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1

Active Faults in Eastern Hispaniola: The Hispaniola-Puerto Rico Microplate Boundary?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An extensive tract of limestone of mostly Pleistocene-Recent age covers the Eastern part of the Dominican Republic. Numerous distinctive marine terraces outcrop along the southern and eastern coast, the lowest of which has been dated at about 125Ka. In the eastern area, the highest terrace is about 50m asl, is very variable in elevation, and correlates with a terrace of about 50 m asl along the southern coast. This feature might correlate with a feature of similar height on the Island of Marie Galante in the Lesser Antilles, dated at 250Ka. Manipulation of 3 arc-sec grid of SRTM land data and a 12 arc-sec grid of marine data reveals the location of the upper marine terrace as well as numerous scarps with 10's of meters of relief tending WNW across the region. The 2nd derivative of the relief grid is used to objectively identify the location of the upper terrace, which is compared to the elevation grid to develop an along escarpment profile of terrace elevation. If undisturbed, this feature should be contour parallel, that is all at the same elevation. Systematic elevation changes along profile suggest titling and numerous abrupt vertical (~30-50m) and at least one horizontal offset (375m) of this feature. Terrace displacing scarps can be traced many kilometers from offshore, across the coast paralleling marine terraces, and continuing inland as linear features that I interpret as active normal faults cutting the limestone platform. Five systems of normal faults have been identified in this manner, the longest of which may be capable of generating earthquakes of about magnitude 7-7 1/4. If the age of the upper terrace is roughly about 250Ka, then the observed horizontal displacements of about 375 meters suggest a rate of fault motion on the order of mm"s/yr for each of the5 faults. This total rate of deformation of several mm/yr is similar to the rate of deformation calculated from GPS studies for the rate of motion between the Hispaniola and Puerto Rico microplates, suggesting that much of the inter-microplate motion is not contained to the offshore regions of the Mona Passage, but rather passes on shore in the eastern part of the Dominican Republic.

McCann, W. R.

2007-12-01

2

Manatee Mortality in Puerto Rico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trichechus manatus  ) in Puerto Rico is mortality due to human activities. We assessed 90 cases of manatee strandings in Puerto Rico based on\\u000a historical data and a coordinated carcass salvage effort from 1990 through 1995. We determined patterns of mortality, including\\u000a type of event, condition of carcasses, spatial and temporal distribution, gender, size\\/age class, and the cause of death.\\u000a The

Antonio A. Mignucci-Giannoni; Ruby A. Montoya-Ospina; Nilda M. Jiménez-Marrero; Marta A. Rodríguez-López; Robert K. Bonde

2000-01-01

3

The northwest trending north Boquerón Bay-Punta Montalva Fault Zone; A through going active fault system in southwestern Puerto Rico  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The North Boquerón Bay–Punta Montalva fault zone has been mapped crossing the Lajas Valley in southwest Puerto Rico. Identification of the fault was based upon detailed analysis of geophysical data, satellite images, and field mapping. The fault zone consists of a series of Cretaceous bedrock faults that reactivated and deformed Miocene limestone and Quaternary alluvial fan sediments. The fault zone is seismically active (local magnitude greater than 5.0) with numerous locally felt earthquakes. Focal mechanism solutions suggest strain partitioning with predominantly east–west left-lateral displacements with small normal faults striking mostly toward the northeast. Northeast-trending fractures and normal faults can be found in intermittent streams that cut through the Quaternary alluvial fan deposits along the southern margin of the Lajas Valley, an east–west-trending 30-km-long fault-controlled depression. Areas of preferred erosion within the alluvial fan trend toward the west-northwest parallel to the onland projection of the North Boquerón Bay fault. The North Boquerón Bay fault aligns with the Punta Montalva fault southeast of the Lajas Valley. Both faults show strong southward tilting of Miocene strata. On the western end, the Northern Boquerón Bay fault is covered with flat-lying Holocene sediments, whereas at the southern end the Punta Montalva fault shows left-lateral displacement of stream drainage on the order of a few hundred meters.

Roig?Silva, Coral Marie; Asencio, Eugenio; Joyce, James

2013-01-01

4

Tina Visita a Puerto Rico (Tina Visits Puerto Rico).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This series of five children's readers is designed to be used by Spanish-speaking children in a bilingual elementary school setting. The story is about an anthropomorphic salamandar who leaves New York to visit Puerto Rico. The plane trip and her visits to several specific towns are chronicled in the readers. A preface to the teacher is included.…

Cadilla de Ruibal, Carmen Alicia

5

40 CFR 81.355 - Puerto Rico.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Section...otherwise noted. Puerto Rico—Ozone (1-Hour Standard)2 Designated...noted. 2 The 1-hour ozone standard is revoked effective...Rico AQCR X Puerto Rico—Ozone (8-Hour Standard)...

2011-07-01

6

Manatee mortality in Puerto Rico  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The most pressing problem in the effective management of the West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus) in Puerto Rico is mortality due to human activities. We assessed 90 cases of manatee strandings in Puerto Rico based on historical data and a coordinated carcass salvage effort from 1990 through 1995. We determined patterns of mortality, including type of event, condition of carcasses, spatial and temporal distribution, gender, size/age class, and the cause of death. The spatial distribution of stranding events was not uniform, with the north, northeast, and south coasts having the highest numbers. Six clusters representing the highest incidence included the areas of Fajardo and Ceiba, Bahia de Jobos, Toa Baja, Guayanilla, Cabo Rojo, and Rio Grande to Luquillo. The number of reported cases has increased at an average rate of 9.6%/yr since 1990. The seasonality of stranding events showed a bimodal pattern, from February through April and in August and September. Most identified causes of death were due to human interaction, especially captures and watercraft collisions. Natural causes usually involved dependent calves. From 1990 through 1995, most deaths were attributed to watercraft collisions. A reduction in anthropogenic mortality of this endangered species can be accomplished only through education and a proactive management and conservation plan that includes law enforcement, mortality assessment, scientific research, rescue and rehabilitation, and inter- and intraagency cooperation.

Mignucci-Giannoni, A. A.; Montoya-Ospina, R. A.; Jimenez-Marrero, N. M.; Rodriguez-Lopez, M.; Williams, E.H., Jr.; Bonde, R.K.

2000-01-01

7

Marine mammals of Puerto Rico: a bibliography  

SciTech Connect

This bibliography is the product of a literature survey on marine mammals at a proposed OTEC site near Punta Tuna, Puerto Rico. Included are reports of mammal sightings and strandings from Puerto Rico and adjacent Caribbean islands, reports containing information on distribution and abundance migration routes, and feeding ecology of those species known from the area. A few works on the general biology of marine mammals are also included. 96 references.

Payne, S.F.

1981-08-01

8

Universidad de Puerto Rico Recinto de Mayagez  

E-print Network

abril de 2011 Declaraciones de la Red Sísmica de Puerto Rico sobre enjambre sísmico en Zona de Falla de y 5 de abril de 2011 asociados a un enjambre sísmico en la Zona de la Falla de los 19°N (ZF19N). Un abril, hasta el día de hoy, la RSPR ha localizado 51 sismos en la Región de Puerto Rico y las Islas

Gilbes, Fernando

9

Collisional zones in Puerto Rico and the northern Caribbean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Puerto Rico is an amalgamation of island arc terranes that has recorded the deformational and tectonic history of the North American-Caribbean Plate boundary. Four collisional zones indicate the contractional events that have occurred at the plate boundary. Metamorphism and deformation of Middle Jurassic to Early Cretaceous oceanic lithosphere during the Early Cretaceous indicate the earliest collisional event. Then, an ophiolitic mélange, mostly comprised of blocks of the metamorphosed oceanic lithosphere, was formed and emplaced in the backarc region during the Turonian-Coniacian deformational event. A possible collision with a buoyant block in the North American Plate caused late Maastrichtian-early Paleocene contraction that created fold-and-thrust belts and the remobilization and uplift of serpentinite bodies in the Southwest Block. Late Eocene-early Oligocene transpression was localized along the Southern and Northern Puerto Rico fault zones, which occur north and south of large granodiorite intrusions in the strong Central Block. The deformation was accommodated in pure shear domains of fold-and-thrust belts and conjugate strike-slip faults, and simple shear domains of large mostly left-lateral faults. In addition, it reactivated faults in the weak Southwest Block. This island-wide transpression is the result of a Greater Antilles arc and continental North American collision. The kinematic model of the structures described in Puerto Rico correlate with some structures in Hispaniola and Cuba, and shows how the northern boundary of the Caribbean Plate was shortened by collisions with continental lithosphere of the North American Plate throughout its history. The tectonic evolution of the Greater Antilles shows a history of collisions, in which the latest collision accretes Cuba to the North American Plate, reorganizes the plate boundary, and deforms with transpression Hispaniola and Puerto Rico. The latest collision in Puerto Rico shows the case in which an arc collides obliquely with buoyant crust producing left-lateral transpression and converges obliquely with dense oceanic lithosphere.

Laó-Dávila, Daniel A.

2014-10-01

10

A Collector's Vision of Puerto Rico  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Smithsonian Institution's National Museum of American History provides this site, a glimpse of Puerto Rican history and culture as seen through 175 artifacts from the 3,200-artifact collection of Teodoro Vidal, an aide to Puerto Rico's first governor Luis Munoz Marin. Vidal's collecting activities span more than 40 years, and his artifacts date from the 18th through the 20th centuries. The collection can be browsed or searched (the easiest access to the entire collection is through the index browse), and it is contextualized through explanatory sections on Puerto Rican history, religion, every day life, carnivals, music, tourism, and "the Great Puerto Rican family."

11

MISR Browse Images: Puerto Rico Dust Experiment (PRiDE)  

MISR Browse Images: Puerto Rico Dust Experiment (PRiDE) These MISR Browse images ... overview of the region observed during the Puerto Rico Dust Experiment (PRiDE) field campaign. PRiDE was a study of the radiative, ...

2013-04-02

12

University of Puerto Rico School of Pharmacy and Walgreens Community Pharmacy Residency Program (PGY1), San Juan, Puerto Rico  

E-print Network

University of Puerto Rico School of Pharmacy and Walgreens Community Pharmacy Residency Program (PGY1), San Juan, Puerto Rico University of Puerto Rico and Walgreens Community Pharmacy Residency pharmacy setting. The residency is aca- demically affiliated and financially supported, in part

Quirk, Gregory J.

13

77 FR 61381 - Foreign-Trade Zone 7-Mayaguez, Puerto Rico, Authorization of Production Activity, Baxter...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Rico, Authorization of Production Activity, Baxter Healthcare of Puerto Rico, (Pharmaceutical and Nutritional Intravenous Bags and Administration Sets); Aibonito and Jayuya, Puerto Rico The Puerto Rico Industrial Development Company, grantee of...

2012-10-09

14

University of Puerto Rico Mayagez Campus  

E-print Network

of the Post- Eocene, sediments and igneous rocks from the Eocene, rocks from the Cretacic, and serpentinite of sediment influx and hard coral cover analyses of Boquerón and La Parguera, Puerto Rico" (Morelock, 1998). The major purpose of this project was to correlate coral cover and sediment inputs. However the application

Gilbes, Fernando

15

Puerto Rico Water Resources & Environmetal Research Institute  

E-print Network

Innovation Grant from the Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS). Establish surface water collector, in the meantime trained personnel from the Department of Natural Resources who will be assuming a leading rolePuerto Rico Water Resources & Environmetal Research Institute Annual Technical Report FY 2011

16

University of Puerto Rico Mayagez Campus  

E-print Network

area: Mayagüez Bay, Puerto Rico (images provided by the GERS Laboratory) In the previous part Imaging Spectroradiometer) images. The algorithm was developed by Miller and McKee in 2004. The equation is reasonably robust in coastal and inland waters because scattering from suspended materials frequently

Gilbes, Fernando

17

Paleomagnetic evidence for tertiary anticlockwise rotation in southwest Puerto Rico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Late Cretaceous and Eocene paleomagnetic results from calcareous mudstone, limestone, and volcaniclastic rocks in southwest Puerto Rico yield a significant anticlockwise discordance in magnetization direction relative to North American reference data. Progressive thermal demagnetization has revealed stable, characteristic high blocking temperature magnetization components that display an intrasite bipolarity. The direction of this stable magnetization in tilt-corrected coordinates is consistently either northwest and down, or southeast and up. The pole position (39.4° N.Lat.; 209.6° E.Long.; dp = 9.3° dm = 16.7° N = 10) suggests post Eocene anticlockwise rotation of the sampling region relative to North America by 45° about a vertical axis. A rotating block domain model in which north-south compression is superimposed on WNW-ESE strike-slip faults in SW Puerto Rico can explain the inferred rotation.

Van Fossen, Mickey C.; Channell, James E. T.; Schellekens, Johannes H.

1989-08-01

18

La evolucion del modernismo en Puerto Rico  

E-print Network

a echar raices para el 1911. La produccion modernista se recogio en las revistas Puerto Rico ilustrado (1910 hasta la actualidad) y muy en especial, en la Revista de las Antillas (1913-1914). Varios fueron los poetas que sobresalieron dentro del.... Pero su produccion no se limita a estas tres obras; Ruben Dario cultivo varios generos literarios corno lo son el cuento poematico, la prosa, la cronica, el libro de viajes y la semblanza biografica mezclada con el comentario critico (Lazo 29...

Gonzalez-Hernandez, Miriam Mercedes

1989-01-01

19

Vertical motions of the Puerto Rico Trench and Puerto Rico and their cause  

E-print Network

pull forces. The Puerto Rico trench (PRT), with water depths of up to 8340 m, is the deepest part of the Atlantic Ocean, yet the relative plate motion along the PRT is predominantly strike slip with only a small trenches are associated with very large negative free-air gravity anomalies. The PRT, despite being less

ten Brink, Uri S.

20

DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING UNIVERSITY OF PUERTO RICO -MAYAGUEZ  

E-print Network

DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING UNIVERSITY OF PUERTO RICO - MAYAGUEZ CURRICULUM VITAE NAME of Antonio Hernández Virella & Associates; Period 1983 to 1986 -Civil Engineer at the Puerto Rico Aqueduct And Sewer Authority, San Juan, PR; Period 1978-1983 -Civil Engineer at the Department of Transportation

Gilbes, Fernando

21

Women's Employment and Changing Gender Relations in Puerto Rico  

Microsoft Academic Search

:This article discusses Helen Safa's analyses of the impact of development strategies and social policies on gender relations and women headed families in the Caribbean and Puerto Rico. The discussion focuses on findings of a research project regarding patterns of women's employment, autonomy, marital relations, family headship and poverty in Puerto Rico in the decade beginning in the year 2000,

Alice Colón Warren

2010-01-01

22

Women's Employment and Changing Gender Relations in Puerto Rico  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article discusses Helen Safa's analyses of the impact of development strategies and social policies on gender relations and women headed families in the Caribbean and Puerto Rico. The discussion focuses on findings of a research project regarding patterns of women's employment, autonomy, marital relations, family headship and poverty in Puerto Rico in the decade beginning in the year 2000,

Alice Colón Warren

2010-01-01

23

Walgreens and University of Puerto Rico School of Pharmacy Community Pharmacy Residency Program (PGY1), San Juan, Puerto Rico  

E-print Network

Walgreens and University of Puerto Rico School of Pharmacy Community Pharmacy Residency Program (PGY1), San Juan, Puerto Rico Walgreens Community Pharmacy Residency Program is a postgraduate training opportunity for pharmacists to enhance their skill set in the community pharmacy setting. The residency

Quirk, Gregory J.

24

Estimated water use in Puerto Rico, 2010  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Water-use data were aggregated for the 78 municipios of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico for 2010. Five major offstream categories were considered: public-supply water withdrawals and deliveries, domestic and industrial self-supplied water use, crop-irrigation water use, and thermoelectric-power freshwater use. One instream water-use category also was compiled: power-generation instream water use (thermoelectric saline withdrawals and hydroelectric power). Freshwater withdrawals for offstream use from surface-water [606 million gallons per day (Mgal/d)] and groundwater (118 Mgal/d) sources in Puerto Rico were estimated at 724 million gallons per day. The largest amount of freshwater withdrawn was by public-supply water facilities estimated at 677 Mgal/d. Public-supply domestic water use was estimated at 206 Mgal/d. Fresh groundwater withdrawals by domestic self-supplied users were estimated at 2.41 Mgal/d. Industrial self-supplied withdrawals were estimated at 4.30 Mgal/d. Withdrawals for crop irrigation purposes were estimated at 38.2 Mgal/d, or approximately 5 percent of all offstream freshwater withdrawals. Instream freshwater withdrawals by hydroelectric facilities were estimated at 556 Mgal/d and saline instream surface-water withdrawals for cooling purposes by thermoelectric-power facilities was estimated at 2,262 Mgal/d.

Molina-Rivera, Wanda L.

2014-01-01

25

Estimated Water Use in Puerto Rico, 2005  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Water-use data were compiled for the 78 municipios of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico for 2005. Five offstream categories were considered: public-supply water withdrawals and deliveries, domestic self-supplied water use, industrial self-supplied ground-water withdrawals, crop irrigation water use, and thermoelectric power freshwater use. One water-use category also was considered: power-generation instream water use (thermoelectric-saline withdrawals and hydroelectric power). Freshwater withdrawals and deliveries for offstream use from surface- and ground-water sources in Puerto Rico were estimated at 712 million gallons per day (Mgal/d). The largest amount of freshwater withdrawn was by public-supply water facilities and was estimated at 652 Mgal/d. The public-supply domestic water use was estimated at 347 Mgal/d. Fresh surface- and ground-water withdrawals by domestic self-supplied users were estimated at 2.1 Mgal/d and the industrial self-supplied withdrawals were estimated at 9.4 Mgal/d. Withdrawals for crop irrigation purposes were estimated at 45.2 Mgal/d, or approximately 6.3 percent of all offstream freshwater withdrawals. Instream freshwater withdrawals by hydroelectric facilities were estimated at 568 Mgal/d and saline instream surface-water withdrawals for cooling purposes by thermoelectric-power facilities was estimated at 2,288 Mgal/d.

Molina-Rivera, Wanda L.; Gómez-Gómez, Fernando

2008-01-01

26

Burden of stroke in Puerto Rico.  

PubMed

Stroke is the fifth leading cause of death and the first cause of long-term disability in Puerto Rico. Trained staff reviewed and independently validated the medical records of patients who had been hospitalized with possible stroke at any of the 20 largest hospitals located in Puerto Rico during 2007, 2009, and 2011. The mean age of the 5005 newly diagnosed stroke patients (51·2% female) was 70 years. At the time of hospitalization, women were 4½ years older, were less likely to be married (60·2% vs. 39·9%, P??100?mg/dL (65·7% vs. 57·5%) P?

Zevallos, Juan; Santiago, Fernando; González, Juan; Rodríguez, Abiezer; Pericchi, Luis; Rodríguez-Mercado, Rafael; Nobo, Ulises

2015-01-01

27

Kinematic analysis of serpentinite structures and the manifestation of transpression in southwestern Puerto Rico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Faults and shear zones recorded in the Monte del Estado and Río Guanajibo serpentinite masses in southwestern Puerto Rico show previously unrecognized southwestward tectonic transport. The orientations of planar and linear structures and the sense of slip along faults and shear zones determined by offset rock layers, drag folds in foliations, and steps in slickensided surfaces and/or S-C fabrics from 1846 shear planes studied at more than 300 stations reveal two predominant groups of faults: 1) northwesterly-striking thrust faults and easterly-striking left-lateral faults and, 2) northwesterly-striking right-lateral faults and easterly-striking thrust faults. Shortening and extension (P and T) axes calculated for geographic domains within the serpentinite reveal early north-trending shortening followed by southwestward-directed movement during which older structures were re-activated. The SW-directed shortening is attributed to transpression that accompanied Late Eocene left-lateral shearing of the serpentinite. A third, younger, group comprising fewer faults consists of northwesterly-striking left-lateral faults and north-directed thrusts that also may be related to the latest transpressional deformation within Puerto Rico. Deformational events in Puerto Rico correlate to tectonic events along the Caribbean-North American plate boundary.

Laó-Dávila, Daniel A.; Anderson, Thomas H.

2009-12-01

28

Puerto Rico Trench: Cruise Summary and Results  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This text reports on the two expeditions of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) Office of Ocean Exploration to map the Puerto Rico Trench, the deepest part of the Atlantic Ocean. Multibeam bathymetry and acoustic backscatter data were acquired as the expedition mapped the Caribbean plate, an entire tectonic province of the Earth. The featured section of the report is on the trench area and contains a three dimensional bathymetrical map of the trench. Other sections include observations of marine mammals, an introduction to and background information about the members of the expedition, a slide show that shows daily activities, and a summary of the trip containing a warning of the possibility of a tsunami producing underwater landslides in the area. The site is enhanced with photographs and maps.

Uri Brink

29

Late Quaternary seismic stratigraphy and structure of the western insular shelf margin of Puerto Rico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

725 km of high-resolution seismic data were collected over the insular shelf of western Puerto Rico to better understand its late Quaternary depositional and structural history. Due to low tectonic uplift rates of onshore areas in this region, well dated late Quaternary sediments and corals have only been identified in a few scattered onland localities around Puerto Rico. Seismic data from the Rio Anasco delta area of western Puerto Rico reveals four main units with characteristic stratal reflection terminations that total about 25 m in thickness. Because of a lack of well information, age estimates of these late Quaternary units are based on correlations with sea level curves derived from dated coral samples from Puerto Rico, St. Croix, and Antigua. Units include: Unit 1 - a gently folded and faulted basal section correlated to the Oliogene-early Pliocene? carbonate shelf of Puerto Rico; deeper penetration, industry MCS lines show that these rocks are deformed in a broad EW-trenching arch; Unit 2 - chaotic channel fill deposits in incisions related to the lowstand equivalent of the Rio Anasco likely formed during the Last Glacial Maximum about 25-15 ka; Unit 3 - roughly stratified deposits onlapping the top of Unit 2; these are interpreted as an estuarine facies deposited during Holocene sea level transgression; Unit 4 - highly stratified deposits related to progradation of the Anasco delta during sea level rise. The base of unit 4 is a downlap surface interpreted as a maximum flooding surface likely formed about 6 ka. East-northeast-striking faults are observed breaking the younger late Quaternary units in three separate zones off the west coast of Puerto Rico. Onland continuations of these faults have not been identified likely due to cultural overprint of natural scarps on late Quaternary floodplains.

Hanzlik, M.; Mann, P.; Abrams, L.; Grindlay, N.

2005-12-01

30

Catholicism and fertility in Puerto Rico.  

PubMed

This paper examines the association between fertility and religious affiliation among Puerto Ricans. Bongaarts' proximate determinants framework is used to compare religious categories on behaviors that directly affect fertility. We found no difference in recent fertility between Catholics and non-Catholics in Puerto Rico (total fertility rate = 2.5). We also found Catholics and non-Catholics to be similar on age at first marriage (23.3 and 23.4 years, respectively), contraceptive use (71 percent and 69 percent of married women currently contracepting), and breast-feeding practices (mean duration of breast-feeding of 4.4 and 4.3 months). Differences were observed between less committed and more committed Catholics in total fertility rate, age at first marriage, and contraceptive use, but these differences were not large and were in the opposite direction from the expected. Our findings support the theory of convergence of Catholic and non-Catholic fertility for the US. Our discrepancy with findings from the National Survey of Family Growth is evidence of the cultural diversity in the US Hispanic population and indicates the importance of disaggregating by ethnicity or national origin when studying this population. PMID:2764204

Herold, J M; Westoff, C F; Warren, C W; Seltzer, J

1989-09-01

31

Catholicism and fertility in Puerto Rico.  

PubMed Central

This paper examines the association between fertility and religious affiliation among Puerto Ricans. Bongaarts' proximate determinants framework is used to compare religious categories on behaviors that directly affect fertility. We found no difference in recent fertility between Catholics and non-Catholics in Puerto Rico (total fertility rate = 2.5). We also found Catholics and non-Catholics to be similar on age at first marriage (23.3 and 23.4 years, respectively), contraceptive use (71 percent and 69 percent of married women currently contracepting), and breast-feeding practices (mean duration of breast-feeding of 4.4 and 4.3 months). Differences were observed between less committed and more committed Catholics in total fertility rate, age at first marriage, and contraceptive use, but these differences were not large and were in the opposite direction from the expected. Our findings support the theory of convergence of Catholic and non-Catholic fertility for the US. Our discrepancy with findings from the National Survey of Family Growth is evidence of the cultural diversity in the US Hispanic population and indicates the importance of disaggregating by ethnicity or national origin when studying this population. PMID:2764204

Herold, J M; Westoff, C F; Warren, C W; Seltzer, J

1989-01-01

32

The quest for a job: an analysis of underemployment among Puerto Rican workers in Puerto Rico  

E-print Network

ABSTRACT The Quest for a Job: An Analysis of Underemployment Among Puerto Rican Workers in Puerto Rico. (May 1993) Hancy Luge Ramos, B. S. , Universidad de Puerto Rico, Mayaguez Chair of Advisory Committeet Dr. Steve H. Murdock The utilization of labor... States. Major implications and limitations of the results are discussed. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I wish to dedicate my thesis to my family; my husband, John RagsdaleJ Kathy Schifflett; Edli Colberg; my coassittee members; Dr. Steve Murdock, Dr. James Copp...

Lugo Ramos, Nancy

1993-01-01

33

78 FR 4966 - Puerto Rico Disaster #PR-00018  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Administrative declaration of a disaster for the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico dated 01/10/2013. Incident: Tropical Storm Sandy. Incident Period: 10/25/2012 through 10/26/2012. Effective Date: 01/10/2013. Physical Loan Application...

2013-01-23

34

76 FR 60513 - Puerto Rico; Emergency and Related Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency [Internal Agency Docket...Docket ID FEMA-2011-0001] Puerto Rico; Emergency and Related Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION:...

2011-09-29

35

75 FR 76517 - Puerto Rico Disaster Number PR-00012  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Commonwealth of Puerto Rico (FEMA-1946-DR), dated 10/26/2010. Incident: Severe Storms, Flooding, Mudslides, and Landslides associated with Tropical Storm Otto. Incident Period: 10/04/2010 through 10/08/2010. Effective Date:...

2010-12-08

36

76 FR 44647 - Puerto Rico Disaster #PR-00013  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Commonwealth of Puerto Rico (FEMA-4004-DR), dated 07/14/2011. Incident: Severe Storms, Flooding, Mudslides, and Landslides. Incident Period: 05/20/2011 through 06/08/2011. Effective Date: 07/14/2011. Physical Loan Application...

2011-07-26

37

76 FR 47286 - Puerto Rico Disaster Number PR-00013  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...the State of Puerto Rico (FEMA-4004-DR), dated 07/14/2011. Incident: Severe Storms, Flooding, Mudslides, and Landslides. Incident Period: 05/20/2011 through 06/08/2011. DATES: Effective Date: 07/28/2011. Physical Loan...

2011-08-04

38

75 FR 69733 - Puerto Rico Disaster #PR-00012  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Commonwealth of Puerto Rico (FEMA-1946-DR), dated 10/26/2010. Incident: Severe Storms, Flooding, Mudslides, and Landslides associated with Tropical Storm Otto. Incident Period: 10/04/2010 through 10/08/2010. DATES: Effective Date:...

2010-11-15

39

76 FR 55155 - Puerto Rico Disaster #PR-00014  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Carolina, Cayey, Loiza, Luquillo, San Juan. Contiguous Municipalities (Economic Injury Loans Only): Puerto Rico: Aguas Buenas, Aibonito, Catano, Ceiba, Cidra, Fajardo, Guayama, Guaynabo, Gurabo, Juncos, Las Piedras, Patillas, Rio...

2011-09-06

40

GIS application to bird conservation in Puerto Rico  

E-print Network

GIS application to bird conservation in Puerto Rico Idelfonso Ruiz, Adrianne Tossas and Ilse and their habitats Adelaide's Warbler #12;Important Bird Areas in PR Program established world-wide by Bird of international relevance for bird species conservation Puerto Rican Lizard Cuckoo #12;Expected outcome #12

Gilbes, Fernando

41

7 CFR 319.73-3 - Conditions for transit movement of certain products through Puerto Rico or Hawaii.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...certain products through Puerto Rico or Hawaii. 319.73-3 Section 319.73-3...certain products through Puerto Rico or Hawaii. (a) Mail. Samples of unroasted coffee that are transiting Hawaii or Puerto Rico en route to...

2011-01-01

42

7 CFR 319.73-3 - Conditions for transit movement of certain products through Puerto Rico or Hawaii.  

...certain products through Puerto Rico or Hawaii. 319.73-3 Section 319.73-3...certain products through Puerto Rico or Hawaii. (a) Mail. Samples of unroasted coffee that are transiting Hawaii or Puerto Rico en route to...

2014-01-01

43

7 CFR 319.73-3 - Conditions for transit movement of certain products through Puerto Rico or Hawaii.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...certain products through Puerto Rico or Hawaii. 319.73-3 Section 319.73-3...certain products through Puerto Rico or Hawaii. (a) Mail. Samples of unroasted coffee that are transiting Hawaii or Puerto Rico en route to...

2013-01-01

44

7 CFR 319.73-3 - Conditions for transit movement of certain products through Puerto Rico or Hawaii.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...certain products through Puerto Rico or Hawaii. 319.73-3 Section 319.73-3...certain products through Puerto Rico or Hawaii. (a) Mail. Samples of unroasted coffee that are transiting Hawaii or Puerto Rico en route to...

2012-01-01

45

7 CFR 319.73-3 - Conditions for transit movement of certain products through Puerto Rico or Hawaii.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...certain products through Puerto Rico or Hawaii. 319.73-3 Section 319.73-3...certain products through Puerto Rico or Hawaii. (a) Mail. Samples of unroasted coffee that are transiting Hawaii or Puerto Rico en route to...

2010-01-01

46

77 FR 63290 - Foreign-Trade Zone 61-San Juan, Puerto Rico; Authorization of Production Activity, Pfizer...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Zone 61--San Juan, Puerto Rico; Authorization of Production Activity, Pfizer Pharmaceuticals, LLC (Subzone 61A), (Ibuprofen Pharmaceutical Products), Guayama, Puerto Rico On June 13, 2012, the Puerto Rico Trade and Export Company, grantee...

2012-10-16

47

78 FR 30862 - Foreign-Trade Zone 61-San Juan, Puerto Rico; Application for Subzone; Janssen Ortho LLC; Gurabo...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Zone 61--San Juan, Puerto Rico; Application for Subzone; Janssen Ortho LLC; Gurabo, Puerto Rico An application has been submitted...requesting special-purpose subzone status for the facility of Janssen Ortho LLC located in Gurabo, Puerto Rico. The...

2013-05-23

48

Puerto Rico and Florida manatees represent genetically distinct groups  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus) populations in Florida (T. m. latirostris) and Puerto Rico (T. m. manatus) are considered distinct subspecies and are listed together as endangered under the United States Endangered Species Act. Sustained management and conservation efforts for the Florida subspecies have led to the suggested reclassification of the species to a threatened or delisted status. However, the two populations are geographically distant, morphologically distinct, and habitat degradation and boat strikes continue to threaten the Puerto Rico population. Here, 15 microsatellite markers and mitochondrial control region sequences were used to determine the relatedness of the two populations and investigate the genetic diversity and phylogeographic organization of the Puerto Rico population. Highly divergent allele frequencies were identified between Florida and Puerto Rico using microsatellite (F ST = 0.16; R ST = 0.12 (P ST = 0.66; ? ST = 0.50 (P E = 0.45; NA = 3.9), were similar, but lower than those previously identified in Florida (HE = 0.48, NA = 4.8). Within Puerto Rico, the mitochondrial genetic diversity values (? = 0.001; h = 0.49) were slightly lower than those previously reported (? = 0.002; h = 0.54) and strong phylogeographic structure was identified (F ST global = 0.82; ? ST global = 0.78 (P < 0.001)). The genetic division with Florida, low diversity, small population size (N = 250), and distinct threats and habitat emphasize the need for separate protections in Puerto Rico. Conservation efforts including threat mitigation, migration corridors, and protection of subpopulations could lead to improved genetic variation in the endangered Puerto Rico manatee population.

Hunter, Margaret E.; Mignucci-Giannoni, Antonio A.; Tucker, Kimberly Pause; King, Timothy L.; Bonde, Robert K.; Gray, Brian A.; McGuire, Peter M.

2012-01-01

49

Limnology of Laguna Tortuguero, Puerto Rico  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The principal chemical, physical and biological characteristics, and the hydrology of Laguna Tortuguero, Puerto Rico, were studied from 1974-75. The lagoon, with an area of 2.24 square kilometers and a volume of about 2.68 million cubic meters, contains about 5 percent of seawater. Drainage through a canal on the north side averages 0.64 cubic meters per second per day, flushing the lagoon about 7.5 times per year. Chloride and sodium are the principal ions in the water, ranging from 300 to 700 mg/liter and 150 to 400 mg/liter, respectively. Among the nutrients, nitrogen averages about 1.7 mg/liter, exceeding phosphorus in a weight ratio of 170:1. About 10 percent of the nitrogen and 40 percent of the phosphorus entering the lagoon is retained. The bottom sediments, with a volume of about 4.5 million cubic meters, average 0.8 and 0.014 percent nitrogen and phosphorus, respectively. (Woodard-USGS)

Quinones-Marquez, Ferdinand; Fuste, Luis A.

1978-01-01

50

Legionella in Puerto Rico cooling towers  

SciTech Connect

Water samples from air conditioning cooling towers receiving different treatment protocols on five large municipal buildings in San Juan, Puerto Rico were assayed for various species and serogroups of Legionella spp. using direct immunofluorescence. Several water quality parameters were also measured with each sample. Guinea pigs were inoculated with water samples to confirm pathogenicity and recover viable organisms. Legionella pneumophila (1-6), L. bozemanii, L. micdadei, L. dumoffii, and L. gormanii were observed in at least one of the cooling towers. L. pneumophila was the most abundant species, reaching 10{sup 5} cells/ml, within the range that is considered potentially pathogenic to humans. A significantly higher density of L. pneumophila was observed in the cooling tower water that was not being treated with biocides. Percent respiration (INT) and total cell activity (AODC), were inversely correlated with bacterial density. This study demonstrates that Legionella spp. are present in tropical air-conditioning cooling systems, and without continuous biocide treatment may reach densities that present a health risk.

Negron-Alviro, A.; Perez-Suarez, I.; Hazen, T.C. [Univ. of Puerto Rico, Rio Piedras (Puerto Rico)

1988-12-31

51

Geology of Isla de Mona, Puerto Rico  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Isla de Mona is a carbonate island located in the Mona Passage 68 km west of Puerto Rico. The tectonically uplifted island is 12 km by 5 km, with an area of 55 km2, and forms a raised flat-topped platform or meseta. The meseta tilts gently to the south and is bounded by near vertical cliffs on all sides. These cliffs rise from 80 m above sea level on the north to 20 m above the sea on the southern coast. Along the southwestern and western side of the island a three- to six-meter-high Pleistocene fossil reef abuts the base of the cliff to form a narrow coastal plain. The meseta itself consists of two Mio-Pliocene carbonate units, the lower Isla de Mona Dolomite and the upper Lirio Limestone. Numerous karst features, including a series of flank margin caves primarily developed at the Lirio Limestone/Isla de Mona Dolomite contact, literally ring the periphery of the island.

Frank, E.F.; Wicks, C.; Mylroie, J.; Troester, J.; Alexander, E.C., Jr.; Carew, J.L.

1998-01-01

52

Therapeutic aphaeresis: experience in Puerto Rico.  

PubMed

The Puerto Rico (PR) Region of the American Red Cross (ARC) evaluated the therapeutic aphaeresis program and we conducted 1609 procedures in 30 months between 2011 and 2013. The primary objective of the present review was to demonstrate our data and compare it to the reviewed medical evidence regarding the adequacy of applying therapeutic aphaeresis (TA) for chosen indications based on data in the literature. It was concluded that our service is very active and appropriate, and the number of TA's done varies and it's not steady year-by-year. The indications are the same as most common indicators across the World and the adverse reactions are too. We are the only ones doing apheresis in the pediatric population of PR. No deaths have been reported from our procedures. We understand that clinicians do not have enough knowledge about TA and tend to apply TA's in many cases as a last resort treatment for many diseases. Education at medical faculties and of hospital staff (nurses and medical technologists) about TA is very important. There is a need for symposia about this topic to the medical and general community. PMID:24667158

Morales Borges, Raúl H; Nieves, Gladys Colón; Martínez, María Rodríguez; Ramos, Rosa Vargas; Pedraza Otero, Linda I; Vargas, Carmen Nieves; Pedraza, Glorimar Ortiz; Jiménez, Jairo J Morales

2014-06-01

53

42 CFR 412.220 - Special treatment of certain hospitals located in Puerto Rico.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Special treatment of certain hospitals located in Puerto Rico...MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES...PAYMENT SYSTEMS FOR INPATIENT HOSPITAL SERVICES Prospective Payment...Inpatient Operating Costs for Hospitals Located in Puerto Rico...

2010-10-01

54

33 CFR 165.778 - Security Zone; Port of Mayaguez, Puerto Rico.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Security Zone; Port of Mayaguez, Puerto Rico. 165...HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS... § 165.778 Security Zone; Port of Mayaguez, Puerto Rico....

2011-07-01

55

33 CFR 165.778 - Security Zone; Port of Mayaguez, Puerto Rico.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Security Zone; Port of Mayaguez, Puerto Rico. 165...HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS... § 165.778 Security Zone; Port of Mayaguez, Puerto Rico....

2013-07-01

56

33 CFR 165.778 - Security Zone; Port of Mayaguez, Puerto Rico.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Security Zone; Port of Mayaguez, Puerto Rico. 165...HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS... § 165.778 Security Zone; Port of Mayaguez, Puerto Rico....

2012-07-01

57

33 CFR 165.778 - Security Zone; Port of Mayaguez, Puerto Rico.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Security Zone; Port of Mayaguez, Puerto Rico. 165...HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS... § 165.778 Security Zone; Port of Mayaguez, Puerto Rico....

2010-07-01

58

33 CFR 165.778 - Security Zone; Port of Mayaguez, Puerto Rico.  

...2014-07-01 false Security Zone; Port of Mayaguez, Puerto Rico. 165...HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS... § 165.778 Security Zone; Port of Mayaguez, Puerto Rico....

2014-07-01

59

42 CFR 412.210 - Puerto Rico rates for Federal fiscal years 1989 through 2003.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...located in large urban, other urban, or rural areas within Puerto Rico, as...hospitals in large urban, other urban, and rural areas within Puerto Rico equal...rates for large urban, other urban, and rural hospitals. For each...

2011-10-01

60

42 CFR 412.210 - Puerto Rico rates for Federal fiscal years 1989 through 2003.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...located in large urban, other urban, or rural areas within Puerto Rico, as...hospitals in large urban, other urban, and rural areas within Puerto Rico equal...rates for large urban, other urban, and rural hospitals. For each...

2010-10-01

61

42 CFR 412.210 - Puerto Rico rates for Federal fiscal years 1989 through 2003.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...located in large urban, other urban, or rural areas within Puerto Rico, as...hospitals in large urban, other urban, and rural areas within Puerto Rico equal...rates for large urban, other urban, and rural hospitals. For each...

2013-10-01

62

42 CFR 412.210 - Puerto Rico rates for Federal fiscal years 1989 through 2003.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...located in large urban, other urban, or rural areas within Puerto Rico, as...hospitals in large urban, other urban, and rural areas within Puerto Rico equal...rates for large urban, other urban, and rural hospitals. For each...

2012-10-01

63

Lessons Learned from the Puerto Rico Battery Energy Storage System  

SciTech Connect

The Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority (PREPA) installed a battery energy storage system in 1994 at a substation near San Juan, Puerto Rico. It was patterned after two other large energy storage systems operated by electric utilities in California and Germany. The Puerto Rico facility is presently the largest operating battery storage system in the world and has successfully provided frequency control, voltage regulation, and spinning reseme to the Caribbean island. The system further proved its usefulness to the PREPA network in the fall of 1998 in the aftermath of Hurricane Georges. However, the facility has suffered accelerated cell failures in the past year and PREPA is committed to restoring the plant to full capacity. This represents the first repowering of a large utility battery facility. PREPA and its vendors and contractors learned many valuable lessons during all phases of project development and operation, which are summarized in this paper.

Boyes, John D.; De Anda, Mindi Farber; Torres, Wenceslao

1999-08-11

64

EMERGENT TSUNAMI WARNING SYSTEM FOR PUERTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS  

Microsoft Academic Search

A tsunami warning system has been under development for the Puerto Rico\\/Virgin Islands (PRVI) region since 2000 as part of the Puerto Rico Tsunami Warning and Mitigation Program (PRTWMP). This system is in response to the historical tsunamis which have impacted Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands and the potential for tsunamis to affect the region in the future. This

CHRISTA G. VON HILLEBRANDT-ANDRADE; VÍCTOR HUÉRFANO MORENO

65

Prepared in cooperation with the PUERTO RICO DEPARTMENT OF NATURAL AND  

E-print Network

JohnE.Parks,June1993. #12;Water, Sediment, and Nutrient Discharge Characteristics of Rivers in Puerto Rico, M.C., 2005, Water, Sediment, and Nutrient Discharge Characteristics of Rivers in Puerto Rico Surface-WaterDischargeinPuertoRico............................................................. 37 RiverSediment

66

Size distribution of submarine landslides and its implication to tsunami hazard in Puerto Rico  

E-print Network

Size distribution of submarine landslides and its implication to tsunami hazard in Puerto Rico Uri landslides to the north shore of Puerto Rico. Citation: ten Brink, U. S., E. L. Geist, and B. D. Andrews (2006), Size distribution of submarine landslides and its implication to tsunami hazard in Puerto Rico

67

Tectonic and Diapiric Forcing of Western Puerto Rico Landscape  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Puerto Rico's divide bifurcates in the west into a southern higher-elevation divide and a lower-elevation northern divide. The southern divide trends along exposures of weak, low density serpentinized ocean basement of the Monte de Estado Range forming the highest elevations in western Puerto Rico. Evidence of long-term active uplift along the serpentinite-cored divide is abundant. Streams draining Monte de Estado (MdE) radiate outward from an ellipse centered on the serpentinite exposure. The Rio Anasco draining the north flank of MdE is highly asymmetric, displaying a large scale tilt to the north while the Rio Guanajibo draining its south flank is highly asymmetric with tilt to the south. Subbasins of these rivers are asymmetric, tilted away from the core of the serpentinite exposures. Hypsometric integrals of the Anasco and Guanajibo basins are higher than basins of central and eastern Puerto Rico indicating an inequilibrium condition. The concurrence of morphologic indicators of active uplift (stream patterns and basin asymmetry and hypsometry) with the distribution of topographically elevated low-density serpentinite exposures indicates that MdE is experiencing active diapiric uplift. Northwestern Puerto Rico differs morphologically from the rest of the island. Underlain by island arc crust with exposed igneous and sedimentary strata similar to that of the eastern two-thirds of the island, the Atlantic shore has sea cliffs at the base of a coastal plateau west of the Rio Manati. Rivers draining western Puerto Rico have strikingly lower ratio to valley floor widths to valley height than the rivers to the east indicating incision in response to uplift is greater to the west. Western-most rivers have closer outlet spacing, lower distances from outlets to divide and their watershed have higher hypsometric intergrals all indicating that northwest Puerto Rico is actively uplifting at a rate greater than the eastern two-thirds of the island. North and south flowing tributaries to the Rio Culibrinas display drainage asymmetry reflecting an eastward tilt to northwestern Puerto Rico. This tilt and the uplift of northwest Puerto Rico is consistent with its position on the east flank of the Mona Rift footwall uplift.

Rogers, R. D.; Macinnes, S.; Hibbert, A.

2008-12-01

68

Neotectonics of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands, northeastern Caribbean, from GPS geodesy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The boundary between the North American and Caribbean plates is characterized primarily by left-lateral motion along predominantly east-west striking faults. Seismicity and marine geophysical survey data are consistent with at least two, and possibly three, microplates in the diffuse boundary zone in the northeastern Caribbean: (1) the Gonave, (2) the Hispaniola, and (3) the Puerto Rico-northern Virgin Islands (PRVI). We

Pamela E. Jansma; Glen S. Mattioli; Alberto Lopez; Charles DeMets; Timothy H. Dixon; Paul Mann; Eric Calais

2000-01-01

69

Forest recovery in abandoned tropical pastures in Puerto Rico  

Microsoft Academic Search

The conversion of tropical forests into pastures has increased dramatically in the last 20 years. Once these lands are abandoned it is not clear if they will recover to forest or if they will become permanent grasslands. Economic changes in Puerto Rico have led to the abandonment of agricultural lands over the last 60 years, providing an opportunity to assess

T. Mitchell Aide; Jess K. Zimmerman; Luis Herrera; Maydee Rosario; Mayra Serrano

1995-01-01

70

CRITERIA POLLUTANT AND ACID AEROSOL CHARACTERIZATION STUDY - CATANO, PUERTO RICO  

EPA Science Inventory

The objective of the Catano Criteria Pollutant and Acid Aerosol Characterization study was to characterize criteria pollutant and acid aerosol concentrations in the Ward of Catano and adjacent residential areas in the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico. on-Governmental organizations (NG...

71

The distribution of pollution and environmental justice in Puerto Rico  

EPA Science Inventory

Because few empirical studies on environmental justice and pollution distribution exit, we examine both issues in Puerto Rico. This research is part of a larger US EPA project related to sustainability issues. We use an environmental Gini coefficient with Toxic Release Inventory ...

72

Puerto Rico Water Resources and Environmental Research Institute  

E-print Network

Section 104 of the Water Resources Research Act of 1984, as Amended ANNOUNCEMENT 11HQPA0002 Revised Centre Avenue Fort Collins, CO 80525 or call 970-226-9445. #12;PUERTO RICO WATER RESOURCES under the provisions of section 104 of the Water Resources Research Act of 1984 (Public Law 98

Gilbes, Fernando

73

LANDSCAPE AND REGIONAL IMPACTS OF HURRICANES IN PUERTO RICO  

Microsoft Academic Search

Puerto Rico is subject to frequent and severe impacts from hurricanes, whose long-term ecological role must be assessed on a scale of centuries. In this study we applied a method for reconstructing hurricane disturbance regimes developed in an earlier study of hurricanes in New England. Patterns of actual wind damage from historical records were analyzed for 85 hurricanes since European

Emery R. Boose; Mayra I. Serrano; David R. Foster

2004-01-01

74

Urban influences on the nitrogen cycle in Puerto Rico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anthropogenic actions are altering fluxes of nitrogen (N) in the biosphere at unprecedented rates. Efforts to study these impacts have concentrated in the Northern hemisphere, where experimental data are available. In tropical developing countries, however, experimental studies are lacking. This paper summarizes available data and assesses the impacts of human activities on N fluxes in Puerto Rico, a densely populated

Jorge R. Ortiz-Zayas; Elvira Cuevas; Olga L. Mayol-Bracero; Loreto Donoso; Ivonne Trebs; Debora Figueroa-Nieves; William H. McDowell

2006-01-01

75

UNIVERSIDAD DE PUERTO RICO RECINTO DE CIENCIAS MDICAS  

E-print Network

UNIVERSIDAD DE PUERTO RICO RECINTO DE CIENCIAS M�DICAS ESCUELA DE MEDICINA PLAN DE PRÁCTICA M�DICA INTRAMURAL El Plan de Práctica Médica Intramural de la Escuela de Medicina del Recinto de Ciencias Médicas

Quirk, Gregory J.

76

Universidad Politcnica de Puerto Rico Departamento de Ciencias Geomticas  

E-print Network

Universidad Politécnica de Puerto Rico Departamento de Ciencias Geomáticas Proyecto: Hirangel Precisión. Estas ramas integradas de las Ciencias Geomáticas, unidas a la colaboración de expertos en

Gilbes, Fernando

77

Spiders associated with papaya, Carica papaya L., in Puerto Rico  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The main objective of this work was to study the species composition and population dynamics of spiders associated with papaya plantings in three papaya production areas: Corozal, Isabela, and Lajas, Puerto Rico. Nineteen species representing seven families and 15 genera were identified. Members of ...

78

A Marked Increase in Organ Donation in Puerto Rico  

Microsoft Academic Search

During its first years of existence, the Puerto Rico Transplant Program barely reached 18 to 20 renal transplants per year. A brain death amendment to the law improved the numbers but only to a stable thirty\\/year. Polls and studies showed that, although people knew about transplantation and expressed willingness to donate, the powerful emotional grief reaction, as well as a

M. Saade; J. Davies; E. Torres; L. Morales-Otero; Z. Gonzalez-Caraballo; E. A. Santiago-Delpin

2005-01-01

79

27 CFR 26.126 - Taxpayment in Puerto Rico.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...ISLANDS Liquors and Articles Purchased by Tourists in Puerto Rico § 26.126 Taxpayment...wines, or beer are purchased by a tourist for consumption in the United States...receipt. The tax on articles purchased by tourists may be paid in the same manner....

2011-04-01

80

27 CFR 26.126 - Taxpayment in Puerto Rico.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...ISLANDS Liquors and Articles Purchased by Tourists in Puerto Rico § 26.126 Taxpayment...wines, or beer are purchased by a tourist for consumption in the United States...receipt. The tax on articles purchased by tourists may be paid in the same manner....

2010-04-01

81

HEAVY METALS CONTAMINATION IN TWO BIOLUMINESCENT BAYS OF PUERTO RICO  

E-print Network

HEAVY METALS CONTAMINATION IN TWO BIOLUMINESCENT BAYS OF PUERTO RICO Yadira Soto Viruet of heavy metals in these bays. Samples were collected from four different environments in the selected bays detection limits (BDL). This study shows concentrations of heavy metals in the selected bays were present

Gilbes, Fernando

82

ASSESSING THE CONDITION OF THE COASTAL RESOURCES OF PUERTO RICO  

EPA Science Inventory

Forty seven stations located in the coastal estuaries of Puerto Rico were sampled during the summer of 2000 using a probabilistic design. Fourteen estuaries were classified as "large" at 4.19 km2, 25 "medium" at 3.46 km2, and 8 "small" at 0.55 km2. Samples were successfully coll...

83

Relations between Study and Employment: Music Graduates in Puerto Rico  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Higher education programs in Puerto Rico include undergraduate degrees in music, music education, composition, popular music, jazz and Caribbean music, and, most recently, a master’s degree in music education. However, little is known about what music graduates do after concluding college. Do they work in music-related areas? Are they satisfied…

Latorre, Ileana S.; Lorenzo, Oswaldo

2013-01-01

84

Food resource partitioning inb syntopic nectarivorous bats on Puerto Rico  

EPA Science Inventory

We analyzed stable isotopes (d13C, d15N) to estimate the importance of plants and insects to the diet of two nectar-feeding bats on Puerto Rico, the brown flower bat (Erophylla bombifrons) and the Greater Antillean long-tongued bat (Monophyllus redmani). Concentrations of stable ...

85

76 FR 67244 - Puerto Rico Disaster Number PR-00014  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...declaration of a major disaster for the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico (FEMA-4017-DR), dated 08/27/2011. Incident: Hurricane Irene. Incident Period: 08/21/2011 through 08/24/2011. Effective Date: 10/24/2011. Physical Loan...

2011-10-31

86

76 FR 59179 - Puerto Rico Disaster Number PR-00014  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...declaration of a major disaster for the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico (FEMA-4017-DR), dated 08/27/2011. Incident: Hurricane Irene. Incident Period: 08/21/2011 through 08/24/2011. Dates: Effective Date: 09/13/2011. Physical...

2011-09-23

87

Community beliefs and practices about dengue in Puerto Rico  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In spite of long-term endemicity and repeated government and private efforts, effective, sustained community participation for dengue prevention is still a challenge in Puerto Rico. This study explored differences found in interviews conducted in 2001 in attitudes toward dengue and its prevention by...

88

Puerto Rico Water Resources Research Institute Annual Technical Report  

E-print Network

of pollution that make waters fail to meet state water quality standards, and to develop Water Cleanup Plans to address those pollutants. The Water Cleanup Plan (TMDL) establishes limits on pollutants that canPuerto Rico Water Resources Research Institute Annual Technical Report FY 2005 Introduction

89

Puerto Rico Water Resources Research Institute Annual Technical Report  

E-print Network

of pollution that make waters fail to meet state water quality standards, and to develop Water Cleanup Plans to address those pollutants. The Water Cleanup Plan (TMDL) establishes limits on pollutants that canPuerto Rico Water Resources Research Institute Annual Technical Report FY 2004 Introduction

90

Multibeam Mapping and Remotely Operated Vehicle Exploration of the Puerto Rico and Virgin Islands Region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During October 2013, an ocean exploration project took place off the coast of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. This project, a collaborative effort between the Ocean Exploration Trust, the US Geological Survey, the University of Puerto Rico at Mayaguez, the University of Rhode Island, and NOAA, was aimed at exploring regions of the US exclusive economic zone (EEZ) south of the Puerto Rico Trench axis, and north of Mona Island, Puerto Rico, and the US and British Virgin Islands, and portions of the Anegada Passage. The research vessel E/V Nautilus and the Hercules/Argus ROV system were used to expand the multibeam sonar bathymetric data coverage of the region, collect high definition video footage of seafloor features, and to collect biological and geological samples along selected transects. Particular areas of interest for targeted ROV dives included: the region where a large M7.2 1918 earthquake produced a tsunami that struck northwestern corner of Puerto Rico; a transect up the vertical wall of the Mona Rift (4000 to 1500 m depth); transects along the Septentrional fault system; dives in areas of suspected fluid flow through faults, fissures, and offshore Karst systems associated with the tilted carbonate platform north of Puerto Rico; dives in the Anegada Passage at the entry points for surface Atlantic waters that circulate into the Caribbean; and in regions to investigate and date sedimentary features offset by fault motion and potential tsunamigenic landslides. Biological sampling of many deep-sea benthic organisms (including deep water corals) have never been attempted before in this area. These samples are being used to understand more about the diversity, population dynamics, genetics, and habitat connectivity of these communities, and to provide an age constraint for disturbed sedimentary features. Until this cruise, the location and distribution of deep coral habitats in the US Caribbean was largely unknown. The available information on benthic communities associated with deep coral ecosystems in this region was mostly limited to taxonomic listings from incidental collections by fish traps, shrimp trawls and coral entanglement devices. We present the results of the first direct observations and sampling of these ecosystems.

Coleman, D. F.; Ten Brink, U. S.; Armstrong, R.; Chaytor, J. D.; Demopoulos, A. W.

2013-12-01

91

Tropical cyclones and the flood hydrology of Puerto Rico  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Some of the largest unit discharge flood peaks in the stream gaging records of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) have occurred in Puerto Rico. Many of these flood peaks are associated with tropical cyclones. Hurricane Georges, which passed directly over the island on 21-22 September 1998, produced record flood peaks at numerous USGS stations in Puerto Rico. The hydrology and hydrometeorology of extreme flood response in Puerto Rico are examined through analyses of rainfall, based on Weather Surveillance Radar - 1988 Doppler (WSR-88D) radar reflectivity observations and USGS rain gage observations and discharge from USGS stream gaging stations. Peak rainfall accumulations of more than 700 mm occurred in the central mountain region of the island. The largest unit discharge flood peaks, however, were located in the eastern portion of the island in areas with smaller storm total rainfall accumulations but markedly larger rainfall rates at 5-60 min timescale. Orographic precipitation mechanisms played an important role in rainfall distribution over the island of Puerto Rico. Amplification of rainfall accumulations was associated with areas of upslope motion. Elevated low-level cloud water content in regions of upslope motion played an important role in the maximum rainfall accumulations in the central mountain region of Puerto Rico. The largest unit discharge flood peaks, however, were produced by a decaying eye wall mesovortex, which resulted in a 30-45 min period of extreme rainfall rates over the eastern portion of the island. This storm element was responsible for the record flood peak of the Rio Grande de Lo??iza. The role of terrain in development and evolution of the eye wall mesovortex is unclear but is of fundamental importance for assessing extreme flood response from the storm. Hydrologic response is examined through analyses of rainfall and discharge from five pairs of drainage basins, extending from east to west over the island. These analyses point to the importance of short-term rainfall rates for extreme flood response. The hydrologic response of Puerto Rico is compared with two other extreme flood environments, the central Appalachians and Edwards Plateau of Texas. These analyses suggest that the high rainfall environment of Puerto Rico is linked to the development of a hydraulically efficient drainage system. Copyright 2005 by the American Geophysical Union.

Smith, J.A.; Sturdevant-Rees, P.; Baeck, M.L.; Larsen, M.C.

2005-01-01

92

Puerto Rico - 2002 : field studies to resolve aerosol processes.  

SciTech Connect

A number of questions remain concerning homogeneous aerosol formation by natural organics interacting with anthropogenic pollutants. For example, chlorine has been proposed as a potential oxidant in the troposphere because of its very high reactivity with a wide range of organics (Finlayson-Pitts, 1993). Indeed, sea salt aerosol in the presence of ozone has been shown to produce chlorine atoms in heterogeneous photochemical reactions under laboratory conditions. Whether chlorine can initiate oxidation of natural organics such as monoterpene hydrocarbons and can generate homogeneous nucleation or condensable material that contributes to aerosol loadings needs to be assessed. The nighttime reactions of ozone and nitrate radical can also result in monoterpene reactions that contribute to aerosol mass. We are currently planning field studies in Puerto Rico to assess these aerosol issues and other atmospheric chemistry questions. Puerto Rico has a number of key features that make it very attractive for a field study of this sort. The principal feature is the island's very regular meteorology and its position in the Caribbean Sea relative to the easterly trade winds. This meteorology and the island's rectangular shape (100 x 35 miles) make it highly suitable for simplification of boundary layer conditions. In addition, the long stretch between Puerto Rico and the nearest pollution sources in Africa and southern Europe make the incoming background air relatively clean and constant. Furthermore, Puerto Rico has approximately 3.5 million people with a very well defined source region and a central area of rain forest vegetation. These features make Puerto Rico an ideal locale for assessing aerosol processes. The following sections describe specific areas of atmospheric chemistry that can be explored during the proposed field study.

Gaffney, J. S.; Marley, N. A.; Ravelo, R.

1999-10-05

93

Coverage of Mangrove Ecosystem along Three Coastal Zones of Puerto Rico using IKONOS Sensor  

E-print Network

Coverage of Mangrove Ecosystem along Three Coastal Zones of Puerto Rico using IKONOS Sensor Mayagüez, Puerto Rico, 006819017 Abstract.-Puerto Rican mangroves have great ecological and environmental importance since they serve as natural barriers for coastal erosion in atmospheric events. Mangroves

Gilbes, Fernando

94

Emerging forests on abandoned land: Puerto Rico’s new forests  

Microsoft Academic Search

The species composition of forests change continuously as the earth’s biota evolves and adjusts to environmental change. Humans are accelerating the rate of species turnover by moving species around the planet and dramatically changing environmental conditions. Our focus is on new forests in Puerto Rico that emerge naturally on abandoned lands previously converted to agriculture and degraded. These forest stands

Ariel E. Lugo; Eileen Helmer

2004-01-01

95

Rainfall-induced landslides in Puerto Rico: An overview  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Rainfall-induced landslides are common in Puerto Rico (PR). The presence of steep slopes in mountainous terrain, coupled with weathered soils and intense rainfall, leads to severe slope-stability problems throughout the island. Episodic triggering events such as hurricanes and earthquakes further exacerbate these problems. All physiographic provinces of the island have experienced landslides. The stability of natural and man-made slopes is a serious concern for government authorities and the civil engineering community in Puerto Rico. This paper presents an overview of the rainfall induced landslide problem in PR, a summary of literature published on this subject, and proposes a rainfall intensity landslide threshold based on landslide events data from 1959 to 2003. This threshold can be used as part of a potential landslide warning system.

Pando, M.A.; Ruiz, M.E.; Larsen, M.C.

2005-01-01

96

Media complementarity and health information seeking in Puerto Rico.  

PubMed

This investigation incorporates the Orientation1-Stimulus-Orientation2-Response model on the antecedents and outcomes of individual-level complementarity of media use in health information seeking. A secondary analysis of the Health Information National Trends Survey Puerto Rico data suggests that education and gender were positively associated with individual-level media complementarity of health information seeking, which, in turn, was positively associated with awareness of health concepts and organizations, and this awareness was positively associated with a specific health behavior: fruit and vegetable consumption. This study extends the research in media complementarity and health information use; it provides an integrative social psychological model empirically supported by the Health Information National Trends Survey Puerto Rico data. PMID:24377383

Tian, Yan; Robinson, James D

2014-01-01

97

Populations dynamics of Australorbis glabratus in Puerto Rico  

PubMed Central

This report on the population dynamics of Australorbis glabratus in Puerto Rico is based on observations made over about two years at 50 collecting-sites in a representative range of snail habitats. In some places a marked predominance of Tropicorbis was noted. No continuous or seasonal propagation of Australorbis was apparent. Dense populations seldom prevailed for more than a few months, and in most places very low population levels occurred at irregular intervals, and colony decimations were fairly common. A variety of pressures is exerted on Australorbis in Puerto Rico by a multiplicity of natural factors; detailed knowledge of this snail's natural history in the field is necessary for effective bilharziasis control and for a full understanding of the regional epidemiology of this disease. PMID:14492504

Ritchie, Lawrence S.; Radke, Myron G.; Ferguson, Frederick F.

1962-01-01

98

Universidad de Puerto Rico Recinto de Ciencias Mdicas  

E-print Network

Universidad de Puerto Rico Recinto de Ciencias Médicas Decanato de Enfermería División de Educación Recinto de Ciencias Médicas-UPR PO BOX 365067 San Juan, PR 00936-0567 b. Si lo envía por correo, deberá curso. Recinto de Ciencias Médicas Decanato de Enfermería #12;

Quirk, Gregory J.

99

RED-TAILED HAWK NEST SITES IN PUERTO RICO  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT.-We describe Red-tailed Hawk,(Buteo jamaicensis) nest sites in four habitats in Puerto Rico. Forty-nine nests were located in 2 1 species of trees. Red-tailed Hawks nested in trees that were taller than the mean,canopy,height of trees in surrounding,plots and that allowed a view of at least 50% of their territory. Most nests were in the upper,third of the tree on

Eduarixi Santana C; J Eddie N. Laboy; James A. Mosher; Stanley A. Temple

100

A proposed streamflow-data program for Puerto Rico  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The streamflow-data program of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in Puerto Rico has been one of the principal parts of an overall appraisal of the water resources of the Island since the initiation of a cooperative agreement with agencies of the Commonwealth Government in 1957. The streamflow-station network has increased in direct response to demand for data to support planning for the rapidly accelerated industrial and population growth that has occurred since.

Lopez, Miguel A.; Fields, Fred K.

1970-01-01

101

GPS data analysis near Puerto Rico for World Day campaigns  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments near Puerto Rico around World Ionosphere Days in June 1998 and September 1999 were carried out to develop and test techniques for nowcasting and forecasting ionospheric electron density and space weather during quiet and disturbed geomagnetic conditions. We investigate the use of GPS data for this purpose. We use the Raytrace\\/ICED-Bent-Gallagher (RIBG) ionospheric model, line-of-sight propagation, and the assumption

Michael H. Reilly; Malkiat Singh

2001-01-01

102

Structure and tectonics of the upper Cenozoic Puerto Rico-Virgin Islands carbonate platform as determined from seismic reflection studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Puerto Rico-Virgin Islands carbonate platform was deposited over an area of 18,000 km2 from early Oligocene to Holocene on top of an inactive and subsiding Cretaceous-earliest Oligocene island arc. Regional single-channel and multichannel seismic reflection lines presented in this study provide the first information on the regional stratigraphy and structure of this platform that has previously been known mainly from onshore stratigraphic sections of a relatively small (2250 km2) portion of the platform exposed by late Neogene tectonic uplift along the north coast of Puerto Rico. Seismic reflection lines are used to map the thickness of the carbonate platform strata and to correlate this thickness with onshore outcrop and well data from northern and southern Puerto Rico, St. Croix (U.S. Virgin Islands), and the Saba Bank. Limestone thickness variations from a little over 2 km to almost zero are used to subdivide the Puerto Rico-Virgin Islands platform into five distinct carbonate provinces: (1) north Puerto Rico area including the onshore exposures; (2) Virgin Islands area; (3) St. Croix and Saba Bank area; (4) south Puerto Rico area; and (5) Mona Passage area. Carbonate thickness and structural information from each area are used to test five previously proposed models for the deformation and vertical movements of the platform. The most prominent feature of the platform in the Puerto Rico-Virgin Islands area is a large, east-west trending arch. The northern limb of this arch exhibits a smoother, more uniform dip than the steeper, more abruptly faulted, southern limb. The core of the arch is responsible for the exposure of arc basement rocks on Puerto Rico. The origin of this arch, which occurs over a 300 km wide area, is best explained by north-south shortening and arching, caused by interaction at depth of subducted slabs of the North America and Caribbean plates. Other important evidence for this model can be found in the Benioff zones observed in the earthquake profiles. Loading of the Caribbean plate results in downward flexing of the North America plate and causes the 4 km subsidence of the carbonate platform north of Puerto Rico.

van Gestel, Jean-Paul; Mann, Paul; Dolan, James F.; Grindlay, Nancy R.

1998-12-01

103

Lessons Learned from the Puerto Rico Battery Energy Storage System  

SciTech Connect

The Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority (PREPA) installed a distributed battery energy storage system in 1994 at a substation near San Juan, Puerto Rico. It was patterned after two other large energy storage systems operated by electric utilities in California and Germany. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Energy Storage Systems Program at Sandia National Laboratories has followed the progress of all stages of the project since its inception. It directly supported the critical battery room cooling system design by conducting laboratory thermal testing of a scale model of the battery under simulated operating conditions. The Puerto Rico facility is at present the largest operating battery storage system in the world and is successfully providing frequency control, voltage regulation, and spinning reserve to the Caribbean island. The system further proved its usefulness to the PREPA network in the fall of 1998 in the aftermath of Hurricane Georges. The owner-operator, PREPA, and the architect/engineer, vendors, and contractors learned many valuable lessons during all phases of project development and operation. In documenting these lessons, this report will help PREPA and other utilities in planning to build large energy storage systems.

BOYES, JOHN D.; DE ANA, MINDI FARBER; TORRES, WENCESLANO

1999-09-01

104

U.S. Trade with Puerto Rico and U.S. Possessions 1998  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Census Bureau report entitled US Trade with Puerto Rico and US Possessions lists shipments to and from Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands by commodity and method of transportation in four detailed tables. According to this report, shipments from US possessions to the US totalled almost $2.5 billion, and shipments from the US to Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands totalled over $13 billion for all methods of transportation.

1999-01-01

105

40 CFR 81.77 - Puerto Rico Air Quality Control Region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Puerto Rico Air Quality Control Region. 81.77 Section 81...CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.77 Puerto...

2011-07-01

106

Peer Norms and Sharing of Injection Paraphernalia among Puerto Rican Injection Drug Users in New York and Puerto Rico  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines the influence of peer norms on sharing of injection paraphernalia (e.g., indirect sharing behaviors, including sharing of cookers, cotton, rinse water and back/front loading) among Puerto Rican injection drug users (IDUs) in Bayamon, Puerto Rico, and East Harlem, New York City. Data were collected from 873 Puerto Rican IDUs…

Andia, Jonny F.; Deren, Sherry; Robles, Rafaela R.; Kang, Sung-Yeon; Colon, Hector M.

2008-01-01

107

Paleomagnetic evidence for Late Miocene counterclockwise rotation of north coast carbonate sequence, Puerto Rico  

SciTech Connect

A paleomagnetic study of the essentially undeformed middle Tertiary carbonate sequence along the north coast of Puerto Rico reveals statistically significant pre-Pliocene discordance of characteristic component directions against those expected from cratonic North America for much of the section. Despite generally weak to moderately weak magnetic intensities, confirmation of the magnetization as primary in origin comes from the presence of two distinct components of magnetization, intrasite bipolarity, and/or the reproducibility of measurements. The mean geographic direction for the upper Oligocene to middle Miocene strata is 335.2{degree}/32.9{degree} and the corrected mean paleomagnetic pole is 207.6{degree}/66.5{degree}, (N = 3, {alpha}95 = 4.3{degree}). This suggests a counter-clockwise (CCW) block rotation of Puerto Rico and its microplate of 24.5{degrees} ({plus minus} 5.8{degrees}) during the late Miocene. Using a width of 250 km for the Northern Caribbean Plate Boundary Zone (NCPBZ) between the North American Plate and Caribbean Plate, the mean left lateral displacement implied is 1.8 to 2.4 cm/yr, which agrees fairly well with published relative motion rates for the two plates. Average rotation rate for 50 Ma to 20 Ma was 0.7{degree}/my but perhaps as great as 4{degree}/my in the Miocene. Resolution of mean paleolatitude indicates northward motion of a degree or less during the period of rotation. Causes of this short-lived rotation may include (1) tectonic escape from the inhibiting presence of the Bahama Banks and Beata Ridge during eastward motion of Puerto Rico along the sinistral transpressive Puerto Rico Trench and Muertos Trough fault systems or (2) changes in relative plate motions of the Caribbean and North American Plate during the late Miocene.

Reid, J.A.; Plumley, P.W. (Syracuse Univ., NY (United States)); Schellekens, J.H. (Univ. of Puerto Rico, Mayaguez (Puerto Rico))

1991-03-01

108

The Muertos Subduction Zone as a Major Earthquake and Tsunami Hazard for Puerto Rico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A revised catalog of 25 years of locally recorded earthquakes located using newly developed 1-D and 3-D velocity models allows us to better understand the spatial distribution of these events and their relation to known tectonic structures. In map view, the relocated events still show a pattern generally lacking in lineations that might be related to crustal faults. However, the previous cloud of crustal events in vertical cross sections now display a clear northerly dipping seismic zone as shallow as 10 km depth along the island's south coast extending to 40 km depth along the north coast of the island. This dipping seismic zone is interpreted as the Muertos Megathrust along which buoyant Caribbean Plate is obliquely underthrust beneath Puerto Rico. 3-D velocity anomalies associated with the region of high seismicity in western Puerto Rico confirm subducted Caribbean crust and lithosphere. The dipping seismic zone is seen best in SW Puerto Rico but also extends to the easternmost part of the island. Seismicity and historic earthquakes in the Dominican Republic also indicate the presence of the Muertos Megathrust beneath the SE part o that country. A large earthquake in 1751 generated a damaging tsunami. These new data suggest a new paradigm for earthquake hazards from "crustal" or "shallow" earthquakes in Puerto Rico. That is, after removing events associated with the dipping megathrust, little "random crustal seismicity" is left in the crustal wedge above the plate interface, and the amount and location of random crustal events depends heavily upon exactly which events are chosen to be part of the megathrust seismicity.

McCann, W. R.

2007-05-01

109

Puerto Rico`s EcoElectrica LNG/power project marks a project financing first  

SciTech Connect

On Dec. 15, 1997, Enron International and Kenetech Energy Services achieved financial close on the $670 million EcoElectrica liquefied natural gas terminal and cogeneration project proposed for Puerto Rico. The project involves construction of a liquefied natural gas terminal, cogeneration plant, and desalination unit on the southern coast of Puerto Rico, in the Penuelas/Guayanilla area. EcoElectrica will include a 500-mw, combined-cycle cogeneration power plant fueled mainly by LNG imported from the 400 MMcfd Atlantic LNG project on the island of Trinidad. Achieving financial close on a project of this size is always a time-consuming matter and one with a number of challenges. These challenges were increased by the unique nature of both the project and its financing--no project financing had ever before been completed that combined an LNG terminal and power plant. The paper discusses the project, financing details and challenges, key investment considerations, and integrated project prospects.

Lammers, R. [Enron International, Houston, TX (United States); Taylor, S. [Kenetech Energy Systems Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

1998-02-23

110

Landslide Deposits, Cookie Bites, and Crescentic Fracturing Along the Northern Puerto Rico-Virgin Islands Margin: Implications for Potential Tsunamigenesis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The seismogenic North America-Caribbean oblique-slip plate boundary forms the 8-km-deep Puerto Rico trench north of the densely populated islands of Puerto Rico and Virgin Islands (combined population of just over 4 million people). The southern slope of the Puerto Rico trench adjacent to the Puerto Rico-Virgin Islands (PRVI) carbonate platform is characterized by frequent seismicity, rapid trenchward tilting, oversteepened slopes, and mass wasting. We present high-resolution bathymetry, HMR1 sidescan imagery, and single-channel seismic data to document extensive landslide deposits that we infer to have been the result of multiple slide events capable of producing prehistoric tsunamis along the coasts of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. Landslide deposits can be traced upslope to two, 45-55 km-wide arcuate-shaped embayments or "cookie bites" carved out of the PRVI platform. Three-dimensional visualization of the debris field and the slope of the largest of the arcuate-shaped embayments centered at 66° 40' constrain volume removal to 1.1 km3 of the PRVI carbonate platform and underlying volcanic and volcaniclastic basement. Sidescan sonar and single-channel seismic data reveal crescentic cracks in the seafloor of the PRVI platform 35-45 km in length located 35 km offshore the northwestern tip of Puerto Rico. These cracks, interpreted to represent the sites of future breakaway scarps and landslides, are similar in shape and length to the head wall scarps of the amphitheaters to the east. An ˜500 km2 section of the PRVI platform (750 m thick) has begun to detach and slump trenchward along the larger of these cracks. Investigation of the existing arcuate-shaped embayments is essential because massive (tens to hundreds of km3) and instantaneous slope failure has the potential to be tsunamigenic. Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands were inundated by tsunamis in 1867 (mainly affecting St. Thomas and St. Croix, 7 m of runup, casualties in the hundreds) and 1918 (mainly affecting western and northwestern Puerto Rico; 6 m of runup, 120 casualties). Calculation of the potential volume, runout extent, and triggering mechanisms of past submarine landslides will better constrain the tsunamigenic potential of the newly discovered crescentic faults.

Hearne, M. E.; Grindlay, N. R.; Mann, P.

2003-12-01

111

42 CFR 412.204 - Payment to hospitals located in Puerto Rico.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Payment to hospitals located in Puerto Rico...MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES...PAYMENT SYSTEMS FOR INPATIENT HOSPITAL SERVICES Prospective Payment...Inpatient Operating Costs for Hospitals Located in Puerto Rico...

2010-10-01

112

The Pragmatics of Professionalism: Translation and Interpretation in Puerto Rico and Quebec.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The impact of Puerto Rico's and Quebec's laws on official bilingualism of translation and interpreting services is examined. In the case of Puerto Rico, public policy concerning the use of Spanish and English since 1899 is reviewed, focusing on early laws and those passed since 1991. The status of the translation profession is discussed, and it is…

Archibald, J.

113

5 CFR 532.275 - Special wage schedules for ship surveyors in Puerto Rico.  

...2014-01-01 false Special wage schedules for ship surveyors in Puerto Rico. 532.275...532.275 Special wage schedules for ship surveyors in Puerto Rico. (a) The...special wage schedules for nonsupervisory ship surveyors and supervisory ship...

2014-01-01

114

Eliciting stakeholder values for coral reef management tasks in the Guánica Bay watershed, Puerto Rico  

EPA Science Inventory

The EPA is developing a valuation protocol for southwest Puerto Rico that will support the US Coral Reef Task Force?s (USCRTF) Partnership Initiative in the Guánica Bay/Rio Loco (GB/RL) Watershed. The GB/RL watershed is located in southwestern Puerto Rico and includes the urbaniz...

115

47 CFR 73.1210 - TV/FM dual-language broadcasting in Puerto Rico.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false TV/FM dual-language broadcasting in Puerto Rico. 73...Stations § 73.1210 TV/FM dual-language broadcasting in Puerto Rico. (a) For the purpose of this section, dual-language broadcasting shall be understood...

2011-10-01

116

47 CFR 73.1210 - TV/FM dual-language broadcasting in Puerto Rico.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false TV/FM dual-language broadcasting in Puerto Rico. 73...Stations § 73.1210 TV/FM dual-language broadcasting in Puerto Rico. (a) For the purpose of this section, dual-language broadcasting shall be understood...

2010-10-01

117

The Mystery of Dos Bocas Reservoir, Puerto Rico: Explaining Extreme Spatial Heterogeneity in Largemouth Bass Distribution  

E-print Network

The Mystery of Dos Bocas Reservoir, Puerto Rico: Explaining Extreme Spatial Heterogeneity.--Dos Bocas Reservoir, Puerto Rico, has pronounced in-lake variability in fish distributions, especially in piscivore abundance, between the two primary reservoir basins. We quantified fish community distributions

Cope, W. Gregory

118

WATER AND ENERGY BALANCE ESTIMATION IN PUERTO RICO USING SATELLITE REMOTE SENSING  

E-print Network

was developed for estimating the surface water balance, based on remotely sensed data for Puerto Rico represents a preliminary step in the development of a suite of remote sensing products for PRWATER AND ENERGY BALANCE ESTIMATION IN PUERTO RICO USING SATELLITE REMOTE SENSING Eric. W

Gilbes, Fernando

119

THE IMPACTS OF URBANIZATION/URBAN DEVELOPMENT IN THE CLIMATE OF PUERTO RICO  

E-print Network

of this change might be related to urbanization. Long-term weather data, digital maps, Geographic InformationTHE IMPACTS OF URBANIZATION/URBAN DEVELOPMENT IN THE CLIMATE OF PUERTO RICO Angel R. Torres analysis of century-scale climate change for Puerto Rico was done to assess the degree to which some

Gilbes, Fernando

120

New genus and species of flea beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Galerucinae: Alticini) from Puerto Rico  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A new genus (Borinken) and five new species (Borinken elyunque, Distigmoptera chamorrae, Kiskeya elyunque, Ulrica eltoro, and U. iviei) from Puerto Rico are described and illustrated. A key to all Caribbean Monoplatini genera, a key to all Kiskeya species and to Ulrica species of Puerto Rico are pro...

121

When Fields Revert to Forest: Development and Spontaneous Reforestation in Post-War Puerto Rico  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the past 50 years forests have recolonized extensive areas of Puerto Rico. Between 1950 and 1990 forest cover increased from 9% to 37% of the island's land area. In proportional terms more land has reverted to forest in Puerto Rico than anywhere else on earth during the second half of the twentieth century. This paper explores the geography of

Thomas K. Rudel; Marla Perez-Lugo; Heather Zichal

2000-01-01

122

33 CFR 165.771 - Safety Zone; Bahia de Ponce, Puerto Rico  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety Zone; Bahia de Ponce, Puerto Rico ...SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND LIMITED...Seventh Coast Guard District § 165.771 Safety Zone; Bahia de Ponce, Puerto Rico...

2010-07-01

123

78 FR 28167 - Special Local Regulation, Cruce a Nado Internacional de la Bahia de Ponce Puerto Rico, Bahia de...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 [Docket Number USCG-2013-0296...Ponce Puerto Rico, a swimming event. The event is scheduled...2013. Approximately 100 swimmers are anticipated...Ponce Puerto Rico, a swimming event. The event will...Puerto Rico. Approximately 100 swimmers are...

2013-05-14

124

Sedimentation Survey of Lago Guerrero, Aguadilla, Puerto Rico, March 2006  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Lago Guerrero is located in Aguadilla, northwestern Puerto Rico (fig. 1). The reservoir has a surface area of about 32,000 square meters and is excavated in Aymamon Limestone of Miocene age. This bedrock consists of chalk interbed-ded with solution-riddled hard limestone (Monroe, 1969). The reservoir was constructed in the 1930s as part of the Isabela Hydroelectric System to regulate flows to two hydroelectric plants-Central Isabel No. 2, at an elevation of about 110 meters above mean sea level, and Central Isabel No. 3, at about 55 meters above mean sea level. Hydroelectric power generation was discontinued during the early 1960s, although the exact date is unknown (Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority, written commun., 2007). The principal use of the reservoir since then has been to regulate flow to two public-supply water filtration plants and supply irrigation water for the Aguadilla area. Flow into the reservoir is derived from Lago Guajataca through a 26-kilometer-long Canal Principal de Diversion concrete canal (Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority, written commun., 2001). Additional inflow occurs on an incidental basis only during intensive rainfall from the immediate drainage area. The present Lago Guerrero drainage area is undetermined, due to the irregular and complex topography of the limestone terrain and anthropogenic modifications to the stormwater drainage system. Stormwater runoff, however, is presumed to be negligible compared to the almost constant inflow to the reservoir of about 59,300 cubic meters per day from Lago Guajataca (CSA Group, 2000). On March 9, 2006, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Caribbean Water Science Center, in cooperation with the Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority (PREPA), conducted a bathymetric survey of Lago Guerrero to determine the storage capacity of the reservoir and sedimentation amount since a previous survey conducted on May 30, 2001. The March 2006 survey was made to develop a bathymetric map of the reservoir, establish baseline data for future reservoir capacity comparisons, and to estimate the average sedimentation rate over the preceding 5 years.

Soler-López, Luis R.

2009-01-01

125

New seafloor map of the Puerto Rico Trench helps assess earthquake and tsunami hazards  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Puerto Rico Trench, the deepest part of the Atlantic Ocean, is located where the North American (NOAM) plate is subducting under the Caribbean plate (Figure l). The trench region may pose significant seismic and tsunami hazards to Puerto Rico and the U.S.Virgin Islands, where 4 million U.S. citizens reside. Widespread damage in Puerto Rico and Hispaniola from an earthquake in 1787 was estimated to be the result of a magnitude 8 earthquake north of the islands [McCann et al., 2004]. A tsunami killed 40 people in NW Puerto Rico following a magnitude 7.3 earthquake in 1918 [Mercado and McCann, 1998]. Large landslide escarpments have been mapped on the seafloor north of Puerto Rico [Mercado et al., 2002; Schwab et al., 1991],although their ages are unknown.

ten Brink, Uri S.; Danforth, William; Polloni, Christopher; Andrews, Brian; Llanes Estrada, Pilar; Smith, Shepard; Parker, Eugene; Uozumi, Toshihiko

2004-01-01

126

NESTING ECOLOGY AND BEHAVIOR OF BROAD-WINGED HAWKS IN MOIST KARST FORESTS OF PUERTO RICO  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Puerto Rican Broad-winged Hawk (Buteo platypterus brunnescens) is an endemic and endangered subspecies inhabiting upland montane forests of Puerto Rico. The reproductive ecology, behavior, and nesting habitat of the Broad-winged Hawk were studied in Rio Abajo Forest, Puerto Rico, from 2001-02. We observed 158 courtship displays by Broad-winged Hawks. Also, we recorded 25 ter- ritorial interactions between resident Broad-winged

DEREK W. HENGSTENBERG; FRANCISCO J. VILELLA

127

The Identity Development and Coming out Process of Gay Youth in Puerto Rico  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to gather basic exploratory-descriptive data regarding the self-perceptions and behaviors of Puerto Rican gay youth (16 to 24 years old) during their gay identity development and coming out process. The study was conducted in Puerto Rico to eliminate ethnic minority influences that may be present in Puerto Rican gay…

Fankhanel, Edward H.

2010-01-01

128

Paleoseismology in the Caribbean: A Review of Studies in Hispaniola, Puerto Rico and Trinidad  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have applied paleoseismic techniques to the study of faults on three of the islands in the Caribbean region: Hispaniola, Puerto Rico, and Trinidad. The Septentrional fault zone (SFZ) is the major North American-Caribbean plate-boundary fault in Hispaniola, where it traverses the densely populated and rapidly developing Cibao Valley in northern Dominican Republic. Our studies show that the most recent ground rupture on the SFZ east of Santiago, in the central part of the valley, occurred about 800 years ago, and was associated with a minimum of about 4 m of left-lateral strike-slip displacement. The penultimate event occurred after AD30, suggesting a recurrence interval of 800 to 1200 years. Studies of offset Holocene stream terraces suggest a SFZ slip rate of 6-12 mm/yr, indicating that this structure accommodates about half of the geodetically determined total plate-boundary motion of approximately 19 mm/yr. These paleoseismic data suggest that the seismic hazard associated with the SFZ is high. The major structures of the North American-Caribbean plate boundary are offshore north of Puerto Rico. However, the location of the island within the plate-boundary zone suggests the possibility of onshore Holocene faults, though no faults with Holocene displacement have previously been documented on the island, and current seismic hazard assessments only consider the impact of distant, offshore seismic sources. Our mapping and paleoseismic studies demonstrate that repeated Holocene surface rupture has occurred on a previously unrecognized fault in the Lajas Valley of southwestern Puerto Rico. We identified an approximately east-west trending scarp crossing an alluvial fan on the southern side of the Lajas Valley. A 1.5-meter-deep trench that we excavated exposed two narrow fault zones, about 1m apart, disrupting the alluvial deposits. Structural relations indicate valley-side-down fault slip, with a component of strike-slip motion, though we could not determine whether the horizontal displacement is right or left lateral. The two fault zones terminate at different stratigraphic horizons, indicating at least two surface-rupturing events. Radiocarbon analyses of samples collected from the sediments show that these two earthquakes occurred during the past 7500 years. The earlier event occurred between 5650 and 7550 Cal. yr. B.P. The younger event occurred post 5040 Cal. yr. B.P., but no minimum age has yet been established. Trinidad is located along the transform plate boundary between the South American and Caribbean plates. Analysis and comparison of historic triangulation and GPS data suggest that a significant fraction (14+/-3 mm/yr) of the total plate-boundary motion (about 20 mm/yr) is being accommodated across the Central Range Fault in central Trinidad. Geomorphic evidence of Quaternary faulting along the Central Range Fault includes linear drainages, aligned topographic saddles and troughs, offset ridges, right-laterally deflected streams, and linear scarps, supporting the geodetic evidence for youthful fault slip. We exposed a 6-m-wide shear zone within Pliocene(?) material in a trench cut into a fluvial terrace across the Central Range Fault. The overlying Holocene fluvial gravel is faulted and folded across the shear zone, and Holocene fluvial deposits are faulted against the shear zone on the north side. Our paleoseismic studies demonstrate that surface rupture has occurred within the past 4500 years on this previously unrecognized, active fault.

Prentice, C. S.; Mann, P.; Weber, J.; Crosby, C.

2002-05-01

129

Anal Cancer Incidence and Mortality in Puerto Rico  

PubMed Central

Objective Anal cancer is a rare tumor that is associated with oncogenic HPV genotypes. This study aims to compare the age-standardized rates (ASRs) of anal cancer incidence and mortality in men and women living in Puerto Rico (PR) with those of non-Hispanic whites (NHW), non-Hispanic blacks (NHB), and Hispanics (USH) living in the continental United States (US). Methods ASRs were calculated based on cancer data that came from the PR Cancer Central Registry and from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program. The age-specific relative risks (RR) and 95% Confidence Interval (95% CI) were estimated using Poisson regression models. Results Comparing the period of 2001 to 2004 to that of 1992 to 1996, the incidence of anal cancer increased among NHW, NHB, and PR men. In females, an increase in the incidence was observed for all racial groups except for Puerto Rican women. When evaluating findings by age groups, Puerto Rican men younger than 60 years old had a 20% higher incidence of anal cancer than did USH men of the same age strata (RR: 2.20; 95% CI = 1.48–3.29). However, Puerto Rican females had a lower incidence of anal cancer than NHW and NHB women. An increased percent change in mortality was observed only in NHW and NHB men. A decreasing trend was observed in all racial/ethnic groups except for NHW women. Conclusion Our results support the notion that there are racial/ethnic differences in anal cancer incidence and mortality, with potential disparities among men and women in PR compared with USH men and women. Given the increasing incidence trends in anal cancer, particularly among PR, NHW, and NHB men, further investigation is needed to better elucidate screening practices that can aid in the prevention of anal cancer. PMID:23781623

Colón-López, Vivian; Ortiz, Ana P.; Soto-Salgado, Marievelisse; Torres-Cintrón, Mariela; Mercado-Acosta, Juan José; Suárez, Erick

2013-01-01

130

Important considerations for recruiting women to cancer genetics studies in Puerto Rico.  

PubMed

A goal of the Minority Institution/Cancer Center Partnership between the Ponce School of Medicine in Puerto Rico and the H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center & Research Institute in Florida is to provide cross-cultural training in cancer research. This is achieved through a collaborative summer exchange program, which provides US students with an opportunity to conduct research in Puerto Rico. As part of this program, students recruited participants and collected data for a study to enhance the understanding of sociocultural factors among Puerto Rican women regarding genetic testing for hereditary breast/ovarian cancer. Limited studies have examined cancer genetics issues among Latinos, particularly those specific to the various Latino subgroups, such as Puerto Ricans. As a result of the student training experience, culturally appropriate strategies for the recruitment of women in Puerto Rico have been identified. These recommendations can inform the design of cancer research projects and interventions targeting the Puerto Rican population. PMID:21866412

August, Euna M; Quinn, Gwen P; Perales, Rossybelle; Closser, Zuheily; Dutil, Julie; Puig, Marieva; Vadaparampil, Susan T

2012-03-01

131

A rainfall intensity-duration threshold for landslides in a humid- tropical environment, Puerto Rico  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The leading cause of landslides in Puerto Rico is intense and/or prolonged rainfall. A rainfall threshold for rainfall-triggered landsliding is delimited by 256 storms that occurred between 1959 and 1991 in the central mountains of Puerto Rico, where mean annual rainfall is close to or in excess of 2000mm. Forty-one of the 256 storms produced intense and/or prolonged rainfall that resulted in tens to hundreds of landslides. As storm durations approach 100 h, the rainfall conditions necessary to initiate landsliding in Puerto Rico converge with those defined for temperate regions. -from Authors

Larsen, M.C.; Simon, A.

1993-01-01

132

Introduction to the High-Rate GPS Network of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Puerto Rico Seismic Network at the University of Puerto Rico at Mayagüez is a regional earthquake and tsunami monitoring institute. One of its primary objective is to provide timely and reliable earthquake and tsunami information and warning to the state (Puerto Rico) and local governments, the US and British Virgin Islands, as well as to the general public. In the past five years, it has been expanding its operations for the establishment of a Caribbean Tsunami Warning Center. With funding of the Puerto Rico government and NOAA, it is operated 24 hours per day and 7 days per week. Broadband seismometers are generally unable to capture the full bandwidth of long period ground motions following very large earthquakes. As a result, it is difficult to rapidly estimate the true magnitudes of large earthquakes using only seismic data. High-rate GPS has been justified as a very useful tool in recording long-period and permanent earthquake ground motions. Estimation of the true magnitude (and therefore tsunami potential) of large earthquakes may be determined more accurately in a timely manner (minutes after the quake) using high rate GPS observations. With the major aim of improving the ability of the PRSN in rapidly and precisely monitoring large earthquakes, NSF funded a Major Research Instrumentation (MRI) project, Acquisition of 9 High-rate GPS Units for Developing a Broadband Earthquake Observation System in Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands (EAR-0722540, August 1, 2007-July 31, 2009). The major purpose of this project is to build a high-rate GPS network in Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands. The GPS network includes 3 campaign and 6 permanent GPS stations. These campaign stations were designed to use in emergency response after large earthquakes to get co-seismic and post-seismic displacement. These six permanent stations were designed to complement current seismic observation system of Puerto Rico and U.S. Virgin Islands. We have installed three permanent GPS stations in May, 2008. They locate in Arecibo Observatory, Bayamon Science Park, and Caja de Muertos Island. We will install the other three stations in October, 2008. They will be located in Mona, Culebra, and St. Thomas islands. All of these permanent GPS stations are colocated with seismic stations operated by the Puerto Rico Seismic Network and the Puerto Rico Strong Motion Program. They are also very-closely spaced to the Tide Gauge stations operated by PRSN and NOAA. Therefore they will also complement the tide gauge sea-level observation system to get accurate absolute sea-level changes after large earthquakes. The integrated velocitymeter-accelerometer- GPS earthquake observation system will advance knowledge of seismic wave propagation, the kinematics and dynamics of fault rupture process, pre-seismic, co-seismic and post-seismic deformation, and is also likely to be useful for improving building and critical structure designs. It will support earthquake and tsunami hazards research and mitigation in Puerto Rico and the surrounding region. High-rate GPS observations can also be used for real time tropospheric water vapor tomography which is useful for weather prediction, including improved hurricane track forecasting. Raw GPS data are freely available through the UNAVCO archive. As a result, a large number of researchers can potentially benefit from the data for research and applications ranging from neotectonics to atmospheric science to civil engineering.

Wang, G.; Hillebrandt, C. V.; Martinez, J. M.; Huerfano, V.; Schellekens, J.

2008-12-01

133

Sequential Episodes of Dengue—Puerto Rico, 2005–2010  

PubMed Central

Of 53,633 suspected dengue cases reported to a passive dengue surveillance system in Puerto Rico during 2005–2010, 949 individuals were reported on more than one occasion and 21 had laboratory-confirmed dengue on two separate occasions. Median time between illness episodes was 2.9 years (range: 62 days–5.3 years). Seventeen (81%) individuals with sequential episodes of dengue were male, and seven (33%) were adults. All 21 individuals experienced one episode and seven (33%) individuals experienced both episodes during a large epidemic that occurred in 2010. These observations show that heterotypic dengue virus immunity that protects against illness may have considerable variability but typically does not last longer than 3 years. PMID:24891464

Sharp, Tyler M.; Hunsperger, Elizabeth; Muñoz-Jordán, Jorge L.; Margolis, Harold S.; Tomashek, Kay M.

2014-01-01

134

CDF and PDF Comparison Between Humacao, Puerto Rico and Florida  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The knowledge of the atmospherics phenomenon is an important part in the communication system. The principal factor that contributes to the attenuation in a Ka band communication system is the rain attenuation. We have four years of tropical region observations. The data in the tropical region was taken in Humacao, Puerto Rico. Previous data had been collected at various climate regions such as desserts, template area and sub-tropical regions. Figure 1 shows the ITU-R rain zone map for North America. Rain rates are important to the rain attenuation prediction models. The models that predict attenuation generally are of two different kinds. The first one is the regression models. By using a data set these models provide an idea of the observed attenuation and rain rates distribution in the present, past and future. The second kinds of models are physical models which use the probability density functions (PDF).

Gonzalez-Rodriguez, Rosana

2004-01-01

135

AIDS-Related Stigma and Health Professionals in Puerto Rico  

PubMed Central

This study addresses an important issue in the AIDS epidemic in Puerto Rico: AIDS stigma among health professionals and health profession students. AIDS stigma has been documented among health services providers such as doctors, nurses, psychologists, and social workers. It has detrimental effects of the services provided and the lives of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). The main objective of this study was to explore AIDS stigma manifestations among a sample composed of eighty health professionals and health profession students who participated in in-depth qualitative interviews. Four thematic categories stemmed from the data analysis process. These addressed the following subjects: social manifestations of stigma, stigma manifestations in the workplace, use of sensitive information to control PLWHA, and surveillance of PLWHA. Participants manifested instances of stigmatization they had witnessed in their work and training scenarios. Furthermore, they elaborated on the need to place effective surveillance mechanism on PLWHA in order to control the epidemic. PMID:21423837

Ruiz-Torres, Yamilette; Cintrón-Bou, Francheska N.; Varas-Díaz, Nelson

2009-01-01

136

Sequential episodes of dengue--Puerto Rico, 2005-2010.  

PubMed

Of 53,633 suspected dengue cases reported to a passive dengue surveillance system in Puerto Rico during 2005-2010, 949 individuals were reported on more than one occasion and 21 had laboratory-confirmed dengue on two separate occasions. Median time between illness episodes was 2.9 years (range: 62 days-5.3 years). Seventeen (81%) individuals with sequential episodes of dengue were male, and seven (33%) were adults. All 21 individuals experienced one episode and seven (33%) individuals experienced both episodes during a large epidemic that occurred in 2010. These observations show that heterotypic dengue virus immunity that protects against illness may have considerable variability but typically does not last longer than 3 years. PMID:24891464

Sharp, Tyler M; Hunsperger, Elizabeth; Muñoz-Jordán, Jorge L; Margolis, Harold S; Tomashek, Kay M

2014-08-01

137

Sedimentation Survey of Lago de Cidra, Puerto Rico, August 2007  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Lago de Cidra is a reservoir located on the confluence of Rio de Bayamon, Rio Sabana, and Quebrada Prieta, in the municipality of Cidra in east-central Puerto Rico, about 3.0 kilometers northeast of the town of Cidra. The dam is owned and operated by the Puerto Rico Aqueduct and Sewer Authority (PRASA), and was constructed in 1946 as a 6.54-million-cubic-meter supplemental water supply for the San Juan metropolitan area. The reservoir impounds the waters of Rio de Bayamon, Rio Sabana and Quebrada Prieta. The reservoir has a drainage area of 21.4 square kilometers. The dam is a concrete gravity and earthfill structure with a length of approximately 165 meters and a structural height of 24 meters. The spillway portion of the dam is an ungated ogee crest about 40 meters long with a crest elevation of 403.00 meters above mean sea level. Additional information and operational procedures are listed in Soler-Lopez (1999). During August 14-15, 2007, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Caribbean Water Science Center (CWSC), in cooperation with the PRASA, conducted a bathymetric survey of Lago de Cidra to update the reservoir storage capacity and actualize the reservoir sedimentation rate by comparing the 2007 data with the previous 1997 bathymetric survey data. The purpose of this report is to describe and document the USGS sedimentation survey conducted at Lago de Cidra during August 2007, including the methods used to update the reservoir storage capacity, sedimentation rates, and areas of substantial sediment accumulation since 1997.

Soler-López, Luis R.

2010-01-01

138

19 CFR 10.198b - Products of Puerto Rico processed in a beneficiary country.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. Caribbean Basin Initiative § 10.198b Products of Puerto Rico processed in a beneficiary country. Except in the case...

2010-04-01

139

42 CFR 412.370 - General provisions for hospitals located in Puerto Rico.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM PROSPECTIVE...Prospective Payment System for Inpatient Hospital Capital Costs Special Rules for Puerto Rico...prospective payment system for inpatient hospital capital-related...

2013-10-01

140

42 CFR 412.370 - General provisions for hospitals located in Puerto Rico.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM PROSPECTIVE...Prospective Payment System for Inpatient Hospital Capital Costs Special Rules for Puerto Rico...prospective payment system for inpatient hospital capital-related...

2012-10-01

141

42 CFR 412.370 - General provisions for hospitals located in Puerto Rico.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM PROSPECTIVE...Prospective Payment System for Inpatient Hospital Capital Costs Special Rules for Puerto Rico...prospective payment system for inpatient hospital capital-related...

2011-10-01

142

42 CFR 412.374 - Payments to hospitals located in Puerto Rico.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Payments to hospitals located in Puerto Rico...MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES...SYSTEMS FOR INPATIENT HOSPITAL SERVICES Prospective...System for Inpatient Hospital Capital Costs...

2010-10-01

143

42 CFR 412.370 - General provisions for hospitals located in Puerto Rico.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...General provisions for hospitals located in Puerto Rico...MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES...SYSTEMS FOR INPATIENT HOSPITAL SERVICES Prospective...System for Inpatient Hospital Capital Costs...

2010-10-01

144

Health effects associated with cyanobacteria exposure among beach attendees in Puerto Rico  

EPA Science Inventory

Cyanobacteria and their toxins are associated with adverse human health effects, although among marine waters, the pyrrhophyta, including dinoflagellates are more recognized as health hazards. We recruited beach attendees during summer 2009, at Boquerón Beach, Puerto Rico...

145

Coral reef condition and benthic sedimentation threat in four regions of south Puerto Rico  

EPA Science Inventory

Scleractinian corals, gorgonian octocorals, sponges and fishes were assessed near the cities of LaParguera, Guánica, Guayanilla, and Jobos along the southern coast of Puerto Rico in November – December 2010. Survey sites were targeted near areas with varying benthic...

146

Laboratory characterization of a highly weathered old alluvium in San Juan, Puerto Rico  

E-print Network

The old alluvium underlying much of metropolitan San Juan was formed in early Pleistocene and has undergone substantial post-depositional weathering in the tropical climate of Puerto Rico, resulting in a special combination ...

Zhang, Guoping, 1968-

2002-01-01

147

Puerto Rico State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management  

SciTech Connect

The Puerto Rico State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Puerto Rico. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Puerto Rico. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Puerto Rico.

Not Available

1981-10-01

148

27 CFR 17.5 - Products manufactured in Puerto Rico or the Virgin Islands.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...drawback on distilled spirits contained in medicines, medicinal preparations, food products, flavors, flavoring extracts, or perfume which are unfit for beverage purposes and which are brought into the United States from Puerto Rico or the U.S....

2010-04-01

149

27 CFR 17.5 - Products manufactured in Puerto Rico or the Virgin Islands.  

...drawback on distilled spirits contained in medicines, medicinal preparations, food products, flavors, flavoring extracts, or perfume which are unfit for beverage purposes and which are brought into the United States from Puerto Rico or the U.S....

2014-04-01

150

27 CFR 17.5 - Products manufactured in Puerto Rico or the Virgin Islands.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...drawback on distilled spirits contained in medicines, medicinal preparations, food products, flavors, flavoring extracts, or perfume which are unfit for beverage purposes and which are brought into the United States from Puerto Rico or the U.S....

2012-04-01

151

27 CFR 17.5 - Products manufactured in Puerto Rico or the Virgin Islands.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...drawback on distilled spirits contained in medicines, medicinal preparations, food products, flavors, flavoring extracts, or perfume which are unfit for beverage purposes and which are brought into the United States from Puerto Rico or the U.S....

2011-04-01

152

27 CFR 17.5 - Products manufactured in Puerto Rico or the Virgin Islands.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...drawback on distilled spirits contained in medicines, medicinal preparations, food products, flavors, flavoring extracts, or perfume which are unfit for beverage purposes and which are brought into the United States from Puerto Rico or the U.S....

2013-04-01

153

47 CFR 73.1210 - TV/FM dual-language broadcasting in Puerto Rico.  

...different language. (b) Television and Class A television licensees in Puerto Rico may enter into dual-language time purchase agreements with FM broadcast licensees, subject to the following conditions: (1) All such agreements shall...

2014-10-01

154

42 CFR 412.208 - Puerto Rico rates for Federal fiscal year 1988.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...patients. (e) Computing urban and rural averages. CMS computes separate...paragraph (d) of this section for urban and rural hospitals in Puerto Rico. ...inpatient operating costs for urban and rural hospitals. For each...

2010-10-01

155

42 CFR 412.208 - Puerto Rico rates for Federal fiscal year 1988.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...patients. (e) Computing urban and rural averages. CMS computes separate...paragraph (d) of this section for urban and rural hospitals in Puerto Rico. ...inpatient operating costs for urban and rural hospitals. For each...

2012-10-01

156

42 CFR 412.208 - Puerto Rico rates for Federal fiscal year 1988.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...patients. (e) Computing urban and rural averages. CMS computes separate...paragraph (d) of this section for urban and rural hospitals in Puerto Rico. ...inpatient operating costs for urban and rural hospitals. For each...

2011-10-01

157

42 CFR 412.208 - Puerto Rico rates for Federal fiscal year 1988.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...patients. (e) Computing urban and rural averages. CMS computes separate...paragraph (d) of this section for urban and rural hospitals in Puerto Rico. ...inpatient operating costs for urban and rural hospitals. For each...

2013-10-01

158

Development of a landslide hazard map for the island of Puerto Rico  

E-print Network

This thesis describes the development of a landslide hazard map for the island of Puerto Rico through the use of Graphical Information System (GIS) tools. Parameters considered in this study are elevation, slope aspect, ...

Kamal, Sameer A. (Sameer Ahmed)

2008-01-01

159

Alternative energy systems for Puerto Rico : analysis and comparison of anaerobic waste digestion  

E-print Network

Energy prices in Puerto Rico are increasing constantly, making evident the need for alternative energy sources. Several methods to produce power have been developed as alternatives to burning petroleum, such as solar energy ...

Cuevas, Emil A. (Emil André Cuevas Meléndez)

2006-01-01

160

14 CFR 399.34 - Intra-Hawaii and Intra-Puerto Rico/Virgin Islands fare flexibility.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Intra-Hawaii and Intra-Puerto Rico/Virgin Islands...Rates and Tariffs § 399.34 Intra-Hawaii and Intra-Puerto Rico/Virgin Islands...flexibility. For scheduled service within Hawaii, and within and between Puerto...

2010-01-01

161

14 CFR 399.34 - Intra-Hawaii and Intra-Puerto Rico/Virgin Islands fare flexibility.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Intra-Hawaii and Intra-Puerto Rico/Virgin Islands...Rates and Tariffs § 399.34 Intra-Hawaii and Intra-Puerto Rico/Virgin Islands...flexibility. For scheduled service within Hawaii, and within and between Puerto...

2012-01-01

162

14 CFR 399.34 - Intra-Hawaii and Intra-Puerto Rico/Virgin Islands fare flexibility.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Intra-Hawaii and Intra-Puerto Rico/Virgin Islands...Rates and Tariffs § 399.34 Intra-Hawaii and Intra-Puerto Rico/Virgin Islands...flexibility. For scheduled service within Hawaii, and within and between Puerto...

2011-01-01

163

14 CFR 399.34 - Intra-Hawaii and Intra-Puerto Rico/Virgin Islands fare flexibility.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Intra-Hawaii and Intra-Puerto Rico/Virgin Islands...Rates and Tariffs § 399.34 Intra-Hawaii and Intra-Puerto Rico/Virgin Islands...flexibility. For scheduled service within Hawaii, and within and between Puerto...

2013-01-01

164

14 CFR 399.34 - Intra-Hawaii and Intra-Puerto Rico/Virgin Islands fare flexibility.  

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Intra-Hawaii and Intra-Puerto Rico/Virgin Islands...Rates and Tariffs § 399.34 Intra-Hawaii and Intra-Puerto Rico/Virgin Islands...flexibility. For scheduled service within Hawaii, and within and between Puerto...

2014-01-01

165

Severe Anxiety Symptomatology and HIV Risk Behavior Among Hispanic Injection Drug Users in Puerto Rico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite an overall decrease in AIDS incidence in Puerto Rico, our studies continue to show high prevalence of HIV risk behaviors\\u000a among injection drug users (IDUs). This study seeks to evaluate whether the occurrence of injection-related and sex-related\\u000a HIV risk behaviors among IDUs in Puerto Rico varies with the presence of anxiety symptomatology. Subjects included 557 IDUs,\\u000a recruited from street

Juan C. Reyes; Rafaela R. Robles; Hector M. Colón; C. Amalia Marrero; Tomás D. Matos; José M. Calderón; Elizabeth W. Shepard

2007-01-01

166

Environmental Assessment for Authorizing the Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority (PREPA) to allow Public Access to the Boiling Nuclear Superheat (BONUS) Reactor Building, Rincon, Puerto Rico  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to consent to a proposal by the Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority (PREPA) to allow public access to the Boiling Nuclear Superheat (BONUS) reactor building located near Rincon, Puerto Rico for use as a museum. PREPA, the owner of the BONUS facility, has determined that the historical significance of this facility, as one of only two reactors of this design ever constructed in the world, warrants preservation in a museum, and that this museum would provide economic benefits to the local community through increased tourism. Therefore, PREPA is proposing development of the BONUS facility as a museum.

N /A

2003-02-24

167

42 CFR 412.374 - Payments to hospitals located in Puerto Rico.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM...System for Inpatient Hospital Capital Costs Special Rules for Puerto...through FY 2004. Payments for capital-related costs to hospitals...percent of the Puerto Rico capital rate based on data from...

2011-10-01

168

42 CFR 412.374 - Payments to hospitals located in Puerto Rico.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM...System for Inpatient Hospital Capital Costs Special Rules for Puerto...through FY 2004. Payments for capital-related costs to hospitals...percent of the Puerto Rico capital rate based on data from...

2013-10-01

169

42 CFR 412.374 - Payments to hospitals located in Puerto Rico.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM...System for Inpatient Hospital Capital Costs Special Rules for Puerto...through FY 2004. Payments for capital-related costs to hospitals...percent of the Puerto Rico capital rate based on data from...

2012-10-01

170

Crime in Puerto Rico: Drug Trafficking, Money Laundering, and the Poor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Echoing the federal “war on drugs,” the government of Puerto Rico has implemented a series of aggressive law enforcement policies aimed at dismantling the underground drug economy of the island. This article examines three main Puerto Rican law enforcement operations: “Greenback” (in 1985), “Lucky Strike” (in 1990), and the military invasion of public housings (in 1993). The data suggest that

Alfredo Montalvo-Barbot

1997-01-01

171

Plant Exploration in tropical forests of Puerto Rico to collect ornamental germplasm.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In May, 2005, an ornamental plant exploration trip was conducted in remnant forests of Puerto Rico. The main focus of this collection trip was Tabebuia haemantha, a rare Puerto Rican endemic that has many features of interest to horticulture. It is a small-statured tree, evergreen, red-flowered an...

172

Pesticide Use and Transport Pathways Within a Coastal Watershed in Southeastern Puerto Rico  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In 2007, studies were begun to quantify impacts of agricultural crop production on coastal water quality within the watershed of the Jobos Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve (JBNERR). The reserve is located on Puerto Rico’s southeastern coast and includes sensitive mangrove, sea-grass meadow, a...

173

77 FR 12007 - Foreign-Trade Zone 7, Temporary/Interim Manufacturing Authority, Baxter Healthcare of Puerto Rico...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...of Puerto Rico, (Pharmaceutical and Nutritional Intravenous Bags and Administration Sets); Notice of Approval On December 6...Rico, to manufacture pharmaceutical and nutritional intravenous bags and administration sets under FTZ procedures within FTZ...

2012-02-28

174

Assessment of genetic diversity of sweet potato in puerto rico.  

PubMed

Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) is the seventh most important food crop due to its distinct advantages, such as adaptability to different environmental conditions and high nutritional value. Assessing the genetic diversity of this important crop is necessary due to the constant increase of demand for food and the need for conservation of agricultural and genetic resources. In Puerto Rico (PR), the genetic diversity of sweet potato has been poorly understood, although it has been part of the diet since Pre-Columbus time. Thus, 137 landraces from different localities around PR were collected and subjected to a genetic diversity analysis using 23 SSR-markers. In addition, 8 accessions from a collection grown in Gurabo, PR at the Agricultural Experimental Station (GAES), 10 US commercial cultivars and 12 Puerto Rican accessions from the USDA repository collection were included in this assessment. The results of the analysis of the 23 loci showed 255 alleles in the 167 samples. Observed heterozygosity was high across populations (0.71) while measurements of total heterozygosity revealed a large genetic diversity throughout the population and within populations. UPGMA clustering method revealed two main clusters. Cluster 1 contained 12 PR accessions from the USDA repository collection, while cluster 2 consisted of PR landraces, US commercial cultivars and the PR accessions from GAES. Population structure analysis grouped PR landraces in five groups including four US commercial cultivars. Our study shows the presence of a high level of genetic diversity of sweet potato across PR which can be related to the genetic makeup of sweet potato, human intervention and out-crossing nature of the plant. The history of domestication and dispersal of sweet potato in the Caribbean and the high levels of genetic diversity found through this study makes sweet potato an invaluable resource that needs to be protected and further studied. PMID:25551388

Rodriguez-Bonilla, Lorraine; Cuevas, Hugo E; Montero-Rojas, Milly; Bird-Pico, Fernando; Luciano-Rosario, Dianiris; Siritunga, Dimuth

2014-01-01

175

Assessment of Genetic Diversity of Sweet Potato in Puerto Rico  

PubMed Central

Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) is the seventh most important food crop due to its distinct advantages, such as adaptability to different environmental conditions and high nutritional value. Assessing the genetic diversity of this important crop is necessary due to the constant increase of demand for food and the need for conservation of agricultural and genetic resources. In Puerto Rico (PR), the genetic diversity of sweet potato has been poorly understood, although it has been part of the diet since Pre-Columbus time. Thus, 137 landraces from different localities around PR were collected and subjected to a genetic diversity analysis using 23 SSR-markers. In addition, 8 accessions from a collection grown in Gurabo, PR at the Agricultural Experimental Station (GAES), 10 US commercial cultivars and 12 Puerto Rican accessions from the USDA repository collection were included in this assessment. The results of the analysis of the 23 loci showed 255 alleles in the 167 samples. Observed heterozygosity was high across populations (0.71) while measurements of total heterozygosity revealed a large genetic diversity throughout the population and within populations. UPGMA clustering method revealed two main clusters. Cluster 1 contained 12 PR accessions from the USDA repository collection, while cluster 2 consisted of PR landraces, US commercial cultivars and the PR accessions from GAES. Population structure analysis grouped PR landraces in five groups including four US commercial cultivars. Our study shows the presence of a high level of genetic diversity of sweet potato across PR which can be related to the genetic makeup of sweet potato, human intervention and out-crossing nature of the plant. The history of domestication and dispersal of sweet potato in the Caribbean and the high levels of genetic diversity found through this study makes sweet potato an invaluable resource that needs to be protected and further studied. PMID:25551388

Rodriguez-Bonilla, Lorraine; Cuevas, Hugo E.; Montero-Rojas, Milly; Bird-Pico, Fernando; Luciano-Rosario, Dianiris; Siritunga, Dimuth

2014-01-01

176

Use of medicinal plants by ambulatory patients in Puerto Rico.  

PubMed

The use of medicinal plants by the patients at the outpatient clinics of five health-care centers in Puerto Rico was evaluated. Medication histories were obtained for 802 patients ranging in age from two months to 91 years. The most frequent medical diagnosis was cardiovascular disease (54% of the patients). Respiratory and digestive disorders were the least frequent conditions, identified in only 9% and 6% of the cases, respectively. Medicinal plants were used by 57% of the population. Patients 65 years or older tended to use herbal remedies more often. Seven of the 11 most commonly used plants were used to treat gastrointestinal disorders. Other medicinal uses given were for sedation, sleep disorders, elevated blood pressure, kidney disorders, and respiratory ailments. The most frequently used plant was Citrus aurantium L. (sour orange), which was used as a sedative by 39% of the patients and for gastrointestinal disorders by 17%. Two potentially toxic plants, Solanum americanum and Annona muricata, were among the most commonly used plants. Medicinal plants were used widely by the outpatient population studied. Most herbs were used to treat self-limiting conditions but some were used to treat potentially serious medical problems, such as hypertension. PMID:6496496

Hernández, L; Muñoz, R A; Miró, G; Martínez, M; Silva-Parra, J; Chávez, P I

1984-10-01

177

Floods of September 6, 1960, in eastern Puerto Rico  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The floods of September 6, 1960, were the greatest known on many streams in eastern Puerto Rico. There were 117 lives lost, 30 persons missing, and 136 injured. Total damage was estimated in excess of $7 million. Several thousand persons were forced from their homes by the floods as 484, houses were destroyed and more than 3,600 others were. damaged. All main highways and most secondary roads were impassable for a short period during the floods and damage to them was heavy. Following the passage of Hurricane Donna off the northeast coast, rains of very high intensity fell over parts of the eastern half of the island, beginning about 9 p.m. September 5. By dawn September 6, rains totaling more than 10 inches over a large area produced floods in every river basin from the Rio Grande de Manati eastward. Flood discharges on the Rio Humacao, Rio Turabo, and Rio Valenciano were the greatest known and rank high among the notable floods on streams that drain from 6 to ]5 square miles. An outstanding feature of the floods was the unusually high magnitude of peak discharges--9 of the 24 peak discharges determined had Myers ratings greater than 80 percent.

Barnes, Harry Hawthorne; Bogart, Dean Butler

1961-01-01

178

Drug-Scene Roles and HIV Risk Among Puerto Rican Injection Drug Users in East Harlem, New York and Bayamón, Puerto Rico  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes and compares distributions of drug-scene roles, frequency of engaging in role behaviors, and relationships of role-holding to high-risk behaviors and sexual partnerships among Puerto Rican injection drug users in New York and Puerto Rico. For this study 561 street-recruited injection drug users in East Harlem, New York, and 312 in Bayamón, Puerto Rico were asked the number

Samuel R. Friedman; Sung-Yeon Kang; Sherry Deren; Rafaela Robles; Hector M. Colón; Jonny Andia; Denise Oliver-Velez; Ann Finlinson

2002-01-01

179

The Great Puerto Rico ShakeOut - A Communications and Media Perspective  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On October 18, 2012 the Puerto Rico Seismic Network (PRSN) in collaboration with Puerto Rico Emergency Management Agency (PREMA) and the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) will be conducting the first Great Puerto Rico ShakeOut. Adequate communications strategies and redundant dissemination methods are a key component for the success of this earthquake exercise. EAS and NOAA Radio messages, indicating the beginning of the earthquake drill, will help emergency managers and the general public better coordinate their practices. Dissemination tools routinely used as part of PRSN earthquake and tsunami protocols, such as PRSNDANIS Broadcast, Ring Down, Ham Radio, RSS, SMS, fax and email service lists, will also be tested. Emergency Management and First Response Agencies at local, regional and state level are being asked to report the times the messages are received, thus allowing us to better assess the effectiveness of our dissemination methods and to establish a baseline for next year ShakeOut. In addition, a partnership with the Puerto Rico Radiobroadcaster Association allows a direct access through this media, facilitating PRSN staff participation on radio programming targeting diverse audiences. Radio spots have been developed to inform the public about the exercise, how to participate, what to do to be safe during an earthquake and how to develop or improve their safety plans. A media approach is critical for the success of the 2012 Puerto Rico ShakeOut since our earthquake drill takes place 2 weeks prior to the Island general election and on the peak-period of the hurricane season.

Soto-Cordero, L.; Huérfano-Moreno, V.; Gómez, G.; Giménez-Porrata, A.; Ramos-Gómez, W.; Colón-Daleccio, N.

2012-12-01

180

The implementation of the triple helix model of industry-university-government relations in Puerto Rico to promote knowledge-based regional economic development  

E-print Network

Puerto Rico, an island in the Caribbean, has long sought to develop a high-tech economy and has struggled in the process. Two initiatives, Puerto Rico TechnoEconomic Corridor (PRTEC) and the Eastern Central Technological ...

Ramos-Maltés, Ana Lorena

2010-01-01

181

Ocean-Bottom Seismograph Array Results from the Puerto Rico Trench  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A six-month deployment of five ocean-bottom seismographs (OBS) in 2007 provided unique geometrical constraints on the style of faulting in a sharp corner of the boundary between North America (NOAM) and Caribbean (CAR) plates to the east of the Puerto Rico Trench (PRT). This region has been the site of numerous seismic swarms since 1976, as indicated by the historical catalog, and the OBS deployment capture two such swarms. When analyzed jointly with land-based stations operated by the Puerto Rico Seismic Network and Netherlands Antilles Network, the OBS recordings provide stronger geometrical constraints on hypocenters and focal mechanisms than is possible with land-based stations alone. Focal mechanism solutions, found by jointly fitting P-wave first-motion polarities and S/P amplitude ratios, produce left-lateral strike-slip and normal dip-slip events distributed broadly over the study region, but a sub-area dominated by right-lateral strike-slip events that corresponds to the two recorded swarms. A stress inversion reveals maximum horizontal compressive stress vectors for the broader region that are aligned with the local direction of NOAM-CAR plate convergence, as determined by previous studies, but the sub-area in which the swarms occurred is dominated by horizontal stresses that are nearly normal to the direction of convergence. When evaluated in the context of previous studies, these results support the hypothesis that the subducting NOAM plate is tearing, or crumpling, in this corner of the boundary. Tearing may result as the subducting slab accommodates the sharp bend here, as a response to mantle flow from CAR to NOAM regimes, or as a result of eastward propagation of the dramatic PRT, or as a combination of these events.

Meighan, H. E.; Pulliam, J.; Ten Brink, U. S.

2012-12-01

182

Puerto Rican Families Who Have Children with Disabilities: A Comparison between Families Living in Puerto Rico and Families Living in Florida. Final Performance Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report discusses the outcomes of a study that compared family needs and sources of support perceived by 55 Puerto Rican mothers of young children (ages birth to 5 years) with disabilities residing in Puerto Rico and 39 of their Puerto Rican counterparts living in Florida. The relationship among perceived family needs, sources of support, and…

Reyes-Blanes, Maria E.

183

42 CFR 407.43 - Buy-in groups available to Puerto Rico, Guam, the Virgin Islands, and American Samoa.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Health 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Buy-in groups available to Puerto Rico, Guam, the...INSURANCE (SMI) ENROLLMENT AND ENTITLEMENT State Buy-In Agreements § 407.43 Buy-in groups available to Puerto Rico, Guam,...

2011-10-01

184

42 CFR 407.43 - Buy-in groups available to Puerto Rico, Guam, the Virgin Islands, and American Samoa.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Buy-in groups available to Puerto Rico, Guam, the...INSURANCE (SMI) ENROLLMENT AND ENTITLEMENT State Buy-In Agreements § 407.43 Buy-in groups available to Puerto Rico, Guam,...

2010-10-01

185

42 CFR 407.43 - Buy-in groups available to Puerto Rico, Guam, the Virgin Islands, and American Samoa.  

...Health 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Buy-in groups available to Puerto Rico, Guam, the...INSURANCE (SMI) ENROLLMENT AND ENTITLEMENT State Buy-In Agreements § 407.43 Buy-in groups available to Puerto Rico, Guam,...

2014-10-01

186

42 CFR 407.43 - Buy-in groups available to Puerto Rico, Guam, the Virgin Islands, and American Samoa.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Health 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Buy-in groups available to Puerto Rico, Guam, the...INSURANCE (SMI) ENROLLMENT AND ENTITLEMENT State Buy-In Agreements § 407.43 Buy-in groups available to Puerto Rico, Guam,...

2012-10-01

187

42 CFR 407.43 - Buy-in groups available to Puerto Rico, Guam, the Virgin Islands, and American Samoa.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Health 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Buy-in groups available to Puerto Rico, Guam, the...INSURANCE (SMI) ENROLLMENT AND ENTITLEMENT State Buy-In Agreements § 407.43 Buy-in groups available to Puerto Rico, Guam,...

2013-10-01

188

Science Technology Engineering and Mathematics K-12 Partnership Circles at the University of Puerto Rico Mayagüez Campus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Science Technology Engineering and Mathematics UPRM K-12 Partnership Circles (STEM Circles) is a proposal for an after school program developed by the University of Puerto Rico Mayagüez Campus (UPRM) and submitted to the National Science Foundation. The purpose of the STEM Circles is to create collaboration between the UPRM and the Puerto Rico Department of Education (DE) to develop an

Sonia M. Bartolomei-Suárez; Betty Ramírez; Keith Wayland

189

Cross-Cultural Adaptation of the Disability of Arm, Shoulder, and Hand Questionnaire: Spanish for Puerto Rico Version  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to perform a cross-cultural adaptation of the Disability of Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (DASH) questionnaire to Spanish for Puerto Rico. Five steps were followed for the cross-cultural adaptation: forward translations into Spanish for Puerto Rico, synthesis of the translations, back translations into English, revision by…

Mulero-Portela, Ana L.; Colon-Santaella, Carmen L.; Cruz-Gomez, Cynthia

2009-01-01

190

First report of Raoiella indica Hirst (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) and its damage to coconut palms in Puerto Rico and Culebra Island  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This is the first report of the occurrence of the Red Palm mite Raoiella indica and its damage in Puerto Rico and Culebra island. Raoiella indica is a new invasive pest threatening ornamental palm, coconut, and banana plantations. The mite was observed in eastern Puerto Rico and in Culebra island ...

191

Energy Integrated dairy Farm System in Puerto Rico  

SciTech Connect

Principles of energy-integrated farming were applied to the Rio Canas Dairy Farm, a privately-owned dairy farm and one of the largest dairy farms in Puerto Rico with a milking herd of 400 cows. Animal wastes were fed to two anaerobic digesters where methane gas was produced by bacterial degradation of organic material. The methane gas fueled an engine-generator to produce electricity for farm use and for sale to the public utility. The Wastes were partially stabilized by bacterial action with the digesters and the digester effluent passed to a liquid-solid separator. Solid fraction was composted and either used as bedding material for the cows or marketed as soil conditioner. The liquid fraction flowed to a storage pond and was used in the Greenfeed subsystem to fertilize forage crops for the cows. Estimated energy savings of the system were 1705 MBtu for the first two subsystems and 7,718 MBtu's for all three subsystems. Simple payback for the first two subsystems was very long (20 years) because facilities for effective manure recovery did not exist on the farm at the outset of the project, operational costs for manure collection were charged against the project, and system components were oversized. Including the Greenfeed subsystem, simple payback for the project was 8.2 years. Assuming that manure collection facilities and practices already existed and assuming proper sizing of all components, simple payback for the Anaerobic Digestion and Electrical Production subsystem and the Farm Waste Management subsystem was 5.8 years. Using data from this project, an estimate of the return on investment was projected for different herd sizes. Results suggested that for dairy farms with less than 500 cows, anaerobic digester systems are only marginally profitable.

Sasscer, D.S.; Morgan, T.O.

1986-10-01

192

Public health surveillance during the XVII Central American and Caribbean Games--Puerto Rico, November 1993.  

PubMed

To provide medical services at mass gatherings for scheduled special events (e.g., world fairs, music festivals, and athletic competitions such as the Olympics), organizers must have information to anticipate both routine and uncommon situations. In November 1993, approximately 9500 athletes and staff from 31 countries participated in the XVII Central American and Caribbean Games in San Juan, Puerto Rico. To monitor injury- and illness-related morbidity among participants, the schools of public health and medicine at the University of Puerto Rico and the Puerto Rico Olympic Committee established a public health surveillance system designed specifically for this event. This report summarizes selected results from the system, which underscore the usefulness of this approach in planning prevention, medical, and emergency services for similar events. PMID:9132577

1996-07-12

193

Techniques for water demand analysis and forecasting: Puerto Rico, a case study  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The rapid economic growth of the Commonwealth-of Puerto Rico since 1947 has brought public pressure on Government agencies for rapid development of public water supply and waste treatment facilities. Since 1945 the Puerto Rico Aqueduct and Sewer Authority has had the responsibility for planning, developing and operating water supply and waste treatment facilities on a municipal basis. The purpose of this study was to develop operational techniques whereby a planning agency, such as the Puerto Rico Aqueduct and Sewer Authority, could project the temporal and spatial distribution of .future water demands. This report is part of a 2-year cooperative study between the U.S. Geological Survey and the Environmental Quality Board of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, for the development of systems analysis techniques for use in water resources planning. While the Commonwealth was assisted in the development of techniques to facilitate ongoing planning, the U.S. Geological Survey attempted to gain insights in order to better interface its data collection efforts with the planning process. The report reviews the institutional structure associated with water resources planning for the Commonwealth. A brief description of alternative water demand forecasting procedures is presented and specific techniques and analyses of Puerto Rico demand data are discussed. Water demand models for a specific area of Puerto Rico are then developed. These models provide a framework for making several sets of water demand forecasts based on alternative economic and demographic assumptions. In the second part of this report, the historical impact of water resources investment on regional economic development is analyzed and related to water demand .forecasting. Conclusions and future data needs are in the last section.

Attanasi, E.D.; Close, E.R.; Lopez, M.A.

1975-01-01

194

Contextual Risk and Promotive Processes in Puerto Rican Youths’ Internalizing Trajectories in Puerto Rico and New York  

PubMed Central

Research on ethnic-minority youths’ mental health has rarely examined developmental trajectories for the same ethnic group in contexts where they are a minority vs. where they are the majority, or mechanisms accounting for differences in trajectories across such contexts. This study examines Puerto Rican youth residing in two contexts -- one in which they are in their home culture of Puerto Rico, and one in which they are a minority group, in New York. We explore the relationship between social context, minority status, risk, resilience, and trajectories of internalizing symptoms after adjusting for factors related to migration. We found that youths’ reports of internalizing symptoms declined over time. Youth in New York had higher levels of internalizing symptoms than youth in Puerto Rico, but similar trajectories. Differences in internalizing symptoms across the two social contexts were accounted for by experiences of discrimination and exposure to violence. Parental monitoring was associated with fewer internalizing symptoms across the two sites, although this effect diminished over time. Contrary to what was expected, family religiosity was associated with higher levels of internalizing symptoms. This association was stronger in the New York than in the Puerto Rico site. PMID:23880390

Ramos Olazagasti, María A.; Shrout, Patrick E.; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu; Canino, Glorisa J.; Bird, Héctor R.

2012-01-01

195

Insects of the Luquillo Mountains, Puerto Rico. Forest Service general technical report  

SciTech Connect

In this review of the literature on forest entomology in Puerto Rico, emphasis is given to research conducted in the Luquillo Experimental Forest (LEF). This review should serve as an introduction to the insects inhabiting the LEF for researchers and as a guide for the identification of possible insect pests. There are three sections to this review. The first deals with basic insect ecology; the second, forest insect pests; and the third, insect attacks on dry wood and during wood seasoning. The reference section and appendices contain information on the systematics and taxonomy of different insect orders found in Puerto Rico.

Torres, J.A.

1994-07-01

196

Nd:YAG laser bronchoscopy. The first two successful cases in Puerto Rico.  

PubMed

Two patients underwent bronchoscopic laser photoresection of tumors in the tracheobronchial tree with no mortality or significant morbidity. One patient had an adenoid cystic carcinoma of the trachea and the other a pleomorphic adenoma of left main stem bronchus. These were the first two cases performed in Puerto Rico at San Pablo Medical Center. Both patients are symptomless at this time. We can conclude that laser is a safe and cost effective alternative in experienced hands to other procedures in properly selected patients with tumors of tracheobronchial tree in Puerto Rico. PMID:1665064

Menéndez, A J; García, L A

1991-10-01

197

The Puerto Rico 5.8 MW Earthquake of May 16, 2010, and the Distribution of Peak Ground Motion in the Puerto Rico Island  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On may 16, 2010 a 5.8 MW earthquake occurred in the northwest region of Puerto Rico Island (18.4o Lat., -67.07o Lon., and focal depth 113.1 km) at 05:16:10 UTC, reporting an intensity of VI in the city of Añasco, which is located at approximately at 15 km from its epicenter, while in some cases the intensity hardly reach an intensity of III in towns located at closer epicentral distances. This earthquake was widely felt in Puerto Rico, the eastern Dominican Republic, and The Virgin Islands. It was recorded also by 59 stations of the Puerto Rico Strong Motion Program (PRSMP) providing a reliable set of acceleration records distributed around the island. According to the USGS Centroid Moment Tensor solution, this earthquake occurred in an inclined seismic zone that dips south from the Puerto Rico Trench and that consists of subducted lithosphere of the North America plate. Earthquakes that have focal-depths between 70 and 300 km, are commonly termed "intermediate-depth" earthquakes and typically cause less damage on the ground surface above their foci than is the case with similar magnitude shallow-focus earthquakes. Large intermediate-depth earthquakes may be felt at great distance from their epicenters. In terms of the observed maximum peak ground acceleration it was: (i) 0.0651 of g at Añasco (AÑS1 station, located at an epicentral distance of 15 km in alluvial soil), and (ii) 0.2301 of g at station UTD2 located at an epicentral distance of 42 km on rock. The instrumental intensity (MMI) estimated with Wald et al., (1999) relationship was V and VII, respectively for these two previously described sites. An analysis and discussion is presented with the aim to explain the anomalous distribution of peak ground motions, which may be associated not only by local site effects due to the presence of soft soils.

Huerta-Lopez, C. I.; Martínez-Cruzado, J. A.; Suarez, L. E.; López, R. R.; Caro-Cortes, J. A.; Upegui-Botero, F. M.; Ramirez-Gaytan, G. A.

2010-12-01

198

West Nile Virus from Blood Donors, Vertebrates, and Mosquitoes, Puerto Rico, 2007  

PubMed Central

West Nile virus (WNV) was isolated from a human blood donor, a dead falcon, and mosquitoes in Puerto Rico in 2007. Phylogenetic analysis of the 4 isolates suggests a recent introduction of lineage I WNV that is closely related to WNV currently circulating in North America. PMID:19751597

McElroy, Kate L.; Bessoff, Kovi; Colón, Candimar; Barrera, Roberto; Muñoz-Jordán, Jorge L.

2009-01-01

199

Mycological Society of America Endophytic Fungi of Manilkara bidentata Leaves in Puerto Rico  

E-print Network

Mycological Society of America Endophytic Fungi of Manilkara bidentata Leaves in Puerto Rico Author. 733-738 Published by: Mycological Society of America Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/3760967@jstor.org. Mycological Society of America is collaborating with JSTOR to digitize, preserve and extend access

California at Berkeley, University of

200

Barriers to Forest Regeneration in an Abandoned Pasture in Puerto Rico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sources of forest regeneration (soil seed bank, seed rain) and barriers to seedling establishment were ex- amined in a recently abandoned pasture in eastern Puerto Rico. Few woody species were found in the soil seed bank or in the seed rain. The number of seeds and species in the seed rain and soil seed bank declined with distance from the

Jess K. Zimmerman; John B. Pascarella; T. Mitchell Aide

2000-01-01

201

Linking Decisions to Stakeholder Values in the Guanica Bay Watershed, Puerto Rico  

EPA Science Inventory

This presentation lays the foundation for the session by introducing the Structured Decision-Making (SDM) approach that is being used by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in the Guánica Bay watershed of southwestern Puerto Rico. EPA is working with other agencies i...

202

Land Use/Land Cover of two bioluminescent bays in Puerto Rico Yadira Soto Viruet  

E-print Network

1 Land Use/Land Cover of two bioluminescent bays in Puerto Rico Yadira Soto Viruet #802 The Land Use/Land Cover maps have the capacity to illustrate the interaction between humans) are used to produce Land Use/Land Cover maps, which show environmental and geological characteristics

Gilbes, Fernando

203

Child Abuse/Neglect Demonstration Unit: Bayamon, Puerto Rico. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The final report documents activities of a 3-year child abuse and neglect demonstration unit in Bayamon, Puerto Rico. The history of the project is reviewed along with the following project components: organization/staffing, case identification, coordination, community education, professional development, case management, research and evaluation,…

1977

204

STEPS TOWARD MANAGING THE ARMORED SCALE ANDASPIS PUNICAE IN LITCHI IN FLORIDA AND PUERTO RICO  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The exotic scale Andaspis punicae (Homoptera: Diaspididae) was detected in 1993 in Florida invading litchi (Litchi chinensis) groves causing dieback of branches, and reducing tree vigor and eventually killing trees. During 2004 it was detected in Puerto Rico affecting litchis. The scale has also bee...

205

Northwest Corner of Puerto Rico Showing Shallow Waters and Coral Reefs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This scene shows the southwestern corner of the island of Puerto Rico as seen by the three Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) visible light sensors. The detectors have a limited ability to see through shallow water, detecting the coral reefs and shallow sand areas around the edge of the island.

Jesse Allen

1999-04-09

206

The persistence of Gliocephalotrichum bulbilium and G. simplex causing fruit rot of rambutan in Puerto Rico  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fruit rot of rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum L.) is a pre and post-harvest disease problem that affects fruit quality. Significant post-harvest losses have occurred worldwide and several pathogens have been identified in Malaysia, Costa Rica, Hawaii, Thailand, and Puerto Rico. In 2011, fruit rot was o...

207

Geographic range expansion of Boreioglycaspis melaleucae (hemiptera: psyllidae), to Puerto Rico  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Australian tree Melaleuca quinquenervia has been planted throughout much of the Caribbean. In Puerto Rico, for instance, it was planted island-wide in public parks, promenades and along certain highway medians and green areas from the 1970-90s. Not surprisingly, the extensive use of M. quinquene...

208

76 FR 50455 - Foreign-Trade Zone 163-Ponce, Puerto Rico Application for Expansion  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...41801, 7/19/10). The zone project currently consists of fifteen sites (917.70 acres total) in Puerto Rico: Site 1 (269 acres, 5 parcels)--within the Port of the Americas located at the Port of Ponce, at 3309 Avenida Santiago de...

2011-08-15

209

The condition of scleractinian corals and associated reef fauna in La Parguera, Puerto Rico  

EPA Science Inventory

Scleractinian corals, octocorals, sponges, fishes, and foraminifera were assessed at 24 sites near La Parguera, Puerto Rico in fall 2008. Sites were selected to coincide with locations sampled by NOAA in 2005 for sediment contaminants. Our goals were to evaluate the sensitivity o...

210

University-Industry Partnership: An Important Cornerstone for Puerto Rico's Biotechnology Cluster Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Successful knowledge-based economic models rely on synergy between government, industry and academia. This paper reviews the efforts to convert the island of Puerto Rico from a manufacturing to a high-tech manufacturing/research and development economy, with information technology and biotechnology as the main development strongholds. The…

Saliceti-Piazza, L.; Buxeda, R.; Rivera, E.; Hormaza, M.; Morell, L.

2003-01-01

211

The distribution of pollution and environmental justice in Puerto Rico: a quantitative analysis  

EPA Science Inventory

Because few empirical studies on environmental justice and pollution distribution exist, we examine both issues in Puerto Rico. This research is part of a larger US EPA project related to sustainability issues. We calculate an environmental Gini coefficient using Toxic Release In...

212

Decision scenario analysis for addressing sediment accumulation in Lago Lucchetti, Puerto Rico  

EPA Science Inventory

A Bayesian belief network (BBN) was used to characterize the effects of sediment accumulation on water storage capacity of a reservoir (Lago Lucchetti) in southwest Puerto Rico and the potential of different management options to increase reservoir life expectancy. Water and sedi...

213

Evaluation of banana hybrids for tolerance to black leaf streak (Mycosphaerella fijiensis Morelet) in Puerto Rico  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In Puerto Rico, bananas (including plantains) are important agricultural commodities; their combined production totaled 133,500 tons in 2008. Black leaf streak (BLS) and Sigatoka leaf spot diseases, caused by Mycosphaerella fijiensis and M. musicola, respectively, are responsible for significant los...

214

Geologic evidence northeast of Puerto Rico for an Atlantic tsunami in the last 500 years  

Microsoft Academic Search

A historical tsunami of undetermined origin best explains a suite of probably related features at Anegada, British Virgin Islands: shore-normal scours, fields of cobbles and boulders, a horizon of sand and shell, and salt ponds. Anegada's exposed location and low-lying landscape make the island a natural tsunami recorder. Facing the Puerto Rico Trench at the northeast corner of the Caribbean,

B. F. Atwater; M. P. Tuttle

2008-01-01

215

Earthquakes and tsunamis in Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Many earthquakes and tsunamis have occurred in the northeastern Caribbean, where the movements of the Earth's surface plates are rapid and complicated. Future such events pose serious hazards to the 3.7 million people who live in Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands.

Nealon, J.W.; Dillon, William P.

2001-01-01

216

Fungal endophyte diversity in coffee plants from Colombia, Hawaii, Mexico and Puerto Rico  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A survey of fungal endophytes in coffee plants was conducted in Colombia, Hawaii, Mexico and Puerto Rico. Coffee plant sections were sterilized and fungal endophytes were isolated using standard techniques, followed by DNA extraction and sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer region (ITS) of...

217

THE PRESENCE OF THE COFFEE BERRY BORER (SCOLYTIDAE) IN PUERTO RICO: FACT OR FICTION?  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A detailed examination of the coffee berry borer literature shows that reports indicating the presence of the insect in Puerto Rico in the early 1940's were based on an insect misidentification. One of these erroneous reports was used in a widely cited coffee book that includes a list of countries ...

218

Puerto Rico Aqueduct and Sewer Authority General Consulting Services and Technical Support  

E-print Network

Programme, San Juan, 1989. Author of paper: Monitoring of Hazardous Air Pollutants in Batch Pharmaceutical, and environmental engineering courses at various engineering schools in Puerto Rico. His work experience includes-Author of the report: Development of Land Based Sources of Marine Pollution Protocol in the Eastern Wider Caribbean

Gilbes, Fernando

219

Design and construction of an energy intergrated farm system in Puerto Rico  

SciTech Connect

An energy-integrated, environmental-compliance farm system was designed and constructed on a dairy farm in Puerto Rico. Electrical power is produced by a motor-generator fueled by biogas obtained from the anaerobic fermentation of cow manure. This well-managed system complies with both the letter and the spirit of local environmental laws.

Sasscer, D.S.; Morgan, T.O.

1984-01-01

220

Settlement effects on Favia fragum (Scleractinia, Faviidae) exposed to different sediment sources from Puerto Rico  

EPA Science Inventory

Agricultural production and urban development in Puerto Rico have increased the rate of sedimentation to the marine coastal environment, which has the potential to adversely affect coral-reef ecosystems. Settlement and metamorphosis of coral larvae are integral to the maintenance...

221

Alternate Hosts of the Whitefly from Tomato Fields in Southern Puerto Rico  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Alternate hosts of the silverleaf whitefly (WF) Bemisia tabacci, were studied in tomato fields in the south of Puerto Rico. Eighteen weed species were identified as alternate hosts of the WF. The prevalent weeds in the area are Triantema portulacastrum, Portulaca oleracea and Cleome viscose, but th...

222

ESTIMATING PRIMARY PRODUCTIVITY OF RED MANGROVES IN SOUTHWESTERN PUERTO RICO FROM  

E-print Network

ESTIMATING PRIMARY PRODUCTIVITY OF RED MANGROVES IN SOUTHWESTERN PUERTO RICO FROM REMOTE SENSING #12;ii ABSTRACT Mangroves are considered dominant primary producers in many tropical and subtropical to the photosynthetic capacity of the mangrove ecosystems. The overall objective of this research was to determine PP

Gilbes, Fernando

223

Meiofaunal Colonization of Decaying Leaves of the Red Mangrove Rhizophora mangle, in Southwestern Puerto Rico  

E-print Network

Meiofaunal Colonization of Decaying Leaves of the Red Mangrove Rhizophora mangle, in Southwestern consecutive years. Four replicates of four leaves each were secured near the mangrove prop roots at Magueyes, mangrove leaflitter, Puerto Rico INTRODUCTION Mangroves are mainly tropical ecosys- tems contributing

Schizas, Nikolaos

224

Fungal pathogen complexes associated with rambutan, longan and mango diseases in Puerto Rico  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Different fungi have been associated with diseased inflorescences, leaves, and fruits of mango, rambutan and longan. During a fungal disease survey conducted between 2008 and 2013 at six orchards of rambutan and longan, and one orchard of mango in Puerto Rico, symptoms such as fruit rot, infloresc...

225

Disseminated toxoplasmosis in Antillean manatees (Trichechus manatus manatus) from Puerto Rico  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Necropsies were conducted on four Antillean manatees (Trichechus manatus manatus) that were stranded in single events on the coastal beaches of Puerto Rico from August 2010-August 2011. Three manatees were emaciated and the gastrointestinal tracts were devoid of digesta. Microscopically, all manat...

226

First report of Dolabra nepheliae on rambutan and litchi in Hawaii and Puerto Rico  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A stem canker disease on rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum L.) and lychee (Litchi chinensis Sonn. (Sapindaceae) was found on plants in Hawaii and Puerto Rico. The fungus associated with cankers was identified as Dolabra nepheliae C. Booth & Ting. Numerous black, stipitate, elongate ascomata were produc...

227

Habitat composition and coverage mapping in La Parguera, Puerto Rico using AVIRIS and IKONOS imagery  

E-print Network

Habitat composition and coverage mapping in La Parguera, Puerto Rico using AVIRIS and IKONOS an invaluable tool in the assessment of coastal habitat coverage mapping. The present project intended to first the gradient of habitat coverage from toward the shelf edge of La Parguera keys. Spatial resolution resulted

Gilbes, Fernando

228

HIV risk behaviors and alcohol intoxication among injection drug users in Puerto Rico  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports results of an analysis of the association between alcohol intoxication and injection and sexual HIV risk behaviors among 557 Hispanic heroin and cocaine injectors, not in treatment, who were recruited in poor communities in Puerto Rico. Subjects were part of a longitudinal prevention-intervention study aimed at reducing drug use and HIV risk behaviors. Participants reported a high

Tomás D. Matos; Rafaela R. Robles; Hardeo Sahai; Hector M. Colón; Juan C. Reyes; C. Amalia Marrero; José M. Calderón; Elizabeth W. Shepard

2004-01-01

229

PARACOCCUS MARGINATUS WILLIAMS AND GRANARA DE WILLINK (HOMOPTERA: PSEUDOCOCCIDAE) AFFECTING PAPAYA IN PUERTO RICO  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The papaya mealybug, Paracoccus marginatus was detected January 10, 2001 infesting papaya plantings in Isabela, Puerto Rico (18°28'23 N; 66°52’18W; 145.4 meters above sea level). This insect is recognized as a pest of papaya, cassava, hibiscus, eggplant, avocado, annona, and sweetpotato. P. margina...

230

Thermal Biology of Anolis Lizards in a Complex Fauna: The Christatellus Group on Puerto Rico  

Microsoft Academic Search

To describe the thermal biology of the three trunk-ground species of the Anolis cristatellus group on Puerto Rico, an island with 10 species of Anolis, we obtained samples of air and body temperatures of A. gundlachi (shady perches, montane forests), A. cristatellus (shady or sunny perches in open or closed forests, lowlands to mid-elevations), and A. cooki (sunny perches in

Raymond B. Huey; T. Preston Webster

1976-01-01

231

Indirect Upstream Effects Of Dams: Consequences Of Migratory Consumer Extirpation In Puerto Rico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large dams degrade the integrity of a wide variety of ecosystems, yet direct downstream effects of dams have received the most attention from ecosystem managers and researchers. We investigated indirect upstream effects of dams resulting from deci- mation of migratory freshwater shrimp and fish populations in Puerto Rico, USA, in both high- and low-gradient streams. In high-gradient streams above large

Effie A. Greathouse; Catherine M. Pringle; William H. McDowell; Jeff G. Holmquist

2006-01-01

232

The frequency and distribution of recent landslides in three montane tropical regions of Puerto Rico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Landslides are common in steep mountainous areas of Puerto Rico where mean annual rainfall and the frequency of intense storms are high. Each year, landslides cause extensive damage to property and occasionally result in loss of life. Average population density is high, 422 people\\/km2, and is increasing. This increase in population density is accompanied by growing stress on the natural

Matthew C. Larsen; Angel J Torres-Sánchez

1998-01-01

233

NAZARIO D. RAMIREZ-BELTRAN Industrial Engineering Department, University of Puerto Rico, Mayaguez, PR 00680  

E-print Network

NAZARIO D. RAMIREZ-BELTRAN Industrial Engineering Department, University of Puerto Rico, Mayaguez Engineering, Texas A&M University 1988 M.S., Industrial Engineering, Texas A&M University 1983 B.S., Industrial Engineering, Instituto Tecnologico de Celaya, Celaya, Gto., México 1976 Quality Control Training

Gilbes, Fernando

234

Economic Development Threatens Groundwater in Puerto Rico: Results of a Field Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents the results of a field study done on 7 wells providing 37% of the total aquifer production for 4 municipalities in Puerto Rico. Each sampled well showed signs of contamination by heavy metals, nitrate, and semivolatile organic compounds. Although found in low concentrations, current development threatens groundwater quality. (MJP)

Arbona, Sonia I.; Hunter, John M.

1995-01-01

235

Heavy Metals contamination in two bioluminescent bays of Puerto Rico Yadira Soto Viruet  

E-print Network

1 Heavy Metals contamination in two bioluminescent bays of Puerto Rico Yadira Soto Viruet #802 characteristics. The main purpose of this research was to evaluate the presence of heavy metals terminals and chemical, metal and paper facilities) (Hostetteler, 1999; van Geen and Louma, 1999). The earth

Gilbes, Fernando

236

Paradise lost: An introduction to the geography of water pollution in Puerto Rico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rapid industrialization has transformed the agricultural economy of Puerto Rico, creating employment opportunities and raising standards of living. Success, however, is marred by widespread pollution that outstrips the infrastructural capacity necessary for the preservation of environmental quality and of human health. The result today is a landfill crisis, a heritage of toxic dumps, and an advancing tide of pollution. Rivers

John M. Hunter; Sonia I. Arbona

1995-01-01

237

Active Learning: The Impact on Students Participating in an Extended Field Trip to Puerto Rico.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Interviews with 15 agriculture students before and after a field trip to Puerto Rico indicated that they considered it a significant and valuable learning experience that provided direct hands-on involvement. They learned content, were able to apply it, and developed sensitivity to another culture. (Contains 23 references.) (SK)

Bruening, Thomas H.; Lopez, Josue; McCormick, David F.; Dominguez, David R.

2002-01-01

238

Puerto Rico Tsunami Warning and Mitigation Program-LANTEX 09 Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tsunami warning, assessment, education, mitigation and preparedness efforts seek to reduce losses related to tsunamis in Puerto Rico (PR). The PR Seismic Network (PRSN) works with governmental agencies and local communities to implement these tsunami hazard risk reduction programs. The Caribbean has a a history of destructive tsunamis such as Virgin Islands (1867), PR (1918) and Dominican Republic (1946). Tsunamis

W. Diaz; C. von Hillebrandt-Andrade

2009-01-01

239

Geologic evidence for a tsunami source along the trench northeast of Puerto Rico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coral boulders of medieval age at Anegada, British Virgin Islands, calibrated to local geologic effects of far-field tsunamis and hurricanes, provide tangible evidence for the generation of a tsunami by faulting along the eastern Puerto Rico Trench. SETTING: Anegada is 120 km south of the Puerto Rico Trench and 200 km east-northeast of San Juan. It is fringed on the north and east by a coral reef 100-1200 m offshore; founded on Pleistocene carbonate with a cemented cap; rimmed on much of its perimeter by sandy Holocene beach ridges; and bermed with coral-rubble on a rocky stretch of its north shore. CORAL BOULDERS: Scores of coral heads up to 2 m in diameter were moved across the north shore in medieval time. Some crossed the line of the modern storm berm, continued over a limestone rise 4 m above sea level, and came to rest on lower ground hundreds of meters farther south. Others traversed beach ridges, and two of these boulders are now 1.5 km from the fringing reef. Most of the boulders are Diploria strigosa, an endemic of reef flanks. Some retain enough of their originally rounded, dimpled shape to have been deposited live. The likely time of emplacement of freshly dislodged, still-living heads is AD 1200-1450. This range is based on radiocarbon dating of outer growth bands of 18 heads from 5 separate areas. The youngest of the ages is 890±25 14C yr BP, and the ?R assumed is 0 to -200 14C yr. CALIBRATION TO A FAR-FIELD TSUNAMI: Deposits dated to 1650-1800 at Anegada represent either the largest known far-field tsunami in the Caribbean (1755 Lisbon) or some other tsunami or unusual storm that surpassed the Lisbon tsunami in its local geologic effects. The water cut or freshened breaches in north-shore beach ridges and poured into a marine pond, where it moved limestone boulders and laid down a sheet of sand and shell that extends as much as 1.5 km inland [refs 1-4]. Many of the limestone boulders were probably inherited from the higher, earlier overwash that created the coral-boulder fields. We had expected the coral boulders to date from 1650-1800, but instead obtained only the pre-Columbus ages cited above. CALIBRATION TO HURRICANES: Hurricanes Donna (1960) and Earl (2010) rank below the 1650-1800 overwash in their Anegada effects. Their coarse deposits are limited to sandy spillover fans that extend a few tens of meters inland from the south shore, where Anegada is most vulnerable to storm surge, and to the coral-rubble berm on the north shore, where the medieval overwash ran hundreds of meters farther inland. Both Donna and Earl approached or attained category 4 as their eyes passed within 35 km of the island. If a larger hurricane managed to produce the inland fields of scattered coral boulders, the coral ages limit this perfect storm to pre-Columbus time. NEARBY TSUNAMI SOURCES. The likely source is a belt of normal faults scarps on the outer rise 200 km to Anegada's north. A giant thrust earthquake on the North America - Caribbean plate boundary is unlikely according to a GPS-based model of interplate coupling [5]. No submarine slides are apparent in multibeam bathymetry of the submarine slope that descends northward from Anegada's fringing reef to the Puerto Rico Trench floor [6). COMPANION ABSTRACTS: Coral-boulder ages (Weil Accardo), storm and tsunami modeling (Wei). REFERENCES: [1-4] Natural Hazards 63 (1), 51-149; [5] GRL 39, L10304; [6] Eos 85 (37), 349.

Atwater, B. F.; Ten Brink, U. S.; Feuillet, N.; Fuentes, Z.; Robert, H.; Tuttle, M. P.; Wei, Y.; jennifer, W.

2012-12-01

240

Management of pest mole crickets in Florida and Puerto Rico with a nematode and parasitic wasp  

SciTech Connect

Non-indigenous invasive mole crickets, Scapteriscus vicinus Scudder (Orthoptera: Gryllotalpidae) in Florida and S. didactylus (Latreille) (the 'changa') in Puerto Rico, are being managed with an entomopathogenic nematode, Steinernema scapterisci (Nguyen and Smart) (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae), and a parasitic wasp, Larra bicolor L. (Hymenoptera: Sphecidae). Pest mole cricket populations have declined by 95% in north central Florida since these specialist natural enemies were released and established in the 1980s. Commercial production of the nematode was initiated, nearly 70 billion were applied in 34 Florida counties, and their establishment, spread, and impact on mole crickets were monitored. The infected mole crickets dispersed the nematode rapidly, so that within 6 months these parasites were present in most of the insects trapped in experimental pastures. Three years later, mole cricket populations were reduced to acceptable levels and the bahiagrass had recovered. The nematode was released for the first time in Puerto Rico during 2001 and has persisted; the wasp was introduced in the late 1930s. The geographical distribution of the wasp is being expanded in Florida and Puerto Rico by planting plots of Spermacoce verticillata (L.), a wildflower indigenous to Puerto Rico and widely distributed in southern Florida. Pastures, sod farms, golf courses, landscapes, and vegetable farms in Florida and Puerto Rico are benefiting from biological control of invasive mole crickets. (author) [Spanish] Los grillotopos invasores no indigenas, Scapteriscus vicinus (Orthoptera: Gryllotalpidae) en el estado de Florida y S. didactylus ('changa') en Puerto Rico, estan siendo manejados por el nematodo entomopathogeno, Steinernema scapterisci (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae) y la avispa parasitica, Larra bicolor (Hymenoptera: Sphecidae). Las poblaciones de los grillotopo plagas han declinado un 95% en el norte central de la Florida desde que estos enemigos naturales especialistas fueron liberados y establecidos en los 80s. Consecuentemente, la produccion comercial del nematodo fue iniciada, casi 70 billones fueron aplicados en 34 condados de la Florida, y se realizo un monitoreo para evaluar su establecimiento, dispersion e impacto sobre los grillotopos. Los gillotopos infectados dispersaron los nematodos rapidamente, tanto que despues de 6 meses estos parasitos estaban presentes en la mayoria de los insectos atrapados en los pastos experimentales. Tres anos despues, las poblaciones de los grillotopos fueron reducidas a niveles aceptables y los campos de pasto 'bahia' se recuperaron. El nematodo fue liberado para la primera vez en Puerto Rico durante del 2001 y ha persistido; la avispa fue introducida al final de los 30s. La distribucion geografica de la avispa se esta extendiendo en la Florida y Puerto Rico por medio de la siembra de parcelas de Spermacoce verticillata, una flor silvestre indigena a Puerto Rico y distribuida ampliamente en el sur de la Florida. Los campos de pasto, las operaciones comerciales de cesped, los campos de golf, los paisajes y las fincas de hortalizas en la Florida y Puerto Rico se estan beneficiando del control biologico de los grillotopos invasores. (author)

Leppla, N.C.; Frank, J.H. [University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, Department of Entomology and Nematology, P.O. Box 110630, Gainesville, FL 32611-0630 (United States); Adjei, M.B. [University of Florida, Range Cattle Research and Education Center, 3401 Experiment Station, Ona, FL 33865-9706 (United States); Vicente, N.E. [University of Puerto Rico, Agricultural Experiment Station, P.O. Box 9030, Mayaguez, PR 00681-9030 (Puerto Rico)

2007-03-15

241

Radio diagnostics and analysis on the Puerto Rico CubeSat  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Puerto Rico CubeSat is a collaboration between Interamerican University of Puerto Rico, the University of Puerto Rico, the Ana G. ?endez University System, NASA Marshal Space Flight Center, the University of Alabama at Huntsville, the Swedish Institute of Space Physics, and M¨alardalens University. Principle goals include providing aerospace and systems engineering experiences to students at the participating institutions. Mission objectives include the acquisition of space weather data to aid in better understanding the Sun to Earth connection. The Puerto Rico Cube- Sat is a 3U configuration, 10 × 10 × 30 cm. Active attitude control will be used to align the long (3U) axis along the orbital path, and the satellite will rotate along the 3U axis to assist in thermal management. The Puerto Rico CubeSat will carry two scientific payloads. One is CARLO (Charge Analyzer Responsive to Local Oscillation), which is designed to measure ion turbulence from 0 to 10 kHz. CARLO will operate in a ram configuration, thus giving it the ability to distinguish between ambient and spacecraftinduced irregularities in plasma density. The second payload is GIMMERF, a 0 to 30 MHz radio instrument, consisting of a digital 4-channel direct sampling receiver board, atmospheric-noise-limited preamplifiers, and four electrically short monopole antennas. The antennas are connected electronically, as dipoles, to enable measurements of the full 3-dimensional electric field vector signal, which, in turn makes it possible to characterize the radio emissions in terms of Stokes parameters and to perform direction finding. GIMME-RF will use artificial neural network technology to automatically identify radio data of interest. All radio data will be downloaded at 1% time resolution, and radio data of special interest (automatically identified or human selected) will be downloaded at full time and frequency resolution. CARLO and GIMME-RF are complementary instruments, as CARLO will measure low-frequency plasma turbulence, which affects radio propagation in the high-frequency radio band. The satellite communications system 1 EPSC Abstracts Vol. 9, EPSC2014-799, 2014 European Planetary Science Congress 2014 c Author(s) 2014 EPSC European Planetary Science Congress will operate at frequencies between 902 and 928 MHz and will share the same antenna used by GIMME-RF. The Puerto Rico CubeSat is expected to be ready for launch in 2016; a launch vehicle has not yet been identified. Support for the Puerto Rico Cubesat comes from the Puerto Rico Industrial Development Company (PRIDCO), the Puerto Rico NASA Experimental Program to Stimulate Competitive Research (EPSCoR), and the Interamerican University of Puerto Rico Baya?on Campus. The GIMMERF payload is supported by the Swedish National Space Board (SNSB), with in-kind contributions from ?alardalen's University and the Swedish Institute of Space Physics.

Bergman, J. E. S.; Bruhn, F.; Isham, B.; Rincon-Charris, A.

2014-04-01

242

The Ecological Consequences of Socioeconomic and Land-Use Changes in Postagriculture Puerto Rico  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This peer-reviewed article from Bioscience journal is about land usage in Puerto rico and its ecological consequences.Contrary to the general trend in the tropics, forests have recovered in Puerto Rico from less than 10% of the landscape in the late 1940s to more than 40% in the present. The recent Puerto Rican history of forest recovery provides the opportunity to study the ecological consequences of economic globalization, reflected in a shift from agriculture to manufacturing and in human migration from rural to urban areas. Forest structure rapidly recovers through secondary succession, reaching mature forest levels of local biodiversity and biomass in approximately 40 years. Despite the rapid structural recovery, the legacy of pre-abandonment land use, including widespread abundance of exotic species and broadscale floristic homogenization, is likely to persist for centuries.

H. RICARDO GRAU, T. MITCHELL AIDE, JESS K. ZIMMERMAN, JOHN R. THOMLINSON, EILEEN HELMER, and XIOMING ZOU (;)

2003-12-01

243

Historical Shoreline Changes at Rincon, Puerto Rico, 1936-2006  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The coast from Punta Higuero to Punta Cadena in Rincon, Puerto Rico is experiencing long-term erosion. This study documents historical shoreline changes at Rincon for the period 1936-2006 and constitutes a significant expansion and revision of previous work. The study area extends approximately 8 km from Punta Higuero to Punta Cadena. Fourteen historical shoreline positions were compiled from existing data, new orthophotography, and Global Positioning System (GPS) field surveys. The study area can be divided into four distinct reaches on the basis of observed erosion rates, consistent with previous work. The coast of Reach A, from Punta Higuero to the north end of the Balneario de Rincon, is fairly stable and has a long-term (70 years) average erosion rate of -0.2 ? 0.1 m/yr. The coast of Reach B, from the Balneario de Rincon to 500 m south of the mouth of Quebrada los Ramos, has an average long-term erosion rate of -1.1 ? 0.3 m/yr. The coast of Reach C, from 500 m south of the mouth of Quebrada los Ramos to Corcega, has an average long-term erosion rate of -0.4 ? 0.2 m/yr. The coast of Reach D, from Corcega to Punta Cadena, has an average long-term change rate of -0.2 ? 0.2 m/yr. Previous work (Thieler and others, 1995) identified an apparent increase in erosion rate in Reach B that probably began between 1977 and 1987. New data and statistical analysis suggest that long-term and short-term rates of shoreline change are statistically similar. Nevertheless, the coast in Reach B is eroding at a rapid and statistically significant rate that is 2 to 10 times greater than in the other three reaches. Comparison of the 1994 and 2006 GPS shoreline positions indicates the following erosion rates occurred over the past 12 years: Reach A, -0.3 ? 0.4 m/yr; Reach B, -1.0 ? 0.4 m/yr; Reach C, -0.7 ? 0.4 m/yr; and Reach D, -0.3 ? 0.4 m/yr. Thieler and others (1995) speculated that the increased erosion rate in Reach B could be attributed to the effects of marina construction in 1983 on the local sediment budget. New data and analysis suggest, however, that other factors may be equally or perhaps more important. For example, high-resolution lidar bathymetric data collected in 2001 show a complex nearshore bathymetry that may substantially affect wave refraction, diffraction, and reflection in Reach B where erosion rates are the highest. In addition, several historical photographs dating from 1951 to 2006 show a wide array of complex wave patterns that suggest the bathymetric influence on nearshore processes to be a long-term, rather than recent, phenomenon. In addition, removal of sand from the beach system may be contributing further to the elevated erosion rates in Reach B. Development of potential options for addressing coastal erosion in Rincon was beyond the scope of this study, but the data and interpretations presented here provide a sound scientific foundation for further work to identify the causes of the increased erosion and to develop strategies to mitigate its effect.

Thieler, E. Robert; Rodriguez, Rafael W.; Himmelstoss, Emily A.

2007-01-01

244

Hydrogeology of Puerto Rico and the outlying islands of Vieques, Culebra, and Mona  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The availability of hydrogeologic maps for Puerto Rico and the outlying islands of Vieques, Culebra, and Mona are important to hydrogeologists, groundwater specialists, and water resource managers and planners. These maps, in combination with the report, serve as a source of information to all users by providing basic hydrogeologic and hydrologic knowledge in a concise illustrated format. Puerto Rico and the outlying islands cover a total area of 8,927 square kilometers (km2). Of this total area, about 3,500 km2 are underlain by hydrogeologic units that are classified as intergranular or fissured. These hydrogeologic units form the principal aquifer systems throughout Puerto Rico and the outlying islands. In Puerto Rico, the most extensive and intensely developed aquifers are the North Coast Limestone aquifer system and the South Coastal Alluvial Plain aquifer system. Withdrawals from these two aquifer systems constitute nearly 70 percent of the total groundwater withdrawn in Puerto Rico. The spatial extent of the North Coast Limestone aquifer system is about 2,000 km2. Within this aquifer system, groundwater development is greatest in the 800-km2 area between the Río Grande de Arecibo and the Río de la Plata. This also is the area for which concern is the highest regarding the future use of groundwater as a primary source of water for domestic and industrial use. With an estimated withdrawal of 280,000 cubic meters per day (m3/d), groundwater constituted the principal source of water within this area providing 100 percent of the water for self-supplied industries and about 85 percent for public water supplies in 1985. By 2005, groundwater withdrawals decreased to 150,000 m3/d. The spatial extent of the South Coastal Alluvial Plain aquifer system is about 470 km2. The estimated consumptive groundwater withdrawal from the aquifer system was 190,000 m3/d in 1980 and 170,000 m3/d in 2005. About 60 percent and 40 percent of the groundwater withdrawal from the South Coastal Alluvial Plain aquifer system was used for public water supply and irrigation, respectively. In the outlying islands of Vieques, Culebra, and Mona, only Vieques is underlain by aquifers of any local importance. The Resolución and Esperanza aquifers underlie an area covering 16 km2 on the island of Vieques. Prior to 1978 when an underwater public water-supply pipeline connecting Vieques to the main island of Puerto Rico was completed, groundwater withdrawal from the two aquifers was as much as 2,500 m3/d. Groundwater withdrawals in Vieques island in 2005 were estimated at less than 100 m3/d. The potential development of relatively untapped groundwater resources in Puerto Rico is limited to the Río Grande de Añasco valley and the Río Culebrinas valley in the western part of the island and to the Río Grande de Arecibo part of the North Coast Limestone aquifer system. In general, the North Coast Limestone and the South Coastal Alluvial Plain aquifer systems, which are the two principal groundwater-flow systems in Puerto Rico, show evidence of aquifer overdraft as indicated by regional increases in concentrations of dissolved solids. Optimization of withdrawals through conjunctive use of both surface-water and groundwater sources and by instituting water conservation measures has the greatest potential to ensure the continued use of groundwater resources. In support of these efforts, programs also could be implemented to improve database information regarding groundwater withdrawals and the contribution of surface-water diversions to surface-water flow, especially within the southern coastal plain of Puerto Rico.

Gómez-Gómez, Fernando; Rodríguez-Martínez, Jesús; Santiago, Marilyn

2014-01-01

245

76 FR 62339 - Notice of Decision To Allow Interstate Movement of Rambutan From Puerto Rico into the Continental...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...risks of introducing or disseminating plant pests or noxious weeds via the interstate movement of rambutan from Puerto Rico. DATES...Northern Mariana Islands to prevent plant pests and noxious weeds from being introduced into and spread within the...

2011-10-07

246

78 FR 63448 - Notice of Decision To Allow Interstate Movement of Sapote Fruit From Puerto Rico Into the...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...risks of introducing or disseminating plant pests or noxious weeds via the interstate movement of sapote fruit from Puerto Rico...Northern Mariana Islands to prevent plant pests and noxious weeds from being introduced into and spread within the...

2013-10-24

247

50 CFR 20.101 - Seasons, limits and shooting hours for Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... This section provides for the annual hunting of certain doves, pigeons, ducks, coots, gallinules and snipe in Puerto Rico; and for certain doves, pigeons and ducks in the Virgin Islands. In these Commonwealths, the hunting of...

2011-10-01

248

50 CFR 20.101 - Seasons, limits and shooting hours for Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... This section provides for the annual hunting of certain doves, pigeons, ducks, coots, gallinules and snipe in Puerto Rico; and for certain doves, pigeons and ducks in the Virgin Islands. In these Commonwealths, the hunting of...

2010-10-01

249

78 FR 54623 - Foreign-Trade Zone (FTZ) 7-Mayaguez, Puerto Rico; Notification of Proposed Production Activity...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Activity; Puma Energy Caribe, LLC (Biodiesel Blending); Bayamon, Puerto Rico Puma...current request would add the blending of biodiesel to the scope of authority. Pursuant...methyl ester meeting the specification of biodiesel (B100) (duty...

2013-09-05

250

The use of a distributed hydrologic model to predict dynamic landslide susceptibility for a humid basin in Puerto Rico  

E-print Network

This thesis describes the use of a distributed hydrology model in conjunction with a Factor of Safety (FS) algorithm to predict dynamic landslide susceptibility for a humid basin in Puerto Rico. The Mameyes basin, located ...

Kamal, Sameer A. (Sameer Ahmed)

2009-01-01

251

Urinary phthalate metabolite concentrations among pregnant women in Northern Puerto Rico: Distribution, temporal variability, and predictors  

PubMed Central

Background Phthalate contamination exists in the North coast karst aquifer system in Puerto Rico. In light of potential health impacts associated with phthalate exposure, targeted action for elimination of exposure sources may be warranted, especially for sensitive populations such as pregnant women. However, information on exposure to phthalates from a variety of sources in Puerto Rico is lacking. The objective of this study was to determine concentrations and predictors of urinary phthalate biomarkers measured at multiple times during pregnancy among women living in the Northern karst area of Puerto Rico. Methods We recruited 139 pregnant women in Northern Puerto Rico and collected urine samples and questionnaire data at three separate visits (18±2 weeks, 22±2 weeks, and 26±2 weeks of gestation). Urine samples were analyzed for eleven phthalate metabolites: mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP), mono-2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl phthalate, mono-2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl phthalate, mono-2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl phthalate, mono-ethyl phthalate (MEP), mono-n-butyl phthalate, mono-benzyl phthalate, mono-isobutyl phthalate, mono-3-carboxypropyl phthalate (MCPP), mono carboxyisononyl phthalate (MCNP), and mono carboxyisooctyl phthalate (MCOP). Results Detectable concentrations of phthalate metabolites among pregnant women living in Puerto Rico was prevalent, and metabolite concentrations tended to be higher than or similar to those measured in women of reproductive age from the general US population. Intraclass correlation coefficients ranged from very weak (MCNP; 0.05) to moderate (MEP; 0.44) reproducibility among all phthalate metabolites. We observed significant or suggestive positive associations between urinary phthalate metabolites concentrations and water usage/storage habits (MEP, MCNP, MCOP), use of personal care products (MEP), and consumption of certain food items (MCPP, MCNP, and MCOP). Conclusions To our knowledge this is the first study to report concentrations, temporal variability, and predictors of phthalate biomarkers among pregnant women in Puerto Rico. Preliminary results suggest several potentially important exposure sources to phthalates in this population and future analysis from this ongoing prospective cohort will help to inform targeted approaches to reduce exposure. PMID:24161445

Cantonwine, David E.; Cordero, José F.; Rivera-González, Luis O.; Del Toro, Liza V. Anzalota; Ferguson, Kelly K.; Mukherjee, Bhramar; Calafat, Antonia M.; Crespo, Noe; Jiménez-Vélez, Braulio; Padilla, Ingrid Y.; Alshawabkeh, Akram N.; Meeker, John D.

2013-01-01

252

Land use, population dynamics, and land-cover change in eastern Puerto Rico: Chapter B in Water quality and landscape processes of four watersheds in eastern Puerto Rico  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We assessed current and historic land use and land cover in the Luquillo Mountains and surrounding area in eastern Puerto Rico, including four small subwatersheds that are study watersheds of the U.S. Geological Survey's Water, Energy, and Biogeochemical Budgets (WEBB) program. This region occupies an area of 1,616 square kilometers, about 18 percent of the total land in Puerto Rico. Closed forests occupy about 37 percent of the area, woodlands and shrublands 7 percent, nonforest vegetation 43 percent, urban development 10 percent, and water and natural barrens total less than 2 percent. The area has been classified into three main land-use categories by integrating recent census information (population density per barrio in the year 2000) with satellite image analyses (degree of developed area versus natural land cover). Urban land use (in this analysis, land with more than 20 percent developed cover within a 1-square-kilometer area and population density greater than 500 people per square kilometer) covered 16 percent of eastern Puerto Rico. Suburban land use (more than 80 percent natural land cover, more than 500 people per square kilometer, and primarily residential) covers 50 percent of the area. Rural land use (more than 80 percent natural land cover, less than 500 people per square kilometer, and primarily active or abandoned agricultural, wetland, steep slope, or protected conservation areas) covered 34 percent of the area. Our analysis of land-cover change indicates that in the 1990s, forest cover increased at the expense of woodlands and grasslands. Urban development increased by 16 percent during that time. The most pronounced change in the last seven decades has been the shift from a nonforested to a forested landscape and the intensification of the ring of urbanization that surrounds the long-protected Luquillo Experimental Forest.

Gould, William A.; Martinuzzi, Sebastián; Pares-Ramos, Isabel K.; Murphy, Sheila F.; Stallard, Robert F.

2012-01-01

253

Hydrology and climate of four watersheds in eastern Puerto Rico: Chapter C in Water quality and landscape processes of four watersheds in eastern Puerto Rico  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Puerto Rico lies directly in the path of the easterly trade winds, which deliver steady rainfall to the mountains and steer tropical wave systems toward the island. Hurricanes and tropical storms derived from these tropical waves differ in frequency and intensity, contributing to substantial interannual variation in precipitation and stream discharge. Puerto Rico's steep topography and small water-storage capacity leave the island's water supply and developed flood plains vulnerable to extreme weather events, such as hurricanes, floods, and droughts. This vulnerability may increase in the future owing to ongoing change, both local (such as land-cover shifts, water-supply projects, and construction of roads and other infrastructure) and regional (climate variability and change). Climate change, which could lead to more intense and prolonged droughts as well as an increase in the magnitude and frequency of destructive storms in the Caribbean, may alter temperature and affect the availability of water for human and ecosystem needs. Accurate assessment of hydrologic regimes and water budgets is therefore crucial for effective management of water resources. As part of the U.S. Geological Survey's Water, Energy, and Biogeochemical Budgets program, hydrologic and geomorphologic processes and stream chemistry of four small watersheds in eastern Puerto Rico, which differ in geology and land cover, have been studied since 1991. Spatial and temporal characteristics of precipitation and stream discharge, along with water budgets, were determined for the watersheds for the period 1991 to 2005. The locations of the watersheds relative to the Luquillo Mountains and the range's associated rain shadow dominate hydrological processes, dwarfing influences of land cover. The influence of geology is reflected in recession characteristics of the rivers (recession is faster in soils overlying volcaniclastic bedrock) and in hillslope geomorphic processes (sediment is delivered at higher rates from soils overlying granitic bedrock).

Murphy, Sheila F.; Stallard, Robert F.

2012-01-01

254

The Music of Puerto Rico; A Classroom Music Handbook.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With the assumption that the teacher of students with identifiable ethnic or cultural background must be prepared to deal with each student's heritage in a meaningful way, the document provides resource materials for Connecticut classroom teachers and/or music specialists with responsibilities for teaching children of Puerto Rican heritage. The…

Schmidt, Lloyd; Toro, Leonor

255

Non-Verbal Communication in Puerto Rico. Second Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Observations of the contrasts between Puerto Rican and Anglo nonverbal communication patterns, and their relevance in the classroom, are outlined and discussed. A general observation is that what is acceptable and permissible in one culture is usually not in the other, and teachers are urged to develop ways of making Anglo and Latin American…

Curt, Carmen Judith Nine

256

Near-Surface Shear Wave Velocity Versus Depth Profiles, VS30, and NEHRP Classifications for 27 Sites in Puerto Rico  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 2004 and 2005 the Puerto Rico Seismic Network (PRSN), Puerto Rico Strong Motion Program (PRSMP) and the Geology Department at the University of Puerto Rico-Mayaguez (UPRM) collaborated with the U.S. Geological Survey to study near-surface shear-wave (Vs) and compressional-wave (Vp) velocities in and around major urban areas of Puerto Rico. Using noninvasive seismic refraction-reflection profiling techniques, we acquired velocities at 27 locations. Surveyed sites were predominantly selected on the premise that they were generally representative of near-surface materials associated with the primary geologic units located within the urbanized areas of Puerto Rico. Geologic units surveyed included Cretaceous intrusive and volcaniclastic bedrock, Tertiary sedimentary and volcanic units, and Quaternary unconsolidated eolian, fluvial, beach, and lagoon deposits. From the data we developed Vs and Vp depth versus velocity columns, calculated average Vs to 30-m depth (VS30), and derived NEHRP (National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program) site classifications for all sites except one where results did not reach 30-m depth. The distribution of estimated NEHRP classes is as follows: three class 'E' (VS30 below 180 m/s), nine class 'D' (VS30 between 180 and 360 m/s), ten class 'C' (VS30 between 360 and 760 m/s), and four class 'B' (VS30 greater than 760 m/s). Results are being used to calibrate site response at seismograph stations and in the development of regional and local shakemap models for Puerto Rico.

Odum, Jack K.; Williams, Robert A.; Stephenson, William J.; Worley, David M.; von Hillebrandt-Andrade, Christa; Asencio, Eugenio; Irizarry, Harold; Cameron, Antonio

2007-01-01

257

Project PROBE Leg I - Report and archive of multibeam bathymetry and acoustic backscatter , CTD/XBT and GPS navigation data collected during USGS Cruise 02051 (NOAA Cruise RB0208) Puerto Rico Trench September 24, 2002 to September 30, 2002  

USGS Publications Warehouse

On September 24-30, 2002, six days of scientific surveying to map a section of the Puerto Rico Trench (PRT) took place aboard the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) ship Ron Brown. The cruise was funded by NOAA's Office of Ocean Exploration. Multibeam bathymetry and acoustic-backscatter data were collected over an area of about 25,000 sq. km of the Puerto Rico trench and its vicinity at water depths of 4000-8400 m. Weather conditions during the entire survey were good; there were light to moderate winds and 1-2 foot swells experiencing minor chop. The roll and pitch of the ship's interaction with the ocean were not conspicuous. Cruise participants included personnel from USGS, NOAA, and University of New Hampshire Center for Coastal and Ocean Mapping/Joint Hydrographic Center. The cruise resulted in the discovery of a major active strike-slip fault system close to the trench, submarine slides on the descending North American tectonic plate, and an extinct mud volcano, which was cut by the strike-slip fault system. Another strike-slip fault system closer to Puerto Rico that was previously considered to accommodate much of the relative plate motion appears to be inactive. The seaward continuation of the Mona Rift, a zone of extension between Puerto Rico and the Dominican Republic that generated a devastating tsunami in 1918, was mapped for the first time.

ten Brink, Uri S.; Worley, Charles R.; Smith, Shep; Stepka, Thomas; Williams, Glynn F.

2006-01-01

258

Chemical, physical, biochemical, and bacteriological characteristics at selected stream sites in Puerto Rico, 1976-77  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 1969, the Caribbean District of the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, initiated the operation of a network to monitor some parameters indicative of water-quality changes at selected stream sites. In 1974, at the request of the Environmental Quality Board of Puerto Rico, the network was modified to conform with the Environmental Protection Agency National Water Quality Surveillance System. The purpose of the present network is to monitor changes in water quality between the upstream and downstream stations. The expanded network consisted of 58 stations. During 1976, five had been discontinued. One other was added late in 1976. Most of the stations in the original network have been maintained, thus providing some degree of continuity. The monitoring stations used in this report are shown on a map and listed in a table. The results of the network operation are summarized for the period July 1976 to August 1977. (Woodard-USGS)

Quinones, F.; Vasquez, Pedro; Pena-Cortes, Rafael

1978-01-01

259

Human Papillomavirus-Related Cancers Among People Living With AIDS in Puerto Rico  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to estimate the incidence of cancer and human papillomavirus (HPV)–related cancers and the risk of death (by cancer status) among people living with AIDS (PLWA) in Puerto Rico. We used data from the Puerto Rico AIDS Surveillance Program and Central Cancer Registry (1985–2005). Cancers with highest incidence were cervix (299.6/100,000) for women and oral cavity/oropharynx for men (150.0/100,000); the greatest excess of cancer incidence for men (standardized incidence ratio, 86.8) and women (standardized incidence ratio, 52.8) was for anal cancer. PLWA who developed a cancer had decreased survival and increased risk of death compared with those who did not have cancer. Cancer control strategies for PLWA will be essential for improving their disease survival. PMID:24831284

Pérez-Irizarry, Javier; Soto-Salgado, Marievelisse; Suárez, Erick; Pérez, Naydi; Cruz, Maritza; Palefsky, Joel; Tortolero-Luna, Guillermo; Miranda, Sandra; Colón-López, Vivian

2014-01-01

260

``From Earth to the Solar System'' Traveling Exhibit Visits Puerto Rico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Puerto Rico was selected as one of the venues for the exhibit “From Earth to the Solar System” (FETTSS) during the month of October 2011. A set of outreach activities were organized to take place during the month of October aligned with the FETTSS themes. These activities included the following: 1) Main Exhibit, 2) Guided tours for school groups, 3) Planet Festival, 4) Film Festival and 5) Astronomy Conferences. We describe this experience and in particular the work with a group of undergraduate students from the University of Puerto Rico (UPR) that assisted in the outreach events. Among this group were three blind students. The FETTSS exhibit included a set of tactile and Braille images for the blind and visually impaired. A special exhibit was prepared with additional adapted materials for the visually impaired. This allowed blind visitors to participate and the general public to become more aware of the needs of this population.

Pantoja, C. A.; Lebrón, M. E.; Isidro, G. M.

2013-04-01

261

Response of sponges with autotrophic endosymbionts during the coral-bleaching episode in Puerto Rico  

Microsoft Academic Search

An updated list of sponges with algal endosymbionts including new records for Puerto Rico and the Caribbean, indicates that thirty-five species of common Caribbean sponges possess photosynthetic endosymbionts. Of these, 23 (67.6%) species in seven orders, were found with unicellular chroococcoid cyanobacteria (Aphanocapsa-like) and 5 (14.7%) hadromerid species were found with zooxanthellae. Sponges with other algae as symbionts occur less

V. P. Vicente

1990-01-01

262

Land-Use History and Forest Regeneration in the Cayey Mountains, Puerto Rico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although deforestation continues to be a major threat to tropical biodiversity, abandonment of agricultural land in Puerto\\u000a Rico provides an opportunity to study long-term patterns of secondary forest regeneration. Using aerial photographs from 1937,\\u000a 1967, and 1995, we determined land-use history for 2443 ha in the Cayey Mountains. Pastures were the dominant land cover in\\u000a 1937 and <20% of the

John B. Pascarella; T. Mitchell Aide; Mayra I. Serrano; Jess K. Zimmerman

2000-01-01

263

[A new species of the chiton Lepidochitona (Polyplacophora: Ischnochitonidae) from Puerto Rico].  

PubMed

The genus Lepidochitona Gray, 1821 has two species in the Caribbean: L. liozonis (Dall & Simpson, 1901) and L. rosea Kaas, 1972. We describe a third species: Lepidochitona rufoi sp. nov. from Puerto Rico. Lepidochitona rufoi differs from both in having a finely granulose tegmentum, smaller size, a very fine central radula tooth, and different anal plate form and color pattern. It also differs from L. liozonis in having longer marginal spicules. PMID:20527464

García-Ríos, Cedar I

2010-06-01

264

Facility Energy Decision System (FEDS) Assessment Report for Fort Buchanan, Puerto Rico  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the findings of the Facility Energy Decision System (FEDS) assessment at Fort Buchanan, Puerto Rico, by a team of PNNL engineers under contract to the Installation Management Agency (IMA) Southeast Region Office (SERO). Funding support was also provided by the Department of Energy's Federal Energy Management Program. The purpose of the assessment was to determine how energy is consumed at Fort Buchanan, identify the most cost-effective energy retrofit measures, and calculate the potential energy and cost savings.

Chvala, William D.; Solana, Amy E.; Dixon, Douglas R.

2005-02-01

265

A needs assessment of health department employees in Puerto Rico and Florida.  

PubMed

Public health training centers were established to enhance competencies in skills required to meet 21st-century public health challenges. In 2011, the Puerto Rico-Florida Public Health Training Center conducted surveys to assess the training needs of two populations of public health workers serving Hispanic communities: Florida Department of Health employees and workers at the regional and central offices of the Puerto Rico Department of Health. The two surveys were similar, but not identical in content and administration. A 52.6% response rate was achieved in the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, where limited computer access necessitated use of a pen-and-paper survey. A 20.7% response rate was achieved in Florida, where an online survey was used and incomplete responses were problematic. Puerto Rico respondents (n = 1,414) were similar in age (Mdn age = 48 years) to Hispanic Florida respondents (n = 546, Mdn age =45 years). They also reported higher levels of academic achievement and more years of experience in public health. Nevertheless, self-assessed public health competency scores were in the low- to mid-range for Hispanic respondents in both locales. Although self-assessed training priorities differed, Hispanic employees in both jurisdictions preferred hands-on and face-to-face training to distance learning. Findings indicate a need for training based on adult learning theory, targeted to entry-level employees, and addressing the top five self-assessed training needs, especially health promotion and disease prevention and public health law and policy, which emerged as priority training areas in both survey populations. PMID:24578362

Capriles-Quirós, José A; McCoy, H Virginia; Darrow, William W; Ríos, Ruth E; Rubens, Muni; Silva-Suarez, Georgina; Hughes, Shannon

2014-03-01

266

Sea surface temperatures and coral reef bleaching off La Parguera, Puerto Rico (northeastern Caribbean Sea)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much recent attention has been given to coral reef bleaching because of its widespread occurrence, damage to reefs, and possible\\u000a connection to global change. There is still debate about the relationship between temperature and widespread bleaching. We\\u000a compared coral reef bleaching at La Parguera, Puerto Rico to a 30-y (1966–1995) record of sea surface temperature (SST) at\\u000a the same location.

A. Winter; R. S. Appeldoorn; A. Bruckner; E. H. Williams Jr.; C. Goenaga

1998-01-01

267

Contributions of dust to phosphorus cycling in tropical forests of the Luquillo Mountains, Puerto Rico  

Microsoft Academic Search

The input of phosphorus (P) through mineral aerosol dust deposition may be an important component of nutrient dynamics in\\u000a tropical forest ecosystems. A new dust deposition calculation is used to construct a broad analysis of the importance of dust-derived\\u000a P to the P budget of a montane wet tropical forest in the Luquillo Mountains of Puerto Rico. The dust deposition

Julie C. Pett-Ridge

2009-01-01

268

Measuring HIV felt stigma: a culturally adapted scale targeting PLWHA in Puerto Rico  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to culturally adapt and validate a scale to measure HIV-related felt stigma in a group of People living with HIV\\/AIDS (PLWHA) in Puerto Rico. The researchers conducted a two-phase cross-sectional study with 216 participants (60, first phase; 156, second phase). The first phase consisted of the cultural adaptation of the scale; the second evaluated

Julio Cesar Jimenez; Marieva Puig; Juan Carlos Ramos; Marangelie Morales; Gloria Asencio; Ana Cecilia Sala; Eida Castro; Carmen Vélez Santori; Lydia Santiago; Carmen Zorrilla

2010-01-01

269

Acceptability and Cultural Appropriateness of Self-Help Booklets for Relapse Prevention in Puerto Rico.  

PubMed

Cigarette smoking is associated with a range of cancers and is related to five of seven leading causes of death in Puerto Rico. Minimal self-help interventions have shown promising results in reaching participants and preventing relapse from smoking. Specifically, a collection of eight self-help booklets has demonstrated efficacy (Brandon et al., 2000; 2004). Those booklets have been transcreated into Spanish, with efforts to make them culturally appropriate across a range of Hispanic cultures. We conducted a pilot study in Ponce, Puerto Rico, to evaluate the Spanish version of our smoking relapse-prevention booklets. Qualitative, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 20 current and former smokers. Interviews were conducted to elicit feedback regarding the booklet's content, cultural appropriateness, dissemination, and perceived availability of smoking cessation resources in Puerto Rico. Interviews were audiotaped and transcribed verbatim. Transcripts were coded using content analysis, with a priori codes based on the interview guide. Emergent themes were examined. Overall, participants liked the booklets' content, perceived them to be culturally appropriate, easy to read and understand. Regarding dissemination, it was recommended that the booklets be disseminated by physicians and advertised through television. Most importantly, participants reported the best way to distribute and complement the booklets would be through support groups. Participants also reported having limited knowledge about resources provided in the community to aid smoking cessation. Overall, this pilot study was able to show the cultural acceptability of the booklets and highlights the need for the dissemination of these materials among current and former smokers in Puerto Rico. PMID:25219544

Menzie, Nicole S; Simmons, Vani N; Quinn, Gwendolyn P; Diaz, Diana B; Piñeiro, Barbara; Jimenez, Julio; Castro, Eida; Brandon, Thomas H

2014-09-16

270

Program Spotlight: Ground Broken for NCI-supported Cancer Treatment Center in Puerto Rico  

Cancer.gov

Groundbreaking ceremonies were held last month in San Juan for a $196-million, 287,000 square foot University of Puerto Rico (UPR) cancer hospital. The 12-storey medical facility, scheduled to open in April 2016 and employ 750 people, will offer state-of-the-art cancer treatment and conduct clinical trials. The hospital is part of the larger UPR Comprehensive Cancer Center (UPRCCC) that opened in 2009.

271

Weathering of the Rio Blanco quartz diorite, Luquillo Mountains, Puerto Rico: Coupling oxidation, dissolution, and fracturing  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the mountainous Rio Icacos watershed in northeastern Puerto Rico, quartz diorite bedrock weathers spheroidally, producing a 0.2–2m thick zone of partially weathered rock layers (?2.5cm thickness each) called rindlets, which form concentric layers around corestones. Spheroidal fracturing has been modeled to occur when a weathering reaction with a positive ?V of reaction builds up elastic strain energy. The rates

Heather L. Buss; Peter B. Sak; Samuel M. Webb; Susan L. Brantley

2008-01-01

272

Climatological data for the rice-growing areas along the North Coast of Puerto Rico  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Rainfall, temperature, wind velocity and pan evaporation data were collected from May 1983 to September 1985, in the rice growing areas of Vega Baja, Manati, and Arecibo in northern Puerto Rico. Daily values and statistics including mean, standard deviation, extremes, and totals for each month of record were compiled. Descriptions of equipment installation and operation, data processing, and significance of climatological data for rice cultivation are presented. (Author 's abstract)

Roman-Mas, Angel; Green, Bruce

1987-01-01

273

Disseminated toxoplasmosis in Antillean manatees Trichechus manatus manatus from Puerto Rico  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Necropsies were conducted on 4 Antillean manatees Trichechus manatus manatus that were stranded in single events on the coastal beaches of Puerto Rico from August 2010 to August 2011. Three manatees were emaciated and the gastrointestinal tracts were devoid of digesta. Microscopically, all manatees had severe widespread inflammatory lesions of the gastrointestinal tract and heart with intralesional tachyzoites consistent with Toxoplasma gondii identified by histological, ultrastructural and immunohistochemical techniques. The gastrointestinal lesions included severe, multifocal to diffuse, chronic-active enteritis, colitis and/or gastritis often with associated ulceration, necrosis and hemorrhage. Enteric leiomyositis was severe and locally extensive in all cases and associated with the most frequently observed intralesional protozoans. Moderate to severe, multifocal, chronic to chronic-active, necrotizing myocarditis was also present in all cases. Additionally, less consistent inflammatory lesions occurred in the liver, lung and a mesenteric lymph node and were associated with fewer tachyzoites. Sera (n = 30) collected from free-ranging and captive Puerto Rican manatees and a rehabilitated/released Puerto Rican manatee from 2003 to 2012 were tested for antibodies for T. gondii. A positive T. gondii antibody titer was found in 2004 in 1 (3%) of the free-ranging cases tested. Disease caused by T. gondii is rare in manatees. This is the first report of toxoplasmosis in Antillean manatees from Puerto Rico. Additionally, these are the first reported cases of disseminated toxoplasmosis in any sirenian. The documentation of 4 cases of toxoplasmosis within one year and the extremely low seroprevalence to T. gondiisuggest that toxoplasmosis may be an emerging disease in Antillean manatees from Puerto Rico.

Bossart, Gregory D.; Mignucci-Ginannoni, Antonio A.; Rivera-Guzman, Antonio L.; Jimenez-Marrero, Nilda M.; Camus, Alvin C.; Bonde, Robert K.; Dubey, Jitender P.; Reif, John S.

2012-01-01

274

Association of NOD2 and IL23R with Inflammatory Bowel Disease in Puerto Rico  

PubMed Central

The Puerto Rico population may be modeled as an admixed population with contributions from three continents: Sub-Saharan Africa, Ancient America, and Europe. Extending the study of the genetics of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) to an admixed population such as Puerto Rico has the potential to shed light on IBD genes identified in studies of European populations, find new genes contributing to IBD susceptibility, and provide basic information on IBD for the care of US patients of Puerto Rican and Latino descent. In order to study the association between immune-related genes and Crohn’s disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) in Puerto Rico, we genotyped 1159 Puerto Rican cases, controls, and family members with the ImmunoChip. We also genotyped 832 subjects from the Human Genome Diversity Panel to provide data for estimation of global and local continental ancestry. Association of SNPs was tested by logistic regression corrected for global continental descent and family structure. We observed the association between Crohn’s disease and NOD2 (rs17313265, 0.28 in CD, 0.19 in controls, OR 1.5, p?=?9×10?6) and IL23R (rs11209026, 0.026 in CD, 0.0.071 in controls, OR 0.4, p?=?3.8×10?4). The haplotype structure of both regions resembled that reported for European populations and “local” continental ancestry of the IL23R gene was almost entirely of European descent. We also observed suggestive evidence for the association of the BAZ1A promoter SNP with CD (rs1200332, 0.45 in CD, 0.35 in controls, OR 1.5, p?=?2×10?6). Our estimate of continental ancestry surrounding this SNP suggested an origin in Ancient America for this putative susceptibility region. Our observations underscored the great difference between global continental ancestry and local continental ancestry at the level of the individual gene, particularly for immune-related loci. PMID:25259511

Ballester, Veroushka; Guo, Xiuqing; Vendrell, Roberto; Haritunians, Talin; Klomhaus, Alexandra M.; Li, Dalin; McGovern, Dermot P. B.; Rotter, Jerome I.; Torres, Esther A.; Taylor, Kent D.

2014-01-01

275

Disseminated toxoplasmosis in Antillean manatees Trichechus manatus manatus from Puerto Rico.  

PubMed

Necropsies were conducted on 4 Antillean manatees Trichechus manatus manatus that were stranded in single events on the coastal beaches of Puerto Rico from August 2010 to August 2011. Three manatees were emaciated and the gastrointestinal tracts were devoid of digesta. Microscopically, all manatees had severe widespread inflammatory lesions of the gastrointestinal tract and heart with intralesional tachyzoites consistent with Toxoplasma gondii identified by histological, ultrastructural and immunohistochemical techniques. The gastrointestinal lesions included severe, multifocal to diffuse, chronic-active enteritis, colitis and/or gastritis often with associated ulceration, necrosis and hemorrhage. Enteric leiomyositis was severe and locally extensive in all cases and associated with the most frequently observed intralesional protozoans. Moderate to severe, multifocal, chronic to chronic-active, necrotizing myocarditis was also present in all cases. Additionally, less consistent inflammatory lesions occurred in the liver, lung and a mesenteric lymph node and were associated with fewer tachyzoites. Sera (n = 30) collected from free-ranging and captive Puerto Rican manatees and a rehabilitated/released Puerto Rican manatee from 2003 to 2012 were tested for antibodies for T. gondii. A positive T. gondii antibody titer was found in 2004 in 1 (3%) of the free-ranging cases tested. Disease caused by T. gondii is rare in manatees. This is the first report of toxoplasmosis in Antillean manatees from Puerto Rico. Additionally, these are the first reported cases of disseminated toxoplasmosis in any sirenian. The documentation of 4 cases of toxoplasmosis within one year and the extremely low seroprevalence to T. gondii suggest that toxoplasmosis may be an emerging disease in Antillean manatees from Puerto Rico. PMID:23135141

Bossart, Gregory D; Mignucci-Giannoni, Antonio A; Rivera-Guzman, Antonio L; Jimenez-Marrero, Nilda M; Camus, Alvin C; Bonde, Robert K; Dubey, Jitender P; Reif, John S

2012-11-01

276

SHORT REPORT: SEROLOGIC EVIDENCE FOR WEST NILE VIRUS TRANSMISSION IN PUERTO RICO AND CUBA  

E-print Network

Abstract. During the spring of 2004, approximately 1,950 blood specimens were collected from resident and Nearc-tic-Neotropical migratory birds on the Caribbean islands of Puerto Rico and Cuba prior to northerly spring migrations. Eleven birds and seven birds, collected in Puerto Rico and Cuba, respectively, showed evidence of antibody in a flavivirus enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Confirmatory plaque-reduction neutralization test results indicated neutralizing antibodies to West Nile virus in non-migratory resident birds from Puerto Rico and Cuba, which indicated local transmission. West Nile virus (WNV) is a flavivirus (Flaviviridae) distrib-uted throughout Africa, the Middle East, Australasia, Eu-rope, and North America, and is maintained in nature be-tween birds and ornithophilic Culex species mosquitoes.1,2 Since the discovery of the virus in New York City in 1999, WNV has spread throughout the United States, Canada, and Mexico.3–5 Equines and numerous species of Neotropical resident birds also have been found with WNV neutralizing antibodies, indicating local transmission, in Central America, Jamaica, the Dominican Republic, and Guadeloupe.5–9 Birds have been implicated in WNV dispersal during mi-

Alan P. Dupuis; Peter P. Marra; Robert Reitsma; Matthew J. Jones; Karen L. Louie; Laura; D. Kramer

277

Resistance of Aëdes aegypti to certain chlorinated hydrocarbon and organo-phosphorus insecticides in Puerto Rico*  

PubMed Central

Failure to control Aëdes aegypti in Puerto Rico has suggested resistance to the insecticides, particularly DDT. A laboratory colony (named Isla Verde strain) was established from material obtained near the International Airport. This strain proved highly resistant to DDT and dieldrin as well as various other insecticides. The scientific and practical significance of this is far-reaching. Heretofore, it was thought that populations of Aëdes aegypti could be resistant to the DDT group of insecticides or to the dieldrin group but not to both, and that one type of resistance involved biochemical, toxicological and genetic characteristics different from the other. This theory must now be modified or even abandoned. From the practical point of view, it is clear that the continued use of DDT or dieldrin for Aëdes aegypti control in Puerto Rico is questionable, for it is not wise to attempt to overcome high resistance by increasing the concentration or rate of application. Further, the situation demonstrated for Puerto Rico may also obtain in other islands of the Caribbean where Aëdes aegypti is known to be DDT-resistant. PMID:13701099

Fox, Irving

1961-01-01

278

Population size, survival, and movements of white-cheeked pintails in Eastern Puerto Rico  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We estimated numbers and survival of White-cheeked Pintails (Anas bahamensis) in eastern Puerto Rico during 1996-1999. We also quantified their movements between Culebra Island and the Humacao Wildlife Refuge, Puerto Rico. Mark-resight population size estimates averaged 1020 pintails during nine, 3-month sampling periods from January 1997 to June 1999. On average, minimum regional counts were 38 % lower than mark-resight estimates (mean = 631). Adult survival was 0.51 ?? 0.09 (SE). This estimate is similar for other anatids of similar size but broader geographic distribution. The probability of pintails surviving and staying in Humacao was hiher (67 %) than for counterparts on Culebra (31 %). The probability of surviving and moving from Culebra to Humacao (41 %) was higher than from Humacao to Culebra (20 %). These findings, and available information on reproduction, indicate that the Humacao Wildlife Refuge refuge has an important role in the regional demography of pintails. Our findings on population numbers and regional survival are encouraging, given concerns about the species' status due to habitat loss and hunting. However, our outlook for the species is tempered by the remaining gaps in the population dynamics of pintails; for examples, survival estimates of broods and fledglings (age 0-1) are needed for a comprehensive status assessment. Until additional data are obtianed, White-cheeked Pintails should continue to be protectd from hunting in Puerto Rico.

Collazo, J.A.; Bonilla-Martinez, G.

2001-01-01

279

Geographic differences in HIV infection among Hispanics or Latinos--46 states and Puerto Rico, 2010.  

PubMed

In the United States, Hispanics or Latinos are disproportionately affected by infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). In 2010, new diagnoses of HIV infection among Hispanics or Latinos occurred at an annual rate that was 2.8 times that of non-Hispanic whites (20.4 versus 7.3 per 100,000 persons). To further assess HIV infection among Hispanics or Latinos in the United States, CDC analyzed the geographic distribution of new diagnoses in 2010 in 46 states and Puerto Rico and the characteristics of those diagnosed. The results of this analysis determined that a lower percentage of infections were attributed to male-to-male sexual contact in Puerto Rico than in the 46 states (36.1% versus 66.5%) and a higher percentage were attributed to heterosexual contact (40.7% versus 22.0%) or injection-drug use (IDU) (20.4% versus 8.6%). In the 46 states, the rate of new diagnoses of HIV infection among Hispanics or Latinos in the Northeast Census region in 2010 (55.0 per 100,000 persons) was more than twice as high as in other regions, and a higher percentage of those with a new HIV diagnosis were born in Puerto Rico or had their HIV infection attributed to IDU, compared with other regions. Geographic differences in HIV infection among Hispanics or Latinos should be addressed with HIV testing, prevention, and treatment efforts tailored to specific communities. PMID:23051610

2012-10-12

280

Susceptibility of Florida Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus to dengue viruses from Puerto Rico.  

PubMed

Locally acquired dengue cases in the continental U.S. are rare. However, outbreaks of dengue-1 during 2009, 2010, and 2013 in Florida and dengue-1 and -2 in Texas suggest vulnerability to transmission. Travel and commerce between Puerto Rico and the U.S. mainland is common, which may pose a risk for traveler-imported dengue cases. Mosquitoes were collected in Florida and used to evaluate their susceptibility to dengue viruses (DENV) from Puerto Rico. Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus were susceptible to virus infection with DENV-1 and -2. No significant differences were observed in rates of midgut infection or dissemination between Ae. aegypti or Ae. albopictus for DENV-1 (6-14%). Aedes aegypti was significantly more susceptible to midgut infection with DENV-2 than Ae. albopictus (Ae. aegypti, ?28%; Ae. albopictus, ?9%). The dissemination rate with dengue-2 virus for Ae. aegypti (23%) was greater than Ae. albopictus (0%), suggesting that Ae. albopictus is not likely to be an important transmitter of the DENV-2 isolate from Puerto Rico. These results are discussed in light of Florida's vulnerability to DENV transmission. PMID:25424270

Alto, Barry W; Smartt, Chelsea T; Shin, Dongyoung; Bettinardi, David; Malicoate, Jolene; Anderson, Sheri L; Richards, Stephanie L

2014-12-01

281

Physiography, geology, and land cover of four watersheds in eastern Puerto Rico: Chapter A in Water quality and landscape processes of four watersheds in eastern Puerto Rico  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Four watersheds with differing geology and land cover in eastern Puerto Rico have been studied on a long-term basis by the U.S. Geological Survey to evaluate water, energy, and biogeochemical budgets. These watersheds are typical of tropical, island-arc settings found in many parts of the world. Two watersheds are located on coarse-grained granitic rocks that weather to quartz- and clay-rich, sandy soils, and two are located on fine-grained volcanic rocks and volcaniclastic sedimentary rocks that weather to quartz-poor, fine-grained soils. For each bedrock type, one watershed is covered with mature forest, and the other watershed, like most of Puerto Rico, has transformed from relatively undisturbed pre-European forest to intensive agriculture in the 19th and early 20th centuries, and further to ongoing reforestation that began in the middle of the 20th century. The comparison of water chemistry and hydrology in these watersheds allows an evaluation of the effects of land-use history and geology on hydrologic regimes and erosion rates. This chapter describes the physiography, geology, and land cover of the four watersheds and provides background information for the remaining chapters in this volume.

Murphy, Sheila F.; Stallard, Robert F.; Larsen, Matthew C.; Gould, William A.

2012-01-01

282

Water resources data, Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands, water year 2004  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Caribbean Water Science Center of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with local and Federal agencies obtains a large amount of data pertaining to the water resources of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico and the Territory of the U.S. Virgin Islands each water year. These data, accumulated during many water years, constitute a valuable data base for developing an improved understanding of the water resources of the area. To make these data readily available to interested parties outside the U.S. Geological Survey, the data are published annually in this report series entitled 'Water Resources Data for Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands.' This report includes records on both surface and ground water. Specifically, it contains: (1) discharge records for 89 streamflow-gaging stations, daily sediment records for 13 sediment stations, stage records for 18 reservoirs, and (2) water-quality records for 20 streamflow-gaging stations, and for 38 ungaged stream sites, 13 lake sites, 2 lagoons, and 1 bay, and (3) water-level records for 72 observation wells. Water-resources data for Puerto Rico for calendar years 1958-67 were released in a series of reports entitled 'Water Records of Puerto Rico.' Water-resources data for the U.S. Virgin Islands for the calendar years 1962-69 were released in a report entitled 'Water Records of U.S. Virgin Islands.' Included were records of streamflow, ground-water levels, and water-quality data for both surface and ground water. Beginning with the 1968 calendar year, surface-water records for Puerto Rico were released separately on an annual basis. Ground-water level records and water-quality data for surface and ground water were released in companion reports covering periods of several years. Data for the 1973-74 reports were published under separate covers. Water-resources data reports for 1975 to 2003 water years consist of one volume each and contain data for streamflow, water quality, and ground water.

Figueroa-Alamo, Carlos; Aquino, Zaida; Guzman-Rios, Senen; Sanchez, Ana V.

2006-01-01

283

26 CFR 31.3401(a)(8)(C)-1 - Remuneration for services performed in Puerto Rico by citizen of the United States.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Remuneration for services performed in Puerto Rico...31.3401(a)(8)(C)-1 Remuneration for services performed in Puerto Rico...citizen of the United States. (a) Remuneration paid for services...

2011-04-01

284

26 CFR 31.3401(a)(8)(C)-1 - Remuneration for services performed in Puerto Rico by citizen of the United States.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Remuneration for services performed in Puerto Rico...31.3401(a)(8)(C)-1 Remuneration for services performed in Puerto Rico...citizen of the United States. (a) Remuneration paid for services...

2010-04-01

285

Physician Survey to Determine How Dengue Is Diagnosed, Treated and Reported in Puerto Rico  

PubMed Central

Dengue is a major cause of morbidity in Puerto Rico and is well-known to its physicians. Early case identification and timely initiation of treatment for patients with severe dengue can reduce medical complications and mortality. To determine clinical management and reporting practices, and assess knowledge of dengue and its management, a survey was sent to 2,512 physicians with a medical license in Puerto Rico. Of the 2,313 physicians who received the survey, 817 (35%) completed the questionnaire. Of the respondents, 708 were currently practicing medicine; 138 were board certified (Group 1), 282 were board eligible (Group 2), and 288 had not finished residency (Group 3). Although respondents clinically diagnosed, on average, 12 cases of dengue in the preceding three months, 31% did not report any suspected cases to public health officials while about half (56%) reported all cases. Overall, 29% of respondents correctly identified early signs of shock and 48% identified severe abdominal pain and persistent vomiting as warning signs for severe dengue with the proportion of correct respondents highest in Group 1. Reportedly about sixty percent (57%) appropriately never give corticosteroids or prophylactic platelet transfusions to dengue patients. One third (30%) of respondents correctly identified administration of intravenous colloid solution as the best treatment option for dengue patients with refractory shock and elevated hematocrit after an initial trial of intravenous crystalloids, and nearly one half (46%) correctly identified administration of a blood transfusion as the best option for dengue patients with refractory shock and decreased hematocrit after a trial of intravenous crystalloids. Even though dengue has been endemic in Puerto Rico for nearly 4 decades, knowledge of dengue management is still limited, compliance with WHO treatment guidelines is suboptimal, and underreporting is significant. These findings were used to design a post graduate training course to improve the clinical management of dengue. PMID:25299251

Tomashek, Kay M.; Biggerstaff, Brad J.; Ramos, Mary M.; Pérez-Guerra, Carmen L.; Garcia Rivera, Enid J.; Sun, Wellington

2014-01-01

286

The Development of the Puerto Rico Lightning Detection Network for Meteorological Research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A land-based Puerto Rico Lightning Detection Network (PR-LDN) dedicated to the academic research of meteorological phenomena has being developed. Five Boltek StormTracker PCI-Receivers with LTS-2 Timestamp Cards with GPS and lightning detectors were integrated to Pentium III PC-workstations running the CentOS linux operating system. The Boltek detector linux driver was compiled under CentOS, modified, and thoroughly tested. These PC-workstations with integrated lightning detectors were installed at five of the University of Puerto Rico (UPR) campuses distributed around the island of PR. The PC-workstations are left on permanently in order to monitor lightning activity at all times. Each is networked to their campus network-backbone permitting quasi-instantaneous data transfer to a central server at the UPR-Bayam n campus. Information generated by each lightning detector is managed by a C-program developed by us called the LDN-client. The LDN-client maintains an open connection to the central server operating the LDN-server program where data is sent real-time for analysis and archival. The LDN-client also manages the storing of data on the PC-workstation hard disk. The LDN-server software (also an in-house effort) analyses the data from each client and performs event triangulations. Time-of-arrival (TOA) and related hybrid algorithms, lightning-type and event discriminating routines are also implemented in the LDN-server software. We also have developed software to visually monitor lightning events in real-time from all clients and the triangulated events. We are currently monitoring and studying the spatial, temporal, and type distribution of lightning strikes associated with electrical storms and tropical cyclones in the vicinity of Puerto Rico.

Legault, Marc D.; Miranda, Carmelo; Medin, J.; Ojeda, L. J.; Blakeslee, Richard J.

2011-01-01

287

Atlas of ground-water resources in Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This atlas presents an overview of the ground-water resources of the main island of Puerto Rico; two of its larger offshore islands, Isla de Culebra and Isla de Vieques; and the three principal islands of the U.S. Virgin Islands, St. Thomas, St. John, and St. Croix. The atlas presents the most important ground-water information available for these islands, and is written for water managers and the general public. It describes, through the use of maps, graphs, and hydrogeologic sections, the most important aspects of the geohydrology, ground-water flow system, and groundwater withdrawals for the principal aquifers in these islands. Most of the information presented in the atlas is from published reports, although unpublished data from ongoing studies by the U.S. Geological Survey were used to prepare parts of the atlas. This report provides a useful compilation of information concerning major aquifers in Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands and provides a first step in gaining a general knowledge of these aquifers. More detailed information is available from the primary sources referenced in the report. The atlas contains an introductory section and 15 sections describing the ground-water resources of 12 regions within the 7 ground-water areas of the main island of Puerto Rico, Isla de Culebra and Isla de Vieques (described in a single section of the atlas), and the U.S. Virgin Islands (St. Thomas and St. John are described in one section of the atlas and St. Croix in another), and a concluding section describing present and potential problems related to the development of ground-water resources. Information presented in each of 15 descriptive sections of the atlas include the (1) location and major geographic features of the area covered by that section, (2) population and estimated (4) hydrogeology of the area, (5) ground-water levels and movements, and (6) a description of soil permeabilities.

Veve, Thalia D., (Edited By); Taggart, Bruce E.

1996-01-01

288

Risk and protective factors associated with youth violence among secondary school students in a nationally representative sample in Puerto Rico.  

PubMed

During the past decade, youth violence has received increasing attention as a major public health issue in Puerto Rico as well as in the United States. This study sought to identify risk and protective factors of youth violence in a representative sample of school adolescents in Puerto Rico. Risk and protective factors were grouped into five domains: individual, family, peer group, school and community. From a total of 2,385 participants, 10.7% reported at least one violent behavior and 3.4% reported two or more violent behaviors. In multiple regression analysis the risk factors identified were male gender, junior grade students, having a favorable attitude towards antisocial behavior, use of ecstasy, involvement with antisocial peers and reporting antisocial parents. Participation in family decisions was the only protective factor associated with violence. Findings from this study could have important implications for the development of preventive programs for the adolescent population in Puerto Rico. PMID:15803985

Reyes, J C; Moscoso, M; Vélez, C N; Rodríguez, F; Colón, H M; Robles, R; Parrilla, I; Ramos, G; Suárez, C M; Mercado, H; Suárez, R A

2004-01-01

289

Estimating soil turnover rate from tree uprooting during hurricanes in Puerto Rico  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Soil turnover by tree uprooting in primary and secondary forests on the island of Puerto Rico was measured in 42 study plots in the months immediately after the passage of a Category 3 hurricane. Trunk basal area explained 61% of the variability of mound volume and 53% of the variability of mound area. The proportion of uprooted trees, the number of uprooted trees, or the proportion of uprooted basal area explained 84-85% of the variation in hurricane-created mound area. These same variables explain 79-85% of the variation in mound volume. The study indicates that the soil turnover period from tree uprooting by Puerto Rican hurricanes is between 1600 and 4800 years. These rates are faster than soil turnover by landslides and background treefall in the same area and provide a useful age constraint on soil profile development and soil carbon sequestration in these dynamic landscapes. ?? 2009 Elsevier B.V.

Lenart, M.T.; Falk, D.A.; Scatena, F.N.; Osterkamp, W.R.

2010-01-01

290

Mud transportation on a steep shelf, Rio de La Plata shelf, Puerto Rico  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Hurricanes David (August 29-30, 1979) and Frederick (September 2-5, 1979) caused major flooding of the Rio de La Plata in northern Puerto Rico. A thin mud layer was deposited across the narrow insular shelf adjacent to the river mouth. Within 5 months, fair-weather shelf-winnowing processes moved the mud layer entirely from the shelf, 0.5 to 2 km to the shelf break at the 50-m contour and beyond. The process of mud movement is termed 'mud hopping.' ?? 1982 A. M. Dowden, Inc.

Grove, K.A.; Pilkey, O.H.; Trumbull, J.V.A.

1982-01-01

291

La variedad linguistica de la mujer del Area Metropolitana de San Juan, Puerto Rico  

E-print Network

semiautorizado con las Islas Canarias. Cuando la produccion de azucar empez6 a crecer, se aumento la necesidad de obtener esdavos, con quienes se sustentaba la tierra. Desde 1513, Puerto Rico empez6 la importaci6n de esciavos aflicanos, quienes llegaron a... siendo centros importantes de la produccion de ron, siendo la Planta de Ron de Bacardi de la bahia de San Juan la mas grande del mundo, distilando cien mil 12 galones de ron al dia. Otros centros de gran importancia en el krea metropolitana son la...

Pratt-Panford, Comfort

1997-01-01

292

A 40 MWe floating OTEC plant at Punta Tuna, Puerto Rico  

SciTech Connect

A development project leading to a closed-cycle ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) pilot plant is considered. In connection with this project, a plan was submitted for design, construction, deployment, start-up, and operation of a 40 MWe floating electric generating plant at Punta Tuna, Puerto Rico. Attention is given to the OTEC concept, organizational aspects related to the project, the major problems regarding the OTEC program, and the commercialization plan. Questions of design philosophy are examined, taking into account the need for efficient heat exchangers, the minimization of water flow, the importance of achieving maximized efficiency, and requirements for environmental safety.

Dambly, B.W.

1981-01-01

293

An Overview of the Great Puerto Rico ShakeOut 2012  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With a population of 4 million, Puerto Rico will be celebrating this year, for first time, an Island-wide earthquake drill following the Great California ShakeOut model. Most of our population has never experienced a large earthquake, since our last significant event occurred on 1918, and is not adequately prepared to respond to a sudden ground movement. During the moderate-size earthquakes (M5.2-5.8) that have been felt in Puerto Rico since 2010, and despite Puerto Rico Seismic Network education efforts, the general public reaction was inappropriate, occasionally putting themselves and others at risk. Our overarching goal for the Great Puerto Rico ShakeOut is to help develop seismic awareness and preparedness in our communities. In addition, our main objectives include: to teach the public to remain calm and act quickly and appropriately during a seismic event, the identification and correction of potential hazards that may cause injuries, and the development/update of mitigation plans for home, work place and/or school. We are also taking this opportunity to clarify the misconceptions of other methods of protection (e.g. triangle of life) and warning equipment and systems that do not have sound scientific or applicable basis for our country. We will be presenting an overview of the accomplishment of our earthquake drill and the different strategies we are using, such as internet, social media and collaboration with state government agencies and professional groups, to reach diverse age and educational level groups and to promote their participation. One of our main target groups this year are school students since their experience can have a direct and positive impact on their families. The drill webpage was developed in Spanish and English as well as our promotional and educational materials. Being the first time a Spanish-speaking country coordinates a ShakeOut exercise we hope our experience and the materials we are developing could be of use and benefit to other Spanish-speaking countries.

Gómez, G.; Soto-Cordero, L.; Huérfano-Moreno, V.; Ramos-Gómez, W.; De La Matta, M.

2012-12-01

294

Thoracic endometriosis: first reported case in Puerto Rico and review of literature.  

PubMed

Endometriosis is defined as the presence of endometrial tissue in extra uterine sites. It affects 5-15% of females during their reproductive years. Thoracic endometriosis syndrome is characterized by the presence of functional endometrial tissue within the pleura, the lung parenchyma or the airway. The overall prevalence of this condition is unknown due to a lack of epidemiological studies, variety of symptoms, signs and locations. We present the first reported case of recurrent catamenial pneumothorax in Puerto Rico and a review of recent literature. PMID:23767387

García Gubern, Carlos; Rolón Colon, Lissandra; Vazquez Torres, Orlando; Martinez Alayón, Gretchen; Santos Santiago, Alexis; Mulero Portela, Eugenio

2013-01-01

295

Terrestrial Sediment and Nutrient Discharge, and Their Potential Influence on Coral Reefs, Puerto Rico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sediment and nutrient discharge to the insular shelf of Puerto Rico (18 degrees latitude), augmented by anthropogenic activity, is believed to have contributed to widespread degradation of coral reefs of Puerto Rico during the 20th century. Sediment deposition degrades coral reefs because it reduces the area of sea floor suitable for growth of new coral, diminishes the amount of light available for photosynthesis by symbiotic algae that live within individual coral animals, and in extreme cases, buries coral colonies. Land-use history and data from 30 water-discharge, 9 daily and 15 intermittent sediment-concentration, and 24 water-quality gaging stations were analyzed to investigate the timing and intensity of terrestrial sediment and nutrient discharge into coastal waters. Watersheds in Puerto Rico generally are small (10's to 100's of square km), channel gradients are steep, and stream valleys are deeply incised and narrow. Major storms are usually brief (<24 h) but intense such that the majority of the annual sediment discharge occurs in a few days. From 1960 through 2000 the highest mean daily discharge for a water year (October - September) accounted for 20 to 60 percent of the total annual sediment discharge. Major storms, with a return frequency of approximately a decade, were capable of discharging up to 30 times the median annual sediment-discharge volume. Prior to agricultural and industrial development, coastal waters are believed to have been relatively transparent, with strong currents and seasonal high-energy swells assisting corals in the removal of minor amounts of sediment deposited after storms. Land clearing and modification, first for agriculture and later for urban development, have increased sediment and nutrient influx to the coast during the 19th and 20th centuries. Although forest cover has increased to approximately 30 percent of the surface of Puerto Rico during the past 60 years, sediment eroded from hillslopes during the agricultural period is still being episodically transported from upland valleys to downstream floodplains and the coast. In response to better land management, the quality of water has improved significantly since the 1980s. Nitrogen and phosphorous concentrations in river waters are now well within regulatory limits, although current concentrations are as much as 10 times the estimated pre-settlement levels. Concentrations of pathogens also are improved but continue to be near or above regulatory limits. Unlike sediment discharge, which is episodic and intense, the discharge of river-borne nutrients and pathogens is a less intense but chronic stressor to coral reefs located near the mouths of rivers.

Larsen, M. C.; Webb, R. M.; Warne, A. G.

2004-12-01

296

Fe-Mn nodule field indicated by GLORIA, north of the Puerto Rico Trench  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A 2,500-km2 area of sea floor on the south-eastern flank of the Greater Antilles Outer Ridge north of the Puerto Rico Trench displays anomalously high acoustic backscattering properties on GLORIA longrange sidescan-sonar data. Previously collected dredges, bottom photographs, and sediment cores indicate the presence of Fe-Mn nodules within the area of high backscatter. We were able to map the extent of the inferred nodule field on the basis of acoustic property contrast between the nodule-covered sediment and the surrounding nodule-free sediment. ?? 1992 Springer-Verlag New York Inc.

Scanlon, K.M.; Masson, D.G.

1992-01-01

297

Improvements of Real Time First Motion Focal Mechanism and Noise Characteristics of New Sites at the Puerto Rico Seismic Network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seismic networks need quick and efficient ways to obtain information related to seismic events for the purposes of seismic activity monitoring, risk assessment, and scientific knowledge among others. As part of an IRIS summer internship program, two projects were performed to provide a tool for quick faulting mechanism and improve seismic data at the Puerto Rico Seismic Network (PRSN). First, a simple routine to obtain a focal mechanisms, the geometry of the fault, based on first motions was developed and implemented for data analysts routine operations at PRSN. The new tool provides the analyst a quick way to assess the probable faulting mechanism that occurred while performing the interactive earthquake location procedure. The focal mechanism is generated on-the-fly when data analysts pick P wave arrivals onsets and motions. Once first motions have been identified, an in-house PRSN utility is employed to obtain the double couple representation and later plotted using GMT's psmeca utility. Second, we addressed the issue of seismic noise related to thermal fluctuations inside seismic vaults. Seismic sites can be extremely noisy due to proximity to cultural activities and unattended thermal fluctuations inside sensor housings, thus resulting in skewed readings. In the past, seismologists have used different insulation techniques to reduce the amount of unwanted noise that a seismometers experience due to these thermal changes with items such as Styrofoam, and fiber glass among others. PRSN traditionally uses Styrofoam boxes to cover their seismic sensors, however, a proper procedure to test how these method compare to other new techniques has never been approached. The deficiency of properly testing these techniques in the Caribbean and especially Puerto Rico is that these thermal fluctuations still happen because of the intense sun and humidity. We conducted a test based on the methods employed by the IRIS Transportable Array, based on insulation by sand burial of the sensor. Two Guralps CMG-3T's connected to RefTek's 150 digitizers were used at PRSN's MPR site seismic vault to compare the two types of insulation. Two temperature loggers were placed along each seismic sensor for a period of one week to observe how much thermal fluctuations occur in each insulation method and then compared its capability for noise reduction due to thermal fluctuations. With only a single degree Celsius fluctuation inside the sand (compared to almost twice that value for the foam) the sensor buried in sand provided the best insulation for the seismic vault. In addition, the quality of the data was analyzed by comparing both sensors using PQLX. We show results of this analysis and also provide a site characteristic of new stations to be included in the daily earthquake location operations at the PRSN.

Williams, D. M.; Lopez, A. M.; Huerfano, V.; Lugo, J.; Cancel, J.

2011-12-01

298

Population dynamics of Eleutherodactylus coqui in cordillera forest reserves of Puerto Rico  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Various aspects of population structure and dynamics of Eleutherodactylus coqui in two forest reserves (Maricao and Guilarte) of the central mountain range of Puerto Rico were determined between July 1997 and June 1998. Adult density ranged from 8-25 animals/100 m2 for the wet season and 3-19 animals/100 m2 for the dry season. Abundance of froglets and juveniles was also greater in the wet season compared to the dry season. By contrast, egg mass counts were greater in the dry season compared to the wet season. Adult body size increased from wet to dry season as population density declined and was found to differ significantly between forests. Adult E. coqui trapped at similar elevations were larger in Guilarte compared to those in Maricao. Average body size for Maricao and Guilarte populations were smaller than those reported for populations in eastern Puerto Rico. Comparing average snout-vent length among frogs from the Luquillo Mountains, Guilarte Forest, and Maricao Forest, a gradient of decreasing body size was observed from east to west across the island.

Fogarty, J.H.; Vilella, F.J.

2002-01-01

299

Population Declines of Mountain Coqui (Eleutherodactylus portoricensis) in the Cordillera Central of Puerto Rico  

PubMed Central

The Mountain Coqui (Eleutherodactylus portoricensis) is a frog endemic to montane rainforests in the Cordillera Central and Luquillo Mountains of Puerto Rico. Classified as endangered by the IUCN Red List and as vulnerable by the Department of Natural and Environmental Resources of Puerto Rico, this species has undergone considerable decline in the Luquillo Mountains. To evaluate the population status of E. portoricensis across its entire range, we conducted ~87 hours of surveys at 18 historical localities and 25 additional localities that we considered suitable for this species. We generated occupancy models to estimate the probability of occurrence at surveyed sites and to identify geographic and climatic factors affecting site occupancy. We also constructed a suitability map to visualize population status in relation to the presence of land cover at elevations where the species has been documented, and determined the dates when populations were last detected at historical localities. Eleutherodactylus portoricensis was detected at 14 of 43 localities, including 10 of 18 historical localities, but it was not detected at any localities west of Aibonito (western Cordillera Central). Occupancy models estimated the probability of occurrence for localities in the western Cordillera Central as zero. Site occupancy was positively associated with montane cloud forest, and negatively associated with the western Cordillera Central, maximum temperature, and precipitation seasonality. The suitability map suggests that declines have occurred despite the presence of suitable habitat. We suggest upgrading the extinction risk of E. portoricensis and potentially developing a captive breeding program for this species.

Barker, Brittany S.; Ríos-Franceschi, Alejandro

2014-01-01

300

Stigma and Homophobia: Persistent Challenges for HIV Prevention Among Young MSM in Puerto Rico1  

PubMed Central

Men who have sex with men (MSM) are one of the most affected populations by HIV/AIDS. Over the last years an increase of cases has been reported in younger groups. The Center for Disease Control and Prevention has stated that stigma and homophobia may have a profound impact on the lives of MSM, and could influence them to engage in HIV risky behaviors. In the U.S and Puerto Rico, an increase in HIV cases among young MSM has been reported. For the period of 2005-2009 an increase of HIV cases was reported with 4.3% in the age group of 13-24 and 55.6% in the age group of 25-34. Understanding the dynamics related HIV risk behaviors among young MSM requires transcending traditional individual behavior oriented perspectives in order to adopt a more comprehensive socio-structural approach. In this manuscript we present a critical analysis of HIV prevention issues among young MSM in Puerto Rico.

Rodríguez, Melissa Marzán; Madera, Sheilla Rodríguez; Díaz, Nelson Varas

2014-01-01

301

Water Resources Data, Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands, Water Year 2001  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Water Resources Division of the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with local and Federal agencies obtains a large amount of data pertaining to the water resources of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico and the Territory of the U.S. Virgin Islands each water year. These data, accumulated during many water years, constitute a valuable data base for developing an improved understanding of the water resources of the area. To make these data readily available to interested parties outside the U.S. Geological Survey, the data are published annually in this report series entitled 'Water Resources Data for Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands, 2001.' This report includes records on both surface and ground water. Specifically, it contains: (1) discharge records for 95 streamflow gaging stations, daily sediment records for 23 streamflow stations, 20 partial-record or miscellaneous streamflow stations, stage records for 18 reservoirs, and (2) water-quality records for 17 streamflow-gaging stations, and for 42 ungaged stream sites, 11 lake sites, 2 lagoons, and 1 bay, and (3) water-level records for 103 observation wells.

Diaz, Pedro L.; Aquino, Zaida; Figueroa-Alamo, Carlos; Garcia, Rene; Sanchez, Ana V.

2002-01-01

302

Water Resources Data, Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands, Water Year 2002  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Water Resources Division of the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with local and Federal agencies obtains a large amount of data pertaining to the water resources of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico and the Territory of the U.S. Virgin Islands each water year. These data, accumulated during many water years, constitute a valuable data base for developing an improved understanding of the water resources of the area. To make these data readily available to interested parties outside the U.S. Geological Survey, the data are published annually in this report series entitled 'Water Resources Data for Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands, 2002.' This report includes records on both surface and ground water. Specifically, it contains: (1) discharge records for 95 streamflow gaging stations, daily sediment records for 28 streamflow stations, 27 partial-record or miscellaneous streamflow stations, stage records for 17 reservoirs, and (2) water-quality records for 17 streamflow-gaging stations, and for 42 ungaged stream sites, 11 lake sites, 2 lagoons, and 1 bay, and (3) water-level records for 102 observation wells.

Diaz, Pedro L.; Aquino, Zaida; Figueroa-Alamo, Carlos; Garcia, Rene; Sanchez, Ana V.

2004-01-01

303

Measuring HIV felt stigma: a culturally adapted scale targeting PLWHA in Puerto Rico.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to culturally adapt and validate a scale to measure HIV-related felt stigma in a group of People living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in Puerto Rico. The researchers conducted a two-phase cross-sectional study with 216 participants (60, first phase; 156, second phase). The first phase consisted of the cultural adaptation of the scale; the second evaluated its psychometric properties. After conducting a factor analysis, a 17-item scale, the HIV Felt-Stigma Scale (HFSS), resulted. Participants completed the Puerto Rico Comprehensive Center for the Study of Health Disparities Socio-demographic Questionnaire, the HFSS, the Beck Depression Inventory-II, and the Sexual Abuse dimension of the History of Abuse Questionnaire; the case managers completed the Case Manager Stigma Guide with subjects. The HFSS measures four dimensions: personalized stigma, disclosure concerns, negative self-image, and concern with public attitudes. The alpha and Pearson correlation coefficients (0.91 and 0.68, respectively) indicated satisfactory validity and reliability; the scale suggested adequate convergent validity. The HFSS is a culturally sensitive instrument that fills the existing gap in the measurement of felt stigma in Spanish-speaking PLWHA. PMID:20665283

Jimenez, Julio Cesar; Puig, Marieva; Ramos, Juan Carlos; Morales, Marangelie; Asencio, Gloria; Sala, Ana Cecilia; Castro, Eida; Velez Santori, Carmen; Santiago, Lydia; Zorrilla, Carmen

2010-11-01

304

Incorporating urban infrastructure into biogeochemical assessment of urban tropical streams in Puerto Rico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urban development alters catchment hydrology and the subsequent delivery of solutes to streams and downstream ecosystems. The extent to which the impacts of urban development vary by biome is uncertain, and the impacts are poorly understood in tropical catchments. In a previous study (Helton et al. 2011), downstream changes in nitrogen (N) in the highly urbanized Rio Piedras catchment in Puerto Rico (42% urban land use) were found to be greater than predicted (23%) in a simple river network model that uses land use and in-stream N loss to predict spatial patterns in N fluxes. Here we evaluate the deviations of the biogeochemical patterns in this urban catchment through synoptic sampling of hydrology and water quality collected annually at approximately 40 sites over 8 years (2004 - 2011) coupled with spatial analysis of the urban infrastructure in the catchment. Results indicate that urbanization leads to an increase in most solute concentrations measured (DOC, DON, NH4, PO4), but not NO3. The lack of urban influence on NO3 is inconsistent with findings in other biomes, but consistent with previous studies in Puerto Rico. Conservative tracers (Cl and F) indicate that the source of the organic solutes increase is likely from sewage inputs. We suggest that stream nutrient cycling models that assume topographically driven flow accumulation need to be changed in urban catchments to include different delivery mechanisms such as sewer and water lines, especially in tropical regions where this infrastructure is often inadequate.

Potter, J.; McDowell, W. H.; Daley, M. L.; Helton, A. M.

2012-12-01

305

Summary of significant floods in the United States and Puerto Rico, 1994 through 1998 water years  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This volume is a compilation of significant floods that occurred at streamgages throughout the United States and Puerto Rico from October 1, 1993, through September 30, 1998. A significant flood in this report refers to a peak-flow discharge(instantaneous or time averaged) that is in the top 5 percent of all the annual peak flows recorded at streamgages during their total period of record. Most of these floods are approximately equal to or greater than the 20-year recurrence interval flood (0.05 probability of occurrence in any 1 year) for that streamgage. A summary of the most devastating floods according to number of lives lost and amount of damage is provided for each water year from 1994 through 1998. Significant interstate floods also are described. For each year, national maps are provided showing percentage of streamgages in each State recording the significant floods and standardized deviations from long-term (1950-95) mean precipitation. Compilations arranged by State for each of the 50 United States and Puerto Rico also are presented. Each State compilation includes: (1) State maps to locate the streamgages recording significant floods and (2) tables of data that allow the reader to compare each significant flood during water years 1994 through 1998 with the maximum flood for the entire period of record at each streamgage.

Perry, C.A.

2005-01-01

306

Water-quality reconnaissance of Laguna Tortuguero, Vega Baja, Puerto Rico, March 1999-May 2000  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Laguna Tortuguero, a slightly saline to freshwater lagoon in north-central Puerto Rico, has a surface area of about 220 hectares and a mean depth of about 1.2 meters. As part of a water-quality reconnaissance, water samples were collected at about monthly and near bi-monthly intervals from March 1999 to May 2000 at four sites: three stations inside the lagoon and one station at the artificial outlet channel dredged in 1940, which connects the lagoon with the Atlantic Ocean. Physical characteristics that were determined from these water samples were pH, temperature, specific conductance, dissolved oxygen, dissolved oxygen saturation, and discharge at the outlet canal. Other water-quality constituents also were determined, including nitrogen and phosphorus species, organic carbon, chlorophyll a and b, plankton biomass, hardness, alkalinity as calcium carbonate, and major ions. Additionally, a diel study was conducted at three stations in the lagoon to obtain data on the diurnal variation of temperature, specific conductance, dissolved oxygen, and dissolved oxygen saturation. The data analysis indicates the water quality of Laguna Tortuguero complies with the Puerto Rico Environmental Quality Board standards and regulations.

Soler-Lopez, Luis; Guzman-Rios, Senen; Conde-Costas, Carlos

2006-01-01

307

Source and Fate of Sediments in the Bahia de Anasco, Puerto Rico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sediments and wastewater mix in the insular marine waters of the Bah'{i}a de Añasco near Mayag{u}ez, Puerto Rico. Trace metal concentrations in fine sediments deposited in the bay were measured to assess potential impact of the ocean outfall on the biota and habitats that include coral reefs. A Q-mode factor analysis of elemental compositions identified three sediment sources and their relative proportions in 51 core and surficial samples collected from the bay and within the coral reefs: (1) sediments discharged by the R'{i}o Grande de Añasco; (2) calcareous skeletal remains; and (3) sediments discharged by the R'{i}o Guanajibo. The nickel and chromium derived from laterite deposits provide a unique fingerprint for sediments discharged from the R'{i}o Guanajibo. Naturally occurring concentrations of these elements exceed Probable Effect Limits (PEL's: 42 mg/kg for nickel and 160 mg/kg for chromium) in sediments deposited near the river mouth. The detection of mercury at 1 mg/kg in one sample from a core recovered near the wastewater outfall was the only indication of a possible outfall source in the data set. The temporal and spatial variations in source fractions proved useful in determining relative frequencies of historic floods and steady-state circulation patterns off the west coast of Puerto Rico.

Webb, R. M.

2005-12-01

308

Caracteristicas de los Estudiantes de Ciencias Agricolas y de Economia Domestica de la Universidad de Puerto Rico (Characteristics of the Agricultural Science and Home Economics Students of the University of Puerto Rico). Publicacion 135.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As part of a U.S. Department of Agriculture research project on young adults, a questionnaire was distributed in the fall of 1977 to all agriculture science and home economics students at the University of Puerto Rico in order to determine their personal and parental backgrounds; work, college, and high school experiences; life goals and attitudes…

Lube, Edna Droz; Calero, Reinaldo

309

Factors influencing tropical island freshwater fishes:Species, status, and management implications in puerto rico [Factores que influencian a los peces tropicales de agua dulce: Especies, estado actual e implicaciones para el manejo en Puerto Rico  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Anthropogenic effects including river regulation, watershed development, contamination, and fish introductions have substantially affected the majority of freshwater habitats in Europe and North America. This pattern of resource development and degradation is widespread in the tropics, and often little is known about the resources before they are lost. This article describes the freshwater resources of Puerto Rico and identifies factors that threaten conservation of native fishes. The fishes found in freshwater habitats of Puerto Rico represent a moderately diverse assemblage composed of 14 orders, 29 families, and 82 species. There are fewer than 10 species of native peripherally-freshwater fish that require a link to marine systems. Introductions of nonindigenous species have greatly expanded fish diversity in freshwater systems, and native estuarine and marine species (18 families) also commonly enter lowland rivers and brackish lagoons. Environmental alterations, including land use and development, stream channelization, pollution, and the impoundment of rivers, combined with nonnative species introductions threaten the health and sustainability of aquatic resources in Puerto Rico. Six principal areas for attention that are important influences on the current and future status of the freshwater fish resources of Puerto Rico are identified and discussed.

Wesley, Neal J.; Lilyestrom, C.G.; Kwak, T.J.

2009-01-01

310

Land Cover, Land Use of twoLand Cover, Land Use of two bioluminescent bays in Puerto Ricobioluminescent bays in Puerto Ricobioluminescent bays in Puerto Ricobioluminescent bays in Puerto Rico  

E-print Network

Land Cover, Land Use of twoLand Cover, Land Use of two bioluminescent bays in PuertoRico areare usedused toto produceproduce LandLand Use/Use/ LandLand CoverCover mapsmaps.. LandLand useuse isis.water resources, vegetations index and others. The Land Use/Land Cover maps have theThe Land Use/Land Cover maps

Gilbes, Fernando

311

Water quality and mass transport in four watersheds in eastern Puerto Rico: Chapter E in Water quality and landscape processes of four watersheds in eastern Puerto Rico  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Water quality of four small watersheds in eastern Puerto Rico has been monitored since 1991 as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's Water, Energy, and Biogeochemical Budgets program. These watersheds represent a montane, humid-tropical environment and differ in geology and land cover. Two watersheds are located on granitic rocks, and two are located on volcaniclastic rock. For each bedrock type, one watershed is covered with mature rainforest in the Luquillo Mountains, and the other watershed is undergoing reforestation after being affected by agricultural practices typical of eastern Puerto Rico. A subwatershed of the Icacos watershed, the Guabá, was also monitored to examine scaling effects. The water quality of the rivers draining forest, in the Icacos and Guabá (granitic watersheds) and Mameyes (a volcaniclastic watershed), show little contamination by human activities. The water is well oxygenated and has a nearly neutral pH, and nutrient concentrations are low. Concentrations of nutrients in the disturbed watersheds, the Cayaguás (granitic rock) and Canóvanas (volcaniclastic rock), are greater than in the forested watersheds, indicating some inputs from human activities. High in-stream productivity in the Canóvanas watershed leads to occasional oxygen and calcite supersaturation and carbon dioxide undersaturation. Suspended sediment concentrations in all watersheds are low, except during major storms. Most dissolved constituents derived from bedrock weathering or atmospheric deposition (including sodium, magnesium, calcium, silica, alkalinity, and chloride) decrease in concentration with increasing runoff, reflecting dilution from increased proportions of overland or near-surface flow. Strongly bioactive constituents (dissolved organic carbon, potassium, nitrate, ammonium ion, and phosphate) commonly display increasing concentration with increasing runoff, regardless of their ultimate origin (bedrock or atmosphere). The concentrations of many of the bioactive constituents eventually decrease at runoff rates greater than 3 to 10 millimeters per hour, presumably reflecting an increased relative contribution from overland flow. Sulfate behaves like the nonbioactive constituents in the Canóvanas, Cayaguás, and Mameyes watersheds but like a bioactive constituent in the Icacos and Guabá watersheds. Storms resulted in several anomalous sample compositions. Runoff waters from a number of storms - mostly hurricanes, but also other storms - have exceptionally high chloride concentrations, presumably resulting from windborne seasalt from the ocean, and low nitrate concentrations, reflecting a dominance of maritime air masses contributing moisture to the storms. High-potassium samples, without high chloride, are also associated with some smaller storms that followed Hurricane Georges in 1998; they are likely related to the breakdown of fallen vegetation. Finally, occasional low-silica events are observed in the Icacos and Guabá watersheds in the years prior to Hurricane Georges, but not after; this difference may be related to a change in hydrologic flow paths.

Stallard, Robert F.; Murphy, Sheila F.

2012-01-01

312

Effects of an invasive tree on community structure and diversity in a tropical forest in Puerto Rico  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the effects of an invasive tree (Syzygium jambos, Myrtaceace) on species composition, plant diversity patterns, and forest regeneration in primary and secondary forest in the Luquillo Mountains of northeastern Puerto Rico, including the area in and around the Caribbean National Forest (CNF) and the Luquillo Long Term Ecological Research site (Luquillo LTER). Land use history was reconstructed using

Kerry A. Brown; F. N. Scatena; Jessica Gurevitch

2006-01-01

313

HABITAT AND BIODIVERSITY MAPPING, FOR THE DETERMINATION OF ALGAL BIOMASS AQUACULTURE SITES IN THE COSTAL AREAS OF PUERTO RICO  

E-print Network

HABITAT AND BIODIVERSITY MAPPING, FOR THE DETERMINATION OF ALGAL BIOMASS AQUACULTURE SITES for Puerto Rico. Two models were developed to analyze possible aquaculture sites. The first model evaluates conflict areas and the second model incorporates optimal areas for aquaculture sites. The union

Gilbes, Fernando

314

Program Spotlight: University of Puerto Rico and MD Anderson Partnership Welcomes Its First Graduates, Dedicated to Researching Cancer Health Disparities  

Cancer.gov

CRCHD joins the Principal Investigators and Diversity Training co-leaders of the University of Puerto Rico and the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center U54 Partnership for Excellence in Cancer Research in congratulating its first MDPhD graduates Sergei Gumá-de La Vega and Nahir Cortés-Santiago.

315

Comienza la construcción de instalación patrocinada por el NCI en Puerto Rico para realizar estudios clínicos sobre el cáncer  

Cancer.gov

El gobierno de Puerto Rico ha destinado $196 millones de dólares para construir un hospital oncológico de 287 000 pies cuadrados en San Juan, que contará con 96 camas. El nuevo hospital es el primero en su clase en la región caribeña y en él se llevarán a cabo tratamientos para el cáncer y estudios clínicos.

316

The effects of a professional development geoscience education institute upon secondary school science teachers in Puerto Rico  

Microsoft Academic Search

The geographic and geologic settings of Puerto Rico served as the context to develop a mixed methods investigation on: (1) the effects of a five-day long constructivist and field-based earth science education professional development institute upon 26 secondary school science teachers' earth science conceptual knowledge, perceptions of fieldwork, and beliefs about teaching earth science; and (2) the implementation of participants'

Pablo Antonio Llerandi Roman

2007-01-01

317

75 FR 81372 - Hass Avocados From Mexico; Importation Into the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico and Other Changes  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...APHIS-2008-0060] RIN 0579-AD13 Hass Avocados From Mexico; Importation Into the Commonwealth of...the importation of Hass avocados from Mexico into Puerto Rico under the same systems...United States from Michoac[aacute]n, Mexico. The systems approach requirements...

2010-12-28

318

75 FR 27225 - Hass Avocados from Mexico; Importation into the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico and Other Changes  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...APHIS-2008-0060] RIN 0579-AD13 Hass Avocados from Mexico; Importation into the Commonwealth of...the importation of Hass avocados from Mexico into Puerto Rico under the same systems...United States from Michoac[aacute]n, Mexico. The systems approach requirements...

2010-05-14

319

The effect of human activity on the structure and composition of a tropical forest in Puerto Rico  

Microsoft Academic Search

From European settlement to the 1940s, the Bisley watersheds of the Luquilio Experimental Forest, Puerto Rico, were used for agroforestry, selective logging, charcoal production, and timber manage- ment. Each of these activities affected different parts of the landscape in different ways and at differ- ent times. After nearly 50 years of unhindered regeneration, six impacts remain apparent: ( 1 )

D. C. Garcia-Montiel; F. N. Scatena

1994-01-01

320

Possible environmental factors underlying amphibian decline in eastern Puerto Rico: Analysis of U.S. government data archives  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The past three decades have seen major declines in populations of several species of amphibians at high elevations in eastern Puerto Rico, a region unique in the humid tropics because of the degree of environmental monitoring that has taken place through the efforts of U.S. government agencies. I examined changes in environmental conditions by examining time-series data sets that extend back at least into the 1980s, a period when frog populations were declining. The data include forest cover; annual mean, minimum, and maximum daily temperature; annual rainfall; rain and stream chemistry; and atmospheric-dust transport. I examined satellite imagery and air-chemistry samples from a single National Aeronautics and Space Administration aircraft flight across the Caribbean showing patches of pollutants, described as thin sheets or lenses, in the lower troposphere. The main source of these pollutants appeared to be fires from land clearing and deforestation, primarily in Africa. Some pollutant concentrations were high and, in the case of ozone, approached health limits set for urban air. Urban pollution impinging on Puerto Rico, dust generation from Africa (potential soil pathogens), and tropical forest burning (gaseous pollutants) have all increased during the last three decades, overlapping the timing of amphibian declines in eastern Puerto Rico. None of the data sets pointed directly to changes so extreme that they might be considered a direct lethal cause of amphibian declines in Puerto Rico. More experimental research is required to link any of these environmental factors to this problem.

Stallard, R.F.

2001-01-01

321

Percepcin Remota aplicada a la deteccin de deslizamientos de tierra en el rea oeste de Puerto Rico  

E-print Network

frecuencia de intensas lluvias y la elevada lluvia media anual (Larsen y Simon 1993). El problema se vuelve Mayagüez tenemos un clima regularmente árido, con poca incidencia de lluvias. Claro con excepción de la es donde se presenta en Puerto Rico fuertes cantidades de lluvias provocando mayor incidencia de

Gilbes, Fernando

322

Modern Nutrient Limitation and Geologic Record of Organic Matter Sources in the Bioluminescent Bays of Vieques, Puerto Rico  

Microsoft Academic Search

The factors contributing to the success of the bioluminescent dinoflagellate, Pyrodinium bahamense var. bahamense in the bays of Vieques, Puerto Rico, are not fully understood, although the dinoflagellate’s success is closely tied to its environment and the nutrients within that environment. Exploring the present and past nutrient concentrations and sources of organic material within the bioluminescent bays of Vieques assists

Erin Algeo

2008-01-01

323

First report of Lasmenia sp. causing rachis necrosis, flower abortion, fruit rot and leaf spots on rambutan in Puerto Rico  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Rambutan is an exotic tropical fruit that has increased in commercial importance for growers in Puerto Rico. In 2008 and 2009, fruit rot and lesions on both leaves and inflorescences were observed. A total of 276 diseased samples from these plant parts were collected at commercial orchards, Agricult...

324

IDENTIFICATION OF THE PREVALENT BRCA1 AND BRCA2 MUTATIONS IN THE FEMALE POPULATION OF PUERTO RICO  

PubMed Central

Mutations in the breast cancer 1, early onset (BRCA1) and breast cancer 2 (BRCA2) genes are responsible for the majority of hereditary breast cancers. Knowledge of the incidence and prevalence of BRCA mutations in a specific population or ethnic group is necessary to provide accurate genetic counseling for breast cancer patients and their families. However, these data have not been gathered in the population of Puerto Rico. We conducted a retrospective study of female breast cancer patients undergoing genetic testing for BRCA mutations in the highest volume breast surgery practices in San Juan, Puerto Rico. Data collection includes 3-generation family cancer history and results from complete BRCA sequencing. A total of 6 different deleterious mutations were observed, including 1 mutation in BRCA1 and 5 mutations in BRCA2. Three recurrent mutations (BRCA1 del exon1–2, BRCA2 4150G>T, and BRCA2 6027del4) account for over 70% of all the BRCA mutations observed in this study population. This study examines for the first time the characteristics of hereditary breast cancer in Puerto Rico, and assesses the accuracy of existing genetic risk assessment tools in that population. This data is expected to contribute to providing accurate and efficient tools for the clinical management of hereditary breast cancer in Puerto Rico. PMID:22682623

Dutil, Julie; Colon-Colon, Jose L.; Matta, Jaime L.; Sutphen, Rebecca; Echenique, Miguel

2012-01-01

325

Las Nuevas Tecnologias de la Informacion en las Bibliotecas Publicas de Puerto Rico: Impacto en el Personal Bibliotecario  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this research was to determine the status of Puerto Rico's public libraries to new information technologies. Obtaining the views of library staff working in the same, characteristics and attitudes and knowledge in new information technologies needed to serve as information specialists in libraries. To know the opinion of the…

Diaz-Suarez, Damalin Judith

2012-01-01

326

Crop Size and Fruit Neighborhood Effects on Bird Visitation to Fruiting Schefflera morototoni Trees in Puerto Rico1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies of zoochorous seed dispersal systems often consider crop size, yet seldom consider the kinds and amounts of fruits surrounding parent plants (the fruit neighborhood) when attempting to explain among-plant variation in fruit removal. We studied avian frugivory at 24 Schefflera morototoni trees from February to May 1998 in central Puerto Rico. The number of fruits removed by avian seed

James F. Saracco; Jaime A. Collazo; Martha J. Groom; A. Carlo

327

First report of Lasiodiplodia theobromae causing inflorescence blight and fruit rot of longan (Dimocarpus longan L.) in Puerto Rico  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Longan is a tropical fruit tree in the Sapindaceae family. During a disease survey from 2008 to 2010, fruit rot and inflorescence blight (rotting of the rachis, rachilla and flowers) were observed at the USDA-ARS Research Farm in Isabela, Puerto Rico. Tissue sections (1 mm2) of diseased inflorescenc...

328

Development of Site Specific Climate Scenarios for River and Sediment discharge Using Macrophysical Climate Models: An Example from Puerto Rico  

EPA Science Inventory

Climate change and land use change are the primary drivers of changes in ecosystem services globally. Global climate models suggest that in the future Puerto Rico and other small islands in the Caribbean will experience changes in rainfall seasonality. It is anticipated that wa...

329

Investigation of in situ weathering of quartz diorite bedrock in the Rio Icacos basin, Luquillo Experimental Forest, Puerto Rico  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Rio Icacos basin, in Puerto Rico, is the site of the highest measured chemical solute fluxes for a catchment on granodiorite; this is partly attributable to high annual rainfall (4300 mm), high average temperature (23 °C), and moderate relief. The bulk of these fluxes is contributed by dissolution of plagioclase and amphiboles in zones of partially weathered rock (0.5–1.5

Benjamin F. Turner; Robert F. Stallard; Susan L. Brantley

2003-01-01

330

Spanish through Authentic Literature and Traditional Art (of Puerto Rico and the Dominican Republic). A Teacher's Resource Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide was compiled of instructional materials designed by teachers of Spanish at the elementary and secondary levels. The materials consist of lesson plans and readings, each with a slightly different perspective, which collectively give a comprehensive view of the history and culture of Puerto Rico and the Dominican Republic. Many lessons…

Columbia Univ., New York, NY. Inst. for Urban and Minority Education.

331

Effects of land management and a recent hurricane on forest structure and composition in the Luquillo Experimental Forest, Puerto Rico  

Microsoft Academic Search

We compared the long-term effects (60 years) of land use practices and short-term effects (5 years) of a hurricane on forests in abandoned pastures, abandoned coffee plantations, and forested stands in the Luquillo Mountains of eastern Puerto Rico. There was no effect of management practices on species richness of trees and shrubs, nor on species diversity, species evenness, stem density,

Jess K. Zimmerman; T. Mitchell Aide; Maydee Rosario; Mayra Serrano; Luis Herrera

1995-01-01

332

Hurricane Disturbance Alters Secondary Forest Recovery in Puerto Rico Dan F.B. Flynn1,7  

E-print Network

Hurricane Disturbance Alters Secondary Forest Recovery in Puerto Rico Dan F.B. Flynn1,7 , Mar structure and composition. How introduced species respond to disturbances such as hurricanes in post-agriculture forest recovery is of particular interest. To examine the effects of hurricane disturbance and previous

Uriarte, Maria

333

Avian studies and research opportunities in the Luquillo Experimental Forest: A tropical rain forest in Puerto Rico  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Luquillo Experimental Forest (LEF) located on the Caribbean island of Puerto Rico has a rich history of ecological research, including a variety of avian studies, and is one of the most active ecological research sites in the Neotropics. The LEF spans an elevational range from 100 to 1075m over which five life zones and four forest types are found

Joseph M. Wunderle; Wayne J. Arendt

2011-01-01

334

Comparison of Storage Capacity and Sedimentation Trends of Lago Guayabal, Puerto Rico-December 2001 and October 2006  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Lago Guayabal dam is located on the Rio Jacaguas in the municipality of Villalba in southern Puerto Rico, about 4 kilometers north of the town of Juana Diaz and about 5 kilometers south of Villalba (fig. 1). The dam is owned and operated by the Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority (PREPA) and was constructed in 1913 for the irrigation of croplands in the southern coastal plains of Puerto Rico. The reservoir impounds the waters of the Rio Jacaguas and those of the Rio Toa Vaca, when the Toa Vaca dam overflows or releases water. The reservoir has a drainage area of 53.8 square kilometers. The dam is a concrete gravity structure with a normal pool (at top of flashboards) elevation of 103.94 meters above mean sea level (Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority, 1988). During October 2006, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Caribbean Water Science Center, in cooperation with the Puerto Rico Aqueduct and Sewer Authority (PRASA) conducted a bathymetric survey of Lago Guayabal to update the reservoir storage capacity and actualize the reservoir sedimentation rate by comparing the 2006 data with the previous 2001 bathymetric survey results. The purpose of this report is to describe and document the USGS sedimentation survey conducted at Lago Guayabal during October 2006, including the methods used to update the reservoir storage capacity, sedimentation rates, and areas of substantial sediment accumulation since December 2001. The Lago Guayabal sedimentation history up to 2001 was published by the USGS in 2003 (Soler-Lopez, 2003); therefore, this report focuses on the comparison between the 2001 and current bathymetric surveys of Lago Guayabal.

Soler-López, Luis R.

2008-01-01

335

Characterizing Manatee habitat use and seagrass grazing in Florida and Puerto Rico: Implications for conservation and management  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Indian River Lagoon on the Atlantic coast of Florida, USA, and the east coast of Puerto Rico provide contrasting environments in which the endangered West Indian Manatee Trichechus manatus experiences different thermal regimes and seagrass communities. We compare Manatee feeding behaviour in these two regions, examine the ecological effects of Manatee grazing on a seagrass community in the Indian River Lagoon, describe the utility of aerial surveys, radio tracking, and seagrass mapping to study Manatee feeding patterns, and develop hypotheses on sirenian feeding strategies in temperate and tropical seagrass communities. In both the Indian River Lagoon and Puerto Rico, Manatees were typically observed grazing in water depths = 2.0 m and more frequently on the most abundant seagrasses present in the community: Halodule wrightii in the Indian River Lagoon and Thalassia testudinum in eastern Puerto Rico. Where both H. wrightii and Syringodium filiforme were consumed in the Indian River Lagoon, Manatees tended to remove more S. filiforme than H. wrightii rhizome + root biomass. Even though 80 to 95% of the short-shoot biomass and 50 to 67% of the rhizome + root biomass were removed, grazed patches of H. wrightii and S. filiforme recovered significantly between February and August. H. wrightii may be both more resistant and resilient than S. filiforme to the impacts of Manatee grazing. Despite the significantly greater abundance of T. testudinum in Puerto Rico, Manatees exhibited selective feeding by returning to specific sites with abundant H. wrightii. They also appeared to feed selectively on T. testudinum shoots associated with clumps of the calcareous alga Halimeda opuntia. We hypothesize that Florida Manatees are less specialized seagrass grazers than Manatees in tropical regions like Puerto Rico. Continued research on Manatee grazing ecology in temperate to tropical seagrass communities will enable better protection and management of these vital and unique marine resources.

Lefebvre, L.W.; Reid, J.P.; Kenworthy, W.J.; Powell, J.A.

2000-01-01

336

Characterizing Manatee habitat use and seagrass grazing in Florida and Puerto Rico: Implications for conservation and management  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Indian River Lagoon on the Atlantic coast of Florida, USA, and the east coast of Puerto Rico provide contrasting environments in which the endangered West Indian Manatee Trichechus manatus experiences different thermal regimes and seagrass communities. We compare Manatee feeding behaviour in these two regions, examine the ecological effects of Manatee grazing on a seagrass community in the Indian River Lagoon, describe the utility of aerial surveys, radio tracking, and seagrass mapping to study Manatee feeding patterns, and develop hypotheses on sirenian feeding strategies in temperature and tropical seagrass communities. In both the Indian River Lagoon and Puerto Rico, Manatees were typically observed grazing in water depths = 2.0 m and more frequently on the most abundant seagrasses present in the community: Halodule wrightii in the Indian River Lagoon and Thalassia testudinum in eastern Puerto Rico. Where both H. wrightii and Syringodium filiforme were consumed in the Indian River Lagoon, Manatees tended to remove more S. filiforme than H. wrightii rhizome + root biomass. Even though 80 to 95% of the short-shoot biomass and 50 to 67% of the rhizome + root biomass were removed, grazed patches of H. wrightii and S. filiforme recovered significantly between February and August. H. wrightii may be both more resistant and resilient than S. filiforme to the impacts of Manatee grazing. Despite the significantly greater abundance of T. testudinum in Puerto Rico, Manatees exhibited selective feeding by returning to specific sites with abundant H. wrightii. They also appeared to feed selectively on T. testudinum shoots associated with clumps of the calcareous alga Halimeda opuntia. We hypothesize that Florida Manatees are less specialized seagrass grazers than Manatees in tropical regions like Puerto Rico. Continued research on Manatee grazing ecology in temperate to tropical seagrass communities will enable better protection and management of these vital and unique marine resources.

Lefebvre, L.W.; Reid, J.P.; Kenworthy, W.J.; Powell, J.A.

1999-01-01

337

Genetic structuring in the threatened "Lagartijo del Bosque Seco" (Anolis cooki) from Puerto Rico.  

PubMed

Species with restricted geographic distributions consisting of isolated populations are particularly susceptible to extinction because these demes face an increased risk of disappearing due to environmental, demographic, and genetic stochasticity. We used partial DNA sequences of the cytochrome b (1083 bp) and ND2 (1041 bp) mitochondrial genes to investigate the phylogeography and population genetics of Anolis cooki, a threatened lizard endemic to the southwestern coast of the Caribbean Island of Puerto Rico. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods revealed relatively shallow genetic differentiation among 27 unique haplotypes (from 52 individuals) from the known extant populations of A. cooki in mainland Puerto Rico. Despite this pattern, specimens from the same geographic area tended to nest together. The most basal division within A. cooki is between haplotypes from the three westernmost populations (Punta Aguila, Morrillos, Playa Santa) and the remainder demes (Bahía Ballena, La Cueva, Punta Verraco). The three westernmost populations of A. cooki are separated from their conspecific demes by the Guánica Bay and the Loco River drainage system, which together may represent a physiographic barrier for A. cooki. Each population of A. cooki only has private haplotypes; in other words, there are no shared mitochondrial types between populations. Because the number of private haplotypes can be used as an indirect measure of gene flow, this finding suggests that currently there is no migration among demes, and that each is an independent demographic unit, despite the relatively short distances (ca. 2 km) that separate some of them. Pairwise F(ST) values and spatial analyses of molecular variation confirmed the existence of distinct groups of genetically defined sampling areas, and of significant molecular variation among populations within groups and within populations. The conservation status of the populations of A. cooki varies greatly. The demes from Punta Aguila, Morrillos, and Bahía Ballena inhabit protected areas, and are larger, genetically diverse, and seemingly stable. The population from Playa Santa showed a high level of genetic diversity, but it occurs in an area that has been intensively developed for residential and touristic purposes, and its long-term survival is uncertain. A. cooki is also known from Caja de Muertos, an island off the southcentral coast of Puerto Rico. Surveys conducted on September 2006 and March 2007 did not produce any specimens, and a thorough assessment of Caja de Muertos is needed to determine the present status of A. cooki on the island. PMID:18180174

Rodríguez-Robles, Javier A; Jezkova, Tereza; Leal, Manuel

2008-02-01

338

Analysis of The Surface Radiative Budget Using ATLAS Data for San Juan, Puerto Rico  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The additional beating of the air over the city is the result of the replacement of naturally vegetated surfaces with those composed of asphalt, concrete, rooftops and other man-made materials. The temperatures of these artificial surfaces can be 20 to 40 C higher than vegetated surfaces. This produces a dome of elevated air temperatures 5 to 8 C greater over the city, compared to the air temperatures over adjacent rural areas. Urban landscapes are a complex mixture of vegetated and nonvegetated surfaces. It is difficult to take enough temperature measurements over a large city area to characterize the complexity of urban radiant surface temperature variability. The NASA Airborne Thermal and Land Applications Sensor (ATLAS) operates in the visual and IR bands was used in February 2004 to collect data from San Juan, Puerto Rico with the main objective of investigating the Urban Heat Island (UHI) in tropical cities.

Luvall, Jeffrey C.; Rickman, D. L.; Gonzalez, J.; Comarazamy, Daniel; Picon, Ana

2007-01-01

339

Current observations offshore Punta Tuna, Puerto Rico, 21 June-7 December 1980. Part A  

SciTech Connect

An oceanographic measurement program was conducted in the vicinity of a proposed ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) site about 20 km offshore of Punta Tuna, Puerto Rico. As part of the program, a mooring consisting of five current meters was maintained between 21 June and 7 December, 1980. The current data collected are summarized according to frequency of occurrence within 5 cm/sec speed and 15/sup 0/ direction intervals. Sums and percentages of total occurrence are given for each speed and direction class, along with mean speed, extreme speeds, mean component speeds, and standard deviations. Hourly averages of current speed, true direction, current vector, temperature, and pressure are plotted as a function of time. On 13 December, 1980, a current meter array was deployed at the Punta Tuna site and recovered on May 16, 1981. The processed current data from this current meter array are described. (LEW)

Frye, D.; Leavitt, K.; Whitney, A.

1981-08-01

340

Organizing, Educating, and Advocating for Health and Human Rights in Vieques, Puerto Rico  

PubMed Central

I briefly review the process of community organization, education, and advocacy activities that ended the harmful military practices in the island-municipality of Vieques, Puerto Rico, while drawing attention to the intersection of human rights and social justice in the context of local and global implications. The Viequense experience was one of building an organization based on people’s experiences and strengths, educating people to increase individual and collective efficacy and power, and advocating for policy change with an assertive cohesive action. Public health practitioners must continue supporting community-led interventions in the restoration of the island’s environment and other resources vital for people’s health and well-being. PMID:15623851

Torres, Maria Idalí

2005-01-01

341

Palivizumab compliance by infants in Puerto Rico during the 2009-2010 respiratory syncytial virus season.  

PubMed

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading viral pathogen responsible for bronchiolitis and pneumonia in infants. We assessed palivizumab prophylaxis compliance for infants in Puerto Rico. We retrospectively studied data from 868 infants (409 females, 459 males) during the 2009-2010 RSV season. The infants had a mean gestational age of 33 weeks (range 23-41) and a mean birth weight of 1,767 g (range 509-4,120). Only 74 % of the infants with indications received prophylaxis. The main reasons for noncompliance were non-approval by the medical insurance (53 %), parents' unavailability (31 %), and infant sickness (11 %). Infants with the government medical insurance were more likely to be denied prophylaxis and to receive fewer doses. Parents need to be educated on the importance of RSV prophylaxis. Physicians should be aware that many infants are not being dosed appropriately and that strategies need to be established to improve compliance. PMID:24756837

Matías, Israel; García-García, Inés; García-Fragoso, Lourdes; Valcárcel, Marta

2014-12-01

342

Geohydrologic descriptions of selected solid waste disposal sites in Puerto Rico  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Fifty solid-waste disposal sites in Puerto Rico were examined in 1977 and ranked according to their potential for degradation of the water resources. Twenty-five of the sites show significant leachate pollution potential. The cover material at 21 sites is relatively permeable and offers insignificant attenuation to leachates. Thirty-six sites are adjacent to streams and nine of these are located in headwater areas. Rainfall is abundant and at 40 of the sites exceeds 1,500 millimeters per years. General descriptions of the 50 disposal sites are given with their geohydrologic setting. Baseline data consisting of specific conductance, pH, temperature, dissolved oxygen, and common ions were obtained at many of the sites. Such information provides a technical basis for assessing future effects of those solid-waste disposal sites on the quality of water resources. (USGS)

Torres-Gonzalez, Arturo; Gómez-Gómez, Fernando

1982-01-01

343

Viabilidad de la independencia de la red en areas residenciales de Puerto Rico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The energy situation is one of the most talked about and controversial problems worldwide. The heavy reliance on fossil fuels and all the implications that they bring in our social, political, economic and environmental stability are issues that should be treated with responsibility and sensitivity. Unfortunately, Puerto Rico relies almost 99% of fossil fuels, which directly or indirectly affects various sectors of our society and of our natural environment. Ideally, appropriate steps should be considered to achieve a real change in our energy public policy in order to promote and encourage the use of renewable energy sources as part of sustainable development for the island. In this work, the technical, economic and social aspects are studied and analyzed to determine how feasible may be some of the decisions already taken and the ones to be made regarding our energy situation. Casa Pueblo is the model used to demonstrate that the determined will of a self-managed community group in the town of Adjuntas has been instrumental in the energy transition, along with the educational collaboration of the Mayaguez Campus of the University of Puerto Rico. An assessment of the situation of the energy public policy regarding our power system has been performed from an ethical and moral perspective to determine how sustainable it has been and how sustainable is the projected long term future. In these times where most issues like climate change and sustainable development predominate, it is essential that the vision of engineers be one that highlights and takes responsibility with moral and ethical values when evaluating for decision making. Ethics theory concepts have been integrated to provide a framework that represents a basis of excellence in the profession of engineering.

Zamot Ayala, Hector Rene

344

Discovering The Universe From The Caribbean: Puerto Rico Prepares For The IYA2009.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A committee has been established at the University of Puerto Rico to organize the local IYA2009 activities in the island and coordinate the international global activities. We are coordinating efforts with the members of the PR-NASA Space Grant Consortium, local government agencies, and non-profit organizations interested in education. We plan to have events throughout the island taking care to facilitate the participation of families and youth from economically disadvantaged communities. We wish that all the activities in 2009 emphasize the value of personal effort in reaching your goals, the importance of mathematics in modern life and the development of scientific awareness. Aligned with the IYA2009 major goals and considering the particular needs of our community, we have selected 8 core activities for Puerto Rico. This poster describes how we will celebrate. The inauguration event will be at the UPR with an invited guest speaker. During the year we will have a conference cycle throughout the island. A prototype insert is presented that will serve as model for a collectible Astronomy series to be published each month in the newspaper. We are planning to commemorate the 40th anniversary of the first human on the Moon with an astronaut as a special guest. An Astronomy fair centered on the exhibit "From Earth to the Universe” is being organized. During the year we will have a theatrical performance "La Vida en Marte y Otras Crueles Realidades” by Roberto Ramos-Perea and a musical performance of Gustav Holst's "The Planets” with the presentation of astronomical videos by Dr. Salgado from Adler Planetarium. Star parties will be held at different strategic locations. A group of volunteer undergraduate students ("Starry Messengers") will assist in these activities. The details of these events may be found at http://www.astronomypr.org .

Lebron Santos, Mayra E.; Pantoja, C. A.; Alonso, J. L.; Altschuler, D. R.; Olmi, L.

2008-05-01

345

Fishes associated with mesophotic coral ecosystems in La Parguera, Puerto Rico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fishes associated with mesophotic coral ecosystems (MCEs) of the La Parguera shelf-edge were surveyed between 2007 and 2011 using mixed-gas rebreather diving. Fishes were identified and counted within belt transects and roving surveys at 30, 40, 50, 60 and 70 m depth. Vertical transects from 70 to 30 m depth helped determine depth distribution ranges. One hundred and three species were identified at MCEs (40-70 m), with high abundances and species richness, though both varied greatly among transects. Most species at MCEs were common inhabitants of shallow reefs, but some were restricted to mesophotic depths. An additional 15 species were added to those previously classified as indicator species of mesophotic areas in Puerto Rico. The MCE fish assemblage was distinct from shallow areas (30 m), with taxonomic composition, abundance and the proportion of trophic guilds varying with increasing depth. The dominant trophic guild within MCEs was the zooplanktivores, while herbivores dominated shallow reefs. Both herbivores and zooplanktivores responded strongly, and oppositely, to depth. The few herbivores associated with deep MCEs are small-bodied species. The largest changes within the mesophotic fish community along the depth gradient occurred at 60 m, similar to that reported for algae and corals, and seem to represent both a response to reduced light and variations in herbivory. The presence of commercially important fishes at MCEs, many considered to be threatened by fishing pressure in shallow areas, suggests that MCEs are important for the conservation of these species. This study represents the first quantitative in situ observations and descriptions of fishes inhabiting MCEs at depths of 50-70 m in Puerto Rico and highlights the role of MCEs as valuable habitats for reef fishes. The composition and distribution of the MCEs fish community should be incorporated when planning for the spatial management of coral reef resources.

Bejarano, I.; Appeldoorn, R. S.; Nemeth, M.

2014-06-01

346

Geographical pathology profile of AIDS in Puerto Rico: the first decade.  

PubMed

Postmortem histopathological changes in 100 adult patients with AIDS who died in Puerto Rico from 1982 to 1991 were studied and tabulated. Modes of HIV transmission were reviewed. Patient ages ranged from 21 to 60 yr. Gender composition for the patient group was 83 men (average age, 35 yr) and 17 women (average age, 39 yr). Sixty-eight of the patients were injecting-drug users, 20 were homosexual and bisexual men, seven were women who had had heterosexual contact with men at risk for HIV, and one was a man who had had heterosexual contact with prostitutes. Only one case was linked to transfusions of blood. Twenty-seven men and seven women were serologically tested for antibodies and all were HIV seroreactive. The most common causes of infection and the frequency of each were as follows: Pneumocystis carinii in 49 patients; cytomegalovirus in 43; Toxoplasma gondii in 30; Candida species in 24; Histoplasma capsulatum in 18; Mycobacterium species in 14; Cryptococcus species in eight; and Strongyloides stercoralis in six patients. Infection by Schistosoma mansoni (10 patients) was considered incidental because this trematode is endemic in Puerto Rico. The lung was the organ most frequently infected by a single microorganism: Pneumocystis carinii affected 49 patients. However, Cryptococcus species was the microorganism that infected more body systems: 20 different organs in eight patients. Nineteen patients had microglial nodular encephalitis, 86 patients had lymphocyte depletion in the spleen, and 58 had lymphocyte depletion in lymph node tissue. Twenty-seven men had testicular maturation arrest and variable germ cell loss. Three patients had malignant lymphoma, and two had Kaposi's sarcoma.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7991523

Climent, C; DeVinatea, M L; Lasala, G; Ie, S O; Vélez, R; Colón, L; Mullick, F G

1994-08-01

347

Soil Erosion and Sediment Losses from the Ridge Watersheds in the Guánica Bay, Puerto Rico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Puerto Rico faces considerable challenges regarding sustainable land use and effects of land use on adjacent coastal ecosystems and the services they provide. One primary concern is increased sediment loading to reservoirs and ultimately to Guánica Bay and reef areas outside the Bay. Studies by scientists in Puerto Rico have suggested that nutrient and sediment contaminants have increased 5 to 10 fold since pre-colonial levels and an additional 2 to 3 fold in the last 40-50 years (Sturm et al., 2012). Sediment deposition has significantly reduced the storage capacity of several reservoirs, and the associated contaminants and nutrients within the terrestrial soil particles of sediment can stress corals and negatively impact reef health. Sedimentation can also reduce photosynthetic activity of aquatic plants and algae, and increase water-treatment costs for domestic and industrial uses (Estades Hernández, 1997). Therefore, it is important to understand soil erosion and sediment transport processes. In this study, we analyze sediment losses from ridge watersheds of the Guánica Bay and try to understand the main factors causing soil erosion and sediment in those ridge watersheds. Our specific objectives were: 1) to quantify sediment contributions to Guánica Bay and identify sediment sources; 2) seek factors that impact the sediment loss and explore alternative strategies to reduce soil erosion and sediment loading to the reservoirs, Guánica Bay and the coastal zone. It was found that sediment loss in those ridge watersheds was mainly caused by interaction of heavy rainfall (especially the hurricanes) and steep mountainous slopes. Coffee planting increased the risk of soil erosion, which the loss of protective canopy for sun-grown coffee exacerbated. In addition, rainy seasons (February to May and August to November) contributed more than 80% of annual sediment loss. Exploration of different land use scenarios found that coffee land use yielded more sediment per hectare than forest and grass. Finally, conversion from sun-grown to shade-grown coffee can also reduce soil erosion.

Yuan, Yongping; Taguas, Encarnación; Hu, Wenhui

2014-05-01

348

Factors associated with metabolic syndrome in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus from Puerto Rico  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to determine the factors associated with metabolic syndrome in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus from Puerto Rico. A total of 204 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (per the American College of Rheumatology classification criteria) were evaluated. Metabolic syndrome was assessed using the American Heart Association and the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute classification. Socioeconomic–demographic parameters, health-related behaviours, clinical manifestations, autoantibodies, pharmacological treatments, disease activity (per the Systemic Lupus Activity Measure—Revised), and damage accrual (per the Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics/American College of Rheumatology Damage Index) were determined at study visit. Factors associated with metabolic syndrome were examined by univariable analyses and multivariable logistic regression models. A total of 196 (96.2%) were women. The mean age at study visit was 43.6 ± 13.0 years, and the mean disease duration was 8.7 ± 7.7 years. Seventy-eight patients (38.2%) had metabolic syndrome. In the multivariable analysis, age (odds ratio [OR] = 1.05; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.02–1.09), government health insurance (OR = 2.06; 95% CI 1.07–4.22), exercise (OR = 0.33; 95% CI 0.14–0.92), thrombocytopenia (OR = 4.19; 95% CI 1.54–11.37), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (OR = 1.64; 95% CI 1.03–2.63), disease activity (OR = 1.14; 95% CI 1.00–1.30), and prednisone >10 mg/day (OR = 3.69; 95% CI 1.22–11.11) were associated with metabolic syndrome. In conclusion, older age, low socioeconomic status, lack of exercise, thrombocytopenia, increased erythrocyte sedimentation rate, higher disease activity, and prednisone >10 mg/day were independently associated with metabolic syndrome in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus from Puerto Rico. PMID:18413418

Negrón, AM; Molina, MJ; Mayor, AM; Rodriguez, VE; Vilá, LM

2009-01-01

349

Distribution, variability and predictors of urinary concentrations of phenols and parabens among pregnant women in Puerto Rico  

PubMed Central

Puerto Rico has higher rates of a range of endocrine-related diseases and disorders compared to the United States. However, little is known to date about human exposures to known or potential endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in Puerto Rico. We recruited 105 pregnant women in Northern Puerto Rico who provided urine samples and questionnaire data at three times (20±2, 24±2, and 28±2 weeks) during gestation. We measured the urinary concentrations of five phenols and three parabens: 2,4-dichlorophenol (24-DCP), 2,5-dichlorophenol (25-DCP), benzophenone-3 (BP-3), bisphenol A (BPA), triclosan (TCS), butyl paraben (B-PB), methyl paraben (M-PB), and propyl paraben (P-PB). The frequent detection of these chemicals suggests that exposure is highly prevalent among these Puerto Rican pregnant women. Urinary concentrations of TCS, BP-3 and 25-DCP were higher than among women of reproductive age in the US general population, while concentrations of BPA, 24-DCP and parabens were similar. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) varied widely between biomarkers; BPA had the lowest ICC (0.24) and BP-3 had highest (0.62), followed by 25-DCP (0.49) and TCS (0.47). We found positive associations between biomarker concentrations with self-reported use of liquid soap (TCS), sunscreen (BP-3), lotion (BP-3 and parabens), and cosmetics (parabens). Our results can inform future epidemiology studies and strategies to reduce exposure to these chemicals or their precursors. PMID:23469879

Meeker, John D.; Cantonwine, David E.; Rivera-González, Luis O.; Ferguson, Kelly K.; Mukherjee, Bhramar; Calafat, Antonia M.; Ye, Xiaoyun; Anzalota Del Toro, Liza V.; Crespo, Noe; Jiménez-Vélez, Braulio; Alshawabkeh, Akram N.; Cordero, José F.

2013-01-01

350

Fishing a superfund site: dissonance and risk perception of environmental hazards by fishermen in Puerto Rico.  

PubMed

Risk perception studies show that individuals tend to underestimate significant risks, overestimate negligible ones, and distrust authorities. They also rely on a variety of strategies or heuristics to reach decisions regarding their risk-taking behavior. We report on a survey of fishermen and crabbers engaged in recreational and substance fishing in a Puerto Rican estuary (near Humacao), which has been declared a "Superfund site" because of suspected contamination by mercury, and at ecologically similar control sites. Nearly everyone interviewed at the Humacao site was aware of the mercury contamination, but either denied its importance, believed the contamination was restricted to a distant part of the estuary, or assumed that the estuary would be closed by the authorities if the threat was real. All site-users consumed the fish and crabs they caught. At Humacao, the average catch was 7 fish per fishermen (mostly tilapia, Tilapia mossambica, and tarpon, Megalops atlantica) and 13 crabs per crabber (all blue crabs, Callinectes sapidus). On average, the site-users returned to the lagoons about 3-4 times per month. At control sites, fewer fish were eaten. The worst case consumption of tarpon, a species which concentrated mercury at Eastern Puerto Rico, provided an exposure exceeding the EPA reference dose, whereas consumption of one tarpon per week did not entail excess exposure. Fortunately, few individuals caught tarpon exclusively. Unlike counterparts in the northeastern United States, they trusted authorities and indicated that they would have heeded warnings of mercury contamination posted where they fished. PMID:1876726

Burger, J; Gochfeld, M

1991-06-01

351

Evaluation of ultramafic deposits in the Eastern United States and Puerto Rico as sources of magnesium for carbon dioxide sequestration  

SciTech Connect

In this report, the authors evaluate the resource potential of extractable magnesium from ultramafic bodies located in Vermont, the Pennsylvania-Maryland-District-of-Columbia (PA-MD-DC) region, western North Carolina, and southwestern Puerto Rico. The first three regions occur in the Appalachian Mountains and contain the most attractive deposits in the eastern United States. They were formed during prograde metamorphism of serpentinized peridotite fragments originating from an ophiolite protolith. The ultramafic rocks consist of variably serpentinized dunite, harzburgite, and minor iherzolite generally containing antigorite and/or lizardite as the major serpentine minor phases. Chrysotile contents vary from minor to major, depending on occurrence. Most bodies contain an outer sheath of chlorite-talc-tremolite rock. Larger deposits in Vermont and most deposits in North Carolina contain a core of dunite. Magnesite and other carbonates are common accessories. In these deposits, MgO ranges from 36 to 48 wt % with relatively pure dunite having the highest MgO and lowest H{sub 2}O contents. Ultramafic deposits in southwestern Puerto Rico consist of serpentinized dunite and harzburgite thought to be emplaced as large diapirs or as fragments in tectonic melanges. They consist of nearly pure, low-grade serpentinite in which lizardite and chrysotile are the primary serpentine minerals. Chlorite is ubiquitous in trace amounts. Magnesite is a common accessory. Contents of MgO and H{sub 2}O are rather uniform at roughly 36 and 13 wt %. Dissolution experiments show that all serpentinites and dunite-rich rocks are soluble in 1:1 mixtures of 35% HCl and water by volume. The experiments suggest that low-grade serpentinites from Puerto Rico are slightly more reactive than the higher grade, antigorite-bearing serpentinites of the Appalachian Mountains. The experiments also show that the low-grade serpentinites and relatively pure dunites contain the least amounts of undesirable insoluble silicates. Individual ultramafic bodies in the Appalachian Mountains are as great as 7 km{sup 3} although typically they are {le}1 km{sup 3}. In contrast, ultramafic deposits in southwestern Puerto Rico have an estimated volume of roughly 150 km{sup 3}. Based on the few detailed geophysical studies in North Carolina and Puerto Rico, it is evident that volume estimates of any ultramafic deposit would benefit greatly from gravity and magnetic investigations, and from corehole drilling. Nevertheless, the data show that the ultramafic deposits of the eastern United States and southwestern Puerto Rico could potentially sequester many years of annual CO{sub 2} emissions if favorable geotechnical, engineering, and environmental conditions prevail.

Fraser Goff; George Guthrie; Bruce Lipin; Melissa Fite; Steve Chipera; Dale Counce; Emily Kluk; Hans Ziock

2000-04-01

352

Structure and tectonics of the upper Cenozoic Puerto Rico-Virgin Islands carbonate platform as determined from seismic reflection studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Puerto Rico-Virgin Islands carbonate platform was deposited over an area of 18,000 km2 from early Oligocene to Holocene on top of an inactive and subsiding Cretaceous-earliest Oligocene island arc. Regional single-channel and multichannel seismic reflection lines presented in this study provide the first information on the regional stratigraphy and structure of this platform that has previously been known mainly

Jean-Paul van Gestel; Paul Mann; James F. Dolan; Nancy R. Grindlay

1998-01-01

353

ASSESSMENT OF MORTALIlY IN AN OFFSHORE POPULATION OF QUEEN CONCH, STROMBUSGIGAS L., IN SOUTHWEST PUERTO RICO  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Jolly-Seber multiple tag-recapture experiment was conducted for 2 years on a queen conch popula­ tion offshore ofLa Parguera, Puerto Rico in order to estimate mortality rates. Over 2,000 individuals were tagged in 9 sampling periods spaced at 3-month intervals from August 1983 to August 1985. The occurrence of fishing in half the intervals allowed estimates to be made of

RICHARD S. APPELDOORN

354

Ecological, Radiological, and Toxicological Effects of Naval Bombardment on the Coral Reefs of Isla de Vieques, Puerto Rico  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Between 1943 and 2003, land and sea areas on the eastern end of Isla de Vieques, Puerto Rico were used as a naval gunnery\\u000a and bombing range. Viequean coral reefs are littered with leaking and unexploded ordnance (UXO). Radiological, biological,\\u000a and chemical surveys were conducted to assay the health of these coral reefs.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Biotic surveys revealed a statistically significant inverse

James W. Porter; James V. Barton; Cecilia Torres

355

Shade-grown coffee in Puerto Rico: Opportunities to preserve biodiversity while reinvigorating a struggling agricultural commodity  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Shade-grown coffee contributes to biodiversity conservation and has many ecological benefits. We reviewed historical trends in coffee production and interviewed 100 coffee growers in 1999 to determine current management practices and attitudes toward the cultivation of sun and shade coffee in Puerto Rico. We discuss the outlook for the coffee industry in the 21st century and implications for biodiversity conservation, hoping lessons from Puerto Rico will apply to the international coffee industry. Throughout the 20th century, government intervention, including subsidies and technical assistance, supported coffee farming in Puerto Rico. In an effort to modernize coffee production and increase yields, the conversion from shade to sun coffee plantations was encouraged. Despite government support, the amount of land devoted to this once dominant agricultural commodity declined markedly between 1982 and 2007 (84%), due to labor shortages, low income, and catastrophic hurricanes. We found that a return to shaded plantations would be embraced by most farmers. Growers of shaded coffee were generally happier with their cultivation practices (89.3% satisfied) than growers of sun coffee (60.9% satisfied), valued biodiversity, and were willing to cultivate coffee under shade if given similar incentives to those received for farming sun coffee. The future of the coffee industry in Puerto Rico may depend on government programs that capitalize upon emerging markets for sustainably produced, shade-grown coffee. We conclude that where governments have close ties to the coffee industry, they should strive to wed economic development with the conservation of biodiversity and associated ecological services by providing support and incentives for the production of shade coffee. ?? 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Borkhataria, R.; Collazo, J.A.; Groom, M.J.; Jordan-Garcia, A.

2012-01-01

356

Impacts of disturbance initiated by road construction in a subtropical cloud forest in the Luquillo Experimental Forest, Puerto Rico  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impacts of road construction and the spread of exotic vegetation, which are common threats to upper elevation tropical forests, were evaluated in the subtropical cloud forests of Puerto Rico. The vegetation, soil and microclimate of 6-month-old roadfills, 35-year-old roadfills and mature forest with and without grass understories were compared. Recent roadfills had higher light levels, soil temperatures, bulk densities,

Lydia P. Olander; F. N Scatena; Whendee L. Silver

1998-01-01

357

Water quality and landscape processes of four watersheds in eastern Puerto Rico  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Humid tropical regions occupy about a quarter of Earth's land surface, yet they contribute a substantially higher fraction of the water, solutes, and sediment discharged to the world's oceans. Nearly half of Earth's population lives in the tropics, and development stresses can potentially harm soil resources, water quality, and water supply and in addition increase landslide and flood hazards. Owing to Puerto Rico's steep topography, low water storage capacity, and dependence on trade-wind precipitation, the island's people, ecosystems, and water supply are vulnerable to extreme weather such as hurricanes, floods, and droughts. Eastern Puerto Rico offers a natural laboratory for separating geologic and land-cover influences from regional- and global-scale influences because of its various bedrock types and the changing land cover surrounding intact, mature forest of the Luquillo Experimental Forest. Accordingly, a multiyear assessment of hydrological and biogeochemical processes was designed to develop an understanding of the effects of these differences on local climate, streamflow, water quality, and ecosystems, and to form the basis for a long-term and event-based program of climate and hydrologic monitoring. Because infrequent, large storms play a major role in this landscape, we focused on high-runoff events, sampling 263 storms, including all major hurricanes from 1991 through 2005. The largest storms have profound geomorphic consequences, such as landslides, debris flows, deep gullying on deforested lands, excavation and suspension of sediment in stream channels, and delivery of a substantial fraction of annual stream sediment load. Large storms sometimes entrain ocean foam and spray causing high concentrations of seasalt-derived constituents in stream waters during the storm. Past deforestation and agricultural activities in the Cayaguás and Canóvanas watersheds accelerated erosion and soil loss, and this material continues to be remobilized during large storms. Nearly 5,000 routine and event samples were analyzed for parameters that allow determination of denudation rates based on suspended and dissolved loads; 860 of these samples were analyzed for a comprehensive suite of chemical constituents. The rivers studied are generally similar in water-quality characteristics, and windward or leeward aspect appears to exert a stronger influence on water quality than geology or land cover. Of samples analyzed for comprehensive chemistry and for sediment, 543 were collected at runoff rates greater than 1 millimeter per hour, 256 at rates exceeding 10 millimeters per hour, and 3 at rates exceeding 90 millimeters per hour. Streams have rarely been sampled during events with such high runoff rates. Rates of physical and chemical weathering are especially high, and physical denudation rates, forested watersheds included, are considerably greater than is expected for a steady-state system. The elevated physical erosion drives an increased particulate organic carbon flux, one that is large, important to the carbon cycle, and sustainable, because soil-carbon regeneration is rapid. The 15-year Water, Energy, and Biogeochemical Budget dataset, which includes discharge, field parameters, suspended sediment, major cations and anions, and nutrients, is available from the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water Information System (http://waterdata.usgs.gov/nwis). The dataset provides a baseline for characterizing future environmental change and will improve our understanding of the interdependencies of land, water, and biological resources and their responses to changes in climate and land use. Because eastern Puerto Rico resembles many tropical regions in terms of geology and patterns of development, implications from this study are transferable to other tropical regions facing deforestation, rapid land-use change, and climate change.

Murphy, Sheila F.; Stallard, Robert F.; Contributions by Buss, Heather L.; Gould, William A.; Larsen, Matthew C.; Liu, Zhigang; Martinuzzi, Sebastian; Pares-Ramos, Isabel K.; White, Arthur F.; Zou, Xiaoming

2012-01-01

358

Effects of Type of Health Insurance Coverage on Colorectal Cancer Survival in Puerto Rico: A Population-Based Study  

PubMed Central

Colorectal cancer represents a major health problem and an important economic burden in Puerto Rico. In the 1990's, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico implemented a health care reform through the privatization of the public health system. The goal was to ensure access to health services, eliminate disparities for medically indigent citizens and provide special coverage for high-risk conditions such as cancer. This study estimates the 5-year relative survival rate of colorectal cancer and the relative excess risk of death in Puerto Rico for 2004–2005, by type of health insurance coverage; Government Health Plan vs. Non-Government Health Plan. Colorectal cancer in advanced stages was more common in Government Health Plan patients compared with Non-Government Health Plan patients (44.29% vs. 40.24 had regional extent and 13.58% versus 10.42% had distant involvement, respectively). Government Health Plan patients in the 50–64 (RR?=?6.59; CI: 2.85–15.24) and ?65 (RR?=?2.4; CI: 1.72–4.04) age-groups had the greater excess risk of death compared with Non-Government Health Plan patients. Further studies evaluating the interplay of access to health services and the barriers affecting the Government Health Plan population are warranted. PMID:24796444

Ortiz-Ortiz, Karen J.; Ramírez-García, Roberto; Cruz-Correa, Marcia; Ríos-González, Moraima Y.; Ortiz, Ana Patricia

2014-01-01

359

Population Dynamics of Aedes aegypti and Dengue as Influenced by Weather and Human Behavior in San Juan, Puerto Rico  

PubMed Central

Previous studies on the influence of weather on Aedes aegypti dynamics in Puerto Rico suggested that rainfall was a significant driver of immature mosquito populations and dengue incidence, but mostly in the drier areas of the island. We conducted a longitudinal study of Ae. aegypti in two neighborhoods of the metropolitan area of San Juan city, Puerto Rico where rainfall is more uniformly distributed throughout the year. We assessed the impacts of rainfall, temperature, and human activities on the temporal dynamics of adult Ae. aegypti and oviposition. Changes in adult mosquitoes were monitored with BG-Sentinel traps and oviposition activity with CDC enhanced ovitraps. Pupal surveys were conducted during the drier and wetter parts of the year in both neighborhoods to determine the contribution of humans and rains to mosquito production. Mosquito dynamics in each neighborhood was compared with dengue incidence in their respective municipalities during the study. Our results showed that: 1. Most pupae were produced in containers managed by people, which explains the prevalence of adult mosquitoes at times when rainfall was scant; 2. Water meters were documented for the first time as productive habitats for Ae. aegypti; 3. Even though Puerto Rico has a reliable supply of tap water and an active tire recycling program, water storage containers and discarded tires were important mosquito producers; 4. Peaks in mosquito density preceded maximum dengue incidence; and 5. Ae. aegypti dynamics were driven by weather and human activity and oviposition was significantly correlated with dengue incidence. PMID:22206021

Barrera, Roberto; Amador, Manuel; MacKay, Andrew J.

2011-01-01

360

Population dynamics of Aedes aegypti and dengue as influenced by weather and human behavior in San Juan, Puerto Rico.  

PubMed

Previous studies on the influence of weather on Aedes aegypti dynamics in Puerto Rico suggested that rainfall was a significant driver of immature mosquito populations and dengue incidence, but mostly in the drier areas of the island. We conducted a longitudinal study of Ae. aegypti in two neighborhoods of the metropolitan area of San Juan city, Puerto Rico where rainfall is more uniformly distributed throughout the year. We assessed the impacts of rainfall, temperature, and human activities on the temporal dynamics of adult Ae. aegypti and oviposition. Changes in adult mosquitoes were monitored with BG-Sentinel traps and oviposition activity with CDC enhanced ovitraps. Pupal surveys were conducted during the drier and wetter parts of the year in both neighborhoods to determine the contribution of humans and rains to mosquito production. Mosquito dynamics in each neighborhood was compared with dengue incidence in their respective municipalities during the study. Our results showed that: 1. Most pupae were produced in containers managed by people, which explains the prevalence of adult mosquitoes at times when rainfall was scant; 2. Water meters were documented for the first time as productive habitats for Ae. aegypti; 3. Even though Puerto Rico has a reliable supply of tap water and an active tire recycling program, water storage containers and discarded tires were important mosquito producers; 4. Peaks in mosquito density preceded maximum dengue incidence; and 5. Ae. aegypti dynamics were driven by weather and human activity and oviposition was significantly correlated with dengue incidence. PMID:22206021

Barrera, Roberto; Amador, Manuel; MacKay, Andrew J

2011-12-01

361

Analysis of 20th century rainfall and streamflow to characterize drought and water resources in Puerto Rico  

USGS Publications Warehouse

During the period from 1990 to 1997, annual rainfall accumulation averaged 87% of normal at the 12 stations with the longest period of record in Puerto Rico, a Caribbean island with a 1999 population of 3.8 million. Streamflow in rivers supplying the La Plata and Loi??za reservoirs, the principal water supply of the San Juan metropolitan area, was at or below the 10th flow percentile for 27% to 50% of the time between December 1993 and May 1996. Diminished reservoir levels in 1994 and 1995 affected more than 1 million people in the San Juan metropolitan area. Water rationing was implemented during this period and significant agricultural losses, valued at $165 million, were recorded in 1994. The public endured a year of mandatory water rationing in which sections of the city had their water-distribution networks shut off for 24 to 36 hours on alternate days. During the winter and spring of 1997-1998, water was rationed to more than 200,000 people in northwestern Puerto Rico because water level in the Guajataca reservoir was well below normal for two years because of rainfall deficits. The drought period of 1993-1996 was comparable in magnitude to a drought in 1966-1968, but water rationing was more severe during the 1993-1996 period, indicating that water management issues such as demand, storage capacity, water production and losses, and per capita consumption are increasingly important as population and development in Puerto Rico expand.

Larsen, M.C.

2000-01-01

362

Cross-cultural adaptation of the Disability of Arm, Shoulder, and Hand questionnaire: Spanish for Puerto Rico Version  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to perform a cross-cultural adaptation of the Disability of Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (DASH) questionnaire to Spanish for Puerto Rico. Five steps were followed for the cross-cultural adaptation: forward translations into Spanish for Puerto Rico, synthesis of the translations, back translations into English, revision by an expert committee, and field test of the prefinal version. Psychometric characteristics of reliability and construct validity were evaluated for the final version. Internal consistency of the final version was high (Cronbach's ? = 0.97) and item-to-total correlations were moderate (range from 0.44 to 0.85). Construct validity was evaluated by correlating the DASH with the scales of the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy - Breast. Fair to moderate correlations found in this study between the DASH and most scales of the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy - Breast support the construct validity of the Puerto Rico-Spanish DASH. The final version of the questionnaire was revised and approved by the Institute for Work and Health of Canada. Revisions to the original DASH English version are recommended. This version of the DASH is valid and reliable, and it can be used to evaluate outcomes in both clinical and research settings. PMID:19901616

Mulero-Portela, Ana L.; Colón-Santaella, Carmen L.; Cruz-Gomez, Cynthia

2010-01-01

363

Indirect upstream effects of dams: consequences of migratory consumer extirpation in Puerto Rico.  

PubMed

Large dams degrade the integrity of a wide variety of ecosystems, yet direct downstream effects of dams have received the most attention from ecosystem managers and researchers. We investigated indirect upstream effects of dams resulting from decimation of migratory freshwater shrimp and fish populations in Puerto Rico, USA, in both high- and low-gradient streams. In high-gradient streams above large dams, native shrimps and fishes were extremely rare, whereas similar sites without large dams had high abundances of native consumers. Losses of native fauna above dams dramatically altered their basal food resources and assemblages of invertebrate competitors and prey. Compared to pools in high-gradient streams with no large dams, pool epilithon above dams had nine times more algal biomass, 20 times more fine benthic organic matter (FBOM), 65 times more fine benthic inorganic matter (FBIM), 28 times more carbon, 19 times more nitrogen, and four times more non-decapod invertebrate biomass. High-gradient riffles upstream from large dams had five times more FBIM than did undammed riffles but showed no difference in algal abundance, FBOM, or non-decapod invertebrate biomass. For epilithon of low-gradient streams, differences in basal resources between pools above large dams vs. without large dams were considerably smaller in magnitude than those observed for pools in high-gradient sites. These results match previous stream experiments in which the strength of native shrimp and fish effects increased with stream gradient. Our results demonstrate that dams can indirectly affect upstream free-flowing reaches by eliminating strong top-down effects of consumers. Migratory omnivorous shrimps and fishes occur throughout the tropics, and the consequences of their declines upstream from many tropical dams are likely to be similar to those in Puerto Rico. Thus, ecological effects of migratory fauna loss upstream from dams encompass a wider variety of species interactions and biomes than the bottom-up effects (i.e., elimination of salmonid nutrient subsidies) recognized for northern temperate systems. PMID:16705984

Greathouse, Effie A; Pringle, Catherine M; McDowell, William H; Holmquist, Jeff G

2006-02-01

364

Heuristic Approach for Configuration of a Grid-Tied Microgrid in Puerto Rico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The high rates of cost of electricity that consumers are being charged by the utility grid in Puerto Rico have created an energy crisis around the island. This situation is due to the island's dependence on imported fossil fuels. In order to aid in the transition from fossil-fuel based electricity into electricity from renewable and alternative sources, this research work focuses on reducing the cost of electricity for Puerto Rico through means of finding the optimal microgrid configuration for a set number of consumers from the residential sector. The Hybrid Optimization Modeling for Energy Renewables (HOMER) software, developed by NREL, is utilized as an aid in determining the optimal microgrid setting. The problem is also approached via convex optimization; specifically, an objective function C(t) is formulated in order to be minimized. The cost function depends on the energy supplied by the grid, the energy supplied by renewable sources, the energy not supplied due to outages, as well as any excess energy sold to the utility in a yearly manner. A term for considering the social cost of carbon is also considered in the cost function. Once the microgrid settings from HOMER are obtained, those are evaluated via the optimized function C( t), which will in turn assess the true optimality of the microgrid configuration. A microgrid to supply 10 consumers is considered; each consumer can possess a different microgrid configuration. The cost function C( t) is minimized, and the Net Present Value and Cost of Electricity are computed for each configuration, in order to assess the true feasibility. Results show that the greater the penetration of components into the microgrid, the greater the energy produced by the renewable sources in the microgrid, the greater the energy not supplied due to outages. The proposed method demonstrates that adding large amounts of renewable components in a microgrid does not necessarily translates into economic benefits for the consumer; in fact, there is a trade back between cost and addition of elements that must be considered. Any configurations which consider further increases in microgrid components will result in increased NPV and increased costs of electricity, which deem the configurations as unfeasible.

Rodriguez, Miguel A.

365

Making an outreach movie -The Puerto Rico Trench: Exploring the deepest place in the Atlantic Ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new movie will be screened that describes the exploration of the Puerto Rico trench with a multibeam echosounder and its significance to scientific research and tsunami hazard assessment. The movie audience is the general public including high school students. It aims to stimulate interest in Oceanography and to demonstrate scientific processes as they are applied in Geological Oceanography. The extensive use of 3-D visualization fly-bys over the dramatic ocean floor of the Puerto Rico trench should be particularly appealing to a generation growing up on video games and 3-D visualizations. The film is the product of close cooperation between a film maker and a scientist through all stages of its production and post production. This level of close cooperation is necessary because scientists' and film makers' approaches to presentation of information can differ greatly. In making an educational or outreach movie, the scientist must be responsible for the contents of the message, but the film maker has to design an effective delivery method. The creation of this movie was the result of following stages: (1) live action filming during a short research cruise; (2) generating 3-D fly-by using Fledermausr software; (3) rendering the fly-by sequences to a high-definition film; (4) collecting still photos and other supporting material; (5) generating graphs illustrating crucial scientific information and concepts; (6) preparing the script for voiceover narration; (7) working with a professional actor in order to ensure accurate delivery of the information. The biggest challenge in making the movie was the editing stage when the different elements of the movie were put together, incorporating music and voiceover into an aesthetically pleasing, interesting, and above all, scientifically accurate and coherent movie. Post-editing steps included replication of the master copy, package design, and distribution. The movie was completed in several weeks on a modest budget, thanks to modern desktop digital video, editing, voice recording, mixing, and replication technologies. Free copies of the film can be obtained by contacting the second author.

ten Brink, J.; ten Brink, U. S.

2004-12-01

366

Fluxes of new and old mercury from mercury amendments to Puerto Rico soil columns  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Puerto Rico receives high loading of mercury (Hg) in wet deposition. We hypothesized that high-organic soils with white-rot decomposition would retain more of this mercury than low-organic soils with brown-rot decomposition. In order to test this hypothesis, four paired intact soil cores (15-cm diameter, 20-cm depth) were extracted in acrylic tubes from a hillslope in the low-elevation Tabonuco forest within the Luquillo Experimental Forest in northeastern Puerto Rico. One core of each pair was taken from an organic-rich microsite (above a debris dam) with white rot, and the other was taken from an adjacent bare-soil area (below the debris dam) with brown rot. The soil cores were amended with 384 ng of 202Hg (8 applications of 48 ng, twice per week for 4 weeks, April - May, 2006). Total water added was equivalent to 271 mm rainfall (close to the 4-week average) but Hg loading was about ten times the average loading. Ambient rainfall was excluded. Leachate passed through a funnel to a collection bottle and was composited for each core. Despite rapid throughput of the amendment solution, about 90% of the spike (new) Hg was retained in the soil columns. Our hypothesis was rejected in that there was no difference in retention in the white-rot (89.1 /- 0.8%) and brown-rot (91.5 +/- 2.8%) columns. Moreover, the white-rot soils leached 34% more native (old) Hg than the brown-rot soils. The greater leaching of native Hg is consistent with the higher DOC concentration in the white rot soil leachate (4.1 +/- 1.7 mg/L) compared to the brown-rot soil leachate (1.7 +/- 0.6 mg/L). The amount of native (old) Hg leached from the columns was roughly similar to the amount of spike (new) Hg that passed through the columns. We surmise that the greater DOC mobilized from the white- rot soils complexed and transported greater amounts of Hg from the large pool of native Hg in the soil. The relative amounts of spike Hg throughput and native Hg mobilization are consistent with other recent results from Hg isotope application to an entire hillside.

Shanley, J. B.; Lodge, D. J.; Krabbenhoft, D. P.; Olson, M. L.; McDowell, W. H.

2008-12-01

367

Geographic relations of landslide distribution and assessment of landslide hazards in the Blanco, Cibuco, and Coamo basins, Puerto Rico  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Landslide occurrence is common in mountainous areas of Puerto Rico where mean annual rainfall and the frequency of intense storms are high and hillslopes are steep. Each year, landslides cause extensive damage to property and occasionally result in loss of life. Landslide maps developed from 1:20,000 scale aerial photographs in combination with a computerized geographic information system were used to evaluate the landslide potential in the Blanco, Cibuco, and Coamo Basins of Puerto Rico. These basins, ranging in surface area from 276 to 350 square kilometers, are described in this report. The basins represent a broad range of the climatologic, geographic, and geologic conditions that occur in Puerto Rico. In addition, a variety of landslide types were documented. Rainfall-triggered debris flows, shallow soil slips, and slumps were most abundant. The most important temporal control on landslide occurrence in Puerto Rico is storm rainfall. Forty-one storms triggered widespread landsliding about 1 to 2 times per year during the last three decades. These storms were frequently of 1 to 2 days duration in which, on average, several hundred millimeters of rainfall triggered tens to hundreds of landslides in the central mountains. Most of these storms were tropical disturbances that occurred during the hurricane season of June through November. Land use and the topographic characteristics of hillslope angle, elevation, and aspect are the most important spatial controls governing landslide frequency. Hillslopes in the study area that have been anthropogenically modified, exceed 12 degrees in gradient and about 350 meters in elevation, and face the east-northeast are most prone to landsliding. Bedrock geology and soil order seem less important in the determination of landslide frequency, at least when considered at a generalized level. A rainfall accumulation-duration relation for the triggering of numerous landslides throughout the central mountains, and a set of simplified matrices representing geographic conditions in the three river basins were developed and are described in this report. These two elements provide a basis for the estimation of the temporal and spatial controls on landslide occurrence in Puerto Rico. Finally, this approach is an example of a relatively inexpensive technique for landslide hazard analysis that may be applicable to other settings.

Larsen, M.C.; Torres-Sanchez, A. J.

1996-01-01

368

Genetics and Morphology of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) in Septic Tanks in Puerto Rico  

PubMed Central

Dengue viruses, primarily transmitted by the mosquito Aedes aegypti (L.), affect an estimated 50–100 million people yearly. Traditional approaches to control mosquito population numbers, such as the use of pesticides, have had only limited success. Atypical mosquito behavior may be one reason why current vector control efforts have been less efficacious than expected. In Puerto Rico, for example, adult Ae. aegypti have been observed emerging from septic tanks. Interestingly, adults emerging from septic tanks are larger on average than adults collected from surface containers. To determine whether adults colonizing septic tanks constitute a separate Ae. aegypti population, we used 12 previously validated microsatellite loci to examine adult mosquitoes collected from both septic tanks and surface containers, but found no evidence to suggest genetic differentiation. Size differences between septic tank and surface mosquitoes were reduced when nutrient levels were held constant across experimental groups. Despite the absence of evidence suggesting a genetic difference between experimental groups in this study, Ae. aegypti emerging from septic tanks may still represent a more dangerous phenotype and should be given special consideration when developing vector control programs and designing public health interventions in the future. PMID:22238867

SOMERS, GERARD; BROWN, JULIA E.; BARRERA, ROBERTO; POWELL, JEFFREY R.

2012-01-01

369

Estimation of undiscovered deposits in quantitative mineral resource assessments-examples from Venezuela and Puerto Rico  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Quantitative mineral resource assessments used by the United States Geological Survey are based on deposit models. These assessments consist of three parts: (1) selecting appropriate deposit models and delineating on maps areas permissive for each type of deposit; (2) constructing a grade-tonnage model for each deposit model; and (3) estimating the number of undiscovered deposits of each type. In this article, I focus on the estimation of undiscovered deposits using two methods: the deposit density method and the target counting method. In the deposit density method, estimates are made by analogy with well-explored areas that are geologically similar to the study area and that contain a known density of deposits per unit area. The deposit density method is useful for regions where there is little or no data. This method was used to estimate undiscovered low-sulfide gold-quartz vein deposits in Venezuela. Estimates can also be made by counting targets such as mineral occurrences, geophysical or geochemical anomalies, or exploration "plays" and by assigning to each target a probability that it represents an undiscovered deposit that is a member of the grade-tonnage distribution. This method is useful in areas where detailed geological, geophysical, geochemical, and mineral occurrence data exist. Using this method, porphyry copper-gold deposits were estimated in Puerto Rico. ?? 1993 Oxford University Press.

Cox, D.P.

1993-01-01

370

Testing coral-based tropical cyclone reconstructions: An example from Puerto Rico  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Complimenting modern records of tropical cyclone activity with longer historical and paleoclimatological records would increase our understanding of natural tropical cyclone variability on decadal to centennial time scales. Tropical cyclones produce large amounts of precipitation with significantly lower ?18O values than normal precipitation, and hence may be geochemically identifiable as negative ?18O anomalies in marine carbonate ?18O records. This study investigates the usefulness of coral skeletal ?18O as a means of reconstructing past tropical cyclone events. Isotopic modeling of rainfall mixing with seawater shows that detecting an isotopic signal from a tropical cyclone in a coral requires a salinity of ~ 33 psu at the time of coral growth, but this threshold is dependent on the isotopic composition of both fresh and saline end-members. A comparison between coral ?18O and historical records of tropical cyclone activity, river discharge, and precipitation from multiple sites in Puerto Rico shows that tropical cyclones are not distinguishable in the coral record from normal rainfall using this approach at these sites.

Kilbourne, K. Halimeda; Moyer, Ryan P.; Quinn, Terrence M.; Grottoli, Andrea G.

2011-01-01

371

A well system to recover usable water from a freshwater-saltwater aquifer in Puerto Rico  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Aquifers in coastal areas of Puerto Rico commonly contain limited quantities of freshwater that occur as a thin layer at the surface of the water table. Many wells have been abandoned because well screens were inadvertently placed in saltwater parts of the aquifer. A scavenger/production well couple that can be installed in an abandoned well, screened in both freshwater and saltwater parts of the aquifer, provides an effective method for extracting freshwater from the well. Withdrawal of a sufficient quantity of water having low chloride concentrations, by use of a well couple, depends on the upward movement of saltwater within the aquifer when the well is pumped. Upward movement of saltwater depends on the relative concentrations of chloride in the borehole and on the distribution of horizontal and vertical hydraulic conductivity of the aquifer. For any well screened in an aquifer that contains both freshwater and saltwater, a family of curves can be constructed to represent all combinations of pumping rates and corresponding chloride loads when the scavenger well and the production well are being pumped simultaneously. The curves permit estimates of optimal withdrawals of freshwater based on the desired pumping rates and the levels of chloride concentration required for each well.

Zack, Allen L.

1988-01-01

372

OTEC biofouling, corrosion, and materials study from a moored platform at Punta Tuna, Puerto Rico  

SciTech Connect

During the 404 days between 29 January 1980 and 10 March 1981 the Center conducted an uninterrupted biofouling test at Punta Tuna, Puerto Rico, of periodically cleaned, OTEC evaporator tubes. The fouling resistance (R/sub f), total surface carbon and nitrogen content, ATP, and the wet film thickness (WFT) were determined throughout the test. Visual observations of the fouling film were made by light sectioning and scanning microscopy, and at the end of the test, a study was made of the macrofouling of the flow system. The results of thest tests indicate that a base layer of bacteria and exudated polysaccharides enhance microbial adhesion and thereby create an environment conducive to rapid film growth. Fouling rates (dR/sub f//dt) for aluminum were generally higher than for titanium but they were linear for both materials and did not exceed 0.3(10/sup -4/)ft/sup 2/-h-/sup 0/F/Btu-day for either material during the 13-month study. Excellent correlation was found to exist between R/sub f/ and WFT which supports the hypothesis that it is the stagnant film of water entrapped by bacteria which is largely responsible for the insulating properties of the biofilm. The macrofouling study identified 61 species of benthic invertebrates representing ten phyla growing in those parts of the flow system, where flow was less than 3 fps but no macrofouling where the flow velocity significantly exceeded 3 fps.

Sasscer, D.S.; Tosteson, T.R.; Morgan, T.O.

1981-08-01

373

Physical oceanographic data from the OTEC Punta Tuna, Puerto Rico Site, September 1979-June 1980  

SciTech Connect

The first results of an oceanographic measurement program being conducted off the southeast corner of Puerto Rico are presented. The study site is a proposed OTEC site and is located about 20 km off Punta Tuna. The objectives of the measurement program are to document the physical oceanography of the site as related to the engineering and environmental factors involved in OTEC design and operation. Oceanographic measurements include: (1) a subsurface mooring instrumented with five current, temperature, and pressure recorders; and (2) quarterly hydrographic cruises to measure salinity, temperature, and depth profiles on a grid of 33 stations in the vicinity of the mooring site. The first cruise, conducted between 16 and 21 June 1980, included the initial mooring deployment and a CTD (conductivity, temperature, and depth) and XBT (expendable bathythermograph) survey. The CTD/XBT measurements are presented. Also included are results of in situ current, temperature, and pressure measurements made during two previous programs. In September 1979, Coastal Marine Research (CMR) deployed a mooring at approximately the same site as the present mooring. Results from three of these instruments are included. The Naval Underwater Systems Center deployed a mooring at this site in February 1979 and partial results from one instrument on this mooring are also presented. (WHK)

Frye, D.; Davison, A.; Leavitt, K.

1981-01-01

374

Assessing Climate Variability Effects on Dengue Incidence in San Juan, Puerto Rico  

PubMed Central

We test the hypothesis that climate and environmental conditions are becoming favorable for dengue transmission in San Juan, Puerto Rico. Sea Level Pressure (SLP), Mean Sea Level (MSL), Wind, Sea Surface Temperature (SST), Air Surface Temperature (AST), Rainfall, and confirmed dengue cases were analyzed. We evaluated the dengue incidence and environmental data with Principal Component Analysis, Pearson correlation coefficient, Mann-Kendall trend test and logistic regressions. Results indicated that dry days are increasing and wet days are decreasing. MSL is increasing, posing higher risk of dengue as the perimeter of the San Juan Bay estuary expands and shorelines move inland. Warming is evident with both SST and AST. Maximum and minimum air surface temperature extremes have increased. Between 1992 and 2011, dengue transmission increased by a factor of 3.4 (95% CI: 1.9–6.1) for each 1 °C increase in SST. For the period 2007–2011 alone, dengue incidence reached a factor of 5.2 (95% CI: 1.9–13.9) for each 1 °C increase in SST. Teenagers are consistently the age group that suffers the most infections in San Juan. Results help understand possible impacts of different climate change scenarios in planning for social adaptation and public health interventions. PMID:25216253

Méndez-Lázaro, Pablo; Muller-Karger, Frank E.; Otis, Daniel; McCarthy, Matthew J.; Peña-Orellana, Marisol

2014-01-01

375

Late Jurassic to Eocene geochemical evolution of volcanic rocks in Puerto Rico  

SciTech Connect

The Late Jurassic to Eocene deformed volcanic, volcaniclastic and sedimentary rocks of Puerto Rico are divided into three igneous provinces, the southwestern, central, and northeastern igneous province. Based on the stratigraphic position approximate ages could be assigned to the flow rocks in these provinces. Ba/Nb and La/Sm diagrams are presented to illustrate the origin and evolution of the flow rocks. The oldest rock in the southwestern province may include MORB. Early Cretaceous volcanic rocks in the central and northeastern province have low Ba/nb and La/Sm, that are interpreted as an early island arc stage, with none or only minor contribution of slab-derived material. The Late Cretaceous to Eocene volcanic rocks have a wide range of values for the Ba/Nb and La/Sm that are interpreted as the result of admixture of a variable amount of slab-derived material. The Maricao Basalt (Maastrichtian to Eocene) in the southeastern igneous province has the geochemical signature of magmas formed in an extensional setting.

Schellekens, J.H. (Univ. of Puerto Rico, Mayaguez (Puerto Rico))

1991-03-01

376

Coqui 2: Mesospheric and lower thermospheric wind observations over Puerto Rico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the 1998 Coqui 2 sounding rocket campaign, three chemical release rockets were launched from Puerto Rico to measure the wind profiles in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere region. The first release took place on February 19, and the next two releases were five days later and four hours apart. All three measurements show large winds and wind shears in the altitude range between 95 and 110 km. The largest wind speeds occurred near 100 km with horizontal flow velocities close to 150 m s-1. Taken in isolation, such features may appear to be unusual, but in fact, a large number of earlier rocket measurements show wind features similar to those observed in the Coqui 2 campaign. Such large winds are therefore not an isolated but rather a common feature of the wind profiles at midlatitudes in an altitude range that is critical for the electrodynamics of the ionosphere. The wind profile characteristics described here are not generally well known since the earlier more extensive chemical release data sets were only published in reports with a rather limited distribution.

Larsen, M. F.

2000-02-01

377

Mesosphere and lower thermosphere wind and turbulence observations over Puerto Rico during the Coqui 2 Campaign  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As part of the Coqui 2 sounding rocket campaign that was carried out in Puerto Rico in February and March 1998 a series of three rocket launches released the chemical tracer trimethyl aluminum TMA to measure the neutral wind profiles and turbulence structure in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere The first launch was on February 19 when a sodium sudden atom layer was present and the other two launches were on the night of February 24 25 when enhanced gravity wave activity was detected in lidar measurements from the Arecibo Observatory and in ground-based imager data The TMA trails were released on the upleg and downleg portion of each of the flights covering the altitude range from 85 to 150 km thus providing measurements of the horizontal neutral wind velocities as well as the gradients in the winds along a north south direction Large winds and wind shears were found between 95 and 110 km which is a common feature of the wind profile at midlatitudes The talk will focus on the turbulent structure information obtained from the trails in combination with the measurements of O density profiles from on-board photometers and the relation to the large winds and wind shears will be examined

Zhan, T.; Larsen, M. F.; Hecht, J. H.

378

An electromagnetic geophysical survey of the freshwater lens of Isla de Mona, Puerto Rico  

USGS Publications Warehouse

An electromagnetic reconnaissance of the freshwater lens of Isla de Mona, Puerto Rico was conducted with both terrain conductivity (TC) and transient electromagnetic (TEM) surface geophysical techniques. These geophysical surveys were limited to the southern and western parts of the island because of problems with access and cultural metallic objects such as reinforced concrete roadways on the eastern part of the island. The geophysical data were supplemented with the location of a freshwater spring found by scuba divers at a depth of about 20 m below sea level along the northern coast of the island. The geophysical data suggest that the freshwater lens has a maximum thickness of 20 m in the southern half of the island. The freshwater lens is not thickest at the center of the island but nearer the southwestern edge in Quaternary deposits and the eastern edge of the island in the Tertiary carbonates. This finding indicates that the groundwater flow paths on Isla de Mona are not radially summetrical from the center of the island to the ocean. The asymmetry of the freshwater lens indicates that the differences in hydraulic conductivity are a major factor in determining the shape of the freshwater lens. The porosity of the aquifer, as determined by the geophysical data is about 33%.

Richards, R.T.; Troester, J.W.; Martinez, M.I.

1998-01-01

379

Luis Llorens Torres and the impossible return: identity, conflict and hope in the national poem of Puerto Rico.  

PubMed

The psychodynamic exploration of the content of literary words and of the personal lives of their authors oftentimes reveals how they can be mutually reflective of the other. Such is the case of the poem, "Valle de Collores" (The Valley of Collores), considered by many to be the national poem of Puerto Rico and of the author Luis Llorens Torres (1876-1944), regarded as the "Poet Laureate of Puerto Rico." The timelessness and wide appeal of certain literary works has been attributed, among other reasons, to the fact that they address universal inner conflicts that affect all human beings. The poem "Valle de Collores" is the narrative of a country boy who leaves home to face the larger world and, as he reaches adulthood, he looks back and expresses his impossible longing to return to the rural home of his childhood. It is a description of the universal struggles of human development and of separation-individuation, loss and mourning and a longing to return, and a wish to merge with the early parental objects of childhood. The poem also parallels the history of the Puerto Rican people, in their transition from a rural society under Spanish rule to an industrialized society as an American Commonwealth. This difficult transition resulted in a massive immigration of Puerto Ricans to the United States that continues to this day. The poem also represents the longing of many Puerto Rican immigrants to return to their island home, and to a simpler time of more fundamental values. The land that is left behind and longed for becomes a metaphor for the early maternal imago. PMID:16193548

Rothe, Eugenio M

2005-01-01

380

Luis Llorens Torres and the impossible return: identity, conflict and hope in the national poem of Puerto Rico.  

PubMed

The psychodynamic exploration of the content of literary works and of the personal lives of their authors oftentimes reveals how they can be mutually reflective of the other. Such is the case of the poem, "Valle de Collores" (The Valley of Collares), considered by many to be the national poem of Puerto Rico and of the author Luis Llorens Torres (1876-1944), regarded as the "Poet Laureate of Puerto Rico." The timelessness and wide appeal of certain literary works has been attributed, among other reasons, to the fact that they address universal inner conflicts that affect all human beings. The poem "Valle de Collores" is the narrative of a country boy who leaves home to face the larger world and, as he reaches adulthood, he looks back and expresses his impossible longing to return to the rural home of his childhood. It is a description of the universal struggles of human development and of separation-indi-viduation, loss and mourning and a longing to return, and a wish to merge with the early parental objects of childhood. The poem also parallels the history of the Puerto Rican people, in their transition from a rural society under Spanish rule to an industrialized society as an American Commonwealth. This difficult transition resulted in a massive immigration of Puerto Ricans to the United States that continues to this day. The poem also represents the longing of many Puerto Rican immigrants to return to their island home, and to a simpler time of more fundamental values. The land that is left behind and longed for becomes a metaphor for the early maternal imago. PMID:16570531

Rothe, Eugenio M

2005-12-01

381

Weathering, landscape equilibrium, and carbon in four watersheds in eastern Puerto Rico: Chapter H in Water quality and landscape processes of four watersheds in eastern Puerto Rico  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey's Water, Energy, and Biogeochemical Budgets (WEBB) program research in eastern Puerto Rico involves a double pair-wise comparison of four montane river basins, two on granitic bedrock and two on fine-grained volcaniclastic bedrock; for each rock type, one is forested and the other is developed. A confounding factor in this comparison is that the developed watersheds are substantially drier than the forested (runoff of 900–1,600 millimeters per year compared with 2,800–3,700 millimeters per year). To reduce the effects of contrasting runoff, the relation between annual runoff and annual constituent yield were used to estimate mean-annual yields at a common, intermediate mean-annual runoff of 1,860 millimeters per year. Upon projection to this intermediate runoff, the ranges of mean-annual yields among all watersheds became more compact or did not substantially change for dissolved bedrock, sodium, silica, chloride, dissolved organic carbon, and calcium. These constituents are the primary indicators of chemical weathering, biological activity on the landscape, and atmospheric inputs; the narrow ranges indicate little preferential influence by either geology or land cover. The projected yields of biologically active constituents (potassium, nitrate, ammonium ion, phosphate), and particulate constituents (suspended bedrock and particulate organic carbon) were considerably greater for developed landscapes compared with forested watersheds, consistent with the known effects of land clearing and human waste inputs. Equilibrium rates of combined chemical and physical weathering were estimated by using a method based on concentrations of silicon and sodium in bedrock, river-borne solids, and river-borne solutes. The observed rates of landscape denudation greatly exceed rates expected for a dynamic equilibrium, except possibly for the forested watershed on volcaniclastic rock. Deforestation and agriculture can explain the accelerated physical erosion in the two developed watersheds. Because there has been no appreciable deforestation, something else, possibly climate or forest-quality change, must explain the accelerated erosion in the forested watersheds on granitic rocks. Particulate organic carbon yields are closely linked to sediment yields. This relation implies that much of the particulate organic carbon transport in the four rivers is being caused by this enhanced erosion aided by landslides and fast carbon recovery. The increase in particulate organic carbon yields over equilibrium is estimated to range from 300 kilomoles per square kilometer per year (6 metric tons carbon per square kilometer per year) to 1,700 kilomoles per square kilometer per year (22 metric tons carbon per square kilometer per year) and is consistent with human-accelerated particulate-organic-carbon erosion and burial observed globally. There is no strong evidence of human perturbation of silicate weathering in the four study watersheds, and differences in dissolved inorganic carbon are consistent with watershed geology. Although dissolved organic carbon is slightly elevated in the developed watersheds, that elevation is not enough to unambiguously demonstrate human causes; more work is needed. Accordingly, the dissolved organic carbon and dissolved inorganic carbon yields of tropical rivers, although large, are of secondary importance in the study of the anthropgenically perturbed carbon cycle.

Stallard, Robert F.

2012-01-01

382

Landslides and sediment budgets in four watersheds in eastern Puerto Rico: Chapter F in Water quality and landscape processes of four watersheds in eastern Puerto Rico  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The low-latitude regions of the Earth are undergoing profound, rapid landscape change as forests are converted to agriculture to support growing population. Understanding the effects of these land-use changes requires analysis of watershed-scale geomorphic processes to better inform and manage this usually disorganized process. The investigation of hillslope erosion and the development of sediment budgets provides essential information for resource managers. Four small, montane, humid-tropical watersheds in the Luquillo Experimental Forest and nearby Río Grande de Loíza watershed, Puerto Rico (18° 20' N., 65° 45' W.), were selected to compare and contrast the geomorphic effects of land use and bedrock geology. Two of the watersheds are underlain largely by resistant Cretaceous volcaniclastic rocks but differ in land use and mean annual runoff: the Mameyes watershed, with predominantly primary forest cover and runoff of 2,750 millimeters per year, and the Canóvanas watershed, with mixed secondary forest and pasture and runoff of 970 millimeters per year. The additional two watersheds are underlain by relatively erodible granitic bedrock: the forested Icacos watershed, with runoff of 3,760 millimeters per year and the agriculturally developed Cayaguás watershed, with a mean annual runoff of 1,620 millimeters per year. Annual sediment budgets were estimated for each watershed using landslide, slopewash, soil creep, treethrow, suspended sediment, and streamflow data. The budgets also included estimates of sediment storage in channel beds, bars, floodplains, and in colluvial deposits. In the two watersheds underlain by volcaniclastic rocks, the forested Mameyes and the developed Canóvanas watersheds, landslide frequency (0.21 and 0.04 landslides per square kilometer per year, respectively), slopewash (5 and 30 metric tons per square kilometer per year), and suspended sediment yield (325 and 424 metric tons per square kilometer per year), were lower than in the two watersheds underlain by granitic bedrock. In these granitic watersheds, landslide frequency, slopewash, and suspended sediment yield were 0.43 landslides per square kilometer per year, 20 metric tons per square kilometer per year, and 2,140 metric tons per square kilometer per year, respectively, in the forested Icacos watershed and 0.8 landslides per square kilometer per year, 105 metric tons per square kilometer per year, and 2,110 metric tons per square kilometer per year, respectively, in the agriculturally developed Cayaguás watershed. Comparison of sediment budgets from the forested and developed watersheds indicates that human activities increase landslide frequency by as much as factor of 5 and slopewash by as much as a factor of 6. When the difference in annual runoff is considered, the effect of land use on suspended sediment yields is also notable. Sediment concentration, calculated as sediment yield normalized by runoff, was about 2.3 to 3.7 times as great in the two watersheds in secondary forest and pasture compared with sediment concentration in the watersheds in primary forest. Even in the two watersheds with primary forest cover, the Mameyes and Icacos, located in the Luquillo Experimental Forest, the effects of anthropogenic disturbance were marked: 43 to 63 percent of landslide-related erosion was associated with road construction and maintenance.

Larsen, Matthew C.

2012-01-01

383

Puerto Rico Tsunami Warning and Mitigation Program-LANTEX 09 Survey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tsunami warning, assessment, education, mitigation and preparedness efforts seek to reduce losses related to tsunamis in Puerto Rico (PR). The PR Seismic Network (PRSN) works with governmental agencies and local communities to implement these tsunami hazard risk reduction programs. The Caribbean has a a history of destructive tsunamis such as Virgin Islands (1867), PR (1918) and Dominican Republic (1946). Tsunamis originating near PR are a near-field hazard for as they can reach coastal areas within minutes of a generating event. Sources for regional and tele tsunamis have been identified. To mitigate these risks to communities, the PR Tsunami Warning and Mitigation Program (PRTWMP) was established in 2000 with funding from FEMA, the University of Puerto Rico (UPR) and the PR State Emergency Management Agency (PRSEMA). With the support of NTHMP and TsunamiReady (TR), PR continues to seek to mitigate possible tsunami damages and increase community resilience by helping communities meet the TR guidelines by providing them inundation maps, helping them develop evacuation maps and emergency plans, assisting them with community outreach efforts and conducting evacuation drills. Currently 6 of 44 tsunami threatened communities in PR have been recognized as TsunamiReady. As part of this process, the PRSN, PRSEMA and various communities participated in the LANTEX 2009 tsunami exercise. This exercise took place on April 2, 2009 and was based on a scenario in which an earthquake northeast of PR generates a major tsunami which impacts PR and the USVI and threatens the states along the continental US eastern coast. The municipality of Mayagüez, a TsunamiReady community since 2006, participated in the exercise by activating its Emergency Operations Center , conducting evacuation drills in schools located within its tsunami exposed area, and activating its warning siren. This presentation highlights findings of UPRM social scientists collaborating with the PRTWMP who conducted a sample survey of residents of the Mayagüez tsunami evacuation area to serve as an assessment of the effectiveness of TsunamiReady outreach efforts and of the drill's warning efforts. 166 20-30 minute interviews were conducted during the month of April. Questions explored residents' perceptions of coastal hazards they may face; knowledge about tsunamis and how to react to them; use of mass media to obtain information about potential hazards; tsunami preparation efforts, including knowledge of the existence and location of assembly areas; and whether and how they received and understood the drill's warning messages. The sample's answers to the risk perception questions is compared to those obtained for the same questions from a sample of residents of storm surge areas in 8 municipalities along PR's west coast. This allows comparing tsunami hazard awareness among individuals exposed to the Tsunami Ready program efforts with that of residents of municipalities that are not part of it. This effort serves as an example of the multidisciplinary collaboration between physical and social scientists needed to increase the effectiveness and value of scientific knowledge as a tool to mitigate damages from natural hazards.

Diaz, W.; von Hillebrandt-Andrade, C.

2009-12-01

384

Geologic evidence northeast of Puerto Rico for an Atlantic tsunami in the last 500 years  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A historical tsunami of undetermined origin best explains a suite of probably related features at Anegada, British Virgin Islands: shore-normal scours, fields of cobbles and boulders, a horizon of sand and shell, and salt ponds. Anegada's exposed location and low-lying landscape make the island a natural tsunami recorder. Facing the Puerto Rico Trench at the northeast corner of the Caribbean, barely 10 km from the top of the continental slope, Anegada can receive tsunamis almost directly from the open North Atlantic. The island's highest ground consists of a limestone platform that crests 8 m above sea level. Many of Anegada's shores adjoin beach ridges, composed of distinctively pink bioclastic sand, that stand less than 5 m above sea level. Behind the ridges are salt ponds that rarely rise above high tide levels of the surrounding sea. The island's name, coined in 1493 during Columbus's second voyage, means "drowned." Local eyewitnesses to Hurricane Donna, at category 4 when its eye crossed Anegada in 1960, recounted no storm-caused versions of the following features: SCOURS. Dozens of coast-normal scours cut across beach ridges of the island's north-central shore. The largest of them holds a pond 200 m long and a few tens of meters wide. The scours are better explained by overwash of the ridges than by inheritance of any pre-existing carbonate landform; they differ in size and shape from spurs and grooves of the island's barrier reef and from the sinkholes of the limestone platform. More than one time of overwash is permitted by differences among the headward limits of the scours. COBBLES AND BOULDERS. Inland from the scours, as much as 1 km inland of Anegada's north-central shore, fields of limestone cobbles and boulders extend tens of meters southward from limestone knolls. Like the scours, they imply overwash from the north. SAND AND SHELL BED. An event horizon as much as 25 cm thick probably extends 2 km southward beneath bottom sediments and fringing microbial mats of the main salt pond studied (Bumber Well Pond). The horizon contains a basal northern unit of pink bioclastic sand that probably relates to the cutting of scours or to enlargement of pre- existing scours in the beach ridges to the north. The horizon also contains a widespread unit of marine molluscan shells that extends as float onto the limestone platform. SALT PONDS. The sand and shell horizon marks an event that changed the island's interior water bodies from nearly marine to hypersaline. The nearly marine conditions are recorded by mollusk-rich lagoonal mud below the event horizon, while the hypersaline conditions are marked mollusk-free salt-pond deposits above. The salinity change probably resulted from choking of the lagoon's likely inlet (or inlets) on Anegada's south side. A tsunami from the north, after scouring beach ridges and moving cobbles and boulders, probably also built sandy fans into the former inlet(s). This inferred tsunami probably postdates 1460-1620 C.E., the two-sigma range corresponding to the youngest radiocarbon age obtained on individual detrital shells in the event horizon. Potential correlates, in addition to earthquakes along the Puerto Rico Trench, include the transatlantic tsunami associated with the 1755 Lisbon earthquake. This work is part of Nuclear Regulatory Commission project N6480, a tsunam-hazard assessment for the eastern United States. We especially thank, in addition, Cindy Rolli of BVI Disaster Management and field assistant Caitlin Herlihy.

Atwater, B. F.; Tuttle, M. P.

2008-12-01

385

UNlllERSIDAD DE PUERTO RICO, RECINTO DE CIENCIAS MEDICAS PO BOX ~7 SAN JUAN PA ~~ .TEl7B7.758-2525 EXI: 171 SECRETARiA JUNTA ADMINISTRATIVA  

E-print Network

UNlllERSIDAD DE PUERTO RICO, RECINTO DE CIENCIAS MEDICAS PO BOX ~7 SAN JUAN PA ~~ .TEl7B7AZ, SecretariaEjecutiva de la Junta Administrativa del Recintode CienciasMedicas de la Universidad de Puerto Rico y acechol' del Recinto de Ciencias Medicas y luego de la discusion de rigor, ACORO6: APROBAR la

Quirk, Gregory J.

386

Subduction of Serpentinized and Weathered Ultramafic Rocks in the Puerto Rico Trench: Preliminary Results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Exposure of mantle peridotite and its interactions with seawater to form serpentinite are integral parts of seafloor spreading, and play a key role in affecting the rheology, chemistry, and microbial habitability of the oceanic lithosphere at slow- and ultra-slow spreading ridges. Away from the spreading centers, within subduction zones, the formation and dehydration of serpentinized peridotite impacts seismicity, element cycling, and melt generation. Here we present preliminary results of a petrographic and spectroscopic study of altered rocks recovered from the from the north wall of the trench Puerto Rico Trench (PRT). In fact, the PRT represents one of two subduction zones worldwide where slow spreading oceanic lithosphere is presently subducted, and where serpentinized peridotite has been directly evidenced by seafloor sampling {Bowin, 1966}. Thin section petrography, XRF analysis, scanning electron microscopy, and confocal Raman spectroscopy reveal that the peridotite, which in all likelihood originated at the Mid-Atlantic Ridge during the early Cretaceous, was virtually completely serpentinized under static conditions (as it is evidenced by the preserved mesh texture after olivine and bastite after orthopyroxene), and underwent subsequent seafloor weathering. While it is questionable where exactly serpentinization and subsequent seafloor weathering took place, our preliminary results strongly suggest that the material presently subducted in the PRT is not simply composed of serpentine, magnetite, and brucite; it is rather a complex disequilibrium assemblage of minerals including serpentine, brucite, chlorite, talc, magnetite, hematite, goethite, sulfur-rich sulfides and various clay minerals. Furthermore, our results imply that serpentinite and its weathering products influence the loci of dehydration and mineral replacement reactions, as well as the water input and element recycling in subduction zones.

Horning, G.; Klein, F.

2012-12-01

387

TRAMIL Ethnopharmacological Survey: Knowledge Distribution of Medicinal Plant Use in the Southeast Region of Puerto Rico  

PubMed Central

Background TRAMIL network aims to understand, validate and expand health practices based on the use of medicinal plants in the Caribbean, a “biodiversity hotspot” due to high species endemism, intense development pressure and habitat loss. Objectives The purpose of this study was to document both the medicinal plants that are frequently used to treat health conditions prevalent in the southeastern region of the archipelago of Puerto Rico and the trends in their use among the study population. Methods An ethnopharmacological survey was conducted in the study region. The results were analyzed using univariate and multivariate statistical analyses. Results Overall, 118 medicinal plants were recorded as being used to treat depression, nervousness, chronic sinusitis, gastritis, gastroesophageal reflux disease, allergic rhinitis, rhinofaryngitis, asthma, arthritis and migraine. The plant species with significant use were Citrus aurantium L., Citrus aurantifolia (Christm.) Swingle, Pluchea carolinensis (Jacq.) G. Don in Sweet, and Mentha piperita L. The use of medicinal plants is more frequent among single women with a high educational level, a trend similar to the use of CAM in the US. Conclusion Ethnopharmacological knowledge and the use of medicinal plants is decreasing in the study region due to an increase in the use of conventional medical care and to self-medication with over-the-counter pharmaceutical products. Four botanical species with significant uses that were not previously recorded in the Caribbean Herbal Pharmacopoeia have been identified. This report will be followed by the scientific validation and toxicity studies of these plant species and the TRADIF activities in the study region. PMID:19999241

ALVARADO-GUZMÁN, JOSÉ A.; GAVILLÁN-SUÁREZ, JANNETTE; GERMOSÉN-ROBINEAU, LIONEL

2014-01-01

388

Probing the deep critical zone beneath the Luquillo Experimental Forest, Puerto Rico  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Recent work has suggested that weathering processes occurring in the subsurface produce the majority of silicate weathering products discharged to the world's oceans, thereby exerting a primary control on global temperature via the well-known positive feedback between silicate weathering and CO2. In addition, chemical and physical weathering processes deep within the critical zone create aquifers and control groundwater chemistry, watershed geometry and regolith formation rates. Despite this, most weathering studies are restricted to the shallow critical zone (e.g. soils, outcrops). Here we investigate the chemical weathering, fracturing and geomorphology of the deep critical zone in the Bisley watershed in the Luquillo Critical Zone Observatory, Puerto Rico, from two boreholes drilled to 37.2 and 27.0 m depth, from which continuous core samples were taken. Corestones exposed aboveground were also sampled. Weathered rinds developed on exposed corestones and along fracture surfaces on subsurface rocks slough off of exposed corestones once rinds attain a thickness up to ~1 cm, preventing the corestones from rounding due to diffusion limitation. Such corestones at the land surface are assumed to be what remains after exhumation of similar, fractured bedrock pieces that were observed in the drilled cores between thick layers of regolith. Some of these subsurface corestones are massive and others are highly fractured, whereas aboveground corestones are generally massive with little to no apparent fracturing. Subsurface corestones are larger and less fractured in the borehole drilled on a road where it crosses a ridge compared with the borehole drilled where the road crosses the stream channel. Both borehole profiles indicate that the weathering zone extends to well below the stream channel in this upland catchment; hence weathering depth is not controlled by the stream level within the catchment and not all of the water in the watershed is discharged to the stream

Buss, Heather L.; Brantley, Susan L.; Scatena, Fred; Bazilevskaya, Katya; Blum, Alex E.; Schulz, Marjorie S.; Jiménez, Rafael; White, Arthur F.; Rother, G.; Cole, D.

2013-01-01

389

Prevalence of intestinal parasites in a rural community in north-central Puerto Rico.  

PubMed

A hematology and parasitological survey was conducted in Bayaney, Hatillo, a rural community located in north-central Puerto Rico. A surprising finding was the comparatively high proportion of eosinophilia observed (43 of 83 individuals: 52%). Of these same 83 individuals 16 were found positive for intestinal helminth eggs using the modified Ritchie formol-ether concentration method, which uses 1 gram of feces. When eosinophilia was in the 5 to 10% range, 35% were also found to be infected with one helminth parasite. When eosinophilia was in the 10 + % range, 75% of the individuals were also found to be infected with one helminth parasite. The helminth eggs or larvae found were: hookworm (n = 8), Strongyloides stercoralis (2), Trichuris trichiura (5), and one individual with a combined infection of hookworm and Trichuris. Fifteen of the 16 (94%) individuals with intestinal helminth infections had eosinophilia ranging from 5 to 40%. Of a subgroup of 5th grade school children, 11 of 35 (31%) had eosinophilia ranging from 5 to 17%, but only two of these also had helminth eggs (Trichuris). No intestinal protozoan parasites were found. Although all infected individuals were apparently asymptomatic, they were informed of the results of the survey and contacted for additional medical examination and treatment, where applicable. An ELISA for anti-S. mansoni egg antibodies using a cationic antigen fraction denoted CEF-6 was done with the serum of 44 individuals of which 20 were a high risk group because of frequent water contact. Only one (2%) was found positive by serology and this one was negative for S. mansoni eggs by coprology. Additional studies are warranted to elucidate the etiology of eosinophilia in the absence of helminth infection. PMID:2322350

Hillyer, G V; Soler de Galanes, M; Lawrence, S

1990-03-01

390

Determinacion de periodos fundamentales del suelo mediante vibraciones ambientales en el municipio de Humacao, Puerto Rico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

La tecnica de Nakamura ha sido utilizada a nivel mundial para determinar periodos fundamentales del suelo. La tecnica consiste en calcular y graficar cocientes espectrales H/V de vibraciones ambientales registradas sobre el suelo. Mediciones de vibraciones ambientales fueron tomadas en 151 lugares dentro del municipio de Humacao, localizado al este de Puerto Rico. Los datos se procesaron utilizando espectros de Fourier y espectros de potencia. La tecnica fue validada al compararla con los resultados de cocientes espectrales H/V de registros de sismos debiles y tambien con una modelacion numerica realizada con datos de un ensayo "downhole". Las graficas de los cocientes espectrales H/V fueron divididas en casos y grupos, los cuales dependen de la facilidad para identificar el periodo fundamental pico y amplitudes en frecuencias menores de 1 Hz, respectivamente. Los resultados obtenidos con ambos espectros fueron comparados y se concluye que los mismos se complementan para proveer resultados mas confiables. Se crearon mapas de periodos fundamentales, factores de amplitud, isoperiodos y clasificacion sismica de sitio. Los mapas de isoperiodos fueron realizados en las zonas mas pobladas sobre depositos de suelo. El mapa de periodos fundamentales del suelo mostro buena correlacion con la geologia local. El mapa de clasificacion sismica derivado de periodos de sitio fue comparado con el mapa de clasificacion sismica derivado de barrenos geotecnicos. El mapa de clasificacion obtenido de periodos puede sobreestimar un poco algunas clasificaciones del suelo. Sin embargo, este mapa puede proveer un estimado aproximado de la velocidad de onda de corte promedio del suelo hasta una profundidad de 100 pies (30 metros).

Cintron Aponte, Rommel

391

Chlorophyll a and turbidity patterns over coral reefs systems of La Parguera Natural Reserve, Puerto Rico.  

PubMed

Studies of temporal and spatial changes in phytoplankton biomass and turbidity provide essential information on coral reef ecosystem function and health. Fluctuation of phytoplankton biomass responds to several factors including nutrient inputs, both anthropogenic and natural, while turbidity is mostly affected by sediment resuspension or transport from terrestrial systems. These parameters can be used as sentinels of significant environmental factors "modifying" coral reef systems. A chlorophyll a concentration (Chl a) and turbidity (Turb) in situ logger was installed at 10 stations from June 4 to July 7, 2003 in La Parguera Natural Reserve (Southwestern Puerto Rico) to assess short-term temporal and geographic variation in patterns of phytoplankton biomass and turbidity at pre-selected sites as part of an interdisciplinary long-term study. Average station Ch1 a variation was 0.17-1.12 microg 1(-1) and 0.2-23.4 NTU for Turb. Results indicate that the western near-coastal stations had higher levels of Turb and Ch1 a. The easternmost mid shelf station, Romero reef, was similar to coastal stations probably due to nutrient and suspended sediment inputs from a source external to our study area to the east, Guánica Bay. Comparisons between different sampling days indicate significant differences between days for most stations suggesting that one-time discrete sampling may not be representative of average water column conditions and illustrate the dynamic nature of coral reef systems. Further work is warranted to assess seasonal changes that integrate short-term (daily) variability in both Turb and Ch1 a. PMID:17465141

Otero, Emesto; Carbery, Kelly K

2005-05-01

392

Methane flux from mangrove sediments along the southwestern coast of Puerto Rico  

SciTech Connect

Although the sediments of coastal marine mangrove forests have been considered a minor source of atmospheric methane, these estimate have been based on sparse data from similar areas. We have gathered evidence that shows that external nutrient and freshwater loading in mangrove sediments may have a significant effect on methane flux. Experiments were performed to examine methane fluxes from anaerobic sediments in a mangrove forest subjected to secondary sewage effluents on the southwestern coast of Puerto Rico. Emission rates were measured in situ using a static chamber technique, and subsequent laboratory analysis of samples was by gas chromatography using a flame ionization detector. Results indicate that methane flux rates were lowest at the landward fringe nearest to the effluent discharge, higher in the seaward fringe occupied by red mangroves, and highest in the transition zone between black and red mangrove communities, with average values of 4 mg CH[sub 4] m[sup [minus]2] d[sup [minus]1], 42 mg CH[sub 4] m[sup [minus]2] d[sup [minus]1], and 82 mg CH[sub 4] m[sup [minus]2] d[sup [minus]1], respectively. Overall mean values show these sediments may emit as much as 40 times more methane than unimpacted pristine areas. Pneumatophores of Aviciennia germinans have been found to serve as conduits to the atmosphere for this gas. Fluctuating water level overlying the mangrove sediment is an important environmental factor controlling seasonal and interannual CH[sub 4] flux variations. Environmental controls such as freshwater inputs and increased nutrient loading influence in situ methane emissions from these environments. 34 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

Sotomayor, D.; Corredor, J.E.; Morell, J.M. (Univ. of Puerto Rico, Mayagueez (Puerto Rico))

1994-03-01

393

Probing the deep critical zone beneath the Luquillo Experimental Forest, Puerto Rico  

SciTech Connect

Recent work has suggested that weathering processes occurring in the subsurface produce the majority of silicate weathering products discharged to the world s oceans, thereby exerting a primary control on global temperature via the well-known positive feedback between silicate weathering and CO2. In addition, chemical and physical weathering processes deep within the critical zone create aquifers and control groundwater chemistry, watershed geometry and regolith formation rates. Despite this, most weathering studies are restricted to the shallow critical zone (e.g., soils, outcrops). Here we investigate the chemical weathering, fracturing and geomorphology of the deep critical zone in the Bisley watershed in the Luquillo Critical Zone Observatory, Puerto Rico, from two boreholes drilled to 37.2 and 27.0 m depth, from which continuous core samples were taken. Corestones exposed aboveground were also sampled. Weathered rinds developed on exposed corestones and along fracture surfaces on subsurface rocks slough off of exposed corestones once rinds attain a thickness up to ~1 cm, preventing the corestones from rounding due to diffusion limitation. Such corestones at the land surface are assumed to be what remains after exhumation of similar, fractured bedrock pieces that were observed in the drilled cores between thick layers of regolith. Some of these subsurface corestones are massive and others are highly fractured, whereas aboveground corestones are generally massive with little to no apparent fracturing. Subsurface corestones are larger and less fractured in the borehole drilled on a road where it crosses a ridge compared to the borehole drilled where the road crosses the stream channel. Both borehole profiles indicate that the weathering zone extends to well below the stream channel in this upland catchment; hence weathering depth is not controlled by the stream level within the catchment and not all of the water in the watershed is discharged to the stream.

Buss, Heather [University of Bristol, UK] [University of Bristol, UK; Brantley, S. L. [Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA] [Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA; Scatena, Fred [University of Pennsylvania] [University of Pennsylvania; Bazilevskaya, Ekaterina [Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA] [Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA; Blum, Alex [U.S. Geological Survey, Boulder, CO] [U.S. Geological Survey, Boulder, CO; Schulz, M [University of Pennsylvania] [University of Pennsylvania; Jimenez, M [University of Pennsylvania] [University of Pennsylvania; White, Art [U.S. Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA] [U.S. Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA; Rother, Gernot [ORNL] [ORNL; Cole, David [Ohio State University] [Ohio State University

2013-01-01

394

Ecological factors influencing Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) productivity in artificial containers in Salinas, Puerto Rico.  

PubMed

We investigated the effects of environmental factors and immature density on the productivity of Aedes aegypti (L.) and explored the hypothesis that immature populations were under nutritional stress. In total, 1,367 containers with water in 624 premises were studied in Salinas, southern Puerto Rico (May-July 2004). We counted 3,632 pupae, and most female pupae (70%) were in five of 18 types of containers. These containers were unattended and influenced by local yards' environmental conditions. Pupal productivity was significantly associated with the number of trees per premise, water volume, and lower water temperatures. Larval and pupal abundance were larger in containers with leaf litter or algae. Pupal productivity and biomass of emerging females varied in containers with litter of different tree species. We found a significant and positive association between numbers of larvae and pupae of Ae. aegypti and a negative relationship between larval density and mass of emerging females. From multivariate analyses, we interpreted that 1) food limitation or competition existed in a number of containers; and 2) to a lesser extent, there was lack of negative larval density effects in containers with a larger water volume and lower temperature, where emerging females were not under nutritional stress. Corroborating evidence for food limitation or intraspecific competition effects came from our observations that females emerging in the field had an average body mass comparable with those females produced in the laboratory with the lowest feeding regime. Ae. aegypti larvae in Salinas are most likely influenced by resource limitation or competition and by rainfall in unmanaged containers in the absence of aquatic predators. Source reduction and improved yard management targeting unattended containers would eliminate most Ae. aegypti productivity and removal or control of shaded, larger containers would eliminate the production of the largest emerging mosquito females in the study area. PMID:16739405

Barrera, Roberto; Amador, Manuel; Clark, Gary G

2006-05-01

395

Seismic evidence for a slab tear at the Puerto Rico Trench  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The fore-arc region of the northeast Caribbean plate north of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands has been the site of numerous seismic swarms since at least 1976. A 6 month deployment of five ocean bottom seismographs recorded two such tightly clustered swarms, along with additional events. Joint analyses of the ocean bottom seismographs and land-based seismic data reveal that the swarms are located at depths of 50–150 km. Focal mechanism solutions, found by jointly fitting P wave first-motion polarities and S/P amplitude ratios, indicate that the broadly distributed events outside the swarm generally have strike- and dip-slip mechanisms at depths of 50–100 km, while events at depths of 100–150 km have oblique mechanisms. A stress inversion reveals two distinct stress regimes: The slab segment east of 65°W longitude is dominated by trench-normal tensile stresses at shallower depths (50–100 km) and by trench-parallel tensile stresses at deeper depths (100–150 km), whereas the slab segment west of 65°W longitude has tensile stresses that are consistently trench normal throughout the depth range at which events were observed (50–100 km). The simple stress pattern in the western segment implies relatively straightforward subduction of an unimpeded slab, while the stress pattern observed in the eastern segment, shallow trench-normal tension and deeper trench-normal compression, is consistent with flexure of the slab due to rollback. These results support the hypothesis that the subducting North American plate is tearing at or near these swarms. The 35 year record of seismic swarms at this location and the recent increase in seismicity suggest that the tear is still propagating.

Meighan, Hallie E.; Pulliam, Jay; Brink, Uri ten; López-Venegas, Alberto M.

2013-01-01

396

Self-Reported Ethnicity and Genetic Ancestry in Relation to Oral Cancer and Pre-Cancer in Puerto Rico  

PubMed Central

Background Hispanics are known to be an extremely diverse and genetically admixed ethnic group. The lack of methodologies to control for ethnicity and the unknown admixture in complex study populations of Hispanics has left a gap in understanding certain cancer disparity issues. Incidence rates for oral and pharyngeal cancer (OPC) in Puerto Rico are among the highest in the Western Hemisphere. We conducted an epidemiological study to examine risk and protective factors, in addition to possible genetic susceptibility components, for oral cancer and precancer in Puerto Rico. Methodology/Principal Findings We recruited 310 Puerto Rico residents who had been diagnosed with either an incident oral squamous cell carcinoma, oral precancer, or benign oral condition. Participants completed an in-person interview and contributed buccal cells for DNA extraction. ABI Biosystem Taqman™ primer sets were used for genotyping 12 ancestry informative markers (AIMs). Ancestral group estimates were generated using maximum likelihood estimation software (LEADMIX), and additional principal component analysis was carried out to detect population substructures. We used unconditional logistic regression to assess the contribution of ancestry to the risk of being diagnosed with either an oral cancer or precancer while controlling for other potential confounders. The maximum likelihood estimates showed that study participants had a group average ancestry contribution of 69.9% European, 24.5% African, and 5.7% detectable Native American. The African and Indigenous American group estimates were significantly higher than anticipated. Neither self-identified ethnicity nor ancestry markers showed any significant associations with oral cancer/precancer risk in our study. Conclusions/Significance The application of ancestry informative markers (AIMs), specifically designed for Hispanics, suggests no hidden population substructure is present based on our sampling and provides a viable approach for the evaluation and control of ancestry in future studies involving Hispanic populations. PMID:21897864

Erdei, Esther; Sheng, Huiping; Maestas, Erika; Mackey, Amanda; White, Kirsten A.; Li, Lin; Dong, Yan; Taylor, Justin; Berwick, Marianne; Morse, Douglas E.

2011-01-01

397

Groundwater-Quality Survey of the South Coast Aquifer of Puerto Rico, April 2 through May 30, 2007  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The increased potential for variability of groundwater quality in the South Coast aquifer of Puerto Rico due to saline water encroachment from the Caribbean Sea and from deep parts of the aquifer has become a major concern of water planners and managers. In an effort to determine the extent and sources of this encroachment, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Puerto Rico Department of Natural and Environmental Resources conducted a synoptic groundwater-quality survey from April 2 through May 30, 2007, for the South Coast aquifer between Ponce and Arroyo (fig. 1). Groundwater resources in this aquifer extend 150 square miles in south-central Puerto Rico and provide an estimated 44.2 million gallons per day (Mgal/d) or about 61 percent of the total water needs. This amount includes: 15.3 Mgal/d for irrigation, 27.4 Mgal/d for public supply, and 1.5 Mgal/d for industrial and other uses (W.L. Molina-Rivera, U.S. Geological Survey, written commun., 2007). Since 1980 when most of the south coastal plain was intensively cultivated for sugarcane, total groundwater withdrawals have declined about 32 Mgal/d with the greatest decline occurring in irrigation (37.2 Mgal/d) and the greatest increase occurring in public supply (5.5 Mgal/d). Although withdrawals have declined substantially, a major concern is that aquifer recharge provided by irrigation return flow from surface-water irrigation canals has essentially dropped to zero because of the large-scale implementation of groundwater drip irrigation systems.

Rodriguez, Jose M.; Gómez-Gómez, Fernando

2009-01-01

398

Socio-demographic, behavioral, and health correlates of nutrition transition dietary indicators in San Juan, Puerto Rico  

PubMed Central

Objective To identify socio-demographic, behavioral, and health-related correlates of food preferences in Puerto Rico that will help determine Caribbean-region populations vulnerable to nutrition transition. Methods Data from a cross-sectional study of a representative sample of 858 adults residing in the San Juan Metropolitan Area of Puerto Rico were analyzed. Multivariable ordinal logistic regressions were used to model the frequency of consumption of 1) fruits and vegetables, 2) tubers/starchy root vegetables, 3) fried foods, and 4) Western-style fast foods as a function of socio-demographic, behavioral, and health-related characteristics. Results Higher frequency of consumption of fruits and vegetables was associated with being physically active and older and having a medium to high level of education, whereas intake of tubers was associated with being older, having a low income, not using government insurance, and having elevated levels of triglycerides. Frequency of consumption of fast food was associated with younger age, higher income, 12–15 years of formal education, and a higher body mass index (BMI), whereas frequency of consumption of fried food was associated with being younger and male, not being a smoker, and having elevated levels of fasting blood glucose. Conclusions The results indicate a nutrition transition in Puerto Rico with health consequences for the Caribbean region. The characteristics of this nutrition transition seem to be determined by income, education, and age, but may also be dictated by access to various food groups. These results set the stage for needed investigation of environmental and individual-level factors that could shape patterns in food consumption. PMID:24553760

Colón-Ramos, Uriyoán; Pérez-Cardona, Cynthia M.; Monge-Rojas, Rafael

2014-01-01

399

GLORIA sidescan sonar field data and navigation data collected off Puerto Rico in 1985 and the eastern United States in 1987  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This CD-ROM contains copies of the navigation and field sidescan sonar data collected within the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) surrounding Puerto Rico and off the eastern United States during cruises aboard the R/V FARNELLA. The survey of the Puerto Rico EEZ was completed during one cruise between 4 November and 3 December, 1985. The survey of the EEZ off the eastern United States was completed during five cruises between 2 February and 30 May, 1987. The data were collected as part of the USGS EEZ-SCAN program which was a cooperative mapping program between the US Geological Survey and the Institute of Oceanographic Sciences of the UK. The survey areas included the entire US EEZ of Puerto Rico and the US Virgin Islands as well as of the eastern United States from the Canadian international boundary at Georges Bank to the Bahamian international boundary east of Florida. GLORIA imagery was collected seaward of approximately 400 m water depth.

Twichell, David C.; Paskevich, Valerie F.; Delorey, Catherine M.

1998-01-01

400

Access to and use of asthma health services among Latino children: the Rhode Island-Puerto Rico asthma center study.  

PubMed

This study determines asthma-related health care access and utilization patterns for Latino children of Puerto Rican and Dominican origin residing in Rhode Island (RI) and Latino children residing in Puerto Rico (Island). Data included 804 families of children with persistent asthma recruited from clinics. Island children were less likely to receive regular asthma care and care from a consistent provider and more likely to have been to the emergency department and hospitalized for asthma than RI children. Island children were 2.33 times more likely to have used the emergency department for asthma compared with RI non-Latino White (NLW) children. Latino children residing in both Island and RI were less likely to have used specialty care and more likely to have had a physician visit for asthma in the past year than RI NLW children. The differences might reflect the effects of the different delivery systems on pediatric health care utilization and asthma management. PMID:21536604

Jandasek, Barbara; Ortega, Alexander N; McQuaid, Elizabeth L; Koinis-Mitchell, Daphne; Fritz, Gregory K; Kopel, Sheryl J; Seifer, Ronald; Klein, Robert B; Canino, Glorisa

2011-12-01

401

The effects of a professional development geoscience education institute upon secondary school science teachers in Puerto Rico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The geographic and geologic settings of Puerto Rico served as the context to develop a mixed methods investigation on: (1) the effects of a five-day long constructivist and field-based earth science education professional development institute upon 26 secondary school science teachers' earth science conceptual knowledge, perceptions of fieldwork, and beliefs about teaching earth science; and (2) the implementation of participants' newly acquired knowledge and experience in their science lessons at school. Qualitative data included questionnaires, semi-structured interviews, reflective journals, pre-post concept maps, and pre-post lesson plans. The Geoscience Concept Inventory and the Science Outdoor Learning Environment Inventory were translated into Spanish and culturally validated to collect quantitative data. Data was analyzed through a constructivist grounded theory methodology, descriptive statistics, and non-parametric methods. Participants came to the institute with serious deficiencies in earth science conceptual understanding, negative earth science teaching perspectives, and inadequate earth science teaching methodologies. The institute helped participants to improve their understanding of earth science concepts, content, and processes mostly related to the study of rocks, the Earth's structure, plate tectonics, maps, and the geology of Puerto Rico. Participants also improved their earth science teaching beliefs, perceptions on field-based education, and reflected on their environmental awareness and social responsibility. Participants greatly benefited from the field-based learning environment, inquiry-based teaching approaches modeled, the attention given to their affective domain, and reflections on their teaching practice as part of the institute's activities. The constructivist learning environment and the institute's contextualized and meaningful learning conceptual model were effective in generating interest and confidence in earth science teaching. Some participants successfully integrated inquiry-based lessons on the nature of science and earth science at their schools, but were unsuccessful in integrating field trips. The lack of teacher education programs and the inadequacy of earth science conceptual and pedagogical understanding held by in-service teachers are the main barriers for effective earth science teaching in Puerto Rico. This study established a foundation for future earth science education projects for Latino teachers. Additionally, as a result of this investigation various recommendations were made to effectively implement earth science teacher education programs in Puerto Rico and internationally.

Llerandi Roman, Pablo Antonio

402

An inventory of state natural resources information systems. [including Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Data bases and information systems developed and maintained by state agencies to support planning and management of environmental and nutural resources were inventoried for all 50 states, Puerto Rico, and U.S. Virgin Islands. The information obtained is assembled into a computerized data base catalog which is throughly cross-referecence. Retrieval is possible by code, state, data base name, data base acronym, agency, computer, GIS capability, language, specialized software, data category name, geograhic reference, data sources, and level of reliability. The 324 automated data bases identified are described.

Martinko, E. A. (principal investigator); Caron, L. M.; Stewart, D. S.

1984-01-01

403

Fetal and infant origins of diabetes and ill health: evidence from Puerto Rico's 1928 and 1932 hurricanes.  

PubMed

A natural experiment is employed to analyze the relationship between living standards, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Results show that shocks generated by two powerful tropical storms striking Puerto Rico during the late 1920s and early 1930s had long-term consequences consistent with the fetal origins hypothesis. Individuals in the womb or early infancy in the aftermath of the storms are more likely to report a diagnosis of hypertension, high cholesterol, diabetes, and are considerably more likely to have no formal schooling. PMID:22445329

Sotomayor, Orlando

2013-07-01

404

A NEW GENUS AND SPECIES OF EMBERIZINE FINCH FROM PLEISTOCENE CAVE DEPOSITS IN PUERTO RICO (AVES: PASSERIFORMES)  

E-print Network

ABSTRACT—Pedinorhis stvrpsarcanoi, an enigmatic new genus and species of emberizine finch, is known from four cave deposits of probable Wisconsinan age in central Puerto Rico. The most distinctive feature of this bird is the broad, flat ridge of the rostrum. Pedinorhis represents a group unknown in the Antilles and, although of uncertain affinities, somewhat resembles the mainland genera Athpetes and Pipilo. The disappearance of Pedinorhis may be related to the postglacial loss of arid, savanna-like habitats that caused the extinction, or contraction in range, of many xerophilous vertebrates in the West Indies.

Storrs L. Olson; Mary C. Mckitrick

405

Genetic diversity in Puerto Rico and its implications for the peopling of the Island and the West Indies.  

PubMed

Puerto Rico and the surrounding islands rest on the eastern fringe of the Caribbean's Greater Antilles, located less than 100 miles northwest of the Lesser Antilles. Puerto Ricans are genetic descendants of pre-Columbian peoples, as well as peoples of European and African descent through 500 years of migration to the island. To infer these patterns of pre-Columbian and historic peopling of the Caribbean, we characterized genetic diversity in 326 individuals from the southeastern region of Puerto Rico and the island municipality of Vieques. We sequenced the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region of all of the samples and the complete mitogenomes of 12 of them to infer their putative place of origin. In addition, we genotyped 121 male samples for 25 Y-chromosome single nucleotide polymorphism and 17 STR loci. Approximately 60% of the participants had indigenous mtDNA haplotypes (mostly from haplogroups A2 and C1), while 25% had African and 15% European haplotypes. Three A2 sublineages were unique to the Greater Antilles, one of which was similar to Mesoamerican types, while C1b haplogroups showed links to South America, suggesting that people reached the island from the two distinct continental source areas. However, none of the male participants had indigenous Y-chromosomes, with 85% of them instead being European/Mediterranean and 15% sub-Saharan African in origin. West Eurasian Y-chromosome short tandem repeat haplotypes were quite diverse and showed similarities to those observed in southern Europe, North Africa and the Middle East. These results attest to the distinct, yet equally complex, pasts for the male and female ancestors of modern day Puerto Ricans. PMID:25043798

Vilar, Miguel G; Melendez, Carlalynne; Sanders, Akiva B; Walia, Akshay; Gaieski, Jill B; Owings, Amanda C; Schurr, Theodore G

2014-11-01

406

A Well-Resolved Phylogeny of the Trees of Puerto Rico Based on DNA Barcode Sequence Data  

PubMed Central

Background The use of phylogenetic information in community ecology and conservation has grown in recent years. Two key issues for community phylogenetics studies, however, are (i) low terminal phylogenetic resolution and (ii) arbitrarily defined species pools. Methodology/principal findings We used three DNA barcodes (plastid DNA regions rbcL, matK, and trnH-psbA) to infer a phylogeny for 527 native and naturalized trees of Puerto Rico, representing the vast majority of the entire tree flora of the island (89%). We used a maximum likelihood (ML) approach with and without a constraint tree that enforced monophyly of recognized plant orders. Based on 50% consensus trees, the ML analyses improved phylogenetic resolution relative to a comparable phylogeny generated with Phylomatic (proportion of internal nodes resolved: constrained ML?=?74%, unconstrained ML?=?68%, Phylomatic?=?52%). We quantified the phylogenetic composition of 15 protected forests in Puerto Rico using the constrained ML and Phylomatic phylogenies. We found some evidence that tree communities in areas of high water stress were relatively phylogenetically clustered. Reducing the scale at which the species pool was defined (from island to soil types) changed some of our results depending on which phylogeny (ML vs. Phylomatic) was used. Overall, the increased terminal resolution provided by the ML phylogeny revealed additional patterns that were not observed with a less-resolved phylogeny. Conclusions/significance With the DNA barcode phylogeny presented here (based on an island-wide species pool), we show that a more fully resolved phylogeny increases power to detect nonrandom patterns of community composition in several Puerto Rican tree communities. Especially if combined with additional information on species functional traits and geographic distributions, this phylogeny will (i) facilitate stronger inferences about the role of historical processes in governing the assembly and composition of Puerto Rican forests, (ii) provide insight into Caribbean biogeography, and (iii) aid in incorporating evolutionary history into conservation planning. PMID:25386879

Muscarella, Robert; Uriarte, María; Erickson, David L.; Swenson, Nathan G.; Zimmerman, Jess K.; Kress, W. John

2014-01-01

407

Conundrums in childhood asthma severity, control, and health care use: Puerto Rico versus Rhode Island  

PubMed Central

Background The lifetime prevalence of self-reported asthma among Puerto Ricans is very high, with increased asthma hospitalizations, emergency department visits, and mortality rates. Differences in asthma severity between the mainland and island, however, remain largely unknown. Objective We sought to characterize differences in asthma severity and control among 4 groups: (1) Island Puerto Ricans, (2) Rhode Island (RI) Puerto Ricans, (3) RI Dominicans, and (4) RI whites. Methods Eight hundred five children aged 7 to 15 years completed a diagnostic clinic session, including a formal interview, physical examination, spirometry, and allergy testing. Using a visual grid adapted from the Global Initiative for Asthma, asthma specialists practicing in each site determined an asthma severity rating. A corresponding level of asthma control was determined by using a computer algorithm. Results Island Puerto Ricans had significantly milder asthma severity compared with RI Puerto Ricans, Dominicans, and whites (P < .001). Island Puerto Ricans were not significantly different from RI whites in asthma control. RI Puerto Ricans showed a trend toward less control compared with island Puerto Ricans (P = .061). RI Dominicans had the lowest rate of controlled asthma. Paradoxically, island Puerto Ricans had more emergency department visits in the past 12 months (P < .001) compared with the 3 RI groups. Conclusions Potential explanations for the paradoxic finding of milder asthma in island Puerto Ricans in the face of high health care use are discussed. Difficulties in determining guideline-based composite ratings for severity versus control are explored in the context of disparate groups. PMID:19615729

Esteban, Cynthia A.; Klein, Robert B.; McQuaid, Elizabeth L.; Fritz, Gregory K.; Seifer, Ronald; Kopel, Sheryl J.; Santana, Jose Rodriguez; Colon, Angel; Alvarez, Maria; Koinis-Mitchell, Daphne; Ortega, Alexander N.; Martinez-Nieves, Brenda; Canino, Glorisa

2012-01-01

408

Impacts of Urbanization in the Coastal Tropical City of San Juan, Puerto Rico  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Urban sprawl in tropical locations is rapidly accelerating and it is more evident in islands where a large percentage of the population resides along the coasts. This paper focuses on the analysis of the impacts of land use and land cover for urbanization in the tropical coastal city of San Juan, in the Caribbean island of Puerto Rico. A mesoscale numerical model, the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS), is used to study the impacts of land use for urbanization in the environment including specific characteristics of the urban heat island in the San Juan Metropolitan Area (SJMA), one of the most noticeable urban cores of the Caribbean. The research also makes use of the observations obtained during the airborne San Juan Atlas Mission. Surface and rawinsonde data from the mission are used to validate the atmospheric model yielding satisfactory results. Airborne high resolution remote sensing data are used to update the model's surface characteristics in order to obtain a more accurate and detailed configuration of the SJMA and perform a climate impact analysis based on land cover/land use (LCLU) changes. The impact analysis showed that the presence of the urban landscape of San Juan has an impact reflected in higher air temperatures over the area occupied by the city, with positive values of up to 2.5 C, for the simulations that have specified urban LCLU indexes in the model's bottom boundary. One interesting result of the impact analysis was the finding of a precipitation disturbance shown as a difference in total accumulated rainfall between the present urban landscape and with a potential natural vegetation, apparently induced by the presence of the urban area. Results indicate that the urban enhanced cloud formation and precipitation development occur mainly downwind of the city, including the accumulated precipitation. This spatial pattern can be explained by the presence of a larger urbanized area in the southwest sector of the city, and of the approaching northeasterly trade winds. No significant impacts were found in the sea breeze patterns of the city.

Comarazamy, Daniel E.; Gonzalez, Jorge E.; Luvall, Jeffrey C.; Rickman, Douglas L.; Mulero, Pedro J.

2007-01-01

409

Downscaled climate change impacts on agricultural water resources in Puerto Rico  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study is to estimate reference evapotranspiration (ET{sub o}), rainfall deficit (rainfall - ET{sub o}) and relative crop yield reduction for a generic crop under climate change conditions for three locations in Puerto Rico: Adjuntas, Mayaguez, and Lajas. Reference evapotranspiration is estimated by the Penman-Monteith method. Rainfall and temperature data were statistically downscaled and evaluated using the DOE/NCAR PCM global circulation model projections for the B1 (low), A2 (mid-high) and A1fi (high) emission scenarios of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Special Report on Emission Scenarios. Relative crop yield reductions were estimated from a function dependent water stress factor, which is a function of soil moisture content. Average soil moisture content for the three locations was determined by means of a simple water balance approach. Results from the analysis indicate that the rainy season will become wetter and the dry season will become drier. The 20-year mean 1990-2010 September rainfall excess (i.e., rainfall - ET{sub o} > 0) increased for all scenarios and locations from 149.8 to 356.4 mm for 2080-2100. Similarly, the 20-year average February rainfall deficit (i.e., rainfall - ET{sub o} < 0) decreased from a -26.1 mm for 1990-2010 to -72.1 mm for the year 2080-2100. The results suggest that additional water could be saved during the wet months to offset increased irrigation requirements during the dry months. Relative crop yield reduction did not change significantly under the B1 projected emissions scenario, but increased by approximately 20% during the summer months under the A1fi emissions scenario. Components of the annual water balance for the three climate change scenarios are rainfall, evapotranspiration (adjusted for soil moisture), surface runoff, aquifer recharge and change in soil moisture storage. Under the A1fi scenario, for all locations, annual evapotranspiration decreased owing to lower soil moisture, surface runoff decreased, and aquifer recharge increased. Aquifer recharge increased at all three locations because the majority of recharge occurs during the wet season and the wet season became wetter. This is good news from a groundwater production standpoint. Increasing aquifer recharge also suggests that groundwater levels may increase and this may help to minimize saltwater intrusion near the coasts as sea levels increase, provided that groundwater use is not over-subscribed.

Harmsen, E.W.; Miller, N.L.; Schlegel, N.J.; Gonzalez, J.E.

2009-04-01

410

Hydrological modification, saltwater intrusion, and tree water use of a Pterocarpus officinalis swamp in Puerto Rico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tidal freshwater forested wetlands occupy a narrow ecological space determined by the balance between saltwater and freshwater inputs to the system. However, this balance is not well understood. In the Caribbean, tidal freshwater-forested wetlands dominated by Pterocarpus officinalis are vulnerable to changes in tidal influence and freshwater inputs. In this setting, the seasonal interactions of saltwater and freshwater inputs create less than ideal conditions for these forests to survive. Hence, it is crucial to have a better understanding of the hydrologic context of these and other tidal freshwater forested wetlands. We examined the extent of tidal forcing and saltwater influence in the largest Pterocarpus swamp of Puerto Rico by installing automated water level and conductivity recorders across a tidal creek transect at four different distances from the ocean, and by using water stable isotopes ratios (?D, ?18O) as natural tracers to determine the most important freshwater sources for tree transpiration. Records of water level and salinity revealed that the amount of rainfall was most influential on saltwater wedge migration in the creek for locations at the front and back of the tidal network, but that tidal dynamics were most influential at the middle section of the tidal network. Saltwater intrusion into the deepest parts of the tidal network was most prominent during sustained dry periods. Isotopic ratios of the surface water samples in the forest revealed that most of the water there was derived from freshwater runoff, but there was a seasonal change in its relative contribution to the forest hydrology. During the dry season, high ? values suggested the presence of runoff-derived water that had undergone evaporation, and saline influences were found in locations where past deforestation created preferential pathways for this water. During both seasons, ? 18O values of groundwater revealed the influence of saline water at depths 60 cm and greater near the adjacent tidal creek. Nonetheless, 18O-enriched stem water and low d-excess values suggested that Pterocarpus officinalis relies primarily on water accessed from unsaturated soil mounds that surround the tree and that are subject to evaporation, as opposed to groundwater at depth. This observation provides further insight to the adaptation mechanisms of Pterocarpus officinalis to survive in flooded ecosystems. In summary, our work demonstrates that for preventing saltwater intrusion, the amount of rainfall and freshwater inflow is more important than the sea level or the existence of an overland hydrological connection to the ocean.

Colón-Rivera, Ricardo J.; Feagin, Rusty A.; West, Jason B.; López, Natalia B.; Benítez-Joubert, Rafael J.

2014-06-01

411

Map showing landslide susceptibility in the municipality of Ponce, Puerto Rico  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The risk of landslides during intense or prolonged rainfall is high in steeply sloping areas such as the municipality of Ponce, where 56 percent of the 301-square-kilometer municipality has slopes 10 degrees or greater. These are areas where the possibility of landsliding increases when triggering conditions such as heavy rainfall or excavation and construction occur. Using a 30-meter digital elevation model to classify hillslope angle, a digital map of bedrock geology, and maps showing the locations of landslides associated with a severe storm in October 1985, the municipality was classified into areas of low, moderate, and high susceptibility to landslides triggered by heavy rainfall. Areas defined by geology as having 0-0.1 landslides per square kilometer were mapped as having low landslide susceptibility, areas having 0.1-0.5 landslides per square kilometer were mapped as having moderate susceptibility, and areas having more than 0.5 landslides per square kilometer were mapped as having high landslide susceptibility. Areas with hillslope angles of 5 degrees or less were not classified as they are considered too flat for significant landslide susceptibility. The result of this classification indicates that 34 percent of the municipality has high susceptibility to rainfall-triggered landsliding, 24 percent has moderate susceptibility, and 9 percent has low susceptibility. Approximately 34 percent of the municipality, mainly areas with slopes of 5 degrees or less and water bodies, was not classified. Because of the uncertainties inherent in the susceptibility classification of extensive landscape areas as well as timing of landslide triggers, landslide susceptibility maps should be used with caution. The results of this study are valid for generalized planning and assessment purposes, but may be less useful at the site-specific scale where local geologic and geographic heterogeneities may occur. Construction in areas of moderate to high landslide susceptibility should proceed only after site evaluation by engineering geologists. Large magnitude earthquakes, which occur rarely in Puerto Rico, are the other major trigger of landslides for Caribbean islands; however, this factor was not considered in the development of this map.

Larsen, Matthew C.; Santiago, Marilyn; Jibson, Randall W.; Questell, Eduardo

2004-01-01

412

Weathering of the Rio Blanco quartz diorite, Luquillo Mountains, Puerto Rico: Coupling oxidation, dissolution, and fracturing  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In the mountainous Rio Icacos watershed in northeastern Puerto Rico, quartz diorite bedrock weathers spheroidally, producing a 0.2-2 m thick zone of partially weathered rock layers (???2.5 cm thickness each) called rindlets, which form concentric layers around corestones. Spheroidal fracturing has been modeled to occur when a weathering reaction with a positive ??V of reaction builds up elastic strain energy. The rates of spheroidal fracturing and saprolite formation are therefore controlled by the rate of the weathering reaction. Chemical, petrographic, and spectroscopic evidence demonstrates that biotite oxidation is the most likely fracture-inducing reaction. This reaction occurs with an expansion in d (0 0 1) from 10.0 to 10.5 A??, forming 'altered biotite'. Progressive biotite oxidation across the rindlet zone was inferred from thin sections and gradients in K and Fe(II). Using the gradient in Fe(II) and constraints based on cosmogenic age dates, we calculated a biotite oxidation reaction rate of 8.2 ?? 10-14 mol biotite m-2 s-1. Biotite oxidation was documented within the bedrock corestone by synchrotron X-ray microprobe fluorescence imaging and XANES. X-ray microprobe images of Fe(II) and Fe(III) at 2 ??m resolution revealed that oxidized zones within individual biotite crystals are the first evidence of alteration of the otherwise unaltered corestone. Fluids entering along fractures lead to the dissolution of plagioclase within the rindlet zone. Within 7 cm surrounding the rindlet-saprolite interface, hornblende dissolves to completion at a rate of 6.3 ?? 10-13 mol hornblende m-2 s-1: the fastest reported rate of hornblende weathering in the field. This rate is consistent with laboratory-derived hornblende dissolution rates. By revealing the coupling of these mineral weathering reactions to fracturing and porosity formation we are able to describe the process by which the quartz diorite bedrock disaggregates and forms saprolite. In the corestone, biotite oxidation induces spheroidal fracturing, facilitating the influx of fluids that react with other minerals, dissolving plagioclase and chlorite, creating additional porosity, and eventually dissolving hornblende and precipitating secondary minerals. The thickness of the resultant saprolite is maintained at steady state by a positive feedback between the denudation rate and the weathering advance rate driven by the concentration of pore water O2 at the bedrock-saprolite interface. ?? 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Buss, H.L.; Sak, P.B.; Webb, S.M.; Brantley, S.L.

2008-01-01

413

Weathering of the Rio Blanco Quartz Diorite, Luquillo Mountains, Puerto Rico: Coupling Oxidation, Dissolution, And Fracturing  

SciTech Connect

In the mountainous Rio Icacos watershed in northeastern Puerto Rico, quartz diorite bedrock weathers spheroidally, producing a 0.2-2 m thick zone of partially weathered rock layers ({approx}2.5 cm thickness each) called rindlets, which form concentric layers around corestones. Spheroidal fracturing has been modeled to occur when a weathering reaction with a positive {Delta}V of reaction builds up elastic strain energy. The rates of spheroidal fracturing and saprolite formation are therefore controlled by the rate of the weathering reaction. Chemical, petrographic, and spectroscopic evidence demonstrates that biotite oxidation is the most likely fracture-inducing reaction. This reaction occurs with an expansion in d (0 0 1) from 10.0 to 10.5 {angstrom}, forming 'altered biotite'. Progressive biotite oxidation across the rindlet zone was inferred from thin sections and gradients in K and Fe(II). Using the gradient in Fe(II) and constraints based on cosmogenic age dates, we calculated a biotite oxidation reaction rate of 8.2 x 10{sup -14} mol biotite m{sup -2} s{sup -1}. Biotite oxidation was documented within the bedrock corestone by synchrotron X-ray microprobe fluorescence imaging and XANES. X-ray microprobe images of Fe(II) and Fe(III) at 2 {micro}m resolution revealed that oxidized zones within individual biotite crystals are the first evidence of alteration of the otherwise unaltered corestone. Fluids entering along fractures lead to the dissolution of plagioclase within the rindlet zone. Within 7 cm surrounding the rindlet-saprolite interface, hornblende dissolves to completion at a rate of 6.3 x 10{sup -13} mol hornblende m{sup -2} s{sup -1}: the fastest reported rate of hornblende weathering in the field. This rate is consistent with laboratory-derived hornblende dissolution rates. By revealing the coupling of these mineral weathering reactions to fracturing and porosity formation we are able to describe the process by which the quartz diorite bedrock disaggregates and forms saprolite. In the corestone, biotite oxidation induces spheroidal fracturing, facilitating the influx of fluids that react with other minerals, dissolving plagioclase and chlorite, creating additional porosity, and eventually dissolving hornblende and precipitating secondary minerals. The thickness of the resultant saprolite is maintained at steady state by a positive feedback between the denudation rate and the weathering advance rate driven by the concentration of pore water O{sub 2} at the bedrock-saprolite interface.

Buss, H.L.; Sak, P.B.; Webb, S.M.; Brantley, S.L.

2009-05-12

414

Chemical, Physical and Optical Properties of Saharan Dust Aerosols at a Marine Site in Puerto Rico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atmospheric dust particles blown from the Sahara across the Atlantic into the Caribbean have an impact on its climate and public health. These particles may play a significant role in radiative forcing, affecting the extinction of solar radiation and thus having an influence on climate. About half of the dust that travels from Africa contains particles that are small enough to inhale. Human breathe them into the respiratory system and they settle in the lungs causing respiratory problems. To have a better understanding of these effects, information is needed on the properties of these aerosols. As part of this study, chemical, physical and optical characterization is being performed on aerosol samples collected at a marine site on the northeastern tip of Puerto Rico (Cabezas de San Juan, Fajardo), during periods with and without Saharan incursions. Stacked-filter units (SFU) are used to collect particles with diameters smaller than 1.7 ?m, using Nuclepore, quartz and Teflon filters. These filter samples are analyzed to obtain the chemical composition of the particles. Initially we are focusing on the carbonaceous fraction (elemental and organic carbon, EC, and OC) of the aerosol using thermal/optical analysis. Online measurements of total particle number concentrations and aerosol light scattering coefficients are performed using a condensation particle counter and an integrating nephelometer, respectively. In addition, a sunphotometer, part of AERONET (http://aeronet.gsfc.nasa.gov/), is used to obtain the aerosol optical thickness (AOT). Preliminary results include only samples collected from air masses under the influence of Saharan dust, as signified by AOT satellite images from MODIS and the results from the air masses backward trajectories calculated with the NOAA HYSPLIT (HYbrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory) model. In terms of the chemical composition, EC concentrations were at low-to-undetectable levels, indicating that OC concentrations were equivalent to those of total carbon (TC), on average 0.35 ?g of carbon per m-3. Samples without the influence of Saharan dust are under analysis and results will be presented in the conference. Additional results, including particle and black carbon concentrations, as well as scattering coefficients will also be presented together with associated air mass back trajectories and MODIS satellite images.

Ortiz Montalvo, D. L.; Mayol Bracero, O. L.; Morales, F.; Sheridan, P.; Ogren, J. A.

2005-12-01

415

The Spanish of Ponce, Puerto Rico: A Phonetic, Phonological, and Intonational Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates four aspects of Puerto Rican Spanish as represented in the Autonomous Municipality of Ponce: the behavior of coda /[alveolar flap]/, the behavior of /r/, the different realizations of coda /s/, and its intonational phonology. Previous studies on Puerto Rican Spanish report that coda /[alveolar flap]/ is normally realized as…

Luna, Kenneth Vladimir

2010-01-01

416

Hydrogeology and hydrology of the Punta Cabullones wetland area, Ponce, southern Puerto Rico, 2007-08  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Municipio Autónomo de Ponce and the Puerto Rico Department of Natural and Environmental Resources, conducted a study of the hydrogeology and hydrology of the Punta Cabullones area in Ponce, southern Puerto Rico. (Punta Cabullones is also referred to as Punta Cabullón.) The Punta Cabullones area is about 9 square miles and is an ecological system made up of a wetland, tidal flats, saltflats, mangrove forests, and a small fringing reef located a short distance offshore. The swales or depressions between successive beach ridges became development avenues for saline to hypersaline wetlands. The Punta Cabullones area was designated by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service as a coastal barrier in the 1980s because of its capacity to act as a buffer zone to ameliorate the impacts of natural phenomenon such as storm surges. Since 2003, Punta Cabullones has been set aside for preservation as part of the mitigation effort mandated by Federal and State laws to compensate for the potential environmental effects that might be caused by the construction of the Las Américas Transshipment Port. Total rainfall measured during 2008 within the Punta Cabullones area was 36 inches, which is slightly greater than the long-term annual average of 32 inches for the coastal plain near Ponce. Two evapotranspiration estimates, 29 and 37 inches, were obtained for the subarea of the Punta Cabullones area that is underlain by fan-delta and alluvial deposits by using two variants of the Penman semi-empirical equation. The long-term water stage and chemical character of the wetland in Punta Cabullones are highly dependent on the seasonal and annual variations of both rainfall and sea-wave activity. Also, unseasonal short-term above-normal rainfall and sea-wave events resulting from passing storms may induce substantial changes in the water stage and the chemical character of the wetland. In general, tidal fluctuations exert a minor role in modifying the water quality and stage of the wetland in Punta Cabullones. The role of the tidal fluctuations becomes important during those times when the outlets/inlets to the sea are not blocked by a sand bar and is allowed to freely flow into the wetland interior. The salinity of the wetland varies from brackish to hypersaline. The hypersaline conditions, including the occurrence of saltflats, within the Punta Cabullones wetland area result from a high evapotranspiration rate. The hypersaline conditions are further enhanced by a sand bar that blocks the inlet/outlet of the wetland’s easternmost channel, particularly during the dry season. Groundwater in Punta Cabullones mostly is present within beds of silisiclastic sand and gravel. During the study period, the depth to groundwater did not exceed 4 feet below land surface. The movement and direction of the groundwater flow in Punta Cabullones are driven by density variations that in turn result from the wide range of salinities in the groundwater. The salinity of the groundwater decreases within the first 60 to 100 feet of depth and decreases outward from a mound of hypersaline groundwater centered on piezometer nest PN2. The main groundwater types within the Punta Cabullones area vary from calcium-bicarbonate type in the northernmost part of the study area to a predominantly sodium-potassium-chloride groundwater type southward. According to stable-isotope data, groundwater within the study area is both modern meteoric water and seawater highly affected by evaporation. The chemical and stable-isotopic character of local groundwater is highly influenced by evapotranspiration because of its shallow depth. Equivalent freshwater heads indicate groundwater moves away from a mound centered on piezometer nest PN2, in a pattern similar to the spatial distribution of groundwater salinity. Vertical groundwater flow occurs in Punta Cabullones due to local differences in density. In the wetland subarea of Punta Cabullones, groundwater and surface water are hydraulically coupled. Locally, surface-hypersaline water sinks into

Rodríguez-Martínez, Jesús; Soler-López, Luis R.

2014-01-01

417

New evidence of Ara autochthones from an archeological site in Puerto Rico: a valid species of West Indian macaw of unknown geographical origin (Aves: Psittacidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The exinct macaw Ara autochthones, previously known only from a single bone from an archaeological site on St. Croix, Virgin Islands, is here identified from several associated bones from an archaeological site in south-central Puerto Rico. The species belongs to a distinctive intermediate size-class and was larger than the Cuban Macaw Ara tricolor. It is assumed to have been endemic

STORES L. OLSON

418

Comparacion de Modelos de Educacion Sexual en El Conocimiento y Cambio de Actitudes en Practicas Sexuales por Alumnos de Nivel Superior en La Region De Caguas, Puerto Rico  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In opposition to the Sexual Education Traditional Model (SETM) that is used in the state schools of Puerto Rico, the Health Beliefs Model (HBM) appears. It facilitates a curricular design that improves the ability of the students to respond to the group pressure by means of attitudes that stimulate sexual conducts of smaller risk of propagation of…

Juan, Vallejo Ramos L.

2012-01-01

419

Planning report for the comprehensive appraisal of the ground-water resources of the North Coast Limestone Area of Puerto Rico  

Microsoft Academic Search

The north coast limestone aquifers are the most productive aquifers in Puerto Rico. The aquifers cover an area of about 600 square miles and are as much as 5600 feet thick at the coast. As of 1980 ground-water withdrawals for municipal, industrial and agricultural supply exceeded 50 million gallons per day. A variety of problems have developed with increasing development,

A. Torres-Gonzalez; Wolansky

1984-01-01

420

Hydrology and water quality of a field and riparian buffer adjacent to a mangrove wetland in Jobos Bay Watershed, Puerto Rico  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Models that estimate the effects of agricultural conservation practices on water quantity and quality have become increasingly important tools for short- and long-term assessments. In this study, we simulated the water quality and hydrology of a portion of the Jobos Bay watershed, Puerto Rico using...

421

Impact of a Workshop on Physiological Sciences in Public High School Students in Puerto Rico - PhUn Week Poster Session EB 2011  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This poster describes a Physiology Understanding (PhUn) Week activity performed with high school students focusing on the Nervous, Cardiovascular, and Respiratory Systems. This poster was presented at the PhUn Week Poster Session, Experimental Biology 2011, by Jose O. Garcia, University of Puerto Rico Medical Sciences Campus.

2011-05-07

422

Evaluation of organic and plastic mulches for purple nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus)suppression in a sustainable watermelon production system in Puerto Rico  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

An experiment was conducted in Isabela, Puerto Rico, to determine the efficacy of eight organic mulches (dry shoots of millet, purple nutsedge, sunnhemp, sorghum, cowpea, cogongrass, bahiagrass, and rye) and two plastic mulches (black and IRT) to suppress purple nutsedge growth on the soil beds in a...

423

Situation Reports--Austria, Belgium, Bolivia, Botswana, Finland, German Federal Republic, Italy, Luxembourg, Mauritania, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Puerto Rico, Sweden, Tanzania, Yugoslavia, and Zambia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Data pertaining to population and family planning in seventeen foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Austria, Belgium, Bolivia, Botswana, Finland, German Federal Republic, Italy, Luxembourg, Mauritania, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Puerto Rico, Sweden, Tanzania, Yugoslavia, and Zambia. Information is…

International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

424

I. Bloch, DESY/Hamburg University -CIPANP, Puerto Rico 30.5.-03.06.'06 1Heavy Quarks at HERA Heavy Quark ProductionHeavy Quark Production  

E-print Network

I. Bloch, DESY/Hamburg University - CIPANP, Puerto Rico 30.5.-03.06.'06 1Heavy Quarks at HERA Heavy Hamburg / Hamburg University 99thth ConferenceontheIntersectionConferenceontheIntersection of: Charm Beauty Inclusive F2 cc/bb Summary & Outlook #12;I. Bloch, DESY/Hamburg University - CIPANP

425

Analysis of Upper Air, Ground and Remote Sensing Data for the Atlas Field Campaign in San Juan, Puerto Rico  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The general climate of the island of Puerto Rico is dominated by the easterly trade winds from the Atlantic Ocean, and during synoptically calm days by the topographic and local land surface characteristics [1]. The urban canopy of the metropolitan area of San Juan, capital city of the Island, may introduce a new microclimate that changes the characteristics of the low atmosphere and interacts with the other microclimates already present in the island. The primitive land cover and land use (LCLU) of the metropolitan area of San Juan was composed by broadleaf trees, moist soils, and very dense vegetation in general. The urban LCLU changes the balance for the mass, momentum and energy between the bottom boundary and the lower atmosphere, creating different climate conditions over urban and rural regions. Some of these differences are low relative humidity and high temperatures observed in urban areas when compared to rural areas. These in turn produces a convective circulation over the urban areas, a phenomenon compared to the sea and land breezes, commonly known as heat islands (UHI). Factors that contribute to the formation of the UHI are anthropogenic heat sources, aerosols from pollutants, fast water canalization due to the presence of buildings and streets, among others. The comparison between urban and rural climates is the most common approach to analyze the UHI. These contrasts are larger in clear and calm conditions and tend to disappear in cloudy and windy weather. The UHI was recognized in the early 1950 s as closed isotherms that separates the city from the general temperature field [2]. The impact of the urban LCLU in San Juan, Puerto Rico, was quantified calculating the difference between historical data sets for the air temperature over an identified urban area and a rural area dT(U-R). The analysis of the climatological data revealed that a UHI exists in the metropolitan area of San Juan, Puerto Rico. The data reveals a permanent urban heat island effect present in the SJMA during the year, which is increasing at a rate of 0.41oC/decade. These findings encouraged the planning and execution of an intense field campaign in February 2004 referred as the ATLAS San Juan mission. The focus of the remaining of this report is the analysis of the data for this field campaign.

Gonzalez-Cruz, Jorge E.

2005-01-01

426

Case series of fatal Leptospira spp./dengue virus co-infections-Puerto Rico, 2010-2012.  

PubMed

Co-infection with pathogens that cause acute febrile illness creates a diagnostic challenge as a result of overlapping clinical manifestations. Here, we describe four fatal cases of Leptospira species/dengue virus co-infection in Puerto Rico. Although all patients sought care early, antibiotic administration was delayed for most. Steroids were administered to all patients, in most cases before antibiotics. These cases show the need for clinicians evaluating patients in or recently returned from the tropics with acute febrile illness to consider both dengue and leptospirosis. Furthermore, they illustrate the need for nucleic acid- or antigen-based rapid diagnostic tests to enable timely patient diagnosis and management. In particular, antibiotic therapy should be initiated early for patients with suspected leptospirosis, and steroids should not be administered to patients with suspected dengue. PMID:25092820

Pérez Rodríguez, Nicole M; Galloway, Renee; Blau, Dianna M; Traxler, Rita; Bhatnagar, Julu; Zaki, Sherif R; Rivera, Aidsa; Torres, Jose V; Noyd, David; Santiago-Albizu, Xavier E; Rivera García, Brenda; Tomashek, Kay M; Bower, William A; Sharp, Tyler M

2014-10-01

427

Contrasting responses of coral reef fauna and foraminiferal assemblages to human influence in La Parguera, Puerto Rico.  

PubMed

Coral reef biota including stony corals, sponges, gorgonians, fish, benthic macroinvertebrates and foraminifera were surveyed in coastal waters near La Parguera, in southwestern Puerto Rico. The goal was to evaluate sensitivity of coral reef biological indicators to human disturbance. Proxies for human disturbance were measured as distance to town (DTT) and rankings of a low-level sediment contamination gradient analyzed from a previous study. Contaminant rank and DTT showed that percent mud, stony coral taxa richness, reef rugosity, and numbers of invertebrates and sponges were higher at sites closer to human disturbance, but a foraminiferal assemblage index was significantly lower at sites with higher proxies for human disturbance. Fish indicators showed no significant relationships with human activity, but associations between fish community measures and certain measures of stony corals, gorgonians and sponges were found. Contrasting responses between foraminifera and reef organisms may be due to greater exposure and sensitivity of foraminifera to sediment contaminants. PMID:24840256

Oliver, L M; Fisher, W S; Dittmar, J; Hallock, P; Campbell, J; Quarles, R L; Harris, P; LoBue, C

2014-08-01

428

Bathymetric terrain model of the Puerto Rico Trench and the northeastern Caribbean region for marine geological investigations  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Records were obtained for 305 wells and 1 spring in northwestern Lee and southeastern Chatham counties, NorMultibeam bathymetric data collected in the Puerto Rico Trench and northeastern Caribbean region are compiled into a seamless bathymetric terrain model for broad-scale geological investigations of the trench system. These data, collected during eight separate surveys between 2002 and 2013 and covering almost 180,000 square kilometers, are published here in large-format map sheet and digital spatial data. This report describes the common multibeam data collection and processing methods used to produce the bathymetric terrain model and corresponding data-source polygon. Details documenting the complete provenance of the data are provided in the metadata in the Data Catalog section.

Andrews, Brian D.; ten Brink, Uri S.; Danforth, William W.; Chaytor, Jason D.; Granja Bruña, José-Luis; Llanes Estrada, Pilar; Carbó-Gorosabel, Andrés

2014-01-01

429

Historical Ground-Water Development in the Salinas Alluvial Fan Area, Salinas, Puerto Rico, 1900-2005  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Salinas alluvial fan area has historically been one of the most intensively used agricultural areas in the South Coastal Plain of Puerto Rico. Changes in agricultural practices and land use in the Salinas alluvial fan have also caused changes in the geographic distribution of ground-water withdrawals from the alluvial aquifer. As a result, the ground-water balance and ground-water flow pattern have changed throughout the years and may explain the presence of saline ground water along parts of the coast at present. By providing a reconstruction of historical ground-water development in the Salinas alluvial fan area, from the initial years of aquifer development at about 1900 to the most recent conditions existing in 2005, water resources managers and planners can use the results of the analysis for a more complete understanding of aquifer conditions especially pertaining to water quality. This study effort was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Puerto Rico Department of Natural and Environmental Resources as a contribution in the management of the Jobos Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve. The study area encompasses about 20 mi2 (square miles) of the extensive South Coastal Plain alluvial aquifer system (fig. 1). The study area is bounded to the north by foothills of the Cordillera Central mountain chain, to the south by the Caribbean Sea, and to the east and west by the Rio Nigua de Salinas and the Quebrada Aguas Verdes, respectively. Fan-delta and alluvial deposits contain the principal aquifers in the study area.

Rodriguez, Jose M.; Gómez-Gómez, Fernando

2008-01-01

430

Feeding preferences of West Indian manatees in Florida, Belize, and Puerto Rico as indicated by stable isotope analysis  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The endangered West Indian manatee Trichechus manatus has 2 recognized subspecies: the Florida T. m. latirostris and Antillean T. m. manatus manatee, both of which are found in freshwater, estuarine, and marine habitats. A better understanding of manatee feeding preferences and habitat use is essential to establish criteria on which conservation plans can be based. Skin from manatees in Florida, Belize, and Puerto Rico, as well as aquatic vegetation from their presumed diet, were analyzed for stable carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios. This is the first application of stable isotope analysis to Antillean manatees. Stable isotope ratios for aquatic vegetation differed by plant type (freshwater, estuarine, and marine), collection location, and in one instance, season. Carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios for manatee skin differed between collection location and in one instance, season, but did not differ between sex or age class. Signatures in the skin of manatees sampled in Belize and Puerto Rico indicated a diet composed primarily of seagrasses, whereas those of Florida manatees exhibited greater regional variation. Mixing model results indicated that manatees sampled from Crystal River and Homosassa Springs (Florida, USA) ate primarily freshwater vegetation, whereas manatees sampled from Big Bend Power Plant, Ten Thousand Islands, and Warm Mineral Springs (Florida) fed primarily on seagrasses. Possible diet-tissue discrimination values for 15N were estimated to range from 1.0 to 1.5 per mil. Stable isotope analysis can be used to interpret manatee feeding behavior over a long period of time, specifically the use of freshwater vegetation versus seagrasses, and can aid in identifying critical habitats and improving conservation efforts.

Alves-Stanley, Christy D.; Worthy, Graham A.J.; Bonde, Robert K.

2010-01-01

431

Mutation of a new gene causes a unique form of Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome in a genetic isolate of central Puerto Rico.  

PubMed

Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome (HPS) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by oculocutaneous albinism and a storage pool deficiency due to an absence of platelet dense bodies. Lysosomal ceroid lipofuscinosis, pulmonary fibrosis and granulomatous colitis are occasional manifestations of the disease. HPS occurs with a frequency of one in 1800 in north-west Puerto Rico due to a founder effect. Several non-Puerto Rican patients also have mutations in HPS1, which produces a protein of unknown function. Another gene, ADTB3A, causes HPS in the pearl mouse and in two brothers with HPS-2 (refs. 11,12). ADTB3A encodes a coat protein involved in vesicle formation, implicating HPS as a disorder of membrane trafficking. We sought to identify other HPS-causing genes. Using homozygosity mapping on pooled DNA of 6 families from central Puerto Rico, we localized a new HPS susceptibility gene to a 1.6-cM interval on chromosome 3q24. The gene, HPS3, has 17 exons, and a putative 113.7-kD product expected to reveal how new vesicles form in specialized cells. The homozygous, disease-causing mutation is a large deletion and represents the second example of a founder mutation causing HPS on the small island of Puerto Rico. We also present an allele-specific assay for diagnosing individuals heterozygous or homozygous for this mutation. PMID:11455388

Anikster, Y; Huizing, M; White, J; Shevchenko, Y O; Fitzpatrick, D L; Touchman, J W; Compton, J G; Bale, S J; Swank, R T; Gahl, W A; Toro, J R

2001-08-01

432

NCI-supported facility to conduct cancer trials breaks ground in Puerto Rico  

Cancer.gov

The Puerto Rican government has allocated $196 million dollars to build a 287,000 sq. ft., 96-bed, cancer hospital in San Juan. The new hospital, which will provide cancer treatment and conduct clinical trials, is the first of its kind in the Caribbean.

433

Floods, Habitat Hydraulics and Upstream Migration of Neritina virginea (Gastropoda: Neritidae) in Northeastern Puerto Rico  

E-print Network

Floods, Habitat Hydraulics and Upstream Migration of Neritina virginea (Gastropoda: Neritidae a detailed study of snail density, size, and hydraulic descriptors in lower Río Mameyes, northeastern Puerto and size dynamics differed between reaches as a function of habitat hydraulics. While juveniles used

434

Relations with Faculty as Social Capital for College Students: Evidence from Puerto Rico  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, a social capital framework was adopted to investigate the extent to which academically focused interactions with faculty and other institutional agents serve as social capital for college students, using National Survey of Student Engagement data from a large, science, technology, engineering and math-focused institution in Puerto…

Dika, Sandra L.

2012-01-01

435

Soil Erosion Calculation using Remote Sensing and GIS in Ro Grande de Arecibo Watershed, Puerto Rico  

E-print Network

Soil Erosion Calculation using Remote Sensing and GIS in Río Grande de Arecibo Watershed, Puerto potentials in the watershed where exist major erosion and to establishment a program to watershed management. Soil erosion assessment is a capital-intensive and time-consuming exercise. A number of parametric

Gilbes, Fernando

436

33 CFR 165.758 - Security Zone; San Juan, Puerto Rico.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...established 50 yards around all cruise ships entering, departing...Rico. The security zone for a cruise ship entering port is activated...will attempt to notify the maritime community of periods during...arrivals and departures of cruise ships via a broadcast...

2010-07-01

437

Connectivity of tropical marine ecosystems--An overview of interdisciplinary research to understand biodiversity and trophic relationships in the Virgin Islands and Puerto Rico  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Virgin Islands and Puerto Rico contain marine reserves and protected areas that encompass a variety of tropical ecosystems, including coral reefs, mangroves, and seagrass beds. Reserves and protected areas are established for a variety of reasons, such as preserving nursery habitats and biodiversity, or reducing anthropogenic effects associated with pollution and land use. Questions remain regarding the effectiveness of these designated areas in preserving and protecting spatially connected habitats and associated fishes and invertebrates. Scientists from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), University of Florida, and Arkansas State University are collaborating on interdisciplinary research in the Virgin Islands and Puerto Rico to examine the biodiversity and trophic dynamics of fishes and invertebrates residing in connected mangroves, seagrasses, and coral reefs to discern the effectiveness of current marine reserves and protected areas for conserving reef resources.

McClain-Counts, Jennifer P.; Demopoulos, Amanda W.J.

2012-01-01

438

Evaluation of groundwater quality and selected hydrologic conditions in the South Coast aquifer, Santa Isabel area, Puerto Rico, 2008–09  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The source of drinking water in the Santa Isabel and Coamo areas of Puerto Rico (Molina and Gómez-Gómez, 2008) is the South Coast aquifer (hereafter referred to as the aquifer), which supplies about 30,700 cubic meters per day (m³/d) to Puerto Rico Aqueduct and Sewer Authority (PRASA) public-supply wells. In addition, approximately 45 wells provide an estimated 33,700 m³/d of groundwater to irrigate crops in the area. In 1967, baseline nitrate concentrations in groundwater throughout most of the aquifer were generally less than 6 milligrams per liter (mg/L) as nitrogen in collected water samples (U.S. Geological Survey, 2012). In 2007, elevated nitrate concentrations were detected in the aquifer, near Santa Isabel and the foothills north of the coastal plain at Santa Isabel as part of a regional groundwater-quality assessment conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) during 2007 (Rodríguez and Gómez-Gómez, 2008). The increase in nitrate concentrations has been of concern to local government agencies because of its potential effect on public supply. To address public-supply concerns, the USGS, in cooperation with the Puerto Rico Department of Natural and Environmental Resources (PRDNER), evaluated groundwater quality in the aquifer near the Santa Isabel area between January 2008 and May 2009. The objectives of the study were to (1) define the groundwater-quality conditions of the aquifer, with emphasis on the distribution of nitrate concentrations; (2) identify potential sources leading to elevated nitrate concentrations; (3) estimate the nitrate loads from major sources identified; and (4) estimate the groundwater withdrawals by principal-use categories in the area. Results of this study will be used by Commonwealth of Puerto Rico and Federal agencies in developing strategies that can result in containment of high nitrate groundwater to minimize degradation of fresh groundwater in the aquifer.

Rodríguez, José M.

2013-01-01

439

Genetic Testing for Oculocutaneous Albinism Type 1 and 2 and Hermansky–Pudlak Syndrome Type 1 and 3 Mutations in Puerto Rico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hermansky–Pudlak syndrome (HPS) (MIM #203300) is a heterogeneous group of autosomal recessive disorders characterized by oculocutaneous albinism (OCA), bleeding tendency, and lysosomal dysfunction. HPS is very common in Puerto Rico (PR), particularly in the northwest part of the island, with a frequency of ?1:1,800. Two HPS genes and mutations have been identified in PR, a 16-base pair (bp) duplication in

Pedro J Santiago Borrero; Yolanda Rodríguez-Pérez; Jessicca Y Renta; Natalio J Izquierdo; Laura del Fierro; Norma López Molina; Sonia Ramírez; Glorivee Pagán-Mercado; Idith Ortíz; Enid Rivera-Caragol; Richard A Spritz; Carmen L Cadilla

2006-01-01

440

A new species of Newportia Gervais, 1847 from Puerto Rico, with a revised key to the species of the genus (Chilopoda, Scolopendromorpha, Scolopocryptopidae)  

PubMed Central

Abstract A new species of the centipede genus Newportia, Newportia stoevi sp. n., is described from Rio Encantado Cave, Puerto Rico. It differs from all congeners by having sternites distinctly margined laterally and ultimate legs bearing 4 spinous processes on both prefemur and femur, and 2 on tibia. The value of some terms used in the taxonomy of the genus have been analyzed and an amended identification key to the species of Newportia is provided. PMID:23794815

Schileyko, Arkady A.

2013-01-01

441

The Impact of Hardwood Line-Planting on Tree and Amphibian Diversity in a Secondary Subtropical Wet Forest of Southeast Puerto Rico  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact on tree and amphibian diversity of line-planting of tropical hardwoods—mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla × S. mahagoni) and mahoe (Hibiscus elatus)—was studied in a secondary subtropical wet forest of Puerto Rico. Common coqui (Eleutherodactylus coqui) and melodious coqui (E. wightmanae) are the most frequent frog species; forest coqui (E. portoricensis) is less abundant. Although relative abundance means were slightly greater

Mark Nelson; Sally Silverstone; Kelly C. Reiss; Patricia Burrowes; Rafael Joglar; Molly Robertson; Thrity Vakil

2010-01-01

442

Selected Hydrologic, Water-Quality, Biological, and Sedimentation Characteristics of Laguna Grande, Fajardo, Puerto Rico, March 2007-February 2009  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Laguna Grande is a 50-hectare lagoon in the municipio of Fajardo, located in the northeasternmost part of Puerto Rico. Hydrologic, water-quality, and biological data were collected in the lagoon between March 2007 and February 2009 to establish baseline conditions and determine the health of Laguna Grande on the basis of preestablished standards. In addition, a core of bottom material was obtained at one site within the lagoon to establish sediment depositional rates. Water-quality properties measured onsite (temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, specific conductance, and water transparency) varied temporally rather than areally. All physical properties were in compliance with current regulatory standards established for Puerto Rico. Nutrient concentrations were very low and in compliance with current regulatory standards (less than 5.0 and 1.0 milligrams per liter for total nitrogen and total phosphorus, respectively). The average total nitrogen concentration was 0.28 milligram per liter, and the average total phosphorus concentration was 0.02 milligram per liter. Chlorophyll a was the predominant form of photosynthetic pigment in the water. The average chlorophyll-a concentration was 6.2 micrograms per liter. Bottom sediment accumulation rates were determined in sediment cores by modeling the downcore activities of lead-210 and cesium-137. Results indicated a sediment depositional rate of about 0.44 centimeter per year. At this rate of sediment accretion, the lagoon may become a marshland in about 700 to 900 years. About 86 percent of the community primary productivity in Laguna Grande was generated by periphyton, primarily algal mats and seagrasses, and the remaining 14 percent was generated by phytoplankton in the water column. Based on the diel studies the total average net community productivity equaled 5.7 grams of oxygen per cubic meter per day (2.1 grams of carbon per cubic meter per day). Most of this productivity was ascribed to periphyton and macrophytes, which produced 4.9 grams of oxygen per cubic meter per day (1.8 grams of carbon per cubic meter per day). Phytoplankton, the plant and algal component of plankton, produced about 0.8 gram of oxygen per cubic meter per day (0.3 gram of carbon per cubic meter per day). The total diel community respiration rate was 23.4 grams of oxygen per cubic meter per day. The respiration rate ascribed to plankton, which consists of all free floating and swimming organisms in the water column, composed 10 percent of this rate (2.9 grams of oxygen per cubic meter per day); respiration by all other organisms composed the remaining 90 percent (20.5 grams of oxygen per cubic meter per day). Plankton gross productivity was 3.7 grams of oxygen per cubic meter per day, equivalent to about 13 percent of the average gross productivity for the entire community (29.1 grams of oxygen per cubic meter per day). The average phytoplankton biomass values in Laguna Grande ranged from 6.0 to 13.6 milligrams per liter. During the study, Laguna Grande contained a phytoplankton standing crop of approximately 5.8 metric tons. Phytoplankton community had a turnover (renewal) rate of about 153 times per year, or roughly about once every 2.5 days. Fecal indicator bacteria concentrations ranged from 160 to 60,000 colonies per 100 milliliters. Concentrations generally were greatest in areas near residential and commercial establishments, and frequently exceeded current regulatory standards established for Puerto Rico.

Soler-López, Luis R.; Santos, Carlos R.

2010-01-01

443

Chemical weathering in a tropical watershed, Luquillo Mountains, Puerto Rico: I. Long-term versus short-term weathering fluxes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The pristine Rio Icacos watershed in the Luquillo Mountains in eastern Puerto Rico has the fastest documented weathering rate of silicate rocks on the Earth's surface. A regolith propagation rate of 58 m Ma-1 calculated from iso-volumetric saprolite formation from quartz diorite, is comparable to the estimated denudation rate (25-50 Ma-1) but is an order of magnitude faster than the global average weathering rate (6 Ma-1). Weathering occurs in two distinct environments; plagioclase and hornblende react at the saprock interface and biotite and quartz weather in the overlying thick saprolitic regolith. These environments produce distinctly different water chemistries, with K, Mg, and Si increasing linearly with depth in saprolite porewaters and with stream waters dominated by Ca, Na, and Si. Such differences are atypical of less intense weathering in temperate watersheds. Porewater chemistry in the shallow regolith is controlled by closed-system recycling of inorganic nutrients such as K. Long-term elemental fluxes through the regolith (e.g., Si = 1.7 ?? 10-8 moles m-2 s-1) are calculated from mass losses based on changes in porosity and chemistry between the regolith and bedrock and from the age of the regolith surface (200 Ma). Mass losses attributed to solute fluxes are determined using a step-wise infiltration model which calculates mineral inputs to the shallow and deep saprolite porewaters and to stream water. Pressure heads decrease with depth in the shallow regolith (-2.03 m H2O m-1), indicating that both increasing capillary tension and graviometric potential control porewater infiltration. Interpolation of experimental hydraulic conductivities produces an infiltration rate of 1 m yr-1 at average field moisture saturation which is comparable with LiBr tracer tests and with base discharge from the watershed. Short term weathering fluxes calculated from solute chemistries and infiltration rates (e.g., Si = 1.4 ?? 10-8 moles m-2 s-1) are compared to watershed flux rates (e.g., Si = 2.7 ?? 10-8 moles m-2 s-1). Consistency between three independently determined sets of weathering fluxes imply that possible changes in precipitation, temperature, and vegetation over the last several hundred thousand years have not significantly impacted weathering rates in the Luquillo Mountains of Puerto Rico. This has important ramifications for tropical environments and global climate change. Copyright ?? 1998 Elsevier Science Ltd.

White, A.F.; Blum, A.E.; Schulz, M.S.; Vivit, D.V.; Stonestrom, D.A.; Larsen, M.; Murphy, S.F.; Eberl, D.

1998-01-01

444

Increase of leptospirosis in dengue-negative patients after a hurricane in Puerto Rico in 1996 [correction of 1966].  

PubMed

Leptospirosis has rarely been reported in Puerto Rico, although in the period from 1948 to 1952, 208 cases of leptospirosis and an island-wide seroprevalence of antibody to Leptospira of 14% were documented. In Puerto Rico in October 1996, following rainfall and a period of flooding generated by Hurricane Hortense, serum specimens of 4 patients with suspected dengue fever that were negative for dengue tested positive for Leptospira-specific IgM antibodies in a dipstick assay. Subsequently, we used an island-wide dengue laboratory-based surveillance system to determine the increase in leptospirosis after hurricane-generated floods. All anti-dengue IgM-negative patients (n = 142) with disease onset from August 8 to October 6, 1996 from prehurricane and posthurricane groups were investigated for leptospirosis. Laboratory-confirmed leptospirosis cases were defined as microscopic agglutination test titers > or = 1 :400 to 1 or more serovars, or positive immunohistochemistry in autopsy tissues. Four (6%) of 72 prehurricane and 17 (24%) of 70 posthurricane patients had laboratory-confirmed cases of leptospirosis (relative risk [RR] = 4.4, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.6-12.4). The mean age of case-patients was 34 years (range = 13-64). Eighteen (86%) of 21 confirmed case-patients were males, including one patient who died (31 years old). Patients were located in 18 (38%) of 48 municipalities that submitted serum samples. Clinical features significantly associated with leptospirosis were eye pain (RR = 1.5, 95% CI = 1.3-1.9), joint pain (RR = 1.4, 95% CI = 1.1-1.6), diarrhea (RR = 1.7, 95% CI = 1.2-2.5), and jaundice (RR = 3.3, 95% CI = 1.5-7.2). This study demonstrates the utility of a dengue laboratory-based surveillance system for the detection of an increase of leptospirosis, which most likely would have gone unrecognized. Leptospirosis is treatable with antibacterial agents; knowledge of this diagnosis may significantly reduce morbidity and mortality. PMID:10497979

Sanders, E J; Rigau-Pérez, J G; Smits, H L; Deseda, C C; Vorndam, V A; Aye, T; Spiegel, R A; Weyant, R S; Bragg, S L

1999-09-01

445

Prospective study using standardized methodology for antimicrobial susceptibility of gram-positive cocci isolated from the Puerto Rico Medical Center.  

PubMed

The Gram-positive cocci (GPC), Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium, have become important causes of community and nosocomial-acquired infections. The prevalence of multiple resistant isolates to standard antimicrobial drugs has significantly increased over the past decades. Few prospective studies have been performed in Puerto Rico (PR) concerning the GPC antimicrobial susceptibilities pattern. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the in vitro susceptibility of GPC clinical isolates from PR to selected standard antibiotics and to the new antimicrobial agents, linezolid (LZ), quinupristin/dalfopristin (Q/D) and gemifloxacin (GM). The in vitro susceptibility utilizing disk diffusion and Etest methods to selected antibiotics was determined for a total of 429 isolates obtained during a period of 5 months from the Puerto Rico