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Puffer fish  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Puffer fish can move easily through the water, but they are normally very slow. They can inflate themselves to a spherical shape to appear larger and more threatening to a potential predator. The spikes of the fish also help in allowing it to escape a predatory attack.

Ibrahim Iujaz (None;)



Advisory on Puffer Fish  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... caught fish. The liver, gonads (ovaries and testes), intestines and skin of puffer fish typically contain the toxin. Unless puffer ... More results from,%20outbreaks%20&%20emergencies/safetyalertsadvisories


Saxitoxin Puffer Fish Poisoning in the United States, with the First Report of Pyrodinium bahamense as the Putative Toxin Source  

PubMed Central

Background From January 2002 to May 2004, 28 puffer fish poisoning (PFP) cases in Florida, New Jersey, Virginia, and New York were linked to the Indian River Lagoon (IRL) in Florida. Saxitoxins (STXs) of unknown source were first identified in fillet remnants from a New Jersey PFP case in 2002. Methods We used the standard mouse bioassay (MBA), receptor binding assay (RBA), mouse neuroblastoma cytotoxicity assay (MNCA), Ridascreen ELISA, MIST Alert assay, HPLC, and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) to determine the presence of STX, decarbamoyl STX (dc-STX), and N-sulfocarbamoyl (B1) toxin in puffer fish tissues, clonal cultures, and natural bloom samples of Pyrodinium bahamense from the IRL. Results We found STXs in 516 IRL southern (Sphoeroides nephelus), checkered (Sphoeroides testudineus), and bandtail (Sphoeroides spengleri) puffer fish. During 36 months of monitoring, we detected STXs in skin, muscle, and viscera, with concentrations up to 22,104 ?g STX equivalents (eq)/100 g tissue (action level, 80 ?g STX eq/100 g tissue) in ovaries. Puffer fish tissues, clonal cultures, and natural bloom samples of P. bahamense from the IRL tested toxic in the MBA, RBA, MNCA, Ridascreen ELISA, and MIST Alert assay and positive for STX, dc-STX, and B1 toxin by HPLC and LC-MS. Skin mucus of IRL southern puffer fish captive for 1-year was highly toxic compared to Florida Gulf coast puffer fish. Therefore, we confirm puffer fish to be a hazardous reservoir of STXs in Florida’s marine waters and implicate the dinoflagellate P. bahamense as the putative toxin source. Conclusions Associated with fatal paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) in the Pacific but not known to be toxic in the western Atlantic, P. bahamense is an emerging public health threat. We propose characterizing this food poisoning syndrome as saxitoxin puffer fish poisoning (SPFP) to distinguish it from PFP, which is traditionally associated with tetrodotoxin, and from PSP caused by STXs in shellfish.

Landsberg, Jan H.; Hall, Sherwood; Johannessen, Jan N.; White, Kevin D.; Conrad, Stephen M.; Abbott, Jay P.; Flewelling, Leanne J.; Richardson, R. William; Dickey, Robert W.; Jester, Edward L.E.; Etheridge, Stacey M.; Deeds, Jonathan R.; Van Dolah, Frances M.; Leighfield, Tod A.; Zou, Yinglin; Beaudry, Clarke G.; Benner, Ronald A.; Rogers, Patricia L.; Scott, Paula S.; Kawabata, Kenji; Wolny, Jennifer L.; Steidinger, Karen A.



Application of LC\\/FLD and LC\\/MS determination on tetrodotoxin accumulated in puffer fish  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tetrodotoxin (TTX) is the toxic principle of puffer fish poisoning, a powerful and specific sodium channel blocker. TTX intoxication of puffer fish is mainly due to the food chain. Some methods including bioassay, liquid chromatography-fluorescence detection (LC\\/FLD) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC\\/MS) are usually used to detect TTX. TTX is accumulated in puffer fish or other species, the liver slices

Ya-Jung Wu


Concentrations of Saxitoxin and Tetrodotoxin in Three Species of Puffers from the Indian River Lagoon, Florida, the Location for Multiple Cases of Saxitoxin Puffer Poisoning from 2002 to 2004  

Microsoft Academic Search

In response to multiple, unexpected cases of saxitoxin poisoning that started in January 2002, southern puffers Sphoeroides nephelus, checkered puffers S. testudineus, and bandtail puffers S. spengleri were collected from April to August 2002 from several locations in the Indian River Lagoon (IRL), Florida. Fish were analyzed for saxitoxin (STX) and tetrodotoxin (TTX) content in muscle, liver, and gonad tissues

Jonathan R. Deeds; Kevin D. White; Stacey M. Etheridge; Jan H. Landsberg



Advisory on Puffer Fish  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... more deadly than cyanide. Symptoms start within 20 minutes to 2 hours after eating the toxic fish. Initial symptoms include ... More results from


Consumer Advisory: Only Eat Puffer Fish from Known Safe ...  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... central nervous system. There are no known antidotes for these toxins. Puffer fish must be cleaned and prepared properly so the organs containing ... More results from,%20outbreaks%20&%20emergencies/safetyalertsadvisories


Toxicity of cultured bullseye puffer fish Sphoeroides annulatus.  


The toxin content in various life cycle stages of tank-cultivated bullseye puffer (Sphoeroides annulatus) were analyzed by mouse bioassay and ESI-MS spectrometry analysis. The presence of toxin content was determined in extracts of sperm, eggs, embryo, larvae, post-larvae, juvenile, pre-adult, and adult fish, as well as in food items used during the cultivation of the species. Our findings show that only the muscle of juveniles, the viscera of pre-adults, and muscle, liver, and gonad of adult specimens were slightly toxic (<1 mouse unit). Thus, cultivated S. annulatus, as occurs with other cultivated puffer fish species, does not represent a food safety risk to consumers. This is the first report of toxin analysis covering the complete life stages of a puffer fish under controlled conditions. PMID:22412804

Nuñez-Vazquez, Erick J; Garcia-Ortega, Armando; Campa-Cordova, Angel I; Abdo de la Parra, Isabel; Ibarra-Martinez, Lilia; Heredia-Tapia, Alejandra; Ochoa, Jose L



Toxicity of Cultured Bullseye Puffer Fish Sphoeroides annulatus  

PubMed Central

The toxin content in various life cycle stages of tank-cultivated bullseye puffer (Sphoeroides annulatus) were analyzed by mouse bioassay and ESI-MS spectrometry analysis. The presence of toxin content was determined in extracts of sperm, eggs, embryo, larvae, post-larvae, juvenile, pre-adult, and adult fish, as well as in food items used during the cultivation of the species. Our findings show that only the muscle of juveniles, the viscera of pre-adults, and muscle, liver, and gonad of adult specimens were slightly toxic (<1 mouse unit). Thus, cultivated S. annulatus, as occurs with other cultivated puffer fish species, does not represent a food safety risk to consumers. This is the first report of toxin analysis covering the complete life stages of a puffer fish under controlled conditions.

Nunez-Vazquez, Erick J.; Garcia-Ortega, Armando; Campa-Cordova, Angel I.; de la Parra, Isabel Abdo; Ibarra-Martinez, Lilia; Heredia-Tapia, Alejandra; Ochoa, Jose L.



Poisoning - fish and shellfish  


Fish poisoning; Dinoflagellate poisoning; Seafood contamination; Paralytic shellfish poisoning; Ciguatera poisoning ... algae and algae-like organisms called dinoflagellates. Small fish that eat the algae become contaminated. If larger ...


Toxicity and toxin identification in Colomesus asellus, an Amazonian (Brazil) freshwater puffer fish  

Microsoft Academic Search

Toxicity and toxin identification in Colomesus asellus, an Amazonian (Brazil) freshwater puffer fish. By using four different techniques—mouse bioassay, ELISA, HPLC and mass spectrometry—we evaluated the toxicity in the extracts of C. asellus, a freshwater puffer fish from the rivers of the Amazon, and identified for the first time the components responsible for its toxicity. The T20G10 monoclonal antibody raised

Joacir Stolarz Oliveira; Solange Cristina Rego Fernandes; Carlos Alberto Schwartz; Carlos Bloch; Jorge Alex Taquita Melo; Osmindo Rodrigues Pires; José Carlos de Freitas



A Tetrodotoxin-Producing Vibrio Strain, LM1, from the Puffer Fish Fugu vermicularis radiatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

identified as members of the genus Vibrio (21). Also, Simidu et al. (29) demonstrated that many species of marine bacteria, including Vibrio spp. (21), Pseudomonas spp. (33), and actino- mycetes (1), produce TTX. Three individual F. vermicularis radiatus puffer fish (male; body weight, 45 g) were collected at Pusan, Korea, in March 1998, transported live to the laboratory, and maintained




Distribution of homologous proteins to puffer fish saxitoxin and tetrodotoxin binding protein in the plasma of puffer fish and among the tissues of Fugu pardalis examined by Western blot analysis.  


Puffer fish saxitoxin and tetrodotoxin binding protein (PSTBP) is a glycoprotein (200 kDa as a dimer) that we previously isolated from the plasma of Fugu pardalis (Yotsu-Yamashita et al., 2001). For the study on functions of PSTBP, here we examined distribution of homologous proteins to PSTBP in the plasma of seven species of puffer fish, and among the tissues of F. pardalis by Western blot analysis probed with a polyclonal IgG against unglycosylated PSTBP1 expressed in Echelichia coli. One or two major positive broad bands were detected at 105-140 kDa molecular weight range in the plasma (0.5 microg protein) of all species of puffer fish tested, while no band was detected in the plasma (5 microg protein) of fish other than puffer fish. Glycopeptidase F treated plasma of all species of puffer fish tested commonly showed the bands at approximately 42 kDa that was consistent to the molecular weight of unglycosylated PSTBP. These data suggest that puffer fish commonly possess glycoproteins homologous to PSTBP, but the sizes of N-glycan are specific to the species. Among soluble protein extracts (5 microg protein) from the tissues of F. pardalis, PSTBP was detected in all tissues examined, most prominently in heart, skin, and gall. PMID:20043937

Yotsu-Yamashita, Mari; Yamaki, Hiroe; Okoshi, Natsumi; Araki, Nao



[Morphological differences and classifications of small spines of puffer fishes].  


The differences among the small spines of 6 species of puffers have been clarified by means of microscopic observation. Small spines of puffers arise from the basement, which is composed of spines protruding from the surface skin, with roots extending horizontally in all directions in the layer under the surface skin. Using the characteristic shapes of the basement, we have classified the puffer group of "Sansaifugu" (Takifugu flavidus) and "Mefugu" (T. obscurus) as Type I and the group of "Shirosabafugu" (Lagocephalus wheeleri), "Kurosabafugu" (L. gloveri), "Dokusabafugu" (L. lunaris) and "Motosabafugu" (L. spadiceus) as Type II. The number of fore and back roots, including the branches at the ends, further varies in each group. The length and width of each root were measured. As a result, similar species within the group comprising "Sansaifugu" (T. flavidus) and "Mefugu" (T. obscurus) and 4 species of the "Sabafugu" (Lagocephalus) group including "Dokusabafugu" (L. lunaris) have been clearly distinguished. We conclude that examination of the shape of the basement of small spines can be an effective identification index. PMID:17892006

Fujimoto, Yoshimichi; Uchida, Kenichi; Oyaizu, Makoto; Hamano, Yonekazu



Quantitative analysis of toxin extracts from various tissues of wild and cultured puffer fish by an electrophysiological method  

Microsoft Academic Search

We observed the effects of the toxin extracted from various tissues of wild and cultured puffer fish on voltage-dependent sodium current (INa) using single rat CA1 neurons, and compared the results with that of tetrodotoxin (TTX). Toxin extracts from wild puffer fish inhibited INa in a dilution-dependent manner, and toxin extracts from liver or ovary produced 300 times greater inhibition

Keita Sasaki; Yasunori Takayama; Tatsuo Tahara; Kensaku Anraku; Yushi Ito; Norio Akaike



Molecular Cloning of Two Cannabinoid Type 1-like Receptor Genes from the Puffer Fish Fugu rubripes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The puffer fish,Fugu rubripes(Fugu), has been proposed as a model vertebrate genome. We have characterized two putative G-protein-coupled receptor encoding genes, FCB1A and FCB1B, obtained by degenerate PCR and low-stringency hybridization of a Fugu genomic library. These two genes show high homology to the human cannabinoid receptor type 1 (HCB1), but very low homology to the type 2 receptor. The

Fuminori Yamaguchi; Alexander D. Macrae; Sydney Brenner



Species Discrimination among Three Kinds of Puffer Fish Using an Electronic Nose Combined with Olfactory Sensory Evaluation  

PubMed Central

Species discrimination among three kinds of puffer fish, Takifugu obscurus, Takifugu flavidus and Takifugu rubripes, was conducted using an electronic nose combined with olfactory sensory evaluation. All data were treated by multivariate data processing based on principal component analysis (PCA) and discriminant factor analysis (DFA). The results showed the discriminant model by PCA method and DFA method. Using PCA and DFA, it was shown that the electronic nose was able to reasonably distinguish between each of the eleven puffer fish groups, with a discrimination index of 85. The olfactory sensory evaluation was undertaken in accordance to Sensory analysis—Methodology—Initiation and training of assessors in the detection and recognition of odors (BS ISO 5496-2006), and the results showed that the evaluation was able to identify puffer fish samples according to their species, geographical origin and age. Results from this analysis demonstrate that the E-nose can be used to complement the discrimination of odors by sensory evaluation from the three species of puffer fish studied here.

Zhang, Meixiu; Wang, Xichang; Liu, Yuan; Xu, Xinglian; Zhou, Guanghong



Puffer fish-based commercial fraud identification in a segment of cytochrome b region by PCR–RFLP analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

To identify the mislabeled or fraudulently substituted toxic puffer fish in thermally processed fish products, a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method using restriction sites and sequence analysis has been developed in this study. A 376-bp fragment of the cytochrome b gene was produced after PCR amplification. Fish tissue samples were prepared under autoclaving conditions at 121°C for 10–90min at 10min

Cheng-Hong Hsieh; Wen-Teish Chang; Hebron C. Chang; Hung-Sheng Hsieh; Yun-Lung Chung; Deng-Fwu Hwang



Ciguatera Fish Poison: A Cholinesterase Inhibitor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The substance responsible for the poisoning effect of ciguatera poison from fish is an anticholinesterase. In rats, mice, and rabbits ciguatera poison causes death by asphyxiation. Protopam chloride with atropine is an effective antidote.

Kwan-Ming Li



Inclusion of blue mussel extract in diets based on fish and soybean meals for tiger puffer Takifugu rubripes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inclusion of the water-soluble fraction of blue mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis as a feed additive was examined with tiger puffer Takifugu rupbripes. The control diet mainly consisted of fish meal, potato starch, and pollack liver oil. Experimental diets were formulated\\u000a to replace 30% and 40% of the fish meal protein with defatted soybean meal (SBM), and were supplemented with 0–20% mussel

Kotaro Kikuchi; Takeshi Furuta



The serotonin 5HT2B receptor from the puffer fish Tetraodon fluviatilis: cDNA cloning, genomic organization and alternatively spliced variants  

Microsoft Academic Search

We cloned the 5-HT2B serotonin receptor from the puffer fish Tetraodon fluviatilis. Two cDNAs differing in length because of the use of alternative polyadenylation sites were isolated. We partly characterized the genomic organization of the 5-HT2B gene and we found two introns conserved in position between the puffer fish and mammals. In addition, four splice variants which would generate truncated

Stefania De Lucchini; Silvia Marracci; Irma Nardi



[Natural toxin poisoning].  


Natural toxin poisoning often occurs when amateur who has no expert knowledge of food collects and cooks the wrong material. In many cases, the symptoms of natural toxin poisoning are mild and the patients recover from illness within a day. However, if the patients have respiratory or neurological symptoms after several hours of intake, the patients must go to hospital immediately. Mushroom poisoning is often reported and puffer fish poisoning is sometimes reported in Japan. PMID:22894079

Tsunematsu, Satoshi



Gill transcriptome response to changes in environmental calcium in the green spotted puffer fish  

PubMed Central

Background Calcium ion is tightly regulated in body fluids and for euryhaline fish, which are exposed to rapid changes in environmental [Ca2+], homeostasis is especially challenging. The gill is the main organ of active calcium uptake and therefore plays a crucial role in the maintenance of calcium ion homeostasis. To study the molecular basis of the short-term responses to changing calcium availability, the whole gill transcriptome obtained by Super Serial Analysis of Gene Expression (SuperSAGE) of the euryhaline teleost green spotted puffer fish, Tetraodon nigroviridis, exposed to water with altered [Ca2+] was analysed. Results Transfer of T. nigroviridis from 10 ppt water salinity containing 2.9 mM Ca2+ to high (10 mM Ca2+ ) and low (0.01 mM Ca2+) calcium water of similar salinity for 2-12 h resulted in 1,339 differentially expressed SuperSAGE tags (26-bp transcript identifiers) in gills. Of these 869 tags (65%) were mapped to T. nigroviridis cDNAs or genomic DNA and 497 (57%) were assigned to known proteins. Thirteen percent of the genes matched multiple tags indicating alternative RNA transcripts. The main enriched gene ontology groups belong to Ca2+ signaling/homeostasis but also muscle contraction, cytoskeleton, energy production/homeostasis and tissue remodeling. K-means clustering identified co-expressed transcripts with distinct patterns in response to water [Ca2+] and exposure time. Conclusions The generated transcript expression patterns provide a framework of novel water calcium-responsive genes in the gill during the initial response after transfer to different [Ca2+]. This molecular response entails initial perception of alterations, activation of signaling networks and effectors and suggests active remodeling of cytoskeletal proteins during the initial acclimation process. Genes related to energy production and energy homeostasis are also up-regulated, probably reflecting the increased energetic needs of the acclimation response. This study is the first genome-wide transcriptome analysis of fish gills and is an important resource for future research on the short-term mechanisms involved in the gill acclimation responses to environmental Ca2+ changes and osmoregulation.



Claudin-8 and -27 tight junction proteins in puffer fish Tetraodon nigroviridis acclimated to freshwater and seawater.  


Genes encoding for claudin-8 and -27 tight junction proteins in the euryhaline puffer fish (Tetraodon nigroviridis) were identified using its recently sequenced genome. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that multiple genes encoding for claudin-8 proteins (designated Tncldn8a, Tncldn8b, Tncldn8c and Tncldn8d) arose by tandem gene duplication. In contrast, both tandem and whole genome duplication events appear to have generated genes encoding for claudin-27 proteins (designated Tncldn27a, Tncldn27b, Tncldn27c and Tncldn27d). Tncldn8 and Tncldn27 mRNA were widely distributed in Tetraodon, suggesting involvement in various physiological processes. All Tncldn8 and Tncldn27 genes were expressed in gill and skin tissue (i.e., epithelia exposed directly to the external environment). A potential role for claudin-8 and -27 proteins in the regulation of hydromineral balance in Tetraodon was investigated by examining alterations in mRNA abundance in select ionoregulatory tissue of fish acclimated to freshwater (FW) and seawater (SW). In FW or SW, Tetraodon exhibited alterations in Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity (a correlate of transcellular transport) typical of a euryhaline teleost fish. Simultaneously, tissue and gene specific alterations in Tncldn8 and Tncldn27 transcript abundance occurred. These data provide some insight into the duplication history of cldn8 and cldn27 genes in fishes and suggest a possible role for claudin-8 and -27 proteins in the osmoregulatory strategies of euryhaline teleosts. PMID:19112569

Bagherie-Lachidan, Mazdak; Wright, Stephen I; Kelly, Scott P



Ciguatera fish poisoning--Texas, 1997.  


On October 21, 1997, the Southeast Texas Poison Center was contacted by a local physician requesting information about treatment for crew members of a cargo ship docked in Freeport, Texas, who were ill with nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and muscle weakness. This report summarizes an investigation of this outbreak by the Texas Department of Health (TDH), which indicated that 17 crew members experienced ciguatera fish poisoning resulting from eating a contaminated barracuda. PMID:9733416



Ciguatera fish poisoning. A southern California epidemic.  

PubMed Central

Ciguatera fish poisoning results from the bioconcentration of a variety of toxins produced by marine dinoflagellates. Signs and symptoms vary widely, but it usually presents as gastrointestinal and neurologic complaints beginning shortly after the ingestion of fish containing the toxins. Symptoms may persist for months and sometimes even years. Although cases have been reported throughout the United States, epidemics are most common along tropical and subtropical coasts and usually involve the ingestion of large carnivorous fish. We review the literature and report the first epidemic of 25 cases of ciguatera fish poisoning presenting to area hospitals in Southern California that were successfully tracked by the Department of Health Services and isolated to fish caught off the coast of Baja California, Mexico. Images Figure 1.

Barton, E D; Tanner, P; Turchen, S G; Tunget, C L; Manoguerra, A; Clark, R F



Naturally Occurring Fish Poisons from Plants  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The fish poisons derived from plants used throughout the world, not only as piscicides but also for a range of other uses, including insecticident and in folk medicines, is presented. The aim of this review is to provide a useful background for students interested in natural products.|

Cannon, Jonathan G.; Burton, Robert A.; Wood, Steven G.; Owen, Noel L.



Tropical fish poisoning in temperate climates: food poisoning from ciguatera toxin presenting in Avonmouth.  


Ciguatera toxin causes a range of gastrointestinal, cardiovascular and neurological symptoms that occur within 1-6 h of ingesting fish with the toxin and can last for days, months or years. It is a well-recognized problem in the tropics. Avon Health Protection Team investigated food poisoning on a ship at Avonmouth, which was thought by the crew to be related to a white snapper fish from the Caribbean. The symptoms were initially thought to be scombroid fish poisoning but were consistent with ciguatera fish poisoning. Cases of fish poisoning from fish imported from the Caribbean and Pacific or travellers returning from tropical countries may be ciguatera fish poisoning, but mistakenly diagnosed as scombroid fish poisoning. PMID:17052991

Kipping, Ruth; Eastcott, Howard; Sarangi, Joyshri



[Scombroid poisoning after eating tuna fish].  


On two separate occasions, a total of eight subjects ate tuna fish. Three out of four persons in the first case (a father aged 54, a mother aged 51 and a daughter aged 24 years) and one out of four persons in the second case (a 28-year-old woman) experienced erythema, respiratory distress and diarrhoea shortly after eating the fish. These symptoms are indicative of scombrotoxic fish poisoning. Histamine is produced in the muscle tissue of scombroid fish, such as tuna or mackerel, if it is kept at a temperature which is too high. Since the concentration of histamine is not evenly distributed through the fish's flesh, not everyone who eats the same fish will become ill to the same extent, and some may not even become ill at all. Furthermore, since the complaints are often mild and of short duration, most patients do not seek medical help, and probably few cases are officially reported. Despite the fact that sometimes only one person from a group of people eating the same fish becomes ill, and that the clinical complaints resemble an IgE-mediated allergic reaction, the illness is a food-borne intoxication with exogenous histamine. Therefore, patients can safely eat the same type of fish again. PMID:11793831

Schornagel, I J; ten Kate, R W



Ciguatera Fish Poisoning: Treatment, Prevention and Management  

PubMed Central

Ciguatera Fish Poisoning (CFP) is the most frequently reported seafood-toxin illness in the world, and it causes substantial physical and functional impact. It produces a myriad of gastrointestinal, neurologic and/or cardiovascular symptoms which last days to weeks, or even months. Although there are reports of symptom amelioration with some interventions (e.g. IV mannitol), the appropriate treatment for CFP remains unclear to many physicians. We review the literature on the treatments for CFP, including randomized controlled studies and anecdotal reports. The article is intended to clarify treatment options, and provide information about management and prevention of CFP, for emergency room physicians, poison control information providers, other health care providers, and patients.

Friedman, Melissa A.; Fleming, Lora E.; Fernandez, Mercedes; Bienfang, Paul; Schrank, Kathleen; Dickey, Robert; Bottein, Marie-Yasmine; Backer, Lorraine; Ayyar, Ram; Weisman, Richard; Watkins, Sharon; Granade, Ray; Reich, Andrew



Bad Fish, Bad Bird Neurotoxin Poisoning from Fish and Fowl  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This "clicker case" is based on the General Biology edition of James Hewlett’s “Bad Fish” case in our collection. The case follows the story of biologist Dr. Westwood, who is accidentally poisoned, first while traveling in Asia and then in the South Pacific. Students learn about Dr. Westwood’s experiences and about nerve cell physiology—focusing especially on the role of ion channels in maintaining and changing electrical gradients across the cell membrane (resting potential and action potentials). They then apply what they learn in each part of the case to determine the mechanism of neurotoxin poisonings described in the case. The case is presented in class via PowerPoint (~2MB).  Students use personal response systems, or “clickers,” to answer the multiple-choice questions that punctuate the PowerPoint presentation as they explore the underlying mechanism of Dr. Westwood’s poisoning.

Hannam, Kristina



The Relationship of Malathion and Its Metabolites to Fish Poisoning.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study investigated the relation of short-term measurability of malathion and some of its metabolites in fish to poisoning of fish in the laboratory. Data indicated analysis for malathion monoacid in gut and measurement of brain acetylcholinesterase a...

G. H. Cook J. C. Moore D. L. Coppage



Isolation and identification of flavour peptides from Puffer fish (Takifugu obscurus) muscle using an electronic tongue and MALDI-TOF/TOF MS/MS.  


To clarify the key flavour peptides that account for the cooked taste of puffer fish, this study was performed to examine flavour peptides extracted from the flesh of puffer fish (Takifugu obscurus). Peptides fractions (P1, P2, P3, P4 and P5) were purified from an aqueous extract of T. obscurus muscle by ultrafiltration and Sephadex G-15 gel filtration chromatography (GFC). P2 was further fractionated into P2a, P2b, and P2c by reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). Fraction P2b elicited umami and sweet taste. The amino acid sequence of P2b subfraction was identified as Tyr-Gly-Gly-Thr-Pro-Pro-Phe-Val (836.4Da) by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF MS/MS). Hydrophilic amino acids residues Tyr, Gly, Gly, Thr, and Phe are likely to contribute to the umami and sweet taste of this octapeptide. The results of this study suggest this peptide is one of important components of the 'mellowness' and 'tenderness' taste of the T. obscurus. PMID:22953881

Zhang, Mei-Xiu; Wang, Xi-Chang; Liu, Yuan; Xu, Xing-Lian; Zhou, Guang-Hong



Ciguatera Fish Poisoning in the Pacific Islands (1998 to 2008)  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundCiguatera is a type of fish poisoning that occurs throughout the tropics, particularly in vulnerable island communities such as the developing Pacific Island Countries and Territories (PICTs). After consuming ciguatoxin-contaminated fish, people report a range of acute neurologic, gastrointestinal, and cardiac symptoms, with some experiencing chronic neurologic symptoms lasting weeks to months. Unfortunately, the true extent of illness and its

Mark P. Skinner; Tom D. Brewer; Ron Johnstone; Lora E. Fleming; Richard J. Lewis



Epithelial remodeling and claudin mRNA abundance in the gill and kidney of puffer fish (Tetraodon biocellatus) acclimated to altered environmental ion levels.  


In water of varying ion content, the gills and kidney of fishes contribute significantly to the maintenance of salt and water balance. However, little is known about the molecular architecture of the tight junction (TJ) complex and the regulation of paracellular permeability characteristics in these tissues. In the current studies, puffer fish (Tetraodon biocellatus) were acclimated to freshwater (FW), seawater (SW) or ion-poor freshwater (IPW) conditions. Following acclimation, alterations in systemic endpoints of hydromineral status were examined in conjunction with changes in gill and kidney epithelia morphology/morphometrics, as well as claudin TJ protein mRNA abundance. T. biocellatus were able to maintain endpoints of hydromineral status within relatively tight limits across the broad range of water ion content examined. Both gill and kidney tissue exhibited substantial alterations in morphology as well as claudin TJ protein mRNA abundance. These responses were particularly pronounced when comparing fish acclimated to SW versus those acclimated to IPW. TEM observations of IPW-acclimated fish gills revealed the presence of cells that exhibited the typical characteristics of gill mitochondria-rich cells (e.g. voluminous, Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase-immunoreactive, exposed to the external environment at the apical surface), but were not mitochondria-rich. To our knowledge, this type of cell has not previously been described in hyperosmoregulating fish gills. Furthermore, modifications in the morphometrics and claudin mRNA abundance of kidney tissue support the notion that spatial alterations in claudin TJ proteins along the nephron of fishes will likely play an important role in the regulation of salt and water balance in these organisms. PMID:20976602

Duffy, Nicole M; Bui, Phuong; Bagherie-Lachidan, Mazdak; Kelly, Scott P



Ciguatera fish poisoning--Texas, 1998, and South Carolina, 2004.  


Ciguatera fish poisoning is characterized by gastrointestinal symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea and neurologic symptoms such as weakness, tingling, and pruritus (itching). The condition is caused by eating fish containing toxins produced by the dinoflagellate Gambierdiscus toxicus, a one-celled plantlike organism that grows on algae in tropical waters worldwide. Because these toxins are lipid soluble, they accumulate through the food chain as carnivorous fish consume contaminated herbivorous reef fish; toxin concentrations are highest in large, predatory fish such as barracuda, grouper, amberjack, snapper, and shark. Because fish caught in ciguatera-endemic areas are shipped nationwide, ciguatera fish poisoning can occur anywhere in the United States. This report describes ciguatera fish poisoning in four persons (two in 1998, two in 2004) who ate fish caught by recreational fishers in waters outside of ciguatera-endemic areas (e.g., the Caribbean Sea and the Atlantic and Gulf Coast waters off southern Florida). These cases underscore the need for physicians, regardless of whether they are in a ciguatera-endemic area, to consider ciguatera in patients who have gastrointestinal or neurologic symptoms after eating large, predatory fish. PMID:16943762



Tropical fish poisoning in temperate climates: food poisoning from ciguatera toxin presenting in Avonmouth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ciguatera toxin causes a range of gastrointestinal, cardiovascular and neurological symptoms that occur within 1-6 h of ingesting fish with the toxin and can last for days, months or years. It is a well-recognized problem in the tropics. Avon Health Protection Team investigated food poisoning on a ship at Avonmouth, which was thought by the crew to be related to

Ruth Kipping; Howard Eastcott; Joyshri Sarangi



Pathology of selenium poisoning in fish  


As a nutrient, it is required in the diet of fish at concentrations of about 0. 1 to 0. ... of glutathione peroxidase, which is a major cellular antioxidant enzyme. ... Thus, the beneficial effects of proper selenium in the diet of fish are firmly established.


Isolation and structural determination of the first 8-epi-type tetrodotoxin analogs from the newt, Cynops ensicauda popei, and comparison of tetrodotoxin analogs profiles of this newt and the puffer fish, Fugu poecilonotus.  


Identification of new tetrodotoxin (TTX) analogs from TTX-possessing animals might provide insight into its biosynthesis and metabolism. In this study, four new analogs, 8-epi-5,6,11-trideoxyTTX, 4,9-anhydro-8-epi-5,6,11-trideoxyTTX, 1-hydroxy-8-epi-5,6,11-trideoxyTTX, and 1-hydroxy-4,4a-anhydro-8-epi-5,6,11-trideoxyTTX, were isolated from the newt, Cynops ensicauda popei, and their structures were determined using spectroscopic methods. These are the first 8-epi-type analogs of TTX that have been found in a natural source. Furthermore, we examined the composition of the TTX analogs in this newt and in the ovary of the puffer fish, Fugu poecilonotus, using LC/MS. The results indicate that TTX and 11-deoxyTTX were present in both sources. However, 6-epiTTX and 8-epi-type analogs were detected only in the newt, while 5,6,11-trideoxyTTX was a specific and major analog in the puffer fish. Such considerable differences among analog compositions might reflect differences in the biosynthesis or metabolism of TTX between these animals. PMID:22611361

Kudo, Yuta; Yasumoto, Takeshi; Konoki, Keiichi; Cho, Yuko; Yotsu-Yamashita, Mari



Fatal poisoning and other health hazards connected with industrial fishing  

PubMed Central

Dalgaard, J. B., Dencker, F., Fallentin, B., Hansen, P., Kaempe, B., Steensberg, J., and Wilhardt, P. (1972).Brit. J. industr. Med.,29, 307-316. Fatal poisoning and other health hazards connected with industrial fishing. The literature about death and health problems related to work with fish for industrial use is reviewed. Three fatal cases and several instances of unconsciousness or cases of fainting are reported. An investigation was carried out into the composition of the air in the holds and forecastles of Danish industrial-fishing cutters on their arrival at port. The laboratory procedures are described, and the results are reported. In several instances the low concentrations of oxygen and/or high concentrations of carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulphide found were considered to be hazardous to life. The fatalities and sudden loss of consciousness in the reported cases are ascribed to these changes, hypoxia and hypercapnia being the most important causes. The risk of poisoning seems to be greatest during the landing of trash-fish and in fish-meal plants. Persons under the influence of alcohol may, for one reason or another, be particularly susceptible. The most important preventive measure is improvement of the quality of the raw material which would also reduce the nuisance from smell. Two safety belts with ropes should be provided in the vessels and close to the pits in the fish-meal plants. Fishermen should leave the vessel after arrival in port and not return until after unloading has been completed. During unloading and in the factories, effective mechanical ventilation is essential. Apparatus to monitor the concentrations of oxygen, carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulphide, and ammonia should be available in the fishing ports, and cases of accident, including mere `faintings', should be subjected to prompt medical and technical investigation. From the occupational medical aspect, fishermen are in a less satisfactory situation than workers on shore. An occupational health service, including pre-employment and periodic examinations of personnel and working conditions, is recommended. Images

Dalgaard, J. B.; Dencker, F.; Fallentin, B.; Hansen, P.; Kaempe, B.; Steensberg, J.; Wilhardt, P.



Emerging tropical diseases in Australia. Part 2. Ciguatera fish poisoning.  


Ciguatera poisoning is a food-borne neuro-intoxication caused by consumption of finfish that have accumulated ciguatoxins in their tissues. Ciguatera is a distressing and sometimes disabling condition that presents with a self-limiting though occasionally severe gastro-intestinal illness, progressing to a suite of aberrant sensory symptoms. Recovery can take from days to years; second and subsequent attacks may manifest in a more severe illness. Ciguatera remains largely a pan-tropical disease, although tourism and export fish markets facilitate increased presentation in temperate latitudes. While ciguatera poisoning in the South Pacific was recognised and eloquently described by seafarers in the 18th Century, it remains a public-health challenge in the 21st Century because there is neither a confirmatory diagnostic test nor a reliable, low-cost screening method to ascertain the safety of suspect fish prior to consumption. A specific antidote is not available, so treatment is largely supportive. The most promising pharmacotherapy of recent decades, intravenous mannitol, has experienced a relative decline in acceptance after a randomized, double-blind trial failed to confirm its efficacy. Some questions remain unanswered, however, and the use of mannitol for the treatment of acute ciguatera poisoning arguably deserves revisiting. The immunotoxicology of ciguatera is poorly understood, and some aspects of the epidemiology and symptomatology of ciguatera warrant further enquiry. PMID:21092393

Stewart, I; Lewis, R J; Eaglesham, G K; Graham, G C; Poole, S; Craig, S B



Method of fish management by poison fish bait method of making the bait, and formulation of bait  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A piscicide formulation is combined with fish feed and a target species attractant to form poison oral bait pellets. The pellets are formed to a size and located in the aqueous environment of a fish population in a manner effective in selectively exterminating the target species by ingestion and not by poisoning the aqueous environment.



Ciguatera fish poisoning - New York City, 2010-2011.  


During August 2010-July 2011, the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene (DOHMH) received reports of six outbreaks and one single case of ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP), involving a total of 28 persons. CFP results from consumption of certain large, predatory, tropical reef fish that have bioaccumulated ciguatoxins (CTX). CFP is characterized by various gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, and neurologic symptoms. A prolonged period of acute illness can result, and the neurologic symptoms can last months, with variable asymptomatic and symptomatic periods. The first two outbreaks and the single case, involving 13 persons, were reported during August 6-September 13, 2010. DOHMH distributed a health alert in November 2010 requesting health-care providers be alert for CFP signs and symptoms. The health alert resulted in identification of 11 more cases that month and an additional two outbreaks involving four persons in July 2011. In comparison, only four CFP outbreaks, involving 21 persons total, had been reported in New York City (NYC) during the preceding 10 years (2000-2009). DOHMH's investigation revealed that 13 persons became ill after eating barracuda, and 15 became ill after eating grouper. Although specific and highly sensitive laboratory analyses can detect and confirm CTX in fish, no practical field tests are available for fish monitoring programs. CFP prevention depends on educating the public, seafood suppliers, and distributors about known CFP endemic areas and high-risk fish species. Traceback investigations of fish associated with outbreaks provide valuable information regarding fishing areas associated with CFP. Not all fish from CFP endemic areas are ciguatoxic, but persons who eat fish from endemic regions are at higher risk for CFP. If an illness is suspected to be CFP, public health authorities should be notified and informed of the case history for possible investigation and intervention measures. PMID:23364271



Risk of ciguatera fish poisoning: impact on recommendations to eat more fish.  


Aims - To characterize the risks of Ciguatera Fish Poisoning and to consider whether dietary recommendations need refining in view of those risks. Background - Regular fish consumption has been recommended for both primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. Ciguatera Fish Poisoning (CFP) is the most frequently reported intoxication resulting from fish consumption in Australia. The ciguatoxin are produced by the unicellular Gambierdiscus toxicus, a component of plankton typically associated with bleached coral reefs. The clinical syndrome included gastrointestinal and prominent neurological symptoms. Regular fish consumers may accumulate a subclinical toxin level, and may be at increased risk of developing clinical and/or recurrent CFP. Method - Medline, USDA, AFFA, CSIRO and AHA databases and websites search. Results - Cold water fish species do not constitute a CFP risk and have a favorable long chain n-3 fatty acid profile, (Tuna, Atlantic Salmon, Blue-eye and Sardines). Warm water mackerels and reef fish, particularly Coral Trout pose the most significant CFP risk. Conclusions - Recommendations regarding fish intake ought to include consideration of CFP as risks may outweigh benefits for some fish species. PMID:15023699

Connell, J E; D Colquhoun, D



Optimal Release Locations of Juvenile Ocellate Puffer Takifugu rubripes Identified by Tag and Release Experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

We identified the optimal location for releasing hatchery-produced juveniles of ocellate puffer (Takifugu rubripes) for stock enhancement by tag and release experiments. The fish were released at four areas, Suruga Bay, Enshu Nada, Ise Bay, and Kumano Nada, along the central coast of Honshu Island in Japan from 2001 to 2005. Approximately 10,000–40,000 cultured puffer fish were released in these

Hiroshi Nakajima; Masanobu Kai; Koji Koizumi; Toshiomi Tanaka; Masaharu Machida



Gonadal development and fertility of triploid grass puffer Takifugu niphobles induced by cold shock treatment.  


Tiger puffer Takifugu rubripes is one of the most valuable fish species in Japan; however, there has not been much progress in their selective breeding until recently despite their potential in aquaculture. Their long generation time and the large body size of their broodstock make breeding difficult. Recently, we made a surrogate broodstock, which produced gametes of different species in salmonids. Therefore, by using closely related recipients, which have small body sizes and short generation times, it is possible to accelerate breeding of the tiger puffer. Thus, we considered the grass puffer Takifugu niphobles, which has a short generation time and a small maturation size, as a potential recipient for gamete production of the tiger puffer. Furthermore, if sterile triploid individuals are used as recipients, the resulting surrogate broodstock would produce only donor-derived gametes. Therefore, we examined conditions for inducing triploidy by suppressing meiosis II to retain the second polar body in grass puffer. We found that cold shock treatment, which is 5°C for 30 min starting from 5 min after fertilization, is optimal to obtain high triploidization and hatching rates. Although the resulting triploid grass puffers produced small amounts of gametes in both sexes, the offspring derived from the gametes could not live for over 3 days. Furthermore, we found that triploid grass puffer showed normal plasma sex steroid levels compared with diploids. These are important characteristics of triploid grass puffer as surrogate recipients used for germ cell transplantation. PMID:22842782

Hamasaki, Masaomi; Takeuchi, Yutaka; Miyaki, Kadoo; Yoshizaki, Goro



Cluster of ciguatera fish poisoning--North Carolina, 2007.  


Ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) is a distinctive type of foodborne disease that results from eating predatory ocean fish contaminated with ciguatoxins. As many as 50,000 cases are reported worldwide annually, and the condition is endemic in tropical and subtropical regions of the Pacific basin, Indian Ocean, and Caribbean. In the United States, 5--70 cases per 10,000 persons are estimated to occur yearly in ciguatera-endemic states and territories. CFP can cause gastrointestinal symptoms (nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramps, or diarrhea) within a few hours of eating contaminated fish. Neurologic symptoms, with or without gastrointestinal disturbance, can include fatigue, muscle pain, itching, tingling, and (most characteristically) reversal of hot and cold sensation. This report describes a cluster of nine cases of CFP that occurred in North Carolina in June 2007. Among the nine patients, six experienced reversal of hot and cold sensations, five had neurologic symptoms only, and overall symptoms persisted for more than 6 months in three patients. Among seven patients who were sexually active, six patients also complained of painful intercourse. This report highlights the potential risks of eating contaminated ocean fish. Local and state health departments can train emergency and urgent care physicians in the recognition of CFP and make them aware that symptoms can persist for months to years. PMID:19325530



Cardiovascular Complications in Ciguatera Fish Poisoning: A Wake-up Call.  


Ciguatera fish poisoning occurs with ingestion of fish containing ciguatoxin. It causes a clinical syndrome that comprises classic gastrointestinal, neurological and cardiovascular symptoms. Ciguatoxin is a sodium channel agonist with cholinergic and adrenergic activity. Although cardiovascular symptoms are rare with ciguatoxin, we report two cases with bradycardia and hypotension. Fatality and long-term sequelae are not uncommon with ciguatoxin poisoning and educating the general population is essential. PMID:22574244

Senthilkumaran, Subramanian; Meenakshisundaram, Ramachandran; Michaels, Andrew D; Suresh, Ponnuswamy; Thirumalaikolundusubramanian, Ponniah



Cardiovascular Complications in Ciguatera Fish Poisoning: A Wake-up Call  

PubMed Central

Ciguatera fish poisoning occurs with ingestion of fish containing ciguatoxin. It causes a clinical syndrome that comprises classic gastrointestinal, neurological and cardiovascular symptoms. Ciguatoxin is a sodium channel agonist with cholinergic and adrenergic activity. Although cardiovascular symptoms are rare with ciguatoxin, we report two cases with bradycardia and hypotension. Fatality and long-term sequelae are not uncommon with ciguatoxin poisoning and educating the general population is essential.

Senthilkumaran, Subramanian; Meenakshisundaram, Ramachandran; Michaels, Andrew D.; Suresh, Ponnuswamy; Thirumalaikolundusubramanian, Ponniah



Ciguatera Fish Poisoning in the Pacific Islands (1998 to 2008)  

PubMed Central

Background Ciguatera is a type of fish poisoning that occurs throughout the tropics, particularly in vulnerable island communities such as the developing Pacific Island Countries and Territories (PICTs). After consuming ciguatoxin-contaminated fish, people report a range of acute neurologic, gastrointestinal, and cardiac symptoms, with some experiencing chronic neurologic symptoms lasting weeks to months. Unfortunately, the true extent of illness and its impact on human communities and ecosystem health are still poorly understood. Methods A questionnaire was emailed to the Health and Fisheries Authorities of the PICTs to quantify the extent of ciguatera. The data were analyzed using t-test, incidence rate ratios, ranked correlation, and regression analysis. Results There were 39,677 reported cases from 17 PICTs, with a mean annual incidence of 194 cases per 100,000 people across the region from 1998–2008 compared to the reported annual incidence of 104/100,000 from 1973–1983. There has been a 60% increase in the annual incidence of ciguatera between the two time periods based on PICTs that reported for both time periods. Taking into account under-reporting, in the last 35 years an estimated 500,000 Pacific islanders might have suffered from ciguatera. Conclusions This level of incidence exceeds prior ciguatera estimates locally and globally, and raises the status of ciguatera to an acute and chronic illness with major public health significance. To address this significant public health problem, which is expected to increase in parallel with environmental change, well-funded multidisciplinary research teams are needed to translate research advances into practical management solutions.

Skinner, Mark P.; Brewer, Tom D.; Johnstone, Ron; Fleming, Lora E.; Lewis, Richard J.



Ciguatera fish poisoning and sea surface temperatures in the Caribbean Sea and the West Indies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) is a circumtropical disease caused by ingestion of a variety of reef fish that bioaccumulate algal toxins. Distribution and abundance of the organisms that produce these toxins, chiefly dinoflagellates of the genus Gambierdiscus, are reported to correlate positively with water temperature. Consequently, there is growing concern that increasing temperatures associated with climate change could increase the

Patricia A. Tester; Rebecca L. Feldman; Amy W. Nau; Steven R. Kibler; R. Wayne Litaker



Study of an outbreak of ciguatera fish poisoning in Hong Kong  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) has been a significant and increasing public health problem in Hong Kong since 1980s. With growing demand for imported live coral fishes, the number of people who suffered from this disease has also been increasing. An outbreak of CFP in 2004 was the second most prominent in record as compared with the most significant one that

Chun-Kwan Wong; Patricia Hung; Kellie L. H. Lee; Kai-Man Kam



Food poisoning  


... proper temperature or are not reheated properly Raw fish or oysters Raw fruits or vegetables that have ... poisoning, including: Campylobacter enteritis Cholera E. coli enteritis Fish poisoning Staphylococcus aureus Salmonella Shigella Infants and elderly ...


Removal of toxin (tetrodotoxin) from puffer ovary by traditional fermentation.  


The amounts of puffer toxin (tetrodotoxin, TTX) extracted from the fresh and the traditional Japanese salted and fermented "Nukazuke" and "Kasuzuke" ovaries of Takifugu stictonotus (T. stictonotus) were quantitatively analyzed in the voltage-dependent sodium current (I(Na)) recorded from mechanically dissociated single rat hippocampal CA1 neurons. The amount of TTX contained in "Nukazuke" and "Kasuzuke" ovaries decreased to 1/50-1/90 times of that of fresh ovary during a salted and successive fermented period over a few years. The final toxin concentration after fermentation was almost close to the TTX level extracted from T. Rubripes" fresh muscle that is normally eaten. It was concluded that the fermented "Nukazuke" and "Kasuzuke" ovaries of puffer fish T. Stictonotus are safe and harmless as food. PMID:23334671

Anraku, Kensaku; Nonaka, Kiku; Yamaga, Toshitaka; Yamamoto, Takatoshi; Shin, Min-Chul; Wakita, Masahito; Hamamoto, Ayaka; Akaike, Norio



Removal of Toxin (Tetrodotoxin) from Puffer Ovary by Traditional Fermentation  

PubMed Central

The amounts of puffer toxin (tetrodotoxin, TTX) extracted from the fresh and the traditional Japanese salted and fermented “Nukazuke” and “Kasuzuke” ovaries of Takifugu stictonotus (T. stictonotus) were quantitatively analyzed in the voltage-dependent sodium current (INa) recorded from mechanically dissociated single rat hippocampal CA1 neurons. The amount of TTX contained in “Nukazuke” and “Kasuzuke” ovaries decreased to 1/50–1/90 times of that of fresh ovary during a salted and successive fermented period over a few years. The final toxin concentration after fermentation was almost close to the TTX level extracted from T. Rubripes” fresh muscle that is normally eaten. It was concluded that the fermented “Nukazuke” and “Kasuzuke” ovaries of puffer fish T. Stictonotus are safe and harmless as food.

Anraku, Kensaku; Nonaka, Kiku; Yamaga, Toshitaka; Yamamoto, Takatoshi; Shin, Min-Chul; Wakita, Masahito; Hamamoto, Ayaka; Akaike, Norio



Scombroid fish poisoning associated with tuna steaks--Louisiana and Tennessee, 2006.  


Scombroid fish poisoning is an acute illness that occurs after eating fish containing high levels of histamine or other biogenic amines. Symptoms typically include facial flushing, sweating, rash, a burning or peppery taste in the mouth, diarrhea, and abdominal cramps and usually resolve within several hours without medical intervention. More severe symptoms (e.g., respiratory distress, swelling of the tongue and throat, and blurred vision) can occur and require medical treatment with antihistamines. In late 2006, two outbreaks of scombroid fish poisoning occurred, one in Louisiana and one in Tennessee. To determine the source of the outbreaks and to implement control measures, CDC and the state health departments in Louisiana and Tennessee conducted epidemiologic investigations, and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) conducted traceback investigations of the product. This report describes the results of those investigations, which indicated that the outbreaks in Louisiana and Tennessee were associated with tuna steaks from Indonesia and Vietnam, respectively. The majority of seafood eaten in the United States is imported. FDA programs to identify and prevent seafood hazards such as scombroid fish poisoning have made substantial progress but are able to inspect only a small proportion of seafood entering the United States. The only effective method for prevention of scombroid fish poisoning is consistent temperature control of fish at



A case of histamine fish poisoning in a young atopic woman.  


Histamine fish poisoning, also known as scombroid poisoning, is a histamine toxicity syndrome that results from eating specific types of spoiled fish. Although typically a benign syndrome, characterized by self-limited flushing, headache, and gastrointestinal symptoms, we describe a case unique in its severity and as a precipitant of an asthma exacerbation. A 25-year-old woman presented to the emergency department (ED) with one hour of tongue and face swelling, an erythematous pruritic rash, and dyspnea with wheezing after consuming a tuna sandwich. She developed abdominal pain, diarrhea and hypotension in the ED requiring admission to the hospital. A diagnosis of histamine fish poisoning was made and the patient was treated supportively and discharged within 24 hours, but was readmitted within 3 hours due to an asthma exacerbation. Her course was complicated by recurrent admissions for asthma exacerbations. PMID:22331402

Wilson, Ben J; Musto, Richard J; Ghali, William A



Are cyanobacteria involved in Ciguatera Fish Poisoning-like outbreaks in New Caledonia?  

Microsoft Academic Search

From 2001 to 2005, numerous cases of seafood poisonings were reported in a tribe from Lifou (Loyalty Islands Province, New Caledonia) of which 35 were thoroughly examined. Observations outlined by the epidemiological and clinical data (including severity and rapid onset of certain symptoms following consumption of either giant clams (Tridacna spp.) or grazing and molluscivorous fish together with the apparent

Dominique Laurent; Anne-Sophie Kerbrat; H. Taiana Darius; Emmanuelle Girard; Stjepko Golubic; Evelyne Benoit; Martin-Pierre Sauviat; Mireille Chinain; Jordi Molgo; Serge Pauillac



Dead bleached coral provides new surfaces for dinoflagellates implicated in ciguatera fish poisonings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synopsis Dead sections of bleached corals in the United States Virgin Islands and British Virgin Islands were found to be colonized by filamentous algae harboring epiphytic dinoflagellates implicated in ciguatera fish poisonings. The dinoflagellates Ostreopsis lenticularis, Prorocentrum concavum, and P. lima were found in association with filamentous algae growing on dead sections of bleached Montastrea annularis and Acropora cervicornis. Several

Susan T. Kohlerl; Christopher C. Kohler



Semiquantitative mercury determination in fish: a tool for poisoning prevention.  


Human exposure to mercury intoxication through contaminated fish ingestion has been well studied, mainly among Japanese population. The Brazilian population, particularly in the Amazon region, is now in focus due to findings of fish contamination. Major health impacts caused by mercury affect mostly people who have a regular fish diet. A continuous checking for mercury content in the most consumed fish could prevent human intoxication. A simple, non-instrumental method to allow a continuous checking of the mercury content in fish was developed. Based on this method, we are proposing a prevention action where community agents can be trained to perform fish analysis. Technical Schools and Universities located nearby the affected areas would be in charge of quality control programs for the fish analysis as well as for the selection, training and update for operators. PMID:11960187

Yallouz, Allegra V; Calixto, Tatiana; Hacon, Sandra



Tetrodotoxin poisoning due to smooth-backed blowfish, Lagocephalus inermis and the toxicity of L. inermis caught off the Kyushu coast, Japan.  


Food poisoning due to ingestion of a puffer fish occurred in Nagasaki Prefecture, Japan, in October 2008, causing neurotoxic symptoms similar to those of tetrodotoxin (TTX) poisoning. In the present study, we identified the species, toxicity, and toxins using the remaining samples of the causative puffer fish. The puffer fish was identified as smooth-backed blowfish Lagocephalus inermis by nucleotide sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA and cytochrome b gene fragments of muscle mitochondrial DNA. The residual liver sample showed toxicity as high as 1,230 mouse unit (MU)/g by bioassay and TTX was detected by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis. We therefore concluded that the food poisoning was due to TTX caused by consumption of the toxic liver of L. inermis. This is the first report that the liver of L. inermis caught in Japanese waters is strongly toxic, with levels exceeding 1,000 MU/g. In this context, we re-examined the toxicity of L. inermis collected off the coast of Japan. Of 13 specimens assayed, 12 were toxic, although the toxicity varied markedly among individuals and tissues. Because the intestine and ovary of L. inermis have been considered non-toxic, it is particularly noteworthy that these organs were determined to be toxic, with a maximum toxicity of 43.6 MU/g and 10.0 MU/g, respectively. Furthermore, kidney, gallbladder, and spleen, whose toxicity has been unknown, were frequently found to be weakly toxic with levels ranging from 10 to 99 MU/g. Therefore, further study is needed to re-examine the toxicity of smooth-backed blowfish L. inermis in the coastal waters of Japan. PMID:22688023

Nagashima, Yuji; Matsumoto, Takuya; Kadoyama, Keisuke; Ishizaki, Shoichiro; Taniyama, Shigeto; Takatani, Tomohiro; Arakawa, Osamu; Terayama, Makoto



The effects of natural disturbances, reef state, and herbivorous fish densities on ciguatera poisoning in Rarotonga, southern Cook Islands.  


Ciguatera poisoning is a critical public-health issue among Pacific island nations. Accurately predicting ciguatera outbreaks has become a priority, particularly in Rarotonga in the southern Cook Islands, which has reported the highest incidence of ciguatera poisoning globally. Since 2006, however, cases of ciguatera poisoning have declined, and in 2011 ciguatera cases were the lowest in nearly 20 years. Here we examined the relationships between cases of ciguatera poisoning, from 1994 to 2011, and: (i) coral cover, used as a proxy of reef state, (ii) the densities of herbivorous fishes, and (iii) reef disturbances. We found that coral cover was not a good predictor of cases of ciguatera poisoning, but high densities of the herbivorous fish Ctenochaetus striatus and reef disturbances were both strong predictors of ciguatera poisoning. Yet these two predictors were correlated, because the densities of C. striatus increased only after major cyclones had disturbed the reefs. Since 2006, the number of cyclones has decreased considerably in Rarotonga, because of the climatic shift toward the negative phase of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation. We suggest that fewer cyclones have led to decreases in both the densities of C. striatus and of the number of reported cases of ciguatera poisoning in Rarotonga. PMID:23313379

Rongo, Teina; van Woesik, Robert



A review of traditional remedies of ciguatera fish poisoning in the Pacific.  


Ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) is an illness caused by eating tropical coral fish contaminated with ciguatoxins (CTXs). The clinical management of patients with CFP is generally supportive and symptomatic in nature as no antidote exists. Of the many drugs prescribed, several have been claimed to be efficient in small, uncontrolled studies, but the outcomes of treatments with these medicines are often contradictory. In New Caledonia, traditional remedies are commonly employed in the treatment of CFP and of the 90 plant species catalogued as useful in CFP, the most popular herbal remedy by far is a decoction prepared from the leaves of Heliotropium foertherianum Diane & Hilger (Boraginaceae). Other important plants used in the treatment of CFP include Euphorbia hirta L. (Euphorbiaceae) and Vitex L. sp. (Lamiaceae). This review focuses on the evidence for efficacy of these species and pharmacological studies which support their use. Other plants used in CFP and the conventional treatment of CFP are also discussed briefly. PMID:21287650

Kumar-Roiné, Shilpa; Taiana Darius, H; Matsui, Mariko; Fabre, Nicolas; Haddad, Mohamed; Chinain, Mireille; Pauillac, Serge; Laurent, Dominique



Clinical features of ciguatera fish poisoning: a study of the disease in the US Virgin Islands.  


Clinical data were obtained on 33 patients involved in 27 episodes of ciguatera fish poisoning occurring during a 14-week period on St Thomas in the US Virgin Islands. All patients had gastrointestinal tract symptoms, with 30 patients (91%) complaining of diarrhea and 23 patients (70%) complaining of vomiting; these symptoms occurred early in the disease and were of short duration. Twenty-three patients (70%) complained of malaise, and 19 patients (58%) had pain and weakness in the lower extremities. Dysesthesias were noted by 19 patients (58%); the median duration of dysesthesias was two weeks or more, with symptoms present is some cases for more than two months. Cardiovascular signs and symptoms, including both hypotension and bradycardia were noted in some acute cases. Therapy included antidiarrheal and antiemetic agents, intravenous fluids, atropine, and pralidoxime chloride. Efficacy of pralidoxime therapy could not be established on the basis of our data. PMID:7201299

Morris, J G; Lewin, P; Hargrett, N T; Smith, C W; Blake, P A; Schneider, R



Ciguatera fish poisoning and sea surface temperatures in the Caribbean Sea and the West Indies.  


Ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) is a circumtropical disease caused by ingestion of a variety of reef fish that bioaccumulate algal toxins. Distribution and abundance of the organisms that produce these toxins, chiefly dinoflagellates of the genus Gambierdiscus, are reported to correlate positively with water temperature. Consequently, there is growing concern that increasing temperatures associated with climate change could increase the incidence of CFP. This concern prompted experiments on the growth rates of six Gambierdiscus species at temperatures between 18 degrees C and 33 degrees C and the examination of sea surface temperatures in the Caribbean and West Indies for areas that could sustain rapid Gambierdiscus growth rates year-round. The thermal optimum for five of six Gambierdiscus species tested was >/=29 degrees C. Long-term SST data from the southern Gulf of Mexico indicate the number of days with sea surface temperatures >/=29 degrees C has nearly doubled (44 to 86) in the last three decades. To determine how the sea surface temperatures and Gambierdiscus growth data correlate with CFP incidences in the Caribbean, a literature review and a uniform, region-wide survey (1996-2006) of CFP cases were conducted. The highest CFP incidence rates were in the eastern Caribbean where water temperatures are warmest and least variable. PMID:20206196

Tester, Patricia A; Feldman, Rebecca L; Nau, Amy W; Kibler, Steven R; Wayne Litaker, R



Scombroid poisoning: A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scombroid poisoning, also called histamine fish poisoning, is an allergy-like form of food poisoning that continues to be a major problem in seafood safety. The exact role of histamine in scombroid poisoning is not straightforward. Deviations from the expected dose-response have led to the advancement of various possible mechanisms of toxicity, none of them proven. Histamine action levels are used

James M. Hungerford



Impact of chronic lead poisoning on the hematological and biochemical profiles of a fish, Barbus conchonius (Ham)  

SciTech Connect

The contamination of natural waters by lead is mostly caused by a variety of anthropogenic activities related to increased mining operations and industrial uses of this metal. Adverse effects of lead poisoning in the fishes have been reported with references to both hematological and biochemical variables. The aim of present investigation was to study the effects of chronically administered sublethal levels of inorganic lead on the hematological and biochemical profiles of widely distributed freshwater fish, Barbus conchonius. The variables such as erythrocyte numbers, hemoglobin, hematocrit, mean corpuscular volume, blood glucose, glycogen in liver, skeletal muscles, and myocardium, and cholesterol in blood, liver, ovary, and testes were evaluated.

Tewari, H.; Gill, S.T.; Pant, J.



Weaning of bullseye puffer ( Sphoeroides annulatus ) from live food to microparticulate diets made with decapsulated cysts of Artemia and fishmeal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two experiments were carried out to test microparticulate diets forweaning hatchery-produced larvae and juveniles of bullseye pufferSphoeroides annulatus. The diets were formulated with differentprotein sources: diet 1 with a combination of decapsulated cysts ofArtemia and fishmeal, and diet 2 with a combination offishmeal, squid, tuna gonad and shrimp meal. In the first experiment60-days-old fish were weaned with the microdiets over

A. García-Ortega; I. Abdo; C. Hernández



Ciguatera fish poisoning and environmental change: a case for strengthening health surveillance in the Pacific?  


Ciguatera Fish Poisoning (CFP), a significant public health problem in the Pacific, is intrinsically linked to the health of coral reef ecosystems. Incidence data on CFP could therefore be used, in theory, as indicators of disruption to coral reefs. Some disruptions, such as increasing sea surface temperatures, result from global environmental change--therefore suggesting that CFP is likely to become an increasing public health problem in the region. The proactive management of increasing numbers of cases will depend on an understanding of the ecology of the disease, sound health surveillance systems to report cases of CFP including appropriate case definitions, and quantifiable correlations between case numbers and environmental variables. Here, we briefly review the knowledge about these components in Pacific Island Countries and Territories (PICTs), including summarising regional variation in symptoms of CFP cases, investigating media as an enhanced surveillance tool, and summarising regional environmental drivers of CFP cases. We conclude that CFP could be an important indicator of the health of reef ecosystems in the face of global climate change and more novel approaches such as combining environmental and health data, need to be implemented to improve surveillance of CFP. PMID:21714346

Derne, Bonnie; Fearnley, Emily; Goater, Sarah; Carter, Karen; Weinstein, Philip



Occurrence of toxins, other than paralysing type, in the skin of tetraodontiformes fish  

Microsoft Academic Search

Puffer fish (Tetraodontidae and Diodontidae) possess paralysing toxins (tetrodotoxin and analogues) that are secreted upon stimulation. In a previous work it was demonstrated that mucous secretion from the puffer fish Sphoeroides spengleri, when mixed in sea water passing through the orobranchial cavity of groupers, induced cardiorespiratory alterations. In the present study, skin secretions from Ciclichthys spinosus, S. spengleri and Diodon

Elena L. A Malpezzi; JoséCarlos De Freitas; Francisco Tadeu Rantin



Mucus pH of the tiger puffer Takifugu rubripes is an important factor for host identification by the monogenean Heterobothrium okamotoi.  


We examined a host-finding factor of the monogenean Heterobothrium okamotoi oncomiracidia to develop an alternative prophylaxis. H. okamotoi oncomiracidia attached preferentially to gill filaments and skin mucus from the tiger puffer Takifugu rubripes compared with corresponding material from other tested fishes (amber jack Seriola dumerili, red sea bream Pagrus major, Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus and spotted halibut Verasper variegatus). The body mucus pH of the tiger puffer was 6.40 +/- 0.09 (mean +/- S.D.), whereas that for the other tested fishes was 7.2-7.4. To find if this difference in pH could account for the specific targeting of tiger puffer by H. okamotoi oncomiracidia, the attachment response of the oncomiracidia to pieces of agar buffered at various pH between 6.0 and 7.4 was examined. The number of attaching oncomiracidia was maximal at pH 6.4. We produced gynogenetic tiger puffers from a single female. These gynogenetic individuals showed a variety of body mucus pH and they were exposed to the oncomiracidia. Thirteen days after exposure, more young H. okamotoi were found on the gills of gynogenetic tiger puffer with mucus at pH 6.3-6.6, than on gills of fish with mucus at pH 6.0-6.3 and 6.6-7.2. H. okamotoi exploits the body mucus pH to identify the host. The simplicity of pH as a lure may lead to development of a simple and economical method to control H. okamotoi outbreaks. PMID:12964825

Hirazawa, N; Oshima, S; Mitsuboshi, T; Yamashita, S



Analysis of toxin profiles in three different fish species causing ciguatera fish poisoning in Guadeloupe, French West Indies  

Microsoft Academic Search

A grey snapper (Lutjanus griseus), a grouper (Serranidae) and a black jack (Caranx lugubris) were implicated in three different ciguatera poisonings in Guadeloupe, French West Indies. A mouse bioassay indicated toxicity for each specimens: 0.5–1, ? 1 and > 1 MUg g, respectively. After purification by gel filtration chromatography, the samples were analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to mass

I. Pottier; J. P. Vernoux; A. Jones; R. J. Lewis



Fish faddism causing low-level mercury poisoning in the Caribbean: two case reports  

PubMed Central

Two otherwise healthy middle-aged males presented with persistent abdominal and lower- back pain, progressive weakness, paraesthesias, fatigue and weight loss over 8-12 months. Extensive work-up failed to localize organ pathology. Both men, strongly aware of the nutritional benefits of fish had a diet dedicated of canned and fresh fish. Raised blood mercury levels confirmed clinical suspicion and serial levels declined with symptom resolution after excluding dietary fish. To gain reported health benefits of fish as a healthy food modest consumption is encouraged. Efforts to monitor fish consumption and mercury residues in fish are recommended in Trinidad and Tobago.



Molecular neuroendocrine basis of lunar-related spawning in grass puffer.  


Grass puffer, Takifugu niphobles, exhibits unique spawning behavior: it spawns on beach in semilunar cycles during spring tide in early summer. The fish aggregate at certain seashore locations several hours before high tide every two weeks. To explore the molecular and neuroendocrine mechanisms underlying the regulation of the lunar-related spawning rhythm, seasonal and cyclic variations in gene expression for hypothalamic neuropeptides related to reproduction were examined by quantitative real-time PCR. The expression levels of genes for gonadotropin-releasing hormone, kisspeptin, LPXRFamide peptide and PQRFamide peptide in the hypothalamus varied differently depending on reproductive stage and gender, suggesting their specific roles in reproduction. In the spawning period, the expression levels of LPXRFamide peptide and its receptor genes showed diurnal and circadian variations in association with the expression of four subtypes of melatonin receptor genes. Together with the nocturnal secretion of melatonin from the pineal gland, melatonin may play an important role in transmitting the photoperiodic information of moonlight to the reproductive neuroendocrine center in the hypothalamus of grass puffer. PMID:22884736

Ando, Hironori; Shahjahan, Md; Hattori, Atsuhiko



Revisiting the association between sea surface temperature and the epidemiology of fish poisoning in the South Pacific: Reassessing the link between ciguatera and climate change  

Microsoft Academic Search

The most detailed dataset of ciguatera intensity is that produced by the South Pacific Epidemiological and Health Information Service (SPEHIS) of the Secretariat of the Pacific Community. The SPEHIS fish poisoning database has been previously analysed yielding statistically significant correlations between the Southern Oscillation Index (SOI) and ciguatera case numbers in several countries raising concerns this affliction will increase as

Lyndon E. Llewellyn



Ability of some plant extracts, traditionally used to treat ciguatera fish poisoning, to prevent the in vitro neurotoxicity produced by sodium channel activators  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of 31 plant extracts, which most are traditionally used to treat ciguatera fish poisoning in the Pacific area, were studied on the cytotoxicity of mouse neuroblastoma cells produced by ouabain, veratridine and\\/or brevetoxin-3 or Pacific ciguatoxin-1. The cell viability was determined using a quantitative colorimetric method. A marked cytotoxicity of seven of the 31 plant extracts studied, was

Raphaële Boydron-Le Garrec; Evelyne Benoit; Martin-Pierre Sauviat; Richard J. Lewis; Jordi Molgó; Dominique Laurent



Scombroid Poisoning  

PubMed Central

An outbreak of scombroid poisoning occurred in San Francisco in the fall of 1977. The vehicle was sashimi prepared from spoiled tuna fish. Prompt public health measures prevented further consumption of the implicated food. Laboratory studies showed the presence in the tuna of bacterial species capable of producing large amounts of histamine, a substance strongly implicated in scombroid poisoning. Chemical analysis showed that histamine is very unevenly distributed in the flesh of spoiling tuna, therefore accounting for the sometimes random occurrence of disease among people eating the same food at the same table.

Lerke, Peter A.; Werner, S. Benson; Taylor, Stephen L.; Guthertz, Linda S.




EPA Science Inventory

In the report, kinetic enzyme methods and statistical analyses are used to define the relationship between brain acetycholinesterase inhibition and near-median kills in replicate groups of marine fish in the laboratory by five carbamate pesticides....


Seasonal occurrence and microhabitat of the hyperparasitic monogenean Udonella fugu on the caligid Copepod Pseudocaligus fugu infecting the grass puffer Takifugu niphobles in the Seto Inland Sea, Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The seasonal occurrence and microhabitat of the monogenean Udonella fugu that hyperparasitizes exclusively on adults of the caligid copepod Pseudocaligus fugu that infects the skin of the grass puffer Takifugu niphobles were investigated in the Seto Inland Sea, western Japan from November 2004 to December 2006. The udonellids occurred and bred mostly during the occurrence of P. fugu on the fish host. The average prevalence and intensity of U. fugu on P. fugu during the whole investigation were 29% and 3.6, respectively. The main attachment sites of U. fugu were the posterior side of leg 3 and the dorsal marginal side of the cephalothorax for feeding and copulation, while eggs were predominantly located on the ventral side of the urosome to avoid detachment. More attention should be paid to the ecology of U. fugu, due to recent high prevalence of P. fugu on cultured tiger puffer in western Japan.

Okawachi, Hiroko; Ohtsuka, Susumu; Ismail, Norshida Binti; Venmathi Maran, B. A.; Ogawa, Kazuo



High-performance liquid chromatographic determination of biogenic amines in fish implicated in food poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

A rapid, sensitive and reproducible high-performance liquid chromatographic procedure for the determination of nine biogenic amines in fish by improved benzoylation with benzoyl chloride was developed. The benzoylation of amines with benzoyl chloride at 30°C for 40 min was the optimal condition to eliminate the influence of interfering peaks during analysis. The calibration curve for each amine was linear within

Deng-Fwu Hwang; Sheng-Hsiung Chang; Chyuan-Yuan Shiua; Tuu-jyi Chai



Organ Growth in the Puffer Fish, Sphaeroides Maculatus.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The following organs from male and female specimens of Sphaeroides maculatus were weighed: heart, liver, spleen, gut, brain, eyes. Prediction equations for organ weight in terms of total body weight were derived. Best correlation was found when logarithms...

C. G. Wilber R. Schneider



Lead poisoning and intestinal perforations in a snapping turtle (Chelydra serpentina) due to fishing gear ingestion.  


An adult male snapping turtle (Chelydra serpentina) was presented to the Tufts Wildlife Clinic with generalized weakness and limited ability to walk. A fishing hook was lodged in the corner of its mouth, monofilament line trailed from its cloaca, and radiography revealed that the turtle had ingested two additional hooks and a large sinker. The hemogram showed leukocytosis. At exploratory celiotomy, the fishing line was seen to have acted as a linear foreign body and had perforated the intestines. Multiple enterotomies were performed to remove the sinker and line, and perforations were repaired. Two of the hooks could not be surgically or endoscopically retrieved. Blood lead concentration was 3.6 ppm prior to start of chelation therapy with calcium disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and declined to undetectable levels within 6 wk. The turtle recovered and was released. PMID:9226626

Borkowski, R



Update on Methodologies Available for Ciguatoxin Determination: Perspectives to Confront the Onset of Ciguatera Fish Poisoning in Europe [1  

PubMed Central

Ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) occurs mainly when humans ingest finfish contaminated with ciguatoxins (CTXs). The complexity and variability of such toxins have made it difficult to develop reliable methods to routinely monitor CFP with specificity and sensitivity. This review aims to describe the methodologies available for CTX detection, including those based on the toxicological, biochemical, chemical, and pharmaceutical properties of CTXs. Selecting any of these methodological approaches for routine monitoring of ciguatera may be dependent upon the applicability of the method. However, identifying a reference validation method for CTXs is a critical and urgent issue, and is dependent upon the availability of certified CTX standards and the coordinated action of laboratories. Reports of CFP cases in European hospitals have been described in several countries, and are mostly due to travel to CFP endemic areas. Additionally, the recent detection of the CTX-producing tropical genus Gambierdiscus in the eastern Atlantic Ocean of the northern hemisphere and in the Mediterranean Sea, as well as the confirmation of CFP in the Canary Islands and possibly in Madeira, constitute other reasons to study the onset of CFP in Europe [1]. The question of the possible contribution of climate change to the distribution of toxin-producing microalgae and ciguateric fish is raised. The impact of ciguatera onset on European Union (EU) policies will be discussed with respect to EU regulations on marine toxins in seafood. Critical analysis and availability of methodologies for CTX determination is required for a rapid response to suspected CFP cases and to conduct sound CFP risk analysis.

Caillaud, Amandine; de la Iglesia, Pablo; Darius, H. Taiana; Pauillac, Serge; Aligizaki, Katerina; Fraga, Santiago; Chinain, Mireille; Diogene, Jorge



Update on methodologies available for ciguatoxin determination: perspectives to confront the onset of ciguatera fish poisoning in Europe.  


Ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) occurs mainly when humans ingest finfish contaminated with ciguatoxins (CTXs). The complexity and variability of such toxins have made it difficult to develop reliable methods to routinely monitor CFP with specificity and sensitivity. This review aims to describe the methodologies available for CTX detection, including those based on the toxicological, biochemical, chemical, and pharmaceutical properties of CTXs. Selecting any of these methodological approaches for routine monitoring of ciguatera may be dependent upon the applicability of the method. However, identifying a reference validation method for CTXs is a critical and urgent issue, and is dependent upon the availability of certified CTX standards and the coordinated action of laboratories. Reports of CFP cases in European hospitals have been described in several countries, and are mostly due to travel to CFP endemic areas. Additionally, the recent detection of the CTX-producing tropical genus Gambierdiscus in the eastern Atlantic Ocean of the northern hemisphere and in the Mediterranean Sea, as well as the confirmation of CFP in the Canary Islands and possibly in Madeira, constitute other reasons to study the onset of CFP in Europe [1]. The question of the possible contribution of climate change to the distribution of toxin-producing microalgae and ciguateric fish is raised. The impact of ciguatera onset on European Union (EU) policies will be discussed with respect to EU regulations on marine toxins in seafood. Critical analysis and availability of methodologies for CTX determination is required for a rapid response to suspected CFP cases and to conduct sound CFP risk analysis. PMID:20631873

Caillaud, Amandine; de la Iglesia, Pablo; Darius, H Taiana; Pauillac, Serge; Aligizaki, Katerina; Fraga, Santiago; Chinain, Mireille; Diogène, Jorge



Effects of nozzle shape on the interruption performance of thermal puffer-type gas circuit breakers  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the last decade the advanced interruption techniques, which use the arc energy itself to increase the pressure inside a chamber by PTFE nozzle ablation, have displaced the puffer circuit breakers due to reduced driving forces and better maintainability. In this paper, we have investigated thermal flow characteristics inside a thermal puffer-type gas circuit breaker (GCB) by solving the Navier–Stokes

Jong-Chul Lee; Youn J. Kim



Food Poisoning  


... find out how to avoid it. What Is Food Poisoning? Food poisoning comes from eating foods that ... and store foods properly. Continue Do I Have Food Poisoning? Someone who has food poisoning might: have ...


Scorpion fish sting  


... The fins of these prickly fish carry poisonous venom. This article describes the effects of a sting ... Scorpion fish venom ... person does often depends on how much poisonous venom entered the body and how soon treatment is ...



Microsoft Academic Search

Ciguatera poisoning is endemic in many tropical and subtropical countries. We conducted a retrospective study of admissions to two hospitals on the islands of Vanuatu in the southwestern Pacific region. We estimated the annual hospital admission rate for fish poisoning to be 65 (95% confidence interval (CI) 55?75)\\/100,000 population on the island of Santo and 29 (95% CI 19?43)\\/100,000 population



Application of arc-interruption fundamentals to nozzles for puffer interrupters. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new concept of an SFâ puffer breaker having an insulated dual-flow nozzle with bell-shaped downstream sections and one coaxially located puffer was introduced. When tested as a scaled-down model breaker for thermal (short line fault) interruption, it performed at the higher current and di\\/dt ratings three times better than an optimized model of a conventional single-flow breaker. As scaling

H. O. Noeske; D. M. Benenson; G. Frind; K. Hirasawa; R. E. Kinsinger; H. T. Nagamatsu; R. E. Jr. Sheer; Y. Yoshioka



Genomics and Mapping of Teleostei (Bony Fish)  

PubMed Central

Until recently, the Human Genome Project held centre stage in the press releases concerning sequencing programmes. However, in October 2001, it was announced that the Japanese puffer fish (Takifugu rubripes, Fugu) was the second vertebrate organism to be sequenced to draft quality. Briefly, the spotlight was on fish genomes. There are currently two other fish species undergoing intensive sequencing, the green spotted puffer fish (Tetraodon nigroviridis) and the zebrafish (Danio rerio). But this trio are, in many ways, atypical representations of the current state of fish genomic research. The aim of this brief review is to demonstrate the complexity of fish as a group of vertebrates and to publicize the ‘lesser-known’ species, all of which have something to offer.



Dinoflagellate Toxins Responsible for Ciguatera Poisoning.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Ciguatera is a syndrome occuring in humans who have become intoxicated from eating poison fish. Fish spontaneously accumulate the toxin through the food chain or directly from eating toxic dinoflagellates. Previous research points to the presence of multi...

D. M. Miller



Dinoflagellate Toxins Responsible for Ciguatera Food Poisoning.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Ciguatera is a syndrome occurring in humans who have become intoxicated from eating poison fish. Fish spontaneously accumulate the toxin through the food chain or directly from eating toxic dinoflagellates. Previous research points to the presence of mult...

D. L. Miller



Nutrition and feeding research in the spotted rose snapper (Lutjanus guttatus) and bullseye puffer (Sphoeroides annulatus), new species for marine aquaculture.  


The spotted rose snapper (Lutjanus guttatus) and bullseye puffer (Sphoeroides annulatus) are fish species from the tropical Eastern Pacific for which controlled production of larvae and juveniles has been accomplished in recent years. Diverse topics relating to their biology and aquaculture production are currently under study, in particular the nutrition and feeding aspects required to formulate practical feeds and rearing protocols. Improvements in larval growth and survival are possible by feeding live food organisms with natural or enhanced essential fatty acids content and highly digestible artificial microdiets. The ontogeny of the digestive tract and the expression and activity of digestive enzymes have been described for S. annulatus larvae. The effect of various protein and lipid levels on growth and feed utilization has been studied in juvenile and on-growing fish. Both species have carnivorous feeding habits and require high levels of protein in their diets, from 40% to 45% (dry weight) in spotted rose snapper and above 50% in bullseye puffer, with the younger stages requiring the highest protein levels. Encouraging results have been obtained in feeding experiments with different sources of dietary protein from animal and plant origin to evaluate their suitability as feed ingredients in practical diets. Optimization of fish culture practices through feeding management has also been investigated. Trials with various fish densities and feeding frequencies in intensive culture systems are providing information to improve feed utilization and growth in on-growing fish. Further research is underway to evaluate factors in broodstock nutrition which have an impact on egg and larval quality, and into the use of various commercially available oil sources in on-growing diets. In this paper, the results on nutrition and feeding research with both species are reviewed and research needs to support their commercial production in the region are discussed. PMID:19189236

García-Ortega, Armando



Malathion poisoning  


... Fluids through a vein (IV) Medicine (antidote) to reverse the effect of the poison Tube through the ... usually recover. Prolonged treatment often is needed to reverse the poisoning, including intensive care hospitalization and long- ...


FOCUS: First Archaeological Indication of Fishing by Poison in a Sea Environment by the Engoroy Population at Salango (Manab??, Ecuador)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The identification of bone remains of small rock fish among the fauna of an archaeological site on the coast of Ecuador, dated in the 1st millenniumbc(Engoroy Culture), suggests a link between their fishing techniques and the use of a plant with piscicide properties, common on the Manabi coast:Jacquinia sprucei. The ecological and geographical distribution of this botanical species leads to

Philippe Béarez



Photographic fixative poisoning  


Photographic developer poisoning; Hydroquinone poisoning; Quinone poisoning; Sulfite poisoning ... Hydroquinones Quinones Sodium thiosulfate Sodium sulfite/bisulfite Boric acid Photographic fixative can also break down (decompose) to ...



Microsoft Academic Search

Thousands of aquatic animal species, some of which affect our lives directly andlor indirectly, have been listed as poisonous or venomous. Marine animals which are important as food sources in the Indo- Pacific region often cause poisoning. Puffer fish poisoning, ciguatera poisoning and paralytic shellfish poisoning present the most serious problems for the fishing industry, as well as for the

K. Hashimoto; N. Fusetani


Stonefish poisoning.  


Scuba diving is becoming an increasingly popular recreation. Divers are traveling further afield, often to remote dive locations. These locations are often home to poisonous marine creatures such as stonefish. A case of acute stonefish poisoning in a scuba diver is described, including his treatment, the difficulties encountered with his management and evacuation, and his subsequent return to full health. The proper management of stonefish poisoning is reviewed, and the implications for divers traveling to remote locations are given. PMID:15636379

Lyon, Richard Mark



Application of arc-interruption fundamentals to nozzles for puffer interrupters. Final report  

SciTech Connect

A new concept of an SF/sub 6/ puffer breaker having an insulated dual-flow nozzle with bell-shaped downstream sections and one coaxially located puffer was introduced. When tested as a scaled-down model breaker for thermal (short line fault) interruption, it performed at the higher current and di/dt ratings three times better than an optimized model of a conventional single-flow breaker. As scaling parameters for the model breakers, current densities at the nozzle throat were chosen identical to those of a full size breaker. For the optimization effort, a major number of nozzles were investigated, first on dual-flow dual-pressure apparatus. A method was developed for the computation of the subsonic (upstream) part of the flow field under conditions of compressible, nonviscous cold flow. This method was checked experimentally and then extensively used for the comparison of the flow fields of different nozzles. Interferometric measurements were used to determine the effect of electrode vapor on the arc mantle for an air arc in a single-flow nozzle. High speed movies showed the importance of a short arc section immediately downstream of the vena contracta for interruption speed. Following preliminary optimization in dual-pressure tests, the single- and dual-flow nozzles were used in puffer experiments, where they were exposed to conditions of nozzle blocking and strong nozzle ablation. In these tests the pressure and electrical potential distribution were measured in single-flow nozzles during the arcing period. These results together with measurements of the ablation distribution along the nozzles and the results of a computer program for the flow initiation time gave insight into the blocking and deblocking dynamics of puffer breakers. Complementary work was done also on an asymmetrical dual-flow puffer breaker.

Noeske, H.O.; Benenson, D.M.; Frind, G.; Hirasawa, K.; Kinsinger, R.E.; Nagamatsu, H.T.; Sheer, R.E. Jr.; Yoshioka, Y.



Carbolic acid poisoning  


Phenol poisoning; Phenylic acid poisoning; Hydroxybenzene poisoning; Phenic acid poisoning; Benzenol poisoning ... Phenol ... and Disease Registry (ATSDR). 2008. Toxicological profile for Phenol. Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human ...


Poison ivy - oak - sumac  


Poison ivy , oak, or sumac poisoning is an allergic reaction that results from touching the sap of these ... Bruised roots, stems, flowers, leaves, fruit Pollen of poison ivy, poison oak, and poison sumac Note: This list ...


Presentation of a general algorithm to include effect assessment on secondary poisoning in the derivation of environmental quality criteria. Part 1. Aquatic food chains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effect assessment on secondary poisoning can be an asset to effect assessments on direct poisoning in setting quality criteria for the environment. This study presents an algorithm for effect assessment on secondary poisoning. The water-fish-fish-eating bird or mammal pathway was analyzed as an example of a secondary poisoning pathway. Parameters used in this algorithm are the bioconcentration factor for fish

C. A. Romijn; R. Luttik; D. van de Meent; W. Slooff; J. H. Canton



Venomous bites, stings, and poisoning.  


This article discusses the epidemiology, prevention, clinical features, first aid and medical treatment of venomous bites by snakes, lizards, and spiders; stings by fish, jellyfish, echinoderms, and insects; and poisoning by fish and molluscs, in all parts of the world. Of these envenoming and poisonings, snake bite causes the greatest burden of human suffering, killing 46,000 people each year in India alone and more than 100,000 worldwide and resulting in physical handicap in many survivors. Specific antidotes (antivenoms/antivenins) are available to treat envenoming by many of these taxa but supply and distribution is inadequate in many tropical developing countries. PMID:22632635

Warrell, David A



Mushroom poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  We aimed to review characteristics of mushrooms and mushroom poisoning and compare clinical picture, laboratory data, treatment\\u000a modalities and prognostic factors in children with amanita intoxication and non-amanita mushroom poisoning.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  We analyzed 39 pediatric patients through 1994–2004, retrospectively from the patient files and evaluated the patients in\\u000a two groups as patients with amanita intoxication and patients with non-amanita mushroom poisoning.

M. Erguven; O. Yilmaz; M. Deveci; N. Aksu; F. Dursun; M. Pelit; N. Cebeci



Revisiting the association between sea surface temperature and the epidemiology of fish poisoning in the South Pacific: reassessing the link between ciguatera and climate change.  


The most detailed dataset of ciguatera intensity is that produced by the South Pacific Epidemiological and Health Information Service (SPEHIS) of the Secretariat of the Pacific Community. The SPEHIS fish poisoning database has been previously analysed yielding statistically significant correlations between the Southern Oscillation Index (SOI) and ciguatera case numbers in several countries raising concerns this affliction will increase as oceans warm. Mapping of the SPEHIS records and other data hints at ciguatera not only being restricted to warm waters but that the Indo-Pacific Warm Pool, a body of water that remains hot throughout much of the year, may inhibit ciguatera prevalence. A qualitative assessment of ciguatera intensity and sea surface temperature (SST) behaviour within the EEZ of selected South Pacific nations supported the notion that ciguatera intensity was highest when SST was between an upper and lower limit. Many more climate and SST indices beyond the SOI are now available, including some that measure the abovementioned phenomenon of oceanic warm pools. Statistically significant, positive and negative cross-correlations were obtained between time series of annual ciguatera case rates from the SPEHIS dataset and the Pacific Warm Pool Index and several ENSO related indices which had been lagged for up to 2 years before the ciguatera time series. This further supports the possibility that when considering the impact of climate change on ciguatera, one has to consider two thresholds, namely waters that remain warm enough for a long enough period can lead to ciguatera and that extended periods where the water remains too hot may depress ciguatera case rates. Such a model would complicate projections of the effects of climate change upon ciguatera beyond that of a simple relationship where increased SST may cause more ciguatera. PMID:19706300

Llewellyn, Lyndon E



Refrigerant poisoning  


A refrigerant is a chemical that makes things cold. This article discusses poisoning from sniffing or swallowing such chemicals. ... occurs when people intentionally sniff a type of refrigerant called freon. This is for information only and ...


Mushroom Poisoning  


... if vomiting has not already occurred. The person's temperature, heart rate and blood pressure will be checked. He or she will be watched closely for severe symptoms and complications due to mushroom poisoning. In severe cases that are caused by ...


Benzene poisoning  


Mirkin DB. Benzene and related aromatic hydrocarbons. In: Shannon MW, Borron SW, Burns MJ, eds. Haddad and Winchester's Clinical Management of Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: ...


Effect of CGM on growth performance and digestibility in puffer ( Takifugu fasciatus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study was conducted to determine whether corn gluten meal (CGM) can partially replace fishmeal and to identify\\u000a its optimal CGM inclusion rate in puffer (Takifugu fasciatus) under laboratory conditions. Five isonitrogenous (45.38 to 45.64% crude protein) and isoenergetic (22.03 to 22.21 kJ\\/g gross\\u000a energy) experimental diets were formulated. Diet 1 contained no CGM and served as control diet. Diets

Guofang Zhong; Xueming Hua; Kun Yuan; Hongqi Zhou



Linking ciguatera poisoning to spatial ecology of fish: a novel approach to examining the distribution of biotoxin levels in the great barracuda by combining non-lethal blood sampling and biotelemetry.  


Ciguatera in humans is typically caused by the consumption of reef fish that have accumulated Ciguatoxins (CTXs) in their flesh. Over a six month period, we captured 38 wild adult great barracuda (Sphyraena barracuda), a species commonly associated with ciguatera in The Bahamas. We sampled three tissues (i.e., muscle, liver, and blood) and analysed them for the presence of ciguatoxins using a functional in vitro N2A bioassay. Detectable concentrations of ciguatoxins found in the three tissue types ranged from 2.51 to 211.74pg C-CTX-1 equivalents/g. Blood and liver toxin concentrations were positively correlated (?=0.86, P=0.003), indicating that, for the first time, blood sampling provides a non-lethal method of detecting ciguatoxin in wild fish. Non-lethal blood sampling also presents opportunities to couple this approach with biotelemetry and biologging techniques that enable the study of fish distribution and movement. To demonstrate the potential for linking ciguatoxin occurrence with barracuda spatial ecology, we also present a proof-of-concept case study where blood samples were obtained from 20 fish before releasing them with acoustic transmitters and tracking them in the coastal waters using a fixed acoustic telemetry array covering 44km(2). Fish that tested positive for CTX may have smaller home ranges than non-toxic fish (median distance travelled, U=2.21, P=0.03). Results presented from this study may help identify high risk areas and source-sink dynamics of toxins, potentially reducing the incidence and human health risk of ciguatera fish poisoning. Moreover, development of the non-lethal sampling approach and measurement of ciguatera from blood provide future opportunities to understand the mechanistic relationship between toxins and the spatial ecology of a broad range of marine fish species. PMID:22560748

O'Toole, Amanda C; Dechraoui Bottein, Marie-Yasmine; Danylchuk, Andy J; Ramsdell, John S; Cooke, Steven J



Genomic classification of fish nodaviruses by molecular phylogenetic analysis of the coat protein gene.  

PubMed Central

A molecular phylogenetic analysis of 25 isolates of fish nodaviruses, the causative agents of viral nervous necrosis of marine fish, was performed based on the nucleotide sequences (427 bases) of the coat protein gene. These fish nodaviruses were classified into four clusters: tiger puffer nervous necrosis virus, striped jack nervous necrosis virus, berfin flounder nervous necrosis virus, and red-spotted grouper nervous necrosis virus.

Nishizawa, T; Furuhashi, M; Nagai, T; Nakai, T; Muroga, K



Pentachlorophenol poisoning  

SciTech Connect

Pentachlorophenol (PCP) is a pesticide commonly used as a wood preservative. Although exposure has been well controlled in large chemical manufacturing plants, over-exposures have recently becomes a concern at smaller facilities. Five cases of PCP poisoning, including two fatalities, occurred in two small wood preservative plants. All cases presented with fever, including severe hyperpyrexia in two; an increased anion gap and renal insufficiency were noted in two others. PCP may uncouple oxidative phosphorylation, resulting in a poisoning syndrome characterized by hyperpyrexia, diaphoresis, tachycardia, tachypnea, abdominal pain, nausea, and even death.

Wood, S.; Rom, W.N.; White, G.L. Jr.; Logan, D.C.



Redescription and genetic characterization of Cucullanus dodsworthi (Nematoda: Cucullanidae) from the checkered puffer Sphoeroides testudineus (Pisces: Tetraodontiformes).  


Cucullanus dodsworthi Barreto, 1922 was originally described from the checkered puffer fish, Sphoeroides testudineus (Linnaeus), from Brazilian waters. New material of this nematode species was recovered from the same type host species from Mexican waters off the Yucatán Peninsula. This material was compared with Brazilian specimens. Although Mexican material closely resembles the original description of C. dodsworthi in general appearance, previously undescribed characters, as observed by light and scanning electron microscopy, are described for the first time in this species from both Brazilian and Mexican specimens. These characters include lateral body alae or conspicuous lateral fields that begin in the cervical region and end anterior to first pair of adcloacal papillae in males and at the anus level in females, cephalic and caudal alae absent; presence of pseudobuccal capsule with simple buccal frame well sclerotized with dorsal arrow structures, lateral structures, and lateral reniform structures; deirids, excretory pore, and postdeirids; slight anal protuberance in both sexes, unpaired precloacal papilla in males, phasmids near pair 10 in males and near tail tip in females; female with protruding vulvar lips and smooth eggs. In the absence of better descriptions of this genus, it can be concluded that C. dodsworthi is the only species of marine Cucullanus from the Americas that possesses lateral body alae. Molecular characterization of C. dodsworthi with SSU (18S) and ITS2 rDNA genes is included. A preliminary genetic comparison between SSU rDNA of C. dodsworthi , Truttaedacnitis truttae (Fabricius, 1794), and Dichelyne mexicanus Caspeta-Mandujano, Moravec and Salgado-Maldonado, 1999 places C. dodsworthi as a putative sister taxon to T. truttae . The finding of C. dodsworthi in Mexican marine waters also represents a new geographical record. PMID:21506838

Mejía-Madrid, Hugo H; Aguirre-Macedo, María Leopoldina



A new cutaneous sign of mercury poisoning?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic mercury poisoning is becoming a health concern because of extensive pollution of water and fish, and the increasing consumption of fish in the human diet. Mercury is extremely toxic to the body, especially the central nervous system, but diagnosis is difficult because of the lack of specific signs. A total of 11 patients were observed to have a nonpruritic

Paul I. Dantzig



Lead poisoning  

SciTech Connect

Construction workers who weld, cut or blast structural steel coated with lead-based paint are at significant risk of lead poisoning. Although technology to control these exposures may not have existed when the lead standard was promulgated, it is available today. Employers who do not take steps to protect their employees from lead exposure may be cited and fined severely for their failure.

Rekus, J.F.




PubMed Central

A fatal case of poisoning with phosphamidon, a recently developed organophosphate insecticide, is described. A second, probable case of mild phosphamidon poisoning is also reported. The clinical picture in both cases resembled that seen in poisoning with other organophosphate compounds. The first patient was an 18-year-old girl who had swallowed about 50 ml. of a 50% solution of phosphamidon and developed jaundice, bronchopneumonia, and pulmonary oedema. She died on the sixth day in hospital despite prolonged respiratory support and treatment with massive doses of atropine, PAM, and antibiotics. Post-mortem examination revealed a fatty liver, congestion of the internal organs, and brain damage of the type seen in anoxia. The second patient was a 50-year-old agricultural worker, who was engaged in uprooting and cutting shrubs which had been sprayed two weeks earlier with phosphamidon. He was admitted to hospital in a state of confusion and recovered within several hours. The importance of securing a free airway and of artificial ventilation as first-aid measures in organophosphate poisoning is stressed, and the value of early massive dosage of PAM is emphasized.

Gitelson, S.; Davidson, J. T.; Werczberger, A.



Lead Poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lead has been mined and worked by men for millenniums. Its ductility, high resistance to erosion and other properties make it one of the most useful of metals. The inappropriate use of lead has, however, resulted in outbreaks of lead poisoning in humans from time to time since antiquity. The disease, which is sometimes called plumbism (from the Latin word

J. Julian Chisolm; J. J. Jr



Methanol poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methanol ingestion is an uncommon form of poisoning that can cause severe metabolic disturbances, blindness, permanent neurologic dysfunction and death. While methanol itself may be harmless, it is converted in vivo to the highly toxic formic acid. The diagnosis is sometimes elusive and requires a high index of suspicion. Because antidotal treatment is available it is important to recognize methanol

J. A. Kruse



Of Rivers, Fish and Poison  

Microsoft Academic Search

Every one of the diverse ecosystems of the Indian subcontinent is being degraded to some measure; but it is the freshwater e cosystems that are under t he greatest threat. T he root causes of this degradation lie in human institutions, in the inequities that plague our society. A significant number of our people depend directly on natural resources for



Differential expression of three types of gonadotropin-releasing hormone genes during the spawning season in grass puffer, Takifugu niphobles.  


Grass puffer, Takifugu niphobles, has unique spawning behavior; spawning occurs on beach only for several days around new moon and full moon from spring to early summer. To investigate the role of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) in the reproductive function, genes encoding three types of GnRHs, namely seabream GnRH (sbGnRH), chicken GnRH-II (cGnRH-II) and salmon GnRH (sGnRH), were cloned and changes in their mRNA amounts were examined over the spawning season. In addition, changes in the pituitary gonadotropin subunit mRNAs and the plasma steroid hormones were examined over the spawning season. Fishes were assessed at four reproductive stages, i.e., in December (early maturation), in April (maturing), in May (spawning), and in July (post-spawning). Moreover, spawning fish just after releasing eggs and sperm were taken at a spawning bed. The amounts of sbGnRH mRNA were substantially elevated in May and the spawning fish in both sexes, concomitant with considerable elevations of follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone beta subunit mRNAs and plasma estradiol-17beta (E(2)) and testosterone (T) levels. There were strong positive correlations between the sbGnRH mRNA and the plasma E(2) and T levels over the spawning season in both sexes. The amounts of cGnRH-II mRNA showed no noticeable changes except for an increase in the post-spawning females. The amounts of sGnRH mRNA in the males were significantly increased in May, but they were low in the spawning males. In the females, sGnRH mRNA increased from the maturing stage and reached a maximum in the post-spawning stage, in which a positive correlation with the plasma cortisol levels was observed. These specific changes suggest that the expression of three types of GnRH genes is differentially regulated during the spawning season, and sex steroids may be important for the differential expression of GnRH genes. PMID:20138178

Shahjahan, Md; Hamabata, Tomoko; Motohashi, Eiji; Doi, Hiroyuki; Ando, Hironori



Traditional remedies used in the Western Pacific for the treatment of ciguatera poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ciguatera is a specific type of food poisoning associated with the ingestion of tropical fish, which, although normally safe for con- sumption, may at times contain high amounts of ciguatoxin, as well as other chemically related toxins. Widespread in tropical regions where coral reefs are present, ciguatera fish poisoning constitutes a major hindrance for local fishing industries, local economies and




Paraphenylenediamine poisoning.  


Hair dye containing paraphenylenediamine (PPD) is widely used in India because of its free availability and low cost. PPD produces local as well as systemic toxic effects when applied topically and/or ingested. It is highly toxic when taken by mouth and the outcome depends mainly on the dose taken. Important clinical manifestations are angioedema leading to dysphasia and respiratory distress, rhabdomyolysis, intravascular hemolysis, acute renal failure and hepatic necrosis. Myocarditis or fatal arrhythmia may also occur in PPD poisoning. Mainstay of management is early recognition and supportive measures as there is no specific antidote. We hereby report a young female who presented to us with features of angioedema, cardiac manifestation and hepatic dysfunction after ingesting PPD, which was treated successfully. In the absence of laboratory facilities, clinical features like angioedema and chocolate brown-colored urine could be suggestive of PPD poisoning. PMID:23563473

Chaudhary, S C; Sawlani, K K; Singh, K


Arsine poisoning  

PubMed Central

Hocken, A. G., and Bradshaw, G. (1970).Brit. J. industr. Med.,27, 56-60. Arsine poisoning. A case of acute arsine poisoning is described, occurring in an industrial metallurgy worker. The clinical course was of associated oliguric renal failure with acute haemolytic anaemia which was self-limiting but accompanied by marked non-thrombotic phlebitis. There was minor hepatocellular damage. Skin pigmentation was disproportionate to the elevation of serum bilirubin. Transient initial pulmonary oedema was regarded as a local irritative phenomenon. All systems underwent complete recovery. Renal function in particular was explored in all modalities, and no abnormality could be found in glomerular filtration, concentrating power or acidification 12 months after exposure. There was no proteinuria. The clinical picture was of acute tubular necrosis, although interstitial fibrosis was present and its incomplete final resolution is possible. Contrary to the findings of other workers, no evidence was found of myocardial damage at any stage either clinically or electrocardiographically. Images

Hocken, A. G.; Bradshaw, G.



Recognizing the Toxicodendrons (poison ivy, poison oak, and poison sumac).  


Poison ivy, poison oak, and poison sumac are now classified in the genus Toxicodendron which is readily distinguished from Rhus. In the United States, there are two species of poison oak, Toxicodendron diversilobum (western poison oak) and Toxicodendron toxicarium (eastern poison oak). There are also two species of poison ivy, Toxicodendron rydbergii, a nonclimbing subshrub, and Toxicodendron radicans, which may be either a shrub or a climbing vine. There are nine subspecies of T. radicans, six of which are found in the United States. One species of poison sumac, Toxicodendron vernix, occurs in the United States. Distinguishing features of these plants and characteristics that separate Toxicodendron from Rhus are outlined in the text and illustrated in color plates. PMID:6451640

Guin, J D; Gillis, W T; Beaman, J H



Mercuric chloride poisoning  


Mercuric chloride is a very poisonous form of mercury. It is a type of mercury salt. There are different ... poisonings . This article discusses poisoning from swallowing mercuric chloride. This is for information only and not for ...


Ink remover poisoning  


... poisonous if swallowed in large doses) Wood alcohol (methanol, which is very poisonous) ... Brain damage Decreased breathing Stupor Unconsciousness Symptoms of methanol and isopropyl alcohol poisoning may include: Eyes, ears, ...


Five gonadotrophin-releasing hormone receptors in a teleost fish: isolation, tissue distribution and phylogenetic relationships  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is the main neurohormone controlling gonadotrophin release in all vertebrates, and in teleost fish also of growth hormone and possibly of other adenohypophyseal hormones. Over 20 GnRHs have been identified in vertebrates and protochoordates and shown to bind cognate G-protein couple receptors (GnRHR). We have searched the puffer fish, Fugu rubripes, genome sequencing database, identified five GnRHR

Natalia Moncaut; Gustavo Somoza; Deborah M; Adelino V M Canário



Lead shot poisons bald eagles  

SciTech Connect

This article describes the controversy between the US Fish and Wildlife Service, the National Wildlife Federation and the increased mortality of bald eagles. The eagles are being poisoned by preying on waterfowl which have ingested lead shot or have been wounded by shot and not recovered. The controversy has resulted in the establishment of new criteria for so-called non-toxic shot waterfowl hunting.

Cohn, J.P.



The spinal sympathetic preganglionic cell column in the puffer fish, Takifugu niphobles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little is known about the spinal sympathetic organization in teleosts. We examined the location of the sympathetic preganglionic neurons with horseradish peroxidase (HRP) labeling. After HRP application to the sympathetic trunk or celiac ganglion, labeled neurons were found just dorsal - dorsolateral to the central canal. They form a cell column (central autonomic nucleus) at the level of the posterior

Kengo Funakoshi; Toshio Abe; Reiji Kishida



Imprudent fishing harvests and consequent trophic cascades on the West Florida shelf over the last half century: A harbinger of increased human deaths from paralytic shellfish poisoning along the southeastern United States, in response to oligotrophication?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Within the context of ubiquitous overfishing of piscivores, recent consequent increments of jellyfish and clupeids have occurred at the zooplanktivore trophic level in the eastern Gulf of Mexico (GOM), after overfishing of one of their predators, i.e. red snapper. Initiation of a local trophic cascade thence led to declines of herbivore stocks, documented here on the West Florida shelf. These exacerbating world-wide trophic cascades have resulted in larger harmful algal blooms (HABs), already present at the base of most coastal food webs. Impacts on human health have thus far been minimal within nutrient-rich coastal regions. To provide a setting for past morbidities, consideration is given to chronologies of other trophic cascades within eutrophic, cold water marine ecosystems of the Scotian Sea, in the Gulf of Alaska, off Southwest Africa, within the Barents, White, and Black Seas, in the Gulf of Maine, and finally in the North Sea. Next, comparison is now made here of recent ten-fold increments within Florida waters of both relatively benign and saxitoxic HABs, some of which are fatal to humans. These events are placed in a perspective of other warm shelf systems of the South China and Caribbean Seas to assess prior and possible future poison toxicities of oligotrophic coastal habitats. Past wide-spread kills of fishes and sea urchins over the Caribbean Sea and the downstream GOM are examined in relation to the potential transmission of dinoflagellate saxitoxin and other epizootic poison vectors by western boundary currents over larger "commons" than local embayments. Furthermore, since some HABs produce more potent saxitoxins upon nutrient depletion, recent decisions to ban seasonal fertilizer applications to Florida lawns may have unintended consequences. In the future, human-killing phytoplankton, rather than relatively benign fish-killing HABs of the past, may be dispersed along the southeastern United States seaboard.

Walsh, J. J.; Tomas, C. R.; Steidinger, K. A.; Lenes, J. M.; Chen, F. R.; Weisberg, R. H.; Zheng, L.; Landsberg, J. H.; Vargo, G. A.; Heil, C. A.



Fate of benzoate paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins from Gymnodinium catenatum in shellfish and fish detected by pre-column oxidation and liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several cultured strains of Gymnodiniumcatenatum isolated worldwide have been shown to produce important proportions of the recently discovered benzoate paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins GC1 through GC3. These toxins pose a new challenge for the HPLC analysis of shellfish predating during blooms of this microalga because due to their hydrophobicity are retained along the C18 solid-phase extraction step employed to

Paulo Vale



House of Poison: Poisons in the Home.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of a series of instructional materials produced by the Literacy Council of Alaska, this booklet provides information about common household poisons. Using a simplified vocabulary and shorter sentences, it provides statistics concerning accidental poisonings; a list of the places poisons are usually found in the home; steps to make the home…

Keller, Rosanne


Recovery of fish stocks in the Seto Inland Sea.  


The total amount of fisheries' yield in the Seto Inland Sea in 1999 was 571,000 MT, consisting of 256,000 MT by fishing and 315,000 MT from aquaculture. About 40,000 people engaged in the fishing and aquaculture industries, earned 129 billion yen (1100 million US$) by fishing and 89 billion yen (770 million $US) by aquaculture. The averaged annual catch for the Seto Inland Sea by fishing was 13 MT/km(2). Division into time periods in terms of eutrophication levels can be made: before 1960 when red sea bream were abundant with ecological divergence (before eutrophication), from 1960 to 1990 when the biomass of anchovy was large (during eutrophication), and after 1990 when the jellyfishes were abundant (excessive eutrophication or high N:P ratio). The fish production will decrease in the sea of jellyfishes. Actually, the amount of catch was 462,000 MT in 1982 which decreased 265,000 MT in 1993, corresponding to 43% in twelve years, then keeping the same level. A big reduction was seen in the catches of the spotlined sardine, anchovy, Spanish mackerel, tiger puffer, short-necked clam, sea cucumber and others. The tiger puffer and Spanish mackerel were abundant as predators in the sea of anchovy. The biomass of anchovy was at its maximum in 1986 and decreased to less than one third in 1996. The stocks of tiger puffer and Spanish mackerel greatly decreased because of the higher fishing pressure compared to the anchovy stock. The fishing power of individual fisheries targeting on the tiger puffer and Spanish mackerel increased substantially when fishing vessel and fishing gear improved, resulting in an excessive fishing effort. A large quantity of small immature fishes is usually caught in the Seto Inland Sea, resulting in growth and/or recruitment overfishing for many species. Hence, it is necessary to promote management of the fisheries so as not to reduce the fish stocks, and to allow the Seto Inland Sea to return from being a sea of jellyfishes to a sea of anchovy, with decreased eutrophication levels. PMID:12787608

Nagai, T



Prevention of Food Poisoning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The programed text provides a single lesson, four-hour, correspondence subcourse on the prevention of food poisoning. It covers the following areas: a definition of food poisoning; chemical food poisoning; biological food poisoning; causes and prevention of trichinosis; six factors controlling bacteria growth; bacterial infection; prevention of…

Army Quartermaster School, Ft. Lee, VA.


Cyanide poisoning.  


In recent years, the increasing use of laetrile has been added to the traditional sources of exposure to cyanide in industry, chemistry labs, and fumigation. The events in Jonestown in 1978 were a grim reminder of the lethality of cyanide. Nonetheless, advancement in new modes of treatment has been slow. The traditional method of treatment used in the United States is effective, but not without its own morbidity and mortality. Using two case reports as models, we review here the topic of cyanide poisoning including sources of exposure, pathophysiology, clinical manifestations of both acute and chronic exposure, and modes of treatment. Although there is currently no accepted alternate treatment in this country, review of the literature shows promise in other modalities being investigated in Europe, including hydroxocobalamin, cobalt salts, and particularly aminophenols. PMID:7016420

Vogel, S N; Sultan, T R; Ten Eyck, R P



Paraphenylene diamine poisoning  

PubMed Central

The commonest constituent of all hair dyes is paraphenylene diamine (PPD). Hair dye poisoning is emerging as one of the emerging causes of intentional self-poisoning to commit suicide. In this article, we report a case of PPD poisoning and the importance of clinical of hair dye poisoning. The lack of specific diagnostic tests, a specific antidote for paraphenylene diamine poisoning and the importance of early supportive treatment modalities are also discussed.

Prabhakaran, A.C. Jesudoss



Paraphenylene diamine poisoning.  


The commonest constituent of all hair dyes is paraphenylene diamine (PPD). Hair dye poisoning is emerging as one of the emerging causes of intentional self-poisoning to commit suicide. In this article, we report a case of PPD poisoning and the importance of clinical of hair dye poisoning. The lack of specific diagnostic tests, a specific antidote for paraphenylene diamine poisoning and the importance of early supportive treatment modalities are also discussed. PMID:22701263

Prabhakaran, A C Jesudoss



Morphological and genetical description of Loma psittaca sp. n. isolated from the Amazonian fish species Colomesus psittacus  

Microsoft Academic Search

A previously unrecognised fish-infecting microsporidia (Loma psittaca n. sp.), found adherent to the intestinal mucosa of the freshwater puffer fish Colomesus psittacus (Teleostei, Tetraodontidae) from lower Amazon River, was described based on light and transmission electron microscope and\\u000a phylogenetic analysis. The whitish xenoma was completely filled by numerous spores, including several developmental stages\\u000a of the parasite. In all of these

Graça Casal; Edilson Matos; M. Leonor Teles-Grilo; Carlos Azevedo



Behavior and space utilization of two common fishes within Caribbean mangroves: implications for the protective function of mangrove habitats  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Behaviors, activity budgets, and spatial locations of reef-associated schoolmaster snapper ( Lutjanus apodus) and non-reef-associated checkered puffer ( Sphoeroides testudineus) were cataloged in mangrove forests in Caribbean Honduras to see how and where they spent their time and whether this changed as they grew. For schoolmasters, swimming was the most common behavior, while checkered puffers spent the majority of their time resting. Both remained completely within (as opposed to outside) the mangrove roots and in the lower half of the water column most of the time. However, as the size of the fish increased there was a clear decrease in the time spent both within the root system and closer to the substrate; the larger fish spent more time higher up in the water column and outside the root system. This was observed in both the schoolmaster and the puffer; the schoolmaster subsequently moves to reefs while the puffer does not. Coupled with limited feeding, the results suggest a primarily protective function for mangroves.

MacDonald, J. A.; Shahrestani, S.; Weis, J. S.



A review of lead poisoning in swans  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Nearly 10,000 swans of six species or subspecies from 14 countries have died from poisoning caused by lead that originated from ingestion of fishing weights, shotgun pellets (shot), or contaminated vegetation or sediments associated with mining and smelting wastes. Lead contamination in mute swans in England caused local population declines during the late 1970s and 1980s. More tundra swans died from lead poisoning than any other species. The extreme record involved an estimated 7200 tundra swans that died over five winters at one locality in North Carolina. The recent legislation to ban lead fishing weights in most of England and Wales and recent replacement of lead shot with steel shot for waterfowl hunting in the United States and a few areas of Europe, including Denmark, are expected to reduce the incidence of lead poisoning in swans.

Blus, L. J.



Sudden death by Lepomis macrochirus (the killer fish).  


In this unusual case, death was not caused by either anaphylactoid reaction to fish or by fish poisoning. Death was due to asphyxia caused by a live, whole fish occluding the mouth and upper airway. PMID:2782307

Pritchard, J R



Was it something she ate? Case report and discussion of scombroid poisoning.  


We report the case of a 51-year old woman who developed headache, nausea, palpitations, tachycardia and hypertension 30 minutes after eating a tuna fish salad. Elevated histamine levels in the salad helped to confirm a suspected diagnosis of scombroid poisoning. The signs, symptoms, pathophysiology and management of poisoning from spoiled scombroid fish are discussed. PMID:12615755

Predy, Gerry; Honish, Lance; Hohn, William; Jones, Stephen



TRPV1 as a key determinant in ciguatera and neurotoxic shellfish poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ciguatera fish poisoning and neurotoxic shellfish poisoning are distinct clinical entities characterized by gastrointestinal and neurological disturbances, following the consumption of certain reef fish and shellfish containing toxic polyether compounds sporadically present in certain toxic marine dinoflagellates. The biotransformation and bioaccumulation of gambierol and brevetoxin, and their congeners, are believed to be involved in the pathogenesis of these “food-chain diseases”,

Eva Cuypers; Angel Yanagihara; Jon D. Rainier; Jan Tytgat



Cloning and expression of cDNA encoding lysyl hydroxylase 1, 2 and 3 in tiger puffer Takifugu rubripes.  


Lysyl hydroxylase (LH) catalyzes the hydroxylation of lysine residues in collagens, and contributes to the formation of more stable collagen cross-links. However, in teleost, there is little information about collagen modification enzymes including lysyl oxidase (LOX) family members. Here, we cloned cDNAs encoding LH1, 2 and 3 from tiger puffer Takifugu rubripes. To determine the mRNA expressions of LH family members in a tiger puffer, we performed a northern blot analysis. Results showed that both fgLH1 and fgLH3 mRNAs were almost constitutively expressed in tissues, but highly expressed in muscle and ovary, respectively. However, fgLH2 mRNA was detected only in RT-PCR, indicating that expression level of fgLH2 is very low in tissues. It may be that low expression level of fgLH2 contributes to the fewer contents of stable collagen cross-links in tiger puffer tissues. To further investigate expression profiles of fgLHs, we examined gene expressions in embryos during development. In embryos, expression profiles differ among three fgLHs, indicating that there are functional differences among the three fgLHs. This is the first report that examined gene expression patterns of three LHs in emrbyos and adult tissues in teleost. PMID:23954882

Tsukamoto, Hiroshi; Yokoyama, Yoshihiro; Suzuki, Tohru; Mizuta, Shoshi; Yoshinaka, Reiji; Akahane, Yoshiaki



Lead poisoning: The invisible disease. Waterfowl Management handbook  

SciTech Connect

Lead poisoning is an intoxication resulting from absorption of hazardous levels of lead into body tissues. Lead pellets from shot shells, when ingested, are the most common source of lead poisoning in migratory birds. Other far less common sources include lead fishing sinkers, mine wastes, paint pigments, bullets, and other lead objects that are swallowed. Lead poisoning has affected every major species of waterfowl in North America and has also been reported in a wide variety of other birds. The annual magnitude of lead poisoning losses for individual species cannot be precisely determined. However, reasonable estimates of lead-poisoning losses in different species can be made on the basis of waterfowl mortality reports and gizzard analyses. Within the United States, annual losses from lead poisoning have been estimated at between 1.6 and 2.4 million waterfowl, based on a fall flight of 100 million birds.

Friend, M.



Hair straightener poisoning  


Hair straightener poisoning occurs when someone swallows chemicals used to straighten hair. This is for information only and not for use in the treatment or management of an actual poison exposure. If you have an ...


Hydrochloric acid poisoning  


Hydrocholoric acid is a clear, poisonous liquid. It is highly corrosive, which means it immediately causes severe damage, such ... poisoning due to swallowing or breathing in hydrochloric acid. This is for information only and not for ...


Bracken fern poisoning  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Bracken fern (Pteridium aquilinum) is found throughout the world and enzootic hematuria, bright blindness, and bracken staggers. This chapter reviews the plant, the various poisoning syndrome that it produces, the current strategies to prevent poisoning, and recommended treatments....


Calcium hydroxide poisoning  


... powder produced by mixing calcium oxide ("lime") with water. Calcium hydroxide poisoning occurs when someone swallows this substance. This is for information only and not for use in the treatment or management of an actual poison exposure. If you have ...


Paraphenylene diamine poisoning  

PubMed Central

The commonest constituent of all hair dyes is paraphenylene diamine (PPD) being used by the people to color their hair all over the world. Hair dye poisoning is emerging as one of the emerging causes of intentional self-poisoning to commit suicide. In this article, the importance of clinical manifestations and of hair dye poisoning is discussed due to the lack of specific diagnostic tests. Since there is no specific antidote for PPD poisoning, the early supportive treatment modalities are discussed.

Prabhakaran, A. C. Jesudoss



Lead Poisoning in Childhood.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The magnitude of childhood lead poisoning has been inexplicably neglected by modern medicine and by legislators. However, since the 1970s, increased attention has been focused on lead poisoning, and advances have been made in several areas, including understanding of the neurodevelopmental and behavioral ramifications of lead poisoning, and…

Pueschel, Siegfried M., Ed.; Linakis, James G., Ed.; Anderson, Angela C., Ed.


Lead Poisoning: An Overview.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A problem that should be of great concern to all of us is the lead poisoning of children. First, I would like to present a short overview concerning the reasons everyone should care about lead poisoning, then discuss the history of lead poisoning, what is...

N. Gendel



Ultrastructural studies on crystal growth of enameloid minerals in elasmobranch and teleost fish  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The composition and morphology of crystals formed in fish enameloid were investigated at various developmental stages. Species\\u000a studied were shark, skate, red seabream, puffer, and carp. For comparative purposes, mammalian enamel samples were obtained\\u000a from developing porcine teeth and erupted human teeth. Chemical and physical analyses (FTIR, X-ray diffraction, and electron\\u000a microprobe) indicated that the mineral phase of enameloid in

Y. Miake; T. Aoba; E. C. Moreno; S. Shimoda; K. Prostak; S. Suga



The many faces of methylmercury poisoning  

SciTech Connect

Methylmercury (MM) is a very potent neurotoxic agent. Its role in polluting the environment is well documented. A vast amount of study over the past several decades has finally provided insight into many aspects of its effect. Exposure to MM may be through ingestion of poisoned fish or inadvertent misuse of grain treated with the poison as a fungicide. Major epidemics have occurred in Japan (Fetal Minamata disease), Iraq, Pakistan, Guatemala, and Ghana. Sporadic incidences have occurred in the United States and Canada. There is no effective antidote to counteract the effect of MM on the central nervous system, although the information documented should provide hope for more effective therapy in acute cases.

Elhassani, S.B.



Glyphosate poisoning.  


Glyphosate is used extensively as a non-selective herbicide by both professional applicators and consumers and its use is likely to increase further as it is one of the first herbicides against which crops have been genetically modified to increase their tolerance. Commercial glyphosate-based formulations most commonly range from concentrates containing 41% or more glyphosate to 1% glyphosate formulations marketed for domestic use. They generally consist of an aqueous mixture of the isopropylamine (IPA) salt of glyphosate, a surfactant, and various minor components including anti-foaming and colour agents, biocides and inorganic ions to produce pH adjustment. The mechanisms of toxicity of glyphosate formulations are complicated. Not only is glyphosate used as five different salts but commercial formulations of it contain surfactants, which vary in nature and concentration. As a result, human poisoning with this herbicide is not with the active ingredient alone but with complex and variable mixtures. Therefore, It is difficult to separate the toxicity of glyphosate from that of the formulation as a whole or to determine the contribution of surfactants to overall toxicity. Experimental studies suggest that the toxicity of the surfactant, polyoxyethyleneamine (POEA), is greater than the toxicity of glyphosate alone and commercial formulations alone. There is insufficient evidence to conclude that glyphosate preparations containing POEA are more toxic than those containing alternative surfactants. Although surfactants probably contribute to the acute toxicity of glyphosate formulations, the weight of evidence is against surfactants potentiating the toxicity of glyphosate. Accidental ingestion of glyphosate formulations is generally associated with only mild, transient, gastrointestinal features. Most reported cases have followed the deliberate ingestion of the concentrated formulation of Roundup (The use of trade names is for product identification purposes only and does not imply endorsement.) (41% glyphosate as the IPA salt and 15% POEA). There is a reasonable correlation between the amount ingested and the likelihood of serious systemic sequelae or death. Advancing age is also associated with a less favourable prognosis. Ingestion of >85 mL of the concentrated formulation is likely to cause significant toxicity in adults. Gastrointestinal corrosive effects, with mouth, throat and epigastric pain and dysphagia are common. Renal and hepatic impairment are also frequent and usually reflect reduced organ perfusion. Respiratory distress, impaired consciousness, pulmonary oedema, infiltration on chest x-ray, shock, arrythmias, renal failure requiring haemodialysis, metabolic acidosis and hyperkalaemia may supervene in severe cases. Bradycardia and ventricular arrhythmias are often present pre-terminally. Dermal exposure to ready-to-use glyphosate formulations can cause irritation and photo-contact dermatitis has been reported occasionally; these effects are probably due to the preservative Proxel (benzisothiazolin-3-one). Severe skin burns are very rare. Inhalation is a minor route of exposure but spray mist may cause oral or nasal discomfort, an unpleasant taste in the mouth, tingling and throat irritation. Eye exposure may lead to mild conjunctivitis, and superficial corneal injury is possible if irrigation is delayed or inadequate. Management is symptomatic and supportive, and skin decontamination with soap and water after removal of contaminated clothing should be undertaken in cases of dermal exposure. PMID:15862083

Bradberry, Sally M; Proudfoot, Alex T; Vale, J Allister




PubMed Central

1. After equilibrium of distribution of a phenol between water and an animal immersed in it has been once attained, the poisoning of the animal proceeds with constant velocity. The criterion of toxicity adopted in the first part of this study was the time required for initial recovery from paralysis after a given time in the phenol solution. In later work observations were made of the percentages of animals which died after stated periods in a phenol solution. 2. The numerical value of the velocity constant of poisoning for a given solution is independent of the criterion of toxicity adopted, provided that the criterion serves to measure the intensity of effect of the poison, and not merely the rate at which the poison is absorbed. 3. Recovery from paralysis produced by phenol and death from this poison has the same velocity constant. From this it may be inferred that recovery is due to a reversal of the mechanism which underlies poisoning. 4. The velocity of poisoning by phenols is nearly proportional to the square of the concentration. 5. A strictly chemical (mass law) interpretation is shown to be inadequate for the description of poisoning by phenols. 6. Certain physical factors, involved in poisoning by phenols, are discussed. 7. A precise method for obtaining the velocity constant of poisoning by a given agent is outlined.

Shackell, L. F.



Paraphenylene diamine poisoning.  


The commonest constituent of all hair dyes is paraphenylene diamine (PPD) being used by the people to color their hair all over the world. Hair dye poisoning is emerging as one of the emerging causes of intentional self-poisoning to commit suicide. In this article, the importance of clinical manifestations and of hair dye poisoning is discussed due to the lack of specific diagnostic tests. Since there is no specific antidote for PPD poisoning, the early supportive treatment modalities are discussed. PMID:23225987

Prabhakaran, A C Jesudoss



Poison Ivy, Oak, and Sumac  


... Guidelines It is important to use soap and water to wash all potentially exposed areas since the oil of the poison ivy, poison oak, and poison sumac plants adhere to the skin. Once the oil has ...


Isolation and characterization of bacteria from the copepod Pseudocaligus fugu ectoparasitic on the panther puffer Takifugu pardalis with the emphasis on TTX  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 50 bacterial isolates was obtained from the copepod Pseudocaligus fugu, which is a common parasite, collected from the body surface of the panther puffer Takifugu pardalis. On the basis of colony characteristics, these bacterial isolates were grouped into six types, of which only two (Types-I and -II) showed a high affinity for adhesion to the carapace of

B. A. Venmathi Maran; Emi Iwamoto; Jun Okuda; Shuhei Matsuda; Shigeto Taniyama; Yasuo Shida; Manabu Asakawa; Susumu Ohtsuka; Toshihiro Nakai; Geoffrey A. Boxshall



Plant fertilizer poisoning  


... is for information only and not for use in the treatment or management of an actual poison exposure. If you have an exposure, you should call your local emergency number (such as 911) or the National Poison Control Center at 1-800-222-1222.


Lead Poisoning in Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This publication is a guide to help social and health workers plan a preventive campaign against lead poisoning, a cause of mental retardation other neurological handicaps, and death among children. The main victims are 1- to 6-year-olds living in areas where deteriorating housing prevails. Among the causes of lead poisoning are: ingestion of…

Lin-Fu, Jane S.


Look Out! It's Poison Ivy!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides background information on poison ivy and offers suggestions for instructional activities. Includes illustrations of the varieties of poison ivy leaf forms and poison ivy look-alikes. Highlights interesting facts and cases associated with poison ivy and its relatives. (ML)

Darlington, Elizabeth, Day



Medical hazards of the coral reef.  


An account is given of some aspects of poisonings sustained by coming into contact with animals of the coral reefs of the Fiji Islands. Poisonings can be grouped into those in which the toxin is introduced parenterally-envenomings, and those in which it is ingested. Illustrative case histories are presented of injuries from 2 echinoderms and of envenoming from the "deadly" stonefish. A therapeutic approach to puffer-fish poisoning is mentioned and the problem of ciguatera poisoning is outlined. PMID:1170656

Sorokin, M



Hair bleach poisoning  


Hair bleach poisoning occurs when someone swallows or splashes this substance on their skin or in their eyes. This ... Hydrogen peroxide Some hair bleaches Note: This list may not include all sources of hair bleach.


Fuel oil poisoning  


Fuel oil poisoning occurs when someone swallows, breathes in (inhales), or touches fuel oil. This is for information only and not ... Fuel oil Kerosene Note: This list may not include all sources of fuel oil.


Jerusalem cherry poisoning  


The poison is found throughout the Jerusalem cherry plant, but especially in the unripened fruit and leaves. ... Diarrhea Drowsiness Enlarged (dilated) pupils Hallucinations Headache Low blood pressure Slowed breathing Slow pulse Stomach pain Vomiting


Clinitest tablets poisoning  


Wax PM, Yarema M. Corrosives. In: Shannon MW, Borron SW, Burns MJ, eds. Haddad and Winchester's Clinical Management of Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2007:chap ...


Hair dye poisoning  


... Arsenic Bismuth Denatured alcohol Lead (see lead poisoning ) Mercury Pyrogallol Silver Note: This list may not include ... product is swallowed. Continued exposure to lead or mercury can lead to permanent brain and nervous system ( ...


Cuticle remover poisoning  


Potassium hydroxide Sodium hydroxide Note: This list may not include all sources of cuticle remover. ... Medication to treat the effects of the poison Removal of burned skin (debridement) Washing of the skin ( ...


Sodium carbonate poisoning  


Sodium carbonate (also known as washing soda or soda ash) is a chemical found in many household ... products. This article focuses on poisoning due to sodium carbonate. This is for information only and not ...


Mineral spirits poisoning  


... the harmful effects from swallowing or breathing in mineral spirits. This is for information only and not ... The poisonous ingredients in mineral spirits are hydrocarbons, which ... only hydrogen and carbon. Examples are benzene and methane.


Stoddard solvent poisoning  


Mirkin DB. Benzene and related aromatic hydrocarbons. In: Shannon MW, Borron SW, Burns MJ, eds. Haddad and Winchester's Clinical Management of Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: ...


Potassium carbonate poisoning  


Potassium carbonate is a white powder used to make soap, glass, and other items. This article discusses poisoning from swallowing or breathing in potassium carbonate. This is for information only and not ...


Wart remover poisoning  


Wart removers are medicines used to eliminate warts , which are small, usually painless growths on the skin caused by a virus. Wart remover poisoning occurs when someone accidentally or intentionally swallows ...


The Poisons Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Details a project in which students explore and study the poisons in their environment by asking and finding answers to their own research questions. Includes some suggestions for involving students successfully in inquiry-based learning. (DDR)

Crawford, Barbara A.



Poisoning, envenomation, and trauma from marine creatures.  


In the course of their clinical work or during leisure activity, family physicians occasionally may encounter patients with injuries from marine creatures. Poisoning, envenomation, and direct trauma are all possible in the marine environment. Ciguatera poisoning can result from ingestion of predatory fish that have accumulated biotoxins. Symptoms can be gastrointestinal or neurologic, or mixed. Management is mostly symptomatic. Scombroid poisoning results from ingestion of fish in which histamine-like substances have developed because of improper refrigeration. Gastrointestinal and systemic symptoms occur. Treatment is based on antihistamines. Envenomations from jellyfish in U.S. waters and the Caribbean are painful but rarely deadly. Household vinegar deactivates the nematocysts, and manual removal of tentacles is important. Treatment is symptomatic. Heat immersion may help with the pain. Stingrays cause localized damage and a typically severe envenomation. The venom is deactivated by heat. The stingray spine, including the venom gland, typically is difficult to remove from the victim, and radiographs may be necessary to localize the spine or fragment. Surgical débridement occasionally is needed. Direct trauma can result from contact with marine creatures. Hemorrhage and tissue damage occasionally are severe. Infections with organisms unique to the marine environment are possible; antibiotic choices are based on location and type of injury. Shark attacks, although rare, require immediate attention. PMID:14989575

Perkins, R Allen; Morgan, Shannon S



Lead Poisoning in Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

How does lead usually enter the body and what systems are usually involved? What one symptom above all others should arouse the suspicion of lead poison ing?In follow up of children with lead en cephalopathy, frequently they have a lower I.Q. than their peers. What is the evidence for this?Should the gastro-intestinal tract of chil dren with lead poisoning be

Ralph D. Feigin; Daniel C. Shannon; Stephen L. Reynolds; Lilian W. Shapiro; John P. Connelly



A review of lead poisoning in swans (Cygnus spp.)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Nearly 10,000 swans of six species or subspecies from 14 countries have died from poisoning caused by lead that originated from ingestion of fishing weights, shotgun pellets (shot), or contaminated vegetation or sediments associated with mining and smelting wastes. Lead contamination in mute swans in England caused local population declines during the late 1970s and 1980s. More tundra swans died from lead poisoning than any other species. The extreme record involved an estimated 7200 tundra swans that died over five winters at one locality in North Carolina. The recent legislation to ban lead fishing weights in most of England and Wales and recent replacement of lead shot with steel shot for waterfowl hunting in the United States and a few areas of Europe, including Denmark, are expected to reduce the incidence of lead poisoning in swans.

Blus, L. J.



Ciguatera poisoning: a global issue with common management problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ciguatera poisoning, a toxinological syndrome comprising an enigmatic mixture of gastroin- testinal, neurocutaneous and constitutional symptoms, is a common food-borne illness related to contaminated fish consumption. As many as 50 000 cases worldwide are reported annually, and the condition is endemic in tropical and subtropical regions of the Pacific Basin, Indian Ocean and Caribbean. Isolated outbreaks occur sporadically but with




Prepare and Purify Urushiol from Poison Ivy and Poison Oak.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The active ingredients (urushiols) of poison ivy and poison oak were isolated in purified form by various chemical and physical procedures. Various properties were measured, including molecular weight, double bond value, refractive index and infrared spec...

M. D. Corbett



Poisonous Snakes of Southeastern Asia.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Topics include: Some facts about poisonous snakes; Kinds and characteristics of dangerous snakes; Distribution of poisonous snakes of Southeastern Asia; Precautions against snakebite; First-aid measures for snakebite; Identification and habits of the pois...



Prognostic factors in methanol poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to assess the clinical and laboratory factors in methanol poisoned patients to determine the prognosis of their toxicity. This survey was done as a prospective cross-sectional study in methanol-poisoned patients in Loghman-Hakim hospital poison center during 9 months from October 1999—June 2000. During this time 25 methanol-poisoned patients were admitted. The mortality rate was

H. Hassanian-Moghaddam; A. Pajoumand; S. M. Dadgar; Sh. Shadnia



In Case of Pesticide Poisoning  


... poison control center. If you believe you have been poisoned or injured by pesticides on an agricultural establishment covered under the WPS , ... about the pesticide to which you may have been exposed. See EPA's Recognition and Management of Pesticide Poisonings for information on the health hazards of ...


Black-spot poison ivy.  


In black-spot poison ivy dermatitis, a black lacquerlike substance forms on the skin when poison ivy resin is exposed to air. Although the Toxicodendron group of plants is estimated to be the most common cause of allergic contact dermatitis in the United States, black-spot poison ivy dermatitis is relatively rare. PMID:18346397

Schram, Sarah E; Willey, Andrea; Lee, Peter K; Bohjanen, Kimberly A; Warshaw, Erin M


Poisoning Associated with Potassium  

Microsoft Academic Search

A suicidal poisoning by intravenous administration of concentrated solution of potassium (K+) (chloride) is described in the study. A 30-year-old Caucasian female health professional was found dead in a motel. An intravenous needle was found inserted in the antecubital area in a right arm vein of the deceased. Attached to the needle, by a flexible tubing, was a 50 ml

A. K. Chaturvedi; N. G. S. Rao; M. D. Moon




Microsoft Academic Search

As an introduction to a discussion of the therapy of radiation ; poisoning, damaging radiations, measurement units, and the pathological and ; physiological bases of radiation injury are discussed. The acute radiation ; syndrome is described and chronic radiation damage is considered. The general ; treatment is then indicated. (J.S.R.);




Lead Poisoning in Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Urban children are exposed to lead through the air they breathe, the water they drink, and the food and nonfood substances they ingest. The history, diagnosis, and treatment of lead poisoning in these children are discussed. Includes information on the toxicology of lead and the various risk classes. (JN)

Boeckx, Roger L.



Recurrent neonatal organophoshorus poisoning.  


Organophosphorus poisoning in neonates is extremely rare and needs high index of suspicion to diagnose it. The clinical presentation is often confused with the features of sepsis like apnea, copious oral secretions, diarrhea, letharginess, seizures. There may be recurrence of manifestations due to chronic exposure. We report a classic case admitted in the intensive care unit of our hospital. PMID:23024082

Parvez, Yusuf; Mathew, Aji; Kutti, Satheesh Kalantra



Methylmercury Poisoning in Iraq  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses incidence of methylmercury poisoning throughout the world with increasing industrial and agricultural use of mercury compounds. Describes recent epidemic in Iraq resulting from use of wheat treated with methylmercurial fungicide. New data are presented on the toxicity of methylmercury and its metabolic fate in the human body. (JR)

Bakir, F.; And Others



Diarrheic Shellfish Poisoning  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web page discusses Diarrheic Shellfish Poisoning (DSP), a gastrointestinal illness caused by the consumption of contaminated shellfish. The associated toxins are okadaic acid and its derivatives, which are produced by the marine dinoflagellate Dinophysis. This page describes clinical presentation (symptoms) of DSP, diagnosis, management and treatment, chemical structure of okadaic acid, molecular mechanism of action, and references.



Advances in poison management.  


This article advances the most current concepts in the management of poisoned patients including the use of ipecac, lavage, activated charcoal, whole-bowel irrigation, and specific antidotes. The benefits vs the risks of each of these procedures are reviewed. PMID:8697613

Bayer, M J; McKay, C



Lead Poisoning in Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Urban children are exposed to lead through the air they breathe, the water they drink, and the food and nonfood substances they ingest. The history, diagnosis, and treatment of lead poisoning in these children are discussed. Includes information on the toxicology of lead and the various risk classes. (JN)|

Boeckx, Roger L.



Poisonous Koda Millet  

Microsoft Academic Search

THERE have been several well-ascertained examples of poisoning from diseased or improperly-prepared Koda millet (Paspalum scrobiculatum) during the past year in India. Owing to the prevailing scarcity of the usual food-grains, it is probable that Koda millet has been extensively sold and eaten in localities where its use is ordinarily unknown.

A. E. Grant



[Taxus baccata poisoning].  


Common yew poisoning occurs by per oral application of needles or extracts of needles usually. The determination of the cause of death is more difficult in the latter case. In our article, we advise of circumstances which could be helpful in diagnostic. In addition, we describe the substances contained in yew, their effect, importance and toxicological detection. PMID:22145207

Baláz, P; Toupalík, P; Havel, R; Bartos, P; Stanková, M



Amnesic shellfish poison  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP) is caused by consumption of shellfish that have accumulated domoic acid, a neurotoxin produced by some strains of phytoplankton. The neurotoxic properties of domoic acid result in neuronal degeneration and necrosis in specific regions of the hippocampus. A serious outbreak of ASP occurred in Canada in 1987 and involved 150 reported cases, 19 hospitalisations and 4

B. Jeffery; T. Barlow; K. Moizer; S. Paul; C. Boyle



Neem oil poisoning.  


We report an unusual case of neem oil poisoning in a previously normal 5 year old child. The child presented with refractory seizures and was having metabolic acidosis. Late neurological sequelae in the form of auditory and visual disturbances, and ataxia were present. PMID:18250509

Dhongade, Ramchandra K; Kavade, Sandeep G; Damle, Rushikesh S



Amnesic Shellfish Poisoning  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web page discusses Amnesic Shellfish Poisoning, a newly identified marine toxin disease associated with blooms of the diatom Pseudonitschia pungens. The page describes clinical presentation (symptoms), diagnosis, management and treatment, chemical structure of domoic acid, molecular mechanism of action, and references.



Acute poisoning: an update.  

PubMed Central

Treatment of the patient who has taken an overdose of a harmful substance includes support of vital functions and toxicologic analysis. Early recognition of signs and symptoms indicating poisoning by a specific agent or group of related chemicals is essential since specific antidotes may be lifesaving. Activated charcoal is an effective gastrointestinal decontaminant that adsorbs many common drugs. Administration of weak acids as an antidote to alkali ingestion is to be condemned; the only treatment should be dilution with water. The use of physostigmine as a specific antidote for the anticholinergic syndrome has been very successful; the incidence of this syndrome as a result of poisoning by tricyclic antidepressants is increasing. Effective therapy for acetaminophen overdose is still being investigated, but activated charcoal and methionine, if given early enough, seem to be effective.

Raymond, C. W.



Acute accidental phosgene poisoning.  


Phosgene is a highly toxic gas to which accidental exposure may occur in occupational workers. This case report describes the clinical presentation and management of accidental phosgene poisoning happened after the leakage of phosgene gas from nearby pipeline. The need to suspect phosgene gas exposure and observe such patients is crucial for life saving, especially in view of the delay in clinical deterioration observed in some patients who subsequently develop adult respiratory distress syndrome. PMID:22602834

Gutch, Manish; Jain, Nirdesh; Agrawal, Avinash; Consul, Suchi



Poisonous plant vouchers.  


Every published report of plant poisoning, whether experimental or accidental, should document plant identification. The essential elements are: complete botanical Latin name including species, specific epithet and author(s); name of the collaborating botanist who identified the plant; and herbarium and collection number of a voucher specimen from the exposure lot. Additional information to aid identification might include plant photographs, drawings, and descriptions. PMID:10349708

Wagstaff, D J; Wiersema, J H; Lellinger, D B



Les poisons du fuseau  

Microsoft Academic Search

Résumé  Les poisons du fuseau constituent un groupe de médicaments anticancéreux d’origine naturelle caractérisés par leur cible,\\u000a le fuseau achromatique qui permet aux chromosomes de migrer lors de la mitose. Les vinca-alcaloïdes (vinblastine, vincristine,\\u000a vindésine, vinorelbine) inhibent la polymérisation de la tubuline en microtubules et les taxanes (paclitaxel et docétaxel)\\u000a inhibent la dépolymérisation des microtubules. La résistance à ces agents peut

J. Robert



Carbon monoxide poisoning (acute)  

PubMed Central

Introduction Carbon monoxide is an odourless, colourless gas, and poisoning causes hypoxia, cell damage, and death. Exposure to carbon monoxide is measured either directly from blood samples and expressed as a percentage of carboxyhaemoglobin, or indirectly using the carbon monoxide in expired breath. Carboxyhaemoglobin percentage is the most frequently used biomarker of carbon monoxide exposure. Although the diagnosis of carbon monoxide poisoning can be confirmed by detecting elevated levels of carboxyhaemoglobin in the blood, the presence of clinical signs and symptoms after known exposure to carbon monoxide should not be ignored. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of oxygen treatments for acute carbon monoxide poisoning? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to June 2010 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 12 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review, we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: 100% hyperbaric oxygen, oxygen 28%, and oxygen 100% by non-re-breather mask.




PubMed Central

1. Oxygen in concentrations of over 70 per cent of an atmosphere is poisonous to dogs, rabbits, guinea pigs and mice. 2. The poisonous effects manifest themselves in drowsiness, anorexia, loss of weight, increasing dyspnea, cyanosis and death from oxygen want. 3. The cause of oxygen want is a destructive lesion of the lungs. 4. The lesion may be characterized grossly as an hemorrhagic edema. Microscopically there is to be seen in varying degrees of intensity (a) capillary engorgement with hemorrhage, (b) the presence of interstitial and intraalveolar serum, (c) hypertrophy and desquamation of alveolar cells, (d) interstitial and alveolar infiltration of mononuclear cells. 5. The type of tissue reaction is not characteristic of an infectious process and no organisms have been recovered at autopsy from the heart's blood or from lung puncture. 6. The poisonous effects of inhalations of oxygen-rich mixtures do not appear to be related to impurities in the oxygen, nor are they related to faulty ventilation, excessive moisture or increased carbon dioxide in the atmosphere of the chambers in which the experimental animals were confined.

Binger, Carl A. L.; Faulkner, James M.; Moore, Richmond L.



Chronic arsenic poisoning.  


Symptomatic arsenic poisoning is not often seen in occupational exposure settings. Attempted homicide and deliberate long-term poisoning have resulted in chronic toxicity. Skin pigmentation changes, palmar and plantar hyperkeratoses, gastrointestinal symptoms, anemia, and liver disease are common. Noncirrhotic portal hypertension with bleeding esophageal varices, splenomegaly, and hypersplenism may occur. A metallic taste, gastrointestinal disturbances, and Mee's lines may be seen. Bone marrow depression is common. 'Blackfoot disease' has been associated with arsenic-contaminated drinking water in Taiwan; Raynaud's phenomenon and acrocyanosis also may occur. Large numbers of persons in areas of India, Pakistan, and several other countries have been chronically poisoned from naturally occurring arsenic in ground water. Toxic delirium and encephalopathy can be present. CCA-treated wood (chromated copper arsenate) is not a health risk unless burned in fireplaces or woodstoves. Peripheral neuropathy may also occur. Workplace exposure or chronic ingestion of arsenic-contaminated water or arsenical medications is associated with development of skin, lung, and other cancers. Treatment may incklude the use of chelating agents such as dimercaprol (BAL), dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA), and dimercaptopanesulfonic acid (DMPS). PMID:11869818

Hall, Alan H




PubMed Central

Between 3 June and 15 July 1967 four explosive outbreaks of acute poisoning with the insecticide endrin occurred in Doha in Qatar and Hofuf in Saudi Arabia. Altogether 874 persons were hospitalized and 26 died. It is estimated that many others were poisoned whose symptoms were not so severe as to cause them to seek medical care or to enter hospital. The author describes the course of the outbreaks and the measures taken to ascertain their cause and prevent their extension and recurrence. It was found that the victims had eaten bread made from flour contaminated with endrin. In two different ships, both of them loaded and off-loaded at different ports, flour and endrin had been stowed in the same hold, with the endrin above the flour. In both ships the endrin containers had leaked and penetrated the sacks of flour which was later used to make bread. These two unconnected but nearly simultaneous mass poisonings emphasize the importance of regulating the carriage of insecticides and other toxic chemicals in such a way as to prevent the contamination of foodstuffs and similar substances during transport; both the World Health Organization and the Inter-Governmental Maritime Consultative Organization are working towards the establishment of regulations and practices to that end.

Weeks, D. E.



Methanol poisoning: characteristic MRI findings.  


Acute methanol intoxication is not an unusual poisoning. It can have serious neurological sequelae. We emphasize how neuroimaging can help in distinguishing methanol poisoning from other causes of acute unconsciousness in alcoholic patients such as hypoglycemic brain damage and carbon monoxide poisoning or head injury, which are frequently observed in alcoholic patients and are also responsible for altered sensorium. The most important findings in MR brain imaging in methanol poisoning have been bilateral putaminal hemorrhagic necrosis. Other less common findings are subcortical and deep white matter lesions, cerebral and cerebellar cortical lesions, and midbrain lesions, cerebral and intraventricular hemorrhage, and even enhancement of necrotic lesions, we found almost the entire spectrum of MRI findings in this patient with methanol poisoning. Neurological sequelae can entail the course and prognosis in methanol poisoning. The patient died because of ventilator-associated pneumonia that developed in the course of prolonged hospitalization. PMID:22634487

Jain, Nirdesh; Himanshu, Dandu; Verma, Shailendra Prasad; Parihar, Anit


Seasonal trends in reported poisonings.  

PubMed Central

Review of 2,339 Duke Poison Control Center records for calendar year 1977 revealed that preschool children had an autumn peak for all poisonings; older victims a summer predominance. When the reports were stratified by poisoning agent, significant summer predominance was noted in preschool victims for plants, pesticides, paints, and cosmetics; winter predominance for external medicines. In older victims, spring predominance was found for pesticides and soaps, summer predominance for envenomations, plants, internal medicines, ethanol, soaps, and external medicines.

Greenberg, R S; Osterhout, S K



Moonshine-related arsenic poisoning.  


Twelve sequential cases of arsenic poisoning were reviewed for possible sources of ingestion. Contaminated illicit whiskey (moonshine) appeared to be the source in approximately 50% of the patients. An analysis of.confiscated moonshine revealed that occasional specimens contained high levels of arsenic as a contaminant. Although arsenic poisoning occurs relatively infrequently, contaminated moonshine may be an important cause of the poisoning in some areas of the country. PMID:7352816

Gerhardt, R E; Crecelius, E A; Hudson, J B




EPA Science Inventory

In a 1981 survey of 1811 Florida citrus fieldworkers, 25 pesticide related poisoning incidents involving 29 fieldworkers were reported. Suspected poisonings were categorized into possible and confirmed poisonings, and from these reports it was possible to project an estimated 438...


Treatment of toxicodendron dermatitis (poison ivy and poison oak).  


Toxicodendron dermatitis results from a reaction to an oil soluble oleoresin that is present in many parts of the poison ivy and poison oak plants. Prophylactic measures include avoidance, protective clothing, barrier creams and hyposensitization. Treatments include washing the area immediately with a solvent suitable for lipids and the use of anti-inflammatory agents, especially corticosteroids. PMID:11376396

Guin, J D



Phycotoxins: chemistry, mechanisms of action and shellfish poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Phycotoxins are natural metabolites produced by micro-algae. Through accumulation in the food chain, these toxins may concentrate\\u000a in different marine organisms, including filter-feeding bivalves, burrowing and grazing organisms, herbivorous and predatory\\u000a fish. Human poisoning due to ingestion of seafood contaminated by phycotoxins has occurred in the past, and harmful algal\\u000a blooms (HABs) are naturally occurring events. Still, we are witnessing

Gian Paolo Rossini; Philipp Hess


DNA Barcode Sequences for Seafood Species Identification ...  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... Sphoeroides testudineus, Checkered Puffer, FDA Market Name: Puffer Authenticated: yes; vouchered: yes Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation ... More results from


Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning (PSP)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web page discusses Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning (PSP), a marine toxin disease with both gastrointestinal and neurologic symptoms reported worldwide. It is caused predominantly by the consumption of contaminated shellfish. Gonyaulacoid dinoflagellates are the source of PSP marine toxins. These unicellular dinoflagellates develop algal blooms throughout the world and produce at least 12 toxins which are tetrahydropurines, and heat and acid stable. Saxitoxin was the first characterized and the best understood. This page describes clinical presentation of PSP (including symptoms), diagnosis, management and treatment, the chemical structure of saxitoxin, molecular mechanism of action, and references.



Herbicide poisoning: A diagnostic challenge  

PubMed Central

Despite widespread availability, reports of herbicide poisoning from India are not common. Diagnosis is often difficult in the absence of proper history, non-specific clinical features and lack of diagnostic tests. A case of Paraquat poisoning is reported where diagnosis could be established only after the recovery of the patient. The literature is reviewed.

Ghosh, Supradip; Singh, Amandeep; Dewan, Himanshu; Walia, Gunwant; Bansal, Abhishek




Microsoft Academic Search

The experimental methods used to study the poisoning of the NRX reactor are described. The operation of the reactor in relation to these methods is reviewed for the period February to Septenber 1948. The poisons considered are Xe and Sm. (auth)



Tetrodotoxin Blockage of Sodium Conductance Increase in Lobster Giant Axons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies suggested that tetrodotoxin, a poison from the puffer fish, blocks conduction of nerve and muscle through its rather selective inhibition of the sodium-carrying mechanism. In order to verify this hypothesis, observations have been made of sodium and potassium currents in the lobster giant axons treated with tetrodotoxin by means of the sucrose-gap voltage- clamp technique. Tetrodotoxin at concentrations




TRPV1 as a key determinant in ciguatera and neurotoxic shellfish poisoning  

PubMed Central

Ciguatera fish poisoning and neurotoxic shellfish poisoning are distinct clinical entities characterized by gastrointestinal and neurological disturbances, following the consumption of certain reef fish and shellfish containing toxic polyether compounds sporadically present in certain toxic marine dinoflagellates. The biotransformation and bioaccumulation of gambierol and brevetoxin, and their congeners, are believed to be involved in the pathogenesis of these “food-chain diseases”, for which no effective treatments are available. Here, we describe for the first time the potent effect of gambierol and brevetoxin on TRPV1 channels, a key player in thermal and pain sensation. Our findings may lead to promising new therapeutic interventions.

Cuypers, Eva; Yanagihara, Angel; Rainier, Jon D.; Tytgat, Jan



[Poisonings in pregnancy].  


Attempted suicides and poisonings in pregnancy are a challenge for health care professionals because of the unknown effects of the toxic agent and the antidote therapy on the unborn. In case of intoxication, the malformation risk is often overestimated. In contrast, pertinent data show that the risk is not very high as long as the drug is not known as a teratogen and the mother's health is not substantially impaired. This applies to suicide attempts with acetaminophen, iron-containing products, and multidrug overdoses with psychopharmaceuticals as well as snake and spider bites and the ingestion of poisonous mushrooms. It is of utmost importance that the pregnant patient receives the same detoxification and supportive therapy following pertinent guidelines as a non-pregnant patient. The fetus should be followed-up by ultrasound with special focus on its vital parameters, movement pattern, and normal growth and organ differentiation. As long as the maternal health status is not substantially impaired, there is no indication to discuss elective termination of pregnancy "for toxicological reasons". PMID:22349530

Schaefer, C; Hoffmann-Walbeck, P



Nodularins in poisoning.  


Nodularins are an important class of hepatotoxic cyclic pentapeptides that are produced by the cyanobacteria Nodularia spumigena. These peptides have been found worldwide and have been implicated in the deaths of animals as well as a potent cyanotoxin in humans. To date, approximately 10 variants have been discovered, among which nodularin-R is the most abundant. Though the mechanisms of their potential hepatotoxicity and carcinogenicity are not well understood, the most frequently proposed mechanisms are described here. Most importantly, a comprehensive review of nodularins in poisoning is presented, including their bioaccumulation in water, cyanobacterial blooms and aquatic animals, the IC50, LC50 and LD50 values determined in laboratories, and wild, domestic and laboratory animal cases. However, the hazard of these toxins to humans has not been fully elucidated, predominantly due to the lack of exposure data. One of reasons underlying is that most current methods are ill suited for clinical monitoring. Thus, the available assays for the detection and quantification of nodularins are described with an emphasis on the problems encountered with each assay. Our ultimate aim is to demonstrate the urgency of better understanding the toxicity of nodularins, especially in humans, and thus effectively protecting ourselves from their poisoning. PMID:23872223

Chen, Yun; Shen, Danfeng; Fang, Danjun



Organophosphorus poisoning (acute)  

PubMed Central

Introduction Acetylcholinesterase inhibition by organophosphorus pesticides or organophosphate nerve agents can cause acute parasympathetic system dysfunction, muscle weakness, seizures, coma, and respiratory failure. Prognosis depends on the dose and relative toxicity of the specific compound, as well as pharmacokinetic factors. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of treatments for acute organophosphorus poisoning? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to April 2010 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 62 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: activated charcoal (single or multiple doses), alpha2 adrenergic receptor agonists, atropine, benzodiazepines, butyrylcholinesterase replacement therapy, cathartics, extracorporeal clearance, gastric lavage, glycopyrronium bromide (glycopyrrolate), ipecacuanha (ipecac), magnesium sulphate, milk or other home remedy immediately after ingestion, N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonists, organophosphorus hydrolases, oximes, removing contaminated clothes and washing the poisoned person, and sodium bicarbonate.



Poisoning mortality, 1985-1995.  

PubMed Central

Poisoning was reported as the underlying cause of death for 18,549 people in the United States in 1995 and was ranked as the third leading cause of injury mortality, following deaths from motor vehicle traffic injuries and firearm injuries. Poisoning was the leading cause of injury death for people ages 35 to 44 years. Poisoning death rates were higher in 1995 than in any previous year since at least 1979. From 1990 to 1995, the age-adjusted rate of death from poisoning increased 25%; all of the increase was associated with drugs. About three-fourths of poisoning deaths (77%) in 1995 were caused by drugs. The age-adjusted rate of drug-related poisoning deaths for males (7.2 per 100,000) in 1995 was more than twice that for females (3.0 per 100,000). From 1985 to 1995, poisoning death rates for males ages 35-54 years nearly doubled to 20.4 per 100,000, and the drug-related poisoning death rate for males ages 35-54 years nearly tripled, reaching 16.1 per 100,000. From 1990 to 1995, death rates associated with opiates and cocaine more than doubled among males ages 35-54 years. The numbers of opiate and cocaine poisoning deaths for 1995 more than doubled when all multiple cause of death codes were examined instead of only the underlying cause of death codes. Images p217-a p217-b p218-a p219-a

Fingerhut, L A; Cox, C S



Super vasomol hair dye poisoning  

PubMed Central

Hair dye poisoning is not rare but is an emerging poisoning in India. The main component of hair dye causing toxicity is paraphenylenediamine (PPD). Acute poisoning by PPD causes characteristic severe angioedema of the upper airway accompanied by a swollen, dry, hard, and protruding tongue. Systemic intoxication results in multisystem involvement and can cause rhabdomyolysis, acute renal failure (ARF). PPD consumption is an uncommon cause of ARF. There is no specific antidote for PPD and treatment is mainly supportive. We report a case of suicidal ingestion of hair dye that presented with cervicofascial edema and later developed rhabdomyolysis and ARF. Our patient improved with dialysis and symptomatic management.

Kumar, Praveen A. S.; Talari, Keerthi; Dutta, T. K.



Corrosive Poisonings in Adults  

PubMed Central

Ingestion of corrosive substances may cause severe to serious injuries of the upper gastrointestinal tract and the poisoning can even result in death. Acute corrosive intoxications pose a major problem in clinical toxicology since the most commonly affected population are the young with psychic disorders, suicidal intent and alcohol addiction. The golden standard for determination of the grade and extent of the lesion is esophagogastroduodenoscopy performed in the first 12-24 hours following corrosive ingestion. The most common late complications are esophageal stenosis, gastric stenosis of the antrum and pyloris, and rarely carcinoma of the upper gastrointestinal tract. Treatment of the acute corrosive intoxications include: neutralization of corrosive agents, antibiotics, anti-secretory therapy, nutritional support, collagen synthesis inhibitors, esophageal dilation and stent placement, and surgery.

Chibishev, Andon; Pereska, Zanina; Chibisheva, Vesna; Simonovska, Natasa



Occult Carbon Monoxide Poisoning  

PubMed Central

A syndrome of headache, fatigue, dizziness, paresthesias, chest pain, palpitations and visual disturbances was associated with chronic occult carbon monoxide exposure in 26 patients in a primary care setting. A causal association was supported by finding a source of carbon monoxide in a patient's home, workplace or vehicle; results of screening tests that ruled out other illnesses; an abnormally high carboxyhemoglobin level in 11 of 14 patients tested, and abatement or resolution of symptoms when the source of carbon monoxide was removed. Exposed household pets provided an important clue to the diagnosis in some cases. Recurrent occult carbon monoxide poisoning may be a frequently overlooked cause of persistent or recurrent headache, fatigue, dizziness, paresthesias, abdominal pain, diarrhea and unusual spells.

Kirkpatrick, John N.



Antidotes for acute cyanide poisoning.  


Cyanide poisoning can present in multiple ways, given its widespread industrial use, presence in combustion products, multiple physical forms, and chemical structures. The primary target of toxicity is mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase. The onset and severity of poisoning depend on the route, dose, physicochemical structure and other variables. Common poisoning features include dyspnea, altered respiratory patterns, abnormal vital signs, altered mental status, seizures, and lactic acidosis. Our present knowledge supports cyanide poisoning treatment based on excellent supportive care with adjunctive antidotal therapy. Multiple antidotes exist and vary in regional availability. All currently marketed antidotes appear to be effective. Antidotal mechanisms include chelation, formation of stable, less toxic complexes, methemoglobin induction, and sulfane sulfur supplementation for detoxification by endogenous rhodanese. Each antidote has advantages and disadvantages. For example, hydroxocobalamin is safer than the methemoglobin inducers in patients with smoke inhalation. Research for new, safer and more effective cyanide antidotes continues. PMID:22352728

Borron, Stephen W; Baud, Frederic J



Anti-rust product poisoning  


Wax PM, Yarema M. Corrosives. In: Shannon MW, Borron SW, Burns MJ, eds. Haddad and Winchester's Clinical Management of Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2007:chap ...


Fish Allergy  


About Fish Allergy A fish allergy is not exactly the same as a seafood allergy. Seafood includes both fish (like tuna ... alert bracelet. Continue What Happens in a Fish Allergy When someone is allergic to fish, the body's ...


Animal-related fatalities--part II: characteristic autopsy findings and variable causes of death associated with envenomation, poisoning, anaphylaxis, asphyxiation, and sepsis.  


In addition to blunt and sharp trauma, animal-related fatalities may result from envenomation, poisoning, anaphylaxis, asphyxiation, and sepsis. Although the majority of envenomation deaths are caused by hornets, bees, and wasps, the mechanism of death is most often anaphylaxis. Envenomation resulting from the injection of a poison or toxin into a victim occurs with snakes, spiders, and scorpions on land. Marine animal envenomation may result from stings and bites from jellyfish, octopus, stonefish, cone fish, stingrays, and sea snakes. At autopsy, the findings may be extremely subtle, and so a history of exposure is required. Poisoning may also occur from ingesting certain fish, with three main forms of neurotoxin poisoning involving ciguatera, tetrodotoxin ingestion, and paralytic shellfish poisoning. Asphyxiation may follow upper airway occlusion or neck/chest compression by animals, and sepsis may follow bites. Autopsy analysis of cases requires extensive toxinological, toxicological, and biochemical analyses of body fluids. PMID:21981407

Bury, Danielle; Langlois, Neil; Byard, Roger W



Carbon dioxide poisoning.  


Carbon dioxide is a physiologically important gas, produced by the body as a result of cellular metabolism. It is widely used in the food industry in the carbonation of beverages, in fire extinguishers as an 'inerting' agent and in the chemical industry. Its main mode of action is as an asphyxiant, although it also exerts toxic effects at cellular level. At low concentrations, gaseous carbon dioxide appears to have little toxicological effect. At higher concentrations it leads to an increased respiratory rate, tachycardia, cardiac arrhythmias and impaired consciousness. Concentrations >10% may cause convulsions, coma and death. Solid carbon dioxide may cause burns following direct contact. If it is warmed rapidly, large amounts of carbon dioxide are generated, which can be dangerous, particularly within confined areas. The management of carbon dioxide poisoning requires the immediate removal of the casualty from the toxic environment, the administration of oxygen and appropriate supportive care. In severe cases, assisted ventilation may be required. Dry ice burns are treated similarly to other cryogenic burns, requiring thawing of the tissue and suitable analgesia. Healing may be delayed and surgical intervention may be required in severe cases. PMID:16499405

Langford, Nigel J



Tributyltin in blood of marine fish collected from a coastal area of northern Kyushu, Japan.  


We investigated levels of the pollutant tributyltin (TBT) in blood of pufferfishes (six species), Japanese sea perch, red sea bream, Japanese common goby, Japanese flounder, rockfish, conger eel, and sea mullet collected off the coast of northern Kyushu, Japan. We found considerable levels of TBT (1.4-190 ng/mL) accumulated in the blood of these fish. Blood TBT concentrations were 1.3-22.5 times liver concentrations and 4.9-78 times muscle concentrations, except in conger eel and mullet. We detected TBT (16-111 ng/mL-blood) in the plasma of the fine-patterned puffer (Takifugupoecilonotus) year-round, without any apparent seasonal trend. These results suggest that fish inhabiting coastal areas of Kyushu, Japan, continue to be contaminated with TBT. PMID:21945558

Miki, Shizuho; Ikeda, Koichi; Oba, Yumi; Satone, Hina; Honda, Masato; Shimasaki, Yohei; Onikura, Norio; Arakawa, Osamu; Oshima, Yuji



Spatial distribution of ciguateric fish in the Republic of Kiribati  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ciguatera is food poisoning caused by human consumption of reef fish contaminated with ciguatoxins (CTXs). The expanding international trade of tropical fish species from ciguatera-endemic regions has resulted in increased global incidence of ciguatera, and more than 50000 people are estimated to suffer from ciguatera each year worldwide. The Republic of Kiribati is located in the Pacific Ocean; two of

Wing Hei Chan; Yim Ling Mak; Jia Jun Wu; Ling Jin; Wai Hung Sit; James Chung Wah Lam; Yvonne Sadovy de Mitcheson; Leo Lai Chan; Paul Kwan Sing Lam; Margaret B. Murphy



Experimental Induction of Ciguatera Toxicity in Fish through Diet  

Microsoft Academic Search

CIGUATERA fish poisoning is widespread in the tropical Pacific and the Caribbean, causing recurrent outbreaks of illness in persons consuming snappers, groupers, jacks, barracudas, and other species that may contain ciguatera toxin1,2. The existence of ciguatera toxin in a fish appears to be controlled by some factors in its environment ; many suggestions have been made as to the environmental

Philip Helfrich; Albert H. Banner



"Suicide" as Seen in Poison Control Centers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Data on age and sex characteristics, intent and diagnosis of suicide, and toxicology are presented for 1,103 cases of poisoning (children ages 6-18 years) admitted to 50 poison control centers during 1 year. (KW)

McIntire, Matilda S.; Angle, Carol R.



"Suicide" as Seen in Poison Control Centers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Data on age and sex characteristics, intent and diagnosis of suicide, and toxicology are presented for 1,103 cases of poisoning (children ages 6-18 years) admitted to 50 poison control centers during 1 year. (KW)|

McIntire, Matilda S.; Angle, Carol R.



Domoic Acid and Amnesiac Shellfish Poisoning  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This National SeaGrant (PDF) publication discusses Red Tide, Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning (PSP), Domoic Acid, and Amnesiac Shellfish Poisoning (ASP). It includes a description of symptoms as well as a contact number for the shellfish harvest hotline.

SeaGrant; Oregon State University; NOAA


Poison ivy on the leg (image)  


This is a typical early appearance of a poison ivy rash, located on the leg. These early lesions ... line where the skin has brushed against the poison ivy plant. The rash is caused by skin contact ...


76 FR 23823 - Guidance for Industry on Fish and Fishery Products Hazards and Controls, Fourth Edition...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...edition to include ciguatera fish poisoning guidance for northern...FSMA requires FDA to update the Fish and Fisheries Products Hazard...recommendations are listed for the natural toxin action level for diarrhetic...Agency's current thinking on fish and fishery products...



A Model Poison Control System  

PubMed Central

Responding to the need for a poison information, education, data collection and research resource in California's Bay Area and North Coast counties, the San Francisco Bay Area Regional Poison Control Center has become an integral part of the region's emergency medical services. In the first 33 months after it opened, more than 54,000 calls for assistance were received, nearly a third from medical professionals. Through the cooperation and collaboration of public, private and university resources and interests, a cost-effective, comprehensive and accessible system has evolved for public and professional use. Through our experience a system has developed that can serve as a model for poison information services throughout the western states. Emerging public concern for toxicology issues will continue to refine this model.

Tong, Theodore G.; Becker, Charles E.; Foliart, Donna; Morse, Linda



National Poison Prevention Week Promotional Materials.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This collection of materials for parents, early childhood workers, the elderly, and anyone in situations requiring safeguards against poisoning, spans the years 1993 and 1994 and is intended to promote National Poison Prevention Week. The materials included are: (1) the 31-page, illustrated report on National Poison Prevention Week for 1993,…

Poison Prevention Week Council, Washington, DC.


Plasma catecholamine activity in chronic lead poisoning  

SciTech Connect

Plasma catecholamines where measured in 15 children with chronic lead poisoning and 15 matched controls by radioimmunassay. The data suggest that plasma catecholamines (norepinephrine and epinphrine) were significantly elevated in chronic lead poisoning. Plasma catecholamine elevation may well be important in the clinical finding of hyperactivity and hypertension associated with chronic lead poisoning.

deCastro, F.J.



Pralidoxime in carbaryl poisoning: an animal model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: Poisoning from organophosphates and carbamates is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Concerns have been expressed over the safety and efficacy of the use of oximes such as pralidoxime (2-PAM) in patients with carbamate poisoning in general, and more so with carbaryl poisoning specifically. The goal of the present study was to evaluate the role of 2-PAM

Maria Mercurio-Zappala; Jason B. Hack; Annabella Salvador; Robert S. Hoffman



Neutralization of Shellfish Poison by Chemical Disinfectants.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The resistance of shellfish poison was evaluated in the presence of 7 chemical disinfectants. Sodium hypochlorite was effective in neutralizing the toxicity of the poison at concentration of 3 parts NaOCl per million (ppm) per microgram of poison at room ...

C. D. Chin



Management of the critically poisoned patient  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Clinicians are often challenged to manage critically ill poison patients. The clinical effects encountered in poisoned patients are dependent on numerous variables, such as the dose, the length of exposure time, and the pre-existing health of the patient. The goal of this article is to introduce the basic concepts for evaluation of poisoned patients and review the appropriate management

Jennifer S Boyle; Laura K Bechtel; Christopher P Holstege



Metal poisons for criticality in waste streams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many of the wastes from processing fissile materials contain metals that may serve as neutron poisons. It would be advantageous to the criticality evaluation of these wastes to demonstrate that the poisons remain with the fissile materials and to demonstrate an always safe poison-to-fissile ratio. The first task, demonstrating that the materials stay together, is the job of the chemist;

T. G. Williamson; A. Q. Goslen



Pleural effusion in aluminum phosphide poisoning  

PubMed Central

Aluminium phosphide (ALP) is a common agrochemical pesticide poisoning with high mortality rate. Primary manifestations are due to myocardial and gastrointestinal involvement. Pleural effusion in ALP poisoning is occasionally reported. We report a case of pleural effusion that developed after ALP ingestion and resolved along with recovery from poisoning.

Garg, Kranti; Mohapatra, Prasanta R.; Sodhi, Mandeep K.; Janmeja, Ashok K.



Lead Poisoning: A Need for Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Each year approximately 200 children die of lead poisoning. Especially vulnerable to the toxic effects of lead poisoning are the nervous system, kidneys, and the bones. Physiological effects of lead on the school-age child, screening processes, and roles of school personnel in dealing with suspected victims of lead poisoning are discussed. (JN)|

Lipnickey, Susan Cross



Carbon monoxide poisoning: a review for clinicians  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning continues to be a significant health problem both in the United States and in many other countries. CO poisoning is associated with a high incidence of severe morbidity and mortality. Epidemics of CO poisoning commonly occur during winter months and sources include: smoke from fires, fumes from heating systems burning fuels, and exhaust fumes from motor

Joseph Varon; Paul E. Marik; Robert E. Fromm Jr; Alfredo Gueler





A study of B and Th poisoning of slightly enriched U/sup 235/ hetcrogeneous and homogencous systems has been made. This study indicates large processing plant capacity increases are possible by the incorporation of soluble neutron poisons. A tabulation of other readily available neutron poisons together with their poisoning effects has been made. The importance of being able to remove the ncutron poisons when desired as well as having them present under all conditions where nuclear safety is dependent upon them has also been presented. (auth)

Ketzlach, N.



Sarin poisoning in Matsumoto, Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

SummaryA presumed terrorist attack with sarin occurred in a residential area of the city of Matsumoto, Japan, on June 27, 1994. About 600 residents and rescue staff were poisoned; 58 were admitted to hospitals, and 7 died. We examined clinical and laboratory findings of 264 people who sought treatment and the results of health examinations on 155 residents done 3

N Yanagisawa; H Morita; T Nakajima; H Okudera; M Shimizu; H Hirabayashi; M Nohara; Y Midorikawa; S Mimura




Microsoft Academic Search

Lead poisoning is the most significant and prevalent disease of environmental origin among US children. Despite over 100 years' knowledge of the special hazards of lead exposure for young children, it has taken over a century for ef- fective primary prevention to be adopted. Obstacles to primary prevention have included deliberate campaigns by industry to prevent restrictions upon such uses

Ellen K. Silbergeld



Poison Ivy: Signs and Symptoms  


... urushiol (you-ROO-shee-all). Urushiol is the oil in poison ivy, oak and sumac. You find this oil in all parts of the plants — the leaves, ... days. If you have a reaction to the oil, you can have these signs (what you see) ...


Choice of poison for intentional self-poisoning in rural Sri Lanka  

PubMed Central

Background Although intentional self-poisoning is a major public health problem in rural parts of the Asia-Pacific region, relatively little is known of its epidemiology. We aimed to determine why Sri Lankan self-poisoning patients choose particular poisons, and whether acts of self-harm with highly dangerous poisons were associated with more premeditation and effort. Methods We interviewed 268 self-poisoning patients presenting to two district general hospitals in rural Sri Lanka. Results 85% of patients cited easy availability as the basis for their choice of poison. There was little premeditation: more than 50% ingested the poison less than 30 minutes after deciding to self-harm. Patients had little knowledge about treatment options or lethality of the poison chosen. We found no difference in reasons for choice of poison between people ingesting different poisons, despite marked differences in toxicity, and between people who died and those who survived. Conclusions Poisons were chosen on the basis of availability, often at short notice. There was no evidence that people using highly toxic poisons made a more serious or premeditated attempt. Restrictions on availability of highly toxic poisons in rural communities must be considered in strategies to reduce the number of intentional self-poisoning deaths in the Asia Pacific region.

Eddleston, Michael; Karunaratne, Ayanthi; Weerakoon, Manjula; Kumarasinghe, Subashini; Rajapakshe, Manjula; Sheriff, MH Rezvi; Buckley, Nick A; Gunnell, David



Fish FAQ  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Northeast Fisheries Science Center answers your question regarding all things fish. Hundreds of fish and other marine fauna questions are answered in the FAQ section. Site also links to several external fish FAQs, as well as other internal and external resources, including kids sites, fish images, species synopses, how to age a fish. The site also features a glossary of fish terms and insight into the different ways fish are caught.


Reappraisal of somatosensory disorders in methylmercury poisoning.  


The first well-documented methylmercury (MeHg) poisoning by consumption of fish arose in Minamata, Japan in 1953. MeHg had dispersed from Minamata to the Shiranui Sea. The temporal changes in MeHg in the umbilical cords indicate that residents living around that Sea had been exposed to low-dose MeHg through fish consumption for about 20 years (at least from 1950 to 1968). They have complained of paresthesia at the distal parts of the extremities and around the lip even 30 years after the cessation of exposure to anthropogenic MeHg. The thresholds of touch and two-point discrimination of those residents and Minamata disease (MD) patients were examined using the quantifiable instruments. They could perceive the stimulation of touch although their touch thresholds significantly increased in comparison to those of the control people. Their touch thresholds increased at the proximal extremities and the trunks as well as at the distal extremities. The evenly distributed increases at both distal and proximal parts revealed that the persistent somatosensory disturbances were not caused by the injuries to their peripheral nerves. The thresholds of two-point discrimination, which are associated with the function of the somatosensory cortex, increased at both forefingers and the lip in both groups. Taking into consideration that, the apraxia limb kinetics, astereognosis and disorder of active sensation, which are all associated with damage to the somatosensory cortex, were detected, it is proposed that the persisting somatosensory disorders after discontinuation of exposure to MeHg were induced by diffuse damage to the somatosensory cortex. PMID:16087068

Ninomiya, Tadashi; Imamura, Keiko; Kuwahata, Misako; Kindaichi, Michiaki; Susa, Mari; Ekino, Shigeo



A new species of the genus Heterobothrium (Monogenea: Diclidophoridae) parasitizing the gills of tiger puffer fish Tetraodon lineatus (Tetraodontidae). A light and scanning electron microscopic study.  


In the present study, the morphology and morphometric characterization of Heterobothrium lineatus, a monogenean gill parasite infecting the gills and wall of the bronchial cavity of the tiger pufferfish Tetraodon lineatus, were described by means of light and scanning electron microscopy for the first time from the River Nile at Qena Governorate, South Valley, Egypt. In wet mount preparation, the adult worms exhibited an elongated body with anterior pointed and posterior broad ends. The adult worm measured 1.15-1.76 mm (1.53?±?0.2) in length and 0.30-0.42 mm (0.35?±?0.02) in width. Light and scanning electron microscopic observations showed the presence of two buccal organs situated anteriorly around the mouth opening. The opisthohaptor was subdivided into four pairs of clamps but had no isthmus separating it from the body proper. The present Heterobothrium species differs from all other described species in the genus, by its lower dimensions of the worm measurements and the presence of a copulatory organ armed with 12-15 genital hooks. Furthermore, it is easily distinguished from Heterobothrium tetrodonis and Heterobothrium okamotoi by the absence of a distinct isthmus, and resembles Heterobothrium lamothei described from the gills of Sphoeroides testodineus in Mexico in its general appearance and the presence of rectangular haptor with the fourth pair of clamps smaller than the previous ones. PMID:21853225

Morsy, Kareem; Saady, Hoda; Abdel-Ghaffar, Fathy; Bashtar, Abdel-Rahman; Mehlhorn, Heinz; Quraishy, Saleh Al; Adel, Asmaa



Pattern of acute poisoning in Tehran-Iran in 2003  

Microsoft Academic Search

To characterize the poisoning cases admitted to the Loghman-Hakim Hospital Poison Center (a teaching reference hospital of poisoning) in Tehran, Iran. All admitted acutely poisoned patients from January to December 2003 were evaluated retrospectively. Information of socio-demographic characteristics, agents and cause of poisoning, and the mortality rate were collected from medical records of the hospital. During this period, 24 179

Shahin Shadnia; Hadi Esmaily; Ghazal Sasanian; Abdolkarim Pajoumand; Hosein Hassanian-Moghaddam; Mohammad Abdollahi



Clinical manifestations and diagnosis of acute pyrethroid poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reviews 573 cases of acute pyrethroid poisoning reported in the Chinese medical literatures during 1983–1988. There were 325 cases of acute deltamethrin poisoning (occupational 158, accidental 167), 196 patients of acute fenvalerate poisoning (occupational 63, accidental 133, including 2 cases of ingestive fenvalerate-organophosphate mixture poisoning), 45 cases of acute cypermethrin poisoning (occupational 6, accidental 39) and 7 cases

Fengsheng He; Shaoguang Wang; Lihui Liu; Shuyang Chen; Zuowen Zhang; Jinxiu Sun



Zolpidem poisoning in a cat.  


Zolpidem (Stilnox) is a non-benzodiazepine hypnotic drug of the imidazopyridine class intended for treatment of insomnia in humans. A 16-year-old neutered cat, weighing 3.8 kg, was presented with sudden onset of stupor, disorientation, severe ataxia, vomiting and hypersalivation. Symptomatic treatment was given when ingestion of 1.25 mg/kg zolpidem (half of a 10-mg tablet) was confirmed, because no information on the efficacy and safety of the use of flumazenil in the treatment of zolpidem poisoning in cats has been published to date. As zolpidem is prescribed with increasing frequency in humans, the occurrence of accidental poisonings of pets is likely to increase. PMID:20633172

Czopowicz, M; Szalus-Jordanow, O; Frymus, T



Malignant hyperthermia in endosulfan poisoning.  


We are reporting a case of endosulfan poisoning, admitted in a state of altered consciousness, vomiting, and seizure. The diagnosis was based on history, physical examination and positive reports from toxicological screening. After 8 hrs of admission, a sudden rise in EtCO(2), respiratory rate, heart rate, blood pressure, and body temperature was noted. Masseter spasm was there and patient's elbow/knees could not be bent upon manipulation. Caffeine halothane contraction test later confirmed it to be malignant hyperthermia (MH). We suggest that if there is a sudden rise in body temperature, stiffness in limbs or massater spasm in a case of endosulfan poisoning, the diagnosis of MH should be considered as one possibility when etiology is not certain. PMID:22736908

Jain, Gaurav; Singh, Dinesh K; Yadav, Ghanshyam



Psychiatric aspects of methylmercury poisoning  

PubMed Central

Forty-three patients with methylmercury poisoning were studied; 74·4% showed some degree of depression. Their blood levels of mercury were higher than the average values for the whole group, and considerably higher than the blood levels of the non-depressed patients. Irritability was observed in 44·2% of the patients, all except one of the 19 being under 30 years of age. There was general improvement in the mental states of the patients who were hospitalized. Mercury binding compounds did not seem to have a significant effect in enhancing recovery from the depressive state. The possibility of there being two distinct syndromes, due to organic and inorganic mercury poisoning, is discussed.

Maghazaji, H. I.



Management of poisoning in adults.  


Nurses play a key role in the care of patients presenting with poisoning. Assessment and management of such patients can be challenging, especially if they are intoxicated, have co-ingested other agents or their mental health is compromised. In addition, some nurses may be unfamiliar with current management guidelines. This article outlines a number of protocols and initiatives aimed at improving consistency in the management of patients following an overdose. The article focuses on paracetamol poisoning, the most common overdose presentation in the UK. This article was updated on May 7 2013 to include current UK guidelines for management of paracetamol overdose, which changed in September 2012 following a review by the Commission on Human Medicines. In addition, the authors published recently an article in this journal that discussed the assessment and management of patients who present to hospital following a paracetamol overdose ( Pettie and Dow 2013 ). PMID:23987975

Pettie, Janice; Dow, Margaret


The treatment of acetaminophen poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acetaminophen has become a very popular over-the-counter analgesic in some countries and as a result it is used increasingly as an agent for self-poisoning. Without treatment only a minority of patients develop severe liver damage and 1 to 2% die in hepatic failure. Until Mitchell and his colleagues discovered the biochemical mechanisms of toxicity in 1973 there was no effective

L. F. Prescott; J A J H Critchley



Fish production  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

This invention is directed to the use of spinosyn or a physiologically acceptable derivative or salt thereof for improved production of fish; controlling ectoparasite infestations in aquaculture raised fish; and fish feed formulations.



Congenital PCB poisoning: a reevaluation  

SciTech Connect

A review of the literature reveals a need to clarify the pathologic physiology of congenital polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) poisoning, which is characterized by intrauterine growth retardation, brown staining of the skin and mucous membranes as in Addison's disease, natal teeth, widely open fontanelles and sagittal suture and apparent overgrowth of the gingiva. The skull abnormalities may represent irregular calcification, with natal teeth appearing because the bone of the mandible is penetrated more easily than usual. Some fetuses were poisoned at the time the mothers ingested the oil; others were affected in the subsequent years from residual contamination in the mothers' bodies. The misadventure in Japan was repeated in Taiwan in 1979. The seven congenital cases in Taiwan reported thus far seem to differ from those in Japan. In Taiwan the noses were somewhat black, two of the infants did not have low birth weight and the osseous abnormalities of the skull and gingival hyperplasia were not observed. Systematic followup studies should be made in Taiwan of the children born within 2 years of maternal poisoning with PCBs. Special attention should be given to age at first dentition and skull-X-rays for spotty calcification, among other measures of physical, neurologic and intellectual development.

Miller, R.W.



Fatal methanol poisoning: features of liver histopathology.  


Methanol poisoning has become a considerable problem in Iran. Liver can show some features of poisoning after methanol ingestion. Therefore, our concern was to examine liver tissue histopathology in fatal methanol poisoning cases in Iranian population. In this study, 44 cases of fatal methanol poisoning were identified in a year. The histological changes of the liver were reviewed. The most striking features of liver damage by light microscopy were micro-vesicular steatosis, macro-vesicular steatosis, focal hepatocyte necrosis, mild intra-hepatocyte bile stasis, feathery degeneration and hydropic degeneration. Blood and vitreous humor methanol concentrations were examined to confirm the proposed history of methanol poisoning. The majority of cases were men (86.36%). In conclusion, methanol poisoning can cause histological changes in liver tissues. Most importantly in cases with mean blood and vitreous humor methanol levels greater than 127 ± 38.9 mg/dL more than one pathologic features were detected. PMID:22082823

Akhgari, Maryam; Panahianpour, Mohammad Hadi; Bazmi, Elham; Etemadi-Aleagha, Afshar; Mahdavi, Amirhosein; Nazari, Saeed Hashemi



[Relations between food poisoning and ascariasis].  


During the examination of faeces for the causative agents of food poisoning, the search was also extended to the occurrence of worm eggs. Ascaris lumbricoides eggs occurred six times more frequently in persons affected with food poisoning than in consumers who were not harmed by the intake of poisoned food. This relationship was observed in non-specific cases of food poisoning and in those of unknown aetiology, whereas it was less pronounced in cases of specific poisoning. This difference has not been confirmed for Trichuris trichiura. It is safe to say that Ascaris infection increases the disposition to manifestation of symptoms of intoxication and represents, among other things, a factor in the aetiology of food poisoning. PMID:6322473

Bodnár, S; Nikodemusz, I; Márton, M



Circumstances of Accidental Poisoning in Childhood  

PubMed Central

Of 377 children with accidental poisoning, the commonest ages were 1, 2, and 3. The most important contributory factor was that the poison was kept in an inappropriate place. Most containers were closed, but the children found them easy to open. In some cases the container itself was unsuitable for the contents. The frequency of poisoning in childhood might be reduced in six main ways: (1) a reduction in the quantity of drugs kept in the home; (2) the provision of drug cupboards; (3) the provision of containers that are difficult for children to open, or individually foil-wrapping tablets; (4) making tablets less attractive to children; (5) clear identification of potential poisons; and (6) increasing parental awareness of the circumstances under which poisoning occurs. A plea is made for further sociomedical research into the prevention of poisoning.

Jackson, R. H.; Walker, J. H.; Wynne, N. A.



Dermoscopy of black-spot poison ivy.  


Black-spot poison ivy is an uncommon presentation of poison ivy (Toxicodendron) allergic contact dermatitis. A 78-year-old sought evaluation of a black spot present on her right hand amid pruritic vesicles. The presentation of a black spot on the skin in a clinical context suggesting poison ivy is indicative of black-spot poison ivy. Dermoscopy revealed a jagged, centrally homogeneous, dark brown lesion with a red rim. A skin sample was obtained and compared against a poison ivy standard using ultra-fast liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UFLC-MS/MS). This finding confirmed the presence of multiple urushiol congeners in the skin sample. Black-spot poison ivy may be added to the list of diagnoses that show a specific dermoscopic pattern. PMID:23122015

Rader, Ryan K; Mu, Ruipu; Shi, Honglan; Stoecker, William V; Hinton, Kristen A



Prevention of poison ivy and poison oak allergic contact dermatitis by quaternium-18 bentonite  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Poison ivy and poison oak are the most common causes of allergic contact dermatitis in North America.Objective: We investigated whether a new topical lotion containing 5% quaternium-18 bentonite prevents experimentally induced poison ivy and poison oak allergic contact dermatitis.Methods: A single-blind, paired comparison, randomized, multicenter investigation was used to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of quaternium-18 bentonite lotion in

James G Marks; Joseph F Fowler; Elizabeth F Sherertz; Robert L Rietschel



Thermoregulatory dysfunction secondary to acute ethanol poisoning.  


Acute ethanol poisoning followed by drugs of abuse and psychiatric disorders is the most common cause of hypothermia. An attempt to evaluate the ethanol poisoning degree considering body temperature, serum osmolality, osmolal gap and ethanol concentration measurements was the aim of study. The lowest body temperature measured using infrared tympanic thermometer--First Temp Genius, Sherwood Medical was noted in the severely poisoned patients and was well correlated with the serum osmolality and with the osmolal gap. PMID:7644696

Szpak, D; Groszek, B; Obara, M; Kusiak, M



Aluminium phosphide poisoning: a case report.  


This paper reports the case of a family in which three children were presented at Emergency Room (ER) with poisoning after the use of a pesticide at home. Initially, the cases were managed as routine cases of organophosphorus poisoning; however, the death of two children made the health team members realise that the poison's effects were delayed and devastating. Later, the compound was identified as Aluminium Phosphide (ALP), and the life of the last surviving child in the family was saved. PMID:22455303

Hirani, Shela Akbar Ali; Rahman, Arshalooz


First identification of the neurotoxin homoanatoxin-a from mats of Hydrocoleum lyngbyaceum (marine cyanobacterium) possibly linked to giant clam poisoning in New Caledonia.  


We report the first identification of homoanatoxin-a from benthic marine cyanobacteria (Hydrocoleum lyngbyaceum) samples collected in Lifou (Loyalty Islands, New Caledonia), where cases of giant clams (Tridacna maxima) intoxications were recorded during a severe ciguatera fish poisoning outbreak. Homoanatoxin-a was also detected in extracts of giant clams harvested in the surroundings of the contaminated area suggesting the possible link between these poisoning events and the occurrence of potentially neurotoxic Hydrocoleum. PMID:19895826

Méjean, Annick; Peyraud-Thomas, Caroline; Kerbrat, Anne Sophie; Golubic, Stjepko; Pauillac, Serge; Chinain, Mireille; Laurent, Dominique



Mercury in women exposed to methylmercury through fish consumption, and in their newborn babies and breast milk  

Microsoft Academic Search

The presence of methylmercury in fish is a major environmental problem. During the major epidemics of methylmercury poisoning through sea food in Minamata in Japan, and through dressed seed in Iraq, there was a high prevalence of infants, who developed cerebral palsy. This was generally assumed to be due to intrauterine methylmercury poisoning, as it is well known, that methylmercury

S. Skerfving



Organophosphorus pesticide poisoning: cases and developments.  


Self-poisoning with organophosphate pesticides is a major health problem world-wide. Through the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase, organophosphorus poisoning is characterised by the clinical picture of acute cholinergic crisis. Other manifestations are the intermediate neurotoxic syndrome and delayed polyneuropathy. In the Western world, the occurrence of organophosphorus poisoning is less prevalent due to the declining availability of organophosphate pesticides, which could render the recognition of this particular type of intoxication and its specific treatment more difficult. In this article we discuss some recent developments and treatment dilemmas, illustrated by cases from our clinic, followed by a review of the current recommendations in the treatment of organophosphate poisoning. PMID:18424861

Aardema, H; Meertens, J H J M; Ligtenberg, J J M; Peters-Polman, O M; Tulleken, J E; Zijlstra, J G



49 CFR 172.554 - POISON placard.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR




77 FR 64997 - Advisory Committee on Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...and Prevention Advisory Committee on Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention In accordance...and their practical implications for childhood lead poisoning prevention efforts. The...also reviews and reports regularly on childhood lead poisoning prevention practices...



76 FR 16521 - National Poison Prevention Week, 2011  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Proclamation 8638--National Poison Prevention Week, 2011 Presidential Documents Federal Register...March 18, 2011 National Poison Prevention Week, 2011 By the President of the United States...preventable. During National Poison Prevention Week, I encourage all Americans to...



77 FR 16645 - National Poison Prevention Week, 2012  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Proclamation 8784--National Poison Prevention Week, 2012 Memorandum of March 16, 2012...March 16, 2012 National Poison Prevention Week, 2012 By the President of the United States...anniversary of National Poison Prevention Week, I encourage all Americans to help...



75 FR 13215 - National Poison Prevention Week, 2010  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...March 15, 2010 National Poison Prevention Week, 2010 By the President of the United States...1962, during National Poison Prevention Week we alert American families about the dangers...campaigns like National Poison Prevention Week, childhood death rates from...



Tetrodotoxin Poisoning Due to Pufferfish and Gastropods, and Their Intoxication Mechanism  

PubMed Central

Marine pufferfish generally contain a large amount of tetrodotoxin (TTX) in their skin and viscera, and have caused many incidences of food poisoning, especially in Japan. Edible species and body tissues of pufferfish, as well as their allowable fishing areas, are therefore clearly stipulated in Japan, but still 2 to 3 people die every year due to pufferfish poisoning. TTX is originally produced by marine bacteria, and pufferfish are intoxicated through the food chain that starts with the bacteria. Pufferfish become nontoxic when fed TTX-free diets in a closed environment in which there is no possible invasion of TTX-bearing organisms. On the other hand, TTX poisoning due to marine snails has recently spread through Japan, China, Taiwan, and Europe. In addition, TTX poisoning of dogs due to the ingestion of sea slugs was recently reported in New Zealand. TTX in these gastropods also seems to be exogenous; carnivorous large snails are intoxicated by eating toxic starfish, and necrophagous small-to-medium snails, the viscera of dead pufferfish after spawning. Close attention must be paid to the geographic expansion and/or diversification of TTX-bearing organisms, and to the sudden occurrence of other forms of TTX poisoning due to their ingestion.

Noguchi, Tamao; Onuki, Kazue; Arakawa, Osamu



Species identification of ciguatoxin-carrying grouper implicated in food poisoning.  


Food poisoning due to ingestion of an unknown red grouper occurred in southern Taiwan. To identify the species of toxic red grouper implicated in food poisoning, a 475-bp sequence of the cytochrome b gene from six species of fresh red grouper meat was amplified by using a pair of primers (L14735/H15149). This fragment could be amplified when fish meat was treated with different heating processes. After sequencing, it was found that no variation in sequences was detected among individuals within each species. The species of toxic red grouper meat implicated in food poisoning was judged to be Lutjanus bohar based on sequence analysis. In addition, restriction enzyme analysis with HaeIII rapidly distinguished these six species of red grouper and the two samples implicated in food poisoning. No toxicity of viscera in 18 specimens of six red grouper species was detected, but two food poisoning samples were found to be toxic. This study indicated that DNA sequence and restriction enzyme analysis are powerful methods for identifying potentially toxic red grouper species as L. bohar. PMID:19903403

Hsieh, Cheng-Hong; Hwang, Ken-Lin; Lee, Ming-Ming; Lan, Chi-Hsun; Lin, Wen-Feng; Hwang, Deng-Fwu



The Chemical Nature of Mercury in Human Brain Following Poisoning or Environmental Exposure  

PubMed Central

Methylmercury is among the most potentially toxic species to which human populations are exposed, both at high levels through poisonings and at lower levels through consumption of fish and other seafood. However, the molecular mechanisms of methylmercury toxicity in humans remain poorly understood. We used synchrotron X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) to study mercury chemical forms in human brain tissue. Individuals poisoned with high levels of methylmercury species showed elevated cortical selenium with significant proportions of nanoparticulate mercuric selenide plus some inorganic mercury and methylmercury bound to organic sulfur. Individuals with a lifetime of high fish consumption showed much lower levels of mercuric selenide and methylmercury cysteineate. Mercury exposure did not perturb organic selenium levels. These results elucidate a key detoxification pathway in the central nervous system and provide new insights into the appropriate methods for biological monitoring.



Use of monoclonal antibodies as an effective strategy for treatment of ciguatera poisoning.  


Ciguatera is a global food poisoning caused by the consumption of fish that have accumulated sodium channel activator toxins, ciguatoxins. At present, most diagnosed cases of ciguatera are treated with symptomatic and supportive remedies, and no specific therapy has been devised. Here we report that ciguatoxin CTX3C can be effectively neutralized in vitro and in vivo by simultaneous use of two anti-ciguatoxin monoclonal antibodies, providing the first rational approach toward directly preventing and treating ciguatera. PMID:19254735

Inoue, Masayuki; Lee, Nayoung; Tsumuraya, Takeshi; Fujii, Ikuo; Hirama, Masahiro



[Reproduction of the spiny puffer, Diodon holocanthus (Pisces: Diodontidae) in the continental shelf of Mexican Central Pacific].  


Diodon holocanthus is an important economic and ecological species of the demersal fish community, caught as bycatch from local shrimp fishery. The reproductive biology of this long-spine porcupinefish has not yet been described, and reproductive season, the sex ratio, length distribution, length at first gonad maturity, and the gonad macro and microscopic features are described. A total of 400 organisms, ranging from 5.0 to 40.3 cm (average 18.4 cm) total length, were caught from the continental shelf of the Central Mexican Pacific, from December 1995 and December 1998. Sex ratio was 1:0.86 females to males (n = 253). The length at which 50% of the individuals showed maturing gonads was 19.7 cm for females and 20.1 cm for males. Length of the smallest organism with ripe gonads was 12.2 cm for females and 13 cm for males. Four gonadal maturation stages were found in both sexes, and five oocyte development phases were identified. The oocyte development pattern is of asynchronous type, which means the species can reproduce several times a year. Testicle development is lobular type, as in most teleost fishes. Monthly mean values of the gonad-somatic index suggest the reproduction activity peaks in June, and September-December. PMID:21516647

Lucano-Ramírez, Gabriela; Peña-Pérez, Edith; Ruiz-Ramírez, Salvador; Rojo-Vázquez, Jorge; González-Sansón, Gaspar



Pattern of pediatric poisoning in the east Karadeniz region between 2002 and 2006: increased suicide poisoning.  


In the present study, 386 patients with the diagnosis of poisoning admitted to the Pediatric Emergency Unit of Farabi Hospital of Medical Faculty of Karadeniz Technical University between January 2002 and December 2006 were retrospectively evaluated with respect to gender, age, cause of poisoning, type of substance used, route of exposure, reason for the intake, signs and symptoms, time of referral to the hospital, hospitalization period, and prognosis. The age group of most poisoning cases was <5 years of age and constituted 51% (n = 197) of all cases. The main toxic agent was drugs (70.2%), followed by foods (8.8%), rodenticides (7%), insecticides/pesticides (4.9%), and carbon monoxide (4.7%). In childhood poisonings, accidental drug poisoning was frequent in toddlers, whereas suicidal poisoning was frequent in adolescents. The suicidal poisoning rate was 23.8% among all poisoning patients, and 98.9% of these patients were adolescents. The suicidal poisoning rates for males and females were 30% and 70%, respectively. An increase in suicidal and inhalation poisonings was observed when compared with previous studies that have been conducted in the same region. The results of the present study suggest that poisonings still represents an important health problem that could be prevented by safe drug storage at home, as well as parental education on adolescence issues, particularly those regarding females. PMID:20019095

Mutlu, M; Cansu, A; Karakas, T; Kalyoncu, M; Erduran, E



[Hydrofluoric acid poisoning: case report].  


Hydrofluoric acid is a highly dangerous substance with industrial and domestically appliances. Clinical manifestations of poisoning depend on exposure mechanism, acid concentration and exposed tissue penetrability. Gastrointestinal tract symptoms do not correlate with injury severity. Patients with history of hydrofluoric acid ingestion should undergo an endoscopy of the upper gastrointestinal tract. Intoxication requires immediate intervention because systemic toxicity can take place. We present a 5 year old girl who accidentally swallowed 5 ml of 20% hydrofluoric acid. We performed gastrointestinal tract endoscopy post ingestion, which revealed erythematous esophagus and stomach with erosive lesions. Two months later, same study was performed and revealed esophagus and stomach normal mucous membrane. PMID:23381711

Cortina, Tatiana Judith; Ferrero, Hilario Andrés


Ricin poisoning and forensic toxicology.  


Ricin is one of the most fascinating poisons due to its high toxicity: as little as 500 microg can kill an adult. It gained fame by its use in the so-called 'umbrella murder' to kill the Bulgarian dissident Georgi Markov in 1978. Ricin also became known as a potential bio-terror agent to which people could be exposed through the air, food, or water. The origin, biochemistry, toxicity, and analytical procedures for the determination of ricin are summarized. The homicide of Markov is described as well as recent cases of criminal ricin use. PMID:20355196

Musshoff, Frank; Madea, Burkhard



Benzene hexachloride poisoning in cattle.  


Of 174 cattle dipped in an emulsified preparation of benzene hexachloride labeled for plant use, 18 were fatally poisoned. The preparation contained 0.14% active ingredient, gamma isomer of benzene hexachloride (BHC), a normally safe concentration for cattle. Analyses revealed 0.08% gamma BHC in the used dip and 0.5, 7.9, and 198 ppm in liver, kidney, and hairskin specimens, respectively, from a fatally affected cow. Microscopic examination of the freshly prepared dip demonstrated emulsion droplets ranging from 5 to 60 mu in diameter. PMID:49345

Ray, A C; Norris, J D; Reagor, J C



Red Tide or Neurotoxic Shellfish Poisoning  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web page discusses Red Tide and Neurotoxic Shellfish Poisoning, a milder gastroenteritis with neurologic symptoms compared with Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning. The classic causative organism is the dinoflagellate Gymnodinium breve, which produces neurotoxic toxins known as brevetoxins. This page describes clinical presentation of NSP (including symptoms), diagnosis, management and treatment, molecular mechanism of action, and references.



Treatment of methyl bromide poisoning with haemodialysis.  

PubMed Central

Acute accidental methyl bromide poisoning was treated with haemodialysis. The treatment was successful in removing bromide from the blood but the patient persists with severe neuropsychiatric sequelae. To the best of our knowledge haemodialysis has not been used previously for the treatment of organic bromide poisoning.

Moosa, M. R.; Jansen, J.; Edelstein, C. L.



The Poison Control Center--Its Role  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Poison Control Centers are being utilized by more schools of pharmacy each year as training sites for students. This paper discusses what such a center is, its services, changes anticipated in the poison center system in the next several years and how they may influence pharmacy education, specifically as it relates to clinical toxicology.…

Manoguerra, Anthony S.



Hyperamylasemia and acute pancreatitis following anticholinesterase poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

A prospective study was undertaken to find the incidence of hyperamylasemia and acute pancreatitis in patients with anticholinesterase poisoning. This was done by serial estimation of total serum amylase and pancreatic imaging by ultrasonography and confirmed, if necessary, by computerized tomography. Anticholinesterase poisoning was caused by either ingestion or accidental exposure to organophosphates or carbamates; it was diagnosed when patients

Surjit Singh; Udaybhan Bhardwaj; Suresh k. Verma; Ashish Bhalla; Kirandip Gill



Age and paracetamol self-poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Whereas paracetamol poisoning is predominantly seen in adolescents and young adults, the majority of paracetamol associated deaths occur in an older population.Aims: The aim of the present study was to evaluate age as a risk factor for fulminant hepatic failure (FHF) and death in a large population of patients with paracetamol poisoning.Patients: A total of 746 patients transferred to

L E Schmidt



Identification of pesticide poisoning in wildlife  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Wildlife Incident Investigation Scheme investigates incidents of suspected poisoning of wildlife (also honey bees and companion animals) by pesticides in the United Kingdom. The approach to these investigations has evolved over the past 30 years. Field investigations, post-mortem examinations, toxicological data and experience of previous poisoning incidents assist in the selection and interpretation of appropriate chemical analyses. Several ‘multi-residue’

Peter Brown; Andrew Charlton; Mary Cuthbert; Libby Barnett; Leigh Ross; Margaret Green; Liz Gillies; Kathryn Shaw; Mark Fletcher



An Outbreak of Foxglove Leaf Poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Comfrey (Symphytum officinale) leaves resemble those of foxglove (Digitalis purpurea) when the plant is not in bloom and, therefore, cardiac glycoside poisoning may occur when people confuse foxglove with comfrey. We report an outbreak of foxglove leaf poisoning following the use of alleged \\

Chun-Chi Lin; Chen-Chang Yang; Dong-Haur Phua; Jou-Fang Deng; Li-Hua Lu



Acute diquat poisoning with intracerebral bleeding  

PubMed Central

A case of severe diquat poisoning complicated by the development of aggressive behaviour, oliguric renal failure, and intracerebral bleeding is described. The patient was successfully managed and made a complete recovery. In this paper special attention has been given to the major clinical differences between diquat and paraquat intoxication.???Keywords: poisoning; diquat; paraquat

Saeed, S; Wilks, M; Coupe, M



Ciguatera poisoning in Rarotonga, southern Cook Islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

The central Pacific Ocean has arguably more ciguatera poisoning than any other place on earth. Here we tested two competing hypotheses that outline the primary causes of ciguatera outbreaks: (1) the ‘new surface hypothesis’ and (2) the ‘climate oscillation hypothesis’. Our findings indicated that in Rarotonga, from 1994 to 2010, the annual incidence of ciguatera poisoning ranged from 204 to

Teina Rongo; Robert van Woesik



The Poison Control Center--Its Role  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Poison Control Centers are being utilized by more schools of pharmacy each year as training sites for students. This paper discusses what such a center is, its services, changes anticipated in the poison center system in the next several years and how they may influence pharmacy education, specifically as it relates to clinical toxicology.…

Manoguerra, Anthony S.



The Chemotherapy of Poisoning by Organophosphate Anticholinesterases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oximes (with or without atropine as an adjunct) have recently been used successfully in the treatment of humans poisoned by organophosphate anticholinesterases. The discovery of the nature of the biochemical lesion in organophosphate poisoning has permitted the design of drugs to repair specifically this particular lesion. This paper reviews historically the researches which led to the development of pyridine-2-aldoxime methiodide

D. R. Davies; A. L. Green



Newer antidotal therapies for pediatric poisonings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Specific antidotal therapy is essential for the successful management of a limited number of intoxications. Newer antidotes have emerged in the last 10 years that target specific life-threatening poisonings. These newer therapies, including hormones, drug antagonists, enzyme inhibitors, and antibodies against drugs and venoms, illustrate the spectrum of mechanisms by which an antidote can reverse toxicity of a poison. This

Erica L. Liebelt



Poisoning with Veratrum-containing Sneezing Powders  

Microsoft Academic Search

1 Nine cases of accidental poisoning of children with sneezing powder are reported. Symptoms, besides sneezing, included gastrointestinal disturbances and syncope, whilst examination demonstrated bradycardia and hypotension.2 The powder, as supplied, carried no information on its constituents but Veratrum alkaloids were identified on analysis. The signs and symptoms observed were compatible with poisoning from these compounds.3 As a result of

P. Carlier; M.-L. Efthymiou; R. Garnier; J. Hoffelt; E. Fournier



Emergency management of poisoning in Hong Kong.  


The emergency management of poisoning is important in reducing the risk of mortality and morbidity in poisoned patients. This article reviews the Hong Kong system of prehospital and emergency care of poisoning, with reference to recent advances in this field. Administering activated charcoal is recommended for the gastro-intestinal decontamination of most poisons, unless doing so is contra-indicated. Gastric lavage should be considered only in life-threatening cases of poisoning that present within the first hour. Newer antidotes that are available in Hong Kong accident and emergency departments include hydroxocobalamin, stonefish and snake antevenenes, digoxin-specific antibodies, esmolol hydrochloride, and octreotide. The 'golden hour' concept of gastro-intestinal decontamination is advocated and ways to ensure that decontamination is performed within the 'golden hour' are suggested. PMID:11025848

Lau, F L



Morphological abnormalities and sensorimotor deficits in larval fish exposed to dissolved saxitoxin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dietary uptake of one suite of dinoflagellate-produced neurotoxins, that are commonly called paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins, is known to cause acute fish kills. However, little is known about the effects of dissolved phase exposure and the potential sublethal effects of this route of exposure on early developmental stages of fish. Toxin exposure during early development is of particular

Kathi A. Lefebvre; Vera L. Trainer; Nathaniel L. Scholz



The treatment of acetaminophen poisoning  

SciTech Connect

Acetaminophen has become a very popular over-the-counter analgesic in some countries and as a result it is used increasingly as an agent for self-poisoning. Without treatment only a minority of patients develop severe liver damage and 1 to 2% die in hepatic failure. Until Mitchell and his colleagues discovered the biochemical mechanisms of toxicity in 1973 there was no effective treatment. They showed that the metabolic activation of acetaminophen resulted in the formation of a reactive arylating intermediate, and that hepatic reduced glutathione played an essential protective role by preferential conjugation and inactivation of the metabolite. Early treatment with sulphydryl compounds and glutathione precursors has been dramatically effective in preventing liver damage, renal failure, and death following acetaminophen overdosage. It seems likely that these agents act primarily by stimulating glutathione synthesis. Inhibition of the metabolic activation of acetaminophen is another potential therapeutic approach that has not yet been put to the test clinically. The clinical management of acetaminophen poisoning has been transformed and it is particularly gratifying to have effective treatment based on a well established biochemical mechanism of toxicity. It is likely that effective treatment will be developed for toxicity caused through similar mechanisms by other agents.

Prescott, L.F.; Critchley, J.A.



Suicidal poisoning with barium chloride.  


A 49-year-old male pharmacist suffering from depression phoned the emergency services telling of how he had ingested barium chloride. He was found semicomatose in bed and resuscitation attempts were to no avail and he died at the scene. A white plastic container labelled "Barium chloride... Poison", and a book with a writing on a blank page... "give sulphate... SO(4)" were found. At autopsy, 1l of whitish-yellow fluid was found in the stomach. Autopsy barium levels were: blood 9.9mg/l; bile 8.8mg/l; urine 6.3mg/l; gastric 10.0g/l. Cause of death was given as cardiorespiratory arrest due to barium chloride poisoning. The issue of barium toxicity in a variety of itatrogenic and non itatrogenic situation is discussed together with the two only other cases of suicidal barium ingestion, and the feasibility of early intervention at the scene by an emergency team. PMID:11376995

Jourdan, S; Bertoni, M; Sergio, P; Michele, P; Rossi, M



Unexpected double lethal oleander poisoning.  


Nerium oleander is a very popular urban ornamental plant in Europe, but it is also extremely dangerous because it contains several types of glycosides, accidental ingestion of which can cause cardiac arrhythmias and even deaths. The rarity of such cases makes it difficult to think of oleander poisoning without evidences that suggest this possibility as the cause of the unexpected death. This report concerns the discovery of the bodies of 2 young people, a man and a woman, in a forest in conditions of extreme malnutrition. Medicolegal investigations showed neither pathologic nor traumatic causes of death, but the presence of vegetal remains in the stomach was noticed. A common toxicological analysis resulted negative, but the implementation of more detailed investigations showed the presence of digoxin in the blood of both cadavers, excluding the possibility of a pharmaceutical provenience of digoxin, this laboratory result was interpreted as evidence of ingestion of oleander, which contains oleandrine, the cross reaction of which with digoxin is widely described in the literature. Identification of the 2 subjects, which occurred after 4 years, strengthened the hypothesis of accidental poisoning by oleander because it was ascertained that the 2 young people were vegans--extreme vegetarians who reject the ingestion of foods of animal origin and live by eating only what they find in nature. PMID:21926903

Papi, Luigi; Luciani, Alessandro Bassi; Forni, David; Giusiani, Mario



Food poisoning and house gecko: myth or reality?  


The reason behind the food-poisoning due to felling of house geckos in eatables is described in this paper. House geckos are known to carry various types of pathogens in their bodies which cause food-poisoning after consuming the contaminated foods. Since these geckos are non-poisonous, the food poisoning due to their presence in food is not possible. PMID:23033707

Kotangale, J P



DDT poisoning in a Cooper's hawk collected in 1980  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In April 1980, a Cooper's hawk (Accipiter cooperii) was found on the ground in Lakewood, Colorado, unable to fly and in convulsion. The bird died shortly thereafter. The hawk was packed in dry ice and shipped air express to the Fish and Wildlife Service, U. S. Department of the Interior, National Wildlife Health Laboratory, Madison, Wisconsin, for necropsy. Following necropsy, the brain, gastrointestinal tract, and remaining carcass except skin, feet, wings, liver, and kidney were packed in dry ice and shipped air express to the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, Laurel, Maryland, for chemical residue analysis. Because the bird's behavior before death suggested some form of poisoning, the kidney was assayed for thallium, the liver for lead, and the gastrointestinal tract for strychnine, sodium fluoroacetate, and arsenic. When these assays proved negative, the bird was analyzed for organochlorine pesticides. Necropsy findings and pesticide residue analyses are reported here.

Prouty, R. M.; Pattee, O. H.; Schmeling, S. K.



Poisoned Pacific: The legacy of French nuclear testing  

SciTech Connect

The author points out that France hosted a summit meeting of the seven wealthiest nations on earth in the summer of 1989, celebrating the bicentenary of the French Revolution. Although introducing a new subject to the economic summit - present environmental concerns - nothing was said about the poisoning of the islands and islanders from 159 nuclear tests (44 atmospheric, 115 underground) since 1966 on two tiny atolls (Moruroa and Fangataufa) in French Polynesia. The first test rained dead fish from a lagoon; others spread radiation throughout the region. De Gaulle's promise of independence to the Polynesians during World War II, as soon as the war was over, was forgotten once nuclear testing began. The atolls and the patience of the Polynesians have been used up; and a colony that once was nearly self-sufficient now imports 80% of its food.

Danielsson, B.



Acute plant poisoning and antitoxin antibodies.  


Plant poisoning is normally a problem of young children who unintentionally ingest small quantities of toxic plants with little resulting morbidity and few deaths. In some regions of the world, however, plant poisonings are important clinical problems causing much morbidity and mortality. While deaths do occur after unintentional poisoning with plants such as Atractylis gummifera (bird-lime or blue thistle) and Blighia sapida (ackee tree), the majority of deaths globally occur following intentional self-poisoning with plants such as Thevetia peruviana (yellow oleander) and Cerbera manghas (pink-eyed cerbera or sea mango). Antitoxins developed against colchicine and cardiac glycosides would be useful for plant poisonings--anti-digoxin Fab fragments have been shown to be highly effective in T. peruviana poisoning. Unfortunately, their great cost limits their use in the developing world where they would make a major difference in patient management. Therapy for some other plant poisonings might also benefit from the development of antitoxins. However, until issues of cost and supply are worked out, plant antitoxins are going to remain a dream in many of the areas where they are now urgently required. PMID:12807314

Eddleston, Michael; Persson, Hans




Microsoft Academic Search

On the large lakes gill nets were used to help block off areas to be poisoned, to check on the movements of fish In and out of· these areas, and to teat the effectiveness of the drug In deep waters. Information concerning the use of gill nets In connection with rotenone studies w1ll be reported elsewhere. Twenty-foot minnow seines were




Reactions of fishes to gradients of dissolved atmospheric gases  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the experimental control of gases, several and not one factor are commonly varied when gas is bubbled through water. Fishes are clearly affected by lack of oxygen; species usually die in the order of their relation to these factors in nature. Carbon dioxide, in concentrations probably used to produce reversals of reaction in some of the invertebrates, is poisonous

Victor E. Shelford; W. C. Allee



Antarctic Fishes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Explains the adaptations to Antarctic waters that Notothenioidei, a group of advanced bony fishes, have exhibited. Discusses the fishes' mechanisms of production of antifreeze properties and their capacities for neutral buoyancy in water. (ML)|

Eastman, Joseph T.; DeVries, Arthur L.



Antarctic Fishes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains the adaptations to Antarctic waters that Notothenioidei, a group of advanced bony fishes, have exhibited. Discusses the fishes' mechanisms of production of antifreeze properties and their capacities for neutral buoyancy in water. (ML)

Eastman, Joseph T.; DeVries, Arthur L.



Lead poisoning in the world and Iran.  


Lead is a relatively ubiquitous heavy metal with particular features such as resistance to corrosion, high malleability and wide variety of industrial applications. In medicine, however, it is considered as a slow-acting toxic substance affecting multiple body systems, specifically functioning as a potent neurotoxin in the central nervous system. Lead poisoning may be acute or chronic and can be due to occupational or environmental exposures. The history of lead poisoning dates back to ancient times. The present paper briefly describes the worldwide historical accounts of lead poisoning with a special focus on Iran. PMID:23022790

Azizi, M H; Azizi, F



Chronic mercury poisoning: Report of two siblings  

PubMed Central

Mercury exists as organic inorganic and elementary forms in nature and is one of the most toxic metals that are poisonous for human beings. Mercury is commonly used in many different sectors of industry such as in insects formulas, agriculture products, lamps, batteries, paper, dyes, electrical/electronic devices, jewelry, and in dentistry. In this study, two siblings (one a 7-year-old boy and the other a 13 years old girl) are reported who developed chronic mercury poisoning as a result of long-term contact with batteries. Our aim is to emphasize the importance of mercury poisoning that is extremely rarely seen in childhood.

Yilmaz, Cahide; Okur, Mesut; Geylani, Hadi; Caksen, Huseyin; Tuncer, Oguz; Atas, Bulent



Radiographic findings in congenital lead poisoning  

SciTech Connect

Because lead crosses the placenta throughout pregnancy, the fetus is at risk for lead poisoning. A full term, asymptomatic child was born with congenital lead poisoning secondary to maternal pica. Radiographic findings of a dense cranial vault, lead lines, and delayed skeletal and deciduous dental development were noted at birth. After chelation therapy, when the patient was seven months old, radiographs revealed normal skeletal maturation. Tooth eruption did not occur until 15 months of age. Newborn infants with these radiographic findings should be screened for subclinical, congenital lead poisoning.

Pearl, M.; Boxt, L.M.



Toxicodendron dermatitis: poison ivy, oak, and sumac.  


Allergic contact dermatitis caused by the Toxicodendron (formerly Rhus) species-poison ivy, poison oak, and poison sumac-affects millions of North Americans every year. In certain outdoor occupations, for example, agriculture and forestry, as well as among many outdoor enthusiasts, Toxicodendron dermatitis presents a significant hazard. This review considers the epidemiology, identification, immunochemistry, pathophysiology, clinical features, treatment, and prevention of this common dermatologic problem. Recent research in prevention is emphasized, and resources to help in the identification of plants are provided in the bibliography. The literature was searched using a MEDLINE query for "Toxicodendron dermatitis", and the identified article bibliographies were searched as well. PMID:16805148

Gladman, Aaron C



Hallucinogenic plant poisoning in children.  


Datura is a hallucinogenic plant found in urban or rural areas in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia KSA. It grows wildly in many parts of the country. Its taste and shape makes it unattractive to both man and animals, though deliberate use by young adults for its hallucinogenic effects have been widely reported for the past 30 years. Datura contains 3 main toxic alkaloids: atropine, scopolamine and hyoscamine. Consumption of any part of the plant can result in severe anticholinergic toxicity. Clinical symptoms are those seen in atropine poisoning, particularly mydriasis and hallucinations. Children have a special susceptibility to atropine toxicity; even small amount may produce central nervous system manifestations. Hospitalization is required for agitation and combative behavior although symptomatic treatment is usually sufficient. We report a case of acute Datura stramonium intoxication in a 6-year-old boy from Khamis Mushayt, KSA, who presented with restlessness, hallucinations and mydriasis 8 hours after ingesting the seeds of Datura plant. PMID:15756367

Al-Shaikh, Adnan M; Sablay, Zakira M



Fatal poisonings in Oslo: a one-year observational study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Acute poisonings are common and are treated at different levels of the health care system. Since most fatal poisonings occur outside hospital, these must be included when studying characteristics of such deaths. The pattern of toxic agents differs between fatal and non-fatal poisonings. By including all poisoning episodes, cause-fatality rates can be calculated. METHODS: Fatal and non-fatal acute poisonings

Mari A Bjornaas; Brita Teige; Knut E Hovda; Oivind Ekeberg; Fridtjof Heyerdahl; Dag Jacobsen



Frozen Fish  

Microsoft Academic Search

IT is not uncommon for small fish to be frozen to ice in shallow water. In 1838 I put some of these frozen fish into tepid water, and they recovered. In 1852, in one part of the lake at Highfield House, there must have been hundreds frozen to the ice, but when it melted scarcely any dead fish were seen:

E. J. Lowe



Fatherly Fish  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In the hit movie Finding Nemo, Marlin the clown fish searches the ocean for his missing son. While it's unlikely that a real clown fish could make this long journey, some male fish do show a fatherly attitude toward their offspring. You'll hear about one in this Science Update.

Science Update;



49 CFR 176.605 - Care following leakage or sifting of Division 2.3 (poisonous gas) and Division 6.1 (poisonous...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...or sifting of Division 2.3 (poisonous gas) and Division 6.1 (poisonous) materials...Requirements for Division 2.3 (Poisonous Gas) and Division 6.1 (Poisonous) Materials...or sifting of Division 2.3 (poisonous gas) and Division 6.1 (poisonous)...



49 CFR 176.605 - Care following leakage or sifting of Division 2.3 (poisonous gas) and Division 6.1 (poisonous...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...or sifting of Division 2.3 (poisonous gas) and Division 6.1 (poisonous) materials...Requirements for Division 2.3 (Poisonous Gas) and Division 6.1 (Poisonous) Materials...or sifting of Division 2.3 (poisonous gas) and Division 6.1 (poisonous)...



Poisoned food, poisoned uniforms, and anthrax: or, how guerillas die in war.  


Many people believe that Rhodesia, struggling to maintain minority rule in Africa, used chemical and biological weapons against African guerilla armies in the liberation war. Clothes and food were routinely poisoned, and Rhodesian agents, perhaps in concert with global forces of reaction, caused the largest single outbreak of anthrax in modern times. Oral interviews with traditional healers and Rhodesians' confessional memoirs of the war suggest that deaths by poisoning or disease were not so straightforward, that guerillas and healers and doctors struggled to understand not only what caused death but also what kind of death a poisoned uniform or poisoned boot was. PMID:15484386

White, Luise



Fatal brodifacoum poisoning in a pony  

PubMed Central

Fatal brodifacoum poisoning in a pony is described; this condition has not previously been reported in ponies. Discussion of what factors in the pony’s history and treatment may have predisposed to the severity and ultimate death is provided.

Ayala, Ignacio; Rodriguez, M? Jesus; Martos, Nieves; Zilberschtein, Jose; Ruiz, Isidro; Motas, Miguel



Red Tide and Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses the nature and cause of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP). Includes toxic dinoflagellate ecology, taxonomy and life history, and chemistry of the toxins. Recent work with trace metals and directions of future research are also given. (MA)|

Dale, Barrie; Yentsch, Clarice M.



Mercury Poisoning Linked to Skin Products  


... are warning consumers not to use skin creams, beauty and antiseptic soaps, or lotions that might contain ... DSHS Warns of Mercury Poisoning Linked to Mexican Beauty Cream (includes product photos) California Department of Public ...


[Bull's blood as an ancient poison].  


Article presents ancient tradition about poisoning with bull's blood and the modern attempts of its explanation. Greek and Roman literary sources are compared with the ancient medical texts. PMID:22010443

Ry?, Anna; Siek, Bart?omiej; Sein Anand, Jacek



Cornell University Poisonous Plants Informational Database  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This database provides information on plants and other natural flora such as fungi that grow in the United States and may be poisonous to livestock or other animals. The information includes images of plants, pictures of affected animals and presentations on botany, chemistry, toxicology, diagnosis, and prevention of poisoning. The data are searchable by scientific or common name, primary poison, and species of animal most often affected. There are also alphabetical listings of plants by genus and species and by common names, a list of toxic agents found in plants, and a list of commonly affected animals (including humans). Other materials include a discussion of the possible benefits or toxic effects of medicinal plants on livestock, a frequently-asked-questions feature, and links to other websites with information on poisonous plants.

Brown, Dan L.


Fish Prints  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this hands-on art activity, learners will study and identify features of the external anatomy of a fish. They will have the opportunity to learn the different functions of fish anatomy along with new vocabulary terms while handling a real fish in their art project. Also, a discussion may take place about the different kinds of fish and how different shapes are more beneficial for certain environments. As a wrap up, learners can become familiar about issues related to the conservation of fish, such as overfishing, habitat destruction, and invasive species. This activity is standards-based.

Sciences, California A.



Minamata disease revisited: an update on the acute and chronic manifestations of methyl mercury poisoning.  


The first well-documented outbreak of acute methyl mercury (MeHg) poisoning by consumption of contaminated fish occurred in Minamata, Japan, in 1953. The clinical picture was officially recognized and called Minamata disease (MD) in 1956. However, 50 years later there are still arguments about the definition of MD in terms of clinical symptoms and extent of lesions. We provide a historical review of this epidemic and an update of the problem of MeHg toxicity. Since MeHg dispersed from Minamata to the Shiranui Sea, residents living around the sea were exposed to low-dose MeHg through fish consumption for about 20 years (at least from 1950 to 1968). These patients with chronic MeHg poisoning continue to complain of distal paresthesias of the extremities and the lips even 30 years after cessation of exposure to MeHg. Based on findings in these patients the symptoms and lesions in MeHg poisoning are reappraised. The persisting somatosensory disorders after discontinuation of exposure to MeHg were induced by diffuse damage to the somatosensory cortex, but not by damage to the peripheral nervous system, as previously believed. PMID:17681548

Ekino, Shigeo; Susa, Mari; Ninomiya, Tadashi; Imamura, Keiko; Kitamura, Toshinori



Profile of poisoning admissions in Malaysia  

Microsoft Academic Search

We retrospectively reviewed poisoning admissions to all government health facilities from 1999 to 2001, in an effort to expand our current knowledge on poisoning in Malaysia to a level that better reflects a nationwide burden. There were 21 714 admissions reported with 779 deaths. The case-fatality rate was 35.88\\/1000 admissions. The majority of admissions (89.7%) and deaths (98.9%) occurred in

R. Rajasuriar; R. Awang; S. B. H. Hashim; H. R. B. H. Rahmat



History of USDA poisonous plant research.  


Research on poisonous plants was instituted by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) as a result of serious livestock poisoning by plants as the pioneers moved west in the mid-to-late 1800s and early 1900s. Historical records indicate the USDA began poisonous plant research in 1894 under the direction of Mr. V. K. Chestnut, a botanist (Table 1 briefly summarizes those who have directed poisonous plant research from the inception to the present). Mr. Chestnut's responsibility (1894-1904) was primarily administrative, although he did extensive field work in Washington and Montana. Temporary field stations were set up to study specific poisonous plant problems. These included field stations at Hugo and Woodland Park, Colorado, and Imperial, Nebraska (1905-1909), to study locoweed; Gunnison, Colorado (1910-1912), to primarily study larkspur; and Greycliff, Montana (1912-1915), to study the poisonous plants of the Yellowstone Valley. Dr. Rodney True replaced Mr. Chestnut in 1904 and in 1905 hired Dr. C. D. Marsh (1905-1930) to establish the temporary field stations listed above. In 1915 a permanent facility was established at Salina, Utah, under the direction of C. D. Marsh who remained in charge until 1930 when he retired; he was followed by A. B. Clawson until 1937 when Dr. Ward Huffman was placed in charge. Research on poisonous plants was located at the Salina Experiment Station until 1955 when the station was closed and the laboratory moved to the campus of Utah State Agricultural College at Logan, Utah, where it is currently located. Dr. Wayne Binns was hired as the director of the laboratory in 1954 and retired in 1972. In 1972 Dr. Lynn F. James, who joined the PRPL staff in July 1957, was appointed as Research Leader and presently directs the research at the Poisonous Plant Research Laboratory. PMID:10091124

James, L F



Carbon monoxide poisoning in a diver.  


Carbon monoxide poisoning is a well recognized, but uncommon hazard of sport and inshore diving, which occurs either as a result of a faulty air compressor or from air contamination by the exhaust of nearby petrol engines. The incidence of carbon monoxide poisoning may be under-reported as it may mimic decompression sickness, and respond to the same treatment i.e. hyperbaric oxygen. PMID:1567533

Allen, H



Chronic neurological sequelae to organophosphate pesticide poisoning.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES. This work was undertaken to determine whether there are any chronic neurological sequelae to acute organophosphate pesticide poisoning. METHODS. California surveillance data were used in a study of neurological function among 128 men poisoned by organophosphate pesticides in California from 1982 to 1990 and 90 referents. Tests included a neurological physical examination, 5 nerve conduction tests, 2 vibrotactile sensitivity tests, 10 neurobehavioral tests, and 1 postural sway test. RESULTS. After correcting for confounding, the poisoned group performed significantly worse than the referent group on two neurobehavioral tests (sustained visual attention and mood scales). When the data were restricted to men with documented cholinesterase inhibition (n = 83) or to men who had been hospitalized (n = 36), the poisoned subjects also showed significantly worse vibrotactile sensitivity of finger and toe. Significant trends of increased impairment were found with increased days of disability on a wide spectrum of tests of both central and peripheral nerve function. CONCLUSIONS. While these findings are limited by low response rates and by small sample sizes for specific pesticides, this study was based on a large surveillance database and is the largest study to date of the chronic effects of organophosphate pesticide poisoning. The evidence of some long-term effects of poisoning is consistent with two prior studies.

Steenland, K; Jenkins, B; Ames, R G; O'Malley, M; Chrislip, D; Russo, J



Childhood and adolescence poisoning in NSW, Australia: an analysis of age, sex, geographic, and poison types  

PubMed Central

Objective: This study aims to investigate whether there is any association between the types of poison substances and geographic locations for different age groups and sex. Design: This is a population based epidemiological study utilising routinely collected inpatient statistics. Setting: Data are collected as part of the routine vital health information system via all hospitals in New South Wales (NSW), Australia. Patients: All patients aged between 0–19 years who were admitted to a hospital because of poisoning by the four major types of substances that were defined in the study in NSW in 2000. Main results: The standardised incidence ratios of poisoning related hospitalisation between metropolitan and rural areas varied across different poison types when compared with the NSW average. While there are few differences between metropolitan and rural areas for analgesic and chemical related poisoning admissions across different age groups and sex, differences in the standardised incidence ratios between geographic locations for psychotropic and venom related poisoning admissions were found. No significant difference in standardised mortality ratios were found between metropolitan and rural areas except for females in the 10–14 years age group (standardised mortality ratio 3.24, 95% confidence interval 1.69 to 6.21). Conclusions: The results obtained in this study, on the whole, provide some evidence for an association between poison types and geographic locations for psychotropic and venom related poisoning.

Lam, L



Toxicology of Poison Oak (Rhus toxicodendron) and Poison Ivy (Rhus radicans) Extracts in the Rat.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of the study was to determine the toxicity of extracts of poison ivy, poison oak, and a polyethylene glycol vehicle (Carbowax R) when given orally to rats. Throughout a seven-month study four groups of rats (N=15) were administered the follo...

C. W. Waller I. W. Waters



Lead poisoning of spectacled eiders (Somateria fischeri) and of a common eider (Somateria mollissima) in Alaska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Lead poisoning was diagnosed in four spectacled eiders (Somateria fischeri) and one common eider (Somateria mollissima) found dead or moribund at the Yukon Delta National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska (USA) in 1992, 1993, and 1994. Ingested lead shot was found in the lower esophagus of one spectacled eider and in the gizzard of the common eider. Lead concentrations in the livers of the spectacled eiders were 26 to 38 ppm wet weight, and 52 ppm wet weight in the liver of the common eider. A blood sample collected from one of the spectacled eiders before it was euthanized had a lead concentration of 8.5 ppm wet weight. This is the first known report of lead poisoning in the spectacled eider, recently listed as a threatened species by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

Franson, J. C.; Petersen, M. R.; Meteyer, C. U.; Smith, M. R.



The utility of poison control centres in diagnosing and managing cases of poisoning and overdose.  


The practice of establishing poison control centres is yet to catch on in a big way in India, even though most developed countries have this concept well in place. This has helped these countries in diagnosing and managing cases of poisoning and overdose much more effectively, thereby bringing down the morbidity and mortality, while India lags far behind with a staggering mortality rate, much of which is because of lack of access to latest methodologies of diagnosing and managing poisoning, as also the lack of facility to analyse body fluids and other samples for the presence and/or concentration of the toxic agent or its metabolites. Establishing properly equipped and staffed poison control centres would constitute a major step in ameliorating the situation, as exemplified by the Cochin (Kerala) experience, which has a fully equipped poison control centre in a major hospital that is recognised by the World Health Organisation. PMID:21043354

Pillay, V V



Acute pesticides poisonings in pregnant women.  


44 pregnant women were treated at the Department of Clinical Toxicology in years 1986-1996 as a result of acute poisonings with different xenobiotics. Acute pesticide poisoning that involved 4 cases were always severe and had dramatic clinical course. Carbofuran intoxication stated in a 17-year-old woman (18 weeks of pregnancy) resulted in fetus death. Toxicological findings revealed that the level of the poison in the mothers blood was comparable to that in the fetus. Carbofuran evidently passed the placental barrier in concentration which was sufficient to cause the fetus death. In the second woman (20-year-old, 12 weeks pregnant) who was classified as severely poisoned on admission to the clinic a spontaneous abortion was stated on 27th day after poisoning. The highest level of carbofuran in the blood of the mother was 9.71 micrograms/g. A 30-year-old woman, 10 weeks pregnant took formothion (50 ml) per vaginam in order to provoke abortion. She was classified as moderately poisoned. Gynecological examination and ultrasonography confirmed the pregnancy. The fetus heart tones were audible. The patient was discharged from hospital after 3 days at her own request in a good general condition. The concentration of formothion in washings from vagina was similar to the levels observed in blood serum on the patient admission to the Clinic, and 24 hour later. A 21-year-old woman, 5 month pregnant ingested an unknown amount of endosulfan to provoke abortion. Gynecological examination and abdominal ultrasonography revealed longitudinal pelvic presentation of fetus. Neither fetal movement nor heart tones were audible as early as four hours after the clinical symptoms occurred. Such low concentration of endosulfan in the blood of the mother as 0.47 microgram/g of the poison caused relatively quick fetus death. The highest levels of endosulfan were found in the liver and in the fetus kidneys. PMID:9478098

Sancewicz-Pach, K; Groszek, B; Pach, D; K?ys, M



An outbreak of foxglove leaf poisoning.  


Comfrey (Symphytum officinale) leaves resemble those of foxglove (Digitalis purpurea) when the plant is not in bloom and, therefore, cardiac glycoside poisoning may occur when people confuse foxglove with comfrey. We report an outbreak of foxglove leaf poisoning following the use of alleged "comfrey" herbal tea. Nine patients were involved and initially presented with nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and dizziness. Significant cardiotoxicity developed later among the 3 patients who also had mild hyperkalemia. Peak serum digoxin concentration measured by immunoassay was elevated in all patients and ranged from 4.4 ng/mL to 139.5 ng/mL. Patients with severe cardiotoxicity were treated with temporary cardiac pacing. Moreover, 40-80 mg of digoxin-specific antibody therapy was given without any effect. All patients recovered uneventfully. Our report highlights the potential risk of misidentification of herbs; in this case, D. purpurea was mistaken for S. officinale. Physicians should be aware that cardiac glycoside poisoning could arise from such misidentification. Public education about the toxicity of D. purpurea poisoning may reduce the risk of misidentification and subsequent poisoning. PMID:20171590

Lin, Chun-Chi; Yang, Chen-Chang; Phua, Dong-Haur; Deng, Jou-Fang; Lu, Li-Hua



Illiteracy: a contributing factor to poisoning.  


It is estimated that over 60 million Americans (1/3 of the adult population) are functionally or marginally illiterate. To recognize and gain an understanding of illiteracy and its impact on poisoning, we determined if the illiterate in our community could recognize potential poisons. A prospective study involving 29 male and 21 female adult illiterates was undertaken. A personal interview was conducted to determine their ability to purchase medication and household products, their understanding of the uses and associated dangers of medications, and their manner of storage of these products in their homes. Of the participants, 66% were at reading levels of 0-3rd grade and 34% were at 3rd through 6th grade reading level. Each participant was shown 3 separate products and asked to distinguish and interpret caution statements and directions. In the 0-3rd grade group, 30% were unable to identify any of the products and none could explain the cautions or directions. In the second group (3rd-6th grade), all were able to identify the products and 76% could explain the cautions; everyone in this group correctly read the directions. We concluded that a large percentage of the adult population are potential poisoning victims due to their inability to read and comprehend label instructions. Poison Centers should recognize illiteracy as a contributing factor in poisonings and consider education and prevention programs for this segment of our population. PMID:8249274

Mrvos, R; Dean, B S; Krenzelok, E P



Determination and frying loss of histamine in striped marlin fillets implicated in a foodborne poisoning.  


An incident of foodborne poisoning causing illness in 67 victims due to ingestion of fried fish fillets occurred in June 2011, in southern Taiwan. Of the five suspected fish fillets, one fried sample contained 62.0 mg/100 g and one raw sample contained 89.6 mg/100 g histamine, levels which are greater than the potential hazard action level (50 mg/100 g) in most illness cases. Given the allergy-like symptoms of the victims and the high histamine content in the suspected fish samples, this foodborne poisoning was strongly suspected to be caused by histamine intoxication. Five histamine-producing bacterial strains capable of producing 59 to 562 ppm of histamine in Trypticase soy broth supplemented with 1.0% L-histidine were identified as Enterobacter aerogenes (two strains), Raoultella ornithinolytica (two strains), and Morganella morganii (one strain). The degradation loss of histamine in suspected raw fillets was 28% after they were fried at 170°C for 5 min. PMID:23643129

Lee, Yi-Chen; Lin, Chia-Min; Huang, Chun-Yung; Huang, Ya-Ling; Chen, Hwi-Chang; Huang, Tzou-Chi; Tsai, Yung-Hsiang



Unusual case of methanol poisoning  

SciTech Connect

A 31-year-old man with a history of alcohol abuse presented to the accident and emergency department complaining of blurred vision. 4 h previously he had drunk 300 mL de-icer fluid. Electrolytes, urea, creatinine, glucose, and blood-gas analysis were normal. Measured osmolality, however, was 368 mosmol/kg with a calculated osmolality of 300 mosmol/kg, which indicated a greatly increased osmolar gap. He was therefore given 150 mL whisky and admitted. Methanol was later reported as 200 mg/dL. Ethylene glycol was not detected, but another glycol, propylene glycol, was present at 47 mg/dL. 10 h after ingestion an intravenous infusion of ethanol was started and he was hemodialysed for 7 h. After dialysis he was given a further 100 mL whisky and the rate of ethanol infusion was reduced to 11 g per h. Methanol and ethanol were measured twice daily until methanol was under 10/mg/dL: The recommendation is that blood ethanol be maintained between 100 and 200 mg/dL during treatment of methanol poisoning. This concentration was not achieved, presumably because of the high rate of ethanol metabolism often found in alcoholics. Antifreeze solutions commonly contain methanol and ethylene glycol. Sometimes propylene glycol is substituted because it has properties similar to those of ethylene glycol but is less toxic. The authors postulate that propylene glycol inhibited the metabolism of methanol in the patient, thus sparing him from the toxic effects of methanol.

Shapiro, L.; Henderson, M. (St. James's Univ. Hospital, Leeds (United Kingdom). Dept. of Chemical Pathology); Madi, S.; Mellor, L. (St. James's Univ. Hospital, Leeds (United Kingdom). Dept. of Medicine, and Pharmacy)



Fatal pediatric poisoning from leaded paint--Wisconsin, 1990  

SciTech Connect

Although fatal lead poisoning among children occurs rarely in the United States, it represents a medical and public health emergency. This report summarizes the investigation of a child who died from poisoning associated with ingestion of lead-based paint.

Not Available



Drug Poisoning Deaths in the United States, 1980-2008  


... Data Brief Number 81, December 2011 Drug Poisoning Deaths in the United States, 1980–2008 On This ... File Poisoning is now the leading cause of death from injuries in the United States and nearly ...


14 CFR 137.39 - Economic poison dispensing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS AGRICULTURAL AIRCRAFT OPERATIONS Operating Rules § 137...dispense or cause to be dispensed from an aircraft, any economic poison that is registered...person dispensing economic poisons for experimental purposes underâ (1) The...



FDA Food Code 2009: Chapter 7 - Poisonous or Toxic ...  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... FDA Food Code 2009: Chapter 7 - Poisonous or Toxic Materials. ... Pf. Container Prohibitions. 7-203.11 Poisonous or Toxic Material Containers. ... More results from


Poison Center Data for Public Health Surveillance: Poison Center and Public Health Perspectives  

PubMed Central

Objective To describe the use of poison center data for public health surveillance from the poison center, local, state, and federal public health perspectives and to generate meaningful discussion on how to address the challenges to collaboration. Introduction Since 2008, poisoning has become the leading cause of injury-related death in the United States (US); since 1980, the poisoning-related fatality rate in the US has almost tripled.1 Many poison-related injuries and deaths are reported to regional poison centers (PCs) which receive about 2.4 million reports of human chemical and poison exposures annually.2 Federal, state, and local public health (PH) agencies often collaborate with poison centers and use PC data for public health surveillance of poisoning-related health issues. Many state and local PH agencies have partnerships with regional PCs for direct access to local PC data which help them perform this function. At the national level, CDC conducts public health surveillance for exposures and illnesses of public health significance using the National Poison Data System (NPDS), the national PC reporting database. Though most PC and PH officials agree that PC data play an important role in PH practice and surveillance, collaboration between PH agencies and PCs has been hindered by numerous challenges. To address these challenges and bolster collaboration, the Poison Center and Public Health Collaborations Community of Practice (CoP) was created in 2010 by CDC as a means to share experiences, identify best practices, and facilitate relationships among federal, state and local public health agencies and PCs. To date, the Poison Center and Public Health Collaborations CoP includes over 200 members from state and local public health, regional PCs, CDC, the American Association of Poison Control Centers (AAPCC), and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). A leadership team was created with representatives of the many stakeholders of the community to drive its direction and oversee activities. Methods The panel will consist of 4 presenters and 1 moderator, who are members of the Poison Center and Public Health Collaborations CoP leadership team. Each presenter will bring a unique perspective of the use of PC data for PH practice and surveillance: CDC, state department of health, a local department of health, and a PC. Royal Law from the CDC National Center for Environmental Health will present on using PC data for identification of exposures and illnesses of public health significance identified from NPDS data collected from all 57 PCs. Dr. Jay Schauben from the Florida/USVI Poison Information Center - Jacksonville will discuss PC participation in surveillance and use of PC data for tracking and mitigation of PH events in Florida. Dr. Prakash Mulay from the Florida Department of Health will discuss utilization of PC data to enhance ESSENCE-based chemical-associated exposure and illness surveillance in Florida. Katherine Wheeler from the New York City (NYC) Department of Health and Mental Hygiene will discuss NYC’s use of PC data in surveillance of potential emerging issues, from energy drinks to synthetic marijuana. Each presenter will discuss the use of PC data for PH practice and surveillance in his or her organization and jurisdiction, the successes of using PC data, and their challenges. Results The moderator will engage the audience by facilitating discussion of the successes and challenges to using PC data for PH practice and surveillance with the audience. Sample questions: What are your current capacities and collaborative activities between your state/local health department and your poison center? What non-funding related barriers hinder the collaboration between your state/local health department and poison center? If more funding were available, how would you use this funding to increase the level of interactivity with the poison center and state/local health department?

Law, Royal K.; Schier, Josh; Schauben, Jay; Wheeler, Katherine; Mulay, Prakash



Ice Fishing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The booklet is written for the newcomer to ice fishing. It provides the basic information needed to take up the sport, safely and inexpensively. At first, perhaps, the novice may find ice fishing simply an intriguing pastime to occupy long winter weekends...

W. Downs



Fish Research  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video segment from IdahoPTV's D4K explains the Chinook salmon's life cycle in the Pacific Northwest and why it is an endangered species. A fisheries biologist takes students through some steps of fish research with explanations of the kinds of information biologists gather to perhaps help manage fish recovery.

Ptv, Idaho



Protecting fish  

Microsoft Academic Search

The United States Department of Energy`s Hydropower Program has recently completed a study of fish passage and protection mitigation practices at conventional hydroelectric projects. The report, Environmental Mitigation at Hydroelectric Projects, Volume II. Benefits and Costs of Fish Passage and Protection (Volume II), provides information describing both historical and current mitigation efforts in the United States. The study used 16

J. Francfort; B. Rinehart



Fish Tank  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive Flash applet is a number matching activity for up to ten objects. Students develop mouse skills as they click on a given number of moving fish, which land in their fish bowl. When children decide they have caught the right number, they can check their accuracy. Users may also listen to a counting song.

Bunker, Dan



Terbufos Poisoning in a Dairy Herd  

PubMed Central

This report describes the accidental poisoning of over 200 head of Holstein cattle by the organophosphate, terbufos. The ingestion of an acutely toxic dose (approximately 7.5 mg/kg) of terbufos by 84 heifers resulted in severe respiratory distress as the primary clinical sign and death within 12 hours. There was no response to treatment with atropine sulfate. One hundred and twenty milking cows received a portion of the contaminated feed diluted approximately ten times. These cattle had typical signs of organophosphate poisoning and responded to atropine sulfate. Severely affected cows received pralidoxime chloride and activated carbon 48 h after terbufos ingestion but did not respond to the drugs. Diagnosis of organophosphate poisoning was confirmed by tissue and feed analysis for terbufos and measurement of whole blood cholinesterase activity.

Boermans, H. J.; Black, W. D.; Chesney, J.; Robb, R.; Shewfelt, W.



Electrophysiological studies in acute organophosphate poisoning.  

PubMed Central

Electrophysiological studies in suicidal patients with organophosphate poisoning are reported. Patients often developed muscular weakness of variable severity owing to diplorisation block at nicotinic receptors. During such paralysis nerve conduction velocity and distal latencies were normal even in severely paralysed patients. The amplitude of the compound action potential was smaller than in controls and often showed a repetitive response. The amplitude tended to be lower in those more severely affected. On repetitive stimulation there was usually no decrement with three stimuli per second and only occasional decrement at 10 per second. At 30 Hz several cases showed a decrement even in the absence of paralysis. This response to repetitive stimuli is thus quite distinct from that seen in either myasthenia or Eaton Lambert syndrome. On three occasions after poisoning with dichlorovos there was first anticholinesterase insecticide poisoning and later delayed neurotoxicity as seen with triorthocresylphosphate. These cases showed all the features of a severe pure motor axonal degeneration neuropathy.

Wadia, R S; Chitra, S; Amin, R B; Kiwalkar, R S; Sardesai, H V



Lead poisoning: more than a medical problem  

SciTech Connect

Medical records of 236 Newark, New Jersey children hospitalized and chelated for lead poisoning in 1977 through 1980 were reviewed to determine whether or not any discernible progress had been made in eradicating the disease since 1972. Results show that the number of treated asymptomatic children, ages 1-6, began to rise after 1976 and was higher in 1980 than in 1972 when the Newark Lead Poisoning Prevention and Control Program first began. Although mean and peak blood lead levels have decreased over the nine-year period since 1972, signaling a lessening of disease severity, the increase in numbers and rats indicates that childhood lead poisoning still exists as an environmental and social problem.

Schneider, D.J.; Lavenhar, M.A.



Secondary phorate poisoning of large carnivores in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

India, with its huge human population and fragmented wildlife habitat, is plagued with human–animal conflicts. In conflict\\u000a areas, large carnivores are often primary targets for malicious poisoning. The effects of certain poisons do not stop with\\u000a the target animal but also affects other species of wildlife in the form of secondary poisoning. This paper describes incidences\\u000a of secondary poisoning of

Nallusamy Kalaivanan; Ragothaman Venkataramanan; Chirukandoth Sreekumar; Alagarsamy Saravanan; Rajeev K. Srivastava



RFE Page 1 for Sphoeroides maculatus, Northern ...  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

This displays small images for one or more specimens of Sphoeroides maculatus (Northern Puffer, Puffer): whole fish and fillets (MPF) and links to ... More results from



Microsoft Academic Search

S>The poisoning which occurs during the continuation of atomic tests is ; distinguished from that occurring later. The earth and body poisoning and the ; quantity of radiation causing poisoning of critical organs are calculated. The ; calculation is simplified by the assumption that during the tests the fall-out is ; continuous. With umlimited continuation of atomic tests, earth and




Occupational lead poisoning in Ohio: surveillance using worker's compensation data  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine the utility of workers' compensation (WC) data in a system for the surveillance of occupational lead poisoning, we reviewed workers' compensation claims for lead poisoning in Ohio. For the period 1979 through 1983, 92(81 per cent) of the 114 claims attributed to lead met our case definition of lead poisoning. The likelihood that a company had a case

P. J. Seligman; W. E. Halperin; R. J. Mullan; T. M. Frazier



Appendectomy due to lead poisoning: a case-report  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Lead poisoning is a common occupational health hazard in developing countries and many misdiagnoses and malpractices may occur due to unawareness of lead poisoning symptoms. CASE PRESENTATION: We report a case of occupational lead poisoning in an adult battery worker with abdominal colic who initially underwent appendectomy with removal of normal appendix. Later on he was diagnosed with lead

S Mohammadi; AH Mehrparvar; M Aghilinejad



Prevalence of autonomic signs and symptoms in antimuscarinic drug poisonings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Classically described antimuscarinic poisoning signs and symptoms include mydriasis, decreased secretions, ileus, urinary retention, hyperthermia, tachycardia, and altered mental status. These features may be used clinically to assist in the diagnosis of patients with unknown poisonings. We sought to analyze the prevalence of antimuscarinic physical examination findings in evaluating patients presenting with acute poisoning from antimuscarinic agents. We conducted a

Raj J Patel; Tim Saylor; Saralyn R Williams; Richard F Clark



Tactile Vibration Thresholds after Acute Poisonings with Organophosphate Insecticides  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluated the association between acute poi- soning with organophosphate pesticides (OPs) and quan- titative tactile vibration thresholds. Thresholds of the dominant index fingers and big toes of 56 men hospital- ized for acute poisoning with OPs were measured at hos- pital discharge (1-24 days after poisoning) and around seven weeks later (24-176 days after poisoning), and com- pared



Experience with soluble neutron poisons for criticality control at ICPP  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soluble neutron poisons assure criticality control in two of the headend fuel reprocessing systems at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant. Soluble poisons have been used successfully since 1964 and will be employed in the projected new headend processes. The use of soluble poisons (1) greatly increases the process output (2) allows versatility in the size of fuel assemblies processed and

R. E. Wilson; S. R. Mortimer



Chronic Neurological Sequelae of Acute Organophosphate Pesticide Poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

To evaluate the latent neurological effects of organophosphate pesticide poisoning, this epidemiologic study examined 100 matched-pairs of individuals with previous acute organophosphate pesticide poisoning and nonpoisoned controls. No significant difference between poisoned subjects and controls was found on audiometric tests, ophthalmic tests, electroencephalograms, or the clinical serum and blood chemistry evaluations. Of the more than 50 scores from the neurological

Eldon P. Savage; Thomas J. Keefe; Lawrence M. Mounce; Robert K. Heaton; James A. Lewis; Patricia J. Burcar



Thallium poisoning: emphasis on early diagnosis and response to haemodialysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thallium poisoning is known for its diverse manifestations and these can delay the diagnosis if a clear history of poisoning is not forthcoming. A 42 year old man presented on the third day of illness with flaccid quadriparesis and paresthesia, which were confused with Guillain-Barre? syndrome. Because of associated loose motions, skin lesions, and liver and kidney dysfunction arsenic poisoning

U K Misra; J Kalita; R K Yadav; P Ranjan



78 FR 17069 - National Poison Prevention Week, 2013  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...March 15, 2013 National Poison Prevention Week, 2013 By the President of the United States...have marked National Poison Prevention Week by highlighting the steps we can take to...loved ones from accidental poisoning. This week, we carry that tradition forward by...



Observation unit experience for pediatric poison exposures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Short-Stay Emergency Department Observation Units (OU) are an alternative to hospitalization, but data on OU care of pediatric\\u000a poisoning exposures is limited. We report the experience of a pediatric OU with this population.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  We retrospectively reviewed the charts of children with poison exposure admitted to a pediatric OU during a 30-month period.\\u000a Data was collected pertaining to demographics, type of

Diane P. Calello; Elizabeth R. Alpern; Maureen McDaniel-Yakscoe; Brianna L. Garrett; Kathy N. Shaw; Kevin C. Osterhoudt



Emetic food poisoning caused by Bacillus cereus.  


Symptoms of acute food poisoning developed in eight members of a group who ate lunch at a cafeteria. After brief incubation periods, all affected individuals complained of nausea and abdominal cramps. Four persons promptly experienced vomiting. None of those affected was found to have fever and all recovered with 48 hours. Epidemiologic investigation incriminated macaroni and cheese as a cause of the illness and samples of this food contained large numbers of Bacillus cereus. Previous outbreaks of B cereus emetic food poisoning have been associated with consumption of contaminated fried rice and may occur after ingestion of other foods. PMID:6786233

Holmes, J R; Plunkett, T; Pate, P; Roper, W L; Alexander, W J



Kerosene poisoning in children in Iraq.  

PubMed Central

One hundred and three children with kerosene poisoning were studied. The majority of the patients were under five years of age and included a newborn baby. More patients were seen in spring and fewer in winter months. Most of the patients were children of poor families living in overcrowded conditions. Negligence and ignorance were the main causes of poisoning. Respiratory and central nervous systems were mainly involved. Chest X-ray abnormalities were frequently seen. The patients were treated symptomatically. Only one patient died, he had been in a coma on admission to the hospital. All other patients had rapid and complete recoveries.

Nagi, N. A.; Abdulallah, Z. A.



Recognizing and Preventing Overexposure to Methylmercury from Fish and Seafood Consumption: Information for Physicians  

PubMed Central

Fish is a valuable source of nutrition, and many people would benefit from eating fish regularly. But some people eat a lot of fish, every day or several meals per week, and thus can run a significant risk of overexposure to methylmercury. Current advice regarding methylmercury from fish consumption is targeted to protect the developing brain and nervous system but adverse health effects are increasingly associated with adult chronic low-level methylmercury exposure. Manifestations of methylmercury poisoning are variable and may be difficult to detect unless one considers this specific diagnosis and does an appropriate test (blood or hair analysis). We provide information to physicians to recognize and prevent overexposure to methylmercury from fish and seafood consumption. Physicians are urged to ask patients if they eat fish: how often, how much, and what kinds. People who eat fish frequently (once a week or more often) and pregnant women are advised to choose low mercury fish.

Silbernagel, Susan M.; Carpenter, David O.; Gilbert, Steven G.; Gochfeld, Michael; Groth, Edward; Hightower, Jane M.; Schiavone, Frederick M.



Presentations of patients of poisoning and predictors of poisoning-related fatality: Findings from a hospital-based prospective study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Poisoning is a significant public health problem worldwide and is one of the most common reasons for visiting emergency departments (EDs), but factors that help to predict overall poisoning-related fatality have rarely been elucidated. Using 1512 subjects from a hospital-based study, we sought to describe the demographic and clinical characteristics of poisoning patients and to identify predictors for poisoning-related

Hsin-Ling Lee; Hung-Jung Lin; Steve Ting-Yuan Yeh; Chih-Hsien Chi; How-Ran Guo



Acute cardiac toxicity of nerium oleander/indicum poisoning (kaner) poisoning.  


We present a case of oleander leaf extract poisoning manifested by vomiting, lightheadedness, and heart block. Practicing physicians should understand the potential lethal properties of oleander and its availability throughout the world. PMID:21577379

Khan, Ibraheem; Kant, Chandra; Sanwaria, Anil; Meena, Lokesh



Fish Stories  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This 48 minute radio broadcast contains three fish tales. First discussed is the fact that researchers have found that much of the fish sold as red snapper in the United States may actually be something else. The show explores the unusual behavior of the midshipman fish, which hums to attract a mate. New research indicates a connection between the hormone levels in the female of the species and its ability to hear the humming males. Finally, the show discusses jellyfish, and whether jelly blooms have an environmental significance.


One Fish, Two Fish, Redfish, You Fish!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The recreational fishing activity presented in this article provides a hands-on, problem-based experience for students; it unites biology, math, economics, environmental policy, and population dynamics concepts. In addition, the activity allows students to shape environmental policy in a realistic setting and evaluate their peers' work. By…

White, Katherine; Timmons, Maryellen; Medders, Paul



Predicting Outcome in Acute Organophosphorus Poisoning with a Poison Severity Score or the Glasgow Coma Scale  

PubMed Central

Background: Organophosphorus pesticide poisoning kills around 200,000 people each year, principally due to self poisoning in the Asia-Pacific region. Aim: We wished to assess whether patients at high risk of death could be identified accurately using clinical parameters soon after hospital admission. Design: We evaluated the usefulness of the International Program on Chemical Safety Poison Severity Score (IPCS PSS) and the Glasgow Coma Score (GCS) prospectively for predicting death in patients poisoned by organophosphorus pesticides. Methods: Data were collected as part of a multicentre cohort study in Sri Lanka. Study doctors saw all patients on admission, collecting data on pulse, blood pressure, pupil size, need for intubation, and GCS. Results: 1365 patients with a history of acute organophosphorus poisoning were included. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were calculated for the IPCS PSS and GCS on admission. The IPCS PSS and GCS had similar ROC area under the curves (AUC) and best cut points as determined by Youden's index (AUC/sensitivity/specificity 0.81/0.78/0.79 for IPCS PSS ? grade 2 and 0.84/0.79/0.79 for GCS ?13). The predictive value varied with the pesticide ingested, being more accurate for dimethoate poisoning and less accurate for fenthion poisoning (GCS AUC 0.91 compared to 0.69). Conclusions: GCS and the IPCS PSS were similarly effective at predicting outcome. Patients presenting with a GCS ? 13 need intensive monitoring and treatment. However, the identity of the organophosphate must be taken into account since the half of all patients who died from fenthion poisoning only had mild symptoms at presentation.

Davies, James O. J.; Eddleston, Michael; Buckley, Nick A.



Carbon monoxide poisoning: case studies and review.  


This article describes carbon monoxide poisoning. Using a case study approach, the article covers pathophysiology, epidemiology, clinical presentation, and complications. A nursing care plan is presented to guide the critical care nurse in the care of patients in this type of condition. PMID:21983502

Ruth-Sahd, Lisa A; Zulkosky, Kristen; Fetter, Mary E


Dns cache poisoning-the next generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The old problem of DNS cache poisoning has again reared its ugly head. While some would argue that the domain name system protocol is inherently vulnerable to this style of attack due to the weakness of 16-bit transaction IDs, we cannot ignore the immediate threat while waiting for something better to come along. There are new attacks, which make DNS

J. Stewart



Diarrhetic Shellfish Poisoning, Washington, USA, 2011  

PubMed Central

Diarrhetic shellfish poisoning is a gastrointestinal illness caused by consumption of bivalves contaminated with dinophysistoxins. We report an illness cluster in the United States in which toxins were confirmed in shellfish from a commercial harvest area, leading to product recall. Ongoing surveillance is needed to prevent similar illness outbreaks.

Duchin, Jeffrey S.; Borchert, Jerry; Quintana, Harold Flores; Robertson, Alison



"The Most Poisonous Force in Technology"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Walt Mossberg, personal-technology columnist for "The Wall Street Journal," highlighted technology trends in his speech to a group of college presidents and other administrators. Mr. Mossberg touched a nerve when he called information-technology departments of large organizations, including colleges, "the most regressive and poisonous force in…

Carnevale, Dan



Acute renal dysfunction in acetaminophen poisoning.  


Although acetaminophen (APAP)-associated liver injury is well recognized, there are few reports describing APAP nephrotoxicity, and most of them are single cases. It has also been suggested that N-acetylcysteine (NAC), used to treat the hepatotoxicity, may be harmful to the kidneys. To examine this contention and to determine whether renal involvement in APAP poisoning is at all common, we analyzed the incidence and outcome of acute renal dysfunction in patients hospitalized for APAP overdose reported to our regional poison center over a year. Eleven APAP-poisoned patients had elevated liver function tests; nine of them had azotemia. Those with higher AST levels tended to be younger and to have lower APAP levels on admission. Two patients with acute renal injury died after admission. The other seven patients with renal dysfunction recovered in 2 to 7 days. Six of these received NAC; their mean serum creatinine fell from 3.2 +/- 2.0 versus 1.7 +/- 0.9 mg/dL (p < 0.05). We conclude that acute renal failure is not uncommon in APAP poisoning and appears to be unrelated to the degree of liver injury. NAC therapy did not seem to worsen nephrotoxicity. PMID:16060123

Mour, Girish; Feinfeld, Donald A; Caraccio, Thomas; McGuigan, Michael



Management of Beta-Adrenergic Blocker Poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Beta-adrenergic blocking agents or ?-blockers are prescribed for the treatment of a broad array of common disorders. Their widespread use, coupled with a narrow therapeutic index, contributes to their being a significant cause of poisoning from overdose and the second most common cause of mortality from cardiovascular agents. This article provides an overview of beta-adrenergic system pathophysiology and the properties

Angela C. Anderson



49 CFR 172.554 - POISON placard.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... (b) In addition to complying with § 172.519, the background on the POISON placard must be white. The symbol, text, class number and inner border must be black. The word âTOXICâ may be used in lieu of the word âPOISONâ....



49 CFR 172.554 - POISON placard.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... (b) In addition to complying with § 172.519, the background on the POISON placard must be white. The symbol, text, class number and inner border must be black. The word âTOXICâ may be used in lieu of the word âPOISONâ....



Accidental colchicine poisoning in a dog.  


A 14-month-old toy poodle-cross was presented, after ingesting the owner's colchicine medication, with severe gastrointestinal disturbances and in shock. Despite aggressive medical management, the patient was euthanized approximately 24 hours after the ingestion. The clinical features, treatment, and necropsy findings of colchicine poisoning are discussed. PMID:14992256

Wagenaar, Zoë



Measurement of Endrin Following Epidemics of Poisoning.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Between 3 June and 15 July 1967, four explosive outbreaks of acute poisoning with the insecticide endrin occurred in Doha, Qatat and Hofuf, Saudi Arabia. They resulted in the hospitalization of 874 persons and the death of 26 persons. This paper reports o...

A. Curley R. W. Jennings H. T. Mann V. Sedlak



Poison Exposure in Children before Passover  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Extensive cleaning of homes in Israel before Passover may result in increased exposure of chil- dren to cleaning substances. Objectives: To evaluate the potential danger of Pass- over cleaning to children, and to study the risk factors in order to identify areas for prevention. Methods: All cases of poison exposure in Jewish and Arab children under the age of

Yona Amitai; Yedidia Bentur; Matityahu Lifshitz; Pinhas Fainmesser; David Applebaum; Yehezkel Waisman; Nadine Cohen; Samuel D. Oman


Selected Bibliography on Lead Poisoning in Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This comprehensive bibliography was prepared in response to the growing interest in the problem of childhood lead poisoning. Most of the papers noted are from the pediatric literature and include only those published in English. A limited number of papers on experiments in laboratory animals are cited. Documents are grouped under several general…

Lin-Fu, Jane S., Comp.


Paracetamol poisoning in children and hepatotoxicity.  

PubMed Central

1. Paracetamol is one of the most common drugs that children accidentally ingest. Unlike the situation in adults, death and hepatotoxicity in children from paracetamol poisoning are exceedingly uncommon events. A review of the literature has revealed only seven deaths and fourteen cases of hepatotoxicity in children, with most of the cases resulting from chronic poisoning and not acute poisoning. 2. Children may be less prone to paracetamol hepatotoxicity because of developmental differences in the drug's metabolism and its pathways of detoxification. In the therapeutic setting of treatment of fever and pain in children, paracetamol is regarded as a drug with a higher therapeutic index, and as such, there seems to be little concern with strict adherence to dosage regimes. 3. Scrutiny of the above paediatric cases associated with chronic paracetamol poisoning suggests that the margin of safety of frequent therapeutic doses of paracetamol in infants and young children to be a lot lower than previously appreciated. This review highlights the need to re-evaluate the safety of paracetamol in the context of chronic therapy in infants and young children.

Penna, A; Buchanan, N



Organophosphorus poisoning in two Rex rabbits  

Microsoft Academic Search

A case of organophosphorus (OP) poisoning in two Rex rabbits is described. Three animals were diagnosed as having dermatitis characterised by pruritis and alopecia due to infestation with Cheyletiella parasitivorax. Two of the animals were dipped in 2% malathion solution: one died within 15 hours post-dipping, the other was euthanased subsequent to the onset of convulsions. A procedure for the

Jan M. Jones



Bat Mortality: Pesticide Poisoning and Migratory Stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organochlorine residues in the fat of young Mexican free-tailed bats, Tadarida brasiliensis, reached the brain and caused symptoms of poisoning after the fat mobilization that takes place during migratory flight was simulated. These chemical body burdens were obtained naturally under free-living conditions at the maternity roost. The data obtained support the hypothesis that pesticides have contributed to recent declines in

Kenneth N. Geluso; J. Scott Altenbach; Don E. Wilson



Poisoning by Indigofera lespedezioides in horses.  


Poisoning by Indigofera lespedezioides is reported in horses in the state of Roraima, northern Brazil. The main clinical signs are anorexia, sleepiness, unsteady gait, severe ataxia, weakness, stumbling, and progressive weight loss. To induce the disease experimentally, a 7-year-old horse was introduced in a small paddock invaded by the plant. The first nervous signs were observed 44 days from the start of grazing. The animal was euthanized on day 59. No significant gross lesions were observed upon necropsies of the experimental horse as well as one spontaneously affected horse. Upon histologic examination neuronal lipofuscinosis was observed in the brain, cerebellum, and spinal cord. Wallerian-type degeneration was observed on some mesencephalic tracts. Neuronal and axonal degeneration and lipofuscinosis were observed on electron microscopy examination. Indospicine was detected in four samples of I. lespedezioides with concentrations ranging from 63 to 1178 ?g/g whereas nitro toxins could be detected in only one of the samples at a concentration of 2.5 mg/g. In conclusion, poisoning by I. lespedezioides is very similar to those poisonings by Indigofera linnaei and Indigofera hendecaphylla. Based on the preponderance of indospince and lack of nitro toxins in the samples it is proposed that indospicine is the toxic compound responsible for the poisoning. PMID:22560887

Lima, Everton F; Riet-Correa, Franklin; Gardner, Dale R; Barros, Severo S; Medeiros, Rosane M T; Soares, Mauro P; Riet-Correa, Gabriela



Severe chlorate poisoning: Report of a case  

Microsoft Academic Search

A case of severe sodium chlorate poisoning was observed within 5 h after suicidal ingestion of 150–200 g of the herbicide. Methaemoglobinaemia was the early symptom of the intoxication. Treatment with methylene blue and ascorbic acid could not prevent a massive haemolysis with disseminated intravascular coagulation. Hypercoagulation and hyperfibrinolysis could be treated successfully with exchange transfusions, heparin and fresh plasma.

Christian Steffen; Rainer Seitz



A systematic review of aluminium phosphide poisoning.  


Every year, about 300,000 people die because of pesticide poisoning worldwide. The most common pesticide agents are organophosphates and phosphides, aluminium phosphide (AlP) in particular. AlP is known as a suicide poison that can easily be bought and has no effective antidote. Its toxicity results from the release of phosphine gas as the tablet gets into contact with moisture. Phosphine gas primarily affects the heart, lungs, gastrointestinal tract, and kidneys. Poisoning signs and symptoms include nausea, vomiting, restlessness, abdominal pain, palpitation, refractory shock, cardiac arrhythmias, pulmonary oedema, dyspnoea, cyanosis, and sensory alterations. Diagnosis is based on clinical suspicion, positive silver nitrate paper test to phosphine, and gastric aspirate and viscera biochemistry. Treatment includes early gastric lavage with potassium permanganate or a combination with coconut oil and sodium bicarbonate, administration of charcoal, and palliative care. Specific therapy includes intravenous magnesium sulphate and oral coconut oil. Moreover, acidosis can be treated with early intravenous administration of sodium bicarbonate, cardiogenic shock with fluid, vasopresor, and refractory cardiogenic shock with intra-aortic baloon pump or digoxin. Trimetazidine may also have a useful role in the treatment, because it can stop ventricular ectopic beats and bigeminy and preserve oxidative metabolism. This article reviews the epidemiological, toxicological, and clinical/pathological aspects of AlP poisoning and its management. PMID:22450207

Mehrpour, Omid; Jafarzadeh, Mostafa; Abdollahi, Mohammad



Chemistry of animal venoms, poisons and toxins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Toxic products from animals have attracted steadily increasing interest during the last years. New methods and techniques for isolation, purification and structural analysis of these natural compounds enabled a rapid progress in our knowledge of their chemistry and mode of action. Various toxins and components from venoms and poisons were applied in biochemistry, pharmacology and medicine as valuable tools. This

D. Mebs



Amisulpride poisoning: a report on two cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first two observations of human poisoning involving the recently developed neuroleptic amisulpride are described. In both cases drug determination was per formed using reversed-phase HPLC coupled with diode- array detection. Case 1 was a nonfatal overdosage in which the ingestion of 3.0 g amisulpride induced an attack of seizures, then light coma with agitation, hyperthermia, mydriasis, minimal extrapyramidal features,

A. Tracqui; C. Mutter-Schmidt; P. Kintz; C. Berton; P. Mangin



Status epilepticus: An association with pyrethroid poisoning  

PubMed Central

This report describes a 35 year old male who presented with seizures after consuming 4-5 bottles of “ALL-OUT” a commercial composition of pyrethroid used as insecticides. Our case report supports authors reporting an association of pyrethroid poisoning with status epilepticus.

Panwar, Mamta; Usha, Ganapathy; Kumath, Manish



Status epilepticus: An association with pyrethroid poisoning.  


This report describes a 35 year old male who presented with seizures after consuming 4-5 bottles of "ALL-OUT" a commercial composition of pyrethroid used as insecticides. Our case report supports authors reporting an association of pyrethroid poisoning with status epilepticus. PMID:23983421

Panwar, Mamta; Usha, Ganapathy; Kumath, Manish



Harmful Algal Blooms: Neurotoxic Shellfish Poisoning  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This University of Maryland SeaGrant web page discusses the toxic dinoflagellate Gymnodinium breve and its role in red tide blooms and Neurotoxic Shellfish Poisoning (NSP). The page explores the economic, ecological, and health-related effects of red tide blooms, and the causative accumulation of G. breve into blooms that produce the powerful neurotoxins known as brevetoxins.

Kane, Andrew; Jacobs, Dan; The Aquatic Pathobiology Center, University of Maryland; Maryland SeaGrant


Food poisoning by clenbuterol in Portugal  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the occurrence of four cases of acute food poisoning, involving a total of 50 people, due to the ingestion of lamb and bovine meat containing residues of clenbuterol. Symptoms shown by the intoxicated people may be generally described as gross tremors of the extremities, tachycardia, nausea, headaches and dizziness. Analytical methodology developed for the determination of clenbuterol

Jorge Barbosa; Clara Cruz; José Martins; José Manuel Silva; Celeste Neves; Carlos Alves; Fernando Ramos; Maria Irene Noronha Da Silveira



Five new species of philometrid nematodes (Philometridae) from marine fishes off Java, Indonesia.  


Based on light and scanning electron microscopical studies, the following five species of the Philometridae (Nematoda: Dracunculoidea) are described from female specimens collected from marine fishes off the southwestern coast of Java, Indonesia: Philometra lobotidis sp. n. from the abdominal cavity of the Atlantic tripletail Lobotes surinamensis (Bloch) (Lobotidae, Perciformes); Philometra javaensis sp. n. from the abdominal cavity of the immaculate puffer Arothron immaculatus (Bloch et Schneider) (Tetraodontidae, Tetraodontiformes); Philometra psettoditis sp. n. from the musculature of the Indian spiny turbot Psettodes erumei (Bloch et Schneider) (Psettodidae, Pleuronectiformes); Philometroides indonesiensis sp. n. from the musculature of the hound needlefish Tylosurus crocodilus crocodilus (Péron et Lesueur) (Belonidae, Beloniformes); and Philometroides trichiuri sp. n. from the dorsal fin of the largehead hairtail Trichiurus lepturus Linnaeus (type host) and the savalai hairtail Lepturacanthus savala (Cuvier) (both Trichiuridae, Perciformes). All these new species are distinguished from their congeners parasitizing marine fishes by morphological (mainly the shape and structure of the cephalic and caudal ends and of the oesophagus) and biometrical features. Besides previously known Philometra pellucida (Jägerskiöld, 1893) and Philometra ocularis Moravec, Ogawa, Suzuki, Miyazaki et Donai, 2002, they are the only nominal philometrid species recorded from Indonesian waters. PMID:22779112

Moravec, Frantisek; Walter, Thorsten; Yuniar, Asri Trisnani



Fish Allergy  


... and Caesar dressing Worcestershire sauce Bouillabaisse Imitation or artificial fish or shellfish (surimi, also known as “sea ... always read the label and ask questions about ingredients before eating a food that you have not ...


Fish Facts  


... of cooked* seafood that contains little or no mercury, such as these types that are higher in ... not eat these fish, which are high in mercury: • Swordfish • Tilefish • King mackerel • Shark • Check before eating ...


[A relational database to store Poison Centers calls].  


Italian Poison Centers answer to approximately 100,000 calls per year. Potentially, this activity is a huge source of data for toxicovigilance and for syndromic surveillance. During the last decade, surveillance systems for early detection of outbreaks have drawn the attention of public health institutions due to the threat of terrorism and high-profile disease outbreaks. Poisoning surveillance needs the ongoing, systematic collection, analysis, interpretation, and dissemination of harmonised data about poisonings from all Poison Centers for use in public health action to reduce morbidity and mortality and to improve health. The entity-relationship model for a Poison Center relational database is extremely complex and not studied in detail. For this reason, not harmonised data collection happens among Italian Poison Centers. Entities are recognizable concepts, either concrete or abstract, such as patients and poisons, or events which have relevance to the database, such as calls. Connectivity and cardinality of relationships are complex as well. A one-to-many relationship exist between calls and patients: for one instance of entity calls, there are zero, one, or many instances of entity patients. At the same time, a one-to-many relationship exist between patients and poisons: for one instance of entity patients, there are zero, one, or many instances of entity poisons. This paper shows a relational model for a poison center database which allows the harmonised data collection of poison centers calls. PMID:17124355

Barelli, Alessandro; Biondi, Immacolata; Tafani, Chiara; Pellegrini, Aristide; Soave, Maurizio; Gaspari, Rita; Annetta, Maria Giuseppina



One Fish, Two Fish, Red Fish, Blue Fish: The Economic and Environmental Impacts of Commercial Fishing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fish and fisheries play an important role in the Amazon River Basin. Fishing provides jobs to people of both urban and rural communities, and fish are a major source of protein in people’s diets and a major part of the Amazon River ecosystem. In recent years commercial fishing has increased due to greater access to both domestic and international markets,

Jessica Glenn



About Fish  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity introduces students to an animal that is to be the subject of much experimentation by them. Because most fish have a relatively simple form and exhibit a wide variety of colors and patterns, they prove to be an excellent animal for experimental study of many aspects of coloration. The body of the lesson is devoted to a description and discussion of the external structure of fish.

Ipsen, David; Gillfillan, Gretchen L.; Judy Diamond (Revised New Edition); Judy Scotchmoor (Revised New Edition); Stebbins, Robert



Epidemiology of organomercury poisoning in Iraq  

PubMed Central

A survey was carried out in a defined area in rural Iraq where there had been many cases of organomercury poisoning following the consumption of bread contaminated by mercury, in order to determine the true incidence of the disorder. The results were compared with those obtained from a similar rural area from which few cases had been reported. A questionnaire was used to determine the amount of contaminated bread eaten and the frequency of symptoms; a simple clinical examination was performed and blood and hair samples were collected for estimation of total mercury concentration. Of 700 people over the age of 5 years in the high-exposure area, 66% admitted to having eaten contaminated bread, while none of the 864 persons in the low exposure area had done so. The mean period during which contaminated bread was eaten was 32 days, but some people had eaten it for as long as 3 months. A mean of 121 loaves was eaten, the maximum being 480 loaves. For the mean number of loaves the intake of methylmercury was likely to have been between 80 mg and 250 mg, but the people who had consumed the largest amount of contaminated bread may have ingested up to 1 000 mg of methylmercury over a 3-month period. Of those with signs of alkylmercury poisoning at the time of the survey, 80% had eaten more than 100 loaves, and 53 (71%) out of 75 persons who had eaten more than 200 loaves showed some evidence of poisoning. The incidence rate for poisoning was estimated at 271 per 1 000; this figure includes a mortality rate of 59 per 1 000, 32 per 1 000 cases with severe disability, 41 per 1 000 cases with mild or moderate disability and 138 per 1 000 cases with only subjective evidence of poisoning at the time of the study.

Al-Mufti, A. W.; Copplestone, J. F.; Kazantzis, G.; Mahmoud, R. M.; Majid, M. A.



Seasonal changes in poisoning exposures reported to a regional poison center from coastal resort areas.  


This study examined the role of seasonality in the reporting of poisoning exposures from geographically distinct regions, specifically from coastal resort and vacation areas. The monthly distribution of calls received by a regional poison control center from counties with popular beach and vacation resorts was compared with the monthly distribution of the overall calls to the center. A chi-square goodness-of-fit test was used to determine if there was a significant difference between the monthly distribution of calls received from the resort counties and the overall calls received by the poison center. Further, exposure and information calls from the resort counties were separately examined to determine if they were equally distributed between months. The monthly distribution of calls received from coastal resort counties was significantly different from the monthly distribution of overall calls received by the center. Significantly more calls were received from the resort counties during the months of July and August at the height of the vacation season. While there was no seasonal variation in the number of information calls from these counties, the poisoning exposure calls were not equally distributed between months, as there were more such calls during the months of July and August. Seasonality appears to play a role in the number of calls received by a regional poison center from coastal areas with popular beach resorts. Poisoning exposure calls seem to increase particularly during the months of July and August. A greater effort may have to be put into activities related to poison control and prevention into such areas during the vacation season. PMID:15799624

Vassilev, Zdravko P; Marcus, Steven M



Childhood self-poisoning: a one-year review.  


Self-poisoning in children is a serious health concern accounting for 2% and 5% of childhood deaths in the developed and developing world, respectively. Type of poison and intent varies between age groups, with alcohol poisoning becoming increasingly common in teenagers. The aim of the study was to identify the characteristics of paediatric self-poisoning at Ninewells Hospital, Dundee, as a function of age, sex, intent and type of poison. Data from patients under the age of 17 presenting to Ninewells Hospital's Emergency Department with self-poisoning from 1 December 2008 to 30 November 2009 inclusive were identified, classified and analysed using chi-square testing. Overall there was no significant difference in gender. However, females significantly dominated in the ?12<17 years age group, with older females also significantly more likely to deliberately self-poison. Alcohol was the sole cause of accidental self-poisoning in this age group while paracetamol was used in the majority of cases of deliberate self-poisoning. In the <6 years age group, household chemical ingestion and over-the-counter medications were the most common poisons. The findings reflect previous published data and national trends. The prevalence of alcohol abuse in the ?12<17 years age group is a major public health issue that must be addressed. PMID:23138578

Neilson, Z E; Morrison, W



Risk factors for acute pesticide poisoning in Sri Lanka.  


This report describes the characteristics of patients with acute pesticide poisoning in a rural area of Sri Lanka and, for intentional self-poisoning cases, explores the relative importance of the different determinants. Data were collected for 239 acute pesticide-poisoning cases, which were admitted to two rural hospitals in Sri Lanka. Sociodemographic characteristics, negative life events and agricultural practices of the intentional self-poisoning cases were compared with a control group. Most cases occurred among young adults and the large majority (84%) was because of intentional self-poisoning. Case fatality was 18% with extremely high case fatality for poisoning with the insecticide endosulfan and the herbicide paraquat. Cases were generally younger than controls, of lower educational status and were more often unemployed. No agricultural risk factors were found but a family history of pesticide poisoning and having ended an emotional relationship in the past year was clearly associated with intentional self-poisoning. The presence of mental disorders could only be assessed for a subsample of the cases and controls and this showed that alcohol dependence was a risk factor. This study shows that acute pesticide poisoning in Sri Lanka is determined by a combination of sociodemographic and psychological factors. Suggestions are given for interventions that could control the morbidity and mortality due to acute pesticide poisoning in developing countries. PMID:15941423

van der Hoek, Wim; Konradsen, Flemming



Betanodavirus of marine and freshwater fish: distribution, genomic organization, diagnosis and control measures.  


The family Nodaviridae include the genera Alphanodavirus and the Betanodavirus which are non-enveloped, single stranded RNA viruses. Alphanodavirus include the insect viruses while betanodavirus include species that are responsible for causing disease outbreaks in hatchery-reared larvae and juveniles of a wide variety of marine and freshwater fish throughout the world and has impacted fish culture over the last decade. According to International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses, the genus Betanodavirus comprises four recognized species viz barfin flounder nervous necrosis virus, red-spotted grouper nervous necrosis virus (RGNNV), striped jack nervous necrosis virus and tiger puffer nervous necrosis virus with the RGNNV being the most common. The viruses are distributed worldwide having been recorded in Southeast Asia, Mediterranean countries, United Kingdom, North America and Australia. The disease has been reported by different names such as viral nervous necrosis, fish encephalitis, viral encephalopathy and retinopathy by various investigators. The virus is composed of two segments designated RNA1 and RNA2 and sometimes possesses an additional segment designated RNA3. However, genome arrangement of the virus can vary from strain to strain. The virus is diagnosed by microscopy and other rapid and sensitive molecular methods as well as immunological assays. Several cell lines have been developed for the virus propagation and study of infection mechanism. Control of nodavirus infection is a serious issue in aquaculture industry since it is responsible for huge economic losses. In combination with other management practices, vaccination of fish would be a useful strategy to control the disease. PMID:23997435

Shetty, Mahesh; Maiti, Biswajit; Shivakumar Santhosh, Kogaluru; Venugopal, Moleyur Nagarajappa; Karunasagar, Indrani



Experimental lead poisoning in the baboon  

PubMed Central

Hopkins, A. (1970).Brit. J. industr. Med.,27, 130-140. Experimental lead poisoning in the baboon. Twelve large and three infant baboons were poisoned by the intratracheal injection of lead carbonate in doses ranging from 50 to 135 mg/kg for 39 to 362 days. Eight baboons had one or more epileptic fits. Weakness of the limbs, believed to be of central origin, was seen in three of them. The effect of single and multiple doses of lead on the blood lead is recorded. Anaemia and punctate basophilia were not found. Measurements of nerve conduction velocity, electromyography and histological examination showed no abnormality of the peripheral nerves. The different effects of lead upon different species are discussed. Images

Hopkins, Anthony



Different approaches to acute organophosphorus poison treatment.  


Organophosphorus compounds (OPCs) have a wide variety of applications and are a serious threat for self-poisoning, unintentional misuse, terrorist attack, occupational hazard and warfare attack. The present standard treatment has been reported to be unsatisfactory. Many novel approaches are being used and tested for acute organophosphorus (OP) poison treatment. The bioscavenger concept captured high attention among the scientific community during the last few decades. Other approaches like alkalinisation of blood plasma/serum and use of weak inhibitors against strong inhibitors, though it showed promising results, did not get such wide attention. The introduction of a novel broad-spectrum oxime has also been in focus. In this mini-review, an update of the overview of four different approaches has been discussed. The standard therapy that is atropine+oxime+benzodiazepine along with supportive measures will continue to be the best option with only the replacement of a single oxime to improve its broad-spectrum efficacy. PMID:23866522

Nurulain, Syed Muhammad



Readability and its application to poison prevention.  


To improve communication with the general public, poison prevention materials must be written in a language suited to the population to be reached. The information should be nontechnical, concise and easily understood. Sentence length of written material should be short and the vocabulary kept simple. Recall can be significantly improved by organizing statements and labeling categories (12). The readability level must be kept low enough for the general public to read, comprehend and remember the material. This generally means writing no higher than the seventh or eighth-grade level. By using readability formulas to evaluate written poison prevention educational materials and simplifying the reading level, writers can improve comprehension of the information. PMID:7257165

Ross, J W; Metts, B C; Parrish, J S



Cestrum parqui (green cestrum) poisoning in cattle.  


Naturally occurring cases of poisoning of cattle by Cestrum parqui were characterised by ataxia, depression, recumbency, convulsions and death. Three cattle were dosed experimentally by intrarumenal administration of fresh plant material. One calf died 48 h after receiving 30 g (wet weight) of plant/kg bodyweight. Doses of 11 and 17 g/kg caused only mild intoxication, with dullness and anorexia lasting 2 days. In natural and experimental cases the main lesion was hepatic periacinar necrosis. Elevated levels of plasma aspartate transaminase and prolonged prothrombin times were demonstrated in experimental cases. Haemorrhage beneath the serosa and into the intestinal lumen occurred in field cases, but not in the experimental. It is concluded that C. parqui poisoning in cattle is a primary hepatotoxicity. PMID:6517779

McLennan, M W; Kelly, W R



Staphylococcal food poisoning from sheep milk cheese.  

PubMed Central

Cheese made from sheep milk was implicated in food-poisoning incidents in December 1984 and January 1985. Bacteriological examination of batches of cheese failed to reveal a viable pathogen but enterotoxin A produced by Staphylococcus aureus was present. This was the first time that enterotoxin was detected in a food produced in the UK which was associated with poisoning and from which viable Staph. aureus could not be isolated. Subsequent detailed examination of milk, yoghurt and cheese from the same producer revealed that contamination with Staph. aureus was associated with post-infection carriage as well as clinical illness in ewes on the farm. Strains producing enterotoxon. A were still intermittently present in the bulk milk used for cheese production nearly 2 years afterwards, apparently in the absence of clinical illness in the sheep. The possible effects of heat treatment are discussed. Any changes in legislation should cover all non-human mammalian milk used for human consumption.

Bone, F. J.; Bogie, D.; Morgan-Jones, S. C.



Glucosylated isoflavones as DNA topoisomerase II poisons.  


Since topoisomerase poisons allow the enzyme to cut and covalently bind to DNA but abort the subsequent rejoining of the molecule after relieving the torsional stress. To study their action we have made use of a supercoiled form of the pRYG plasmid that bears a specific topoisomerase recognition and binding region. The conversion of the supercoiled circular double-stranded DNA to the linear and open circle forms in the presence of a topoisomerase II poison and a denaturation step by proteinase K-SDS is indicative of the efficiency of our test agents to stabilize the cleavable complex. Using this system, three glucosylated isoflavones (6'-methoxy-pseudobaptigenin-7-O-beta-glucoside, genistin, and daidzin) isolated from cytotoxic chloroform and ethyl acetate extracts of Retama sphaerocarpa Boissier, were found to have the ability to stabilize the cleavage complex human DNA topoisomerase II. PMID:11030085

Martín-Cordero, C; López-Lazaro, M; Piñero, J; Ortiz, T; Cortés, F; Ayuso, M J



Saturnine curse: a history of lead poisoning  

SciTech Connect

Over the past ten years there has been increasing recognition of subacute and chronic lead poisoning and a growing awareness of its pathophysiology and clinical effects. Besides the classic manifestations of abdominal colic, seizures, and anemia progressing to gout, renal disease, and neuropathy, more subtle manifestations are now being increasingly recognized, such as the development of hypertension, neurobehavioral changes, reproductive and endocrine abnormalities, a possible role in carcinogenesis, and an overall increase in morbidity and mortality. Lead was one of the seven metals of antiquity, and it has accompanied the Eurasian and American civilizations since their beginnings. Lead is an extremely pernicious metal with a multitude of adverse effects. The recurring nature of lead poisoning throughout the development of civilization can truly be referred to as the saturnine curse. 16 references.

Green, D.W.



Hearing Loss due to Carbon Monoxide Poisoning.  


Carbon monoxide poisoning is one of the rare causes of hearing loss which may cause reversible or irreversible, unilateral or bilateral hearing loss after acute or chronic exposure. In this report, we present a case of bilateral sensorineural hearing loss in a secondary smelting workshop worker after an acute exposure to carbon monoxide. This complication was diagnosed by pure-tone audiometry and confirmed by transient evoked otoacoustic emissions. Hearing loss has not improved after 3 months of followup. PMID:23762709

Mehrparvar, Amir Houshang; Davari, Mohammad Hossein; Mollasadeghi, Abolfazl; Vahidi, Mohammad Reza; Mostaghaci, Mehrdad; Bahaloo, Maryam; Shokouh, Pedram



Bat mortality: pesticide poisoning and migratory stress.  


Organochlorine residues in the fat of young Mexican free-tailed bats, Tadarida brasiliensis, reached the brain and caused symptoms of poisoning after the fat mobilization that takes place during migratory flight was simulated. These chemical body burdens were obtained naturally under free-living conditions at the maternity roost. The data obtained support the hypothesis that pesticides have contributed to recent declines in populations of this bat. PMID:959845

Geluso, K N; Altenbach, J S; Wilson, D E



Indoxacarb poisoning: A rare presentation as methemoglobinaemia.  


Indoxacarb is a broad-spectrum non-organophosphorus oxidiazine insecticide widely used in farming. Once absorbed it acts on sodium channels and blocks the flow of sodium ions. We report a case of indoxacarb poisoning in a farmer following suicidal consumption, manifested as unconsciousness, cyanosis and stationary SpO(2) values. Methemoglobinaemia was suspected on clinical presentation which was successfully managed with inj. methylene blue and other symptomatic and supportive treatment. PMID:20885872

Chhabra, Roopam; Singh, Ishwar; Tandon, Mansi; Babu, Ram



Indoxacarb poisoning: A rare presentation as methemoglobinaemia  

PubMed Central

Indoxacarb is a broad-spectrum non-organophosphorus oxidiazine insecticide widely used in farming. Once absorbed it acts on sodium channels and blocks the flow of sodium ions. We report a case of indoxacarb poisoning in a farmer following suicidal consumption, manifested as unconsciousness, cyanosis and stationary SpO2 values. Methemoglobinaemia was suspected on clinical presentation which was successfully managed with inj. methylene blue and other symptomatic and supportive treatment.

Chhabra, Roopam; Singh, Ishwar; Tandon, Mansi; Babu, Ram



An esoteric occupational hazard for lead poisoning.  


A case of life threatening lead poisoning was diagnosed clinically in a Jewish scribe and verified by appropriate laboratory studies. The special ink used by the scribe was found to contain lead in appreciable amounts. Eleven more asymptomatic subjects, both scribes and manufacturers of the ink, were studied and five were found to have subclinical lead overload. Handling or production of this ink is a potential hazard for lead intoxication. PMID:3084807

Cohen, N; Modai, D; Golik, A; Pik, A; Weissgarten, J; Sigler, E; Averbukh, Z



Kontaktallergie auf Poison ivy (Toxicodendron spp.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zusammenfassung  \\u000a Zwei Patientinnen erkrankten innerhalb von 3 Tagen mit Erythemen, demen und Blschen\\/Blasen in exanthematischer Aussaat an\\u000a einer vermutlichen Poison-ivy-Allergie. Der kausale Zusammenhang konnte durch die detaillierte Anamnese und die positive Epikutantestung\\u000a geklrt werden. In der Bundesrepublik ist die Sensibilisierungsgefahr durch Toxicodendron-Arten, die wohl ausschlielich in Botanischen Grten stehen, zwar gering, doch sind andere Pflanzen aus der Familie der Anacardiaceae,

Regina Fölster-Holst; B. M. Hausen; J. Brasch; E. Christophers



Soluble poison flux quenching in nuclear reactors  

SciTech Connect

Recently, there have been significant developments in the area of inherently safe nuclear reactor conceptual designs. Among these there is much interest in the so-called PIUS reactor, where safety is to be guaranteed by the timely introduction of borated water into the core. In the event of an accidental reactivity insertion followed by a power excursion, the poison introduction would be triggered automatically by natural physical thermal-hydraulic phenomena without any need for the intervention of externally operated control systems. In a first rough approach to reactor kinetics, the poison introduction can be modeled by a region characterized by higher neutron capture properties with respect to the core and whose boundary moves all the way through with a given velocity. It seems there are no adequate treatments of moving boundary problems in reactor physics, and the usual point kinetics techniques are obviously unsatisfactory. The authors present here a first attempt to study the poison flux quenching within a homogenized reactor, using multigroup diffusion theory and taking into account the presence of the delayed neutron generation. Only slab geometry will be considered, but the model is easily extendable to more realistic configurations, such as cylinders, and different spectral describes can be introduced, such as continuous energy by means of suitable slowing down kernels.

Ravetto, P. (Politecnico di Torino (Italy)); Ganapol, B.D. (Univ. of Arizona, Tucson (USA))



[Cholinesterase inhibitor poisoning: a complicated medical challenge].  


Exposure to insecticides, mainly cholinesterase inhibitors, is a global problem with substantial morbidity and mortality. Risk of intoxication is increased in rural areas where there is high availability and proximity of insecticides to families and children. Neglected storage and inadequate practice lead to dangerous exposure. Strict regulations and appropriate safety measures are needed for the prevention of exposure to insecticides. Broad toxicological knowledge is necessary in order to treat organophosphate and carbamate poisoned patients. Diagnosis is not trivial, since the identity of the poison is not always apparent. Multiple exposures including organic solvents are possible. The clinical presenting can be confusing. Measurement of cholinesterase activity is mandatory in establishing the diagnosis. Prompt treatment with proper antidotes and respiratory support is indicated. Early administration of anticonvulsants may mitigate central neurologic complications. Monitoring neurologic and cardiac function is advised for rapid identification of complications and prognosis evaluation. Meticulous preparedness of health care providers for insecticide poisoning is needed from the pre-hospital phase to emergency departments and the different hospital wards. PMID:23957084

Lavon, Ophir; Sagi, Ram



Poisoning due to Chinese proprietary medicines.  


1. To determine the toxic potentials of those Chinese proprietary medicines (CPM) which are commonly used for self-poisoning by adults in Hong Kong, all patients admitted to four of the eight general medical wards at the Prince of Wales Hospital between January 1988 and December 1993 were retrospectively studied. 2. There were 54 women and 17 men with their age ranging from 15 to 86 years. Twenty-three subjects (32%) also took alcohol, chemicals or drugs. Of the 51 subjects (72%) who had taken topical medicaments, 22 had no symptoms while 28 had minor features of gastrointestinal irritation (n = 26), mild (n = 2) or severe (n = 1) salicylate poisoning. Of the 17 subjects (24%) who had taken CPM tablets/capsules, nine had mild symptoms including nausea/vomiting and drowsiness. The three remaining patients (4%) who had ingested liquid CPM preparations were asymptomatic. Elevated plasma salicylate or paracetamol concentrations (> 0.1 mmol l-1) were found in some patients who had taken topical medicaments and CPM tablets/capsules, respectively. All the 71 patients completely recovered. 3. Most of the CPM used for self-poisoning in Hong Kong were of low to moderate toxicity except for those containing wintergreen oil (methyl salicylate). PMID:7612306

Chan, T Y; Lee, K K; Chan, A Y; Critchley, J A



Digitalis poisoning: historical and forensic aspects.  


Since the introduction of digitalis into therapy approximately 200 years ago, there have been continuing admonitions concerning its toxicity. Over 400 years ago, herbalists listed the plant as being poisonous. In fiction, the homicidal use of digitalis has appeared in the writings of Mary Webb, Dorothy Sayers and Agatha Christie. Ten instances in real life of alleged homicide by digitalis and trials of the accused are listed. The drug has been used with suicidal intent rather infrequently, compared with other medications. Possibly, it is more commonly used for such a purpose in France than in England or the United States. The fraudulent use of digitalis in the support of claims for disability because of heart disease has occurred, and one large conspiracy of physicians and lawyers in the swindle of insurance companies during the 1930s is a shameful episode in the record of these professions. Although innocent, one professor of medicine who was involved committed suicide. Two pharmaceutical (manufacturing) blunders that occurred in Belgium and Holland with mislabeling are mentioned. These resulted in numerous deaths and the profession seemed rather slow to recognize the nature of these small epidemics of poisoning. Instances of psychiatric illness with digitalis seem well documented. The story of digitalis toxicity continues into the present and physicians should be vigilant regarding the drug's potential for poisoning that can result from prescribing digitalis with ignorance of proper dosage, pharmacodynamics or drug interactions, as well as from accidental overdose as in children and use with self-destructive or homicidal intent. PMID:6338083

Burchell, H B



Microbiology of infected poison ivy dermatitis.  


We report the aerobic and anaerobic microbiology of secondarily infected poison ivy dermatitis. The study involved retrospective review of clinical and microbiology laboratory records of patients with secondarily infected poison ivy lesions. Bacterial growth was noted in 33 specimens. Aerobic or facultative anaerobic bacteria only were present in 18 (55%) patients, anaerobic bacteria only in seven (21%), and mixed anaerobic-aerobic bacteria in eight (24%). Forty-five isolates were recovered (1.4 per specimen): 27 aerobic or facultative anaerobic bacteria, and 18 strict anaerobes. The predominant aerobic and facultative anaerobic bacteria were Staphylococcus aureus (13 isolates) and group A beta-haemolytic streptococci (six). The predominant anaerobes were Peptostreptococcus spp. (seven isolates), pigmented Prevotella and Porphyromonas spp. (four) and Fusobacterium spp. (two). Single bacterial isolates were recovered in 18 (55%) patients, eight of which were S. aureus. Nineteen of the organisms isolated from 16 (48%) patients produced the enzyme beta-lactamase. Organisms that resided in the mucous membranes close to the lesions predominated in those infections. Enteric gram-negative rods and Bacteroides fragilis group predominated in leg and buttock lesions. Group A beta-haemolytic streptococci, pigmented Prevotella and Porphyromonas and Fusobacterium spp. were most frequently recovered from lesions of the finger, face and neck. The polymicrobial aetiology of secondarily infected poison ivy lesions, and the association of bacterial flora with the anatomical site of the lesions, are demonstrated. PMID:10809852

Brook, I; Frazier, E H; Yeager, J K



A "scorpion fish" (Trachinus vipera) sting: fishermen's hazard.  

PubMed Central

"Scorpion fish" is a nickname given by fishermen to members of the Trachinidae family as a result of their unusual stinging mechanism. These fish are found throughout the eastern Atlantic region from the North Sea through the Mediterranean and Black Seas and along the western coast of Northern and Central Africa. They are characterised by poisonous glands located at the base and sides of the spines of their anterior back fin and at the base of a spine located on the gill cover. Because of the unusual location of the glands, fishermen handling these fish frequently suffer local injuries. A case of necrosis of the tip of the middle finger after a "scorpion fish" sting is described. Images

Dehaan, A; Ben-Meir, P; Sagi, A



[Cyanide poisoning: forensic toxicology observations in the study of 54 cases of fatal poisoning].  


The present study describes various observations made during the examination of 54 cases of lethal cyanide intoxication at the Institute of Forensic Medicine of the University of Zürich during a period of more than 40 years. Data pertain to the scene of death, the medicolegal inspection, the autopsy, the histological examinations, the chemical analyses, the various types of poisoning observed and the diagnostic criteria used. The intoxicated victims were mostly adults who had professional access to various cyanogenic compounds and had ingested them with the intention of committing suicide. Cases of accidental and criminal poisoning were rare. In spite of this fact, and although its frequency has not increased in the last few decades, cyanide poisoning has maintained undiminished importance. PMID:4060897

Pasi, A; Morath, M; Hartmann, H



Clinical predictors of completed suicide and repeated self-poisoning in 8895 self-poisoning patients.  


The diagnoses of 8895 patients who were admitted for intentional self-poisoning with psycho-active drugs were studied in order to find predictors for subsequent completed suicide and repeated self-poisoning. Automated record linkage by means of the Swedish personal identification numbers was performed between the Stockholm County inpatient registry and the cause-of-death registry. With Cox regression models, several diagnostic predictors were identified although they were generally unspecific and insensitive. This may be due both to the low base rate of suicides, and to the omission of other more powerful non-clinical predictors, such as personality traits, hopelessness and social disruption. It is concluded that secondary psychiatric prevention may still be justified, although it will be applied to large numbers of patients who will not eventually commit suicide or repeat self-poisoning. PMID:2138552

Allgulander, C; Fisher, L D



Psychological picture of manifest and latent carbon disulphide poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hänninen, H. (1971).Brit. J. industr. Med.,28, 374-381. Psychological picture of manifest and latent carbon disulphide poisoning. A battery of psychological tests was administered to 50 viscose workers with carbon disulphide (CS2) poisoning, 50 viscose workers exposed to CS2 without known poisoning, and 50 workers not exposed to CS2. There were large and statistically significant differences between the group means of

Helena Hänninen



A Rare Neurological Complication of Acute Organophosphorous Poisoning  

PubMed Central

Organophosphorous (OP) compound poisoning is one of the most common causes for admission to the Medical Intensive Care Unit. The morbidity and mortality associated with OP poisoning is due to the action of the compound at the muscarinic, nicotinic receptors, and the central nervous system. Here is a rare case of extrapyramidal manifestations occurring in the intermediate phase of OP poisoning, use of amantidine led to subsiding of the symptoms.

Kalyanam, Balamurali; Narayana, Sarala; Kamarthy, Prabhakar



A rare neurological complication of acute organophosphorous poisoning.  


Organophosphorous (OP) compound poisoning is one of the most common causes for admission to the Medical Intensive Care Unit. The morbidity and mortality associated with OP poisoning is due to the action of the compound at the muscarinic, nicotinic receptors, and the central nervous system. Here is a rare case of extrapyramidal manifestations occurring in the intermediate phase of OP poisoning, use of amantidine led to subsiding of the symptoms. PMID:24082514

Kalyanam, Balamurali; Narayana, Sarala; Kamarthy, Prabhakar



Cyanobacterial poisoning in livestock, wild mammals and birds – an overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

Poisoning of livestock by toxic cyanobacteria was first reported in the 19th century, and throughout the 20th century cyanobacteria–related poisonings of livestock and wildlife in all continents have been described. Some mass mortality\\u000a events involving unrelated fauna in prehistoric times have also been attributed to cyanotoxin poisoning; if correct, this\\u000a serves as a reminder that toxic cyanobacteria blooms predate anthropogenic

Ian Stewart; Alan A. Seawright; Glen R. Shaw


Fish Ears  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Sometimes the key to solving a medical problem turns up in unexpected places. For example, new discoveries about a fish's mating ritual may shed light on a cause of hearing loss in humans. This Science Update explores the correlation between levels of estrogen in female and sensitivity of hearing.

Science Update;



fish species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Schooling fish species are conventionally subdivided into obligate and facultative species, depending on the proportion of the time spent in structured schools, but little is known about the factors affecting the group structure in the absence of external structuring stimuli such as food sources, risk of predators or water flow. Changes in attraction and repulsion indicators, depending on the species



Gone Fishing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents a hands-on activity in which students create a model of an ocean ecosystem to gain an understanding of how humans can alter biodiversity through their actions. Uses differing levels of fishing technology to explore the concepts of sustainability and overfishing. (Author/SOE)|

Olson-Demme, Hillary; Kisiel, Jim



Flying Fish  

Microsoft Academic Search

AN excellent opportunity of observing the aerial means of propulsion in the flying fish was afforded me during a six days' calm lately when crossing the Bay of Bengal. This must be my excuse for again touching this subject. I watched day by day some hundreds rise under the bows of the ship. The water surface was a glassy calm.

Alfred Carpenter



Commercial Fishing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document is a curriculum framework for a program in commercial fishing to be taught in Florida secondary and postsecondary institutions. This outline covers the major concepts/content of the program, which is designed to prepare students for employment in occupations with titles such as net fishers, pot fishers, line fishers, shrimp boat…

Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee. Div. of Vocational Education.


Disappearing Fish  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, authors like Herman Melville, Jules Verne, and Ernest Hemingway pitted grizzled adventurers against the mightiest creatures of the ocean. Today, the struggle of man-versus-nature is quite a different contest. Science reporter Bob Hirshon tells us that the world's biggest fish are now in serious jeopardy.

Science Update;



Karuk Fishing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A booklet on traditional fishing practices of the Karuk Indians of northwestern California is presented in the formal, literary English speech of Norman Goodwin, a Karuk medicine man involved in preserving ancient tribal traditions. Empirical information and personal narratives are combined in descriptions of different kinds of nets, social rules…

Bennett, Ruth, Ed.; Goodwin, Norman


Gone Fishing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a hands-on activity in which students create a model of an ocean ecosystem to gain an understanding of how humans can alter biodiversity through their actions. Uses differing levels of fishing technology to explore the concepts of sustainability and overfishing. (Author/SOE)

Olson-Demme, Hillary; Kisiel, Jim



Delay among the general public in telephoning a poison center.  


Delay in seeking treatment for poisonings can hinder patient recovery. Our study examined delay in notifying a poison center about green tobacco sickness (GTS), a form of nicotine poisoning resulting from dermal contact with tobacco leaves. We conducted a follow-up survey of 55 cases of GTS reported by telephone to the kentucky Regional Poison Center in 1993. The "delay" group (38.2% of the cases) was defined as those callers who stated in the follow-up report that they should have phoned the poison center sooner than they did. Characteristics of the callers who delayed and the GTS patients they reported were compared with characteristics of the "non-delay" group. Delay was associated with callers' awareness of the poison center's expertise in agricultural poisonings and with age and sex of the patient. Our findings point to the need to target groups such as farmers with an educational campaign to make them more aware of the extent of the poison center's services and to encourage timely reporting of occupational poisonings. PMID:8693693

McKnight, R H; Dawson, S K; Westneat, S C; Rodgers, G C; Ross, M P



Guidance for Industry: Action Levels for Poisonous or ...  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... Guidance for Industry: Action Levels for Poisonous or Deleterious Substances in Human Food and Animal Feed. Contains ... More results from


76 FR 78263 - Advisory Committee on Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention (ACCLPP)  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Prevention (CDC) Advisory Committee on Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention (ACCLPP...and their practical implications for childhood lead poisoning prevention efforts. The...also reviews and reports regularly on childhood lead poisoning prevention practices...



78 FR 40743 - Advisory Committee on Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention (ACCLPP)  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Prevention (CDC) Advisory Committee on Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention (ACCLPP...and their practical implications for childhood lead poisoning prevention efforts. The...also reviews and reports regularly on childhood lead poisoning prevention practices...



75 FR 66771 - Advisory Committee on Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention (ACCLPP)  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...and Prevention Advisory Committee on Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention (ACCLPP...and their practical implications for childhood lead poisoning prevention efforts. The...also reviews and reports regularly on childhood lead poisoning prevention practices...



76 FR 62071 - Advisory Committee on Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention(ACCLPP)  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...and Prevention Advisory Committee on Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention(ACCLPP...and their practical implications for childhood lead poisoning prevention efforts. The...also reviews and reports regularly on childhood lead poisoning prevention practices...



46 CFR 194.05-17 - Poisonous articles as chemical stores-Detail requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-10-01 false Poisonous articles as chemical stores-Detail...CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS HANDLING, USE...194.05-17 Poisonous articles as chemical storesâDetail requirements. (a) Poisonous articles as chemical stores and...



46 CFR 194.05-17 - Poisonous articles as chemical stores-Detail requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Poisonous articles as chemical stores-Detail...CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS HANDLING, USE...194.05-17 Poisonous articles as chemical storesâDetail requirements. (a) Poisonous articles as chemical stores and...



Paternity testing using the poisonous sting in captive white-spotted eagle rays Aetobatus narinari: a non-invasive tool for captive sustainability programmes.  


A group of captive white-spotted eagle rays Aetobatus narinari produced 20 offspring, with an unknown father. Part of the poisonous sting was removed from each fish and DNA was extracted from the epidermis for paternity research using eight microsatellite markers of which four were from another species Aetobatus flagellum. This non-invasive sampling technique can be applied on all members of Myliobatiformes. PMID:23464564

Janse, M; Kappe, A L; Van Kuijk, B L M



Morphological and genetical description of Loma psittaca sp. n. isolated from the Amazonian fish species Colomesus psittacus.  


A previously unrecognised fish-infecting microsporidia (Loma psittaca n. sp.), found adherent to the intestinal mucosa of the freshwater puffer fish Colomesus psittacus (Teleostei, Tetraodontidae) from lower Amazon River, was described based on light and transmission electron microscope and phylogenetic analysis. The whitish xenoma was completely filled by numerous spores, including several developmental stages of the parasite. In all of these stages, the nuclei were monokaryotic. The merogonial plasmodium divided by binary fission and the sporont gave rise to disporoblastic ovoid spores measuring 4.2 +/- 0.4 x 2.8 +/- 0.4 microm. In mature spores, the polar filament was arranged in 10-11 (rarely 12) coils in one row in turn of posterior vacuole. The polaroplast had two distinct regions around the manubrium. The polyribosomes were organised in coiled tapes. The small subunit rRNA gene was sequenced and maximum parsimony analysis placed the microsporidian described here in the clade that includes the genera Ichthyosporidium, Loma and Pseudoloma. Based on differences from previously described microsporidians, such as ultrastructural characteristics of the xenoma, developmental stages including the spore and phylogenetic analysis supported the recognition of a new species, herein named L. psittaca n. sp. PMID:19593585

Casal, Graça; Matos, Edilson; Teles-Grilo, M Leonor; Azevedo, Carlos



To calculation of samarium poisoning in a starting duty after continuous stop of poisoned reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the literature dedicated to physics of transients and basic physics of exploitation of nuclear reactors the starting duty after continuous stop of a poisoned reactor was not practically considered. In operational practice there is the rather a slow passing process (from several days up to tens day) and insignificance of effects of change of fuel scarifying (less than prompt

I. B. Valuev; R. P. Gorlov; A. V. Kuzmin




Microsoft Academic Search

Radiation hazards are discussed from the point of view of sources of ; radiation, biologic effects, and symptoms of radiation sickness and its treatment. ; Cases of poisoning from ingestion of luminous paint are described. In the four ; cases studied, nothing was demonstrated in terms of internal deposition. This ; material apparently went through the intestine and only an

H. Jacobziner; H. W. Raybin



Erythroid karyorrhexis in the peripheral blood smear in severe arsenic poisoning: a comparison with lead poisoning.  


Three men with severe arsenic poisoning were hospitalized with working diagnoses, respectively, of peptic ulcer, pancreatitis, and viral gastroenteritis. In the first two patients, correct diagnosis was delayed until the return of heavy-metal screening tests ordered because of painful peripheral neuropathy in one and sudden flaccid paralysis, resembling Guillain-Barré syndrome, in the other. Both patients had coarsely stippled red blood cells with markedly abnormal nuclei in their peripheral blood smears. These distinctive hematologic features led to an early diagnosis in the third patient. The author's review of past cases of lead poisoning showed that red blood cell karyorrhexis also tends to occur in patients who consume illicit whiskey ("moonshine"). Karyorrhexis or marked dyserythropoiesis in the peripheral smear, not heretofore described in arsenic or lead poisoning, may indeed be a unique hematologic clue. Scrutiny of the peripheral blood and/or buffy coat smear in patients with perplexing gastrointestinal or neurologic symptoms may enable earlier diagnosis and better therapy of arsenic poisoning. PMID:6702757

Eichner, E R



Immunologic Studies of Poisonous Anacardiaceae: Oral Desensitization to Poison Ivy and Oak urushiols in Guinea Pigs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Poison ivy and oak urushiols or their components were compared with the respective esterified derivatives for efficacy in oral desensitization of Hartley guinea pigs sensitized to urushiols. The esterified derivatives produced a significantly greater degree of hyposensitization than did free urushiol counterparts. Suppression produced by esterified urushiols was of longer duration than that produced by free urushiols. Groups of sensitized

Edna S. Watson; James C. Murphy; Mahmoud A. ElSohly



Snake venom poisoning: experience with 633 cases.  


Snake venom poisoning is a common medical emergency and the epidemiological features vary from region to region. We conducted a prospective study to review the epidemiology, treatment and outcome of snake venom poisoning in central Karnataka. Six hundred and thirty three cases of snake bite, seen in a teaching hospital, upto the age of 18 years, over a period of 8 years from 1985 to 1992 constituted the material for the study. Detailed history with special reference to the type of snake, circumstances leading to the bite and clinical consequences were studied and final outcome was noted. Males (n = 433) were bitten more often than females (n = 200). Two hundred and fifty six (40.4%) cases were in the age range of 11-15 years. The cases were seen during two periods, i.e., Oct, Nov, Dec (n = 210) and Apr, May, June (n = 199). Most (n = 506) were encountered in the lower limbs. Viper was the most common poisonous snake. Five hundred and seventy (90%) cases were from rural area. Coagulation time was prolonged in 371 (58.6%) cases, hemorrhagic syndrome was noticed in 354 (55.9%) cases, neurological involvement in 79 (12.5%) cases. Polyvalent anti snake venom (ASV) was given to 479 cases. Hypersensitivity to ASV was noted in 8 cases. Blood transfusion was given to 33 cases for the management of excessive bleeding. The death rate among snake victims was 5.2% (33 cases). The morbidity and mortality can be reduced substantially by increasing and maintaining confidence in good medical care and providing health education. PMID:7875785

Kulkarni, M L; Anees, S



Food Poisoning and Staphylococcus aureus Enterotoxins  

PubMed Central

Staphylococcus aureus produces a wide variety of toxins including staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs; SEA to SEE, SEG to SEI, SER to SET) with demonstrated emetic activity, and staphylococcal-like (SEl) proteins, which are not emetic in a primate model (SElL and SElQ) or have yet to be tested (SElJ, SElK, SElM to SElP, SElU, SElU2 and SElV). SEs and SEls have been traditionally subdivided into classical (SEA to SEE) and new (SEG to SElU2) types. All possess superantigenic activity and are encoded by accessory genetic elements, including plasmids, prophages, pathogenicity islands, vSa genomic islands, or by genes located next to the staphylococcal cassette chromosome (SCC) implicated in methicillin resistance. SEs are a major cause of food poisoning, which typically occurs after ingestion of different foods, particularly processed meat and dairy products, contaminated with S. aureus by improper handling and subsequent storage at elevated temperatures. Symptoms are of rapid onset and include nausea and violent vomiting, with or without diarrhea. The illness is usually self-limiting and only occasionally it is severe enough to warrant hospitalization. SEA is the most common cause of staphylococcal food poisoning worldwide, but the involvement of other classical SEs has been also demonstrated. Of the new SE/SEls, only SEH have clearly been associated with food poisoning. However, genes encoding novel SEs as well as SEls with untested emetic activity are widely represented in S. aureus, and their role in pathogenesis may be underestimated.

Argudin, Maria Angeles; Mendoza, Maria Carmen; Rodicio, Maria Rosario



Food poisoning and Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxins.  


Staphylococcus aureus produces a wide variety of toxins including staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs; SEA to SEE, SEG to SEI, SER to SET) with demonstrated emetic activity, and staphylococcal-like (SEl) proteins, which are not emetic in a primate model (SElL and SElQ) or have yet to be tested (SElJ, SElK, SElM to SElP, SElU, SElU2 and SElV). SEs and SEls have been traditionally subdivided into classical (SEA to SEE) and new (SEG to SElU2) types. All possess superantigenic activity and are encoded by accessory genetic elements, including plasmids, prophages, pathogenicity islands, vSa genomic islands, or by genes located next to the staphylococcal cassette chromosome (SCC) implicated in methicillin resistance. SEs are a major cause of food poisoning, which typically occurs after ingestion of different foods, particularly processed meat and dairy products, contaminated with S. aureus by improper handling and subsequent storage at elevated temperatures. Symptoms are of rapid onset and include nausea and violent vomiting, with or without diarrhea. The illness is usually self-limiting and only occasionally it is severe enough to warrant hospitalization. SEA is the most common cause of staphylococcal food poisoning worldwide, but the involvement of other classical SEs has been also demonstrated. Of the new SE/SEls, only SEH have clearly been associated with food poisoning. However, genes encoding novel SEs as well as SEls with untested emetic activity are widely represented in S. aureus, and their role in pathogenesis may be underestimated. PMID:22069659

Argudín, María Ángeles; Mendoza, María Carmen; Rodicio, María Rosario



Mushroom poisoning: a case report from Jordan.  


An eight years male child with his family ate fresh mushroom at lunch time from back garden at their home in a village in the North of Jordan. By the evening approximately six hours later all started feeling nausea, abdominal cramps and vomiting they rushed to nearest primary health care center. After getting general medical medication they were transfer to a referral hospital at city of Irbid. The boy got deteriorated with diarrhea in addition to the previous gastrointestinal complains and died on third day. The message from this case is to ascertain in the public opinion that unknown type of mushroom even eaten previously could be poisonous and fetal. PMID:22816180

Shotar, Ali M; Alzyoud, Sukaina A; Samara, Omar; Obeidat, Jamal; Qasaimeh, G R



Organophosphorus poisoning in two Rex rabbits.  


A case of organophosphorus (OP) poisoning in two Rex rabbits is described. Three animals were diagnosed as having dermatitis characterised by pruritus and alopecia due to infestation with Cheyletiella parasitivorax. Two of the animals were dipped in 2% malathion solution: one died within 15 hours post-dipping, the other was euthanased subsequent to the onset of convulsions. A procedure for the future dipping of rabbits is suggested, and a recommendation is made for a lower concentration of malathion to be used. PMID:16031005

Jones, J M


Self-poisoning of the mind  

PubMed Central

Rational-choice theory tries to explain behaviour on the assumption that individuals optimize. Some forms of irrational behaviour can be explained by assuming that the individual is subject to hedonic, pleasure-seeking mechanisms, such as wishful thinking or adaptive preference formation. In this paper, I draw attention to psychic mechanisms, originating in the individual, which make her worse off. I first consider the ideas of counterwishful thinking and of counteradaptive preference formation and then, drawing heavily on Proust, the self-poisoning of the mind that occurs through the operation of amour-propre.

Elster, Jon



Lessons to be learnt from organophosphorus pesticide poisoning for the treatment of nerve agent poisoning.  


The increasing threat of nerve agent use for terrorist purposes against civilian and military population calls for effective therapeutic preparedness. At present, administration of atropine and an oxime are recommended, although effectiveness of this treatment is not proved in clinical trials. Here, monitoring of intoxications with organophosphorus (OP) pesticides may be of help, as their actions are closely related to those of nerve agents and intoxication and therapy follow the same principles. To this end, the clinical course of poisoning and the effectiveness of antidotal therapy were investigated in patients requiring artificial ventilation being treated with atropine and obidoxime. However, poisoning with OP pesticides shows extremely heterogeneous pictures of cholinergic crisis frequently associated with clinical complications. To achieve valuable information for the therapy of nerve agent poisoning, cases resembling situations in nerve agent poisoning had to be extracted: (a) intoxication with OPs forming reactivatable OP-AChE-complexes with short persistence of the OP in the body resembling inhalational sarin intoxication; (b) intoxication with OPs resulting rapidly in an aged OP-AChE-complex resembling inhalational soman intoxication; (c) intoxications with OPs forming a reactivatable AChE-OP complex with prolonged persistence of the OP in the body resembling percutaneous VX intoxication. From these cases it was concluded that sufficient reactivation of nerve agent inhibited non-aged AChE should be possible, if the poison load was not too high and the effective oximes were administered early and with an appropriate duration. When RBC-AChE activity was higher than some 30%, neuromuscular transmission was relatively normal. Relatively low atropine doses (several milligrams) should be sufficient to cope with muscarinic symptoms during oxime therapy. PMID:17161895

Thiermann, H; Szinicz, L; Eyer, P; Felgenhauer, N; Zilker, T; Worek, F



Deactivation and poisoning of fuel cell catalysts, revision  

Microsoft Academic Search

The unique aspects of catalysts in the electrical generating unit of fuel cells are discussed. Fuel cell catalysts suffer from deactivation and poisoning phenomena that are either identical to or strongly analogous to the processes which occur in heterogeneous catalysis. Fuel cell performance is degraded by poisoning from impurities, loss of surface area of noble metal, and physical deterioration of

P. N. Ross Jr.; P. N. Jr



Circe in Crinoline: Domestic Poisonings in Victorian England  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the Victorian era, about forty women were tried for poisoning their husbands. Despite the small number, the cases loomed large in the public imagi nation and were given widespread and sensational coverage by the press. Evidence presented at poison trials tells us much regarding Victorian ideas about science, domestic routines, patterns of marital conflict, and attitudes toward women in

George Robb



The role of Poison Control Centers in radiation accidents  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the days after the nuclear reactor accident at Chernobyl (USSR) in April 1986, the Dutch Poison Control Center had to answer questions concerning possible health effects caused by (over)exposure to ionizing radiation. These questions were similar to questions asked regarding exposure to toxic agents after chemical accidents. It is obvious that the experience and practical approach of a Poison

T. J. F. Savelkoul; H. P. Leenhouts; B. Sangster



Fatal poisonings in Finland during the years 2004-2009.  


Fatal alcohol and drug poisonings in Finland during the years 2004-2009 were studied. Cases were divided into those that occurred outside the hospitals (the majority of cases) and those that occurred within the hospitals (the minority of cases). Differences and similarities between the two groups were analysed. The postmortem toxicological investigation of all sudden and unexpected deaths in Finland is centralised at the Department of Forensic Medicine, University of Helsinki. We examined each fatal poisoning separately and verified the cause and place of death as well as the age and sex of the deceased. Fatal poisonings, including suicides, have remained unchanged for many years from the same high level, that is, about 1200 cases annually (22/100,000 inhabitants). The number of patients dying in hospitals due to poisoning has also remained stable (55-70 patients/year). However, the toxic agents involved in such poisonings have changed and deaths due to opioids are now being more numerous. The number of fatal unintentional drug poisonings rose significantly from 191 to 341 (3-6/100,000 inhabitants, p < 0.001) during the study years, and the difference between poisonings caused by drugs or alcohol also changed significantly (p < 0.001). Diminishing substantially, the number of all fatal poisonings will be challenging because of the high percentage of suicides. However, a reduction in unintentional drug overdoses, which are presently on the rise, should be possible. PMID:23696556

Lapatto-Reiniluoto, O; Vuori, E; Hoppu, K; Ojanperä, I



Acute Poisoning in Children; Data of a Pediatric Emergency Unit  

PubMed Central

Objective Acute Poisoning in children is still an important public health problem and represents a frequent cause of admission in emergency units. The epidemiological surveillance specific for each country is necessary to determine the extent and characteristics of the problem, according to which related preventive measures can be taken. Methods The present retrospective study describes the epidemiology of accidental and suicidal poisonings in a pediatric population admitted to the Pediatric Emergency Department of Eskisehir Osmangazi University Hospital during the year 2009. Findings Two hundred eighteen children were reffered to the emergency department due to acute poisoning. 48.4% of patients were boys and 51.6% were girls. The majority of cases were due to accidental poisoning (73.3% of all patients). Drugs were the most common agent causing the poisoning (48.3%), followed by ingestion of corrosive substance (23.1%) and carbon monoxide (CO) intoxication (12.5%). Tricyclic antidepressant was the most common drug (11.7%). Methylphenidate poisoning, the second common drug. 262 patients were discharged from hospital within 48 hours. Conclusion Preventable accidental poisonings are still a significant cause of morbidity among children in developing countries. Drugs and corrosive agents are the most frequent agents causing poisoning.

Sahin, Sabiha; Bora Carman, Kursat; Dinleyici, Ener Cagr?



Childhood Lead Poisoning: Rhode Island Kids Count Issue Brief.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Noting that childhood lead poisoning is one of the most common preventable pediatric health problems, this report examines lead poisoning as a health problem to which infants and young children are most susceptible and as a housing problem directly related to a shortage of safe, affordable housing. The report details screening rates in Rhode…

Rhode Island KIDS COUNT, Providence.


Mitochondrial degeneration after organic phosphate poisoning in prosimian primates  

Microsoft Academic Search

The degenerative reaction of mitochondria to tricresylphosphate (TCP) poisoning in spinal ganglion cells of Slow Loris (Nycticebus coucang coucang) were studied with the electron microscope. In neurones of animals treated with TCP, mitochondria display various stages of alterations which confirm mitochondrial involvement in TCP poisoning. The role of degenerated mitochondria in the formation of neuronal lipofuscin is discussed. It is

M. Mumtazuddin Ahmed; Paul Glees



An Action-Research Project: Community Lead Poisoning Prevention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This action-research project focused on gathering data on awareness of lead poisoning, as well as disseminating information on lead poisoning prevention in a metropolitan midwestern city. This project reflects an action-research approach to service learning and was in collaboration with a grass-roots organization. This paper outlines the daunting…

Rajaram, Shireen S.



Neuromaturation and behavior development: The case of childhood lead poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Presents a rationale for the study of the role of neuromaturation in cognitive and behavioral development. Early childhood lead poisoning is discussed in terms of physiological mechanisms and known cognitive sequelae. 18 children, 4–6 yrs old, with past histories of lead poisoning, were compared to matched controls on a 6-factor cognitive and neuromotor battery that included the WPPSI and the

Sandra J. Shaheen



Recognition and Management of Pesticide Poisonings. Third Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This manual aids health professionals in recognizing and treating pesticide poisonings. Suggested treatments are appropriate for implementation in the small hospitals and clinics which usually receive the victims of pesticide poisoning. Classes of compounds covered include: (1) organophosphate cholinesterase-inhibiting pesticides; (2) carbamate…

Morgan, Donald P.


Animal poisoning in Europe. Part 2: Companion animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is the second in a series of three review articles on animal poisoning in Europe and focuses on cases in pet animals and horses in five European countries (Belgium, France, Greece, Italy and Spain) reported over the last decade. In the participating countries, dogs were the most commonly poisoned species, particularly younger animals. The majority of cases in companion

Philippe Berny; Francesca Caloni; Siska Croubels; Magda Sachana; Virginie Vandenbroucke; Franca Davanzo; Raimon Guitart



A global approach to childhood lead poisoning prevention  

Microsoft Academic Search

Childhood lead poisoning is an important, preventable environmental disease affecting millions of children around the world. The effects of lead are well known and range from delayed and adversely affected neurodevelopment to severe health outcomes including seizures, coma, and death. This article reviews the childhood effects of lead poisoning, the approach being taken to the problem in the United States,

Pamela A. Meyer; Michael A. McGeehin; Henry Falk



Examining the contribution of infant walkers to childhood poisoning.  


Parents frequently utilize baby walkers in their infants of approximately 5-15 mo of age and create opportunities for traumatic accidents. Healthcare professionals have tried to increase awareness of their dangers; despite this, between 1986 and 1991 reported walker-related accidents rose 45%. We determined if walkers were a significant contributor to childhood poisonings and what toxins were encountered most commonly. A 14-mo prospective study in a regional poison information center determined the prevalence of accidental pediatric poisonings in children aged 5-15 mo old who suffered their exposure while in a baby walker. The regional poison information center managed 7.058 poisoning exposures, 2.8% of which occurred while the child was in an infant walker. The mean age was 8.25 mo (range 5-14 mo), with 96% less than 12 mo. Substances involved were: plants 56.7%, cleaning products 9.9%, cosmetics 5.5%, construction supplies 5.0%, cigarettes 4.5%, topicals 4.5%, oral medications 2.0%, chalk 2.0% and miscellaneous 9.9%. The majority (95%) of children were asymptomatic. Infant walkers contributed substantially less to infant poisonings than was anticipated. Despite the innocuous nature of exposures, a vulnerable population was exposed to potential poisons within reach of their grasp. Baby walker injuries are not limited to trauma, and accidental poisonings should be included in the admonitions that accompany their use. PMID:10670086

Mroz, L S; Krenzelok, E P



Intentional self-poisoning with glyphosate-containing herbicides.  


Four cases of self-poisoning with 'Roundup' herbicide are described, one of them fatal. One of the survivors had a protracted hospital stay and considerable clinical and laboratory detail is presented. Serious self-poisoning is associated with massive gastrointestinal fluid loss and renal failure. The management of such cases and the role of surfactant toxicity are discussed. PMID:1675099

Menkes, D B; Temple, W A; Edwards, I R



Coupled IVPs to Investigate a Nuclear Reactor Poison Burn Up  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A set of coupled IVPs that describe the change rate of an important poison, in a nuclear reactor, has been written herein. Specifically, in this article, we have focused on the samarium-149 (as a poison) burnup in a desired pressurized water nuclear reactor and its concentration are given using our MATLAB-linked ``solver.''

Faghihi, F.



Selected Common Poisonous Plants of the United States' Rangelands  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Poisonous plants cause large economic losses throughout the rangelands of the world. In the 17 western states of the United States alone, it has been estimated that losses related to the ingestion of poisonous plants exceed $340 million annually. There are many plants that contribute to these large...


Strategic Plan for Preventing Childhood Lead Poisoning in Illinois.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The severity of the silent epidemic of lead poisoning and its long range effects on young children in impairment of intellectual ability, short-term memory, concentration, and reaction time have been recognized. A 3-year strategic plan for preventing childhood lead poisoning in Illinois was developed by a planning committee working through four…

Illinois State Dept. of Public Health, Springfield.


Chemical poisonings among Kraków inhabitants in 1972 and 2002.  


The patterns (frequency, poisoning type, toxic agent involved) of adolescent and adult poisonings in Kraków in 1972 and 2002 are presented. The analysis includes data for poisoned patients treated at the Kraków Department of Clinical Toxicology in 2002 and 1972, and all on the spot fatal cases subjected to post-mortem autopsy and toxicological examinations at the Department of Forensic Medicine in both the years. As much as 4116 poisoned cases (males 2722; females 1394) were treated in 2002 compared to 1485 (males 649; females 836) in 1972. There was no substantial difference between a number of poison related fatalities on the spot in years analysed: 126 (males 105; females 21) in 2002 and 122 (males 84; females 38) in 1972. An elevation in poisoning incidence rate per 10,000 of Kraków inhabitants was also noted in 2002 compared to 1972 (54.3 vs. 30.0). A pharmaceuticals (32.9%) followed by CO (18.2%) and mixed pharmaceuticals (16.2%) were mostly involved in poisoning cases in 1972, whereas ethanol (46%), pharmaceuticals (13.2%), pharmaceuticals co-ingested with ethanol (7.8%), narcotics (7.8%), mixed pharmaceuticals (6.7%), and CO (5.2%) were mostly involved in poisoning cases treated in 2002. A mortality rate both concerning only a people who died in hospital or/and those who died on the spot (prior to any treatment) was significantly higher in 1972 compared to 2002. PMID:15521577

Targosz, Dorota; Sancewicz-Pach, Krystyna; Szkolnicka, Beata; K?ys, Ma?gorzata



Milia after allergic contact dermatitis from poison ivy: two cases.  


Milia have rarely been reported as a complication of severe allergic contact dermatitis. To our knowledge, milia have not previously been associated with poison ivy dermatitis. We present two cases of milia after allergic contact dermatitis to poison ivy. PMID:20487653

Berk, David R; Hurt, Mark A; Reese, Lester T; Wagner, Laura; Bayliss, Susan J


Clinical Investigation of Hyposensitization in Poison Oak Sensitive Individuals.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this contract was to determine whether individuals in California who were sensitive to poison oak could be desensitized by the use of the purified active principle of poison oak, urushiol. Many adult males were skin-tested to determine sens...

W. L. Epstein



Great Lakes fish consumption and reproductive outcomes  

SciTech Connect

This epidemiological investigation determined prenatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), through contaminated fish consumption, and ascertained reproductive outcomes. Green Bay, Wisconsin was chosen as the study site because it was known for its environmental contamination of PCBs. These chemicals are environmentally stable and persistent, and tend to bioaccumulate up the food chain, with highest levels found in predatory sport fish from Lake Michigan. The Green Bay area provided a population with potential PCB exposure from sport fish consumption. Accidental poisoning incidents showed detrimental reproductive effects of high dose PCB exposures. A Michigan study found significant effects on birth weight and gestational age when mothers consumed two sport fish meals per month. This study population was drawn from women during their first prenatal visit at two Green Bay clinics during a one year period. 1,112 participants completed a self-administered questionnaire. Maternal and cord blood samples were obtained for selected PCB serum analyses. Reproductive outcome measures were abstracted from hospital labor reports. Study results indicated that maternal consumption was correlated to maternal PCB serum levels. Regression techniques estimated significant exposure coefficients for subsets of two birth size parameters. Birth length was positively associated with PCB exposure in shorter mothers. Significant associations of PCB exposure and birth weight percentiles were estimated for two income groups in the urban residence/weight gain less than 34 pounds subset.

Dar, E.



Theory of microbe motion in a poisoned environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The motility of a microorganism which tries to avoid a poisoned environment by chemotaxis is studied within a simple model which couples its velocity to the concentration field of the poison. The latter is time independent but inhomogeneous in space. The presence of the poison is assumed to irreversibly reduce the propulsion speed. The model is solved analytically for different couplings of the total poison dose experienced by the microbe to the propulsion mechanism. In a stationary poison field resulting from a constant emission of a fixed point source, we find a power law for the distance traveled by the microbe as a function of time with a nonuniversal exponent which depends on the coupling in the model. With an inverted sign in the couplings, the acceleration of microbe motion induced by a food field can also be described.

Hoell, Christian; Löwen, Hartmut



Theory of microbe motion in a poisoned environment.  


The motility of a microorganism which tries to avoid a poisoned environment by chemotaxis is studied within a simple model which couples its velocity to the concentration field of the poison. The latter is time independent but inhomogeneous in space. The presence of the poison is assumed to irreversibly reduce the propulsion speed. The model is solved analytically for different couplings of the total poison dose experienced by the microbe to the propulsion mechanism. In a stationary poison field resulting from a constant emission of a fixed point source, we find a power law for the distance traveled by the microbe as a function of time with a nonuniversal exponent which depends on the coupling in the model. With an inverted sign in the couplings, the acceleration of microbe motion induced by a food field can also be described. PMID:22181211

Hoell, Christian; Löwen, Hartmut



Diagnosis and Treatment of Amanita Phalloides-Type Mushroom Poisoning  

PubMed Central

The number of cases of mushroom poisoning is increasing as a result of the increasing popularity of “wild” mushroom consumption. Amanitin and phalloidin cytotoxins found in some Amanita and Galerina species produce the most severe and frequent life-threatening symptoms of Amanita phalloidestype poisoning. Delay in onset of symptoms, individual susceptibility variation and lack of rapid and reliable identification have contributed to the significant morbidity and mortality of this type of poisoning. A rapid chromatographic assay for identifying the potent cytotoxins and apparently successful management using thioctic acid of two cases of A. phalloides-type mushroom poisoning are reported. All known cases of A. phalloides-type mushroom poisoning treated with thioctic acid in the United States are summarized.

Becker, Charles E.; Tong, Theodore G.; Roe, Robert L.; Scott, Robert A. T.; MacQuarrie, Michael B.; Boerner, Udo; Bartter, Frederic



A nationwide evidence-based study of factors associated with hospitalisations due to unintentional poisoning and poisoning mortality in Taiwan.  


The aim of this study was to explore the epidemiologic characteristics of unintentional poisoning cases and the factors associated with inpatient mortality. Data were retrieved from the National Health Insurance database from 2005 to 2007. Patients with diagnosis classifications of ICD-9-CM E850-E869 (unintentional poisoning) were selected. SPSS 18.0 software was used for the analysis. In Taiwan between 2005 and 2007, a total of 11,523 patients were hospitalised due to unintentional poisoning, with a hospitalisation rate of 16.83 per 100,000, of which 60.1% and 39.9% were attributable to drug poisoning and solid, liquid and gas substance poisoning, respectively. The hospitalisation rate in men was higher than that of women. The age group of 45-64 had the highest hospitalisation rate of 52.85 per 100,000. The inpatient mortality rate increased with the presence of the following factors: age of 65 or older, surgery or procedure, a higher Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI), short length of hospital stays, acute respiratory failure, alcohol poisoning, pesticide poisoning and a higher-level hospital visited. Methanol, herbicides and organophosphorus pesticide intoxications are associated with higher mortality rates. Therefore, when caring for patients poisoned by the above agents, healthcare professionals should look out for their clinical development to ensure quality of care and to reduce mortality. PMID:23003103

Chien, Wu-Chien; Chung, Chi-Hsiang; Lin, Chia-Hsin; Lai, Ching-Huang



Mushroom poisoning: retrospective analysis of 294 cases  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE The objective of this study was to present special clinical and laboratory features of 294 cases of mushroom poisoning. MATERIALS AND METHODS In this retrospective study, 294 patients admitted to the Pediatric and Adult Emergency, Internal Medicine and ICU Departments of Cumhuriyet University Hospital were investigated. RESULTS Of 294 patients between the ages of 3 and 72 (28.97 ± 19.32), 173 were female, 121 were male and 90 were under the age of 16 years. One hundred seventy-three patients (58.8%) had consumed the mushrooms in the early summer. The onset of mushroom toxicity symptoms was divided into early (within 6 h after ingestion) and delayed (6 h to 20 d). Two hundred eighty-eight patients (97.9%) and six (2.1%) patients had early and delayed toxicity symptoms, respectively. The onset of symptoms was within two hours for 101 patients (34.3%). The most common first-noticed symptoms were in the gastrointestinal system. The patients were discharged within one to ten days. Three patients suffering from poisoning caused by wild mushrooms died from fulminant hepatic failure. CONCLUSION Education of the public about the consumption of mushrooms and education of health personnel working in health centers regarding early treatment and transfer to hospitals with appropriate facilities are important for decreasing the mortality.

Eren, Sevki Hakan; Demirel, Yeltekin; Ugurlu, Serdal; Korkmaz, Ilhan; Aktas, Can; Guven, Fatma Mutlu Kukul



Subacute poisoning with phosalone, an organophosphate insecticide.  

PubMed Central

An illness characterized by weakness, dizziness, and gastrointestinal symtoms was identified among a crew of 30 migrant field-workers employed by a grape grower in Madera County, California, during August 1987. The onset of symptoms occurred between August 24 and August 30 and a median of 9 days from the date of first employment. The first crew member sought medical treatment on August 26, and 10 crew members were admitted to hospital between August 27 and August 30. For most workers, gastrointestinal and constitutional symptoms resolved shortly after admission, but 4 patients had episodes of severe sinus bradycardia persisting for several days. On the day of admission, transient atrioventricular dissociation developed in 2 persons. Interviews with 16 crew members not admitted to the hospital identified only 1 additional worker ill with gastrointestinal symptoms, but all 16 had moderate to severe inhibition of both plasma and red blood cell cholinesterase. Four other workers who were tested but not interviewed also had cholinesterase depression. The crew had had exposure since August 19 to the organophosphate insecticide phosalone, which was last applied to the vineyard on July 21, or 29 days earlier. Although this is the first report unequivocally linking phosalone to field-worker poisoning, the delayed onset and nonspecific nature of the symptoms associated with subacute poisoning may have hindered the recognition of previous similar episodes. Images

O'Malley, M. A.; McCurdy, S. A.



The chemistry of poisons in amphibian skin.  


Poisons are common in nature, where they often serve the organism in chemical defense. Such poisons either are produced de novo or are sequestered from dietary sources or symbiotic organisms. Among vertebrates, amphibians are notable for the wide range of noxious agents that are contained in granular skin glands. These compounds include amines, peptides, proteins, steroids, and both water-soluble and lipid-soluble alkaloids. With the exception of the alkaloids, most seem to be produced de novo by the amphibian. The skin of amphibians contains many structural classes of alkaloids previously unknown in nature. These include the batrachotoxins, which have recently been discovered to also occur in skin and feathers of a bird, the histrionicotoxins, the gephyrotoxins, the decahydroquinolines, the pumiliotoxins and homopumiliotoxins, epibatidine, and the samandarines. Some amphibian skin alkaloids are clearly sequestered from the diet, which consists mainly of small arthropods. These include pyrrolizidine and indolizidine alkaloids from ants, tricyclic coccinellines from beetles, and pyrrolizidine oximes, presumably from millipedes. The sources of other alkaloids in amphibian skin, including the batrachotoxins, the decahydroquinolines, the histrionicotoxins, the pumiliotoxins, and epibatidine, are unknown. While it is possible that these are produced de novo or by symbiotic microorganisms, it appears more likely that they are sequestered by the amphibians from as yet unknown dietary sources. PMID:7816854

Daly, J W



Methylene chloride poisoning in a cabinet worker.  

PubMed Central

More than a million workers are at risk for methylene chloride exposure. Aerosol sprays and paint stripping may also cause significant nonoccupational exposures. After methylene chloride inhalation, significant amounts of carbon monoxide are formed in vivo as a metabolic by-product. Poisoning predominantly affects the central nervous system and results from both carboxyhemoglobin formation and direct solvent-related narcosis. In this report, we describe a case of methylene chloride intoxication probably complicated by exogenous carbon monoxide exposure. The worker's presentation of intermittent headaches was consistent with both methylene chloride intoxication and carbon monoxide poisoning. The exposures and symptoms were corroborated by elevated carboxyhemoglobin saturations and a workplace inspection that documented significant exposures to both methylene chloride and carbon monoxide. When both carbon monoxide and methylene chloride are inhaled, additional carboxyhemoglobin formation is expected. Preventive efforts should include education, air monitoring, and periodic carboxyhemoglobin determinations. Methylene chloride should never be used in enclosed or poorly ventilated areas because of the well-documented dangers of loss of consciousness and death. Images Figure 1

Mahmud, M; Kales, S N



Zinc deficiency in molybdenum poisoned cattle  

SciTech Connect

Clinical signs ascribable to zinc deficiency were noted in a group of Friesian cows industrially poisoned with molybdenum. Zinc, copper, and molybdenum were determined in blood serum and black hair, and in the contaminated alfalfa pasture the group grazed on. Hematological parameters, and serum calcium and alkaline phosphatase activity, were also determined. Pooled samples of alfalfa from 2 uncontaminated pastures, and of blood, serum and black hair of clinically normal Friesian cattle grazing on these were used as controls. A mixed contamination of the polluted pasture with molybdenum and copper was found, both metals being inversely correlated with he distance to the polluting chimney. Zinc concentrations were normal and not significantly correlated with the distance to the chimney very high molybdenum was found in serum and hair of the poisoned animals; copper was normal in serum and hair. Low calcium and Alkaline phosphatase activity were found in serum, both variables being significantly correlated with serum zinc. Reduced red blood cell number, packed cell volumes and hemoglobin concentrations were also found, but no significant correlation of these parameters with any of the trace metals in serum or hair was found. Signs ascribed to zinc deficiency were consistent with the reduction of zinc in serum and hair and decreased alkaline phosphatase activity in serum. A zinc deficiency conditioned by a simultaneous increased intake of molybdenum and copper is proposed.

Parada, R.



Homicidal methanol poisoning in a child.  


A case of homicidal poisoning of a 21-month-old child using methanol is presented. The child was found dead in his crib during a court-ordered visit to his father's home. He reportedly was experiencing "flu-like" symptoms the day before. Routine toxicology testing of specimens taken at autopsy revealed the presence of methanol in a concentration of 0.21%, 0.23%, 0.31%, 0.28%, and 0.26% (w/v or w/w) in heart blood, venous blood, urine, vitreous humor, and gastric contents, respectively. Formic acid concentrations were 1.0 and 6.4 g/L in heart blood and urine. No other drugs or chemicals were detected in comprehensive screening. Accidental ingestion of methanol was ruled out; however, the homicide investigation was complicated by the fact that up to seven adults at three different locations had been involved in the child's care. Minimal information in the literature on the time frame for the development of symptoms of methanol intoxication in a child of this age made predicting a likely time of ingestion difficult. Discussion of the investigation and the timeline for the poisoning that was eventually established are included. PMID:21871164

Beno, Jeanne M; Hartman, Rebecca; Wallace, Christine; Nemeth, David; LaPoint, Scott