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1

Researchers investigate submarine faults north of Puerto Rico  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 23-day marine geophysical expedition in the summer of 1996 revealed a previously unidentified strike-slip fault zone within 60-100 km of the densely populated northern coast of Puerto Rico. The purpose of the expedition, which was held aboard the U.S. research vessel Maurice Ewing, was to map the northeastern portion of the North America Caribbean plate boundary.The 3000-km-long North America-Caribbean

N. Grindlay; P. Mann; J. Dolan

1997-01-01

2

Recycling in Puerto Rico  

Microsoft Academic Search

The commonwealth of Puerto Rico has never had a traditional, centrally organized solid waste management system. In the past, municipalities provided service for their own residents and the island used 62 unlined landfills. In April 1994, 32 of those landfills closed. A study released in 1995 found that residents of Puerto Rico generate 8,100 tons of waste each day, at

McAdams

1996-01-01

3

Collisional zones in Puerto Rico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Collisional events along the North American-Caribbean plate boundary are complex and not completely understood. Structures and metamorphism in rocks exposed in Cuba, Hispaniola, and Puerto Rico suggest that the margin has undergone at least three main contractional events in the Early Cretaceous, Late Cretaceous, and in the Late Eocene. The Eocene event is more evident in the transpressional structures preserved in Eocene rocks and may be related to the oblique collision of the northern margin of the Caribbean Plate with continental crust of the Bahamas in the North American Plate. In Puerto Rico, the Late Eocene collisional event is best exposed in the Northern Puerto Rico Fault Zone (NPRFZ) and the Southern Puerto Rico Fault Zone (SPRFZ). These fault zones show transpression in Eocene rocks that suggest contraction and left-lateral shear. The NPRFZ is the boundary between the Northeast and Southwest blocks. Its main fault is the Cerro Mula Fault, a WNW-ESE striking left-lateral fault. The SPRFZ separates the Central and Southwest blocks and strikes NW-SE in the western part of the island. The origin and extent of the Early Cretaceous and Late Cretaceous events are less clear. Recent structural and stratigraphic studies in the Southwest block of Puerto Rico suggest that deformation of Late Cretaceous folded and faulted sedimentary and volcanic rocks, and thrust emplacement of mantle rocks (serpentinized-peridotite) onto the crust are related to Maastrichtian to Paleocene contraction along the plate boundary. In Puerto Rico, there is no metamorphism associated to this event. This deformation constitutes a Late Cretaceous collisional event that is also recognized in Hispaniola and Cuba. Late Cretaceous-Paleocene serpentinite emplacement is attributed to the collision of the subduction zone with the hypothesized Caribeana submerged platform to the north. In Puerto Rico there is a volcanic hiatus in Early Paleocene that may be related to the proposed collision. Reactivation of these structures occurred during Late Eocene-Early Oligocene. The Early Cretaceous tectonic event in Puerto Rico is deduced from stratigraphic relationships of the serpentinite and Late Cretaceous rocks. Early contraction in Cuba and Hispaniola may be related to increased convergence along a subduction zone. However, the characteristics of the tectonic event are not understood. In spite of the temporal similarities of deformation in the northern Caribbean, there are noted differences in the type of deformation that may be related to variations in shape and orientation of pre-existing zones of weaknesses and geographic locations along the Caribbean-North American plate boundary.

Lao Davila, D. A.

2012-04-01

4

Recycling in Puerto Rico  

SciTech Connect

The commonwealth of Puerto Rico has never had a traditional, centrally organized solid waste management system. In the past, municipalities provided service for their own residents and the island used 62 unlined landfills. In April 1994, 32 of those landfills closed. A study released in 1995 found that residents of Puerto Rico generate 8,100 tons of waste each day, at a per capita rate of 4.9 pounds per day. A solid waste management strategy unveiled with much fanfare early last year included plans to build an integrated system of collection, transfer stations, and disposal sites. These sites would be market-driven by recycling and hinged on partnerships between the public and private sectors and public education. A key to Puerto Rico`s plan was investment by the private sector.

McAdams, C.L.

1996-05-01

5

Active Faults in Eastern Hispaniola: The Hispaniola-Puerto Rico Microplate Boundary?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An extensive tract of limestone of mostly Pleistocene-Recent age covers the Eastern part of the Dominican Republic. Numerous distinctive marine terraces outcrop along the southern and eastern coast, the lowest of which has been dated at about 125Ka. In the eastern area, the highest terrace is about 50m asl, is very variable in elevation, and correlates with a terrace of about 50 m asl along the southern coast. This feature might correlate with a feature of similar height on the Island of Marie Galante in the Lesser Antilles, dated at 250Ka. Manipulation of 3 arc-sec grid of SRTM land data and a 12 arc-sec grid of marine data reveals the location of the upper marine terrace as well as numerous scarps with 10's of meters of relief tending WNW across the region. The 2nd derivative of the relief grid is used to objectively identify the location of the upper terrace, which is compared to the elevation grid to develop an along escarpment profile of terrace elevation. If undisturbed, this feature should be contour parallel, that is all at the same elevation. Systematic elevation changes along profile suggest titling and numerous abrupt vertical (~30-50m) and at least one horizontal offset (375m) of this feature. Terrace displacing scarps can be traced many kilometers from offshore, across the coast paralleling marine terraces, and continuing inland as linear features that I interpret as active normal faults cutting the limestone platform. Five systems of normal faults have been identified in this manner, the longest of which may be capable of generating earthquakes of about magnitude 7-7 1/4. If the age of the upper terrace is roughly about 250Ka, then the observed horizontal displacements of about 375 meters suggest a rate of fault motion on the order of mm"s/yr for each of the5 faults. This total rate of deformation of several mm/yr is similar to the rate of deformation calculated from GPS studies for the rate of motion between the Hispaniola and Puerto Rico microplates, suggesting that much of the inter-microplate motion is not contained to the offshore regions of the Mona Passage, but rather passes on shore in the eastern part of the Dominican Republic.

McCann, W. R.

2007-12-01

6

Final Report: Puerto Rico Rice Project.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Puerto Rico Rice Project is a collaborate effort between University of Missouri Faculty, University of Mayuguez, Puerto Rico faculty, and staff of USDA-NRCS in Puerto Rico to determine the potential market in Puerto Rico for rice produced by farmers i...

V. H. Ayers

2006-01-01

7

Wood shipments to Puerto Rico - Treesearch  

Treesearch

Uncontrolled Keywords: Foreign trade, forest products, overseas markets ... Because of Puerto Rico's unique Commonwealth status, trade flows between the United States and Puerto Rico ... Continent: North America. Country: United States.

8

Puerto Rico wind energy resource assessment project  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Puerto Rico Office of Energy initiated a Wind Energy Resource Assessment Project in September 1982 to gather reliable, quantitative data on the wind resource of Puerto Rico for making decisions on the deployment of single, small wind energy conversion systems throughout the Island and on the viability of installing wind turbine clusters and windfarms interconnected with the Puerto Rico

R. D. Scott; P. Borgo

1983-01-01

9

Dos Puertorriquenos Visitan Puerto Rico (Two Puerto Ricans Visit Puerto Rico).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|These materials for Spanish instruction are based on the meeting and friendship of two Puerto Ricans arriving in Puerto Rico for visits to their hometowns, their discussions of Puerto Rican life, and a sightseeing tour of San Juan. Introductory passages to the visitors' dialogues are in English, and dialogues are in Spanish, with photographs,…

Tuttle, Harry Grover

10

33 CFR 165.755 - Safety Zone; Guayanilla, Puerto Rico.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Safety Zone; Guayanilla, Puerto Rico. 165.755 Section 165.755...755 Safety Zone; Guayanilla, Puerto Rico. (a) The following area is...waterfront facility in Guayanilla Bay, Puerto Rico. The safety zone remains in...

2013-07-01

11

33 CFR 80.738 - Puerto Rico and Virgin Islands.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Puerto Rico and Virgin Islands. 80.738 Section...NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Puerto Rico and Virgin Islands § 80.738 Puerto Rico and Virgin Islands. (a) Except...

2013-07-01

12

What and Where is Puerto Rico?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary: Through web site resources, class readings, and hands-on activities students will learn where Puerto Rico is, the geography and vegetation of the island, and understand the history of the commonwealth. Grade Level: 7-8 Goal: Students learn about the history of Puerto Rico, and will be able to compare the tropical vegetation and geography to Wisconsin.

13

40 CFR 131.40 - Puerto Rico  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS WATER QUALITY STANDARDS Federally Promulgated Water Quality Standards § 131.40 Puerto Rico ...site-specific log standard deviation. (c) Water quality standard variances. (1) The...

2013-07-01

14

Breast Cancer Epidemiology in Puerto Rico.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This project has two mayor goals: to design and conduct a pilot case- control breast cancer study among Puerto Rican women, and to train and develop researchers in breast cancer at the University of Puerto Rico. The case-control study will enroll women ag...

C. M. Nazario J. Freudenheim

2008-01-01

15

PALEOBOTANICAL NOTES ON MANGROVE-LIKE PLANTS OF PUERTO RICO  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Several new trace fossils (ichnofossils) of mangrove-like plants are reported for Puerto Rico; all these fossils are new records for Puerto Rico. The earliest root casts in Puerto Rico were dated Late Cretaceous (probably Santonian, 85.8-83.5Ma). Ear- lier paleobotanical studies in Tertiary-dated sites in Puerto Rico are also discussed. Oligocene and Miocene lignitic rocks, traces of amber, and trace

ÁNGEL M. NIEVES-RIVERA

2007-01-01

16

27 CFR 26.126 - Taxpayment in Puerto Rico.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Taxpayment in Puerto Rico. 26.126 Section 26.126...ALCOHOL LIQUORS AND ARTICLES FROM PUERTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS Liquors and Articles Purchased by Tourists in Puerto Rico § 26.126 Taxpayment in...

2013-04-01

17

27 CFR 26.126 - Taxpayment in Puerto Rico.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Taxpayment in Puerto Rico. 26.126 Section 26.126...LIQUORS LIQUORS AND ARTICLES FROM PUERTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS Liquors and Articles Purchased by Tourists in Puerto Rico § 26.126 Taxpayment in...

2010-04-01

18

27 CFR 26.126 - Taxpayment in Puerto Rico.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 false Taxpayment in Puerto Rico. 26.126 Section 26.126...LIQUORS LIQUORS AND ARTICLES FROM PUERTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS Liquors and Articles Purchased by Tourists in Puerto Rico § 26.126 Taxpayment in...

2009-04-01

19

Food, Culture and History of Puerto Rico  

Microsoft Academic Search

LEARNING OUTCOME: To examine the design components of an intercampus study program in Puerto Rico for the undergraduate dietetics student.Dietitians are being challenged more frequently by the diverse cultural backgrounds of their clients. Developing an appreciation for the differences encountered is beneficial early in one's education, as students can then directly apply their newly gained perspectives to learning in the

C. Estes; A. Cruz de Ruiz; C. M. Sanchez; N. Hernández

1997-01-01

20

Limnology of Laguna Tortuguero, Puerto Rico.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The principal chemical, physical and biological characteristics, as well as the hydrology of Laguna Tortuguero, Puerto Rico, were studied from 1974-75. The lagoon, with an area of 2.24 square kilometers and a volume of about 2.68 million cubic meters, con...

F. Quinones-Marquez L. A. Fuste

1978-01-01

21

La Pesca En Puerto Rico, 1970.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

During 1970, a total of 4,558,812 pounds of fish shellfish were reported from the Puerto Rico local fisheries; 86% was fish of various species, and 14%, shellfish. The average ex-vessel price was 28 cents for fish and 76 cents for shellfish. At least 2,00...

R. Juhl J. A. Suarez-Caabro

1971-01-01

22

Status of Fisheries on Puerto Rico, 1970.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

During 1970, a total production of 4,558,812 pounds of fish and shellfish were reported from the Puerto Rico local fisheries; 86 percent was fish of various species, and 14 percent, shellfish. The average ex-vessel price was 28 cents for fish and 76 cents...

R. Juhl J. A. Suarez-Caabro

1971-01-01

23

Water Hyacinth Research in Puerto Rico.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Water hyacinths are by far the most troublesome aquatic weeds in Puerto Rico. In 1972 the Tropical Terrain Research Detachment of the U. S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station conducted a limited study on the productivity of water hyacinths in fiel...

W. N. Rushing

1973-01-01

24

Xylazine (veterinary sedative) use in Puerto Rico  

PubMed Central

Human xylazine use in Puerto Rico merits particular attention for its unprecedented scale and depth. Although Puerto Rican injecting drug users (IDUs) have reported using this drug since the early 2000s, little is being done in the research and service delivery sectors as it is claimed that xylazine severely impacts the health of its users. This report provides information on xylazine use and its associated harms. Data from one semi-structured interview collected in New York City (2007-2008) as part of a larger research study with migrant Puerto Rican drug users is presented as a case study. Xylazine, a veterinary sedative, is an adulterant and complement to other drugs and its chronic use is reported to be associated with physical deterioration. Because human xylazine use has been reported in other locations outside of Puerto Rico, this substance could also emerge as an adulterant in other markets to the levels currently experienced in Puerto Rico. Research and interventions are needed to provide adequate services on the island, better understand how the use of xylazine affects its users, and to reduce the possibility of increased xylazine use on the state-side.

2011-01-01

25

Assessing the interplay of tectonics, sedimentology and lithology in coastline development of Puerto Rico using a GIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors used a GIS to characterize the coastline morphology of Puerto Rico at different length scales as a function of lithology, sedimentology, and tectonics in order to assess the contribution of each to coastline development. Independent variables considered include orientation and density of mapped onshore faults and geology. Puerto Rico was divided into four coastline segments: north, south, east,

D. Torres-Pulliza; Pamela E. Jansma; Glen S. Mattioli

2000-01-01

26

42 CFR 412.204 - Payment to hospitals located in Puerto Rico.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Payment to hospitals located in Puerto Rico. 412.204 Section 412.204...Operating Costs for Hospitals Located in Puerto Rico § 412.204 Payment to hospitals located in Puerto Rico. (a) FY 1988 through FY...

2009-10-01

27

42 CFR 412.204 - Payment to hospitals located in Puerto Rico.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Payment to hospitals located in Puerto Rico. 412.204 Section 412.204...Operating Costs for Hospitals Located in Puerto Rico § 412.204 Payment to hospitals located in Puerto Rico. (a) FY 1988 through FY...

2010-10-01

28

42 CFR 412.374 - Payments to hospitals located in Puerto Rico.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Payments to hospitals located in Puerto Rico. 412.374 Section 412.374...Capital Costs Special Rules for Puerto Rico Hospitals § 412.374 Payments to hospitals located in Puerto Rico. (a) FY 1998 through FY...

2010-10-01

29

42 CFR 412.374 - Payments to hospitals located in Puerto Rico.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Payments to hospitals located in Puerto Rico. 412.374 Section 412.374...Capital Costs Special Rules for Puerto Rico Hospitals § 412.374 Payments to hospitals located in Puerto Rico. (a) FY 1998 through FY...

2009-10-01

30

7 CFR 245.4 - Exceptions for Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Exceptions for Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. 245...SCHOOLS § 245.4 Exceptions for Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. Because the State agencies of Puerto Rico and the Virgin...

2013-01-01

31

27 CFR 17.5 - Products manufactured in Puerto Rico or the Virgin Islands.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Products manufactured in Puerto Rico or the Virgin Islands. 17...5 Products manufactured in Puerto Rico or the Virgin Islands. ...brought into the United States from Puerto Rico or the U.S. Virgin...

2013-04-01

32

40 CFR 81.77 - Puerto Rico Air Quality Control Region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Puerto Rico Air Quality Control Region. 81.77 ...Air Quality Control Regions § 81.77 Puerto Rico Air Quality Control Region. The Puerto Rico Air Quality Control Region...

2013-07-01

33

40 CFR 52.2723 - EPA-approved Puerto Rico regulations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-07-01 false EPA-approved Puerto Rico regulations. 52.2723 Section 52.2723...PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Puerto Rico § 52.2723 EPA-approved Puerto Rico regulations. Regulation for the...

2013-07-01

34

5 CFR 532.275 - Special wage schedules for ship surveyors in Puerto Rico.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...schedules for ship surveyors in Puerto Rico. 532.275 Section 532.275...schedules for ship surveyors in Puerto Rico. (a) The Department of...and supervisory ship surveyors in Puerto Rico. (b) Rates shall be...

2013-01-01

35

20 CFR 404.1089 - Figuring net earnings for residents and nonresidents of Puerto Rico.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...for residents and nonresidents of Puerto Rico. 404.1089 Section 404...for residents and nonresidents of Puerto Rico. (a) Residents. If you are a resident of Puerto Rico, whether or not you are an...

2013-04-01

36

26 CFR 1.933-1 - Exclusion of certain income from sources within Puerto Rico.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...certain income from sources within Puerto Rico. 1.933-1 Section 1.933-1...certain income from sources within Puerto Rico. (a) General rule ...who is a bona fide resident of Puerto Rico during the entire taxable...

2010-04-01

37

26 CFR 1.933-1 - Exclusion of certain income from sources within Puerto Rico.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...certain income from sources within Puerto Rico. 1.933-1 Section 1.933-1...certain income from sources within Puerto Rico. (a) General rule ...who is a bona fide resident of Puerto Rico during the entire taxable...

2013-04-01

38

26 CFR 1.933-1 - Exclusion of certain income from sources within Puerto Rico.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...certain income from sources within Puerto Rico. 1.933-1 Section 1.933-1...certain income from sources within Puerto Rico. (a) General rule ...who is a bona fide resident of Puerto Rico during the entire taxable...

2009-04-01

39

Hookworm disease: Puerto Rico's secret killer.  

PubMed

Drs. Bailey Ashford and Pedro Gutiérrez, with the economic aid of the United States and Puerto Rican governments, were able to implement a program to reduce the incidence of hookworm infestations in Puerto Rico during the turn of the century. The program was conducted in three phases. The first phase consisted of evaluating the prevalence of infestations among the population. The second phase was concerned with treating patients and reducing further infestations. The last phase of the program was the implementation of prevention programs whose goals were to educate the population on the mechanisms of contaminations and to help implement improvements in the waste disposal systems so as to reduce the exposure to contaminated soil. The programs greatly improved the level of health of many Puerto Ricans. The incidence of hookworm infestations was reduced from 90% to 15% among members of the population. The program obtained world-wide recognition and serves as a model for similar programs. PMID:8272486

Maldonado, A E

1993-09-01

40

Machismo y educacion en Puerto Rico [Machismo and Education in Puerto Rico].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This book is the result of a study that investigated the influence of "machismo" (a set of attitudes, beliefs, and behavior that perpetuates the myth of male superiority) in elementary education. The study included (1) a content analysis of textbooks used in Spanish and social studies classes in public and private schools in Puerto Rico and in…

Pico, Isabel

41

What and Where is Puerto Rico? Activity 3: History of Puerto Rico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary: Through web site resources, class readings, and hands-on activities students will learn where Puerto Rico is, the geography and vegetation of the island, and understand the history of the commonwealth. Materials: • Computer lab or laptop with LCD projector for whole class presentation • Student notes outline Set-Up: • reserve computer lab or set up laptop with LCD projector

42

Vertical motions of the Puerto Rico Trench and Puerto Rico and their cause  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Puerto Rico trench exhibits great water depth, an extremely low gravity anomaly, and a tilted carbonate platform between (reconstructed) elevations of +1300 m and -4000 m. I argue that these features are manifestations of large vertical movements of a segment of the Puerto Rico trench, its forearc, and the island of Puerto Rico that took place 3.3 m.y. ago over a time period as short as 14-40 kyr. I explain these vertical movements by a sudden increase in the slab's descent angle that caused the trench to subside and the island to rise. The increased dip could have been caused by shearing or even by a complete tear of the descending North American slab, although the exact nature of this deformation is unknown. The rapid (14-40 kyr) and uniform tilt along a 250 km long section of the trench is compatible with scales of mantle flow and plate bending. The proposed shear zone or tear is inferred from seismic, morphological, and gravity observations to start at the trench at 64.5°W and trend southwestwardly toward eastern Puerto Rico. The tensile stresses necessary to deform or tear the slab could have been generated by increased curvature of the trench following a counterclockwise rotation of the upper plate and by the subduction of a large seamount.

ten Brink, Uri

2005-06-01

43

The Education Industry in Puerto Rico. An Economic Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The policy of the Fair Labor Standards Act is to eventually establish the same minimum wage standards in Puerto Rico as in the 50 states. Pursuant to this policy, this report was prepared for Industry Committee No. 129-A for the Education Industry in Puerto Rico. It contains economic and other data pertinent to the committee's duties. The minimum…

Sullivan, Terry W.

44

Puerto Rico Fertility and Family Planning Assessment, 1982.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Puerto Rico Fertility and Family Planning Assessment (PRFFPA) was a multi-purpose island-wide social, demographic, and maternal/child health study of women 15-49 years of age living in Puerto Rico in 1982. The PRFFPA is a data set designed for both so...

V. S. Cain

1982-01-01

45

Sustaining Competitive Advantage: The Case of Puerto Rico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sustaining its reputation as the gateway to the Caribbean, Puerto Rico leads in Caribbean tourism attracting the highest visitor volume. A mature destination with nearly six decades since tourism developed, Puerto Rico is preparing to stay ahead of its competitors with a boost to its lodging inventory and the opening of the gargantuan convention center in the fall of 2005.

Carlos A. Coriano

2005-01-01

46

Public Education in Puerto Rico. Bulletin, 1934, No. 5  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Puerto Rico has for approximately 35 years been a part of the territory and citizenship of the United States. During these years mutual understandings and appreciations have broadened and deepened, and mutual interests have developed. Constantly increasing numbers of the people of Puerto Rico are coming to live on the mainland, and even greater…

Cook, Katherine M.

1934-01-01

47

29 CFR 510.20 - Wage surveys in Puerto Rico.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Manufacturing Industries. The Bureau of Labor Statistics of Puerto Rico regularly gathers...Non-manufacturing industries. The Bureau of Labor Statistics of Puerto Rico designed and executed...gathered for the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (i.e., that included in the...

2013-07-01

48

14 CFR 95.21 - Puerto Rico Mountainous Area.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Puerto Rico Mountainous Area. 95.21 Section 95.21 Aeronautics...ALTITUDES Designated Mountainous Areas § 95.21 Puerto Rico Mountainous Area. The area bounded by the...

2013-01-01

49

Graphical Integrated Waste Management Model for Puerto Rico  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of STELLA, a commercially available, graphically based simulation language for the Macintosh computer, to solid waste facility planning is described. This paper discusses a STELLA model which was developed for the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico Solid Waste Management Authority (SWMA). The model simulates the existing solid waste management system in Puerto Rico and also the proposed system of

Samuel A. Vigil; Hilary M. Theisen

1992-01-01

50

The Dos Bocas dam in Puerto Rico.  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Dos Bocas dam in Puerto Rico was constructed in 1942 to generate hydroelectric power. Dams in this region prevent the migration of shrimp and fish to areas upstream of the dam. As a result, compared to similar reaches of undammed streams, areas that are upstream of dammed rivers have higher amounts of organic and inorganic nutrients as well as altered invertebrate populations. Loss of migratory shrimp and fish upstream from dams alters basal resources and assemblages of invertebrate competitors and prey. This photograph originally appeared on the cover of Ecological Applications (16:1) in February of 2006.

Klemow, Kenneth

2010-02-11

51

Floods in Puerto Rico, magnitude and frequency  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Annual-peak discharge records at 50 sites in Puerto Rico with five or more years of record were used to determine individual site log-Pearson type III frequency curves. The frequency curve values for 2-, 10-, 25-, 50-, and 100-year recurrence intervals at 37 sites with 10 or more years of record were regressed against basin characteristics. Drainage area and mean annual rainfall proved to be the only independent variables significant at the 95 percent confidence level in these regression equations. (Woodard-USGS)

Lopez, Miguel A.; Colon-Dieppa, Eloy; Cobb, Ernest D.

1979-01-01

52

Analysis of human capital development in Puerto Rico: summary and conclusions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines human capital development issues in Puerto Rico. Researchers from The University of Southern Mississippi's Human Capital Development programme travelled to Puerto Rico to investigate the question ‘How is Puerto Rico retraining its workforce to meet the demand of global competition?’. Interviews were conducted with individuals involved in Puerto Rico's workforce development efforts. Using the results of these

Mamie Griffin; Heather Annulis; Ty McCearley; Dionne Davis Green; Cheryl Kirby; Cyndi Gaudet

2011-01-01

53

Estimated water use in Puerto Rico, 2000  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Water-use data were compiled for the 78 municipios of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico for 2000. Five offstream categories were considered: public-supply water withdrawals, domestic self-supplied water use, industrial self-supplied withdrawals, crop irrigation water use, and thermoelectric power fresh water use. Two additional categories also were considered: power generation instream use and public wastewater treatment return-flows. Fresh water withdrawals for offstream use from surface- and ground-water sources in Puerto Rico were estimated at 617 million gallons per day. The largest amount of fresh water withdrawn was by public-supply water facilities and was estimated at 540 million gallons per day. Fresh surface- and ground-water withdrawals by domestic self-supplied users was estimated at 2 million gallons per day and the industrial self-supplied withdrawals were estimated at 9.5 million gallons per day. Withdrawals for crop irrigation purposes were estimated at 64 million gallons per day, or approximately 10 percent of all offstream fresh water withdrawals. Saline instream surface-water withdrawals for cooling purposes by thermoelectric power facilities was estimated at 2,191 million gallons per day, and instream fresh water withdrawals by hydroelectric facilities at 171 million gallons per day. Total discharge from public wastewater treatment facilities was estimated at 211 million gallons per day.

Molina-Rivera, Wanda L.

2005-01-01

54

Late Quaternary seismic stratigraphy and structure of the western insular shelf margin of Puerto Rico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

725 km of high-resolution seismic data were collected over the insular shelf of western Puerto Rico to better understand its late Quaternary depositional and structural history. Due to low tectonic uplift rates of onshore areas in this region, well dated late Quaternary sediments and corals have only been identified in a few scattered onland localities around Puerto Rico. Seismic data from the Rio Anasco delta area of western Puerto Rico reveals four main units with characteristic stratal reflection terminations that total about 25 m in thickness. Because of a lack of well information, age estimates of these late Quaternary units are based on correlations with sea level curves derived from dated coral samples from Puerto Rico, St. Croix, and Antigua. Units include: Unit 1 - a gently folded and faulted basal section correlated to the Oliogene-early Pliocene? carbonate shelf of Puerto Rico; deeper penetration, industry MCS lines show that these rocks are deformed in a broad EW-trenching arch; Unit 2 - chaotic channel fill deposits in incisions related to the lowstand equivalent of the Rio Anasco likely formed during the Last Glacial Maximum about 25-15 ka; Unit 3 - roughly stratified deposits onlapping the top of Unit 2; these are interpreted as an estuarine facies deposited during Holocene sea level transgression; Unit 4 - highly stratified deposits related to progradation of the Anasco delta during sea level rise. The base of unit 4 is a downlap surface interpreted as a maximum flooding surface likely formed about 6 ka. East-northeast-striking faults are observed breaking the younger late Quaternary units in three separate zones off the west coast of Puerto Rico. Onland continuations of these faults have not been identified likely due to cultural overprint of natural scarps on late Quaternary floodplains.

Hanzlik, M.; Mann, P.; Abrams, L.; Grindlay, N.

2005-12-01

55

Molluscicidal activity of plants from Puerto Rico.  

PubMed

Overall, 173 tropical plants from 72 different families, collected from the north-western and western regions of Puerto Rico, were screened for their molluscicidal properties against Biomphalaria glabrata, the intermediate host of Schistosoma mansoni. Six plant extracts were effective at 50 ppm. The two most effective extracts were those from the leaves of Didymopanax morototoni (Araliaceae) and Mammea americana (Guttiferae), which, at 50 ppm, killed all snails after 24 h of exposure and a day for recovery. Under the same conditions, extracts of Furcraea tuberosa, Argemone mexicana and Paullinia pinnata killed 50% of the snails and that of Solanum americanum killed 33%. The most effective extracts (or their active components or compounds based on them) may have potential as molluscides for the relatively cheap control of human schistosomiasis. PMID:12080983

Meléndez, P A; Capriles, V A

2002-03-01

56

75 FR 69733 - Puerto Rico Disaster #PR-00012  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Commonwealth of Puerto Rico (FEMA-1946-DR), dated 10/26/2010. Incident: Severe Storms, Flooding, Mudslides, and Landslides associated with Tropical Storm Otto. Incident Period: 10/04/2010 through 10/08/2010. DATES:...

2010-11-15

57

75 FR 76517 - Puerto Rico Disaster Number PR-00012  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Commonwealth of Puerto Rico (FEMA-1946-DR), dated 10/26/2010. Incident: Severe Storms, Flooding, Mudslides, and Landslides associated with Tropical Storm Otto. Incident Period: 10/04/2010 through 10/08/2010. Effective Date:...

2010-12-08

58

[The use of silicone breast prosthesis in Puerto Rico].  

PubMed

To obtain data on the use of gel-filled silicone breast implants in Puerto Rico, a study was undertaken by the Division of Plastic Surgery of the University of Puerto Rico. Questionnaires, designed to obtain information about their breast implant patients, were mailed to the 22 plastic surgeons in Puerto Rico. Sixty-eight percent of the plastic surgeons responded. The collected data showed that 1,682 patients received gel-filled silicone breast implants, of whom breast augmentation accounted for 82%, and post-mastectomy reconstruction for 18%. Capsular contracture occurred in 16% and early complications in 2.5% of the patients. Autoimmune disease was rare (.0006%), as was breast cancer (.0002%). Very few patients in Puerto Rico received polyurethane foam covered breast implants (.005%). The risk of problems associated with breast implants in our Island appears to be very low. PMID:1388458

Cruz, N I

1992-02-01

59

Potentially Hazardous Plants of Puerto Rico: Preliminary Guide.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

General information is presented about the kinds of native and imported plants in Puerto Rico (weeds, grasses, vines, cactuses, shrubs, trees and parts thereof) that should be avoided, or not ingested. Small amounts of eaten wild plant materials are usual...

F. F. Ferguson F. R. Medina

1975-01-01

60

76 FR 59178 - Puerto Rico Disaster Number PR-00015  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Public Assistance Only for the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico (FEMA-4017-DR), dated 08/27/2011. Incident: Hurricane Irene. Incident Period: 08/21/2011 through 08/24/2011. Effective Date: 09/13/2011. Physical Loan...

2011-09-23

61

76 FR 63699 - Puerto Rico Disaster Number PR-00015  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Public Assistance Only for the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico (FEMA-4017-DR), dated 08/27/2011. Incident: Hurricane Irene. Incident Period: 08/21/2011 through 08/24/2011. Effective Date: 10/04/2011. Physical Loan...

2011-10-13

62

76 FR 62133 - Puerto Rico Disaster Number PR-00015  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Public Assistance only for the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico (FEMA-4017-DR), dated 08/27/2011. Incident: Hurricane Irene. Incident Period: 08/21/2011 through 08/24/2011. Effective Date: 09/28/2011. Physical Loan...

2011-10-06

63

76 FR 56861 - Puerto Rico Disaster Number PR-00015  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Public Assistance Only for the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico (FEMA-4017-DR), dated 08/27/2011. Incident: Hurricane Irene. Incident Period: 08/21/2011 and continuing. DATES: Effective Date: 09/03/2011. Physical Loan...

2011-09-14

64

76 FR 55155 - Puerto Rico Disaster #PR-00014  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...declaration of a major disaster for the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico (FEMA-4017-DR), dated 08/ 27/2011. Incident: Hurricane Irene. Incident Period: 08/21/2011 and continuing. Effective Date: 08/27/2011. Physical Loan Application...

2011-09-06

65

76 FR 63939 - Puerto Rico; Major Disaster and Related Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...as follows: I have determined that the damage in certain areas of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico resulting from Hurricane Irene beginning on August 21, 2011, and continuing, is of sufficient severity and magnitude to warrant a major...

2011-10-14

66

Puerto Rico's Commercial Marine Fisheries. A Statistical Picture.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Puerto Rico inshore marine commercial fishery was evaluated by collection of statistical data on fish and shellfish landings, number of fishermen, and number and types of fishing craft and gear. (Author)

J. A. Suarez-Caabro

1970-01-01

67

76 FR 56858 - Puerto Rico Disaster Number PR-00014  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

This is an amendment of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico (FEMA-4017-DR), dated 08/27/2011. Incident: Hurricane Irene. Incident Period: 08/21/2011 and...

2011-09-14

68

Land development, land use, and urban sprawl in Puerto Rico ...  

Treesearch

Description: The island of Puerto Rico has both a high population density and a long ... This study integrates geospatial technology and population census data to understand ... Half of the urban development occurs outside of urban centers.

69

Catholicism and fertility in Puerto Rico.  

PubMed Central

This paper examines the association between fertility and religious affiliation among Puerto Ricans. Bongaarts' proximate determinants framework is used to compare religious categories on behaviors that directly affect fertility. We found no difference in recent fertility between Catholics and non-Catholics in Puerto Rico (total fertility rate = 2.5). We also found Catholics and non-Catholics to be similar on age at first marriage (23.3 and 23.4 years, respectively), contraceptive use (71 percent and 69 percent of married women currently contracepting), and breast-feeding practices (mean duration of breast-feeding of 4.4 and 4.3 months). Differences were observed between less committed and more committed Catholics in total fertility rate, age at first marriage, and contraceptive use, but these differences were not large and were in the opposite direction from the expected. Our findings support the theory of convergence of Catholic and non-Catholic fertility for the US. Our discrepancy with findings from the National Survey of Family Growth is evidence of the cultural diversity in the US Hispanic population and indicates the importance of disaggregating by ethnicity or national origin when studying this population.

Herold, J M; Westoff, C F; Warren, C W; Seltzer, J

1989-01-01

70

Isla Evangelista— A Story of Church and State: Puerto Rico’s Faith-Based Initiatives in Drug Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes the debates leading to Puerto Rico’s Mental Health Law of 2000, which defined addiction as a spiritual and social problem rather than a mental disorder, in order to trace three competing approaches to addiction in Puerto Rico: evangelist, biomedical, and harm-reductionist. Highlighting the ways in which the evangelist approach of Puerto Rican street ministries challenges the individualism

Helena Hansen

2005-01-01

71

Public relations practices in Puerto Rico: An exploratory qualitative study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This explorative study is a qualitative assessment of culture as a critical aspect of public relations practice in Puerto Rico. Reviewing definitions of culture, Hofstede's dimensions of cultural values, the Excellence Theory, and international case studies, this study sought to answer the following research questions: What national cultural traits have an impact on the practice of public relations in Puerto

Delia R Jourde

2007-01-01

72

Significant Factors in the Development of Education in Puerto Rico.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Published in a volume of studies on Puerto Rico, this extensive report discusses policies and trends in the Puerto Rican Educational System, and describes its administrative and organizational characteristics. Numerous programs, such as an English program for adults and a scholarship program, are also described. One section is devoted to…

Bou, Ismael Rodriguez

73

7 CFR 319.73-3 - Conditions for transit movement of certain products through Puerto Rico or Hawaii.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...certain products through Puerto Rico or Hawaii. 319.73-3 Section 319.73-3...certain products through Puerto Rico or Hawaii. (a) Mail. Samples of unroasted coffee that are transiting Hawaii or Puerto Rico en route to...

2013-01-01

74

27 CFR 26.1 - Alcoholic products coming into the United States from Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...coming into the United States from Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. 26...ALCOHOL LIQUORS AND ARTICLES FROM PUERTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS Scope...coming into the United States from Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands....

2013-04-01

75

33 CFR 165.757 - Safety Zones; Ports of Ponce, Tallaboa, and Guayanilla, Puerto Rico and Limetree Bay, St. Croix...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Ponce, Tallaboa, and Guayanilla, Puerto Rico and Limetree Bay, St. Croix...Ponce, Tallaboa, and Guayanilla, Puerto Rico and Limetree Bay, St. Croix...conditions: (1) Port of Ponce, Puerto Rico. A 100-yard radius...

2013-07-01

76

Abortion in Puerto Rico: the limits of a colonial legality.  

PubMed

This paper situates the current abortion practice and policy in Puerto Rico within the historical, political, and economic context of the colonial domination of the United States (US) over Puerto Rico. In particular, we pay attention to the hurdles that women face to obtain abortion services in Puerto Rico as a result of its colonial legality. Of particular significance is the overall low abortion ratio, and differential abortion ratio and access issues faced by women when grouped by an age-ethnicity category: unmarried teenagers, adult Puerto Rican women and, adult immigrant women from the Dominican Republic. The present hurdles to abortion access--related to information, abortion providers, economic situation, and government policies--are discussed within the colonial legality of abortion based on the US Supreme Court decision Roe v. Wade. Puerto Rico's case is situated within its broader history of population policies developed by the State since the 1930's. Of particular relevance is the antagonism that State managers have had towards abortion in spite of its legality. In this sense, abortion in Puerto Rico continues to be an unfinished business, in spite of its legality. PMID:9642718

Azize-Vargas, Y; Avilés, L A

1998-03-01

77

Puerto Rico and Florida manatees represent genetically distinct groups  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus) populations in Florida (T. m. latirostris) and Puerto Rico (T. m. manatus) are considered distinct subspecies and are listed together as endangered under the United States Endangered Species Act. Sustained management and conservation efforts for the Florida subspecies have led to the suggested reclassification of the species to a threatened or delisted status. However, the two populations are geographically distant, morphologically distinct, and habitat degradation and boat strikes continue to threaten the Puerto Rico population. Here, 15 microsatellite markers and mitochondrial control region sequences were used to determine the relatedness of the two populations and investigate the genetic diversity and phylogeographic organization of the Puerto Rico population. Highly divergent allele frequencies were identified between Florida and Puerto Rico using microsatellite (F ST = 0.16; R ST = 0.12 (P ST = 0.66; ? ST = 0.50 (P E = 0.45; NA = 3.9), were similar, but lower than those previously identified in Florida (HE = 0.48, NA = 4.8). Within Puerto Rico, the mitochondrial genetic diversity values (? = 0.001; h = 0.49) were slightly lower than those previously reported (? = 0.002; h = 0.54) and strong phylogeographic structure was identified (F ST global = 0.82; ? ST global = 0.78 (P < 0.001)). The genetic division with Florida, low diversity, small population size (N = 250), and distinct threats and habitat emphasize the need for separate protections in Puerto Rico. Conservation efforts including threat mitigation, migration corridors, and protection of subpopulations could lead to improved genetic variation in the endangered Puerto Rico manatee population.

Hunter, Margaret E.; Mignucci-Giannoni, Antonio A.; Tucker, Kimberly Pause; King, Timothy L.; Bonde, Robert K.; Gray, Brian A.; McGuire, Peter M.

2012-01-01

78

Legionella in Puerto Rico cooling towers  

SciTech Connect

Water samples from air conditioning cooling towers receiving different treatment protocols on five large municipal buildings in San Juan, Puerto Rico were assayed for various species and serogroups of Legionella spp. using direct immunofluorescence. Several water quality parameters were also measured with each sample. Guinea pigs were inoculated with water samples to confirm pathogenicity and recover viable organisms. Legionella pneumophila (1-6), L. bozemanii, L. micdadei, L. dumoffii, and L. gormanii were observed in at least one of the cooling towers. L. pneumophila was the most abundant species, reaching 10{sup 5} cells/ml, within the range that is considered potentially pathogenic to humans. A significantly higher density of L. pneumophila was observed in the cooling tower water that was not being treated with biocides. Percent respiration (INT) and total cell activity (AODC), were inversely correlated with bacterial density. This study demonstrates that Legionella spp. are present in tropical air-conditioning cooling systems, and without continuous biocide treatment may reach densities that present a health risk.

Negron-Alviro, A.; Perez-Suarez, I.; Hazen, T.C. [Univ. of Puerto Rico, Rio Piedras (Puerto Rico)

1988-12-31

79

Economic Cost of Dengue in Puerto Rico  

PubMed Central

Dengue, endemic in Puerto Rico, reached a record high in 2010. To inform policy makers, we derived annual economic cost. We assessed direct and indirect costs of hospitalized and ambulatory dengue illness in 2010 dollars through surveillance data and interviews with 100 laboratory-confirmed dengue patients treated in 2008–2010. We corrected for underreporting by using setting-specific expansion factors. Work absenteeism because of a dengue episode exceeded the absenteeism for an episode of influenza or acute otitis media. From 2002 to 2010, the aggregate annual cost of dengue illness averaged $38.7 million, of which 70% was for adults (age 15+ years). Hospitalized patients accounted for 63% of the cost of dengue illness, and fatal cases represented an additional 17%. Households funded 48% of dengue illness cost, the government funded 24%, insurance funded 22%, and employers funded 7%. Including dengue surveillance and vector control activities, the overall annual cost of dengue was $46.45 million ($12.47 per capita).

Halasa, Yara A.; Shepard, Donald S.; Zeng, Wu

2012-01-01

80

Fiscal Year 1984 Program Report: Puerto Rico Water Resources Research Institute.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The research activity at the Puerto Rico Water Resources Research Institute during FY 1984 included three research projects and two technology transfer activities. Two of the research projects, one on acid rain in Puerto Rico and another on the anaerobic ...

1985-01-01

81

Mapping the Forest Type and Land Cover of Puerto Rico, a ...  

Treesearch

... the most detailed island-wide map of Puerto Rico's extremely complex natural vegetation ... In 1991-92, Puerto Rico had about 364,000 ha of closed forest, which ... system grossly underrepresents lowland moist, seasonal evergreen forests.

82

Puerto Rico and the Puerto Ricans: A Teaching and Resource Unit for Upper Level Spanish Students or Social Studies Classes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The subject of this teaching and resource unit for Spanish students or social studies classes is Puerto Rico and the Puerto Ricans. The unit has sections dealing with the present conditions of the Puerto Ricans, their culture, and historical perspectives. The appendixes contain: (1) Demands of the Puerto Ricans, (2) Notable Puerto Ricans, (3)…

Carrero, Milagros

83

33 CFR 165.758 - Security Zone; San Juan, Puerto Rico.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Security Zone; San Juan, Puerto Rico. 165.758 Section 165...District § 165.758 Security Zone; San Juan, Puerto Rico. (a) Location...moored or anchored in the Port of San Juan, Puerto Rico. The security zone for a...

2010-07-01

84

33 CFR 165.758 - Security Zone; San Juan, Puerto Rico.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-07-01 false Security Zone; San Juan, Puerto Rico. 165.758 Section 165...District § 165.758 Security Zone; San Juan, Puerto Rico. (a) Location...moored or anchored in the Port of San Juan, Puerto Rico. The security zone for a...

2009-07-01

85

The Future of Puerto Rico. The Latin American Project. Volume 1, No. 1.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Puerto Rico has been enmeshed in a debate over status within versus status outside the United States since 1898. The 1952 legislation that established commonwealth status for Puerto Rico created a compact between the residents of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Congress that requires the consent of both parties to any future decisions about the political…

League of United Latin American Citizens, Washington, DC.

86

42 CFR 412.210 - Puerto Rico rates for Federal fiscal years 1989 through 2003.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2 2009-10-01 2009-10-01 false Puerto Rico rates for Federal fiscal years 1989 through 2003...Inpatient Operating Costs for Hospitals Located in Puerto Rico § 412.210 Puerto Rico rates for Federal fiscal years 1989 through...

2009-10-01

87

42 CFR 412.210 - Puerto Rico rates for Federal fiscal years 1989 through 2003.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Puerto Rico rates for Federal fiscal years 1989 through 2003...Inpatient Operating Costs for Hospitals Located in Puerto Rico § 412.210 Puerto Rico rates for Federal fiscal years 1989 through...

2010-10-01

88

19 CFR 10.198b - Products of Puerto Rico processed in a beneficiary country.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Products of Puerto Rico processed in a beneficiary country...Initiative § 10.198b Products of Puerto Rico processed in a beneficiary country...manufacture of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico and that is by any means...

2013-04-01

89

Mobile Livelihoods: The Sociocultural Practices of Circular Migrations between Puerto Rico and the United States.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Documented livelihood practices of migrants based on a recent field study of population flows between Puerto Rico and the United States, comparing characteristics of multiple movers, onetime movers, and nonmovers residing in Puerto Rico. Results suggest that circular migration does not entail major losses in human capital for Puerto Rico, but can…

Duany, Jorge

2002-01-01

90

7 CFR 318.13-24 - Sweet potatoes from Puerto Rico.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sweet potatoes from Puerto Rico. 318.13-24 Section...Hawaii and the Territories § 318.13-24 Sweet potatoes from Puerto Rico. Sweet potatoes from Puerto Rico may be moved...

2010-01-01

91

Diagenesis of Isla de Mona, Puerto Rico  

SciTech Connect

Isla de Mona is a carbonate plateau, 50 mi west of Puerto Rico. The plateau is composed mostly of two Miocene carbonate units, the Isla de Mona Dolomite overlain by Lirio Limestone. These two units consist primarily of back-reef sands with a reefal sequence present in the Lirio Limestone to the southwest. The Lirio Limestone is heavily karstified with numerous sinkholes in the central part of the island resembling present-day cenotes of the Yucatan peninsula. Numerous large cave openings are exposed along cliffs surrounding the island, with cavern size rapidly decreasing toward the interior. Within the Isla de Mona Dolomite, three different soil development episodes can be identified in the central part of the island, and on the periphery of the island several episodes of vadose diagenesis are identified by the presence of vadose silts and paleotravertine. Both units exhibit selective dissolution of aragonitic skeletal grains with fabric retentive replacement of former high magnesium calcite skeletal components, by calcite in the Lirio Limestone, and by dolomite in the Isla de Mona Dolomite. Petrographic relationships suggest early diagenetic modification by fluids that were substantially undersaturated with respect to aragonite, which preferentially dissolved aragonitic components, near saturation with respect to calcite/high magnesian calcite during dolomitization, and saturated with respect to calcite during calcitization. Stable isotopic composition of individual dolomitized components and dolomite microspar in the Isla de Mona Dolomite define a hyperbolic trend characteristic of composition produced by fluid mixing. The similarity of the karstified Lirio Limestone to present-day Yucatan, the nature and fluid chemistry requirement of the aragonite dissolution and calcite replacement process, the isotopic composition of the dolomite suggest diagenetic modification under meteoric-marine fluid mixing.

Gonzalez, L.A. (Univ. of Iowa, Iowa City (USA)); Ruiz, H.; Monell, V. (Univ. of Puerto Rico, Mayaguez (Puerto Rico))

1990-05-01

92

Building a new waste management strategy in Puerto Rico  

SciTech Connect

Puerto Rico traditionally has not had a centrally organized waste management system. Most municipalities have provided service for their own residents, and the island used 62 unlined landfills before 32 of those closed in April 1994. But waste management on this Caribbean island is changing as the government-a self-governing commonwealth associated voluntarily with the US government-begins implementing its strategy for developing efficient, state-of-the-art waste management. This strategy includes plans to build an integrated system of collection, transfer stations, and disposal sites whose centerpieces are market-drives recycling, partnerships between the public and private sectors, and public education. The details of this plan coincide with the mission statement of the Puerto Rico Solid Waste Management Authority (SWMA, San Juan), to ``develop and implement the necessary infrastructure for the efficient management of solid waste in Puerto Rico.

Boltz, C.

1995-06-01

93

Infant health among Puerto Ricans--Puerto Rico and U.S. mainland, 1989-2000.  

PubMed

Although the overall U.S. infant mortality rate (IMR) declined dramatically during the 1900s, striking racial/ethnic disparities in infant mortality remain. Infant health disparities associated with maternal place of birth also exist within some racial/ethnic populations. Eliminating disparities in infant health is crucial to achieving the 2010 national health objective of reducing the infant death rate to 4.5 per 1,000 live births (objective 16-1c). Hispanics comprise the largest racial/ethnic minority population in the United States. Among U.S. Hispanics, considerable heterogeneity exists in infant health, with the poorest outcomes reported among Puerto Rican infants. This report compares trends during the previous decade in IMRs and major determinants of these rates such as low birthweight (LBW), preterm delivery (PTD), and selected maternal characteristics among infants born to Puerto Rican women on the U.S. mainland (50 states and the District of Columbia) with corresponding trends among infants born in Puerto Rico. The findings indicate that despite having lower prevalence of selected maternal risk factors, Puerto Rico-born infants are at greater risk for LBW, PTD, and infant death than mainland-born Puerto Rican infants. This report also highlights a persistent disparity in IMRs and an emerging disparity in LBW and PTD rates between Puerto Rico-born infants and mainland-born Puerto Rican infants. Future research should focus on identifying factors responsible for these disparities to improve infant health in Puerto Rico. PMID:14574275

2003-10-24

94

Structural analysis of cores and cuttings from the Toa Baja (Puerto Rico) borehole  

SciTech Connect

Deformation structures in core samples and well cuttings from the Toa Baja borehole in Puerto Rico, obtained from depths of 580 to 2,700 meters, can be divided into two major categories: (1) structures resulting from compression and shear and (2) structures formed by extension. Generally, the first ones are older and they are somewhat more abundant at horizons where fault zones occur as deduced from dipmeter readings and televiewer log. These structures may have formed during an Eocene thrusting event, recognized regionally in Puerto Rico. The extensional structures which almost always crosscut the compressional ones are filled with zeolite, calcite, prehnite, or quartz. There is poor correspondence between the abundance of these fractures and the position of the major fault zones. The largest abundance of veins occurs between 1,700 to 2,100 meters depth. They may be related to a phase of regional extension during the Late Paleogene.

Ave Lallemant, H.G. (Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States))

1991-03-01

95

Neotectonics of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands, northeastern Caribbean, from GPS geodesy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The boundary between the North American and Caribbean plates is characterized primarily by left-lateral motion along predominantly east-west striking faults. Seismicity and marine geophysical survey data are consistent with at least two, and possibly three, microplates in the diffuse boundary zone in the northeastern Caribbean: (1) the Gonave, (2) the Hispaniola, and (3) the Puerto Rico-northern Virgin Islands (PRVI). We

Pamela E. Jansma; Glen S. Mattioli; Alberto Lopez; Charles DeMets; Timothy H. Dixon; Paul Mann; Eric Calais

2000-01-01

96

The distribution of pollution and environmental justice in Puerto Rico  

EPA Science Inventory

Because few empirical studies on environmental justice and pollution distribution exit, we examine both issues in Puerto Rico. This research is part of a larger US EPA project related to sustainability issues. We use an environmental Gini coefficient with Toxic Release Inventory ...

97

Language and Identity in Twentieth Century Puerto Rico.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews the history of the language controversy in Puerto Rico from the United States takeover of the island in 1898 through the 1991 and 1993 language laws that eliminated and then restored English as an official language. The article emphasizes the shifting ways that language has served as a symbolic maker. (47 references) (Author/CK)

Morris, Nancy

1996-01-01

98

76 FR 62133 - Puerto Rico Disaster Number PR-00014  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...declaration of a major disaster for the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico (FEMA-4017-DR), dated 08/27/2011. Incident: Hurricane Irene. Incident Period: 08/21/2011 through 08/24/2011. Effective Date: 09/28/2011. Physical Loan...

2011-10-06

99

76 FR 74837 - Puerto Rico Disaster Number PR-00014  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...declaration of a major disaster for the State of Puerto Rico (FEMA-4017-DR), dated 08/ 27/2011. Incident: Hurricane Irene. Incident Period: 08/21/2011 through 08/24/2011. Effective Date: 11/18/2011. Physical Loan...

2011-12-01

100

Energy Integrated Dairy Farm System in Puerto Rico.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Principles of energy-integrated farming were applied to the Rio Canas Dairy Farm, a privately-owned dairy farm and one of the largest dairy farms in Puerto Rico with a milking herd of 400 cows. Animal wastes were fed to two anaerobic digesters where metha...

D. S. Sasscer T. O. Morgan

1986-01-01

101

The Demand for Higher Education in Puerto Rico.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Uses time-series data to estimate empirical enrollment functions for three Puerto Rico university systems. Measures opportunity cost and benefits to education as expected wage rates and tests a market segmentation process. Results show that the universities are not substitutes for one another. To cope with continuing revenue shortfalls,…

King, Jonathan

1993-01-01

102

Faculty Policies. Inter American University of Puerto Rico.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Full-time faculty of the Inter American University of Puerto Rico are governed by the 1975 edition of the faculty handbook. The document includes discussion of items such as: functions of the faculty; conditions of employment; teaching loads; academic freedom and responsibility; academic tenure; research, consulting, overtime teaching and project…

Inter American Univ. of Puerto Rico, San German.

103

The pharmaceutical industry of Puerto Rico: Ramifications of global competition  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper utilizes a non-homogeneous production function to estimate the efficiency of the pharmaceutical industry of Puerto Rico using data from 1980 to 2008. Global competition in recent years has resulted in job loss and plant closures requiring strategies to profitably use the industry's excess capacity. The estimated results indicate operation at decreasing returns to scale mainly due to the

Harri Ramcharran

2011-01-01

104

Water Resources of the North Coast Limestone Area, Puerto Rico.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The area, about 600 square miles, is one of the few sparsely populated parts of Puerto Rico, and possesses unique esthetic and geologic qualities, in addition to being the island's last large and underdeveloped source of ground water. The area's limestone...

E. V. Giusti G. D. Bennett

1976-01-01

105

1997 Economic Census of Outlying Areas: Puerto Rico Manufacturing  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Highlights of this newly released report from the US Census Bureau include that Puerto Rico's manufacturing industries shipped $46.9 billion worth of goods and employed 163,605 persons at 2,092 locations in 1997. Pharmaceutical preparations were the top chemicals and allied products shipped, while beverages ranked first among food products, amounting to $2.3 billion in shipments.

106

The Puerto Rico nuclear center reactor conversion project  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the purpose of upgrading the control and instrumentation system to meet new AEC requirements, to increase the available neutron flux for experimenters and to replace burned out fuel the Puerto Rico Nuclear Center started a modification program on its old MTR type, one megawatt reactor on March 1971. A TRIGA core utilizing the newly developed FLIP fuel, capable of

Brown-Campos

1974-01-01

107

Public Opinion in Puerto Rico on Alcohol Control Policies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article discusses the first study to assess public opinion of alcohol policies in Puerto Rico. In 2001, a telephone survey of 514 adults on the island assessed levels of support for 20 alcohol control policies covering five domains: (a) raising alcohol taxes, (b) restricting alcohol consumption in public places, (c) punishing adult providers…

Harwood, Eileen M.; Bernat, Debra H.; Lenk, Kathleen M.; Vazquez, Mary Jo; Wagenaar, Alexander C.

2004-01-01

108

Policies for Early Childhood Music Education in Puerto Rico  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this article, the author, aware of the importance of music education from the earliest age, especially in the emotional, expressive, cultural, social, intellectual, and creative needs of all children, analyzes the status of music education for the young child in Puerto Rico. She examines whether and how local education policies impact the…

Hernandez-Candelas, Marta

2007-01-01

109

Puerto Rico Child and Family Services Review. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document presents the findings of the Child and Family Services Review (CFSR) for the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico. The CFSR was conducted the week of August 4, 2003. The findings were derived from the following documents and data collection procedure...

2003-01-01

110

76 FR 59179 - Puerto Rico Disaster Number PR-00014  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

This is an amendment of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico (FEMA-4017-DR), dated 08/27/2011. Incident: Hurricane Irene. Incident Period: 08/21/2011 through 08/24/2011. Dates: Effective Date: 09/13/2011. Physical Loan Application Deadline Date: 10/26/2011. EIDL Loan Application Deadline Date:...

2011-09-23

111

76 FR 55154 - Puerto Rico Disaster #PR-00015  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico (FEMA-4017-DR), dated 08/27/2011. Incident: Hurricane Irene. Incident Period: 08/21/2011 and continuing. Effective Date: 08/27/2011. Physical Loan Application Deadline Date: 10/26/2011. Economic Injury (EIDL) Loan Application Deadline Date:...

2011-09-06

112

76 FR 67244 - Puerto Rico Disaster Number PR-00014  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

This is an amendment of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico (FEMA-4017-DR), dated 08/27/2011. Incident: Hurricane Irene. Incident Period: 08/21/2011 through 08/24/2011. Effective Date: 10/24/2011. Physical Loan Application Deadline Date: 11/25/2011. EIDL Loan Application Deadline Date:...

2011-10-31

113

Weather in the Liquillo Mountains of Puerto Rico.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Puerto Rico is a mountainous, oceanic island in the American tropics, lying in the path of the northeast trade winds. Although the island is only 110 miles long by 35 wide, vegetation varies from rainforest in the eastern mountains to desert scrub in the ...

C. B. Briscoe

1966-01-01

114

Puerto Rico: A Site of Critical Performative Pedagogy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author shares his transformative experiences of teaching in Puerto Rico. Specifically, he reflects on why and how his transactions with his first class caused him to adopt themes and strategies from the relatively new field of "critical performative pedagogy." He begins by explaining three concepts that ground critical…

Elliot, David J.

2007-01-01

115

Puerto Rico Still Has No Reading First Funds  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nearly four years after Reading First was authorized under the No Child Left Behind Act, federal officials are renegotiating with Puerto Rico--one of the nation's neediest jurisdictions--on a revised plan for satisfying the program's criteria. Still, the self-governing U.S. commonwealth, the only jurisdiction that has yet to receive money from the…

Manzo, Kathleen Kennedy

2005-01-01

116

Topography and Structure of the Western Puerto Rico Trench.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The U.S. Naval Oceanographic Office conducted a bathymetric survey in January 1972 over the western Puerto Rico Trench by using a highly directional, multiple-beam sonar system. The system is composed of 15 independent, 2 2/3 degree beams, of which two co...

T. S. Maley F. D. Sieber G. L. Johnson

1973-01-01

117

CRITERIA POLLUTANT AND ACID AEROSOL CHARACTERIZATION STUDY - CATANO, PUERTO RICO  

EPA Science Inventory

The objective of the Catano Criteria Pollutant and Acid Aerosol Characterization study was to characterize criteria pollutant and acid aerosol concentrations in the Ward of Catano and adjacent residential areas in the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico. on-Governmental organizations (NG...

118

Commercialization of Raft Oyster Culture in Puerto Rico.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Oyster Culture Project of the Puerto Rico Nuclear Center has been investigating the feasibility of raft-culturing the local mangrove oyster (Crassostrea rhizophorae) for the past two years. Attempts to start culture efforts on a commercial scale are d...

K. W. Watters

1975-01-01

119

Assessment of the Wastewater Reuse Potential in Puerto Rico.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Puerto Rico has seen an increase in water rationing in the last ten years. This has been caused mainly by an increase in water withdrawals and a general lack of planning in regards to the water resource. The problem of quantity in reference to potable wat...

R. A. Rios

1984-01-01

120

National Environmental/Energy Workforce Assessment for Puerto Rico.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report presents existing workforce levels, training programs and career potentials and develops staffing level projections (1976-1982) based on available information for the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico. The study concerns itself with the environmental pollution control areas of air, noise, potable water, pesticides, radiation, solid waste,…

National Field Research Center Inc., Iowa City, IA.

121

Puerto Rico - 2002 : field studies to resolve aerosol processes.  

SciTech Connect

A number of questions remain concerning homogeneous aerosol formation by natural organics interacting with anthropogenic pollutants. For example, chlorine has been proposed as a potential oxidant in the troposphere because of its very high reactivity with a wide range of organics (Finlayson-Pitts, 1993). Indeed, sea salt aerosol in the presence of ozone has been shown to produce chlorine atoms in heterogeneous photochemical reactions under laboratory conditions. Whether chlorine can initiate oxidation of natural organics such as monoterpene hydrocarbons and can generate homogeneous nucleation or condensable material that contributes to aerosol loadings needs to be assessed. The nighttime reactions of ozone and nitrate radical can also result in monoterpene reactions that contribute to aerosol mass. We are currently planning field studies in Puerto Rico to assess these aerosol issues and other atmospheric chemistry questions. Puerto Rico has a number of key features that make it very attractive for a field study of this sort. The principal feature is the island's very regular meteorology and its position in the Caribbean Sea relative to the easterly trade winds. This meteorology and the island's rectangular shape (100 x 35 miles) make it highly suitable for simplification of boundary layer conditions. In addition, the long stretch between Puerto Rico and the nearest pollution sources in Africa and southern Europe make the incoming background air relatively clean and constant. Furthermore, Puerto Rico has approximately 3.5 million people with a very well defined source region and a central area of rain forest vegetation. These features make Puerto Rico an ideal locale for assessing aerosol processes. The following sections describe specific areas of atmospheric chemistry that can be explored during the proposed field study.

Gaffney, J. S.; Marley, N. A.; Ravelo, R.

1999-10-05

122

Mercury Control Technology Assessment Study: Wiring Devices of Puerto Rico, Ponce, Puerto Rico. In-Depth Survey Report for the Site Visit of March 16-18, 1982.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An on-site visit was made to the Wiring Devices of Puerto Rico Corporation, Ponce, Puerto Rico to evaluate control measures in force to reduce exposures during mercury (7439976) filling operations, as part of the production of mercury buttons. The mercury...

1982-01-01

123

The Anthropology of the People of Puerto Rico. Studies of Puerto Rican Society and Culture, No. 1.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This monograph contains seven papers presented at a 1977 symposium held to reevaluate the 1947 research work, "The People of Puerto Rico." (1) Sidney Mintz discusses the role of Puerto Rico in modern social science. (2) Eric Wolf, one of the authors of the 1947 work, comments retrospectively on some of the conceptual and methodological strengths…

Duncan, Ronald J., Ed.

124

Puerto Rico trench: site of a shallow-water Tertiary basin and regional tectonic implications  

SciTech Connect

Until late Eocene time, the Bahamas platform extended to the present Virgin Islands, as demonstrated by magnetic, gravity, and refraction data. This interpretation is confirmed by the presence of widespread outcrops of middle Cretaceous through early Pliocene shallow-water bank carbonates below 5200 m depth in the trench. Crustal thickness beneath this bank is 18-25 km. Igneous and metamorphic rocks from the base of the trench's southern slope are chemically very different from subduction-zone rocks. Waters of the carbonate bank (300 x 100 km in size) transgressed southward after early Eocene time. During late Eocene time, the bank's southern margin was near today's shoreline where down-to-the-north growth faults formed. Along the bank's northern margin, block faulting produced a graben above the site of the modern Puerto Rico Trench. During middle Eocene to early Pliocene time, shallow-water deposition extended from a position presently 5200 m deep in the trench to central Puerto Rico, an exceptionally stable block at least 100 km wide. During middle Eocene time, the Beata Ridge dextral shear cut the trench off north of Hispaniola. In early Pliocene time, the Mona Canyon dextral fault zone cut across the trench, and strong northward tilting commenced. The trench's present southern slope is mainly a dip slope, inclined about 5/sup 0/. The Puerto Rico Outer Ridge formed by lateral and upward movements of mantle materials that withdrew from beneath the sinking trench. Petroleum prospects presently are limited to the Tertiary (4000 m thick) and to a coastal zone 20-25 km wide (to 2000 m water depth). Traps are mainly fault seals and stratigraphic pinch-outs.

Krieg, E.A.; Meyerhoff, A.A.; Taner, I.

1985-02-01

125

Building a new waste management strategy in Puerto Rico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Puerto Rico traditionally has not had a centrally organized waste management system. Most municipalities have provided service for their own residents, and the island used 62 unlined landfills before 32 of those closed in April 1994. But waste management on this Caribbean island is changing as the government-a self-governing commonwealth associated voluntarily with the US government-begins implementing its strategy for

Boltz

1995-01-01

126

Forest conservation and land development in Puerto Rico  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the Caribbean island of Puerto Rico, rapid land-use changes over the past century have included recent land-cover conversion to urban\\/built-up lands. Observations of this land development adjacent to reserves or replacing dense forest call into question how the changes relate to forests or reserved lands. Using existing maps, this study first summarizes island-wide land-cover change between 1977-78 and 1991-92.

E. H. Helmer

2004-01-01

127

Energy Integrated dairy Farm System in Puerto Rico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Principles of energy-integrated farming were applied to the Rio Canas Dairy Farm, a privately-owned dairy farm and one of the largest dairy farms in Puerto Rico with a milking herd of 400 cows. Animal wastes were fed to two anaerobic digesters where methane gas was produced by bacterial degradation of organic material. The methane gas fueled an engine-generator to produce

D. S. Sasscer; T. O. Morgan

1986-01-01

128

26 CFR 31.3401(a)(8)(B)-1 - Remuneration for services performed in possession of the United States (other than Puerto Rico...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...of the United States (other than Puerto Rico) by citizen of the United States...the United States (other than Puerto Rico) by citizen of the United States...the United States (other than Puerto Rico) does not constitute...

2013-04-01

129

Endometrial cancer in Puerto Rico: incidence, mortality and survival (1992-2003)  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Endometrial cancer is the most common gynecologic malignancy in Puerto Rico and the United States (US). METHODS: We compare the age-specific and age-adjusted incidence and mortality rates and the survival of endometrial cancer in Puerto Rico with that of non-Hispanic whites (NHW), non-Hispanic blacks (NHB) and Hispanics in the US. Data from the Puerto Rico Central Cancer Registry and

Ana Patricia Ortiz; Javier Pérez; Yomayra Otero-Domínguez; Omar García-Rodríguez; Sheyla Garced-Tirado; Frances Escalera-Maldonado; Sadja Gaud-Quintana; Elvis Santiago-Rodríguez; Katherine Svensson; José L Vergara-Arroyo; Karen Ortiz; Mariela Torres; Guillermo Tortolero-Luna; Nayda Figueroa-Vallés

2010-01-01

130

Lessons Learned from the Puerto Rico Battery Energy Storage System  

SciTech Connect

The Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority (PREPA) installed a distributed battery energy storage system in 1994 at a substation near San Juan, Puerto Rico. It was patterned after two other large energy storage systems operated by electric utilities in California and Germany. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Energy Storage Systems Program at Sandia National Laboratories has followed the progress of all stages of the project since its inception. It directly supported the critical battery room cooling system design by conducting laboratory thermal testing of a scale model of the battery under simulated operating conditions. The Puerto Rico facility is at present the largest operating battery storage system in the world and is successfully providing frequency control, voltage regulation, and spinning reserve to the Caribbean island. The system further proved its usefulness to the PREPA network in the fall of 1998 in the aftermath of Hurricane Georges. The owner-operator, PREPA, and the architect/engineer, vendors, and contractors learned many valuable lessons during all phases of project development and operation. In documenting these lessons, this report will help PREPA and other utilities in planning to build large energy storage systems.

BOYES, JOHN D.; DE ANA, MINDI FARBER; TORRES, WENCESLANO

1999-09-01

131

Ectoparasitic assemblages on mormoopid bats (Chiroptera: Mormoopidae) from Puerto Rico.  

PubMed

We performed the first quantitative survey of ectoparasitic assemblages on three species of mormoopid bats living on the Caribbean island of Puerto Rico: Mormoops blainvillii Leach (n=40), Pteronotus quadridens Gundlach (n=40), and Pteronotus parnellii Gray (n=9). We examined bats for parasites primarily on 8-10 May and 24-27 July 2002 at Culebrones Cave, near Arecibo, Puerto Rico. Only 50% of M. blainvillii were infested with at least one parasite, compared with 85-100% for Pteronotus; infested individuals of both species of Pteronotus also harbored a greater number of parasites than did M. blainvillii. The assemblage on M. blainvillii was less diverse than in the other species and more dominated by a single group of parasites, the chiggers. Chirodiscid ear mites and spinturnicid wing mites were common on both species of Pteronotus but absent from M. blainvillii. All P. parnellii harbored streblid flies, but none typically was found on P. quadridens or M. blainvillii. Adult female M. blainvillii and P. quadridens sheltered a greater number of ectoparasites than did males. All host-parasite combinations represented new associations for Puerto Rico. PMID:18047193

Kurta, Allen; Whitaker, John O; Wrenn, William J; Soto-Centeno, J Angel

2007-11-01

132

Women's employment and changing gender relations in Puerto Rico.  

PubMed

This article discusses Helen Safa's analyses of the impact of development strategies and social policies on gender relations and women headed families in the Caribbean and Puerto Rico. The discussion focuses on findings of a research project regarding patterns of women's employment, autonomy, marital relations, family headship and poverty in Puerto Rico in the decade beginning in the year 2000, using excerpts from interviews conducted with women workers displaced from a clothing and a tuna factory between 2001 and 2002 (Colón et al. 2008), as well as data from the Public Use Sample (PUMS) of the U.S. Census Puerto Rico Community Survey 2005-2007. It is argued that women's employment has resulted in advances in women's autonomy, gender equity, and renegotiations of the provider role, but, intensified by men's unstable earnings, it has also led to the increase of female family headship even among married women. Women's education and employment have been an important means of reducing family poverty both among dual earner families and female heads. Yet, the continuing joblessness in the Island places even higher educated sectors on the verge of economic precariousness. PMID:22073439

Warren, Alice Colón

2010-01-01

133

Paleomagnetic evidence for Late Miocene counterclockwise rotation of north coast carbonate sequence, Puerto Rico  

SciTech Connect

A paleomagnetic study of the essentially undeformed middle Tertiary carbonate sequence along the north coast of Puerto Rico reveals statistically significant pre-Pliocene discordance of characteristic component directions against those expected from cratonic North America for much of the section. Despite generally weak to moderately weak magnetic intensities, confirmation of the magnetization as primary in origin comes from the presence of two distinct components of magnetization, intrasite bipolarity, and/or the reproducibility of measurements. The mean geographic direction for the upper Oligocene to middle Miocene strata is 335.2{degree}/32.9{degree} and the corrected mean paleomagnetic pole is 207.6{degree}/66.5{degree}, (N = 3, {alpha}95 = 4.3{degree}). This suggests a counter-clockwise (CCW) block rotation of Puerto Rico and its microplate of 24.5{degrees} ({plus minus} 5.8{degrees}) during the late Miocene. Using a width of 250 km for the Northern Caribbean Plate Boundary Zone (NCPBZ) between the North American Plate and Caribbean Plate, the mean left lateral displacement implied is 1.8 to 2.4 cm/yr, which agrees fairly well with published relative motion rates for the two plates. Average rotation rate for 50 Ma to 20 Ma was 0.7{degree}/my but perhaps as great as 4{degree}/my in the Miocene. Resolution of mean paleolatitude indicates northward motion of a degree or less during the period of rotation. Causes of this short-lived rotation may include (1) tectonic escape from the inhibiting presence of the Bahama Banks and Beata Ridge during eastward motion of Puerto Rico along the sinistral transpressive Puerto Rico Trench and Muertos Trough fault systems or (2) changes in relative plate motions of the Caribbean and North American Plate during the late Miocene.

Reid, J.A.; Plumley, P.W. (Syracuse Univ., NY (United States)); Schellekens, J.H. (Univ. of Puerto Rico, Mayaguez (Puerto Rico))

1991-03-01

134

The Muertos Subduction Zone as a Major Earthquake and Tsunami Hazard for Puerto Rico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A revised catalog of 25 years of locally recorded earthquakes located using newly developed 1-D and 3-D velocity models allows us to better understand the spatial distribution of these events and their relation to known tectonic structures. In map view, the relocated events still show a pattern generally lacking in lineations that might be related to crustal faults. However, the previous cloud of crustal events in vertical cross sections now display a clear northerly dipping seismic zone as shallow as 10 km depth along the island's south coast extending to 40 km depth along the north coast of the island. This dipping seismic zone is interpreted as the Muertos Megathrust along which buoyant Caribbean Plate is obliquely underthrust beneath Puerto Rico. 3-D velocity anomalies associated with the region of high seismicity in western Puerto Rico confirm subducted Caribbean crust and lithosphere. The dipping seismic zone is seen best in SW Puerto Rico but also extends to the easternmost part of the island. Seismicity and historic earthquakes in the Dominican Republic also indicate the presence of the Muertos Megathrust beneath the SE part o that country. A large earthquake in 1751 generated a damaging tsunami. These new data suggest a new paradigm for earthquake hazards from "crustal" or "shallow" earthquakes in Puerto Rico. That is, after removing events associated with the dipping megathrust, little "random crustal seismicity" is left in the crustal wedge above the plate interface, and the amount and location of random crustal events depends heavily upon exactly which events are chosen to be part of the megathrust seismicity.

McCann, W. R.

2007-05-01

135

Peer Norms and Sharing of Injection Paraphernalia among Puerto Rican Injection Drug Users in New York and Puerto Rico  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study examines the influence of peer norms on sharing of injection paraphernalia (e.g., indirect sharing behaviors, including sharing of cookers, cotton, rinse water and back/front loading) among Puerto Rican injection drug users (IDUs) in Bayamon, Puerto Rico, and East Harlem, New York City. Data were collected from 873 Puerto Rican IDUs…

Andia, Jonny F.; Deren, Sherry; Robles, Rafaela R.; Kang, Sung-Yeon; Colon, Hector M.

2008-01-01

136

26 CFR 1.876-1 - Alien residents of Puerto Rico, Guam, American Samoa, or the Northern Mariana Islands.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Alien residents of Puerto Rico, Guam, American... INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Nonresident Aliens and Foreign Corporations § 1.876-1 Alien residents of Puerto Rico, Guam,...

2013-04-01

137

Puerto Rico Tsunami Warning and Mitigation Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

The circum-Caribbean region has a documented history of large damaging tsunamis that have affected coastal areas, including the events of the Virgin Islands in 1867 and Mona Passage in 1918. These tsunamis have been triggered by large tsunamigenic earthquakes that deformed the ocean floor. The seismic water waves originating in the prominent fault system around PR are considered to be

V. A. Huerfano; A. Mercado; C. G. von Hillebrandt

2003-01-01

138

Landslide Deposits, Cookie Bites, and Crescentic Fracturing Along the Northern Puerto Rico-Virgin Islands Margin: Implications for Potential Tsunamigenesis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The seismogenic North America-Caribbean oblique-slip plate boundary forms the 8-km-deep Puerto Rico trench north of the densely populated islands of Puerto Rico and Virgin Islands (combined population of just over 4 million people). The southern slope of the Puerto Rico trench adjacent to the Puerto Rico-Virgin Islands (PRVI) carbonate platform is characterized by frequent seismicity, rapid trenchward tilting, oversteepened slopes, and mass wasting. We present high-resolution bathymetry, HMR1 sidescan imagery, and single-channel seismic data to document extensive landslide deposits that we infer to have been the result of multiple slide events capable of producing prehistoric tsunamis along the coasts of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. Landslide deposits can be traced upslope to two, 45-55 km-wide arcuate-shaped embayments or "cookie bites" carved out of the PRVI platform. Three-dimensional visualization of the debris field and the slope of the largest of the arcuate-shaped embayments centered at 66° 40' constrain volume removal to 1.1 km3 of the PRVI carbonate platform and underlying volcanic and volcaniclastic basement. Sidescan sonar and single-channel seismic data reveal crescentic cracks in the seafloor of the PRVI platform 35-45 km in length located 35 km offshore the northwestern tip of Puerto Rico. These cracks, interpreted to represent the sites of future breakaway scarps and landslides, are similar in shape and length to the head wall scarps of the amphitheaters to the east. An ˜500 km2 section of the PRVI platform (750 m thick) has begun to detach and slump trenchward along the larger of these cracks. Investigation of the existing arcuate-shaped embayments is essential because massive (tens to hundreds of km3) and instantaneous slope failure has the potential to be tsunamigenic. Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands were inundated by tsunamis in 1867 (mainly affecting St. Thomas and St. Croix, 7 m of runup, casualties in the hundreds) and 1918 (mainly affecting western and northwestern Puerto Rico; 6 m of runup, 120 casualties). Calculation of the potential volume, runout extent, and triggering mechanisms of past submarine landslides will better constrain the tsunamigenic potential of the newly discovered crescentic faults.

Hearne, M. E.; Grindlay, N. R.; Mann, P.

2003-12-01

139

Shiny cowbird parasitism in two avian communities in Puerto Rico  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The shiny cowbird (M. bonariensis), a brood parasite, has recently expanded its range from South America to Puerto Rico via the Lesser Antilles. This species is a host generalist and, on reaching Puerto Rico, encounteed avian species with no history of social parasitism. In mangrove habitat study areas, 42% of the resident non-raptorial land bird species were parasitized. Some species were heavily parasitized; e.g., yellow warbler (Dendroica petechia), 76% of nests parasitized black-whiskered vireo (Vireo altiloquus), 82%, Puerto Rican flycatcher (Myiarchus antillarum), 85%, yellow-shouldered blackbird (Agelaius xanthomus), 95%, troupial (Icterus icterus), 100%, black-cowled oriole (I. dominicensis), 100%. Others suffered low rates of parasitism (2-17% of nests examined); e.g., gray kingbird (Tyrannus dominicensis), red-legged thrush (Turdus plumbeus), bronze mannikin (Lonchura cucullata), northern mockingbird (Mimus polyglottos), greater antillean grackle (Quiscalus niger). Cowbird parasitism affected hosts by depressing nest success an average of 41% below non-parasitized nests and reducing host productivity. Parasitized host nests hatched 12% fewer eggs an fledged 67% fewer of their own chicks than non-parasitized pairs.

Wiley, J.W.

1985-01-01

140

Forest resources of Puerto Rico, 1990. Forest Service Resource Bulletin  

SciTech Connect

The prinicipal findings of the second forest survey of Puerto Rico (1990) and changes that have occurred since the survey was established in 1980 are presented. The forest inventory estimates describe the timber resource found within the potential commercial region designated in the first survey. The timber resource addressed consists primarily of regrown areas on abandoned pastures and cropland, including coffee production areas. The status and trends of the timber resource are presented for the two Life Zones occurring in the commercial region, as well as for various forest classes, which are based on stand history and origin. Topics dicussed include forest area, timberland area, basal area, species composition, timber volume, growing-stock volume, and sawtimber volume. results of the 1990 survey are promising, showing inceases in numbers of trees across all diamater classes and substantial increases in volume. These trends offer evidence that Puerto Rico`s forests are continuing to recover following a dramatic decline of the late 19th and early 20th centuries.

Franco, P.A.; Weaver, P.L.; Eggen-McIntosh, S.

1997-10-01

141

Landslide Deposits, Cookie Bites, and Crescentic Fracturing Along the Northern Puerto Rico-Virgin Islands Margin: Implications for Potential Tsunamigenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The seismogenic North America-Caribbean oblique-slip plate boundary forms the 8-km-deep Puerto Rico trench north of the densely populated islands of Puerto Rico and Virgin Islands (combined population of just over 4 million people). The southern slope of the Puerto Rico trench adjacent to the Puerto Rico-Virgin Islands (PRVI) carbonate platform is characterized by frequent seismicity, rapid trenchward tilting, oversteepened slopes,

M. E. Hearne; N. R. Grindlay; P. Mann

2003-01-01

142

But Where Are “The People”? Unfinished Agendas in The People of Puerto Rico  

Microsoft Academic Search

The People of Puerto Rico is a comprehensive ethnography of major types of rural communities in pre-1950 Puerto Rico but was less successful in reconnecting those localities in a coherent portrayal of the island's social formation. A reexamination of this work's best-known subcultures, Santa Isabel (Sidney Mintz' “Cañamelar”) and Ciales (Eric Wolf's “San José”), offers entry points to these communities,

Juan A. Giusti-Cordero

2011-01-01

143

Evidence of Tsunami in a Coastal Pond in NW Puerto Rico  

Microsoft Academic Search

The record of tsunamis in the Caribbean is longer than 500 years, yet, is incomplete. In particular, it is not known whether great earthquakes or submarine landslides near the Puerto Rico Trench have generated large tsunamis that impact the north coast of Puerto Rico. Despite of the limited historic record, there are good geologic coastal environments to search for the

B. E. Jaffe; M. Buckley; B. M. Richmond; R. A. Morton; J. C. Moya; G. Gelfenbaum; S. G. Watt

2008-01-01

144

Puerto Rico Fertility and Family Planning Assessment, 1982: Tape Contents Manual.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Puerto Rico Fertility and Family Planning Assessment (PRFFPA) was a multi-purpose island-wide social, demographic, and maternal/child health study of women 15-49 years of age living in Puerto Rico in 1982. The PRFFPA is a data set designed for both so...

R. W. Rochat

1984-01-01

145

Angling assessment of the fisheries of Humacao Natural Reserve lagoon system, Puerto Rico  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Humacao Natural Reserve (HNR) lagoon system, Puerto Rico has become an important fish source for eastern Puerto Rico. Principal fishes targeted are tarpon (Megalops atlanticus), snook (common snook Centropomus undecimalis and swordspine snook C. ensiferus), and tilapia (Mozambique tilapia Oreochromis mossambicus and redbreast tilapia Tilapia rendalli). We conducted a roving creel survey April 2000–March 2001 using the non-uniform probability

Orlando J. Ferrer Montaño; Eric D. Dibble; Donald C. Jackson; Kirk R. Rundle

2005-01-01

146

The Forest Types and Ages Cleared for Land Development in Puerto Rico  

Microsoft Academic Search

On the Caribbean island of Puerto Rico, forest, urban\\/built-up, and pasture lands have replaced most formerly cultivated lands. The extent and age distribution of each forest type that undergoes land development, however, is unknown. This study assembles a time series of four land cover maps for Puerto Rico. The time series includes two digitized paper maps of land cover in

Todd Kennaway; E. H. Helmer

2007-01-01

147

Study of power quality: problems in commercial buildings in Puerto Rico  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes studies of power quality done in Puerto Rico. A different studies made in the past related to power quality problems in P.R. Data, from Lord Electric is used to analyze some cases worked by this company in industrial buildings in Puerto Rico. Similarities and differences between existing problems are identified. To complete the objective, the software MATLAB

Eduardo I. Ortiz-Rivera

2004-01-01

148

33 CFR 165.771 - Safety Zone; Bahia de Ponce, Puerto Rico.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Safety Zone; Bahia de Ponce, Puerto Rico. 165.771 Section 165.771 Navigation and Navigable...District § 165.771 Safety Zone; Bahia de Ponce, Puerto Rico. (a) Location. The following area is...

2013-07-01

149

INCREASE OF LEPTOSPIROSIS IN DENGUE-NEGATIVE PATIENTS AFTER A HURRICANE IN PUERTO RICO IN 1966  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leptospirosis has rarely been reported in Puerto Rico, although in the period from 1948 to 1952, 208 cases of leptospirosis and an island-wide seroprevalence of antibody to Leptospira of 14% were documented. In Puerto Rico in October 1996, following rainfall and a period of flooding generated by Hurricane Hortense, serum specimens of 4 patients with suspected dengue fever that were

EDUARD J. SANDERS; HENK L. SMITS; CARMEN C. DESEDA; VANCE A. VORNDAM; TIN AYE; RICHARD A. SPIEGEL; ROBBIN S. WEYANT; SANDRA L. BRAGG

1999-01-01

150

CAMBIO DE PARADIGMA, PRODUCCIÓN DE ENERGÃA O DE ALIMENTOS: EL CASO DE PUERTO RICO  

Microsoft Academic Search

The amount of energy and food consumed in Puerto Rico is more indicative of a developed nation than one than is underdeveloped. All the energy consumed in Puerto Rico is from fossil fuels, while the agricultural sector marginally provides the needs of the consumer. In addition, the animal production sectors rely exclusively on imported feedstock for the preparation of feeds.

Wilfredo Colon Guasp

2010-01-01

151

The Pragmatics of Professionalism: Translation and Interpretation in Puerto Rico and Quebec.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The impact of Puerto Rico's and Quebec's laws on official bilingualism of translation and interpreting services is examined. In the case of Puerto Rico, public policy concerning the use of Spanish and English since 1899 is reviewed, focusing on early laws and those passed since 1991. The status of the translation profession is discussed, and it…

Archibald, J.

152

42 CFR 412.211 - Puerto Rico rates for Federal fiscal year 2004 and subsequent fiscal years.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2 2009-10-01 2009-10-01 false Puerto Rico rates for Federal fiscal year 2004 and subsequent...Inpatient Operating Costs for Hospitals Located in Puerto Rico § 412.211 Puerto Rico rates for Federal fiscal year 2004 and...

2009-10-01

153

42 CFR 412.211 - Puerto Rico rates for Federal fiscal year 2004 and subsequent fiscal years.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Puerto Rico rates for Federal fiscal year 2004 and subsequent...Inpatient Operating Costs for Hospitals Located in Puerto Rico § 412.211 Puerto Rico rates for Federal fiscal year 2004 and...

2010-10-01

154

La Ninez en Puerto Rico: Resultados del Censo 2000. Un informe de KIDS COUNT/PRB sobre el Censo 2000 (Children in Puerto Rico: Results from the 2000 Census. A KIDS COUNT/PRB Report on Census 2000).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Spanish-language report provides data on children in Puerto Rico based on the 2000 U.S. Census. It compares the situation of Puerto Rico's children with that of children living in the 50 states and the District of Columbia, noting how characteristics of Puerto Rican children have changed over time. Between 1990-2000, the number of Puerto

Mather, Mark

155

New seafloor map of the Puerto Rico trench helps assess earthquake and tsunami hazards  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Puerto Rico Trench, the deepest part of the Atlantic Ocean, is located where the North American (NOAM) plate is subducting under the Caribbean plate (Figure l). The trench region may pose significant seismic and tsunami hazards to Puerto Rico and the U.S.Virgin Islands, where 4 million U.S. citizens reside. Widespread damage in Puerto Rico and Hispaniola from an earthquake in 1787 was estimated to be the result of a magnitude 8 earthquake north of the islands [McCann et al., 2004]. A tsunami killed 40 people in NW Puerto Rico following a magnitude 7.3 earthquake in 1918 [Mercado and McCann, 1998]. Large landslide escarpments have been mapped on the seafloor north of Puerto Rico [Mercado et al., 2002; Schwab et al., 1991],although their ages are unknown.

Brink, Uri ten; Danforth, William; Polloni, Christopher; Andrews, Brian; Llanes, Pilar; Smith, Shepard; Parker, Eugene; Uozumi, Toshihiko

2004-09-01

156

Geophysical logs from the Toa Baja scientific drillhole, Puerto Rico  

SciTech Connect

Geophysical logs from the Toa Baja drillhole on the north central coast of Puerto Rico are used to distinguish the variation in physical properties with depth in this non-volcanic island arc massif. A marked unconformity separates shallow Oligocene to Miocene limestones with considerable permeability contrast from a deeper sequence of volcaniclastic rocks with decreasing shaliness. A volcanic sill or flow overlying a strongly mineralized zone is found to cause the impedance contrast responsible for the strong seismic reflection anomaly (bright spot) that was the exploration target.

Anderson, R.N. (Columbia Univ., Palisades, NY (United States))

1991-03-01

157

Children in Puerto Rico: Results from the 2000 Census. A KIDS COUNT/PRB Report on Census 2000.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report provides data on children in Puerto Rico based on the 2000 U.S. Census. It compares the situation of Puerto Rico's children with that of children living in the 50 states and the District of Columbia, noting how characteristics of Puerto Rican children have changed over time. Between 1990-2000, the number of Puerto Rican children…

Mather, Mark

158

Listening to the Sound of Silence: Gender Roles and Communication about Sex in Puerto Rico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Puerto Rican women are at high risk for the heterosexual transmission of HIV. I examined social and interpersonal aspects of communication about sex in regard to safer sex practices within a specific cultural context. Participants in this study were 42 heterosexual Puerto Rican adults living in Puerto Rico, who ranged in age from 18 to 56 years. Participants were interviewed regarding

Carey M. Noland

2006-01-01

159

Standardization of the WISC-R in Puerto Rico: The Process and the Preliminary Findings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The process of adapting the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised (WISC-R) for Puerto Rico was begun with the following objectives: (1) to review the existing Spanish translation of the WISC-R; (2) to adapt the WISC-R to Puerto Rican culture and milieu; and (3) to standardize the scale with a representative sample of Puerto Rican…

Herrans, Laura L.; And Others

160

Climate influence on dengue epidemics in Puerto Rico.  

PubMed

The variability of the insect-borne disease dengue in Puerto Rico was studied in relation to climatic variables in the period 1979-2005. Annual and monthly reported dengue cases were compared with precipitation and temperature data. Results show that the incidence of dengue in Puerto Rico was relatively constant over time despite global warming, possibly due to the offsetting effects of declining rainfall, improving health care and little change in population. Seasonal fluctuations of dengue were driven by rainfall increases from May to November. Year-to-year variability in dengue cases was positively related to temperature, but only weakly associated with local rainfall and an index of El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Climatic conditions were mapped with respect to dengue cases and patterns in high and low years were compared. During epidemics, a low pressure system east of Florida draws warm humid air over the northwestern Caribbean. Long-term trends in past observed and future projected rainfall and temperatures were studied. Rainfall has declined slowly, but temperatures in the Caribbean are rising with the influence of global warming. Thus, dengue may increase in the future, and it will be necessary to anticipate dengue epidemics using climate forecasts, to reduce adverse health impacts. PMID:18821372

Jury, Mark R

2008-10-01

161

Potential causes for amphibian declines in Puerto Rico  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We monitored 11 populations of eight species of Eleutherodactylus in Puerto Rico from 1989 through 2001. We determined relative abundance of active frogs along transects established in the Caribbean National Forest (El Yunque), Carite Forest, San Lorenzo, and in the vicinity of San Juan. Three species (Eleutherodactylus karlschmidti, E. jasperi, and E. eneidae) are presumed to be extinct and eight populations of six different species of endemic Eleutherodactylus are significantly declining at elevations above 400 m. Of the many suspected causes of amphibian declines around the world, we focused on climate change and disease. Temperature and precipitation data from 1970a??2000 were analyzed to determine the general pattern of oscillations and deviations that could be correlated with amphibian declines. We examined a total of 106 tissues taken from museum specimens collected from 1961a??1978 and from live frogs in 2000. We found chytrid fungi in two species collected at El Yunque as early as 1976, this is the first report of chytrid fungus in the Caribbean. Analysis of weather data indicates a significant warming trend and an association between years with extended periods of drought and the decline of amphibians in Puerto Rico. The 1970's and 1990's, which represent the periods of amphibian extirpations and declines, were significantly drier than average. We suggest a possible synergistic interaction between drought and the pathological effect of the chytrid fungus on amphibian populations.

Burrowes, P. A.; Joglar, R. L.; Green, David E.

2004-01-01

162

Important considerations for recruiting women to cancer genetics studies in Puerto Rico.  

PubMed

A goal of the Minority Institution/Cancer Center Partnership between the Ponce School of Medicine in Puerto Rico and the H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center & Research Institute in Florida is to provide cross-cultural training in cancer research. This is achieved through a collaborative summer exchange program, which provides US students with an opportunity to conduct research in Puerto Rico. As part of this program, students recruited participants and collected data for a study to enhance the understanding of sociocultural factors among Puerto Rican women regarding genetic testing for hereditary breast/ovarian cancer. Limited studies have examined cancer genetics issues among Latinos, particularly those specific to the various Latino subgroups, such as Puerto Ricans. As a result of the student training experience, culturally appropriate strategies for the recruitment of women in Puerto Rico have been identified. These recommendations can inform the design of cancer research projects and interventions targeting the Puerto Rican population. PMID:21866412

August, Euna M; Quinn, Gwen P; Perales, Rossybelle; Closser, Zuheily; Dutil, Julie; Puig, Marieva; Vadaparampil, Susan T

2012-03-01

163

Anal Cancer Incidence and Mortality in Puerto Rico  

PubMed Central

Objective Anal cancer is a rare tumor that is associated with oncogenic HPV genotypes. This study aims to compare the age-standardized rates (ASRs) of anal cancer incidence and mortality in men and women living in Puerto Rico (PR) with those of non-Hispanic whites (NHW), non-Hispanic blacks (NHB), and Hispanics (USH) living in the continental United States (US). Methods ASRs were calculated based on cancer data that came from the PR Cancer Central Registry and from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program. The age-specific relative risks (RR) and 95% Confidence Interval (95% CI) were estimated using Poisson regression models. Results Comparing the period of 2001 to 2004 to that of 1992 to 1996, the incidence of anal cancer increased among NHW, NHB, and PR men. In females, an increase in the incidence was observed for all racial groups except for Puerto Rican women. When evaluating findings by age groups, Puerto Rican men younger than 60 years old had a 20% higher incidence of anal cancer than did USH men of the same age strata (RR: 2.20; 95% CI = 1.48–3.29). However, Puerto Rican females had a lower incidence of anal cancer than NHW and NHB women. An increased percent change in mortality was observed only in NHW and NHB men. A decreasing trend was observed in all racial/ethnic groups except for NHW women. Conclusion Our results support the notion that there are racial/ethnic differences in anal cancer incidence and mortality, with potential disparities among men and women in PR compared with USH men and women. Given the increasing incidence trends in anal cancer, particularly among PR, NHW, and NHB men, further investigation is needed to better elucidate screening practices that can aid in the prevention of anal cancer.

Colon-Lopez, Vivian; Ortiz, Ana P.; Soto-Salgado, Marievelisse; Torres-Cintron, Mariela; Mercado-Acosta, Juan Jose; Suarez, Erick

2013-01-01

164

Introduction to the High-Rate GPS Network of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Puerto Rico Seismic Network at the University of Puerto Rico at Mayagüez is a regional earthquake and tsunami monitoring institute. One of its primary objective is to provide timely and reliable earthquake and tsunami information and warning to the state (Puerto Rico) and local governments, the US and British Virgin Islands, as well as to the general public. In the past five years, it has been expanding its operations for the establishment of a Caribbean Tsunami Warning Center. With funding of the Puerto Rico government and NOAA, it is operated 24 hours per day and 7 days per week. Broadband seismometers are generally unable to capture the full bandwidth of long period ground motions following very large earthquakes. As a result, it is difficult to rapidly estimate the true magnitudes of large earthquakes using only seismic data. High-rate GPS has been justified as a very useful tool in recording long-period and permanent earthquake ground motions. Estimation of the true magnitude (and therefore tsunami potential) of large earthquakes may be determined more accurately in a timely manner (minutes after the quake) using high rate GPS observations. With the major aim of improving the ability of the PRSN in rapidly and precisely monitoring large earthquakes, NSF funded a Major Research Instrumentation (MRI) project, Acquisition of 9 High-rate GPS Units for Developing a Broadband Earthquake Observation System in Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands (EAR-0722540, August 1, 2007-July 31, 2009). The major purpose of this project is to build a high-rate GPS network in Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands. The GPS network includes 3 campaign and 6 permanent GPS stations. These campaign stations were designed to use in emergency response after large earthquakes to get co-seismic and post-seismic displacement. These six permanent stations were designed to complement current seismic observation system of Puerto Rico and U.S. Virgin Islands. We have installed three permanent GPS stations in May, 2008. They locate in Arecibo Observatory, Bayamon Science Park, and Caja de Muertos Island. We will install the other three stations in October, 2008. They will be located in Mona, Culebra, and St. Thomas islands. All of these permanent GPS stations are colocated with seismic stations operated by the Puerto Rico Seismic Network and the Puerto Rico Strong Motion Program. They are also very-closely spaced to the Tide Gauge stations operated by PRSN and NOAA. Therefore they will also complement the tide gauge sea-level observation system to get accurate absolute sea-level changes after large earthquakes. The integrated velocitymeter-accelerometer- GPS earthquake observation system will advance knowledge of seismic wave propagation, the kinematics and dynamics of fault rupture process, pre-seismic, co-seismic and post-seismic deformation, and is also likely to be useful for improving building and critical structure designs. It will support earthquake and tsunami hazards research and mitigation in Puerto Rico and the surrounding region. High-rate GPS observations can also be used for real time tropospheric water vapor tomography which is useful for weather prediction, including improved hurricane track forecasting. Raw GPS data are freely available through the UNAVCO archive. As a result, a large number of researchers can potentially benefit from the data for research and applications ranging from neotectonics to atmospheric science to civil engineering.

Wang, G.; Hillebrandt, C. V.; Martinez, J. M.; Huerfano, V.; Schellekens, J.

2008-12-01

165

AIDS-Related Stigma and Health Professionals in Puerto Rico  

PubMed Central

This study addresses an important issue in the AIDS epidemic in Puerto Rico: AIDS stigma among health professionals and health profession students. AIDS stigma has been documented among health services providers such as doctors, nurses, psychologists, and social workers. It has detrimental effects of the services provided and the lives of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). The main objective of this study was to explore AIDS stigma manifestations among a sample composed of eighty health professionals and health profession students who participated in in-depth qualitative interviews. Four thematic categories stemmed from the data analysis process. These addressed the following subjects: social manifestations of stigma, stigma manifestations in the workplace, use of sensitive information to control PLWHA, and surveillance of PLWHA. Participants manifested instances of stigmatization they had witnessed in their work and training scenarios. Furthermore, they elaborated on the need to place effective surveillance mechanism on PLWHA in order to control the epidemic.

Ruiz-Torres, Yamilette; Cintron-Bou, Francheska N.; Varas-Diaz, Nelson

2009-01-01

166

Sedimentation Survey of Lago de Cidra, Puerto Rico, August 2007  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Lago de Cidra is a reservoir located on the confluence of Rio de Bayamon, Rio Sabana, and Quebrada Prieta, in the municipality of Cidra in east-central Puerto Rico, about 3.0 kilometers northeast of the town of Cidra. The dam is owned and operated by the Puerto Rico Aqueduct and Sewer Authority (PRASA), and was constructed in 1946 as a 6.54-million-cubic-meter supplemental water supply for the San Juan metropolitan area. The reservoir impounds the waters of Rio de Bayamon, Rio Sabana and Quebrada Prieta. The reservoir has a drainage area of 21.4 square kilometers. The dam is a concrete gravity and earthfill structure with a length of approximately 165 meters and a structural height of 24 meters. The spillway portion of the dam is an ungated ogee crest about 40 meters long with a crest elevation of 403.00 meters above mean sea level. Additional information and operational procedures are listed in Soler-Lopez (1999). During August 14-15, 2007, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Caribbean Water Science Center (CWSC), in cooperation with the PRASA, conducted a bathymetric survey of Lago de Cidra to update the reservoir storage capacity and actualize the reservoir sedimentation rate by comparing the 2007 data with the previous 1997 bathymetric survey data. The purpose of this report is to describe and document the USGS sedimentation survey conducted at Lago de Cidra during August 2007, including the methods used to update the reservoir storage capacity, sedimentation rates, and areas of substantial sediment accumulation since 1997.

Soler-Lopez, Luis R.

2010-01-01

167

Characteristics of smokers accessing the Puerto Rico Quitline  

PubMed Central

Background: In 2004, the Puerto Rico Department of Health implemented the Puerto Rico Quitline (PRQ), a proactive, telephone-based smoking cessation counseling program. This study examines the demographic and smoking-related characteristics of the individuals served by the PRQ. Methods: Analyses included PRQ participants registered from December 2004-December 2005. PRQ call rates and rate ratios (RR) were calculated overall, among smokers, and stratified by relevant covariates. Associations between sex and relevant characteristics of PRQ participants were compared using regression models. Results: Call rates per 100,000 smokers in PR were lower among men than women (RR=0.50, 95% CI=0.44-0.56), and higher among all age groups ? 25 years of age as compared to those aged 15-24 years (RRs=4.34-8.14) and among smokers living in the San Juan metropolitan area relative to smokers residing outside the metropolitan area (RR=1.45, 95% CI=1.29-1.63). Mass media was the most common way in which participants learned about the PRQ (>70%), with only 2-3% of callers reporting a physician's referral as the source of their information about the PRQ. With respect to reasons for quitting, men were less likely than women to report concern about a child's health (OR=0.62, 95% CI=0.46-0.84) and cigarette odor (OR=0.64, 95% CI=0.41-0.99). Meanwhile, men were more likely (OR=1.39, 95% CI=1.01-1.91) to report the influence of other smokers as a barrier during quitting. Conclusions: PRQ promotion and outreach efforts should target populations underserved by the PRQ including male, young adult, and non-metropolitan area smokers. Initiatives that link the PRQ with primary care providers in promoting smoking cessation should be encouraged.

ORTIZ, ANA PATRICIA; DAAZ-TORO, ELBA C.; CALO, WILLIAM A.; CORREA-FERNANDEZ, VIRMARIE; CASES, ANTONIO; SANTOS-ORTIZ, MARIA C.; MAZAS, CARLOS; MEJIA, LUZ; WETTER, DAVID W.

2009-01-01

168

14 CFR 399.34 - Intra-Hawaii and Intra-Puerto Rico/Virgin Islands fare flexibility.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Intra-Hawaii and Intra-Puerto Rico/Virgin Islands...Rates and Tariffs § 399.34 Intra-Hawaii and Intra-Puerto Rico/Virgin Islands...flexibility. For scheduled service within Hawaii, and within and between Puerto...

2013-01-01

169

Study of Electrical Power Distribution System Transients Caused by Lightning at NAVRADSTA (T), Isabela, Puerto Rico.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

One of the objectives is to characterize those transients occurring on the power distribution system of Navy shore stations which can be directly correlated with observed lightning phenomena. Isabela, Puerto Rico, was chosen as the transient monitoring si...

J. L. Brooks K. T. Huang

1972-01-01

170

What and where is Puerto Rico? Activity 4: Tropical Regions\\/ Mapping Biodiversity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary: Through web site resources, class readings, and hands-on activities students will learn where Puerto Rico is, the geography and vegetation of the island, and understand the history of the commonwealth. Materials:

171

Geophysical Investigation at Solid Waste Management Unit No. 3 Fort Buchanan, Puerto Rico.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Results of a comprehensive, integrated geophysical investigation of Solid Waste Management Unit No. 3 (SWMU No. 3) at Fort Buchanan, Puerto Rico (FTB), are presented. In 1977, approximately one ton (one truckload) of various pesticides reportedly were bur...

J. L. Llopis M. K. Sharp

1992-01-01

172

Health Hazard Evaluation Report: HETA 98-0217-2772, Puerto Rico Aqueduct and Sewer Authority Sergio Cuevas Bustamante Filtration Plant Frujillo Alto, Puerto Rico (Planta de Filtraccion Sergio Cuevas Bustamante Autoridad de Acueducto y Alcantarillados de Puerto Rico Frujillo Alto, Puerto Rico.)  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

On May 6, 1998, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) received a confidential employee request for a Health Hazard Evaluation (HHE) at the Sergio Cuevas Bustamante Filtration Plant of the Puerto Rico Aqueduct and Sewer Authorit...

L. M. Ewers A. Lopez C. Rodriguez

2002-01-01

173

Brief Reconnaissance Studies for the Addition of Hydropower in Puerto Rico.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Thirteen dams and hydroelectric sites were visited during a four day trip to Puerto Rico in September 1982. Ten brief reconnaissance reports have been prepared to describe the potential at those sites. Information on the remaining three sites - Lago Garza...

T. G. Gebhard

1982-01-01

174

Puerto Rico State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management  

SciTech Connect

The Puerto Rico State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Puerto Rico. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Puerto Rico. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Puerto Rico.

Not Available

1981-10-01

175

7 CFR 318.13-24 - Sweet potatoes from Puerto Rico.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE STATE OF HAWAII AND TERRITORIES QUARANTINE NOTICES Regulated Articles From Hawaii and the Territories § 318.13-24 Sweet potatoes from Puerto Rico....

2013-01-01

176

Water Quality and Landscape Processes of Four Watersheds in Eastern Puerto Rico.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Puerto Rico is in a state of rapid, ongoing change. Locally, agricultural lands are undergoing reforestation, while coastal areas are becoming heavily urbanized. The area is also changing because of the introduction of nonnative species, water supply proj...

A. F. White H. L. Buss I. K. Pares-Ramos M. C. Larsen R. F. Stallard S. Martinuzzi S. F. Murphy W. A. Gould X. Zou Z. Liu

2012-01-01

177

42 CFR 412.208 - Puerto Rico rates for Federal fiscal year 1988.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...of the payments for hospitals that serve a disproportionate...for urban and rural hospitals in Puerto Rico. ...Executive Office of Management and Budget. (ii) The term...urban area. (2) A hospital classified as...

2012-10-01

178

77 FR 52310 - Expansion of Foreign-Trade Zone 61, San Juan, Puerto Rico  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board [Order No. 1848] Expansion of Foreign-Trade Zone 61, San Juan, Puerto Rico...Pursuant to its authority under the Foreign-Trade Zones Act of June 18,...

2012-08-29

179

75 FR 12730 - Foreign-Trade Zone 163-Ponce, Puerto Rico; Application for Expansion  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board [Docket 17-2010] Foreign-Trade Zone 163--Ponce, Puerto Rico; Application...application has been submitted to the Foreign-Trade Zones (FTZ) Board (the Board) by...

2010-03-17

180

76 FR 80982 - International Cyclotron, Inc., Hato Rey, Puerto Rico; Order Suspending Licensed Activities  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...License Nos. 052-31352-01MD/52- 31352-02; EA-11-086; NRC-2011-0292] International Cyclotron, Inc., Hato Rey, Puerto Rico; Order Suspending Licensed Activities I International Cyclotron, Inc. (International Cyclotron;...

2011-12-27

181

Tax Policy: Analysis of Certain Potential Effects of Extending Federal Income Taxation to Puerto Rico.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In response to your request, this report presents information on some potential consequences of extending the income tax provisions of the federal Internal Revenue Code (IRC) to residents of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico.

1996-01-01

182

Tree Species for Planting in Forest, Rural, and Urban Areas of Puerto Rico.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Responding to near total deforestation in Puerto Rico, in the 1920's the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, began to produce tree seedlings, reforest degraded lands, establish planting trials, and conduct silvicultural research.

J. K. Francis

1998-01-01

183

Paleomagnetism of Late Cretaceous and Eocene rocks from SW Puerto Rico  

SciTech Connect

Ten sites of Campanian to Eocene limestones, calcareous mudstones and volcanoclastic sediments from SW Puerto Rico yield high blocking temperature magnetization components which are consistent in direction. The presence of normal and reversed directions, improved grouping of site means after tilt correction and directional consistency between the different lithologies, tends to indicate that the characteristic magnetizations are primary, predating the deformation. The overall mean direction (Dec = 307/sup 0/, Inc = 30/sup 0/, ..cap alpha..95 = 15/sup 0/) indicates little change in latitude of the Puerto Rican island arc relative to North America since Eocene, when collision is postulated to have occurred with the Bahama Bank. However an average anticlockwise rotation of 45/sup 0/ of the sampling area relative to North America is required to reconcile the observed directions with the Eocene pole for North America. The scatter in declination between sites is greater than that in inclination, indicating some variation in the amount of anticlockwise rotation from site to site. The observed rotations are either related to the collision itself or to left lateral strike-slip faulting which has displaced the Puerto Rican Island arc eastward relative to North America since Eocene.

Van Fossen, M.C.; Channell, J.E.T.; Schellekens, J.H.

1985-01-01

184

Green Iguanas ( Iguana iguana ) in Puerto Rico: is it time for management?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Iguana iguana is native to Central and South America, and was introduced into Puerto Rico in the 1970s as a result of pet trade. The invasive\\u000a biology of this reptile has not been studied in Puerto Rico, where its negative effects may threaten local biodiversity. The\\u000a purposes of this study were to: (1) estimate population densities of I. iguana; (2)

Alberto L. Lopez-TorresHector; Héctor J. Claudio-Hernández; Carlos A. Rodríguez-Gómez; Ana V. Longo; Rafael L. Joglar

185

HIV\\/AIDS Among Middle and Older Adults in Puerto Rico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Of all the AIDS cases reported through March 2004 in Puerto Rico, 34.8% were among the 40-59 age group, and 3.9% in persons 60 years and over. This represents 38.7% of all cases of AIDS in Puerto Rico. The percentage was higher among new AIDS cases diagnosed. Currently half of all new cases were 40 years and older. The most

María del Carmen Santos-Ortiz; Hernando Mattei; Kenja Correa-Nivar; Elizabeth Pintado-Díaz

186

New Seafloor Map of the Puerto Rico Trench Helps Assess Earthquake and Tsunami Hazards  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Puerto Rico Trench, the deepest part of the Atlantic Ocean, is located where the North American (NOAM) plate is subducting under the Caribbean plate (Figure 1). The trench region may pose significant seismic and tsunami hazards to Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands, where 4 million U.S. citizens reside. Widespread damage in Puerto Rico and Hispaniola from an earthquake in 1787 was estimated to be the result of a magnitude 8 earthquake north of the islands. A tsunami killed 40 people in NW Puerto Rico following a magnitude 7.3 earthquake in 1918. Large landslide escarpments have been mapped on the seafloor north of Puerto Rico, although their ages are unknown. The Puerto Rico Trench is atypical of oceanic trenches. Subduction is highly oblique (10°-20°) to the trench axis with a large component of left-lateral strike-slip motion. Similar convergence geometry is observed at the Challenger Deep in the Mariana Trench, the deepest point on Earth. In addition to its extremely deep seafloor, the Puerto Rico Trench is also characterized by the most negative free-air gravity anomaly on Earth, -380 mGal, located 50 km south of the trench, where water depth is 7950 m (Figure 2). A tilted carbonate platform provides evidence for extreme vertical tectonism in the region. This platform was horizontally deposited over Cretaceous to Paleocene arc rocks starting in the Late Oligocene. Then, at 3.5 Ma, the carbonate platform was tilted by 4° toward the trench over a time period of less than 40 kyr, such that its northern edge is at a depth of 4000 m and its reconstructed elevation on land in Puerto Rico is at +1300 m (Figures 1 and 2).

ten Brink, Uri; Danforth, William; Polloni, Christopher; Andrews, Brian; Llanes, Pilar; Smith, Shepard; Parker, Eugene; Uozumi, Toshihiko

2004-09-01

187

Geographic distribution of risk of death due to homicide in Puerto Rico, 2000–2007  

Microsoft Academic Search

All homicide incidents of Puerto Ricos residents reported by the Institute of Forensic Sciences (IFS) for the period 2000–2007 were included for analysis (6409 deaths). Information for each case include age, sex, municipality, date of death and mechanism. Ballistic forensic data was not available for analysis.Detailed tabulations of crude, sex and age-specific mortalities for Puerto Rico overall and for each

D Zavala; J R Orengo; M L Charneco

2010-01-01

188

Fungal endophyte diversity in coffee plants from Colombia, Hawai'i, Mexico and Puerto Rico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coffee (Coffea arabica) plant tissues were surface-sterilized and fungal endophytes isolated using standard techniques, followed by DNA extraction and sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer region (ITS). A total of 843 fungal isolates were recovered and sequenced (Colombia, 267; Hawai'i, 393; Mexico, 109; Puerto Rico, 74) yielding 257 unique ITS genotypes (Colombia, 113; Hawai'i, 126; Mexico, 32; Puerto Rico, 40).

Fernando E. Vega; Ann Simpkins; M. Catherine Aime; Francisco Posada; Stephen W. Peterson; Stephen A. Rehner; Francisco Infante; Alfredo Castillo; A. Elizabeth Arnold

2010-01-01

189

Constructing the Puerto Rico Self-Concept Scale: Problems and Procedures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Puerto Rico self-concept scale was developed for the purpose of assessing the relationship of self- concept with academic achievement and other school-related variables in Puerto Rico. An 88-item scale that can measure self-concept in the 4th, 7th, and 10th grades was constructed. Empirical criteri on keying was used for the development of items that were also adapted to the

Helen Abadzi; Sonia Florez

1981-01-01

190

Morphology and sedimentation in Caribbean montane streams: examples from Jamaica and Puerto Rico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ahmad, R., Scatena, F.N. and Gupta, A., 1993. Morphology and sedimentation in Caribbean montane streams: examples from Jamaica and Puerto Rico. In: C.R. Fielding (Editor), Current Research in Fluvial Sedimentology. Sediment. Geol., 85: 157-169. This paper presents a summary description of the morphology, sedimentation, and behaviour of the montane streams of eastern Jamaica and eastern Puerto Rico. The area is

Rafi Ahmad; F. N. Scatena; Avijit Gupta

1993-01-01

191

Environmental Assessment for Authorizing the Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority (PREPA) to allow Public Access to the Boiling Nuclear Superheat (BONUS) Reactor Building, Rincon, Puerto Rico  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to consent to a proposal by the Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority (PREPA) to allow public access to the Boiling Nuclear Superheat (BONUS) reactor building located near Rincon, Puerto Rico for use as a museum. PREPA, the owner of the BONUS facility, has determined that the historical significance of this facility, as one of only two reactors of this design ever constructed in the world, warrants preservation in a museum, and that this museum would provide economic benefits to the local community through increased tourism. Therefore, PREPA is proposing development of the BONUS facility as a museum.

N /A

2003-02-24

192

Ethnic Conflict and the Psychology of Liberation in Guatemala, Peru, and Puerto Rico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethnic identity and conflict in Guatemala, Peru, and Puerto Rico are complexly embedded within dynamic systems of class- and race-based geopolitics. Whereas overt violence and terror have permeated both Guatemalan and Peruvian societies, covert conflict has undermined Puerto Rican nationhood. Despite similarities among these 3 countries of Hispano-America, there are important particularities that inform psychological theory and practice. This article

Lillian Comas-Díaz; M. Brinton Lykes; Renato D. Alarcón

1998-01-01

193

A new species of palustrine Eleutherodactylus (Anura: Leptodactylidae) from Puerto Rico  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe adult morphology, advertisement call, and natural history diagnostic of a new species of Eleutherodactylus from a fresh water (palustrine) herbaceous wetland of northern coastal Puerto Rico. The new species is apparently the smallest Puerto Rican Eleutherodactylus and is morphologically most similar to E. gryllus, which inhabits high-elevation humid forests and cloud forests. Although both species have well-developed glands

NEFTALÍ RIOS-LÓPEZ; RICHARD THOMAS

2007-01-01

194

Land Use\\/Land Cover of two bioluminescent bays in Puerto Rico  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Land Use\\/Land Cover maps have the capacity to illustrate the interaction between humans and the surroundings and are also available to see different conditions in the same or similar environments. Puerto Mosquito Bay in Vieques and La Parguera Bioluminescence Bay in Lajas, Puerto Rico (two bioluminescence bays) are used to produce Land Use\\/Land Cover maps, which show environmental and

Yadira Soto Viruet

195

The Lash of Inflation on a Developing Economy: Puerto Rico, A Case Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article discusses the social effects of inflation in a developing economy, based primarily on the Puerto Rican experience. The first part covers some pertinent general notions concerning inflation and economic development. The relationships among Puerto Rico's unique socio-political conditions, the economic achievements attained, and the social changes experienced throughout the years of relative economic stability from World War II

Juan B. Aponte

1981-01-01

196

Pesticide Use and Transport Pathways Within a Coastal Watershed in Southeastern Puerto Rico  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In 2007, studies were begun to quantify impacts of agricultural crop production on coastal water quality within the watershed of the Jobos Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve (JBNERR). The reserve is located on Puerto Rico’s southeastern coast and includes sensitive mangrove, sea-grass meadow, a...

197

10x10 comes full circle: spanish version back to United States in puerto rico.  

PubMed

The adaptation of the 10x10 certificate program in health information systems for a Puerto Rican audience is described. The 10x10 program was initially developed in the USA by the Oregon Health Sciences University (OHSU), then adapted to Latin America by Hospital Italiano de Buenos Aires. Puerto Rico is in the intersection of the United States and Latin America, in terms of government, health care system, culture and language. Therefore, it seemed reasonable to re-adapt the program back to the USA, in Spanish, taking into account these facts and the experience of the team in delivering blended learning adapted to local needs. Forty professionals from Puerto Rico are currently taking the first version of the course, supported by the Regional Extension Center for Puerto Rico and the US Virgin Islands, and endorsed by the American Medical Informatics Association (AMIA). PMID:23920908

Margolis, Alvaro; Joglar, Francisco; de Quirós, Fernán González Bernaldo; Baum, Analía; Fernández, Antonio; García, Sofía; Arredondo, Antonio López; Hersh, William R

2013-01-01

198

Office of Justice Programs, Office for Victims of Crime, Grants Sub-Awarded by the Puerto Rico Department of Justice to Carlos Albizu University San Juan, Puerto Rico.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Office of the Inspector General (OIG) Audit Division, has completed an audit of grant funds sub-awarded by the Puerto Rico Department of Justice (PRDOJ) to Carlos Albizu University (CAU). CAU is a private, non-profit, university that offers bachelors ...

2010-01-01

199

Floods of September 6, 1960, in eastern Puerto Rico  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The floods of September 6, 1960, were the greatest known on many streams in eastern Puerto Rico. There were 117 lives lost, 30 persons missing, and 136 injured. Total damage was estimated in excess of $7 million. Several thousand persons were forced from their homes by the floods as 484, houses were destroyed and more than 3,600 others were. damaged. All main highways and most secondary roads were impassable for a short period during the floods and damage to them was heavy. Following the passage of Hurricane Donna off the northeast coast, rains of very high intensity fell over parts of the eastern half of the island, beginning about 9 p.m. September 5. By dawn September 6, rains totaling more than 10 inches over a large area produced floods in every river basin from the Rio Grande de Manati eastward. Flood discharges on the Rio Humacao, Rio Turabo, and Rio Valenciano were the greatest known and rank high among the notable floods on streams that drain from 6 to ]5 square miles. An outstanding feature of the floods was the unusually high magnitude of peak discharges--9 of the 24 peak discharges determined had Myers ratings greater than 80 percent.

Barnes, Harry Hawthorne; Bogart, Dean Butler

1961-01-01

200

Drug abuse and illicit drug use in Puerto Rico.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES. Based on an epidemiologic field survey of community households in Puerto Rico, this study estimates the frequency of illicit drug use and clinically defined drug abuse and/or dependence syndromes. Results are compared with those from surveys on the United States mainland. Suspected risk factors are studied as well, with a special focus on childhood misbehavior. METHODS. Trained lay interviewers administered a Spanish Diagnostic Interview Schedule to 912 respondents aged 17 to 68 years who were selected by multistage probability sampling of island households. RESULTS. An estimated 8.2% of the population had a history of illicit drug use and 1.2% qualified for a standardized lifetime diagnosis of drug abuse, dependence, or both. An estimated 18.4% of the male drug users and 7.7% of the female drug users met criteria for drug abuse and/or dependence. A history of drug use was related to the diagnoses of alcohol abuse and/or dependence and antisocial personality, but few persons who had used illicit drugs at least once in their lifetime reported a history of receiving treatment for alcohol, drug, or mental health problems. CONCLUSIONS. The data were consistent with a suspected association between level of childhood misbehavior and occurrence of illicit drug use, even after statistical control for potentially confounding variables.

Canino, G; Anthony, J C; Freeman, D H; Shrout, P; Rubio-Stipec, M

1993-01-01

201

Haloterrigena thermotolerans sp. nov., a halophilic archaeon from Puerto Rico.  

PubMed

An extremely halophilic Archaeon belonging to the order Halobacteriales was isolated from the solar salterns of Cabo Rojo, Puerto Rico. The organism, designated strain PR5T, is rod-shaped, non-motile and requires at least 12% (w/v) NaCl to grow. The strain is highly thermotolerant: its temperature optimum is 50 degrees C and growth is possible up to 60 degrees C. Polar lipid analysis revealed the presence of the bis-sulfated glycolipid S2-DGD-1 as sole glycolipid and the absence of the glycerol diether analogue of phosphatidylglycerosulfate. Both C20,C20 and C20,C25 core lipids are present. The G+C content of the DNA is 63.3 mol%. According to 16S rDNA sequence data, strain PR5T is closely related to the representatives of the genera Haloterrigena and Natrinema, but on the basis of its phenotypic properties, 16S rDNA sequence and DNA-DNA hybridization studies, strain PR5T cannot be assigned to any of the recognized species within these genera. On the basis of its polar lipid composition, the isolate has been assigned to the genus Haloterrigena. The creation of a new species, Haloterrigena thermotolerans, is therefore proposed to accommodate this isolate. The type strain is strain PR5T (= DSM 11552T = ATCC 700275T). PMID:10843046

Montalvo-Rodríguez, R; López-Garriga, J; Vreeland, R H; Oren, A; Ventosa, A; Kamekura, M

2000-05-01

202

Puerto Rico water resources planning model program description  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Because the use of the Mathematical Programming System -Extended (MPSX) to solve large linear and mixed integer programs requires the preparation of many input data cards, a matrix generator program to produce the MPSX input data from a much more limited set of data may expedite the use of the mixed integer programming optimization technique. The Model Definition and Control Program (MODCQP) is intended to assist a planner in preparing MPSX input data for the Puerto Rico Water Resources Planning Model. The model utilizes a mixed-integer mathematical program to identify a minimum present cost set of water resources projects (diversions, reservoirs, ground-water fields, desalinization plants, water treatment plants, and inter-basin transfers of water) which will meet a set of future water demands and to determine their sequence of construction. While MODCOP was specifically written to generate MPSX input data for the planning model described in this report, the program can be easily modified to reflect changes in the model's mathematical structure.

Moody, D. W.; Maddock, Thomas; Karlinger, M. R.; Lloyd, J. J.

1973-01-01

203

Premature thelarche in Puerto Rico. A search for environmental factors.  

PubMed

Pediatric endocrinologists in Puerto Rico reported a threefold increase in the number of patients with premature thelarche seen between 1978 and 1981. A matched-pairs case-control study was conducted to evaluate associations with potential environmental exposures to substances with estrogenic activity, as well as with familial factors. Analysis was performed on 120 pairs, the case subjects of which were selected from those diagnosed between 1978 and 1982. In subjects 2 years of age or older at the onset of thelarche, no significant associations were found. In subjects with onset before 2 years of age, significant positive associations were found with a maternal history of ovarian cysts, consumption of soy-based formula, and consumption of various meat products. A statistically significant negative association was found with consumption of corn products. These statistical associations are probably not sufficient to explain the reported increase because in over 50% of the case subjects there was no exposure to any of the risk factors for which statistical associations were found. Exposure to other substances with possible estrogenic effect, such as waste products from pharmaceutical factories and pesticides, was also excluded as a possible cause. These findings suggest that better diagnosis and reporting, or conceivably the presence of entirely new, unsuspected factors, could account for the reported increase. PMID:3776944

Freni-Titulaer, L W; Cordero, J F; Haddock, L; Lebrón, G; Martínez, R; Mills, J L

1986-12-01

204

Bibliometric assessment of cancer research in Puerto Rico, 1903-2005  

PubMed Central

Objective The analysis of scientific production in Puerto Rico is largely unexplored. The main aim of this study is to present the characteristics and trends of cancer publications in Puerto Rico’s biomedical journals and their relationship with the island’s cancer mortality. Methods A PubMed and a hard-copy search were performed to retrieve cancer-related articles published in the Puerto Rico Health Sciences Journal and the Boletín de la Asociación Médica de Puerto Rico from 1903 to 2005. Bibliometric indicators studied included the number of authors and references by article, first author’s institutional affiliation and country, document type, and language. The study type and tumor classification were also recorded. Cancer proportional mortality (M%) in Puerto Rico and the proportion of cancer-related articles (P%) published were also evaluated. The annual percent change (APC) was estimated to assess trends. Results A total of 369 articles were retrieved. The institutions with the majority of publications were universities (39.6%), English was the predominant publication language (72.1%), and the principal document type was original papers (69.6%). Epidemiologic studies were the dominant study type (62.1%), and the most studied cancers were digestive (15.4%) and gynecologic (9.6%). Although the P% has increased since 1913 (APC = 1.2%), the M% increased at a faster pace (APC = 2.7%). Conclusions Although a growth in the number of cancer publications is observed in these journals, it does not parallel the increase in proportional mortality. A better understanding of the cancer publications in Puerto Rico is essential to establish priorities, define future areas of research, and develop cancer control strategies.

Ortiz, Ana P.; Calo, William A.; Suarez-Balseiro, Carlos; Maura-Sardo, Mariano; Suarez, Erick

2010-01-01

205

Puerto Rican Families Who Have Children with Disabilities: A Comparison between Families Living in Puerto Rico and Families Living in Florida. Final Performance Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report discusses the outcomes of a study that compared family needs and sources of support perceived by 55 Puerto Rican mothers of young children (ages birth to 5 years) with disabilities residing in Puerto Rico and 39 of their Puerto Rican counterparts living in Florida. The relationship among perceived family needs, sources of support, and…

Reyes-Blanes, Maria E.

206

Science Technology Engineering and Mathematics K-12 Partnership Circles at the University of Puerto Rico Mayagüez Campus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Science Technology Engineering and Mathematics UPRM K-12 Partnership Circles (STEM Circles) is a proposal for an after school program developed by the University of Puerto Rico Mayagüez Campus (UPRM) and submitted to the National Science Foundation. The purpose of the STEM Circles is to create collaboration between the UPRM and the Puerto Rico Department of Education (DE) to develop an

Sonia M. Bartolomei-Suárez; Betty Ramírez; Keith Wayland

207

Culture and home health care policy implementation: A comparative study of the United States and Puerto Rico  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines home health care programs formulated in an Anglo dominated American culture when they are implemented in two settings with distinct cultural traditions, Puerto Rico and Indiana. Puerto Rico is a predominantly Hispanic territory of the United States that is subject to American national laws, and Indiana is a Midwestern state that is immersed in American culture, mostly

Minerva Cruz

2008-01-01

208

75 FR 41819 - Reorganization/Expansion of Foreign-Trade Zone 61 San Juan, Puerto Rico, Area  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Expansion of Foreign-Trade Zone 61 San Juan, Puerto Rico, Area Pursuant to its authority...proposed Sites 14, 15 and 16) in the San Juan, Puerto Rico, area within and adjacent to the San Juan Customs and Border Protection port of...

2010-07-19

209

33 CFR 165.776 - Security Zone; Coast Guard Base San Juan, San Juan Harbor, Puerto Rico  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Security Zone; Coast Guard Base San Juan, San Juan Harbor, Puerto Rico 165.776 Section 165.776... § 165.776 Security Zone; Coast Guard Base San Juan, San Juan Harbor, Puerto Rico (a) Location . The following area...

2010-07-01

210

33 CFR 165.776 - Security Zone; Coast Guard Base San Juan, San Juan Harbor, Puerto Rico  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-07-01 false Security Zone; Coast Guard Base San Juan, San Juan Harbor, Puerto Rico 165.776 Section 165.776... § 165.776 Security Zone; Coast Guard Base San Juan, San Juan Harbor, Puerto Rico (a) Location . The following area...

2009-07-01

211

78 FR 28167 - Special Local Regulation, Cruce a Nado Internacional de la Bahia de Ponce Puerto Rico, Bahia de...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Local Regulation, Cruce a Nado Internacional de la Bahia de Ponce Puerto Rico, Bahia de Ponce; Ponce, PR AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS...establish a special local regulation on the waters of Bahia de Ponce in Ponce, Puerto Rico during the...

2013-05-14

212

Land development, land use, and urban sprawl in Puerto Rico integrating remote sensing and population census data  

Microsoft Academic Search

The island of Puerto Rico has both a high population density and a long history of ineffective land use planning. This study integrates geospatial technology and population census data to understand how people use and develop the lands. We define three new regions for Puerto Rico: Urban (16%), Densely Populated Rural (36%), and Sparsely Populated Rural (48%). Eleven percent of

Sebastián Martinuzzi; William A. Gould; Olga M. Ramos González

2007-01-01

213

33 CFR 165.776 - Security Zone; Coast Guard Base San Juan, San Juan Harbor, Puerto Rico.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Security Zone; Coast Guard Base San Juan, San Juan Harbor, Puerto Rico. 165.776 Section 165.776 Navigation and Navigable...Security Zone; Coast Guard Base San Juan, San Juan Harbor, Puerto Rico. (a) Location . The following area is a security zone: All waters...

2013-07-01

214

Technical Report of the NAEP Mathematics Assessment in Puerto Rico: Focus on Statistical Issues. NCES 2007-462  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 2003, a trial National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) mathematics assessment was administered in Spanish to public school students at grades 4 and 8 in Puerto Rico. Based on preliminary analyses of the 2003 data, changes were made in administration and translation procedures for the 2005 NAEP administration in Puerto Rico. This…

Baxter, G. P.; Ahmed, S.; Sikali, E.; Waits, T.; Sloan, M.; Salvucci, S.

2007-01-01

215

The Nation's Report Card [TM]: Mathematics 2003 and 2005: Performance in Puerto Rico. Highlights. NCES 2007--459  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report presents highlights of the results for fourth-and eighth-grade students in Puerto Rico for the 2003 and 2005 National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) in mathematics. The NAEP mathematics assessment was administered to public school students in Puerto Rico for the first time in 2003. Although NAEP had previously administered…

Baxter, G.P.; Bleeker, M.M.; Waits, T.L.; Salvucci, S.

2007-01-01

216

Technical Report of the NAEP Mathematics Assessment in Puerto Rico: Focus on Statistical Issues (NCES 2007-462rev)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Nation's Report Card[TM] informs the public about the academic achievement of elementary and secondary students in the United States and its jurisdictions, including Puerto Rico. In 2003, a trial NAEP mathematics assessment was administered in Spanish to public school students at grades 4 and 8 in Puerto Rico. Based on preliminary analyses of…

Baxter, G. P.; Ahmed, S.; Sikali, E.; Waits, T.; Sloan, M.; Salvucci, S.

2007-01-01

217

The transition to an innovation-driven industrial economic development policy: the road ahead for Puerto Rico  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Puerto Rico industrial economic development policy has been dominated by manufacturing multinationals that performed their product development outside the island. With the curtailment by Congress of special tax incentives to enterprises operating on the island, Puerto Rico must find ways to transform its manufacturing industry from a consumer of imported intellectual property, to a locally generated, innovation-driven industry. This

R. Fernandez-Sein

1998-01-01

218

Clouds and aerosols in Puerto Rico - a new evaluation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The influence of aerosols, both natural and anthropogenic, remains a major area of uncertainty when predicting the properties and behaviour of clouds and their influence on climate. In an attempt to better understand warm cloud formation in a tropical marine environment, a period of intensive measurements took place in December 2004 in Puerto Rico, using some of the latest developments in online instrumentation such as aerosol mass spectrometers, cloud condensation nuclei counters and a hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyser. Simultaneous online measurements of aerosol size distributions, composition, hygroscopicity and optical properties were made near the lighthouse of Cape San Juan in the north-eastern corner of the island and at the top of East Peak mountain (1040 m a.s.l.), the two sites separated by 17 km. Additional measurements of the cloud droplet residual and interstitial aerosol properties were made at the mountain site, accompanied by measurements of cloud droplet size distributions, liquid water content and the chemical composition of cloud and rain water samples. Both aerosol composition and cloud properties were found to be sensitive to wind sector. Air from the east-northeast (ENE) was mostly free of anthropogenic influences, the submicron fraction being mainly composed of non-sea salt sulphate, while that from the east-southeast (ESE) was found to be moderately influenced by populated islands upwind, adding smaller (<100 nm), externally mixed, carbonaceous particles to the aerosol that increased the number concentrations by over a factor of 3. This change in composition was also accompanied with a reduction in the measured hygroscopicity and fractional cloud activation potential of the aerosol. At the mountain site, the average cloud droplet concentrations increased from 193 to 519 cm-3, median volume diameter decreased from 20 to 14 ?m and the liquid water content increased from 0.24 to 0.31 g m-3 when the winds shifted from the ENE to ESE. Larger numbers of interstitial particles were recorded, most notably at sizes greater than 100 nm, which were absent during clean conditions. The average size of the residual particles and concentrations of cloudwater nitrate, sulphate and insoluble material increased during polluted conditions. Previous studies in Puerto Rico had reported the presence of a significant non-anthropogenic organic fraction in the aerosols measured and concluded that this was a factor controlling the in situ cloud properties. However, this was not observed in our case. In contrast to the 1.00±0.14 ?g m-3 of organic carbon measured in 1992 and 1995, the organic matter measured in the current study of 0.17±0.35 ?g m-3 is many times lower, most of which can be attributed to anthropogenic sources. During clean conditions, the submicron aerosol was observed to be almost entirely inorganic, an observation supported by the hygroscopicity measurements. This suggests that organic aerosols from marine sources may not be completely ubiquitous (either spatially or temporally) in this environment and requires further investigation to quantify their true extent and implications, with more extensive, longer-term sampling in conjunction with wind field analyses.

Allan, J. D.; Baumgardner, D.; Raga, G. B.; Mayol-Bracero, O. L.; Morales-García, F.; García-García, F.; Montero-Martínez, G.; Borrmann, S.; Schneider, J.; Mertes, S.; Walter, S.; Gysel, M.; Dusek, U.; Frank, G. P.; Krämer, M.

2008-03-01

219

Clouds and aerosols in Puerto Rico - a new evaluation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The influence of aerosols, both natural and anthropogenic, remains a major area of uncertainty when predicting the properties and behaviour of clouds and their influence on climate. In an attempt to better understand warm cloud formation in a tropical marine environment, a period of intensive measurements using some of the latest developments in online instrumentation took place in December 2004 in Puerto Rico. Simultaneous online measurements of aerosol size distributions, composition, hygroscopicity and optical properties were made near the lighthouse of Cape San Juan in the north-eastern corner of the island and at the top of East Peak mountain (1040 m a.s.l.), the two sites separated by 17 km. Additional measurements of the cloud droplet residual and interstitial aerosol properties were made at the mountain site, accompanied by measurements of cloud droplet size distributions, liquid water content and the chemical composition of cloud and rain water samples. Both aerosol composition and cloud properties were found to be sensitive to wind sector. Air from the east-northeast (ENE) was mostly free of anthropogenic influences, the submircron fraction being mainly composed of non-sea salt sulphate, while that from the east-southeast (ESE) was found to be moderately influenced by populated islands upwind, adding smaller (<100 nm), externally mixed, carbonaceous particles to the aerosol that increased the number concentrations by over a factor of 3. This change in composition was also accompanied with a reduction in the measured hygroscopicity and fractional cloud activation potential of the aerosol. At the mountain site, the average cloud droplet concentrations increased from 193 to 519 cm-3, median volume diameter decreased from 20 to 14 ?m and the liquid water content increased from 0.24 to 0.31 g m-3 when the winds shifted from the ENE to ESE. Larger numbers of interstitial particles were recorded, most notably at sizes greater than 100 nm, which were absent during clean conditions. The average size of the residual particles and concentrations of cloudwater nitrate, sulphate and insoluble material increased during polluted conditions. Previous studies in Puerto Rico had reported the presence of a significant non-anthropogenic organic fraction in the aerosols measured and concluded that this was a factor controlling the in situ cloud properties. However, this was not observed in our case. In contrast to the 1.00±0.14 ?g m-3 of organic carbon measured in 1992 and 1995, the organic matter measured in the current study of 0.17±0.35 ?g m-3 is many times lower, most of which can be attributed to anthropogenic sources. During clean conditions, the submicron aerosol was observed to be almost entirely inorganic, an observation supported by the hygroscopicity measurements. This suggests that organic aerosols from marine sources may not be completely ubiquitous (either spatially or temporally) in this environment and requires further investigation to quantify their true extent and implications, with more extensive, longer-term sampling in conjunction with back trajectory analyses.

Allan, J. D.; Baumgardner, D.; Raga, G. B.; Mayol-Bracero, O. L.; Morales-García, F.; García-García, F.; Montero-Martínez, G.; Borrmann, S.; Schneider, J.; Mertes, S.; Walter, S.; Gysel, M.; Dusek, U.; Frank, G. P.; Krämer, M.

2007-08-01

220

7 CFR 318.58-12 - Transit of fruits and vegetables from Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands of the United States...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands of the United States...Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION...Puerto Rico or Virgin Islands Rules and Regulations...Puerto Rico or the Virgin Islands of the United States...should be submitted to the Animal and Plant Health...

2009-01-01

221

19 CFR 7.1 - Puerto Rico; spirits and wines withdrawn from warehouse for shipment to; duty on foreign-grown...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Puerto Rico; spirits and wines withdrawn...GUANTANAMO BAY NAVAL STATION § 7.1 Puerto Rico; spirits and wines withdrawn...warehouse for shipment in bond to Puerto Rico pursuant to section 311,...

2013-04-01

222

Energy Integrated dairy Farm System in Puerto Rico  

SciTech Connect

Principles of energy-integrated farming were applied to the Rio Canas Dairy Farm, a privately-owned dairy farm and one of the largest dairy farms in Puerto Rico with a milking herd of 400 cows. Animal wastes were fed to two anaerobic digesters where methane gas was produced by bacterial degradation of organic material. The methane gas fueled an engine-generator to produce electricity for farm use and for sale to the public utility. The Wastes were partially stabilized by bacterial action with the digesters and the digester effluent passed to a liquid-solid separator. Solid fraction was composted and either used as bedding material for the cows or marketed as soil conditioner. The liquid fraction flowed to a storage pond and was used in the Greenfeed subsystem to fertilize forage crops for the cows. Estimated energy savings of the system were 1705 MBtu for the first two subsystems and 7,718 MBtu's for all three subsystems. Simple payback for the first two subsystems was very long (20 years) because facilities for effective manure recovery did not exist on the farm at the outset of the project, operational costs for manure collection were charged against the project, and system components were oversized. Including the Greenfeed subsystem, simple payback for the project was 8.2 years. Assuming that manure collection facilities and practices already existed and assuming proper sizing of all components, simple payback for the Anaerobic Digestion and Electrical Production subsystem and the Farm Waste Management subsystem was 5.8 years. Using data from this project, an estimate of the return on investment was projected for different herd sizes. Results suggested that for dairy farms with less than 500 cows, anaerobic digester systems are only marginally profitable.

Sasscer, D.S.; Morgan, T.O.

1986-10-01

223

Maps Showing Composition of Surficial Sediments on the Insular Shelf of Southwestern Puerto Rico  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The limited availability of onshore sand deposits for use in construction appears to be a future major problem in Puerto Rico (U.S. Bureau of Mines, 1972; Committee on Puerto Rico and the Sea, 1974). Consequently, the mining of offshore sand deposits as supplemental sources of construction aggregate may becom e necessary. For this reason, the U.S. Geological Survey and the Department of Natural Resources of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico have conducted investigations of potential offshore sand deposits on the Puerto Rico insular shelf. This report provides information on the composition of surficial sediments on the southwestern Puerto Rico shelf (fig. 1), an area that may be one of the more favorable potential sites for offshore sand resources. Water depths over most of the study area are less than 22 meters (m). The sea floor is composed of live and dead patch and fringing reefs, areas of rock exposures, and sedim ent-covered areas. The adjacent coastline includes prominent embaym ents and a conspicuous rock promontory (Cabo Rojo) connected by a tombolo to the mainland of Puerto Rico. The study area is in the belt of northeast trade winds. Waves approach the coast predominantly from the southeast, resulting in a predominantly westward littoral drift along the south coast (Grove and Trumbull, 1978). Local sand movement on the southern shelf is shown by an active sand wave field south of Bah1a Sucia in which the sand wave crests have migrated toward the southwest (Grove and Trumbull, 1978). The presence of the sand wave field suggests that large volumes of sand having potential for mining are locally present in the study area.

Shideler, Gerald L.

1980-01-01

224

Status of resistance to Bt maize in Spodoptera frugiperda: lessons from Puerto Rico.  

PubMed

In 2006, reports of potential Spodoptera frugiperda resistance to TC1507 maize in Puerto Rico were received. Subsequent investigation confirmed that pest populations collected from several sites in Puerto Rico were largely unaffected by the Cry1F protein in bioassays, with resistance ratios likely in excess of 1000. Since then, we have continued monitoring populations in Puerto Rico and in southern areas of the mainland US. The majority of the collections from Puerto Rico continue to show high levels of Cry1F resistance whereas populations collected from the southern US mainland continue to show full susceptibility to Cry1F and TC1507 maize. It does not appear that resistant populations have spread to any measurable extent from Puerto Rico to mainland US, nor that local selection pressure from Cry1F-expressing maize or cotton production in the southern US has caused a measurable change in population susceptibility. Lessons learned from Puerto Rico are being applied in other parts of the Americas where TC1507 maize is grown and additional steps being taken to protect the long-term durability of Cry1F in maize in areas where similar selection pressure may be expected. Tactics include using locally-adapted germplasm that contain native Spodoptera resistance, a robust education program to teach end-users about the potential for resistance to develop appropriate crop stewardship, resistance monitoring, and the use of insecticides under high S. frugiperda pressure. Perhaps most importantly, pyramided trait products that produce two or more different Bt proteins are being introduced to further delay resistance development to Cry1F. PMID:22537834

Storer, Nicholas P; Kubiszak, Mary E; Ed King, J; Thompson, Gary D; Santos, Antonio Cesar

2012-04-16

225

Contextual risk and promotive processes in Puerto Rican youths' internalizing trajectories in Puerto Rico and New York.  

PubMed

Research on ethnic-minority youths' mental health has rarely examined developmental trajectories for the same ethnic group in contexts where they are a minority versus where they are the majority or mechanisms accounting for differences in trajectories across such contexts. This study examines Puerto Rican youth residing in two contexts, one in which they are in their home culture of Puerto Rico and one in which they are a minority group, in New York. We explore the relationship among social context, minority status, risk, resilience, and trajectories of internalizing symptoms after adjusting for factors related to migration. We found that youths' reports of internalizing symptoms declined over time. Youths in New York had higher levels of internalizing symptoms than did youths in Puerto Rico, but they had similar trajectories. Differences in internalizing symptoms across the two social contexts were accounted for by experiences of discrimination and exposure to violence. Parental monitoring was associated with fewer internalizing symptoms across the two sites, although this effect diminished over time. Contrary to what was expected, family religiosity was associated with higher levels of internalizing symptoms. This association was stronger in New York than in the Puerto Rico site. PMID:23880390

Ramos-Olazagasti, María A; Shrout, Patrick E; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu; Canino, Glorisa J; Bird, Héctor R

2013-08-01

226

The Puerto Rico 5.8 MW Earthquake of May 16, 2010, and the Distribution of Peak Ground Motion in the Puerto Rico Island  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On may 16, 2010 a 5.8 MW earthquake occurred in the northwest region of Puerto Rico Island (18.4o Lat., -67.07o Lon., and focal depth 113.1 km) at 05:16:10 UTC, reporting an intensity of VI in the city of Añasco, which is located at approximately at 15 km from its epicenter, while in some cases the intensity hardly reach an intensity of III in towns located at closer epicentral distances. This earthquake was widely felt in Puerto Rico, the eastern Dominican Republic, and The Virgin Islands. It was recorded also by 59 stations of the Puerto Rico Strong Motion Program (PRSMP) providing a reliable set of acceleration records distributed around the island. According to the USGS Centroid Moment Tensor solution, this earthquake occurred in an inclined seismic zone that dips south from the Puerto Rico Trench and that consists of subducted lithosphere of the North America plate. Earthquakes that have focal-depths between 70 and 300 km, are commonly termed "intermediate-depth" earthquakes and typically cause less damage on the ground surface above their foci than is the case with similar magnitude shallow-focus earthquakes. Large intermediate-depth earthquakes may be felt at great distance from their epicenters. In terms of the observed maximum peak ground acceleration it was: (i) 0.0651 of g at Añasco (AÑS1 station, located at an epicentral distance of 15 km in alluvial soil), and (ii) 0.2301 of g at station UTD2 located at an epicentral distance of 42 km on rock. The instrumental intensity (MMI) estimated with Wald et al., (1999) relationship was V and VII, respectively for these two previously described sites. An analysis and discussion is presented with the aim to explain the anomalous distribution of peak ground motions, which may be associated not only by local site effects due to the presence of soft soils.

Huerta-Lopez, C. I.; Martínez-Cruzado, J. A.; Suarez, L. E.; López, R. R.; Caro-Cortes, J. A.; Upegui-Botero, F. M.; Ramirez-Gaytan, G. A.

2010-12-01

227

Estimating recharge thresholds in tropical karst island aquifers: Barbados, Puerto Rico and Guam  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hydrology and geochemistry of groundwater in tropical island aquifers, such as Barbados, Guam and Puerto Rico, are significantly influenced by tropical climatic conditions. Recharge to these aquifers is the product of regional and local climate patterns that control rainfall. Oxygen isotopes can be used to estimate the amount and timing of recharge on these islands because seasonal fluctuations of

Ian C. Jones; Jay L. Banner

2003-01-01

228

Predicting landslide vegetation in patches on landscape gradients in Puerto Rico  

Microsoft Academic Search

We explored the predictive value of common landscape characteristics for landslide vegetative stages in the Luquillo Experimental Forest of Puerto Rico using four different analyses. Maximum likelihood logistic regression showed that aspect, age, and substrate type could be used to predict vegetative structural stage. In addition it showed that the structural complexity of the vegetation was greater in landslides (1)

Randall W. Myster; John R. Thomlinson; Matthew C. Larsen

1997-01-01

229

Study of the daily environmental urban noise levels in San Juan, Puerto Rico  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study of the urban environmental noise levels in the city of San Juan is one of the first steps into understanding the noise behavior of the largest and denser populated zones in Puerto Rico. For the year 2002 San Juan had 36% of all citizen noise complaints reported for the entire island. The aim of the study was to

José A. Alicea-Pou; Wanda Cruz-Vizcarrondo; Daniel Hernandez-Dávila; Jorge Rocaford

2001-01-01

230

Geologic evidence northeast of Puerto Rico for an Atlantic tsunami in the last 500 years  

Microsoft Academic Search

A historical tsunami of undetermined origin best explains a suite of probably related features at Anegada, British Virgin Islands: shore-normal scours, fields of cobbles and boulders, a horizon of sand and shell, and salt ponds. Anegada's exposed location and low-lying landscape make the island a natural tsunami recorder. Facing the Puerto Rico Trench at the northeast corner of the Caribbean,

B. F. Atwater; M. P. Tuttle

2008-01-01

231

Economic Development Threatens Groundwater in Puerto Rico: Results of a Field Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents the results of a field study done on 7 wells providing 37% of the total aquifer production for 4 municipalities in Puerto Rico. Each sampled well showed signs of contamination by heavy metals, nitrate, and semivolatile organic compounds. Although found in low concentrations, current development threatens groundwater quality. (MJP)

Arbona, Sonia I.; Hunter, John M.

1995-01-01

232

First report of Gliocephalotrichum bulbilium and G. simplex causing fruit rot of rambutan in Puerto Rico  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Worldwide, significant post-harvest disease losses of rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum L.) have been reported and several pathogens have been associated with fruit rot. Even though rambutan was introduced to Puerto Rico in 1927, it was not until 1998 that commercial farms were established in the wester...

233

The persistence of Gliocephalotrichum bulbilium and G. simplex causing fruit rot of rambutan in Puerto Rico  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fruit rot of rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum L.) is a pre and post-harvest disease problem that affects fruit quality. Significant post-harvest losses have occurred worldwide and several pathogens have been identified in Malaysia, Costa Rica, Hawaii, Thailand, and Puerto Rico. In 2011, fruit rot was o...

234

Thermal Biology of Anolis Lizards in a Complex Fauna: The Christatellus Group on Puerto Rico  

Microsoft Academic Search

To describe the thermal biology of the three trunk-ground species of the Anolis cristatellus group on Puerto Rico, an island with 10 species of Anolis, we obtained samples of air and body temperatures of A. gundlachi (shady perches, montane forests), A. cristatellus (shady or sunny perches in open or closed forests, lowlands to mid-elevations), and A. cooki (sunny perches in

Raymond B. Huey; T. Preston Webster

1976-01-01

235

Economic Development Threatens Groundwater in Puerto Rico: Results of a Field Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents the results of a field study done on 7 wells providing 37% of the total aquifer production for 4 municipalities in Puerto Rico. Each sampled well showed signs of contamination by heavy metals, nitrate, and semivolatile organic compounds. Although found in low concentrations, current development threatens groundwater quality. (MJP)|

Arbona, Sonia I.; Hunter, John M.

1995-01-01

236

El Gran Combo, Cortijo, and the Musical Geography of Cangrejos\\/Santurce, Puerto Rico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drawing on oral histories, musical examples, newspapers accounts, and scholarship, this article draws connections between El Gran Combo de Puerto Rico's transnational audiences, and the transnational history of Cangrejos, which is known today as Santurce. El Gran Combo's parent band, Cortijo y su Combo (which drew most of its members from the Santurce neighborhood of la Parada 21) helped forge

Shannon Dudley

2008-01-01

237

Determination of Some Levels of Pollution in Some Bays of Puerto Rico. Part 2. Ecological Phase.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Monthly trawl samples were initiated in March 1966 in Mayaguez Bay, a polluted bay, and Boqueron Bay, a relatively clean area, both in western Puerto Rico. Sampling was continued to February 1967. The purpose of the survey was to determine possible effect...

J. S. Ramsey

1970-01-01

238

Puerto Rico Tsunami Warning and Mitigation Program-LANTEX 09 Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tsunami warning, assessment, education, mitigation and preparedness efforts seek to reduce losses related to tsunamis in Puerto Rico (PR). The PR Seismic Network (PRSN) works with governmental agencies and local communities to implement these tsunami hazard risk reduction programs. The Caribbean has a a history of destructive tsunamis such as Virgin Islands (1867), PR (1918) and Dominican Republic (1946). Tsunamis

W. Diaz; C. von Hillebrandt-Andrade

2009-01-01

239

Premature thelarche in Puerto Rico: A search for environmental estrogenic contamination  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of an investigation into the cause of premature thelarche in Puerto Rico, the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) conducted various laboratory analyses to screen for estrogenic sources. Samples were obtained from case and control households, children, parents, and environmental sources. Serum samples were analyzed from parents and children and household water samples for chlorinated hydrocarbons and no results

W. Harry Hannon; Robert H. Hill; John T. Bernert; Lillian Haddock; Gloria Lebron; Jose F. Cordero

1987-01-01

240

Electromagnetic signatures of the Puerto Rico blue jet and its parent thunderstorm  

Microsoft Academic Search

On September 15, 2001, a spectacular blue jet was observed over an oceanic thunderstorm from a vantage point only 200 km distant at Arecibo Observatory, Puerto Rico (PR) [Pasko et al., Nature, 416, 152, 2002]. Unlike previous blue jets documented on video, the PR jet propagated all the way up from the top of the thunderstorm at ~16 km altitude

J. D. Mathews; M. A. Stanley; V. P. Pasko; T. G. Wood; M. J. Heavner; S. A. Cummer

2002-01-01

241

PUERTO RICO'S TROPICAL AGRICULTURE RESEARCH STATION - 100 YEARS OF TROPICAL RESEARCH  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The USDA-ARS, Tropical Agriculture Research Station (TARS) had its beginning in 1901, when Congress appropriated $5,000 and directed the Secretary of Agriculture to establish an experiment station in Puerto Rico to study agricultural problems of interest to the island. When established, TARS was th...

242

Post Sugar Cane Succession in Moist Alluvial Sites in Puerto Rico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sugar cane cultivation spanned over two centuries in Puerto Rico, at one time covering 14% of the island's total area. The most productive plantations were located in alluvial valleys that were deforested before there was an opportunity to record the species composition and structural development of the original native forests. This has led to speculation about the nature of these

Oscar Abelleira Martínez; Ariel E. Lugo

243

Model Studies of the Portugues and Bucana Rivers Channelization, Puerto Rico. Hydraulic Model Investigation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Two 1:30-scale physical hydraulic models of the Portugues and Bucana Rivers were used to determine the adequacy of the original designs for the flood control channelization project through the city of Ponce, Puerto Rico. The proposed channelization includ...

N. R. Oswalt

1978-01-01

244

Modernization and Changing Sex Role Orientation: The Case of Puerto Rico.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To examine differential sex role orientations as one conceptual area indicative of psychological adjustments to modernization, questionnaires were administered to agriculture and home economics students at the University of Puerto Rico. There were two types of independent variables: parental (residence, educational attainment levels, family…

Gilbert, Elmira O.

245

Home gardens and the energy and nutrient intakes of women and preschoolers in rural Puerto Rico  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study investigated how the increased availability of self?grown foods was related to the adequacy of the energy and nutrient intake of rural women and preschoolers in Puerto Rico. The 109 women included in the study were found to be most seriously deficient in iron and calcium, and tended to suffer from obesity. The 50 preschoolers demonstrated no serious chronic\\/acute

Maarten D. C. Immink; Diva Sanjur; Mirta Colon

1981-01-01

246

Soil Sampling Program at Solid Waste Management Unit No. 3, Fort Buchanan, Puerto Rico.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Results of a soil sampling program at Solid Waste Management Unit No. 3 (SWMU No. 3) at Fort Buchanan, Puerto Rico (FTB), are presented. In 1977, approximately 1 ton (1 truckload) of various pesticides reportedly were buried at SWMU No. 3. The precise loc...

J. L. Llopis

1993-01-01

247

Phosphorus and iron cycling in deep saprolite, Luquillo Mountains, Puerto Rico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rapid weathering and erosion rates in mountainous tropical watersheds lead to highly variable soil and saprolite thicknesses which in turn impact nutrient fluxes and biological populations. In the Luquillo Mountains of Puerto Rico, a 5-m thick saprolite contains high microorganism densities at the surface and at depth overlying bedrock. We test the hypotheses that the organisms at depth are limited

Heather L. Buss; Ryan Mathur; Arthur F. White; Susan L. Brantley

2010-01-01

248

Ship Navigation Simulation Study, San Juan Harbor, San Juan, Puerto Rico.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A real-time ship simulation investigation of the proposed design for deepening and widening the manmade San Juan Harbor channels, San Juan, Puerto Rico, was conducted. The purposes of the study were to determine the required channel width and alignment to...

D. W. Webb

1993-01-01

249

A Cost-production Analysis of Trap and Hand Line Fishing in Puerto Rico.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study is a cost-production analysis of the two most important methods of catching fish in the artisanal fishery of Puerto Rico and it revealed some important facts concerning trap fishing and hand line fishing. It was shown that it was possible to es...

J. F. Abgrall

1975-01-01

250

Viabilidad de la independencia de la red en areas residenciales de Puerto Rico  

Microsoft Academic Search

The energy situation is one of the most talked about and controversial problems worldwide. The heavy reliance on fossil fuels and all the implications that they bring in our social, political, economic and environmental stability are issues that should be treated with responsibility and sensitivity. Unfortunately, Puerto Rico relies almost 99% of fossil fuels, which directly or indirectly affects various

Hector Rene Zamot Ayala

2010-01-01

251

On the sociobiology of some hermaphroditic serranid fishes, the hamlets, in Puerto Rico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three species of hamlets, Hypoplectrus chlorurus, H. unicolor, and H. puella (Pisces: Serranidae) were observed underwater off the west coast of Puerto Rico. They are predaceous fishes, feeding on small benthic organisms, and live in close association with the coral reef. Hamlets are highly aggressive and defend large territories, excluding their own and all other species of hamlets. They are

G. W. Barlow

1975-01-01

252

Magnetic Anomalies North of Puerto Rico: Trend Removal with Orthogonal Polynomials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Total magnetic intensity data for the vicinity of the Puerto Rico trench and the outer ridge are presented. The magnetic field over the trench is unusually smooth and does not show the effect of local sources. A seventh-degree orthogonal polynomial was removed from along the survey lines to reduce the effects of both low-frequency magnetic time varia- tions and the

Gerald D. van Voorhis; Thomas M. Davis

1964-01-01

253

First report of Tomato chlorotic spot virus in tomato, pepper and jimsonweed in Puerto Rico  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This is the first report of Tomato chlorotic spot virus (TCSV) in Puerto Rico. TCSV was detected in tomato, pepper and jimsonweed. This report provides an overview of this virus for growers, extension workers, crop consultants and research and regulatory scientists....

254

Statistics of E-Region Drift at Puerto Rico Reduced by the 'Similar Fade' Method.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Three antennae records of E-region echoes obtained at the University of Puerto Rico in 1954 . . . 57 have been evaluated by Harnischmacher's tabulation method. This is a 'similar fade' method insofar as the drift is found from the time differences between...

E. Harnischmacher

1964-01-01

255

Language Officialization in Puerto Rico: Group-Making Discourses of Protectionism and Receptivity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article applies social constructionism and groupism theory to discourses on language officialization in Puerto Rico. It examines three argumentative texts presented prior to the passage of Law #4 in 1991 making Spanish the sole official language of the island. Grounded critical discourse theory maintains that language form and content are…

Shenk, Elaine

2011-01-01

256

Paradise lost: An introduction to the geography of water pollution in Puerto Rico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rapid industrialization has transformed the agricultural economy of Puerto Rico, creating employment opportunities and raising standards of living. Success, however, is marred by widespread pollution that outstrips the infrastructural capacity necessary for the preservation of environmental quality and of human health. The result today is a landfill crisis, a heritage of toxic dumps, and an advancing tide of pollution. Rivers

John M. Hunter; Sonia I. Arbona

1995-01-01

257

The Influence of The People of Puerto Rico Project on Mexican Anthropology  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the 1970s in Mexico, anthropological regional projects were designed to explore new research interests: irrigation works, peasants, rural capitalism, and mines. Julian H. Steward, Eric R. Wolf, and Sidney W. Mintz, participants in the research project on Puerto Rico, were all popular authors among the new generation of anthropologists and were frequently cited in their thesis bibliographies. This article

Roberto Melville

2011-01-01

258

The emotional aspect of AIDS stigma among health professionals in Puerto Rico  

Microsoft Academic Search

People who live with HIV\\/AIDS (PLWHA) in Puerto Rico have been a vulnerable group for stigmatization. Emotions have been a widely ignored issue in stigma-related research. Emotions influence the way people establish their relationship with their environment, relate to each other and assign social meanings to who and what surrounds them. Therefore, emotions have a vital role in the stigmatization

N. Varas-Díaz; M. Marzán-Rodríguez

2007-01-01

259

SEASONAL ABUNDANCE OF ANASTREPHA SUSPENSA (DIPTERA: TEPHRITIDAE) FROM CITRUS IN PUERTO RICO  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fruit flies population dynamics were studied in the central region of Puerto Rico. A. suspensa, (was the only species associated with citrus on this study. The cultivar Encore presented the highest mean number of fruit flies followed by Orlando. Cultivars Weikina and King presented similar fruit fly...

260

Problems Persist in the Puerto Rico Food Stamp Program, the Nation's Largest.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report reviews the operation of the Department of Agriculture's food stamp program in the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico. The program began there in July 1974. Since then various management and computer problems have plagued it. The Department and the Co...

1977-01-01

261

Estimates of the population of Puerto Rico and the outlying areas: 1980 to 1986.  

PubMed

This report presents estimates of the population for July 1, 1980 to 1986 for the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the US Virgin Islands, American Samoa, Guam, and The Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands. Census counts for 1980 are also shown for each of the areas. Components of population change for these areas for the 1980-1986 period are also shown. Most of the statistics used to prepare the area estimates were obtained from the local governments of the outlying areas. Except for Puerto Rico, all of the areas estimated are growing at a rate well above that of the US (64% from April 1, 1980 to July 1, 1986). Of the areas, Guam has exhibited the highest % of growth since 1980--19.6%. Although Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands have increased in population since 1890, both experienced population declines between 1985 and 1986. The Virgin Islands' population declined by 1.2%, from 110,800 to 109,500, while Puerto Rico's decreased by 3%, from 3,282,000 to 3,274,000. PMID:12280838

1987-07-01

262

Structure and Composition of Moist Coastal Forest in Dorado, Puerto Rico.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A survey of forest structure, species composition, and change in forest areas over a 44 year period was conducted on 39.5 ha of forest lands in Dorado, Puerto Rico. A total of 51 tree species were found in the study area. Six forest types were identified ...

J. C. Figueroa L. Totti R. O. Woodbury A. E. Lugo

1984-01-01

263

University-Industry Partnership: An Important Cornerstone for Puerto Rico's Biotechnology Cluster Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Successful knowledge-based economic models rely on synergy between government, industry and academia. This paper reviews the efforts to convert the island of Puerto Rico from a manufacturing to a high-tech manufacturing/research and development economy, with information technology and biotechnology as the main development strongholds. The…

Saliceti-Piazza, L.; Buxeda, R.; Rivera, E.; Hormaza, M.; Morell, L.

2003-01-01

264

New records of parasites for culture Cobia, Rachycentron canadum (Perciformes: Rachycentridae) in Puerto Rico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intensive aquaculture sometimes provides conditions favorable for parasites that are not ordinarily found on culture fishes in the wild, and the use of introduced stocks sometimes introduces non-indigenous species to the habitat. When officially asked about the culture of Cobia Rachycentron canadum (Linnaeus) in Puerto Rico, the authors responded that it was unlikely to cause harm. It was assumed that

Lucy Bunkley-Williams; Ernest H. Williams

265

Geomorphology, disturbance, and the soil and vegetation of two subtropical wet steepland watersheds of Puerto Rico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Relationships between landforms, soil nutrients, forest structure, and the relative importance of different disturbances were quantified in two subtropical wet steepland watersheds in Puerto Rico. Ridges had fewer landslides and treefall gaps, more above-ground biomass, older aged stands, and greater species richness than other landscape positions. Ridge soils had relatively low quantities of exchangeable bases but high soil organic matter,

F. N. Scatena; Ariel E. Lugo

1995-01-01

266

Ethnic Classification in Southeastern Puerto Rico: The Cultural Model of "Color"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents a systematic ethnographic study of emic ethnic classification in Puerto Rico, including a replication and extension of Marvin Harris's (1970) seminal study in Brazil. I address three questions: (1) what are the core emic categories of color? (2) what dimensions of semantic structure organize this cultural domain? and (3) is…

Gravlee, Clarence C.

2005-01-01

267

Authorship Policies for the Conduct of Graduate Research in Puerto Rico  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Authorship credit is one of the areas addressed by research integrity. Policies established by graduate academic programs and academic institutions in Puerto Rico are analyzed by describing authorship principles included. Twenty-six percent of the policies specify that students are authors of their research work. Four percent of the policies…

Mulero-Portela, Ana L.; Colon-Santaella, Carmen L.; Bonet-Rivera, Ivette

2011-01-01

268

University-Industry Partnership: An Important Cornerstone for Puerto Rico's Biotechnology Cluster Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Successful knowledge-based economic models rely on synergy between government, industry and academia. This paper reviews the efforts to convert the island of Puerto Rico from a manufacturing to a high-tech manufacturing/research and development economy, with information technology and biotechnology as the main development strongholds. The…

Saliceti-Piazza, L.; Buxeda, R.; Rivera, E.; Hormaza, M.; Morell, L.

2003-01-01

269

Suicidal Behaviors among Adolescents in Puerto Rico: Rates and Correlates in Clinical and Community Samples  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined rates and correlates of suicidal behavior among youth on the island of Puerto Rico. Data were drawn from two probability samples, one clinical (n = 736) and one community-based sample (n = 1,896), of youth ages 12 to 17. Consistent with previous studies in U.S. mainland adolescent populations, our results demonstrate that most…

Jones, Jennifer; Ramirez, Rafael Roberto; Davies, Mark; Canino, Glorisa; Goodwin, Renee D.

2008-01-01

270

Using Admission Tests to Predict Success in College — Evidence from the University of Puerto Rico  

Microsoft Academic Search

In making admission decisions, many colleges have de-emphasized standardized test scores. Using data for seven cohorts of applicants to the University of Puerto Rico, we assess the ability of test scores and other proxies of academic potential to predict student GPA. We study sample selection and address a dilemma facing admissions offices: college grades of non-matriculants are unknowable. We find

James F Ragan; Dong Li; Horacio Matos-Díaz

271

Using Admission Tests to Predict Success in College — Evidence from the University of Puerto Rico  

Microsoft Academic Search

In making admission decisions, many colleges have de-emphasized standardized test scores. Using data for seven cohorts of applicants to the University of Puerto Rico, we assess the ability of test scores and other proxies of academic potential to predict student GPA. We study sample selection and address a dilemma facing admissions offices: college grades of non-matriculants are unknowable. We find

James F Ragan; Dong Li; Horacio Matos-Díaz

2011-01-01

272

Puerto Rico State Briefing Book for Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Puerto Rico State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal...

1981-01-01

273

Wave-energy distribution and hurricane effects on Margarita Reef, southwestern Puerto Rico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wave measurements at Margarita Reef in southwestern Puerto Rico show that wave height decreases as waves travel across the forereef and into the backreef. Wave spectra reveal the presence of two wave trains impinging on the reef during the study: trade-wind waves and locally generated seas. Significant wave height calculated from the spectra show an average reduction of 19.5% from

A. Lugo-Fernández; M. L. Hernández-Ávila; H. H. Roberts

1994-01-01

274

A variant of service learning: the impact of ten years of student projects in Puerto Rico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interdisciplinary undergraduate teams from WPI have begun to make an impact on the island of Puerto Rico. A ten-year flow of academically driven projects with local and federal government and with private industry has addressed the most pressing of issues, particularly a broad spectrum of environmental issues. Synergy has developed among the projects and among the sponsoring organizations as a

S. Vernon-Gerstenfeld

2002-01-01

275

Design and construction of an energy intergrated farm system in Puerto Rico  

SciTech Connect

An energy-integrated, environmental-compliance farm system was designed and constructed on a dairy farm in Puerto Rico. Electrical power is produced by a motor-generator fueled by biogas obtained from the anaerobic fermentation of cow manure. This well-managed system complies with both the letter and the spirit of local environmental laws.

Sasscer, D.S.; Morgan, T.O.

1984-01-01

276

Effects of land-use change on channel morphology in northeastern Puerto Rico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Between 1830 and 1950 much of north- eastern Puerto Rico was cleared for agri- culture. Runoff increased by 50% and sediment supply to the river channels in- creased by more than an order of magni- tude. Much of the land clearance extended to steep valley slopes, resulting in wide- spread gullying and landslides and a large load of coarse sediments

Jeffrey J. Clark; Peter R. Wilcock

2000-01-01

277

Submarine slope failures north of Puerto Rico, their estimated recurrence time, and their tsunami potential  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New multibeam bathymetry and coincident acoustic backscatter images of the 770-km long Puerto Rico trench reveal numerous slope failures at various sizes north of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. At the edge of the carbonate platform a few tens of km north of Puerto Rico, the failed material comprises carbonate blocks, which slid, at least initially, as coherent rock masses. The style of failure (rock falls and slide blocks vs. debris avalanche and debris flow) appears to be correlated with the thickness of the carbonate layers at the headwall of the slide. Extensional fissures, discovered in the ocean floor near the edge of the platform, suggest that the slope failure process is expected to continue in the future. The displacement of large coherent blocks and the steep slope (up to 45° ) at the failure point at the edge of the carbonate platform would imply higher slide velocity, and therefore a higher potential for tsunami runup than along many other U.S. coasts that are covered with clastic sediments. One of the identified failure scars at the edge of the platform, the Arecibo amphitheater, previously thought to represent a single giant slide with a volume of 900-1500 cu. km, appears instead to comprise multiple failures. Simulations of one of the slope failures within the Arecibo Amphitheater predict a maximum runup less than 20 m on the northern coast of Puerto Rico. A minimum recurrence time for slope failures along the edge of the carbonate platform can be estimated assuming that the failure process has continued since the tilting of the platform about 3.5 m.y. ago, that the failures have a characteristic area and thickness similar to those observed and assuming that the edge of the platform was initially straight. Elsewhere along the northwestern margin of the island, a 22-km wide slide scarp was discovered in the Upper Mona rift and could be associated with the 1918 tsunami and earthquake that hit northwestern Puerto Rico. Other large submarine slides were discovered for the first time on the northern side of the Puerto Rico trench on the downgoing North American plate. Because these slides occur in deep water (6000 m), have large horizontal and vertical (20 x 1.5 km) dimensions, and the tsunamis emanating from these slides are directed toward Puerto Rico, they are of particular concern and necessitate further study.

ten Brink, U. S.; Geist, E. L.; Lynett, P. J.

2004-12-01

278

Management of pest mole crickets in Florida and Puerto Rico with a nematode and parasitic wasp  

SciTech Connect

Non-indigenous invasive mole crickets, Scapteriscus vicinus Scudder (Orthoptera: Gryllotalpidae) in Florida and S. didactylus (Latreille) (the 'changa') in Puerto Rico, are being managed with an entomopathogenic nematode, Steinernema scapterisci (Nguyen and Smart) (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae), and a parasitic wasp, Larra bicolor L. (Hymenoptera: Sphecidae). Pest mole cricket populations have declined by 95% in north central Florida since these specialist natural enemies were released and established in the 1980s. Commercial production of the nematode was initiated, nearly 70 billion were applied in 34 Florida counties, and their establishment, spread, and impact on mole crickets were monitored. The infected mole crickets dispersed the nematode rapidly, so that within 6 months these parasites were present in most of the insects trapped in experimental pastures. Three years later, mole cricket populations were reduced to acceptable levels and the bahiagrass had recovered. The nematode was released for the first time in Puerto Rico during 2001 and has persisted; the wasp was introduced in the late 1930s. The geographical distribution of the wasp is being expanded in Florida and Puerto Rico by planting plots of Spermacoce verticillata (L.), a wildflower indigenous to Puerto Rico and widely distributed in southern Florida. Pastures, sod farms, golf courses, landscapes, and vegetable farms in Florida and Puerto Rico are benefiting from biological control of invasive mole crickets. (author) [Spanish] Los grillotopos invasores no indigenas, Scapteriscus vicinus (Orthoptera: Gryllotalpidae) en el estado de Florida y S. didactylus ('changa') en Puerto Rico, estan siendo manejados por el nematodo entomopathogeno, Steinernema scapterisci (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae) y la avispa parasitica, Larra bicolor (Hymenoptera: Sphecidae). Las poblaciones de los grillotopo plagas han declinado un 95% en el norte central de la Florida desde que estos enemigos naturales especialistas fueron liberados y establecidos en los 80s. Consecuentemente, la produccion comercial del nematodo fue iniciada, casi 70 billones fueron aplicados en 34 condados de la Florida, y se realizo un monitoreo para evaluar su establecimiento, dispersion e impacto sobre los grillotopos. Los gillotopos infectados dispersaron los nematodos rapidamente, tanto que despues de 6 meses estos parasitos estaban presentes en la mayoria de los insectos atrapados en los pastos experimentales. Tres anos despues, las poblaciones de los grillotopos fueron reducidas a niveles aceptables y los campos de pasto 'bahia' se recuperaron. El nematodo fue liberado para la primera vez en Puerto Rico durante del 2001 y ha persistido; la avispa fue introducida al final de los 30s. La distribucion geografica de la avispa se esta extendiendo en la Florida y Puerto Rico por medio de la siembra de parcelas de Spermacoce verticillata, una flor silvestre indigena a Puerto Rico y distribuida ampliamente en el sur de la Florida. Los campos de pasto, las operaciones comerciales de cesped, los campos de golf, los paisajes y las fincas de hortalizas en la Florida y Puerto Rico se estan beneficiando del control biologico de los grillotopos invasores. (author)

Leppla, N.C.; Frank, J.H. [University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, Department of Entomology and Nematology, P.O. Box 110630, Gainesville, FL 32611-0630 (United States); Adjei, M.B. [University of Florida, Range Cattle Research and Education Center, 3401 Experiment Station, Ona, FL 33865-9706 (United States); Vicente, N.E. [University of Puerto Rico, Agricultural Experiment Station, P.O. Box 9030, Mayaguez, PR 00681-9030 (Puerto Rico)

2007-03-15

279

Environmental policy and industrialization: The politics of regulation in Puerto Rico  

SciTech Connect

The effects of economic development on environmental regulation in Puerto Rico are examined. In particular, the research analyzes how the Puerto Rican industrialization process has affected implementation of the environmental-review process. Puerto Rico exemplifies an acute conflict between an industrialization process based on capital-intensive, highly polluting industries, and a regulatory framework of insular and US environmental laws and regulations. While industrialization has not solved unemployment problems on the island, environmental and health hazards have increased significantly, despite environmental regulations. The study focuses on a change in the environmental review process in response to economic development concerns. In particular, it examines the growth and extensive use of a new environmental review document, the Environmental Assessment. This study explains this policy shift and, more fundamentally, analyzes how and under what circumstances this change came about.

Concepcion, C.M.

1990-01-01

280

POLLUTION PREVENTION INCENTIVES TO THE STATES GRANT: PUERTO RICO SOURCE REDUCTION AND REPLACEMENT OF HAZARDOUS SOLVENTS IN AUTOMOTIVE WORKSHOPS  

EPA Science Inventory

This activity includes visiting 600 workshops affiliated with the Automotive Mechanics and Technicians Associations of Puerto Rico (AMTAPR) to demonstrate cost-effective strategies for reducing pollution and replacing solvents. Six hundred P2 assessments of automotive repair fa...

281

78 FR 58273 - Foreign-Trade Zone (FTZ) 7-Mayaguez, Puerto Rico: Notification of Proposed Production Activity...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Activity; Patheon Puerto Rico, Inc. (Pharmaceutical Products); Caguas and Manat[iacute...Inc. (Patheon) (formerly MOVA Pharmaceutical Corporation), located in Caguas...Patheon already has authority to produce pharmaceutical products at both sites, located...

2013-09-23

282

77 FR 63290 - Foreign-Trade Zone 61-San Juan, Puerto Rico; Authorization of Production Activity, Pfizer...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Authorization of Production Activity, Pfizer Pharmaceuticals, LLC (Subzone 61A), (Ibuprofen Pharmaceutical Products), Guayama, Puerto Rico...production activity on behalf of Pfizer Pharmaceuticals, LLC (Subzone 61A) for its...

2012-10-16

283

77 FR 75145 - Foreign-Trade Zone 61-San Juan, Puerto Rico; Application for Subzone; Sea World, Inc.; Guaynabo, PR  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...CFR part 400). It was formally docketed on December 12, 2012. The proposed subzone (1.71 acres) is located within the Amelia Industrial Park at Calle Diana Lot 36, Guaynabo, Puerto Rico. No authorization for production activity has been...

2012-12-19

284

Center for Energy and Environment Research as a Catalyst for Industry/University Research at the University of Puerto Rico.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

CEER's special institutional situation, by crossing different campuses and research faculties and reporting directly to the President of the University of Puerto Rico, has enabled it to foster more direct collaboration internally and with industries. Fact...

J. A. Bonnet

1984-01-01

285

Sediment discharge from a montane basin, Puerto Rico: Implications of erosion processes and rates In the humid tropics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Calculated mean-annual sediment yields for stations upstream of Lago Loiza reservoir, Puerto Rico range from 1 660 t km year to 2 880 t km year . These sedimen-t. yield data are an order of magnitude greater than maxima reported for the erosive semi-arid regions. Results of this study show that in the high relief,basins of eastern Puerto Rico, sediment

ANDREW SIMON

1990-01-01

286

MultiChannel Seismic Images of Neogene Rifting in the Northern Mona Passage Between Puerto Rico and Hispaniola  

Microsoft Academic Search

Highly oblique (70°) convergence is occurring along the northeastern North America-Caribbean plate boundary offshore northern Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. Complicating the tectonic setting is the oblique collision of the 20 km-thick SE Bahamas carbonate platform that impedes the northeasterly movement of Hispaniola, leaving Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands to separate along north-trending extensional structures in the Mona

S. A. Mondziel; N. R. Grindlay; P. Mann; A. Escalona

2006-01-01

287

Religion and HIV/AIDS Stigma in Puerto Rico: A Cultural Challenge for Training Future Physicians.  

PubMed

HIV/AIDS stigma continues to be a challenge for HIV prevention and treatment. When health professionals manifest stigma it can limit access to quality treatment. With an ever-growing epidemic among Latinos, including Puerto Ricans living on the Caribbean Island, the social and structural factors that foster HIV/AIDS stigma need to be understood. In this study, we documented the association of religion with HIV/AIDS stigma in a sample of medical students in Puerto Rico. Findings suggest that importance placed on religion, and participation in religious activities, is associated with HIV/AIDS stigma for this population. PMID:23442492

Varas-Díaz, Nelson; Neilands, Torsten B; Cintrón-Bou, Francheska; Santos-Figueroa, Axel; Marzán-Rodríguez, Melissa; Marques, Domingo

2013-02-26

288

THE PEOPLE OF PUERTO RICO, A STUDY IN SOCIAL ANTHROPOLOGY.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|THIS BOOK REPORTS A CULTURAL-HISTORICAL STUDY OF THE ENVIRONMENT AND BEHAVIOR PATTERNS OF CERTAIN PUERTO RICAN SUBCULTURES. THE AIMS OF THE STUDY WERE TO ANALYZE THE CONTEMPORARY CULTURE AND TO EXPLAIN IT IN TERMS OF THE HISTORICAL CHANGES WHICH HAVE OCCURRED ON THE ISLAND, AND TO DETERMINE HOW THESE HISTORICALLY DERIVED PATTERNS HAVE BEEN…

STEWARD, JULIAN H.; AND OTHERS

289

THE PEOPLE OF PUERTO RICO, A STUDY IN SOCIAL ANTHROPOLOGY.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THIS BOOK REPORTS A CULTURAL-HISTORICAL STUDY OF THE ENVIRONMENT AND BEHAVIOR PATTERNS OF CERTAIN PUERTO RICAN SUBCULTURES. THE AIMS OF THE STUDY WERE TO ANALYZE THE CONTEMPORARY CULTURE AND TO EXPLAIN IT IN TERMS OF THE HISTORICAL CHANGES WHICH HAVE OCCURRED ON THE ISLAND, AND TO DETERMINE HOW THESE HISTORICALLY DERIVED PATTERNS HAVE BEEN ADAPTED…

STEWARD, JULIAN H.; AND OTHERS

290

Dengue severity in the elderly in Puerto Rico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. Severe dengue affects all age groups in the Americas, but little detailed infor- mation is available about this disease in the elderly. The objective of this article is to describe the disease in this age group. Methods. We reviewed suspected dengue-case investigation forms submitted with diagnos- tic samples as well as clinical reports from infection control nurses in Puerto

Enid J. García-Rivera; José G. Rigau-Pérez

2003-01-01

291

Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics in the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of an assessment of the technical and economic feasibility of deploying a photovoltaics (PV) system on brownfield sites in the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico. All of the assessed sites are landfills. The sites were assessed for possible PV installations. The cost, performance, and site impacts of different PV options were estimated. The economics of the potential systems were analyzed using an electric rate of $0.119/kWh and incentives offered by Puerto Rico and by the serving utility, PREPA. According to the site production calculations, the most cost-effective system in terms of return on investment is the thin-film fixed-tilt technology. The report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of such a system.

Salasovich, J.; Mosey, G.

2011-03-01

292

``From Earth to the Solar System'' Traveling Exhibit Visits Puerto Rico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Puerto Rico was selected as one of the venues for the exhibit “From Earth to the Solar System” (FETTSS) during the month of October 2011. A set of outreach activities were organized to take place during the month of October aligned with the FETTSS themes. These activities included the following: 1) Main Exhibit, 2) Guided tours for school groups, 3) Planet Festival, 4) Film Festival and 5) Astronomy Conferences. We describe this experience and in particular the work with a group of undergraduate students from the University of Puerto Rico (UPR) that assisted in the outreach events. Among this group were three blind students. The FETTSS exhibit included a set of tactile and Braille images for the blind and visually impaired. A special exhibit was prepared with additional adapted materials for the visually impaired. This allowed blind visitors to participate and the general public to become more aware of the needs of this population.

Pantoja, C. A.; Lebrón, M. E.; Isidro, G. M.

2013-04-01

293

Sexual Function in Younger and Older HIV+adults in the United States and Puerto Rico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since HIV infection can be spread through sexual contact, it is important to understand how sexual behavior is expressed in\\u000a different age groups. The purpose of this article was to conduct a secondary analysis of a multi-site study to explore sexual\\u000a function in a sample of younger \\/older HIV+persons living in the United States (N?=?558) and Puerto Rico (N?=?98). Data

Kathleen M. Nokes; Patrice K. Nicholas; Marta Rivero; María E. Rosa; Kenn Kirksey; Shahnaz Moezzi; Inge B. Corless; Suzanne Willard; Linda Robinson; Mary J. Hamilton; Elizabeth Sefcik; Dean Wantland; William L. Holzemer; Carmen Portillo

294

Response of sponges with autotrophic endosymbionts during the coral-bleaching episode in Puerto Rico  

Microsoft Academic Search

An updated list of sponges with algal endosymbionts including new records for Puerto Rico and the Caribbean, indicates that thirty-five species of common Caribbean sponges possess photosynthetic endosymbionts. Of these, 23 (67.6%) species in seven orders, were found with unicellular chroococcoid cyanobacteria (Aphanocapsa-like) and 5 (14.7%) hadromerid species were found with zooxanthellae. Sponges with other algae as symbionts occur less

V. P. Vicente

1990-01-01

295

Solar cycle dependence of thermospheric neutral winds at Arecibo, Puerto Rico  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 12-month running averages of the meridional wind velocities obtained at Arecibo Observatory, Puerto Rico, using a Fabry-Perot interferometer, showed transitions during the night which were of different natures during sunspot cycle maximum and minimum. The meridional component at 18-21 AST (Atlantic Standard Time) shifted from large southward at sunspot maximum to small northward at sunspot minimum. The meridional and

R. P. Kane

1995-01-01

296

Primary Factors Affecting Water Quality and Quantity in Four Watersheds in Eastern Puerto Rico  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Water, Energy, and Biogeochemical Budgets (WEBB) program, four small watersheds in eastern Puerto Rico were monitored to identify and evaluate the effects of geology, landcover, atmospheric deposition, and other factors on stream water quality and quantity. Two catchments are located on coarse-grained granitic plutonic rocks, which weather to quartz- and clay-rich, sandy

Sheila F. Murphy; Robert F. Stallard

2008-01-01

297

Modelling rainfall interception by a lowland tropical rain forest in northeastern Puerto Rico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent surveys of tropical forest water use suggest that rainfall interception by the canopy is largest in wet maritime locations. To investigate the underlying processes at one such location—the Luquillo Experimental Forest in eastern Puerto Rico—66days of detailed throughfall and above-canopy climatic data were collected in 1996 and analysed using the Rutter and Gash models of rainfall interception. Throughfall occurred

J. Schellekens; F. N. Scatena; L. A. Bruijnzeel; A. J. Wickel

1999-01-01

298

Contributions of dust to phosphorus cycling in tropical forests of the Luquillo Mountains, Puerto Rico  

Microsoft Academic Search

The input of phosphorus (P) through mineral aerosol dust deposition may be an important component of nutrient dynamics in\\u000a tropical forest ecosystems. A new dust deposition calculation is used to construct a broad analysis of the importance of dust-derived\\u000a P to the P budget of a montane wet tropical forest in the Luquillo Mountains of Puerto Rico. The dust deposition

Julie C. Pett-Ridge

2009-01-01

299

Allometry, biomass, and chemical content of Novel African Tulip Tree ( Spathodea campanulata ) Forests in Puerto Rico  

Microsoft Academic Search

The African tulip tree, Spathodea campanulata, the most common tree in Puerto Rico, forms novel forest types with mixtures of native and other introduced tree species.\\u000a Novel forests increase in area in response to human activity and there is no information about their biomass accumulation\\u000a and nutrient cycling. We established allometric relationships and chemically analyzed plant parts of African tulip

Ariel E. Lugo; Oscar J. Abelleira; Alexander Collado; Christian A. Viera; Cynthia Santiago; Diego O. Vélez; Emilio Soto; Giovanni Amaro; Graciela Charón; Héctor Colón; Jennifer Santana; José L. Morales; Katherine Rivera; Luis Ortiz; Luis Rivera; Mianel Maldonado; Natalia Rivera; Norelis J. Vázquez

300

Asymmetric Effects of United States Monetary Policy on the Economy of Puerto Rico: 1964 to 1994  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores the asymmetrical effects of U.S. monetary policy on the real growth in Puerto Rico and compare it with that of the United States during the period 1964:1 to 1994:4. It also constructs two indexes to measure asymmetry: the index of asymmetry (IOA), and the index of relative asymmetry (IORA). Morgan (1993), in a recent study found evidence

José I. Alameda Lozada

301

Weathering of the Rio Blanco quartz diorite, Luquillo Mountains, Puerto Rico: Coupling oxidation, dissolution, and fracturing  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the mountainous Rio Icacos watershed in northeastern Puerto Rico, quartz diorite bedrock weathers spheroidally, producing a 0.2–2m thick zone of partially weathered rock layers (?2.5cm thickness each) called rindlets, which form concentric layers around corestones. Spheroidal fracturing has been modeled to occur when a weathering reaction with a positive ?V of reaction builds up elastic strain energy. The rates

Heather L. Buss; Peter B. Sak; Samuel M. Webb; Susan L. Brantley

2008-01-01

302

Land-Use History and Forest Regeneration in the Cayey Mountains, Puerto Rico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although deforestation continues to be a major threat to tropical biodiversity, abandonment of agricultural land in Puerto\\u000a Rico provides an opportunity to study long-term patterns of secondary forest regeneration. Using aerial photographs from 1937,\\u000a 1967, and 1995, we determined land-use history for 2443 ha in the Cayey Mountains. Pastures were the dominant land cover in\\u000a 1937 and <20% of the

John B. Pascarella; T. Mitchell Aide; Mayra I. Serrano; Jess K. Zimmerman

2000-01-01

303

Coral-reef Geology: Puerto Rico and the US Virgin Islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distribution of Holocene coral reefs around Puerto Rico and the US Virgin Islands reflects the tectonic history of the\\u000a region. By best estimates, the present-day Caribbean formed between 200 and 130 million years (MY) ago, when North and South\\u000a America pushed apart and Pacific crust moved northeastward (Pindell 1994). By late Cretaceous time (80 MY: Fig. 7.1), Caribbean\\u000a plate

Dennis K. Hubbard; Randolph B. Burke; Ivan P. Gill; Wilson R. Ramirez; Clark Sherman

304

The coupling of biological iron cycling and mineral weathering during saprolite formation, Luquillo Mountains, Puerto Rico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Corestones of quartz diorite bedrock in the Rio Icacos watershed in Puerto Rico weather spheroidally to form concentric sets of partially weathered rock layers (referred to here as rindlets ) that slowly transform to saprolite. The rindlet zone (0.2-2 m thick) is overlain by saprolite (2-8 m) topped by soil (0.5-1 m). With the objective of understanding interactions between weathering,

H. L. BUSS; M. A. BRUNS; M. J. SCHULTZ; J. MOORE; C. F. MATHUR; S. L. BRANTLEY

2006-01-01

305

[A new species of the chiton Lepidochitona (Polyplacophora: Ischnochitonidae) from Puerto Rico].  

PubMed

The genus Lepidochitona Gray, 1821 has two species in the Caribbean: L. liozonis (Dall & Simpson, 1901) and L. rosea Kaas, 1972. We describe a third species: Lepidochitona rufoi sp. nov. from Puerto Rico. Lepidochitona rufoi differs from both in having a finely granulose tegmentum, smaller size, a very fine central radula tooth, and different anal plate form and color pattern. It also differs from L. liozonis in having longer marginal spicules. PMID:20527464

García-Ríos, Cedar I

2010-06-01

306

Identifying population vulnerable to hydrological hazards in San Juan, Puerto Rico  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hazards of place framework developed by Cutter (1996) has been applied to several areas across the United States. This article tests the applicability of that model for analysis\\u000a of hydrological disasters in the municipio of San Juan, Puerto Rico. San Juan is chosen because it combines many socioeconomic attributes of a developing area while\\u000a offering data availability befitting its

Derek Azar; David Rain

2007-01-01

307

Microseismicity, Stress Patterns and Intensity Analysis of Earthquake Swarms in Guayama, Central Puerto Rico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Earthquake locations by the Puerto Rico Seismic Network from 1986 to 2006 reveal an area of low and sparse seismicity between lat 18.00-18.15° N, long 66-62° W in the northern Guayama area, Central Puerto Rico. Moreover, in recent years, a change in the seismic behavior of the area has been observed which includes a significant increase in the number of events, the occurrence of seismic swarms and reports of felt events. The current seismicity pattern can't be associated to modifications on network coverage or detection algorithms. We are conducting a detailed seismic analysis of 174 shallow events, magnitudes 0.3- 3.1, that occurred from January 2006 to August 2008 in the study area. First motion focal mechanisms are being determined for the events with magnitude 2.5-3.1. We are evaluating the effectiveness of using waveform cross-correlation and time-frequency methodologies as part of our data analysis. Results from an intensity survey and shakemap analysis for this year's largest felt event, which occurred as part of a swarm, will also be presented. Our results will be evaluated in the light of the local geology and their relationship with the stress that is currently undergoing the Puerto Rico microplate as a response to the interaction of the Caribbean and North American Plates. Since the area of seismicity is located near a dam and several kilometers from a natural gas pipeline (under construction), findings from this investigation are of the utmost importance for the seismic hazard assessments for the south-central part of Puerto Rico.

Soto-Cordero, L.; Huerfano, V.; Cano, L.; Cuevas, D.; Baez, G.; Ferrer, F.; Ocasio, D.; von Hillebrandt-Andrade, C.

2008-12-01

308

Floods of September 16, 1975 in the Tallaboa Valley, Puerto Rico  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The most severe flood since 1928 inundated the Rio Tallaboa Valley on the south coast of Puerto Rico on September 16, 1975. Peak discharge was about 666 cubic meters per second. The flood has an estimated recurrence interval of 20 years. The data provided in the report can be used in making rational decisions in formulating effective flood-plain regulations that would minimize flood problems in the Tallaboa Valley. (USGS)

Johnson, Karl G.

1981-01-01

309

Wellbore heat flow from the Toa Baja scientific drillhole, Puerto Rico  

SciTech Connect

Heat flow values, determined from temperature logs and estimates of thermal conductivity from geophysical logs range from 23 to 37 mW/m{sup 2} from 800 to 2,500 m depth in the Toa Baja scientific drillhole on the north, central coast of Puerto Rico. Near the target seismic reflector at the base of the well, an active hydrothermal system was encountered in which heat flow of up to 90 mW/m{sup 2} was found in a mineralized zone beneath a volcanic sill or flow. The heat flow then dropped to 50 mW/m{sub 2} beneath this subhorizontal flow zone. The mining of heat from downdip is proposed to account for this thermal anomaly, as well as the scatter in the heat flow determined from the few other wells drilled into Puerto Rico. The time-temperature history of the well indicates that Eocene volcaniclastics of the lower 2 km were deposited into a geothermal gradient of 60C/km north of an active arc (heat flow estimated to have been 120-180 mW/m{sup 2}). Uplift, erosion and cooling occurred between 40 and 30 Ma. Reburial and deposition of Oligocene-Miocene Limestones produced the present-day geothermal gradient of 15C/km (heat flow of 30-50 mW/m{sup 2}). Based upon comparisons with slab cooling models, the crustal thickness beneath Puerto Rico is estimated to be closer to continental then oceanic.

Anderson, R.N. (Columbia Univ., Palisades, NY (United States)); Larue, D.K. (Univ. of Puerto Rico, Mayaguez (Puerto Rico))

1991-03-01

310

Level of awareness about osteoporosis among women 50 years and older in Puerto Rico.  

PubMed

Osteoporosis is an established and well-defined disease that affects millions of people around the world and is a major cause of morbidity. Not much is known about the level of awareness of the condition among the general population in Puerto Rico. The objectives of this study were: 1) to determine the level of awareness and knowledge about osteoporosis among women 50 years and older in Puerto Rico, and 2) to describe the differences in level of awareness and knowledge among women who have been diagnosed with osteoporosis and those who have not. Telephone interviews were conducted among a sample of women 50 years and older who were residents of Puerto Rico during the month on February, 2005. A four-page questionnaire was developed to address the study objectives. Of the total number of women contacted (342), 28 (8%) indicated they did not know anything about osteoporosis and could not answer the remainder of the questionnaire. In spite of widespread awareness about the condition, more than one in ten women responded they did not know what factors contribute to the development of osteoporosis and nearly one in five women did not know the complications associated with osteoporosis. Public education campaigns must address risk factors and the strategies to overcome those that are modifiable in order to prevent the development of osteoporosis and its complications. PMID:20222335

Monsanto, Homero A

2010-03-01

311

Population estimates for Puerto Rico and the outlying areas: 1980 to 1987.  

PubMed

This report estimates the population for July 1, 1980, to 1987 for the Caribbean areas of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the US Virgin islands, the Pacific areas of American Samoa, Guam, and the commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands. The components of population change for these areas for the 1980-1987 period are also presented. Some highlights of the data follow. 1) All areas except for St. Croix and Puerto Rico are growing at a rate well above that of the US (7.4% from April 1, 1980 to July 1, 1987). 2) The Virgin Islands (population 106,100 in 1987) have shown the highest growth rate (9.8%) since 1980. Growth in St. Thomas and St. John (population 53,600) account for 72% of the total Virgin Islands growth. 3) St. Thomas and St. John together have a net immigration rate of just under 1%; St. Croix (population 52,400) had a net outmigration rate of almost 10%. 4) Puerto Rico (population 3,292,000) experienced a -7.1% net outmigration, and population increase of 95,000. 5) At 23%, Guam (population 130,400) has the largest % population growth; 21% of this growth is due to net immigration. 6) All 3 areas in the Pacific grew in the 7-year period; their overall growth rate was 23%, compared with 3% in the Caribbean areas. PMID:12281533

1988-08-01

312

Earthquake relocations and location error estimates in the Puerto Rico Island  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present preliminary results of relocating over 2474 events in the crust and upper mantle of Puerto Rico recorded by the Puerto Rico Seismic Network (PRSN) from 1986 to 2009. This seismic activity is the result of the interaction of the Caribbean and North American plates primarily along the Puerto Rico Trench. We start with the one-dimensional (1D) velocity model currently used in the PRSN daily operations and obtain our preferred model by using the VELEST program. We apply the COMPLOC earthquake location package that improves relative locations by computing the source-specific station terms from arrival time residuals of nearby events. This algorithm has been tested in southern California, but is also available for use in other regions. Our results show improvements compared to the PRSN catalog locations. We also compared results using different distance cutoffs to test the reliability of our velocity model. Relative location errors are estimated by perturbing our observations with Gaussian distributed random noises with the standard deviation appropriate for our data. Our next step is to modify the COMPLOC program so that deeper events can be robustly relocated. Waveform cross-correlation data will also be included to further refine relative event locations. This is an ongoing UM/UPRM collaborative study and our goal is to implement these techniques into routine network practice for real-time relocation at the PRSN.

Zhang, Q.; Lin, G.; López Venegas, A. M.; Huerfano, V. A.; Soto-Cordero, L.

2010-12-01

313

Newborn Screening for Hermansky-Pudlak Syndrome Type 3 in Puerto Rico  

PubMed Central

Background Hermansky-Pudlak Syndrome (HPS) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by albinism, mucocutaneous bleeding, and storage of ceroid material in macrophages1. Patients that are not easily identified by physical characteristics (mostly HPS-3 patients) may have hemorrhagic complications with trauma or surgery. Objective To determine the prevalence of HPS-3 in Puerto Rican newborns using DNA pooling technique. Design/Methods Twelve percent of annual Puerto Rican births were tested randomly by PCR for the HPS-3 mutation, using pooled DNA extracted from dried blood samples. Results HPS-3 mutation was detected in 75 samples. Two newborns were found to be homozygous. Carrier frequency was 1:85 (1.18%). Conclusions The HPS-3 carrier frequency found (1.18%) justifies universal newborn screening in Puerto Rico. DNA pooling reduces time and labor in newborn screening thus facilitating early diagnosis and treatment of children with HPS-3 and the provision of genetic counseling to parents and relatives.

Serrant, Maribel Torres; Ramirez, Sonia I; Cadilla, Carmen L; Ramos-Valencia, Gilberto

2013-01-01

314

Water resources data, Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands, water year 2004  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Caribbean Water Science Center of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with local and Federal agencies obtains a large amount of data pertaining to the water resources of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico and the Territory of the U.S. Virgin Islands each water year. These data, accumulated during many water years, constitute a valuable data base for developing an improved understanding of the water resources of the area. To make these data readily available to interested parties outside the U.S. Geological Survey, the data are published annually in this report series entitled 'Water Resources Data for Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands.' This report includes records on both surface and ground water. Specifically, it contains: (1) discharge records for 89 streamflow-gaging stations, daily sediment records for 13 sediment stations, stage records for 18 reservoirs, and (2) water-quality records for 20 streamflow-gaging stations, and for 38 ungaged stream sites, 13 lake sites, 2 lagoons, and 1 bay, and (3) water-level records for 72 observation wells. Water-resources data for Puerto Rico for calendar years 1958-67 were released in a series of reports entitled 'Water Records of Puerto Rico.' Water-resources data for the U.S. Virgin Islands for the calendar years 1962-69 were released in a report entitled 'Water Records of U.S. Virgin Islands.' Included were records of streamflow, ground-water levels, and water-quality data for both surface and ground water. Beginning with the 1968 calendar year, surface-water records for Puerto Rico were released separately on an annual basis. Ground-water level records and water-quality data for surface and ground water were released in companion reports covering periods of several years. Data for the 1973-74 reports were published under separate covers. Water-resources data reports for 1975 to 2003 water years consist of one volume each and contain data for streamflow, water quality, and ground water.

Figueroa-Alamo, Carlos; Aquino, Zaida; Guzman-Rios, Senen; Sanchez, Ana V.

2006-01-01

315

Trans-Atlantic tsunamis: Simulations of the 1755 Lisbon and of hypothetical Puerto Rico trench earthquake tsunamis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The great Lisbon earthquake of November 1, 1755 with an estimated moment magnitude of 8.5-9.0, was the most destructive earthquake in European history. Run-ups from a trans-oceanic tsunami were reported in the Caribbean, Brazil and Newfoundland, but there were no reports along the U.S. East Coast. Previous attempts to characterize the 1755 Lisbon earthquake source utilized geophysical surveys and modeling of the near-field earthquake intensity and near-field tsunami run-up. Here we attempt to constrain the source parameters using the far-field tsunami effects because trans-oceanic tsunami run-ups are less influenced by near source bathymetry and are unaffected by triggered submarine landslides at the source. Our far- and near-field tsunami simulations based on relative amplitude comparison, limit the earthquake source area to a region located south of Gorringe Bank in the center of Horseshoe Plain. This location contrasts with previously suggested sources such as the Marqués de Pombal and Gulf of Cadiz faults, which are farther to the east. Based on relative wave amplitude and polarity, the earthquake was likely a thrust event on a fault striking about 345 deg. and dipping to the ENE which is almost perpendicular to the trend of Gorringe Bank. Gorringe Bank, the Madeira-Tore Rise (MTR), and the Azores appear to have acted as topographic scatterers for tsunami energy, shielding most of the U.S. East Coast (with the exception of Florida) from the 1755 Lisbon tsunami. By contrast, sources located west of the MTR or in the Gulf of Cadiz could potentially affect the southeastern coast of the U.S. The Azores-Iberia plate boundary west of the MTR is characterized by strike-slip faults, which are less likely to generate tsunamis, but the Gulf of Cadiz may have thrust faults. Simulations of a hypothetical M8.9 tsunamigenic earthquake in the Puerto Rico trench were conducted to investigate its possible effect on coastal Europe. The recorded history of Western Europe extends at least 500 years earlier than that of the Caribbean and North America, hence, if historical reports of widespread flooding in coastal Europe are found, they could indicate past seismic activity in the Puerto Rico trench. Our preliminary simulations suggest that coastal Europe from western Ireland, to the northern Iberian peninsula, would be impacted by this hypothetical tsunami source. The southern Iberian peninsula and Morocco would be much less affected. We thank the Tsunami Computational Portal at ARSC and NACSE for computational support.

Barkan, R.; ten Brink, U. S.; Lin, J.

2008-12-01

316

Phylogenetic Analysis of Dengue Virus Types 1 and 4 Circulating in Puerto Rico and Key West, Florida, during 2010 Epidemics  

PubMed Central

We describe sequences of six strains of dengue virus (DENV): three DENV-1 isolates and two DENV-4 isolates from Puerto Rico, and a DENV-1 strain from Key West, Florida, obtained from blood donors during 2010 epidemics. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the Puerto Rico DENV-1 strains constitute a new lineage within genotype V different from those that circulated in Puerto Rico during the past two decades. The newer Puerto Rico DENV-1 strains associated with strains from the Caribbean and South America. The DENV-1 strain from Key West, Florida clustered with a strain isolated from mosquito pools collected in that area and with a number of strains from Nicaragua and Mexico circulating during 2006–2009. The Puerto Rico DENV-4 isolates of genotype II associated with strains that have circulated on the island throughout the 1980s and 1990s and with strains from the Caribbean region and Central America. Introduction and circulation of novel DENV lineages in dengue-endemic regions have the potential to increase the severity of dengue cases.

Anez, German; Heisey, Daniel A. R.; Espina, Luz M.; Stramer, Susan L.; Rios, Maria

2012-01-01

317

Nesting ecology and behavior of Broad-winged Hawks in moist karst forests of Puerto Rico  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Puerto Rican Broad-winged Hawk (Buteo platypterus brunnescens) is an endemic and endangered subspecies inhabiting upland montane forests of Puerto Rico. The reproductive ecology, behavior, and nesting habitat of the Broad-winged Hawk were studied in Ri??o Abajo Forest, Puerto Rico, from 2001-02. We observed 158 courtship displays by Broad-winged Hawks. Also, we recorded 25 territorial interactions between resident Broad-winged Hawks and intruding Red-tailed Hawks (Buteo jamaicensis jamaicensis). Broad-winged Hawks displaced intruding Red-tailed Hawks from occupied territories (P = 0.009). Mayfield nest survival was 0.67 across breeding seasons (0.81 in 2001, N = 6; 0.51 in 2002, N = 4), and pairs averaged 1.1 young per nest (years combined). The birds nested in mixed species timber plantations and mature secondary forest. Nests were placed in the upper reaches of large trees emerging from the canopy. Nest tree DBH, understory stem density, and distance to karst cliff wall correctly classified (77.8%) nest sites. ?? 2005 The Raptor Research Foundation, Inc.

Hengstenberg, D. W.; Vilella, F. J.

2005-01-01

318

[Breast feeding in Puerto Rico: traditional patterns, national trends and future strategies].  

PubMed

The Puerto Rican society has gone through profound transformations during the past 50 years. Industrialization and the incorporation of women into the labor force have been accompanied by medicalization of the reproductive process and a progressive reduction in the prevalence of breastfeeding as the cultural norm for nutrition of infants. The data base for 1990 places Puerto Rico significantly below Latin America and the United States in the percentage of breastfed infants. The authors report their experience in the promotion of breastfeeding during the last 5 years. The principal negative factors which hinder the beginning and maintenance of successful breastfeeding are of a social nature. The orientation of physicians towards technology underrates the benefits of breastfeeding. The marketing strategies of the corporations which manufacture artificial milk continuously violate the International Code for Marketing of Breast Milk Substitutes and disfigure the community's perception on the benefits of breastfeeding. The lack of social and legal support for the breastfeeding working mother frequently prevents her from carrying out successful breastfeeding for the recommended period of time. Strategies are presented for the overturn of the existent barriers which have reduced breastfeeding in Puerto Rico to the present precarious levels. PMID:10547866

Parrilla Rodríguez, A M; Gorrín Peralta, J J

1999-09-01

319

Creating Career Ladders in University Systems: The Accelerated Associate's Degree Program for Unemployed Licensed Nurses at the Inter-American University of Puerto Rico.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document describes the Accelerated Associate's Degree Program for Licensed Practical Nurses (LPN) at the Inter-American University of Puerto Rico. The program, targeting unemployed LPNs living in San Juan, Puerto Rico, allows students to complete an associate's degree in one year. Fifty-four students enrolled during the first year and 50% of…

Melendez, Edwin; Suarez, Carlos

320

Creating Career Ladders in University Systems: The Accelerated Associate's Degree Program for Unemployed Licensed Nurses at the Inter-American University of Puerto Rico.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document describes the Accelerated Associate's Degree Program for Licensed Practical Nurses (LPN) at the Inter-American University of Puerto Rico. The program, targeting unemployed LPNs living in San Juan, Puerto Rico, allows students to complete an associate's degree in one year. Fifty-four students enrolled during the first year and 50% of…

Melendez, Edwin; Suarez, Carlos

321

The Nation's Report Card[TM]: Mathematics 2005: Performance in Puerto Rico. Focus on the Content Areas. NCES 2007-460  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report focuses on the performance of fourth-and eighth-grade students in Puerto Rico in various mathematics content areas on the 2005 National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) in mathematics. The NAEP mathematics assessment was administered to public school students in Puerto Rico for the first time in 2003. Although NAEP had…

Dion, Gloria S.; Haberstroh, Jeff G.; Dresher, Amy R.

2007-01-01

322

33 CFR 334.1450 - Atlantic Ocean off north coast of Puerto Rico; practice firing areas, U.S. Army Forces Antilles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean off north coast of Puerto Rico; practice firing areas, U...ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1450 Atlantic Ocean off north coast of Puerto Rico; practice firing areas,...

2013-07-01

323

33 CFR 334.1480 - Vieques Passage and Atlantic Ocean, off east coast of Puerto Rico and coast of Vieques Island...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Vieques Passage and Atlantic Ocean, off east coast of Puerto Rico and coast of Vieques Island...AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1480 Vieques Passage and Atlantic Ocean, off east coast of Puerto Rico and coast of Vieques...

2013-07-01

324

The use of folic acid for the prevention of birth defects in Puerto Rico  

PubMed Central

Introduction The occurrence of neural tube defects (NTD) has been shown to vary by race/ethnicity, with the highest rates among women of Hispanic ethnicity. Women of reproductive age are advised to use folic acid to prevent NTD and other birth defects. Since 1994, Puerto Rico has a campaign to promote the use of folic acid and since 1998 there is fortification of enriched grain products. After fortification, there has been a reduction in the incidence of NTD in the island. The objective of this study is to assess the use of folic acid by women of reproductive age in Puerto Rico and determine factors associated to its use. Methods A self-administered questionnaire was answered by 964 women around the island. Results Folic acid consumption was reported by 30% of the participants, 21% reported to consume it at least 4 times per week, and only 14% consumed it the day before the survey. Knowledge about the recommendation for women to consume folic acid was reported by 97% of the participants. The use of folic acid was lower among women of lower education and lower social class. Women with higher education were 8.3 times more likely to consume folic acid. Conclusion The folic acid campaign has improved women’s knowledge about the recommendation for folic acid supplementation. Nevertheless, its use is lower than desired to continue reducing the incidence of birth defects in Puerto Rico. Education and social class continue to represent barriers to eliminate the disparities in the pre-conception health of our population.

Garcia-Fragoso, Lourdes; Garcia-Garcia, Ines; Rivera, Cynthia E.

2009-01-01

325

Geologic and hydrologic data collected at test hole NC-8, Vega Alta, Puerto Rico  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Test hole NC-8 was drilled in the municipality of Vega Alta as part of a study of the aquifers in the Northern Coastal Province of Puerto Rico. Test hole NC-8 was drilled to a depth of 1,736 feet below land surface. Geologic and hydrologic data collected during drilling included continuous core, water- quality samples, water-level measurements, and estimates of aquifer yields from the water-bearing zones. Test hole NC-8 penetrated five geologic formations of middle Tertiary age: the Aymamon Limestone, the Los Puertos Formation, the Cibao Formation, the Lares Limestone, and the San Sebastian Formation. Test hole NC-8 penetrated a water-table aquifer and seven artesian aquifers.

Rodriguez-Martinez, Jesus; Scharlach, Richard A.

1994-01-01

326

Evidence of Tsunami in a Coastal Pond in NW Puerto Rico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The record of tsunamis in the Caribbean is longer than 500 years, yet, is incomplete. In particular, it is not known whether great earthquakes or submarine landslides near the Puerto Rico Trench have generated large tsunamis that impact the north coast of Puerto Rico. Despite of the limited historic record, there are good geologic coastal environments to search for the sedimentary record of these tsunamis. Recently discovered sand deposits in a coastal pond in NW Puerto Rico that exhibit features typical of tsunami deposits are being analyzed to extend the tsunami record. The pond begins 150 m inland, is 0.5 m asl, and is approximately 500 m long (alongshore direction) by 200 m wide. The area between the pond and the ocean presently has a high of 3 m asl, but had dunes up to 10 m above sea level before they were mined for sand beginning in the 1960s. Much of the pond sediment is either mud or mangrove peat, although prominent sand layers with some shell occur. Sandy overwash deposits 40 cm thick extend approximately 30 m from the pond's seaward edge and abruptly end. The overwash deposits, which are assumed to be formed by hurricanes that impact this region, contain no evidence of grading. In contrast, underlying the overwash deposits and extending into more than half of the pond is a thin (1 to 7 cm thick) sandy layer that often exhibits normal grading and an organic cap, features that have been observed in tsunami deposits elsewhere. In addition, couplets or triplets of sand inter-layered with mud are present within the thin sandy layer. Alternation of sand and mud layers at this scale is a signature of tsunami waves. The lower contact of the thin sand layer with the underlying mud is abrupt, and often irregular (erosive), again consistent with tsunami deposition. A second and sometimes a third thin sand layer are present below this layer. It is unlikely that the sand layers were formed during the 1918 tsunami, which was only 2 m in the area, because of the 10 m dunes present at that time. We present the features of the deposits of this coastal pond, along with radiocarbon dates constraining the age of deposition of the thin sand layers, as a step towards improving the tsunami record for the north coast of Puerto Rico.

Jaffe, B. E.; Buckley, M.; Richmond, B. M.; Morton, R. A.; Moya, J. C.; Gelfenbaum, G.; Watt, S. G.

2008-12-01

327

Paradise lost: an introduction to the geography of water pollution in Puerto Rico.  

PubMed

Rapid industrialization has transformed the agricultural economy of Puerto Rico, creating employment opportunities and raising standards of living. Success, however, is marred by widespread pollution that outstrips the infrastructural capacity necessary for the preservation of environmental quality and of human health. The result today is a landfill crisis, a heritage of toxic dumps, and an advancing tide of pollution. Rivers and reservoirs are nearly ubiquitously affected and groundwaters, long thought to be naturally protected, show evidence of increasing contamination. Limestone aquifers are at particular risk. Public awareness and inter-sectoral political leadership are urgently needed to reverse the trend towards environmental deterioration. PMID:7638643

Hunter, J M; Arbona, S I

1995-05-01

328

It gets better if you do? Measuring quality care in Puerto Rico.  

PubMed

Quantifying quality is supposed to unite health policy, health plans, and health care consumers in a circuit of constant improvement. In practice, significant gulfs separate how policymakers, health plan administrators, and consumers write and talk about quality. Drawing on policy literature, ethnography inside a managed care organization, and interviews with health plan members, this article examines a quality improvement program at a health plan in Puerto Rico. The findings challenge the assumption underwriting neoliberal health policy that quality measurement leads to quality improvement. PMID:20694893

Mulligan, Jessica

2010-07-01

329

Estimates of 7-day, 10-year minimum flows at selected stream sites in Puerto Rico  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The 7-day, 10-year minimum flow of streams is used as an index for determining the capacity of streams to receive waste effluents. This index of flow was computed from streamflow records for 31 stream sites in Puerto Rico. In addition, there was a need for the 7-day, 10-year minimum flow at an additional 15 stream sites for which adequate streamflow data were not available. The flow index was estimated at these sites on the basis of available record, records at nearby sites, and comparisons with drainage areas. (Woodard-USGS)

Cobb, Ernest D.

1978-01-01

330

Fe-Mn nodule field indicated by GLORIA, north of the Puerto Rico Trench  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A 2,500-km2 area of sea floor on the south-eastern flank of the Greater Antilles Outer Ridge north of the Puerto Rico Trench displays anomalously high acoustic backscattering properties on GLORIA longrange sidescan-sonar data. Previously collected dredges, bottom photographs, and sediment cores indicate the presence of Fe-Mn nodules within the area of high backscatter. We were able to map the extent of the inferred nodule field on the basis of acoustic property contrast between the nodule-covered sediment and the surrounding nodule-free sediment. ?? 1992 Springer-Verlag New York Inc.

Scanlon, K. M.; Masson, D. G.

1992-01-01

331

Prevalence and Correlates of Hepatitis C Virus Infection among Street-Recruited Injection Drug Users in San Juan, Puerto Rico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Throughout the world, injection drug users (IDUs) are the group at highest risk for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. IDUs\\u000a residing in the island of Puerto Rico and Puerto Rican IDUs residing in the U.S. mainland have been shown to be at very high\\u000a risk of infection with HIV. However, the extent to which HCV infection has spread among IDUs

Juan C. Reyes; Héctor M. Colón; Rafael R. Robles; Eddy Rios; Tomás D. Matos; Juan Negrón; Carmen Amalia Marrero; José M. Calderón; Elizabeth Shepard

2006-01-01

332

7 CFR 318.58-4b - Irradiation treatment of regulated articles from Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands. 318.58-4b Section...Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION...From Puerto Rico or Virgin Islands Rules and Regulations ...Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands. Any regulated...

2009-01-01

333

Water Resources Data, Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands, Water Year 1999  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Water Resources Division of the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with local and federal agencies obtains a large amount of data pertaining to the water resources of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico and the Territory of the U.S. Virgin Islands each water year. These data, accumulated during many water years, constitute a valuable data base for developing an improved understanding of the water resources of the area. To make these data readily available to interested parties outside the U.S. Geological Survey, the data are published annually in this report series entitled 'Water Resources Data for Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands, 1999.' This report includes records on both surface and ground water. Specifically, it contains: (1) discharge records for 76 streamflow gaging stations, daily sediment records for 25 streamflow stations, stage records for 18 reservoirs, and (2) water-quality records for 16 streamflow-gaging stations, and for 42 ungaged stream sites, 11 lake sites, 2 lagoons, and 1 bay, and (3) water-level records for 107 observation wells.

Diaz, Pedro L.; Aquino, Zaida; Figueroa-Alamo, Carlos; Vachier, Ricardo J.; Sanchez, Ana V.

2000-01-01

334

Water Resources Data, Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands, Water Year 2001  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Water Resources Division of the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with local and Federal agencies obtains a large amount of data pertaining to the water resources of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico and the Territory of the U.S. Virgin Islands each water year. These data, accumulated during many water years, constitute a valuable data base for developing an improved understanding of the water resources of the area. To make these data readily available to interested parties outside the U.S. Geological Survey, the data are published annually in this report series entitled 'Water Resources Data for Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands, 2001.' This report includes records on both surface and ground water. Specifically, it contains: (1) discharge records for 95 streamflow gaging stations, daily sediment records for 23 streamflow stations, 20 partial-record or miscellaneous streamflow stations, stage records for 18 reservoirs, and (2) water-quality records for 17 streamflow-gaging stations, and for 42 ungaged stream sites, 11 lake sites, 2 lagoons, and 1 bay, and (3) water-level records for 103 observation wells.

Diaz, Pedro L.; Aquino, Zaida; Figueroa-Alamo, Carlos; Garcia, Rene; Sanchez, Ana V.

2002-01-01

335

Water resources data, Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands, Water Year 1998  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Water Resources Division of the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with local and federal agencies obtains a large amount of data pertaining to the water resources of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico and the Territory of the U.S. Virgin Islands each water year. These data, accumulated during many water years, constitute a valuable data base for developing an improved understanding of the water resources of the area. To make these data readily available to interested parties outside the U.S. Geological Survey, the data are published annually in this report series entitled 'Water Resources Data for Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands, 1998.' This report includes records on both surface and ground water. Specifically, it contains: (1) discharge records for 76 streamflow gaging stations, daily sediment records for 27 streamflow stations, 99 partial-record or miscellaneous streamflow stations, stage records for 17 reservoirs, and (2) water-quality records for 16 streamflow-gaging stations, and for 42 ungaged stream sites, 11 lake sites, 2 lagoons, and 1 bay, and (3) water-level records for 97 observation wells.

Diaz, Pedro L.; Aquino, Zaida; Figueroa-Alamo, Carlos; Vachier, Ricardo J.; Sanchez, Ana V.

1999-01-01

336

Water Resources Data, Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands, Water Year 2000  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Water Resources Division of the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with local and federal agencies obtains a large amount of data pertaining to the water resources of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico and the Territory of the U.S. Virgin Islands each water year. These data, accumulated during many water years, constitute a valuable data base for developing an improved understanding of the water resources of the area. To make these data readily available to interested parties outside the U.S. Geological Survey, the data are published annually in this report series entitled 'Water Resources Data for Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands, 2000.' This report includes records on both surface and ground water. Specifically, it contains: (1) discharge records for 85 streamflow gaging stations, daily sediment records for 26 streamflow stations, 21 partial-record or miscellaneous streamflow stations, stage records for 18 reservoirs, and (2) water-quality records for 16 streamflow-gaging stations, and for 42 ungaged stream sites, 11 lake sites, 2 lagoons, and 1 bay, and (3) water-level records for 108 observation wells.

Diaz, Pedro L.; Aquino, Zaida; Figueroa-Alamo, Carlos; Vachier, Ricardo J.; Sanchez, Ana V.

2001-01-01

337

Water Resources Data, Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands, Water Year 2002  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Water Resources Division of the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with local and Federal agencies obtains a large amount of data pertaining to the water resources of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico and the Territory of the U.S. Virgin Islands each water year. These data, accumulated during many water years, constitute a valuable data base for developing an improved understanding of the water resources of the area. To make these data readily available to interested parties outside the U.S. Geological Survey, the data are published annually in this report series entitled 'Water Resources Data for Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands, 2002.' This report includes records on both surface and ground water. Specifically, it contains: (1) discharge records for 95 streamflow gaging stations, daily sediment records for 28 streamflow stations, 27 partial-record or miscellaneous streamflow stations, stage records for 17 reservoirs, and (2) water-quality records for 17 streamflow-gaging stations, and for 42 ungaged stream sites, 11 lake sites, 2 lagoons, and 1 bay, and (3) water-level records for 102 observation wells.

Diaz, Pedro L.; Aquino, Zaida; Figueroa-Alamo, Carlos; Garcia, Rene; Sanchez, Ana V.

2004-01-01

338

New Year's Eve injuries caused by celebratory gunfire--Puerto Rico, 2003.  

PubMed

Bullets fired into the air during celebrations fall with sufficient force to cause injury and death. However, few data exist regarding the epidemiology of injuries related to celebratory gunfire. In Puerto Rico, where such celebratory actions are common, news media reports have indicated that approximately two persons die and an estimated 25 more are injured each year from celebratory gunfire on New Year's Eve. The Puerto Rico Department of Health (PRDOH) invited CDC and local law enforcement agencies to assist in the investigation of injuries resulting from celebratory gunfire that occurred during December 31, 2003-January 1, 2004. This report summarizes the findings of that investigation, which determined that 1) bullets from probable celebratory gunfire caused 19 injuries, including one death and 2) such injuries affected a higher percentage of women and children aged <15 years than injuries from noncelebratory gunfire, with the majority occurring in certain public housing areas in densely populated, metropolitan San Juan. Education and enforcement of existing laws are needed to prevent these injuries. PMID:15614232

2004-12-24

339

Variations in microbicide gel acceptability among young women in the USA and Puerto Rico  

PubMed Central

In a multi-site study of vaginal microbicide acceptability conducted with sexually active young women, quantitative assessments revealed significant differences in acceptability by site. Participants in Puerto Rico rated the gel more favourably than mainland US participants in terms of liking the gel and likelihood of future use. To explain these differences, we examined responses to qualitative behavioural assessments. Young women in the mainland USA associated gel leakage with uncomfortable sensations experienced during menstruation, while young women in Puerto Rico had positive associations of gel use with douching. These negative or positive associations affected assessments of the gel’s physical qualities. In addition, young women’s perceptions of primary partners’ support for microbicide use influenced sexual satisfaction with the gel and, ultimately, product acceptability. Finally, geographic HIV risk context contributed to heightened HIV risk perception, which influenced likelihood of future microbicide use, even for women in stated monogamous relationships. Future microbicide acceptability studies should take into account potential differences in acceptability by site such as HIV risk perception based on local HIV prevalence, popularity of vaginal hygiene products in a specific area, and male attitudes in different cultures concerning women’s use of HIV protection strategies.

Giguere, Rebecca; Carballo-Dieguez, Alex; Ventuneac, Ana; Mabragana, Marina; Dolezal, Curtis; Chen, Beatrice A.; Kahn, Jessica A.; Zimet, Gregory D.; McGowan, Ian

2011-01-01

340

Population dynamics of Eleutherodactylus coqui in cordillera forest reserves of Puerto Rico  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Various aspects of population structure and dynamics of Eleutherodactylus coqui in two forest reserves (Maricao and Guilarte) of the central mountain range of Puerto Rico were determined between July 1997 and June 1998. Adult density ranged from 8-25 animals/100 m2 for the wet season and 3-19 animals/100 m2 for the dry season. Abundance of froglets and juveniles was also greater in the wet season compared to the dry season. By contrast, egg mass counts were greater in the dry season compared to the wet season. Adult body size increased from wet to dry season as population density declined and was found to differ significantly between forests. Adult E. coqui trapped at similar elevations were larger in Guilarte compared to those in Maricao. Average body size for Maricao and Guilarte populations were smaller than those reported for populations in eastern Puerto Rico. Comparing average snout-vent length among frogs from the Luquillo Mountains, Guilarte Forest, and Maricao Forest, a gradient of decreasing body size was observed from east to west across the island.

Fogarty, J. H.; Vilella, F. J.

2002-01-01

341

Inflammatory Bowel Disease in Hispanics: The University of Puerto Rico IBD Registry  

PubMed Central

A registry of patients with inflammatory bowel diseases, ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD), was created at the University of Puerto Rico in 1995. Subjects with a documented diagnosis of IBD by clinical, radiologic, endoscopic, and/or pathologic criteria were recruited from the IBD clinics, support groups, and community practices, and demographic and medical data was collected. All entries from 1995 to 2009 were analyzed for demographics, family history, disease extent, extraintestinal manifestations, surgery, and smoking history. Results were described using summary statistics. 635 Hispanics living in Puerto Rico, 299 with UC and 336 with CD, were included. Mean ages were 40.3 for UC and 30.9 for CD. Over half (56%) of UC and 41% of CD were females. Family history was present in 19.3% of UC and 17.5% of CD. Surgery for IBD had been performed in 31.9% of UC and 51.2% of the CD patients. Over one-fourth of the patients reported extraintestinal manifestations, most frequently arthropathies. Our findings contribute to the limited epidemiologic and clinical data on Hispanics with IBD.

Torres, Esther A.; Cruz, Abdiel; Monagas, Mariola; Bernal, Marina; Correa, Yadira; Cordero, Rafael; Carlo, Victor L.

2012-01-01

342

Insular Area energy vulnerability, Puerto Rico, US Virgin Islands. Technical Appendix 1  

SciTech Connect

This report was prepared in response to Section 1406 of the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (P.L. 192-486). The Act directed the Department of Energy (DOE) to ``conduct a study of the implications of the unique vulnerabilities of the insular areas to an oil supply disruption,`` and to ``outline how the insular areas shall gain access to vital oil supplies during times of national emergency.`` The Act defines the insular areas to be the US Virgin Islands and Puerto Rico in the Caribbean, and Guam, American Samoa, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI), and Palau in the Pacific. This report is the analysis of Puerto Rico and the US Virgin Islands. In the study, ``unique vulnerabilities`` were defined as susceptibility to: (1) more frequent or more likely interruptions of oil supplies compared to the mainland, and/or (2) disproportionately larger or more likely economic losses in the event of an oil supply disruption. In order to asses unique vulnerabilities, the study examined in the insular areas` experience during past global disruptions of oil supplies and during local emergencies caused by natural disasters. The effects of several possible future global disruptions and local emergencies were also analyzed. Analyses were based on historical data, simulations using energy and economic models, and interviews with officials in the insular governments and the energy industry.

Stern, M.; Willard, E.E.; Efferding, S. [Ensys Energy & Systems, Inc., Flemington, NJ (United States)

1994-05-01

343

Vertebrate hosts of Aedes aegypti and Aedes mediovittatus (Diptera: Culicidae) in rural Puerto Rico.  

PubMed

The distribution of Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti (L.), the main vector of dengue viruses (DENV) worldwide, overlaps with Aedes (Gymnometopa) mediovittatus (Coquillett), the Caribbean treehole mosquito, in urban, suburban, and rural areas. Ae. mediovittatus is a competent vector of DENV with high rates of vertical DENV transmission in the laboratory. This study determined whether Ae. mediovittatus feeds on humans and compared its feeding patterns with co-occurring Ae. aegypti in two rural communities of Puerto Rico. Adult mosquitoes were captured for three consecutive days every week from July 2009 to May 2010 using BG-Sentinel traps with skin lures that were placed in the front yard of houses in both communities. Three methods were used to identify the 756 bloodmeals obtained in this study: a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for humans and dogs targeting cytochrome b; a PCR targeting the 16S rRNA; and a nested PCR targeting cytochrome b. Ae. mediovittatus fed mostly on humans (45-52%) and dogs (28-32%) but also on cats, cows, horses, rats, pigs, goats, sheep, and chickens. Ae. aegypti fed mostly on humans (76-79%) and dogs (18-21%) but also on cats, horses, and chickens. Our results indicate that Ae. mediovittatus may have a relatively high rate of vector-human contact, which might facilitate virus transmission or harborage in rural areas of Puerto Rico. PMID:22897052

Barrera, Roberto; Bingham, Andrea M; Hassan, Hassan K; Amador, Manuel; Mackay, Andrew J; Unnasch, Thomas R

2012-07-01

344

Variations in microbicide gel acceptability among young women in the USA and Puerto Rico.  

PubMed

In a multi-site study of vaginal microbicide acceptability conducted with sexually active young women, quantitative assessments revealed significant differences in acceptability by site. Participants in Puerto Rico rated the gel more favourably than mainland US participants in terms of liking the gel and likelihood of future use. To explain these differences, we examined responses to qualitative behavioural assessments. Young women in mainland USA associated gel leakage with uncomfortable sensations experienced during menstruation, while young women in Puerto Rico had positive associations of gel use with douching. These negative or positive associations affected assessments of the gel's physical qualities. In addition, young women's perceptions of primary partners' support for microbicide use influenced sexual satisfaction with the gel and, ultimately, product acceptability. Finally, geographic HIV-risk context contributed to heightened HIV-risk perception, which influenced likelihood of future microbicide use, even for women in stated monogamous relationships. Future microbicide acceptability studies should take into account potential differences in acceptability by site such as HIV-risk perception based on local HIV prevalence, popularity of vaginal hygiene products in a specific area and male attitudes in different cultures concerning women's use of HIV protection strategies. PMID:22084840

Giguere, Rebecca; Carballo-Diéguez, Alex; Ventuneac, Ana; Mabragaña, Marina; Dolezal, Curtis; Chen, Beatrice A; Kahn, Jessica A; Zimet, Gregory D; McGowan, Ian

2011-11-15

345

Reemergence and Decline of Dengue Virus Serotype 3 in Puerto Rico  

PubMed Central

Background.?The dengue virus serotype 3 (DENV-3) Indian subcontinent strain emerged in Puerto Rico in 1998 after a 21-year absence. The rapid expansion of DENV-3 on the island correlated with the withdrawal of the other serotypes for 7 years. The DENV-3 prevalence declined in 2008 and remains undetected. Methods.?We sequenced complete genomes of 92 DENV-3 clinical isolates to characterize the molecular evolution and phylogeography throughout 10 years of continued sampling (1998–2007). Results.?We documented 8 distinct lineages that emerged simultaneously and evolved independently. Two of the 8 lineages were highly associated with transient introductions of foreign viruses, and 2 of the 3 endemic lineages covered the entire study period. We found evidence of temporal-geographical clustering only within the 3 endemic lineages. The phylogeography analysis combined with serotype-specific incidence data showed that transmission of a DENV serotype in a given location and time is usually correlated with the absence of the other serotype. Conclusions.?Our study shows the cotransmission of DENV-3 lineages through a complex dissemination pattern dissimilar to the evolutionary dynamics of the other serotypes in the island. High virus genetic diversity and a large naive population were underlying factors in the expansion and collapse of DENV-3 in Puerto Rico.

Santiago, Gilberto A.; McElroy-Horne, Kate; Lennon, Niall J.; Santiago, Luis M.; Birren, Bruce W.; Henn, Matthew R.; Munoz-Jordan, Jorge L.

2012-01-01

346

Progress in the development of a national noise action plan for the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This presentation describes the strategies taken for the development of a noise plan for Puerto Rico. One of the most important initiatives was the establishment of an interagency committee to work on the plan. This committee identified as first priorities the need of information from studies on environmental noise levels and data from noise attitude surveys. The Environmental Quality Board is currently investigating the levels of environmental noise in different locations in the city of San Juan. The preliminary results reinforce the need of actions to control emitters of community noise, like recreational sounds (radios, TV, night clubs) and noise from vehicles with modified mufflers and boom cars. Additionally, to achieve the implementation of the plan and the development of local noise research, we developed an interagency agreement to establish a common fund to support those projects. This year we celebrated the second annual Puerto Rico Noise Awareness Day. The activities included the second symposium on noise pollution, the first art posters contest on noise in our environment for elementary school kids, and the award ceremony, ``Amigos del Menos Ruido.'' All these activities were developed to promote public awareness of this important social and environmental issue.

Alicea-Pou, Jose; Navon-Rivera, Milagros

2005-09-01

347

Sector analysis of pH values in the northeastern region of Puerto Rico.  

PubMed

Acid rain precipitation has become a major environmental concern. Many long-range projects in the United States and Europe are devoted to the problems associated with acid rain pollution. In Puerto Rico, there has been no formal study on acid rain. The rainfall pH values and the air-mass trajectory of the northeastern part of the island of Puerto Rico on the surface were analyzed from January 1998 to December 2000. The air-mass trajectory was classified in five different sectors, according to where it originates. The mean pH value measured during that period showed a tendency toward acidity. The 80% of the air-mass trajectory that arrived at the station occurred in Sector I, with a pH value of 4.30. The lowest pH value measured was 4.16, and it occurred in Sector V, where the air mass originates in the northwest part of the island. PMID:12074428

Peñalber-Ramos, J; Méndez-Tejeda, R; Rodríguez-Rosario, M

2002-06-01

348

Puerto Rico Workshop on Land-Based Sources of Marine Pollution in the Wider Caribbean Region. Held in San Juan, Puerto Rico on August 7-9, 1989. U.S. Man and the Biosphere Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The participants in the conference met August 7-9, 1989, in San Juan, Puerto Rico. The participants divided the report into four major sections, each succeeding section relying for inputs from the preceding sections. They are: inventory of land-based sour...

1990-01-01

349

Feasibility Study of Solar Photovoltaics on Landfills in Puerto Rico. A Study Sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy Weatherization and Intergovernmental Program Technical Assistance Project on behalf of the Puerto Rico Environmental Quality Board.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico for a feasibility study of renewables on several sites that are targeted for closure under the Resource ...

G. Mosey J. Salasovich

2011-01-01

350

Factors influencing tropical island freshwater fishes:Species, status, and management implications in puerto rico [Factores que influencian a los peces tropicales de agua dulce: Especies, estado actual e implicaciones para el manejo en Puerto Rico  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Anthropogenic effects including river regulation, watershed development, contamination, and fish introductions have substantially affected the majority of freshwater habitats in Europe and North America. This pattern of resource development and degradation is widespread in the tropics, and often little is known about the resources before they are lost. This article describes the freshwater resources of Puerto Rico and identifies factors that threaten conservation of native fishes. The fishes found in freshwater habitats of Puerto Rico represent a moderately diverse assemblage composed of 14 orders, 29 families, and 82 species. There are fewer than 10 species of native peripherally-freshwater fish that require a link to marine systems. Introductions of nonindigenous species have greatly expanded fish diversity in freshwater systems, and native estuarine and marine species (18 families) also commonly enter lowland rivers and brackish lagoons. Environmental alterations, including land use and development, stream channelization, pollution, and the impoundment of rivers, combined with nonnative species introductions threaten the health and sustainability of aquatic resources in Puerto Rico. Six principal areas for attention that are important influences on the current and future status of the freshwater fish resources of Puerto Rico are identified and discussed.

Wesley, Neal, J.; Lilyestrom, C. G.; Kwak, T. J.

2009-01-01

351

History Shaped the Geographic Distribution of Genomic Admixture on the Island of Puerto Rico  

PubMed Central

Contemporary genetic variation among Latin Americans human groups reflects population migrations shaped by complex historical, social and economic factors. Consequently, admixture patterns may vary by geographic regions ranging from countries to neighborhoods. We examined the geographic variation of admixture across the island of Puerto Rico and the degree to which it could be explained by historic and social events. We analyzed a census-based sample of 642 Puerto Rican individuals that were genotyped for 93 ancestry informative markers (AIMs) to estimate African, European and Native American ancestry. Socioeconomic status (SES) data and geographic location were obtained for each individual. There was significant geographic variation of ancestry across the island. In particular, African ancestry demonstrated a decreasing East to West gradient that was partially explained by historical factors linked to the colonial sugar plantation system. SES also demonstrated a parallel decreasing cline from East to West. However, at a local level, SES and African ancestry were negatively correlated. European ancestry was strongly negatively correlated with African ancestry and therefore showed patterns complementary to African ancestry. By contrast, Native American ancestry showed little variation across the island and across individuals and appears to have played little social role historically. The observed geographic distributions of SES and genetic variation relate to historical social events and mating patterns, and have substantial implications for the design of studies in the recently admixed Puerto Rican population. More generally, our results demonstrate the importance of incorporating social and geographic data with genetics when studying contemporary admixed populations.

Via, Marc; Gignoux, Christopher R.; Roth, Lindsey A.; Fejerman, Laura; Galanter, Joshua; Choudhry, Shweta; Toro-Labrador, Gladys; Viera-Vera, Jorge; Oleksyk, Taras K.; Beckman, Kenneth; Ziv, Elad; Risch, Neil

2011-01-01

352

HIV-Testing Practices and a History of Substance Use among Women Living in Public Housing in Puerto Rico  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between HIV testing practices and history of substance use among a large sample of women living in public housing in Puerto Rico and the relationships among HIV testing and history of substance abuse. A total of 1138 women were surveyed between April and August 2006 using a self-administered survey instrument.

Lisa R. Norman; Jessy G. Dévieux; Rhonda Rosenberg; Robert M. Malow

2011-01-01

353

Molecular typing, serotyping and cytotoxicity testing of Campylobacter jejuni strains isolated from commercial broilers in Puerto Rico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims: Thirty Campylobacter jejuni strains isolated from fecal samples (n = 94; 32%) from 13 positive farms (n = 17; 76%) from commercial broiler chickens in Puerto Rico were analysed by molecular methods. Methods and Results: Isolates were identified with multiplex polymerase chain reaction assays, tested for their antimicrobial susceptibility and characterized with pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), multilocus sequence typing

O. A. Oyarzabal; S. Backert; L. L. Williams; A. J. Lastovica; R. S. Miller; S. J. Pierce; S. L. Vieira; F. Rebollo-Carrato

2008-01-01

354

Avian studies and research opportunities in the Luquillo Experimental Forest: A tropical rain forest in Puerto Rico  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Luquillo Experimental Forest (LEF) located on the Caribbean island of Puerto Rico has a rich history of ecological research, including a variety of avian studies, and is one of the most active ecological research sites in the Neotropics. The LEF spans an elevational range from 100 to 1075m over which five life zones and four forest types are found

Joseph M. Wunderle; Wayne J. Arendt

2011-01-01

355

Vegetation Response to Grazing and Planting of Leucaena leucocephala in a Urochloa maximum-dominated Grassland in Puerto Rico  

Microsoft Academic Search

A considerable portion of the former dry and dry-transition-to-moist forests of Puerto Rico dominated by Bucida buceras L. was transformed by land clearing and periodic fires to tall grasslands dominated by Urochloa maximum Jacq. and savannas with scattered small trees and shrubs. These commu- nities, maintained by fires, are relatively stable and difficult to reforest. A study was carried out

John K. Francis; John A. Parrotta

356

Impact on diarrhoeal illness of a community educational intervention to improve drinking water quality in rural communities in Puerto Rico  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Waterborne disease is a major risk for small water supplies in rural settings. This study was done to assess the impact of an educational intervention designed to improve water quality and estimate the contribution of water to the incidence of diarrhoeal disease in poor rural communities in Puerto Rico a two-part study was undertaken. METHODS: An educational intervention was

Paul R Hunter; Graciela I Ramírez Toro; Harvey A Minnigh

2010-01-01

357

Shade-grown coffee in Puerto Rico: Opportunities to preserve biodiversity while reinvigorating a struggling agricultural commodity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shade-grown coffee contributes to biodiversity conservation and has many ecological benefits. We reviewed historical trends in coffee production and interviewed 100 coffee growers in 1999 to determine current management practices and attitudes toward the cultivation of sun and shade coffee in Puerto Rico. We discuss the outlook for the coffee industry in the 21st century and implications for biodiversity conservation,

Rena Borkhataria; Jaime A. Collazo; Martha J. Groom; Adrian Jordan-Garcia

358

Health disparities between the United States mainland and Puerto Rico, Guam, and the United States Virgin Islands (United States territories)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Health disparities have been documented for the United States mainland. No literature was found comparing the mainland population to that of Puerto Rico, Guam, and the United States Virgin Islands (United States territories). Using Healthy Lifestyle Characteristics of non-smoking, maintaining a healthy weight, consuming fruits\\/vegetables daily, and exercising regularly, the health of the mainland was compared to United States territories.

Dena Shugart

2010-01-01

359

A New Look at the African Slave Trade in Puerto Rico Through the Use of Parish Registers: 1660–1815  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our knowledge of the volume of slave traffic as well as the geographic origin and ethnicity of slaves introduced into peripheral areas of the Americas, such as the former Spanish colony of Puerto Rico, is limited. Information contained in seventeenth- and eighteenth-century parish baptismal, marriage, and death registers enables us to locate and identify Africans in a number of island

David M. Stark

2009-01-01

360

Outlet Works for Cerrillos Dam, Cerrillos River, and Portugues Dam, Portugues River, Puerto Rico; Hydraulic Model Investigation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Tests were conducted on a 1:24-scale model of the outlet works for the Cerrillos and Portugues Dams located in Puerto Rico. The purpose of the model investigation was to determine the performance of the stilling basins for the full range of discharges wit...

J. F. George

1979-01-01

361

Vertical stratification of ° 13 C values in closed natural and plantation forests in the Luquillo mountains, Puerto Rico  

Microsoft Academic Search

The variability of d13C values was measured in leaf, stem and root tissues of several tree species growing in closed natural and plantation forests in the Luquillo mountains of Puerto Rico. Results confirm a significant decrease of d13C values from the tree canopy to the forest floor. The values measured in understory plants growing in gaps were not significantly different

Ernesto Medina; Leonel Sternberg; Elvira Cuevas

1991-01-01

362

Fatal Pneumonia and Pleuritis Caused by an Agujon Beak Penetration in a Bottlenose Dolphin from Puerto Rico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although wounds caused by fish spines have been reported to cause disease and mortality in marine mammals, no record of this phenomenon exists for the Caribbean area. We report a case of disease and consequent mortality in a bottlenose dolphin Tursiops truncatus caused by ingestion of the beak of an agujon Tylosurus acus in Manatí, Puerto Rico. Internal examination of

Bangesy Carrasquillo-Casado; Mayela Alsina-Guerrero; María A. Cardona-Maldonado; Ernest H. Williams Jr; Antonio A. Mignucci-Giannoni

2002-01-01

363

SME's Policy and Practices: A Comparative Case Study of Success Determinants in Puerto Rico's Firms; The Construction Industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

This empirical research examines, via the case study method, the competitive advantages and distinctive competencies that determine success in firms established in Puerto Rico for at least three years. After reviewing literature on competitive advantages and firm performance, results of the case studies are described. Specifically, the hardware and lumber sectors in the construction industry are analyzed. The study seeks

LEONORA C. HAMILTON

364

Spatial modeling of the probability of cloud cover, evapotranspiration and stream flows in North-Eastern Puerto Rico  

Microsoft Academic Search

I have applied a systems approach, including remote sensing image processing, geographic information system (GIS), and various types of statistical analyses (time series analysis, spatial statistics, regression analysis and categorical data analysis), to model the spatial and temporal pattern of hydrological processes in the Luquillo Experimental Forest (LEF) in North-Eastern Puerto Rico. I included in my assessment the impact of

Wei Wu

2005-01-01

365

A Qualitative Study of Providers' Perception of Adherence of Women Living with HIV/AIDS in Puerto Rico  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study examines healthcare providers' perceptions regarding experiences and factors that contribute to adherent and non-adherent behaviors to HIV treatment among women living with HIV infection in Puerto Rico and describes strategies implemented to improve adherence. Providers' accounts revealed that women with HIV infection are living…

Rivero-Mendez, Marta; Dawson-Rose, Carol S.; Solis-Baez, Solymar S.

2010-01-01

366

Factors of Significant Impact on Proficiency Levels of Adult ESL Learners within Post-Secondary Education in Puerto Rico  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This qualitative case study seeks to identify factors that have a significant impact on the second language proficiency levels of adult English as a Second Language (ESL) learners at a four-year university in Puerto Rico. Current data indicate that a significant percentage of adult ESL learners encounter major difficulties within the process of…

Perez, Ramon

2011-01-01

367

First report of Lasmenia sp. causing rachis necrosis, flower abortion, fruit rot and leaf spots on rambutan in Puerto Rico  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Rambutan is an exotic tropical fruit that has increased in commercial importance for growers in Puerto Rico. In 2008 and 2009, fruit rot and lesions on both leaves and inflorescences were observed. A total of 276 diseased samples from these plant parts were collected at commercial orchards, Agricult...

368

Spatial dependence and the relationship of soil organic carbon and soil moisture in the Luquillo Experimental Forest, Puerto Rico  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used geo-spatial statistical techniques to examine the spatial variation and relationship of soil organic carbon (SOC) and soil moisture (SM) in the Luquillo Experimental Forest (LEF), Puerto Rico, in order to test the hypothesis that mountainous terrain introduces spatial autocorrelation and crosscorrelation in ecosystem and soil properties. Soil samples (n = 100) were collected from the LEF in the

Hongqing Wang; Charles A. S. Hall; Joseph D. Cornell; Myrna H. P. Hall

2002-01-01

369

The effect of human activity on the structure and composition of a tropical forest in Puerto Rico  

Microsoft Academic Search

From European settlement to the 1940s, the Bisley watersheds of the Luquilio Experimental Forest, Puerto Rico, were used for agroforestry, selective logging, charcoal production, and timber manage- ment. Each of these activities affected different parts of the landscape in different ways and at differ- ent times. After nearly 50 years of unhindered regeneration, six impacts remain apparent: ( 1 )

D. C. Garcia-Montiel; F. N. Scatena

1994-01-01

370

Puerto Rico Experimental Model Dental Auxiliary Training Program. The Comprehensive Report, October 22, 1976-February 24, 1980.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Dental Auxiliary Department of the University of Puerto Rico designed a career option dental auxiliary training program which is a step ladder program with three exit points over a period of two academic years. The first option is a six-month track to train a traditional chairside dental auxiliary. The second option is a nine-month track to…

Puerto Rico Univ., San Juan. School of Dentistry.

371

Possible Environmental Factors Underlying Amphibian Decline in Eastern Puerto Rico: Analysis of U.S. Government Data Archives  

Microsoft Academic Search

The past three decades have seen major declines in populations of several species of amphibians at high elevations in eastern Puerto Rico, a region unique in the humid tropics because of the degree of environ- mental monitoring that has taken place through the efforts of U.S. government agencies. I examined changes in environmental conditions by examining time-series data sets that

Robert F. Stallard

2001-01-01

372

Possible environmental factors underlying amphibian decline in eastern Puerto Rico: Analysis of U.S. government data archives  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The past three decades have seen major declines in populations of several species of amphibians at high elevations in eastern Puerto Rico, a region unique in the humid tropics because of the degree of environmental monitoring that has taken place through the efforts of U.S. government agencies. I examined changes in environmental conditions by examining time-series data sets that extend back at least into the 1980s, a period when frog populations were declining. The data include forest cover; annual mean, minimum, and maximum daily temperature; annual rainfall; rain and stream chemistry; and atmospheric-dust transport. I examined satellite imagery and air-chemistry samples from a single National Aeronautics and Space Administration aircraft flight across the Caribbean showing patches of pollutants, described as thin sheets or lenses, in the lower troposphere. The main source of these pollutants appeared to be fires from land clearing and deforestation, primarily in Africa. Some pollutant concentrations were high and, in the case of ozone, approached health limits set for urban air. Urban pollution impinging on Puerto Rico, dust generation from Africa (potential soil pathogens), and tropical forest burning (gaseous pollutants) have all increased during the last three decades, overlapping the timing of amphibian declines in eastern Puerto Rico. None of the data sets pointed directly to changes so extreme that they might be considered a direct lethal cause of amphibian declines in Puerto Rico. More experimental research is required to link any of these environmental factors to this problem.

Stallard, R. F.

2001-01-01

373

Big Boxes, Mega Stores, and Category Killers Overseas: The Emerging Geography of North American Chain Stores (NACS) in Puerto Rico  

Microsoft Academic Search

North American Chain Stores (NACS) have been moving to international markets as part of their corporate expansion in a globalized economy. Puerto Rico, as a central place in the Caribbean, is becoming an attractive market. The arrival of these major retailers coincided with the implementation of neoliberal practices on the island. New retailers such as Wal-Mart have been challenging established

Carlos J. Guilbe

2009-01-01

374

The Toa Baja Drilling Project, Puerto Rico: Scientific drilling into a non-volcanic island arc massif  

SciTech Connect

The Toa Baja Drilling Project was a broad, interdisciplinary experiment to document the in situ geology and geophysics of a non-volcanic island arc massif. This overview provides a brief summary of oil exploration on Puerto Rico that lead up to the present investigation, and summarizes some of the problems addressed by drilling.

Larue, D.K. (Univ. of Puerto Rico, Mayaguez (Puerto Rico))

1991-03-01

375

Population characteristics of the sea urchin Diadema antillarum in La Parguera, Puerto Rico, 17 years after the mass mortality event  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent reports indicate that populations of the black sea urchin Diadema antillarum are slowly com- ing back in several localities in the Caribbean after 15 years of absence. In La Parguera, Puerto Rico, urchins were totally absent from reef localities until 1996, when isolated, medium size individuals were observed in shallow reef habitats. To assess the status (distribution, densities and

Ernesto Weil; Juan L. Torres; Mayra Ashton

376

Pilot Project for the Establishment of Health Services System for Llorens Torres High Risk Youth in San Juan, Puerto Rico.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The overall goal of this project was to develop strategies which improved the physical, emotional, and mental health of Llorens Torres high-risk adolescents in San Juan and which can be replicated in other metropolitan areas in Puerto Rico and the United ...

C. Feliciano

1990-01-01

377

Investigation of in situ weathering of quartz diorite bedrock in the Rio Icacos basin, Luquillo Experimental Forest, Puerto Rico  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Rio Icacos basin, in Puerto Rico, is the site of the highest measured chemical solute fluxes for a catchment on granodiorite; this is partly attributable to high annual rainfall (4300 mm), high average temperature (23 °C), and moderate relief. The bulk of these fluxes is contributed by dissolution of plagioclase and amphiboles in zones of partially weathered rock (0.5–1.5

Benjamin F. Turner; Robert F. Stallard; Susan L. Brantley

2003-01-01

378

Nutritive Values of Foods Used in the Nationwide Food Consumption Survey (Including Puerto Rico), Basic Household, 1977-78.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This file contains nutritive values for 4,083 food items reported used by households in the USDA Nationwide Food Consumption Survey 1977-78 and the Household Food Consumption Survey in Puerto Rico. Food composition values are for 1 pound of food, as purch...

B. C. Gray M. Hama

1978-01-01

379

Workforce projections for Emergency Medicine in Puerto Rico: A five-year follow-up of an evident demand  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, two mathematical equations were used to calculate and establish the actual Emergency Medicine workforce needed in Puerto Rico (PR) and project the time frame to meet the actual demand. 1) Supply equals the number of existing Emergency Physicians (EPs) plus residency-trained graduates in EM per year minus the annual attrition rate (3%); and 2) Demand equals six

Carlos García-Gubern; Lissandra Colón-Rolón; Madeline M. Aponte

2005-01-01

380

A Hyphomycete Fungus, Paecilomyces lilacinus, Associated with Wasting Disease in Two Species of Tilapia from Puerto Rico  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hyphomycete Paecilomyces lilacinus was isolated from internal tissue samples of a hatchery-raised blue tilapia Tilapia aurea and three of nine feral Mozambique tilapias T. mossambica suffering from tilapia wasting disease in Puerto Rico. Gross cultural and microscopical features of this fungus closely resemble those of P. farinosis and P. marquandii, both of which have been previously isolated from fish

Thomas G. Rand; Lucy Bunkley-Williams; Ernest H. Williams

2000-01-01

381

Hispanic Access to Higher Education. Hearings before the Subcommittee on Postsecondary Education of the Committee on Education and Labor. House of Representatives, Ninety-Eighth Congress, First Session (San Juan, Puerto Rico, May 27, 30; Ponce, Puerto Rico, May 31; Houston, Texas, December 2; Chicago, Illinois, December 12, 1983).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The broad topic of these hearings was Hispanic access to higher education. In the first hearings, held in Puerto Rico, and specifically about Puerto Rico, testimony was given by representatives of public and private academic institutions and student service programs on the following: high school graduation problems; enrollment in higher education…

Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Education and Labor.

382

Comparison of Storage Capacity and Sedimentation Trends of Lago Guayabal, Puerto Rico-December 2001 and October 2006  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Lago Guayabal dam is located on the Rio Jacaguas in the municipality of Villalba in southern Puerto Rico, about 4 kilometers north of the town of Juana Diaz and about 5 kilometers south of Villalba (fig. 1). The dam is owned and operated by the Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority (PREPA) and was constructed in 1913 for the irrigation of croplands in the southern coastal plains of Puerto Rico. The reservoir impounds the waters of the Rio Jacaguas and those of the Rio Toa Vaca, when the Toa Vaca dam overflows or releases water. The reservoir has a drainage area of 53.8 square kilometers. The dam is a concrete gravity structure with a normal pool (at top of flashboards) elevation of 103.94 meters above mean sea level (Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority, 1988). During October 2006, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Caribbean Water Science Center, in cooperation with the Puerto Rico Aqueduct and Sewer Authority (PRASA) conducted a bathymetric survey of Lago Guayabal to update the reservoir storage capacity and actualize the reservoir sedimentation rate by comparing the 2006 data with the previous 2001 bathymetric survey results. The purpose of this report is to describe and document the USGS sedimentation survey conducted at Lago Guayabal during October 2006, including the methods used to update the reservoir storage capacity, sedimentation rates, and areas of substantial sediment accumulation since December 2001. The Lago Guayabal sedimentation history up to 2001 was published by the USGS in 2003 (Soler-Lopez, 2003); therefore, this report focuses on the comparison between the 2001 and current bathymetric surveys of Lago Guayabal.

Soler-Lopez, Luis R.

2008-01-01

383

Gap model development, validation, and application to succession of secondary subtropical dry forests of Puerto Rico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Because of human pressures, the need to understand and predict the long-term dynamics and development of subtropical dry forests is urgent. Through modifications to the ZELIG simulation model, including the development of species- and site-specific parameters and internal modifications to the model, the capability to model and predict forest change within the 4500-ha Guanica State Forest in Puerto Rico can now be accomplished. Published datasets and additional data from the U.S. Forest Service Forest Inventory Analysis were used to parameterize the new gap model, ZELIG-TROP. We used data from a 1.44-ha permanent plot located inside the Guanica State Forest in Puerto Rico to test the model. Our first objective was to accurately re-create the observed forest succession for a Puerto Rican subtropical dry forest using ZELIG-TROP. For this objective, the model testing was successful. Simulated total basal area, species composition, total stem density, and biomass all closely resembled the observed Puerto Rican forest. Leaf area index was the variable predicted least accurately. Our second objective was to test the capability of ZELIG-TROP to predict successional patterns of secondary forests across a gradient of abandoned fields currently being reclaimed as forests. Abandoned fields that are on degraded lands do recover and have the potential to reach a mature forest status, but there is a delayed time period of lag time of 50-100 years. The forest recovery trends matched predictions published in other studies; attributes involving early resource acquisition (canopy height, canopy coverage, density) were the fastest to recover, but attributes used for structural development (biomass, basal area) were relatively slow in recovery. Recovery of abandoned fields, especially degraded systems, may take longer time periods, as simulated here. Biomass and basal area, two attributes that tend to increase during later successional stages in some studies, are significantly lower throughout 200 years of simulation than in a mature forest, suggesting that the time scale of resilience in subtropical dry forests needs to be partially redefined.

Holm, J. A.; Shugart, H. H.; Van Bloem, S.; Larocque, G. R.

2011-12-01

384

Marine microfouling on aluminum and titanium heat exchanger surfaces at the CEER OTEC Puerto Rico facility  

SciTech Connect

Since 30 January, 1980, an OTEC biofouling experiment has been in progress off the southeast coast of Puerto Rico. The initiation and accumulation of microfouling on aluminum and titanium surfaces has been analyzed over a period of 143 days. Microfouling was assessed by determining the surface residue weight, organic carbon and nitrogen contents of this residue, the wet film thickness and the ATP content of this film. The development of biofouling on the aluminum and titanium surfaces appears to be different with respect to the relationship seen between biomass cycle and the bulk growth of the wet film on the respective surfaces. The increase in thermal resistance (R /SUB f/ ) of the aluminum and titanium heat exchanger tubes during the period of this experiment is correlated with the increase in the wet film volume associated with these test surfaces.

Tosteson, T.R.; Axtmayer, R.W.; Ballantine, D.L.; Imam, S.; Morgon, T.; Revuelta, R.; Sasscer, D.S.; Zaidi, B.R.

1980-12-01

385

Organizing, Educating, and Advocating for Health and Human Rights in Vieques, Puerto Rico  

PubMed Central

I briefly review the process of community organization, education, and advocacy activities that ended the harmful military practices in the island-municipality of Vieques, Puerto Rico, while drawing attention to the intersection of human rights and social justice in the context of local and global implications. The Viequense experience was one of building an organization based on people’s experiences and strengths, educating people to increase individual and collective efficacy and power, and advocating for policy change with an assertive cohesive action. Public health practitioners must continue supporting community-led interventions in the restoration of the island’s environment and other resources vital for people’s health and well-being.

Torres, Maria Idali

2005-01-01

386

Halogeometricum borinquense gen. nov., sp. nov., a novel halophilic archaeon from Puerto Rico.  

PubMed

A novel extremely halophilic archaeon was isolated from the solar salterns of Cabo Rojo, Puerto Rico. The organism is very pleomorphic, motile and requires at least 8% (w/v) NaCl to grow. Polar lipid composition revealed the presence of a novel non-sulfate-containing glycolipid and the absence of the glycerol diether analogue of phosphatidylglycerosulfate. The G + C content of the DNA is 59 mol%. On the basis of 16S rRNA sequence data, the new isolate cannot be classified in one of the recognized genera, but occupies a position that is distantly related to the genus Haloferax. All these features justify the creation of a new genus and a new species for the family Halobacteriaceae, order Halobacteriales. The name Halogeometricum borinquense gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is ATCC 700274T. PMID:9828431

Montalvo-Rodríguez, R; Vreeland, R H; Oren, A; Kessel, M; Betancourt, C; López-Garriga, J

1998-10-01

387

Parasites and commensals of the West Indian manatee from Puerto Rico  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Metazoan parasites and commensals were collected from dead manatees salvaged in Puerto Rico. Thirty-five manatees were examined between 1980 and 1998. Parasites and commensals were identified in 20 (57%) manatees and included 3 species of helminths, 1 nematode (Heterocheilus tunicatus) and 2 digeneans (Chiorchis fabaceus and Cochleotrema cochleotrema). Two species of commensals were also associated with manatees: a barnacle (Chelonibia manati) and a fish (whitefin remora, Echeneis neucratoides). The 3 species of helminths found in manatees constitute the first records of these parasite-host relationships for the study area. The record of C. manati is the first for the Caribbean, and thus the species is not endemic to the Gulf of Mexico as previously described. The speculation that West Indian manatees closer to the center of their geographic distribution would have a greater diversity of parasites was found not true for these insular specimens but perhaps could be true for continental South American specimens.

Mignucci-Giannoni, A. A.; Beck, C. A.; Montoya-Ospina, R. A.; Williams, Jr. , E. H.

1999-01-01

388

First case of dizygotic twins with lamellar ichthyosis in Puerto Rico.  

PubMed

Lamellar Ichthyosis is a rare condition requiring thickened collodion-like skin for clinical diagnosis. These infants have abnormal epidermal barrier, which leads to serious complications. It may present with extensive skin lesions and should be considered a diagnostic possibility in sick neonates. Recent studies have identified a condition characterized by deficiency of the interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (DIRA) resembling Ichthyosis. We report dizygotic twins that presented lamellar ichthyosis. Twin #1 had a neonatal period complicated with sepsis, fungemia and urinary tract infection. Twin #2 had sepsis, urinary tract infection and conjunctivitis. We tested the parents and one patient for DIRA. Tests were negative. To our knowledge, this is the first case of dizygotic twins that presented with lamellar ichthyosis in Puerto Rico. Physicians should include DIRA in the differential diagnosis of skin lesions in newborns. PMID:22788077

Reyes-Bou, Zayhara; García, Inés; García, Lourdes; Santiago-Borrero, Pedro J; Valcárcel, Marta

389

Relationship between physical condition of the carbonate fraction and sediment environments: northern Puerto Rico shelf  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Each of three sediment types recognizable on the northern Puerto Rico shelf and beaches is characterized by calcareous material in different physical condition. Dark terrigenous sand is accumulating at a relatively rapid rate and has a carbonate fraction containing fresh-appearing angular particles. The pure-carbonate skeletal-sand sediment type has a much lower rate of deposition, and its old-appearing calcareous particles have a dull surface luster. The third sediment type, a mixture of the first two, is largely from beaches and is characterized by highly polished, very well-rounded grains. Differences in length of sea-floor exposure and intensity of abrasion appear to be responsible for the variable physical condition of the carbonate fractions. We suggest that on other shelves having less distinctive sedimentary regimes, the physical condition of the carbonate grains could be used to interpret present shelf processes. ?? 1979.

Pilkey, O. H.; Fierman, E. I.; Trumbull, J. V. A.

1979-01-01

390

Operational Seasonal Precipitation Forecast For Puerto Rico And US Virgin Islands Using CCA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An operational system for 3-month total precipitation forecasts for Puerto Rico and US Virgin Islands has been developed at NOAA Climate Prediction Center using the statistical method of canonical correlation analysis (CCA). The forecasts are expected to begin issued monthly beginning in 2002. The levels and sources of predictive skills have been estimated at lead times of up to one year, using a cross-validation design. The predictor fields, in order of their predictive value, are quasi-global sea surface temperature, Northern Hemisphere 700 mb height, and prior values of the predictand precipitation itself. Four consecutive 3-month predictor periods are used to detect evolving as well as steady-state conditions. Modest forecast skills (correlation > 0.4) are realized for most of the year. CCA generally outperforms persistence, even at short leads. The El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phenomenon is found to play an important role in the precipitation variability over this region.

He, Y.

2001-12-01

391

Feasibility Study of Solar Photovoltaics on Landfills in Puerto Rico (Second Study)  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of an assessment of the technical and economic feasibility of deploying a solar photovoltaics (PV) system on landfill sites in Puerto Rico. The purpose of this report is to assess the landfills with the highest potential for possible solar PV installation and estimate cost, performance, and site impacts of three different PV options: crystalline silicon (fixed tilt), crystalline silicon (single-axis tracking), and thin film (fixed tilt). The report outlines financing options that could assist in the implementation of a system. According to the site production calculations, the most cost-effective system in terms of return on investment is the thin-film fixed-tilt technology. The report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of such a system. The landfills and sites considered in this report were all determined feasible areas in which to implement solar PV systems.

Salasovich, J.; Mosey, G.

2011-08-01

392

Zeolite to prehnite-pumpellyite facies metamorphism in the Toa Baja drill hole, Puerto Rico  

SciTech Connect

Secondary mineral assemblages in Eocene volcanic and volcaniclastic rocks of the Toa Baja drill hole progressively change as a function of depth. Four metamorphic zones are delineated with increasing depth: Ca-clinoptilolite{yields}heulandite{yields}laumontite{yields}prehnite-pumpellyite zone. The deepest belongs to the prehnite-pumpellyite facies, whereas the three zones at shallower depths (< 2,350 m) belong to the zeolite facies. Ca-clinoptilolite and heulandite exhibit continuous solid solution with varying Si/Al (2.9-5.2) and Ca/(Ca + Na + K) ratios (0.45-0.89). Pumpellyites are characterized by extensive variation in the Fe/(Fe + Al + Mg) ratio (0.29-0.74) and extreme Fe-enrichment in the laumontite zone. Temperatures estimated from mineral assemblages and facies transitions suggest that the North Coast Basin, Puerto Rico, has been subject to a metamorphic field gradient of {approximately}50 to 70C/km.

Cho, M. (Stanford Univ., CA (United States))

1991-03-01

393

College on problems of drug dependence meeting, Puerto Rico (June 1996) marijuana use and dependence.  

PubMed

Discoveries concerning an endogenous cannabinoid system and observations of dramatic increases in marijuana use among youth in the United States have fueled a recent increase in basic and clinical research to better understand and treat marijuana dependence. At the annual meeting of the College on Problems of Drug Dependence (Puerto Rico, 1996) a symposium 'Marijuana Use: Basic Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Clinical Issues' reviewed a number of important areas of ongoing research that address marijuana dependence. Overviews and original research were presented regarding the development of dependence (preclinical and clinical research), motivational effects (laboratory models), the epidemiology of dependence and its development, clinical management of marijuana use among patients seeking treatment for other drugs of abuse, and treatment for adult marijuana dependence. This paper summarizes the symposium presentations and provides discussion of recent scientific developments concerning marijuana use and dependence. PMID:9179501

Budney, A J; Kandel, D B; Cherek, D R; Martin, B R; Stephens, R S; Roffman, R

1997-04-14

394

Health assessment for Juncos Landfill, Juncos, Puerto Rico, Region 2. CERCLIS No. PRD980512362. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The Juncos Landfill near Juncos, Puerto Rico was operated for 20 years until 1977. In 1982, preliminary investigation by EPA Region II revealed that the most extensive contaminant was elemental mercury, spilled from and contained within large numbers of broken thermometers dumped at the landfill. Ambient air monitoring performed February 10, 1983 by the Region II Field Investigation Team showed that several organic solvents were present in the air, both on- and off-site, in addition to the mercury. As a result of these studies, the landfill was placed on the National Priority List. Subsurface sampling of the dumpsite to determine if other pollutants are present has not been performed. The known pollutant of concern at the landfill is mercury. In the present situation, this metal can create health risks in the forms of mercury vapor (elemental) and methylmercury (organic).

Not Available

1984-04-23

395

Genetic Ancestry, Social Classification, and Racial Inequalities in Blood Pressure in Southeastern Puerto Rico  

PubMed Central

Background The role of race in human genetics and biomedical research is among the most contested issues in science. Much debate centers on the relative importance of genetic versus sociocultural factors in explaining racial inequalities in health. However, few studies integrate genetic and sociocultural data to test competing explanations directly. Methodology/Principal Findings We draw on ethnographic, epidemiologic, and genetic data collected in southeastern Puerto Rico to isolate two distinct variables for which race is often used as a proxy: genetic ancestry versus social classification. We show that color, an aspect of social classification based on the culturally defined meaning of race in Puerto Rico, better predicts blood pressure than does a genetic-based estimate of continental ancestry. We also find that incorporating sociocultural variables reveals a new and significant association between a candidate gene polymorphism for hypertension (?2C adrenergic receptor deletion) and blood pressure. Conclusions/Significance This study addresses the recognized need to measure both genetic and sociocultural factors in research on racial inequalities in health. Our preliminary results provide the most direct evidence to date that previously reported associations between genetic ancestry and health may be attributable to sociocultural factors related to race and racism, rather than to functional genetic differences between racially defined groups. Our results also imply that including sociocultural variables in future research may improve our ability to detect significant allele-phenotype associations. Thus, measuring sociocultural factors related to race may both empower future genetic association studies and help to clarify the biological consequences of social inequalities.

Gravlee, Clarence C.; Non, Amy L.; Mulligan, Connie J.

2009-01-01

396

Breast cancer molecular subtypes and survival in a hospital-based sample in Puerto Rico  

PubMed Central

Information on the impact of hormone receptor status subtypes in breast cancer (BC) prognosis is still limited for Hispanics. We aimed to evaluate the association of BC molecular subtypes and other clinical factors with survival in a hospital-based female population of BC cases in Puerto Rico. We analyzed 663 cases of invasive BC diagnosed between 2002 and 2005. Information on HER-2/neu (HER-2) overexpression, estrogen (ER), and progesterone (PR) receptor status and clinical characteristics were retrieved from hospitals cancer registries and record review. Survival probabilities by covariates of interest were described using the Kaplan–Meier estimators. Cox proportional hazards models were employed to assess factors associated with risk of BC death. Overall, 17.3% of BC cases were triple-negative (TN), 61.8% were Luminal-A, 13.3% were Luminal-B, and 7.5% were HER-2 overexpressed. In the multivariate Cox model, among patients with localized stage, women with TN BC had higher risk of death (adjusted hazard ratio [HR]: 2.57, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.29–5.12) as compared to those with Luminal-A status, after adjusting for age at diagnosis. In addition, among women with regional/distant stage at diagnosis, those with TN BC (HR: 5.48, 95% CI: 2.63–11.47) and those HER-2+, including HER-2 overexpressed and Luminal-B, (HR: 2.73, 95% CI:1.30–5.75) had a higher mortality. This is the most comprehensive epidemiological study to date on the impact of hormone receptor expression subtypes in BC survival in Puerto Rico. Consistent to results in other populations, the TN subtype and HER-2+ tumors were associated with decreased survival.

Ortiz, Ana Patricia; Frias, Orquidea; Perez, Javier; Cabanillas, Fernando; Martinez, Lisa; Sanchez, Carola; Capo-Ramos, David E; Gonzalez-Keelan, Carmen; Mora, Edna; Suarez, Erick

2013-01-01

397

Viabilidad de la independencia de la red en areas residenciales de Puerto Rico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The energy situation is one of the most talked about and controversial problems worldwide. The heavy reliance on fossil fuels and all the implications that they bring in our social, political, economic and environmental stability are issues that should be treated with responsibility and sensitivity. Unfortunately, Puerto Rico relies almost 99% of fossil fuels, which directly or indirectly affects various sectors of our society and of our natural environment. Ideally, appropriate steps should be considered to achieve a real change in our energy public policy in order to promote and encourage the use of renewable energy sources as part of sustainable development for the island. In this work, the technical, economic and social aspects are studied and analyzed to determine how feasible may be some of the decisions already taken and the ones to be made regarding our energy situation. Casa Pueblo is the model used to demonstrate that the determined will of a self-managed community group in the town of Adjuntas has been instrumental in the energy transition, along with the educational collaboration of the Mayaguez Campus of the University of Puerto Rico. An assessment of the situation of the energy public policy regarding our power system has been performed from an ethical and moral perspective to determine how sustainable it has been and how sustainable is the projected long term future. In these times where most issues like climate change and sustainable development predominate, it is essential that the vision of engineers be one that highlights and takes responsibility with moral and ethical values when evaluating for decision making. Ethics theory concepts have been integrated to provide a framework that represents a basis of excellence in the profession of engineering.

Zamot Ayala, Hector Rene

398

Breast cancer molecular subtypes and survival in a hospital-based sample in Puerto Rico.  

PubMed

Information on the impact of hormone receptor status subtypes in breast cancer (BC) prognosis is still limited for Hispanics. We aimed to evaluate the association of BC molecular subtypes and other clinical factors with survival in a hospital-based female population of BC cases in Puerto Rico. We analyzed 663 cases of invasive BC diagnosed between 2002 and 2005. Information on HER-2/neu (HER-2) overexpression, estrogen (ER), and progesterone (PR) receptor status and clinical characteristics were retrieved from hospitals cancer registries and record review. Survival probabilities by covariates of interest were described using the Kaplan-Meier estimators. Cox proportional hazards models were employed to assess factors associated with risk of BC death. Overall, 17.3% of BC cases were triple-negative (TN), 61.8% were Luminal-A, 13.3% were Luminal-B, and 7.5% were HER-2 overexpressed. In the multivariate Cox model, among patients with localized stage, women with TN BC had higher risk of death (adjusted hazard ratio [HR]: 2.57, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.29-5.12) as compared to those with Luminal-A status, after adjusting for age at diagnosis. In addition, among women with regional/distant stage at diagnosis, those with TN BC (HR: 5.48, 95% CI: 2.63-11.47) and those HER-2+, including HER-2 overexpressed and Luminal-B, (HR: 2.73, 95% CI:1.30-5.75) had a higher mortality. This is the most comprehensive epidemiological study to date on the impact of hormone receptor expression subtypes in BC survival in Puerto Rico. Consistent to results in other populations, the TN subtype and HER-2+ tumors were associated with decreased survival. PMID:23930211

Ortiz, Ana Patricia; Frías, Orquidea; Pérez, Javier; Cabanillas, Fernando; Martínez, Lisa; Sánchez, Carola; Capó-Ramos, David E; González-Keelan, Carmen; Mora, Edna; Suárez, Erick

2013-04-18

399

Discovering The Universe From The Caribbean: Puerto Rico Prepares For The IYA2009.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A committee has been established at the University of Puerto Rico to organize the local IYA2009 activities in the island and coordinate the international global activities. We are coordinating efforts with the members of the PR-NASA Space Grant Consortium, local government agencies, and non-profit organizations interested in education. We plan to have events throughout the island taking care to facilitate the participation of families and youth from economically disadvantaged communities. We wish that all the activities in 2009 emphasize the value of personal effort in reaching your goals, the importance of mathematics in modern life and the development of scientific awareness. Aligned with the IYA2009 major goals and considering the particular needs of our community, we have selected 8 core activities for Puerto Rico. This poster describes how we will celebrate. The inauguration event will be at the UPR with an invited guest speaker. During the year we will have a conference cycle throughout the island. A prototype insert is presented that will serve as model for a collectible Astronomy series to be published each month in the newspaper. We are planning to commemorate the 40th anniversary of the first human on the Moon with an astronaut as a special guest. An Astronomy fair centered on the exhibit "From Earth to the Universe” is being organized. During the year we will have a theatrical performance "La Vida en Marte y Otras Crueles Realidades” by Roberto Ramos-Perea and a musical performance of Gustav Holst's "The Planets” with the presentation of astronomical videos by Dr. Salgado from Adler Planetarium. Star parties will be held at different strategic locations. A group of volunteer undergraduate students ("Starry Messengers") will assist in these activities. The details of these events may be found at http://www.astronomypr.org .

Lebron Santos, Mayra E.; Pantoja, C. A.; Alonso, J. L.; Altschuler, D. R.; Olmi, L.

2008-05-01

400

Carbon and oxygen stable isotopes in the Toa Baja Well, Puerto Rico: Implications for burial diagenesis and hydrocarbon generation  

SciTech Connect

The Toa Baja Well was drilled on the coastal plains of northern Puerto Rico with a total depth of 2,705 m. Interstratified limestone, quartz-bearing calcareous sandstones, and shales dominate the uppermost 580 m and are separated from underlying rocks by an unconformity. Below this unconformity continuing to total depth, lithologies encountered consist of volcaniclastic sandstones/siltstones, pelagic carbonates, volcanic flows and either plutonic rocks or coarse-grained immature sandstones derived from plutonic bodies. Stable isotopic data of carbonates suggest diagenetic modification under a meteoric and meteoric-marine mixing environments for sediments above 915 m. A fracture zone near 915 m coincides with an abrupt shift in {delta}{sup 18}O compositions indicating the presence of hotter fluids during alteration of these sediments. The depleted {delta}{sup 13}C signatures occurring above a fault at 1,220 m are suggestive of isotopically light gaseous hydrocarbons migrating through the fault and being oxidized as they dispersed through the sediment column. The abrupt shift in {delta}{sup 18}O compositions and its coincidence with the fracture zone at 915 m suggest geopressuring and thermal buildup due to accumulation of hotter, upward migrating formational fluids. Estimated burial temperatures for the interval above 915 m do not exceed 40C and are possibly lower due to circulating colder meteoric fluids. Maximum estimated burial temperatures for sediments below 915 m range from 80 to a maximum of 150C at 2,400 m. The data suggests that the bulk of the sediment pile has not been exposed to temperatures above the oil window and possibly hydrocarbons have been generated deeper in the basin.

Gonzalez, L.A. (Univ. of Iowa, Iowa City (United States))

1991-03-01

401

Mondelez Global LLC Conducts Nationwide Voluntary Recall of belVita Breakfast Biscuit Apple Cinnamon and Chocolate Varieties in the U.S. and Puerto Rico  

NASA Website

Mondelez Global LLC announced today a nationwide voluntary recall in the United States, including Puerto Rico, of the belVita Breakfast Biscuit product, Apple Cinnamon and Chocolate varieties, following notification from a third-party supplier, due to ...

402

Endangered and Threatened Animal Species and Subspecies of U.S., Puerto Rico, Virgin Islands, American Samoa, Guam, and Trust Territory. 1979 and 1980 Editions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented is a listing of threatened and endangered animal species and subspecies both by State and collectively for the United States, Puerto Rico, Virgin Islands, American Samoa, Guam, and Trust Territory. (BW)

National Wildlife Federation, Washington, DC.

403

Fishing a superfund site: dissonance and risk perception of environmental hazards by fishermen in Puerto Rico.  

PubMed

Risk perception studies show that individuals tend to underestimate significant risks, overestimate negligible ones, and distrust authorities. They also rely on a variety of strategies or heuristics to reach decisions regarding their risk-taking behavior. We report on a survey of fishermen and crabbers engaged in recreational and substance fishing in a Puerto Rican estuary (near Humacao), which has been declared a "Superfund site" because of suspected contamination by mercury, and at ecologically similar control sites. Nearly everyone interviewed at the Humacao site was aware of the mercury contamination, but either denied its importance, believed the contamination was restricted to a distant part of the estuary, or assumed that the estuary would be closed by the authorities if the threat was real. All site-users consumed the fish and crabs they caught. At Humacao, the average catch was 7 fish per fishermen (mostly tilapia, Tilapia mossambica, and tarpon, Megalops atlantica) and 13 crabs per crabber (all blue crabs, Callinectes sapidus). On average, the site-users returned to the lagoons about 3-4 times per month. At control sites, fewer fish were eaten. The worst case consumption of tarpon, a species which concentrated mercury at Eastern Puerto Rico, provided an exposure exceeding the EPA reference dose, whereas consumption of one tarpon per week did not entail excess exposure. Fortunately, few individuals caught tarpon exclusively. Unlike counterparts in the northeastern United States, they trusted authorities and indicated that they would have heeded warnings of mercury contamination posted where they fished. PMID:1876726

Burger, J; Gochfeld, M

1991-06-01

404

Pollination Ecology and Breeding Systems of Five Gesneria Species from Puerto Rico  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims The genus Gesneria diversified in the Greater Antilles giving rise to various floral designs corresponding to different pollination syndromes. The goal of this study was to characterize the pollination and breeding systems of five Puerto Rican Gesneria species. Methods The study was conducted in Arecibo and El Yunke National Forest, Puerto Rico, between 2003 and 2007. Floral visitors were documented by human observers and video cameras. Floral longevity and nectar production were recorded for the five study species. Tests for self-compatibility and autonomous selfing were conducted through hand-pollination and bagging experiments. Key Results Floral phenology and nectar production schedules agree with nocturnal (in bell-shaped flowered G. pedunculosa and G. viridiflora subsp. sintenisii) or diurnal pollination syndromes (in tubular-flowered G. citrina, G. cuneifolia and G. reticulata). Nectar concentration is consistently low (8–13 %) across species. Gesneria citrina and G. cuneifolia are exclusively pollinated by hummingbirds, while Gesneria reticulata relies mostly on autonomous self-pollination, despite having classic ornithophilous flowers. A variety of floral visitors was recorded for the two species with bell-shaped flowers; however, not all visitors have the ability to transfer pollen. Bats are the primary pollinators of G. pedunculosa, with bananaquits probably acting as secondary pollinators. For G. viridiflora subsp. sintenisii, both bats and hummingbirds contact the flower's reproductive organs, thus, this species is considered to be a generalist despite its nocturnal floral syndrome. All species are self-compatible but only tubular-flowered Gesneria are capable of autonomous self-pollination. Conclusions The visitation patterns described in this study fit the predicted hummingbird and bat pollination syndromes and support both specialization and generalization of pollination systems in Puerto Rican Gesneria. Specialization is associated with low pollinator visitation, particularly by hummingbirds, which may explain the occurrence of autonomous selfing mechanisms in tubular-flowered species.

Marten-Rodriguez, Silvana; Fenster, Charles B.

2008-01-01

405

Evaluation of ultramafic deposits in the Eastern United States and Puerto Rico as sources of magnesium for carbon dioxide sequestration  

SciTech Connect

In this report, the authors evaluate the resource potential of extractable magnesium from ultramafic bodies located in Vermont, the Pennsylvania-Maryland-District-of-Columbia (PA-MD-DC) region, western North Carolina, and southwestern Puerto Rico. The first three regions occur in the Appalachian Mountains and contain the most attractive deposits in the eastern United States. They were formed during prograde metamorphism of serpentinized peridotite fragments originating from an ophiolite protolith. The ultramafic rocks consist of variably serpentinized dunite, harzburgite, and minor iherzolite generally containing antigorite and/or lizardite as the major serpentine minor phases. Chrysotile contents vary from minor to major, depending on occurrence. Most bodies contain an outer sheath of chlorite-talc-tremolite rock. Larger deposits in Vermont and most deposits in North Carolina contain a core of dunite. Magnesite and other carbonates are common accessories. In these deposits, MgO ranges from 36 to 48 wt % with relatively pure dunite having the highest MgO and lowest H{sub 2}O contents. Ultramafic deposits in southwestern Puerto Rico consist of serpentinized dunite and harzburgite thought to be emplaced as large diapirs or as fragments in tectonic melanges. They consist of nearly pure, low-grade serpentinite in which lizardite and chrysotile are the primary serpentine minerals. Chlorite is ubiquitous in trace amounts. Magnesite is a common accessory. Contents of MgO and H{sub 2}O are rather uniform at roughly 36 and 13 wt %. Dissolution experiments show that all serpentinites and dunite-rich rocks are soluble in 1:1 mixtures of 35% HCl and water by volume. The experiments suggest that low-grade serpentinites from Puerto Rico are slightly more reactive than the higher grade, antigorite-bearing serpentinites of the Appalachian Mountains. The experiments also show that the low-grade serpentinites and relatively pure dunites contain the least amounts of undesirable insoluble silicates. Individual ultramafic bodies in the Appalachian Mountains are as great as 7 km{sup 3} although typically they are {le}1 km{sup 3}. In contrast, ultramafic deposits in southwestern Puerto Rico have an estimated volume of roughly 150 km{sup 3}. Based on the few detailed geophysical studies in North Carolina and Puerto Rico, it is evident that volume estimates of any ultramafic deposit would benefit greatly from gravity and magnetic investigations, and from corehole drilling. Nevertheless, the data show that the ultramafic deposits of the eastern United States and southwestern Puerto Rico could potentially sequester many years of annual CO{sub 2} emissions if favorable geotechnical, engineering, and environmental conditions prevail.

Fraser Goff; George Guthrie; Bruce Lipin; Melissa Fite; Steve Chipera; Dale Counce; Emily Kluk; Hans Ziock

2000-04-01

406

Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd isotopic characterization of Eocene volcanic and volcaniclastic rocks from Puerto Rico  

SciTech Connect

Sm-Nd and Rb-Sr data are presented for six volcanic and volcaniclastic samples from the Eocene belt and the Toa Baja drill hole of Puerto Rico in order to provide a preliminary isotopic description of Greater Antilles arc rocks. The lava samples have trace and rare earth element compositions typical of island arc rocks. The isotopic compositions of the volcaniclastic samples are displaced from those of the lavas, and suggest that they include an authigenic or detrital crustal component. The similarity of Sr and Nd isotopic ratios of Puerto Rican lavas and northern Lesser Antilles volcanic rocks suggests that they may have been produced from similar magma sources.

Frost, C.D. (Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie (United States)); Schellekens, J.H. (Univ. of Puerto Rico, Mayaguez (Puerto Rico))

1991-03-01

407

A review of the oral health of individuals with disabilities in Puerto Rico and among U.S. Hispanics.  

PubMed

More than 51 million U.S. civilian noninstitutionalized residents have some form of long-lasting disability, including almost 1 million residents of Puerto Rico. The goal of this report is to review available data in an effort to stimulate recognition of the oral health needs of Puerto Rican residents with disabilities. The authors conducted a review using a series of U.S. Census Bureau reports to develop comparative relationships between Puerto Rican residents, the total U.S. population and the total U.S. Hispanic population. The review compared the proportion of these groups with disabilities, the proportion of the population who live below the poverty threshold, and oral health status. The review of available government and private agency data for the general population indicates that the percentage of Puerto Rican residents with disabilities is greater than the percentage of the total U.S. population and the total U.S. Hispanic population. In addition, compared to the total U.S. population, a greater percentage of total U.S. Hispanic children is living in poverty, has unmet dental needs, is uninsured for health services, and has not visited dentists for extended periods. Particularly limited information is available regarding the oral health needs and services for Puerto Rican residents with disabilities. It is essential for future government and private agency surveys and reports to emphasize the economic status of the Puerto Rican population, recognize the distribution of particular disabilities among the various racial/ethnic populations, and increase general attention to the oral health of the residents of Puerto Rico with specific concerns regarding individuals with disabilities. PMID:17388227

Waldman, H Barry; Perlman, Steven P; Lopez del Valle, Lydia M

408

Molecular detection of atrazine catabolism gene atzA in coastal waters of Georgia, Puerto Rico and Trinidad.  

PubMed

In this study, quantitative polymerase chain reaction targeting the atrazine catabolism gene, atzA, was used to detect the presence of atrazine degrading bacteria as an indicator of atrazine contamination in 11 sites in Georgia, nine coastal sites in Puerto Rico and 11 coastal sites in Trinidad. The atzA gene was detected in five stations in Georgia (Oak Grove Island entrance, Blythe Island Recreation Park, Jekyll Island., Village Creek Landing and Dunbar Creek Sea Island Rd Bridge). In Puerto Rico gene was detected in five sites (Boquilla, Oro Creek, Fishers Association, Ceiba Creek and Sabalos Creek) while seven sites in Trinidad (Carli Bay, Las Cuevas Bay, Quinam Bay, Salybia River, Salybia Bay, Maracas River and Maracas Bay) showed the presence of atzA. PMID:23422065

Sherchan, Samendra P; Bachoon, D S; Otero, Ernesto; Ramsubhag, Adesh

2013-02-17

409

Using a Multisectoral Approach to Assess HIV/AIDS Services in the Western Region of Puerto Rico  

PubMed Central

The Enhancing Care Initiative of Puerto Rico assessed services available to people living with HIV/AIDS in the western region of Puerto Rico. Participants were 212 people living with HIV/AIDS and 116 employees from 6 agencies providing HIV/AIDS services in the region. Two main findings were that depression symptoms were present in 98.1% of people living with HIV/AIDS, and 7 of the 15 municipalities in the region did not provide any specific services to this population. Most urgent needs identified by people living with HIV/AIDS were economic support, housing, mental and psychological services, medicines, medical treatment, and transportation. The Enhancing Care Initiative provides an example of a successful multisectoral, multidimensional volunteer team effectively overcoming challenges while translating research into interventions to enhance HIV/AIDS care.

Asencio Toro, Gloria; Burns, Patricia; Pimentel, Daniel; Sanchez Peraza, Luis Raul; Rivera Lugo, Carmen

2006-01-01

410

Spatial variability associated with shifting land use: water quality and sediment metals in La Parguera, Southwest Puerto Rico.  

PubMed

Development in southwest Puerto Rico, as in many areas of the Caribbean, is outpacing the ability of upland flora, salt flats, and mangroves to capture sediments and intercept and transform nutrients. A comparative study to examine the effects of development on near-shore water quality in La Parguera, Puerto Rico, was initiated in 1998. Total suspended solids were significantly higher in the vicinity of developing areas compared to reference areas. Chlorophyll-a measurements near of the wastewater treatment plant averaged two times the level of other areas. The overall average concentrations of copper, chromium, nickel, and zinc in sediments collected from salt flats exceeded values reported to cause impairment of biological systems. Marine sediments near more developed locations had the highest metal concentrations, suggesting a greater transport in this area. Natural resources are the primary attraction in this area; therefore, protection of near-shore resources should receive greater attention in land use planning. PMID:19281999

Hertler, Heidi; Boettner, Adam R; Ramírez-Toro, Graciela I; Minnigh, Harvey; Spotila, James; Kreeger, Danielle

2009-03-17

411

Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 2): Frontera Creek Site, Humacao, Puerto Rico (First remedial action), September 1991. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The Frontera Creek site is composed of 13 industrial facilities and 200 acres of associated lagoons within the municipality of Humaco, Puerto Rico. The Commonwealth of Puerto Rico Environmental Quality Board (EQB) fined Technicon in 1978 for these processes, resulting in the cessation of its mercury discharges to the creek. During investigations in 1986, EPA identified mercury in surface soil and sediment on Technicon property associated with the storage, use, or discharge of mercury-containing compounds. The Record of Decision (ROD) addresses contaminated soil and sediment on the Technicon property and provides a final remedy for the site. The primary contaminant of concern affecting the soil and sediment is mercury. The selected remedial action for the site is included.

Not Available

1991-09-30

412

Methane and nitrous oxide fluxes in an acid Oxisol in western Puerto Rico: effects of tillage, liming and fertilization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in land use and management of tropical systems are considered to be major factors in the recent upsurge in increases in atmospheric nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4). Studies were initiated in western Puerto Rico grasslands to determine the effect of plowing, or liming and fertilizing an acid Oxisol on the soil–atmosphere exchanges of N2O and CH4. Weekly field

A. R. Mosier; J. A. Delgado; M. Keller

1998-01-01

413

Litterfall and Decomposition in Relation to Soil Carbon Pools Along a Secondary Forest Chronosequence in Puerto Rico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Secondary forests are becoming increasingly widespread in the tropics, but our understanding of how secondary succession affects\\u000a carbon (C) cycling and C sequestration in these ecosystems is limited. We used a well-replicated 80-year pasture to forest\\u000a successional chronosequence and primary forest in Puerto Rico to explore the relationships among litterfall, litter quality,\\u000a decomposition, and soil C pools. Litterfall rates recovered

Rebecca Ostertag; Erika Marín-Spiotta; Whendee L. Silver; Jodie Schulten

2008-01-01

414

Incidence and mortality rates of selected infection-related cancers in Puerto Rico and in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: In 2002, 17.8% of the global cancer burden was attributable to infections. This study assessed the age-standardized incidence and mortality rates of stomach, liver, and cervical cancer in Puerto Rico (PR) for the period 1992-2003 and compared them to those of Hispanics (USH), non-Hispanic Whites (NHW), and non-Hispanic Blacks (NHB) in the United States (US). METHODS: Age-standardized rates [ASR(World)

Ana P Ortiz; Marievelisse Soto-Salgado; William A Calo; Guillermo Tortolero-Luna; Cynthia M Pérez; Carlos J Romero; Javier Pérez; Nayda Figueroa-Vallés; Erick Suárez

2010-01-01

415

Effect of Sediment Nutrient Enrichment and Grazing on Turtle Grass Thalassia testudinum in Jobos Bay, Puerto Rico  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the effect of nutrients and grazers on Thalassia testudinum in Jobos Bay, Puerto Rico by fertilizing sediment and manipulating grazer abundances. Bottom-up effects were variable: Added\\u000a nutrients did not increase seagrass aboveground biomass, but decreased belowground biomass—perhaps as a result of less biomass\\u000a being allocated to belowground structures in response to greater nutrient supply in porewater. Experimental fencing

Ylva S. Olsen; Ivan Valiela

2010-01-01

416

Chemical Weathering in a Tropical Watershed, Luquillo Mountains, Puerto Rico: II. Rate and Mechanism of Biotite Weathering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Samples of soil, saprolite, bedrock, and porewater from a lower montane wet forest, the Luquillo Experimental Forest (LEF) in Puerto Rico, were studied to investigate the rates and mechanisms of biotite weathering. The soil profile, at the top of a ridge in the Rio Icacos watershed, consists of a 50-100-cm thick layer of unstructured soil above a 600-800 cm thick

Sheila F. Murphy; Susan L. Brantley; Alex E. Blum; Art F. White; Hailiang Dong

1998-01-01

417

Waste Equals Food: Developing a Sustainable Agriculture Support Cluster for a Proposed Resource Recovery Park in Puerto Rico 1999  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes and makes recommendations for plans to develop an eco-industrial park (EIP) in Puerto Rico. This project began with two basic goals: first, to supply cheaper energy to the island, which has suffered economic losses due to expensive energy; and second, to deal with the solid waste management problem. Thus, a proposal for a waste-to-energy (WTE) facility entered

Alethea Abuyuan; Iona Hawken; Michael Newkirk; Roger Williams

418

Cross-cultural adaptation of the Disability of Arm, Shoulder, and Hand questionnaire: Spanish for Puerto Rico Version  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to perform a cross-cultural adaptation of the Disability of Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (DASH) questionnaire to Spanish for Puerto Rico. Five steps were followed for the cross-cultural adaptation: forward translations into Spanish for Puerto Rico, synthesis of the translations, back translations into English, revision by an expert committee, and field test of the prefinal version. Psychometric characteristics of reliability and construct validity were evaluated for the final version. Internal consistency of the final version was high (Cronbach's ? = 0.97) and item-to-total correlations were moderate (range from 0.44 to 0.85). Construct validity was evaluated by correlating the DASH with the scales of the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy - Breast. Fair to moderate correlations found in this study between the DASH and most scales of the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy - Breast support the construct validity of the Puerto Rico-Spanish DASH. The final version of the questionnaire was revised and approved by the Institute for Work and Health of Canada. Revisions to the original DASH English version are recommended. This version of the DASH is valid and reliable, and it can be used to evaluate outcomes in both clinical and research settings.

Mulero-Portela, Ana L.; Colon-Santaella, Carmen L.; Cruz-Gomez, Cynthia

2010-01-01

419

[Exploration study of knowledge and attitudes related to prevention and transmission of dengue in Puerto Rico in 2012].  

PubMed

We got one of the most significant epidemics of the history of Dengue in Puerto Rico despite all major educational efforts made. The objective is to determine how much knowledge the people have about the prevention and transmission of Dengue virus. We administered a questionnaire of fifteen questions to 140 people of different communities at the metropolitan area as well as in the East area of Puerto Rico during the months of September to November of 2012. 88% were adults, 100 were women and 40 men. The majority was from Caguas, Carolina, San Juan, and Bayamon. 60% were professionals. One hundred percent knew what Dengue is and 90% knows the mosquito. 77% of the participants know the actual epidemics, but the men got a 10% higher knowledge than women on the subject. Around 47% are not prepared to fight the Dengue virus, but they have great knowledge about the preventive measures and the clinical Management of Dengue Syndrome. 66% did not know that Puerto Rico has a Dengue Center from the CDC located at the Island. Only 17.5% of the participants knows that the Dengue Virus can be transmitted through transfusion of blood components. Our study met our objectives showing that we have good knowledge about Dengue, but there is poor knowledge about the transmission of Dengue Virus through transfusion of blood components. There is a big necessity to develop community strategies to eliminate this disease. We recommend repeating this study with more collaboration from other entities, more questions, and more participants. PMID:23882986

Rodríguez, Ian J Rivera; Rivera, Augusto A Puig; Morales-Borges, Raúl H

2013-01-01

420

Moment Tensor Inversion of the Mw 5.8 May 16 2010 Deep Earthquake in Puerto Rico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Daily seismicity on the Puerto Rico/Virgin Islands (PR/VI) Region is characterized by shallow micro and minor events in response to the interaction of the Caribbean and North American Plates. This complex and active plate boundary has been responsible for the generation of historical shallow tsunamigenic events (e.g. 1867, 1918, and 1946) that caused extensive damage and loss of life in the Northeastern Caribbean. However, in 2010, three deep (>90 km) moderate earthquakes (Mw>5.4) occurred in this region and were reported as felt moderately strongly by local residents. The largest of these, a M5.8 event, which occurred on May 16, 2010, caused slight damage to reinforced concrete structures. We calculate the complete moment tensor solution for this earthquake using the moment tensor inversion method of Dreger, and compute additional source parameters (stress drop, apparent stress, rise time) from broadband waveform modeling. The 1D Puerto Rico seismic velocity model used for automatic, real-time and reviewed locations by the Puerto Rico Seismic Network is used successfully to generate Green's functions for stations located within the PR/VI. Preliminary results suggest a normal mechanism with a strike slip component. Accurate moment tensor solutions using regional seismic data for these earthquakes will improve our understanding of the deformation of the subducting slab: from possible tearing of the slab to intra-slab shearing.

Soto-Cordero, L.; Convers, J. A.; Dreger, D. S.; Allstadt, K.

2011-12-01

421

Analysis of 20th century rainfall and streamflow to characterize drought and water resources in Puerto Rico  

USGS Publications Warehouse

During the period from 1990 to 1997, annual rainfall accumulation averaged 87% of normal at the 12 stations with the longest period of record in Puerto Rico, a Caribbean island with a 1999 population of 3.8 million. Streamflow in rivers supplying the La Plata and Loi??za reservoirs, the principal water supply of the San Juan metropolitan area, was at or below the 10th flow percentile for 27% to 50% of the time between December 1993 and May 1996. Diminished reservoir levels in 1994 and 1995 affected more than 1 million people in the San Juan metropolitan area. Water rationing was implemented during this period and significant agricultural losses, valued at $165 million, were recorded in 1994. The public endured a year of mandatory water rationing in which sections of the city had their water-distribution networks shut off for 24 to 36 hours on alternate days. During the winter and spring of 1997-1998, water was rationed to more than 200,000 people in northwestern Puerto Rico because water level in the Guajataca reservoir was well below normal for two years because of rainfall deficits. The drought period of 1993-1996 was comparable in magnitude to a drought in 1966-1968, but water rationing was more severe during the 1993-1996 period, indicating that water management issues such as demand, storage capacity, water production and losses, and per capita consumption are increasingly important as population and development in Puerto Rico expand.

Larsen, M. C.

2000-01-01

422

Fluxes of new and old mercury from mercury amendments to Puerto Rico soil columns  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Puerto Rico receives high loading of mercury (Hg) in wet deposition. We hypothesized that high-organic soils with white-rot decomposition would retain more of this mercury than low-organic soils with brown-rot decomposition. In order to test this hypothesis, four paired intact soil cores (15-cm diameter, 20-cm depth) were extracted in acrylic tubes from a hillslope in the low-elevation Tabonuco forest within the Luquillo Experimental Forest in northeastern Puerto Rico. One core of each pair was taken from an organic-rich microsite (above a debris dam) with white rot, and the other was taken from an adjacent bare-soil area (below the debris dam) with brown rot. The soil cores were amended with 384 ng of 202Hg (8 applications of 48 ng, twice per week for 4 weeks, April - May, 2006). Total water added was equivalent to 271 mm rainfall (close to the 4-week average) but Hg loading was about ten times the average loading. Ambient rainfall was excluded. Leachate passed through a funnel to a collection bottle and was composited for each core. Despite rapid throughput of the amendment solution, about 90% of the spike (new) Hg was retained in the soil columns. Our hypothesis was rejected in that there was no difference in retention in the white-rot (89.1 /- 0.8%) and brown-rot (91.5 +/- 2.8%) columns. Moreover, the white-rot soils leached 34% more native (old) Hg than the brown-rot soils. The greater leaching of native Hg is consistent with the higher DOC concentration in the white rot soil leachate (4.1 +/- 1.7 mg/L) compared to the brown-rot soil leachate (1.7 +/- 0.6 mg/L). The amount of native (old) Hg leached from the columns was roughly similar to the amount of spike (new) Hg that passed through the columns. We surmise that the greater DOC mobilized from the white- rot soils complexed and transported greater amounts of Hg from the large pool of native Hg in the soil. The relative amounts of spike Hg throughput and native Hg mobilization are consistent with other recent results from Hg isotope application to an entire hillside.

Shanley, J. B.; Lodge, D. J.; Krabbenhoft, D. P.; Olson, M. L.; McDowell, W. H.

2008-12-01

423

Mosquito vectors of West Nile virus during an epizootic outbreak in Puerto Rico.  

PubMed

The purpose of this investigation was to identify the mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) vectors of West Nile virus (WNV; family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus) during an epizootic WNV outbreak in eastern Puerto Rico in 2007. In June 2006, 12 sentinel chicken pens with five chickens per pen were deployed in six types of habitats: herbaceous wetlands, mangrove forests, deciduous forests, evergreen forests, rural areas, and urban areas. Once WNV seroconversion in chickens was detected in June 2007, we began trapping mosquitoes using Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) miniature (light/CO2-baited) traps, CMT-20 collapsible mosquito (CO2- and ISCA SkinLure-baited) traps, and CDC gravid (hay infusion-baited) traps. We placed the CDC miniature traps both 2-4 m and >30 m from the chicken pens, the collapsible traps 2-4 m from the pens, and the gravid traps in backyards of houses with sentinel chicken pens and in a wetland adjacent to an urban area. We found numerous blood-engorged mosquitoes in the traps nearest to the sentinel chickens and reasoned that any such mosquitoes with a disseminated WNV infection likely served as vectors for the transmission of WNV to the sentinels. We used reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and isolation (C636) on pools of heads, thoraxes/ abdomens, and legs of collected blood-engorged mosquitoes to determine whether the mosquitoes carried WNV. We detected WNV-disseminated infections in and obtained WNV isolates from Culex nigripalpus Theo (minimum infection rate [MIR] 1.1-9.7/1,000), Culex bahamensis Dyar and Knab (MIR 1.8-6.0/1,000), and Aedes taeniorhynchus (Wied.) (MIR 0.34-0.36/1,000). WNV was also identified in and isolated from the pool of thoraxes and abdomens of Culex quinquefasciatus Say (4.17/1,000) and identified in one pool of thoraxes and abdomens of Culex habilitator Dyar and Knab (13.39/1,000). Accumulated evidence since 2002 suggests that WNV has not become endemic in Puerto Rico. PMID:21175071

Barrera, R; MacKay, A; Amador, M; Vasquez, J; Smith, J; Díaz, A; Acevedo, V; Cabán, B; Hunsperger, E A; Muñoz-Jordán, J L

2010-11-01

424

Geographic relations of landslide distribution and assessment of landslide hazards in the Blanco, Cibuco, and Coamo basins, Puerto Rico  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Landslide occurrence is common in mountainous areas of Puerto Rico where mean annual rainfall and the frequency of intense storms are high and hillslopes are steep. Each year, landslides cause extensive damage to property and occasionally result in loss of life. Landslide maps developed from 1:20,000 scale aerial photographs in combination with a computerized geographic information system were used to evaluate the landslide potential in the Blanco, Cibuco, and Coamo Basins of Puerto Rico. These basins, ranging in surface area from 276 to 350 square kilometers, are described in this report. The basins represent a broad range of the climatologic, geographic, and geologic conditions that occur in Puerto Rico. In addition, a variety of landslide types were documented. Rainfall-triggered debris flows, shallow soil slips, and slumps were most abundant. The most important temporal control on landslide occurrence in Puerto Rico is storm rainfall. Forty-one storms triggered widespread landsliding about 1 to 2 times per year during the last three decades. These storms were frequently of 1 to 2 days duration in which, on average, several hundred millimeters of rainfall triggered tens to hundreds of landslides in the central mountains. Most of these storms were tropical disturbances that occurred during the hurricane season of June through November. Land use and the topographic characteristics of hillslope angle, elevation, and aspect are the most important spatial controls governing landslide frequency. Hillslopes in the study area that have been anthropogenically modified, exceed 12 degrees in gradient and about 350 meters in elevation, and face the east-northeast are most prone to landsliding. Bedrock geology and soil order seem less important in the determination of landslide frequency, at least when considered at a generalized level. A rainfall accumulation-duration relation for the triggering of numerous landslides throughout the central mountains, and a set of simplified matrices representing geographic conditions in the three river basins were developed and are described in this report. These two elements provide a basis for the estimation of the temporal and spatial controls on landslide occurrence in Puerto Rico. Finally, this approach is an example of a relatively inexpensive technique for landslide hazard analysis that may be applicable to other settings.

Larsen, M. C.; Torres-Sanchez, A. J.

1996-01-01

425

Mesosphere and lower thermosphere wind and turbulence observations over Puerto Rico during the Coqui 2 Campaign  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As part of the Coqui 2 sounding rocket campaign that was carried out in Puerto Rico in February and March 1998 a series of three rocket launches released the chemical tracer trimethyl aluminum TMA to measure the neutral wind profiles and turbulence structure in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere The first launch was on February 19 when a sodium sudden atom layer was present and the other two launches were on the night of February 24 25 when enhanced gravity wave activity was detected in lidar measurements from the Arecibo Observatory and in ground-based imager data The TMA trails were released on the upleg and downleg portion of each of the flights covering the altitude range from 85 to 150 km thus providing measurements of the horizontal neutral wind velocities as well as the gradients in the winds along a north south direction Large winds and wind shears were found between 95 and 110 km which is a common feature of the wind profile at midlatitudes The talk will focus on the turbulent structure information obtained from the trails in combination with the measurements of O density profiles from on-board photometers and the relation to the large winds and wind shears will be examined

Zhan, T.; Larsen, M. F.; Hecht, J. H.

426

HIV and incarceration in the Caribbean: the experiences of Puerto Rico and Jamaica.  

PubMed

Worldwide, HIV has disproportionally affected incarcerated populations since early in the epidemic. Current trends in the Caribbean demonstrate that correctional facilities house most at-risk individuals. The experience of incarceration and the HIV epidemic in the Caribbean are as diverse as the region. In this paper we present descriptive information from Puerto Rico and Jamaica as two unique examples of current efforts to address HIV among prisoners. While different, these countries provide a comparison of correctional health care in a sexually driven epidemic versus one where injecting drug use plays a major role, bridging cultural differences, and contrasting approaches in the provision of HIV services relevant for other Caribbean countries. While the evidence of effective interventions within correctional facilities in the Caribbean is limited, the knowledge gained through the services implemented and research completed in different countries can facilitate the process of developing and testing new interventions. The experience of these islands and coordinating lessons learned and innovations from throughout the region can assist in developing a resourceful way forward. PMID:23038892

Rodríguez-Díaz, Carlos E; Andrinopoulos, Katherine

2012-09-01

427

Hydrogeochemical prospecting for porphyry copper deposits in the tropical-marine climate of Puerto Rico  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A hydrogeochemical survey utilizing waters from streams and springs was conducted in the area of two known porphyry copper deposits in the tropical-marine climate of westcentral Puerto Rico. The most important pathfinder for regional hydrogeochemical surveys is sulfate which reflects the associated pyrite mineralization. Because of increased mobility due to intense chemical weathering and the low pH environment, dissolved copper can also be used as a pathfinder for regional surveys and has the advantage of distinguishing barren pyrite from pyrite associated with copper mineralization. For follow-up surveys, the most important pathfinders are copper, sulfate, pH, zinc, and fluoride. High concentrations of dissolved copper and moderate concentrations of sulfate is a diagnostic indication of nearby sources of copper minerals. An understanding of the geochemical processes taking place in the streambeds and the weathering environment, such as the precipitation of secondary copper minerals, contributes to the interpretation of the geochemical data and the selection of the most favorable areas for further exploration. ?? 1982.

Miller, W. R.; Ficklin, W. H.; Learned, R. E.

1982-01-01

428

Stable isotopic studies of earthworm feeding ecology in tropical ecosystems of Puerto Rico.  

PubMed

Feeding strategies of earthworms and their influence on soil processes are often inferred from morphological, behavioral and physiological traits. We used (13)C and (15)N natural abundance in earthworms, soils and plants to explore patterns of resource utilization by different species of earthworms in three tropical ecosystems in Puerto Rico. In a high altitude dwarf forest, native earthworms Trigaster longissimus and Estherella sp. showed less (15)N enrichment ((15)N = 3-6 per thousand) than exotic Pontoscolex corethrurus ((15)N =7-9 per thousand) indicating different food sources or stronger isotopic discrimination by the latter. Conversely, in a lower altitude tabonuco forest, Estherella sp. and P. corethrurus overlapped completely in (15)N enrichment ((15)N = 6-9 per thousand), suggesting the potential for interspecific competition for N resources. A tabonuco forest converted to pasture contained only P. corethrurus which were less enriched in (15)N than those in the forest sites, but more highly enriched in (13)C suggesting assimilation of C from the predominant C(4) grass. These results support the utility of stable isotopes to delineate resource partitioning and potential competitive interactions among earthworm species. Copyright 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:10407313

Hendrix; Lachnicht; Callaham; Zou

1999-07-01

429

Sedimentology and diagenesis of Miocene Lirio Limestone, Isla de Mona, Puerto Rico  

SciTech Connect

Isla de Mona is a carbonate plateau, 50 mi west of Puerto Rico. The island lies on the southern portion of the Mona Platform. It is composed mostly of two Miocene carbonate units: Isla de Mona Dolomite overlain by Lirio Limestone. The Lirio Limestone was deposited on a sloping erosional surface over the Isla de Mona Dolomite. The Miocene Lirio Limestone consists mostly of backreef sands (packstones) with a reefal sequence (boundstones and grainstones) present in the southwestern portion of the island. The reefal sequence is made up mostly of Stylophora, Porites, and Millepora. Thin, discreet pockets of carbonate mud, rich in planktonic foraminifera and radiolarians and mixed with shallow benthic fauna/flora (foraminifera, echinoderms, red algae, and corals) interpreted as storm deposits, are found throughout the unit. An extensive reefal zone can be inferred to be present throughout the southwestern to southern portions of the Mona Platform. The Lirio Limestone is heavily karstified and is riddled with sinkholes on the plateau surfaces and caves around the periphery of the island. Caves are exposed around the periphery of the island, radiating from a depression in the central portions of the Lirio Limestone, near contacts with the Isla de Mona Dolomite, are partially dolomitized. The southwestern outcrops exhibit partial dolomitization throughout. The distribution of sinkholes, seaward caverns, and partial dolomitization of the lowermost Lirio Limestone suggests diagenetic modifications by meteoric fluids in central exposed portions of the island and by marine-meteoric fluids in the lowermost portions of the phreatic lens.

Ruiz, H.; Gonzalez, L.A.; Budd, A.F. (Univ. of Iowa, Iowa City (United States))

1991-03-01

430

Genetics and Morphology of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) in Septic Tanks in Puerto Rico  

PubMed Central

Dengue viruses, primarily transmitted by the mosquito Aedes aegypti (L.), affect an estimated 50–100 million people yearly. Traditional approaches to control mosquito population numbers, such as the use of pesticides, have had only limited success. Atypical mosquito behavior may be one reason why current vector control efforts have been less efficacious than expected. In Puerto Rico, for example, adult Ae. aegypti have been observed emerging from septic tanks. Interestingly, adults emerging from septic tanks are larger on average than adults collected from surface containers. To determine whether adults colonizing septic tanks constitute a separate Ae. aegypti population, we used 12 previously validated microsatellite loci to examine adult mosquitoes collected from both septic tanks and surface containers, but found no evidence to suggest genetic differentiation. Size differences between septic tank and surface mosquitoes were reduced when nutrient levels were held constant across experimental groups. Despite the absence of evidence suggesting a genetic difference between experimental groups in this study, Ae. aegypti emerging from septic tanks may still represent a more dangerous phenotype and should be given special consideration when developing vector control programs and designing public health interventions in the future.

SOMERS, GERARD; BROWN, JULIA E.; BARRERA, ROBERTO; POWELL, JEFFREY R.

2012-01-01

431

Local and Global Effects of Climate on Dengue Transmission in Puerto Rico  

PubMed Central

The four dengue viruses, the agents of dengue fever and dengue hemorrhagic fever in humans, are transmitted predominantly by the mosquito Aedes aegypti. The abundance and the transmission potential of Ae. aegypti are influenced by temperature and precipitation. While there is strong biological evidence for these effects, empirical studies of the relationship between climate and dengue incidence in human populations are potentially confounded by seasonal covariation and spatial heterogeneity. Using 20 years of data and a statistical approach to control for seasonality, we show a positive and statistically significant association between monthly changes in temperature and precipitation and monthly changes in dengue transmission in Puerto Rico. We also found that the strength of this association varies spatially, that this variation is associated with differences in local climate, and that this relationship is consistent with laboratory studies of the impacts of these factors on vector survival and viral replication. These results suggest the importance of temperature and precipitation in the transmission of dengue viruses and suggest a reason for their spatial heterogeneity. Thus, while dengue transmission may have a general system, its manifestation on a local scale may differ from global expectations.

Johansson, Michael A.; Dominici, Francesca; Glass, Gregory E.

2009-01-01

432

Ground-water levels in alluvium on the South coast of Puerto Rico, February 1978  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Ground-water levels in the alluvial aquifer of the south coast of Puerto Rico in February 1978 were similar to or slightly higher than those of February 1977. Water levels rose about 2 to 3 meters in the northern section near the foothills in the coastal plain area from Salinas to Patillas and in the Guanica-Penuelas area. Pumpage remained unchanged in most of the areas under study. Pumping-water levels were above mean sea level in all industrial well fields. Pumping and static water levels were below mean sea level (1 to 3 meters), in public supply and irrigation wells in the areas of Playa de Ponce, Descalabrado-Punta Petrona, and in the vicinity of the town of Salinas. These levels are considered to be normal for the dry season in these highly irrigated areas. Sixty-four water samples collected from irrigation, industrial and salinity observation wells exhibited similar or lower chloride concentration than in previous years. The average chloride concentration for 1978 was 57 milligrams per liter. (USGS)

Diaz, Jose R.

1979-01-01

433

Diagenesis of middle Tertiary carbonates in the Toa Baja well, Puerto Rico  

SciTech Connect

The Toa Baja Well drilled in northern Puerto Rico to a depth of 2,705 m (8,872 ft.) penetrated over 550 m (1,800 ft.) of Tertiary carbonates. The limestone-dominated portion of the well consists mostly of shallow-water backreef carbonates. Metastable carbonates have been either calcitized, dolomitized or dissolved. The petrographic character of the Tertiary carbonates in the Toa Baja Well, and those reported by Monroe (1980), the cathodoluminescence petrography, and the stable isotopic compositions indicate that these carbonates were rapidly cemented in the marine environment (limiting compaction), that replacement of metastable carbonates by calcite and precipitation of sparry calcite took place mostly in meteoric diagenetic environments and dolomitization probably occurred in a meteoric-marine mixing zone. Given the history of numerous drainage systems that dissected the Tertiary carbonates throughout their depositional history and the repeated Cenozoic sea level oscillations, it is likely that alteration of metastable carbonates took place during lowstands. Interstratified fluvial deposits suggest the continued influence of meteoric fluids in local highlands.

Gonzalez, L.A.; Ruiz, H.M. (Univ. of Iowa, Iowa City (United States))

1991-03-01

434

Genetics and morphology of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) in septic tanks in Puerto Rico.  

PubMed

Dengue viruses, primarily transmitted by the mosquito Aedes aegypti (L.), affect an estimated 50-100 million people yearly. Traditional approaches to control mosquito population numbers, such as the use of pesticides, have had only limited success. Atypical mosquito behavior may be one reason why current vector control efforts have been less efficacious than expected. In Puerto Rico, for example, adult Ae. aegypti have been observed emerging from septic tanks. Interestingly, adults emerging from septic tanks are larger on average than adults collected from surface containers. To determine whether adults colonizing septic tanks constitute a separate Ae. aegypti population, we used 12 previously validated microsatellite loci to examine adult mosquitoes collected from both septic tanks and surface containers, but found no evidence to suggest genetic differentiation. Size differences between septic tank and surface mosquitoes were reduced when nutrient levels were held constant across experimental groups. Despite the absence of evidence suggesting a genetic difference between experimental groups in this study, Ae. aegypti emerging from septic tanks may still represent a more dangerous phenotype and should be given special consideration when developing vector control programs and designing public health interventions in the future. PMID:22238867

Somers, Gerard; Brown, Julia E; Barrera, Roberto; Powell, Jeffrey R

2011-11-01

435

Site Enforcement Tracking System (SETS): PRP listing by site for Puerto Rico  

SciTech Connect

When expending Superfund monies at a CERCLA (Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act) site, EPA must conduct a search to identify parties with potential financial responsibility for remediation of uncontrolled hazardous waste sites. EPA regional Superfund Waste Management Staff issue a notice letter to the potentially responsible party (PRP). Data from this notice letter is used to form the Site Enforcement Tracking System (SETS). The data includes PRP name and address, a company contact person, the date the notice was issued, and the related CERCLA site name and identification number. SETS was created to track PRP identification at both NPL (National Priority List) and non-NPL sites. SETS does not address the range of other administrative duties related to tracking the PRP. These lists (updated quarterly) represent EPA's preliminary findings on the identities of potentially responsible parties. Inclusion on these lists does not constitute a final determination concerning the liability of any party for the hazard or contamination at any CERCLA site. The site report is designed to provide PRP information linked by the associated site, which appears according to Puerto Rico where the site is located.

Not Available

1990-08-02

436

Luis Llorens Torres and the impossible return: identity, conflict and hope in the national poem of Puerto Rico.  

PubMed

The psychodynamic exploration of the content of literary words and of the personal lives of their authors oftentimes reveals how they can be mutually reflective of the other. Such is the case of the poem, "Valle de Collores" (The Valley of Collores), considered by many to be the national poem of Puerto Rico and of the author Luis Llorens Torres (1876-1944), regarded as the "Poet Laureate of Puerto Rico." The timelessness and wide appeal of certain literary works has been attributed, among other reasons, to the fact that they address universal inner conflicts that affect all human beings. The poem "Valle de Collores" is the narrative of a country boy who leaves home to face the larger world and, as he reaches adulthood, he looks back and expresses his impossible longing to return to the rural home of his childhood. It is a description of the universal struggles of human development and of separation-individuation, loss and mourning and a longing to return, and a wish to merge with the early parental objects of childhood. The poem also parallels the history of the Puerto Rican people, in their transition from a rural society under Spanish rule to an industrialized society as an American Commonwealth. This difficult transition resulted in a massive immigration of Puerto Ricans to the United States that continues to this day. The poem also represents the longing of many Puerto Rican immigrants to return to their island home, and to a simpler time of more fundamental values. The land that is left behind and longed for becomes a metaphor for the early maternal imago. PMID:16193548

Rothe, Eugenio M

2005-01-01

437

Luis Llorens Torres and the impossible return: identity, conflict and hope in the national poem of Puerto Rico.  

PubMed

The psychodynamic exploration of the content of literary works and of the personal lives of their authors oftentimes reveals how they can be mutually reflective of the other. Such is the case of the poem, "Valle de Collores" (The Valley of Collares), considered by many to be the national poem of Puerto Rico and of the author Luis Llorens Torres (1876-1944), regarded as the "Poet Laureate of Puerto Rico." The timelessness and wide appeal of certain literary works has been attributed, among other reasons, to the fact that they address universal inner conflicts that affect all human beings. The poem "Valle de Collores" is the narrative of a country boy who leaves home to face the larger world and, as he reaches adulthood, he looks back and expresses his impossible longing to return to the rural home of his childhood. It is a description of the universal struggles of human development and of separation-indi-viduation, loss and mourning and a longing to return, and a wish to merge with the early parental objects of childhood. The poem also parallels the history of the Puerto Rican people, in their transition from a rural society under Spanish rule to an industrialized society as an American Commonwealth. This difficult transition resulted in a massive immigration of Puerto Ricans to the United States that continues to this day. The poem also represents the longing of many Puerto Rican immigrants to return to their island home, and to a simpler time of more fundamental values. The land that is left behind and longed for becomes a metaphor for the early maternal imago. PMID:16570531

Rothe, Eugenio M

2005-12-01

438

Perspectives of San Juan healthcare practitioners on the detection deficit in oral premalignant and early cancers in Puerto Rico: a qualitative research study  

PubMed Central

Background In Puerto Rico, relative to the United States, a disparity exists in detecting oral precancers and early cancers. To identify factors leading to the deficit in early detection, we obtained the perspectives of San Juan healthcare practitioners whose practice could be involved in the detection of such oral lesions. Methods Key informant (KI) interviews were conducted with ten clinicians practicing in or around San Juan, Puerto Rico. We then triangulated our KI interview findings with other data sources, including recent literature on oral cancer detection from various geographic areas, current curricula at the University of Puerto Rico Schools of Medicine and Dental Medicine, as well as local health insurance regulations. Results Key informant-identified factors that likely contribute to the detection deficit include: many practitioners are deficient in knowledge regarding oral cancer and precancer; oral cancer screening examinations are limited regarding which patients receive them and the elements included. In Puerto Rico, specialists generally perform oral biopsies, and patient referral can be delayed by various factors, including government-subsidized health insurance, often referred to as Reforma. Reforma-based issues include often inadequate clinician knowledge regarding Reforma requirements/provisions, diagnostic delays related to Reforma bureaucracy, and among primary physicians, a perceived financial disincentive in referring Reforma patients. Conclusions Addressing these issues may be useful in reducing the deficit in detecting oral precancers and early oral cancer in Puerto Rico.

2011-01-01

439

Thyroid Dysfunction in an Adult Female Population: A population-based study of Latin American Vertebral Osteoporosis Study (LAVOS) - Puerto Rico Site Hypothyroidism in LAVOS-Puerto Rico site  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine the prevalence of hypothyroidism in an adult female population in Puerto Rico and to determine the relationship between hypothyroidism, bone mineral density and vertebral and non-vertebral fractures in this population. Methods Data from the 400 subjects database of the Latin American Vertebral Osteoporosis Study (LAVOS), Puerto Rico site was reviewed. Patient’s medical history, anthropometric data, current medications, laboratories, and DXA results was extracted. Subjects with thyroid dysfunction were identified based on their previous medical history and levels of TSH. Bone Mineral Density was classified using the World Health Organization criteria. Crude prevalence of thyroid dysfunction were estimated with a confidence of 95% and weighted by the population distribution by age, according to the distribution by age group in the 2000 census. Bone mineral densities and prevalence of vertebral and non-vertebral fractures were compared among the groups. Results The weighted prevalence of hyperthyroidism in this population was 0.0043% (95% CI: ?0.0021%, 0.0107%). The weighted prevalence of hypothyroidism was 24.2% (95% CI: 19.9%, 28.4%). Increased prevalence of hypothyroidism was found in participants 70 years or older. The mean BMD at spine, hip and femoral neck was similar among the groups. No difference in the proportion of participants with vertebral and non-vertebral fractures was found among the groups. Conclusion Our study found a high prevalence of hypothyroidism among adult postmenopausal females in Puerto Rico. No association between hypothyroidism and decreased bone mineral densities, vertebral or non-vertebral fractures was found in this population.

Gonzalez-Rodriguez, Loida A.; Felici-Giovanini, Marcos E; Haddock, Lillian

2013-01-01

440

Effect of channelization of Rio Puerto Nuevo on ground-water levels in the San Juan metropolitan area, Puerto Rico  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Channelization and concrete lining of the Rio Puerto Nuevo and its tributaries in the San Juan Metropolitan area has been proposed to control flooding in low lying areas adjacent to the stream. Concern about the effect of these channel modifications on the ground-water system prompted the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers to conduct an investigation of surface-water and ground-water interactions in the Rio Puerto Nuevo basin in 1988. A principal objective of this investigation was to determine the potential effect of channelization of the Rio Puerto Nuevo on ground-water levels.

Padilla, Ingrid

1991-01-01

441

Geologic evidence northeast of Puerto Rico for an Atlantic tsunami in the last 500 years  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A historical tsunami of undetermined origin best explains a suite of probably related features at Anegada, British Virgin Islands: shore-normal scours, fields of cobbles and boulders, a horizon of sand and shell, and salt ponds. Anegada's exposed location and low-lying landscape make the island a natural tsunami recorder. Facing the Puerto Rico Trench at the northeast corner of the Caribbean, barely 10 km from the top of the continental slope, Anegada can receive tsunamis almost directly from the open North Atlantic. The island's highest ground consists of a limestone platform that crests 8 m above sea level. Many of Anegada's shores adjoin beach ridges, composed of distinctively pink bioclastic sand, that stand less than 5 m above sea level. Behind the ridges are salt ponds that rarely rise above high tide levels of the surrounding sea. The island's name, coined in 1493 during Columbus's second voyage, means "drowned." Local eyewitnesses to Hurricane Donna, at category 4 when its eye crossed Anegada in 1960, recounted no storm-caused versions of the following features: SCOURS. Dozens of coast-normal scours cut across beach ridges of the island's north-central shore. The largest of them holds a pond 200 m long and a few tens of meters wide. The scours are better explained by overwash of the ridges than by inheritance of any pre-existing carbonate landform; they differ in size and shape from spurs and grooves of the island's barrier reef and from the sinkholes of the limestone platform. More than one time of overwash is permitted by differences among the headward limits of the scours. COBBLES AND BOULDERS. Inland from the scours, as much as 1 km inland of Anegada's north-central shore, fields of limestone cobbles and boulders extend tens of meters southward from limestone knolls. Like the scours, they imply overwash from the north. SAND AND SHELL BED. An event horizon as much as 25 cm thick probably extends 2 km southward beneath bottom sediments and fringing microbial mats of the main salt pond studied (Bumber Well Pond). The horizon contains a basal northern unit of pink bioclastic sand that probably relates to the cutting of scours or to enlargement of pre- existing scours in the beach ridges to the north. The horizon also contains a widespread unit of marine molluscan shells that extends as float onto the limestone platform. SALT PONDS. The sand and shell horizon marks an event that changed the island's interior water bodies from nearly marine to hypersaline. The nearly marine conditions are recorded by mollusk-rich lagoonal mud below the event horizon, while the hypersaline conditions are marked mollusk-free salt-pond deposits above. The salinity change probably resulted from choking of the lagoon's likely inlet (or inlets) on Anegada's south side. A tsunami from the north, after scouring beach ridges and moving cobbles and boulders, probably also built sandy fans into the former inlet(s). This inferred tsunami probably postdates 1460-1620 C.E., the two-sigma range corresponding to the youngest radiocarbon age obtained on individual detrital shells in the event horizon. Potential correlates, in addition to earthquakes along the Puerto Rico Trench, include the transatlantic tsunami associated with the 1755 Lisbon earthquake. This work is part of Nuclear Regulatory Commission project N6480, a tsunam-hazard assessment for the eastern United States. We especially thank, in addition, Cindy Rolli of BVI Disaster Management and field assistant Caitlin Herlihy.

Atwater, B. F.; Tuttle, M. P.

2008-12-01

442

HIV and Syphilis Infection among Men attending a Sexually Transmitted Infection Clinic in Puerto Rico  

PubMed Central

Objective This study aimed to assess the demographic, behavioral, and clinical factors associated with HIV and syphilis infection among a sample of men attending a sexually transmitted infection clinic during 2009 to 2010 in San Juan, Puerto Rico (PR). Methods A sample of 350 clinical records from men visiting the clinic for the first time during 2009 to 2010 was reviewed. Descriptive statistics were used to describe the study sample, and bivariate analyses were performed separately for HIV and syphilis to identify factors associated with these infectious diseases. Variables that were significantly associated (p<0.05) with HIV and syphilis in the bivariate analysis were considered for inclusion in the logistic regression models. Results Overall, 11.2% and 14.1% of the men were infected with HIV and syphilis, respectively, and 5.1% were coinfected with HIV and syphilis. In multivariate logistic regression models, ever injecting drugs (POR = 8.1; 95%Cl 3.0, 21.8) and being a man who has sex with men (MSM) (POR = 5.3; 95%CI 2.3, 11.9) were positively associated with HIV infection. Being a man older than 45 years (POR = 4.0; 95%CI: 1.9, 8.9) and being an MSM (POR = 2.5; 95%CI: 1.3, 4.9) were both significantly associated with syphilis infection. Conclusion These findings reinforce the need for greater education and prevention efforts for HIV and other STIs among men in PR, particularly those who are MSM. However, there is a need to make an a priori assessment of the level of health literacy in the members of this group so that a culturally sensitive intervention can be provided to the men who attend this STI clinic.

Colon-Lopez, Vivian; Ortiz, Ana P.; Banerjee, Geetanjoli; Gertz, Alida M.; Garcia, Hermes

2013-01-01

443

Aerosol Chemical and Physical Properties Observed over Puerto Rico in the Tropical North Atlantic Ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tropospheric aerosols that originate in Africa and are transported over the Atlantic Ocean have potential impacts over the Caribbean region. To investigate aerosol properties over this region, air sampling was conducted at San Juan Cape (18.46°N, 66.12°W), Puerto Rico during the summer months in 2006. Aerosol samples were collected by both commercial PM2.5 sampler and in-house fabricated TSP sampler. Analyses of aerosols were made through the use of the following instrumental methods: (1)Ion Chromatography for the determinations of water-soluble cations (sodium, ammonium, potassium, magnesium and calcium) and anions (fluoride, acetate, propionate, methanesulfonate, chloride, nitrate, succinate, malonate, sulfate and oxalate); (2)Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry for the concentrations of selected trace elements (Al, Fe, Mn, Sc, Cd, Pb, Sb, Ni, Co, Cr, Cu, Zn and V); (3)Scanning Electron Microscopy for individual aerosol particle characterization. Crustal enrichment factors were calculated to determine the strength of crustal source. Preliminary results indicate that sodium (22 - 99 ?g m- 3) and ammonium (1.1 - 50 ?g m-3) were the major cations and chloride (1.5 - 99 ?g m-3) and sulfate (35 ?g m-3) were the dominant anions. Malonate (3.8 - 6.9 ?g m- 3) was the most abundant organic anion. Atmospheric concentrations of iron ranged 0.30 - 3.3 ng m- 3. The elements, Sc, Cd, Pb, Sb, Ni, Co, Cr, Cu, Zn and V, were enriched by factors of 600 to 40,000 relative to their natural abundance in crustal soil. Principal components analysis indicates six assemblages of fifteen types of aerosol particles, dominated by Si - rich particles.

Jusino-Atresino, R.; Xia, L.; Song, F.; Gao, Y.

2008-12-01

444

Dengue Deaths in Puerto Rico: Lessons Learned from the 2007 Epidemic  

PubMed Central

Background The incidence and severity of dengue in Latin America has increased substantially in recent decades and data from Puerto Rico suggests an increase in severe cases. Successful clinical management of severe dengue requires early recognition and supportive care. Methods Fatal cases were identified among suspected dengue cases reported to two disease surveillance systems and from death certificates. To be included, fatal cases had to have specimen submitted for dengue diagnostic testing including nucleic acid amplification for dengue virus (DENV) in serum or tissue, immunohistochemical testing of tissue, and immunoassay detection of anti-DENV IgM from serum. Medical records from laboratory-positive dengue fatal case-patients were reviewed to identify possible determinants for death. Results Among 10,576 reported dengue cases, 40 suspect fatal cases were identified, of which 11 were laboratory-positive, 14 were laboratory-negative, and 15 laboratory-indeterminate. The median age of laboratory-positive case-patients was 26 years (range 5 months to 78 years), including five children aged <15 years; 7 sought medical care at least once prior to hospital admission, 9 were admitted to hospital and 2 died upon arrival. The nine hospitalized case-patients stayed a mean of 15 hours (range: 3–48 hours) in the emergency department (ED) before inpatient admission. Five of the nine case-patients received intravenous methylprednisolone and four received non-isotonic saline while in shock. Eight case-patients died in the hospital; five had their terminal event on the inpatient ward and six died during a weekend. Dengue was listed on the death certificate in only 5 instances. Conclusions During a dengue epidemic in an endemic area, none of the 11 laboratory-positive case-patients who died were managed according to current WHO Guidelines. Management issues identified in this case-series included failure to recognize warning signs for severe dengue and shock, prolonged ED stays, and infrequent patient monitoring.

Tomashek, Kay M.; Gregory, Christopher J.; Rivera Sanchez, Aidsa; Bartek, Matthew A.; Garcia Rivera, Enid J.; Hunsperger, Elizabeth; Munoz-Jordan, Jorge L.; Sun, Wellington

2012-01-01

445

Organization and operation of the marine ornamental fish and invertebrate export fishery in Puerto Rico.  

PubMed

This fishery was examined utilizing public records, stakeholder interviews, and operational site visits to describe the fishery for the Puerto Rico Coral Reef Advisory Committee as a first step toward development of policies for the effective management of these natural resources. The fishery is not large, including fewer than 20 licensed fishers operating primarily on the west end of the island. Only three operators export product, with the remaining fishers providing specimens to the exporters based upon customer orders. Most collection of coral reef species occurs over hard rubble zones mixed with relic reef structures and rock, or on the sides and frontal areas of active reefs. Other species are collected from among mangrove prop root zones, tidal flats, and seagrass beds. Collections are made using simple barrier and dip nets for fish and motile invertebrates such as shrimp. Invertebrates such as crabs, starfish, and sea cucumbers are commonly collected by overturning small rocks, gathering the specimens, and then replacing the rocks in their original positions. Specimens are carried to the boat and transferred to individual cup holders to maximize survival. Although statements concerning former use of chemicals to assist capture were noted, no evidence of current chemical use was observed. Specimens are held in re-circulating seawater systems onshore until collections are aggregated and shipped. The fishery strives to operate with mortality of<1%, as mortalities of>3% are described as unacceptable to customers. More than 100 fish species are collected in this fishery, but the top ten species account for >70% of the total numbers and >60% of the total value of the fishery, with a single species, Gramma loreto (Royal Gramma), comprising >40% of the numbers. More than 100 species of invertebrates are collected, but this fishery is also dominated by a handful of species, including anemones, hermit crabs, turbo snails, serpent starfish, and feather duster polychaetes. PMID:17465154

Legorel, Richard S; Hardin, Mark P; Ter-Ghazaryan, Diana

2005-05-01

446

Probing the deep critical zone beneath the Luquillo Experimental Forest, Puerto Rico  

SciTech Connect

Recent work has suggested that weathering processes occurring in the subsurface produce the majority of silicate weathering products discharged to the world s oceans, thereby exerting a primary control on global temperature via the well-known positive feedback between silicate weathering and CO2. In addition, chemical and physical weathering processes deep within the critical zone create aquifers and control groundwater chemistry, watershed geometry and regolith formation rates. Despite this, most weathering studies are restricted to the shallow critical zone (e.g., soils, outcrops). Here we investigate the chemical weathering, fracturing and geomorphology of the deep critical zone in the Bisley watershed in the Luquillo Critical Zone Observatory, Puerto Rico, from two boreholes drilled to 37.2 and 27.0 m depth, from which continuous core samples were taken. Corestones exposed aboveground were also sampled. Weathered rinds developed on exposed corestones and along fracture surfaces on subsurface rocks slough off of exposed corestones once rinds attain a thickness up to ~1 cm, preventing the corestones from rounding due to diffusion limitation. Such corestones at the land surface are assumed to be what remains after exhumation of similar, fractured bedrock pieces that were observed in the drilled cores between thick layers of regolith. Some of these subsurface corestones are massive and others are highly fractured, whereas aboveground corestones are generally massive with little to no apparent fracturing. Subsurface corestones are larger and less fractured in the borehole drilled on a road where it crosses a ridge compared to the borehole drilled where the road crosses the stream channel. Both borehole profiles indicate that the weathering zone extends to well below the stream channel in this upland catchment; hence weathering depth is not controlled by the stream level within the catchment and not all of the water in the watershed is discharged to the stream.

Buss, Heather [University of Bristol, UK; Brantley, S. L. [Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA; Scatena, Fred [University of Pennsylvania; Bazilevskaya, Ekaterina [Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA; Blum, Alex [U. S. Geological Survey, Boulder, CO; Schulz, M [University of Pennsylvania; Jimenez, M [University of Pennsylvania; White, Art [U.S. Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA; Cole, David [Ohio State University

2013-01-01

447

The stable isotope amount effect: New insights from NEXRAD echo tops, Luquillo Mountains, Puerto Rico  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The stable isotope amount effect has often been invoked to explain patterns of isotopic composition of rainfall in the tropics. This paper describes a new approach, correlating the isotopic composition of precipitation with cloud height and atmospheric temperature using NEXRAD radar echo tops, which are a measure of the maximum altitude of rainfall within the clouds. The seasonal differences in echo top altitudes and their corresponding temperatures are correlated with the isotopic composition of rainfall. These results offer another factor to consider in interpretation of the seasonal variation in isotopic composition of tropical rainfall, which has previously been linked to amount or rainout effects and not to temperature effects. Rain and cloud water isotope collectors in the Luquillo Mountains in northeastern Puerto Rico were sampled monthly for three years and precipitation was analyzed for ??18O and ??2H. Precipitation enriched in , 18O and 2H occurred during the winter dry season (approximately December-May) and was associated with a weather pattern of trade wind showers and frontal systems. During the summer rainy season (approximately June-November), precipitation was depleted in 18O and 2H and originated in low pressure systems and convection associated with waves embedded in the prevailing easterly airflow. Rain substantially depleted in 18O and 2H compared to the aforementioned weather patterns occurred during large low pressure systems. Weather analysis showed that 29% of rain input to the Luquillo Mountains was trade wind orographic rainfall, and 30% of rainfall could be attributed to easterly waves and low pressure systems. Isotopic signatures associated with these major climate patterns can be used to determine their influence on streamflow and groundwater recharge and to monitor possible effects of climate change on regional water resources.

Schol, M. A.; Shanley, J. B.; Zegarra, J. P.; Coplen, T. B.

2009-01-01

448

GLORIA sidescan sonar field data and navigation data collected off Puerto Rico in 1985 and the eastern United States in 1987  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This CD-ROM contains copies of the navigation and field sidescan sonar data collected within the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) surrounding Puerto Rico and off the eastern United States during cruises aboard the R/V FARNELLA. The survey of the Puerto Rico EEZ was completed during one cruise between 4 November and 3 December, 1985. The survey of the EEZ off the eastern United States was completed during five cruises between 2 February and 30 May, 1987. The data were collected as part of the USGS EEZ-SCAN program which was a cooperative mapping program between the US Geological Survey and the Institute of Oceanographic Sciences of the UK. The survey areas included the entire US EEZ of Puerto Rico and the US Virgin Islands as well as of the eastern United States from the Canadian international boundary at Georges Bank to the Bahamian international boundary east of Florida. GLORIA imagery was collected seaward of approximately 400 m water depth.

Twichell, David C.; Paskevich, Valerie F.; Delorey, Catherine M.

1998-01-01

449

Self-Reported Ethnicity and Genetic Ancestry in Relation to Oral Cancer and Pre-Cancer in Puerto Rico  

PubMed Central

Background Hispanics are known to be an extremely diverse and genetically admixed ethnic group. The lack of methodologies to control for ethnicity and the unknown admixture in complex study populations of Hispanics has left a gap in understanding certain cancer disparity issues. Incidence rates for oral and pharyngeal cancer (OPC) in Puerto Rico are among the highest in the Western Hemisphere. We conducted an epidemiological study to examine risk and protective factors, in addition to possible genetic susceptibility components, for oral cancer and precancer in Puerto Rico. Methodology/Principal Findings We recruited 310 Puerto Rico residents who had been diagnosed with either an incident oral squamous cell carcinoma, oral precancer, or benign oral condition. Participants completed an in-person interview and contributed buccal cells for DNA extraction. ABI Biosystem Taqman™ primer sets were used for genotyping 12 ancestry informative markers (AIMs). Ancestral group estimates were generated using maximum likelihood estimation software (LEADMIX), and additional principal component analysis was carried out to detect population substructures. We used unconditional logistic regression to assess the contribution of ancestry to the risk of being diagnosed with either an oral cancer or precancer while controlling for other potential confounders. The maximum likelihood estimates showed that study participants had a group average ancestry contribution of 69.9% European, 24.5% African, and 5.7% detectable Native American. The African and Indigenous American group estimates were significantly higher than anticipated. Neither self-identified ethnicity nor ancestry markers showed any significant associations with oral cancer/precancer risk in our study. Conclusions/Significance The application of ancestry informative markers (AIMs), specifically designed for Hispanics, suggests no hidden population substructure is present based on our sampling and provides a viable approach for the evaluation and control of ancestry in future studies involving Hispanic populations.

Erdei, Esther; Sheng, Huiping; Maestas, Erika; Mackey, Amanda; White, Kirsten A.; Li, Lin; Dong, Yan; Taylor, Justin; Berwick, Marianne; Morse, Douglas E.

2011-01-01

450

The use of a Stream Visual Assessment Protocol to determine ecosystem integrity in an urban watershed in Puerto Rico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The growing need to protect stream ecosystems in Puerto Rico requires the development of monitoring procedures that help determine management priorities. Physical habitat assessments have been used to make quick evaluations that are cost efficient and easy conduct, yet they need to be studied further to understand their accuracy at predicting stream health. This study evaluated the efficiency of the Hawaii Stream Visual Assessment Protocol (HSVAP) at determining integrity of streams within the highly urbanized Rio Piedras watershed in Puerto Rico. To validate the protocol we compared results from HSVAP assessments conducted at 16 reaches with water quality and macroinvertebrate data collected at the same sites. Results from linear regressions between the water quality measures and HSVAP scores showed that there was no significant relationships ( R 2 = 0.48; p = 0.08). This implies that the protocol is not supported by the water quality data. However, results from regressions between macroinvertebrate diversity and the number of families per site showed a significant positive relation with HSVAP scores ( R 2 = 0.30; p = 0.02; R 2 = 0.24; p = 0.05). In addition, a significant negative relation was observed between HSVAP scores and the Family Biotic Index (FBI) ( R 2 = 0.32; p = 0.02). Comparisons between ratings obtained from the FBI and HSVAP scores suggest that the HSVAP classified sites as having higher quality than the biological metric. Based on these results, it can be concluded that the HSVAP is a good tool for a general assessment of the physical characteristics of a stream, but it needs modifications to accurately assess ecological quality of streams in Puerto Rico.

de Jesús-Crespo, Rebeca; Ramirez, Alonso

451

Flooding and Profuse Flowering Result in High Litterfall in Novel Spathodea campanulata Forests in Northern Puerto Rico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The African tulip tree, Spathodea campanulata, has been introduced to and dominates many post-agricultural secondary forests in the moist tropics, particularly in islands. Some consider these novel forests have null to negative ecological value, yet they appear to restore ecosystem processes on degraded sites. This study describes the litterfall mass and seasonality, canopy phenology, and microclimate of S. campanulata forests on alluvial and karst substrates in northern Puerto Rico. These substrates have different water drainage properties and I hypothesized that (1) annual leaf fall mass and seasonality would differ between substrate types; because (2) leaf fall would be related to water availability and seasonality. I used analysis of variance to compare annual and biweekly litterfall mass across three sites on each substrate type, and multiple linear regression analysis to relate biweekly litterfall to environmental variables. Litterfall mass was high (13.8 Mg/ha/yr, n = 6, SE = 0.60) yet its components did not differ by substrate type except for reproductive part mass which was higher on karst due to more S. campanulata flowers. Leaf fall had a bimodal seasonality and was negatively related to the number of dry days indicating it occurs when water is readily available or in excess as during floods. Observations show systematic leaf senescence in this deciduous species can be caused by water and nutrient demand from flowering. Litterfall mass and seasonality of novel S. campanulata forests is similar to that of native forests in Puerto Rico, yet flower fall appears to be higher than that of tropical forests worldwide. The environmental variables that affect litterfall seasonality and canopy phenology are similar to those in tropical forests in Puerto Rico and elsewhere. Litterfall seasonality and canopy phenology regulate understory microclimate, and influence the establishment and growth of juvenile trees and other organisms within S. campanulata forests. Thus, the forest ecosystem processes and properties restored by novel S. campanulata forests facilitate tree species establishment, growth, and turnover in deforested, abandoned, and degraded agricultural lands in Puerto Rico. This study illustrates how anthropogenic land use change and species transport interact to modify the phenology of current forest cover, and suggests that anthropogenic climate change that modifies seasonal patterns of tempreature and precipitation will have an influence on the litterfall and phenology of novel S. campanulata forests.

Abelleira, O. J.

2011-12-01

452

Development of a field test environment for the validation of coastal remote sensing algorithms: Enrique Reef, Puerto Rico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Remote sensing is increasingly being used as a tool to quantitatively assess the location, distribution and relative health of coral reefs and other shallow aquatic ecosystems. As the use of this technology continues to grow and the analysis products become more sophisticated, there is an increasing need for comprehensive ground truth data as a means to assess the algorithms being developed. The University of Puerto Rico at Mayaguez (UPRM), one of the core partners in the NSF sponsored Center for Subsurface Sensing and Imaging Systems (CenSSIS), is addressing this need through the development of a fully-characterized field test environment on Enrique Reef in southwestern Puerto Rico. This reef area contains a mixture of benthic habitats, including areas of seagrass, sand, algae and coral, and a range of water depths, from a shallow reef flat to a steeply sloping forereef. The objective behind the test environment is to collect multiple levels of image, field and laboratory data with which to validate physical models, inversion algorithms, feature extraction tools and classification methods for subsurface aquatic sensing. Data collected from Enrique Reef currently includes airborne, satellite and field-level hyperspectral and multispectral images, in situ spectral signatures, water bio-optical properties and information on habitat composition and benthic cover. We present a summary of the latest results from Enrique Reef, discuss our concept of an open testbed for the remote sensing community and solicit other users to utilize the data and participate in ongoing system development.

Goodman, James A.; Vélez-Reyes, Miguel; Hunt, Shawn; Armstrong, Roy

2006-10-01

453

Development of a questionnaire to assess the determinants of exercise among breast cancer survivors in Puerto Rico  

PubMed Central

The Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) serves to understand determinants that predict the intention to exercise. According to this theory, attitudes, subjective norms, and perceptions of behavioral control determine intention. This is the first theory-based tool designed to measure the determinants of exercise among women in Puerto Rico who are breast cancer survivors. Understanding the determinants will assist in planning theory based interventions. The purpose of this study was to develop a TPB-based questionnaire to assess the determinants of exercise of breast cancer survivors in Puerto Rico and to evaluate its psychometric properties. Quantitative and qualitative methods were used for questionnaire development and psychometric testing. Three independent samples were recruited for the phases of item generation, pilot testing, and evaluation of psychometric properties. An initial 97-item questionnaire was constructed. Test–retest reliability was assessed for the indirect subscales; six items were found unreliable and removed. For the direct subscales, seven items with item-to-total correlations <0.30 were removed. The final version consisted of 84 items, with Cronbach’s ? ranging from 0.65 to 0.89. Construct validity was demonstrated by significant, fair-to-moderate correlations of all but one of the direct subscales and the multiplied scores of the indirect subscales of similar constructs.

Mulero-Portela, Ana L.; Colon Santaella, Carmen L.; Cruz Gomez, Cynthia

2013-01-01

454

Downscaled climate change impacts on agricultural water resources in Puerto Rico  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study is to estimate reference evapotranspiration (ET{sub o}), rainfall deficit (rainfall - ET{sub o}) and relative crop yield reduction for a generic crop under climate change conditions for three locations in Puerto Rico: Adjuntas, Mayaguez, and Lajas. Reference evapotranspiration is estimated by the Penman-Monteith method. Rainfall and temperature data were statistically downscaled and evaluated using the DOE/NCAR PCM global circulation model projections for the B1 (low), A2 (mid-high) and A1fi (high) emission scenarios of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Special Report on Emission Scenarios. Relative crop yield reductions were estimated from a function dependent water stress factor, which is a function of soil moisture content. Average soil moisture content for the three locations was determined by means of a simple water balance approach. Results from the analysis indicate that the rainy season will become wetter and the dry season will become drier. The 20-year mean 1990-2010 September rainfall excess (i.e., rainfall - ET{sub o} > 0) increased for all scenarios and locations from 149.8 to 356.4 mm for 2080-2100. Similarly, the 20-year average February rainfall deficit (i.e., rainfall - ET{sub o} < 0) decreased from a -26.1 mm for 1990-2010 to -72.1 mm for the year 2080-2100. The results suggest that additional water could be saved during the wet months to offset increased irrigation requirements during the dry months. Relative crop yield reduction did not change significantly under the B1 projected emissions scenario, but increased by approximately 20% during the summer months under the A1fi emissions scenario. Components of the annual water balance for the three climate change scenarios are rainfall, evapotranspiration (adjusted for soil moisture), surface runoff, aquifer recharge and change in soil moisture storage. Under the A1fi scenario, for all locations, annual evapotranspiration decreased owing to lower soil moisture, surface runoff decreased, and aquifer recharge increased. Aquifer recharge increased at all three locations because the majority of recharge occurs during the wet season and the wet season became wetter. This is good news from a groundwater production standpoint. Increasing aquifer recharge also suggests that groundwater levels may increase and this may help to minimize saltwater intrusion near the coasts as sea levels increase, provided that groundwater use is not over-subscribed.

Harmsen, E.W.; Miller, N.L.; Schlegel, N.J.; Gonzalez, J.E.

2009-04-01

455

Weathering of the Rio Blanco Quartz Diorite, Luquillo Mountains, Puerto Rico: Coupling Oxidation, Dissolution, And Fracturing  

SciTech Connect

In the mountainous Rio Icacos watershed in northeastern Puerto Rico, quartz diorite bedrock weathers spheroidally, producing a 0.2-2 m thick zone of partially weathered rock layers ({approx}2.5 cm thickness each) called rindlets, which form concentric layers around corestones. Spheroidal fracturing has been modeled to occur when a weathering reaction with a positive {Delta}V of reaction builds up elastic strain energy. The rates of spheroidal fracturing and saprolite formation are therefore controlled by the rate of the weathering reaction. Chemical, petrographic, and spectroscopic evidence demonstrates that biotite oxidation is the most likely fracture-inducing reaction. This reaction occurs with an expansion in d (0 0 1) from 10.0 to 10.5 {angstrom}, forming 'altered biotite'. Progressive biotite oxidation across the rindlet zone was inferred from thin sections and gradients in K and Fe(II). Using the gradient in Fe(II) and constraints based on cosmogenic age dates, we calculated a biotite oxidation reaction rate of 8.2 x 10{sup -14} mol biotite m{sup -2} s{sup -1}. Biotite oxidation was documented within the bedrock corestone by synchrotron X-ray microprobe fluorescence imaging and XANES. X-ray microprobe images of Fe(II) and Fe(III) at 2 {micro}m resolution revealed that oxidized zones within individual biotite crystals are the first evidence of alteration of the otherwise unaltered corestone. Fluids entering along fractures lead to the dissolution of plagioclase within the rindlet zone. Within 7 cm surrounding the rindlet-saprolite interface, hornblende dissolves to completion at a rate of 6.3 x 10{sup -13} mol hornblende m{sup -2} s{sup -1}: the fastest reported rate of hornblende weathering in the field. This rate is consistent with laboratory-derived hornblende dissolution rates. By revealing the coupling of these mineral weathering reactions to fracturing and porosity formation we are able to describe the process by which the quartz diorite bedrock disaggregates and forms saprolite. In the corestone, biotite oxidation induces spheroidal fracturing, facilitating the influx of fluids that react with other minerals, dissolving plagioclase and chlorite, creating additional porosity, and eventually dissolving hornblende and precipitating secondary minerals. The thickness of the resultant saprolite is maintained at steady state by a positive feedback between the denudation rate and the weathering advance rate driven by the concentration of pore water O{sub 2} at the bedrock-saprolite interface.

Buss, H.L.; Sak, P.B.; Webb, S.M.; Brantley, S.L.

2009-05-12

456

Prevalence and correlates of substance use disorders among older adolescents in Puerto Rico and the United States: a cross-cultural comparison  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although there are substantial data on adolescent substance use, little systematic research has studied the prevalence of adolescent substance disorders in general populations, let alone cultural differences in disorder prevalence. In this paper we report the prevalence and correlates of alcohol and drug use and disorder among older adolescents on Puerto Rico (PR) and in the United States (US). Data

Lynn A Warner; Glorisa Canino; Hector Manuel Colón

2001-01-01

457

A Method for the Cultivation of the Mangrove Oyster in Puerto Rico (Metodo para el Cultivo del Ostion de Mangle en P. R.).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper describes the building and operation of oyster rafts in Puerto Rico. Basic information is given on the construction of the rafts and cultch plates, the emplacement of the rafts, the life cycle of the mangrove oyster, and harvesting and maintena...

K. W. Watters P. A. Martinez

1976-01-01

458

The Nation's Report Card[TM]: Mathematics 2007 Performance of Public School Students in Puerto Rico--Focus on the Content Areas. NCES 2009-451  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In 2007, public school students in Puerto Rico at grades 4 and 8 participated in a Spanish-language version of the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) in mathematics. A representative sample of approximately 2,800 students from 100 public schools was assessed at each grade. This report contains performance results on NAEP…

Dion, G. S.; Kuang, M.; Dresher, A. R.

2008-01-01

459

Understanding Optimal Nutrition Among Women of Childbearing Age in the United States and Puerto Rico: Employing Formative Research to Lay the Foundation for National Birth Defects Prevention Campaigns  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neural tube defects (NTDs) are serious birth defects of the brain and spine that affect approximately 3,000 pregnancies in the United States each year and affected 404 pregnancies in Puerto Rico from 1996 to 2002. Consuming the B vitamin folic acid can reduce the incidence of NTDs 50%–70%, and recent efforts to reduce NTD rates have focused on increasing the

Lisa L. Massi Lindsey; Heather C. Hamner; Christine E. Prue; Alina L. Flores; Diana Valencia; Elia Correa-Sierra; Jenifer E. Kopfman

2007-01-01

460

The Economic Impact of Invasive Species in the Ornamental Commodity in Puerto Rico: Towards Establishing a Multidimensional Framework for Data Collection and Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ornamental commodity in Puerto Rico is valued for its economic contribution in the agricultural sector, its contribution to the esthetics of natural scenarios that impact the tourism sector, and for its environmental role. In the fiscal year 2001, ornamentals generated 4.8% of the total Agricultural Gross Product. In that year the production value at farm level was $34.1 million,

Carmen I. Alamo; R. A. Franqui; Edward A. Evans

2004-01-01

461

19 CFR 7.1 - Puerto Rico; spirits and wines withdrawn from warehouse for shipment to; duty on foreign-grown...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...for shipment to; duty on foreign-grown coffee. 7.1 Section 7.1 Customs Duties...for shipment to; duty on foreign-grown coffee. (a) When spirits and wines are...shall be made for all foreign-grown coffee shipped to Puerto Rico from the...

2009-04-01

462

19 CFR 7.1 - Puerto Rico; spirits and wines withdrawn from warehouse for shipment to; duty on foreign-grown...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...for shipment to; duty on foreign-grown coffee. 7.1 Section 7.1 Customs Duties...for shipment to; duty on foreign-grown coffee. (a) When spirits and wines are...shall be made for all foreign-grown coffee shipped to Puerto Rico from the...

2010-04-01

463

Informe Economico al Gobernador, 1982-83. Volumen 1 (Economic Report to the Governor of Puerto Rico, 1982-83. Volume 1).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes the 1983 economy of Puerto Rico with a view to assisting in the island's future economic development. The five sections of the report cover a synthesis of the global evolution of the economy and perspectives for 1984 and 1985; the ec...

N. E. Soto Velazquez

1983-01-01

464

Control Technology Assessment of Hazardous Waste Disposal Operations in Chemicals Manufacturing: In-Depth Survey Report of San Juan Cement Company, Dorado, Puerto Rico, November 1981,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A visit was made to the San Juan Cement Company (SIC-3241), Dorado, Puerto Rico to evaluate control methods for a storage and delivery system for hazardous wastes used in a demonstration project as a supplemental fuel for cofiring a cement kiln. Analysis ...

M. S. Crandall

1982-01-01

465

26 CFR 31.3401(a)(8)(C)-1 - Remuneration for services performed in Puerto Rico by citizen of the United States.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...resident of Puerto Rico. The reasonable belief contemplated by section 3401(a...evidence reasonably sufficient to induce such belief, even though such evidence may be insufficient...the absence of cause for a reasonable belief to the contrary, presume that an...

2013-04-01

466

FIELD TRIALS OF LURES TO ATTRACT FRUIT FLIES (DIPTERA: TEPHRIDITIDAE) IN COMMERCIAL SAPODILLA, MAMEY SAPOTE, AND CARAMBOLA ORCHARDS IN PUERTO RICO  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Field trials in Puerto Rico were conducted to compare the attractiveness of the standard bait of pelletized torula yeast/borax with a two component (ammonium acetate and putrescine) synthetic lure for Anastrepha spp. within orchards of sapodilla, mamey sapote, and carambola. In addition, the trappi...

467

Nitrogen-Supplying Power of some Tropical Soils of Puerto Rico and Methods for Its Evaluation. (RQ-631.42-L355).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The study is an evaluation of the N-supplying power of 10 representative Oxisols and Ultisols of Puerto Rico which was made by continuous cropping in the greenhouse. Four chemical extraction methods as well as aerobic incubation procedures were used to ob...

D. J. Lathwell H. D. Dubey R. H. Fox

1972-01-01

468

Seroepidemiology of viral hepatitis, HIV and herpes simplex type 2 in the household population aged 21-64 years in Puerto Rico  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Viral hepatitis and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are key public health problems that pose an enormous risk for disease transmission in the general population. This study estimated, for the first time, prevalence estimates of serologic markers of HCV, HBV, HAV, HIV and HSV-2 in the adult population of Puerto Rico and assessed variations across sociodemographic and behavioral characteristics. METHODS:

Cynthia M Pérez; Edmir Marrero; Marytere Meléndez; Sandra Adrovet; Héctor Colón; Ana P Ortiz; Marievelisse Soto-Salgado; Carmen Albizu; Esther A Torres; Erick Suárez

2010-01-01

469

The Social-Action Role of the University: San Juan, Puerto Rico. A Study of the Torrecilla Baja (Pinones) Community. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document presents a report of an experimental community service program that took place in Torrecilla Baja (Pinones), a suburban sector of San Juan, Puerto Rico, from June 30, 1971 through May 30, 1972. Students and faculty alike participated in the program, trying to develop recreational and other programs for the 1,300 underprivileged…

Cataura, Osvaldo; Terrassa, Juan A.

470

Modeling Water Column and Benthic Effects of Fish Mariculture of Cobia (Rachycentron canadum) in Puerto Rico: Cobia AquaModel. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this report is to document the use of an existing model called AquaModel that has adapted to simulate the water column and benethic effects of an offshore fish farms proposed for the east of Puerto Rico. The fish farm is to be operated by O...

D. A. Kiefer F. O'Brien J. E. J. Rensel

2009-01-01