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1

Researchers investigate submarine faults north of Puerto Rico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A 23-day marine geophysical expedition in the summer of 1996 revealed a previously unidentified strike-slip fault zone within 60-100 km of the densely populated northern coast of Puerto Rico. The purpose of the expedition, which was held aboard the U.S. research vessel Maurice Ewing, was to map the northeastern portion of the North America Caribbean plate boundary.The 3000-km-long North America-Caribbean plate boundary stretches from Guatemala to the Lesser Antilles arc. The dominantly left-lateral strike-slip boundary accommodates slow (1-2.6 cm/yr) eastward motion of the Caribbean plate relative to North America. Distributed interplate motion in the region generates large earthquakes (Figure 1, inset). In 1976, an M 7.5 left-lateral, strike-slip earthquake in Guatemala killed approximately 23,000 people and left a quarter of the nation's population homeless.

Grindlay, N.; Mann, P.; Dolan, J.

2

Collisional zones in Puerto Rico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Collisional events along the North American-Caribbean plate boundary are complex and not completely understood. Structures and metamorphism in rocks exposed in Cuba, Hispaniola, and Puerto Rico suggest that the margin has undergone at least three main contractional events in the Early Cretaceous, Late Cretaceous, and in the Late Eocene. The Eocene event is more evident in the transpressional structures preserved in Eocene rocks and may be related to the oblique collision of the northern margin of the Caribbean Plate with continental crust of the Bahamas in the North American Plate. In Puerto Rico, the Late Eocene collisional event is best exposed in the Northern Puerto Rico Fault Zone (NPRFZ) and the Southern Puerto Rico Fault Zone (SPRFZ). These fault zones show transpression in Eocene rocks that suggest contraction and left-lateral shear. The NPRFZ is the boundary between the Northeast and Southwest blocks. Its main fault is the Cerro Mula Fault, a WNW-ESE striking left-lateral fault. The SPRFZ separates the Central and Southwest blocks and strikes NW-SE in the western part of the island. The origin and extent of the Early Cretaceous and Late Cretaceous events are less clear. Recent structural and stratigraphic studies in the Southwest block of Puerto Rico suggest that deformation of Late Cretaceous folded and faulted sedimentary and volcanic rocks, and thrust emplacement of mantle rocks (serpentinized-peridotite) onto the crust are related to Maastrichtian to Paleocene contraction along the plate boundary. In Puerto Rico, there is no metamorphism associated to this event. This deformation constitutes a Late Cretaceous collisional event that is also recognized in Hispaniola and Cuba. Late Cretaceous-Paleocene serpentinite emplacement is attributed to the collision of the subduction zone with the hypothesized Caribeana submerged platform to the north. In Puerto Rico there is a volcanic hiatus in Early Paleocene that may be related to the proposed collision. Reactivation of these structures occurred during Late Eocene-Early Oligocene. The Early Cretaceous tectonic event in Puerto Rico is deduced from stratigraphic relationships of the serpentinite and Late Cretaceous rocks. Early contraction in Cuba and Hispaniola may be related to increased convergence along a subduction zone. However, the characteristics of the tectonic event are not understood. In spite of the temporal similarities of deformation in the northern Caribbean, there are noted differences in the type of deformation that may be related to variations in shape and orientation of pre-existing zones of weaknesses and geographic locations along the Caribbean-North American plate boundary.

Lao Davila, D. A.

2012-04-01

3

PUERTO RICO AND THE PUERTO RICANS.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

PUERTO RICO WAS DISCOVERED BY CHRISTOPHER COLUMBUS IN 1493. THE PROCESS OF COLONIZATION BEGAN IN 1508, WITH THE ARRIVAL OF PONCE DE LEON AND HIS SPANISH SOLDIERS. PUERTO RICO WAS GOVERNED BY SPAIN FOR ABOUT 400 YEARS, AND THE GREAT MASS OF PEOPLE REMAINED POVERTY-STRICKEN, UNDERNOURISHED, AND ILLITERATE. THE ISLAND WAS CEDED TO THE UNITED STATES…

STERNAU, HERBERT

4

The northwest trending north Boquerón Bay-Punta Montalva Fault Zone; A through going active fault system in southwestern Puerto Rico  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The North Boquerón Bay–Punta Montalva fault zone has been mapped crossing the Lajas Valley in southwest Puerto Rico. Identification of the fault was based upon detailed analysis of geophysical data, satellite images, and field mapping. The fault zone consists of a series of Cretaceous bedrock faults that reactivated and deformed Miocene limestone and Quaternary alluvial fan sediments. The fault zone is seismically active (local magnitude greater than 5.0) with numerous locally felt earthquakes. Focal mechanism solutions suggest strain partitioning with predominantly east–west left-lateral displacements with small normal faults striking mostly toward the northeast. Northeast-trending fractures and normal faults can be found in intermittent streams that cut through the Quaternary alluvial fan deposits along the southern margin of the Lajas Valley, an east–west-trending 30-km-long fault-controlled depression. Areas of preferred erosion within the alluvial fan trend toward the west-northwest parallel to the onland projection of the North Boquerón Bay fault. The North Boquerón Bay fault aligns with the Punta Montalva fault southeast of the Lajas Valley. Both faults show strong southward tilting of Miocene strata. On the western end, the Northern Boquerón Bay fault is covered with flat-lying Holocene sediments, whereas at the southern end the Punta Montalva fault shows left-lateral displacement of stream drainage on the order of a few hundred meters.

Roig?Silva, Coral Marie; Asencio, Eugenio; Joyce, James

2013-01-01

5

Puerto Rico Tsunami Warning and Mitigation Program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The circum-Caribbean region has a documented history of large damaging tsunamis that have affected coastal areas, including the events of the Virgin Islands in 1867 and Mona Passage in 1918. These tsunamis have been triggered by large tsunamigenic earthquakes that deformed the ocean floor. The seismic water waves originating in the prominent fault system around PR are considered to be a near-field hazard for Puerto Rico and the Virgin islands (PR/VI) because they can reach coastal areas within a few minutes after the earthquake. Sources for regional and tele tsunamis have also been identified. To help mitigate the risk of potential tsunamis on the coastal communities of Puerto Rico, with initial funding from the Federal Emergency Management Administration (FEMA) and the University of Puerto Rico (UPR), the Puerto Rico Tsunami Warning and Mitigation Program (PRTWMP) was established in 2000. Three of the main tasks are to evaluate the possibility of establishing a Tsunami Warning System (TWS), prepare tsunami flood maps and education. The need to establish a system of rapid notification for tsunami alerting in the Caribbean region has been recognized by the emergency management and scientific community. Presently, the Puerto Rico Seismic Network (PRSN) of the University of Puerto Rico at Mayag\\x81ez is establishing a Tsunami Warning System (TWS) for PR/VI. Part of the TWS is the EarlyBird system, developed by the West Coast/Alaska Tsunami Warning Center, which has been running in the PRSN since January, 2003. This program automatically locates and disseminates information on potentially tsunamigenic earthquakes. Also, the existing protocol for exchanging data and information on potentially tsunamigenic events in the PR/VI is currently being reviewed by the concerned institutions. Tsunami flood maps were prepared for all of Puerto Rico, including the island municipalities of Vieques and Culebra. These flood maps were generated in three phases. First, hypothetical tsunami scenarios on the basis of the parameters of potential underwater earthquakes were developed. Secondly, each of these earthquakes source scenarios was simulated. The third step was to determine the worst case scenario for a tectonically generated tsunami throughout Puerto Rico. The runups were drawn on GIS referenced topographic maps and aerial photographs. These products are being used by the local, state and federal emergency managers to educate the public and develop mitigation strategies. Based on these maps tsunami warning signs are being installed throughout the potentially affected zones and are a very important component of the TWS.

Huerfano, V. A.; Mercado, A.; von Hillebrandt, C. G.

2003-12-01

6

Karst Map of Puerto Rico  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This map is a digital compilation, combining the mapping of earlier geologists. Their work, cited on the map, contains more detailed descriptions of karst areas and landforms in Puerto Rico. This map is the basis for the Puerto Rico part of a new national karst map currently being compiled by the U.S. Geological Survey. In addition, this product is a standalone, citable source of digital karst data for Puerto Rico. Nearly 25 percent of the United States is underlain by karst terrain, and a large part of that area is undergoing urban and industrial development. Accurate delineations of karstic rocks are needed at scales suitable for national, State, and local maps. The data on this map contribute to a better understanding of subsidence hazards, groundwater contamination potential, and cave resources as well as serve as a guide to topical research on karst. Because the karst data were digitized from maps having a different scale and projection from those on the base map used for this publication, some karst features may not coincide perfectly with physiographic features portrayed on the base map.

Compiled by: Aleman-Gonzalez, Wilma B.

2010-01-01

7

33 CFR 80.738 - Puerto Rico and Virgin Islands.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Puerto Rico and Virgin Islands. 80.738 Section 80.738 Navigation...DEMARCATION LINES Puerto Rico and Virgin Islands § 80.738 Puerto Rico and Virgin Islands. (a) Except inside lines...

2013-07-01

8

Manatee mortality in Puerto Rico  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The most pressing problem in the effective management of the West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus) in Puerto Rico is mortality due to human activities. We assessed 90 cases of manatee strandings in Puerto Rico based on historical data and a coordinated carcass salvage effort from 1990 through 1995. We determined patterns of mortality, including type of event, condition of carcasses, spatial and temporal distribution, gender, size/age class, and the cause of death. The spatial distribution of stranding events was not uniform, with the north, northeast, and south coasts having the highest numbers. Six clusters representing the highest incidence included the areas of Fajardo and Ceiba, Bahia de Jobos, Toa Baja, Guayanilla, Cabo Rojo, and Rio Grande to Luquillo. The number of reported cases has increased at an average rate of 9.6%/yr since 1990. The seasonality of stranding events showed a bimodal pattern, from February through April and in August and September. Most identified causes of death were due to human interaction, especially captures and watercraft collisions. Natural causes usually involved dependent calves. From 1990 through 1995, most deaths were attributed to watercraft collisions. A reduction in anthropogenic mortality of this endangered species can be accomplished only through education and a proactive management and conservation plan that includes law enforcement, mortality assessment, scientific research, rescue and rehabilitation, and inter- and intraagency cooperation.

Mignucci-Giannoni, A. A.; Montoya-Ospina, R. A.; Jimenez-Marrero, N. M.; Rodriguez-Lopez, M.; Williams, Jr. , E. H.; Bonde, R. K.

2000-01-01

9

Tortuguero Bay (Puerto Rico) Environmental Studies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Site selection surveys and environmental research studies of seven coastal sites in Puerto Rico for construction of power generating facilities were carried out. Data are presented on the physical, chemical, and geological parameters of the Tortuguero Bay...

E. D. Wood M. J. Youngbluth M. E. Nutt P. Yoshioka M. J. Canoy

1975-01-01

10

Bibliography of Forestry in Puerto Rico.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report lists 1,357 publications with annotations and subject and author indexes, issued about Puerto Rico's forestry and related activities. Also included is an appendix, chronologically listing the forestry highlights from 1513 through 1978.

M. Mosquera J. Feheley

1984-01-01

11

A Chronological History of Puerto Rico.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book presents a chronological history of Puerto Rico from prehistory and discovery through December of 1972. It includes information on the persons and events that influenced the course of Puerto Rican history. A table of contents and a selective index are included. (Author/AM)

Tovar, Federico Ribes

12

MISR Browse Images: Puerto Rico Dust Experiment (PRiDE)  

MISR Browse Images: Puerto Rico Dust Experiment (PRiDE) These MISR Browse images provide ... overview of the region observed during the Puerto Rico Dust Experiment (PRiDE) field campaign. PRiDE was a study of the radiative, ...

2013-04-02

13

SWIM - A Scientific CubeSat from Puerto Rico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Under the sponsorship of PRIDCO and Puerto Rico NASA Space Grant, a 3U scientific cubesat is being designed and built in Puerto Rico. The cubesat will have 2 scientific instruments: a scientific fluxgate magnetometer from Royal Institute of Technology being deployed on an AFRL deployable boom and a retarding potential analyzer from Virginia Tech University. Aside from contributing essential space weather products to space physics, the project is providing hand on aerospace engineering training for Puerto Rico work force. New aerospace companies in Puerto Rico such as Honeywell Aerospace of Puerto Rico and Infotech has hired graduating students from the program.

Vo, H.; Ivchenko, N. V.; Earle, G. D.; Wiens, G.; Murphrey, T.; Tibert, G.

2012-12-01

14

CHRISTMAS SONGS OF PUERTO RICO.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

ENGLISH AND PUERTO RICAN LYRICS, INCLUDING MUSIC, OF 14 PUERTO RICAN CHRISTMAS SONGS ARE PRESENTED. THE SONGS CAN BE TAUGHT IN ELEMENTARY OR SECONDARY SCHOOLS. FOLK SONGS, FOLK DANCES, PRAISES OF THE CHRIST CHILD AND OF THE THREE WISE KINGS, AND RETELLINGS OF THE CHRISTMAS STORY CONSTITUTE THE REPERTOIRE. BACKGROUND INFORMATION AND THE MEANINGS OF…

TRANSUE, MIRIAM L.

15

Sex Differences and Depression in Puerto Rico.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined sex differences in rates of depressive disorders and depressive symptomatology, as measured by the Diagnostic Interview Schedule, for an island-wide probability sample of Puerto Rico. Found depression significantly more prevalent among women than men. Discusses risk factors from a sex-role and cultural perspective. (Author/KS)

Canino, Glorisa J.; And Others

1987-01-01

16

Fish Pot Fisheries in Puerto Rico.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this paper is to provide information on species composition and catch per unit effort, based on two commercial surveys undertaken around Puerto Rico during February and June 1970, and the M/V Agustin Stahl exploratory fishing surveys and ge...

R. Juhl J. A. S. Caabro

1973-01-01

17

Limnology of Lago Loiza, Puerto Rico.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The principal chemical, physical and biological characteristics of Lago Loiza, Puerto Rico, and its main tributaries were studied from 1973-74. The lake supplies an average of 300,000 cubic meters per day of water to metropolitan San Juan. Flows from Rio ...

F. Quinones-Marquez

1980-01-01

18

Limnology of Laguna Tortuguero, Puerto Rico.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The principal chemical, physical and biological characteristics, as well as the hydrology of Laguna Tortuguero, Puerto Rico, were studied from 1974-75. The lagoon, with an area of 2.24 square kilometers and a volume of about 2.68 million cubic meters, con...

F. Quinones-Marquez L. A. Fuste

1978-01-01

19

Estimated Water Use in Puerto Rico, 2000.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Water-use data were compiled for the 78 municipios of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico for 2000. Five offstream categories were considered: public-supply water withdrawals, domestic self-supplied water use, industrial self-supplied withdrawals, crop irriga...

W. L. Molina-Rivera

2005-01-01

20

Xylazine (veterinary sedative) use in Puerto Rico  

PubMed Central

Human xylazine use in Puerto Rico merits particular attention for its unprecedented scale and depth. Although Puerto Rican injecting drug users (IDUs) have reported using this drug since the early 2000s, little is being done in the research and service delivery sectors as it is claimed that xylazine severely impacts the health of its users. This report provides information on xylazine use and its associated harms. Data from one semi-structured interview collected in New York City (2007-2008) as part of a larger research study with migrant Puerto Rican drug users is presented as a case study. Xylazine, a veterinary sedative, is an adulterant and complement to other drugs and its chronic use is reported to be associated with physical deterioration. Because human xylazine use has been reported in other locations outside of Puerto Rico, this substance could also emerge as an adulterant in other markets to the levels currently experienced in Puerto Rico. Research and interventions are needed to provide adequate services on the island, better understand how the use of xylazine affects its users, and to reduce the possibility of increased xylazine use on the state-side.

2011-01-01

21

Suicide, adolescents and Puerto Rico.  

PubMed

Suicide is a multifactoral phenomena. This article reviews the recent literature and attempts to identify those factors which have particular relevance for Puerto Rican adolescents. Risk factors that correlate highly with the Puerto Rican experience include homosexuality, due to the hostility that the person may experience, depression, gender, prevalence of psychiatric disorders, lack of social integration and social skills, military experience, cultural and religious factors, alcoholism, substance abuse and unemployment/poverty. The literature reviewed indicates that the Puerto Rican adolescent male is in a high risk group for suicide and that the risk increases with age, sexual preference, dysfunction in the family and substance abuse. PMID:10846285

McQuillan, C T; Rodríguez, J

2000-01-01

22

75 FR 68393 - Puerto Rico Disaster # PR-00011  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Primary Counties: Patillas, Ponce, Salinas, Utuado, Yauco. Contiguous Counties: Puerto Rico: Adjuntas, Aibonito, Arecibo, Arroyo, Cayey, Ciales, Coamo, Guanica, Guayama, Guayanilla, Hatillo, Jayuya, Juana Diaz, Lares, Maricao,...

2010-11-05

23

Development of earthquake ground motion relations for Puerto Rico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Empirical ground motion relations are a key input to seismic hazard analysis. Ground motion relations describe the peak ground amplitudes and frequency response characteristics of seismic waves as a function of magnitude and distance. This thesis provides the first region-specific ground motion relations for Puerto Rico. This work is important because Puerto Rico is a region of high seismic hazard and dense population. Due to a paucity of data at small distances and large magnitudes, there are insufficient Puerto Rico ground motion data to directly obtain ground motion relations for magnitudes and distances of most engineering interest. However data from moderate events can be used in conjunction with a seismological model to develop the relations. Fourier amplitudes and response spectra of Puerto Rico earthquakes of magnitude 3 to 5.5 have been analyzed to determine underlying regional model parameters. The regional data were used to determine key attenuation parameters, such as the quality factor Q, the duration of ground motion and generic site amplifications. To overcome the incompleteness of the data set, stochastic finite fault modeling was applied to generate a set of generic artificial waveforms for different magnitudes and distances. In stochastic finite fault modeling a large fault is divided into N subfaults and each subfault is considered as a small point source. Ground motions of subfaults, each of which are calculated by the stochastic point-source method, are summed with a proper delay time in the time domain to obtain the ground motion from the entire fault. The input parameters for the simulations are based on the attenuation parameters obtained from the real recorded waveforms from small to moderate events. Finite-fault simulations based on the stochastic method can be made using the computer program FINSIM. FINSIM has been validated in other regions, such as California, for which more data are available. FINSIM provides results that are comparable to the empirical attenuation relationships that can be obtained by regression analysis of a large strong motion database. Nevertheless, there are some conceptual aspects of FINSIM that should be improved, as described in this thesis. A new approach has been introduced in the stochastic finite fault modeling based on the concept of the "dynamic corner frequency" (where the comer frequency is a parameter that controls spectral shape). In this approach, the comer frequency is a function of time, and the rupture history controls the frequency content of the simulated time series of each subfault. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

Motazedian, Dariush

24

Engineering ethics in Puerto Rico: issues and narratives.  

PubMed

This essay discusses engineering ethics in Puerto Rico by examining the impact of the Colegio de Ingenieros y Agrimensores de Puerto Rico (CIAPR) and by outlining the constellation of problems and issues identified in workshops and retreats held with Puerto Rican engineers. Three cases developed and discussed in these workshops will help outline movements in engineering ethics beyond the compliance perspective of the CIAPR. These include the Town Z case, Copper Mining in Puerto Rico, and a hypothetical case researched by UPRM students on laptop disposal. The last section outlines four future challenges in engineering ethics pertinent to the Puerto Rican situation. PMID:18427954

Frey, William J; O'Neill-Carrillo, Efraín

2008-09-01

25

The public controversies of aids in Puerto Rico  

Microsoft Academic Search

All articles using the word 'AIDS' that have appeared in the five major daily newspapers in Puerto Rico since 1982 were studied to analyze the way in which AIDS has been presented in the daily press. Virtually all of the articles regarding AIDS, at least those specifically pertaining to Puerto Rico, presented controversies. These were of two kinds. Articles regarding

Ineke Cunningham

1989-01-01

26

29 CFR 510.20 - Wage surveys in Puerto Rico.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Manufacturing Industries. The Bureau of Labor Statistics of Puerto Rico regularly gathers...Non-manufacturing industries. The Bureau of Labor Statistics of Puerto Rico designed and executed...gathered for the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (i.e., that included in the...

2013-07-01

27

The Dos Bocas dam in Puerto Rico.  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Dos Bocas dam in Puerto Rico was constructed in 1942 to generate hydroelectric power. Dams in this region prevent the migration of shrimp and fish to areas upstream of the dam. As a result, compared to similar reaches of undammed streams, areas that are upstream of dammed rivers have higher amounts of organic and inorganic nutrients as well as altered invertebrate populations. Loss of migratory shrimp and fish upstream from dams alters basal resources and assemblages of invertebrate competitors and prey. This photograph originally appeared on the cover of Ecological Applications (16:1) in February of 2006.

Klemow, Kenneth

2010-02-11

28

Floods in Puerto Rico, magnitude and frequency  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Annual-peak discharge records at 50 sites in Puerto Rico with five or more years of record were used to determine individual site log-Pearson type III frequency curves. The frequency curve values for 2-, 10-, 25-, 50-, and 100-year recurrence intervals at 37 sites with 10 or more years of record were regressed against basin characteristics. Drainage area and mean annual rainfall proved to be the only independent variables significant at the 95 percent confidence level in these regression equations. (Woodard-USGS)

Lopez, Miguel A.; Colon-Dieppa, Eloy; Cobb, Ernest D.

1979-01-01

29

Fertility and Migration: The Case of Puerto Rico.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper combines records from the United States census with records from the Puerto Rican census and compares for the first time the fertility levels of Puerto Ricans who migrated to the United States with those of their counterparts who remained in Puerto Rico. The general hypothesis tested is that migration and residence in a place where low…

Rindfuss, Ronald R.

30

Estimated water use in Puerto Rico, 2000  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Water-use data were compiled for the 78 municipios of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico for 2000. Five offstream categories were considered: public-supply water withdrawals, domestic self-supplied water use, industrial self-supplied withdrawals, crop irrigation water use, and thermoelectric power fresh water use. Two additional categories also were considered: power generation instream use and public wastewater treatment return-flows. Fresh water withdrawals for offstream use from surface- and ground-water sources in Puerto Rico were estimated at 617 million gallons per day. The largest amount of fresh water withdrawn was by public-supply water facilities and was estimated at 540 million gallons per day. Fresh surface- and ground-water withdrawals by domestic self-supplied users was estimated at 2 million gallons per day and the industrial self-supplied withdrawals were estimated at 9.5 million gallons per day. Withdrawals for crop irrigation purposes were estimated at 64 million gallons per day, or approximately 10 percent of all offstream fresh water withdrawals. Saline instream surface-water withdrawals for cooling purposes by thermoelectric power facilities was estimated at 2,191 million gallons per day, and instream fresh water withdrawals by hydroelectric facilities at 171 million gallons per day. Total discharge from public wastewater treatment facilities was estimated at 211 million gallons per day.

Molina-Rivera, Wanda L.

2005-01-01

31

Particulate Air Contamination in Puerto Rico: A Student Involvement Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a research project undertaken by physics undergraduate students to monitor particulate air contamination in Ponce, Puerto Rico, and to determine the meteorological factors which contribute to it. (GA)

Eckert, Richard R.

1979-01-01

32

Seismic Design Criteria for Buried Water Pipeline in Puerto Rico.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The primary objective of this report was to determine the effect of earthquakes on buried water pipelines constructed in Puerto Rico. The work established the design earthquake parameters required together with a simplified dynamic analysis technique that...

R. Jimenez-Perez

1983-01-01

33

75 FR 68373 - Puerto Rico; Major Disaster and Related Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Guayama, Jayuya, Lares, Las Mar[iacute]as, Maricao, Mayag[uuml]ez, Patillas, Ponce, Sabana Grande, Salinas, San Germ[aacute]n, Utuado, Yabucoa, and Yauco for Public Assistance. All counties within the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico are...

2010-11-05

34

General Vulnerability and Exposure Profile to Tsunami in Puerto Rico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Puerto Rico archipelago, located in the seismically active Caribbean region, has been directly affected by tsunamis in the last two centuries. The M 7.3 tsunamigenic earthquake, which occurred on October 11, 1918, caused $29 million in damage, death of 116 people and 100 residents were reported as missing. Presently, deficiencies on urban planning have induced an increase on the number of vulnerable people living inside the tsunami flood areas. Tsunami-prone areas have been delimited for Puerto Rico based on numerical tsunami modeling. However, the demographic, social and physical (e.g. critical and essential facilities) characteristics of these areas have not been documented in detail. We are conducting a municipality and community-level tsunami vulnerability and exposure study using Geographical Information System (GIS) tool. The results of our study are being integrated into the Puerto Rico Disaster Decision Support Tool (DDST). The DDST is a tool that brings access, at no cost, to a variety of updated geo-referenced information for Puerto Rico. This tool provides internet-based scalable maps that will aid emergency managers and decision-makers on their responsibilities and will improve Puerto Rico communities' resilience against tsunami hazard. This project aims to provide an initial estimate of Puerto Rico vulnerability and exposure to tsunami and brings to the community a technological tool that will help increase their awareness of this hazard and to assist them on their decisions.

Ruiz, R.; Huérfano-Moreno, V.

2012-12-01

35

The Nuyorican's Dilemma: Categorization of Returning Migrants in Puerto Rico.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigated self and social categorization of Puerto Rican returning migrants (Nuyoricans). Surveys indicated that migrant and non-migrant high school students evaluated Nuyorican adolescents as significantly different from adolescents raised in Puerto Rico. Student evaluations of adolescents differing in salience of Nuyorican attributes…

Lorenzo-Hernandez, Jose

1999-01-01

36

Geology of Isla de Mona, Puerto Rico  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Isla de Mona is a carbonate island located in the Mona Passage 68 km west of Puerto Rico. The tectonically uplifted island is 12 km by 5 km, with an area of 55 km2, and forms a raised flat-topped platform or meseta. The meseta tilts gently to the south and is bounded by near vertical cliffs on all sides. These cliffs rise from 80 m above sea level on the north to 20 m above the sea on the southern coast. Along the southwestern and western side of the island a three- to six-meter-high Pleistocene fossil reef abuts the base of the cliff to form a narrow coastal plain. The meseta itself consists of two Mio-Pliocene carbonate units, the lower Isla de Mona Dolomite and the upper Lirio Limestone. Numerous karst features, including a series of flank margin caves primarily developed at the Lirio Limestone/Isla de Mona Dolomite contact, literally ring the periphery of the island.

Frank, E. F.; Wicks, C.; Mylroie, J.; Troester, J.; Alexander, Jr. , E. C.; Carew, J. L.

1998-01-01

37

Legionella in Puerto Rico cooling towers  

SciTech Connect

Water samples from air conditioning cooling towers receiving different treatment protocols on five large municipal buildings in San Juan, Puerto Rico were assayed for various species and serogroups of Legionella spp. using direct immunofluorescence. Several water quality parameters were also measured with each sample. Guinea pigs were inoculated with water samples to confirm pathogenicity and recover viable organisms. Legionella pneumophila (1-6), L. bozemanii, L. micdadei, L. dumoffii, and L. gormanii were observed in at least one of the cooling towers. L. pneumophila was the most abundant species, reaching 10{sup 5} cells/ml, within the range that is considered potentially pathogenic to humans. A significantly higher density of L. pneumophila was observed in the cooling tower water that was not being treated with biocides. Percent respiration (INT) and total cell activity (AODC), were inversely correlated with bacterial density. This study demonstrates that Legionella spp. are present in tropical air-conditioning cooling systems, and without continuous biocide treatment may reach densities that present a health risk.

Negron-Alviro, A.; Perez-Suarez, I.; Hazen, T.C. [Univ. of Puerto Rico, Rio Piedras (Puerto Rico)

1988-12-31

38

Hydrogeology of the karst of Puerto Rico  

USGS Publications Warehouse

About one-fifth of Puerto Rico is covered by a tropical karst formed on a series of six limestone formations ranging in age from middle-Oligocene to middle Miocene. These formations strike east to west and crop out over the north coast of the island. Structurally, the rocks form a simple wedge abutting southward against a mountain chain of volcanic origin and thickening northward to about 1,400 meters by the seashore. All stages of karstification are present: from the incipient, found at the western end of the belt to the residual, found at the eastern end. Maximum development of sinkholes occurs on the Aguada Limestone and upper part of the Aymanom Limestone. These formations have a CaCO3 content range from about 85 to 95 percent. The denudation rate of the Limestone belt through solution is computed as 0.70 mm per year with some evidence that abrasion may increase the denudation rate locally by as much as 40 percent. (Woodard-USGS)

Giusti, Ennio V.

1978-01-01

39

Economic Cost of Dengue in Puerto Rico  

PubMed Central

Dengue, endemic in Puerto Rico, reached a record high in 2010. To inform policy makers, we derived annual economic cost. We assessed direct and indirect costs of hospitalized and ambulatory dengue illness in 2010 dollars through surveillance data and interviews with 100 laboratory-confirmed dengue patients treated in 2008–2010. We corrected for underreporting by using setting-specific expansion factors. Work absenteeism because of a dengue episode exceeded the absenteeism for an episode of influenza or acute otitis media. From 2002 to 2010, the aggregate annual cost of dengue illness averaged $38.7 million, of which 70% was for adults (age 15+ years). Hospitalized patients accounted for 63% of the cost of dengue illness, and fatal cases represented an additional 17%. Households funded 48% of dengue illness cost, the government funded 24%, insurance funded 22%, and employers funded 7%. Including dengue surveillance and vector control activities, the overall annual cost of dengue was $46.45 million ($12.47 per capita).

Halasa, Yara A.; Shepard, Donald S.; Zeng, Wu

2012-01-01

40

Limnology of Laguna Tortuguero, Puerto Rico  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The principal chemical, physical and biological characteristics, and the hydrology of Laguna Tortuguero, Puerto Rico, were studied from 1974-75. The lagoon, with an area of 2.24 square kilometers and a volume of about 2.68 million cubic meters, contains about 5 percent of seawater. Drainage through a canal on the north side averages 0.64 cubic meters per second per day, flushing the lagoon about 7.5 times per year. Chloride and sodium are the principal ions in the water, ranging from 300 to 700 mg/liter and 150 to 400 mg/liter, respectively. Among the nutrients, nitrogen averages about 1.7 mg/liter, exceeding phosphorus in a weight ratio of 170:1. About 10 percent of the nitrogen and 40 percent of the phosphorus entering the lagoon is retained. The bottom sediments, with a volume of about 4.5 million cubic meters, average 0.8 and 0.014 percent nitrogen and phosphorus, respectively. (Woodard-USGS)

Quinones-Marquez, Ferdinand; Fuste, Luis A.

1978-01-01

41

Source, Use, and Disposition of Freshwater in Puerto Rico, 2005  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Water diverted from streams and pumped from wells constitutes the main sources of water for the 78 municipios of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico. A better understanding is needed about water-use patterns, particularly about the amount of water used, where and how this water is used and disposed, and how human activities impact water resources. Irrigation practices, indoor and outdoor household uses, industrial uses, and commercial and mining withdrawals affect reservoirs, streams, and aquifers. Accurate and accessible water information for Puerto Rico is critical to ensure that water managers have the ability to protect and conserve this natural resource. The population of Puerto Rico increased 15 percent, from 3.4 million in 1985 to 3.9 million people 2005 and resulted in an increased demand for freshwater, mostly for the public-supply water use category. Almost 99 percent of the residents in Puerto Rico were served by public-supply water systems in 2005. One of the major challenges that water managers confront is the need to provide sufficient freshwater availability in the densely populated areas. Public-supply water is provided by the Puerto Rico Aqueducts and Sewers Authority (PRASA) and by non-PRASA systems. Non-PRASA systems refer to community-operated water systems (water systems that serve a rural or suburban housing area).

Molina-Rivera, Wanda L.

2010-01-01

42

Low birthweight and infant mortality in Puerto Rico.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES. The purpose of this study was to quantify the relative contributions of maternal age, education, marital status, hospital of birth, and use of prenatal care to the high incidence of low birthweight and infant mortality in Puerto Rico. METHODS. An analysis was conducted of 257,537 live births that occurred from 1986 through 1989 among Puerto Rico residents and the 3373 corresponding infant deaths. Binomial multiple regression models were used to calculate the adjusted population attributable risks for each variable. RESULTS. Our estimates indicate that approximately 6 of every 10 infant deaths on the island are potentially preventable if low birthweight were eradicated, regardless of other associated factors. Eliminating risks associated with sociodemographic and socioeconomic factors (including hospital of birth) would potentially decrease the incidence of low birth-weight in Puerto Rico by one third. Specifically, the elimination of risks associated with the socioeconomic disadvantage of women delivering in public hospitals alone would potentially decrease Puerto Rico's low birthweight incidence by 28%, regardless of other factors considered in our study. CONCLUSIONS. Efforts to prevent low birthweight and infant mortality in Puerto Rico should focus on reducing the gap between the private and public sectors.

Becerra, J E; Atrash, H K; Perez, N; Saliceti, J A

1993-01-01

43

75 FR 12730 - Foreign-Trade Zone 163-Ponce, Puerto Rico; Application for Expansion  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Docket 17-2010] Foreign-Trade Zone 163--Ponce, Puerto Rico; Application for Expansion An application...its zone to include an additional site in the Ponce, Puerto Rico area, within the Ponce Customs and Border Protection port of...

2010-03-17

44

75 FR 41801 - Expansion of Foreign-Trade Zone 163 Ponce, Puerto Rico, Area  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...1693] Expansion of Foreign-Trade Zone 163 Ponce, Puerto Rico, Area Pursuant to its authority...site at the Yaucono Industrial Park (Site 12) in Ponce, Puerto Rico, within the Ponce Customs and Border Protection port of entry...

2010-07-19

45

77 FR 48504 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Economic Value of Puerto Rico's Coral Reef...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...market and non-market economic values of Puerto Rico's coral reef ecosystems. Estimates will be made for all ecosystem services for the Guanica Bay Watershed and for recreation-tourism for all of Puerto Rico's coral reef ecosystems....

2012-08-14

46

73 FR 36298 - Foreign-Trade Zone 7 - Mayaguez, Puerto Rico, Application for Subzone, Amgen Manufacturing...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Mayaguez, Puerto Rico, Application for Subzone, Amgen Manufacturing Limited, (Biotechnology and Healthcare...biotechnology and healthcare products at the facility of Amgen Manufacturing Limited (Amgen), located in Juncos, Puerto Rico. The...

2008-06-26

47

Survival of Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Puerto Rico  

PubMed Central

Background Blacks and Hispanics in the United States (US) have the lowest survival rates of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), mainly associated to the presence of advanced disease at diagnosis when intervention is least beneficial. This study compared the survival distribution and relative survival of HCC in Puerto Rico (PR) during 1988-1992 and 1998-2002. Methods All HCC cases in the PR Central Cancer Registry database for 1988-1992 (n=306) and 1998-2002 (n=333) were identified. Patient characteristics and clinical variables were compared between study periods. Survival by age at diagnosis, sex, tumor stage and treatment was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method, and survival curves were compared using the Wilcoxon test. A Cox proportional hazards model was employed to assess the effect of period of diagnosis on survival, after adjusting for confounders. One- and three-year survival rates were also calculated. Results Patients diagnosed during 1998-2002 (median: 3.08 months, 95% CI: 2.30-4.16) had a longer observed survival than those diagnosed from 1988-1992 (median: 1.80 months, 95% CI: 1.44-2.52). A significant interaction was observed between the variables age and period of diagnosis, where only among persons aged ? 60 years the risk of HCC death was lower (sex-adjusted HR=O.72; 95%CI: 0.59-0.88) in patients diagnosed during 1998-2002 as compared to those diagnosed during 1988-1992. The overall one- and three-year relative survival during 1998-2002 was approximately 6% (22.4% vs.16.6%) and 2% higher (9.0% vs. 6.7%) respectively, as compared to 1988-1992. Conclusion We observed a temporal improvement in the survival of HCC in PR during the last decade. However, this survival is inferior to the one observed in the US population. Further studies are needed to identify factors that explain these disparities.

MARRERO, CARLOS ROMERO; ORTIZ, ANA P.; PEREZ, CYNTHIA M.; PEREZ, JAVIER; TORRES, ESTHER A.

2013-01-01

48

Diagenesis of Isla de Mona, Puerto Rico  

SciTech Connect

Isla de Mona is a carbonate plateau, 50 mi west of Puerto Rico. The plateau is composed mostly of two Miocene carbonate units, the Isla de Mona Dolomite overlain by Lirio Limestone. These two units consist primarily of back-reef sands with a reefal sequence present in the Lirio Limestone to the southwest. The Lirio Limestone is heavily karstified with numerous sinkholes in the central part of the island resembling present-day cenotes of the Yucatan peninsula. Numerous large cave openings are exposed along cliffs surrounding the island, with cavern size rapidly decreasing toward the interior. Within the Isla de Mona Dolomite, three different soil development episodes can be identified in the central part of the island, and on the periphery of the island several episodes of vadose diagenesis are identified by the presence of vadose silts and paleotravertine. Both units exhibit selective dissolution of aragonitic skeletal grains with fabric retentive replacement of former high magnesium calcite skeletal components, by calcite in the Lirio Limestone, and by dolomite in the Isla de Mona Dolomite. Petrographic relationships suggest early diagenetic modification by fluids that were substantially undersaturated with respect to aragonite, which preferentially dissolved aragonitic components, near saturation with respect to calcite/high magnesian calcite during dolomitization, and saturated with respect to calcite during calcitization. Stable isotopic composition of individual dolomitized components and dolomite microspar in the Isla de Mona Dolomite define a hyperbolic trend characteristic of composition produced by fluid mixing. The similarity of the karstified Lirio Limestone to present-day Yucatan, the nature and fluid chemistry requirement of the aragonite dissolution and calcite replacement process, the isotopic composition of the dolomite suggest diagenetic modification under meteoric-marine fluid mixing.

Gonzalez, L.A. (Univ. of Iowa, Iowa City (USA)); Ruiz, H.; Monell, V. (Univ. of Puerto Rico, Mayaguez (Puerto Rico))

1990-05-01

49

The Health Status of Youth in Puerto Rico  

PubMed Central

Background Few population-based studies have assessed health outcomes and health care access and utilization among youth in the U.S. Commonwealth of Puerto Rico. Methods Data are from an island population-based sample of 337 youth ages 10 to 17 who participated in the Asthma, Depression, and Anxiety in Puerto Rican Youth Study. In-person interviews with youth and caregivers assessed self-rated physical and mental health, weight status, diagnosed health conditions, and health care access and utilization. Results Island Puerto Rican youth report slightly worse physical and mental health than mainland youth. Puerto Rican youth have high rates of asthma, headaches, and stomachaches. Six in ten island youth use public health insurance and one in three regularly receive care at the emergency department. Conclusions Island Puerto Rican youth are at a health disadvantage compared with mainland youth. Public health research is needed to fully understand and combat health challenges among Puerto Rican youth.

Langellier, Brent A; Martin, Molly A; Canino, Glorisa; Garza, Jeremiah R; Ortega, Alexander N

2013-01-01

50

78 FR 9884 - Approval of Subzone Status; Zimmer Manufacturing BV; Ponce, Puerto Rico  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Subzone Status; Zimmer Manufacturing BV; Ponce, Puerto Rico Pursuant to its authority...facility of Zimmer Manufacturing BV located in Ponce, Puerto Rico (FTZ Docket B-81-2012...facility of Zimmer Manufacturing BV located in Ponce, Puerto Rico (Subzone 163A), as...

2013-02-12

51

Neotectonics of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands, northeastern Caribbean, from GPS geodesy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The boundary between the North American and Caribbean plates is characterized primarily by left-lateral motion along predominantly east-west striking faults. Seismicity and marine geophysical survey data are consistent with at least two, and possibly three, microplates in the diffuse boundary zone in the northeastern Caribbean: (1) the Gonave, (2) the Hispaniola, and (3) the Puerto Rico-northern Virgin Islands (PRVI). We

Pamela E. Jansma; Glen S. Mattioli; Alberto Lopez; Charles DeMets; Timothy H. Dixon; Paul Mann; Eric Calais

2000-01-01

52

Accuracy and sensitivity of earthquake locations offshore Puerto Rico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seismic swarms along the Northeastern corner of the Caribbean plate have been recorded at the Puerto Rico Seismic Network for more than three decades. The nature of these events is still uncertain due to limited azimuthal coverage by seismographic stations. A six-month deployment of five ocean bottom seismographs (OBS) in 2007 is helping us understand the underlying causes of these

A. M. Lopez; J. Pulliam; V. A. Huerfano; H. E. Mintz; G. A. Mattei

2010-01-01

53

A Marked Increase in Organ Donation in Puerto Rico  

Microsoft Academic Search

During its first years of existence, the Puerto Rico Transplant Program barely reached 18 to 20 renal transplants per year. A brain death amendment to the law improved the numbers but only to a stable thirty\\/year. Polls and studies showed that, although people knew about transplantation and expressed willingness to donate, the powerful emotional grief reaction, as well as a

M. Saade; J. Davies; E. Torres; L. Morales-Otero; Z. Gonzalez-Caraballo; E. A. Santiago-Delpin

2005-01-01

54

Relations between Study and Employment: Music Graduates in Puerto Rico  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Higher education programs in Puerto Rico include undergraduate degrees in music, music education, composition, popular music, jazz and Caribbean music, and, most recently, a master’s degree in music education. However, little is known about what music graduates do after concluding college. Do they work in music-related areas? Are they satisfied…

Latorre, Ileana S.; Lorenzo, Oswaldo

2013-01-01

55

National Environmental/Energy Workforce Assessment for Puerto Rico.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report presents existing workforce levels, training programs and career potentials and develops staffing level projections (1976-1982) based on available information for the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico. The study concerns itself with the environmental pollution control areas of air, noise, potable water, pesticides, radiation, solid waste,…

National Field Research Center Inc., Iowa City, IA.

56

October 1985 Landslide at Barrio Mameyes, Ponce, Puerto Rico,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

During the early hours of the morning on Monday, October 7, 1985, a landslide destroyed a large section of the Mameyes neighborhood in Ponce, Puerto Rico. The landslide occurred during an intense storm that developed into Hurricane Isabel after moving awa...

F. Silva-Tulla

1986-01-01

57

Adult Basic Education Teacher Competency Inventory: Puerto Rico. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With the increasing need to develop curriculum guidelines for Adult Basic Education (ABE) teacher training based upon teacher experiences, the Center for Resource Development in Adult Education (CRD) conducted a survey of a 10 percent sample of ABE educators in Puerto Rico to identify, classify, and rank the knowledges, behaviors, and attitudes…

Zinn, Lorraine M.

58

Puerto Rico Time-of-Day Rates Demonstration. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Puerto Rico Time of Day (TOD) electric rate demonstration project consists of three distinct studies: (A) Low usage customers (less than or equal to425 kWh per 30 consecutive days) are compared for a 12 hours peak period rate, against a control group ...

1985-01-01

59

Technology and Ethics: Some Lessons in Puerto Rico.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the efforts to integrate ethics across the curriculum, especially in business, science, and engineering, at the University of Puerto Rico at Mayaguez. Explains why the integration of ethics across the curriculum is better than application when teaching ethics to students. Discusses the use of participatory case studies in engineering…

Frey, William J.

1998-01-01

60

The Demand for Higher Education in Puerto Rico.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Uses time-series data to estimate empirical enrollment functions for three Puerto Rico university systems. Measures opportunity cost and benefits to education as expected wage rates and tests a market segmentation process. Results show that the universities are not substitutes for one another. To cope with continuing revenue shortfalls,…

King, Jonathan

1993-01-01

61

Geology of the North Slope of the Puerto Rico Trench.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Bathymetric and continuous seismic reflection profiles and rocks dredged in 1962 and 1964 are used to describe topography, stratigraphy and structure of the North Slope of the Puerto Rico Trench between 65 degrees 00 min W and 66 degrees 30 min W. Abundan...

R. L. Chase J. B. Hersey

1968-01-01

62

Tele-TESOL in Puerto Rico for the Primary Grades.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The lack of qualified English teachers is a pressing problem in Puerto Rico where, officially, English is taught in grades 1-12 one hour each school day. Less than 1% of the primary grade teachers are qualified to teach English as a second language, yet because of their excellent methodology, they teach "very effectively their own faulty speech…

Welninski, Virginia M.

63

Commercialization of Raft Oyster Culture in Puerto Rico.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Oyster Culture Project of the Puerto Rico Nuclear Center has been investigating the feasibility of raft-culturing the local mangrove oyster (Crassostrea rhizophorae) for the past two years. Attempts to start culture efforts on a commercial scale are d...

K. W. Watters

1975-01-01

64

EMERGY Evaluation of Puerto Rico and the Luquillo Experimental Forest.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The many functions of Puerto Rico and the Luquillo Experimental Forest (the Forest) were evaluated in units of solar EMERGY, an energy-based measure of resource contribution and influence, defined as the energy of one type required to produce a flow or st...

F. N. Scatena S. J. Doherty H. T. Odum P. Kharecha

2002-01-01

65

Tropical cyclones and the flood hydrology of Puerto Rico  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Some of the largest unit discharge flood peaks in the stream gaging records of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) have occurred in Puerto Rico. Many of these flood peaks are associated with tropical cyclones. Hurricane Georges, which passed directly over the island on 21-22 September 1998, produced record flood peaks at numerous USGS stations in Puerto Rico. The hydrology and hydrometeorology of extreme flood response in Puerto Rico are examined through analyses of rainfall, based on Weather Surveillance Radar - 1988 Doppler (WSR-88D) radar reflectivity observations and USGS rain gage observations and discharge from USGS stream gaging stations. Peak rainfall accumulations of more than 700 mm occurred in the central mountain region of the island. The largest unit discharge flood peaks, however, were located in the eastern portion of the island in areas with smaller storm total rainfall accumulations but markedly larger rainfall rates at 5-60 min timescale. Orographic precipitation mechanisms played an important role in rainfall distribution over the island of Puerto Rico. Amplification of rainfall accumulations was associated with areas of upslope motion. Elevated low-level cloud water content in regions of upslope motion played an important role in the maximum rainfall accumulations in the central mountain region of Puerto Rico. The largest unit discharge flood peaks, however, were produced by a decaying eye wall mesovortex, which resulted in a 30-45 min period of extreme rainfall rates over the eastern portion of the island. This storm element was responsible for the record flood peak of the Rio Grande de Lo??iza. The role of terrain in development and evolution of the eye wall mesovortex is unclear but is of fundamental importance for assessing extreme flood response from the storm. Hydrologic response is examined through analyses of rainfall and discharge from five pairs of drainage basins, extending from east to west over the island. These analyses point to the importance of short-term rainfall rates for extreme flood response. The hydrologic response of Puerto Rico is compared with two other extreme flood environments, the central Appalachians and Edwards Plateau of Texas. These analyses suggest that the high rainfall environment of Puerto Rico is linked to the development of a hydraulically efficient drainage system. Copyright 2005 by the American Geophysical Union.

Smith, J. A.; Sturdevant-Rees, P.; Baeck, M. L.; Larsen, M. C.

2005-01-01

66

Multibeam Mapping and Remotely Operated Vehicle Exploration of the Puerto Rico and Virgin Islands Region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During October 2013, an ocean exploration project took place off the coast of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. This project, a collaborative effort between the Ocean Exploration Trust, the US Geological Survey, the University of Puerto Rico at Mayaguez, the University of Rhode Island, and NOAA, was aimed at exploring regions of the US exclusive economic zone (EEZ) south of the Puerto Rico Trench axis, and north of Mona Island, Puerto Rico, and the US and British Virgin Islands, and portions of the Anegada Passage. The research vessel E/V Nautilus and the Hercules/Argus ROV system were used to expand the multibeam sonar bathymetric data coverage of the region, collect high definition video footage of seafloor features, and to collect biological and geological samples along selected transects. Particular areas of interest for targeted ROV dives included: the region where a large M7.2 1918 earthquake produced a tsunami that struck northwestern corner of Puerto Rico; a transect up the vertical wall of the Mona Rift (4000 to 1500 m depth); transects along the Septentrional fault system; dives in areas of suspected fluid flow through faults, fissures, and offshore Karst systems associated with the tilted carbonate platform north of Puerto Rico; dives in the Anegada Passage at the entry points for surface Atlantic waters that circulate into the Caribbean; and in regions to investigate and date sedimentary features offset by fault motion and potential tsunamigenic landslides. Biological sampling of many deep-sea benthic organisms (including deep water corals) have never been attempted before in this area. These samples are being used to understand more about the diversity, population dynamics, genetics, and habitat connectivity of these communities, and to provide an age constraint for disturbed sedimentary features. Until this cruise, the location and distribution of deep coral habitats in the US Caribbean was largely unknown. The available information on benthic communities associated with deep coral ecosystems in this region was mostly limited to taxonomic listings from incidental collections by fish traps, shrimp trawls and coral entanglement devices. We present the results of the first direct observations and sampling of these ecosystems.

Coleman, D. F.; Ten Brink, U. S.; Armstrong, R.; Chaytor, J. D.; Demopoulos, A. W.

2013-12-01

67

Pipeline Accident Report - The Pipelines of Puerto Rico, Inc., Petroleum Products Pipeline Rupture and Fire, Bayamon, Puerto Rico, January 30, 1980.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

At 9:50 a.m., on January 30, 1980, an 8-inch-diameter, refined petroleum products pipeline owned by the Pipelines of Puerto Rico, Inc., and operated by the Shell Oil Company (Puerto Rico) Ltd. was struck and ruptured by a bulldozer during maintenance work...

1980-01-01

68

The Anthropology of the People of Puerto Rico. Studies of Puerto Rican Society and Culture, No. 1.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This monograph contains seven papers presented at a 1977 symposium held to reevaluate the 1947 research work, "The People of Puerto Rico." (1) Sidney Mintz discusses the role of Puerto Rico in modern social science. (2) Eric Wolf, one of the authors of the 1947 work, comments retrospectively on some of the conceptual and methodological strengths…

Duncan, Ronald J., Ed.

69

Media complementarity and health information seeking in puerto rico.  

PubMed

This investigation incorporates the Orientation1-Stimulus-Orientation2-Response model on the antecedents and outcomes of individual-level complementarity of media use in health information seeking. A secondary analysis of the Health Information National Trends Survey Puerto Rico data suggests that education and gender were positively associated with individual-level media complementarity of health information seeking, which, in turn, was positively associated with awareness of health concepts and organizations, and this awareness was positively associated with a specific health behavior: fruit and vegetable consumption. This study extends the research in media complementarity and health information use; it provides an integrative social psychological model empirically supported by the Health Information National Trends Survey Puerto Rico data. PMID:24377383

Tian, Yan; Robinson, James D

2014-06-01

70

Sedimentation Survey of Lago Guerrero, Puerto Rico, May 2001  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Lago Guerrero, a small reservoir owned by the Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority, is part of the Isabela Hydroelectric System and is located in Aguadilla, in northwestern Puerto Rico. The reservoir had a storage capacity of about 127,376 cubic meters in May 2001 and a maximum depth of about 5.8 meters. Records on dam construction and original topography and storage capacity were not available; therefore, sedimentation rates could not be determined. However, Lago Guerrero resumably was constructed during the 1930?s because it receives water from lago Guajataca, which was constructed in 1928. The May 2001 bathymetric survey of Lago Guerrero established baseline data that are essential to calculate sedimentation rates, sediment yields, storage loss, and sediment deposition sites within the reservoir.

Soler-Lopez, Luis R.

2002-01-01

71

Fracture Analysis of Neogene Rocks in Puerto Rico constrains Neogene-Quaternary microplate evolution of the northeastern Caribbean plate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Puerto Rico-Virgin Islands (PRVI) microplate is bounded to the north and south by subduction zones, and to the east and the west by diffuse zones of extension (Mona rift) or probable transtension (Anegada Passage). Paleomagnetic data from Neogene carbonate rocks exposed in Puerto Rico record 24 degrees of counterclockwise rotation since the middle Miocene (Reid et al., 1991). Such largescale counterclockwise rotation would agree with observed Pliocene dextral transtensional movements in the Anegada passage (Jany et al., 1987; 1990; Mauffret and Jany, 1990) and would predict transpression in the area of the Mona Rift. However, recent GPS data (Jansma et al., 2000) reveal E-W extension in the Mona Passage that disagrees with the counterclockwise rotation model. We present the results of the first fault slip measurements from Mio-Pliocene carbonate rocks in Puerto Rico. In northwest Puerto Rico, fracture analysis reveals late Neogene-Quaternary normal faulting post-dating karst landforms and continuous with NS-striking normal faults bounding the eastern margin of the Mona rift. Paleostress analysis of these onshore faults well exposed in quarries and roadcuts confirms that the Mona rift is presently opening in an E-W direction. Along the southern margin of Puerto Rico, the Neogene carbonates of the Ponce formation have recorded two successive transtensional deformations: (1) a NNE-trending dextral transtension; (2) a SE-trending sinistral transtension. The latter event is closely related to WSW to SW-striking normal faults bounding the Anegada Passage. Future work on Neogene rocks exposed on the Virgin Islands flanking the Anegada Passage will determine if polyphase evolution of the Anegada Passage is consistent with (1) Miocene dextral transtension during a counterclockwise rotation of the PRVI microplate and (2) Pliocene-Quaternary E-W to NW-SE extension produced by slower eastward motion of the PRVI microplate relative to the Lesser Antilles arc and Caribbean plate.

Hippolyte, J. C.; Mann, P.

2003-04-01

72

Hurricane Hortense: impact on surface water in Puerto Rico  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Late Monday night, September 9, and into the early morning hours of Tuesday, September 10, 1996, Hurricane Hortense passed over the southwestern part of Puerto Rico (inset). Hurricane Hortense made landfall as a Category One Hurricane (74 to 95 miles per hour) on the Saffir-Simpson Scale, with maximum sustained winds of nearly 80 miles per hour. The eye of Hurricane Hortense moved over the towns of Guayanilla, Yauco, Guánica, Lajas, San Germán, Cabo Rojo, Hormigueros, and Mayagüez (fig. 1).

Torres-Sierra, Heriberto

1997-01-01

73

Energy Integrated dairy Farm System in Puerto Rico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Principles of energy-integrated farming were applied to the Rio Canas Dairy Farm, a privately-owned dairy farm and one of the largest dairy farms in Puerto Rico with a milking herd of 400 cows. Animal wastes were fed to two anaerobic digesters where methane gas was produced by bacterial degradation of organic material. The methane gas fueled an engine-generator to produce

D. S. Sasscer; T. O. Morgan

1986-01-01

74

DISTRIBUTION AND ABUNDANCE OF RAPTORS IN PUERTO RICO  

Microsoft Academic Search

hOtI3 July 1986 to June 1988, I counted all raptors (Falconiformes and Stri- giformes) seen or heard along 1.5 g-km routes in the three major life zones of Puerto Rico (moist, wet, and dry). Red-tailed Hawks (Buteo jamaicensis) and American Kestrels (F&o sparverius) were the most abundant year-round residents. Red-tailed Hawks were more abundant in the moist zone than in

FRANK F. RIVERA-MILAN

1995-01-01

75

Manufacturing tracking system at Hewlett Packard Puerto Rico  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the process used to design, develop and implement a custom made modular client-server on-line transaction processing and decision support system used at Hewlett Packard Puerto Rico. This system is part of the corporate wide re-engineering effort.The purpose of this system is to enforce that the appropriate manufacturing processes are executed and to provide a container for quality

Evelyn Morales; Radamés Aguayo; Juan C. Villa

1997-01-01

76

Geophysical Investigation of the Puerto Rico Trench and Outer Ridge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results of the seismic investigation of the Puerto Rico trench and outer ridge, carried out in 1959 by Lamont Geological Observatory, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institu- tion, A. and M. College of Texas, and Hudson Laboratories, are presented as a crustal section. Three layers above the mantle having compressional velocities of 22, 5.3, and 6.6 km\\/sec are defined continuously from the

Elizabeth T. Bunce; Davis A. Fahlquist

1962-01-01

77

composition in hurricane-damaged forests in Puerto Rico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1 The controls over above-ground primary productivity following hurricane damag e were investigated in a lowland subtropical wet forest (350-500 m altitude) and a lower montane elfin forest (1050 m) in Puerto Rico. Responses of understorey and canopy vegetation to addition of a complete nutrient fertilizer (both altitudes) or hurricane debris removal (lowland only) were monitored for 47-50 months.

LAWRENCE R. WALKER; JESS K. ZIMMERMAN; D. JEAN LODGE; SANDRA GUZMÁN-GRAJALES

78

Sedimentation Survey of Lago Patillas, Puerto Rico, March 2007  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Lago Patillas is a reservoir located on the confluence of Rio Grande de Patillas and Rio Marin, in the municipality of Patillas in southern Puerto Rico, about 3 kilometers north of the town of Patillas and about 8 kilometers northeast of the town of Arroyo (fig. 1). The dam is owned and operated by the Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority (PREPA) and was constructed in 1914 for the irrigation of croplands in the southern coastal plains of Puerto Rico along the towns of Arroyo, Guayama, Patillas, and Salinas. Irrigation releases are made through the outlet works into the Patillas Irrigation Canal that extends 32.2 kilometers from the Patillas dam to Rio Salinas. The dam is a semi-hydraulic earthfill with a structural height of 44.80 meters, a top width of 4.57 meters, a base width of 190.49 meters, and a crest length of 325.21 meters. The spillway structure is physically separated from the earthfill dam, has an elevation of 58.21 meters above mean sea level, and has three radial arm gates (Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority, 1979). The reservoir impounds the waters of the Rio Grande de Patillas and Rio Marin. The reservoir has a drainage area of 66.3 square kilometers. Additional information and operational procedures are listed in Soler-Lopez and others (1999). During March 14-15, 2007, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Caribbean Water Science Center (CWSC), in cooperation with the PREPA conducted a bathymetric survey of Lago Patillas to update the reservoir storage capacity and update the reservoir sedimentation rate by comparing the 2007 bathymetric survey data with previous 1997 data. The purpose of this report is to update the reservoir storage capacity, sedimentation rates, and areas of substantial sediment accumulation since April 1997.

Soler-Lopez, Luis R.

2010-01-01

79

A proposed streamflow-data program for Puerto Rico  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The streamflow-data program of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in Puerto Rico has been one of the principal parts of an overall appraisal of the water resources of the Island since the initiation of a cooperative agreement with agencies of the Commonwealth Government in 1957. The streamflow-station network has increased in direct response to demand for data to support planning for the rapidly accelerated industrial and population growth that has occurred since.

Lopez, Miguel A.; Fields, Fred K.

1970-01-01

80

Ectoparasitic assemblages on mormoopid bats (Chiroptera: Mormoopidae) from Puerto Rico.  

PubMed

We performed the first quantitative survey of ectoparasitic assemblages on three species of mormoopid bats living on the Caribbean island of Puerto Rico: Mormoops blainvillii Leach (n=40), Pteronotus quadridens Gundlach (n=40), and Pteronotus parnellii Gray (n=9). We examined bats for parasites primarily on 8-10 May and 24-27 July 2002 at Culebrones Cave, near Arecibo, Puerto Rico. Only 50% of M. blainvillii were infested with at least one parasite, compared with 85-100% for Pteronotus; infested individuals of both species of Pteronotus also harbored a greater number of parasites than did M. blainvillii. The assemblage on M. blainvillii was less diverse than in the other species and more dominated by a single group of parasites, the chiggers. Chirodiscid ear mites and spinturnicid wing mites were common on both species of Pteronotus but absent from M. blainvillii. All P. parnellii harbored streblid flies, but none typically was found on P. quadridens or M. blainvillii. Adult female M. blainvillii and P. quadridens sheltered a greater number of ectoparasites than did males. All host-parasite combinations represented new associations for Puerto Rico. PMID:18047193

Kurta, Allen; Whitaker, John O; Wrenn, William J; Soto-Centeno, J Angel

2007-11-01

81

U.S. Trade with Puerto Rico and U.S. Possessions 1998  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Census Bureau report entitled US Trade with Puerto Rico and US Possessions lists shipments to and from Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands by commodity and method of transportation in four detailed tables. According to this report, shipments from US possessions to the US totalled almost $2.5 billion, and shipments from the US to Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands totalled over $13 billion for all methods of transportation.

1999-01-01

82

Puerto Rico Tsunami Warning and Mitigation Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

The circum-Caribbean region has a documented history of large damaging tsunamis that have affected coastal areas, including the events of the Virgin Islands in 1867 and Mona Passage in 1918. These tsunamis have been triggered by large tsunamigenic earthquakes that deformed the ocean floor. The seismic water waves originating in the prominent fault system around PR are considered to be

V. A. Huerfano; A. Mercado; C. G. von Hillebrandt

2003-01-01

83

42 CFR 412.211 - Puerto Rico rates for Federal fiscal year 2004 and subsequent fiscal years.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Puerto Rico average level of hospital wages...of the Puerto Rico rate that is attributable...the proportion of the rate that is adjusted for the relative level of hospital wages...determine the out-migration percentage for...

2009-10-01

84

42 CFR 412.211 - Puerto Rico rates for Federal fiscal year 2004 and subsequent fiscal years.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Puerto Rico average level of hospital wages...of the Puerto Rico rate that is attributable...the proportion of the rate that is adjusted for the relative level of hospital wages...determine the out-migration percentage for...

2010-10-01

85

Landslide Deposits, Cookie Bites, and Crescentic Fracturing Along the Northern Puerto Rico-Virgin Islands Margin: Implications for Potential Tsunamigenesis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The seismogenic North America-Caribbean oblique-slip plate boundary forms the 8-km-deep Puerto Rico trench north of the densely populated islands of Puerto Rico and Virgin Islands (combined population of just over 4 million people). The southern slope of the Puerto Rico trench adjacent to the Puerto Rico-Virgin Islands (PRVI) carbonate platform is characterized by frequent seismicity, rapid trenchward tilting, oversteepened slopes, and mass wasting. We present high-resolution bathymetry, HMR1 sidescan imagery, and single-channel seismic data to document extensive landslide deposits that we infer to have been the result of multiple slide events capable of producing prehistoric tsunamis along the coasts of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. Landslide deposits can be traced upslope to two, 45-55 km-wide arcuate-shaped embayments or "cookie bites" carved out of the PRVI platform. Three-dimensional visualization of the debris field and the slope of the largest of the arcuate-shaped embayments centered at 66° 40' constrain volume removal to 1.1 km3 of the PRVI carbonate platform and underlying volcanic and volcaniclastic basement. Sidescan sonar and single-channel seismic data reveal crescentic cracks in the seafloor of the PRVI platform 35-45 km in length located 35 km offshore the northwestern tip of Puerto Rico. These cracks, interpreted to represent the sites of future breakaway scarps and landslides, are similar in shape and length to the head wall scarps of the amphitheaters to the east. An ˜500 km2 section of the PRVI platform (750 m thick) has begun to detach and slump trenchward along the larger of these cracks. Investigation of the existing arcuate-shaped embayments is essential because massive (tens to hundreds of km3) and instantaneous slope failure has the potential to be tsunamigenic. Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands were inundated by tsunamis in 1867 (mainly affecting St. Thomas and St. Croix, 7 m of runup, casualties in the hundreds) and 1918 (mainly affecting western and northwestern Puerto Rico; 6 m of runup, 120 casualties). Calculation of the potential volume, runout extent, and triggering mechanisms of past submarine landslides will better constrain the tsunamigenic potential of the newly discovered crescentic faults.

Hearne, M. E.; Grindlay, N. R.; Mann, P.

2003-12-01

86

Teenage pregnancy and neonatal behavior: Effects in Puerto Rico and Florida  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between neonatal behavior and prenatal and perinatal risk factors in infants of teenage and older mothers in Puerto Rico and Mainland United States. The sample included approximately 300 newborn infants;half were examined in Puerto Rico, the other half in Florida, using the Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale. Comparisons by maternal

Barry M. Lester; Cynthia T. Garcia Coll; Carol Sepkoski

1982-01-01

87

75 FR 41801 - Expansion of Foreign-Trade Zone 163, Ponce, Puerto Rico, Area  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Order No. 1692] Expansion of Foreign-Trade Zone 163, Ponce, Puerto Rico, Area Pursuant to its authority under the Foreign-Trade...Park (Site 11) in Penuelas, Puerto Rico, adjacent to the Ponce Customs and Border Protection port of entry (FTZ Docket...

2010-07-19

88

33 CFR 165.771 - Safety Zone; Bahia de Ponce, Puerto Rico  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Safety Zone; Bahia de Ponce, Puerto Rico 165.771 Section 165... § 165.771 Safety Zone; Bahia de Ponce, Puerto Rico (a) Location. The...waters of the Caribbean Sea and the Bahia de Ponce, on approach to or departure from...

2010-07-01

89

33 CFR 165.771 - Safety Zone; Bahia de Ponce, Puerto Rico  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-07-01 false Safety Zone; Bahia de Ponce, Puerto Rico 165.771 Section 165... § 165.771 Safety Zone; Bahia de Ponce, Puerto Rico (a) Location. The...waters of the Caribbean Sea and the Bahia de Ponce, on approach to or departure from...

2009-07-01

90

76 FR 50455 - Foreign-Trade Zone 163-Ponce, Puerto Rico Application for Expansion  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...52-2011] Foreign-Trade Zone 163--Ponce, Puerto Rico Application for Expansion...authority to expand the zone in Caguas and Ponce, Puerto Rico. The application was submitted...of the Americas located at the Port of Ponce, at 3309 Avenida Santiago de los...

2011-08-15

91

Sedimentation Survey of Toa Vaca, Puerto Rico, June-July 2002.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Lago Toa Vaca dam is located in the municipality of Villalba in Southern Puerto Rico, and is owned and operated by the Puerto Rico Aqueduct and Sewer Authority. Construction was completed in 1972 as the first phase of a multi-purpose project the conte...

L. R. Soler-Lopez

2004-01-01

92

47 CFR 73.1210 - TV/FM dual-language broadcasting in Puerto Rico.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false TV/FM dual-language broadcasting in Puerto Rico. 73...Stations § 73.1210 TV/FM dual-language broadcasting in Puerto Rico. (a) For the purpose of this section, dual-language broadcasting shall be understood...

2013-10-01

93

5 CFR 532.275 - Special wage schedules for ship surveyors in Puerto Rico.  

...2014-01-01 false Special wage schedules for ship surveyors in Puerto Rico. 532.275...532.275 Special wage schedules for ship surveyors in Puerto Rico. (a) The...special wage schedules for nonsupervisory ship surveyors and supervisory ship...

2014-01-01

94

Eliciting stakeholder values for coral reef management tasks in the Guánica Bay watershed, Puerto Rico  

EPA Science Inventory

The EPA is developing a valuation protocol for southwest Puerto Rico that will support the US Coral Reef Task Force?s (USCRTF) Partnership Initiative in the Guánica Bay/Rio Loco (GB/RL) Watershed. The GB/RL watershed is located in southwestern Puerto Rico and includes the urbaniz...

95

Puerto Rico/U.S. Virgin Islands: High Intensity Drug Trafficking Area. Drug Market Analysis, 2011.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is the Puerto Rico/U.S. Islands High Intensity Drug Trafficking Area (HIDTA) Drug Market Analysis for 2011. The overall drug threat to the Puerto Rico/U.S. Virgin Islands (PR/USVI) HIDTA has remained relatively consistent over the past year. Drug tra...

2011-01-01

96

INCREASE OF LEPTOSPIROSIS IN DENGUE-NEGATIVE PATIENTS AFTER A HURRICANE IN PUERTO RICO IN 1966  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leptospirosis has rarely been reported in Puerto Rico, although in the period from 1948 to 1952, 208 cases of leptospirosis and an island-wide seroprevalence of antibody to Leptospira of 14% were documented. In Puerto Rico in October 1996, following rainfall and a period of flooding generated by Hurricane Hortense, serum specimens of 4 patients with suspected dengue fever that were

EDUARD J. SANDERS; HENK L. SMITS; CARMEN C. DESEDA; VANCE A. VORNDAM; TIN AYE; RICHARD A. SPIEGEL; ROBBIN S. WEYANT; SANDRA L. BRAGG

1999-01-01

97

Sedimentation Survey of Lago La Plata, Puerto Rico, July 2006  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Lago La Plata dam is located between the municipalities of Naranjito and Toa Alta in north central Puerto Rico, about 5 kilometers south of the town of Toa Alta and about 5 kilometers north of the town of Naranjito. The reservoir impounds the waters of the Rio de La Plata, the Rio Guadiana, and the Rio Ca?as, and is part of the San Juan Metropolitan Water District, which provides about 35 percent of the total water demand for the area (Soler-Lopez and others, 2000). The reservoir has a drainage area of about 469 square kilometers. The dam was constructed in 1974 and is a concrete gravity structure with a normal pool elevation of 52.00 meters above mean sea level (Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority, 1979). During October 1998, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Caribbean Water Science Center, in cooperation with the Puerto Rico Aqueduct and Sewer Authority (PRASA) conducted a bathymetric survey of Lago La Plata to assess the impact of Hurricane Georges on the storage capacity of the reservoir. Between July 17 and 20, 2006, the USGS and the PRASA conducted an additional bathymetric survey of Lago La Plata to update the reservoir storage capacity and determine the reservoir sedimentation rate by comparing the 2006 survey data with the 1998 survey data.. The purpose of this report is to update the reservoir storage capacity, sedimentation rates, and areas of substantial sediment accumulation since 1998. Historical (1974) data are referenced as needed to account for long-term storage capacity loss trends...

Soler-Lopez, Luis R.

2008-01-01

98

Antibacterial properties of tropical plants from Puerto Rico.  

PubMed

In an effort to document the antibacterial properties of plants commonly used by the people of Puerto Rico, we studied the effects of 172 plant species, utilizing the disc diffusion method, against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. The methanolic extracts of 14 species showed antibacterial activities during this preliminary screen. These positive plant extracts were tested successively over 15 additional species. The results showed that extracts from Citrus aurantifolia (Rutaceae), Citrus aurantium (Rutaceae), Punica granatum (Punicaceae), Phyllanthus acidus (Euphorbiaceae) and Tamarindus indica (Caesalpiniaceae) possess strong in vitro antibacterial activity against the bacteria tested. PMID:16492531

Meléndez, P A; Capriles, V A

2006-03-01

99

Sedimentation Survey of Lago Guerrero, Aguadilla, Puerto Rico, March 2006  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Lago Guerrero is located in Aguadilla, northwestern Puerto Rico (fig. 1). The reservoir has a surface area of about 32,000 square meters and is excavated in Aymamon Limestone of Miocene age. This bedrock consists of chalk interbed-ded with solution-riddled hard limestone (Monroe, 1969). The reservoir was constructed in the 1930s as part of the Isabela Hydroelectric System to regulate flows to two hydroelectric plants-Central Isabel No. 2, at an elevation of about 110 meters above mean sea level, and Central Isabel No. 3, at about 55 meters above mean sea level. Hydroelectric power generation was discontinued during the early 1960s, although the exact date is unknown (Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority, written commun., 2007). The principal use of the reservoir since then has been to regulate flow to two public-supply water filtration plants and supply irrigation water for the Aguadilla area. Flow into the reservoir is derived from Lago Guajataca through a 26-kilometer-long Canal Principal de Diversion concrete canal (Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority, written commun., 2001). Additional inflow occurs on an incidental basis only during intensive rainfall from the immediate drainage area. The present Lago Guerrero drainage area is undetermined, due to the irregular and complex topography of the limestone terrain and anthropogenic modifications to the stormwater drainage system. Stormwater runoff, however, is presumed to be negligible compared to the almost constant inflow to the reservoir of about 59,300 cubic meters per day from Lago Guajataca (CSA Group, 2000). On March 9, 2006, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Caribbean Water Science Center, in cooperation with the Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority (PREPA), conducted a bathymetric survey of Lago Guerrero to determine the storage capacity of the reservoir and sedimentation amount since a previous survey conducted on May 30, 2001. The March 2006 survey was made to develop a bathymetric map of the reservoir, establish baseline data for future reservoir capacity comparisons, and to estimate the average sedimentation rate over the preceding 5 years.

Soler-Lopez, Luis R.

2009-01-01

100

33 CFR 165.757 - Safety Zones; Ports of Ponce, Tallaboa, and Guayanilla, Puerto Rico and Limetree Bay, St. Croix...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Safety Zones; Ports of Ponce, Tallaboa, and Guayanilla, Puerto Rico... § 165.757 Safety Zones; Ports of Ponce, Tallaboa, and Guayanilla, Puerto Rico...specified conditions: (1) Port of Ponce, Puerto Rico. A 100-yard...

2010-07-01

101

33 CFR 165.757 - Safety Zones; Ports of Ponce, Tallaboa, and Guayanilla, Puerto Rico and Limetree Bay, St. Croix...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-07-01 false Safety Zones; Ports of Ponce, Tallaboa, and Guayanilla, Puerto Rico... § 165.757 Safety Zones; Ports of Ponce, Tallaboa, and Guayanilla, Puerto Rico...specified conditions: (1) Port of Ponce, Puerto Rico. A 100-yard...

2009-07-01

102

27 CFR 26.1 - Alcoholic products coming into the United States from Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...United States from Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. 26.1 Section 26.1 ...LIQUORS AND ARTICLES FROM PUERTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS Scope of Regulations § 26...United States from Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. This part, âLiquors...

2010-04-01

103

27 CFR 26.1 - Alcoholic products coming into the United States from Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...United States from Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. 26.1 Section 26.1 ...LIQUORS AND ARTICLES FROM PUERTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS Scope of Regulations § 26...United States from Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. This part, âLiquors...

2009-04-01

104

42 CFR 407.43 - Buy-in groups available to Puerto Rico, Guam, the Virgin Islands, and American Samoa.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...available to Puerto Rico, Guam, the Virgin Islands, and American Samoa. 407.43 Section...available to Puerto Rico, Guam, the Virgin Islands, and American Samoa. (a) Categories...available to Puerto Rico, Guam, the Virgin Islands, and American Samoa, which are...

2013-10-01

105

The Identity Development and Coming Out Process of Gay Youth in Puerto Rico  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to gather basic exploratory-descriptive data regarding the self-perceptions and behaviors of Puerto Rican gay youth (16 to 24 years old) during their gay identity development and coming out process. The study was conducted in Puerto Rico to eliminate ethnic minority influences that may be present in Puerto Rican gay youth who live in the

Edward H. Fankhanel

2010-01-01

106

Fuels and Feedstocks from Tropical Biomass, Symposium Held at Caribe Hilton Hotel, San Juan, Puerto Rico.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Energy from biomass and wastes; Biomass energy systems; Herbaceous land plants as a renewable energy source for Puerto Rico; Tropical forests as a Puerto Rican energy source; Potential costs and benefits of a Puerto Rican cane industry oriented to fuels a...

D. L. Klass B. J. Berger J. A. Bonnet A. G. Alexander A. E. Lugo

1980-01-01

107

Control of schistosomiasis in Guayama and Arroyo, Puerto Rico*  

PubMed Central

In 1953, a programme to control schistosomiasis mansoni was started in Guayama and Arroyo, Puerto Rico, employing, first, chemical and, later, both biological and chemical methods to control Biomphalaria glabrata, the snail host of Schistosoma mansoni. Sodium pentachlorophenate was the molluscicide, and an ampullarid snail, Marisa cornuarietis, was used for biological control in ponds and reservoirs. In addition some chemotherapy was given to infected persons. The prevalence of intestinal schistosomiasis was measured annually, sampling about one-third of the 6-year-old population in Guayama and Arroyo and in Caguas, an untreated area. Costs of the programme and the results are discussed in relation to similar projects in other parts of Puerto Rico. In Guayama and Arroyo the prevalence of schistosomiasis reached zero in 6-year-olds by 1966 despite the persistence of the disease in a nearby untreated area. Although this decline appeared related to the control effort, it is noted that a large decline also occurred in the untreated area, suggesting the influence of other factors such as economic development or improvements in sanitation.

Jobin, William R.; Ferguson, Frederick F.; Palmer, Juan R.

1970-01-01

108

Modelling of Rainfall Induced Landslides in Puerto Rico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We performed an island-wide determination of static landslide susceptibility and hazard assessment as well as dynamic modeling of rainfall-induced shallow landslides in a particular hydrologic basin. Based on statistical analysis of past landslides, we determined that reliable prediction of the susceptibility to landslides is strongly dependent on the resolution of the digital elevation model (DEM) employed and the reliability of the rainfall data. A distributed hydrology model, Triangulated Irregular Network (TIN)-based Real-time Integrated Basin Simulator with VEGetation Generator for Interactive Evolution (tRIBS-VEGGIE), tRIBS-VEGGIE, has been implemented for the first time in a humid tropical environment like Puerto Rico and validated against in-situ measurements. A slope-failure module has been added to tRIBS-VEGGIE’s framework, after analyzing several failure criterions to identify the most suitable for our application; the module is used to predict the location and timing of landsliding events. The Mameyes basin, located in the Luquillo Experimental Forest in Puerto Rico, was selected for modeling based on the availability of soil, vegetation, topographical, meteorological and historic landslide data. Application of the model yields a temporal and spatial distribution of predicted rainfall-induced landslides.

Lepore, C.; Arnone, E.; Sivandran, G.; Noto, L. V.; Bras, R. L.

2010-12-01

109

Motor vehicle accident fatalities trends, Puerto Rico 2000-2007.  

PubMed

Motor vehicle accident fatalities (MVAF) are an important cause of death that affects millions of people worldwide. Using the Puerto Rico Institute of Forensic Science database, this study accessed the mortality trends of MVAF in Puerto Rico from 2000 to 2007. Descriptive statistics, age-adjusted mortality rates, geographical analysis, and annual percentage change were calculated. An annual mean of 559 MVAF occurred during the study period. The overall MVAF mortality rate declined from 2000 to 2007 (16.6 and 12.4 per 100,000 population, respectively)-mortality rates annually decreased 3%. Most MVAF (80.2%) occurred in men, showing a risk four times higher than women (23.6 and 5.4 deaths per 100,000 populations, respectively). Drivers aged 20-24 years and pedestrians older than 75 years had the highest risk of death. This study emphasizes the need of public health efforts to focus on the prevention of MVAF in the most affected groups. PMID:21827468

Lopez-Charneco, Magdalena; Conte-Miller, Maria S; Davila-Toro, Francisco; García-Rivera, Enid J; Zavala, Diego E; Torres, Yisel; Orengo, Jose F Rodriguez

2011-09-01

110

AIDS-Related Stigma and Health Professionals in Puerto Rico  

PubMed Central

This study addresses an important issue in the AIDS epidemic in Puerto Rico: AIDS stigma among health professionals and health profession students. AIDS stigma has been documented among health services providers such as doctors, nurses, psychologists, and social workers. It has detrimental effects of the services provided and the lives of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). The main objective of this study was to explore AIDS stigma manifestations among a sample composed of eighty health professionals and health profession students who participated in in-depth qualitative interviews. Four thematic categories stemmed from the data analysis process. These addressed the following subjects: social manifestations of stigma, stigma manifestations in the workplace, use of sensitive information to control PLWHA, and surveillance of PLWHA. Participants manifested instances of stigmatization they had witnessed in their work and training scenarios. Furthermore, they elaborated on the need to place effective surveillance mechanism on PLWHA in order to control the epidemic.

Ruiz-Torres, Yamilette; Cintron-Bou, Francheska N.; Varas-Diaz, Nelson

2009-01-01

111

Water resources of the North Coast Limestone area, Puerto Rico  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The north-coast limestone area, about 600 square miles, is one of the few sparsely populated parts of Puerto Rico, and is the island 's last large and underdeveloped source of ground water. The area 's limestone aquifers are (from oldest to youngest): the Lares Limestone, the Cibao Formation, the Aguada Limestone, and the Aymamon Limestone. Only between Arecibo and Barceloneta have artesian aquifers (the Montebello Limestone Member of the Cibao Formation, and the upper Lares Limestone) been found. Wells along Highway 2 can be expected to yield a few hundred gpm. Wells in the water-table aquifers can be expected to yield 1,000 gpm in the upper Aymamon Limestone; in the lower Aymamon and Aguada Limestones yields range from 100 to 800 gpm, and in the Cibao Formation and Lares Limestone, from 100 to 200 gpm. (Woodard-USGS)

Giusti, Ennio V.; Bennett, Gordon D.

1976-01-01

112

CDF and PDF Comparison Between Humacao, Puerto Rico and Florida  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The knowledge of the atmospherics phenomenon is an important part in the communication system. The principal factor that contributes to the attenuation in a Ka band communication system is the rain attenuation. We have four years of tropical region observations. The data in the tropical region was taken in Humacao, Puerto Rico. Previous data had been collected at various climate regions such as desserts, template area and sub-tropical regions. Figure 1 shows the ITU-R rain zone map for North America. Rain rates are important to the rain attenuation prediction models. The models that predict attenuation generally are of two different kinds. The first one is the regression models. By using a data set these models provide an idea of the observed attenuation and rain rates distribution in the present, past and future. The second kinds of models are physical models which use the probability density functions (PDF).

Gonzalez-Rodriguez, Rosana

2004-01-01

113

[Bioethical principles: planning and advance directives in Puerto Rico].  

PubMed

The libertarian principles of Personal Autonomy and Personalized Justice which grew mightily in the rapidly spreading young American democracy in the 18th and 19th centuries led to the development of Bioethics in the United States. The bioethical principles of Respect for Autonomy, Beneficence, non-Maleficence and Justice support the elaboration of advance directives (living will and the designation of a proxy to attend health matters) for when the patient is no longer capable to make health decisions. Advance directives can be drafted and signed in Puerto Rico with the help of a lawyer. They can also be legally prepared in a doctor's office or in a hospital if witnessed by a doctor and two persons who will not benefit from the patient's demise or are directly involved in his/her care). We present a model for advance directives which may be executed in a doctor's office or a hospital. The model fulfills the legal requirements of Puerto Rico Law 160 which became effective November 2001. It also fulfills requirements of the Patients Self-Determination Act that became effective in 1991.The document also contains standard options for organ donations. We discuss the fundamental bioethical principles which have given root to the development of the advance directives. We suggest that it may be economically advantageous to health insurance carriers to compensate physicians who help their patients in the execution of a valid document. The existence of this document may help prevent the large expenses associated with inappropriate admissions to intensive care of patients at the end-of-life. PMID:19954090

Ramírez Rivera, José; Ferrer, Jorge J

2009-01-01

114

Sedimentation Survey of Lago de Cidra, Puerto Rico, August 2007  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Lago de Cidra is a reservoir located on the confluence of Rio de Bayamon, Rio Sabana, and Quebrada Prieta, in the municipality of Cidra in east-central Puerto Rico, about 3.0 kilometers northeast of the town of Cidra. The dam is owned and operated by the Puerto Rico Aqueduct and Sewer Authority (PRASA), and was constructed in 1946 as a 6.54-million-cubic-meter supplemental water supply for the San Juan metropolitan area. The reservoir impounds the waters of Rio de Bayamon, Rio Sabana and Quebrada Prieta. The reservoir has a drainage area of 21.4 square kilometers. The dam is a concrete gravity and earthfill structure with a length of approximately 165 meters and a structural height of 24 meters. The spillway portion of the dam is an ungated ogee crest about 40 meters long with a crest elevation of 403.00 meters above mean sea level. Additional information and operational procedures are listed in Soler-Lopez (1999). During August 14-15, 2007, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Caribbean Water Science Center (CWSC), in cooperation with the PRASA, conducted a bathymetric survey of Lago de Cidra to update the reservoir storage capacity and actualize the reservoir sedimentation rate by comparing the 2007 data with the previous 1997 bathymetric survey data. The purpose of this report is to describe and document the USGS sedimentation survey conducted at Lago de Cidra during August 2007, including the methods used to update the reservoir storage capacity, sedimentation rates, and areas of substantial sediment accumulation since 1997.

Soler-Lopez, Luis R.

2010-01-01

115

Sedimentation History of Lago Guayabal, Puerto Rico, 1913-2001  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Lago Guayabal dam, located in the municipality of Villalba in southern Puerto Rico, was constructed in 1913 for irrigation of croplands in the southern coastal plains and is owned and operated by the Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority. The reservoir had an original storage capacity of 11.82 million cubic meters and a drainage area upstream of the dam of 112 square kilometers. Sedimentation has reduced the storage capacity to 6.12 million cubic meters in 2001, which represents a storage loss of about 48 percent. However, the actual sediment accumulation in the reservoir during the 88 years is greater, because some sediment removal was conducted between 1940 and 1948 by dredging and sluicing. This report summarizes the historical data from a 1913 land survey and eight bathymetric surveys conducted between 1914 and 2001, and the relation of high sedimentation to agricultural land practices within the Lago Guayabal basin and six major hurricanes which made landfall on the island. The reservoir had an area-normalized sedimentation rate of about 1,863 cubic meters per square kilometer per year between 1913 and 1936 from a 112 square kilometer basin. In 1972, a new dam upstream along the Rio Toa Vaca impounded runoff from 57.5 square kilometers, and sediment transport to Lago Guayabal was reduced. A comparison of bathymetric survey results between 1972 and 2001 indicates an area-normalized sedimentation rate of 1,120 cubic meters per square kilometer per year or about 60 percent of the rate between 1913 and 1936. The significant reduction (almost half) of the sedimentation rate after the Toa Vaca dam was built may indicate that erosion susceptibility of the Rio Toa Vaca watershed is about twice that of the Rio Jacaguas watershed impounded by Lago Guayabal.

Soler-Lopez, Luis R.

2003-01-01

116

Sedimentation Survey of Lago Icacos, Puerto Rico, March 2004  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Lago Icacos, a small reservoir built in 1930 and owned by the Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority, is part of the Rio Blanco Hydroelectric Power System. The reservoir is located in Naguabo, within the Caribbean National Forest in eastern Puerto Rico. The original storage capacity of the reservoir was 19,119 cubic meters in 1930. The bathymetric survey conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in March 2004 indicates a storage capacity of 7,435 cubic meters or 39 percent of the original storage capacity, and a maximum depth of 5.3 meters. The reservoir has been dredged several times to restore lost storage capacity caused by high sediment loads and the frequent landslides that occur upstream from the dam, which have partially or completely filled the Lago Icacos. Because sediment removal activities have not been documented, sedimentation rates could not be determined using storage volume comparisons. A reservoir sedimentation rate was calculated using the daily sediment load data gathered at the U.S. Geological Survey Rio Icacos streamflow station upstream of the reservoir, the estimated Lago Icacos sediment trapping efficiency, and the estimated sediment yield of the Lago Icacos basin extrapolated from the Rio Icacos sediment load data. Using these properties, the Lago Icacos sedimentation rate was estimated as 71 cubic meters per year, equivalent to about 1 percent of the original storage capacity per year. The Lago Icacos 7.47-square-kilometer drainage area sediment yield was estimated as 7,126 tonnes per year or about 954 tonnes per square kilometer per year. Based on the current estimated sedimentation rate of 71 cubic meters per year, Lago Icacos has a useful life of about 105 years or to year 2109.

Soler-Lopez, Luis R.

2007-01-01

117

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Refuges and Other Nearby Reserves in Southwestern Puerto Rico.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The main purpose of this paper is to summarize information about the Cabo Rojo and Laguna Cartagena National Wildlife Refuges in southwestern Puerto Rico. The Cabo Rojo (Headquarters and Salinas tracts) and Laguna Cartagena (Lagoon and Tinaja tracts) occu...

J. J. Schwagerl P. L. Weaver

2009-01-01

118

Generation of Mesoscale Hydrodynamic Phenomena by the Grappler and Whiting Seamounts, Southeast of Puerto Rico.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This work presents the results of research on topographically generated mesoscale eddies in the region of the Grappler and Whiting Seamounts which are located 22km southeast of Puerto Rico. Three different data sets were used: (1) site specific hydrograph...

J. E. Capella

1983-01-01

119

And a Child Shall Lead Them: Learning Lives in the Project Hallways of Puerto Rico.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes how Puerto Rico's teenage tutor, Jorge Aneudy Villalba, leads a children's learning crusade through an urban desert of poverty and despair, determined to prove the kids from the projects can make their own future. (Author/EV)

Nesmith, Caryn

2001-01-01

120

A common mutation site in the beta-galactosidase gene originates in Puerto Rico.  

PubMed

Several mutation sites have been found in the beta-galactosidase gene of patients with GM1 gangliosidosis. In a previous report we found a common point mutation site in American patients with GM1 gangliosidosis resulting in a 208Arg --> Cys amino acid substitution. From the patients' family history, we suggested that this mutation may have come to South and North America via Puerto Rico. Four new patients with infantile GM1 gangliosidosis have been analyzed with allele-specific hybridization. Two siblings from Puerto Rico of Spanish ancestry are homozygous for this mutation. Another patient also from Puerto Rico is heterozygous for this allele, and another black patient does not have this mutation. These results support our initial hypothesis that this mutation has probably arisen in Puerto Rico. PMID:8652017

Chiu, N C; Qian, W H; Shanske, A L; Brooks, S S; Boustany, R M

1996-01-01

121

Brief Reconnaissance Studies for the Addition of Hydropower in Puerto Rico.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Thirteen dams and hydroelectric sites were visited during a four day trip to Puerto Rico in September 1982. Ten brief reconnaissance reports have been prepared to describe the potential at those sites. Information on the remaining three sites - Lago Garza...

T. G. Gebhard

1982-01-01

122

Hydrologic Characteristics of Limestone in Northern Puerto Rico in Relation to Depositional Environments and Diagenesis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this work was to describe the stratigraphy and depositional environments of the Tertiary limestone belt, northwestern Puerto Rico and to determine their lineaments and sinkholes. The petrography, macrofossils and foraminifers of the Tertiar...

G. A. Seiglie M. T. Moussa

1983-01-01

123

Depauperate Benthic Assemblage from the Nutrient-Poor Sediments of the Puerto Rico Trench.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Puerto Rico Trench contains a low-density biomass assemblage of macrofauna and meiofauna. The depauperate character of this assemblage is primarily the result of the low percentage and retractory nature of organic matter in the sediments. Recent turbi...

M. D. Richardson K. B. Briggs F. A. Bowles J. H. Tietjen

1995-01-01

124

Introduction of the Waterhyacinth Weevil ('Neochetina eichhorniae' Warner) into Puerto Rico.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The waterhyacinth weevil 'Neochetina eichhorniae Warner' was introduced into quarantine in Puerto Rico in anticipation of future release of the insect to aid in the control of its host aquatic plant 'Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms'. The insect is bein...

L. Bonnefil M. A. Rodriguez E. Lebron E. de Aragon

1979-01-01

125

27 CFR 19.520 - Spirits for shipment to Puerto Rico.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...520 Section 19.520 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE...DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS...shipment to Puerto Rico with benefit of drawback or...

2013-04-01

126

Water Quality and Landscape Processes of Four Watersheds in Eastern Puerto Rico.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Puerto Rico is in a state of rapid, ongoing change. Locally, agricultural lands are undergoing reforestation, while coastal areas are becoming heavily urbanized. The area is also changing because of the introduction of nonnative species, water supply proj...

A. F. White H. L. Buss I. K. Pares-Ramos M. C. Larsen R. F. Stallard S. Martinuzzi S. F. Murphy W. A. Gould X. Zou Z. Liu

2012-01-01

127

Coral reef condition and benthic sedimentation threat in four regions of south Puerto Rico  

EPA Science Inventory

Scleractinian corals, gorgonian octocorals, sponges and fishes were assessed near the cities of LaParguera, Guánica, Guayanilla, and Jobos along the southern coast of Puerto Rico in November – December 2010. Survey sites were targeted near areas with varying benthic...

128

Water Requirements of Sugarcane Under Irrigation in Lajas Valley, Puerto Rico.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Field experiments were conducted in Puerto Rico at the Lajas Substation to determine optimum soil moisture conditions necessary to produce maximum sugarcane and sugar yields. Twenty irrigation regimes were tested. Some of the plots were irrigated frequent...

R. Vazquez

1970-01-01

129

Puerto Rico State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management  

SciTech Connect

The Puerto Rico State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Puerto Rico. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Puerto Rico. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Puerto Rico.

Not Available

1981-10-01

130

Statistical Analyses of Spatial and Temporal Storm Rainfall Characteristics in Puerto Rico.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Hourly rainfall data from ten representative rainfall stations in Puerto Rico were analyzed to determine storm rainfall characteristics. Spatial and temporal variabilities of storm rainfall were presented. Storm events were identified objectively. Storm d...

I. Pagan-Trinidad

1984-01-01

131

40 CFR 282.102 - Puerto Rico State-Administered Program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Puerto Rico State-Administered Program...AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED...TANK PROGRAMS Approved State Programs § 282.102...767-8109. (1) State statutes and regulations...relates solely to the solid and hazardous waste...

2013-07-01

132

A Selected Guide to Materials on Puerto Rico and the Puerto Ricans in the New York University Bobst Library. Fall Semester, 1978.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide to materials housed in the Bobst Library dealing with Puerto Rico and/or Puerto Ricans gives subject headings for locating books and lists bibliographies, microfilm resources, and journals on the same subject. (EB)

Jones, Roger A., Comp.

133

77 FR 43063 - Affirmation of Vertical Datum for Surveying and Mapping Activities for the Territory of Puerto Rico  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Affirmation of Vertical Datum for Surveying and Mapping Activities for the Territory of Puerto...civilian vertical datum for surveying and mapping activities for the islands of Puerto Rico...determined by other Federal surveying and mapping agencies on Puerto Rico, Culebra,...

2012-07-23

134

Geographic distribution of risk of death due to homicide in Puerto Rico, 2000–2007  

Microsoft Academic Search

All homicide incidents of Puerto Ricos residents reported by the Institute of Forensic Sciences (IFS) for the period 2000–2007 were included for analysis (6409 deaths). Information for each case include age, sex, municipality, date of death and mechanism. Ballistic forensic data was not available for analysis.Detailed tabulations of crude, sex and age-specific mortalities for Puerto Rico overall and for each

D Zavala; J R Orengo; M L Charneco

2010-01-01

135

Paleomagnetism of Late Cretaceous and Eocene rocks from SW Puerto Rico  

SciTech Connect

Ten sites of Campanian to Eocene limestones, calcareous mudstones and volcanoclastic sediments from SW Puerto Rico yield high blocking temperature magnetization components which are consistent in direction. The presence of normal and reversed directions, improved grouping of site means after tilt correction and directional consistency between the different lithologies, tends to indicate that the characteristic magnetizations are primary, predating the deformation. The overall mean direction (Dec = 307/sup 0/, Inc = 30/sup 0/, ..cap alpha..95 = 15/sup 0/) indicates little change in latitude of the Puerto Rican island arc relative to North America since Eocene, when collision is postulated to have occurred with the Bahama Bank. However an average anticlockwise rotation of 45/sup 0/ of the sampling area relative to North America is required to reconcile the observed directions with the Eocene pole for North America. The scatter in declination between sites is greater than that in inclination, indicating some variation in the amount of anticlockwise rotation from site to site. The observed rotations are either related to the collision itself or to left lateral strike-slip faulting which has displaced the Puerto Rican Island arc eastward relative to North America since Eocene.

Van Fossen, M.C.; Channell, J.E.T.; Schellekens, J.H.

1985-01-01

136

Environmental Assessment for Authorizing the Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority (PREPA) to allow Public Access to the Boiling Nuclear Superheat (BONUS) Reactor Building, Rincon, Puerto Rico  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to consent to a proposal by the Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority (PREPA) to allow public access to the Boiling Nuclear Superheat (BONUS) reactor building located near Rincon, Puerto Rico for use as a museum. PREPA, the owner of the BONUS facility, has determined that the historical significance of this facility, as one of only two reactors of this design ever constructed in the world, warrants preservation in a museum, and that this museum would provide economic benefits to the local community through increased tourism. Therefore, PREPA is proposing development of the BONUS facility as a museum.

N /A

2003-02-24

137

Standardization of Roadside Counts of Columbids in Puerto Rico and on Vieques Island.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Ten native species of pigeons and doves (Columbidae) occur in Puerto Rico and its offshore territories. Roadside counts of the columbids began in 1985 on the Puerto Rican mainland and in 1991 on Vieques Island. Coefficients of variance (CV) in spring were...

F. F. Rivera-Milan

1993-01-01

138

Coordinating Health Care Reform with the U.S. Territories: The Case of Puerto Rico. Final Revision.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report provides historical background on the Puerto Rican health care system; demographic and health status trends in Puerto Rico; information on health care system infrastructure; Health care financing; and utilization of health care services. The re...

I. A. F. Rivera M. A. H. Montes M. E. Velazquez R. Ramirez W. R. Gonzalez

1995-01-01

139

A second case of prothrombin Puerto Rico I in the United States.  

PubMed

Prothrombin deficiency is a very rare autosomal recessive bleeding disorder associated with mild to severe bleeding symptoms. We identified this bleeding disorder in a US-born patient as due to prothrombin Puerto Rico I. Unlike other prothrombin deficiencies, prothrombin Puerto Rico I is a series of concordant polymorphisms found in people of Puerto Rican descent with a much higher frequency than those prothrombin deficiencies found in the general population. This case underscores the importance of family history in identifying rare bleeding disorders. PMID:17160994

Kling, Stephen J; Jones, Kimberly A; Rodgers, George M

2007-07-01

140

Radar investigation of barium releases over Arecibo Observatory, Puerto Rico  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite (CRRES) El Coqui rocket campaign was successfully carried out in Puerto Rico during the period 18 May through 12 July 1992. This report describes five chemical release experiments in the upper ionosphere supported by Geospace Research, Inc. during the El Coqui campaign. Additional spin-off science is also discussed. The El Coqui releases are designated AA-1 (rocket 36-082), AA-2 (rocket 36-081), AA-3b (rocket 36-064), AA-4 (rocket 36-065), and AA-7 (rocket 36-083). Particular attention is paid to releases AA-2 and AA-4. These two experiments involved the illumination of ionospheric release regions with powerful high-frequency (HF) radio waves transmitted from the Arecibo HF facility. In the AA-2 experiment, microinstabilities excited by the HF wave in a Ba(+) plasma were examined. This release yielded a smooth plasma cloud that helped clarify several fundamental issues regarding the physics of wave plasma instabilities. During AA-2 extremely strong HF-induced Langmuir turbulence was detected with the Arecibo 430 MHz radar. CF3Br was released in the AA-4 study to create an ionospheric hole that focused the HF beam. This experiment successfully explored wave-plasma coupling in an O(+) ionosphere under conditions of very high HF electric field strengths.

Djuth, Frank T.

1995-01-01

141

Sedimentation Survey of Lago El Guineo, Puerto Rico, October 2001  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Lago El Guineo has lost about 17.5 percent of its original storage capacity in 70 years because of sediment accumulation. The water volume has been reduced from 2.29 million cubic meters in 1931, to 2.03 million cubic meters in 1986, and to 1.89 million cubic meters in 2001. The average annual storage-capacity loss (equal to the sedimentation rate) of Lago El Guineo was 4,727 cubic meters for the period of 1931 to July 1986 (or 0.21 percent per year), increasing to 5,714 cubic meters for the period of 1931 to October 2001 (or 0.25 percent per year). Discrepancies that could lead to substantial errors in volume calculations in a small reservoir like Lago El Guineo, were found when transferring the field-collected data into the geographic information system data base 1:20,000 U.S. Geological Survey Jayuya, Puerto Rico quadrangle. After verification and validation of field data, the Lago El Guineo shoreline was rectified using digital aerial photographs and differential global positioning data.

Soler-Lopez, Luis R.

2003-01-01

142

Use of medicinal plants by ambulatory patients in Puerto Rico.  

PubMed

The use of medicinal plants by the patients at the outpatient clinics of five health-care centers in Puerto Rico was evaluated. Medication histories were obtained for 802 patients ranging in age from two months to 91 years. The most frequent medical diagnosis was cardiovascular disease (54% of the patients). Respiratory and digestive disorders were the least frequent conditions, identified in only 9% and 6% of the cases, respectively. Medicinal plants were used by 57% of the population. Patients 65 years or older tended to use herbal remedies more often. Seven of the 11 most commonly used plants were used to treat gastrointestinal disorders. Other medicinal uses given were for sedation, sleep disorders, elevated blood pressure, kidney disorders, and respiratory ailments. The most frequently used plant was Citrus aurantium L. (sour orange), which was used as a sedative by 39% of the patients and for gastrointestinal disorders by 17%. Two potentially toxic plants, Solanum americanum and Annona muricata, were among the most commonly used plants. Medicinal plants were used widely by the outpatient population studied. Most herbs were used to treat self-limiting conditions but some were used to treat potentially serious medical problems, such as hypertension. PMID:6496496

Hernández, L; Muñoz, R A; Miró, G; Martínez, M; Silva-Parra, J; Chávez, P I

1984-10-01

143

Genetic structure of the gentle Africanized honey bee population (gAHB) in Puerto Rico  

PubMed Central

Background The Africanized honey bee is one of the most spectacular invasions in the Americas. African bees escaped from apiaries in Brazil in 1956, spread over Americas and by 1994 they were reported in Puerto Rico. In contrast to other places, the oceanic island conditions in Puerto Rico may mean a single introduction and different dynamics of the resident European and new-coming Africanized bees. To examine the genetic variation of honey bee feral populations and colonies from different locations in Puerto Rico, we used eight known polymorphic microsatellite loci. Results In Puerto Rico, gAHB population does not show any genetic structure (Fst?=?0.0783), and is best described as one honey bee population, product of hybridization of AHB and EHB. The genetic variability in this Africanized population was similar to that reported in studies from Texas. We observed that European private allele frequencies are high in all but one locus. This contrasts with mainland Africanized populations, where European allele frequencies are diminished. Two loci with European private alleles, one on Linkage Group 7, known to carry two known defensiveness Quantitative Trait Loci (QTLs), and the other on Linkage Group 1, known to carry three functionally studied genes and 11 candidate genes associated with Varroa resistance mechanisms were respectively, significantly greater or lower in European allele frequency than the other loci with European private alleles. Conclusions Genetic structure of Puerto Rico gAHB differs from mainland AHB populations, probably representing evolutionary processes on the island.

2013-01-01

144

The Great Puerto Rico ShakeOut - A Communications and Media Perspective  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On October 18, 2012 the Puerto Rico Seismic Network (PRSN) in collaboration with Puerto Rico Emergency Management Agency (PREMA) and the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) will be conducting the first Great Puerto Rico ShakeOut. Adequate communications strategies and redundant dissemination methods are a key component for the success of this earthquake exercise. EAS and NOAA Radio messages, indicating the beginning of the earthquake drill, will help emergency managers and the general public better coordinate their practices. Dissemination tools routinely used as part of PRSN earthquake and tsunami protocols, such as PRSNDANIS Broadcast, Ring Down, Ham Radio, RSS, SMS, fax and email service lists, will also be tested. Emergency Management and First Response Agencies at local, regional and state level are being asked to report the times the messages are received, thus allowing us to better assess the effectiveness of our dissemination methods and to establish a baseline for next year ShakeOut. In addition, a partnership with the Puerto Rico Radiobroadcaster Association allows a direct access through this media, facilitating PRSN staff participation on radio programming targeting diverse audiences. Radio spots have been developed to inform the public about the exercise, how to participate, what to do to be safe during an earthquake and how to develop or improve their safety plans. A media approach is critical for the success of the 2012 Puerto Rico ShakeOut since our earthquake drill takes place 2 weeks prior to the Island general election and on the peak-period of the hurricane season.

Soto-Cordero, L.; Huérfano-Moreno, V.; Gómez, G.; Giménez-Porrata, A.; Ramos-Gómez, W.; Colón-Daleccio, N.

2012-12-01

145

Bibliometric assessment of cancer research in Puerto Rico, 1903-2005  

PubMed Central

Objective The analysis of scientific production in Puerto Rico is largely unexplored. The main aim of this study is to present the characteristics and trends of cancer publications in Puerto Rico’s biomedical journals and their relationship with the island’s cancer mortality. Methods A PubMed and a hard-copy search were performed to retrieve cancer-related articles published in the Puerto Rico Health Sciences Journal and the Boletín de la Asociación Médica de Puerto Rico from 1903 to 2005. Bibliometric indicators studied included the number of authors and references by article, first author’s institutional affiliation and country, document type, and language. The study type and tumor classification were also recorded. Cancer proportional mortality (M%) in Puerto Rico and the proportion of cancer-related articles (P%) published were also evaluated. The annual percent change (APC) was estimated to assess trends. Results A total of 369 articles were retrieved. The institutions with the majority of publications were universities (39.6%), English was the predominant publication language (72.1%), and the principal document type was original papers (69.6%). Epidemiologic studies were the dominant study type (62.1%), and the most studied cancers were digestive (15.4%) and gynecologic (9.6%). Although the P% has increased since 1913 (APC = 1.2%), the M% increased at a faster pace (APC = 2.7%). Conclusions Although a growth in the number of cancer publications is observed in these journals, it does not parallel the increase in proportional mortality. A better understanding of the cancer publications in Puerto Rico is essential to establish priorities, define future areas of research, and develop cancer control strategies.

Ortiz, Ana P.; Calo, William A.; Suarez-Balseiro, Carlos; Maura-Sardo, Mariano; Suarez, Erick

2010-01-01

146

33 CFR 334.1450 - Atlantic Ocean off north coast of Puerto Rico; practice firing areas, U.S. Army Forces Antilles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean off north coast of Puerto Rico; practice firing...ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1450 Atlantic Ocean off north coast of Puerto Rico; practice...

2013-07-01

147

Ocean-Bottom Seismograph Array Results from the Puerto Rico Trench  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A six-month deployment of five ocean-bottom seismographs (OBS) in 2007 provided unique geometrical constraints on the style of faulting in a sharp corner of the boundary between North America (NOAM) and Caribbean (CAR) plates to the east of the Puerto Rico Trench (PRT). This region has been the site of numerous seismic swarms since 1976, as indicated by the historical catalog, and the OBS deployment capture two such swarms. When analyzed jointly with land-based stations operated by the Puerto Rico Seismic Network and Netherlands Antilles Network, the OBS recordings provide stronger geometrical constraints on hypocenters and focal mechanisms than is possible with land-based stations alone. Focal mechanism solutions, found by jointly fitting P-wave first-motion polarities and S/P amplitude ratios, produce left-lateral strike-slip and normal dip-slip events distributed broadly over the study region, but a sub-area dominated by right-lateral strike-slip events that corresponds to the two recorded swarms. A stress inversion reveals maximum horizontal compressive stress vectors for the broader region that are aligned with the local direction of NOAM-CAR plate convergence, as determined by previous studies, but the sub-area in which the swarms occurred is dominated by horizontal stresses that are nearly normal to the direction of convergence. When evaluated in the context of previous studies, these results support the hypothesis that the subducting NOAM plate is tearing, or crumpling, in this corner of the boundary. Tearing may result as the subducting slab accommodates the sharp bend here, as a response to mantle flow from CAR to NOAM regimes, or as a result of eastward propagation of the dramatic PRT, or as a combination of these events.

Meighan, H. E.; Pulliam, J.; Ten Brink, U. S.

2012-12-01

148

The ecology of Australorbis glabratus in Puerto Rico  

PubMed Central

Variations in the distribution of the water-snail Australorbis glabratus, intermediate host of Schistosoma mansoni, have been studied in Puerto Rico, and an attempt made to correlate the distribution with environmental factors. The main sources of bilharziasis infection are flowing waters, but the evidence indicates that the snail is not found in fast-flowing, high-gradient reaches with falls of more than 20 meters per kilometre. The influence of physiographical features on stream gradient is examined and these findings correlated with the biota, water chemistry and human use of the stream. The alluvial areas of the island have many habitats favourable to A. glabratus and constitute the major foci for the transmission of bilharziasis. In general, artificial reservoirs and puddles do not appear to be suitable habitats for the snail. The numerous sink ponds in the Tertiary limestone area on the north coast contain the snail, yet the area is relatively free from bilharziasis, possibly because the ponds are little used. Although the size of A. glabratus populations is limited by many natural enemies, no organism has been found which could be deemed useful for artificial control. Some migratory birds, insects and amphibians may aid the dispersal of the snail. There are indications that the ionic composition of the water may be an important factor in limiting the distribution of A. glabratus. It is suggested that large amounts of carbonates and bicarbonates relative to the amounts of chlorides and sulfates may account for the absence of the snail from some habitats (e.g., limestone streams) and that copper and zinc may be limiting agents in some waters containing small amounts of dissolved solids. Concentrations of 0.050-0.100 p.p.m. of zinc, copper, cadmium or silver in distilled water produce a distress syndrome in the snails, and concentrations of more than 1.0 p.p.m. are rapidly fatal in most cases.

Harry, Harold W.; Aldrich, David V.

1958-01-01

149

The ecology of Australorbis glabratus in Puerto Rico.  

PubMed

Variations in the distribution of the water-snail Australorbis glabratus, intermediate host of Schistosoma mansoni, have been studied in Puerto Rico, and an attempt made to correlate the distribution with environmental factors. The main sources of bilharziasis infection are flowing waters, but the evidence indicates that the snail is not found in fast-flowing, high-gradient reaches with falls of more than 20 meters per kilometre. The influence of physiographical features on stream gradient is examined and these findings correlated with the biota, water chemistry and human use of the stream. The alluvial areas of the island have many habitats favourable to A. glabratus and constitute the major foci for the transmission of bilharziasis. In general, artificial reservoirs and puddles do not appear to be suitable habitats for the snail. The numerous sink ponds in the Tertiary limestone area on the north coast contain the snail, yet the area is relatively free from bilharziasis, possibly because the ponds are little used.Although the size of A. glabratus populations is limited by many natural enemies, no organism has been found which could be deemed useful for artificial control. Some migratory birds, insects and amphibians may aid the dispersal of the snail. There are indications that the ionic composition of the water may be an important factor in limiting the distribution of A. glabratus. It is suggested that large amounts of carbonates and bicarbonates relative to the amounts of chlorides and sulfates may account for the absence of the snail from some habitats (e.g., limestone streams) and that copper and zinc may be limiting agents in some waters containing small amounts of dissolved solids. Concentrations of 0.050-0.100 p.p.m. of zinc, copper, cadmium or silver in distilled water produce a distress syndrome in the snails, and concentrations of more than 1.0 p.p.m. are rapidly fatal in most cases. PMID:13573114

HARRY, H W; ALDRICH, D V

1958-01-01

150

Energy Integrated dairy Farm System in Puerto Rico  

SciTech Connect

Principles of energy-integrated farming were applied to the Rio Canas Dairy Farm, a privately-owned dairy farm and one of the largest dairy farms in Puerto Rico with a milking herd of 400 cows. Animal wastes were fed to two anaerobic digesters where methane gas was produced by bacterial degradation of organic material. The methane gas fueled an engine-generator to produce electricity for farm use and for sale to the public utility. The Wastes were partially stabilized by bacterial action with the digesters and the digester effluent passed to a liquid-solid separator. Solid fraction was composted and either used as bedding material for the cows or marketed as soil conditioner. The liquid fraction flowed to a storage pond and was used in the Greenfeed subsystem to fertilize forage crops for the cows. Estimated energy savings of the system were 1705 MBtu for the first two subsystems and 7,718 MBtu's for all three subsystems. Simple payback for the first two subsystems was very long (20 years) because facilities for effective manure recovery did not exist on the farm at the outset of the project, operational costs for manure collection were charged against the project, and system components were oversized. Including the Greenfeed subsystem, simple payback for the project was 8.2 years. Assuming that manure collection facilities and practices already existed and assuming proper sizing of all components, simple payback for the Anaerobic Digestion and Electrical Production subsystem and the Farm Waste Management subsystem was 5.8 years. Using data from this project, an estimate of the return on investment was projected for different herd sizes. Results suggested that for dairy farms with less than 500 cows, anaerobic digester systems are only marginally profitable.

Sasscer, D.S.; Morgan, T.O.

1986-10-01

151

50 CFR 20.101 - Seasons, limits and shooting hours for Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...shooting hours for Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. 20.101 Section 20.101...shooting hours for Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. This section provides for...certain doves, pigeons and ducks in the Virgin Islands. In these Commonwealths,...

2013-10-01

152

78 FR 45894 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Reef Fish Fishery of Puerto Rico...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Reef Fish Fishery of Puerto Rico and the U.S...the Fishery Management Plan for the Reef Fish Fishery of Puerto Rico and the U.S...sustainable_fisheries/caribbean/reef_fish/reg_am4/index.html. FOR...

2013-07-30

153

Science Technology Engineering and Mathematics K-12 Partnership Circles at the University of Puerto Rico Mayagüez Campus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Science Technology Engineering and Mathematics UPRM K-12 Partnership Circles (STEM Circles) is a proposal for an after school program developed by the University of Puerto Rico Mayagüez Campus (UPRM) and submitted to the National Science Foundation. The purpose of the STEM Circles is to create collaboration between the UPRM and the Puerto Rico Department of Education (DE) to develop an

Sonia M. Bartolomei-Suárez; Betty Ramírez; Keith Wayland

154

Audit of Cooperativa de Seguros de Vida de Puerto Rico's Final Administrative Cost Proposal for Fiscal Year 2009.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Prior to February 28, 2009, CMS contracted with Cooperativa de Seguros de Vida de Puerto Rico (COSVI) to serve as the Part A fiscal intermediary for the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico and the United States Virgin Islands. Pursuant to section 911 of the Medic...

2011-01-01

155

Public health surveillance during the XVII Central American and Caribbean Games--Puerto Rico, November 1993.  

PubMed

To provide medical services at mass gatherings for scheduled special events (e.g., world fairs, music festivals, and athletic competitions such as the Olympics), organizers must have information to anticipate both routine and uncommon situations. In November 1993, approximately 9500 athletes and staff from 31 countries participated in the XVII Central American and Caribbean Games in San Juan, Puerto Rico. To monitor injury- and illness-related morbidity among participants, the schools of public health and medicine at the University of Puerto Rico and the Puerto Rico Olympic Committee established a public health surveillance system designed specifically for this event. This report summarizes selected results from the system, which underscore the usefulness of this approach in planning prevention, medical, and emergency services for similar events. PMID:9132577

1996-07-12

156

7 CFR 318.58-12 - Transit of fruits and vegetables from Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands of the United States...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...vegetables from Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands of the United States into or through the...and Vegetables From Puerto Rico or Virgin Islands Rules and Regulations § 318.58-12...vegetables from Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands of the United States into or through...

2009-01-01

157

Status of resistance to Bt maize in Spodoptera frugiperda: lessons from Puerto Rico.  

PubMed

In 2006, reports of potential Spodoptera frugiperda resistance to TC1507 maize in Puerto Rico were received. Subsequent investigation confirmed that pest populations collected from several sites in Puerto Rico were largely unaffected by the Cry1F protein in bioassays, with resistance ratios likely in excess of 1000. Since then, we have continued monitoring populations in Puerto Rico and in southern areas of the mainland US. The majority of the collections from Puerto Rico continue to show high levels of Cry1F resistance whereas populations collected from the southern US mainland continue to show full susceptibility to Cry1F and TC1507 maize. It does not appear that resistant populations have spread to any measurable extent from Puerto Rico to mainland US, nor that local selection pressure from Cry1F-expressing maize or cotton production in the southern US has caused a measurable change in population susceptibility. Lessons learned from Puerto Rico are being applied in other parts of the Americas where TC1507 maize is grown and additional steps being taken to protect the long-term durability of Cry1F in maize in areas where similar selection pressure may be expected. Tactics include using locally-adapted germplasm that contain native Spodoptera resistance, a robust education program to teach end-users about the potential for resistance to develop appropriate crop stewardship, resistance monitoring, and the use of insecticides under high S. frugiperda pressure. Perhaps most importantly, pyramided trait products that produce two or more different Bt proteins are being introduced to further delay resistance development to Cry1F. PMID:22537834

Storer, Nicholas P; Kubiszak, Mary E; Ed King, J; Thompson, Gary D; Santos, Antonio Cesar

2012-07-01

158

Contextual risk and promotive processes in Puerto Rican youths' internalizing trajectories in Puerto Rico and New York.  

PubMed

Research on ethnic-minority youths' mental health has rarely examined developmental trajectories for the same ethnic group in contexts where they are a minority versus where they are the majority or mechanisms accounting for differences in trajectories across such contexts. This study examines Puerto Rican youth residing in two contexts, one in which they are in their home culture of Puerto Rico and one in which they are a minority group, in New York. We explore the relationship among social context, minority status, risk, resilience, and trajectories of internalizing symptoms after adjusting for factors related to migration. We found that youths' reports of internalizing symptoms declined over time. Youths in New York had higher levels of internalizing symptoms than did youths in Puerto Rico, but they had similar trajectories. Differences in internalizing symptoms across the two social contexts were accounted for by experiences of discrimination and exposure to violence. Parental monitoring was associated with fewer internalizing symptoms across the two sites, although this effect diminished over time. Contrary to what was expected, family religiosity was associated with higher levels of internalizing symptoms. This association was stronger in New York than in the Puerto Rico site. PMID:23880390

Ramos-Olazagasti, María A; Shrout, Patrick E; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu; Canino, Glorisa J; Bird, Héctor R

2013-08-01

159

Contextual Risk and Promotive Processes in Puerto Rican Youths' Internalizing Trajectories in Puerto Rico and New York  

PubMed Central

Research on ethnic-minority youths’ mental health has rarely examined developmental trajectories for the same ethnic group in contexts where they are a minority vs. where they are the majority, or mechanisms accounting for differences in trajectories across such contexts. This study examines Puerto Rican youth residing in two contexts -- one in which they are in their home culture of Puerto Rico, and one in which they are a minority group, in New York. We explore the relationship between social context, minority status, risk, resilience, and trajectories of internalizing symptoms after adjusting for factors related to migration. We found that youths’ reports of internalizing symptoms declined over time. Youth in New York had higher levels of internalizing symptoms than youth in Puerto Rico, but similar trajectories. Differences in internalizing symptoms across the two social contexts were accounted for by experiences of discrimination and exposure to violence. Parental monitoring was associated with fewer internalizing symptoms across the two sites, although this effect diminished over time. Contrary to what was expected, family religiosity was associated with higher levels of internalizing symptoms. This association was stronger in the New York than in the Puerto Rico site.

Ramos Olazagasti, Maria A.; Shrout, Patrick E.; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu; Canino, Glorisa J.; Bird, Hector R.

2012-01-01

160

Insects of the Luquillo Mountains, Puerto Rico. Forest Service general technical report  

SciTech Connect

In this review of the literature on forest entomology in Puerto Rico, emphasis is given to research conducted in the Luquillo Experimental Forest (LEF). This review should serve as an introduction to the insects inhabiting the LEF for researchers and as a guide for the identification of possible insect pests. There are three sections to this review. The first deals with basic insect ecology; the second, forest insect pests; and the third, insect attacks on dry wood and during wood seasoning. The reference section and appendices contain information on the systematics and taxonomy of different insect orders found in Puerto Rico.

Torres, J.A.

1994-07-01

161

Endometrial cancer in Puerto Rico: incidence, mortality and survival (1992-2003)  

PubMed Central

Background Endometrial cancer is the most common gynecologic malignancy in Puerto Rico and the United States (US). Methods We compare the age-specific and age-adjusted incidence and mortality rates and the survival of endometrial cancer in Puerto Rico with that of non-Hispanic whites (NHW), non-Hispanic blacks (NHB) and Hispanics in the US. Data from the Puerto Rico Central Cancer Registry and the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program were analyzed from 1992-2003. Results Age-standardized incidence rates of endometrial cancer increased significantly (p < 0.05) in Puerto Rico (APC = 2.8%) and among NHB (APC = 1.9%) and remained constant (p > 0.05) for NHW (APC = -0.1%) and Hispanics in the US (APC = 0.4%). Mortality trends remained constant in all racial/ethnic groups (p > 0.05). For 1999-2003, women in Puerto Rico had similar incidence of endometrial cancer as Hispanics (Standardized rate ratio [SRR] = 0.94, 95% CI = 0.87-1.01), although their risk was lower than that of NHW (SRR = 0.56, 95% CI = 0.53-0.59) and NHB (SRR = 0.91, 95% CI = 0.84-0.98). Meanwhile, women in Puerto Rico had 15% higher risk of death than Hispanic women (SRR = 1.15, 95% CI = 1.03-1.30) similar risk than NHW (SRR = 0.93, 95% CI = 0.83-1.03), and lower risk than NHB (SRR = 0.51, 95% CI = 0.46-0.57). Puerto Rico (63.1%) and NHB (56.8%) had a lower 5-year survival than NHW (78.4%) and Hispanics (79.5%). An age-adjusted Cox proportional hazards model showed that compared with women in Puerto Rico, Hispanic women in the United States had 37% lower mortality risk (HR = 0.63, 95% CI = 0.56-0.71) and NHW had 53% lower mortality risk (HR = 0.47, 95% CI = 0.43-0.52) after 5 years of diagnosis; NHB women had 22% higher mortality risk than women in Puerto Rico (HR = 1.22, 95% CI = 1.09-1.36). Conclusions The lower burden of endometrial cancer in Puerto Rico suggests the presence of protective factors or lower exposure to risk factors in this population, although increases in incidence suggest changes in the occurrence of lifestyles and environmental risk factors. Meanwhile, the lower five-year survival from endometrial cancer among Puerto Ricans suggests a health disparity for this group in areas such as quality of care and/or differences in terms of stage at diagnosis and associated comorbidities. Assessment of disease risk factors and characteristics, and access and response to treatment is required to further understand these results.

2010-01-01

162

Prediction of Master Recession Curves and Baseflow Recessions in the Luquillo Mountains of Puerto Rico  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analysis of hydrograph recessions and rainfall data was performed to estimate the recession constants for two watersheds in the Luquillo mountains of Puerto Rico. To account for seasonal rainfall patterns, the data were grouped into dry and wet seasons. Sets of three Master Recession Curves (MRC) per season for each watershed were developed: one using the Matching Strip Method

Héctor D. Rivera-Ramírez; Glenn S. Warner; Frederick N. Scatena

2002-01-01

163

Improving three dimensional velocity model for Puerto Rico - Virgin Islands for rapid earthquake re-locations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands (PRVI) block lie on the northeastern boundary of the Caribbean plate, where active transpressional tectonics result in the deformation of the boundaries of this block. Every year hundreds of earthquakes occur within and around PRVI region and at least four destructive earthquakes after 1700 are documented in the historical records. The mission of the Puerto Rico Seismic Network (PRSN), Department of Geology of the University of Puerto Rico in Mayagüez is to detect, analyze, disseminate earthquake/tsunami messages and investigate the seismicity in the PR/VI. Currently the PRSN operates 30 seismic stations and receive real time stream from over 75 station installed around the Caribbean. 25 years worth of data recorded by the PRSN has been quality checked and compiled to constrain a new velocity structure using the tomographic package TomoDD. Currently at PRSN, the velocity structure to perform real-time determination of hypocenters consists of a 1-D model. Therefore, this ambitious tomographic study seek to produce a more comprehensive velocity model to be implemented at the PRSN for the daily earthquake locations. Results from this study are a collaborative effort between the University of Miami and the University of Puerto Rico - Mayaguez.

Huerfano, V. A.; Lopez, A. M.; Castillo, L.; Baez-Sanchez, G.; Soto-Cordero, L.; Lin, G.; Zhang, Q.

2010-12-01

164

Determination of Some Levels of Pollution in Some Bays of Puerto Rico. Part 2. Ecological Phase.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Monthly trawl samples were initiated in March 1966 in Mayaguez Bay, a polluted bay, and Boqueron Bay, a relatively clean area, both in western Puerto Rico. Sampling was continued to February 1967. The purpose of the survey was to determine possible effect...

J. S. Ramsey

1970-01-01

165

Determination of Present Levels of Pollution in Some Bays of Puerto Rico. Part 1. Sanitary Phase.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A survey was made of water quality in Mayaguez Bay, Puerto Rico to determine what parameters have a real significance in controlling the sanitary condition of the bay. Factors such as depth, geometry, currents, location and nature of pollution sources, an...

L. A. Del Valle

1970-01-01

166

Model Studies of the Portugues and Bucana Rivers Channelization, Puerto Rico. Hydraulic Model Investigation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Two 1:30-scale physical hydraulic models of the Portugues and Bucana Rivers were used to determine the adequacy of the original designs for the flood control channelization project through the city of Ponce, Puerto Rico. The proposed channelization includ...

N. R. Oswalt

1978-01-01

167

OTEC Biofouling, Corrosion, and Materials Study from a Moored Platform at Punta Tuna, Puerto Rico.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

During the 404 days between 29 January 1980 and 10 March 1981 the Center conducted an uninterrupted biofouling test at Punta Tuna, Puerto Rico, of periodically cleaned, OTEC evaporator tubes. The fouling resistance (R/sub f), total surface carbon and nitr...

D. S. Sasscer T. R. Tosteson T. O. Morgan

1981-01-01

168

20 CFR 404.1089 - Figuring net earnings for residents and nonresidents of Puerto Rico.  

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Figuring net earnings for residents and nonresidents...Self-Employment Income § 404.1089 Figuring net earnings for residents and nonresidents...citizen of Puerto Rico, you must figure your net earnings from self-employment in...

2014-04-01

169

Modernization and Changing Sex Role Orientation: The Case of Puerto Rico.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To examine differential sex role orientations as one conceptual area indicative of psychological adjustments to modernization, questionnaires were administered to agriculture and home economics students at the University of Puerto Rico. There were two types of independent variables: parental (residence, educational attainment levels, family…

Gilbert, Elmira O.

170

Enhancing Enrollment & Management of Graduate (Postgraduate) Students at the University of Puerto Rico, Mayagüez  

Microsoft Academic Search

The University of Puerto Rico at Mayagüez (UPRM) is taking steps to enhance the enrollment and management of graduate students (or postgraduate students, as referred to in other parts of the world) by better integration of all functions. During the last two years the admission process has evolved from a completely paper-based application process to an on-line process. Though this

Anand D. Sharma; Carmen Figueroa

171

West Nile Virus from Blood Donors, Vertebrates, and Mosquitoes, Puerto Rico, 2007  

PubMed Central

West Nile virus (WNV) was isolated from a human blood donor, a dead falcon, and mosquitoes in Puerto Rico in 2007. Phylogenetic analysis of the 4 isolates suggests a recent introduction of lineage I WNV that is closely related to WNV currently circulating in North America.

McElroy, Kate L.; Bessoff, Kovi; Colon, Candimar; Barrera, Roberto; Munoz-Jordan, Jorge L.

2009-01-01

172

Estimates of the population of Puerto Rico and the outlying areas: 1980 to 1986.  

PubMed

This report presents estimates of the population for July 1, 1980 to 1986 for the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the US Virgin Islands, American Samoa, Guam, and The Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands. Census counts for 1980 are also shown for each of the areas. Components of population change for these areas for the 1980-1986 period are also shown. Most of the statistics used to prepare the area estimates were obtained from the local governments of the outlying areas. Except for Puerto Rico, all of the areas estimated are growing at a rate well above that of the US (64% from April 1, 1980 to July 1, 1986). Of the areas, Guam has exhibited the highest % of growth since 1980--19.6%. Although Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands have increased in population since 1890, both experienced population declines between 1985 and 1986. The Virgin Islands' population declined by 1.2%, from 110,800 to 109,500, while Puerto Rico's decreased by 3%, from 3,282,000 to 3,274,000. PMID:12280838

1987-07-01

173

Discovery and characterization of field resistance to Bt maize: Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in Puerto Rico.  

PubMed

Transgenic maize, Zea mays L., event TC1507 produces the Cry1F protein to provide protection from feeding by several important lepidopteran pests, including Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Reports of reduced field performance against this species in Puerto Rico were investigated, and laboratory bioassays showed that S. frugiperda collected from the affected area exhibited lower sensitivity to the Cry1F protein compared with typical colonies from other regions. The resistance was shown to be autosomally inherited and highly recessive. The Puerto Rico colony was shown to be moderately less sensitive than susceptible laboratory strains to Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac, but the differences in sensitivity were dramatically smaller than for Cry1F. Potential contributory factors to the emergence of resistance to Cry1F in Puerto Rico populations of S. frugiperda include the tropical island geography, unusually large population sizes in 2006, and drought conditions reducing the availability of alternative hosts. In response to this resistance incident, the technology providers have stopped commercial sales of TC1507 maize in Puerto Rico pending potential reversion to susceptibility. PMID:20857709

Storer, Nicholas P; Babcock, Jonathan M; Schlenz, Michele; Meade, Thomas; Thompson, Gary D; Bing, James W; Huckaba, Randy M

2010-08-01

174

A Decision Framework to Protect Coral Reefs in Guánica Bay, Puerto Rico  

EPA Science Inventory

A Watershed Management Plan (WMP) for Guánica Bay, Puerto Rico, was introduced in 2008 by a nonprofit organization, the Center for Watershed Protection, with the intent of protecting coral reefs from damage related to watershed discharges. The plan was initially generated with th...

175

Role Perception And Job Satisfaction Among Public Secondary School Counselors Of Puerto Rico  

Microsoft Academic Search

The psychology of work has increasingly recognized the importance of job satisfaction and role perception upon workers. This study investigated these two work dimensions among secondary public school counselors of Puerto Rico.The hypotheses tested in this investigation examine (1) the differences between the counselors' actual and ideal role perception, (2) the relationships between job satisfaction and counselors' discrepancy in their

Moises Rivera-Negron

1979-01-01

176

Phosphorus and iron cycling in deep saprolite, Luquillo Mountains, Puerto Rico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rapid weathering and erosion rates in mountainous tropical watersheds lead to highly variable soil and saprolite thicknesses which in turn impact nutrient fluxes and biological populations. In the Luquillo Mountains of Puerto Rico, a 5-m thick saprolite contains high microorganism densities at the surface and at depth overlying bedrock. We test the hypotheses that the organisms at depth are limited

Heather L. Buss; Ryan Mathur; Arthur F. White; Susan L. Brantley

2010-01-01

177

Geomorphology, disturbance, and the soil and vegetation of two subtropical wet steepland watersheds of Puerto Rico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Relationships between landforms, soil nutrients, forest structure, and the relative importance of different disturbances were quantified in two subtropical wet steepland watersheds in Puerto Rico. Ridges had fewer landslides and treefall gaps, more above-ground biomass, older aged stands, and greater species richness than other landscape positions. Ridge soils had relatively low quantities of exchangeable bases but high soil organic matter,

F. N. Scatena; Ariel E. Lugo

1995-01-01

178

Seasonal Patterns of Precipitation Isotopic Composition in the Luquillo Mountains, Puerto Rico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Precipitation isotopic signatures can help determine the relative importance of different climate patterns to the hydrologic balance and water supply of a region. A set of rain isotope collectors spanning the Luquillo Mountains in Puerto Rico was sampled monthly for two years and precipitation was analyzed for delta18O and delta2H. Rain isotopic composition varied with elevation and with season. In

M. A. Scholl; J. B. Shanley; J. P. Zegarra

2007-01-01

179

Energy Data Reports: Petroleum Refineries in the United States and Puerto Rico.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Data are presented on capacity, production, and construction of petroleum refineries in the US and Puerto Rico for 1977. On January 1, 1978, there were 302 refineries in the United States with a total crude oil distillation capacity of 17.2 million barrel...

1978-01-01

180

Economic Development Threatens Groundwater in Puerto Rico: Results of a Field Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents the results of a field study done on 7 wells providing 37% of the total aquifer production for 4 municipalities in Puerto Rico. Each sampled well showed signs of contamination by heavy metals, nitrate, and semivolatile organic compounds. Although found in low concentrations, current development threatens groundwater quality. (MJP)

Arbona, Sonia I.; Hunter, John M.

1995-01-01

181

Puerto Rico Experimental Model Dental Auxiliary Training Program. The Comprehensive Report, Exhibits G to L.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This annex supplements the Puerto Rico Experimental Model Dental Training Program Comprehensive Report (CE 028 213) and is comprised of exhibits G through L. Among the information included in the exhibits is the evaluation reports of the commission on accreditation, the detailed curriculum, and the accredited program's scope, sequence, and course…

Puerto Rico Univ., San Juan. School of Dentistry.

182

Genetic analysis of a novel invasion of Puerto Rico by an exotic constricting snake  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The tropical island Puerto Rico is potentially vulnerable to invasion by some species of exotic snakes; however, until now no established populations had been reported. Here we report and genetically characterize the nascent invasion of Puerto Rico by an exotic constricting snake of the family Boidae (Boa constrictor) using mtDNA and microsatellite data. Over 150 individual B. constrictor have been removed from Mayagüez municipality since May 2011, and our results from the genetic analysis of 32 individuals suggest that this population was recently founded by individuals of one subspecies from a genetic lineage common to zoo and breeding collections, but that the potential propagule pool consists of two subspecies. We also suggest that anthropogenic long-distance dispersal within the island of Puerto Rico may be occurring from the established population, with implications for further establishment across the island. This study represents the first report of the naturalization of an invasive species of boid snake in Puerto Rico and will be important in determining mitigation strategies for this invasion as well as providing a basis for comparison to other on-going studies of invasive snakes.

Reynolds, R. Graham; Puente-Rolón, Alberto R.; Reed, Robert N.; Revell, Liam J.

2013-01-01

183

Stormflow generation in a small rainforest catchment in the Luquillo Experimental Forest, Puerto Rico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various complementary techniques were used to investigate the stormflow generating processes in a small headwater catchment in northeastern Puerto Rico. Over 100 samples were taken of soil matrix water, macropore flow, streamflow and precipitation, mainly during two storms of contrasting magnitude, for the analysis of calcium, magnesium, silicon, potassium, sodium and chloride. These were combined with hydrometric information on streamflow,

J. Schellekens; F. N. Scatena; L. A. Bruijnzeel; M. M. A. Groen; R. J. P. van Hogezand

2004-01-01

184

Regeneration filters in post-agricultural fields of Puerto Rico and Ecuador  

Microsoft Academic Search

To better understand how rainforest regenerates after agriculture I sampled the seed rain and seed bank, and set out seeds and seedlings, on microsites defined by distance to the forest in fields both in Puerto Rico and Ecuador. I found that (1) total seeds, species richness and life-form richness were twice as great in the Ecuador seed rain compared to

Randall W. Myster

2004-01-01

185

Evaluation of Safety Aspects and Development of Guidelines to Identify Hazardous Intersections in Puerto Rico  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the United States (year 2000), 2.8 million accidents were associated with intersections, representing approximately 44% of all accidents and an estimated societal cost of $40 billions. The principal objective of this research is to explore alternatives to develop an analytical procedure that can be adjusted to the needs and availability of accident data in Puerto Rico to identify hazardous

Kathleen Díaz-Carrasquillo; Julio Quintana-Díaz

186

Forest regeneration in abandoned coffee plantations and pastures in the Cordillera Central of Puerto Rico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forest structure and species composition were described in abandonedshade and sun coffee plantations and abandoned pastures in Puerto Rico. Foreststructural characteristics were similar to older forest sites afterapproximately 30 yr of recovery. The historical presence of shadecoffee plantations as the dominant agricultural activity in the region hasresulted in the homogenization of secondary forest composition. The continuousdominance of Coffea arabica and

Humfredo Marcano-Vega; T. Mitchell Aide; David Báez

2002-01-01

187

New records of parasites for culture Cobia, Rachycentron canadum (Perciformes: Rachycentridae) in Puerto Rico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intensive aquaculture sometimes provides conditions favorable for parasites that are not ordinarily found on culture fishes in the wild, and the use of introduced stocks sometimes introduces non-indigenous species to the habitat. When officially asked about the culture of Cobia Rachycentron canadum (Linnaeus) in Puerto Rico, the authors responded that it was unlikely to cause harm. It was assumed that

Lucy Bunkley-Williams; Ernest H. Williams

188

Maps showing the surficial geology of the Culebra shelf, Puerto Rico  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This study presents the surficial and shallow subbottom geology of the insular shelf around Culebra, Puerto Rico. In view of the need for sand and gravel for construction purposes in the area, we inferred the thickness of unlithified, surficial sediment deposits from high-resolution acoustic-reflection profiles and described seafloor sediment samples collected with a Shipek grab.

Hampton, M. A.; Torresan, M. E.; Trias, J. L.; Folger, D. W.; Wong, F. L.

1997-01-01

189

The Compelling Influence of Nonlinguistic Aims in Language Status Policy Planning in Puerto Rico.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

On April 5, 1991, Spanish was made the sole official language of Puerto Rico, a move that replaced the 1902 Official Languages Act, which had put English and Spanish on an equal footing on the island, in name if not in practice. This paper analyzes this language status policy decision in terms of both its linguistic and extralinguistic purposes…

Strauch, Helen M.

1992-01-01

190

Changing Space, Making Race: Distance, Nostalgia, and the Folklorization of Blackness in Puerto Rico  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, I critique some of the discursive terms in which blackness is folklorized and celebrated institutionally as part of the nation in Puerto Rico. I examine a government-sponsored housing project that meant to revitalize and stylize the community of San Ant n, in Ponce, as a historic black site. Although government officials tried to preserve what they considered

Isar Godreau

2002-01-01

191

Environmental policy and industrialization: The politics of regulation in Puerto Rico  

SciTech Connect

The effects of economic development on environmental regulation in Puerto Rico are examined. In particular, the research analyzes how the Puerto Rican industrialization process has affected implementation of the environmental-review process. Puerto Rico exemplifies an acute conflict between an industrialization process based on capital-intensive, highly polluting industries, and a regulatory framework of insular and US environmental laws and regulations. While industrialization has not solved unemployment problems on the island, environmental and health hazards have increased significantly, despite environmental regulations. The study focuses on a change in the environmental review process in response to economic development concerns. In particular, it examines the growth and extensive use of a new environmental review document, the Environmental Assessment. This study explains this policy shift and, more fundamentally, analyzes how and under what circumstances this change came about.

Concepcion, C.M.

1990-01-01

192

The Ecological Consequences of Socioeconomic and Land-Use Changes in Postagriculture Puerto Rico  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This peer-reviewed article from Bioscience journal is about land usage in Puerto rico and its ecological consequences.Contrary to the general trend in the tropics, forests have recovered in Puerto Rico from less than 10% of the landscape in the late 1940s to more than 40% in the present. The recent Puerto Rican history of forest recovery provides the opportunity to study the ecological consequences of economic globalization, reflected in a shift from agriculture to manufacturing and in human migration from rural to urban areas. Forest structure rapidly recovers through secondary succession, reaching mature forest levels of local biodiversity and biomass in approximately 40 years. Despite the rapid structural recovery, the legacy of pre-abandonment land use, including widespread abundance of exotic species and broadscale floristic homogenization, is likely to persist for centuries.

H. RICARDO GRAU, T. MITCHELL AIDE, JESS K. ZIMMERMAN, JOHN R. THOMLINSON, EILEEN HELMER, and XIOMING ZOU (;)

2003-12-01

193

POLLUTION PREVENTION INCENTIVES TO THE STATES GRANT: PUERTO RICO SOURCE REDUCTION AND REPLACEMENT OF HAZARDOUS SOLVENTS IN AUTOMOTIVE WORKSHOPS  

EPA Science Inventory

This activity includes visiting 600 workshops affiliated with the Automotive Mechanics and Technicians Associations of Puerto Rico (AMTAPR) to demonstrate cost-effective strategies for reducing pollution and replacing solvents. Six hundred P2 assessments of automotive repair fa...

194

Contrasting responses of coral reef fauna and foraminiferal assemblages to human influence in La Parguera, Puerto Rico  

EPA Science Inventory

Coral reef biota including stony corals, sponges, gorgonians, fish, benthic macroinvertebrates and foraminifera were surveyed in coastal waters near La Parguera, in southwestern Puerto Rico. The goal was to evaluate sensitivity of coral reef biological indicators to human distur...

195

Modeling Tsunamis from Potential Submarine Landslides in the Puerto Rico Region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Evidence of submarine landslides found on high-resolution bathymetry around the Puerto Rico - Virgin Islands region indicate that tsunamis may have formed in the past, thus affecting coastal zones around Puerto Rico. Furthermore, it suggests that future submarine landslides in the vicinity are likely to occur in the future, resulting in destruction and devastation never seen before for coastal communities in Puerto Rico. With the presence of massive amphitheaters offshore along the northern Puerto Rico coast, and the most recent evidence of the October 11, 1918 tsunami along its northwestern coast, the threat to coastal communities is higher than previously thought. Submarine landslides progress through time as slopes reach their stability. With numerous processes leading to instabilities and subsequent failure, the possibility of experiencing new submarine landslides is real and thus require an assessment as to quantify potential sources, their dimensions, volumes, resulting tsunamis, and their effects onshore. As part of a project to produce evacuation maps from potential sources, the National Tsunami Hazards Mitigation Program funded the Puerto Rico Seismic Network to identify sources, run tsunami simulations and estimate inundation and run-up values. In addition to 15 past submarine landslides observed in the region's bathymetry, 5 scenarios of submarine landslides have been identified as potentially occurring in the future. Whether any or all of these potential case scenarios occur in the upcoming century is unknown, however, results from this study are critical to quantify their effects along coastal areas and therefore prepare communities for their occurrence. Three such cases lie along the northern offshore region, where the Arecibo and Loiza amphitheaters are found, an area where the geology favors such phenomenons. In contrast, the southern offshore region do not show a similar trend and thus seem unlikely to produce large events. We have used available bathymetry for Puerto Rico region from the National Geophysical Data Center and have used the Tsunami3d and NeoWave tsunami software packages for the simulations. The fact that submarine landslides are often triggered by earthquakes, and a large event have not occurred in the region for the past 94 years, quantifying the threats is a priority for tsunami preparedness.

Lopez, A. M.; Horrillo, J.; Huerfano Moreno, V. A.; Mercado, A.

2012-12-01

196

MultiChannel Seismic Images of Neogene Rifting in the Northern Mona Passage Between Puerto Rico and Hispaniola  

Microsoft Academic Search

Highly oblique (70°) convergence is occurring along the northeastern North America-Caribbean plate boundary offshore northern Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. Complicating the tectonic setting is the oblique collision of the 20 km-thick SE Bahamas carbonate platform that impedes the northeasterly movement of Hispaniola, leaving Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands to separate along north-trending extensional structures in the Mona

S. A. Mondziel; N. R. Grindlay; P. Mann; A. Escalona

2006-01-01

197

Blood pressure and hypertension in an American colony (Puerto Rico) and on the USA mainland compared, 1886–1930  

Microsoft Academic Search

We compare blood pressure and hypertension between adult men on the USA mainland and in Puerto Rico born during 1886–1930 to test hypotheses about the link between cardiovascular health and large socioeconomic and political changes in society: (a) 8853 men surveyed in Puerto Rico in 1965 and (b) 1449 non-Hispanic White men surveyed on the mainland during 1971–1975. Systolic and

Ricardo Godoy; Elizabeth Goodman; Clarence Gravlee; Richard Levins; Craig Seyfried; Mariana Caram; Naveen Jha

2007-01-01

198

Adult male height in an American colony: Puerto Rico and the USA mainland compared, 1886–1955  

Microsoft Academic Search

The links between adult height and socioeconomic-political marginality are controversial. We test hypotheses by comparing secular trends between two groups of USA adult male citizens born during 1886–1930: (a) 9805 men surveyed in Puerto Rico during 1965 and (b) 3064 non-Hispanic Whites surveyed on the mainland during 1971–1975. Puerto Rico provides an apt case study because it is the oldest

Ricardo A. Godoy; Elizabeth Goodman; Richard Levins; Mariana Caram; Craig Seyfried

2007-01-01

199

The Music of Puerto Rico; A Classroom Music Handbook.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With the assumption that the teacher of students with identifiable ethnic or cultural background must be prepared to deal with each student's heritage in a meaningful way, the document provides resource materials for Connecticut classroom teachers and/or music specialists with responsibilities for teaching children of Puerto Rican heritage. The…

Schmidt, Lloyd; Toro, Leonor

200

Near-Surface Shear Wave Velocity Versus Depth Profiles, VS30, and NEHRP Classifications for 27 Sites in Puerto Rico  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 2004 and 2005 the Puerto Rico Seismic Network (PRSN), Puerto Rico Strong Motion Program (PRSMP) and the Geology Department at the University of Puerto Rico-Mayaguez (UPRM) collaborated with the U.S. Geological Survey to study near-surface shear-wave (Vs) and compressional-wave (Vp) velocities in and around major urban areas of Puerto Rico. Using noninvasive seismic refraction-reflection profiling techniques, we acquired velocities at 27 locations. Surveyed sites were predominantly selected on the premise that they were generally representative of near-surface materials associated with the primary geologic units located within the urbanized areas of Puerto Rico. Geologic units surveyed included Cretaceous intrusive and volcaniclastic bedrock, Tertiary sedimentary and volcanic units, and Quaternary unconsolidated eolian, fluvial, beach, and lagoon deposits. From the data we developed Vs and Vp depth versus velocity columns, calculated average Vs to 30-m depth (VS30), and derived NEHRP (National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program) site classifications for all sites except one where results did not reach 30-m depth. The distribution of estimated NEHRP classes is as follows: three class 'E' (VS30 below 180 m/s), nine class 'D' (VS30 between 180 and 360 m/s), ten class 'C' (VS30 between 360 and 760 m/s), and four class 'B' (VS30 greater than 760 m/s). Results are being used to calibrate site response at seismograph stations and in the development of regional and local shakemap models for Puerto Rico.

Odum, Jack K.; Williams, Robert A.; Stephenson, William J.; Worley, David M.; von Hillebrandt-Andrade, Christa; Asencio, Eugenio; Irizarry, Harold; Cameron, Antonio

2007-01-01

201

Wind energy resource atlas. Volume 12. Puerto Rico and US Virgin Islands  

SciTech Connect

The Puerto Rico/US Virgin Island atlas assimilates three collections of wind resource data: one for the region as a whole and one each for both the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico and the US Virgin Islands. For the two subregions, features of the climate, topography and wind resource are discussed in greater detail than is provided in the regional discussion, and the data locations on which the assessment is based are mapped. Variations, over several time scales, in the wind resource at selected stations in both subregions are shown on graphs of monthly average and interannual wind speed and power, and hourly average wind speed for each season. Other graphs present speed, direction and duration frequencies of the wind at these locations.

Wegley, H.L.; Elliott, D.L.; Barchet, W.R.; George, R.L.

1981-01-01

202

Size distribution of submarine landslides and its implication to tsunami hazard in Puerto Rico  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We have established for the first time a size frequency distribution for carbonate submarine slope failures. Using detailed bathymetry along the northern edge of the carbonate platform north of Puerto Rico, we show that the cumulative distribution of slope failure volumes follows a power-law distribution. The power-law exponent of this distribution is similar to those for rock falls on land, commensurate with their interpreted failure mode. The carbonate volume distribution and its associated volume-area relationship are significantly different from those for clay-rich debris lobes in the Storegga slide, Norway. Coupling this relationship with tsunami simulations allows an estimate of the maximum tsunami runup and the maximum number of potentially damaging tsunamis from landslides to the north shore of Puerto Rico. Copyright 2006 by the American Geophysical Union.

ten, Brink, U. S.; Geist, E. L.; Andrews, B. D.

2006-01-01

203

Human Papillomavirus-Related Cancers Among People Living With AIDS in Puerto Rico  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to estimate the incidence of cancer and human papillomavirus (HPV)–related cancers and the risk of death (by cancer status) among people living with AIDS (PLWA) in Puerto Rico. We used data from the Puerto Rico AIDS Surveillance Program and Central Cancer Registry (1985–2005). Cancers with highest incidence were cervix (299.6/100,000) for women and oral cavity/oropharynx for men (150.0/100,000); the greatest excess of cancer incidence for men (standardized incidence ratio, 86.8) and women (standardized incidence ratio, 52.8) was for anal cancer. PLWA who developed a cancer had decreased survival and increased risk of death compared with those who did not have cancer. Cancer control strategies for PLWA will be essential for improving their disease survival.

Perez-Irizarry, Javier; Soto-Salgado, Marievelisse; Suarez, Erick; Perez, Naydi; Cruz, Maritza; Palefsky, Joel; Tortolero-Luna, Guillermo; Miranda, Sandra; Colon-Lopez, Vivian

2014-01-01

204

Enhanced West Nile Virus Surveillance in a Dengue-Endemic Area--Puerto Rico, 2007  

PubMed Central

In June of 2007, West Nile virus (WNV) was detected in sentinel chickens and blood donors in Puerto Rico, where dengue virus (DENV) is hyperendemic. Enhanced human surveillance for acute febrile illness (AFI) began in eastern Puerto Rico on July 1, 2007. Healthcare providers submitted specimens from AFI cases for WNV and DENV virology and serology testing. Over 6 months, 385 specimens were received from 282 cases; 115 (41%) specimens were DENV laboratory-positive, 86 (31%) specimens were laboratory-indeterminate, and 32 (11%) specimens were laboratory-negative for WNV and DENV. One WNV infection was detected by anti-WNV immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibody and confirmed by a plaque reduction neutralization test. DENV and WNV infections could not be differentiated in 27 cases (10%). During a period of active WNV transmission, enhanced human surveillance identified one case of symptomatic WNV infection. Improved diagnostic methods are needed to allow differentiation of WNV and DENV in dengue-endemic regions.

Torres-Aponte, Jomil M.; Luce, Richard R.; Hunsperger, Elizabeth; Munoz-Jordan, Jorge L.; Beltran, Manuela; Vergne, Edgardo; Arguello, D. Fermin; Garcia, Enid J.; Sun, Wellington; Tomashek, Kay M.

2013-01-01

205

Land-Use History and Forest Regeneration in the Cayey Mountains, Puerto Rico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although deforestation continues to be a major threat to tropical biodiversity, abandonment of agricultural land in Puerto\\u000a Rico provides an opportunity to study long-term patterns of secondary forest regeneration. Using aerial photographs from 1937,\\u000a 1967, and 1995, we determined land-use history for 2443 ha in the Cayey Mountains. Pastures were the dominant land cover in\\u000a 1937 and <20% of the

John B. Pascarella; T. Mitchell Aide; Mayra I. Serrano; Jess K. Zimmerman

2000-01-01

206

Relaciones interorganizacionales y el programa de las comunidades especiales de Puerto Rico: Una experiencia de \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

Este trabajo presenta un análisis de la exitosa experiencia del Programa de Comunidades Especiales de Puerto Rico de lucha contra la pobreza (2000-2004). El programa utilizó una estrategia de ¿gobierno conjunto¿ en que la coordinación inter-agencial y el trabajo inter-organizacional jugaron un papel estratégico. Se describe la estructura y la forma de operar del programa y se presenta una reflexión

José Sulbrandt

2006-01-01

207

Climate Zonation in Puerto Rico Based on Principal Components Analysis and an Artificial Neural Network.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The authors analyzed climate data, seasonal averages of precipitation, and maximum, mean, and minimum temperatures over the years 1960-90, from 18 stations spread around the island of Puerto Rico in the Caribbean, to determine whether these distinguish the existence of climate zones in Puerto Rico. An R-mode principal components analysis (PCA), with varimax rotation to the seasonal data in order to reduce their dimensionality, was applied. The first five principal components, found by cross validation to be statistically significant, account for 99% of the variability in the 16 variables included in the analysis. These five components are related to annual variation in mean and minimum temperature (first PC), annual maximum temperature (second PC), and spring, summer, and fall precipitation (third through fifth PCs). A self-organizing map, an artificial neural network algorithm, was then employed to classify the first five PC scores in an optimal fashion. The scores were classified by the neural network into four climatic zones, each with a distinct geographic coverage in Puerto Rico. One zone, marked by the highest mean and minimum annual temperatures, is located along the northern, eastern, and southern coasts of Puerto Rico. The stations referred to the second zone are also from relatively low altitudes in the northern and eastern parts of the island, but they are not located along the immediate coastline. Intermediately high mean and minimum temperatures mark this zone. The third zone consists of stations from high altitudes in the central mountain range and is characterized by the lowest annual mean and minimum temperatures. To the south of the third zone, a fourth zone is identified, which is marked by the highest annual maximum temperatures.

Malmgren, Björn A.; Winter, Amos

1999-04-01

208

Potential Effects of Runoff, Fluvial Sediment, and Nutrient Discharges on the Coral Reefs of Puerto Rico  

Microsoft Academic Search

LARSEN, M.C. and WEBB, R.M.T., 2009. Potential effects of runoff, fluvial sediment, and nutrient discharges on the coral reefs of Puerto Rico. Journal of Coastal Research, 25(1), 189-208. West Palm Beach (Florida), ISSN 0749-0208. Coral reefs, the foundation and primary structure of many highly productive and diverse tropical marine ecosystems, have been degraded by human activity in much of the

Matthew C. Larsen; Richard M. T. Webb

2009-01-01

209

Density, size structure and aspergillosis prevalence in Gorgonia ventalina at six localities in Puerto Rico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gorgonia ventalina’s density, size structure and lesion prevalence was measured at six sites in Puerto Rico that exhibited variation in horizontal\\u000a water transparency, sedimentation rates, suspended particle matter, scleractinian and macroalgal cover. G. ventalina density varied significantly among sites (between 0.84 and 0.007 colonies\\/m2), and was positively correlated with water transparency. Size structure did not vary much among sites, and reflects

Carlos Toledo-Hernández; Alberto M. Sabat; Anabella Zuluaga-Montero

2007-01-01

210

Microseismicity, Stress Patterns and Intensity Analysis of Earthquake Swarms in Guayama, Central Puerto Rico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Earthquake locations by the Puerto Rico Seismic Network from 1986 to 2006 reveal an area of low and sparse seismicity between lat 18.00-18.15° N, long 66-62° W in the northern Guayama area, Central Puerto Rico. Moreover, in recent years, a change in the seismic behavior of the area has been observed which includes a significant increase in the number of events, the occurrence of seismic swarms and reports of felt events. The current seismicity pattern can't be associated to modifications on network coverage or detection algorithms. We are conducting a detailed seismic analysis of 174 shallow events, magnitudes 0.3- 3.1, that occurred from January 2006 to August 2008 in the study area. First motion focal mechanisms are being determined for the events with magnitude 2.5-3.1. We are evaluating the effectiveness of using waveform cross-correlation and time-frequency methodologies as part of our data analysis. Results from an intensity survey and shakemap analysis for this year's largest felt event, which occurred as part of a swarm, will also be presented. Our results will be evaluated in the light of the local geology and their relationship with the stress that is currently undergoing the Puerto Rico microplate as a response to the interaction of the Caribbean and North American Plates. Since the area of seismicity is located near a dam and several kilometers from a natural gas pipeline (under construction), findings from this investigation are of the utmost importance for the seismic hazard assessments for the south-central part of Puerto Rico.

Soto-Cordero, L.; Huerfano, V.; Cano, L.; Cuevas, D.; Baez, G.; Ferrer, F.; Ocasio, D.; von Hillebrandt-Andrade, C.

2008-12-01

211

The coupling of biological iron cycling and mineral weathering during saprolite formation, Luquillo Mountains, Puerto Rico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Corestones of quartz diorite bedrock in the Rio Icacos watershed in Puerto Rico weather spheroidally to form concentric sets of partially weathered rock layers (referred to here as rindlets ) that slowly transform to saprolite. The rindlet zone (0.2-2 m thick) is overlain by saprolite (2-8 m) topped by soil (0.5-1 m). With the objective of understanding interactions between weathering,

H. L. BUSS; M. A. BRUNS; M. J. SCHULTZ; J. MOORE; C. F. MATHUR; S. L. BRANTLEY

2006-01-01

212

Impact of large storms on runoff from leeward and windward watersheds, eastern Puerto Rico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water supplies of eastern Puerto Rico are vulnerable to extreme weather events, from severe droughts to powerful tropical storms that cause floods and landslides and damage vegetation and infrastructure. The severity of these events may increase in the future: climate models forecast that the trend of increasing dryness in Puerto Rico will continue, while storm strength may increase due to warmer ocean temperatures. In order to effectively manage water supplies of eastern Puerto Rico, the impact of various weather events needs to be assessed accurately. Precipitation and runoff data over a fifteen-year period were evaluated for four watersheds in eastern Puerto Rico. These watersheds vary in geology, land cover, and location relative to the Luquillo Mountains. Two watersheds windward of the Luquillo Mountains are much wetter, receiving about 4,000 mm precipitation annually, and precipitation is closely related to elevation. Two leeward watersheds receive about half as much precipitation, and precipitation is not well correlated with elevation. Interannual variation in precipitation and runoff is substantial in all four watersheds and is related to regional-scale weather patterns, which are partly explained by large-scale climate oscillations. Greatest precipitation and runoff (both totals and rates) are associated with major storms, such as hurricanes, tropical storms, and upper level troughs. Discharge caused by such storms can be several hundred times greater than average discharge and is a substantial fraction of annual discharge. Rainfall and runoff during the largest storms were similar among all four watersheds, suggesting that higher annual precipitation and runoff in the windward watersheds is probably controlled by the frequent, smaller rain events related to orographic precipitation. The windward/leeward effects dominate hydrologic regimes in these watersheds and overwhelm differences related to bedrock geology or land cover. The impact of reforestation or climate change over the study period cannot be distinguished from the large interannual variations in weather and the passage of occasional large storms.

Murphy, S. F.; Stallard, R. F.

2012-12-01

213

Sex-specific migration patterns of hawksbill turtles breeding at Mona Island, Puerto Rico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Detailed post-breeding movement data is presented for hawksbill turtles tracked by satellite telemetry from Mona Island, Puerto Rico. Seven nesting females and 8 breeding males were tracked. Females traveled for 3 to 53 d to reach their foraging grounds, swimming distances of 84 to 2051 km (mean 867 km, n = 7) at average speeds of 23.5 to 38.7 km

RP Van Dam; CE Diez; GH Balazs; LA Colón Colón; WO McMillan; B Schroeder

2008-01-01

214

Project PROBE Leg I - Report and archive of multibeam bathymetry and acoustic backscatter , CTD/XBT and GPS navigation data collected during USGS Cruise 02051 (NOAA Cruise RB0208) Puerto Rico Trench September 24, 2002 to September 30, 2002  

USGS Publications Warehouse

On September 24-30, 2002, six days of scientific surveying to map a section of the Puerto Rico Trench (PRT) took place aboard the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) ship Ron Brown. The cruise was funded by NOAA's Office of Ocean Exploration. Multibeam bathymetry and acoustic-backscatter data were collected over an area of about 25,000 sq. km of the Puerto Rico trench and its vicinity at water depths of 4000-8400 m. Weather conditions during the entire survey were good; there were light to moderate winds and 1-2 foot swells experiencing minor chop. The roll and pitch of the ship's interaction with the ocean were not conspicuous. Cruise participants included personnel from USGS, NOAA, and University of New Hampshire Center for Coastal and Ocean Mapping/Joint Hydrographic Center. The cruise resulted in the discovery of a major active strike-slip fault system close to the trench, submarine slides on the descending North American tectonic plate, and an extinct mud volcano, which was cut by the strike-slip fault system. Another strike-slip fault system closer to Puerto Rico that was previously considered to accommodate much of the relative plate motion appears to be inactive. The seaward continuation of the Mona Rift, a zone of extension between Puerto Rico and the Dominican Republic that generated a devastating tsunami in 1918, was mapped for the first time.

ten Brink, Uri; Worley, Charles R.; Smith, Shep; Stepka, Thomas; Williams, Glynn F.

2006-01-01

215

Population estimates for Puerto Rico and the outlying areas: 1980 to 1987.  

PubMed

This report estimates the population for July 1, 1980, to 1987 for the Caribbean areas of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the US Virgin islands, the Pacific areas of American Samoa, Guam, and the commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands. The components of population change for these areas for the 1980-1987 period are also presented. Some highlights of the data follow. 1) All areas except for St. Croix and Puerto Rico are growing at a rate well above that of the US (7.4% from April 1, 1980 to July 1, 1987). 2) The Virgin Islands (population 106,100 in 1987) have shown the highest growth rate (9.8%) since 1980. Growth in St. Thomas and St. John (population 53,600) account for 72% of the total Virgin Islands growth. 3) St. Thomas and St. John together have a net immigration rate of just under 1%; St. Croix (population 52,400) had a net outmigration rate of almost 10%. 4) Puerto Rico (population 3,292,000) experienced a -7.1% net outmigration, and population increase of 95,000. 5) At 23%, Guam (population 130,400) has the largest % population growth; 21% of this growth is due to net immigration. 6) All 3 areas in the Pacific grew in the 7-year period; their overall growth rate was 23%, compared with 3% in the Caribbean areas. PMID:12281533

1988-08-01

216

Sedimentation survey of Lago Dos Bocas, Utuado, Puerto Rico, January 2010  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Lago Dos Bocas reservoir was completed in 1942 to provide water for hydroelectric power generation along the northern coast of Puerto Rico. The reservoir had an original storage capacity of 37.50 million cubic meters (Mm3). The dam is located about 9 kilometers (km) northeast of the town of Utuado, immediately downstream of the original confluence of the Río Grande de Arecibo and the Río Caonillas (fig. 1). The Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority (PREPA) owns and operates the Lago Dos Bocas reservoir, and since 1996, the reservoir has become an essential part of the Puerto Rico Aqueduct and Sewer Authority (PRASA) North Coast Superaqueduct Project. The Superaqueduct is supplied by controlled releases for hydroelectric power generation that replenish the public-supply raw-water intake pool located about 10 km downstream from the Lago Dos Bocas Dam (fig. 1). As of 2005, the Superaqueduct supplies about 4.03 cubic meters per second (m3/s) (348,192 cubic meters per day [m3/d]) of potable water to communities along the northern coast, from Arecibo to the San Juan metropolitan area. Because of the importance of the reservoir to the North Coast Superaqueduct, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with PRASA, conducted a sedimentation survey of Lago Dos Bocas in January 2009. The results of this survey were used to estimate the useful life and the firm yield of the reservoir, and evaluate the need to dredge the reservoir.

Soler-Lopez, Luis R.

2014-01-01

217

Summary of selected characteristics of large reservoirs in the United States and Puerto Rico, 1988  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report presents selected characteristics of 2,728 reservoirs and controlled natural lakes located within the 50 States of the United States and the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico. Data are presented for reservoirs that have normal capacities of at least 5,000 acre-ft or maximum capacities of at least 25,000 acre-ft and that were completed as of January 1, 1988. Reservoir data include: location, maximum capacity, normal capacity, surface area, drainage area, year completed, and use. The normal capacities of the 2,728 reservoirs and controlled natural lakes total more than 467 million acre-ft, and the combined surface areas for 2,362 of those reservoirs total almost 16 million acres. More than 9% (259) of the reservoirs are located in California. The total normal capacity of reservoirs in California is more than 40 million acre-ft (about 8.6% of the total normal capacity for the United States and Puerto Rico), and the total surface area is almost 700,000 acres (about 4.4% of the listed total surface area for the United States and Puerto Rico). (USGS)

Ruddy, B. C.; Hitt, K. J.

1990-01-01

218

Reconnaissance of Volatile Synthetic Organic Chemicals at Public Water Supply Wells Throughout Puerto Rico, November 1984-May 1985  

USGS Publications Warehouse

INTRODUCTION Ground water is the principal source of drinking water for about 850,000 people in Puerto Rico (National Water Summary, 1985). Ground-water withdrawals for public supply, agricultural, and industrial water uses in Puerto Rico are about 250 million gallons per day (Mgal/d) (Torres-Sierra and Aviles, 1985). The development of the most accessible surface water supplies will result in an increasing demand for ground water. Recent investigations conducted by the U. S. Geological Survey, WRD (USGS) have shown the presence of toxic synthetic organic chemicals in ground water throughout Puerto Rico (Gomez-Gomez and Guzman-Rios, 1982). Volatile synthetic organic chemicals (VOC's) have been detected in water from public water supply wells in concentrations ranging from 1 to 500 micrograms per liter (Guzman-Rios and Quinones-Marquez, 1984 and Guzman-Rios and Quinones-Marquez, 1985). As result of these findings, pumpage was discontinued at 6 wells operated by the Puerto Rico Aqueduct and Sewer Authority (PRASA), the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico agency responsible for public-water supply. Monitoring of 10 additional wells in the vicinity of those wells is being conducted by the USGS in cooperation with PRASA. In 1985, the USGS began a comprehensive islandwide study of VOC's in drinking water. The study was conducted in cooperation with the Puerto Rico Department of Health (PRDOH) and PRASA. Samples were collected from 243 public-water supply wells operated by PRASA (flgure 1). The authors wish to acknowledge the support, assistance and cooperation of the PRASA staff throughout Puerto Rico in the sample collection effort. The authors are especially grateful to Engineer Carlos Garcia-Troche from the PRASA main office in San Juan.

Guzman-Rios, Senen; Garcia, Rene; Aviles, Ada

1987-01-01

219

Determination and Demonstration of the Feasibility of Using Fish Aggregating Devices (FADS) to Enhance Recreational and Commercial Fisheries in Puerto Rico and the Development of an Artificial Reef Siting Plan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The project demonstrated the feasibility of using fish aggregating devices (FADS) to increase harvest of underutilized species in Puerto Rico. A siting plan for FADS and artificial reefs around Puerto Rico was also developed. The report describes and docu...

D. L. Feigenbaum C. H. Blair

1987-01-01

220

Wildland Fire Management and Restoration Proceedings of the Twelfth Meeting of Caribbean Forester in Puerto Rico on June 7-11, 2004.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Puerto Rico hosted its first meeting of Caribbean Foresters during the week of June 7 to 11, 2004. Puerto Rico was 'saved for last' as a venue for these meetings that began in Saint Lucia in 1982. Over the last two decades, Caribbean Foresters have met in...

P. L. Weaver K. A. Gonzalez

2005-01-01

221

33 CFR 334.1480 - Vieques Passage and Atlantic Ocean, off east coast of Puerto Rico and coast of Vieques Island...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...coast of Puerto Rico and coast of Vieques Island; naval restricted areas. 334.1480...coast of Puerto Rico and coast of Vieques Island; naval restricted areas. (a) The...shoreline along the west end of Vieques Island extending from Caballo Point on...

2013-07-01

222

Controlling Transport Processes in Groundwater Contamination in the North Coast Karst Aquifer of Puerto Rico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The karst aquifer of the North Coast of Puerto Rico represents a significant source of water for drinking purposes, as well as ecosystem sustainability. The same characteristics making this aquifer the most productive in the island, fast infiltration and rapid flow in karst conduits, make the aquifers vulnerable highly vulnerable to contamination. Once in the ground water, organic contaminants move through the karst aquifers by complex pathways dictated by system characteristics and flow regimes. Ground water flow in karst aquifers is subscribed to two types of flow systems: conduit flow and diffuse flow. Transport in conduit-flow dominated systems tends to convey solutes rapidly through the system to a discharge or point without much attenuation. Transport in diffuse- flow systems, on the other hand, causes significant solute retardation and serves as a long-term source of contamination. Although it is common to attribute one type of predominant flow regime, most carbonate aquifers are characterized by a mixture of both flow systems. The north coast aquifer of Puerto Rico has been impacted by a large number of contaminates sites. During the last 25 years, 10 Superfund sites have been declared in the zone and others are being evaluated for inclusion in the National Priority List. The work presented herein addresses the potential impact of these sites on the extent of contamination and discusses the transport mechanisms affecting the transport and persistence of organic contaminants in the north coast aquifer of Puerto Rico. Preliminary evaluation indicates that fate and transport of these contaminants is controlled by a combinations of conduit- and diffuse-flow mechanisms, where conduits tend to concentrate water and contaminants and convey it rapidly or to "trapping" diffusive-flow zones of smaller pore-size zones.

Padilla, I. Y.; Steele, K.

2008-05-01

223

Potential effects of runoff, fluvial sediment, and nutrient discharges on the coral reefs of Puerto Rico  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Coral reefs, the foundation and primary structure of many highly productive and diverse tropical marine ecosystems, have been degraded by human activity in much of the earth's tropical oceans. To contribute to improved understanding of this problem, the potential relation between river sediment and nutrient discharges and degradation of coral reefs surrounding Puerto Rico was studied using streamflow, suspended-sediment, and water-quality data. Mean annual runoff for the 8711 km2 island is 911 mm, about 57% of mean annual precipitation (1600 mm). Mean annual suspended-sediment discharge from Puerto Rico to coastal waters is estimated at 2.7-9.0 million metric tonnes. Storm runoff transports a substantial part of sediment: the highest recorded daily sediment discharge is 1-3.6 times the mean annual sediment discharge. Hurricane Georges (1998) distributed an average of 300 mm of rain across the island, equivalent to a volume of about 2.6 billion m3. Runoff of more than 1.0 billion m3 of water and as much as 5 to 10 million metric tonnes of sediment were discharged to the coast and shelf. Nitrogen and phosphorous concentrations in river waters are as much as 10 times the estimated presettlement levels. Fecal coliform and fecal streptococcus concentrations in many Puerto Rico rivers are near or above regulatory limits. Unlike sediment discharges, which are predominantly episodic and intense, river-borne nutrient and fecal discharge is a less-intense but chronic stressor to coral reefs found near the mouths of rivers. Negative effects of riverderived sediment and nutrient discharge on coral reefs are especially pronounced on the north, southwest, and west coasts.

Larsen, M. C.; Webb, R. M. T.

2009-01-01

224

Ethnic conflict and the psychology of liberation in Guatemala, Peru, and Puerto Rico.  

PubMed

Ethnic identity and conflict in Guatemala, Peru, and Puerto Rico are complexly embedded within dynamic systems of class- and race-based geopolitics. Whereas overt violence and terror have permeated both Guatemalan and Peruvian societies, overt conflict has undermined Puerto Rican nationhood. Despite similarities among these 3 countries of Hispano-America, there are important particularities that inform psychological theory and practice. This article explores selected contributions of a psychology of liberation informed by indigenous psychologies and reflexive praxis. The challenges these conflicts and their consequences pose to psychologists seeking to work with populations most deeply affected by these social inequalities are analyzed. It concludes with suggestions of how psychology can move toward the development of community-based responses to psychosocial oppression that foster enhanced individual and collective development in a context of social change. PMID:9735060

Comas-Di-az, L; Lykes, M B; Alarco-n, R D

1998-07-01

225

Paradise lost: an introduction to the geography of water pollution in Puerto Rico.  

PubMed

Rapid industrialization has transformed the agricultural economy of Puerto Rico, creating employment opportunities and raising standards of living. Success, however, is marred by widespread pollution that outstrips the infrastructural capacity necessary for the preservation of environmental quality and of human health. The result today is a landfill crisis, a heritage of toxic dumps, and an advancing tide of pollution. Rivers and reservoirs are nearly ubiquitously affected and groundwaters, long thought to be naturally protected, show evidence of increasing contamination. Limestone aquifers are at particular risk. Public awareness and inter-sectoral political leadership are urgently needed to reverse the trend towards environmental deterioration. PMID:7638643

Hunter, J M; Arbona, S I

1995-05-01

226

Thoracic endometriosis: first reported case in Puerto Rico and review of literature.  

PubMed

Endometriosis is defined as the presence of endometrial tissue in extra uterine sites. It affects 5-15% of females during their reproductive years. Thoracic endometriosis syndrome is characterized by the presence of functional endometrial tissue within the pleura, the lung parenchyma or the airway. The overall prevalence of this condition is unknown due to a lack of epidemiological studies, variety of symptoms, signs and locations. We present the first reported case of recurrent catamenial pneumothorax in Puerto Rico and a review of recent literature. PMID:23767387

García Gubern, Carlos; Rolón Colon, Lissandra; Vazquez Torres, Orlando; Martinez Alayón, Gretchen; Santos Santiago, Alexis; Mulero Portela, Eugenio

2013-01-01

227

Estimates of 7-day, 10-year minimum flows at selected stream sites in Puerto Rico  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The 7-day, 10-year minimum flow of streams is used as an index for determining the capacity of streams to receive waste effluents. This index of flow was computed from streamflow records for 31 stream sites in Puerto Rico. In addition, there was a need for the 7-day, 10-year minimum flow at an additional 15 stream sites for which adequate streamflow data were not available. The flow index was estimated at these sites on the basis of available record, records at nearby sites, and comparisons with drainage areas. (Woodard-USGS)

Cobb, Ernest D.

1978-01-01

228

A 40 MWe floating OTEC plant at Punta Tuna, Puerto Rico  

SciTech Connect

A development project leading to a closed-cycle ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) pilot plant is considered. In connection with this project, a plan was submitted for design, construction, deployment, start-up, and operation of a 40 MWe floating electric generating plant at Punta Tuna, Puerto Rico. Attention is given to the OTEC concept, organizational aspects related to the project, the major problems regarding the OTEC program, and the commercialization plan. Questions of design philosophy are examined, taking into account the need for efficient heat exchangers, the minimization of water flow, the importance of achieving maximized efficiency, and requirements for environmental safety.

Dambly, B.W.

1981-01-01

229

An Overview of the Great Puerto Rico ShakeOut 2012  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With a population of 4 million, Puerto Rico will be celebrating this year, for first time, an Island-wide earthquake drill following the Great California ShakeOut model. Most of our population has never experienced a large earthquake, since our last significant event occurred on 1918, and is not adequately prepared to respond to a sudden ground movement. During the moderate-size earthquakes (M5.2-5.8) that have been felt in Puerto Rico since 2010, and despite Puerto Rico Seismic Network education efforts, the general public reaction was inappropriate, occasionally putting themselves and others at risk. Our overarching goal for the Great Puerto Rico ShakeOut is to help develop seismic awareness and preparedness in our communities. In addition, our main objectives include: to teach the public to remain calm and act quickly and appropriately during a seismic event, the identification and correction of potential hazards that may cause injuries, and the development/update of mitigation plans for home, work place and/or school. We are also taking this opportunity to clarify the misconceptions of other methods of protection (e.g. triangle of life) and warning equipment and systems that do not have sound scientific or applicable basis for our country. We will be presenting an overview of the accomplishment of our earthquake drill and the different strategies we are using, such as internet, social media and collaboration with state government agencies and professional groups, to reach diverse age and educational level groups and to promote their participation. One of our main target groups this year are school students since their experience can have a direct and positive impact on their families. The drill webpage was developed in Spanish and English as well as our promotional and educational materials. Being the first time a Spanish-speaking country coordinates a ShakeOut exercise we hope our experience and the materials we are developing could be of use and benefit to other Spanish-speaking countries.

Gómez, G.; Soto-Cordero, L.; Huérfano-Moreno, V.; Ramos-Gómez, W.; De La Matta, M.

2012-12-01

230

Capacity Needs in Community-Based Organizations for Enhancing Translational Research in Puerto Rico  

PubMed Central

Background In an effort to form and sustain community–academic partnerships (CAPs) to enhance clinical and translational research, an assessment of needs for selecting and implementing evidence-based programs (EBPs) was conducted among a group of community-based organizations (CBOs) throughout Puerto Rico. Methods The survey was based on an instrument developed by the Cancer Prevention and Control Research Network. It assessed specific service information, program selection/implementation processes, knowledge and perception of EBPs, funding venues, evaluation processes, and capacity and training needs. Recruitment consisted of contacting 100 nonprofit organizations in Puerto Rico that work or address specific health areas, namely, cancer, neurological disorders, HIV, and cardiovascular health. Results The survey revealed wide variability in understanding what constitutes an EBP. Training needs for building a productive translational research process also were identified. Prominent among these were securing funding for ongoing operations, utilizing data for decision making, developing collaborations, managing information, conducting community needs assessments, and program evaluation. Conclusions These findings point to important implications for promoting community–campus partnerships for advancing clinical and translational research.

Martinez, Giovanni; Sardinas, Lili M.; Acosta-Perez, Edna; Medina, Lizbeth; Rivera, Mirza; Pattatucci, Angela

2014-01-01

231

Estimation of magnitude and frequency of floods for streams in Puerto Rico : new empirical models  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Flood-peak discharges and frequencies are presented for 57 gaged sites in Puerto Rico for recurrence intervals ranging from 2 to 500 years. The log-Pearson Type III distribution, the methodology recommended by the United States Interagency Committee on Water Data, was used to determine the magnitude and frequency of floods at the gaged sites having 10 to 43 years of record. A technique is presented for estimating flood-peak discharges at recurrence intervals ranging from 2 to 500 years for unregulated streams in Puerto Rico with contributing drainage areas ranging from 0.83 to 208 square miles. Loglinear multiple regression analyses, using climatic and basin characteristics and peak-discharge data from the 57 gaged sites, were used to construct regression equations to transfer the magnitude and frequency information from gaged to ungaged sites. The equations have contributing drainage area, depth-to-rock, and mean annual rainfall as the basin and climatic characteristics in estimating flood peak discharges. Examples are given to show a step-by-step procedure in calculating a 100-year flood at a gaged site, an ungaged site, a site near a gaged location, and a site between two gaged sites.

Ramos-Gines, Orlando

1999-01-01

232

HISTORICAL CONTAMINATION OF GROUNDWATER RESOURCES IN THE NORTH COAST KARST AQUIFERS OF PUERTO RICO  

PubMed Central

The North Coast Karst Aquifer System of Puerto Rico is the island’s most productive aquifer. The characteristics that make it highly productive also make it vulnerable to contamination. This research, which addresses the historical contamination of groundwater resources in the northern karst region was conducted through integration of spatial hydrogeologic and contaminant concentration data in the La Plata-Arecibo area. The study used GIS technologies and focused on phthalates and chlorinated volatile organic compounds (CVOCs) and phthalates due to their ubiquitous presence in the environment as well as their presence in listed and potential superfund sites in Puerto Rico and U.S. and potential for exposure and health impacts. Results show an extensive historical contamination of the groundwater resources in the northern karst aquifers. Long-term contamination indicates the aquifers’ large capacity for storing and releasing contaminants and reflects a long-term potential for exposure. The degradation of this important water resource has resulted in a subsequent reduction of the extraction capacity and an increase in the cost of use.

Padilla, Ingrid; Irizarry, Celys; Steele, Katherine

2012-01-01

233

Reemergence and Decline of Dengue Virus Serotype 3 in Puerto Rico  

PubMed Central

Background.?The dengue virus serotype 3 (DENV-3) Indian subcontinent strain emerged in Puerto Rico in 1998 after a 21-year absence. The rapid expansion of DENV-3 on the island correlated with the withdrawal of the other serotypes for 7 years. The DENV-3 prevalence declined in 2008 and remains undetected. Methods.?We sequenced complete genomes of 92 DENV-3 clinical isolates to characterize the molecular evolution and phylogeography throughout 10 years of continued sampling (1998–2007). Results.?We documented 8 distinct lineages that emerged simultaneously and evolved independently. Two of the 8 lineages were highly associated with transient introductions of foreign viruses, and 2 of the 3 endemic lineages covered the entire study period. We found evidence of temporal-geographical clustering only within the 3 endemic lineages. The phylogeography analysis combined with serotype-specific incidence data showed that transmission of a DENV serotype in a given location and time is usually correlated with the absence of the other serotype. Conclusions.?Our study shows the cotransmission of DENV-3 lineages through a complex dissemination pattern dissimilar to the evolutionary dynamics of the other serotypes in the island. High virus genetic diversity and a large naive population were underlying factors in the expansion and collapse of DENV-3 in Puerto Rico.

Santiago, Gilberto A.; McElroy-Horne, Kate; Lennon, Niall J.; Santiago, Luis M.; Birren, Bruce W.; Henn, Matthew R.; Munoz-Jordan, Jorge L.

2012-01-01

234

Water-quality reconnaissance of Laguna Tortuguero, Vega Baja, Puerto Rico, March 1999-May 2000  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Laguna Tortuguero, a slightly saline to freshwater lagoon in north-central Puerto Rico, has a surface area of about 220 hectares and a mean depth of about 1.2 meters. As part of a water-quality reconnaissance, water samples were collected at about monthly and near bi-monthly intervals from March 1999 to May 2000 at four sites: three stations inside the lagoon and one station at the artificial outlet channel dredged in 1940, which connects the lagoon with the Atlantic Ocean. Physical characteristics that were determined from these water samples were pH, temperature, specific conductance, dissolved oxygen, dissolved oxygen saturation, and discharge at the outlet canal. Other water-quality constituents also were determined, including nitrogen and phosphorus species, organic carbon, chlorophyll a and b, plankton biomass, hardness, alkalinity as calcium carbonate, and major ions. Additionally, a diel study was conducted at three stations in the lagoon to obtain data on the diurnal variation of temperature, specific conductance, dissolved oxygen, and dissolved oxygen saturation. The data analysis indicates the water quality of Laguna Tortuguero complies with the Puerto Rico Environmental Quality Board standards and regulations.

Soler-Lopez, Luis; Guzman-Rios, Senen; Conde-Costas, Carlos

2006-01-01

235

Insular Area energy vulnerability, Puerto Rico, US Virgin Islands. Technical Appendix 1  

SciTech Connect

This report was prepared in response to Section 1406 of the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (P.L. 192-486). The Act directed the Department of Energy (DOE) to ``conduct a study of the implications of the unique vulnerabilities of the insular areas to an oil supply disruption,`` and to ``outline how the insular areas shall gain access to vital oil supplies during times of national emergency.`` The Act defines the insular areas to be the US Virgin Islands and Puerto Rico in the Caribbean, and Guam, American Samoa, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI), and Palau in the Pacific. This report is the analysis of Puerto Rico and the US Virgin Islands. In the study, ``unique vulnerabilities`` were defined as susceptibility to: (1) more frequent or more likely interruptions of oil supplies compared to the mainland, and/or (2) disproportionately larger or more likely economic losses in the event of an oil supply disruption. In order to asses unique vulnerabilities, the study examined in the insular areas` experience during past global disruptions of oil supplies and during local emergencies caused by natural disasters. The effects of several possible future global disruptions and local emergencies were also analyzed. Analyses were based on historical data, simulations using energy and economic models, and interviews with officials in the insular governments and the energy industry.

Stern, M.; Willard, E.E.; Efferding, S. [Ensys Energy & Systems, Inc., Flemington, NJ (United States)

1994-05-01

236

Sedimentation Survey of Lago Toa Vaca, Puerto Rico, June-July 2002  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Lago Toa Vaca dam is located in the municipality of Villalba in southern Puerto Rico, and is owned and operated by the Puerto Rico Aqueduct and Sewer Authority. Construction was completed in 1972 as the first phase of a multi-purpose project that contemplated four possible diversions from other basins to mitigate the rapid storage capacity loss of Lago Guayabal, located immediately downstream of the Toa Vaca dam. The latter phases of the intra-basin diversions were cancelled, and currently, the reservoir receives runoff from only 56.8 square kilometers of its drainage area. Lago Toa Vaca reservoir when constructed was to be used for irrigation of croplands in the southern coastal plain. The reservoir had an original storage capacity of 68.94 million cubic meters. Sedimentation has reduced the storage capacity by only 7 percent between 1972 and 2002 to 64.08 million cubic meters. This represents a long-term sedimentation rate of about 162,000 cubic meters per year. Based on the 2002 sedimentation survey, Lago Toa Vaca has a sediment trapping efficiency of about 98 percent and a drainage area-normalized sedimentation rate of about 3,086 cubic meters per square kilometer per year between 1972 and 2002. At the current long-term sedimentation rate the reservoir would lose its storage capacity by the year 2400.

Soler-Lopez, Luis R.

2004-01-01

237

Enhanced West Nile virus surveillance in a dengue-endemic area--Puerto Rico, 2007.  

PubMed

In June of 2007, West Nile virus (WNV) was detected in sentinel chickens and blood donors in Puerto Rico, where dengue virus (DENV) is hyperendemic. Enhanced human surveillance for acute febrile illness (AFI) began in eastern Puerto Rico on July 1, 2007. Healthcare providers submitted specimens from AFI cases for WNV and DENV virology and serology testing. Over 6 months, 385 specimens were received from 282 cases; 115 (41%) specimens were DENV laboratory-positive, 86 (31%) specimens were laboratory-indeterminate, and 32 (11%) specimens were laboratory-negative for WNV and DENV. One WNV infection was detected by anti-WNV immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibody and confirmed by a plaque reduction neutralization test. DENV and WNV infections could not be differentiated in 27 cases (10%). During a period of active WNV transmission, enhanced human surveillance identified one case of symptomatic WNV infection. Improved diagnostic methods are needed to allow differentiation of WNV and DENV in dengue-endemic regions. PMID:23478583

Torres-Aponte, Jomil M; Luce, Richard R; Hunsperger, Elizabeth; Muñoz-Jordan, Jorge L; Beltrán, Manuela; Vergne, Edgardo; Argüello, D Fermín; García, Enid J; Sun, Wellington; Tomashek, Kay M

2013-05-01

238

Summary of significant floods in the United States and Puerto Rico, 1994 through 1998 water years  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This volume is a compilation of significant floods that occurred at streamgages throughout the United States and Puerto Rico from October 1, 1993, through September 30, 1998. A significant flood in this report refers to a peak-flow discharge(instantaneous or time averaged) that is in the top 5 percent of all the annual peak flows recorded at streamgages during their total period of record. Most of these floods are approximately equal to or greater than the 20-year recurrence interval flood (0.05 probability of occurrence in any 1 year) for that streamgage. A summary of the most devastating floods according to number of lives lost and amount of damage is provided for each water year from 1994 through 1998. Significant interstate floods also are described. For each year, national maps are provided showing percentage of streamgages in each State recording the significant floods and standardized deviations from long-term (1950-95) mean precipitation. Compilations arranged by State for each of the 50 United States and Puerto Rico also are presented. Each State compilation includes: (1) State maps to locate the streamgages recording significant floods and (2) tables of data that allow the reader to compare each significant flood during water years 1994 through 1998 with the maximum flood for the entire period of record at each streamgage.

Perry, C. A.

2005-01-01

239

Factors influencing tropical island freshwater fishes:Species, status, and management implications in puerto rico [Factores que influencian a los peces tropicales de agua dulce: Especies, estado actual e implicaciones para el manejo en Puerto Rico  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Anthropogenic effects including river regulation, watershed development, contamination, and fish introductions have substantially affected the majority of freshwater habitats in Europe and North America. This pattern of resource development and degradation is widespread in the tropics, and often little is known about the resources before they are lost. This article describes the freshwater resources of Puerto Rico and identifies factors that threaten conservation of native fishes. The fishes found in freshwater habitats of Puerto Rico represent a moderately diverse assemblage composed of 14 orders, 29 families, and 82 species. There are fewer than 10 species of native peripherally-freshwater fish that require a link to marine systems. Introductions of nonindigenous species have greatly expanded fish diversity in freshwater systems, and native estuarine and marine species (18 families) also commonly enter lowland rivers and brackish lagoons. Environmental alterations, including land use and development, stream channelization, pollution, and the impoundment of rivers, combined with nonnative species introductions threaten the health and sustainability of aquatic resources in Puerto Rico. Six principal areas for attention that are important influences on the current and future status of the freshwater fish resources of Puerto Rico are identified and discussed.

Wesley, Neal, J.; Lilyestrom, C. G.; Kwak, T. J.

2009-01-01

240

Caracteristicas de los Estudiantes de Ciencias Agricolas y de Economia Domestica de la Universidad de Puerto Rico (Characteristics of the Agricultural Science and Home Economics Students of the University of Puerto Rico). Publicacion 135.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As part of a U.S. Department of Agriculture research project on young adults, a questionnaire was distributed in the fall of 1977 to all agriculture science and home economics students at the University of Puerto Rico in order to determine their personal and parental backgrounds; work, college, and high school experiences; life goals and attitudes…

Lube, Edna Droz; Calero, Reinaldo

241

Findings Made during the June 1961 Cruise of Chain to the Puerto Rico Trench and Caryn Sea Mount  

Microsoft Academic Search

During an expedition to the Puerto Rico trench undersea photographs disclosed rock slides and probable outcrops on the north wall of the trench. Rock samples were dredged from this locality in a place where nearby seismic refraction measurements can be projected. Reasonable projection indicates that the top of layer 3 (having a P wave velocity of about 6.5 km\\/sec) outcrops

Woods Hole

1962-01-01

242

Monoculture Yield Trials of an All-Male Hybrid Tilapia in Small Farm Ponds in Puerto Rico.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The use of an all-male tilapia hybrid in monoculture was tested in two earthen farm ponds near Mayaguez, in western Puerto Rico, from January to June 1976. Hybrid fingerlings were first produced in plastic-lined pools from crosses between female Tilapia n...

M. J. Fram F. A. Pagan-Font

1979-01-01

243

Outlet Works for Cerrillos Dam, Cerrillos River, and Portugues Dam, Portugues River, Puerto Rico; Hydraulic Model Investigation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Tests were conducted on a 1:24-scale model of the outlet works for the Cerrillos and Portugues Dams located in Puerto Rico. The purpose of the model investigation was to determine the performance of the stilling basins for the full range of discharges wit...

J. F. George

1979-01-01

244

Effects of Hydrogeologic Conditions on Groundwater Contamination of CVOCs in the North Coast Karst Aquifer of Puerto Rico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The karst system of northern Puerto Rico is the most productive aquifer of the island. It serves freshwater to industrial, domestic and agricultural purposes, and contributes to the ecological integrity of the region. The same characteristics that make this a highly productive aquifer, make it vulnerable to contamination of groundwater. Of particular importance is contamination with chlorinated volatile organic compounds (CVOCs), which have been related to preterm birth problems. A great extent of CVOC contamination has been seen in the North Coast of Puerto Rico since the 1970s. The main purposes of this study are (1) to relate the water quality of wells and springs with the hydrogeological conditions in the north coast limestone aquifer of Puerto Rico, and (2) to make a statistical analysis of the historical groundwater contamination in that area. To achieve these objectives, groundwater samples are collected from wells and springs during dry and wet seasons. Results show that trichloroethylene (TCE), tetrachloroethylene (PCE) and chloroform (TCM) are frequently detected in groundwater samples. A greater detection of CVOCs is detected during the wet season than the dry season. This is attributed to a greater capacity to flush stored contaminants during the wet season. Historical analysis of contamination in the north coast of Puerto Rico shows a high capacity of the aquifer to store and release contaminants. Future work will be focused the statistical analysis of the historical groundwater contamination data to understand the behavior of the contaminants in different hydrologic conditions.

Torres Torres, N. I.; Howard, J.; Padilla, I. Y.; Torres, P.; Cotto, I.; Irizarry, C.

2012-12-01

245

Public Health Assessment for Scorpio Recycling, Incorporated Candelaria Ward, Toa Baja Municipality, Puerto Rico, EPA Facility ID: PRD987376662.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Scorpio Recycling, Inc. (SRI) site is an active scrap metal yard located on State Road No. 2, Candelaria Ward, Toa Baja, and Puerto Rico. Part of the property was previously used as a battery salvage area where batteries were dismantled for scrap. SRI...

2004-01-01

246

The effects of a professional development geoscience education institute upon secondary school science teachers in Puerto Rico  

Microsoft Academic Search

The geographic and geologic settings of Puerto Rico served as the context to develop a mixed methods investigation on: (1) the effects of a five-day long constructivist and field-based earth science education professional development institute upon 26 secondary school science teachers' earth science conceptual knowledge, perceptions of fieldwork, and beliefs about teaching earth science; and (2) the implementation of participants'

Pablo Antonio Llerandi Roman

2007-01-01

247

Stable isotope techniques to investigate cloud water in forested mountain watersheds in the trade wind latitudes - Hawaii and Puerto Rico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fog and cloud water can contribute to stream flow, soil moisture, groundwater recharge and plant uptake in mountain watersheds in the trade wind latitudes. Results from three island sites, two in Hawaii and one in Puerto Rico, are discussed to evaluate the utility of isotopic methods in studies of fog and cloud water in watersheds. In forests that are immersed

M. A. Scholl; T. W. Giambelluca

2010-01-01

248

Comienza la construcción de instalación patrocinada por el NCI en Puerto Rico para realizar estudios clínicos sobre el cáncer  

Cancer.gov

El gobierno de Puerto Rico ha destinado $196 millones de dólares para construir un hospital oncológico de 287 000 pies cuadrados en San Juan, que contará con 96 camas. El nuevo hospital es el primero en su clase en la región caribeña y en él se llevarán a cabo tratamientos para el cáncer y estudios clínicos.

249

The Toa Baja Drilling Project, Puerto Rico: Scientific drilling into a non-volcanic island arc massif  

SciTech Connect

The Toa Baja Drilling Project was a broad, interdisciplinary experiment to document the in situ geology and geophysics of a non-volcanic island arc massif. This overview provides a brief summary of oil exploration on Puerto Rico that lead up to the present investigation, and summarizes some of the problems addressed by drilling.

Larue, D.K. (Univ. of Puerto Rico, Mayaguez (Puerto Rico))

1991-03-01

250

Nitrate isotopic composition between Bermuda and Puerto Rico: Implications for N2 fixation in the Atlantic Ocean  

Microsoft Academic Search

N and O isotope analyses of water column nitrate between Bermuda and Puerto Rico document a bolus of low-?15N nitrate throughout the Sargasso Sea thermocline, which we attribute primarily to the input of recently fixed N. Although previous work suggests southward increases in N2 fixation and ventilation age, no meridional trend in nitrate ?15N is apparent. In the upper 200

Angela N. Knapp; Peter J. DiFiore; Curtis Deutsch; Daniel M. Sigman; Fredric Lipschultz

2008-01-01

251

Detection of Conduit-Controlled Ground-Water Flow in Northwestern Puerto Rico Using Aerial Photograph Interpretation and Geophysical Methods.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The development potential of ground-water resources in the karst limestone of northwestern Puerto Rico, in an area extending from Rio Camuy to Aguidilla, is uncertain as a result of limited knowledge of the location of areas where a high density of caviti...

J. Rodriguez-Martinez R. T. Richards

2001-01-01

252

Hydrogen density and proton flux in the topside ionosphere over Arecibo, Puerto Rico, from incoherent scatter observations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Incoherent scatter observations of the topside ionosphere over Arecibo, Puerto Rico, have been analyzed and interpreted to give values for the neutral hydrogen density and vertical proton flux throughout a 30 hr period on December 7 and 8, 1965. The neutral hydrogen density is of the order of 106 cm-3 at 520km, agreeing well with other recent measurements. A diurnal

M. C. Ho; D. R. Moorcroft

1971-01-01

253

Introducing ShakeMap to potential users in Puerto Rico using scenarios of damaging historical and probable earthquakes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The island of Puerto Rico has a long history of damaging earthquakes. Major earthquakes from off-shore sources have affected Puerto Rico in 1520, 1615, 1670, 1751, 1787, 1867, and 1918 (Mueller et al, 2003; PRSN Catalogue). Recent trenching has also yielded evidence of possible M7.0 events inland (Prentice, 2000). The high seismic hazard, large population, high tsunami potential and relatively poor construction practice can result in a potentially devastating combination. Efficient emergency response in event of a large earthquake will be crucial to minimizing the loss of life and disruption of lifeline systems in Puerto Rico. The ShakeMap system (Wald et al, 2004) developed by the USGS to rapidly display and disseminate information about the geographical distribution of ground shaking (and hence potential damage) following a large earthquake has proven to be a vital tool for post earthquake emergency response efforts, and is being adopted/emulated in various seismically active regions worldwide. Implementing a robust ShakeMap system is among the top priorities of the Puerto Rico Seismic Network. However, the ultimate effectiveness of ShakeMap in post- earthquake response depends not only on its rapid availability, but also on the effective use of the information it provides. We developed ShakeMap scenarios of a suite of damaging historical and probable earthquakes that severely impact San Juan, Ponce, and Mayagüez, the 3 largest cities in Puerto Rico. Earthquake source parameters were obtained from McCann and Mercado (1998); and Huérfano (2004). For historical earthquakes that generated tsunamis, tsunami inundation maps were generated using the TIME method (Shuto, 1991). The ShakeMap ground shaking maps were presented to local and regional governmental and emergency response agencies at the 2007 Annual conference of the Puerto Rico Emergency Management and Disaster Administration in San Juan, PR, and at numerous other emergency management talks and training sessions. Economic losses are estimated using the ShakeMap scenario ground motions (Saffar, 2007). The calibration tasks necessary in generating these scenarios (developing Vs30 maps, attenuation relationships) complement the on-going efforts of the Puerto Rico Seismic Network to generate ShakeMaps in real-time.

Huerfano, V. A.; Cua, G.; von Hillebrandt, C.; Saffar, A.

2007-12-01

254

Clinicopathological Factors Associated to HER-2 Status in a Hospital-based Sample of Breast Cancer Patients in Puerto Rico  

PubMed Central

Breast cancer is the most common female malignancy in Puerto Rico. Cases with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER-2) oncoprotein overamplification are associated with aggressive clinical behavior. Given the limited availability of information for Puerto Rico, we aimed to evaluate the prevalence and clinical correlates of HER-2 gene overexpression among a hospital-based female population of breast cancer cases. We analyzed data from 1,049 female patients with invasive breast cancer (diagnosed 2000–2005) at the I. González Martínez Oncologic Hospital and the Auxilio Mutuo Hospital. HER-2 status and other clinical characteristics were retrieved from the hospitals’ cancer registries, from the Puerto Rico Central Cancer Registry, and from a review of medical and pathological records. Prevalence odds ratios were estimated with 95% confidence intervals, using logistic regression models to quantify the association between HER-2 status and different clinicophatological factors. The overall prevalence of positive HER-2 expression was 22.5%. In the multivariate logistic regression model, factors significantly associated with HER-2 positivity included a diagnosis age of <50 years, having a tumor with negative progesterone receptor (PR) status, and having regional disease (p < 0.05). No significant differences in HER-2 positivity were observed by tumor histology or estrogen receptor (ER) status (p > 0.05). This is the most comprehensive epidemiological study to date on HER-2 status in Puerto Rico. The prevalence and correlates of HER-2 overexpression in this study are comparable to those observed in US populations. Study results will aid in the development of breast cancer control strategies in Puerto Rico.

Ortiz, Ana P.; Frias, Orquidea; Gonzalez-Keelan, Carmen; Suarez, Erick; Capo, David; Perez, Javier; Cabanillas, Fernando; Mora, Edna

2013-01-01

255

Hispanic Access to Higher Education. Hearings before the Subcommittee on Postsecondary Education of the Committee on Education and Labor. House of Representatives, Ninety-Eighth Congress, First Session (San Juan, Puerto Rico, May 27, 30; Ponce, Puerto Rico, May 31; Houston, Texas, December 2; Chicago, Illinois, December 12, 1983).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The broad topic of these hearings was Hispanic access to higher education. In the first hearings, held in Puerto Rico, and specifically about Puerto Rico, testimony was given by representatives of public and private academic institutions and student service programs on the following: high school graduation problems; enrollment in higher education…

Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Education and Labor.

256

Stratigraphy, Structure, and Geologic and Coastal Hazards in the Peñuelas to Salinas Area, Southern Puerto Rico: A Compendium of Published Literature  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Puerto Rico Electrical Power Authority has proposed construction of a pipeline to convey natural gas from the municipio of Pe?uelas to the Aguirre thermoelectric power plant in the municipio of Salinas in southern Puerto Rico. To ensure that the geologic conditions along the possible routes do not represent a threat to the physical integrity of the natural gas pipeline, and thus comply with State and Federal regulations, the Puerto Rico Electrical Power Authority requested the U.S. Geological Survey to provide a synthesis of published literature of the geology of the coastal plain in the Pe?uelas to Salinas area. The study area is located in part of the Southern Coastal Plain of Puerto Rico. In the area that extends from the municipio of Pe?uelas eastward to the Laguna de las Salinas at Ponce, a distance of about 5 miles, the study area is underlain by middle Tertiary carbonate units. Eastward from the Laguna de las Salinas to the pipeline terminus at the Aguirre power plant in Salinas, a distance of about 30 miles, the terrain is underlain by fan-delta deposits of Quaternary age. The carbonate units and the fan-delta deposits are underlain by early Tertiary and older-age volcaniclastics with subordinate sedimentary rocks and lavas. The Great Southern Puerto Rico Fault Zone is the principal geologic structural feature in southern Puerto Rico. At present, the Great Southern Puerto Rico Fault Zone is considered largely quiescent, although it apparently is associated with minor earthquakes. There is no evidence of terrestrial, late Quaternary faulting within the Pe?uelas to Salinas area. Seismic activity in this area mostly originates from extension zones of more distal shallow sources such as Mona Canyon to the northwest and the Anegada Trough northeast of the island of Puerto Rico. The magnitude of completeness of earthquakes in the study area ranges from 2.0 to 2.5. The seismic density for the southern coast including the study area is about 0.128 earthquakes per square mile, which is close to the average for southwestern Puerto Rico. The estimated maximum peak ground acceleration most likely to occur in the study area, due to shallow depth seismicity with 2 percent probability of exceedance in 50 years, is 9 feet per second squared, as obtained by modeling results. The estimated peak ground acceleration with 2 percent probability of exceedance in 50 years, due to deep seismicity is 7 feet per second squared. In Ponce, the probability of exceedance per year is higher than 0.1 for the peak ground acceleration values less than 1 that result from shallow depth seismicity sources such as the Mona Passage extension zone. The potential for liquefaction due to seismic activity may exist in areas near the coastline that have loosely to poorly consolidated sedimentary deposits and a water table close to or at the land surface. Slope failure susceptibility within the study area, due to rainfall and seismic activity, may be limited to the area that extends westward from Laguna de las Salinas to Pe?uelas. In this area, foothills with slopes exceeding 10 degrees are close to the coastline and are underlain by clayey limestone and marls. In the remaining part of the study area, eastward from Laguna de las Salinas to Salinas, the land is either nearly flat or has a slope of less than 10 degrees; consequently, the susceptibility to landsliding (slope failure) caused by seismic activity and rainfall is considered to be minimal or nonexistent. Based on modeling results from a previous study, the estimated maximum inland extent of tsunami-induced flooding is 2,600 feet in the Laguna de las Salinas and Boca Chica, located in Ponce and Juana Diaz, respectively. Flooding about 3,000 and 2,800 feet from the coastline are estimated for areas near Punta Cabullon and Jobos areas, respectively. According to the modeling results, the estimated maximum runup of the tsunami-induced flooding ranges from 9 to 14 feet for the Boca Chica and Pu

Rodriguez-Martinez, Jesus

2007-01-01

257

Assessing Awareness and Use of Evidence-Based Programs for Cancer Control in Puerto Rico  

PubMed Central

The Community Cancer Control Outreach Program (CCCOP) is a community-academic partnership aimed at developing and implementing a cancer control outreach, research, and training program in Puerto Rico. The CCCOP surveyed 56 partners to assess their awareness, training needs, and use of resources related to evidence-based programs (EBPs). Despite relatively high levels (70%) of confidence in adopting EBPs, there were low levels of awareness (37%) and use (25%) of existing EBPs resources. Respondents’ who had used EBPs resources were more likely to have positive beliefs about EBPs than nonusers (p<0.05). Training needs were high among respondents and no significant differences were found between those who had and had not used existing EBPs resources. These findings can guide the development of training tools and technical assistance to increase the use of EBPs for Latino audiences.

Calo, William A.; Fernandez, Maria E.; Rivera, Mirza; Diaz, Elba C.; Correa-Fernandez, Virmarie; Pattatucci, Angela; Wetter, David W.

2012-01-01

258

Organizing, Educating, and Advocating for Health and Human Rights in Vieques, Puerto Rico  

PubMed Central

I briefly review the process of community organization, education, and advocacy activities that ended the harmful military practices in the island-municipality of Vieques, Puerto Rico, while drawing attention to the intersection of human rights and social justice in the context of local and global implications. The Viequense experience was one of building an organization based on people’s experiences and strengths, educating people to increase individual and collective efficacy and power, and advocating for policy change with an assertive cohesive action. Public health practitioners must continue supporting community-led interventions in the restoration of the island’s environment and other resources vital for people’s health and well-being.

Torres, Maria Idali

2005-01-01

259

Endurance, Refuge, and Reemergence of Dengue Virus Type 2, Puerto Rico, 1986-2007  

PubMed Central

To study the evolution of dengue virus (DENV) serotype 2 in Puerto Rico, we examined the genetic composition and diversity of 160 DENV-2 genomes obtained through 22 consecutive years of sampling. A clade replacement took place in 1994–1997 during a period of high incidence of autochthonous DENV-2 and frequent, short-lived reintroductions of foreign DENV-2. This unique clade replacement was complete just before DENV-3 emerged. By temporally and geographically defining DENV-2 lineages, we describe a refuge of this virus through 4 years of low genome diversity. Our analyses may explain the long-term endurance of DENV-2 despite great epidemiologic changes in disease incidence and serotype distribution.

McElroy, Kate L.; Santiago, Gilberto A.; Lennon, Niall J.; Birren, Bruce W.; Henn, Matthew R.

2011-01-01

260

Zeolite to prehnite-pumpellyite facies metamorphism in the Toa Baja Drill Hole, Puerto Rico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Secondary mineral assemblages in Eocene volcanic and volcaniclastic rocks of the Toa Baja drill hole progressively change as a function of depth. Four metamorphic zones are delineated with increasing depth: Caclinoptilolite?heulandite?laumontite?prehnite-purnpellyite zone. The deepest belongs to the prehnite-pumpellyite facies, whereas the three zones at shallower depths (<2350 m) belong to the zeolite facies. Ca-clinoptilolite and heulandite exhibit continuous solid solution with varying Si/Al (2.9-5.2) and Ca/(Ca+Na+K) ratios (0.45-0.89). Pumpellyites are characterized by extensive variation in the Fe/(Fe+Al+Mg) ratio (0.29-0.74) and extreme Fe-enrichment in the laumontite zone. Temperatures estimated from mineral assemblages and fades transitions suggest that the North Coast Basin, Puerto Rico, has been subject to a metamorphic field gradient of ˜50 to 70°C/km.

Cho, Moonsup

261

Socioeconomic and Geographic Disparities in Health Information Seeking and Internet Use in Puerto Rico  

PubMed Central

Background Geographically isolated Hispanic populations, such as those living in Puerto Rico, may face unique barriers to health information access. However, little is known about health information access and health information-seeking behaviors of this population. Objective To examine differences in health and cancer information seeking among survey respondents who ever used the Internet and those who did not, and to explore sociodemographic and geographic trends. Methods Data for our analyses were from a special implementation of the Health Information National Trends Survey conducted in Puerto Rico in 2009. We collected data through random digit dialing, computer-assisted telephone interviews (N = 639). The sample was drawn from the eight geographic regions of the Puerto Rico Department of Health. To account for complex survey design and perform weighted analyses to obtain population estimates, we analyzed the data using SUDAAN. Frequencies, cross-tabulation with chi-square, and logistic regression analyses were conducted. Geographic information system maps were developed to examine geographic distributions of Internet use and information seeking. Results Of 639 participants, 142 (weighted percentage 32.7%) indicated that they had ever gone online to access the Internet or World Wide Web; this proportion was substantially lower than that of US mainland Hispanics who reported using the Internet (49%). While 101 of 142 (weighted percentage 59.6%) respondents who used the Web had ever sought health information, only 118 of 497 (weighted percentage 20.0%) of those who did not use the Web had sought health information. The pattern was similar for cancer information: 76 of 142 respondents (weighted percentage 47.2%) who used the Web had ever sought cancer information compared with 105 of 497 (weighted percentage 18.8%) of those who had not used the Web. These results were slightly lower but generally consistent with US mainland Hispanics’ health (50.9%) and cancer (26.4%) information seeking. Results of separate logistic regression models controlling for sociodemographic characteristics demonstrated that, compared with individuals who did not seek health or cancer information, those who did were over 5 times as likely to have used the Internet (odds ratio 5.11, P < .001). Those who sought cancer information were over twice as likely to have used the Internet (odds ratio 2.5, P < .05). The frequency of Internet use and health and cancer information seeking was higher in the San Juan metro region than in more rural areas. Conclusions Our results contribute to the evidence base for health and cancer communication planning for Puerto Rico, and suggest that health education and outreach efforts should explore the use of available and trusted methods of dissemination such as radio and television, as well as community-based health care providers and organizations, to supplement and encourage use of the Internet as a source of health information.

Hesse, Bradford W; Moser, Richard P; Ortiz Martinez, Ana Patricia; Kornfeld, Julie; Vanderpool, Robin C; Byrne, Margaret; Tortolero Luna, Guillermo

2012-01-01

262

Feasibility Study of Solar Photovoltaics on Landfills in Puerto Rico (Second Study)  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of an assessment of the technical and economic feasibility of deploying a solar photovoltaics (PV) system on landfill sites in Puerto Rico. The purpose of this report is to assess the landfills with the highest potential for possible solar PV installation and estimate cost, performance, and site impacts of three different PV options: crystalline silicon (fixed tilt), crystalline silicon (single-axis tracking), and thin film (fixed tilt). The report outlines financing options that could assist in the implementation of a system. According to the site production calculations, the most cost-effective system in terms of return on investment is the thin-film fixed-tilt technology. The report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of such a system. The landfills and sites considered in this report were all determined feasible areas in which to implement solar PV systems.

Salasovich, J.; Mosey, G.

2011-08-01

263

Size distribution of trace metals in Ponce, Puerto Rico air particulate matter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The atmospheric particulate size distribution of nine heavy metals was measured in Ponce, a moderately industrial city in the south of Puerto Rico. Samples were collected in the city center and outlying suburban and rural locations during 1986. The size measurements were done with a cascade impactor. The elemental content of the size fractionated aerosol samples was determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. The particle size distributions observed for Cu, Cd, Pb, Mn and Fe were bimodal with a gradual progression from mainly coarse mode to mainly fine mode. Al, Ni and Zn were mostly associated with coarse particles and V size distribution was unimodal with maxima associated with fine particles. The particle size distribution did not vary significantly with the sites sampled in the urban area although some regional characteristics are observed. The data obtained strongly suggest motor vehicle traffic and fuel combustion as the principal pollution pources in Ponce aerosol.

Infante, Rafael; Acosta, Iris L.

264

Analysis of The Surface Radiative Budget Using ATLAS Data for San Juan, Puerto Rico  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The additional beating of the air over the city is the result of the replacement of naturally vegetated surfaces with those composed of asphalt, concrete, rooftops and other man-made materials. The temperatures of these artificial surfaces can be 20 to 40 C higher than vegetated surfaces. This produces a dome of elevated air temperatures 5 to 8 C greater over the city, compared to the air temperatures over adjacent rural areas. Urban landscapes are a complex mixture of vegetated and nonvegetated surfaces. It is difficult to take enough temperature measurements over a large city area to characterize the complexity of urban radiant surface temperature variability. The NASA Airborne Thermal and Land Applications Sensor (ATLAS) operates in the visual and IR bands was used in February 2004 to collect data from San Juan, Puerto Rico with the main objective of investigating the Urban Heat Island (UHI) in tropical cities.

Luvall, Jeffrey C.; Rickman, D. L.; Gonzalez, J.; Comarazamy, Daniel; Picon, Ana

2007-01-01

265

Zeolite to prehnite-pumpellyite facies metamorphism in the Toa Baja drill hole, Puerto Rico  

SciTech Connect

Secondary mineral assemblages in Eocene volcanic and volcaniclastic rocks of the Toa Baja drill hole progressively change as a function of depth. Four metamorphic zones are delineated with increasing depth: Ca-clinoptilolite{yields}heulandite{yields}laumontite{yields}prehnite-pumpellyite zone. The deepest belongs to the prehnite-pumpellyite facies, whereas the three zones at shallower depths (< 2,350 m) belong to the zeolite facies. Ca-clinoptilolite and heulandite exhibit continuous solid solution with varying Si/Al (2.9-5.2) and Ca/(Ca + Na + K) ratios (0.45-0.89). Pumpellyites are characterized by extensive variation in the Fe/(Fe + Al + Mg) ratio (0.29-0.74) and extreme Fe-enrichment in the laumontite zone. Temperatures estimated from mineral assemblages and facies transitions suggest that the North Coast Basin, Puerto Rico, has been subject to a metamorphic field gradient of {approximately}50 to 70C/km.

Cho, M. (Stanford Univ., CA (United States))

1991-03-01

266

Viabilidad de la independencia de la red en areas residenciales de Puerto Rico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The energy situation is one of the most talked about and controversial problems worldwide. The heavy reliance on fossil fuels and all the implications that they bring in our social, political, economic and environmental stability are issues that should be treated with responsibility and sensitivity. Unfortunately, Puerto Rico relies almost 99% of fossil fuels, which directly or indirectly affects various sectors of our society and of our natural environment. Ideally, appropriate steps should be considered to achieve a real change in our energy public policy in order to promote and encourage the use of renewable energy sources as part of sustainable development for the island. In this work, the technical, economic and social aspects are studied and analyzed to determine how feasible may be some of the decisions already taken and the ones to be made regarding our energy situation. Casa Pueblo is the model used to demonstrate that the determined will of a self-managed community group in the town of Adjuntas has been instrumental in the energy transition, along with the educational collaboration of the Mayaguez Campus of the University of Puerto Rico. An assessment of the situation of the energy public policy regarding our power system has been performed from an ethical and moral perspective to determine how sustainable it has been and how sustainable is the projected long term future. In these times where most issues like climate change and sustainable development predominate, it is essential that the vision of engineers be one that highlights and takes responsibility with moral and ethical values when evaluating for decision making. Ethics theory concepts have been integrated to provide a framework that represents a basis of excellence in the profession of engineering.

Zamot Ayala, Hector Rene

267

Soil Erosion and Sediment Losses from the Ridge Watersheds in the Guánica Bay, Puerto Rico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Puerto Rico faces considerable challenges regarding sustainable land use and effects of land use on adjacent coastal ecosystems and the services they provide. One primary concern is increased sediment loading to reservoirs and ultimately to Guánica Bay and reef areas outside the Bay. Studies by scientists in Puerto Rico have suggested that nutrient and sediment contaminants have increased 5 to 10 fold since pre-colonial levels and an additional 2 to 3 fold in the last 40-50 years (Sturm et al., 2012). Sediment deposition has significantly reduced the storage capacity of several reservoirs, and the associated contaminants and nutrients within the terrestrial soil particles of sediment can stress corals and negatively impact reef health. Sedimentation can also reduce photosynthetic activity of aquatic plants and algae, and increase water-treatment costs for domestic and industrial uses (Estades Hernández, 1997). Therefore, it is important to understand soil erosion and sediment transport processes. In this study, we analyze sediment losses from ridge watersheds of the Guánica Bay and try to understand the main factors causing soil erosion and sediment in those ridge watersheds. Our specific objectives were: 1) to quantify sediment contributions to Guánica Bay and identify sediment sources; 2) seek factors that impact the sediment loss and explore alternative strategies to reduce soil erosion and sediment loading to the reservoirs, Guánica Bay and the coastal zone. It was found that sediment loss in those ridge watersheds was mainly caused by interaction of heavy rainfall (especially the hurricanes) and steep mountainous slopes. Coffee planting increased the risk of soil erosion, which the loss of protective canopy for sun-grown coffee exacerbated. In addition, rainy seasons (February to May and August to November) contributed more than 80% of annual sediment loss. Exploration of different land use scenarios found that coffee land use yielded more sediment per hectare than forest and grass. Finally, conversion from sun-grown to shade-grown coffee can also reduce soil erosion.

Yuan, Yongping; Taguas, Encarnación; Hu, Wenhui

2014-05-01

268

Symptoms and Quality of Life for People Living with HIV Infection in Puerto Rico  

PubMed Central

Background People living with HIV infection are confronted with physical and psychological symptoms that impact their quality of life. This study explored the symptom experience of people living with HIV infection in Puerto Rico and its correlation with quality of life. Methods A cross-sectional descriptive design was used to survey 44 men, women, and transgender people living with HIV infection. Measures included a demographic questionnaire, sign and symptom checklist, and a quality of life instrument. Results The sample was 50% male with a mean age of 42.1 years; the participants had been living with HIV infection on average for 9.8 years. The top five symptoms reported by the sample included: muscle aches (81.8%), depression (77.2%), weakness (70.5%), fear/worries (70.5), and difficulty with concentration (65.9%). Symptom frequency was significantly related to four dimensions of quality of life: overall function (r=?0.58), life satisfaction (r=?0.59), health worries (r=0.32) and HIV medication worries (r=0.59). The symptom experience was not related to financial worries, disclosure worries, or sexual functioning. Individuals who reported taking HIV medications reported significantly fewer symptoms than those not taking HIV medications (t=3.061, df=42, p<0.01). Conclusions These results suggest that people living with HIV infection in Puerto Rico experience a wide array of physical and psychological symptoms and that these symptoms have a correlation with their perceived quality of life. Better management of symptoms may have an impact on perceived quality of life for people living with HIV infection.

Rivero-Mendez, Marta; Portillo, Carmen; Solis-Baez, Solymar S.; Wantland, Dean; Holzemer, William L.

2009-01-01

269

Breast cancer molecular subtypes and survival in a hospital-based sample in Puerto Rico  

PubMed Central

Information on the impact of hormone receptor status subtypes in breast cancer (BC) prognosis is still limited for Hispanics. We aimed to evaluate the association of BC molecular subtypes and other clinical factors with survival in a hospital-based female population of BC cases in Puerto Rico. We analyzed 663 cases of invasive BC diagnosed between 2002 and 2005. Information on HER-2/neu (HER-2) overexpression, estrogen (ER), and progesterone (PR) receptor status and clinical characteristics were retrieved from hospitals cancer registries and record review. Survival probabilities by covariates of interest were described using the Kaplan–Meier estimators. Cox proportional hazards models were employed to assess factors associated with risk of BC death. Overall, 17.3% of BC cases were triple-negative (TN), 61.8% were Luminal-A, 13.3% were Luminal-B, and 7.5% were HER-2 overexpressed. In the multivariate Cox model, among patients with localized stage, women with TN BC had higher risk of death (adjusted hazard ratio [HR]: 2.57, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.29–5.12) as compared to those with Luminal-A status, after adjusting for age at diagnosis. In addition, among women with regional/distant stage at diagnosis, those with TN BC (HR: 5.48, 95% CI: 2.63–11.47) and those HER-2+, including HER-2 overexpressed and Luminal-B, (HR: 2.73, 95% CI:1.30–5.75) had a higher mortality. This is the most comprehensive epidemiological study to date on the impact of hormone receptor expression subtypes in BC survival in Puerto Rico. Consistent to results in other populations, the TN subtype and HER-2+ tumors were associated with decreased survival.

Ortiz, Ana Patricia; Frias, Orquidea; Perez, Javier; Cabanillas, Fernando; Martinez, Lisa; Sanchez, Carola; Capo-Ramos, David E; Gonzalez-Keelan, Carmen; Mora, Edna; Suarez, Erick

2013-01-01

270

Breast cancer molecular subtypes and survival in a hospital-based sample in Puerto Rico.  

PubMed

Information on the impact of hormone receptor status subtypes in breast cancer (BC) prognosis is still limited for Hispanics. We aimed to evaluate the association of BC molecular subtypes and other clinical factors with survival in a hospital-based female population of BC cases in Puerto Rico. We analyzed 663 cases of invasive BC diagnosed between 2002 and 2005. Information on HER-2/neu (HER-2) overexpression, estrogen (ER), and progesterone (PR) receptor status and clinical characteristics were retrieved from hospitals cancer registries and record review. Survival probabilities by covariates of interest were described using the Kaplan-Meier estimators. Cox proportional hazards models were employed to assess factors associated with risk of BC death. Overall, 17.3% of BC cases were triple-negative (TN), 61.8% were Luminal-A, 13.3% were Luminal-B, and 7.5% were HER-2 overexpressed. In the multivariate Cox model, among patients with localized stage, women with TN BC had higher risk of death (adjusted hazard ratio [HR]: 2.57, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.29-5.12) as compared to those with Luminal-A status, after adjusting for age at diagnosis. In addition, among women with regional/distant stage at diagnosis, those with TN BC (HR: 5.48, 95% CI: 2.63-11.47) and those HER-2+, including HER-2 overexpressed and Luminal-B, (HR: 2.73, 95% CI:1.30-5.75) had a higher mortality. This is the most comprehensive epidemiological study to date on the impact of hormone receptor expression subtypes in BC survival in Puerto Rico. Consistent to results in other populations, the TN subtype and HER-2+ tumors were associated with decreased survival. PMID:23930211

Ortiz, Ana Patricia; Frías, Orquidea; Pérez, Javier; Cabanillas, Fernando; Martínez, Lisa; Sánchez, Carola; Capó-Ramos, David E; González-Keelan, Carmen; Mora, Edna; Suárez, Erick

2013-06-01

271

Fishes associated with mesophotic coral ecosystems in La Parguera, Puerto Rico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fishes associated with mesophotic coral ecosystems (MCEs) of the La Parguera shelf-edge were surveyed between 2007 and 2011 using mixed-gas rebreather diving. Fishes were identified and counted within belt transects and roving surveys at 30, 40, 50, 60 and 70 m depth. Vertical transects from 70 to 30 m depth helped determine depth distribution ranges. One hundred and three species were identified at MCEs (40-70 m), with high abundances and species richness, though both varied greatly among transects. Most species at MCEs were common inhabitants of shallow reefs, but some were restricted to mesophotic depths. An additional 15 species were added to those previously classified as indicator species of mesophotic areas in Puerto Rico. The MCE fish assemblage was distinct from shallow areas (30 m), with taxonomic composition, abundance and the proportion of trophic guilds varying with increasing depth. The dominant trophic guild within MCEs was the zooplanktivores, while herbivores dominated shallow reefs. Both herbivores and zooplanktivores responded strongly, and oppositely, to depth. The few herbivores associated with deep MCEs are small-bodied species. The largest changes within the mesophotic fish community along the depth gradient occurred at 60 m, similar to that reported for algae and corals, and seem to represent both a response to reduced light and variations in herbivory. The presence of commercially important fishes at MCEs, many considered to be threatened by fishing pressure in shallow areas, suggests that MCEs are important for the conservation of these species. This study represents the first quantitative in situ observations and descriptions of fishes inhabiting MCEs at depths of 50-70 m in Puerto Rico and highlights the role of MCEs as valuable habitats for reef fishes. The composition and distribution of the MCEs fish community should be incorporated when planning for the spatial management of coral reef resources.

Bejarano, I.; Appeldoorn, R. S.; Nemeth, M.

2014-06-01

272

Distribution, variability and predictors of urinary concentrations of phenols and parabens among pregnant women in Puerto Rico  

PubMed Central

Puerto Rico has higher rates of a range of endocrine-related diseases and disorders compared to the United States. However, little is known to date about human exposures to known or potential endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in Puerto Rico. We recruited 105 pregnant women in Northern Puerto Rico who provided urine samples and questionnaire data at three times (20±2, 24±2, and 28±2 weeks) during gestation. We measured the urinary concentrations of five phenols and three parabens: 2,4-dichlorophenol (24-DCP), 2,5-dichlorophenol (25-DCP), benzophenone-3 (BP-3), bisphenol A (BPA), triclosan (TCS), butyl paraben (B-PB), methyl paraben (M-PB), and propyl paraben (P-PB). The frequent detection of these chemicals suggests that exposure is highly prevalent among these Puerto Rican pregnant women. Urinary concentrations of TCS, BP-3 and 25-DCP were higher than among women of reproductive age in the US general population, while concentrations of BPA, 24-DCP and parabens were similar. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) varied widely between biomarkers; BPA had the lowest ICC (0.24) and BP-3 had highest (0.62), followed by 25-DCP (0.49) and TCS (0.47). We found positive associations between biomarker concentrations with self-reported use of liquid soap (TCS), sunscreen (BP-3), lotion (BP-3 and parabens), and cosmetics (parabens). Our results can inform future epidemiology studies and strategies to reduce exposure to these chemicals or their precursors.

Meeker, John D.; Cantonwine, David E.; Rivera-Gonzalez, Luis O.; Ferguson, Kelly K.; Mukherjee, Bhramar; Calafat, Antonia M.; Ye, Xiaoyun; Anzalota Del Toro, Liza V.; Crespo, Noe; Jimenez-Velez, Braulio; Alshawabkeh, Akram N.; Cordero, Jose F.

2013-01-01

273

Impact of Managed Care Health Insurance System for Indigent Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis in Puerto Rico  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to determine the clinical outcome among indigent patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in Puerto Rico receiving their healthcare in a managed care system, as compared to non-indigent patients treated in fee-for-service settings. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 214 Puerto Ricans with RA (per American College of Rheumatology classification criteria). Demographic features, health-related behaviors, cumulative clinical manifestations, disease activity (per Disease Activity Score 28), comorbid conditions, functional status (per Health Assessment Questionnaire, HAQ), and pharmacologic profile were determined. Data were examined using univariable and multivariable (logistic regression) analyses. The mean (standard deviation [SD]) age of the study population was 56.6 (13.5) years; 180 (84.1%) were women. The mean (SD) disease duration was 10.8 (9.6) years. Sixty-seven patients were treated in the managed care setting and 147 patients received their healthcare in fee-for-service settings. In the multivariable analyses RA patients treated in the managed care setting had more joint deformities, extra-articular manifestations, arterial hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular events, fibromyalgia syndrome, and poorer functional status, while having a lower exposure to biologic agents than those treated in fee-for-service settings. Efforts should be undertaken to curtail the gap of health disparities among these Hispanic patients in order to improve their long term outcomes.

Santiago-Casas, Yesenia; Gonzalez-Rivera, Tania; Castro-Santana, Lesliane; Rios, Grissel; Martinez, David; Rodriguez, Vanessa; Gonzalez-Alcover, Rafael; Mayor, Angel M.; Vila, Luis M.

2013-01-01

274

Religion and HIV/AIDS stigma: Implications for health professionals in Puerto Rico  

PubMed Central

HIV/AIDS stigma continues to be a barrier for prevention efforts. Its detrimental effects have been documented among people living with HIV/AIDS and encompass loss of social support and depression. When it is manifested by health professionals, it can lead to suboptimal services. Although strides have been made to document the effects of HIV/AIDS stigma, much needs to be done in order to understand the structural factors that can foster it. Such is the case of religion’s role on HIV/AIDS stigma in Puerto Rico. The Caribbean Island has a Judeo-Christian based culture due to years of Spanish colonisation. This religious influence continued under Protestantism as part of the Island’s integration as a non-incorporated territory of the USA. The main objective of this study was to explore the role of religion in HIV/AIDS stigma manifested by Puerto Rican health professionals in practice and in training. Through a mixed method approach, 501 health professionals completed qualitative interviews (n=80) and self-administered questionnaires (n=421). Results show that religion plays some role in conceptualisations of health and illness among participants in the study. Furthermore, the importance placed on religion and participation in such activities was related to higher levels of HIV/AIDS stigma.

Varas-Diaz, N.; Neilands, T.B.; Malave Rivera, S.; Betancourt, E.

2009-01-01

275

Impact of managed care health insurance system for indigent patients with rheumatoid arthritis in Puerto Rico.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to determine the clinical outcome among indigent patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in Puerto Rico receiving their healthcare in a managed care system, as compared with non-indigent patients treated in fee-for-service settings. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 214 Puerto Ricans with RA (per American College of Rheumatology classification criteria). Demographic features, health-related behaviors, cumulative clinical manifestations, disease activity (per disease activity score 28), comorbid conditions, functional status (per Health Assessment Questionnaire), and pharmacologic profile were determined. Data were examined using uni- and multivariable (logistic regression) analyses. The mean (standard deviation (SD)) age of the study population was 56.6 (13.5) years; 180 (84.1 %) were women. The mean (SD) disease duration was 10.8 (9.6) years. Sixty-seven patients were treated in the managed care setting, and 147 patients received their healthcare in fee-for-service settings. In the multivariable analyses, RA patients treated in the managed care setting had more joint deformities, extra-articular manifestations, arterial hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular events, fibromyalgia syndrome, and poorer functional status while having a lower exposure to biological agents than those treated in fee-for-service settings. Efforts should be undertaken to curtail the gap of health disparities among these Hispanic patients in order to improve their long-term outcomes. PMID:23314687

Santiago-Casas, Yesenia; González-Rivera, Tania; Castro-Santana, Lesliane; Ríos, Grissel; Martínez, David; Rodríguez, Vanessa; González-Alcover, Rafael; Mayor, Angel M; Vilá, Luis M

2013-06-01

276

Pollination Ecology and Breeding Systems of Five Gesneria Species from Puerto Rico  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims The genus Gesneria diversified in the Greater Antilles giving rise to various floral designs corresponding to different pollination syndromes. The goal of this study was to characterize the pollination and breeding systems of five Puerto Rican Gesneria species. Methods The study was conducted in Arecibo and El Yunke National Forest, Puerto Rico, between 2003 and 2007. Floral visitors were documented by human observers and video cameras. Floral longevity and nectar production were recorded for the five study species. Tests for self-compatibility and autonomous selfing were conducted through hand-pollination and bagging experiments. Key Results Floral phenology and nectar production schedules agree with nocturnal (in bell-shaped flowered G. pedunculosa and G. viridiflora subsp. sintenisii) or diurnal pollination syndromes (in tubular-flowered G. citrina, G. cuneifolia and G. reticulata). Nectar concentration is consistently low (8–13 %) across species. Gesneria citrina and G. cuneifolia are exclusively pollinated by hummingbirds, while Gesneria reticulata relies mostly on autonomous self-pollination, despite having classic ornithophilous flowers. A variety of floral visitors was recorded for the two species with bell-shaped flowers; however, not all visitors have the ability to transfer pollen. Bats are the primary pollinators of G. pedunculosa, with bananaquits probably acting as secondary pollinators. For G. viridiflora subsp. sintenisii, both bats and hummingbirds contact the flower's reproductive organs, thus, this species is considered to be a generalist despite its nocturnal floral syndrome. All species are self-compatible but only tubular-flowered Gesneria are capable of autonomous self-pollination. Conclusions The visitation patterns described in this study fit the predicted hummingbird and bat pollination syndromes and support both specialization and generalization of pollination systems in Puerto Rican Gesneria. Specialization is associated with low pollinator visitation, particularly by hummingbirds, which may explain the occurrence of autonomous selfing mechanisms in tubular-flowered species.

Marten-Rodriguez, Silvana; Fenster, Charles B.

2008-01-01

277

A new species of armored scale, Mycetaspis ailynaomi (Hemiptera, Diaspididae, Aspidiotinae), associated with Mammea americana L. (Malpighiales, Calophyllaceae) from Puerto Rico  

PubMed Central

Abstract A new species of armored scale, Mycetaspis ailynaomi Dones and Evans is described and illustrated from specimens collected on mamey (Mammea americana) from Puerto Rico. A key to the species of Mycetaspis is provided.

Dones, Ramon A.; Evans, Gregory A.

2011-01-01

278

Health Hazard Evaluation Determination Report Number 76-31-392, Becton-Dickinson Division of Becton-Dickinson and Company, Juncos, Puerto Rico.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A Health Hazard Evaluation determination was conducted by NIOSH on February 18-20, 1976, to evaluate reputed mercurialism in workers at the Becton-Dickinson Thermometer Factory in Juncos, Puerto Rico. Environmental sampling and medical evaluation (includi...

R. Rivera M. Harrington

1977-01-01

279

Review of Pension Costs Claimed for Medicare Reimbursement by Cooperativa de Seguros de Vida de Puerto Rico for Fiscal Years 2007 Through 2009.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Cooperativa de Seguros de Vida de Puerto Rico (COSVI) administered Medicare Part A operations under cost reimbursement contracts with the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) until the contractual relationship was terminated February 28, 2009. T...

2011-01-01

280

Evaluation of ultramafic deposits in the Eastern United States and Puerto Rico as sources of magnesium for carbon dioxide sequestration  

SciTech Connect

In this report, the authors evaluate the resource potential of extractable magnesium from ultramafic bodies located in Vermont, the Pennsylvania-Maryland-District-of-Columbia (PA-MD-DC) region, western North Carolina, and southwestern Puerto Rico. The first three regions occur in the Appalachian Mountains and contain the most attractive deposits in the eastern United States. They were formed during prograde metamorphism of serpentinized peridotite fragments originating from an ophiolite protolith. The ultramafic rocks consist of variably serpentinized dunite, harzburgite, and minor iherzolite generally containing antigorite and/or lizardite as the major serpentine minor phases. Chrysotile contents vary from minor to major, depending on occurrence. Most bodies contain an outer sheath of chlorite-talc-tremolite rock. Larger deposits in Vermont and most deposits in North Carolina contain a core of dunite. Magnesite and other carbonates are common accessories. In these deposits, MgO ranges from 36 to 48 wt % with relatively pure dunite having the highest MgO and lowest H{sub 2}O contents. Ultramafic deposits in southwestern Puerto Rico consist of serpentinized dunite and harzburgite thought to be emplaced as large diapirs or as fragments in tectonic melanges. They consist of nearly pure, low-grade serpentinite in which lizardite and chrysotile are the primary serpentine minerals. Chlorite is ubiquitous in trace amounts. Magnesite is a common accessory. Contents of MgO and H{sub 2}O are rather uniform at roughly 36 and 13 wt %. Dissolution experiments show that all serpentinites and dunite-rich rocks are soluble in 1:1 mixtures of 35% HCl and water by volume. The experiments suggest that low-grade serpentinites from Puerto Rico are slightly more reactive than the higher grade, antigorite-bearing serpentinites of the Appalachian Mountains. The experiments also show that the low-grade serpentinites and relatively pure dunites contain the least amounts of undesirable insoluble silicates. Individual ultramafic bodies in the Appalachian Mountains are as great as 7 km{sup 3} although typically they are {le}1 km{sup 3}. In contrast, ultramafic deposits in southwestern Puerto Rico have an estimated volume of roughly 150 km{sup 3}. Based on the few detailed geophysical studies in North Carolina and Puerto Rico, it is evident that volume estimates of any ultramafic deposit would benefit greatly from gravity and magnetic investigations, and from corehole drilling. Nevertheless, the data show that the ultramafic deposits of the eastern United States and southwestern Puerto Rico could potentially sequester many years of annual CO{sub 2} emissions if favorable geotechnical, engineering, and environmental conditions prevail.

Fraser Goff; George Guthrie; Bruce Lipin; Melissa Fite; Steve Chipera; Dale Counce; Emily Kluk; Hans Ziock

2000-04-01

281

Detection of conduit-controlled ground-water flow in northwestern Puerto Rico using aerial photograph interpretation and geophysical methods  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The development potential of ground-water resources in the karst limestone of northwestern Puerto Rico, in an area extending from the Río Camuy to Aguadilla, is uncertain as a result of limited knowledge of the location of areas where a high density of cavities (interconnected fractures, conduits, and other dissolution features) might suggest the occurrence of high water yields. The presence in northwestern Puerto Rico of numerous coastal submarine springs, cavernous porosity in some of the wells, and rivers with entrenched and underground paths, indicate that it is probable that water-bearing, subterranean interconnected cavities occur in the area between the Río Camuy and Aguadilla. The number of exploratory wells needed to determine the location of these conduits or zones of enhanced secondary porosity could be substantially reduced if more information were available about the location of these subterranean features, greatly reducing the drilling costs associated with a trial-and-error exploratory process. A 3-year study was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Puerto Rico Aqueduct and Sewer Authority, to detect the presence of cavities that might suggest the occurrence of conduit-controlled groundwater flow. Aerial photographs, geologic and topographic maps, and field reconnaissance were used to identify such linear terrain features as ridges, entrenched canyons, and fracture traces. Natural potential and gravity geophysical methods were also used. The following sites were selected for the aerial photograph interpretation and geophysical testing: Caimital Bajo uplands and former Ramey Air Force Base in Aguadilla; Quebrada de los Cedros between Aguadilla and Isabela; the University of Puerto Rico Agricultural Experiment Station, Otilio dairy farm, and Pozo Brujo in Isabela; the Monte Encantado area in Moca and Isabela; and the Rio Camuy cave system in Hatillo and Camuy. In general, the degree of success varied with site and the geophysical method used. At some sites such as Pozo Brujo, the University of Puerto Rico Agricultural Experiment Station, and Monte Encantado area, natural potential anomalies strongly suggest the existence of conduits with flowing water. At most sites, however, the results obtained did not clearly reveal the presence of subsurface cavities that might be associated with the occurrence of conduit-controlled ground-water flow. Sites such as the University of Puerto Rico Agricultural Experiment Station, Pozo Brujo, and Quebrada de los Cedros warrant a more detailed analysis, including a test well drilling phase to confirm the presence of suspected high-yield water-bearing zones.

Rodríguez-Martínez, Jesús; Richards, Ronald T.

2000-01-01

282

Three-phase tectonic evolution of the northern margin of Puerto Rico as inferred from an integration of seismic reflection, well, and outcrop data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Integration of seismic reflection, well, and outcrop data from the Oligocene–Pliocene Puerto Rico–Virgin Islands platform (PRVI platform), north of Puerto Rico, indicates that three major tectonic phases characterize this seismically-active region within the North America–Caribbean plate boundary zone. Tectonic phase 1: Cretaceous to Eocene formation and sedimentary infilling from a southern source area into a forearc basin, formed between down-to-the-north

Jean-Paul van Gestel; Paul Mann; Nancy R Grindlay; James F Dolan

1999-01-01

283

ANALlSIS FACTORIAL DE LA EIWN-R DE PUERTO RICO, CON NIÑOS DE 11 NIVELES DE EDAD, ENTRELOS 6 V 16 AÑOS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Semi replication of Kaufman's factor-analytic study of the WISC-R (1975) was done with the standardization data of the EIWN-R de Puerto Rico. The authors partially replicated Kaufman's methodology and asked the same questions he addressed, to determine if an emergent factor in the EIWN·R de Puerto Rico data was meaningfu1. A semi replication of Kaufman' s factor analyses of the

LAURA L. HERRANS; JUANA M. RODRíGUEZ

284

The new Arecibo Observatory Remote Airglow Facility in Culebra Island, Puerto Rico: current status and future projects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The concept of having the Arecibo Observatory Remote Airglow Observatory (AO-RAF) at Culebra island became apparent a couple of years ago as a solution to mitigate the ever cumulative quantity of cloud, fog, and rain that has distressed observations at the Arecibo Observatory during major optical campaigns and observations. Culebra Island (18.33° N 65.33° W) is situated approximately 27 km east of the main island of Puerto Rico, with dimensions of about 11 km long and 5 km wide. A statistical analysis and comparison of cloud cover, precipitation and humidity over Puerto Rico and adjacent islands showed that Culebra is the best site with optimal weather conditions for the optical experiments due to its geographical characteristics. This work presents the initial projects to the AO-RAF as well the future development.

Santos, P. T.; Kerr, R. B.; Robles, E.; Garzon, D. P.

2012-12-01

285

Workforce projections for emergency medicine in Puerto Rico: a five-year follow-up of an evident demand.  

PubMed

In this study, two mathematical equations were used to calculate and establish the actual Emergency Medicine workforce needed in Puerto Rico (PR) and project the time frame to meet the actual demand. 1) Supply equals the number of existing Emergency Physicians (EPs) plus residency-trained graduates in EM per year minus the annual attrition rate (3%); and 2) Demand equals six (6) full time equivalent positions per Emergency Department (ED) times the total number of EDs in PR. Under both scenarios tested, the significant EP shortage in PR will continue until 2044. The actual calculated shortage is 287 EPs. There is an actual significant shortage in the Puerto Rico EP workforce. It will take a long time to make leaders understand the positive impact of having residency-trained EPs in every ED, on quality patient care and the whole health care system. PMID:15961023

García-Gubern, Carlos; Colón-Rolón, Lissandra; Aponte, Madeline M

2005-07-01

286

Shade-grown coffee in Puerto Rico: Opportunities to preserve biodiversity while reinvigorating a struggling agricultural commodity  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Shade-grown coffee contributes to biodiversity conservation and has many ecological benefits. We reviewed historical trends in coffee production and interviewed 100 coffee growers in 1999 to determine current management practices and attitudes toward the cultivation of sun and shade coffee in Puerto Rico. We discuss the outlook for the coffee industry in the 21st century and implications for biodiversity conservation, hoping lessons from Puerto Rico will apply to the international coffee industry. Throughout the 20th century, government intervention, including subsidies and technical assistance, supported coffee farming in Puerto Rico. In an effort to modernize coffee production and increase yields, the conversion from shade to sun coffee plantations was encouraged. Despite government support, the amount of land devoted to this once dominant agricultural commodity declined markedly between 1982 and 2007 (84%), due to labor shortages, low income, and catastrophic hurricanes. We found that a return to shaded plantations would be embraced by most farmers. Growers of shaded coffee were generally happier with their cultivation practices (89.3% satisfied) than growers of sun coffee (60.9% satisfied), valued biodiversity, and were willing to cultivate coffee under shade if given similar incentives to those received for farming sun coffee. The future of the coffee industry in Puerto Rico may depend on government programs that capitalize upon emerging markets for sustainably produced, shade-grown coffee. We conclude that where governments have close ties to the coffee industry, they should strive to wed economic development with the conservation of biodiversity and associated ecological services by providing support and incentives for the production of shade coffee. ?? 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Borkhataria, R.; Collazo, J. A.; Groom, M. J.; Jordan-Garcia, A.

2012-01-01

287

Chemical Weathering in a Tropical Watershed, Luquillo Mountains, Puerto Rico: I. Long-Term Versus Short-Term Weathering Fluxes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pristine Rio Icacos watershed in the Luquillo Mountains in eastern Puerto Rico has the fastest documented weathering rate of silicate rocks on the Earth’s surface. A regolith propagation rate of 58 m Ma?1, calculated from iso-volumetric saprolite formation from quartz diorite, is comparable to the estimated denudation rate (25–50 Ma?1) but is an order of magnitude faster than the

Art F. White; Alex E. Blum; Marjorie S. Schulz; Davison V. Vivit; David A. Stonestrom; Matthew Larsen; Sheila F. Murphy; D. Eberl

1998-01-01

288

Chemical Weathering in a Tropical Watershed, Luquillo Mountains, Puerto Rico: II. Rate and Mechanism of Biotite Weathering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Samples of soil, saprolite, bedrock, and porewater from a lower montane wet forest, the Luquillo Experimental Forest (LEF) in Puerto Rico, were studied to investigate the rates and mechanisms of biotite weathering. The soil profile, at the top of a ridge in the Rio Icacos watershed, consists of a 50–100-cm thick layer of unstructured soil above a 600–800 cm thick

Sheila F. Murphy; Susan L. Brantley; Alex E. Blum; Art F. White; Hailiang Dong

1998-01-01

289

Waste Equals Food: Developing a Sustainable Agriculture Support Cluster for a Proposed Resource Recovery Park in Puerto Rico 1999  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes and makes recommendations for plans to develop an eco-industrial park (EIP) in Puerto Rico. This project began with two basic goals: first, to supply cheaper energy to the island, which has suffered economic losses due to expensive energy; and second, to deal with the solid waste management problem. Thus, a proposal for a waste-to-energy (WTE) facility entered

Alethea Abuyuan; Iona Hawken; Michael Newkirk; Roger Williams

290

COMMUNITY-BASED DENGUE PREVENTION PROGRAMS IN PUERTO RICO: IMPACT ON KNOWLEDGE, BEHAVIOR, AND RESIDENTIAL MOSQUITO INFESTATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Den gue is a major health burdeninPuerto Rico. Televised public service an nouncements and posters, elementary and pre-school educational programs, and an exhibit at the Children 's Museum inOld SanJuanwere evaluated separately using knowledge and practices surveys administered to children and their parents, surveys of house lots for larval container habitats, focus groups, and interviews with program organizers and participants.

PETER J. WINCH; ELLI LEONTSINI; MERVIN RUIZ-PEREZ; GARY G. CLARK; DUANE J. GUBLER

2002-01-01

291

[Exploration study of knowledge and attitudes related to prevention and transmission of dengue in Puerto Rico in 2012].  

PubMed

We got one of the most significant epidemics of the history of Dengue in Puerto Rico despite all major educational efforts made. The objective is to determine how much knowledge the people have about the prevention and transmission of Dengue virus. We administered a questionnaire of fifteen questions to 140 people of different communities at the metropolitan area as well as in the East area of Puerto Rico during the months of September to November of 2012. 88% were adults, 100 were women and 40 men. The majority was from Caguas, Carolina, San Juan, and Bayamon. 60% were professionals. One hundred percent knew what Dengue is and 90% knows the mosquito. 77% of the participants know the actual epidemics, but the men got a 10% higher knowledge than women on the subject. Around 47% are not prepared to fight the Dengue virus, but they have great knowledge about the preventive measures and the clinical Management of Dengue Syndrome. 66% did not know that Puerto Rico has a Dengue Center from the CDC located at the Island. Only 17.5% of the participants knows that the Dengue Virus can be transmitted through transfusion of blood components. Our study met our objectives showing that we have good knowledge about Dengue, but there is poor knowledge about the transmission of Dengue Virus through transfusion of blood components. There is a big necessity to develop community strategies to eliminate this disease. We recommend repeating this study with more collaboration from other entities, more questions, and more participants. PMID:23882986

Rodríguez, Ian J Rivera; Rivera, Augusto A Puig; Morales-Borges, Raúl H

2013-01-01

292

Effects of Type of Health Insurance Coverage on Colorectal Cancer Survival in Puerto Rico: A Population-Based Study  

PubMed Central

Colorectal cancer represents a major health problem and an important economic burden in Puerto Rico. In the 1990's, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico implemented a health care reform through the privatization of the public health system. The goal was to ensure access to health services, eliminate disparities for medically indigent citizens and provide special coverage for high-risk conditions such as cancer. This study estimates the 5-year relative survival rate of colorectal cancer and the relative excess risk of death in Puerto Rico for 2004–2005, by type of health insurance coverage; Government Health Plan vs. Non-Government Health Plan. Colorectal cancer in advanced stages was more common in Government Health Plan patients compared with Non-Government Health Plan patients (44.29% vs. 40.24 had regional extent and 13.58% versus 10.42% had distant involvement, respectively). Government Health Plan patients in the 50–64 (RR?=?6.59; CI: 2.85–15.24) and ?65 (RR?=?2.4; CI: 1.72–4.04) age-groups had the greater excess risk of death compared with Non-Government Health Plan patients. Further studies evaluating the interplay of access to health services and the barriers affecting the Government Health Plan population are warranted.

Ortiz-Ortiz, Karen J.; Ramirez-Garcia, Roberto; Cruz-Correa, Marcia; Rios-Gonzalez, Moraima Y.; Ortiz, Ana Patricia

2014-01-01

293

Population Dynamics of Aedes aegypti and Dengue as Influenced by Weather and Human Behavior in San Juan, Puerto Rico  

PubMed Central

Previous studies on the influence of weather on Aedes aegypti dynamics in Puerto Rico suggested that rainfall was a significant driver of immature mosquito populations and dengue incidence, but mostly in the drier areas of the island. We conducted a longitudinal study of Ae. aegypti in two neighborhoods of the metropolitan area of San Juan city, Puerto Rico where rainfall is more uniformly distributed throughout the year. We assessed the impacts of rainfall, temperature, and human activities on the temporal dynamics of adult Ae. aegypti and oviposition. Changes in adult mosquitoes were monitored with BG-Sentinel traps and oviposition activity with CDC enhanced ovitraps. Pupal surveys were conducted during the drier and wetter parts of the year in both neighborhoods to determine the contribution of humans and rains to mosquito production. Mosquito dynamics in each neighborhood was compared with dengue incidence in their respective municipalities during the study. Our results showed that: 1. Most pupae were produced in containers managed by people, which explains the prevalence of adult mosquitoes at times when rainfall was scant; 2. Water meters were documented for the first time as productive habitats for Ae. aegypti; 3. Even though Puerto Rico has a reliable supply of tap water and an active tire recycling program, water storage containers and discarded tires were important mosquito producers; 4. Peaks in mosquito density preceded maximum dengue incidence; and 5. Ae. aegypti dynamics were driven by weather and human activity and oviposition was significantly correlated with dengue incidence.

Barrera, Roberto; Amador, Manuel; MacKay, Andrew J.

2011-01-01

294

Making an outreach movie -The Puerto Rico Trench: Exploring the deepest place in the Atlantic Ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new movie will be screened that describes the exploration of the Puerto Rico trench with a multibeam echosounder and its significance to scientific research and tsunami hazard assessment. The movie audience is the general public including high school students. It aims to stimulate interest in Oceanography and to demonstrate scientific processes as they are applied in Geological Oceanography. The extensive use of 3-D visualization fly-bys over the dramatic ocean floor of the Puerto Rico trench should be particularly appealing to a generation growing up on video games and 3-D visualizations. The film is the product of close cooperation between a film maker and a scientist through all stages of its production and post production. This level of close cooperation is necessary because scientists' and film makers' approaches to presentation of information can differ greatly. In making an educational or outreach movie, the scientist must be responsible for the contents of the message, but the film maker has to design an effective delivery method. The creation of this movie was the result of following stages: (1) live action filming during a short research cruise; (2) generating 3-D fly-by using Fledermausr software; (3) rendering the fly-by sequences to a high-definition film; (4) collecting still photos and other supporting material; (5) generating graphs illustrating crucial scientific information and concepts; (6) preparing the script for voiceover narration; (7) working with a professional actor in order to ensure accurate delivery of the information. The biggest challenge in making the movie was the editing stage when the different elements of the movie were put together, incorporating music and voiceover into an aesthetically pleasing, interesting, and above all, scientifically accurate and coherent movie. Post-editing steps included replication of the master copy, package design, and distribution. The movie was completed in several weeks on a modest budget, thanks to modern desktop digital video, editing, voice recording, mixing, and replication technologies. Free copies of the film can be obtained by contacting the second author.

ten Brink, J.; ten Brink, U. S.

2004-12-01

295

Disparities in Asthma Medication Dispensing Patterns: The Case of Pediatric Asthma in Puerto Rico  

PubMed Central

Background Disparities exist in asthma medication dispensing between children with public insurance and those with private insurance under a Managed Care Medicaid system in Puerto Rico. Objectives Island-wide medical claims data were used to examine the extent to which differences between the private and public health care sectors affect medication dispensing and health care utilization among asthmatic children. Methods Children 3–18 years old with at least one service claim (outpatient, hospitalization, or ED visit) for asthma or reactive airway disease from 2005–06 were selected. Chi-square analyses compared medication dispensing and health care utilization between the public and private sectors. Negative binomial regression identified factors associated with the mean dispensing rate of prescriptions for controller anti-inflammatory medication (CM). Results Private insurance families (n= 28,088) were dispensed significantly more CM (48.3% vs. 12.0%) and quick relief medication (47.4% vs. 44.6%) than public insurance families (n=13,220). The dispensing of inhaled corticosteroids (24.4% vs. 6.7%) and leukotriene modifiers and cromolyn (31.4% vs. 5.7%) was dramatically higher in the private sector. In contrast, ER use was significantly higher among public insurance children (51.7% vs. 13.8%). Multivariate analysis showed that age, number of beta-agonists, and type of insurance was associated with CM dispensing; private insurance showed the greatest effect. Conclusion Asthmatic Puerto Rican children enrolled in public insurance were significantly less likely to be dispensed CM than children with private insurance; suggesting that under- treatment of public insured children may substantially contribute to increased asthma morbidity in this population as evidenced by significantly higher rates of ED visits.

Vila, Doryliz; Rand, Cynthia S.; Cabana, Michael D.; Quinones, Amarilis; Otero, Mirla; Gamache, Christina; Ramirez, Rafael; Garcia, Pedro; Canino, Glorisa

2011-01-01

296

Geographic relations of landslide distribution and assessment of landslide hazards in the Blanco, Cibuco, and Coamo basins, Puerto Rico  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Landslide occurrence is common in mountainous areas of Puerto Rico where mean annual rainfall and the frequency of intense storms are high and hillslopes are steep. Each year, landslides cause extensive damage to property and occasionally result in loss of life. Landslide maps developed from 1:20,000 scale aerial photographs in combination with a computerized geographic information system were used to evaluate the landslide potential in the Blanco, Cibuco, and Coamo Basins of Puerto Rico. These basins, ranging in surface area from 276 to 350 square kilometers, are described in this report. The basins represent a broad range of the climatologic, geographic, and geologic conditions that occur in Puerto Rico. In addition, a variety of landslide types were documented. Rainfall-triggered debris flows, shallow soil slips, and slumps were most abundant. The most important temporal control on landslide occurrence in Puerto Rico is storm rainfall. Forty-one storms triggered widespread landsliding about 1 to 2 times per year during the last three decades. These storms were frequently of 1 to 2 days duration in which, on average, several hundred millimeters of rainfall triggered tens to hundreds of landslides in the central mountains. Most of these storms were tropical disturbances that occurred during the hurricane season of June through November. Land use and the topographic characteristics of hillslope angle, elevation, and aspect are the most important spatial controls governing landslide frequency. Hillslopes in the study area that have been anthropogenically modified, exceed 12 degrees in gradient and about 350 meters in elevation, and face the east-northeast are most prone to landsliding. Bedrock geology and soil order seem less important in the determination of landslide frequency, at least when considered at a generalized level. A rainfall accumulation-duration relation for the triggering of numerous landslides throughout the central mountains, and a set of simplified matrices representing geographic conditions in the three river basins were developed and are described in this report. These two elements provide a basis for the estimation of the temporal and spatial controls on landslide occurrence in Puerto Rico. Finally, this approach is an example of a relatively inexpensive technique for landslide hazard analysis that may be applicable to other settings.

Larsen, M. C.; Torres-Sanchez, A. J.

1996-01-01

297

Data Resolution Effects on Landslides Hazard and Susceptibility Assessment of Puerto Rico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Landslides are a major geologic hazard. Typical triggering causes are rainfall, earthquakes, volcanoes and human activity. Rainfall-induced landslides are the most common type in Puerto Rico with 1 or 2 large events per year. Landslide susceptibility and hazard assessment methods are common in the literature. Generally they require a good knowledge of the territory and its characteristics for ad-hoc sub-regional or local modeling of the involved quantities, but when carried out at global scale assumptions and simplifications are necessary. In this work we present the results of 2 methods: the Bivariate and Logistic Regression, for the definition of the Susceptibility Index over the island. We focus on the role of resolution and data quality and how these factors affect the final assessment of landslide susceptibility. DEM resolution determines (1) the level of detail of the analyzed surface and of the final map and (2) the accuracy and reliability of DEM-derived quantities (slope angle and aspect). Precipitation is also included in the hazard assessment. We use satellite precipitation (TRMM products) as well as ground radar and raingages. The questions of necessary spatial and temporal resolution and necessary downscaling techniques are addressed.

Lepore, C.; Kamal, S.; Bono, E.; Noto, L. V.; Shanahan, P.; Bras, R. L.

2008-12-01

298

Road and stream network connectivity and potential: northeastern Puerto Rico, an exploratory analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Interactions between road and stream networks are complex and are influenced by a range of environmental and road design characteristics. These interactions are not clearly understood and are the subjects of current research. To increase understanding of these interactions we explore the concepts of Road and Stream Network Connectivity (R/S Connectivity) and Road and Stream Network Connectivity Potential (RSNCP). Lastly we provide a methodology for study and analysis of R/S connectivity. This study focuses on road induced alterations to sediment and water flow processes, which are important road effects of R/S connectivity. For 25 river road crossings (RRC) in the Rio Mameyes and Rio Espiritu watersheds of Northeastern Puerto Rico, a multi-scale Geographic Information Systems (GIS) database measuring environmental and road characteristic variables was developed specifically to measure variables influencing sediment and water flow. Multivariate analysis methods were used to select the environmental and road characteristic variables which were used in multiple linear regression models for three biota variables (Decapod Richness, Adult Fish Richness, and Total Richness), and four stream habitat geomorphology variables (Median Channel Grain Size, Active Channel Maximum Depth, Pool Volume, and Active Channel Width). Explained variance (R2) from modeling results ranged from 0.22 to 0.86, demonstrating that the GIS derived variables can successfully be used to model important stream biota and geomorphology response variables.

Sherrill, K. R.; Laituri, M. J.; Helmer, E. H.; Ramirez, J. A.; Blanco, J. F.; Hein, K.; Pike, A. S.

2008-07-01

299

Sedimentology and diagenesis of Miocene Lirio Limestone, Isla de Mona, Puerto Rico  

SciTech Connect

Isla de Mona is a carbonate plateau, 50 mi west of Puerto Rico. The island lies on the southern portion of the Mona Platform. It is composed mostly of two Miocene carbonate units: Isla de Mona Dolomite overlain by Lirio Limestone. The Lirio Limestone was deposited on a sloping erosional surface over the Isla de Mona Dolomite. The Miocene Lirio Limestone consists mostly of backreef sands (packstones) with a reefal sequence (boundstones and grainstones) present in the southwestern portion of the island. The reefal sequence is made up mostly of Stylophora, Porites, and Millepora. Thin, discreet pockets of carbonate mud, rich in planktonic foraminifera and radiolarians and mixed with shallow benthic fauna/flora (foraminifera, echinoderms, red algae, and corals) interpreted as storm deposits, are found throughout the unit. An extensive reefal zone can be inferred to be present throughout the southwestern to southern portions of the Mona Platform. The Lirio Limestone is heavily karstified and is riddled with sinkholes on the plateau surfaces and caves around the periphery of the island. Caves are exposed around the periphery of the island, radiating from a depression in the central portions of the Lirio Limestone, near contacts with the Isla de Mona Dolomite, are partially dolomitized. The southwestern outcrops exhibit partial dolomitization throughout. The distribution of sinkholes, seaward caverns, and partial dolomitization of the lowermost Lirio Limestone suggests diagenetic modifications by meteoric fluids in central exposed portions of the island and by marine-meteoric fluids in the lowermost portions of the phreatic lens.

Ruiz, H.; Gonzalez, L.A.; Budd, A.F. (Univ. of Iowa, Iowa City (United States))

1991-03-01

300

Genetics and morphology of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) in septic tanks in Puerto Rico.  

PubMed

Dengue viruses, primarily transmitted by the mosquito Aedes aegypti (L.), affect an estimated 50-100 million people yearly. Traditional approaches to control mosquito population numbers, such as the use of pesticides, have had only limited success. Atypical mosquito behavior may be one reason why current vector control efforts have been less efficacious than expected. In Puerto Rico, for example, adult Ae. aegypti have been observed emerging from septic tanks. Interestingly, adults emerging from septic tanks are larger on average than adults collected from surface containers. To determine whether adults colonizing septic tanks constitute a separate Ae. aegypti population, we used 12 previously validated microsatellite loci to examine adult mosquitoes collected from both septic tanks and surface containers, but found no evidence to suggest genetic differentiation. Size differences between septic tank and surface mosquitoes were reduced when nutrient levels were held constant across experimental groups. Despite the absence of evidence suggesting a genetic difference between experimental groups in this study, Ae. aegypti emerging from septic tanks may still represent a more dangerous phenotype and should be given special consideration when developing vector control programs and designing public health interventions in the future. PMID:22238867

Somers, Gerard; Brown, Julia E; Barrera, Roberto; Powell, Jeffrey R

2011-11-01

301

Geohydrology of the Aguirre and Pozo Hondo areas, southern Puerto Rico  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The subsurface geology of the Aguirre and Pozo Hondo areas in southern Puerto Rico is primarily a fractured igneous volcanic rock (andesite) with three distinct zones: regolith, transition zone, and bedrock. Alluvial deposits are present, locally in each area, as well as weathered low- grade metamorphosed volcanics with a schistose texture and a vertical plane of foliation. A thin, water-table aquifer exists in the study areas. Ground water in this aquifer occurs primarily in the regolith and transition zone. The depth to the water table ranges from less than 1 foot to 75 feet below land surface. Ground- water flow out of the study areas is to the south into the southern coastal plain. The results of 2 multiple-well aquifer tests and 21 single-well slug injection and removal tests indicate that transmissivities range from 175 to 5,700 feet squared per day; hydraulic conductivities, from 0.02 to 160 feet per day; and storage coefficients from 0.02 to 0.2. The ground water in the study areas is of the calcium carbonate type. With the exception of dissolved solids, which were as much as 1,110 milligrams per liter, concentrations of common constituents in ground water did not exceed the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's drinking water criteria.

Graves, R. P.

1992-01-01

302

A deviation bar chart for detecting dengue outbreaks in Puerto Rico.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: A Centers for Disease Control and Prevention deviation bar chart (Statistical Software for Public Health Surveillance) and laboratory-based surveillance data were evaluated for their utility in detecting dengue outbreaks in Puerto Rico. METHODS: A significant increase in dengue incidence was defined as an excess of suspected cases of more than 2 SDs beyond the mean for all 4-week periods from April through June (the period of lowest seasonal incidence), 1989 through 1993. An outbreak was defined as a cumulative annual rate of reported dengue greater than 3 per 1000 population. RESULTS: Retrospective application of the system to 1994 data showed agreement with previous analyses. In 1995 and 1996, 36.4% and 27.3%, respectively, of municipalities with a significant increase in reports for 2 or more consecutive weeks before the first week of September had an outbreak, compared with 9.0% (in 1995, P = .042) and 6.0% (in 1996, P = .054) of towns without a significant increase. The system showed sensitivity near 40%, specificity near 89%, and accuracy in classifying municipalities near 84%. CONCLUSIONS: This method provides a statistically based, visually striking, specific, and timely signal for dengue control efforts.

Rigau-Perez, J G; Millard, P S; Walker, D R; Deseda, C C; Casta-Velez, A

1999-01-01

303

Size distribution measurements of suspended particulate matter in Ponce, Puerto Rico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Size distribution measurements using a high volume sampler with a cascade impactor have been obtained for the city of Ponce, Puerto Rico from 1985 to 1987. The data indicate that the concentration of particles < 2 ?m in diameter remained constant during the sampling period while the concentration of particles > 7 ?m showed time variations. Aerosol from this area is greatly composed of particles > 7 ?m in diameter, they accounted for over 45% of the Total Suspended Particulate (TSP) of this area. Over 75% of the aerosol concentration is from particles > 3.3 ?m, approximately only 20% of the aerosol concentration is from particles < 2 ?m in diameter. A linear relationship was observed between the different particle size and the TSP, except for those particles < 1.1 ?m in size. The size distribution and its time variation are explained in terms of local sources such as agriculatural burning, natural contributions and industrial activities, as well as contribution from the Sahara haze that crosses the Atlantic from Africa and reaches the Caribbean region during the summer.

Infante, Rafael; Carrasquillo, Arnaldo; Pérez, Vidal

304

Hydrogeochemical prospecting for porphyry copper deposits in the tropical-marine climate of Puerto Rico  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A hydrogeochemical survey utilizing waters from streams and springs was conducted in the area of two known porphyry copper deposits in the tropical-marine climate of westcentral Puerto Rico. The most important pathfinder for regional hydrogeochemical surveys is sulfate which reflects the associated pyrite mineralization. Because of increased mobility due to intense chemical weathering and the low pH environment, dissolved copper can also be used as a pathfinder for regional surveys and has the advantage of distinguishing barren pyrite from pyrite associated with copper mineralization. For follow-up surveys, the most important pathfinders are copper, sulfate, pH, zinc, and fluoride. High concentrations of dissolved copper and moderate concentrations of sulfate is a diagnostic indication of nearby sources of copper minerals. An understanding of the geochemical processes taking place in the streambeds and the weathering environment, such as the precipitation of secondary copper minerals, contributes to the interpretation of the geochemical data and the selection of the most favorable areas for further exploration. ?? 1982.

Miller, W. R.; Ficklin, W. H.; Learned, R. E.

1982-01-01

305

Testing coral-based tropical cyclone reconstructions: An example from Puerto Rico  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Complimenting modern records of tropical cyclone activity with longer historical and paleoclimatological records would increase our understanding of natural tropical cyclone variability on decadal to centennial time scales. Tropical cyclones produce large amounts of precipitation with significantly lower ?18O values than normal precipitation, and hence may be geochemically identifiable as negative ?18O anomalies in marine carbonate ?18O records. This study investigates the usefulness of coral skeletal ?18O as a means of reconstructing past tropical cyclone events. Isotopic modeling of rainfall mixing with seawater shows that detecting an isotopic signal from a tropical cyclone in a coral requires a salinity of ~ 33 psu at the time of coral growth, but this threshold is dependent on the isotopic composition of both fresh and saline end-members. A comparison between coral ?18O and historical records of tropical cyclone activity, river discharge, and precipitation from multiple sites in Puerto Rico shows that tropical cyclones are not distinguishable in the coral record from normal rainfall using this approach at these sites.

Kilbourne, K. Halimeda; Moyer, Ryan P.; Quinn, Terrence M.; Grottoli, Andrea G.

2011-01-01

306

Urinary phthalate metabolite associations with biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress across pregnancy in puerto rico.  

PubMed

Phthalate exposure during pregnancy has been linked to adverse birth outcomes such as preterm birth, and inflammation and oxidative stress may mediate these relationships. In a prospective cohort study of pregnant women recruited early in gestation in Northern Puerto Rico, we investigated the associations between urinary phthalate metabolites and biomarkers of inflammation, including C-reactive protein, IL-1?, IL-6, IL-10, and TNF-?, and oxidative stress, including 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (OHdG) and 8-isoprostane. Inflammation biomarkers were measured in plasma twice during pregnancy (N = 215 measurements, N = 120 subjects), and oxidative stress biomarkers in urine were measured three times (N = 148 measurements, N = 54 subjects) per woman. In adjusted linear mixed models, metabolites of di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) were associated with increased IL-6 and IL-10 but relationships were generally not statistically significant. All phthalates were associated with increases in oxidative stress markers. Relationships with OHdG were significant for DEHP metabolites as well as mono-n-butyl phthalate (MBP) and monoiso-butyl phthalate (MiBP). For 8-isoprostane, associations with nearly all phthalates were statistically significant and the largest effect estimates were observed for MBP and MiBP (49-50% increase in 8-isoprostane with an interquartile range increase in metabolite concentration). These relationships suggest a possible mechanism for phthalate action that may be relevant to a number of adverse health outcomes. PMID:24845688

Ferguson, Kelly K; Cantonwine, David E; Rivera-González, Luis O; Loch-Caruso, Rita; Mukherjee, Bhramar; Anzalota Del Toro, Liza V; Jiménez-Vélez, Braulio; Calafat, Antonia M; Ye, Xiaoyun; Alshawabkeh, Akram N; Cordero, José F; Meeker, John D

2014-06-17

307

Genetics and Morphology of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) in Septic Tanks in Puerto Rico  

PubMed Central

Dengue viruses, primarily transmitted by the mosquito Aedes aegypti (L.), affect an estimated 50–100 million people yearly. Traditional approaches to control mosquito population numbers, such as the use of pesticides, have had only limited success. Atypical mosquito behavior may be one reason why current vector control efforts have been less efficacious than expected. In Puerto Rico, for example, adult Ae. aegypti have been observed emerging from septic tanks. Interestingly, adults emerging from septic tanks are larger on average than adults collected from surface containers. To determine whether adults colonizing septic tanks constitute a separate Ae. aegypti population, we used 12 previously validated microsatellite loci to examine adult mosquitoes collected from both septic tanks and surface containers, but found no evidence to suggest genetic differentiation. Size differences between septic tank and surface mosquitoes were reduced when nutrient levels were held constant across experimental groups. Despite the absence of evidence suggesting a genetic difference between experimental groups in this study, Ae. aegypti emerging from septic tanks may still represent a more dangerous phenotype and should be given special consideration when developing vector control programs and designing public health interventions in the future.

SOMERS, GERARD; BROWN, JULIA E.; BARRERA, ROBERTO; POWELL, JEFFREY R.

2012-01-01

308

Characterization of organic chemical contaminants in sediments from Jobos Bay, Puerto Rico.  

PubMed

Jobos Bay, located on the southeastern coast of Puerto Rico, contains a variety of habitats including mangroves, seagrass meadows, and coral reefs. The watershed surrounding the bay includes a number of towns, agricultural areas, and the Jobos Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve (NERR). Jobos Bay and the surrounding watershed are part of a Conservation Effects Assessment Project (CEAP), involving the Jobos Bay NERR, the US Department of Agriculture, and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) to assess the benefits of agricultural best management practices (BMPs) on the terrestrial and marine environments. As part of the Jobos Bay CEAP, NOAA collected sediment samples in May 2008 to characterize over 130 organic chemical contaminants. This paper presents the results of the organic contaminant analysis. The organic contaminants detected in the sediments included polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls, and the pesticide DDT. PAHs at one site in the inner bay near a boat yard were significantly elevated; however, all organic contaminant classes measured were below NOAA sediment quality guidelines that would have indicated that impacts were likely. The results of this work provide an important baseline assessment of the marine environment that will assist in understanding the benefits of implementing BMPs on water quality in Jobos Bay. PMID:21956337

Pait, Anthony S; Whitall, David R; Dieppa, Angel; Newton, Sarah E; Brune, Lia; Caldow, Chris; Mason, Andrew L; Apeti, Dennis A; Christensen, John D

2012-08-01

309

Landslides and sediment budgets in four watersheds in eastern Puerto Rico: Chapter F in Water quality and landscape processes of four watersheds in eastern Puerto Rico  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The low-latitude regions of the Earth are undergoing profound, rapid landscape change as forests are converted to agriculture to support growing population. Understanding the effects of these land-use changes requires analysis of watershed-scale geomorphic processes to better inform and manage this usually disorganized process. The investigation of hillslope erosion and the development of sediment budgets provides essential information for resource managers. Four small, montane, humid-tropical watersheds in the Luquillo Experimental Forest and nearby Río Grande de Loíza watershed, Puerto Rico (18° 20' N., 65° 45' W.), were selected to compare and contrast the geomorphic effects of land use and bedrock geology. Two of the watersheds are underlain largely by resistant Cretaceous volcaniclastic rocks but differ in land use and mean annual runoff: the Mameyes watershed, with predominantly primary forest cover and runoff of 2,750 millimeters per year, and the Canóvanas watershed, with mixed secondary forest and pasture and runoff of 970 millimeters per year. The additional two watersheds are underlain by relatively erodible granitic bedrock: the forested Icacos watershed, with runoff of 3,760 millimeters per year and the agriculturally developed Cayaguás watershed, with a mean annual runoff of 1,620 millimeters per year. Annual sediment budgets were estimated for each watershed using landslide, slopewash, soil creep, treethrow, suspended sediment, and streamflow data. The budgets also included estimates of sediment storage in channel beds, bars, floodplains, and in colluvial deposits. In the two watersheds underlain by volcaniclastic rocks, the forested Mameyes and the developed Canóvanas watersheds, landslide frequency (0.21 and 0.04 landslides per square kilometer per year, respectively), slopewash (5 and 30 metric tons per square kilometer per year), and suspended sediment yield (325 and 424 metric tons per square kilometer per year), were lower than in the two watersheds underlain by granitic bedrock. In these granitic watersheds, landslide frequency, slopewash, and suspended sediment yield were 0.43 landslides per square kilometer per year, 20 metric tons per square kilometer per year, and 2,140 metric tons per square kilometer per year, respectively, in the forested Icacos watershed and 0.8 landslides per square kilometer per year, 105 metric tons per square kilometer per year, and 2,110 metric tons per square kilometer per year, respectively, in the agriculturally developed Cayaguás watershed. Comparison of sediment budgets from the forested and developed watersheds indicates that human activities increase landslide frequency by as much as factor of 5 and slopewash by as much as a factor of 6. When the difference in annual runoff is considered, the effect of land use on suspended sediment yields is also notable. Sediment concentration, calculated as sediment yield normalized by runoff, was about 2.3 to 3.7 times as great in the two watersheds in secondary forest and pasture compared with sediment concentration in the watersheds in primary forest. Even in the two watersheds with primary forest cover, the Mameyes and Icacos, located in the Luquillo Experimental Forest, the effects of anthropogenic disturbance were marked: 43 to 63 percent of landslide-related erosion was associated with road construction and maintenance.

Larsen, Matthew C.

2012-01-01

310

Luis Llorens Torres and the impossible return: identity, conflict and hope in the national poem of Puerto Rico.  

PubMed

The psychodynamic exploration of the content of literary works and of the personal lives of their authors oftentimes reveals how they can be mutually reflective of the other. Such is the case of the poem, "Valle de Collores" (The Valley of Collares), considered by many to be the national poem of Puerto Rico and of the author Luis Llorens Torres (1876-1944), regarded as the "Poet Laureate of Puerto Rico." The timelessness and wide appeal of certain literary works has been attributed, among other reasons, to the fact that they address universal inner conflicts that affect all human beings. The poem "Valle de Collores" is the narrative of a country boy who leaves home to face the larger world and, as he reaches adulthood, he looks back and expresses his impossible longing to return to the rural home of his childhood. It is a description of the universal struggles of human development and of separation-indi-viduation, loss and mourning and a longing to return, and a wish to merge with the early parental objects of childhood. The poem also parallels the history of the Puerto Rican people, in their transition from a rural society under Spanish rule to an industrialized society as an American Commonwealth. This difficult transition resulted in a massive immigration of Puerto Ricans to the United States that continues to this day. The poem also represents the longing of many Puerto Rican immigrants to return to their island home, and to a simpler time of more fundamental values. The land that is left behind and longed for becomes a metaphor for the early maternal imago. PMID:16570531

Rothe, Eugenio M

2005-12-01

311

Luis Llorens Torres and the impossible return: identity, conflict and hope in the national poem of Puerto Rico.  

PubMed

The psychodynamic exploration of the content of literary words and of the personal lives of their authors oftentimes reveals how they can be mutually reflective of the other. Such is the case of the poem, "Valle de Collores" (The Valley of Collores), considered by many to be the national poem of Puerto Rico and of the author Luis Llorens Torres (1876-1944), regarded as the "Poet Laureate of Puerto Rico." The timelessness and wide appeal of certain literary works has been attributed, among other reasons, to the fact that they address universal inner conflicts that affect all human beings. The poem "Valle de Collores" is the narrative of a country boy who leaves home to face the larger world and, as he reaches adulthood, he looks back and expresses his impossible longing to return to the rural home of his childhood. It is a description of the universal struggles of human development and of separation-individuation, loss and mourning and a longing to return, and a wish to merge with the early parental objects of childhood. The poem also parallels the history of the Puerto Rican people, in their transition from a rural society under Spanish rule to an industrialized society as an American Commonwealth. This difficult transition resulted in a massive immigration of Puerto Ricans to the United States that continues to this day. The poem also represents the longing of many Puerto Rican immigrants to return to their island home, and to a simpler time of more fundamental values. The land that is left behind and longed for becomes a metaphor for the early maternal imago. PMID:16193548

Rothe, Eugenio M

2005-01-01

312

Perspectives of San Juan healthcare practitioners on the detection deficit in oral premalignant and early cancers in Puerto Rico: a qualitative research study  

PubMed Central

Background In Puerto Rico, relative to the United States, a disparity exists in detecting oral precancers and early cancers. To identify factors leading to the deficit in early detection, we obtained the perspectives of San Juan healthcare practitioners whose practice could be involved in the detection of such oral lesions. Methods Key informant (KI) interviews were conducted with ten clinicians practicing in or around San Juan, Puerto Rico. We then triangulated our KI interview findings with other data sources, including recent literature on oral cancer detection from various geographic areas, current curricula at the University of Puerto Rico Schools of Medicine and Dental Medicine, as well as local health insurance regulations. Results Key informant-identified factors that likely contribute to the detection deficit include: many practitioners are deficient in knowledge regarding oral cancer and precancer; oral cancer screening examinations are limited regarding which patients receive them and the elements included. In Puerto Rico, specialists generally perform oral biopsies, and patient referral can be delayed by various factors, including government-subsidized health insurance, often referred to as Reforma. Reforma-based issues include often inadequate clinician knowledge regarding Reforma requirements/provisions, diagnostic delays related to Reforma bureaucracy, and among primary physicians, a perceived financial disincentive in referring Reforma patients. Conclusions Addressing these issues may be useful in reducing the deficit in detecting oral precancers and early oral cancer in Puerto Rico.

2011-01-01

313

Geologic evidence northeast of Puerto Rico for an Atlantic tsunami in the last 500 years  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A historical tsunami of undetermined origin best explains a suite of probably related features at Anegada, British Virgin Islands: shore-normal scours, fields of cobbles and boulders, a horizon of sand and shell, and salt ponds. Anegada's exposed location and low-lying landscape make the island a natural tsunami recorder. Facing the Puerto Rico Trench at the northeast corner of the Caribbean, barely 10 km from the top of the continental slope, Anegada can receive tsunamis almost directly from the open North Atlantic. The island's highest ground consists of a limestone platform that crests 8 m above sea level. Many of Anegada's shores adjoin beach ridges, composed of distinctively pink bioclastic sand, that stand less than 5 m above sea level. Behind the ridges are salt ponds that rarely rise above high tide levels of the surrounding sea. The island's name, coined in 1493 during Columbus's second voyage, means "drowned." Local eyewitnesses to Hurricane Donna, at category 4 when its eye crossed Anegada in 1960, recounted no storm-caused versions of the following features: SCOURS. Dozens of coast-normal scours cut across beach ridges of the island's north-central shore. The largest of them holds a pond 200 m long and a few tens of meters wide. The scours are better explained by overwash of the ridges than by inheritance of any pre-existing carbonate landform; they differ in size and shape from spurs and grooves of the island's barrier reef and from the sinkholes of the limestone platform. More than one time of overwash is permitted by differences among the headward limits of the scours. COBBLES AND BOULDERS. Inland from the scours, as much as 1 km inland of Anegada's north-central shore, fields of limestone cobbles and boulders extend tens of meters southward from limestone knolls. Like the scours, they imply overwash from the north. SAND AND SHELL BED. An event horizon as much as 25 cm thick probably extends 2 km southward beneath bottom sediments and fringing microbial mats of the main salt pond studied (Bumber Well Pond). The horizon contains a basal northern unit of pink bioclastic sand that probably relates to the cutting of scours or to enlargement of pre- existing scours in the beach ridges to the north. The horizon also contains a widespread unit of marine molluscan shells that extends as float onto the limestone platform. SALT PONDS. The sand and shell horizon marks an event that changed the island's interior water bodies from nearly marine to hypersaline. The nearly marine conditions are recorded by mollusk-rich lagoonal mud below the event horizon, while the hypersaline conditions are marked mollusk-free salt-pond deposits above. The salinity change probably resulted from choking of the lagoon's likely inlet (or inlets) on Anegada's south side. A tsunami from the north, after scouring beach ridges and moving cobbles and boulders, probably also built sandy fans into the former inlet(s). This inferred tsunami probably postdates 1460-1620 C.E., the two-sigma range corresponding to the youngest radiocarbon age obtained on individual detrital shells in the event horizon. Potential correlates, in addition to earthquakes along the Puerto Rico Trench, include the transatlantic tsunami associated with the 1755 Lisbon earthquake. This work is part of Nuclear Regulatory Commission project N6480, a tsunam-hazard assessment for the eastern United States. We especially thank, in addition, Cindy Rolli of BVI Disaster Management and field assistant Caitlin Herlihy.

Atwater, B. F.; Tuttle, M. P.

2008-12-01

314

Chlorophyll a and turbidity patterns over coral reefs systems of La Parguera Natural Reserve, Puerto Rico.  

PubMed

Studies of temporal and spatial changes in phytoplankton biomass and turbidity provide essential information on coral reef ecosystem function and health. Fluctuation of phytoplankton biomass responds to several factors including nutrient inputs, both anthropogenic and natural, while turbidity is mostly affected by sediment resuspension or transport from terrestrial systems. These parameters can be used as sentinels of significant environmental factors "modifying" coral reef systems. A chlorophyll a concentration (Chl a) and turbidity (Turb) in situ logger was installed at 10 stations from June 4 to July 7, 2003 in La Parguera Natural Reserve (Southwestern Puerto Rico) to assess short-term temporal and geographic variation in patterns of phytoplankton biomass and turbidity at pre-selected sites as part of an interdisciplinary long-term study. Average station Ch1 a variation was 0.17-1.12 microg 1(-1) and 0.2-23.4 NTU for Turb. Results indicate that the western near-coastal stations had higher levels of Turb and Ch1 a. The easternmost mid shelf station, Romero reef, was similar to coastal stations probably due to nutrient and suspended sediment inputs from a source external to our study area to the east, Guánica Bay. Comparisons between different sampling days indicate significant differences between days for most stations suggesting that one-time discrete sampling may not be representative of average water column conditions and illustrate the dynamic nature of coral reef systems. Further work is warranted to assess seasonal changes that integrate short-term (daily) variability in both Turb and Ch1 a. PMID:17465141

Otero, Emesto; Carbery, Kelly K

2005-05-01

315

The stable isotope amount effect: New insights from NEXRAD echo tops, Luquillo Mountains, Puerto Rico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The stable isotope amount effect has often been invoked to explain patterns of isotopic composition of rainfall in the tropics. This paper describes a new approach, correlating the isotopic composition of precipitation with cloud height and atmospheric temperature using NEXRAD radar echo tops, which are a measure of the maximum altitude of rainfall within the clouds. The seasonal differences in echo top altitudes and their corresponding temperatures are correlated with the isotopic composition of rainfall. These results offer another factor to consider in interpretation of the seasonal variation in isotopic composition of tropical rainfall, which has previously been linked to amount or rainout effects and not to temperature effects. Rain and cloud water isotope collectors in the Luquillo Mountains in northeastern Puerto Rico were sampled monthly for three years and precipitation was analyzed for ?18O and ?2H. Precipitation enriched in 18O and 2H occurred during the winter dry season (approximately December-May) and was associated with a weather pattern of trade wind showers and frontal systems. During the summer rainy season (approximately June-November), precipitation was depleted in 18O and 2H and originated in low pressure systems and convection associated with waves embedded in the prevailing easterly airflow. Rain substantially depleted in 18O and 2H compared to the aforementioned weather patterns occurred during large low pressure systems. Weather analysis showed that 29% of rain input to the Luquillo Mountains was trade wind orographic rainfall, and 30% of rainfall could be attributed to easterly waves and low pressure systems. Isotopic signatures associated with these major climate patterns can be used to determine their influence on streamflow and groundwater recharge and to monitor possible effects of climate change on regional water resources.

Scholl, Martha A.; Shanley, James B.; Zegarra, Jan Paul; Coplen, Tyler B.

2009-12-01

316

The stable isotope amount effect: New insights from NEXRAD echo tops, Luquillo Mountains, Puerto Rico  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The stable isotope amount effect has often been invoked to explain patterns of isotopic composition of rainfall in the tropics. This paper describes a new approach, correlating the isotopic composition of precipitation with cloud height and atmospheric temperature using NEXRAD radar echo tops, which are a measure of the maximum altitude of rainfall within the clouds. The seasonal differences in echo top altitudes and their corresponding temperatures are correlated with the isotopic composition of rainfall. These results offer another factor to consider in interpretation of the seasonal variation in isotopic composition of tropical rainfall, which has previously been linked to amount or rainout effects and not to temperature effects. Rain and cloud water isotope collectors in the Luquillo Mountains in northeastern Puerto Rico were sampled monthly for three years and precipitation was analyzed for ??18O and ??2H. Precipitation enriched in , 18O and 2H occurred during the winter dry season (approximately December-May) and was associated with a weather pattern of trade wind showers and frontal systems. During the summer rainy season (approximately June-November), precipitation was depleted in 18O and 2H and originated in low pressure systems and convection associated with waves embedded in the prevailing easterly airflow. Rain substantially depleted in 18O and 2H compared to the aforementioned weather patterns occurred during large low pressure systems. Weather analysis showed that 29% of rain input to the Luquillo Mountains was trade wind orographic rainfall, and 30% of rainfall could be attributed to easterly waves and low pressure systems. Isotopic signatures associated with these major climate patterns can be used to determine their influence on streamflow and groundwater recharge and to monitor possible effects of climate change on regional water resources.

Schol, M. A.; Shanley, J. B.; Zegarra, J. P.; Coplen, T. B.

2009-01-01

317

Methane flux from mangrove sediments along the southwestern coast of Puerto Rico  

SciTech Connect

Although the sediments of coastal marine mangrove forests have been considered a minor source of atmospheric methane, these estimate have been based on sparse data from similar areas. We have gathered evidence that shows that external nutrient and freshwater loading in mangrove sediments may have a significant effect on methane flux. Experiments were performed to examine methane fluxes from anaerobic sediments in a mangrove forest subjected to secondary sewage effluents on the southwestern coast of Puerto Rico. Emission rates were measured in situ using a static chamber technique, and subsequent laboratory analysis of samples was by gas chromatography using a flame ionization detector. Results indicate that methane flux rates were lowest at the landward fringe nearest to the effluent discharge, higher in the seaward fringe occupied by red mangroves, and highest in the transition zone between black and red mangrove communities, with average values of 4 mg CH[sub 4] m[sup [minus]2] d[sup [minus]1], 42 mg CH[sub 4] m[sup [minus]2] d[sup [minus]1], and 82 mg CH[sub 4] m[sup [minus]2] d[sup [minus]1], respectively. Overall mean values show these sediments may emit as much as 40 times more methane than unimpacted pristine areas. Pneumatophores of Aviciennia germinans have been found to serve as conduits to the atmosphere for this gas. Fluctuating water level overlying the mangrove sediment is an important environmental factor controlling seasonal and interannual CH[sub 4] flux variations. Environmental controls such as freshwater inputs and increased nutrient loading influence in situ methane emissions from these environments. 34 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

Sotomayor, D.; Corredor, J.E.; Morell, J.M. (Univ. of Puerto Rico, Mayagueez (Puerto Rico))

1994-03-01

318

Probing the deep critical zone beneath the Luquillo Experimental Forest, Puerto Rico  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Recent work has suggested that weathering processes occurring in the subsurface produce the majority of silicate weathering products discharged to the world's oceans, thereby exerting a primary control on global temperature via the well-known positive feedback between silicate weathering and CO2. In addition, chemical and physical weathering processes deep within the critical zone create aquifers and control groundwater chemistry, watershed geometry and regolith formation rates. Despite this, most weathering studies are restricted to the shallow critical zone (e.g. soils, outcrops). Here we investigate the chemical weathering, fracturing and geomorphology of the deep critical zone in the Bisley watershed in the Luquillo Critical Zone Observatory, Puerto Rico, from two boreholes drilled to 37.2 and 27.0 m depth, from which continuous core samples were taken. Corestones exposed aboveground were also sampled. Weathered rinds developed on exposed corestones and along fracture surfaces on subsurface rocks slough off of exposed corestones once rinds attain a thickness up to ~1 cm, preventing the corestones from rounding due to diffusion limitation. Such corestones at the land surface are assumed to be what remains after exhumation of similar, fractured bedrock pieces that were observed in the drilled cores between thick layers of regolith. Some of these subsurface corestones are massive and others are highly fractured, whereas aboveground corestones are generally massive with little to no apparent fracturing. Subsurface corestones are larger and less fractured in the borehole drilled on a road where it crosses a ridge compared with the borehole drilled where the road crosses the stream channel. Both borehole profiles indicate that the weathering zone extends to well below the stream channel in this upland catchment; hence weathering depth is not controlled by the stream level within the catchment and not all of the water in the watershed is discharged to the stream

Buss, Heather L.; Brantley, Susan L.; Scatena, Fred; Bazilevskaya, Katya; Blum, Alex E.; Schulz, Marjorie S.; Jiménez, Rafael; White, Arthur F.; Rother, G.; Cole, D.

2013-01-01

319

Field Characterization for Remediation of Trinitrotoluene in Sediment and Water from Vieques, Puerto Rico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene (TNT) is an explosive used in military shells, bombs, and grenades, industrial applications, and underwater blasting. The explosive itself, some of its degradation and transformation products, and any manufacturing impurities or by-products are all considered serious environmental contaminants with potential harmful and toxic effects on animals, plants and humans. In Vieques, Puerto Rico, The Atlantic Fleet Weapons Training Area consists of areas and nearby waters that have become contaminated primarily by United States Department of Defense (DoD) activities. Known areas of concern include waters influenced by target practice off the eastern shores of Vieques, areas where ships were anchored north of Vieques, and waters near the western side of Vieques, including Mosquito Pier. Detection and remediation of TNT in these areas is necessary to protect the health and welfare of the present and future Vieques residents and visitors. This work examines the distribution of TNT at specific locations in Vieques. Samples were collected from Mosquito Bay which is located in the watershed between the residential and naval sections of Vieques and also in a northern section of the island at Kiani Lagoon. In addition to Vieques sediment studies, the use of zero-valent iron (ZVI) to degrade trinitrotoluene was examined. The ultimate focus is on emulsifying ZVI particles that are capable of promoting rapid and complete degradation of TNT molecules. ZVI has demonstrated effective degradation of TNT, however, these particles by themselves have significant problems in treating sorbed phase TNT. Results from these studies will be presented.

Echols, E. L.; Carvalho-Knighton, K. M.; Pyrtle, A. J.

2007-12-01

320

Organization and operation of the marine ornamental fish and invertebrate export fishery in Puerto Rico.  

PubMed

This fishery was examined utilizing public records, stakeholder interviews, and operational site visits to describe the fishery for the Puerto Rico Coral Reef Advisory Committee as a first step toward development of policies for the effective management of these natural resources. The fishery is not large, including fewer than 20 licensed fishers operating primarily on the west end of the island. Only three operators export product, with the remaining fishers providing specimens to the exporters based upon customer orders. Most collection of coral reef species occurs over hard rubble zones mixed with relic reef structures and rock, or on the sides and frontal areas of active reefs. Other species are collected from among mangrove prop root zones, tidal flats, and seagrass beds. Collections are made using simple barrier and dip nets for fish and motile invertebrates such as shrimp. Invertebrates such as crabs, starfish, and sea cucumbers are commonly collected by overturning small rocks, gathering the specimens, and then replacing the rocks in their original positions. Specimens are carried to the boat and transferred to individual cup holders to maximize survival. Although statements concerning former use of chemicals to assist capture were noted, no evidence of current chemical use was observed. Specimens are held in re-circulating seawater systems onshore until collections are aggregated and shipped. The fishery strives to operate with mortality of<1%, as mortalities of>3% are described as unacceptable to customers. More than 100 fish species are collected in this fishery, but the top ten species account for >70% of the total numbers and >60% of the total value of the fishery, with a single species, Gramma loreto (Royal Gramma), comprising >40% of the numbers. More than 100 species of invertebrates are collected, but this fishery is also dominated by a handful of species, including anemones, hermit crabs, turbo snails, serpent starfish, and feather duster polychaetes. PMID:17465154

Legorel, Richard S; Hardin, Mark P; Ter-Ghazaryan, Diana

2005-05-01

321

Trace Elements Analysis in Forage Samples from a US Navy Bombing Range (Vieques, Puerto Rico)  

PubMed Central

Plants are good environmental sensors of the soil conditions in which they are growing. They also respond directly to the state of air. The tops of plants are collectors of air pollutants, and their chemical composition may be a good indicator for contaminated-areas when it is assessed against background values obtained for unpolluted vegetation. Both, aquatic and terrestrial plants are known to bioaccumulate heavy metals and therefore represent a potential source of these contaminants to the human food chain. An evaluation of heavy metals was conducted from vegetation samples collected at the Atlantic Fleet Weapons Training Facilities (AFWTF) in Vieques, Puerto Rico. In order to understand the potential risks associated to heavy metal mobilization through biological systems, it is first necessary to establish background values obtained from reference locations. This information allows a better interpretation of the significance of anthropogenic factors in changing trace elements status in soil and plants. Since Guánica State Forest is located at a similar geoclimatic zone as the AFWTF, samples at this site were used as a standard reference material and as experimental controls. Both sampling and analysis were conducted as previously described in standardized protocols using acid digestion of dry ashes. Then, levels of heavy metals were obtained by air-acetylene flame detection in an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Our results from the samples taken at the AFWTF indicate mobilization of undesirable trace elements through the marine and terrestrial food web. Since plants naturally remove heavy metals from soils, they could be employed for the restoration of this and similarly contaminated sites.

Massol-Deya, Arturo; Perez, Dustin; Perez, Ernie; Berrios, Manuel; Diaz, Elba

2005-01-01

322

Inpatient Management of Diabetes Mellitus among Noncritically Ill Patients at University Hospital of Puerto Rico.  

PubMed

Objective: To describe the state of glycemic control in noncritically ill diabetic patients admitted to the Puerto Rico University Hospital and adherence to current standard of care guidelines for the treatment of diabetes.Methods: This was a retrospective study of patients admitted to a general medicine ward with diabetes mellitus as a secondary diagnosis. Clinical data for the first 5 days and the last 24 hours of hospitalization were analyzed.Results: A total of 147 noncritically ill diabetic patients were evaluated. The rates of hyperglycemia (blood glucose ?180 mg/dL) and hypoglycemia (blood glucose <70 mg/dL) were 56.7 and 2.8%, respectively. Nearly 60% of patients were hyperglycemic during the first 24 hours of hospitalization (mean random blood glucose, 226.5 mg/dL), and 54.2% were hyperglycemic during the last 24 hours of hospitalization (mean random blood glucose, 196.51 mg/dL). The mean random last glucose value before discharge was 189.6 mg/dL. Most patients were treated with subcutaneous insulin, with basal insulin alone (60%) used as the most common regimen. The proportion of patients classified as uncontrolled receiving basal-bolus therapy increased from 54.3% on day 1 to 60% on day 5, with 40% continuing to receive only basal insulin. Most of the uncontrolled patients had their insulin dose increased (70.1%); however, a substantial proportion had no change (23.7%) or even a decrease (6.2%) in their insulin dose.Conclusion: The management of hospitalized diabetic patients is suboptimal, probably due to clinical inertia, manifested by absence of appropriate modification of insulin regimen and intensification of dose in uncontrolled diabetic patients. A comprehensive educational diabetes management program, along with standardized insulin orders, should be implemented to improve the care of these patients. PMID:24325996

Allende-Vigo, Myriam Zaydee; González-Rosario, Rafael A; González, Loida; Sánchez, Viviana; Vega, Mónica A; Alvarado, Milliette; Ramón, Raul O

2014-05-01

323

Probing the deep critical zone beneath the Luquillo Experimental Forest, Puerto Rico  

SciTech Connect

Recent work has suggested that weathering processes occurring in the subsurface produce the majority of silicate weathering products discharged to the world s oceans, thereby exerting a primary control on global temperature via the well-known positive feedback between silicate weathering and CO2. In addition, chemical and physical weathering processes deep within the critical zone create aquifers and control groundwater chemistry, watershed geometry and regolith formation rates. Despite this, most weathering studies are restricted to the shallow critical zone (e.g., soils, outcrops). Here we investigate the chemical weathering, fracturing and geomorphology of the deep critical zone in the Bisley watershed in the Luquillo Critical Zone Observatory, Puerto Rico, from two boreholes drilled to 37.2 and 27.0 m depth, from which continuous core samples were taken. Corestones exposed aboveground were also sampled. Weathered rinds developed on exposed corestones and along fracture surfaces on subsurface rocks slough off of exposed corestones once rinds attain a thickness up to ~1 cm, preventing the corestones from rounding due to diffusion limitation. Such corestones at the land surface are assumed to be what remains after exhumation of similar, fractured bedrock pieces that were observed in the drilled cores between thick layers of regolith. Some of these subsurface corestones are massive and others are highly fractured, whereas aboveground corestones are generally massive with little to no apparent fracturing. Subsurface corestones are larger and less fractured in the borehole drilled on a road where it crosses a ridge compared to the borehole drilled where the road crosses the stream channel. Both borehole profiles indicate that the weathering zone extends to well below the stream channel in this upland catchment; hence weathering depth is not controlled by the stream level within the catchment and not all of the water in the watershed is discharged to the stream.

Buss, Heather [University of Bristol, UK] [University of Bristol, UK; Brantley, S. L. [Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA] [Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA; Scatena, Fred [University of Pennsylvania] [University of Pennsylvania; Bazilevskaya, Ekaterina [Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA] [Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA; Blum, Alex [U.S. Geological Survey, Boulder, CO] [U.S. Geological Survey, Boulder, CO; Schulz, M [University of Pennsylvania] [University of Pennsylvania; Jimenez, M [University of Pennsylvania] [University of Pennsylvania; White, Art [U.S. Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA] [U.S. Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA; Rother, Gernot [ORNL] [ORNL; Cole, David [Ohio State University] [Ohio State University

2013-01-01

324

Seismic evidence for a slab tear at the Puerto Rico Trench  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The fore-arc region of the northeast Caribbean plate north of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands has been the site of numerous seismic swarms since at least 1976. A 6 month deployment of five ocean bottom seismographs recorded two such tightly clustered swarms, along with additional events. Joint analyses of the ocean bottom seismographs and land-based seismic data reveal that the swarms are located at depths of 50–150 km. Focal mechanism solutions, found by jointly fitting P wave first-motion polarities and S/P amplitude ratios, indicate that the broadly distributed events outside the swarm generally have strike- and dip-slip mechanisms at depths of 50–100 km, while events at depths of 100–150 km have oblique mechanisms. A stress inversion reveals two distinct stress regimes: The slab segment east of 65°W longitude is dominated by trench-normal tensile stresses at shallower depths (50–100 km) and by trench-parallel tensile stresses at deeper depths (100–150 km), whereas the slab segment west of 65°W longitude has tensile stresses that are consistently trench normal throughout the depth range at which events were observed (50–100 km). The simple stress pattern in the western segment implies relatively straightforward subduction of an unimpeded slab, while the stress pattern observed in the eastern segment, shallow trench-normal tension and deeper trench-normal compression, is consistent with flexure of the slab due to rollback. These results support the hypothesis that the subducting North American plate is tearing at or near these swarms. The 35 year record of seismic swarms at this location and the recent increase in seismicity suggest that the tear is still propagating.

Meighan, Hallie E.; Pulliam, Jay; Brink, Uri ten; Lopez-Venegas, Alberto M.

2013-01-01

325

Diversity of benthic biofilms along a land use gradient in tropical headwater streams, puerto rico.  

PubMed

The properties of freshwater ecosystems can be altered, directly or indirectly, by different land uses (e.g., urbanization and agriculture). Streams heavily influenced by high nutrient concentrations associated with agriculture or urbanization may present conditions that can be intolerable for many aquatic species such as macroinvertebrates and fishes. However, information with respect to how benthic microbial communities may respond to changes in stream ecosystem properties in relation to agricultural or urban land uses is limited, in particular for tropical ecosystems. In this study, diversity of benthic biofilms was evaluated in 16 streams along a gradient of land use at the Turabo watershed in Puerto Rico using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism. Diversity indices and community structure descriptors (species richness, Shannon diversity, dominance and evenness) were calculated for both bacteria and eukaryotes for each stream. Diversity of both groups, bacteria and eukaryotes, did not show a consistent pattern with land use, since it could be high or low at streams dominated by different land uses. This suggests that diversity of biofilms may be more related to site-specific conditions rather than watershed scale factors. To assess this contention, the relationship between biofilm diversity and reach-scale parameters (i.e., nutrient concentrations, canopy cover, conductivity, and dissolved oxygen) was determined using the Akaike Information Criterion (AICc) for small sample size. Results indicated that nitrate was the variable that best explained variations in biofilm diversity. Since nitrate concentrations tend to increase with urban land use, our results suggest that urbanization may indeed increase microbial diversity indirectly by increasing nutrients in stream water. PMID:24643714

Burgos-Caraballo, Sofía; Cantrell, Sharon A; Ramírez, Alonso

2014-07-01

326

Subduction of Serpentinized and Weathered Ultramafic Rocks in the Puerto Rico Trench: Preliminary Results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Exposure of mantle peridotite and its interactions with seawater to form serpentinite are integral parts of seafloor spreading, and play a key role in affecting the rheology, chemistry, and microbial habitability of the oceanic lithosphere at slow- and ultra-slow spreading ridges. Away from the spreading centers, within subduction zones, the formation and dehydration of serpentinized peridotite impacts seismicity, element cycling, and melt generation. Here we present preliminary results of a petrographic and spectroscopic study of altered rocks recovered from the from the north wall of the trench Puerto Rico Trench (PRT). In fact, the PRT represents one of two subduction zones worldwide where slow spreading oceanic lithosphere is presently subducted, and where serpentinized peridotite has been directly evidenced by seafloor sampling {Bowin, 1966}. Thin section petrography, XRF analysis, scanning electron microscopy, and confocal Raman spectroscopy reveal that the peridotite, which in all likelihood originated at the Mid-Atlantic Ridge during the early Cretaceous, was virtually completely serpentinized under static conditions (as it is evidenced by the preserved mesh texture after olivine and bastite after orthopyroxene), and underwent subsequent seafloor weathering. While it is questionable where exactly serpentinization and subsequent seafloor weathering took place, our preliminary results strongly suggest that the material presently subducted in the PRT is not simply composed of serpentine, magnetite, and brucite; it is rather a complex disequilibrium assemblage of minerals including serpentine, brucite, chlorite, talc, magnetite, hematite, goethite, sulfur-rich sulfides and various clay minerals. Furthermore, our results imply that serpentinite and its weathering products influence the loci of dehydration and mineral replacement reactions, as well as the water input and element recycling in subduction zones.

Horning, G.; Klein, F.

2012-12-01

327

Linking The Universe To The Community: Students As Starry Messengers For IYA2009-Puerto Rico.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This poster presents a project at Puerto Rico to establish a working team of undergraduate students (Starry Messengers) to promote and experience the wonders of space science and education with all the senses. The students are expected to assist during the activities of the International Year of Astronomy 2009 (IYA2009). During 2008 the students will receive the appropriate instruction on observational astronomy through two workshops. These workshops follow the active learning model and therefore prepare students for outreach activities in astronomy. An innovative model of inclusion will be developed, adapting all the activities and material to include blind or visually impaired. We will encourage the participation of at least one visually impaired student or teacher on the Starry Messengers team. The greatest challenge in this project will be to develop adequate accessible activities in astronomy. The workshops will be held at the Arecibo Observatory and "El Parque de las Ciencias" Planetarium. These two centers have the facilities to develop the workshops and have the adequate settings for the participants to gain experience with astronomy research and outreach. This project targets underrepresented groups in science and engineering: hispanic students and students with visual impairments. The inquiry-based learning activities and material designed as part of the program will also be made available to the public to further promote excellence in astronomy. The workshops will serve as templates for future K-12 teacher workshops. This work has been funded by the NASA IDEAS-ER program. We would like to acknowledge the support from the Arecibo Observatory. The Arecibo Observatory is part of the National Astronomy and Ionospheric Center, which is operated by Cornell University under a Cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation.

Pantoja, Carmen; Lebrón, M.

2008-05-01

328

Sedimentation survey of Lago Cerrillos, Ponce, Puerto Rico, April-May 2008  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Lago Cerrillos dam, located in the municipality of Ponce in southern Puerto Rico, was constructed in 1991 as part of the multipurpose Rio Portugues and Bucana Project. This project provides flood protection, water supply, and recreation facilities for the municipio of Ponce. The reservoir had an original storage capacity of 38.03 million cubic meters at maximum conservation pool elevation of 174.65 meters above mean sea level and a drainage area of 45.32 square kilometers. Sedimentation in Lago Cerrillos reservoir has reduced the storage capacity from 38.03 million cubic meters in 1991 to 37.26 million cubic meters in 2008, which represents a total storage loss of about 2 percent. During July 29 to August 23, 2002, 8,492 cubic meters of sediment were removed from the Rio Cerrillos mouth of the reservoir. Taking into account this removed material, the total water-storage loss as of 2008 is 778,492 cubic meters, and the long-term annual water-storage capacity loss rate is about 45,794 cubic meters per year or about 0.12 percent per year. The Lago Cerrillos net sediment-contributing drainage area has an average sediment yield of about 1,069 cubic meters per square kilometer per year. Sediment accumulation in Lago Cerrillos is not uniformly distributed and averages about 3 meters in thickness. This represents a sediment deposition rate of about 18 centimeters per year. On the basis of the 2008 reservoir storage capacity of 37.26 million cubic meters per year and a long-term sedimentation rate of 45,794 cubic meters per year, Lago Cerrillos is estimated to have a useful life of about 814 years or until the year 2822.

Soler-Lopez, Luis R.

2011-01-01

329

Drowsy driving and risk behaviors - 10 States and puerto rico, 2011-2012.  

PubMed

Findings in published reports have suggested that drowsy driving is a factor each year in as many as 7,500 fatal motor vehicle crashes (approximately 25%) in the United States. CDC previously reported that, in 2009-2010, 4.2% of adult respondents in 19 states and the District of Columbia reported having fallen asleep while driving at least once during the previous 30 days. Adults who reported usually sleeping ?6 hours per day, snoring, or unintentionally falling asleep during the day were more likely to report falling asleep while driving compared with adults who did not report these sleep patterns. However, limited information has been published on the association between drowsy driving and other risk behaviors that might contribute to crash injuries or fatalities. Therefore, CDC analyzed responses to survey questions regarding drowsy driving among 92,102 respondents in 10 states and Puerto Rico to the 2011-2012 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) surveys. The results showed that 4.0% reported falling asleep while driving during the previous 30 days. In addition to known risk factors, drowsy driving was more prevalent among binge drinkers than non-binge drinkers or abstainers and also more prevalent among drivers who sometimes, seldom, or never wear seatbelts while driving or riding in a car, compared with those who always or almost always wear seatbelts. Drowsy driving did not vary significantly by self-reported smoking status. Interventions designed to reduce binge drinking and alcohol-impaired driving, to increase enforcement of seatbelt use, and to encourage adequate sleep and seeking treatment for sleep disorders might contribute to reductions in drowsy driving crashes and related injuries. PMID:24990488

Wheaton, Anne G; Shults, Ruth A; Chapman, Daniel P; Ford, Earl S; Croft, Janet B

2014-07-01

330

Local annual survival and seasonal residency rates of semipalmated sandpipers (Calidris pusilla) in Puerto rico  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We report seasonal residency and local annual survival rates of migratory Semipalmated Sandpipers (Calidris pusilla) at the Cabo Rojo salt flats, Puerto Rico. Residency rate (daily probability of remaining on the flats) was 0.991 ?? 0.001 (x?? ?? SE), yielding a mean length of stay of 110 days. This finding supports the inclusion of the Caribbean as part of the species' winter range. Average estimated percentage of fat was low but increased throughout the season, which suggests that birds replenish some spent fat reserves and strive for energetic maintenance. Local annual survival rate was 0.62 ?? 0.04, within the range of values reported for breeding populations at Manitoba and Alaska (0.53-0.76). The similarity was not unexpected because estimates were obtained annually but at opposite sites of their annual migratory movements. Birds captured at the salt flats appeared to be a mix of birds from various parts of the breeding range, judging from morphology (culmen's coefficient of variation = 9.1, n = 106). This suggested that origin (breeding area) of birds and their proportion in the data should be ascertained and accounted for in analyses to glean the full conservation implications of winter-based annual survival estimates. Those data are needed to unravel the possibility that individuals of distinct populations are affected by differential mortality factors across different migratory routes. Mean length of stay strongly suggested that habitat quality at the salt flats was high. Rainfall and tidal flow combine to increase food availability during fall. The salt flats dry up gradually toward late January, at the onset of the dry season. Semipalmated Sandpipers may move west to other Greater Antilles or south to sites such as coastal Surinam until the onset of spring migration. They are not an oversummering species at the salt flats. Conservation efforts in the Caribbean region require understanding the dynamics of this species throughout winter to protect essential habitat. ?? The American Ornithologists' Union, 2007.

Rice, S. M.; Collazo, J. A.; Alldredge, M. W.; Harrington, B. A.; Lewis, A. R.

2007-01-01

331

Fracture patterns formed from hydration in serpentinite from Mayaguez, Puerto Rico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fractures formed by volume increase of peridotite during serpentinization make up polygonal patterns that are distinct from fractures formed by other processes. In order to better understand the formation and characteristics of these fracture patterns and discriminate between fractures that formed by different processes, we studied well-exposed fractures in three coastal outcrops of the Río Guanajibo serpentinite body in Mayagüez, Puerto Rico. The aims are to identify the fractures formed by serpentinization and fractures formed by other processes (i.e. tectonic stresses) and characterize their spatial attributes. This is important to improve deformation and tectonic models of regions and to better understand fracture network characteristics in serpentinite and how they are related to fluid flow. In addition, this study aims to enhance the understanding of in situ peridotite carbonation. This 'reaction-driven' cracking and the formation and propagation of fractures are important for comprehension of rates and processes involved in peridotite carbonation. At the meso-scale, we described fracture properties, such as length, spacing, cross-cutting relationships, and location within the core-rim structures. Our observations suggest fracture generations are associated with explicit processes. From knowledge of the processes involved in serpentinization, and each generations attributes we can infer generation relationships, fracture formation and propagation. We also collected samples for micro-scale analyses of fractures, some of which include Scanning Electron Microscopy, Transmission Electron Microscopy and X-ray Diffraction. The mineralogy of the serpentinite will provide clues to the environmental conditions of the metamorphism. A Riegl Terrestial LiDAR was used to image the fracture patterns in 3D. Creating planar surfaces from fractures and manipulating high resolution data will help to expose patterns in fracture formations. Contributions of this study will increase knowledge of propagation and rate of formation of fractures in serpentinites and their impact on in situ peridotite carbonation.

Lao Davila, D. A.; Roehrig, E.

2012-12-01

332

Dengue Deaths in Puerto Rico: Lessons Learned from the 2007 Epidemic  

PubMed Central

Background The incidence and severity of dengue in Latin America has increased substantially in recent decades and data from Puerto Rico suggests an increase in severe cases. Successful clinical management of severe dengue requires early recognition and supportive care. Methods Fatal cases were identified among suspected dengue cases reported to two disease surveillance systems and from death certificates. To be included, fatal cases had to have specimen submitted for dengue diagnostic testing including nucleic acid amplification for dengue virus (DENV) in serum or tissue, immunohistochemical testing of tissue, and immunoassay detection of anti-DENV IgM from serum. Medical records from laboratory-positive dengue fatal case-patients were reviewed to identify possible determinants for death. Results Among 10,576 reported dengue cases, 40 suspect fatal cases were identified, of which 11 were laboratory-positive, 14 were laboratory-negative, and 15 laboratory-indeterminate. The median age of laboratory-positive case-patients was 26 years (range 5 months to 78 years), including five children aged <15 years; 7 sought medical care at least once prior to hospital admission, 9 were admitted to hospital and 2 died upon arrival. The nine hospitalized case-patients stayed a mean of 15 hours (range: 3–48 hours) in the emergency department (ED) before inpatient admission. Five of the nine case-patients received intravenous methylprednisolone and four received non-isotonic saline while in shock. Eight case-patients died in the hospital; five had their terminal event on the inpatient ward and six died during a weekend. Dengue was listed on the death certificate in only 5 instances. Conclusions During a dengue epidemic in an endemic area, none of the 11 laboratory-positive case-patients who died were managed according to current WHO Guidelines. Management issues identified in this case-series included failure to recognize warning signs for severe dengue and shock, prolonged ED stays, and infrequent patient monitoring.

Tomashek, Kay M.; Gregory, Christopher J.; Rivera Sanchez, Aidsa; Bartek, Matthew A.; Garcia Rivera, Enid J.; Hunsperger, Elizabeth; Munoz-Jordan, Jorge L.; Sun, Wellington

2012-01-01

333

GLORIA sidescan sonar field data and navigation data collected off Puerto Rico in 1985 and the eastern United States in 1987  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This CD-ROM contains copies of the navigation and field sidescan sonar data collected within the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) surrounding Puerto Rico and off the eastern United States during cruises aboard the R/V FARNELLA. The survey of the Puerto Rico EEZ was completed during one cruise between 4 November and 3 December, 1985. The survey of the EEZ off the eastern United States was completed during five cruises between 2 February and 30 May, 1987. The data were collected as part of the USGS EEZ-SCAN program which was a cooperative mapping program between the US Geological Survey and the Institute of Oceanographic Sciences of the UK. The survey areas included the entire US EEZ of Puerto Rico and the US Virgin Islands as well as of the eastern United States from the Canadian international boundary at Georges Bank to the Bahamian international boundary east of Florida. GLORIA imagery was collected seaward of approximately 400 m water depth.

Twichell, David C.; Paskevich, Valerie F.; Delorey, Catherine M.

1998-01-01

334

Access to and Use of Asthma Health Services Among Latino Children: The Rhode Island-Puerto Rico Asthma Center Study  

PubMed Central

This study determines asthma-related health care access and utilization patterns for Latino children of Puerto Rican and Dominican origin residing in Rhode Island (RI) and Latino children residing in Puerto Rico (Island). Data included 804 families of children with persistent asthma recruited from clinics. Island children were less likely to receive regular asthma care and care from a consistent provider and more likely to have been to the emergency department and hospitalized for asthma than RI children. Island children were 2.33 times more likely to have used the emergency department for asthma compared with RI non-Latino White (NLW) children. Latino children residing in both Island and RI were less likely to have used specialty care and more likely to have had a physician visit for asthma in the past year than RI NLW children. The differences might reflect the effects of the different delivery systems on pediatric health care utilization and asthma management.

Jandasek, Barbara; Ortega, Alexander N.; McQuaid, Elizabeth L.; Koinis-Mitchell, Daphne; Fritz, Gregory K.; Kopel, Sheryl J.; Seifer, Ronald; Klein, Robert B.; Canino, Glorisa

2012-01-01

335

Access to and use of asthma health services among Latino children: the Rhode Island-Puerto Rico asthma center study.  

PubMed

This study determines asthma-related health care access and utilization patterns for Latino children of Puerto Rican and Dominican origin residing in Rhode Island (RI) and Latino children residing in Puerto Rico (Island). Data included 804 families of children with persistent asthma recruited from clinics. Island children were less likely to receive regular asthma care and care from a consistent provider and more likely to have been to the emergency department and hospitalized for asthma than RI children. Island children were 2.33 times more likely to have used the emergency department for asthma compared with RI non-Latino White (NLW) children. Latino children residing in both Island and RI were less likely to have used specialty care and more likely to have had a physician visit for asthma in the past year than RI NLW children. The differences might reflect the effects of the different delivery systems on pediatric health care utilization and asthma management. PMID:21536604

Jandasek, Barbara; Ortega, Alexander N; McQuaid, Elizabeth L; Koinis-Mitchell, Daphne; Fritz, Gregory K; Kopel, Sheryl J; Seifer, Ronald; Klein, Robert B; Canino, Glorisa

2011-12-01

336

The sources of water transpired by mahogany species along elevational, topographic, and moisture gradients in southwestern and northeastern Puerto Rico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Studies on the natural abundances of hydrogen (?D) and oxygen (?18O) stable isotopes in water within plants have provided new information on water sources, competitive interactions, and water-use patterns under natural conditions, and highlighted the temporal and spatial variations of these processes as influenced not only by climate but also by plant morphology and physiology. However, although many studies looked at some temporal and spatial relationships between stable isotopes of water - ?D in xylem sap and in soil water in many cases - and varying depths in the soil profile, virtually no study to date has looked into the possible relationships between soil-plant hydrology and elevation, topography, and moisture gradients across landscapes with similar climates but contrasting bedrocks. In addition, although the effects of moisture on plant ecophysiology in various physiographic settings have been relatively well understood, investigations into the same in environments with marked moisture gradients, particularly in the tropics, are relatively rare. ?D and ?18O signatures of xylem sap from a total of 64 mahogany trees were sampled across nine physiographic sites, with varying elevation, topography, and moisture gradients, in southwestern and northeastern Puerto Rico. ?D and ?18O as well as ?13C and ?15N signatures at 10-cm interval in 30-cm soil profiles were also determined in addition to leaf ?13C and ?15N. Preliminary results indicate that mahogany trees in the relatively drier sites in SW Puerto Rico utilized water from deeper parts of the soil; the ?D and ?18O signatures of which closely tracked the LMWL of the site, with more pronounced effects in riparian plot than in slope and ridge plots. Conversely, mahogany trees in the relatively moist sites in NE Puerto Rico utilized water from shallower parts of the soil profiles, with increasingly more pronounced effects in riparian plots than in slope and ridge plots. Preliminary leaf ?13C results were more depleted in moist NE than in drier SW Puerto Rico, implying lower WUE in the former than in the latter site. Although leaf ?13C has been reported to vary in response to N availability, as was also tested in this study through the measurement of the natural abundances of 15N and 14N, soil moisture was found to be more important in leaf ?13C signatures in this study. Insights from investigations of this nature may prove useful for our understanding of the influences of topography, elevation, lithology, and moisture gradients not only on plant water-use patterns but also in modeling hydrological fluxes and storages that can ultimately aid in the formulation of integrated natural resource management interventions in both urban and forested systems.

Evaristo, J. A.; Scatena, F. N.

2012-12-01

337

Correlation Between Stable Isotope Composition and Cloud Altitude (Radar Echo Tops) in Tropical Rainfall: Puerto Rico and Hawaii  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Observed patterns of isotopic composition of rainfall in the tropics are different than those at higher latitudes, where seasonal temperature changes have a large effect. Land surface temperatures vary little over the course of the year in the tropics, and the amount effect (involving evaporative enrichment, droplet size, and rainout processes) has been invoked as an explanation for variations in isotopic composition of rain measured at the land surface. Previous work by Scholl et al. (2009) in Eastern Puerto Rico showed that variations in the altitude (and temperature) of the clouds producing rain were highly correlated with the monthly stable isotope composition of rainfall. The altitude of rain droplets within the clouds was obtained using NEXRAD echo tops, which indicate the maximum altitude of rainfall determined by radar. Atmospheric temperature in rainfall-producing clouds was then estimated with archived NCEP data at the mean and maximum echo top altitudes for large rain events during the sampling period. Isotopic signatures associated with the major climate patterns in Puerto Rico were determined and are being utilized in local hydrological studies. For Eastern Puerto Rico, at latitude 18° N, ?18O and ?2H values and mean monthly echo top altitude were significantly correlated (average coefficient = -0.69). The analysis was repeated using a 24-month stable isotope data set of rain from sites on windward and leeward Maui, Hawaii, latitude 21° N. Results were similar; mean monthly echo top altitude was highly correlated with rainfall isotopic composition (windward site correlation coefficient = -0.86, leeward = -0.87). The data also showed a significant rainout effect in monthly samples dominated by tropical storms, where cloud heights were similar to other monthly samples but ?18O and ?2H values were much more negative. Variations in water vapor isotopic composition also affect isotopic composition of rain, and ongoing work will focus on investigating those factors further. Echo tops are a measurable parameter that reflects temperature, and to some extent, size and intensity of individual rain events. These results show that echo tops may be a good predictor for the isotopic composition of tropical rainfall where radar data are available, and that seasonal variations in cloud height can be factored into models to predict the isotopic composition of rain. High resolution (15-minute) rainfall samples for isotopic analysis were recently collected from outer rain bands of Hurricane Earl, which affected Puerto Rico August 30-31, 2010, and we hope to obtain more data during the remaining hurricane season. These data should yield information on within-storm variations in cloud echo tops and isotopic composition.

Scholl, M. A.; Coplen, T. B.

2010-12-01

338

Electric-utility-system planning studies for OTEC power integration by Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The steady-state analysis of the Puerto Rico transmission network with the OTEC unit at four alternate sites was conducted, and the economic implications of each alternative were determined. All but the site located on the east coast were found to cause abnormal flows on the benchmark system during single contingency conditions. This one exception, the Yabucoa site, required no changes or improvements to the network, while the other locations needed the addition of new circuits. The study revealed that with the OTEC plant located on the east coast where land-use policies in effect prohibit the construction of a fossil plant, significantly lower transmission losses resulted. An economic analysis showed that taken over the life of the plant, these savings could amount to over $30 million compared to the cost for energy losses in the Base Case. It may be inferred that a near optimal regional load-generation balance could be reached from the substitution of additional future fossil fuel units by OTEC units. Thus lowering transmission costs and gaining potential savings in land for plant sites and rights-of-way. This is a particularly attractive benefit in the light of severe land resource restraints in the island of Puerto Rico. In conclusion, it is recommended that the 400 MW OTEC Plant be located off Punta Guayanes, and that it be connected to the 230 KV substation at Yabucoa.

Not Available

1982-06-01

339

Development of a questionnaire to assess the determinants of exercise among breast cancer survivors in Puerto Rico.  

PubMed

The Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) serves to understand determinants that predict the intention to exercise. According to this theory, attitudes, subjective norms, and perceptions of behavioral control determine intention. This is the first theory-based tool designed to measure the determinants of exercise among women in Puerto Rico who are breast cancer survivors. Understanding the determinants will assist in planning theory based interventions. The purpose of this study was to develop a TPB-based questionnaire to assess the determinants of exercise of breast cancer survivors in Puerto Rico and to evaluate its psychometric properties. Quantitative and qualitative methods were used for questionnaire development and psychometric testing. Three independent samples were recruited for the phases of item generation, pilot testing, and evaluation of psychometric properties. An initial 97-item questionnaire was constructed. Test-retest reliability was assessed for the indirect subscales; six items were found unreliable and removed. For the direct subscales, seven items with item-to-total correlations <0.30 were removed. The final version consisted of 84 items, with Cronbach's ? ranging from 0.65 to 0.89. Construct validity was demonstrated by significant, fair-to-moderate correlations of all but one of the direct subscales and the multiplied scores of the indirect subscales of similar constructs. PMID:23244037

Mulero-Portela, Ana L; Santaella, Carmen L Colón; Gómez, Cynthia Cruz

2013-07-01

340

Development of a questionnaire to assess the determinants of exercise among breast cancer survivors in Puerto Rico  

PubMed Central

The Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) serves to understand determinants that predict the intention to exercise. According to this theory, attitudes, subjective norms, and perceptions of behavioral control determine intention. This is the first theory-based tool designed to measure the determinants of exercise among women in Puerto Rico who are breast cancer survivors. Understanding the determinants will assist in planning theory based interventions. The purpose of this study was to develop a TPB-based questionnaire to assess the determinants of exercise of breast cancer survivors in Puerto Rico and to evaluate its psychometric properties. Quantitative and qualitative methods were used for questionnaire development and psychometric testing. Three independent samples were recruited for the phases of item generation, pilot testing, and evaluation of psychometric properties. An initial 97-item questionnaire was constructed. Test–retest reliability was assessed for the indirect subscales; six items were found unreliable and removed. For the direct subscales, seven items with item-to-total correlations <0.30 were removed. The final version consisted of 84 items, with Cronbach’s ? ranging from 0.65 to 0.89. Construct validity was demonstrated by significant, fair-to-moderate correlations of all but one of the direct subscales and the multiplied scores of the indirect subscales of similar constructs.

Mulero-Portela, Ana L.; Colon Santaella, Carmen L.; Cruz Gomez, Cynthia

2013-01-01

341

Development of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico National Protocol for the Management of Victims of Sexual Violence: Adults/Adolescents.  

PubMed

Sexual violence is a public health problem in Puerto Rico (PR), with an incidence of 7.4 cases for every 10,000 people during 2005-2006 (Departamento de Salud Secretaría Auxiliar de Salud Familiar y Servicios Integrados, 2007). Findings from the literature review indicated that the traditional model of care provided to the victims of sexual violence in the Emergency Department is incomplete; furthermore, it may cause revictimization because of the attitudes, behaviors, and practices of the community service providers, resulting in additional trauma. Emerging evidence demonstrates that Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner (SANE) programs are providing effective quality care. In PR, SANEs do not intervene in sexual assault cases; nevertheless, the Department of Health of PR has recognized the importance of SANE intervention. Consequently, there is a need for current evidence-based protocols and standards of care to describe the procedures, roles, and responsibilities for the provision of quality care to victims. This project involves the implementation of the Stufflebeam's Context-Input-Process-Product Model in the creation of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico National Protocol for the Management of Victims of Sexual Violence: Adults/Adolescents. PMID:24158134

Méndez, Rose Marie; Kulbok, Pamela; Lawson, Sarah; Matos, Abigail

2013-01-01

342

Impacts of Urbanization in the Coastal Tropical City of San Juan, Puerto Rico  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Urban sprawl in tropical locations is rapidly accelerating and it is more evident in islands where a large percentage of the population resides along the coasts. This paper focuses on the analysis of the impacts of land use and land cover for urbanization in the tropical coastal city of San Juan, in the Caribbean island of Puerto Rico. A mesoscale numerical model, the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS), is used to study the impacts of land use for urbanization in the environment including specific characteristics of the urban heat island in the San Juan Metropolitan Area (SJMA), one of the most noticeable urban cores of the Caribbean. The research also makes use of the observations obtained during the airborne San Juan Atlas Mission. Surface and rawinsonde data from the mission are used to validate the atmospheric model yielding satisfactory results. Airborne high resolution remote sensing data are used to update the model's surface characteristics in order to obtain a more accurate and detailed configuration of the SJMA and perform a climate impact analysis based on land cover/land use (LCLU) changes. The impact analysis showed that the presence of the urban landscape of San Juan has an impact reflected in higher air temperatures over the area occupied by the city, with positive values of up to 2.5 C, for the simulations that have specified urban LCLU indexes in the model's bottom boundary. One interesting result of the impact analysis was the finding of a precipitation disturbance shown as a difference in total accumulated rainfall between the present urban landscape and with a potential natural vegetation, apparently induced by the presence of the urban area. Results indicate that the urban enhanced cloud formation and precipitation development occur mainly downwind of the city, including the accumulated precipitation. This spatial pattern can be explained by the presence of a larger urbanized area in the southwest sector of the city, and of the approaching northeasterly trade winds. No significant impacts were found in the sea breeze patterns of the city.

Comarazamy, Daniel E.; Gonzalez, Jorge E.; Luvall, Jeffrey C.; Rickman, Douglas L.; Mulero, Pedro J.

2007-01-01

343

Sexual Behaviors among Adults in Puerto Rico: A Population-Based Study  

PubMed Central

Introduction Given changes in sexual behaviors and norms in the United States, there is a need for current and representative data on sexual behaviors with particular interest in gender, age, and racial/ethnic group differences. Aim Given the limited data for Hispanics and for Puerto Rico (PR), we described patterns of sexual behaviors and characteristics among a sexually active sample (n = 1,575) of adults aged 21–64 years in PR. Main Outcome Measures The main outcome measures for this study are sexual behaviors including age at sexual initiation, number of sexual partners, vaginal and anal intercourse, and oral sex, among others. Methods Data from a population-based cross-sectional study in PR (2005–2008) was analyzed. The prevalence of sexual behaviors and characteristics was described by age-group and gender during the lifetime and in the past 12 months. Results Overall, 96.8%, 81.6%, and 60.9% of participants had ever engaged in vaginal, oral and anal sex, respectively, whereas 23.7% were seropositive to any of the sexually transmitted infections under study. Sexual initiation ?15 years was reported by 37.8% of men and 21.4% of women; whereas 47.9% of men and 13.2% of women reported to have had ?7 sexual partners in their lifetime. Approximately, 3% of women and 6% of men reported same-sex sexual practices, while history of forced sexual relations was reported by 9.6% of women and 2.5% of men. Sexual initiation ?15 years was more common among individuals aged 21–34 years (41.4% men and 33.6% women) as compared with older cohorts. Although having had ?7 sexual partners over a lifetime among men was similar across age groups, this behavior decreased in older women cohorts. In both genders, the prevalence of oral and anal sex was also lower in the older age cohorts. Conclusion This study provides essential information than can help health professionals understand the sexual practices and needs of the population of PR.

Ortiz, Ana Patricia; Soto-Salgado, Marievelisse; Suarez, Erick; Santos-Ortiz, Maria del Carmen; Tortolero-Luna, Guillermo; Perez, Cynthia M.

2012-01-01

344

Downscaled climate change impacts on agricultural water resources in Puerto Rico  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study is to estimate reference evapotranspiration (ET{sub o}), rainfall deficit (rainfall - ET{sub o}) and relative crop yield reduction for a generic crop under climate change conditions for three locations in Puerto Rico: Adjuntas, Mayaguez, and Lajas. Reference evapotranspiration is estimated by the Penman-Monteith method. Rainfall and temperature data were statistically downscaled and evaluated using the DOE/NCAR PCM global circulation model projections for the B1 (low), A2 (mid-high) and A1fi (high) emission scenarios of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Special Report on Emission Scenarios. Relative crop yield reductions were estimated from a function dependent water stress factor, which is a function of soil moisture content. Average soil moisture content for the three locations was determined by means of a simple water balance approach. Results from the analysis indicate that the rainy season will become wetter and the dry season will become drier. The 20-year mean 1990-2010 September rainfall excess (i.e., rainfall - ET{sub o} > 0) increased for all scenarios and locations from 149.8 to 356.4 mm for 2080-2100. Similarly, the 20-year average February rainfall deficit (i.e., rainfall - ET{sub o} < 0) decreased from a -26.1 mm for 1990-2010 to -72.1 mm for the year 2080-2100. The results suggest that additional water could be saved during the wet months to offset increased irrigation requirements during the dry months. Relative crop yield reduction did not change significantly under the B1 projected emissions scenario, but increased by approximately 20% during the summer months under the A1fi emissions scenario. Components of the annual water balance for the three climate change scenarios are rainfall, evapotranspiration (adjusted for soil moisture), surface runoff, aquifer recharge and change in soil moisture storage. Under the A1fi scenario, for all locations, annual evapotranspiration decreased owing to lower soil moisture, surface runoff decreased, and aquifer recharge increased. Aquifer recharge increased at all three locations because the majority of recharge occurs during the wet season and the wet season became wetter. This is good news from a groundwater production standpoint. Increasing aquifer recharge also suggests that groundwater levels may increase and this may help to minimize saltwater intrusion near the coasts as sea levels increase, provided that groundwater use is not over-subscribed.

Harmsen, E.W.; Miller, N.L.; Schlegel, N.J.; Gonzalez, J.E.

2009-04-01

345

GRAV-D for Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NOAA's National Geodetic Survey began the Gravity for the Redefinition of the American Vertical Datum (GRAV-D) program in an effort to modernize and unify vertical datums in all states and territories. As a part of this program, NGS collected aerogravity profiles over the islands of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands in January 2009. A Citation II aircraft was equipped with an airborne gravimeter, GPS receiver, and a GPS/Inertial unit. Absolute gravity and GPS ties were made to multiple ground sites to ensure consistency in the results. The main survey covered a region of approximately 400 km by 500 km with flight altitudes of 10,668 m (35,000ft) and with 10 km track spacing. Cross-track profiles at 40 km spacing were also collected to establish an accuracy of 1.34 mGals RMSE. In addition to the high altitude flights, two more flights were made primarily over terrestrial areas at 1,524 m (5,000 ft) to obtain higher resolution information in these regions. There were no cross-ties established for these lower altitude flights. Additionally, terrestrial surveys were also conducted to better tie ground sites and to serve as control for later analysis for available but older terrestrial and marine gravity data in the region already held by NGS. The aerogravity data were analyzed and at least internally compared to obtain the optimal results before being published on the web. In this study, the aerogravity data were compared to available global gravity models derived from satellite missions (GRACE & GOCE) to evaluate their long wavelength character (e.g., potential biases and trends). The vetted satellite-aerogravity data were then combined and used to evaluate surface data (terrestrial and marine) in the region to remove any potential systematic effects. Finally, all these data were combined into a gravimetric geoid height model and evaluated with an eye to eventual use as a GNSS-accessed vertical datum.

Roman, D. R.; Li, X.; Smith, D. A.; Geoid; GRAV-D Teams

2013-05-01

346

Weathering of the Rio Blanco Quartz Diorite, Luquillo Mountains, Puerto Rico: Coupling Oxidation, Dissolution, And Fracturing  

SciTech Connect

In the mountainous Rio Icacos watershed in northeastern Puerto Rico, quartz diorite bedrock weathers spheroidally, producing a 0.2-2 m thick zone of partially weathered rock layers ({approx}2.5 cm thickness each) called rindlets, which form concentric layers around corestones. Spheroidal fracturing has been modeled to occur when a weathering reaction with a positive {Delta}V of reaction builds up elastic strain energy. The rates of spheroidal fracturing and saprolite formation are therefore controlled by the rate of the weathering reaction. Chemical, petrographic, and spectroscopic evidence demonstrates that biotite oxidation is the most likely fracture-inducing reaction. This reaction occurs with an expansion in d (0 0 1) from 10.0 to 10.5 {angstrom}, forming 'altered biotite'. Progressive biotite oxidation across the rindlet zone was inferred from thin sections and gradients in K and Fe(II). Using the gradient in Fe(II) and constraints based on cosmogenic age dates, we calculated a biotite oxidation reaction rate of 8.2 x 10{sup -14} mol biotite m{sup -2} s{sup -1}. Biotite oxidation was documented within the bedrock corestone by synchrotron X-ray microprobe fluorescence imaging and XANES. X-ray microprobe images of Fe(II) and Fe(III) at 2 {micro}m resolution revealed that oxidized zones within individual biotite crystals are the first evidence of alteration of the otherwise unaltered corestone. Fluids entering along fractures lead to the dissolution of plagioclase within the rindlet zone. Within 7 cm surrounding the rindlet-saprolite interface, hornblende dissolves to completion at a rate of 6.3 x 10{sup -13} mol hornblende m{sup -2} s{sup -1}: the fastest reported rate of hornblende weathering in the field. This rate is consistent with laboratory-derived hornblende dissolution rates. By revealing the coupling of these mineral weathering reactions to fracturing and porosity formation we are able to describe the process by which the quartz diorite bedrock disaggregates and forms saprolite. In the corestone, biotite oxidation induces spheroidal fracturing, facilitating the influx of fluids that react with other minerals, dissolving plagioclase and chlorite, creating additional porosity, and eventually dissolving hornblende and precipitating secondary minerals. The thickness of the resultant saprolite is maintained at steady state by a positive feedback between the denudation rate and the weathering advance rate driven by the concentration of pore water O{sub 2} at the bedrock-saprolite interface.

Buss, H.L.; Sak, P.B.; Webb, S.M.; Brantley, S.L.

2009-05-12

347

[Analysis on the availability of programs and services for elderly people in Puerto Rico].  

PubMed

This research was conducted with the purpose of analyzing the programs and services available to the aged population in the municipalities of Puerto Rico during 1999 and 2000. The analysis was performed using an evaluation instrument which collected data of the programs and services directed exclusively to the aged population, such as: senior centers, foster homes, institutions, independent living, employed and/or volunteer people, geriatric services, adult education (literacy), recreation, discounts, corporations and/or associations that benefit the aged population, aging offices, support groups, social services, home meal services, and financial aid. Data was also collected from programs and services that benefit diverse aged populations in areas such as: health, housing, employment and social welfare. The sources for the collection of data were directories available to government and private agencies, telephone directories, telephone interviews, and personal visits. The municipalities were divided into two zones, the Northern zone, constituted by 40 municipalities and the Southern zone, constituted by 38 municipalities, for a total of 78 evaluated municipalities. In the Northern region, which accounted to approximately 295,938 aged persons, 18 types of programs or services were found to serve the aged population directly and 50 types were aged-related programs or services. In the Southern region, which accounted for approximately 169,798 aged persons, 13 types of programs or services served the aged exclusively and 43 were aged-related services. The following were among the principal programs or services available: senior centers, foster homes and/or institutions, employment programs, home care services and hospices, independent living, and agricultural extension services. Among the least available programs or services were private home meal services, literacy and retraining, arts and travel services, corporations or associations for the benefit of the aged, geriatric evaluation programs, home repair services, home-assistance programs, support and respite programs, adequate or specialized transportation services, diverse housing models, different types of senior centers, and programs for psychological or psychiatric assistance. In conclusion, the availability of the programs and services in this study and the evaluation of the services needed for a community of aged persons indicate the need for increasing and developing services considered essential in accordance to the population demands. PMID:11394216

López León, R

2001-03-01

348

Map showing landslide susceptibility in the municipality of Ponce, Puerto Rico  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The risk of landslides during intense or prolonged rainfall is high in steeply sloping areas such as the municipality of Ponce, where 56 percent of the 301-square-kilometer municipality has slopes 10 degrees or greater. These are areas where the possibility of landsliding increases when triggering conditions such as heavy rainfall or excavation and construction occur. Using a 30-meter digital elevation model to classify hillslope angle, a digital map of bedrock geology, and maps showing the locations of landslides associated with a severe storm in October 1985, the municipality was classified into areas of low, moderate, and high susceptibility to landslides triggered by heavy rainfall. Areas defined by geology as having 0-0.1 landslides per square kilometer were mapped as having low landslide susceptibility, areas having 0.1-0.5 landslides per square kilometer were mapped as having moderate susceptibility, and areas having more than 0.5 landslides per square kilometer were mapped as having high landslide susceptibility. Areas with hillslope angles of 5 degrees or less were not classified as they are considered too flat for significant landslide susceptibility. The result of this classification indicates that 34 percent of the municipality has high susceptibility to rainfall-triggered landsliding, 24 percent has moderate susceptibility, and 9 percent has low susceptibility. Approximately 34 percent of the municipality, mainly areas with slopes of 5 degrees or less and water bodies, was not classified. Because of the uncertainties inherent in the susceptibility classification of extensive landscape areas as well as timing of landslide triggers, landslide susceptibility maps should be used with caution. The results of this study are valid for generalized planning and assessment purposes, but may be less useful at the site-specific scale where local geologic and geographic heterogeneities may occur. Construction in areas of moderate to high landslide susceptibility should proceed only after site evaluation by engineering geologists. Large magnitude earthquakes, which occur rarely in Puerto Rico, are the other major trigger of landslides for Caribbean islands; however, this factor was not considered in the development of this map.

Larsen, Matthew C.; Santiago, Marilyn; Jibson, Randall W.; Questell, Eduardo

2004-01-01

349

Deducing mineral weathering reactions from solute profiles in highly leached regolith, Luquillo Mountains, Puerto Rico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Porewater solute fluxes are measured on a smaller spatial scale than watershed fluxes and can thus provide more information on the mechanisms of weathering and nutrient cycling processes as well as a more accurate estimate of mineral weathering rates. Mineral weathering reactions continue influence mineral nutrient cycles even in thick, highly leached regolith. As part of the USGS Water Energy and Biogeochemical Budgets (WEBB) program and the Critical Zone Exploration Network, we are investigating mineral nutrient distributions and fluxes in depth profiles in the Bisley 1 catchment in the Luquillo Mountains of Puerto Rico for comparison to the nearby Rio Icacos catchment. Both watersheds are steep, rugged, humid, and tropical, have similar vegetation and land-use, and contain thick, well drained saprolites developed on igneous bedrock: a quartz diorite intrusion in the Rio Icacos, and a marine bedded, andesitic volcaniclastic in the Bisley. Depth distributions of physical parameters (density, porosity, water saturation) and chemistry of solids and solutes were determined. Vertical water infiltration rates in the Bisley watershed average about 4 m y-1, while infiltration rates in the Rio Icacos are about 1 m y-1 (White et al., 1998), and fluid residence times average 8 years in Rio Icacos versus 2 years in Bisley. Porosity in the Bisley regolith is slightly higher at most depths than in the Rio Icacos. The Bisley regolith is highly weathered and is depleted in primary minerals (except quartz) with respect to bedrock, while the Rio Icacos regolith contains residual biotite, which produces a Mg solute gradient with depth (White et al., 1998). The Bisley regolith also exhibits Mg solute gradients among others (notably Si); however, to date, no Mg-containing minerals have been identified in the regolith. Mg and Sr isotope ratios were measured in the pore waters at the Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris. The Mg isotope ratios increase with increasing depth from ?26Mg = -0.772 at the surface to -0.267 at 9.3 m depth, relative to the DSM3 standard. Sr isotope ratios vary from 0.71044 near the surface to 0.70692 87Sr/86Sr at 9.3 m depth. These solute gradients in Mg and Sr isotope ratios with depth suggest mixing lines between an atmospheric component at the surface and a weathering component at depth. The isotopic data indicate that even in this thick, highly weathered profile with high water infiltration rates, weathering reactions are occurring and affecting mineral nutrient cycles. White A.F. et al. (1998) Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 62, 209-226.

Buss, H. L.; White, A. F.; Vivit, D. V.; Fitzpatrick, J.; Bullen, T. D.; Blum, A.; Schulz, M. S.; Dessert, C.; Gaillardet, J.

2009-12-01

350

Sedimentation History of Lago Dos Bocas, Puerto Rico, 1942-2005  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Lago Dos Bocas Dam, located in the municipality of Utuado in north central Puerto Rico, was constructed in 1942 for hydroelectric power generation. The reservoir had an original storage capacity of 37.50 million cubic meters and a drainage area of 440 square kilometers. In 1948, the construction of the Lago Caonillas Dam on the Rio Caonillas branch of Lago Dos Bocas reduced the natural sediment-contributing drainage area to 310 square kilometers; therefore, the Lago Caonillas Dam is considered an effective sediment trap. Sedimentation in Lago Dos Bocas reservoir has reduced the storage capacity from 37.50 million cubic meters in 1942 to 17.26 million cubic meters in 2005, which represents a storage loss of about 54 percent. The long-term annual water-storage capacity loss rate remained nearly constant at about 320,000 cubic meters per year to about 1997. The inter-survey sedimentation rate between 1997 and 1999, however, is higher than the long-term rate at about 1.09 million cubic meters per year. Between 1999 and 2005 the rate is lower than the long-term rate at about 0.13 million cubic meters per year. The Lago Dos Bocas effective sediment-contributing drainage area had an average sediment yield of about 1,400 cubic meters per square kilometer per year between 1942 and 1997. This rate increased substantially by 1999 to about 4,600 cubic meters per square kilometer per year, probably resulting from the historical magnitude floods caused by Hurricane Georges in 1998. Recent data indicate that the Lago Dos Bocas drainage area sediment yield decreased substantially to about 570 cubic meters per square kilometer per year, which is much lower than the 1942-1997 area normalized sedimentation rate of 1,235 cubic meters per square kilometer per year. The impact of Hurricane Georges on the basin sediment yield could have been the cause of this change, since the magnitude of the floods could have nearly depleted the Lago Dos Bocas drainage area of easily erodible and transportable bed sediment. This report summarizes the historical change in water-storage capacity of Lago Dos Bocas between 1942 and 2005.

Soler-Lopez, Luis R.

2007-01-01

351

Flood of September 22, 1998, in Arecibo and Utuado, Puerto Rico  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Hurricane Georges made landfall on the southeastern part of Puerto Rico during September 21, 1998. Georges, with maximum sustained winds of 185 kilometers per hour and gusts to 240 kilometers per hour, produced 24-hour total rainfall amounts of 770 millimeters on the island's mountainous interior. Severe flooding affected almost half of the island's 78 municipios during September 21-22, 1998. The most affected municipios were Adjuntas, Aguada, Aguadilla, A?asco, Arecibo, Cayey, Ciales, Comerio, Barceloneta, Dorado, Jayuya, Manati, Mayaguez, Morovis, Orocovis, Patillas, Toa Alta, Toa Baja, and Utuado. The combination of strong winds, intense rainfall and severe flooding caused widespread property damages. More than 20,000 houses were destroyed and more than 100,000 houses sustained damage. Floodwaters and landslides destroyed or damaged many bridges and roads throughout the island. Records indicate that Hurricane Georges induced flood discharges in the Rio Grande de Arecibo Basin that were the largest on record. Floodwaters inundated urban and rural areas, affecting urban subdivisions, businesses, vehicles, bridges, roads, and high-tension electric power lines. To define the extent and depth of inundation, more than 280 high-water marks were identified and surveyed in Arecibo and Utuado. In addition estimates of flood magnitude and frequency were made at selected gaging stations, and flood profiles were developed for certain stream reaches. Flooding was most severe in the towns of Arecibo and Utuado. In Arecibo, the most affected communities were the rural area of San Francisco, the urban subdivisions of Martell, Nolla, and Arecibo Gardens, and the low-lying areas of downtown Arecibo. In these areas, the water depths ranged from 0.6 to 1.8 meters. In Utuado, floodwaters from the Rio Vivi and the Rio Grande de Arecibo inundated the downtown area affecting homes, public facilities, and businesses. In the urban subdivision of Jesus Maria Lago, the depth of flooding exceeded 2.5 meters. Frequency analysis indicates that flood-peak discharges equaled or exceeded the 100-year recurrence interval at five streamflow-gaging stations in the Rio Grande de Arecibo Basin.

Torres-Sierra, Heriberto

2002-01-01

352

19 CFR 7.1 - Puerto Rico; spirits and wines withdrawn from warehouse for shipment to; duty on foreign-grown...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...for shipment to; duty on foreign-grown coffee. 7.1 Section 7.1 Customs Duties...for shipment to; duty on foreign-grown coffee. (a) When spirits and wines are...shall be made for all foreign-grown coffee shipped to Puerto Rico from the...

2010-04-01

353

19 CFR 7.1 - Puerto Rico; spirits and wines withdrawn from warehouse for shipment to; duty on foreign-grown...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...for shipment to; duty on foreign-grown coffee. 7.1 Section 7.1 Customs Duties...for shipment to; duty on foreign-grown coffee. (a) When spirits and wines are...shall be made for all foreign-grown coffee shipped to Puerto Rico from the...

2009-04-01

354

Prevalence and correlates of substance use disorders among older adolescents in Puerto Rico and the United States: a cross-cultural comparison  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although there are substantial data on adolescent substance use, little systematic research has studied the prevalence of adolescent substance disorders in general populations, let alone cultural differences in disorder prevalence. In this paper we report the prevalence and correlates of alcohol and drug use and disorder among older adolescents on Puerto Rico (PR) and in the United States (US). Data

Lynn A Warner; Glorisa Canino; Hector Manuel Colón

2001-01-01

355

A Comparison of Two Above-Ground Biomass Estimation Techniques Integrating Satellite-Based Remotely Sensed Data and Ground Data for Tropical and Semiarid Forests in Puerto Rico  

EPA Science Inventory

Two above-ground forest biomass estimation techniques were evaluated for the United States Territory of Puerto Rico using predictor variables acquired from satellite based remotely sensed data and ground data from the U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Inventory Analysis (FIA)...

356

New evidence of Ara autochthones from an archeological site in Puerto Rico: a valid species of West Indian macaw of unknown geographical origin (Aves: Psittacidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The exinct macaw Ara autochthones, previously known only from a single bone from an archaeological site on St. Croix, Virgin Islands, is here identified from several associated bones from an archaeological site in south-central Puerto Rico. The species belongs to a distinctive intermediate size-class and was larger than the Cuban Macaw Ara tricolor. It is assumed to have been endemic

STORES L. OLSON

357

Nitrogen-Supplying Power of some Tropical Soils of Puerto Rico and Methods for Its Evaluation. (RQ-631.42-L355).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The study is an evaluation of the N-supplying power of 10 representative Oxisols and Ultisols of Puerto Rico which was made by continuous cropping in the greenhouse. Four chemical extraction methods as well as aerobic incubation procedures were used to ob...

D. J. Lathwell H. D. Dubey R. H. Fox

1972-01-01

358

Aircraft Accident Report - Executive Air Charter, Inc., dba American Eagle, Flight 5452, CASA C-212-CC, N432CA, Mayaguez, Puerto Rico, May 8, 1987.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

On May 8, 1987, at 0650, local time, Executive Air Charter, Inc., doing business as American Eagle, flight 5452 crashed short of runway 9 while on a visual approach to the airport at Mayaguez, Puerto Rico, in visual meterological conditions. The safety is...

1988-01-01

359

Euphilomedes chupacabra (Ostracoda: Myodocopida: Philomedidae), a new demersal marine species from coastal Puerto Rico with male-biased vespertine swimming activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new species of Philomedidae is described: Euphilomedes chupacabra from coastal Puerto Rico. This is the first described species of Euphilomedes from the Western Atlantic, a genus of particular interest for its sexually dimorphic lat- eral eyes. As E. chupacabra can be easily caught in large numbers and may have a short generation time, it has potential to be used

KIMBERLY E. LUM; ANNA E. SYME; ANASTASIA K. SCHWAB; TODD H. OAKLEY

2008-01-01

360

Health Hazard Evaluation Determination Report No. 76-31-338, Becton-Dickinson, Division of Becton-Dickinson and Company, Juncos, Puerto Rico,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Environmental and medical surveys were conducted on February 18-20, 1976 to investigate reports of mercury poisoning in workers at the Becton-Dickinson Thermometer Factory in Juncos, Puerto Rico. Breathing zone mercury concentrations ranged up to 0.419 mi...

R. Rivera M. Harrington

1976-01-01

361

Modeling Water Column and Benthic Effects of Fish Mariculture of Cobia (Rachycentron canadum) in Puerto Rico: Cobia AquaModel. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this report is to document the use of an existing model called AquaModel that has adapted to simulate the water column and benethic effects of an offshore fish farms proposed for the east of Puerto Rico. The fish farm is to be operated by O...

D. A. Kiefer F. O'Brien J. E. J. Rensel

2009-01-01

362

A Method for the Cultivation of the Mangrove Oyster in Puerto Rico (Metodo para el Cultivo del Ostion de Mangle en P. R.).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper describes the building and operation of oyster rafts in Puerto Rico. Basic information is given on the construction of the rafts and cultch plates, the emplacement of the rafts, the life cycle of the mangrove oyster, and harvesting and maintena...

K. W. Watters P. A. Martinez

1976-01-01

363

The Child with Retardation Today--The Adult of Tomorrow. A Symposium Commemorating the International Year of the Child (San Juan, Puerto Rico, November 12-16, 1979).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Excerpts are given of presentations and discussion from the 1979 Puerto Rico conference on international developments in mental retardation. R. Dybwad ("The Child with Retardation Today--The Adult of Tomorrow") briefly reviews international issues, including self advocacy and problems of world poverty and malnutrition. M. de Trias lists ideal…

International League of Societies for the Mentally Handicapped, Brussels (Belgium).

364

Analysis of Upper Air, Ground and Remote Sensing Data for the Atlas Field Campaign in San Juan, Puerto Rico  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The general climate of the island of Puerto Rico is dominated by the easterly trade winds from the Atlantic Ocean, and during synoptically calm days by the topographic and local land surface characteristics [1]. The urban canopy of the metropolitan area of San Juan, capital city of the Island, may introduce a new microclimate that changes the characteristics of the low atmosphere and interacts with the other microclimates already present in the island. The primitive land cover and land use (LCLU) of the metropolitan area of San Juan was composed by broadleaf trees, moist soils, and very dense vegetation in general. The urban LCLU changes the balance for the mass, momentum and energy between the bottom boundary and the lower atmosphere, creating different climate conditions over urban and rural regions. Some of these differences are low relative humidity and high temperatures observed in urban areas when compared to rural areas. These in turn produces a convective circulation over the urban areas, a phenomenon compared to the sea and land breezes, commonly known as heat islands (UHI). Factors that contribute to the formation of the UHI are anthropogenic heat sources, aerosols from pollutants, fast water canalization due to the presence of buildings and streets, among others. The comparison between urban and rural climates is the most common approach to analyze the UHI. These contrasts are larger in clear and calm conditions and tend to disappear in cloudy and windy weather. The UHI was recognized in the early 1950 s as closed isotherms that separates the city from the general temperature field [2]. The impact of the urban LCLU in San Juan, Puerto Rico, was quantified calculating the difference between historical data sets for the air temperature over an identified urban area and a rural area dT(U-R). The analysis of the climatological data revealed that a UHI exists in the metropolitan area of San Juan, Puerto Rico. The data reveals a permanent urban heat island effect present in the SJMA during the year, which is increasing at a rate of 0.41oC/decade. These findings encouraged the planning and execution of an intense field campaign in February 2004 referred as the ATLAS San Juan mission. The focus of the remaining of this report is the analysis of the data for this field campaign.

Gonzalez-Cruz, Jorge E.

2005-01-01

365

33 CFR 165.758 - Security Zone; San Juan, Puerto Rico.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...established 50 yards around all cruise ships entering, departing, moored...Rico. The security zone for a cruise ship entering port is activated when the...scheduled arrivals and departures of cruise ships via a broadcast notice to...

2013-07-01

366

From Puerto Rico to Pennsylvania-Culture Shock in the Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the educational impact of the migration of Puerto Rican children into Pennsylvania, and the development of programs for them under Titles I and VII of the Elementary Secondary Education Act. (JM)

Pennsylvania Education, 1971

1971-01-01

367

A Qualitative Study of Providers' Perception of Adherence of Women Living with HIV/AIDS in Puerto Rico  

PubMed Central

This study examines healthcare providers’ perceptions regarding experiences and factors that contribute to adherent and non-adherent behaviors to HIV treatment among women living with HIV infection in Puerto Rico and describes strategies implemented to improve adherence. Providers’ accounts revealed that women with HIV infection are living “beyond their strengths” attempting to reconcile the burden of the illness and keep adherent. Factors putting women beyond their strengths and influencing non-adherence behavior were: gender-related demands, fear of disclosure, and treatment complexity. Strategies to improve adherence included: ongoing assessment, education, collaborative work, support groups, networking, disguising pills, readiness, and seeking medications outside their towns. Provider-patient interactions are critical for women’s success and must assess all these factors in developing and providing health services.

Rivero-Mendez, Marta; Dawson-Rose, Carol S.; Solis-Baez, Solymar S.

2010-01-01

368

Health assessment for General Electric Wiring Devices, Juana Diaz, Puerto Rico, Region 2. CERCLIS No. PRD090282757. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The General Electric Wiring (GEW) Devices Site is located in Juana Diaz, Puerto Rico. Activities at the site primarily involved production of electrical devices, including switch buttons containing elemental mercury. Broken buttons, containing traces of mercury, were discarded in the waste fill at GEW over a period of 20 years. Mercury was later found to be present in the upper 2-3 feet of soil in the waste fill, and also in the surface soils to the west and south of the fill. Trichloroethylene was also used at the site and on one occasion was observed in ground water. A residential area exists a few hundred feet south of the fill area and its population and others in the general area are potentially at risk from the contaminants through exposure to ground water and contact with contaminated soils.

Not Available

1988-03-16

369

Effects of Pharmaceutical Wastes on Microbial Populations in Surface Waters at the Puerto Rico Dump Site in the Atlantic Ocean  

PubMed Central

A series of cruises during 1979 and 1980 to the pharmaceutical dump site located 64 km north of Arecibo, Puerto Rico, in the Atlantic Ocean, was carried out to evaluate effects of wastes on the ecology of the microflora of surface waters of the dump site. In addition to bacteriological monitoring of the waste plume created by the release of wastes from the disposal barge, stations along a series of transects, extending north from coastal waters through and beyond the dump site, were sampled. Largest numbers of culturable bacteria on marine agar were found at stations closest to shore and in the vicinity of the dump site. Bacteria recovered on marine agar were predominantly Vibrio and Aeromonas spp., with the relative abundance of these organisms decreasing as gram-positive organisms (staphylococci, micrococci, and bacilli) became dominant in areas immediately affected by waste dumping. Total numbers of bacteria (determined by acridine orange direct counts [AODC]), which were relatively stable throughout the region, and a direct estimate of viable cells (DVC), i.e., those cells responsive to additions of yeast extract and nalidixic acid, were determined by acridine orange staining and epifluorescence microscopy. Heterotrophic bacterial activity, measured by the uptake (Vmax) of 14C-labeled amino acids, declined relative to distance from land. Increases in specific activity indices (DVC/AODC and Vmax/AODC) were observed near the dump site. The composite results of this study, i.e., increased specific activities (determined by two methods), increased numbers of culturable marine bacteria, and marked alteration of the taxonomic composition of the culturable bacterial community in waters within and surrounding the Puerto Rico dump site, indicate demonstrable changes in the marine microbial community in the region used for waste disposal.

Peele, E. R.; Singleton, F. L.; Deming, J. W.; Cavari, B.; Colwell, R. R.

1981-01-01

370

Effects of pharmaceutical wastes on microbial populations in surface waters at the puerto rico dump site in the atlantic ocean.  

PubMed

A series of cruises during 1979 and 1980 to the pharmaceutical dump site located 64 km north of Arecibo, Puerto Rico, in the Atlantic Ocean, was carried out to evaluate effects of wastes on the ecology of the microflora of surface waters of the dump site. In addition to bacteriological monitoring of the waste plume created by the release of wastes from the disposal barge, stations along a series of transects, extending north from coastal waters through and beyond the dump site, were sampled. Largest numbers of culturable bacteria on marine agar were found at stations closest to shore and in the vicinity of the dump site. Bacteria recovered on marine agar were predominantly Vibrio and Aeromonas spp., with the relative abundance of these organisms decreasing as gram-positive organisms (staphylococci, micrococci, and bacilli) became dominant in areas immediately affected by waste dumping. Total numbers of bacteria (determined by acridine orange direct counts [AODC]), which were relatively stable throughout the region, and a direct estimate of viable cells (DVC), i.e., those cells responsive to additions of yeast extract and nalidixic acid, were determined by acridine orange staining and epifluorescence microscopy. Heterotrophic bacterial activity, measured by the uptake (V(max)) of C-labeled amino acids, declined relative to distance from land. Increases in specific activity indices (DVC/AODC and V(max)/AODC) were observed near the dump site. The composite results of this study, i.e., increased specific activities (determined by two methods), increased numbers of culturable marine bacteria, and marked alteration of the taxonomic composition of the culturable bacterial community in waters within and surrounding the Puerto Rico dump site, indicate demonstrable changes in the marine microbial community in the region used for waste disposal. PMID:16345752

Peele, E R; Singleton, F L; Deming, J W; Cavari, B; Colwell, R R

1981-04-01

371

Displacement Vectors of the Cerca Del Cielo, Ponce, Puerto Rico Landslide Measured by High-Precision GPS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global Positioning System (GPS) technologies have been increasingly employed to monitor ground deformations related earthquake, volcano, landslide, and subsidence. GPS has been justified as a very precise displacementmeter. Here we present an application of GPS to monitor the Cerca Del Cielo, Ponce, Puerto Rico Landslide. It had been identified about 30 years ago. It creeps significantly recently, particularly during rainy season. About 60 families live on the landslide block. Currently more than houses have been damaged by the creeping. To study displacement vector of the landslide, a campaign GPS surveying network had been set up around the landslide area. It includes a reference station outside the landslide area and 23 rover points (benchmarks) within the landslide area. The maximum distance between the reference station and rover stations is less than 2 km. One Trimble NetRS GPS receiver with Zerphy antenna is used as our reference station. Two Topcon GB1000 receivers with PG-A1 geodetic antenna are used as our rover stations. We repeat the campaign surveying once per week since March, 2008. Our measurements in the first three months have clearly identified the displacement vectors (magnitude, direction) and velocities of the landslide. They are critical for engineers to choose effective landslide control methods. In order to evaluate the effects of rainfall to the landslide, a rain gauge was installed at the reference station site. Most of our GPS stations are colocated with inclinometer stations installed by a local engineering company. We are expecting to calculate the 3-D displacement vector of the landslide based on measurements from GPS and inclinometers. The GPS surveying method and technologies developed through this study are applicable in Puerto Rico and transferable elsewhere.

Pacheco, S.; Wang, G.; Nieves, Z.

2008-12-01

372

Smoking and drinking in relation to oral potentially malignant disorders in Puerto Rico: a case-control study  

PubMed Central

Background Oral cancer incidence is high on the Island of Puerto Rico (PR), particularly among males. As part of a larger study conducted in PR, we evaluated smoking and drinking as risk factors for oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMDs). Methods Persons diagnosed with either an OPMD (n = 86) [oral epithelial dysplasia (OED), oral hyperkeratosis/epithelial hyperplasia without OED] or a benign oral tissue condition (n = 155) were identified through PR pathology laboratories. Subjects were interviewed using a standardized, structured questionnaire that obtained information, including detailed histories of smoking and drinking. Odds ratios (ORs) for smoking and drinking in relation to having an OPMD, relative to persons with a benign oral tissue condition, were obtained using logistic regression and adjusted for age, gender, education, fruit/vegetable intake and smoking or drinking. Results For persons with an OPMD and relative to individuals with a benign oral tissue condition, the adjusted OR for current smoking was 4.32 (95% CI: 1.99-9.38), while for former smokers, the ORadj was 1.47 (95% CI: 0.67-3.21), each ORadj relative to never smokers. With regard to drinking, no adjusted ORs approached statistical significance, and few point estimates exceeded 1.0, whether consumption was defined in terms of ever, current, level (drinks/week), or beverage type. Conclusions In this study, conducted in Puerto Rico, current smoking was a substantial risk factor for OPMDs while former smokers had a considerably reduced risk compared to current smokers. There was little evidence suggesting that alcohol consumption was positively associated with OPMD risk.

2011-01-01

373

State Alcoholism Profile Information System (SAPIS) National Status Report Update. Volume II. New Hampshire through Wyoming, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, Guam, American Samoa, and the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The states of New Hampshire through Wyoming are covered in this volume of the report, as are the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, Guam, American Samoa, and the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands.

1978-01-01

374

Puerto Rico Supplement for Use in Preparing Tax Year 1997 Returns. VITA International for Use in IRS Volunteer Programs. VITA Volunteer Income Tax Assistance, TCE Tax Counseling for the Elderly.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Table of Contents: Filing Status and Exemptions; Source Rules for Income; Tax Computation--Taxpayers who do not itemize deductions Allocation of Standard Deduction for Taxpayer with Exempt Puerto Rico Income; Itemized Deductions; Who Must File; Adjustment...

1997-01-01

375

Review of the Qualified Pension Plan at Cooperativa de Seguros de Vida de Puerto Rico, A Terminated Medicare Contractor, for the Period January 1, 2007, to December 31, 2008.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Cooperativa de Seguros de Vida de Puerto Rico (COSVI) administered Medicare Part A operations under cost reimbursement contracts with the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) until the contractual relationship was terminated February 28, 2009. T...

2011-01-01

376

New genus and species of flea beetles (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Galerucinae, Alticini) from Puerto Rico, with comments on flea beetle diversity in the West Indies and a key to the West Indian Monoplatini genera  

PubMed Central

Abstract A new genus (Borinken) and five new species (Borinken elyunque, Distigmoptera chamorrae, Kiskeya elyunque, Ulrica eltoro, and Ulrica iviei) from Puerto Rico are described and illustrated. A keyto all West Indian Monoplatini genera is provided, as are keys to all speciesof Kiskeya and to the speciesof Ulrica from Puerto Rico. A list of the flea beetle genera, along with the number of species and some of the faunal features is presented and discussed for the West Indies.

Konstantinov, A. S.; Konstantinova, A. A.

2011-01-01

377

Negotiating culture and dollars: The politics of corporate sponsorship in Puerto Rico  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study discusses the involvement of commercial interests in Puerto Rican cultural politics through an analysis of the corporate sponsorship of grassroots cultural festivals. It examines how corporate funding affects what is included or excluded and recognized as “culturally relevant” in such festivals. By exploring these issues, this article presents a case study of the dual nature of global processes

Arlene Dávila

1997-01-01

378

Foliar pathogen and insect herbivore effects on two landslide tree species in Puerto Rico  

Microsoft Academic Search

To better understand pathogen\\/herbivore interactions and landslide regeneration, percent leaf area lost to disease and herbivory on two Puerto Rican trees over a 1-year period was sampled. Cecropia schreberiana saplings lost from 1 to 3% leaf area to pathogens and from 1 to 7% to herbivores. For Inga vera, both sapling and seedling losses to pathogens were minimal, but Inga

Randall W. Myster

2002-01-01

379

Fishing a superfund site: Dissonance and risk perception of environmental hazards by fishermen in Puerto Rico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Risk perception studies show that individuals tend to underestimate significant risks, overestimate negligible ones, and distrust authorities. They also rely on a variety of strategies or heuristics to reach decisions regarding their risk-taking behavior. The authors report on a survey of fishermen and crabbers engaged in recreational and substance fishing in a Puerto Rican estuary (near Humacao), which has been

Joanna Burger; Michael Gochfeld

1991-01-01

380

Prosodic Interference and Intelligibility in the Speech of Puerto Rico Bilinguals.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper the author examines two kinds of phonological interference observable in the speech of Puerto Rican bilinguals--phonemic and prosodic, and argues that because these two phonological subsystems are structured differently and have different signaling functions, each kind of interference must be treated independently with regard to its…

Nash, R.

1969-01-01

381

Disparities and barriers encountered by immigrant dominican mothers accessing prenatal care services in puerto rico.  

PubMed

Inadequate access to prenatal services has been associated with higher rates of mother and child mortality and premature births in the general population. Thus, this paper aims to compare the utilization and adequacy of prenatal care services of Dominican immigrant mothers with that of Puerto Rican mothers. Data was extracted from birth certificates using a cohort from 1998 to 2002 (n = 252, 919). The Kotelchuck index for adequate prenatal care was used for comparison with socio-demographic characteristics of the population. Less than half of Dominican mothers (48.5 %) received adequate prenatal care compared to more than two-thirds (69.1 %) of Puerto Rican mothers (p < .001). After controlling for demographic characteristics, health insurance, pregnancy risks, complications and previous birth (parity) the odds of receiving adequate care of Dominican mothers was 0.7 that of Puerto Rican mothers (p < .001). These results suggest significant disparities in obtaining adequate prenatal care services among migrant women and native Puerto Ricans. PMID:23888378

Colón-Burgos, J F; Colón-Jordan, H M; Reyes-Ortiz, V E; Marin-Centeno, H A; Rios-Mota, R

2014-08-01

382

Performance evaluation and simulation of a Compound Parabolic Concentrator (CPC) trough Solar Thermal Power Plant in Puerto Rico under solar transient conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The increasing fossil fuel costs as well as the need to move in a somewhat sustainable future has led the world in a quest for exploiting the free and naturally available energy from the Sun to produce electric power, and Puerto Rico is no exception. This thesis proposes the design of a simulation model for the analysis and performance evaluation of a Solar Thermal Power Plant in Puerto Rico and suggests the use of the Compound Parabolic Concentrator as the solar collector of choice. Optical and thermal analysis of such collectors will be made using local solar radiation data for determining the viability of this proposed project in terms of the electric power produced and its cost.

Feliciano-Cruz, Luisa I.

383

Helminth and arthropod parasites of the brown pelican, Pelecanus occidentalis, in Puerto Rico, with a compilation of all metazoan parasites reported from this host in the Western Hemisphere.  

PubMed

Seven species of helminths and six species of arthropods are reported from 23 of 40 brown pelicans, Pelecanus occidentalis, collected from various localities in Puerto Rico. Helminth parasites include three nematodes (Contracaecum multipapillatum, Contracaecum mexicanum, and Eustrongylides sp.), three trematodes (Galactosomum darbyi, Mesostephanus appendiculatoides, and Ribeiroia ondatrae), and one cestode (Tetrabothrium sulae). Arthropod parasites include Colpocephalum occidentalis, Neottialges apunctatus, Ornithodoros capensis, Phalacrodectus pelecani, Phalacrodectus punctatissimus, and Phalacrodectus sp. The presence of R. ondatrae in the brown pelican is a new species host record, and P. pelecani, P. punctatissimus and N. apunctatus are new subspecies host records. C. multipapillatum, C. mexicanum, G. darbyi and M. appendiculatoides are new locality records for Puerto Rico, and N. apunctatus, P. pelecani, P. punctatissimus and T. sulae are new locality records for the Caribbean. Necrosis produced by C. multipapillatum, C. mexicanum, and R. ondatrae may have contributed to the emaciation and death of the brown pelicans examined in the present study. PMID:12427338

Dyer, William G; Williams, Ernest H; Mignucci-Giannoni, Antonio A; Jiménez-Marrero, Nilda M; Bunkley-Williams, Lucy; Moore, Debra P; Pence, Danny B

2002-10-01

384

Evaluation of groundwater quality and selected hydrologic conditions in the South Coast aquifer, Santa Isabel area, Puerto Rico, 2008–09  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The source of drinking water in the Santa Isabel and Coamo areas of Puerto Rico (Molina and Gómez-Gómez, 2008) is the South Coast aquifer (hereafter referred to as the aquifer), which supplies about 30,700 cubic meters per day (m³/d) to Puerto Rico Aqueduct and Sewer Authority (PRASA) public-supply wells. In addition, approximately 45 wells provide an estimated 33,700 m³/d of groundwater to irrigate crops in the area. In 1967, baseline nitrate concentrations in groundwater throughout most of the aquifer were generally less than 6 milligrams per liter (mg/L) as nitrogen in collected water samples (U.S. Geological Survey, 2012). In 2007, elevated nitrate concentrations were detected in the aquifer, near Santa Isabel and the foothills north of the coastal plain at Santa Isabel as part of a regional groundwater-quality assessment conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) during 2007 (Rodríguez and Gómez-Gómez, 2008). The increase in nitrate concentrations has been of concern to local government agencies because of its potential effect on public supply. To address public-supply concerns, the USGS, in cooperation with the Puerto Rico Department of Natural and Environmental Resources (PRDNER), evaluated groundwater quality in the aquifer near the Santa Isabel area between January 2008 and May 2009. The objectives of the study were to (1) define the groundwater-quality conditions of the aquifer, with emphasis on the distribution of nitrate concentrations; (2) identify potential sources leading to elevated nitrate concentrations; (3) estimate the nitrate loads from major sources identified; and (4) estimate the groundwater withdrawals by principal-use categories in the area. Results of this study will be used by Commonwealth of Puerto Rico and Federal agencies in developing strategies that can result in containment of high nitrate groundwater to minimize degradation of fresh groundwater in the aquifer.

Rodríguez, José M.

2013-01-01

385

Effects of forest clearing and succession on the carbon and nitrogen content of soils in Puerto Rico and US Virgin Islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil samples from mature and secondary forests and agricultural sites in three subtropical life zones of Puerto Rico and the\\u000a US Virgin Islands were collected to determine the effects of forest conversion to agriculture and succession on soil organic\\u000a carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) contents. Site characteristics that may affect soil C and N (slope, elevation, aspect, and texture)\\u000a were

Sandra Brown; Ariel E. Lugo

1990-01-01

386

Effect of harvesting, vegetation structure and composition on the abundance and demography of the land crab Cardisoma guanhumi in Puerto Rico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cardisoma guanhumi is the focus of an important artisanal fishery in Puerto Rico. Data on land crab landings point towards a dramatic decline\\u000a in their abundance. This is cause for concern given the intrinsic value of the fishery and the important role these crabs\\u000a play in coastal ecosystems. In this paper we examine the effect of harvesting and habitat quality

Concepción Rodríguez-Fourquet; Alberto M. Sabat

2009-01-01

387

Characterization of land-based sources of pollution in Jobos Bay, Puerto Rico: status of heavy metal concentration in bed sediment  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of an assessment of land-based sources of pollution in Jobos Bay, Puerto Rico, sediment samples were collected at\\u000a 43 sites to characterize concentrations of a suite of pollutants, including metals. Fifteen major and trace metals (Ag, Al,\\u000a As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, Sn, and Zn) were measured along with total organic carbon

Dennis A. Apeti; David R. Whitall; Anthony S. Pait; Angel Dieppa; Adam G. Zitello; Gunnar G. Lauenstein

388

Selected Hydrologic, Water-Quality, Biological, and Sedimentation Characteristics of Laguna Grande, Fajardo, Puerto Rico, March 2007-February 2009  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Laguna Grande is a 50-hectare lagoon in the municipio of Fajardo, located in the northeasternmost part of Puerto Rico. Hydrologic, water-quality, and biological data were collected in the lagoon between March 2007 and February 2009 to establish baseline conditions and determine the health of Laguna Grande on the basis of preestablished standards. In addition, a core of bottom material was obtained at one site within the lagoon to establish sediment depositional rates. Water-quality properties measured onsite (temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, specific conductance, and water transparency) varied temporally rather than areally. All physical properties were in compliance with current regulatory standards established for Puerto Rico. Nutrient concentrations were very low and in compliance with current regulatory standards (less than 5.0 and 1.0 milligrams per liter for total nitrogen and total phosphorus, respectively). The average total nitrogen concentration was 0.28 milligram per liter, and the average total phosphorus concentration was 0.02 milligram per liter. Chlorophyll a was the predominant form of photosynthetic pigment in the water. The average chlorophyll-a concentration was 6.2 micrograms per liter. Bottom sediment accumulation rates were determined in sediment cores by modeling the downcore activities of lead-210 and cesium-137. Results indicated a sediment depositional rate of about 0.44 centimeter per year. At this rate of sediment accretion, the lagoon may become a marshland in about 700 to 900 years. About 86 percent of the community primary productivity in Laguna Grande was generated by periphyton, primarily algal mats and seagrasses, and the remaining 14 percent was generated by phytoplankton in the water column. Based on the diel studies the total average net community productivity equaled 5.7 grams of oxygen per cubic meter per day (2.1 grams of carbon per cubic meter per day). Most of this productivity was ascribed to periphyton and macrophytes, which produced 4.9 grams of oxygen per cubic meter per day (1.8 grams of carbon per cubic meter per day). Phytoplankton, the plant and algal component of plankton, produced about 0.8 gram of oxygen per cubic meter per day (0.3 gram of carbon per cubic meter per day). The total diel community respiration rate was 23.4 grams of oxygen per cubic meter per day. The respiration rate ascribed to plankton, which consists of all free floating and swimming organisms in the water column, composed 10 percent of this rate (2.9 grams of oxygen per cubic meter per day); respiration by all other organisms composed the remaining 90 percent (20.5 grams of oxygen per cubic meter per day). Plankton gross productivity was 3.7 grams of oxygen per cubic meter per day, equivalent to about 13 percent of the average gross productivity for the entire community (29.1 grams of oxygen per cubic meter per day). The average phytoplankton biomass values in Laguna Grande ranged from 6.0 to 13.6 milligrams per liter. During the study, Laguna Grande contained a phytoplankton standing crop of approximately 5.8 metric tons. Phytoplankton community had a turnover (renewal) rate of about 153 times per year, or roughly about once every 2.5 days. Fecal indicator bacteria concentrations ranged from 160 to 60,000 colonies per 100 milliliters. Concentrations generally were greatest in areas near residential and commercial establishments, and frequently exceeded current regulatory standards established for Puerto Rico.

Soler-Lopez, Luis R.; Santos, Carlos R.

2010-01-01

389

Report of oil imports into the United States and Puerto Rico, monthly cumulative 1985 (forms EIA 814/EIA 815). Data file  

SciTech Connect

Form EIA-814 is used in monthly surveys of firms importing crude oil, unfinished oil, and finished petroleum products into the United States and Puerto Rico. It is used to collect data on port of entry, country of origin, location of refinery, quantity of crude or product in barrels, and sulfur content. Participation in the survey is mandatory under P.L. 93-275. The respondent universe consisted of approximately 1,200 firms as of January 1, 1984. However, only a selected 250 importers must report each month regardless of import activity. All others must report only for a month in which they actually had imports. Data collected in the surveys are published in aggregate form. Formerly, the data was collected on FEA-P126-M-0, FEA-1005-1M, FEA-P113-M-0, and ERA-60. The form EIA-815 (formerly FEA-P133-M-0) Monthly Shipments from Puerto Rico to the United States Report collects data on the volume of petroleum products shipped from Puerto Rico into the 50 states and the District of Columbia.

Marcotte, R.

1985-01-01

390

Heavy metal and selenium levels in young cattle egrets from nesting colonies in the northeastern United States, Puerto Rico, and Egypt.  

PubMed

Colonially-nesting species of herons and egrets breed mainly in coastal areas, along rivers or near other large bodies of water. Such areas are also preferred for human development, exposing nesting birds to various pollutants. From 1989-1991, the concentrations of heavy metals and selenium were studied in the feathers of fledgling cattle egrets Bubulcus ibis, a terrestrially-feeding insectivore, from New York and Delaware in the northeastern United States, from Puerto Rico, and from Egypt. There were geographic differences in the concentrations of lead, mercury, cadmium, manganese, selenium, and chromium in the feathers of these egrets. Lead levels were 41 times higher in the feathers of cattle egrets from Cairo compared to the other sites. This difference was attributed to the continuing use of leaded gasoline and the dense automobile traffic in Cairo. However, other differences remain unexplained. Similarly, levels of chromium and manganese were also higher in Cairo than at any other sites. Cadmium levels were similar at all places except for higher levels in eastern Puerto Rico. Mercury concentrations were twelve times higher in the feathers of cattle egrets at Aswan compared to Cairo. In Puerto Rico, we also compared levels in adult cattle egrets with young and found higher concentrations of mercury and manganese, but lower concentrations of selenium in the adults. Using feathers from young cattle egrets is a potentially sensitive tool for biomonitoring for metals, especially lead, since they reflect the local area surrounding the breeding colony. PMID:1444587

Burger, J; Parsons, K; Benson, T; Shukla, T; Rothstein, D; Gochfeld, M

1992-11-01

391

Chemical weathering in a tropical watershed, Luquillo Mountains, Puerto Rico: I. Long-term versus short-term weathering fluxes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The pristine Rio Icacos watershed in the Luquillo Mountains in eastern Puerto Rico has the fastest documented weathering rate of silicate rocks on the Earth's surface. A regolith propagation rate of 58 m Ma-1 calculated from iso-volumetric saprolite formation from quartz diorite, is comparable to the estimated denudation rate (25-50 Ma-1) but is an order of magnitude faster than the global average weathering rate (6 Ma-1). Weathering occurs in two distinct environments; plagioclase and hornblende react at the saprock interface and biotite and quartz weather in the overlying thick saprolitic regolith. These environments produce distinctly different water chemistries, with K, Mg, and Si increasing linearly with depth in saprolite porewaters and with stream waters dominated by Ca, Na, and Si. Such differences are atypical of less intense weathering in temperate watersheds. Porewater chemistry in the shallow regolith is controlled by closed-system recycling of inorganic nutrients such as K. Long-term elemental fluxes through the regolith (e.g., Si = 1.7 ?? 10-8 moles m-2 s-1) are calculated from mass losses based on changes in porosity and chemistry between the regolith and bedrock and from the age of the regolith surface (200 Ma). Mass losses attributed to solute fluxes are determined using a step-wise infiltration model which calculates mineral inputs to the shallow and deep saprolite porewaters and to stream water. Pressure heads decrease with depth in the shallow regolith (-2.03 m H2O m-1), indicating that both increasing capillary tension and graviometric potential control porewater infiltration. Interpolation of experimental hydraulic conductivities produces an infiltration rate of 1 m yr-1 at average field moisture saturation which is comparable with LiBr tracer tests and with base discharge from the watershed. Short term weathering fluxes calculated from solute chemistries and infiltration rates (e.g., Si = 1.4 ?? 10-8 moles m-2 s-1) are compared to watershed flux rates (e.g., Si = 2.7 ?? 10-8 moles m-2 s-1). Consistency between three independently determined sets of weathering fluxes imply that possible changes in precipitation, temperature, and vegetation over the last several hundred thousand years have not significantly impacted weathering rates in the Luquillo Mountains of Puerto Rico. This has important ramifications for tropical environments and global climate change. Copyright ?? 1998 Elsevier Science Ltd.

White, A. F.; Blum, A. E.; Schulz, M. S.; Vivit, D. V.; Stonestrom, D. A.; Larsen, M.; Murphy, S. F.; Eberl, D.

1998-01-01

392

Chemical Weathering in a Tropical Watershed, Luquillo Mountains, Puerto Rico: I. Long-Term Versus Short-Term Weathering Fluxes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The pristine Rio Icacos watershed in the Luquillo Mountains in eastern Puerto Rico has the fastest documented weathering rate of silicate rocks on the Earth's surface. A regolith propagation rate of 58 m Ma -1, calculated from iso-volumetric saprolite formation from quartz diorite, is comparable to the estimated denudation rate (25-50 Ma -1) but is an order of magnitude faster than the global average weathering rate (6 Ma -1). Weathering occurs in two distinct environments; plagioclase and hornblende react at the saprock interface and biotite and quartz weather in the overlying thick saprolitic regolith. These environments produce distinctly different water chemistries, with K, Mg, and Si increasing linearly with depth in saprolite porewaters and with stream waters dominated by Ca, Na, and Si. Such differences are atypical of less intense weathering in temperate watersheds. Porewater chemistry in the shallow regolith is controlled by closed-system recycling of inorganic nutrients such as K. Long-term elemental fluxes through the regolith (e.g., Si = 1.7 × 10 -8 moles m -2 s -1) are calculated from mass losses based on changes in porosity and chemistry between the regolith and bedrock and from the age of the regolith surface (200 Ma). Mass losses attributed to solute fluxes are determined using a step-wise infiltration model which calculates mineral inputs to the shallow and deep saprolite porewaters and to stream water. Pressure heads decrease with depth in the shallow regolith (-2.03 m H 2O m -1), indicating that both increasing capillary tension and graviometric potential control porewater infiltration. Interpolation of experimental hydraulic conductivities produces an infiltration rate of 1 m yr -1 at average field moisture saturation which is comparable with LiBr tracer tests and with base discharge from the watershed. Short term weathering fluxes calculated from solute chemistries and infiltration rates (e.g., Si = 1.4 × 10 -8 moles m -2 s -1) are compared to watershed flux rates (e.g., Si = 2.7 × 10 -8 moles m -2 s -1). Consistency between three independently determined sets of weathering fluxes imply that possible changes in precipitation, temperature, and vegetation over the last several hundred thousand years have not significantly impacted weathering rates in the Luquillo Mountains of Puerto Rico. This has important ramifications for tropical environments and global climate change.

White, Art F.; Blum, Alex E.; Schulz, Marjorie S.; Vivit, Davison V.; Stonestrom, David A.; Larsen, Matthew; Murphy, Sheila F.; Eberl, D.

1998-01-01

393

A frequent tyrosinase gene mutation associated with type I-A (tyrosinase-negative) oculocutaneous albinism in Puerto Rico.  

PubMed Central

We have determined the mutations in the tyrosinase gene from 12 unrelated Puerto Rican individuals who have type I-A (tyrosinase-negative) oculocutaneous albinism (OCA). All but one individual are of Hispanic descent. Nine individuals were homozygous for a missense mutation (G47D) in exon I at codon 47. Two individuals were heterozygous for the G47D mutation, with one having a missense mutation at codon 373 (T373K) in the homologous allele and the other having an undetermined mutation in the homologous allele. One individual with negroid features was homozygous for a nonsense mutation (W236X). The population migration between Puerto Rico and the Canary Islands is well recognized. Analysis of three individuals with OCA from the Canary Islands showed that one was a compound heterozygote for the G47D mutation and for a novel missense mutation (L216M), one was homozygous for a missense mutation (P81L), and one was heterozygous for the missense mutation P81L. The G47D and P81L missense mutations have been previously described in extended families in the United States. Haplotypes were determined using four polymorphisms linked to the tyrosinase locus. Haplotype analysis showed that the G47D mutation occurred on a single haplotype, consistent with a common founder for all individuals having this mutation. Two different haplotypes were found associated with the P81L mutation, suggesting that this may be either a recurring mutation for the tyrosinase gene or a recombination between haplotypes. Images Figure 1

Oetting, W S; Witkop, C J; Brown, S A; Colomer, R; Fryer, J P; Bloom, K E; King, R A

1993-01-01

394

Septic tanks as larval habitats for the mosquitoes Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus in Playa-Playita, Puerto Rico.  

PubMed

Adult Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus) (Diptera: Culicidae) were previously recovered from emergence traps on septic tanks in southeastern Puerto Rico. In this study we quantified immature mosquito abundance and its relationship with structural variables of the septic tanks and chemical properties of the water containing raw sewage. A miniaturized floating funnel trap was used to sample 89 septic tanks for larvae in the Puerto Rican community of Playa-Playita. Aedes aegypti larvae were recovered from 18% of the sampled tanks (10.3 larvae per septic tank per day). Larval presence was positively associated with cracking of the septic tank walls and uncovered access ports. Larval abundance was positively associated with cracking of the septic tank walls and larger tank surface areas, and inversely associated with the total dissolved solids (TDS). Culex quinquefasciatus (Say) larvae were also recovered from 74% of the septic tanks (129.6 larvae per septic tank per day). Larval presence was negatively associated with TDS in the water and larval abundance was positively associated with cracking of the septic tank walls. A screened, plastic emergence trap was used to sample 93 septic tanks within the community for Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus adults. Aedes aegypti adults were recovered from 49% of the sampled tanks (8.7 adults per septic tank per day) and Cx. quinquefasciatus adults were recovered from 97% of the sampled tanks (155.5 adults per septic tank per day). Aedes aegypti adult presence was positively associated with cracking, uncapped openings and septic water pH. The Ae. aegypti adult counts were positively associated with cracking and inversely associated with TDS and conductivity. This study marks the first published record of the recovery of Ae. aegypti larvae from holding tanks containing raw sewage in the Caribbean region. Our study indicates that Ae. aegypti larvae are present in sewage water and that septic tanks have at least the potential to maintain dengue transmission during the dry season. PMID:20374477

Burke, R; Barrera, R; Lewis, M; Kluchinsky, T; Claborn, D

2010-06-01

395

Free descent and on bottom ADCM measurements in the Puerto Rico Trench, 19.77°N, 67.40°W  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On bottom ( ?2m) current velocities in the Puerto Rico Trench ( ?8350m depth) were measured at 1 Hz for 75 min by acoustic-Doppler current meter at 19.75°N, 66.40°W, via untethered free-descent/ascent vehicle. The April 2008 deployment also recorded 3-axis velocity, temperature, pressure, and instrument heading, pitch, roll, and signal strength during the 153 min free-descent, and while on bottom. No data for the ascent was recorded. Signal strength was above the noise floor for the entire data set, and SNR and velocity STD were within known acceptable bounds above 7000 m. Instrument heading showed a continuous anti-clockwise rotation during descent. Doppler vertical velocity during descent is compared to the pressure time derivative and observed to exhibit extended periods of under-bias, correlated not to low SNR, but to Doppler horizontal velocity fluctuations. Doppler horizontal velocity during descent is interpreted to be tangential to rotation and includes lateral translations. Integration of horizontal velocity during descent suggests a lateral displacement of less than 30 m over the 8.35 km free-fall. Measurements made at impact indicate full functionality of the instrument at depth. Maximum horizontal velocities while on bottom varied between 1 and 5 cm/s and were directed roughly along trench axis to the W.

Schmidt, Wilford E.; Siegel, Eric

2011-09-01

396

Hydrogen density and proton flux in the topside ionosphere over Arecibo, Puerto Rico, from incoherent scatter observations.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Incoherent scatter observations of the topside ionosphere over Arecibo, Puerto Rico, have been analyzed and interpreted to give values for the neutral hydrogen density and vertical proton flux throughout a 30 hr period on December 7 and 8, 1965. The neutral hydrogen density is of the order of 1,000,000 per cu cm at 520 km, agreeing well with other recent measurements. A diurnal variation of about 2-1 was found, which confirms recent theoretical predictions. The vertical proton flux attained a maximum value of about one billion per sq cm per sec, being upward in the daytime and downward at night. The daytime flux appears to be of comparable magnitude with the limiting flux permitted, but the shape of the ion density profile suggests that the flux was not actually a limiting flux. For the night in question, the downward proton flux appears to account for the maintenance of the F layer, perhaps with some additional contribution from neutral winds and/or electric fields.

Ho, M. C.; Moorcroft, D. R.

1971-01-01

397

Radar investigation of barium releases over Arecibo Observatory, Puerto Rico. Final report, 12 August 1991-30 June 1994  

SciTech Connect

The NASA Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite (CRRES) El Coqui rocket campaign was successfully carried out in Puerto Rico during the period 18 May through 12 July 1992. This report describes five chemical release experiments in the upper ionosphere supported by Geospace Research, Inc. during the El Coqui campaign. Additional spin-off science is also discussed. The El Coqui releases are designated AA-1 (rocket 36-082), AA-2 (rocket 36-081), AA-3b (rocket 36-064), AA-4 (rocket 36-065), and AA-7 (rocket 36-083). Particular attention is paid to releases AA-2 and AA-4. These two experiments involved the illumination of ionospheric release regions with powerful high-frequency (HF) radio waves transmitted from the Arecibo HF facility. In the AA-2 experiment, microinstabilities excited by the HF wave in a Ba(+) plasma were examined. This release yielded a smooth plasma cloud that helped clarify several fundamental issues regarding the physics of wave plasma instabilities. During AA-2 extremely strong HF-induced Langmuir turbulence was detected with the Arecibo 430 MHz radar. CF3Br was released in the AA-4 study to create an ionospheric hole that focused the HF beam. This experiment successfully explored wave-plasma coupling in an O(+) ionosphere under conditions of very high HF electric field strengths.

Djuth, F.T.

1995-07-01

398

The reappearance of dengue-3 and a subsequent dengue-4 and dengue-1 epidemic in Puerto Rico in 1998.  

PubMed

In January 1998, dengue-3 (DEN)-3 (group III genotype) was detected in Puerto Rico after an absence of 20 years. Public health officials intensified education efforts to promote community participation in dengue control. Virologic surveillance revealed an unexpected paradox: DEN-4 and DEN-1 produced a large epidemic overlaying the DEN-3 epidemic. In 1998 there were 17,000 reported cases of dengue (4.8/1,000 persons), and among all virus isolations (n = 960), DEN-4 (419, 43.6%), DEN-1 (337, 35.1%), and DEN-2 (143, 14.9%) were detected much more frequently than DEN-3 (61, 6%). Age group-specific attack rates were highest for persons 10-19 years old, followed by infants less than a year of age. Nineteen fatal cases (median = 37 years old, range = 8 months to 90 years) had a positive laboratory diagnosis of dengue. Among DEN-3 cases no fatalities were documented, 50 were hospitalized, and 10 of 48 (21%) fulfilled the criteria for dengue hemorrhagic fever (four had primary infections and six had secondary infections). During 1999, DEN-3 became the predominant serotype isolated (182 of 310 isolations, 59%). The reappearance of DEN-3 and its subsequent circulation from 1999 to 2001 produced no changes in dengue incidence that could have been detected in the absence of virologic surveillance. PMID:12452489

Rigau-Pérez, José G; Ayala-López, Aurimar; García-Rivera, Enid J; Hudson, Sharon M; Vorndam, Vance; Reiter, Paul; Cano, Marta P; Clark, Gary G

2002-10-01

399

A new species of Paratanais Dana, 1852 (Crustacea, Peracarida, Tanaidacea, Paratanaidae) from Puerto Rico, northwestern Atlantic  

PubMed Central

Abstract Paratanais rosadi sp. n. described from Puerto Rican coastal waters represents the first species of the genus from the northwestern Atlantic. It is distinguished from the other Paratanais species by a combination of characters, including article-2 of the maxilliped palp with a geniculate, finely-serrulate seta on inner margin; chela with stiff, geniculate, seta arising from propodus between fixed finger and dactylus and with short, stout, finely serrulate, seta on inner distal face of propodus adjacent to base of dactylus; carpus of pereopods 4?6 having three, instead of four stout modified spiniform setae distally, uropodal exopod distinctly shorter than endopodal article-1; and uropodal endopod with articles of about of equal in length. A key for the separation of Paratanais species from the Atlantic Ocean is presented.

Morales-Nunez, Andres G.; Heard, Richard W.

2014-01-01

400

COMMITTEES: Proceedings of the 13th Gravitational Waves Data Analysis Workshop (GWDAW13), San Juan, Puerto Rico, 19-22 January 2009 Proceedings of the 13th Gravitational Waves Data Analysis Workshop (GWDAW13), San Juan, Puerto Rico, 19-22 January 2009  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Science Organising Committee (SOC) Bruce Allen, AEI, Germany Patrick Brady, University of Wisconsin Milwaukee, USA Deepto Chakrabarty, MIT, USA Eugenio Coccia, INFN, Gran Sasso, Italy James Cordes, Cornell University, USA Mario Díaz (Chair), University of Texas Brownsville, USA Sam Finn, Penn State, USA Neil Gehrels, NASA GSFC, USA Fredrick A Jenet, University of Texas Brownsville, USA Nobuyuki Kanda, Osaka City University, Japan Erik Katsavounides, MIT, USA Dick Manchester, ATNF, Australia Soumya Mohanty, University of Texas Brownsville, USA Benoit Mours, LAPP-Annecy, France Maria Alessandra Papa, AEI, Germany Kate Scholberg, Duke University, USA Susan Scott, The Australian National University Alberto Vecchio, University of Birmingham, UK Andrea Vicere, INFN - Sezione di Firenze, Italy Stan Whitcomb, LIGO CALTECH, USA Local Organising Committee (LOC) Paulo Freire (Arecibo Observatory, Puerto Rico) Murray Lewis (Arecibo Observatory, Puerto Rico) Wanda Wiley (University of Texas Brownsville, USA)

2009-10-01

401

Hydrologic, water-quality, and biological assessment of Laguna de las Salinas, Ponce, Puerto Rico, January 2003-September 2004  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Laguna de Las Salinas is a shallow, 35-hectare, hypersaline lagoon (depth less than 1 meter) in the municipio of Ponce, located on the southern coastal plain of Puerto Rico. Hydrologic, water-quality, and biological data in the lagoon were collected between January 2003 and September 2004 to establish baseline conditions. During the study period, rainfall was about 1,130 millimeters, with much of the rain recorded during three distinct intense events. The lagoon is connected to the sea by a shallow, narrow channel. Subtle tidal changes, combined with low rainfall and high evaporation rates, kept the lagoon at salinities above that of the sea throughout most of the study. Water-quality properties measured on-site (temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, specific conductance, and Secchi disk transparency) exhibited temporal rather than spatial variations and distribution. Although all physical parameters were in compliance with current regulatory standards for Puerto Rico, hyperthermic and hypoxic conditions were recorded during isolated occasions. Nutrient concentrations were relatively low and in compliance with current regulatory standards (less than 5.0 and 1.0 milligrams per liter for total nitrogen and total phosphorus, respectively). The average total nitrogen concentration was 1.9 milligrams per liter and the average total phosphorus concentration was 0.4 milligram per liter. Total organic carbon concentrations ranged from 12.0 to 19.0 milligrams per liter. Chlorophyll a was the predominant form of photosynthetic pigment in the water. The average chlorophyll a concentration was 13.4 micrograms per liter. Chlorophyll b was detected (detection limits 0.10 microgram per liter) only twice during the study. About 90 percent of the primary productivity in the Laguna de Las Salinas was generated by periphyton such as algal mats and macrophytes such as seagrasses. Of the average net productivity of 13.6 grams of oxygen per cubic meter per day derived from the diel study, the periphyton and macrophyes produced 12.3 grams per cubic meter per day; about 1.3 grams (about 10 percent) were produced by the phytoplankton (plant and algae component of plankton). The total respiration rate was 59.2 grams of oxygen per cubic meter per day. The respiration rate ascribed to the plankton (all organisms floating through the water column) averaged about 6.2 grams of oxygen per cubic meter per day (about 10 percent), whereas the respiration rate by all other organisms averaged 53.0 grams of oxygen per cubic meter per day (about 90 percent). Plankton gross productivity was 7.5 grams per cubic meter per day; the gross productivity of the entire community averaged 72.8 grams per cubic meter per day. Fecal coliform bacteria counts were generally less than 200 colonies per 100 milliliters; the highest concentration was 600 colonies per 100 milliliters.

Soler-Lopez, Luis R.; Gomez-Gomez, Fernando; Rodriguez-Martinez, Jesus

2005-01-01

402

Risk factors for suicide attempts in a clinic-based sample of people living with HIV in Puerto Rico.  

PubMed

Puerto Rico (PR) has a large and rapidly growing population of people living with HIV. However, relatively little behavioral or clinical research has been done in this population. As treatment for HIV increasingly moves into a chronic condition model, it is becoming increasingly important to understand the needs of this population so critical social and behavioral interventions can be developed, thus enabling the individual and community-level benefits of antiretroviral (ARV) treatment to be fully realized. To date, however, there has been very little research on the mental health needs of people living with HIV in PR, a fact that constrains intervention development and implementation. This paper describes data from a public sexually transmitted infection (STI) and HIV clinic study in the San Juan metropolitan area between April 2010 and December 2012 (n = 1185), roughly a third (36%) of whom are living with HIV. Descriptive statistics, chi-square, t-tests, and binary logistic regressions were used to assess associations between HIV status and a history of suicide attempt. The overall prevalence of a history of suicide attempt was 20.4%. No statistically significant relationship was found between a history of suicide attempt and being HIV positive, although people with HIV infection did evidence a higher prevalence of attempts than HIV-negative subjects (23.4% vs. 19.0%). Factors associated with having a history of suicide attempt within the overall sample included gender, current employment status, a lifetime history of drug use, and a lifetime history of sex work. Similar patterns were seen in the HIV-positive subsample. There was a nonsignificant trend toward increased risk for a post-diagnosis suicide attempt. These findings suggest that additional research on mental health risks among populations at risk for HIV in PR is needed. PMID:24625259

Jovet-Toledo, Gerardo G; Clatts, Michael C; Rodriguez-Diaz, Carlos E; Goldsamt, Lloyd; Vargas-Molina, Ricardo L

2014-08-01

403

Organic carbon, total nitrogen, and water-soluble ions in clouds from a tropical montane cloud forest in Puerto Rico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chemical characterization to determine the organic and nitrogen fractions was performed on cloud water samples collected in a mountaintop site in Puerto Rico. Cloud water samples showed average concentrations of 1.09 mg L -1 of total organic carbon (TOC), of 0.85 mg L -1 for dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and of and 1.25 mg L -1 for total nitrogen (TN). Concentrations of organic nitrogen (ON) changed with the origin of the air mass. Changes in their concentrations were observed during periods under the influence of African dust (AD). The ON/TN ratios were 0.26 for the clean and 0.35 for the AD periods. Average concentrations of all these species were similar to those found in remote environments with no anthropogenic contribution. In the AD period, for cloud water the concentrations of TOC were 4 times higher and TN were 3 times higher than during periods of clean air masses associated with the trade winds. These results suggest that a significant fraction of TOC and TN in cloud and rainwater is associated to airborne particulate matter present in dust. Functional groups were identified using proton nuclear magnetic resonance ( 1H NMR) spectroscopy. This characterization led to the conclusion that water-soluble organic compounds in these samples are mainly aliphatic oxygenated compounds, with a small amount of aromatics. The ion chromatography results showed that the ionic species were predominantly of marine origin, for air masses with and without African dust influence, with cloud water concentrations of NO 3- and NH 4+ much lower than from polluted areas in the US. An increase of such species as SO 42-, Cl -, Mg 2+, K + and Ca 2+ was seen when air masses originated from northwest Africa. The changes in the chemical composition and physical properties of clouds associated with these different types of aerosol particles could affect on cloud formation and processes.

Reyes-Rodríguez, Gabriel J.; Gioda, Adriana; Mayol-Bracero, Olga L.; Collett, Jeff

404

Human papillomavirus infection in women in Puerto Rico: Agreement between physician-versus self-collected anogenital specimens  

PubMed Central

Objective To describe the prevalence and concordance between cervical and anal HPV infection and compare cervicovaginal and anal self-collection methods for HPV testing between physician and self-collected specimens in women in Puerto Rico. Materials and Methods Specimens for HPV-DNA testing were obtained from 100 women aged 18-34 years attending a general gynecology clinic for a routine Pap smear. HPV testing was performed using PCR MY09/MY11 primers. Positive samples were typed for 39 genotypes. Agreement between sampling methods was determined by % agreement and the kappa statistic. Results 38.4% (38/99) of cervicovaginal and 33.7% (30/89) of anal physician-collected samples were HPV+, for the 39 genotypes evaluated; whereas, 35.1% (34/97) of cervicovaginal and 32.0% (31/97) of anal self-collected samples were positive. HPV-16 was the most common type identified in the cervix (8.3%, 8/97) and the anus (5.6%, 5/89) of physician-collected samples, with similar prevalence in self-collected samples. Concordance between cervical and anal HPV infection was high (>90%) for all HPV types evaluated. There was strong % agreement between physician and self-collected cervicovaginal and anal samples (>95% for all HPV types) and good-excellent agreement (kappa>0.60) for most HPV types. Conclusions The clinic-based prevalence of anal and cervicovaginal HPV infection was high, with strong concordance between cervical and anal infection and good to excellent agreement between physician and self-collected samples. This study supports the feasibility of utilizing cervical and anal self-sampling methods in future population-based studies of HPV infection in PR, and as an HPV screening method in women.

Ortiz, Ana P.; Romaguera, Josefina; Perez, Cynthia; Otero, Yomayra; Soto-Salgado, Marievelisse; Mendez, Keimari; Valle, Yari; Da Costa, Maria; Suarez, Erick; Palefsky, Joel; Tortolero-Luna, Guillermo

2013-01-01

405

Acceptability of cervical and anal HPV self-sampling in a sample of Hispanic women in Puerto Rico.  

PubMed

Self-sampling techniques have been shown to be reliable in determining human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, although the acceptability of this method of sampling has not been studied in Puerto Rico (PR). The objective of this study was to determine the acceptability of cervicovaginal and anal self-sampling for HPV DNA testing among women in PR. One hundred women aged 18-34 years old and undergoing routine Pap smears in an OBGYN clinic in PR were recruited. Interviewer-administered and computer-based questionnaires were used to collect information on relevant risk factors. To assess acceptability, four-item acceptability Likert scales were used that measured comfort, pain, privacy, and embarrassment. Overall acceptability indexes were calculated as the sum of the Likert scores. Clinician-collected and self-collected cervicovaginal and anal samples for HPV-DNA testing were obtained from the participating women. Although the acceptability of both sampling methods was high, it was higher for self- rather than clinician-sampling of the cervix (difference in mean score = -0.71, p<0.05); contrarily, it was higher for clinician-sampling of the anus (difference in mean score = 0.64). When analyzing individual items within the scale, less embarrassment was observed with respect to the self-collection of cervical and anal samples. Nevertheless, most women reported that they preferred having a clinician collect cervical and anal samples (67% and 61%, respectively); and most of these women (86% for cervical samples and 92% for anal samples) felt more confident that this sample would be properly taken. Despite this, in this population, the high level of acceptability with regard to self-collected samples and the previously documented concordance between self- and clinician-collected samples support the use of cervical and anal HPV DNA self-sampling techniques in future HPV-related population-based studies and screening programs in PR. PMID:23844468

Ortiz, Ana P; Alejandro, Natalia; Pérez, Cynthia M; Otero, Yomayra; Soto-Salgado, Marievelisse; Palefsky, Joel M; Tortolero-Luna, Guillermo; Romaguera, Josefina

2012-12-01

406

Effects of manipulated herbivore inputs on nutrient flux and decomposition in a tropical rainforest in Puerto Rico.  

PubMed

Forest canopy herbivores are known to increase rates of nutrient fluxes to the forest floor in a number of temperate and boreal forests, but few studies have measured effects of herbivore-enhanced nutrient fluxes in tropical forests. We simulated herbivore-induced fluxes in a tropical rainforest in Puerto Rico by augmenting greenfall (fresh foliage fragments), frassfall (insect feces), and throughfall (precipitation enriched with foliar leachates) in replicated experimental plots on the forest floor. Background rates of greenfall and frassfall were measured monthly using litterfall collectors and augmented by adding 10× greenfall or 10× frassfall to designated plots. Throughfall fluxes of NH(4), NO(3) and PO(4) (but not water) were doubled in treatment plots, based on published rates of fluxes of these nutrients in throughfall. Control plots received only background flux rates for these compounds but the same minimum amount of distilled water. We evaluated treatment effects as changes in flux rates for NO(3), NH(4) and PO(4), measured as decomposition rate of leaf litter in litterbags and as adsorption in ion-exchange resin bags at the litter-soil interface. Frass addition significantly increased NO(3) and NH(4) fluxes, and frass and throughfall additions significantly reduced decay rate, compared to controls. Reduced decay rate suggests that nitrogen flux was sufficient to inhibit microbial decomposition activity. Our treatments represented fluxes expected from low-moderate herbivore outbreaks and demonstrated that herbivores, at these outbreak levels, increase ecosystem-level N and P fluxes by >30% in this tropical rainforest. PMID:21713416

Schowalter, T D; Fonte, S J; Geaghan, J; Wang, J

2011-12-01

407

The partitioning of copper among selected phases of geologic media of two porphyry copper districts, Puerto Rico  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In experiments designed to determine the manner in which copper is partitioned among selected phases that constitute geologic media, we have applied the five-step sequential extraction procedure of Chao and Theobald to the analysis of drill core, soils, and stream sediments of the Rio Vivi and Rio Tanama porphyry copper districts of Puerto Rico. The extraction procedure affords a convenient means of determining the trace-metal content of the following fractions: (1) Mn oxides and "reactive" Fe oxides; (2) "amorphous" Fe oxides; (3) "crystalline" Fe oxides; (4) sulfides and magnetite; and (5) silicates. An additional extraction between steps (1) and (2) was performed to determine organic-related copper in stream sediments. The experimental results indicate that apportionment of copper among phases constituting geologic media is a function of geochemical environment. Distinctive partitioning patterns were derived from the analysis of drill core from each of three geochemical zones: (a) the supergene zone of oxidation; (b) the supergene zone of enrichment; and (c) the hypogene zone; and similarly, from the analysis of; (d) soils on a weakly leached capping; (e) soils on a strongly leached capping; and (f) active stream sediment. The experimental results also show that geochemical contrasts (anomaly-to-background ratios) vary widely among the five fractions of each sampling medium investigated, and that at least one fraction of each medium provides substantially stronger contrast than does the bulk medium. Fraction (1) provides optimal contrast for stream sediments of the district; fraction (2) provides optimal contrast for soils on a weakly leached capping; fraction (3) provides optimal contrast for soils on a strongly leached capping. Selective extraction procedures appear to have important applications to the orientation and interpretive stages of geochemical exploration. Further investigation and testing of a similar nature are recommended. ?? 1981.

Learned, R. E.; Chao, T. T.; Sanzolone, R. F.

1981-01-01

408

Sensitization to Airborne Ascospores, Basidiospores, and Fungal Fragments in Allergic Rhinitis and Asthmatic Subjects in San Juan, Puerto Rico  

PubMed Central

Background Fungal spores are the predominant biological particulate in the atmosphere of Puerto Rico, yet their potential as allergens has not been studied in subjects with respiratory allergies. The purpose of this study was to determine the level of sensitization of subjects with respiratory allergies to these particles. Methods Serum samples were drawn from 33 subjects with asthma, allergic rhinitis, or nonallergic rhinitis and 2 controls with different skin prick test reactivity. An MK-3 sampler was used to collect air samples and the reactivity of the sera to fungal particles was detected with a halogen immunoassay. Results All subjects reacted to at least 1 fungal particle. Thirty-one subjects reacted to ascospores, 29 to basidiospores, 19 to hyphae/fungal fragments, and 12 to mitospores. The median percentage of haloes in allergic rhinitis subjects was 4.82% while asthma or nonallergic rhinitis subjects had values of 1.09 and 0.39%, respectively. Subjects with skin prick tests positive to 3, 2, 1, or no extract had 5.24, 1.09, 1.61, and, 0.57% of haloed particles, respectively. If skin prick tests were positive to basidiomycetes, pollen, animals, or deuteromycetes, the percentages of haloes were 4.72, 4.15, 3.63, and 3.31%, respectively. Of all haloed particles, 46% were unidentified, 25% ascospores, 20% basidiospores, 7% hyphae/fungal fragments, and 2% mitospores. IgE levels and the number of positive skin prick test extracts correlated with the percentage of haloes. Conclusion In tropical environments, sensitization to airborne basidiomycetes, ascomycetes, and fungal fragments seems to be more prevalent than sensitization to mitospores in subjects with active allergies, suggesting a possible role in exacerbations of respiratory allergies.

Rivera-Mariani, Felix E.; Nazario-Jimenez, Sylvette; Lopez-Malpica, Fernando; Bolanos-Rosero, Benjamin

2011-01-01

409

Precipitation isotopes link regional climate patterns to water supply in a tropical mountain forest, eastern Puerto Rico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

many mountainous areas in the tropics, watersheds in the Luquillo Mountains of eastern Puerto Rico have abundant rainfall and stream discharge and provide much of the water supply for the densely populated metropolitan areas nearby. Projected changes in regional temperature and atmospheric dynamics as a result of global warming suggest that water availability will be affected by changes in rainfall patterns. It is essential to understand the relative importance of different weather systems to water supply to determine how changes in rainfall patterns, interacting with geology and vegetation, will affect the water balance. To help determine the links between climate and water availability, stable isotope signatures of precipitation from different weather systems were established to identify those that are most important in maintaining streamflow and groundwater recharge. Precipitation stable isotope values in the Luquillo Mountains had a large range, from fog/cloud water with ?2H, ?18O values as high as +12 ‰, -0.73 ‰ to tropical storm rain with values as low as -127 ‰, -16.8 ‰. Temporal isotope values exhibit a reverse seasonality from those observed in higher latitude continental watersheds, with higher isotopic values in the winter and lower values in the summer. Despite the higher volume of convective and low-pressure system rainfall, stable isotope analyses indicated that under the current rainfall regime, frequent trade -wind orographic showers contribute much of the groundwater recharge and stream base flow. Analysis of rain events using 20 years of 15 -minute resolution data at a mountain station (643 m) showed an increasing trend in rainfall amount, in agreement with increased precipitable water in the atmosphere, but differing from climate model projections of drying in the region. The mean intensity of rain events also showed an increasing trend. The determination of recharge sources from stable isotope tracers indicates that water supply will be affected if regional atmospheric dynamics change trade- wind orographic rainfall patterns in the Caribbean.

Scholl, Martha A.; Murphy, Sheila F.

2014-05-01

410

Correlates of the Metabolic Syndrome Among a Sample of Women in the San Juan Metropolitan Area of Puerto Rico  

PubMed Central

Abstract Background The metabolic syndrome is an interaction of risk factors that may lead to cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Methods Given the need for data in Puerto Rico, this cross-sectional study aimed to determine the association between demographic, lifestyles, and reproductive characteristics and the metabolic syndrome among a sample of women (N?=?564) in the San Juan Metropolitan Area. The metabolic syndrome was defined based on the revised National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP ATP III) criteria. Results In multivariate logistic regression models, women aged 40–59 and 60–79 years were 3.03 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.70, 5.40] and 7.05 (95% CI, 3.69, 13.49) times more likely, respectively, to have the metabolic syndrome as compared to those aged 21–39 years. A dose–response relationship was also observed between body mass index (BMI) and metabolic syndrome. Physical activity reduced the odds for metabolic syndrome [prevalence odds ratios (POR)?=?0.64; 95% CI, 0.41, 1.01]; however, this association was marginally significant (P?=?0.05). Among reproductive characteristics, only women who had a history of gestational diabetes (GDM) were 2.14 (95% CI, 1.02, 4.51) times more likely to have metabolic syndrome. Conclusions Consistent with previous studies, increased age and BMI, physical inactivity, and GDM are associated with the metabolic syndrome in this population. This information is relevant for the development of preventive interventions for the metabolic syndrome.

Ortiz, Ana Patricia; Suarez, Erick; Beauchamp, Giovanna; Romaguera, Josefina; Soto-Salgado, Marievelisse

2010-01-01

411

Take-home lead exposure among children with relatives employed at a battery recycling facility - Puerto Rico, 2011.  

PubMed

The recycling of lead has increased during the past 20 years, with more workers and their families potentially being exposed to lead from recycling facilities, including facilities that recycle lead-acid batteries. During November 2010-May 2011, four voluntary blood lead screening clinics for children of employees of a battery recycling facility in Puerto Rico were conducted. A total of 227 persons from 78 families had blood lead tests. Among 68 children aged <6 years, 11 (16%) had confirmed blood lead levels (BLLs) ?10 µg/dL, the BLL at which CDC recommended individual intervention to reduce BLLs in 2010, and 39 (57%) children aged <6 years had venous or capillary BLLs ?5 µg/dL, the reference value for elevated BLLs in children established by CDC in 2012. To determine whether take-home lead exposure contributed to the children's BLLs of ?10 µg/dL, vehicle and household environmental samples were collected and analyzed. Eighty-five percent of vehicle dust samples and 49% of home dust samples exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) level of concern of ?40 µg/ft² (430.6 µg/m²) [corrected]. EPA began clean-up of employee homes and vehicles, focusing first on homes with children with BLLs ?10 µg/dL. EPA also required that the company set up shower facilities, shoe washes, and clean changing areas at the battery recycling facility. Lastly, CDC assigned a case manager to provide education, environmental follow-up, and case management of all children with BLLs ?5 µg/dL. On average, children's BLLs have decreased 9.9 µg/dL since being enrolled in case management. PMID:23190570

2012-11-30

412

Food web structure in exotic and native mangroves: A Hawaii-Puerto Rico comparison  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Plant invasions can fundamentally alter detrital inputs and the structure of detritus-based food webs. We examined the detrital pathways in mangrove food webs in native (Puerto Rican) and introduced (Hawaiian) Rhizophora mangle forests using a dual isotope approach and a mixing model. Based on trophic-level fractionation of 0-1??? for ?? 13C and 2-3??? for ?? 15N, among the invertebrates, only nematodes, oligochaetes, and nereid polychaetes from native mangroves exhibited stable isotopes consistent with a mangrove-derived diet. Certain fauna, in particular tubificid oligochaetes, had ?? 13C values consistent with the consumption of mangrove leaves, but they were depleted in 15N, suggesting their primary nitrogen source was low in 15N, and was possibly N 2-fixing bacteria. In introduced mangroves, all feeding groups appeared to rely heavily on non-mangrove sources, especially phytoplankton inputs. Mixing model results and discriminant analysis showed clear separation of introduced and native mangrove sites based on differential food source utilization within feeding groups, with stronger and more diverse use of benthic foods observed in native forests. Observed differences between native and invasive mangrove food webs may be due to Hawaiian detritivores being poorly adapted to utilizing the tannin-rich, nitrogen-poor mangrove detritus. In addition, differential utilization of mangrove detritus between native and introduced mangroves may be a consequence of forest age. We postulate that increasing mangrove forest age may promote diversification of bacterial food webs important in N and S cycling. Our results also suggest a potentially important role for sulfur bacteria in supporting the most abundant infaunal consumers, nematodes, in the most mature systems. ?? 2007 Springer-Verlag.

Demopoulos, A. W. J.; Fry, B.; Smith, C. R.

2007-01-01

413

Periodontal disease, hypertension and blood pressure among older adults in Puerto Rico  

PubMed Central

Background Current scientific evidence addressing the relation between periodontitis and hypertension is limited to a few studies producing inconsistent results. Methods All participants of an on-going representative cohort of Puerto Rican elderly who were 70 years and older and residing in San Juan metropolitan area were invited to this cross-sectional study. Periodontal probing depth (PD) and attachment loss (AL) were summarized using CDC-AAP definition for severe periodontitis (?2 teeth with AL ?6mm and ?1 tooth with PD ?5mm). We averaged three repeated blood pressure (BP) measurements taken using a standardized auscultatory method. Information on hypertension history, use of anti-hypertensive medications and potential confounders (age, gender, smoking, heavy and binge drinking, diabetes, utilization of preventive dental services, flossing, body mass index, fruit and vegetable, whole wheat bread and high-fiber cereal consumption) was collected during in-person interviews. High BP was defined as average systolic BP ?140 mmHg or diastolic ?90 mmHg. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to study the relation between severe periodontitis, hypertension history and high BP. Results The study population comprised 182 adults. In multivariate analysis, there was no association between severe periodontitis and hypertension history (OR=0.99, 95% CI: 0.40–2.48). Severe periodontitis was associated with high BP, with OR of 2.93 (95% CI: 1.25–6.84), after adjusting for age, gender, smoking, and binge drinking. This association was stronger when restricted to those with hypertension or taking anti-hypertensive medications: OR=4.20 (95% CI: 1.28–13.80). Conclusion Our results suggest that periodontitis may contribute to poor blood pressure control among older adults.

Rivas-Tumanyan, Sona; Campos, Maribel; Zevallos, Juan C.; Joshipura, Kaumudi J.

2012-01-01

414

[Health status and functional limitations in the elderly population of the University Region of Health of Puerto Rico: methodologic aspects and prevalence estimates].  

PubMed

In order to plan the health services for the elderly population, it is necessary to quantify their health status and their functional capacity. In Puerto Rico, few epidemiological studies have been conducted regarding functional capacity and chronic diseases in the elderly population. One of the difficulties to undertake these studies is the high cost and risks to move this population for clinical exams, in addition to the methodology limitation of self-report in the elderly population. This study shows the use of logistic regression to estimate the prevalence of chronic diseases and functional capacity, when the observed data are not consisted with the planed sampling scheme. Four hundred and eighty-seven elderly persons (65 yr. and over) were interviewed in the municipalities of Canóvanas, Carolina, Loíza and Trujillo Alto in Puerto