis gangeticus) is not found in saltwater, but the geographical distribution of fossil relatives suggests a derivation from ancestors that lived in, or were at least able to withstand, saline conditions. Here, we describe a new Oligocene gharial, Aktiogavialis puertoricensis, from deltaic-coastal deposits of northern Puerto Rico. It is related to a clade of Neogene gharials otherwise restricted to South America. Its geological and geographical settings, along with its phylogenetic relationships, are consistent with two scenarios: (i) that a single trans-Atlantic dispersal event during the Tertiary explains the South American Neogene gharial assemblage and (ii) that stem gharials were coastal animals and their current restriction to freshwater settings is a comparatively recent environmental shift for the group. This discovery highlights the importance of including fossil information in a phylogenetic context when assessing the ecological history of modern organisms. PMID:17341454

  1. A new poroid species of Resupinatus from Puerto Rico, with a reassessment of the cyphelloid genus Stigmatolemma.

    PubMed

    Thorn, R Greg; Moncalvo, Jean-Marc; Redhead, Scott A; Lodge, D Jean; Martín, María P

    2005-01-01

    A fungus with gelatinous poroid fruiting bodies was found in Puerto Rico and determined by macro- and micromorphology to be most similar to members of the lamellate agaric genus Resupinatus. This species is described as a new species, Resupinatus porosus. Phylogenetic analyses of ribosomal DNA sequences support the inclusion of this fungus in the clade containing Resupinatus, and indicate that this monophyletic group also includes members of Asterotus and the cyphelloid genus Stigmatolemma. Resupinatus porosus is another example of tropical poroid representatives of lamellate agaric genera. Resupinatus is emended to include species with poroid (R. porosus) or merulioid (R. merulioides) hymenophore as well as those with laterally stipitate (Asterotus) or cyphelloid (Stigmatolemma) fruiting bodies. Seven new combinations in Resupinatus are proposed to accommodate well-known species of Stigmatolemma. PMID:16596964

  2. A gharial from the Oligocene of Puerto Rico: transoceanic dispersal in the history of a non-marine reptile

    PubMed Central

    Vélez-Juarbe, Jorge; Brochu, Christopher A; Santos, Hernán

    2007-01-01

    The Indian gharial (Gavialis gangeticus) is not found in saltwater, but the geographical distribution of fossil relatives suggests a derivation from ancestors that lived in, or were at least able to withstand, saline conditions. Here, we describe a new Oligocene gharial, Aktiogavialis puertoricensis, from deltaic–coastal deposits of northern Puerto Rico. It is related to a clade of Neogene gharials otherwise restricted to South America. Its geological and geographical settings, along with its phylogenetic relationships, are consistent with two scenarios: (i) that a single trans-Atlantic dispersal event during the Tertiary explains the South American Neogene gharial assemblage and (ii) that stem gharials were coastal animals and their current restriction to freshwater settings is a comparatively recent environmental shift for the group. This discovery highlights the importance of including fossil information in a phylogenetic context when assessing the ecological history of modern organisms. PMID:17341454

  3. Case series of fatal Leptospira spp./dengue virus co-infections-Puerto Rico, 2010-2012.

    PubMed

    Pérez Rodríguez, Nicole M; Galloway, Renee; Blau, Dianna M; Traxler, Rita; Bhatnagar, Julu; Zaki, Sherif R; Rivera, Aidsa; Torres, Jose V; Noyd, David; Santiago-Albizu, Xavier E; Rivera García, Brenda; Tomashek, Kay M; Bower, William A; Sharp, Tyler M

    2014-10-01

    Co-infection with pathogens that cause acute febrile illness creates a diagnostic challenge as a result of overlapping clinical manifestations. Here, we describe four fatal cases of Leptospira species/dengue virus co-infection in Puerto Rico. Although all patients sought care early, antibiotic administration was delayed for most. Steroids were administered to all patients, in most cases before antibiotics. These cases show the need for clinicians evaluating patients in or recently returned from the tropics with acute febrile illness to consider both dengue and leptospirosis. Furthermore, they illustrate the need for nucleic acid- or antigen-based rapid diagnostic tests to enable timely patient diagnosis and management. In particular, antibiotic therapy should be initiated early for patients with suspected leptospirosis, and steroids should not be administered to patients with suspected dengue. PMID:25092820

  4. Community-based dengue prevention programs in Puerto Rico: impact on knowledge, behavior, and residential mosquito infestation.

    PubMed

    Winch, Peter J; Leontsini, Elli; Rigau-Pérez, José G; Ruiz-Pérez, Mervin; Clark, Gary G; Gubler, Duane J

    2002-10-01

    Dengue is a major health burden in Puerto Rico. Televised public service announcements and posters, elementary and pre-school educational programs, and an exhibit at the Children's Museum in Old San Juan were evaluated separately using knowledge and practices surveys administered to children and their parents, surveys of house lots for larval container habitats, focus groups, and interviews with program organizers and participants. Exposure to the programs was associated with increased dengue-related knowledge, increased proportion of tires protected from rain, decreased proportion of water storage containers positive for mosquito larvae, and increased indoor use of aerosol insecticides. Exposure to the elementary school program was associated with slightly lower indices of residential mosquito infestation. The programs have resulted in high levels of awareness, some behavior change, and limited change in larval indices. Greater emphasis on the skills necessary for community members to keep containers free of mosquito larvae would increase program effectiveness. PMID:12452490

  5. Contrasting responses of coral reef fauna and foraminiferal assemblages to human influence in La Parguera, Puerto Rico.

    PubMed

    Oliver, L M; Fisher, W S; Dittmar, J; Hallock, P; Campbell, J; Quarles, R L; Harris, P; LoBue, C

    2014-08-01

    Coral reef biota including stony corals, sponges, gorgonians, fish, benthic macroinvertebrates and foraminifera were surveyed in coastal waters near La Parguera, in southwestern Puerto Rico. The goal was to evaluate sensitivity of coral reef biological indicators to human disturbance. Proxies for human disturbance were measured as distance to town (DTT) and rankings of a low-level sediment contamination gradient analyzed from a previous study. Contaminant rank and DTT showed that percent mud, stony coral taxa richness, reef rugosity, and numbers of invertebrates and sponges were higher at sites closer to human disturbance, but a foraminiferal assemblage index was significantly lower at sites with higher proxies for human disturbance. Fish indicators showed no significant relationships with human activity, but associations between fish community measures and certain measures of stony corals, gorgonians and sponges were found. Contrasting responses between foraminifera and reef organisms may be due to greater exposure and sensitivity of foraminifera to sediment contaminants. PMID:24840256

  6. Life table study of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) in Puerto Rico fed only human blood versus blood plus sugar.

    PubMed

    Costero, A; Edman, J D; Clark, G G; Scott, T W

    1998-09-01

    Life table studies were performed in 1996 with Aedes aegypti (L.) during the low (cool/dry) and high (hot/rainy) dengue virus transmission seasons in Puerto Rico. Mated adult females from field-collected pupae were placed individually in cages and divided into 2 treatment groups: one was fed only human blood and the other human blood plus a 10% sucrose solution. Survival and number of eggs laid were recorded daily for each female. During both seasons, age specific survivorship was higher for the blood plus sugar group, groups fed only human blood had higher reproductive outputs (mx), and net replacement rates (Ro) for blood only groups were higher than for those fed blood plus sugar. Intrinsic rates of growth (r) were the same for both treatments during the low (cool/dry) transmission season, but higher for the blood-only treatment during the high (hot/rainy) transmission season. Our results indicate that feeding on only human blood provides an evolutionary advantage to Ae. aegypti females in Puerto Rico. These results are similar to those from an earlier study carried out with Ae. aegypti in Thailand; the advantage of feeding on human blood does not seem to be restricted to a particular geographic region. We also found that the benefits associated with human feeding persist through epidemiologically different times of the year. We conclude that feeding on human blood is reproductively beneficial for Ae. aegypti, which may increase their contact with human hosts, and therefore may influence their vectorial capacity for dengue viruses through frequent feeding on blood. PMID:9775613

  7. Displacement Vectors of the Cerca Del Cielo, Ponce, Puerto Rico Landslide Measured by High-Precision GPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pacheco, S.; Wang, G.; Nieves, Z.

    2008-12-01

    Global Positioning System (GPS) technologies have been increasingly employed to monitor ground deformations related earthquake, volcano, landslide, and subsidence. GPS has been justified as a very precise displacementmeter. Here we present an application of GPS to monitor the Cerca Del Cielo, Ponce, Puerto Rico Landslide. It had been identified about 30 years ago. It creeps significantly recently, particularly during rainy season. About 60 families live on the landslide block. Currently more than houses have been damaged by the creeping. To study displacement vector of the landslide, a campaign GPS surveying network had been set up around the landslide area. It includes a reference station outside the landslide area and 23 rover points (benchmarks) within the landslide area. The maximum distance between the reference station and rover stations is less than 2 km. One Trimble NetRS GPS receiver with Zerphy antenna is used as our reference station. Two Topcon GB1000 receivers with PG-A1 geodetic antenna are used as our rover stations. We repeat the campaign surveying once per week since March, 2008. Our measurements in the first three months have clearly identified the displacement vectors (magnitude, direction) and velocities of the landslide. They are critical for engineers to choose effective landslide control methods. In order to evaluate the effects of rainfall to the landslide, a rain gauge was installed at the reference station site. Most of our GPS stations are colocated with inclinometer stations installed by a local engineering company. We are expecting to calculate the 3-D displacement vector of the landslide based on measurements from GPS and inclinometers. The GPS surveying method and technologies developed through this study are applicable in Puerto Rico and transferable elsewhere.

  8. Historical Ground-Water Development in the Salinas Alluvial Fan Area, Salinas, Puerto Rico, 1900-2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rodriguez, Jose M.; Gómez-Gómez, Fernando

    2008-01-01

    The Salinas alluvial fan area has historically been one of the most intensively used agricultural areas in the South Coastal Plain of Puerto Rico. Changes in agricultural practices and land use in the Salinas alluvial fan have also caused changes in the geographic distribution of ground-water withdrawals from the alluvial aquifer. As a result, the ground-water balance and ground-water flow pattern have changed throughout the years and may explain the presence of saline ground water along parts of the coast at present. By providing a reconstruction of historical ground-water development in the Salinas alluvial fan area, from the initial years of aquifer development at about 1900 to the most recent conditions existing in 2005, water resources managers and planners can use the results of the analysis for a more complete understanding of aquifer conditions especially pertaining to water quality. This study effort was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Puerto Rico Department of Natural and Environmental Resources as a contribution in the management of the Jobos Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve. The study area encompasses about 20 mi2 (square miles) of the extensive South Coastal Plain alluvial aquifer system (fig. 1). The study area is bounded to the north by foothills of the Cordillera Central mountain chain, to the south by the Caribbean Sea, and to the east and west by the Rio Nigua de Salinas and the Quebrada Aguas Verdes, respectively. Fan-delta and alluvial deposits contain the principal aquifers in the study area.

  9. Prevalence of Vitamin D Insufficiency and Deficiency among Young Physicians at University District Hospital in San Juan, Puerto Rico.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Vick, Margarita; Hernández-Dávila, Leticia; Rodríguez-Rivera, Nixzaliz; López-Valentín, Mariel; Haddock, Lillian; Rodríguez-Martínez, Renil; González-Bossolo, Alex

    2015-06-01

    Vitamin D has been attracting increased attention because of higher prevalences of vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency than expected in areas with sufficient sun exposure. Even though sunlight exposure and diet are the main determinants of vitamin D status, other factors, such as age, race, the use (or not) of sunscreen, medications, and malabsorptive conditions, also affect vitamin D levels. Recent studies have found high prevalences of vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency in different populations. However, there are limited data regarding the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency in Puerto Rico. To shed more light on the subject, we evaluated a sample of 51 internal medicine residents and research fellows, aged from 25 to 39 years at the University District Hospital in San Juan, Puerto Rico, doing so by means of a questionnaire that explored basic socio demographic and lifestyle characteristics and collected anthropometric data; in addition, we obtained blood samples in order to determine 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels. The median 25-hydroxyvitamin D level was 21 ng/mL (range, 7-38 ng/mL). Forty-five participants (88.2%) had 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations of lower than 30 ng/mL. We found vitamin D deficiencies in 43.1% of the population and insufficiencies in 45.1%. Contributory factors to our findings include limited exposure to sunlight during periods of high sun intensity, increased body mass index, and a limited area of the body being exposed to sunlight. A relationship between reduced physical activity levels and hypovitaminosis D was also found. Both calcium intake and vitamin D intake, which were markedly below recommended daily allowances, were positively correlated with 25-hydroxy vitamin D levels, but with a weak association. PMID:26061058

  10. Measuring Health Literacy among People Living with HIV who attend a Community-Based Ambulatory Clinic in Puerto Rico

    PubMed Central

    Rivero-Méndez, Marta; Suárez-Pérez, Erick L.; Solís-Báez, Solymar S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Health literacy is an important area for interventions aimed at reducing or eliminating the health disparities of people living with HIV (PLWH). We sought to determine the level of functional health literacy (FHL) and its association with medication adherence, symptoms, and their attendant management strategies in PLWH. Methods This was a cross-sectional study conducted with 200 adults from a community-based ambulatory clinic in San Juan, Puerto Rico. Results The mean age of the participants was 46.61. Almost half of all participants (47%) had marginal or inadequate levels of health literacy (21.5%, n = 23; 25.50%, n = 51, respectively). Educational level, being employed, annual income, having children, incorrect self-reported CD4+T cell counts, were they actually reported their viral loads, adherence to antiretroviral treatment (ART) , and use of self-care strategies for depression were significantly related to a given individual’s level of health literacy (p<0.05). Significant interactions were found between adherence and FHL (p = 0.0069). People with marginal health literacy had a higher mean score (1.77 ± 937) on the adherence scale than did those with inadequate literacy levels. After adjusting for age, education, and the number of people per room at the participant’s home, data showed that for those who were 45 years of age or younger, there were significant differences (p = 0.002) in the mean scores of the adherence scale between those with marginal levels of health literacy and those who had inadequate levels of same (5.66 ± 1.84). Conclusion Findings from this study fill an existing gap in the important area of health literacy among PLWH in Puerto Rico and highlight the importance of conducting future research geared towards incorporating FHL as an essential component in the management of adherence as well as in both symptoms and the management of same in PLWH. PMID:25856875

  11. Feeding preferences of West Indian manatees in Florida, Belize, and Puerto Rico as indicated by stable isotope analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alves-Stanley, Christy D.; Worthy, Graham A.J.; Bonde, Robert K.

    2010-01-01

    The endangered West Indian manatee Trichechus manatus has 2 recognized subspecies: the Florida T. m. latirostris and Antillean T. m. manatus manatee, both of which are found in freshwater, estuarine, and marine habitats. A better understanding of manatee feeding preferences and habitat use is essential to establish criteria on which conservation plans can be based. Skin from manatees in Florida, Belize, and Puerto Rico, as well as aquatic vegetation from their presumed diet, were analyzed for stable carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios. This is the first application of stable isotope analysis to Antillean manatees. Stable isotope ratios for aquatic vegetation differed by plant type (freshwater, estuarine, and marine), collection location, and in one instance, season. Carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios for manatee skin differed between collection location and in one instance, season, but did not differ between sex or age class. Signatures in the skin of manatees sampled in Belize and Puerto Rico indicated a diet composed primarily of seagrasses, whereas those of Florida manatees exhibited greater regional variation. Mixing model results indicated that manatees sampled from Crystal River and Homosassa Springs (Florida, USA) ate primarily freshwater vegetation, whereas manatees sampled from Big Bend Power Plant, Ten Thousand Islands, and Warm Mineral Springs (Florida) fed primarily on seagrasses. Possible diet-tissue discrimination values for 15N were estimated to range from 1.0 to 1.5 per mil. Stable isotope analysis can be used to interpret manatee feeding behavior over a long period of time, specifically the use of freshwater vegetation versus seagrasses, and can aid in identifying critical habitats and improving conservation efforts.

  12. Tackling the Health Challenge posed by Hepatitis C in Puerto Rico: A Call for Immediate Public Health Actions.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Cynthia M; Albizu-García, Carmen E; Torres, Esther A

    2015-06-01

    Within the past decade, researchers and hepatitis C specialists in Puerto Rico have highlighted the burden of hepatitis C and associated disease outcomes in the island to raise public awareness about this problem and set out a call to action to tackle prevention and control efforts, yet so far no concrete actions have taken place. The population-based studies on hepatitis C have documented that the main risk factor is the sharing of syringes and drug paraphernalia to inject drugs, that most seropositive individuals are unaware of their infection status, and that there are large knowledge deficits about the disease, its risk factors, and measures of prevention and control. The subject is further complicated by the fact that despite hepatitis C reporting is mandatory, there is no effective epidemiological surveillance system to provide the information needed for planning, implementation, monitoring, and evaluation of intervention strategies for this infection and access to medical and other existing therapies is limited. This document addresses the disparities in HC V infection and its adverse outcomes experienced among Puerto Ricans and attempts to set out strategies to address a public health response for hepatitis C at the meso and macro levels of the social-ecological model. Diverse organizations and major stakeholders are urged to mount an adequate response to hepatitis C by transforming current scientific evidence into public health actions to increase awareness, identify those who are actively infected, and link infected individuals into comprehensive care and treatment. PMID:26061053

  13. Movement patterns of persons with HIV receiving treatment in public clinics in the Southern Health Region, Puerto Rico.

    PubMed

    Brett, K M; Yamamura, Y; Kam, W T; Rios, C F; Rodriguez, N; Marconi, K M

    1996-08-01

    A survey conducted among 187 HIV-infected patients from publicly supported HIV clinics in the Puerto Rican Southern Health Region (SHR) failed to substantiate health planners' concern that this group travels frequently to the US to receive medical services. Respondents were questioned about all places of residence and all sites of HIV treatment in the past 12 months. Movement was defined as being anywhere outside of the SHR for 2 weeks or longer. 7% of the sample had moved at least once in the past year; 4% had moved outside the SHR but within Puerto Rico, while 3% had been in the continental US. Compared to the heterosexual risk group, intravenous drug users and men who have sex with men were 7-8 times more likely to have moved. The attainment of at least a high school education was also significantly and independently associated with increased probability of movement. Medical care was not identified by any of these respondents as the primary reason for travel. 58% indicated they were in their current place of residence to be near family, friends, and relatives. Both the small sample size and the low socioeconomic status of respondents may have limited the ability of this study to identify the so-called "air bridge," however. PMID:12320748

  14. New genus and species of flea beetles (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Galerucinae, Alticini) from Puerto Rico, with comments on flea beetle diversity in the West Indies and a key to the West Indian Monoplatini genera

    PubMed Central

    Konstantinov, A. S.; Konstantinova, A. A.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract A new genus (Borinken) and five new species (Borinken elyunque, Distigmoptera chamorrae, Kiskeya elyunque, Ulrica eltoro, and Ulrica iviei) from Puerto Rico are described and illustrated. A keyto all West Indian Monoplatini genera is provided, as are keys to all speciesof Kiskeya and to the speciesof Ulrica from Puerto Rico. A list of the flea beetle genera, along with the number of species and some of the faunal features is presented and discussed for the West Indies. PMID:22291512

  15. Translation, adaptation, and validation of the Stanford Hypnotic Clinical Scale in Puerto Rico.

    PubMed

    Deynes-Exclusa, Yazmin; Sayers-Montalvo, Sean K; Martinez-Taboas, Alfonso

    2011-04-01

    The only hypnotizability scale that has been translated and validated for the Puerto Rican population is the Barber Suggestibility Scale (BSS). In this article, the Stanford Hypnotic Clinical Scale (SHCS) was translated and validated for this population. The translated SHCS ("Escala Stanford de Hipnosis Clinica" [ESHC]) was administered individually to 100 Puerto Rican college students. There were no significant differences found between the norms of the original SHCS samples and the Spanish version of the SHCS. Both samples showed similar distributions. The Spanish version's internal reliability as well as the item discrimination index were adequate. The authors conclude that the ESHC is an adequate instrument to measure hypnotizability in the Puerto Rican population. PMID:21390984

  16. Floods, Habitat Hydraulics and Upstream Migration of Neritina virginea (Gastropoda: Neritidae) in Northeastern Puerto Rico

    E-print Network

    Floods, Habitat Hydraulics and Upstream Migration of Neritina virginea (Gastropoda: Neritidae a detailed study of snail density, size, and hydraulic descriptors in lower Río Mameyes, northeastern Puerto and size dynamics differed between reaches as a function of habitat hydraulics. While juveniles used

  17. NCI-supported facility to conduct cancer trials breaks ground in Puerto Rico

    Cancer.gov

    The Puerto Rican government has allocated $196 million dollars to build a 287,000 sq. ft., 96-bed, cancer hospital in San Juan. The new hospital, which will provide cancer treatment and conduct clinical trials, is the first of its kind in the Caribbean.

  18. 33 CFR 165.771 - Safety Zone; Bahia de Ponce, Puerto Rico

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...yard radius around any vessel carrying Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) cargo while transiting north of Latitude 17°54?00...Ponce. (2) The waters within 150 feet of any vessel carrying LNG cargo while moored at the Puerto de Ponce waterfront facility in...

  19. 47 CFR 73.1210 - TV/FM dual-language broadcasting in Puerto Rico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...information in a different language. (b) Television and...Rico may enter into dual-language time purchase agreements...15 hours per week to dual-language broadcasting, nor may more than three (3) hours of such programming be presented on any...

  20. Helminth and arthropod parasites of the brown pelican, Pelecanus occidentalis, in Puerto Rico, with a compilation of all metazoan parasites reported from this host in the Western Hemisphere.

    PubMed

    Dyer, William G; Williams, Ernest H; Mignucci-Giannoni, Antonio A; Jiménez-Marrero, Nilda M; Bunkley-Williams, Lucy; Moore, Debra P; Pence, Danny B

    2002-10-01

    Seven species of helminths and six species of arthropods are reported from 23 of 40 brown pelicans, Pelecanus occidentalis, collected from various localities in Puerto Rico. Helminth parasites include three nematodes (Contracaecum multipapillatum, Contracaecum mexicanum, and Eustrongylides sp.), three trematodes (Galactosomum darbyi, Mesostephanus appendiculatoides, and Ribeiroia ondatrae), and one cestode (Tetrabothrium sulae). Arthropod parasites include Colpocephalum occidentalis, Neottialges apunctatus, Ornithodoros capensis, Phalacrodectus pelecani, Phalacrodectus punctatissimus, and Phalacrodectus sp. The presence of R. ondatrae in the brown pelican is a new species host record, and P. pelecani, P. punctatissimus and N. apunctatus are new subspecies host records. C. multipapillatum, C. mexicanum, G. darbyi and M. appendiculatoides are new locality records for Puerto Rico, and N. apunctatus, P. pelecani, P. punctatissimus and T. sulae are new locality records for the Caribbean. Necrosis produced by C. multipapillatum, C. mexicanum, and R. ondatrae may have contributed to the emaciation and death of the brown pelicans examined in the present study. PMID:12427338

  1. Performance evaluation and simulation of a Compound Parabolic Concentrator (CPC) trough Solar Thermal Power Plant in Puerto Rico under solar transient conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feliciano-Cruz, Luisa I.

    The increasing fossil fuel costs as well as the need to move in a somewhat sustainable future has led the world in a quest for exploiting the free and naturally available energy from the Sun to produce electric power, and Puerto Rico is no exception. This thesis proposes the design of a simulation model for the analysis and performance evaluation of a Solar Thermal Power Plant in Puerto Rico and suggests the use of the Compound Parabolic Concentrator as the solar collector of choice. Optical and thermal analysis of such collectors will be made using local solar radiation data for determining the viability of this proposed project in terms of the electric power produced and its cost.

  2. A new species of Boca Lowry & Stoddart, 1997 (Amphipoda: Lysianassoidea: Aristiidae) from a mesophotic coral ecosystem off Puerto Rico, Caribbean Sea.

    PubMed

    Senna, André R; Sorrentino, Rayane; Chatterjee, Tapas; Schizas, Nikolaos V

    2014-01-01

    A new species of the genus Boca Lowry & Stoddart, 1997 is described from a mesophotic coral ecosystem off southwestern Puerto Rico, in the Caribbean Sea. The new species is easily recognized from the others in the genus mainly by the following characters: (1) maxilliped, inner plate with 2 long apical simple setae; palp, articles slender, subequal in length; (2) gnathopod 1, propodus slightly elongate, about 2.5 × longer than wide, and palm extremely acute, quite long and distinctly demarked by a robust seta at the palmar corner; (3) gnathopod 2, carpus slightly elongate, about 3.7 × longer than wide; (4) pereopod 5, basis widely expanded posteriorly, posterior margin rounded and smooth, and posteroventral lobe weakly developed. We also present a key to world species of Boca. This is the fifth species of Boca from world's oceans and the first record of the genus from Puerto Rico. PMID:25543800

  3. Connectivity of tropical marine ecosystems--An overview of interdisciplinary research to understand biodiversity and trophic relationships in the Virgin Islands and Puerto Rico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McClain-Counts, Jennifer P.; Demopoulos, Amanda W.J.

    2012-01-01

    The Virgin Islands and Puerto Rico contain marine reserves and protected areas that encompass a variety of tropical ecosystems, including coral reefs, mangroves, and seagrass beds. Reserves and protected areas are established for a variety of reasons, such as preserving nursery habitats and biodiversity, or reducing anthropogenic effects associated with pollution and land use. Questions remain regarding the effectiveness of these designated areas in preserving and protecting spatially connected habitats and associated fishes and invertebrates. Scientists from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), University of Florida, and Arkansas State University are collaborating on interdisciplinary research in the Virgin Islands and Puerto Rico to examine the biodiversity and trophic dynamics of fishes and invertebrates residing in connected mangroves, seagrasses, and coral reefs to discern the effectiveness of current marine reserves and protected areas for conserving reef resources.

  4. Evaluation of groundwater quality and selected hydrologic conditions in the South Coast aquifer, Santa Isabel area, Puerto Rico, 2008–09

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rodríguez, José M.

    2013-01-01

    The source of drinking water in the Santa Isabel and Coamo areas of Puerto Rico (Molina and Gómez-Gómez, 2008) is the South Coast aquifer (hereafter referred to as the aquifer), which supplies about 30,700 cubic meters per day (m³/d) to Puerto Rico Aqueduct and Sewer Authority (PRASA) public-supply wells. In addition, approximately 45 wells provide an estimated 33,700 m³/d of groundwater to irrigate crops in the area. In 1967, baseline nitrate concentrations in groundwater throughout most of the aquifer were generally less than 6 milligrams per liter (mg/L) as nitrogen in collected water samples (U.S. Geological Survey, 2012). In 2007, elevated nitrate concentrations were detected in the aquifer, near Santa Isabel and the foothills north of the coastal plain at Santa Isabel as part of a regional groundwater-quality assessment conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) during 2007 (Rodríguez and Gómez-Gómez, 2008). The increase in nitrate concentrations has been of concern to local government agencies because of its potential effect on public supply. To address public-supply concerns, the USGS, in cooperation with the Puerto Rico Department of Natural and Environmental Resources (PRDNER), evaluated groundwater quality in the aquifer near the Santa Isabel area between January 2008 and May 2009. The objectives of the study were to (1) define the groundwater-quality conditions of the aquifer, with emphasis on the distribution of nitrate concentrations; (2) identify potential sources leading to elevated nitrate concentrations; (3) estimate the nitrate loads from major sources identified; and (4) estimate the groundwater withdrawals by principal-use categories in the area. Results of this study will be used by Commonwealth of Puerto Rico and Federal agencies in developing strategies that can result in containment of high nitrate groundwater to minimize degradation of fresh groundwater in the aquifer.

  5. A Model for Predicting Daily Peak Visitation and Implications for Recreation Management and Water Quality: Evidence from Two Rivers in Puerto Rico

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luis E. Santiago; Armando Gonzalez-Caban; John Loomis

    2008-01-01

    Visitor use surveys and water quality data indicates that high visitor use levels of two rivers in Puerto Rico does not appear\\u000a to adversely affect several water quality parameters. Optimum visitor use to maximize visitor defined satisfaction is a more\\u000a constraining limit on visitor use than water quality. Our multiple regression analysis suggests that visitor use of about\\u000a 150 visitors

  6. The tendency for trees to be multiple-stemmed in tropical and subtropical dry forests: Studies of Guanica forest, Puerto Rico

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. K. DUNPHY; P. G. MURPHY; ARIEL E. LUGO

    Multiple-stemmed trees are a characteristic feature of Caribbean dry forests. In a semi-deciduous forest stand in Guánica Forest, Puerto Rico, 43.3% of all trees have multiple stems. These multiple-stemmed trees account for 58.0% of total basal area. Ten of eleven common species examined had examples of multiple-stemmed individuals, varying between 13.9% and 80.8% of all individuals for a given species.

  7. Radiogeochemical Properties and Cycling at the Caribbean National Forest El Verde Research Station and Surrounding Region on the Island of Puerto Rico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ithier-Guzman, W.; Pyrtle, A. J.

    2007-12-01

    From 1964 through the early 1970's the Atomic Energy Commission conducted a series of experiments at The El Verde Research Station in Puerto Rico. Among these experiments included several involving the use of Cs-137 and other anthropogenic radionuclides. Radiological tests on the trees and vegetation were conducted in a small section of rainforest to study mineral cycling and metabolism. Studies on fauna and water movement were also conducted. In 2003 an investigation of long-term radiogeochemical cycling at the El Verde Research Station was launched. Results from radiogeochemical analysis of sediments and soils collected from El Verde Research Station, nearby streams, as well as the estuary of Coco Beach in the municipality of Rio Grande, Puerto Rico are presented. Cs-137 activities range from below detection limits to 0.4 Bq/g. Ancillary data obtained from grain size, X-ray diffraction, ICP-OES analyses are also discussed. Understanding the current environmental health of study region's ecosystem is vital, given the fact that this area serves as one of the largest sources of potable water for more than 13 municipalities of Puerto Rico.

  8. Selected Hydrologic, Water-Quality, Biological, and Sedimentation Characteristics of Laguna Grande, Fajardo, Puerto Rico, March 2007-February 2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Soler-López, Luis R.; Santos, Carlos R.

    2010-01-01

    Laguna Grande is a 50-hectare lagoon in the municipio of Fajardo, located in the northeasternmost part of Puerto Rico. Hydrologic, water-quality, and biological data were collected in the lagoon between March 2007 and February 2009 to establish baseline conditions and determine the health of Laguna Grande on the basis of preestablished standards. In addition, a core of bottom material was obtained at one site within the lagoon to establish sediment depositional rates. Water-quality properties measured onsite (temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, specific conductance, and water transparency) varied temporally rather than areally. All physical properties were in compliance with current regulatory standards established for Puerto Rico. Nutrient concentrations were very low and in compliance with current regulatory standards (less than 5.0 and 1.0 milligrams per liter for total nitrogen and total phosphorus, respectively). The average total nitrogen concentration was 0.28 milligram per liter, and the average total phosphorus concentration was 0.02 milligram per liter. Chlorophyll a was the predominant form of photosynthetic pigment in the water. The average chlorophyll-a concentration was 6.2 micrograms per liter. Bottom sediment accumulation rates were determined in sediment cores by modeling the downcore activities of lead-210 and cesium-137. Results indicated a sediment depositional rate of about 0.44 centimeter per year. At this rate of sediment accretion, the lagoon may become a marshland in about 700 to 900 years. About 86 percent of the community primary productivity in Laguna Grande was generated by periphyton, primarily algal mats and seagrasses, and the remaining 14 percent was generated by phytoplankton in the water column. Based on the diel studies the total average net community productivity equaled 5.7 grams of oxygen per cubic meter per day (2.1 grams of carbon per cubic meter per day). Most of this productivity was ascribed to periphyton and macrophytes, which produced 4.9 grams of oxygen per cubic meter per day (1.8 grams of carbon per cubic meter per day). Phytoplankton, the plant and algal component of plankton, produced about 0.8 gram of oxygen per cubic meter per day (0.3 gram of carbon per cubic meter per day). The total diel community respiration rate was 23.4 grams of oxygen per cubic meter per day. The respiration rate ascribed to plankton, which consists of all free floating and swimming organisms in the water column, composed 10 percent of this rate (2.9 grams of oxygen per cubic meter per day); respiration by all other organisms composed the remaining 90 percent (20.5 grams of oxygen per cubic meter per day). Plankton gross productivity was 3.7 grams of oxygen per cubic meter per day, equivalent to about 13 percent of the average gross productivity for the entire community (29.1 grams of oxygen per cubic meter per day). The average phytoplankton biomass values in Laguna Grande ranged from 6.0 to 13.6 milligrams per liter. During the study, Laguna Grande contained a phytoplankton standing crop of approximately 5.8 metric tons. Phytoplankton community had a turnover (renewal) rate of about 153 times per year, or roughly about once every 2.5 days. Fecal indicator bacteria concentrations ranged from 160 to 60,000 colonies per 100 milliliters. Concentrations generally were greatest in areas near residential and commercial establishments, and frequently exceeded current regulatory standards established for Puerto Rico.

  9. Food web structure in exotic and native mangroves: a Hawaii–Puerto Rico comparison

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amanda W. J. Demopoulos; Brian Fry; Craig R. Smith

    2007-01-01

    Plant invasions can fundamentally alter detrital inputs and the structure of detritus-based food webs. We examined the detrital\\u000a pathways in mangrove food webs in native (Puerto Rican) and introduced (Hawaiian) Rhizophora mangle forests using a dual isotope approach and a mixing model. Based on trophic-level fractionation of 0–1‰ for ?\\u000a 13C and 2–3‰ for ?\\u000a 15N, among the invertebrates, only

  10. Increase of leptospirosis in dengue-negative patients after a hurricane in Puerto Rico in 1996 [correction of 1966].

    PubMed

    Sanders, E J; Rigau-Pérez, J G; Smits, H L; Deseda, C C; Vorndam, V A; Aye, T; Spiegel, R A; Weyant, R S; Bragg, S L

    1999-09-01

    Leptospirosis has rarely been reported in Puerto Rico, although in the period from 1948 to 1952, 208 cases of leptospirosis and an island-wide seroprevalence of antibody to Leptospira of 14% were documented. In Puerto Rico in October 1996, following rainfall and a period of flooding generated by Hurricane Hortense, serum specimens of 4 patients with suspected dengue fever that were negative for dengue tested positive for Leptospira-specific IgM antibodies in a dipstick assay. Subsequently, we used an island-wide dengue laboratory-based surveillance system to determine the increase in leptospirosis after hurricane-generated floods. All anti-dengue IgM-negative patients (n = 142) with disease onset from August 8 to October 6, 1996 from prehurricane and posthurricane groups were investigated for leptospirosis. Laboratory-confirmed leptospirosis cases were defined as microscopic agglutination test titers > or = 1 :400 to 1 or more serovars, or positive immunohistochemistry in autopsy tissues. Four (6%) of 72 prehurricane and 17 (24%) of 70 posthurricane patients had laboratory-confirmed cases of leptospirosis (relative risk [RR] = 4.4, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.6-12.4). The mean age of case-patients was 34 years (range = 13-64). Eighteen (86%) of 21 confirmed case-patients were males, including one patient who died (31 years old). Patients were located in 18 (38%) of 48 municipalities that submitted serum samples. Clinical features significantly associated with leptospirosis were eye pain (RR = 1.5, 95% CI = 1.3-1.9), joint pain (RR = 1.4, 95% CI = 1.1-1.6), diarrhea (RR = 1.7, 95% CI = 1.2-2.5), and jaundice (RR = 3.3, 95% CI = 1.5-7.2). This study demonstrates the utility of a dengue laboratory-based surveillance system for the detection of an increase of leptospirosis, which most likely would have gone unrecognized. Leptospirosis is treatable with antibacterial agents; knowledge of this diagnosis may significantly reduce morbidity and mortality. PMID:10497979

  11. Characterisation of nutrients wet deposition under influence of Saharan dust at Puerto-Rico in Caribbean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desboeufs, Karine; Formenti, Paola; Triquet, Sylvain; Laurent, Benoit; Denjean, Cyrielle; Gutteriez-Moreno, Ian E.; Mayol-Bracero, Olga L.

    2015-04-01

    Large quantities of African dust are carried across the North Atlantic toward the Caribbean every summer by Trade Winds. Atmospheric deposition of dust aerosols, and in particular wet deposition, is widely acknowledged to be the major delivery pathway for nutrients to ocean ecosystems, as iron, phosphorus and various nitrogen species. The deposition of this dustis so known to have an important impact on biogeochemical processes in the Tropical and Western Atlantic Ocean and Caribbean including Puerto-Rico. However, very few data exists on the chemical composition in nutrients in dusty rain in this region. In the framework of the Dust-ATTAcK project, rainwater was collected at the natural reserve of Cape San Juan (CSJ) (18.38°N, 65.62°W) in Puerto-Ricobetween 20 June 2012 and 12 July 2012 during thedusty period. A total of 7 rainwater events were sampled during various dust plumes. Complementary chemical analyses on aerosols in suspension was also determined during the campaign. The results on dust composition showed that no mixing with anthropogenic material was observed, confirming dust aerosols were the major particles incorporated in rain samples. The partitioning between soluble and particulate nutrients in rain samples showed that phosphorous solubility ranged from 30 and 80%. The average Fe solubility was around 0.5%, in agreement with Fe solubility observed in rains collected in Niger during African monsoon. That means that the high solubility measurements previously observed in Caribbean was probably due to an anthropogenic influence. Atmospheric wet deposition fluxes of soluble and total nutrients (N, P, Si, Fe, Co, Cu, Mn, Ni, Zn) to Caribbean Sea were determined. Atmospheric P and N inputs were strongly depleted relative to the stoichiometry of phytoplankton Fe, N, P and Si requirements.The nitrogen speciation was also determined and showed the predominance of ammonium form. 3-D modeling was used to estimate the spatial extend of these fluxes over the Caribbean Sea.

  12. Septic tanks as larval habitats for the mosquitoes Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus in Playa-Playita, Puerto Rico.

    PubMed

    Burke, R; Barrera, R; Lewis, M; Kluchinsky, T; Claborn, D

    2010-06-01

    Adult Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus) (Diptera: Culicidae) were previously recovered from emergence traps on septic tanks in southeastern Puerto Rico. In this study we quantified immature mosquito abundance and its relationship with structural variables of the septic tanks and chemical properties of the water containing raw sewage. A miniaturized floating funnel trap was used to sample 89 septic tanks for larvae in the Puerto Rican community of Playa-Playita. Aedes aegypti larvae were recovered from 18% of the sampled tanks (10.3 larvae per septic tank per day). Larval presence was positively associated with cracking of the septic tank walls and uncovered access ports. Larval abundance was positively associated with cracking of the septic tank walls and larger tank surface areas, and inversely associated with the total dissolved solids (TDS). Culex quinquefasciatus (Say) larvae were also recovered from 74% of the septic tanks (129.6 larvae per septic tank per day). Larval presence was negatively associated with TDS in the water and larval abundance was positively associated with cracking of the septic tank walls. A screened, plastic emergence trap was used to sample 93 septic tanks within the community for Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus adults. Aedes aegypti adults were recovered from 49% of the sampled tanks (8.7 adults per septic tank per day) and Cx. quinquefasciatus adults were recovered from 97% of the sampled tanks (155.5 adults per septic tank per day). Aedes aegypti adult presence was positively associated with cracking, uncapped openings and septic water pH. The Ae. aegypti adult counts were positively associated with cracking and inversely associated with TDS and conductivity. This study marks the first published record of the recovery of Ae. aegypti larvae from holding tanks containing raw sewage in the Caribbean region. Our study indicates that Ae. aegypti larvae are present in sewage water and that septic tanks have at least the potential to maintain dengue transmission during the dry season. PMID:20374477

  13. A frequent tyrosinase gene mutation associated with type I-A (tyroinase-negative) oculocutaneous albinism in Puerto Rico

    SciTech Connect

    Oetting, W.S.; Witkop, C.J. Jr.; Brown, S.A.; Fryer, J.P.; Bloom, K.E.; King, R.A. (Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis (United States)); Colomer, R. (Servicio Medico de Empressa de la ONCE, Canary Islands (Spain))

    1993-01-01

    The authors have determined the mutations in the tyrosinase gene from 12 unrelated Puerto Rican individuals who have type I-A (tyrosinase-negative) oculocutaneous albinism (OCA). All but one individual are of Hispanic descent. Nine individuals were homozygous for a missense mutation (G47D) in exon I at codon 47. Two individuals were heterozygous for the G47D mutation, with one having a missense mutation at codon 373 (T373K) in the homologous allele and the other having an undetermined mutation in the homologous allele. One individual with negroid features was homozygous for a nonsense mutation (W236X). The population migration between Puerto Rico and the Canary Islands is well recognized. Analysis of three individuals with OCA from the Canary Islands showed that one was a compound heterozygote for the G47D mutation and for a novel missense mutation (L216M), one was homozygous for a missense mutation (P81L), and one was heterozygous for the missense mutation P81L. The G47D and P81L missense mutations have been previously described in extended families in the United States. Haplotypes were determined using four polymorphisms linked to the tyrosinase locus. Haplotype analysis showed that the G47D mutation occurred on a single haplotype, consistent with a common founder for all individuals having this mutation. Two different haplotypes were found associated with the P81L mutation, suggesting that this may be either a recurring mutation for the tyrosinase gene or a recombination between haplotypes. 28 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  14. The Puerto Rico Seismic Network Broadcast System: A user friendly GUI to broadcast earthquake messages, to generate shakemaps and to update catalogues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velez, J.; Huerfano, V.; von Hillebrandt, C.

    2007-12-01

    The Puerto Rico Seismic Network (PRSN) has historically provided locations and magnitudes for earthquakes in the Puerto Rico and Virgin Islands (PRVI) region. PRSN is the reporting authority for the region bounded by latitudes 17.0N to 20.0N, and longitudes 63.5W to 69.0W. The main objective of the PRSN is to record, process, analyze, provide information and research local, regional and teleseismic earthquakes, providing high quality data and information to be able to respond to the needs of the emergency management, academic and research communities, and the general public. The PRSN runs Earthworm software (Johnson et al, 1995) to acquire and write waveforms to disk for permanent archival. Automatic locations and alerts are generated for events in Puerto Rico, the Intra America Seas, and the Atlantic by the EarlyBird system (Whitmore and Sokolowski, 2002), which monitors PRSN stations as well as some 40 additional stations run by networks operating in North, Central and South America and other sites in the Caribbean. PRDANIS (Puerto Rico Data Analysis and Information System) software, developed by PRSN, supports manual locations and analyst review of automatic locations of events within the PRSN area of responsibility (AOR), using all the broadband, strong-motion and short-period waveforms Rapidly available information regarding the geographic distribution of ground shaking in relation to the population and infrastructure at risk can assist emergency response communities in efficient and optimized allocation of resources following a large earthquake. The ShakeMap system developed by the USGS provides near real-time maps of instrumental ground motions and shaking intensity and has proven effective in rapid assessment of the extent of shaking and potential damage after significant earthquakes (Wald, 2004). In Northern and Southern California, the Pacific Northwest, and the states of Utah and Nevada, ShakeMaps are used for emergency planning and response, loss estimation, and communication of earthquake information to the public. We develop a tool to help the PRSN personnel on duty with the generation of ShakeMaps for the felt events in Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. Automatic or reviewed locations came from different sources and the user can select the method to broadcast the message using several ways like direct email trough service lists, a server/client tool to push messages to a remote display client, generate shakemap web pages and update the catalogues.

  15. Seroepidemiology of viral hepatitis, HIV and herpes simplex type 2 in the household population aged 21-64 years in Puerto Rico

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Viral hepatitis and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are key public health problems that pose an enormous risk for disease transmission in the general population. This study estimated, for the first time, prevalence estimates of serologic markers of HCV, HBV, HAV, HIV and HSV-2 in the adult population of Puerto Rico and assessed variations across sociodemographic and behavioral characteristics. Methods A seroepidemiologic survey was employed using a stratified cluster probability sample of households in Puerto Rico. Participants completed a face-to-face interview, a self-administered questionnaire using an ACASI system, and provided blood specimens for antibody testing. Prevalence estimates of viral hepatitis, HIV and HSV-2 were estimated using a logistic regression model weighting for the probability of participation in each household block and the inverse of the probability of selection according to geographic strata, households' blocks, and sex distribution. Results A total of 1,654 adults participated in the study. Seroprevalence estimates for HCV (2.3%, 95% CI: 1.3%-4.2%), HBV (3.1%, 95% CI: 2.0%-4.7%), and HSV-2 (22.3%, 95% CI: 18.5%-26.7%) in Puerto Rico are roughly in agreement with estimates obtained in the US population; however, HAV (41.3%, 95% CI: 36.9%-45.8%) and HIV (1.1%, 95% CI: 0.5%-2.3%) seroprevalence estimates in Puerto Rico were higher. The proportion of individuals that were unaware of their serostatus was as follows: 80% for HCV, 98.3% for HBV, 96.4% for HAV, 36.4% for HIV, and 97.8% for HSV-2. Post-stratification estimates of seroprevalence varied significantly by demographic and risk related characteristics. Conclusion This data underscore the disproportionate impact of some viral infections across selected population subgroups in Puerto Rico. A concerted island-wide effort is needed to strengthen viral hepatitis and STIs prevention and control strategies, support surveillance to monitor chronic infections, and ensure appropriate counseling, testing, and medical management of infected persons. Integration of HCV, HBV, and HSV-2 counseling into HIV existing prevention services and outreach through social networks might represent a valuable approach to reach high-risk individuals. PMID:20331884

  16. USGS48 Puerto Rico precipitation - a new isotopic reference material for ?2H and ?18O measurements of water.

    PubMed

    Qi, Haiping; Coplen, Tyler B; Tarbox, Lauren; Lorenz, Jennifer M; Scholl, Martha

    2014-01-01

    A new secondary isotopic reference material has been prepared from Puerto Rico precipitation, which was filtered, homogenised, loaded into glass ampoules, sealed with a torch, autoclaved to eliminate biological activity, and calibrated by dual-inlet isotope-ratio mass spectrometry. This isotopic reference material, designated as USGS48, is intended to be one of two isotopic reference waters for daily normalisation of stable hydrogen (?(2)H) and stable oxygen (?(18)O) isotopic analysis of water with a mass spectrometer or a laser absorption spectrometer. The ?(2)H and ?(18)O values of this reference water are-2.0±0.4 and-2.224±0.012 ‰, respectively, relative to Vienna Standard Mean Ocean Water on scales normalised such that the ?(2)H and ?(18)O values of Standard Light Antarctic Precipitation reference water are-428 and-55.5 ‰, respectively. Each uncertainty is an estimated expanded uncertainty (U=2u(c)) about the reference value that provides an interval that has about a 95 % probability of encompassing the true value. This isotopic reference water is available by the case of 144 glass ampoules containing 5 mL of water in each ampoule. PMID:24735353

  17. HPV Awareness and Vaccine Willingness Among Dominican Immigrant Parents Attending a Federal Qualified Health Clinic in Puerto Rico.

    PubMed

    Colón-López, Vivian; Quiñones, Valerie; Del Toro-Mejías, Lizbeth M; Conde-Toro, Alexandra; Serra-Rivera, Michelle J; Martínez, Tania M; Rodríguez, Verónica; Berdiel, Luis; Villanueva, Héctor

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the socio-demographic characteristics, awareness of human papillomavirus (HPV), and willingness to vaccinate among a convenience sample of 60 immigrant Dominican parents of adolescent sons in a Federal Qualified Health Clinic in Puerto Rico. Participation involved completing a self-administered survey. Even though more than half of the parents had not received proper HPV vaccine orientation from healthcare provider (58.3 %) nor asked provider for vaccination recommendation for their adolescent sons (56.7 %), most parents were aware of HPV (91.7 %) and HPV vaccination among males (55.0 %). Among those with unvaccinated sons, willingness to vaccinate the son within the next year was high (83.8 %). The low vaccination percentage (31.7 %) and information exchange between the parents and the son's healthcare provider indicates an opportunity for future culturally tailored interventions to target HPV vaccination among healthcare providers and parents of foreign descent in order to increase HPV vaccine uptake among males. PMID:25023490

  18. Temporal and spatial stability of red-tailed hawk territories in the Luquillo Experimental Forest, Puerto Rico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boal, C.W.; Snyder, H.A.; Bibles, B.D.; Estabrook, T.S.

    2003-01-01

    We mapped Red-tailed Hawk (Buteo jamaicensis) territories in the Luquillo Experimental Forest (LEF) of Puerto Rico in 1998. We combined our 1998 data with that collected during previous studies of Red-tailed Hawks in the LEF to examine population numbers and spatial stability of territorial boundaries over a 26-yr period. We also investigated potential relationships between Red-tailed Hawk territory sizes and topographic and climatic factors. Mean size of 16 defended territories during 1998 was 124.3 ?? 12.0 ha, which was not significantly different from our calculations of mean territory sizes derived from data collected in 1974 and 1984. Aspect and slope influenced territory size with the smallest territories having high slope and easterly aspects. Territory size was small compared to that reported for other parts of the species' range. In addition, there was remarkably little temporal change in the spatial distribution, area, and boundaries of Red-tailed Hawk territories among the study periods. Further, there was substantial boundary overlap (21-27%) between defended territories among the different study periods. The temporal stability of the spatial distribution of Red-tailed Hawk territories in the study area leads us to believe the area might be at or near saturation.

  19. Testing the efficacy of an HIV stigma reduction intervention with medical students in Puerto Rico: the SPACES project

    PubMed Central

    Varas-Díaz, Nelson; Neilands, Torsten B; Cintrón-Bou, Francheska; Marzán-Rodríguez, Melissa; Santos-Figueroa, Axel; Santiago-Negrón, Salvador; Marques, Domingo; Rodríguez-Madera, Sheilla

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Stigma associated with HIV has been documented as a barrier for accessing quality health-related services. When the stigma manifests in the healthcare setting, people living with HIV receive substandard services or even be denied care altogether. Although the consequences of HIV stigma have been documented extensively, efforts to reduce these negative attitudes have been scarce. Interventions to reduce HIV stigma should be implemented as part of the formal training of future healthcare professionals. The interventions that have been tested with healthcare professionals and published have several limitations that must be surpassed (i.e., lack of comparison groups in research designs and longitudinal follow-up data). Furthermore, Latino healthcare professionals have been absent from these intervention efforts even though the epidemic has affected this population disproportionately. Methods In this article, we describe an intervention developed to reduce HIV stigma among medical students in Puerto Rico. A total of 507 medical students were randomly introduced into our intervention and control conditions. Results The results show statistically significant differences between the intervention and control groups; intervention group participants had lower HIV stigma levels than control participants after the intervention. In addition, differences in HIV stigma levels between the groups were sustained for a 12-month period. Conclusions The results of our study demonstrate the efficacy of the modes of intervention developed by us and serve as a new training tool for future healthcare professionals with regard to stigma reduction. PMID:24242260

  20. Sodium Intake Among U.S. Adults - 26 States, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico, 2013.

    PubMed

    Fang, Jing; Cogswell, Mary E; Park, Soyoun; Jackson, Sandra L; Odom, Erika C

    2015-07-01

    Excess sodium intake is a major risk factor for hypertension, and subsequently, heart disease and stroke, the first and fifth leading causes of U.S. deaths, respectively. During 2011-2012, the average daily sodium intake among U.S. adults was estimated to be 3,592 mg, above the Healthy People 2020 target of 2,300 mg. To support strategies to reduce dietary sodium intake, 2013 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) data from states and territories that implemented the new sodium-related behavior module were assessed. Across 26 states, the District of Columbia (DC), and Puerto Rico, 39%-73% of adults reported taking action (i.e., watching or reducing sodium intake) (median = 51%), and 14%-41% reported receiving advice from a health professional to reduce sodium intake (median = 22%). Compared with adults without hypertension, a higher percentage of adults with self-reported hypertension reported taking action and receiving advice to reduce sodium intake. For states that implemented the module, these results can serve as a baseline to monitor the effects of programs designed to reduce sodium intake. PMID:26135590

  1. Perceptional and Socio-Demographic Factors Associated with Household Drinking Water Management Strategies in Rural Puerto Rico

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Meha; Lim, Yili; Arce-Nazario, Javier A.; Uriarte, María

    2014-01-01

    Identifying which factors influence household water management can help policy makers target interventions to improve drinking water quality for communities that may not receive adequate water quality at the tap. We assessed which perceptional and socio-demographic factors are associated with household drinking water management strategies in rural Puerto Rico. Specifically, we examined which factors were associated with household decisions to boil or filter tap water before drinking, or to obtain drinking water from multiple sources. We find that households differ in their management strategies depending on the institution that distributes water (i.e. government PRASA vs community-managed non-PRASA), perceptions of institutional efficacy, and perceptions of water quality. Specifically, households in PRASA communities are more likely to boil and filter their tap water due to perceptions of low water quality. Households in non-PRASA communities are more likely to procure water from multiple sources due to perceptions of institutional inefficacy. Based on informal discussions with community members, we suggest that water quality may be improved if PRASA systems improve the taste and odor of tap water, possibly by allowing for dechlorination prior to distribution, and if non-PRASA systems reduce the turbidity of water at the tap, possibly by increasing the degree of chlorination and filtering prior to distribution. Future studies should examine objective water quality standards to identify whether current management strategies are effective at improving water quality prior to consumption. PMID:24586302

  2. Health assessment for Fibers Public Supply Wells, Guayama, Puerto Rico, Region 2. CERCLIS No. PRD980763783. Preliminary report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-04-10

    The Fibers Public Supply Wells Site is a former synthetic fiber manufacturing plant located in Guayama, Puerto Rico. Currently, a pharmaceutical manufacturing facility operates on-site. In addition, 5 public supply wells exist on-site. Preliminary on-site sampling results have identified acetone (7 to 2,260 ppb in soil), methyl ethyl ketone (ND to 7 ppb in soil), ethylene chloride (ND to 55 ppb in soil), bis(2-ethyl hexyl)phthalate (ND to 1,060 ppb in soil). On-site monitoring-well-sampling results identified perchloroethylene (ND to 198 ppb), trichloroethylene (ND to 18 ppb), vinyl chloride (ND to 28 ppb), and trichlorofluoromethane (ND to 10 ppb). The site is considered to be of potential public health concern because of the risk to human health caused by the possibility of human exposure to hazardous substances. Direct contact with and ingestion of contaminated soil by pharmaceutical employees and possibly area residents who access the site are the most likely exposure pathways. In addition, ingestion and direct contact with ground water may possibly be another exposure route.

  3. Mutations to A/Puerto Rico/8/34 PB1 gene improves seasonal reassortant influenza A virus growth kinetics.

    PubMed

    Plant, Ewan P; Liu, Teresa M; Xie, Hang; Ye, Zhiping

    2012-12-17

    It is desirable for influenza vaccine virus strains to have phenotypes that include good growth and hemagglutinin (HA) protein yield. The quality of these characteristics varies among the vaccine viruses and is usually due to multigenic effects. Many influenza A virus vaccine viruses are made as reassortants of the high yield virus A/Puerto Rico/8/34 (PR/8) and a circulating seasonal virus. Co-infection of eggs with the two viruses, and selection of reassortants with the HA and neuraminidase (NA) segments from the seasonal virus, can result in viruses that contain a mixture of internal genes derived from both the high yield virus and the circulating virus. Segment 2 (PB1), which encodes the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, frequently cosegregates with the seasonal HA and NA segments. We asked whether mutations based on the seasonal PB1 genes could improve vaccine virus strains. Here we report that mutations to the PR/8 PB1 gene, based on differences observed between seasonal and PR/8 PB1 genes, accelerate egg and cell culture based replication for a reassortant virus containing HA and NA segments from the low yield A/Wyoming/03/2003 (H3N2) vaccine virus. PMID:23116694

  4. COMMITTEES: Proceedings of the 13th Gravitational Waves Data Analysis Workshop (GWDAW13), San Juan, Puerto Rico, 19-22 January 2009 Proceedings of the 13th Gravitational Waves Data Analysis Workshop (GWDAW13), San Juan, Puerto Rico, 19-22 January 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-10-01

    Science Organising Committee (SOC) Bruce Allen, AEI, Germany Patrick Brady, University of Wisconsin Milwaukee, USA Deepto Chakrabarty, MIT, USA Eugenio Coccia, INFN, Gran Sasso, Italy James Cordes, Cornell University, USA Mario Díaz (Chair), University of Texas Brownsville, USA Sam Finn, Penn State, USA Neil Gehrels, NASA GSFC, USA Fredrick A Jenet, University of Texas Brownsville, USA Nobuyuki Kanda, Osaka City University, Japan Erik Katsavounides, MIT, USA Dick Manchester, ATNF, Australia Soumya Mohanty, University of Texas Brownsville, USA Benoit Mours, LAPP-Annecy, France Maria Alessandra Papa, AEI, Germany Kate Scholberg, Duke University, USA Susan Scott, The Australian National University Alberto Vecchio, University of Birmingham, UK Andrea Vicere, INFN - Sezione di Firenze, Italy Stan Whitcomb, LIGO CALTECH, USA Local Organising Committee (LOC) Paulo Freire (Arecibo Observatory, Puerto Rico) Murray Lewis (Arecibo Observatory, Puerto Rico) Wanda Wiley (University of Texas Brownsville, USA)

  5. Hydrologic, water-quality, and biological assessment of Laguna de las Salinas, Ponce, Puerto Rico, January 2003-September 2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Soler-López, Luis R.; Gómez-Gómez, Fernando; Rodríguez-Martínez, Jesús

    2005-01-01

    The Laguna de Las Salinas is a shallow, 35-hectare, hypersaline lagoon (depth less than 1 meter) in the municipio of Ponce, located on the southern coastal plain of Puerto Rico. Hydrologic, water-quality, and biological data in the lagoon were collected between January 2003 and September 2004 to establish baseline conditions. During the study period, rainfall was about 1,130 millimeters, with much of the rain recorded during three distinct intense events. The lagoon is connected to the sea by a shallow, narrow channel. Subtle tidal changes, combined with low rainfall and high evaporation rates, kept the lagoon at salinities above that of the sea throughout most of the study. Water-quality properties measured on-site (temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, specific conductance, and Secchi disk transparency) exhibited temporal rather than spatial variations and distribution. Although all physical parameters were in compliance with current regulatory standards for Puerto Rico, hyperthermic and hypoxic conditions were recorded during isolated occasions. Nutrient concentrations were relatively low and in compliance with current regulatory standards (less than 5.0 and 1.0 milligrams per liter for total nitrogen and total phosphorus, respectively). The average total nitrogen concentration was 1.9 milligrams per liter and the average total phosphorus concentration was 0.4 milligram per liter. Total organic carbon concentrations ranged from 12.0 to 19.0 milligrams per liter. Chlorophyll a was the predominant form of photosynthetic pigment in the water. The average chlorophyll a concentration was 13.4 micrograms per liter. Chlorophyll b was detected (detection limits 0.10 microgram per liter) only twice during the study. About 90 percent of the primary productivity in the Laguna de Las Salinas was generated by periphyton such as algal mats and macrophytes such as seagrasses. Of the average net productivity of 13.6 grams of oxygen per cubic meter per day derived from the diel study, the periphyton and macrophyes produced 12.3 grams per cubic meter per day; about 1.3 grams (about 10 percent) were produced by the phytoplankton (plant and algae component of plankton). The total respiration rate was 59.2 grams of oxygen per cubic meter per day. The respiration rate ascribed to the plankton (all organisms floating through the water column) averaged about 6.2 grams of oxygen per cubic meter per day (about 10 percent), whereas the respiration rate by all other organisms averaged 53.0 grams of oxygen per cubic meter per day (about 90 percent). Plankton gross productivity was 7.5 grams per cubic meter per day; the gross productivity of the entire community averaged 72.8 grams per cubic meter per day. Fecal coliform bacteria counts were generally less than 200 colonies per 100 milliliters; the highest concentration was 600 colonies per 100 milliliters.

  6. Use of human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B) to study immunological markers resulting from exposure to PM{sub 2.5} organic extract from Puerto Rico

    SciTech Connect

    Fuentes-Mattei, Enrique, E-mail: enrique.fuentes@upr.ed [Department of Biochemistry, School of Medicine, Medical Sciences Campus, University of Puerto Rico, San Juan (Puerto Rico); Center for Environmental and Toxicological Research, School of Medicine, Medical Sciences Campus, University of Puerto Rico, San Juan (Puerto Rico); Rivera, Evasomary [Department of Biology, Rio Piedras Campus, University of Puerto Rico, San Juan (Puerto Rico); Center for Environmental and Toxicological Research, School of Medicine, Medical Sciences Campus, University of Puerto Rico, San Juan (Puerto Rico); Gioda, Adriana [Department of Biochemistry, School of Medicine, Medical Sciences Campus, University of Puerto Rico, San Juan (Puerto Rico); Center for Environmental and Toxicological Research, School of Medicine, Medical Sciences Campus, University of Puerto Rico, San Juan (Puerto Rico); Department of Chemistry, Pontifical Catholic University of Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio), Marques de Sao Vicente street, 225, Gavea, 22453-900, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Sanchez-Rivera, Diana; Roman-Velazquez, Felix R. [Department of Chemistry, Mayaguez Campus, University of Puerto Rico, Mayaguez (Puerto Rico); Jimenez-Velez, Braulio D., E-mail: braulio.jimenez@upr.ed [Department of Biochemistry, School of Medicine, Medical Sciences Campus, University of Puerto Rico, San Juan (Puerto Rico); Center for Environmental and Toxicological Research, School of Medicine, Medical Sciences Campus, University of Puerto Rico, San Juan (Puerto Rico)

    2010-03-15

    Fine particulate air pollutants, mainly their organic fraction, have been demonstrated to be associated with cardiovascular and respiratory health problems. Puerto Rico has been reported to have the highest prevalence of pulmonary diseases (e.g., asthma) in the United States. The aim of this study was to assess, for the first time, the immunological response of human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B) to organic extracts isolated from airborne particulate matter (PM{sub 2.5}) in Puerto Rico. Organic extracts from PM{sub 2.5} collected throughout an 8-month period (2000-2001) were pooled (composite) in order to perform chemical analysis and biological activity testing. BEAS-2B cells were exposed to PM{sub 2.5} organic extract to assess cytotoxicity, levels of cytokines and relative gene expression of MHC-II, hPXR and CYP3A5. Our findings show that organic PM{sub 2.5} consist of toxic as well as bioactive components that can regulate the secretion of cytokines in BEAS-2B, which could modulate inflammatory response in the lung. Trace element analyses confirmed the presence of metals in organic extracts highlighting the relative high abundance of Cu and Zn in polar organic extracts. Polar organic extracts exhibited dose-dependant toxicity and were found to significantly induce the release of interleukin 6 (IL-6), IL-1beta and IL-7 while significantly inhibiting the secretion of IL-8, G-CSF and MCP-1. Moreover, MHC-II transcriptional activity was up-regulated after 24 h of exposure, whereas PXR and CYP3A5 were down-regulated. This research provides a new insight into the effects of PM{sub 2.5} organic fractions on specific effectors and their possible role in the development of respiratory inflammatory diseases in Puerto Rico.

  7. Clinical Conditions Associated with Environmental Exposures: an Epidemiologic Study in Two Communities in Juana Díaz, Puerto Rico

    PubMed Central

    CALO, WILLIAM A.; QUINTANA, RAFAEL; CATONI, IVAN; VALLE, YARÍ; ÁLVAREZ, JULIO J.; COLÓN, WANDA M.; DELGADO, MARLA S.; ESTRELLA, MAYRA; GONZÁLEZ, AIDA L.; KALLIS, MARÍA; MARRERO, VIVIENNE M.; MELÉNDEZ, LEHIDA; MIRANDA, AISHA I.; NIEVES, KAREN; OSORIO, LYDIETTE; RODRÍGUEZ, JOSÉ M.; TORRES, AZALIA; SUÁREZ, ERICK; ORTIZ, ANA P.

    2013-01-01

    Background A population-based cross-sectional design was used to compare the prevalence of respiratory and general symptoms and of respiratory and heart diseases in two communities of Juana Díaz, Puerto Rico: Guayabal, exposed to particulate matter from quarries and diesel exhaust; and Río Cañas Abajo, which has no such exposure. Methods A probabilistic sampling design was used to obtain a representative sample of households and 288 residents of the selected households were interviewed. Adjusted PORs were estimated to assess the relationship between diseases/symptoms and place of residence using logistic regression models. To estimate the parameters of this model, a multilevel approach was used in order to control for potential correlation among residents of the same block. Results A higher prevalence of general and respiratory symptoms and of respiratory diseases was observed for residents of Guayabal when compared to Río Cañas Abajo (p<0.05). Residents of Guayabal were more likely to have bronchitis (adjusted POR=5.5; p-value<0.05), nasal allergies (adjusted POR=4.2; p-value=0.01), nasal congestion (adjusted POR=2.9; p-value=0.02), and nausea and vomiting (adjusted POR=8.7; p-value<0.01). Conclusions The perception of the community of Guayabal of a higher prevalence of symptoms and health conditions was supported by the present findings. This study provides statistical evidence for the design of an analytical epidemiologic study aimed at evaluating the potential effect of quarrying on adverse health outcomes in the community of Guayabal. PMID:19530554

  8. The Integration of TLS and Continuous GPS to Study Landslide Deformation: A Case Study in Puerto Rico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, G.; Philips, D.; Joyce, J.; Rivera, F.

    2011-03-01

    Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS) and Global Positioning System (GPS) technologies provide comprehensive information on ground surface deformation in both spatial and temporal domains. These two data sets are critical inputs for geometric and kinematic modeling of landslides. This paper demonstrates an integrated approach in the application of TLS and continuous GPS (CGPS) data sets to the study of an active landslide on a steep mountain slope in the El Yunque National Forest in Puerto Rico. Major displacements of this landslide in 2004 and 2005 caused the closing of one of three remaining access roads to the national forest. A retaining wall was constructed in 2009 to restrain the landslide and allow the road reopen. However, renewed displacements of the landslide in the first half of 2010 resulted in deformation and the eventual rupture of the retaining wall. Continuous GPS monitoring and two TLS campaigns were performed on the lower portion of the landslide over a three-month period from May to August 2010. The TLS data sets identified the limits and total volume of themoving mass, while the GPS data quantified the magnitude and direction of the displacements. A continuous heavy rainfall in late July 2010 triggered a rapid 2-3 meter displacement of the landslide that finally ruptured the retaining wall. The displacement time series of the rapid displacement is modeled using a fling-step pulse from which precise velocity and acceleration time series of the displacement are derived. The data acquired in this study have demonstrated the effectiveness and power of the integrating TLS and continuous GPS techniques for landslide studies.

  9. Precipitation isotopes link regional climate patterns to water supply in a tropical mountain forest, eastern Puerto Rico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scholl, Martha A.; Murphy, Sheila F.

    2014-05-01

    Like many mountainous areas in the tropics, watersheds in the Luquillo Mountains of eastern Puerto Rico have abundant rainfall and stream discharge and provide much of the water supply for the densely populated metropolitan areas nearby. Projected changes in regional temperature and atmospheric dynamics as a result of global warming suggest that water availability will be affected by changes in rainfall patterns. It is essential to understand the relative importance of different weather systems to water supply to determine how changes in rainfall patterns, interacting with geology and vegetation, will affect the water balance. To help determine the links between climate and water availability, stable isotope signatures of precipitation from different weather systems were established to identify those that are most important in maintaining streamflow and groundwater recharge. Precipitation stable isotope values in the Luquillo Mountains had a large range, from fog/cloud water with ?2H, ?18O values as high as +12 ‰, -0.73 ‰ to tropical storm rain with values as low as -127 ‰, -16.8 ‰. Temporal isotope values exhibit a reverse seasonality from those observed in higher latitude continental watersheds, with higher isotopic values in the winter and lower values in the summer. Despite the higher volume of convective and low-pressure system rainfall, stable isotope analyses indicated that under the current rainfall regime, frequent trade -wind orographic showers contribute much of the groundwater recharge and stream base flow. Analysis of rain events using 20 years of 15 -minute resolution data at a mountain station (643 m) showed an increasing trend in rainfall amount, in agreement with increased precipitable water in the atmosphere, but differing from climate model projections of drying in the region. The mean intensity of rain events also showed an increasing trend. The determination of recharge sources from stable isotope tracers indicates that water supply will be affected if regional atmospheric dynamics change trade- wind orographic rainfall patterns in the Caribbean.

  10. Usefulness of the culturally adapted oxygen-cost diagram in the assessment of dyspnea in Puerto Rico

    PubMed Central

    Santos Rodríguez, Ruth A.; Dexter, Donald; Nieves-Plaza, Mariely; Nazario, Cruz M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Breathlessness is a common and disabling symptom of pulmonary disease. Measuring its severity is recommended as such measurements can be helpful in both clinical and research settings. The oxygen-cost diagram (OCD) and the Medical Research Council (MRC) dyspnea scale were developed in English to measure severity of dyspnea. These scales were previously translated to Spanish and adapted for use in a Hispanic population. The objective of this study is to assess the psychometric properties of these scales. We propose the scales correlate well with measures of physiological impairment. Methods Subjects having pulmonary disease rated their perceptions of dyspnea using the scales, performed a spirometry test, and did a 6-min walk. Spearman correlation coefficients (r) were used to correlate dyspnea scores with spirometric parameters and distance walked (6MWD). Results Sixty-six patients having stable asthma (n = 36), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (n = 19), or interstitial lung disease (n = 11) participated in the study. OCD scores showed a significant correlation with FEV1 (r = 0.41; p<0.01), FEV1% (r = 0.36; p<0.01), FVC (r = 0.44; p<0.01), and FVC% (r = 0.37; p<0.01) in the study population. The OCD scores were highly correlated with 6MWD (r = 0.59, p<0.01). The MRC dyspnea scale showed significant inverse correlation with FEV1 (r = ?0.34; p<0.01) and 6MWD (r = ?0.33; p<0.05), but the correlations were weaker compared to the correlations with the OCD scale. Conclusions The severity of breathlessness as measured by the adapted Spanish OCD showed a moderate to high correlation with spirometric parameters and 6MWD; therefore, the adapted OCD should prove to be useful in Puerto Rico. PMID:25856872

  11. A risk assessment of direct and indirect exposure to emissions from a proposed hazardous waste incinerator in Puerto Rico

    SciTech Connect

    Hallinger, K.; Huggins, A.; Warner, L.

    1995-12-31

    An Indirect Exposure Assessment (IEA) was conducted, under USEPA`s RCRA Combustion Strategy, as part of the Part B permitting process for a proposed hazardous waste incinerator. The IEA involved identification of constituents of concern, emissions estimations, air dispersion and deposition modeling, evaluation of site-specific exposure pathways/scenarios, and food chain modeling in order to evaluate potential human health and environmental risks. The COMPDEP model was used to determine ambient ground level concentrations and dry and wet deposition rates of constituents of concern. The air modeling results were input into 50th percentile (Central) and 95th percentile (High-End) exposure scenarios which evaluated direct exposure via inhalation, dermal contact, and soil ingestion pathways, and indirect exposure through the food chain. The indirect pathway analysis considered the accumulation of constituents in plants and animals used as food sources by local inhabitants. Local food consumption data obtained from the Puerto Rico USDA were combined with realistic present-day and future-use exposure scenarios such as residential use, pineapple farming, and subsistence farming to obtain a comprehensive evaluation of risk, Overall risk was calculated using constituent doses and toxicity factors associated with the various routes of exposure. Risk values for each exposure pathway were summed to determine total carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic hazard to exposed individuals. A population risk assessment was also conducted in order to assess potential risks to the population surrounding the facility. Results of the assessment indicated no acute effects from constituents of concern, and a high-end excess lifetime cancer risk of approximately 6 in a million with dioxins (as 2,3,7,8-TCDD) and arsenic dominating the risk estimate.

  12. Risk factors for suicide attempts in a clinic-based sample of people living with HIV in Puerto Rico.

    PubMed

    Jovet-Toledo, Gerardo G; Clatts, Michael C; Rodriguez-Diaz, Carlos E; Goldsamt, Lloyd; Vargas-Molina, Ricardo L

    2014-01-01

    Puerto Rico (PR) has a large and rapidly growing population of people living with HIV. However, relatively little behavioral or clinical research has been done in this population. As treatment for HIV increasingly moves into a chronic condition model, it is becoming increasingly important to understand the needs of this population so critical social and behavioral interventions can be developed, thus enabling the individual and community-level benefits of antiretroviral (ARV) treatment to be fully realized. To date, however, there has been very little research on the mental health needs of people living with HIV in PR, a fact that constrains intervention development and implementation. This paper describes data from a public sexually transmitted infection (STI) and HIV clinic study in the San Juan metropolitan area between April 2010 and December 2012 (n = 1185), roughly a third (36%) of whom are living with HIV. Descriptive statistics, chi-square, t-tests, and binary logistic regressions were used to assess associations between HIV status and a history of suicide attempt. The overall prevalence of a history of suicide attempt was 20.4%. No statistically significant relationship was found between a history of suicide attempt and being HIV positive, although people with HIV infection did evidence a higher prevalence of attempts than HIV-negative subjects (23.4% vs. 19.0%). Factors associated with having a history of suicide attempt within the overall sample included gender, current employment status, a lifetime history of drug use, and a lifetime history of sex work. Similar patterns were seen in the HIV-positive subsample. There was a nonsignificant trend toward increased risk for a post-diagnosis suicide attempt. These findings suggest that additional research on mental health risks among populations at risk for HIV in PR is needed. PMID:24625259

  13. Food web structure in exotic and native mangroves: A Hawaii-Puerto Rico comparison

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Demopoulos, A.W.J.; Fry, B.; Smith, C.R.

    2007-01-01

    Plant invasions can fundamentally alter detrital inputs and the structure of detritus-based food webs. We examined the detrital pathways in mangrove food webs in native (Puerto Rican) and introduced (Hawaiian) Rhizophora mangle forests using a dual isotope approach and a mixing model. Based on trophic-level fractionation of 0-1??? for ?? 13C and 2-3??? for ?? 15N, among the invertebrates, only nematodes, oligochaetes, and nereid polychaetes from native mangroves exhibited stable isotopes consistent with a mangrove-derived diet. Certain fauna, in particular tubificid oligochaetes, had ?? 13C values consistent with the consumption of mangrove leaves, but they were depleted in 15N, suggesting their primary nitrogen source was low in 15N, and was possibly N 2-fixing bacteria. In introduced mangroves, all feeding groups appeared to rely heavily on non-mangrove sources, especially phytoplankton inputs. Mixing model results and discriminant analysis showed clear separation of introduced and native mangrove sites based on differential food source utilization within feeding groups, with stronger and more diverse use of benthic foods observed in native forests. Observed differences between native and invasive mangrove food webs may be due to Hawaiian detritivores being poorly adapted to utilizing the tannin-rich, nitrogen-poor mangrove detritus. In addition, differential utilization of mangrove detritus between native and introduced mangroves may be a consequence of forest age. We postulate that increasing mangrove forest age may promote diversification of bacterial food webs important in N and S cycling. Our results also suggest a potentially important role for sulfur bacteria in supporting the most abundant infaunal consumers, nematodes, in the most mature systems. ?? 2007 Springer-Verlag.

  14. Food web structure in exotic and native mangroves: a Hawaii-Puerto Rico comparison.

    PubMed

    Demopoulos, Amanda W J; Fry, Brian; Smith, Craig R

    2007-09-01

    Plant invasions can fundamentally alter detrital inputs and the structure of detritus-based food webs. We examined the detrital pathways in mangrove food webs in native (Puerto Rican) and introduced (Hawaiian) Rhizophora mangle forests using a dual isotope approach and a mixing model. Based on trophic-level fractionation of 0-1 per thousand for delta(13)C and 2-3 per thousand for delta(15)N, among the invertebrates, only nematodes, oligochaetes, and nereid polychaetes from native mangroves exhibited stable isotopes consistent with a mangrove-derived diet. Certain fauna, in particular tubificid oligochaetes, had delta(13)C values consistent with the consumption of mangrove leaves, but they were depleted in (15)N, suggesting their primary nitrogen source was low in (15)N, and was possibly N(2)-fixing bacteria. In introduced mangroves, all feeding groups appeared to rely heavily on non-mangrove sources, especially phytoplankton inputs. Mixing model results and discriminant analysis showed clear separation of introduced and native mangrove sites based on differential food source utilization within feeding groups, with stronger and more diverse use of benthic foods observed in native forests. Observed differences between native and invasive mangrove food webs may be due to Hawaiian detritivores being poorly adapted to utilizing the tannin-rich, nitrogen-poor mangrove detritus. In addition, differential utilization of mangrove detritus between native and introduced mangroves may be a consequence of forest age. We postulate that increasing mangrove forest age may promote diversification of bacterial food webs important in N and S cycling. Our results also suggest a potentially important role for sulfur bacteria in supporting the most abundant infaunal consumers, nematodes, in the most mature systems. PMID:17587064

  15. Effects of earthworms on slopewash, surface runoff, and fine-litter transport on a humid-tropical forested hillslope in eastern Puerto Rico: Chapter G in Water quality and landscape processes of four watersheds in eastern Puerto Rico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larsen, Matthew C.; Liu, Zhigang Liu; Zou, Xiaoming

    2012-01-01

    Rainfall, slopewash (the erosion of soil particles), surface runoff, and fine-litter transport were measured in tropical wet forest on a hillslope in the Luquillo Experimental Forest, Puerto Rico, from February 1998 until April 2000. Slopewash data were collected using Gerlach troughs at eight plots, each 2 square meters in area. Earthworms were excluded by electroshocking from four randomly selected plots. The other four (control) plots were undisturbed. During the experiment, earthworm population in the electroshocked plots was reduced by 91 percent. At the end of the experiment, the electroshocked plots had 13 percent of earthworms by count and 6 percent by biomass as compared with the control plots. Rainfall during the sampling period (793 days) was 9,143 millimeters. Mean and maximum rainfall by sampling period (mean of 16 days) were 189 and 563 millimeters, respectively. Surface runoff averaged 0.6 millimeters and 1.2 millimeters by sampling period for the control and experimental plots, equal to 0.25 and 0.48 percent of mean rainfall, respectively. Disturbance of the soil environment by removal of earthworms doubled runoff and increased the transport (erosion) of soil and organic material by a factor of 4.4. When earthworms were removed, the erosion of mineral soil (soil mass left after ashing) and the transport of fine litter were increased by a factor of 5.3 and 3.4, respectively. It is assumed that increased runoff is a function of reduced soil porosity, resulting from decreased burrowing and reworking of the soil in the absence of earthworms. The background, or undisturbed, downslope transport of soil, as determined from the control plots, was 51 kilograms per hectare and the "disturbance" rate, determined from the experimental plots, was 261 kilograms per hectare. The background rate for downslope transport of fine litter was 71 kilograms per hectare and the disturbance rate was 246 kilograms per hectare. Data from this study indicate that the reduction in soil macrofauna population, in this case, earthworms, plays a key role in increasing runoff and soil erosion and, therefore, has important implications for forest and water management.

  16. Feasibility of Collecting Biologic Specimens in Population-based Surveys: Experiences from the Epidemiology of Hepatitis C in the Household, Adult Population of Puerto Rico Study

    PubMed Central

    Pérez, Cynthia M.; Marrero, Edmir; Meléndez, Marytere; Adrovet, Sandra; Colón, Héctor; Albizu, Carmen; Torres, Esther A.; Ortiz, Ana P.; Suárez, Erick

    2011-01-01

    The Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) collects data on preventive health practices and risk behaviors that are linked to chronic diseases, injuries, and preventable infectious diseases that affect the adult population in all states and territories in the US. The BRFSS is currently the only survey conducted annually in Puerto Rico in the population aged 18 years and older; however, prevalence estimates are based on self-reports and therefore are subject to reporting errors. Although surveillance data are useful for the purpose of evaluation, program planning and health policy, surveys that collect biological specimens and clinical data provide a more accurate assessment of prevalence and a comprehensive picture of disease distribution and their risk factors. This article summarizes the methodology employed in a population-based study to estimate the seroprevalence of hepatitis C and other viral infections in Puerto Rico and shows the feasibility of combining different modes of data collection in population-based surveys that collect biologic specimens. PMID:20222329

  17. Social Environment Factors, Diet Quality, and Body Weight in 12-Year-Old Children from Four Public Schools in Puerto Rico

    PubMed Central

    Serrano, Mónica; Torres, Roxana; Pérez, Cynthia M.; Palacios, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the association of social-environment (SE) factors and diet quality (DQ) with weight status in a group of children in Puerto Rico (PR). Methods A cross-sectional study in a sample of 114 12-year-old children enrolled in 4 public schools in the San Juan Metropolitan area in Puerto Rico (PR) during the 2012–2013 school year. These children completed a self-administered questionnaire on socio-demographic characteristics and SE, with information on family meal patterns; parental feeding styles; parental, peer, and school support for healthy eating; physical activity (PA); and frequency of PA and sedentary times. The participants also completed at 24-hour dietary recall interview to determine DQ. This was assessed with the Healthy Eating Index (HIE)-2010, an instrument that evaluates compliance with the Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated and categorized as healthy weight, overweight, or obese. Results 36% of participants were overweight/obese. In terms of DQ, 55% had “poor” DQ, 45% had diets that “need improvement”, and none had “good” DQ. Children of healthy weight (75.0%) reported more frequent family meals than did overweight/obese children (57.5%; p = 0.05). No other significant associations were found between SE factors and DQ or body weight status. Conclusion Most of the participants were of healthy weight but had poor quality diets. Having a healthy weight was positively associated with frequent family meals. PMID:24964643

  18. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 2): Vega Alta Public Supply Wells, Puerto Rico (first remedial action), September 1987. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-09-29

    The Vega Alta Public Supply Wells site is a public water supply well field located in the municipality of Vega Alta, Puerto Rico, approximately 32 km west of San Juan where ground water is the primary source of water. The well field consists of eight active wells. It currently supplies about 3.8 million gallons per day of water to Vega Alta and surrounding residential areas. The Puerto Rico Aqueduct and Sewer Authority (PRASA) is responsible for operation and maintenance of the public water-supply system. The first indication of contamination was discovered in June 1983, when a survey of public water wells made by the U.S. Geological Survey detected 574 ug/1 of trichloroethylene (TCE) in the Ponderosa public supply well. Other VOCs were detected at lower concentrations in non-public wells in the well field system and ground water contamination was suspected. In June and August of 1983 Ponderosa and well GE 1 were shut down by PRASA because of contamination, respectively. This shutdown caused a potential water supply shortage in Vega Alta. PRASA constructed well Bajura 3 to eliminate the shortage. In 1984 an air stripper was constructed at the Ponderosa well and operated until May 1985 when technical problems arose with the air stripper. Currently, ground water is contaminated with 1,1,1-trichloroethene, tetrachloroethene, 1,2-dichloroethene, 1,1-dichloroethene and other VOCs.

  19. Geology and hydrogeology of the Caribbean islands aquifer system of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Renken, Robert A.; Ward, W. C.; Gill, I.P.; Gómez-Gómez, Fernando; Rodríguez-Martínez, Jesús; and others

    2002-01-01

    Poorly lithified to unconsolidated carbonate and clastic sedimentary rocks of Tertiary (Oligocene to Pliocene) and Quaternary (Pleistocene to Holocene) age compose the South Coast aquifer and the North Coast limestone aquifer system of Puerto Rico; poorly lithified to unlithified carbonate rocks of late Tertiary (early Miocene to Pliocene) age make up the Kingshill aquifer of St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands. The South Coast aquifer, North Coast limestone aquifer system, and Kingshill aquifer are the most areally extensive and function as the major sources of ground water in the U.S. Caribbean Islands Regional Aquifer-System Analysis (CI-RASA) study area. In Puerto Rico's South Coast ground-water province, more than 1,000 meters of clastic and carbonate rocks of Oligocene to Pliocene age infill the South Coast Tertiary Basin. The pattern of lithofacies within this basin appears to have been controlled by changes in base level that were, at times, dominated by tectonic movement (uplift and subsidence), but were also influenced by eustasy. Deposition of the 70-kilometer long and 3- to 8-kilometer wide fan-delta plain that covers much of the South Coast ground-water province occurred largely in response to glacially-induced changes in sea level and climate during the Quaternary period. Tectonic movement played a much less important role during the Quaternary. The North Coast ground-water province of Puerto Rico is underlain by homoclinal coastal plain wedge of carbonate and siliciclastic rocks that infill the North Coast Tertiary Basin and thicken to more than 1,700 meters. A thin basal siliciclastic sequence of late Oligocene age is overlain by a thick section of mostly carbonate rocks of Oligocene to middle Miocene age. Globigerinid limestone of late Miocene to Pliocene age crops out and lies in the shallow subsurface areas of northwestern Puerto Rico. Oligocene to middle Miocene age rocks tentatively can be divided into five depositional sequences and associated systems tracts; these rocks record carbonate and minor siliciclastic deposition that occurred in response to changes in relative sea level. The Cibao Formation represents the most complex of these sequences and contains a varied facies of carbonate, mixed carbonate-siliciclastic, and siliciclastic rocks that reflect differential uplift, subsidence, and transgression of the sea. Uplift, graben formation, and gradual shallowing of the sea are reflected within the bathyal-dominated sedimentary facies of the Kingshill Limestone in St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands. Reef-tract limestone beds of Pliocene age were subject to exposure, resubmergence, and meteoric leaching of aragonitic skeletal debris; these beds contain patchy lenses of dolomite that are restricted to a small, structurally-controlled embayment. The South Coast aquifer, the principal water-bearing unit of Puerto Rico's South Coast ground-water province, consists of boulder- to silt-size detritus formed by large and small coalescing fan deltas of Pleistocene to Holocene age. Deep well data indicates that it is possible to vertically separate and group a highly complex and irregular-bedded detrital sequence that underlies distal parts of the fan-delta plain into discrete water-bearing units if correlated with 30- to 40-meter thick, eustatically-controlled depositional cycles. Lithofacies maps show that greatest hydraulic conductivity within the fan-delta plain is generally associated with proximal fan and midfan areas. Distal and interfan areas are least permeable. Alluvial valley aquifers located in the western part of the South Coast ground-water province are important local sources of water supply and appear to contain some of the same physical and hydraulic characteristics as the South Coast aquifer. Older sedimentary rocks within the basin are poor aquifers; conglomeratic beds are well-cemented, and carbonate beds do not contain well-developed solution features, except locally where the beds are over

  20. Impact on diarrhoeal illness of a community educational intervention to improve drinking water quality in rural communities in Puerto Rico

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Waterborne disease is a major risk for small water supplies in rural settings. This study was done to assess the impact of an educational intervention designed to improve water quality and estimate the contribution of water to the incidence of diarrhoeal disease in poor rural communities in Puerto Rico a two-part study was undertaken. Methods An educational intervention was delivered to communities relying on community water supplies. This intervention consisted of student operators and administrators supervising and assisting community members who voluntarily "operate" these systems. These voluntary operators had no previous training and were principally concerned with seeing that some water was delivered. The quality of that water was not something they either understood or addressed. The impact of this intervention was measured through water sampling for standard bacteriological indicators and a frank pathogen. In addition, face-to-face epidemiological studies designed to determine the base-line occurrence of diarrhoeal disease in the communities were conducted. Some 15 months after the intervention a further epidemiological study was conducted in both the intervention communities and in control communities that had not received any intervention. Results Diarrhoeal illness rates over a four week period prior to the intervention were 3.5%. Salmonella was isolated from all of 5 distributed samples prior to intervention and from only 2 of 12 samples after the intervention. In the 15 months follow-up study, illness rates were lower in the intervention compared to control communities (2.5% vs 3.6%%) (RR = 0.70, 95%CI 0.43, 1.15), though this was not statistically significant. However, in the final Poisson regression model living in an intervention system (RR = 0.318; 95%CI 0.137 - 0.739) and owning a dog (RR = 0.597, 95%CI 0.145 - 0.962) was negatively associated with illness. Whilst size of system (RR = 1.006, 95%CI 1.001 - 1.010) and reporting problems with sewage system (RR = 2.973, 95%CI 1.539 - 5.744) were positively associated with illness. Conclusions Educational interventions directed both at identified individuals and the community in general in small communities with poor water quality is a way of giving communities the skills and knowledge to manage their own drinking water quality. This may also have important and sustainable health benefits, though further research preferably using a randomised control trial design is needed. PMID:20426831

  1. Temperature-driven seasonal and diel variation in soil respiration in a moist subtropical forest in Puerto Rico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutiérrez del Arroyo, O.; Wood, T. E.; Lugo, A. E.

    2013-12-01

    Tropical forest soils are the largest natural source of carbon dioxide (CO2) to the atmosphere and have the highest soil respiration rates, globally. Currently, we have little understanding of how this large carbon (C) flux will respond to ongoing changes in climate. Identifying climatic controls and natural variability of soil respiration (Rs) in these ecosystems could improve our ability to predict feedbacks to future climate change. We measured hourly Rs in a secondary, moist subtropical forest in Puerto Rico for a 2-year period using an automated soil respiration system (LI-COR 8100) to determine at what time-scale Rs varies and whether this variability can be explained by abiotic factors such as temperature and moisture. Soil respiration varied significantly at both seasonal and diel time-scales. Mean monthly Rs ranged from 4 to 12 ?mol CO2 m-2 s-1 and the seasonal variation was positively correlated with air temperature (p<0.0001, R2=0.69). In addition, Rs was notably reduced immediately following large precipitation events, possibly due to reduced diffusion rates out of the soil or low oxygen availability; however, precipitation was not related to Rs on a seasonal time-scale. Soil respiration also demonstrated significant diel variation, changing from 1.5 to 3.5 ?mol CO2 m-2 s-1 throughout the day. As with seasonal variation, Rs was positively correlated to soil temperature (p<0.0001, R2=0.61) on a diel time-scale. Diel Rs was decoupled with soil temperature at midday possibly responding to a depression in photosynthesis, which may pause the transport of photosynthate to the roots. The shape of the temperature-Rs hysteresis effect changed seasonally in concert with air temperature. The significant positive effect of temperature on Rs in this forest, despite low intra-annual variability (<4°C), suggests that soil C loss from moist subtropical forests could increase as global temperatures rise. Diel hysteresis effects of Rs suggest that temperature has both linear and non-linear effects on Rs in this forest (i.e., via effects on photosynthesis). Research that partitions Rs into root and microbial components could provide insight into their respective temperature sensitivities, which could explain the observed non-linear relationship with temperature. Overall, the strong temporal variability in Rs observed at multiple time-scales in this study highlights the sensitivity of Rs in this system to relatively small changes in temperature.

  2. Associations between urinary phenol and paraben concentrations and markers of oxidative stress and inflammation among pregnant women in Puerto Rico.

    PubMed

    Watkins, Deborah J; Ferguson, Kelly K; Anzalota Del Toro, Liza V; Alshawabkeh, Akram N; Cordero, José F; Meeker, John D

    2015-03-01

    Phenols and parabens are used in a multitude of consumer products resulting in ubiquitous human exposure. Animal and in vitro studies suggest that exposure to these compounds may be related to a number of adverse health outcomes, as well as potential mediators such as oxidative stress and inflammation. We examined urinary phenol (bisphenol A (BPA), triclosan (TCS), benzophenone-3 (BP-3), 2,4-dichlorophenol (24-DCP), 2,5-dichlorophenol (25-DCP)) and paraben (butyl paraben (B-PB), methyl paraben (M-PB), propyl paraben (P-PB)) concentrations measured three times during pregnancy in relation to markers of oxidative stress and inflammation among participants in the Puerto Rico Testsite for Exploring Contamination Threats (PROTECT) project. Serum markers of inflammation (c-reactive protein (CRP), IL-1?, IL-6, IL-10, and tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?)) were measured twice during pregnancy (n=105 subjects, 187 measurements) and urinary markers of oxidative stress (8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (OHdG) and isoprostane) were measured three times during pregnancy (n=54 subjects, 146 measurements). We used linear mixed models to assess relationships between natural log-transformed exposure and outcome biomarkers while accounting for within individual correlation across study visits. After adjustment for urinary specific gravity, study visit, maternal pre-pregnancy BMI, and maternal education, an interquartile range (IQR) increase in urinary BPA was associated with 21% higher OHdG (p=0.001) and 29% higher isoprostane (p=0.0002), indicating increased oxidative stress. The adjusted increase in isoprostane per IQR increase in marker of exposure was 17% for BP-3, 27% for B-PB, and 20% for P-PB (all p<0.05). An IQR increase in triclosan (TCS) was associated with 31% higher serum concentrations of IL-6 (p=0.007), a pro-inflammatory cytokine. In contrast, IQR increases in BP-3 and B-PB were significantly associated with 16% and 18% lower CRP, a measure of systemic inflammation. Our findings suggest that exposure to BPA, select parabens, and TCS during pregnancy may be related to oxidative stress and inflammation, potential mechanisms by which exposure to these compounds may influence birth outcomes and other adverse health effects, but additional research is needed. PMID:25435060

  3. In Proceedings of the IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition, Puerto Rico, June 1997, pages 457--462 EgoMotion Estimation Using Optical Flow Fields Observed from

    E-print Network

    Hung, Yi-Ping

    In Proceedings of the IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition, Puerto Rico, June 1997, pages 457--462 Ego­Motion Estimation Using Optical Flow Fields Observed from Multiple Cameras An, Taiwan Email: hung@iis.sinica.edu.tw Abstract In this paper, we consider a multi­camera vision system

  4. Impact of the Curso de Perfeccionamiento: An Audit of the Effectiveness of the Physician Retraining Program at the University of Puerto Rico. Final Report for Cursos 1 and 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burkheimer, G. J.; Davis, J. A.

    The University of Puerto Rico Medical School conducted six-month Physician Retraining Programs (Curos de Perfecionamiento) for two groups of foreign trained physicians starting in the Summer of 1970 and the Spring of 1971, respectively. The characteristics of the 84 participants in these programs are examined in terms of pre-Curso medical…

  5. Hurricane Georges: A Cross-National Study Examining Preparedness, Resource Loss, and Psychological Distress in the U.S. Virgin Islands, Puerto Rico, Dominican Republic, and the United States

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David N. Sattler; Andrew J. Preston; Charles F. Kaiser; Vivian E. Olivera; Juan Valdez; Shannon Schlueter

    2002-01-01

    This cross-national study examined preparation for and psychological functioning following Hurricane Georges in the U.S. Virgin Islands, Puerto Rico, Dominican Republic, and the United States. Four to five weeks after the storm made landfall, 697 college students (222 men, 476 women) completed a questionnaire assessing demographic characteristics, preparation, social support, resource loss, and symptoms associated with acute stress disorder. Location,

  6. Ground-Water Resource Assessment in the Rio Grande de Manati Alluvial Plain, Rio Arriba Saliente Area, Puerto Rico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Torres-Gonzalez, Sigfredo; Gómez-Gómez, Fernando; Warne, Andrew G.

    2002-01-01

    The alluvial aquifer within a 160-acre area of the Rio Grande de Manati alluvial plain was investigated to evaluate its potential as a water-supply source for the Barrios Rio Arriba Saliente and Pugnado Afuera, municipio of Manati, Puerto Rico. Analysis of well boring samples and the results of electric resistivity surveys indicate that the average thickness of the unconsolidated alluvial deposits in the study area is about 100 to 110 feet. The alluvium is a mixture of sand and gravel, which generally has a porosity of 0.2 to 0.35. Short-duration pump tests in small-diameter piezometers indicate that the alluvial aquifer has a hydraulic conductivity of about 200 feet per day and a transmissivity of about 7,900 feet squared per day. Analyses of water levels in piezometers, combined with stage measurements at a series of surveyed reference points along the Rio Grande de Manati channel, indicate that the water-table gradient in the alluvial aquifer is about 0.001, and that ground-water flow is generally from south to north, in the general direction of river flow. The water-table data indicate that the Rio Grande de Manati is the principal source of ground-water recharge to the alluvial aquifer in the study area. Because base flow for the Rio Grande de Manati is usually greater than 44 cubic feet per second, a continuous withdrawal rate of 0.5 to 1.0 cubic foot per second (225 to 450 gallons per minute) from a production well is possible. Chemical analysis of a ground-water sample indicates that the alluvial aquifer water meets U.S. Environmental Protection Agency secondary standards for selected constituents. Bacteriological analysis of ground-water samples indicates that the ground water contains little or no fecal coliform or fecal streptococcus bacteria. Although long-term data from upstream of the study area indicate high levels of fecal coliform and fecal streptococcus prior to 1996, bacteriological analyses of Rio Grande de Manati water samples obtained during the present study indicate that fecal coliform and fecal streptococcus concentrations are within the standards for surface water intended for use (or with the potential for use) as a raw source of public water supply in Puerto Rico. If a production well were constructed in the study area, it would be located close to the river channel (within 500 to 800 feet). Pumping from the porous and permeable alluvial aquifer close to the river channel could substantially enhance recharge from the Rio Grande de Manati channel to the aquifer. Enhanced recharge could shorten travel times for ground water in the aquifer, which might not allow sufficient time to attenuate bacteria and viruses. Travel times for bacteria moving from the river channel to a hypothetical production well were estimated using the numerical transport model MODFLOW/MT3DMS with an uncalibrated model of the alluvial aquifer. The model assumes a well pumping at 1 cubic foot per second. The transport of particles from the river to the well is most sensitive to the porosity of the aquifer and the pumping rate of the well. Sensitivity analysis indicates that a decrease in pumpage will increase the time of travel for particles to move from the river to the pumping well. The model indicates that the leading edge of a plume would reach the production well in about 40 days assuming a porosity of 0.20, 60 days assuming a porosity of 0.275, and about 70 days assuming a porosity of 0.35. If the well were moved 50 feet further from the river, the leading edge of the plume would reach the well in about 50 days assuming a porosity of 0.20 and about 70 days assuming a porosity of 0.275. These estimates are considered worse case estimates because no decay rate was included in the simulation, and because the hypothetical well was located in the center of the alluvial plain rather than further eastward, away from the river channel.

  7. 50 CFR 20.101 - Seasons, limits and shooting hours for Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Seasons, limits and shooting hours for Puerto...CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING Annual Seasons, Limits, and Shooting Hours Schedules § 20.101 Seasons, limits and shooting hours for...

  8. 50 CFR 20.101 - Seasons, limits and shooting hours for Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Seasons, limits and shooting hours for Puerto...CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING Annual Seasons, Limits, and Shooting Hours Schedules § 20.101 Seasons, limits and shooting hours for...

  9. 50 CFR 20.101 - Seasons, limits and shooting hours for Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Seasons, limits and shooting hours for Puerto...CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING Annual Seasons, Limits, and Shooting Hours Schedules § 20.101 Seasons, limits and shooting hours for...

  10. Logging Student Learning via a Puerto Rico-based Geologic Mapping Game on the Google Earth Virtual Globe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gobert, J.; Toto, E.; Wild, S. C.; Dordevic, M. M.; De Paor, D. G.

    2013-12-01

    A hindrance to migrating undergraduate geoscience courses online is the challenge of giving students a quasi-authentic field experience. As part of an NSF TUES Type 2 project (# NSF-DUE 1022755), we addressed this challenge by designing a Google Earth (GE) mapping game centered on Puerto Rico, a place we chose in order to connect with underrepresented minorities but also because its simple geologic divisions minimized map complexity. The game invites student groups to explore the island and draw a geological map with these divisions: Rugged Volcanic Terrain, Limestone Karst Topography, and Surficial Sands & Gravels. Students, represented as avatars via COLLADA models and the GE browser plugin, can move about, text fellow students, and click a 'drill here' button that tells them what lies underground. They need to learn to read the topography because the number of holes they can drill is limited to 30. Then using the GE Polygon tool, they create a map, aided by a custom 'snapping' algorithm that stitches adjacent contacts, preventing gaps and overlaps, and they submit this map for evaluation by their instructor, an evaluation we purposefully did not automate. Initially we assigned students to groups of 4 and gave each group a field vehicle avatar with a designated driver, however students hated the experience unless they were the designated driver, so we revised the game to allow all students to roam independently, however we retained the mutual texting feature amongst students in groups. We implemented the activity with undergraduates from a university in South East USA. All student movements and actions on the GE terrain were logged. We wrote algorithms to evaluate student learning processes via log files, including, but not limited to, number of places drilled and their locations. Pre-post gains were examined, as well as correlations between data from log files and pre-post data. There was a small but statistically significant post-pre gain including a positive correlation between diagram-based post-test questions and: 1) total number of drills; 2) number of correct within-polygon identifications (Evidently those who did more drilling inside polygons and drew boundaries accordingly, learn more. Drills 'mistakingly' plotted outside formation polygons were negatively correlated with extra post-test questions but this was not statistically significant --likely due to low statistical power because there were few students who did this); and 3) average distance between drills (Students whose drill holes were further apart, learn more. This makes sense since more information can be gleaned this way and this may also be indicative of a skilled learning strategy because there is little point to doing close/overlapping drills when the permitted number is small and the region is large.) No significant correlation between pre-test score and diagram-based post-test questions was found; this suggests that prior knowledge is not accounting for above correlations. Data will be discussed with respect to GE's utility to convey geoscience principles to geology undergraduates, as well as the affordances for analyzing students' log files in order to better understand their learning processes.

  11. The utility of Skylab photo-interpreted earth resources data in studies of marine geology and coastal processes in Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trumbull, J. V. A. (principal investigator)

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Three Skylab earth resources passes over Puerto Rico and St. Croix on 6 June and 30 November 1973 and 18 January 1974 resulted in color photography and multispectral photography and scanner imagery. Bathymetric and turbid water features are differentiable by use of the multispectral data. Photography allows mapping of coral reefs, offshore sand deposits, areas of coastal erosion, and patterns of sediment transport. Bottom sediment types could not be differentiated. Patterns of bottom dwelling biologic communities are well portrayed but are difficult to differentiate from bathymetric detail. Effluent discharges and oil slicks are readily detected and are differentiated from other phenomena by the persistence of their images into the longer wavelength multispectral bands.

  12. Clinical and Laboratory Features That Differentiate Dengue from Other Febrile Illnesses in an Endemic Area—Puerto Rico, 2007–2008

    PubMed Central

    Gregory, Christopher J.; Santiago, Luis Manuel; Argüello, D. Fermin; Hunsperger, Elizabeth; Tomashek, Kay M.

    2010-01-01

    Dengue infection can be challenging to diagnose early in the course of infection before severe manifestations develop, but early diagnosis can improve patient outcomes and promote timely public health interventions. We developed age-based predictive models generated from 2 years of data from an enhanced dengue surveillance system in Puerto Rico. These models were internally validated and were able to differentiate dengue infection from other acute febrile illnesses with moderate accuracy. The accuracy of the models was greater than either the current World Health Organization case definition for dengue fever or a proposed modification to this definition, while requiring the collection of fewer data. In young children, thrombocytopenia and the absence of cough were associated with dengue infection; for adults, rash, leucopenia, and the absence of sore throat were associated with dengue infection; in all age groups, retro-orbital pain was associated with dengue infection. PMID:20439977

  13. Review: Groundwater flow and transport modeling of karst aquifers, with particular reference to the North Coast Limestone aquifer system of Puerto Rico

    PubMed Central

    Ghasemizadeh, Reza; Hellweger, Ferdinand; Butscher, Christoph; Padilla, Ingrid; Vesper, Dorothy; Field, Malcolm; Alshawabkeh, Akram

    2013-01-01

    Karst systems have a high degree of heterogeneity and anisotropy, which makes them behave very differently from other aquifers. Slow seepage through the rock matrix and fast flow through conduits and fractures result in a high variation in spring response to precipitation events. Contaminant storage occurs in the rock matrix and epikarst, but contaminant transport occurs mostly along preferential pathways that are typically inaccessible locations, which makes modeling of karst systems challenging. Computer models for understanding and predicting hydraulics and contaminant transport in aquifers make assumptions about the distribution and hydraulic properties of geologic features that may not always apply to karst aquifers. This paper reviews the basic concepts, mathematical descriptions, and modeling approaches for karst systems. The North Coast Limestone aquifer system of Puerto Rico (USA) is introduced as a case study to illustrate and discuss the application of groundwater models in karst aquifer systems to evaluate aquifer contamination. PMID:23645996

  14. Health assessment for Vega Alta Public Supply Wells Site, Vega Alta, Puerto Rico, Region 2. CERCLIS No. PRS187147. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-12-02

    The Vega Alta Public Supply Wells Site is a public water supply wellfield located in the municipality of Vega Alta, Puerto Rico. Based on data collected from 1983 to 1985, the ground water is contaminated with volatile organic chemicals (VOCs), notably trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene, and 1,2-trans-dichloroethylene. A remediation alternative selected in a Record of Decision dated September 29, 1987 calls for treatment of 4 of the more highly contaminated wells and shutting down 2 others. Remediation efforts are to include air stripping and possibly treatment by carbon adsorption. Monitoring of the effectiveness of these efforts will determined their adequacy to bring the quality of the tap water to acceptable levels. It is not known whether the water currently supplied through the municipality has elevated concentrations of VOCs. Therefore, based on the limited information available, ATSDR has concluded that the Vega Alta Wells site is of public health concern.

  15. Characterization of land-based sources of pollution in Jobos Bay, Puerto Rico: status of heavy metal concentration in bed sediment.

    PubMed

    Apeti, Dennis A; Whitall, David R; Pait, Anthony S; Dieppa, Angel; Zitello, Adam G; Lauenstein, Gunnar G

    2012-01-01

    As part of an assessment of land-based sources of pollution in Jobos Bay, Puerto Rico, sediment samples were collected at 43 sites to characterize concentrations of a suite of pollutants, including metals. Fifteen major and trace metals (Ag, Al, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, Sn, and Zn) were measured along with total organic carbon and grain size in surficial sediments. For most metals, maximum concentrations were seen in the eastern bay; however, values were still within concentration ranges found in other estuarine systems. In contrast, silver was higher in the western region. In general, metal distribution in the bay was positively correlated with grain size. Additionally, correlations between Al and other metals suggest natural sources for metals. The data presented here suggest that, although the Jobos Bay watershed contains both urban centers along with industrial and agricultural developments, anthropogenic inputs of metals may be negligible. PMID:21509514

  16. Human Impacts to Coastal Ecosystems in Puerto Rico (HICE-PR): A Long-Term Remote Sensing, Hydrologic, Ecologic, and Socio-Economic Assessment with Management Implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres-Perez, J. L.; Barreto-Orta, M.; Ortiz, J.; Santiago, L.; Setegn, S. G.; Guild, L. S.; Ramos-Scharron, C. E.; Armstrong, R.; Detres, Y.

    2014-12-01

    For several decades Puerto Rico's coastal and marine ecosystems (CMEs) have suffered the effects of anthropogenic stresses associated to population growth and varying land use. Coral reefs, for instance, have been impacted by sedimentation, increased eutrophication, and coastal water contamination. Here we present an overview of a new NASA project to study human impacts in two priority watersheds (Manatí and Guánica). The project uses an interdisciplinary approach that includes historic and recent remote sensing analysis and hydrological, ecological and socio-economic modeling to provide a multi-decadal assessment of change in coral reefs, seagrass beds, mangroves and sandy beaches. The project's main goal is to evaluate the impacts of land use/land cover changes on the quality and extent of CMEs in priority watersheds in the north and south coasts of Puerto Rico. Methods include assessments of coral reefs benthic communities cover, monitoring of short- and long-term beach geomorphological changes associated with riverine and sediment input, calculation of the economical value of selected CMEs, establish permanent monitoring transects in never before studied coral reef areas, provide recommendations to enhance current coastal policy management practices, and disseminate the results to local stakeholders. This project will include imagery from the Operational Land Imager of Landsat 8 to assess coastal ecosystems extent. Habitat and species distribution maps will be created by incorporating field and remotely-sensed data into an Ecological Niche Factor Analysis. The social component will allow us to study the valuation of specific CMEs attributes from the stakeholder's point of view. Our results and the generality of the methodology will provide for its application to other similar tropical locations.

  17. Vs30 and spectral response from collocated shallow, active- and passive-source Vs data at 27 sites in Puerto Rico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Odum, Jack K.; Stephenson, William J.; Williams, Robert A.; von Hillebrandt-Andrade, Christa

    2013-01-01

    Shear?wave velocity (VS) and time?averaged shear?wave velocity to 30 m depth (VS30) are the key parameters used in seismic site response modeling and earthquake engineering design. Where VS data are limited, available data are often used to develop and refine map?based proxy models of VS30 for predicting ground?motion intensities. In this paper, we present shallow VS data from 27 sites in Puerto Rico. These data were acquired using a multimethod acquisition approach consisting of noninvasive, collocated, active?source body?wave (refraction/reflection), active?source surface wave at nine sites, and passive?source surface?wave refraction microtremor (ReMi) techniques. VS?versus?depth models are constructed and used to calculate spectral response plots for each site. Factors affecting method reliability are analyzed with respect to site?specific differences in bedrock VS and spectral response. At many but not all sites, body? and surface?wave methods generally determine similar depths to bedrock, and it is the difference in bedrock VS that influences site amplification. The predicted resonant frequencies for the majority of the sites are observed to be within a relatively narrow bandwidth of 1–3.5 Hz. For a first?order comparison of peak frequency position, predictive spectral response plots from eight sites are plotted along with seismograph instrument spectra derived from the time series of the 16 May 2010 Puerto Rico earthquake. We show how a multimethod acquisition approach using collocated arrays compliments and corroborates VS results, thus adding confidence that reliable site characterization information has been obtained.

  18. Analysis of Measurements of Saharan Dust by Airborne and Ground-based Remote Sensing Methods during the Puerto Rico Dust Experiment (PRIDE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Jeffrey S.; Kinney, James E.; Westphal, Douglas L.; Holben, Brent N.; Welton, E. Judd; Tsay, Si-Chee; Eleuterio, Daniel P.; Campbell, James; Christopher, Sundar A.; Jonsson, Haflidi H.

    2003-01-01

    For 26 days in mid-June and July 2000, a research group comprised of U.S. Navy, NASA, and university scientists conducted the Puerto Rico Dust Experiment (PRIDE). In this paper we give a brief overview of mean meteorological conditions during the study. We focus on findings on African dust transported into the Caribbean utilizing Navajo aircraft and AERONET Sun photometer data. During the study midvisible aerosol optical thickness (AOT) in Puerto Rico averaged 0.25, with a maximum less than 0.5 and with clean marine periods of _0.08. Dust AOTs near the coast of Africa (Cape Verde Islands and Dakar) averaged _0.4, 30% less than previous years. By analyzing dust vertical profiles in addition to supplemental meteorology and MPLNET lidar data we found that dust transport cannot be easily categorized into any particular conceptual model. Toward the end of the study period, the vertical distribution of dust was similar to the commonly assumed Saharan Air Layer (SAL) transport. During the early periods of the study, dust had the highest concentrations in the marine and convective boundary layers with only a, weak dust layer in the SAL being present, a state usually associated with wintertime transport patterns. We corroborate the findings of Maring et al. that in most cases, there was an unexpected lack of vertical stratification of dust particle size. We systematically analyze processes which may impact dust vertical distribution and determine and speculate that dust vertical distribution predominately influenced by flow patterns over Africa and differential advection couple with mixing by easterly waves and regional subsidence.

  19. Light Pollution in the Shining Star of the Caribbean: Recovering the nightscape for future generations in island of Puerto Rico

    E-print Network

    Gilbes, Fernando

    Light Pollution in the Shining Star of the Caribbean: Recovering the nightscape for future@fs.fed.us Other authors: Members of the Light Pollution Task Force representing the following entities: Puerto of light pollution had gradually taking a heavy toll over nightsky observations, endangered sea turtle

  20. Cultural Tailoring and Feasibility Assessment of a Sexual Health Middle School Curriculum: A Pilot Test in Puerto Rico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Escobar-Chaves, Soledad Liliana; Shegog, Ross; Moscoso-Alvarez, Margarita R.; Markham, Christine; Tortolero-Luna, Guillermo; Peskin, Melissa; Tortolero, Susan

    2011-01-01

    Background: To assess the need for cultural tailoring of an effective sexual health middle school curriculum, "It's Your Game: Keep It Real" (IYG), prior to implementation in Puerto Rican (PR) middle schools. Methods: Seventy-three seventh-grade bilingual students participated in IYG curriculum activities (both group-based and computer-based) in…

  1. Simulation of flow in the upper North Coast Limestone Aquifer, Manati-Vega Baja area, Puerto Rico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cherry, Gregory S.

    2001-01-01

    A two-dimensional computer ground-water model was constructed of the Manati-Vega Baja area to improve the understanding of the unconfined upper aquifer within the North Coast Province of Puerto Rico. The modeled area covers approximately 79 square miles within the municipios of Manati and Vega Baja and small portions of Vega Alta and Barceloneta. Steady-state two-dimensional ground-water simulations were correlated to conditions prior to construction of the Laguna Tortuguero outlet channel in 1940 and calibrated to the observed potentiometric surface in March 1995. At the regional scale, the unconfined Upper North Coast Limestone aquifer is a diffuse ground-water flow system through the Aguada and Aymamon limestone units. The calibrated model input parameters for aquifer recharge varied from 2 inches per year in coastal areas to 18 inches per year in the upland areas south of Manati and Vega Baja. The calibrated transmissivity values ranged from less than 500 feet squared per day in the upland areas near the southern boundary to 70,000 feet squared per day in the areas west of Vega Baja. Increased ground-water withdrawals from 1.0 cubic foot per second for 1940 conditions to 26.3 cubic feet per second in 1995, has reduced the natural ground-water discharge to springs and wetland areas, and induced additional recharge from the rivers. The most important regional drainage feature is Laguna Tortuguero, which is the major ground-water discharge body for the upper aquifer, and has a drainage area of approximately 17 square miles. The discharge to the sea from Laguna Tortuguero through the outlet channel has been measured on a bi-monthly basis since 1974. The outflow represents a combination of ground- and surface-water discharge over the drainage area. Hydrologic conditions, prior to construction of the Laguna Tortuguero outlet channel in 1943, can be considered natural conditions with minimal ground-water pumpage (1.0 cubic foot per second), and heads in the lagoon were 2.4 feet higher. The model was calibrated to March 1995 conditions during a dry period of minimal aquifer recharge and relatively constant water levels in the upper aquifer. For the steady-state 1995 model simulation, however, ground-water pumpage had been increased to 26.3 cubic foot per second, due to increased demand for public water supply, the heads at 0.9 feet, and the outflow to the sea at Laguna Tortuguero had been lowered considerably. Simulated ground-water inflow for 1940 hydrologic conditions included 35.9 cubic feet per second from areal recharge, contributions from streamflow along the southern boundary of 1.6 cubic feet per second, and streamflow infiltration to the upper aquifer of 4.2 cubic feet per second. Simulated ground-water outflow for 1940 hydrologic conditions are discharge to springs of 17.4 cubic feet per second, total ground-water withdrawals of 1.0 cubic feet per second, and aquifer contribution to streamflow or wetland areas of 23.4 cubic feet per second. Simulated ground-water inflow for hydrologic conditions of March 1995 include d contributions from streamflow along the southern boundary of 1.6 cubic feet per second, areal recharge of 35.9 cubic feet per second, and streamflow infiltration to the upper aquifer of 11 cubic feet per second. Simulated ground-water outflow for hydrologic conditions of March 1995 are ground-water withdrawals of 26.3 cubic feet per second, discharge from springs of 7.3 cubic feet per second, and aquifer contribution to streamflow or wetland areas of 14 .9 cubic feet per second. The overall ground-water budget increased from 41.8 cubic feet per second for 1940 conditions to 48.6 cubic feet per second for the hydrologic conditions of March 1995. The increase in ground-water budget is a direct result of increased ground-water withdrawals, which induced greater streamflow infiltration. Simulated ground-water flux to Laguna Tortuguero for 1940 conditions was 11 cubic feet per second, which drop

  2. The Use of a Geographic Information System and Remote Sensing Technology for Monitoring Land Use and Soil Carbon Change in the Subtropical Dry Forest Life Zone of Puerto Rico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Velez-Rodriguez, Linda L. (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    Aerial photography, one of the first form of remote sensing technology, has long been an invaluable means to monitor activities and conditions at the Earth's surface. Geographic Information Systems or GIS is the use of computers in showing and manipulating spatial data. This report will present the use of geographic information systems and remote sensing technology for monitoring land use and soil carbon change in the subtropical dry forest life zone of Puerto Rico. This research included the south of Puerto Rico that belongs to the subtropical dry forest life zone. The Guanica Commonwealth Forest Biosphere Reserve and the Jobos Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve are studied in detail, because of their location in the subtropical dry forest life zone. Aerial photography, digital multispectral imagery, soil samples, soil survey maps, field inspections, and differential global positioning system (DGPS) observations were used.

  3. The Psychology of Puerto Rican Migration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prewitt Diaz, Joseph O.

    The psychology of the Puerto Rican migrant to the United States mainland is explored. Puerto Ricans have been migrating to the U.S. mainland and returning to Puerto Rico for more than 125 years, and, in fact, approximately 57% of all Puerto Ricans have migrated at one time or another. The migrant experience, including the circular migration…

  4. Geochemical evolution of waters within the north coast limestone aquifers of Puerto Rico; a conceptualization based on a flow path in the Barceloneta area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roman-Mas, A. J.; Lee, R.W.

    1987-01-01

    Water samples along a groundwater flow path in the Barceloneta area, Puerto Rico, were collected from wells screened in the Montebello Limestone Member of the Cibao Formation (artesian aquifer) and in the overlying Aguada and Aymamon Limestones (water table aquifer). The groundwater chemistry changes as water migrates from recharge areas to downgradient zones in the aquifers. Dissolved magnesium, dissolved sulfate, pH, and carbon-13 isotope generally increase down-gradient. Total inorganic carbon and calcium decrease within the freshwater parts of the aquifer. Mass transfer calculations show that the likely reaction model is carbon dioxide incorporation as water infiltrates through the soil zone, followed by calcite dissolution as water recharges the aquifer. As water moves downgradient within the artesian aquifer, carbon dioxide may degas as a result of calcite precipitation while gypsum and dolomite are dissolved. Within the water table aquifer, continuous recharge of waters rich in carbonic acid maintains the dissolution of the carbonate minerals. Near the coast the mixing of fresh groundwater with saltwater is the primary process affecting water chemistry within the water table aquifer. (Author 's abstract)

  5. Final report and archive of the swath bathymetry and ancillary data collected in the Puerto Rico Trench region in 2002 and 2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ten Brink, Uri S.; Danforth, William W.; Polloni, Christopher F.

    2013-01-01

    In 2002 and 2003, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), conducted three exploration cruises that mapped for the first time the morphology of the entire tectonic plate boundary stretching from the Dominican Republic in the west to the Lesser Antilles in the east, a distance of approximately 700 kilometers (430 miles). Observations from these three exploration cruises, coupled with computer modeling and published Global Positioning System (GPS) results and earthquake focal mechanisms, have provided new information that is changing the evaluation of the seismic and tsunami hazard from this plate boundary. The observations collected during these cruises also contributed to the basic understanding of the mechanisms that govern plate tectonics, in this case, the creation of the island of Puerto Rico and the deep trench north of it. Results of the sea floor mapping have been an important component of the study of tsunami and earthquake hazards to the northeastern Caribbean and the U.S. Atlantic coast off the United States.

  6. Land-use effects on erosion, sediment yields, and reservoir sedimentation: a case study in the Lago Loiza Basin, Puerto Rico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gellis, A.C.; Webb, R.M.T.; McIntyre, S.C.; Wolfe, W.J.

    2006-01-01

     Lago Loíza impounded in 1953 to supply San Juan, Puerto Rico, with drinking water; by 1994, it had lost 47% of its capacity. To characterize sedimentation in Lago Loíza, a study combining land-use history, hillslope erosion rates, and subbasin sediment yields was conducted. Sedimentation rates during the early part of the reservoir’s operation (1953– 1963) were slightly higher than the rates during 1964–1990. In the early history of the reservoir, cropland comprised 48% of the basin and erosion rates were high. Following economic shifts during the 1960s, cropland was abandoned and replaced by forest, which increased from 7.6% in 1950 to 20.6% in 1987. These land-use changes follow a pattern similar to the northeastern United States. Population in the Lago Loíza Basin increased 77% from 1950 to 1990, and housing units increased 194%. Sheetwash erosion measured from 1991 to 1993 showed construction sites had the highest sediment concentration (61,400 ppm), followed by cropland (47,400 ppm), pasture (3510 ppm), and forest (2050 ppm). This study illustrates how a variety of tools and approaches can be used to understand the complex interaction between land use, upland erosion, fluvial sediment transport and storage, and reservoir sedimentation. 

  7. Using Hydrogeophysical Methods to Understand the Spatial Distribution of the Bedrock-regolith Interface in the Rio Icacos Watershed (Luquillo Critical Zone Observatory, Puerto Rico).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comas, X.; Wright, W. J.; Hynek, S. A.; Orlando, J.; Buss, H. L.; Brantley, S. L.

    2014-12-01

    The Rio Icacos watershed in the Luquillo Mountains (Puerto Rico) is a unique location due to the rapid weathering rates and formation of altered materials (i.e. regolith) in the critical zone. The watershed is characterized by a quartz diorite bedrock with a system of heterogeneous fractures that apparently drive the formation of corestones and associated spheroidal fracturing and rindlets. Although spatially limited, direct observations along drilled boreholes from previous studies have conclusively shown that regolith thickness increases with topography, from 20-30 m at the hornfels-facies ridges to several m in the quartz diorite-dominated valleys to tens of centimeters on ridges near the major river knickpoint. In this study we used a suite of hydrogeophysical methods (mainly ground penetrating radar, GPR, and terrain conductivity measurements), to characterize regolith thickness and the lateral distribution of fracturing along km-long transects across topographic gradients. GPR common offset profiles detected vertical areas of concentrated chaotic reflections and diffraction hyperbolas (in contrast to reflection-free areas) associated with fracturing and corestone-rich zones. Terrain conductivity measurements also detected contrasts in electrical conductivity associated with both the presence of fractures/corestones and regolith thickness variability. This research demonstrates the potential of hydrogeophysical measurements for understanding variability of bedrock-regolith interface in the Icacos watershed at large (i.e. km) scales.

  8. Effects of Changes in Irrigation Practices and Aquifer Development on Groundwater Discharge to the Jobos Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve near Salinas, Puerto Rico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kuniansky, Eve L.; Rodriguez, Jose M.

    2010-01-01

    Since 1990, about 75 acres of black mangroves have died in the Jobos Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve near Salinas, Puerto Rico. Although many factors can contribute to the mortality of mangroves, changes in irrigation practices, rainfall, and water use resulted in as much as 25 feet of drawdown in the potentiometric surface of the aquifer in the vicinity of the reserve between 1986 and 2002. To clarify the issue, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Puerto Rico Department of Natural and Environmental Resources, conducted a study to ascertain how aquifer development and changes in irrigation practices have affected groundwater levels and groundwater flow to the Mar Negro area of the reserve. Changes in groundwater flow to the mangrove swamp and bay from 1986 to 2004 were estimated in this study by developing and calibrating a numerical groundwater flow model. The transient simulations indicate that prior to 1994, high irrigation return flows more than offset the effect of reduced groundwater withdrawals. In this case, the simulated discharge to the coast in the modeled area was 19 million gallons per day. From 1994 through 2004, furrow irrigation was completely replaced by micro-drip irrigation, thus eliminating return flows and the simulated average coastal discharge was 7 million gallons per day, a reduction of 63 percent. The simulated average groundwater discharge to the coastal mangrove swamps in the reserve from 1986 to 1993 was 2 million gallons per day, compared to an average simulated discharge of 0.2 million gallons per day from 1994 to 2004. The average annual rainfall for each of these periods was 38 inches. The groundwater discharge to the coastal mangrove swamps in the Jobos Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve was estimated at about 0.5 million gallons per day for 2003-2004 because of higher than average annual rainfall during these 2 years. The groundwater flow model was used to test five alternatives for increasing groundwater discharge to the coastal mangrove swamps to approximately 1.4 million gallons per day: (1) artificially recharging the aquifer with injection wells or (2) by increasing irrigation return flow by going back to furrow irrigation; (3) termination of groundwater withdrawals near the mangroves; (4) reduction of groundwater withdrawals at irrigation wells by 50 percent; and (5) a combination of alternatives 2 and 4 increasing irrigation return flows and decreasing irrigation withdrawals. Each alternative assumed average climatic conditions and groundwater withdrawals at 2004 rates. Alternative 1 required 1.5 million gallons per day of injected water. Alternative 2 required flooding 958 acres with a rate of 1.84 million gallons per day if no crops are grown. Alternative 3 required the termination of 2.44 million gallons per day of withdrawals to achieve 1.34 million gallons per day of discharge to the mangroves. Alternative 4 did not achieve the objective with only 0.80 million gallons per day simulated discharge to the mangroves, while requiring a 1.26 million gallon per day reduction in groundwater withdrawals. Alternative 5 required flooding fields with additional 1.13 million gallons of day and the same reduction in groundwater withdrawals, but did achieve the objective of about 1.4 million gallons per day discharge to the mangroves. Alternative 1, incorporating injection wells near the reserve required the least amount of water to raise groundwater levels and maintain discharge of 1.4 million gallons per day through the mangroves.

  9. The role of soil processes in determining mechanisms of slope failure and hillslope development in a humid-tropical forest eastern Puerto Rico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, Andrew; Larsen, Matthew C.; Hupp, Cliff R.

    1990-09-01

    Translational failures, with associated downslope earthflow components and shallow slides, appear to be the primary mechanism of hillslope denudation in the humid tropical forests of the mountains of eastern Puerto Rico. In-situ weathering of quartz diorite and marine-deposited volcaniclastics produces residual soil (saprolite; up to 21 m deep) / weathered rock profiles. Discontinuous zones of contrasting density and permeability particularly in quartz-diorite slopes at 0.5 m, and between 3 and 7 m, create both pathways and impedances for water that can result in excess pore pressures and, ultimately, aid in determining the location of failure planes and magnitudes of slope failures. In combination with relict fractures which create planes of weakness within the saprolite, and the potential significance of tensile stresses in the upper zone of saprolite (hypothesized to be caused by subsurface soil creep), shear failure can then occur during or after periods of heavy rainfall. Results of in-situ shear-strength testing show negative y-intercepts on the derived Mohr-Coulomb failure envelopes (approximately 50% of all tests) that are interpreted as apparent tensile stresses. Observation of tension cracks 1-2 m deep support the test data. Subsurface soil creep can cause extension of the soil and the development of tensile stresses along upper-slope segments. Shear-strength data support this hypothesis for both geologic types. Apparent values of maximum and mean tensile stress are greatest along upper slopes (16.5 and 6.29 kPa). Previously documented maximum rates of downslope movement coincided with local minima of shear strength, and the shear-strength minimum for all tests was located near 0.5 m below land surface, the shallow zone of contrasting permeabilities. These results indicate that subsurface soil creep, a slow semi-continuous process, may exert a profound influence on rapid, shallow slope failures in saprolitic soils. Data indicate that cove slopes in quartz diorite tend to be the most unstable when saturation levels reach 75%. Deep failures (7 m deep) appear the most critical but not the most frequent because pore pressure build-up will occur more rapidly in the upper perched zone of translocated clays before reaching the lower zone between 3 and 7 m. Frequent shallow failures could reduce the probability of deeper failures by removing overburden and reducing shear stress at depth. Deep failures are more likely to result from storm events of great duration and intensity. Sixty-six 'naturally occurring' and more than 100 'road-related' landslides were mapped. Forest elevations exceed 1000 m, but the majority of these failures were found between 600 and 800 m in elevation. This appears to be the area where there is sufficient concentration of subsurface water to result in excess pore pressures. The high percentage of slope failures in the 600-800-m range, relative to the percentage at higher elevations, suggests that differences in soil-water processes are responsible for the form of these mountain slopes. Steep linear segments are maintained at higher elevations. Slope angles are reduced in the 600-800-m range by frequent shallow slides, creating a largely concave surface. In combination, slope segments above 800 m, and those between 600 and 800 m, produce the characteristic form of the mountains of eastern Puerto Rico.

  10. Surface-Water, Water-Quality, and Ground-Water Assessment of the Municipio of Mayaguez, Puerto Rico, 1999-2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rodríguez-Martínez, Jesús; Santiago-Rivera, Luis; Guzman-Rios, Senen; Gómez-Gómez, Fernando; Oliveras-Feliciano, Mario L.

    2004-01-01

    The surface-water assessment portion of this study focused on analysis of low-flow characteristics in local streams and rivers, because the supply of safe drinking water was a critical issue during recent dry periods. Low-flow characteristics were evaluated at one continuous-record gaging station based on graphical curve-fitting techniques and log-Pearson Type III frequency curves. Estimates of low-flow characteristics for 20 partial-record stations were generated using graphical-correlation techniques. Flow-duration characteristics for the continuous- and partial-record stations were estimated using the relation curves developed for the low-flow study. Stream low-flow statistics document the general hydrology under current land use, water-use, and climatic conditions. A survey of streams and rivers utilized 37 sampling stations to evaluate the sanitary quality of about 165 miles of stream channels. River and stream samples for fecal coliform and fecal streptococcus analyses were collected on two occasions at base-flow conditions. Bacteriological analyses indicate that a significant portion of the stream reaches within the municipio of Mayaguez may have fecal coliform bacteria concentrations above the water-quality goal (standard) established by the Puerto Rico Environmental Quality Board (Junta de Calidad Ambiental de Puerto Rico) for inland surface waters. Sources of fecal contamination may include: illegal discharge of sewage to storm-water drains, malfunctioning sanitary sewer ejectors, clogged and leaking sewage pipes, septic tank leakage, unfenced livestock, and runoff from livestock pens. Long-term fecal coliform data from five sampling stations located within or in the vicinity of the municipio of Mayaguez have been in compliance with the water-quality goal for fecal coliform concentration established in July 1990. Geologic, topographic, soil, hydrogeologic, and streamflow data were compiled into a database and used to divide the municipio of Mayaguez into five hydrogeologic terranes. This integrated database then was used to evaluate the ground-water potential of each hydrogeologic terrane. Lineament-trace analysis was used to help assess the ground-water development potential in the hydrogeologic terranes containing igneous rocks. Analyses suggest that areas with slopes greater than 15 degrees have relatively low ground-water development potential. The presence of fractures, independent of the topographic slope, may locally enhance the water-bearing properties in the hydrogeologic terranes containing igneous rocks. The results of this study indicate that induced streamflow generally is needed to sustain low to moderate ground-water withdrawal rates in the five hydrogeologic terranes. The ground-water flow systems in the hydrogeologic terranes are only able to sustain small withdrawal rates that rarely exceed 50 gallons per minute. Areas with a high density of fractures, as could be the case at the intersection of lineament traces in the upper parts of the Rio Ca?as and Rio Yaguez watersheds, are worthy of exploratory drilling for ground-water development.

  11. A comparative study of stream water and stream sediment as geochemical exploration media in the Rio Tanama porphyry copper district, Puerto Rico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Learned, R.E.; Chao, T.T.; Sanzolone, R.F.

    1985-01-01

    To test the relative effectiveness of stream water and sediment as geochemical exploration media in the Rio Tanama porphyry copper district of Puerto Rico, we collected and subsequently analyzed samples of water and sediment from 29 sites in the rivers and tributaries of the district. Copper, Mo, Pb, Zn, SO42-, and pH were determined in the waters; Cu, Mo, Pb, and Zn were determined in the sediments. In addition, copper in five partial extractions from the sediments was determined. Geochemical contrast (anomaly-to-background quotient) was the principal criterion by which the effectiveness of the two media and the five extractions were judged. Among the distribution patterns of metals in stream water, that of copper most clearly delineates the known porphyry copper deposits and yields the longest discernable dispersion train. The distribution patterns of Mo, Pb, and Zn in water show little relationship to the known mineralization. The distribution of SO42- in water delineates the copper deposits and also the more extensive pyrite alteration in the district; its recognizable downstream dispersion train is substantially longer than those of the metals, either in water or sediment. Low pH values in small tributaries delineate areas of known sulfide mineralization. The distribution patterns of copper in sediments clearly delineate the known deposits, and the dispersion trains are longer than those of copper in water. The partial determinations of copper related to secondary iron and manganese oxides yield the strongest geochemical contrasts and longest recognizable dispersion trains. Significantly high concentrations of molybdenum in sediments were found at only three sites, all within one-half km downstream of the known copper deposits. The distribution patterns of lead and zinc in sediments are clearly related to the known primary lead-zinc haloes around the copper deposits. The recognizable downstream dispersion trains of lead and zinc are shorter than those of copper. ?? 1985.

  12. Chemical Speciation of Water Soluble Ions and Metals of Cloud and Rain Water During the Puerto Rico African Dust and Clouds Study (PRADACS) Campaigns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres, E.; Valle Diaz, C. J.; Lee, T.; Collett, J. L.; Fitzgerald, E.; Cuadra-Rodriguez, L. A.; Prather, K. A.; Sánchez, M.; McDowell, W. H.; Mayol-Bracero, O. L.

    2013-05-01

    The underlying physico-chemical processes of dust particles interactions are poorly understood; even less understood is how aging impacts cloud properties and climate as the particles travel from Africa to the Caribbean region. Caribbean landmasses have tropical montane cloud forests (TMCFs) that are tightly coupled to the atmospheric hydrologic cycle. TMCFs are ecosystems to study the effects African Dust (AD) on cloud formation and precipitation as these are very sensitive ecosystems that respond to small changes in climate. As part of the Puerto Rico African Dust and Clouds Study (PRADACS), chemical analyses were performed on cloud and rain water samples collected at Pico del Este (PE) station in Luquillo, PR (1051 masl) during campaigns held from 2010 to 2012. At PE, two cloud collectors (i.e., single stage (Aluminum version), a 2-stage (Teflon version) Caltech Active Strand Cloudwater Collector (CASCC)), a rainwater collector, and anAerosol Time-Of-Flight Mass Spectrometer (ATOFMS) were operated. Chemical analyses performed on collected samples include pH, conductivity, ion chromatography (IC), and inductive coupled plasma (ICP). Results from these campaigns showed that on days that had air masses with the influence of AD, cloud water samples had higher conductivity and pH values on average (up to 5.7 and 180?S/cm, respectively) than those with air masses without AD influence. An increase in the concentrations of water-soluble ions like non-sea salt calcium and magnesium, and metals like magnesium, calcium and aluminum was observed and the appearance of iron was seen on ICP analyses. The ATOFMS, showed an increase on the amount of particles during AD influence with composition of aluminum, silicates, potassium, iron and titanium aerosols. The increase on the aforementioned species was constant in the three years of sampling, which give us confidence in the identification of the chemical species that are present during the influence of AD.

  13. Migration of a slow wave of erosion and its effect on nutrient availability in a tropical rainforest: detrital 10Be signature and soil mineralogy, Luquillo CZO, Puerto Rico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brocard, Gilles; Willengring, Jane; Johnson, Arthur; Scatena, Frederick

    2014-05-01

    Rivers draining the Luquillo Mountains Critical Zone Observatory of Puerto Rico exhibit pronounced knickpoints. The largest knickpoints are located over a quartz diorite stock on the southern flank of the massif. They correlate cluster in elevation around the elevation of a flat-lying, dissected surface traceable around the Luquillo Mountains interpreted as an uplifted shore platform formed during the Pliocene. Upstream of the knickpoints, are alluvial, flow on a saprolite and are still graded to that uplifted platform; they drain the relict landscape of a former island about 15 km in diameter. These knickpoints initiated when the platform started to rise above the Caribbean Sea. They subsequently propagated upstream at the front of a slow-moving erosion wave. To evaluate how this wave affects the old-growth El Yunque tropical rainforest we measured cosmogenic in situ 10Be in quartz from river-borne sediment above and below the knickpoints. These 10Be-derived catchment-scale denudation rates document a 30% to 210% increase in denudation associated to the passage of the knickpoints. Differences in retreat efficiency are necessary to bring all knickpoints to their present locations. Such differences are detectable in the 10Be-derived erosion signal measured below the knickpoints. The effect of these knickpoints is fundamental in the variability in nutrient availability in the forest: they separate a downstream, faster-eroding landscape were the saprolite is thin and still contains some primary easily weathered minerals, that provide nutrients to the plant communities. Upstream of the knickpoint, the upper relict landscape is blanketed by a very thick saprolite, thoroughly depleted in primary minerals, where the forest is known to retrieve most of its nutrients mostly from atmospheric inputs.

  14. Airborne Sun photometer measurements of aerosol optical depth and columnar water vapor during the Puerto Rico Dust Experiment and comparison with land, aircraft, and satellite measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livingston, John M.; Russell, Philip B.; Reid, Jeffrey S.; Redemann, Jens; Schmid, Beat; Allen, Duane A.; Torres, Omar; Levy, Robert C.; Remer, Lorraine A.; Holben, Brent N.; Smirnov, Alexander; Dubovik, Oleg; Welton, Ellsworth J.; Campbell, James R.; Wang, Jun; Christopher, Sundar A.

    2003-10-01

    Analyses of aerosol optical depth (AOD) and columnar water vapor (CWV) measurements obtained with the six-channel NASA Ames Airborne Tracking Sunphotometer (AATS-6) mounted on a twin-engine aircraft during the summer 2000 Puerto Rico Dust Experiment are presented. In general, aerosol extinction values calculated from AATS-6 AOD measurements acquired during aircraft profiles up to 5 km above sea level (asl) reproduce the vertical structure measured by coincident aircraft in situ measurements of total aerosol number concentration. AATS-6 extinction retrievals also agree with corresponding values derived from ground-based lidar measurements for altitudes above the trade inversion. The spectral behavior of AOD within specific layers beneath the top of the aircraft profile is consistent with attenuation of incoming solar radiation by large dust particles or by dust plus sea salt, with mean Ångström wavelength exponents of ˜0.20. Values of CWV calculated from profile measurements by AATS-6 at 941.9 nm and from aircraft in situ measurements agree to within ˜4% (0.13 g/cm2). AATS-6 AOD values measured on the ground at Roosevelt Roads Naval Air Station and during low-altitude aircraft runs over the adjacent Cabras Island aerosol/radiation ground site agree to within 0.004-0.030 with coincident data obtained with an AERONET Sun/sky radiometer located on Cabras Island. For the same observation times, AERONET retrievals of CWV exceed AATS-6 values by ˜21%. AATS-6 AOD values measured during low-altitude aircraft traverses over the ocean are compared with corresponding AOD values retrieved over water from upwelling radiance measurements by the Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS), and GOES 8 Imager satellite sensors, with mixed results.

  15. ISEcp1-mediated transposition of blaKPC into the chromosome of a clinical isolate of Acinetobacter baumannii from Puerto Rico.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Teresa; Vázquez, Guillermo J; Aquino, Edna E; Martínez, Idalí; Robledo, Iraida E

    2014-12-01

    Carbapenems are the last-resort antibiotics for the treatment of infections caused by multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacilli. Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC) hydrolyses ?-lactam antibiotics including the carbapenems. KPCs have been detected in Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates worldwide associated with transposon Tn4401 commonly located in plasmids. Acinetobacter baumannii has become an important multidrug-resistant nosocomial pathogen capable of hydrolysing the carbapenem antibiotics. KPC-producing A. baumannii has so far only been reported in Puerto Rico. During a surveillance study, four KPC-producing A. baumannii with identical pulse type were identified in a single institution. The objectives of this study were to characterize the KPC genetic background and the allelic diversity of one of the isolates. Next-generation sequencing and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) were performed. Molecular characterization of the isolate demonstrated blaKPC in Tn4401b located in the bacterial chromosome within a 26.5 kb DNA fragment, which included a KQ-like element (18.9 kb) very similar to that described previously in a K. pneumoniae plasmid and a 7.6 kb DNA fragment with 98?% homology to a putative plasmid from Yersinia pestis strain PY-95. Our data suggested that the 26.5 kb DNA fragment harbouring blaKPC was integrated in the chromosome by a transposition event mediated by the transposase of ISEcp1 found in the KQ-like element. MLST showed a novel sequence type, ST250. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the identification of the genetic background of blaKPC in A. baumannii. PMID:25246647

  16. Coral skeletal carbon isotopes (?13C and ?14C) record the delivery of terrestrial carbon to the coastal waters of Puerto Rico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moyer, R.P.; Grottoli, A.G.

    2011-01-01

    Tropical small mountainous rivers deliver a poorly quantified, but potentially significant, amount of carbon to the world's oceans. However, few historical records of land-ocean carbon transfer exist for any region on Earth. Corals have the potential to provide such records, because they draw on dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) for calcification. In temperate systems, the stable- (?13C) and radiocarbon (?14C) isotopes of coastal DIC are influenced by the ?13C and ?14C of the DIC transported from adjacent rivers. A similar pattern should exist in tropical coastal DIC and hence coral skeletons. Here, ?13C and ?14C measurements were made in a 56-year-old Montastraea faveolata coral growing ~1 km from the mouth of the Rio Fajardo in eastern Puerto Rico. Additionally, the ?13C and ?14C values of the DIC of the Rio Fajardo and its adjacent coastal waters were measured during two wet and dry seasons. Three major findings were observed: (1) synchronous depletions of both ?13C and ?14C in the coral skeleton are annually coherent with the timing of peak river discharge, (2) riverine DIC was always more depleted in ?13C and ?14C than seawater DIC, and (3) the correlation of ?13C and ?14C was the same in both coral skeleton and the DIC of the river and coastal waters. These results indicate that coral skeletal ?13C and ?14C are recording the delivery of riverine DIC to the coastal ocean. Thus, coral records could be used to develop proxies of historical land-ocean carbon flux for many tropical regions. Such information could be invaluable for understanding the role of tropical land-ocean carbon flux in the context of land-use change and global climate change.

  17. Coral skeletal carbon isotopes (?13C and ?14C) record the delivery of terrestrial carbon to the coastal waters of Puerto Rico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moyer, R.P.; Grottoli, A.G.

    2011-01-01

    Tropical small mountainous rivers deliver a poorly quantified, but potentially significant, amount of carbon to the world's oceans. However, few historical records of land-ocean carbon transfer exist for any region on Earth. Corals have the potential to provide such records, because they draw on dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) for calcification. In temperate systems, the stable- (??13C) and radiocarbon (??14C) isotopes of coastal DIC are influenced by the ??13C and ??14C of the DIC transported from adjacent rivers. A similar pattern should exist in tropical coastal DIC and hence coral skeletons. Here, ??13C and ??14C measurements were made in a 56-year-old Montastraea faveolata coral growing ~1 km from the mouth of the Rio Fajardo in eastern Puerto Rico. Additionally, the ??13C and ??14C values of the DIC of the Rio Fajardo and its adjacent coastal waters were measured during two wet and dry seasons. Three major findings were observed: (1) synchronous depletions of both ??13C and ??14C in the coral skeleton are annually coherent with the timing of peak river discharge, (2) riverine DIC was always more depleted in ??13C and ??14C than seawater DIC, and (3) the correlation of ??13C and ??14C was the same in both coral skeleton and the DIC of the river and coastal waters. These results indicate that coral skeletal ??13C and ??14C are recording the delivery of riverine DIC to the coastal ocean. Thus, coral records could be used to develop proxies of historical land-ocean carbon flux for many tropical regions. Such information could be invaluable for understanding the role of tropical land-ocean carbon flux in the context of land-use change and global climate change. ?? 2011 United States Geological Survey.

  18. A Numerical Study of the Urban Heat Island in the Coastal Tropical City of San Juan, Puerto Rico: Model Validation and Impacts of LCLU Changes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Comarazamy, Daniel E.; Gonzalez, Jorge E.; Luvall, Jeff; Rickman, Douglas L.

    2007-01-01

    Urban sprawls in tropical locations are rapidly accelerating and it is more evident in islands where a large percentage of the population resides along the coasts. This paper focuses on the analysis of the impacts of land use and land cover for urbanization in the tropical coastal city of San Juan, in the tropical island of Puerto Rico. A mesoscale numerical model, the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS), is used to study specific characteristics and patterns of the urban heat island in the San Juan Metropolitan Area (SJMA), the most noticeable urban core of the Caribbean. The research present in this paper makes use of the observations obtained during the airborne San Juan Atlas Mission in two ways. First, surface and rawinsonde data are used to validate the atmospheric model yielding satisfactory results. Second, airborne remote sensing information is used to update the model's surface characteristics to obtain a detailed configuration of the SJMA in order to perform the LCLU changes impact analysis. This analysis showed that the presence of San Juan has an impact reflected in higher air temperatures over the area occupied by the city, with positive values of up to 2.5 C, for the simulations that have specified urban LCLU indexes in the bottom boundary. One interesting result of the impact analysis was the finding of a precipitation disturbance shown as a difference in total accumulated rainfall between simulation with the city and with a potential natural vegetation induced by the presence of the urban area. Model results indicate that the urban-induced cloud formation and precipitation development occur mainly downwind of the city, including the accumulated precipitation. This spatial pattern can be explained by the presence of a-larger urbanized area in the southwest sector of the city, and of the approaching northeasterly trade winds.

  19. Filament-Producing Mutants of Influenza A/Puerto Rico/8/1934 (H1N1) Virus Have Higher Neuraminidase Activities than the Spherical Wild-Type

    PubMed Central

    Seladi-Schulman, Jill; Campbell, Patricia J.; Suppiah, Suganthi; Steel, John; Lowen, Anice C.

    2014-01-01

    Influenza virus exhibits two morphologies – spherical and filamentous. Strains that have been grown extensively in laboratory substrates are comprised predominantly of spherical virions while clinical or low passage isolates produce a mixture of spheres and filamentous virions of varying lengths. The filamentous morphology can be lost upon continued passage in embryonated chicken eggs, a common laboratory substrate for influenza viruses. The fact that the filamentous morphology is maintained in nature but lost in favor of a spherical morphology in ovo suggests that filaments confer a selective advantage within the infected host that is not necessary for growth in laboratory substrates. Indeed, we have recently shown that filament-producing variant viruses are selected upon passage of the spherical laboratory strain A/Puerto Rico/8/1934 (H1N1) [PR8] in guinea pigs. Toward determining the nature of the selective advantage conferred by filaments, we sought to identify functional differences between spherical and filamentous particles. We compared the wild-type PR8 virus to two previously characterized recombinant PR8 viruses in which single point mutations within M1 confer a filamentous morphology. Our results indicate that these filamentous PR8 mutants have higher neuraminidase activities than the spherical PR8 virus. Conversely, no differences were observed in HAU:PFU or HAU:RNA ratios, binding avidity, sensitivity to immune serum in hemagglutination inhibition assays, or virion stability at elevated temperatures. Based on these results, we propose that the pleomorphic nature of influenza virus particles is important for the optimization of neuraminidase functions in vivo. PMID:25383873

  20. Evidence of multiple/cross resistance to Bt and organophosphate insecticides in Puerto Rico population of the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yu Cheng; Blanco, Carlos A; Portilla, Maribel; Adamczyk, John; Luttrell, Randall; Huang, Fangneng

    2015-07-01

    Fall armyworm (FAW) is a damaging pest of many economic crops. Long-term use of chemical control prompted resistance development to many insecticide classes. Many populations were found to be significantly less susceptible to major Bt toxins expressed in transgenic crops. In this study, a FAW strain collected from Puerto Rico (PR) with 7717-fold Cry1F-resistance was examined to determine if it had also developed multiple/cross resistance to non-Bt insecticides. Dose response assays showed that the PR strain developed 19-fold resistance to acephate. Besides having a slightly smaller larval body weight and length, PR also evolved a deep (2.8%) molecular divergence in mitochondrial oxidase subunit II. Further examination of enzyme activities in the midgut of PR larvae exhibited substantial decreases of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), aminopeptidase (APN), 1-NA- and 2-NA-specific esterase, trypsin, and chymotrypsin activities, and significant increases of PNPA-specific esterase and glutathione S-transferase (GST) activities. When enzyme preparations from the whole larval body were examined, all three esterase, GST, trypsin, and chymotrypsin activities were significantly elevated in the PR strain, while ALP and APN activities were not significantly different from those of susceptible strain. Data indicated that multiple/cross resistances may have developed in the PR strain to both Bt toxins and conventional insecticides. Consistently reduced ALP provided evidence to support an ALP-mediated Bt resistance mechanism. Esterases and GSTs may be associated with acephate resistance through elevated metabolic detoxification. Further studies are needed to clarify whether and how esterases, GSTs, and other enzymes (such as P450s) are involved in cross resistance development to Bt and other insecticide classes. PMID:26071802