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1

Puffer fish poisoning.  

PubMed Central

Regarded by many as a delicacy, puffer fish (Lagocephalus scleratus) is a lethal source of food poisoning with a high mortality. It contains tetrodotoxin which can cause death by muscular paralysis, respiratory depression, and circulatory failure. A case of mild intoxication is reported and the literature reviewed. Images p336-a PMID:9785165

Field, J

1998-01-01

2

[Puffer fish poisoning].  

PubMed

We report three cases of a collective tetrodotoxin poisoning, after ingestion of puffer fish eggs. This neurotoxin is the most potent membrane stabilizer, blocking the nervous conduction and resulting in death from respiratory paralysis in case of massive ingestion. The father died at admission, the mother and her daughter presented an acute respiratory failure and a flaccid tetraplegia, with favourable outcome after 24 hours. PMID:10782242

Ababou, A; Mosadik, A; Squali, J; Fikri, K O; Lazreq, C; Sbihi, A

2000-03-01

3

A Case Report of Puffer Fish Poisoning in Singapore  

PubMed Central

Although many Asians regard puffer fish as a delicacy since ancient times, puffer fish (Lageocephalus scitalleratus) is also a well-known source of possibly lethal food poisoning. The fish is gaining popularity in Singapore and can be found in quite a few restaurants now. Puffer fish contains tetrodotoxin (TTX), a potent poison affecting the neural pathway. Puffer fish poisoning may cause a constellation of symptoms, such as giddiness, numbness and tingling sensation of the mouth, paresthesia, and muscle weakness. Severe cases may present with respiratory depression, circulatory failure, and death. TTX poisonings have been reported in Japan, Taiwan, Hong Kong, Bangladesh, and the United States (Haque et al. 2008). We report a case of mild poisoning and suggest observation for such cases. PMID:24368916

Yong, Y. S.; Quek, L. S.; Lim, E. K.; Ngo, A.

2013-01-01

4

Puffer fish  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Puffer fish can move easily through the water, but they are normally very slow. They can inflate themselves to a spherical shape to appear larger and more threatening to a potential predator. The spikes of the fish also help in allowing it to escape a predatory attack.

Ibrahim Iujaz (None; )

2007-06-08

5

Tetrodotoxin poisoning outbreak from imported dried puffer fish--Minneapolis, Minnesota, 2014.  

PubMed

On June 13, 2014, two patients went to the Hennepin County Medical Center Emergency Department in Minneapolis, Minnesota, with symptoms suggestive of tetrodotoxin poisoning (i.e., oral paresthesias, weakness, and dyspnea) after consuming dried puffer fish (also known as globefish) purchased during a recent visit to New York City. The patients said two friends who consumed the same fish had similar, although less pronounced, symptoms and had not sought care. The Minnesota Department of Health conducted an investigation to determine the source of the product and samples were sent to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition for chemical and genetic analysis. Genetic analysis identified the product as puffer fish (Lagocephalus lunaris) and chemical analysis determined it was contaminated with high levels of tetrodotoxin. A traceback investigation was unable to determine the original source of the product. Tetrodotoxin is a deadly, potent poison; the minimum lethal dose in an adult human is estimated to be 2-3 mg. Tetrodotoxin is a heat-stable and acid-stable, nonprotein, alkaloid toxin found in many species of the fish family Tetraodontidae (puffer fish) as well as in certain gobies, amphibians, invertebrates, and the blue-ringed octopus. Tetrodotoxin exerts its effects by blocking voltage-activated sodium channels, terminating nerve conduction and muscle action potentials, leading to progressive paralysis and, in extreme cases, to death from respiratory failure. Because these fish were reportedly purchased in the United States, they pose a substantial U.S. public health hazard given the potency of the toxin and the high levels of toxin found in the fish. PMID:25551594

Cole, Jon B; Heegaard, William G; Deeds, Jonathan R; McGrath, Sara C; Handy, Sara M

2015-01-01

6

Toxicity of Cultured Bullseye Puffer Fish Sphoeroides annulatus  

PubMed Central

The toxin content in various life cycle stages of tank-cultivated bullseye puffer (Sphoeroides annulatus) were analyzed by mouse bioassay and ESI-MS spectrometry analysis. The presence of toxin content was determined in extracts of sperm, eggs, embryo, larvae, post-larvae, juvenile, pre-adult, and adult fish, as well as in food items used during the cultivation of the species. Our findings show that only the muscle of juveniles, the viscera of pre-adults, and muscle, liver, and gonad of adult specimens were slightly toxic (<1 mouse unit). Thus, cultivated S. annulatus, as occurs with other cultivated puffer fish species, does not represent a food safety risk to consumers. This is the first report of toxin analysis covering the complete life stages of a puffer fish under controlled conditions. PMID:22412804

Nuñez-Vazquez, Erick J.; Garcia-Ortega, Armando; Campa-Cordova, Angel I.; de la Parra, Isabel Abdo; Ibarra-Martinez, Lilia; Heredia-Tapia, Alejandra; Ochoa, Jose L.

2012-01-01

7

Effects of Crude Oil and Dispersed Crude Oil on the Critical Swimming Speed of Puffer Fish, Takifugu rubripes.  

PubMed

In order to examine the effects of crude oil and dispersed crude oil (DCO) on the swimming ability of puffer fish, Takifugu rubripes, the critical swimming speeds (U crit) of fish exposed to different concentrations of water-soluble fraction (WSF) of crude oil and DCO solution were determined in a swimming flume. WSF and DCO significantly affected the U crit of puffer fish (p < 0.05). The U crit of puffer fish exposed to 136 mg L(-1) WSF and 56.4 mg L(-1) DCO decreased 48.7 % and 43.4 %, respectively. DCO was more toxic to puffer fish than WSF. These results suggested that crude oil and chemically dispersed oil could weaken the swimming ability of puffer fish. PMID:25733446

Yu, Xiaoming; Xu, Chuancai; Liu, Haiying; Xing, Binbin; Chen, Lei; Zhang, Guosheng

2015-05-01

8

[Seafood poisonings. Part II. Fish poisonings].  

PubMed

Fish plays a significant role in human life, mainly as part of a balanced healthy diet and a good source of many of nutrients. However, contact with fish may be harmful or even life-threatening to man. Toxic effects, that fish exerts toward men (ichthyotoxism), result from envenomations by poison. ous fish equipped in venom apparatus (ichthyoacanthotoxism), direct contact with venom produced by skin glandules (ichthyocrinotoxism), or consuming fish containing toxins for nutritional purposes (ichthyosarcotoxism). In the present review, different fish-borne food poisonings are presented including their etiology, pathogenesis, symptomatology and treatment. In fact, the majority of fish poisonings are intoxications with toxins primary produced by bacteria, cyanobacteria and algae. These are consumed and accumulated in the food chain by herbivorous and predatory fish, that in turn may be a cause of poisonings in humans. PMID:23243919

Ciszowski, Krzysztof; Mietka-Ciszowska, Aneta

2012-01-01

9

A Tetrodotoxin-Producing Vibrio Strain, LM1, from the Puffer Fish Fugu vermicularis radiatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

identified as members of the genus Vibrio (21). Also, Simidu et al. (29) demonstrated that many species of marine bacteria, including Vibrio spp. (21), Pseudomonas spp. (33), and actino- mycetes (1), produce TTX. Three individual F. vermicularis radiatus puffer fish (male; body weight, 45 g) were collected at Pusan, Korea, in March 1998, transported live to the laboratory, and maintained

MYOUNG-JA LEE; DONG-YOUN JEONG; WOO-SEONG KIM; HYUN-DAE KIM; CHEORL-HO KIM; WON-WHAN PARK; YONG-HA PARK; KYUNG-SAM KIM; HYUNG-MIN KIM; DONG-SOO KIM

2000-01-01

10

Toxic Marine Puffer Fish in Thailand Seas and Tetrodotoxin They Contained  

PubMed Central

A total of 155 puffers caught from two of Thailand’s seas, the Gulf of Siam and the Andaman seas, during April to July 2010 were included in this study. Among 125 puffers from the Gulf of Siam, 18 were Lagocephalus lunaris and 107 were L. spadiceus which were the same two species found previously in 2000-2001. Thirty puffers were collected from the Andaman seas, 28 Tetraodon nigroviridis and two juvenile Arothron reticularis; the two new species totally replaced the nine species found previously in 1992-1993. Conventional mouse bioassay was used to determine the toxicity in all fish tissue extracts, i.e., liver, reproductive tissue, digestive tissue and muscle. One of each of the species L. lunaris and L. spadiceus (5.56 and 0.93%, respectively) were toxic. All 28 T. nigroviridis and 2 A. reticularis (100%) from the Andaman seas were toxic. The toxicity scores in T. nigroviridis tissues were much higher than in the respective tissues of the other three fish species. Liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) revealed that the main toxic principle was tetrodotoxin (TTX). This study is the first to report TTX in L. spadiceus. Our findings raised a concern for people, not only Thais but also inhabitants of other countries situated on the Andaman coast; consuming puffers of the Andaman seas is risky due to potential TTX intoxication. PMID:22069694

Chulanetra, Monrat; Sookrung, Nitat; Srimanote, Potjanee; Indrawattana, Nitaya; Thanongsaksrikul, Jeeraphong; Sakolvaree, Yuwaporn; Chongsa-Nguan, Manas; Kurazono, Hisao; Chaicumpa, Wanpen

2011-01-01

11

Distribution of tetrodotoxin, saxitoxin, and their analogs among tissues of the puffer fish Fugu pardalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The anatomical distribution of tetrodotoxin (TTX), saxitoxin (STX) and their analogs (TTXs, STXs) in three female and three male specimens of the marine puffer fish Fugu pardalis from Miyagi Prefecture, 2005, Japan, were studied. 5-DeoxyTTX, 11-deoxyTTX, and 5,6,11-trideoxyTTX were quantified by liquid chromatography\\/mass spectrometry (LC\\/MS) for the first time, and other TTXs and STXs were determined by liquid chromatography-fluorescent detection

Junho Jang; Mari Yotsu-Yamashita

2006-01-01

12

Poisoning - fish and shellfish  

MedlinePLUS

... blooming in the ocean, such as during “"red tide." A red tide occurs when there is a rapid increase in ... poisonings also increases when there is a "red tide." Shellfish poisoning occurs in seafood with two shells ...

13

An overview of the marine food poisoning in Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the course of the last decade, huge events related to harmful algal blooms (HAB) have severely affected the environment in Mexico, even causing several human casualties. The tally of the toxins known up to date in Mexican waters includes: neurotoxin shellfish poisoning (NSP), paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP), amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP), tetrodotoxin (TTX) or puffer fish poisoning, ciguatera fish

A. P Sierra-Beltrán; A Cruz; E Núñez; L. M Del Villar; J Cerecero; J. L Ochoa

1998-01-01

14

Determination of tetrodotoxin in puffer-fish by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

A simple and reliable method using liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS) for the determination of tetrodotoxin in the puffer-fish has been developed. The LC separation was performed on a Shodex RSpak NN-414 column (15 cm x 4.6 mm id) using 20 mM ammonium acetate-methanol (75 + 25) as the mobile phase at a flow rate of 0.5 ml min(-1). The positive ionization produced the typical [M + H]+ molecular ion of tetrodotoxin (m/z 320). The calibration graph for tetrodotoxin was rectilinear from 0.01 to 1 microg ml(-1) with selected ion monitoring (SIM). Tetrodotoxin was extracted with 0.1% acetic acid by heating in a boiling water-bath and the extracts were cleaned up on a Bond Elut C18 (500 mg) cartridge. The recoveries of the tetrodotoxin from the puffer-fish fortified at 1 microg g(-1) were 77.7-80.7% and the detection limit was 0.1 microg g(-1) (equivalent to ca. 0.5 mouse units per gram). PMID:12146907

Horie, Masakazu; Kobayashi, Susumu; Shimizu, Naoto; Nakazawa, Hiroyuki

2002-06-01

15

Species Discrimination among Three Kinds of Puffer Fish Using an Electronic Nose Combined with Olfactory Sensory Evaluation  

PubMed Central

Species discrimination among three kinds of puffer fish, Takifugu obscurus, Takifugu flavidus and Takifugu rubripes, was conducted using an electronic nose combined with olfactory sensory evaluation. All data were treated by multivariate data processing based on principal component analysis (PCA) and discriminant factor analysis (DFA). The results showed the discriminant model by PCA method and DFA method. Using PCA and DFA, it was shown that the electronic nose was able to reasonably distinguish between each of the eleven puffer fish groups, with a discrimination index of 85. The olfactory sensory evaluation was undertaken in accordance to Sensory analysis—Methodology—Initiation and training of assessors in the detection and recognition of odors (BS ISO 5496-2006), and the results showed that the evaluation was able to identify puffer fish samples according to their species, geographical origin and age. Results from this analysis demonstrate that the E-nose can be used to complement the discrimination of odors by sensory evaluation from the three species of puffer fish studied here. PMID:23112731

Zhang, Meixiu; Wang, Xichang; Liu, Yuan; Xu, Xinglian; Zhou, Guanghong

2012-01-01

16

Inclusion of blue mussel extract in diets based on fish and soybean meals for tiger puffer Takifugu rubripes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inclusion of the water-soluble fraction of blue mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis as a feed additive was examined with tiger puffer Takifugu rupbripes. The control diet mainly consisted of fish meal, potato starch, and pollack liver oil. Experimental diets were formulated\\u000a to replace 30% and 40% of the fish meal protein with defatted soybean meal (SBM), and were supplemented with 0–20% mussel

Kotaro Kikuchi; Takeshi Furuta

2009-01-01

17

Universal spectrum for DNA base CG frequency distribution in Takifugu rubripes (Puffer fish) genome  

E-print Network

The frequency distribution of DNA bases A, C, G, T exhibit fractal fluctuations ubiquitous to dynamical systems in nature. The power spectra of fractal fluctuations exhibit inverse power law form signifying long-range correlations between local (small-scale) and global (large-scale) perturbations. The author has developed a general systems theory based on classical statistical physics for fractal fluctuations which predicts that the probability distribution of eddy amplitudes and the variance (square of eddy amplitude)spectrum of fractal fluctuations follow the universal Boltzmann inverse power law expressed as a function of the golden mean. The model predicted distribution is very close to statistical normal distribution for fluctuations within two standard deviations from the mean and exhibits a fat long tail. In this paper it is shown that DNA base CG frequency distribution in Takifugu rubripes (Puffer fish) Genome Release 4 exhibit universal inverse power law form consistent with model prediction. The observed long-range correlations in the DNA bases implies that the non-coding 'junk' or 'selfish' DNA which appear to be redundant, may also contribute to the efficient functioning of the protein coding DNA, a result supported by recent studies.

A. M. Selvam

2011-03-04

18

Sodium and Potassium Distribution in Puffer Fish Supramedullary Nerve Cell Bodies  

PubMed Central

The Na and K concentration in single supramedullary neurons of the puffer fish (Spheroides maculatus) was measured using a dual channel integrating ultramicroflame photometer. The cells were frozen in situ, sectioned at low temperatures, and freeze-dried to prevent artefactual movements of cations. The density of the nuclear fragments was 0.15, significantly less than cytoplasm's 0.21. The sucrose-14C "space" was 2.1–4.7% in cytoplasm fragments and 0.9–2.1% in nuclear fragments. The K concentration in cytoplasm averaged 134 mmoles/liter tissue volume and in nuclei, 113. The Na concentration in cytoplasm fragments varied between 56 and 138 mmoles/liter per tissue volume; in nuclei between 40 and 135, and in perineural tissue between 55 and 114. This intracellular Na is several times greater than the Na concentration expected from previous estimates. It is probable, however, that the intracellular Na activity is less than half that of the Na concentration, suggesting that much of the intracellular Na is bound to organic molecules within the cell. PMID:5796370

Katzman, Robert; Lehrer, Gerard M.; Wilson, Clarence E.

1969-01-01

19

Tropical fish poisoning in temperate climates: food poisoning from ciguatera toxin presenting in Avonmouth.  

PubMed

Ciguatera toxin causes a range of gastrointestinal, cardiovascular and neurological symptoms that occur within 1-6 h of ingesting fish with the toxin and can last for days, months or years. It is a well-recognized problem in the tropics. Avon Health Protection Team investigated food poisoning on a ship at Avonmouth, which was thought by the crew to be related to a white snapper fish from the Caribbean. The symptoms were initially thought to be scombroid fish poisoning but were consistent with ciguatera fish poisoning. Cases of fish poisoning from fish imported from the Caribbean and Pacific or travellers returning from tropical countries may be ciguatera fish poisoning, but mistakenly diagnosed as scombroid fish poisoning. PMID:17052991

Kipping, Ruth; Eastcott, Howard; Sarangi, Joyshri

2006-12-01

20

Saxitoxin as a toxic principle of a freshwater puffer, Tetraodon fangi, in Thailand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Saxitoxin was identified in a freshwater puffer, Tetraodon fangi, which caused food poisoning in Thailand. Tetrodotoxin, a puffer toxin, was not detected in the species by the HPLC-fluorometric analysis, showing that tetrodotoxin is absent or under any detectable level. The result of this study shows that saxitoxin can be a major toxin in puffer.

Shigeru Sato; Masaaki Kodama; Takehiko Ogata; Kriengsag Saitanu; Mami Furuya; Kazuo Hirayama; Katsumi Kakinuma

1997-01-01

21

Food Poisonings by Ingestion of Cyprinid Fish  

PubMed Central

Raw or dried gallbladders of cyprinid fish have long been ingested as a traditional medicine in the Asian countries, particularly in China, for ameliorating visual acuity, rheumatism, and general health; however, sporadic poisoning incidences have occurred after their ingestion. The poisoning causes complex symptoms in patients, including acute renal failure, liver dysfunction, paralysis, and convulsions of limbs. The causative substance for the poisoning was isolated, and its basic properties were examined. The purified toxin revealed a minimum lethal dose of 2.6 mg/20 g in mouse, when injected intraperitoneally. The main symptoms were paralysis and convulsions of the hind legs, along with other neurological signs. Liver biopsy of the euthanized mice clearly exhibited hepatocytes necrosis and infiltration of neutrophils and lymphocytes, suggesting the acute dysfunction of the liver. Blood tests disclosed the characteristics of acute renal failure and liver injury. Infrared (IR) spectrometry, fast atom bombardment (FAB) mass spectrometry, and 1H- and 13C-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis indicated, a molecular formula of C27H48O8S, containing a sulfate ester group for the toxin. Thus, we concluded that the structure of carp toxin to be 5?-cyprinol sulfate (5?-cholestane-3?, 7?, 12?, 26, 27-pentol 26-sulfate). This indicated that carp toxin is a nephro- and hepato- toxin, which could be the responsible toxin for carp bile poisoning in humans. PMID:24476713

Asakawa, Manabu; Noguchi, Tamao

2014-01-01

22

Bad Fish, Bad Bird Neurotoxin Poisoning from Fish and Fowl  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This "clicker case" is based on the General Biology edition of James Hewlett’s “Bad Fish” case in our collection. The case follows the story of biologist Dr. Westwood, who is accidentally poisoned, first while traveling in Asia and then in the South Pacific. Students learn about Dr. Westwood’s experiences and about nerve cell physiology—focusing especially on the role of ion channels in maintaining and changing electrical gradients across the cell membrane (resting potential and action potentials). They then apply what they learn in each part of the case to determine the mechanism of neurotoxin poisonings described in the case. The case is presented in class via PowerPoint (~2MB).  Students use personal response systems, or “clickers,” to answer the multiple-choice questions that punctuate the PowerPoint presentation as they explore the underlying mechanism of Dr. Westwood’s poisoning.

Kristina Hannam

2010-01-01

23

Scombroid fish poisoning after eating seared tuna.  

PubMed

Food safety is an increasing concern to Americans. Recent recalls of peanuts and pistachios, and Food and Drug Administration (FDA) warnings to pregnant women to avoid eating fish have increased government oversight of food processing and handling. Consumers can play an important role in alerting their healthcare providers to food-related illness. Vigilant healthcare providers can notify public health officials to investigate a suspected foodborne illness. The authors present a case of a healthy postdoctoral fellow who developed symptoms of scombroid fish poisoning immediately after consuming a salad containing seared tuna. The successful diagnosis of this case occurred because the patient, physician, city health department and FDA lab collaborated in a coordinated fashion. PMID:20224510

Codori, Nancy; Marinopoulos, Spyridon

2010-04-01

24

Isolation and identification of flavour peptides from Puffer fish (Takifugu obscurus) muscle using an electronic tongue and MALDI-TOF/TOF MS/MS.  

PubMed

To clarify the key flavour peptides that account for the cooked taste of puffer fish, this study was performed to examine flavour peptides extracted from the flesh of puffer fish (Takifugu obscurus). Peptides fractions (P1, P2, P3, P4 and P5) were purified from an aqueous extract of T. obscurus muscle by ultrafiltration and Sephadex G-15 gel filtration chromatography (GFC). P2 was further fractionated into P2a, P2b, and P2c by reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). Fraction P2b elicited umami and sweet taste. The amino acid sequence of P2b subfraction was identified as Tyr-Gly-Gly-Thr-Pro-Pro-Phe-Val (836.4Da) by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF MS/MS). Hydrophilic amino acids residues Tyr, Gly, Gly, Thr, and Phe are likely to contribute to the umami and sweet taste of this octapeptide. The results of this study suggest this peptide is one of important components of the 'mellowness' and 'tenderness' taste of the T. obscurus. PMID:22953881

Zhang, Mei-Xiu; Wang, Xi-Chang; Liu, Yuan; Xu, Xing-Lian; Zhou, Guang-Hong

2012-12-01

25

THE RELATIONSHIP OF MALATHION AND ITS METABOLITES TO FISH POISONING  

EPA Science Inventory

This study investigated the relation of short-term measurability of malathion and some of its metabolites in fish to poisoning of fish in the laboratory. Data indicated analysis for malathion monoacid in gut and measurement of brain acetylcholinesterase activity in fish from the ...

26

JAMA Patient Page: Ciguatera Fish Poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... known for centuries. Fish eat the toxin-containing algae, and as larger fish eat smaller fish, the ... July 2011 affected 28 people. Ciguatera toxin–producing algae may be increasing because of warmer sea temperatures. ...

27

Occurrence of a methyl derivative of saxitoxin in Bangladeshi freshwater puffers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new component of paralytic shellfish poison was isolated from a Bangladeshi freshwater puffer Tetraodon cutcutia. Its structure was deduced to be carbamoyl-N-methylsaxitoxin based on electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, [1H] NMR, and conversion experiments.

Lubna Zaman; Osamu Arakawa; Ako Shimosu; Yasuo Shida; Yoshio Onoue

1998-01-01

28

Ciguatera fish poisoning in the Caribbean islands and Western Atlantic.  

PubMed

Ciguatera fish poisoning (ciguatera), a common poisoning caused by fish ingestion, is reviewed in the Western Atlantic and the Caribbean waters. It is endemic from Florida coasts (northern limit) to Martinique Island (southern limit), with outbreaks occurring from time to time. In the Caribbean, ciguatera causes a polymorphic syndrome with gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, and neurological signs and symptoms. Neurological and muscular dysfunctions can be treated by intravenous injection of D-mannitol. The lipid-soluble toxins involved are ciguatoxins that are likely produced by the dinoflagellate Gambierdiscus toxicus. G. toxicus strains are endemic in the Caribbean Sea and in theWestern Atlantic. Although it is likely that blooms of G. toxicus are ingested by herbivorous fishes, they are not implicated in ciguatera in the Caribbean. Rather, large carnivores (barracudas, jacks, snappers, groupers), consumers of smaller benthic fish, are often involved in ciguatera. Fish toxicity depends on fishing area and depth, fish size and tissues, and climatic disturbances. Ciguatoxins have been isolated and purified from Caribbean fish species. The structure of two epimers, C-CTX-1 and C-CTX-2 from horse-eye jack, comprise 14 trans-fused ether-linked rings and a hemiketal in terminal ring. Caribbean ciguatoxins are mainly detected in the laboratory by chicken, mouse, mosquito, or cell bioassays, and by analytical HPLC/tandem mass spectrometry down to parts per billion (ppb). A ciguatera management plan that integrates epidemiology, treatment, and a simple method of detection is required to ensure the protection of consumers. PMID:12882228

Pottier, I; Vernoux, J P; Lewis, R J

2001-01-01

29

Histamine fish poisoning in Australia, 2001 to 2013.  

PubMed

We report on human illness due to histamine fish poisoning outbreaks in Australia from 2001 to 2013. Histamine fish poisoning results from the ingestion of histamine contained within the flesh of certain fish species that naturally contain histidine, which has been converted to histamine by spoilage bacteria following poor handling or temperature control after harvesting. While symptoms vary, allergic symptoms such as facial flushing, headaches and rashes are frequently reported. Using the OzFoodNet outbreak register, published case reports and surveillance reports, we found data on 57 outbreaks of histamine fish poisoning, which affected 187 people, of whom 14% were hospitalised. There were no deaths reported. Outbreaks were generally small in size, with a median of 2 cases per outbreak (range 1 to 22 people), with 88% of outbreaks comprising less than 5 people. Tuna (in the family Scombridae) was the most frequently reported food vehicle, while 18 outbreaks involved non-scombridae fish. Median incubation periods among the outbreaks were short; being less than 1 hour for 22 outbreaks. The most frequently reported symptoms were diarrhoea and rash. Symptoms of facial/body flushing were reported for at least one case in 19 outbreaks and tingling, burning or swelling of the skin, especially around the lips for at least 1 case in 13 outbreaks. In 3 outbreaks, one or more cases were reported to have had respiratory distress or difficulty breathing. While the condition is often mild, improved recognition and appropriate treatment is important, as it will reduce the possibility of any severe health effects resulting from this condition. Key features of histamine fish poisoning outbreaks are the high attack rate, rapid onset, the typical symptoms and their short duration. Commun Dis Intell 2014;38(4):E285-E293. PMID:25631589

Knope, Katrina; Sloan-Gardner, Timothy S; Stafford, Russell J

2014-01-01

30

Ciguatera fish poisoning in Hawai'i and the Pacific.  

PubMed

Ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) is a foodborne illness caused by fish containing ciguatoxin (CTX). The toxin is produced by the microalgae Gambierdiscus spp. which are then eaten by reef fish; humans contract the illness when eating either fish that have eaten the algae, or carnivorous fish that have eaten those fish. CTX is an odorless, tasteless, and colorless neurotoxin that blocks voltage-sensitive Na(+) channels and accumulates in many tissues of the fish, especially the viscera. The illness is typically mild to moderate in severity with gastrointestinal (diarrhea, cramping, nausea, vomiting) and neurological (paraesthesias, cold allodynia, fatigue, pruritis) manifestations. Rarely, the disease can be more severe with significant neuropathic or cardiac effects such as bradycardia and hypotension. Endemic to Hawai'i and islands throughout the Caribbean and Pacific, CFP incidence rates range from several to thousands of cases per 100,000 per year. Since fishing is important for local food supply, exportation, and recreation throughout the Pacific, CFP is medically and economically significant in these areas. We present a case of CFP from Hawai'i to illustrate the disease, demonstrating that the diagnosis is primarily clinical, with confirmatory tests from fish samples available in some cases. Treatment is supportive and symptomatic with no disease specific remedy. The prognosis for most cases is good with a short duration of self-limited symptoms, but for some cases neurological sequelae can become chronic. With no effective treatment, education on which species of reef fish and which body parts to avoid eating is essential in the prevention of CFP. PMID:25478299

Copeland, Nathanial K; Palmer, Wyatt R; Bienfang, Paul K

2014-11-01

31

Ciguatera Fish Poisoning in Hawai‘i and the Pacific  

PubMed Central

Ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) is a foodborne illness caused by fish containing ciguatoxin (CTX). The toxin is produced by the microalgae Gambierdiscus spp. which are then eaten by reef fish; humans contract the illness when eating either fish that have eaten the algae, or carnivorous fish that have eaten those fish. CTX is an odorless, tasteless, and colorless neurotoxin that blocks voltage-sensitive Na+ channels and accumulates in many tissues of the fish, especially the viscera. The illness is typically mild to moderate in severity with gastrointestinal (diarrhea, cramping, nausea, vomiting) and neurological (paraesthesias, cold allodynia, fatigue, pruritis) manifestations. Rarely, the disease can be more severe with significant neuropathic or cardiac effects such as bradycardia and hypotension. Endemic to Hawai‘i and islands throughout the Caribbean and Pacific, CFP incidence rates range from several to thousands of cases per 100,000 per year. Since fishing is important for local food supply, exportation, and recreation throughout the Pacific, CFP is medically and economically significant in these areas. We present a case of CFP from Hawai‘i to illustrate the disease, demonstrating that the diagnosis is primarily clinical, with confirmatory tests from fish samples available in some cases. Treatment is supportive and symptomatic with no disease specific remedy. The prognosis for most cases is good with a short duration of self-limited symptoms, but for some cases neurological sequelae can become chronic. With no effective treatment, education on which species of reef fish and which body parts to avoid eating is essential in the prevention of CFP. PMID:25478299

Palmer, Wyatt R; Bienfang, Paul K

2014-01-01

32

Histamine Poisoning from Ingestion of Fish or Scombroid Syndrome  

PubMed Central

The scombroid poisoning is due to the ingestion of poorly preserved fish (especially tuna, sardines, and mackerel) out of the cold chain. Under the influence of the proliferation of gram negative bacteria that occurs for heating, the histidine content in the muscle of the fish is converted into histamine, by the action of the enzyme histidine decarboxylase. If the histamine is ingested in large quantities, it causes an anaphylactoid reaction with a variety of symptoms from moderate to severe to life-threating. We will describe two cases that came under our observation after consuming a meal of bluefin tuna. The diagnosis of scombroid syndrome was made on the basis of the anamnestic data and the clinical one. The rapid resolution of the signs and symptoms after treatment with histamines H1-H2 receptor blockers confirmed the suspected diagnosis. PMID:25544905

Tortorella, Vincenzo; Masciari, Peppino; Pezzi, Mario; Mola, Assunta; Tiburzi, Simona Paola; Zinzi, Maria Concetta; Scozzafava, Annamaria; Verre, Mario

2014-01-01

33

Histamine poisoning from ingestion of fish or scombroid syndrome.  

PubMed

The scombroid poisoning is due to the ingestion of poorly preserved fish (especially tuna, sardines, and mackerel) out of the cold chain. Under the influence of the proliferation of gram negative bacteria that occurs for heating, the histidine content in the muscle of the fish is converted into histamine, by the action of the enzyme histidine decarboxylase. If the histamine is ingested in large quantities, it causes an anaphylactoid reaction with a variety of symptoms from moderate to severe to life-threating. We will describe two cases that came under our observation after consuming a meal of bluefin tuna. The diagnosis of scombroid syndrome was made on the basis of the anamnestic data and the clinical one. The rapid resolution of the signs and symptoms after treatment with histamines H1-H2 receptor blockers confirmed the suspected diagnosis. PMID:25544905

Tortorella, Vincenzo; Masciari, Peppino; Pezzi, Mario; Mola, Assunta; Tiburzi, Simona Paola; Zinzi, Maria Concetta; Scozzafava, Annamaria; Verre, Mario

2014-01-01

34

Histamine poisoning and control measures in fish and fishery products  

PubMed Central

Histamine poisoning is one of the most common form of intoxication caused by the ingestion of fish and fishery products. Cooking, canning, or freezing cannot reduce the levels of histamine because this compound is heat stable. All humans are susceptible to histamine and its effects can be described as intolerance or intoxication depending on the severity of the symptoms. The amount of histamine in food, the individual sensitivity, and the detoxification activity in human organism represent the main factors affecting the toxicological response in consumers. Histamine is the only biogenic amine with regulatory limits set by European Legislation, up to a maximum of 200 mg/kg in fresh fish and 400 mg/kg in fishery products treated by enzyme maturation in brine. PMID:25295035

Visciano, Pierina; Schirone, Maria; Tofalo, Rosanna; Suzzi, Giovanna

2014-01-01

35

[Imported tropical fish causes ciguatera fish poisoning in Germany].  

PubMed

Ciguatera is a seafood-borne illness caused by consumption of tropical fish contaminated with ciguatoxins, lipophilic polyethers that are produced in benthic dinoflagellates and accumulate through the marine food chain. Ciguatera cases in Europe usually occur in travellers returning from tropical and subtropical regions of the Pacific and Carribean, where ciguatera is endemic. In 2012, several cases of ciguatera occurred in Germany due to sale of contaminated fish products originating from the Indian Ocean. Although the symptomatology in these cases were typical of ciguatera, with patients reporting gastrointestinal discomfort including nausea, vomiting and diarrhea as well as neurological effects including widespread intense pruritus, paresthesias, hypothermia or altered temperature sensation and diffuse pain, correct diagnosis was delayed in all cases due to lack of awareness of the treating medical practitioners. In light of increasing global mobility, trade, and occurrence of ciguatoxic fish in previously non-endemic areas, ciguatera should be considered as a possible diagnosis if gastrointestinal and neurological symptoms occur shortly after consumption of fish. PMID:25612286

Zimmermann, Katharina; Eisenblätter, Anneka; Vetter, Irina; Ebbecke, Martin; Friedemann, Miriam; Desel, Herbert

2015-01-01

36

Rohdella amazonica n. sp. (Aspidogastrea: Aspidogastridae) from the Amazoninan banded puffer fish Colomesus psittacus (Bloch & Schneider, 1801).  

PubMed

Aspidogastreans are commonly found infecting freshwater and marine molluscs, teleosts fishes and freshwater turtles. The subclass comprises four families - Rugogastridae Schell 1973, Stichocotylidae Faust & Tang 1936, Multicalycidae Gibson & Chinabut 1984 and Aspidogastridae Poche 1907 - and it is characterized by the presence of a ventral adhesive disc divided into rows of alveoli. In the current work, using light and scanning electron microscopy and molecular approaches, a new species of Aspidogastridae of the genus Rohdella Gibson & Chinabut, 1984, is described as a parasite of Colomesus psittacus in Brazil. The new taxon is distinguishable by the presence of oesophageal glands, teguments covered by ciliated papillae, and the position and shape of the hermaphroditic duct. The present work describes the third species of the genus Rohdella, thereby adding new morphological and molecular data regarding Aspidogastridae. PMID:24572176

Giese, E G; Silva, M V O; Videira, M N; Furtado, A P; Matos, E R; Gonçalves, E C; Melo, F T V; Santos, J N

2015-05-01

37

Behavioral thermoregulation, temperature tolerance and oxygen consumption in the Mexican bullseye puffer fish, Sphoeroides annulatus Jenyns (1842), acclimated to different temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

An inverse and unusual relationship was found between preferred temperature and acclimation temperature in the bullseye puffer, Sphoeroides annulatus. The final preferendum temperature (PT) was 26.8°C. The critical thermal maxima (CTMax) were 37.7, 38.8, 40.0, 40.8 and 41.3°C where the temperatures of acclimation were 19, 22, 25, 28 and 31°C±1°C, respectively, and the endpoint of CTMax was loss of the

Izbelt Reyes; Fernando Díaz; Ana Denisse Re; Javier Pérez

2011-01-01

38

Development of competitive indirect ELISA for the detection of tetrodotoxin and a survey of the distribution of tetrodotoxin in the tissues of wild puffer fish in the waters of south-east China.  

PubMed

A monoclonal antibody against tetrodotoxin (TTX) was produced from the hybridoma cell line T6D9, which was established by the fusion of Sp2/0 myeloma cells with spleen cells isolated from a Balb/c mouse immunized with the TTX-keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) conjugate. This monoclonal antibody belongs to the IgG1 subclass; the affinity constant of the antibody is 2.4 × 10(-8) mol l(-1). The relative cross-reactivity of the antibody with TTX was 100%, but with saxitoxin, KLH and bovine serum albumin (BSA) it was less than 1%, respectively. The titre of the antibody in ascites was 6.4 × 10(6); the reference working concentration was 1:1.2 × 10(5). By using this monoclonal antibody, a competitive indirect enzyme-linked immunoabsorbant assay (ELISA) for the analysis of TTX was developed. The linear portion of the dose-response curve of TTX concentration was in range 5-500 ng ml(-1). The limit of detection was 5 ng ml(-1) according 10% inhibition with TTX to anti-TTX monoclonal antibody. The concentration of TTX inhibiting 50% of antibody binding was about 50 ng ml(-1). The recoveries from TTX spiked samples were 79.5-109.5%. In addition, the toxicity of some wild puffer fish specimens captured from south-east China and the Yangzi River in Jiangsu province was determined. The results indicate that the toxicity and toxin tissue distribution vary in different species of wild puffer fish. PMID:20730645

Tao, J; Wei, W J; Nan, L; Lei, L H; Hui, H C; Fen, G X; Jun, L Y; Jing, Z; Rong, J

2010-11-01

39

Binding Properties of 3H-PbTx-3 and 3H-Saxitoxin to Brain Membranes and to Skeletal Muscle Membranes of Puffer Fish Fugu pardalis and the Primary Structure of a Voltage-Gated Na + Channel ?-Subunit (fMNa1) from Skeletal Muscle of F. pardalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dissociation constants for 3H-saxitoxin to brain membranes and to skeletal muscle membranes of puffer fish Fugu pardalis have been estimated to be 190- and 460-fold, respectively, larger than those to corresponding membranes of rat, by a rapid filtration assay, while these values for 3H-PbTx-3 have been estimated to be one-third and one-half of those to rat, respectively. We have

Mari Yotsu-Yamashita; Katsuhiko Nishimori; Yoko Nitanai; Masako Isemura; Atsuko Sugimoto; Takeshi Yasumoto

2000-01-01

40

Ciguatera Fish Poisoning in the Pacific Islands (1998 to 2008)  

PubMed Central

Background Ciguatera is a type of fish poisoning that occurs throughout the tropics, particularly in vulnerable island communities such as the developing Pacific Island Countries and Territories (PICTs). After consuming ciguatoxin-contaminated fish, people report a range of acute neurologic, gastrointestinal, and cardiac symptoms, with some experiencing chronic neurologic symptoms lasting weeks to months. Unfortunately, the true extent of illness and its impact on human communities and ecosystem health are still poorly understood. Methods A questionnaire was emailed to the Health and Fisheries Authorities of the PICTs to quantify the extent of ciguatera. The data were analyzed using t-test, incidence rate ratios, ranked correlation, and regression analysis. Results There were 39,677 reported cases from 17 PICTs, with a mean annual incidence of 194 cases per 100,000 people across the region from 1998–2008 compared to the reported annual incidence of 104/100,000 from 1973–1983. There has been a 60% increase in the annual incidence of ciguatera between the two time periods based on PICTs that reported for both time periods. Taking into account under-reporting, in the last 35 years an estimated 500,000 Pacific islanders might have suffered from ciguatera. Conclusions This level of incidence exceeds prior ciguatera estimates locally and globally, and raises the status of ciguatera to an acute and chronic illness with major public health significance. To address this significant public health problem, which is expected to increase in parallel with environmental change, well-funded multidisciplinary research teams are needed to translate research advances into practical management solutions. PMID:22180797

Skinner, Mark P.; Brewer, Tom D.; Johnstone, Ron; Fleming, Lora E.; Lewis, Richard J.

2011-01-01

41

Ciguatera Fish Poisoning and Climate Change: Analysis of National Poison Center Data in the United States, 2001–2011  

PubMed Central

Background: Warm sea surface temperatures (SSTs) are positively related to incidence of ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP). Increased severe storm frequency may create more habitat for ciguatoxic organisms. Although climate change could expand the endemic range of CFP, the relationship between CFP incidence and specific environmental conditions is unknown. Objectives: We estimated associations between monthly CFP incidence in the contiguous United States and SST and storm frequency in the Caribbean basin. Methods: We obtained information on 1,102 CFP-related calls to U.S. poison control centers during 2001–2011 from the National Poison Data System. We performed a time-series analysis using Poisson regression to relate monthly CFP call incidence to SST and tropical storms. We investigated associations across a range of plausible lag structures. Results: Results showed associations between monthly CFP calls and both warmer SSTs and increased tropical storm frequency. The SST variable with the strongest association linked current monthly CFP calls to the peak August SST of the previous year. The lag period with the strongest association for storms was 18 months. If climate change increases SST in the Caribbean 2.5–3.5°C over the coming century as projected, this model implies that CFP incidence in the United States is likely to increase 200–400%. Conclusions: Using CFP calls as a marker of CFP incidence, these results clarify associations between climate variability and CFP incidence and suggest that, all other things equal, climate change could increase the burden of CFP. These findings have implications for disease prediction, surveillance, and public health preparedness for climate change. Citation: Gingold DB, Strickland MJ, Hess JJ. 2014. Ciguatera fish poisoning and climate change: analysis of National Poison Center data in the United States, 2001–2011. Environ Health Perspect 122:580–586;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307196 PMID:24618280

Strickland, Matthew J.; Hess, Jeremy J.

2014-01-01

42

Poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... been swallowed, DO NOT give the person activated charcoal. DO NOT give children ipecac syrup. DO NOT ... poison from being absorbed, you may receive: Activated charcoal A tube through the nose into the stomach ...

43

Removal of Toxin (Tetrodotoxin) from Puffer Ovary by Traditional Fermentation  

PubMed Central

The amounts of puffer toxin (tetrodotoxin, TTX) extracted from the fresh and the traditional Japanese salted and fermented “Nukazuke” and “Kasuzuke” ovaries of Takifugu stictonotus (T. stictonotus) were quantitatively analyzed in the voltage-dependent sodium current (INa) recorded from mechanically dissociated single rat hippocampal CA1 neurons. The amount of TTX contained in “Nukazuke” and “Kasuzuke” ovaries decreased to 1/50–1/90 times of that of fresh ovary during a salted and successive fermented period over a few years. The final toxin concentration after fermentation was almost close to the TTX level extracted from T. Rubripes” fresh muscle that is normally eaten. It was concluded that the fermented “Nukazuke” and “Kasuzuke” ovaries of puffer fish T. Stictonotus are safe and harmless as food. PMID:23334671

Anraku, Kensaku; Nonaka, Kiku; Yamaga, Toshitaka; Yamamoto, Takatoshi; Shin, Min-Chul; Wakita, Masahito; Hamamoto, Ayaka; Akaike, Norio

2013-01-01

44

Preventing fishing-sinker-induced lead poisoning of common loons through Canadian policy and regulative reform  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ingestion of fishing-weights causes lead toxicosis in waterbirds. An estimated average of 125 to 187 million lead sinkers are deposited in Canadian waters annually, with about half in Ontario. Of 215 dead common loons (Gavia immer) collected in Canadian waters, 23% died of lead poisoning; most specimens were from Ontario. Results of a questionnaire circulated to principal interest groups and

Merilyn P. Twiss; Vernon G. Thomas

1998-01-01

45

Occurrence of saxitoxins as a major toxin in the ovary of a marine puffer Arothron firmamentum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eleven male and 14 female specimens of a marine puffer Arothron firmamentum were collected from Oita and Iwate Prefectures, Japan. The toxicity assay using mouse showed that only ovary and skin of the female specimens were toxic, the toxicity scores being 5–740 as paralytic shellfish poison and <5–30MU\\/g as tetrodotoxin (TTX), respectively. The toxin extracts from the both tissues were

Kazuhito Nakashima; Osamu Arakawa; Shigeto Taniyama; Mamoru Nonaka; Tomohiro Takatani; Kunio Yamamori; Yuichi Fuchi; Tamao Noguchi

2004-01-01

46

Epidemiology and Clinical Features of Ciguatera Fish Poisoning in Hong Kong  

PubMed Central

In the present review, the main objective was to describe the epidemiology and clinical features of ciguatera fish poisoning in Hong Kong. From 1989 to 2008, the annual incidence of ciguatera varied between 3.3 and 64.9 (median 10.2) per million people. The groupers have replaced the snappers as the most important cause of ciguatera. Pacific-ciguatoxins (CTX) are most commonly present in reef fish samples implicated in ciguatera outbreaks. In affected subjects, the gastrointestinal symptoms often subside within days, whereas the neurological symptoms can persist for weeks or even months. Bradycardia and hypotension, which can be life-threatening, are common. Treatment of ciguatera is primarily supportive and symptomatic. Intravenous mannitol (1 g/kg) has also been suggested. To prevent ciguatera outbreaks, the public should be educated to avoid eating large coral reef fishes, especially the CTX-rich parts. A Code of Practice on Import and Sale of Live Marine Fish for Human Consumption for Prevention and Control of Ciguatera Fish Poisoning was introduced from 2004 to 2013. The Food Safety Ordinance with a tracing mechanism came into full effect in February 2012. The Government would be able to trace the sources of the fishes more effectively and take prompt action when dealing with ciguatera incidents. PMID:25333356

Chan, Thomas Y. K.

2014-01-01

47

Tetrodotoxin poisoning caused by Goby fish consumption in southeast China: a retrospective case series analysis  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: To investigate an unusual outbreak of tetrodotoxin poisoning in Leizhou, southeast China, a case series analysis was conducted to identify the source of illness. METHODS: A total of 22 individuals experienced symptoms of poisoning, including tongue numbness, dizziness, nausea and limb numbness and weakness. Two toxic species, Amoya caninus and Yongeichthys nebulosus, were morphologically identified from the batches of gobies consumed by the patients. Tetrodotoxin levels in the blood and Goby fish samples were detected using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. RESULTS: The tetrodotoxin levels in the remaining cooked Goby fish were determined to be 2090.12 µg/kg. For Amoya caninus, the toxicity levels were 1858.29 µg/kg in the muscle and 1997.19 µg/kg in the viscera and for Yongeichthys nebulosus, they were 2783.00 µg/kg in the muscle and 2966.21 µg/kg in the viscera. CONCLUSION: This outbreak demonstrates an underestimation of the risk of Goby fish poisoning. Furthermore, the relationships among the toxic species, climates and marine algae present should be clarified in the future. PMID:25672425

You, Jie; Yue, YaJun; Xing, Feng; Xia, Wei; Lai, ShaoYang; Zhang, FengLei

2015-01-01

48

Fatal methane and cyanide poisoning as a result of handling industrial fish: a case report and review of the literature  

PubMed Central

The potential health hazards of handling industrial fish are well documented. Wet fish in storage consume oxygen and produce poisonous gases as they spoil. In addition to oxygen depletion, various noxious agents have been demonstrated in association with spoilage including carbon dioxide, sulphur dioxide, and ammonia. A fatal case of methane and cyanide poisoning among a group of deep sea trawler men is described. Subsequent independent investigation as a result of this case led to the discovery of cyanides as a further potential noxious agent. This is thus the first case in which cyanide poisoning has been recognised as a potentially fatal complication of handling spoiled fish. The previous literature is reviewed and the implications of the current case are discussed. Key Words: industrial fish • methane • cyanide PMID:11064677

Cherian, M; Richmond, I

2000-01-01

49

The persistent problem of lead poisoning in birds from ammunition and fishing tackle  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Lead (Pb) is a metabolic poison that can negatively influence biological processes, leading to illness and mortality across a large spectrum of North American avifauna (>120 species) and other organisms. Pb poisoning can result from numerous sources, including ingestion of bullet fragments and shot pellets left in animal carcasses, spent ammunition left in the field, lost fishing tackle, Pb-based paints, large-scale mining, and Pb smelting activities. Although Pb shot has been banned for waterfowl hunting in the United States (since 1991) and Canada (since 1999), Pb exposure remains a problem for many avian species. Despite a large body of scientific literature on exposure to Pb and its toxicological effects on birds, controversy still exists regarding its impacts at a population level. We explore these issues and highlight areas in need of investigation: (1) variation in sensitivity to Pb exposure among bird species; (2) spatial extent and sources of Pb contamination in habitats in relation to bird exposure in those same locations; and (3) interactions between avian Pb exposure and other landscape-level stressors that synergistically affect bird demography. We explore multiple paths taken to reduce Pb exposure in birds that (1) recognize common ground among a range of affected interests; (2) have been applied at local to national scales; and (3) engage governmental agencies, interest groups, and professional societies to communicate the impacts of Pb ammunition and fishing tackle, and to describe approaches for reducing their availability to birds. As they have in previous times, users of fish and wildlife will play a key role in resolving the Pb poisoning issue.

Haig, Susan M.; D'Elia, Jesse; Eagles-Smith, Collin; Fair, Jeanne M.; Gervais, Jennifer; Herring, Garth; Rivers, James W.; Schulz, John H.

2014-01-01

50

The effects of natural disturbances, reef state, and herbivorous fish densities on ciguatera poisoning in Rarotonga, southern Cook Islands.  

PubMed

Ciguatera poisoning is a critical public-health issue among Pacific island nations. Accurately predicting ciguatera outbreaks has become a priority, particularly in Rarotonga in the southern Cook Islands, which has reported the highest incidence of ciguatera poisoning globally. Since 2006, however, cases of ciguatera poisoning have declined, and in 2011 ciguatera cases were the lowest in nearly 20 years. Here we examined the relationships between cases of ciguatera poisoning, from 1994 to 2011, and: (i) coral cover, used as a proxy of reef state, (ii) the densities of herbivorous fishes, and (iii) reef disturbances. We found that coral cover was not a good predictor of cases of ciguatera poisoning, but high densities of the herbivorous fish Ctenochaetus striatus and reef disturbances were both strong predictors of ciguatera poisoning. Yet these two predictors were correlated, because the densities of C. striatus increased only after major cyclones had disturbed the reefs. Since 2006, the number of cyclones has decreased considerably in Rarotonga, because of the climatic shift toward the negative phase of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation. We suggest that fewer cyclones have led to decreases in both the densities of C. striatus and of the number of reported cases of ciguatera poisoning in Rarotonga. PMID:23313379

Rongo, Teina; van Woesik, Robert

2013-03-15

51

Teratogenic effects and monetary cost of selenium poisoning of fish in Lake Sutton, North Carolina.  

PubMed

Selenium pollution from coal ash wastewater was investigated in Lake Sutton, NC. This lake has been continuously used as a cooling pond for a coal-fired power plant since 1972. Historic and recent levels of contamination in fish tissues (14-105µg Se/g dry weight in liver, 24-127 in eggs, 4-23 in muscle, 7-38 in whole-body) exceeded toxic thresholds and teratogenic effects were observed in fish collected in 2013. A high proportion (28.9 percent) of juvenile Lepomis spp. exhibited spinal and craniofacial malformations that were consistent with selenium poisoning. Teratogenic Deformity Index values indicated population-level impacts on the fishery. The partially monetized cost of resultant fishery losses was calculated at over $US 8.6 million annually, and over $US 217 million for the entire period of damage, which dates back to 1987 when chemical and biological monitoring began. PMID:24675445

Lemly, A Dennis

2014-06-01

52

A review of traditional remedies of ciguatera fish poisoning in the Pacific.  

PubMed

Ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) is an illness caused by eating tropical coral fish contaminated with ciguatoxins (CTXs). The clinical management of patients with CFP is generally supportive and symptomatic in nature as no antidote exists. Of the many drugs prescribed, several have been claimed to be efficient in small, uncontrolled studies, but the outcomes of treatments with these medicines are often contradictory. In New Caledonia, traditional remedies are commonly employed in the treatment of CFP and of the 90 plant species catalogued as useful in CFP, the most popular herbal remedy by far is a decoction prepared from the leaves of Heliotropium foertherianum Diane & Hilger (Boraginaceae). Other important plants used in the treatment of CFP include Euphorbia hirta L. (Euphorbiaceae) and Vitex L. sp. (Lamiaceae). This review focuses on the evidence for efficacy of these species and pharmacological studies which support their use. Other plants used in CFP and the conventional treatment of CFP are also discussed briefly. PMID:21287650

Kumar-Roiné, Shilpa; Taiana Darius, H; Matsui, Mariko; Fabre, Nicolas; Haddad, Mohamed; Chinain, Mireille; Pauillac, Serge; Laurent, Dominique

2011-07-01

53

Erythrocytic and leukocytic responses to cadmium poisoning in freshwater fish, Puntius conchonius Ham  

SciTech Connect

Chronically sublethal concentrations of cadmium caused conspicuous hematological anomalies in the cyprinid fish, Puntius conchonius. Exposure to 0.63 and 0.84 mg/liter cadmium chloride (1/20 and 1/15 of 96-hr LC/sub 50/) induced morphological aberrations in mature erythrocytes including cytoplasmic vacuolation, hypochromia, deterioration of cellular membrane, basophilic stippling of cytoplasm, clumping of chromatin material and extrusion of nuclei, and schistocytosis. Anomalous basophils and monocytes were also encountered though less frequently. Decreased erythrocyte counts, hemoglobin and hematocrit values were also associated with chronic cadmium poisoning. The mean corpuscular hemoglobin and mean corpuscular volume increased (30 days) but mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration showed no obvious change. A significant thrombocytopenia (90 days), elevated small lymphocyte and basophil populations, and a mild neutropenia were manifested in the cadmium-exposed fish. Large lymphocytes were not significantly affected.

Gill, T.S.; Pant, J.C.

1985-04-01

54

Effect of dietary fatty acid composition on the growth of the tiger puffer Takifugu rubripes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of dietary fatty acid composition on the growth of the tiger puffer Takifugu rubripes were examined. Eight experimental diets were formulated with fish meal and casein as the major ingredients, providing 45.0–48.2%\\u000a crude protein. Pollack and squid liver oils were used for the control diet while experimental diets contained three levels\\u000a of EPA-DHA concentrated (C-HUFA) oils, soybean oil, linseed

Kotaro Kikuchi; Takeshi Furuta; Nakahiro Iwata; Kazue Onuki; Tamao Noguchi; Haruo Sugita

55

A Phylogenetic Re-Analysis of Groupers with Applications for Ciguatera Fish Poisoning  

PubMed Central

Background Ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) is a significant public health problem due to dinoflagellates. It is responsible for one of the highest reported incidence of seafood-borne illness and Groupers are commonly reported as a source of CFP due to their position in the food chain. With the role of recent climate change on harmful algal blooms, CFP cases might become more frequent and more geographically widespread. Since there is no appropriate treatment for CFP, the most efficient solution is to regulate fish consumption. Such a strategy can only work if the fish sold are correctly identified, and it has been repeatedly shown that misidentifications and species substitutions occur in fish markets. Methods We provide here both a DNA-barcoding reference for groupers, and a new phylogenetic reconstruction based on five genes and a comprehensive taxonomical sampling. We analyse the correlation between geographic range of species and their susceptibility to ciguatera accumulation, and the co-occurrence of ciguatoxins in closely related species, using both character mapping and statistical methods. Results Misidentifications were encountered in public databases, precluding accurate species identifications. Epinephelinae now includes only twelve genera (vs. 15 previously). Comparisons with the ciguatera incidences show that in some genera most species are ciguateric, but statistical tests display only a moderate correlation with the phylogeny. Atlantic species were rarely contaminated, with ciguatera occurrences being restricted to the South Pacific. Conclusions The recent changes in classification based on the reanalyses of the relationships within Epinephelidae have an impact on the interpretation of the ciguatera distribution in the genera. In this context and to improve the monitoring of fish trade and safety, we need to obtain extensive data on contamination at the species level. Accurate species identifications through DNA barcoding are thus an essential tool in controlling CFP since meal remnants in CFP cases can be easily identified with molecular tools. PMID:25093850

Schoelinck, Charlotte; Hinsinger, Damien D.; Dettaï, Agnès; Cruaud, Corinne; Justine, Jean-Lou

2014-01-01

56

Invasive Lionfish (Pterois volitans): A Potential Human Health Threat for Ciguatera Fish Poisoning in Tropical Waters  

PubMed Central

Invasive Indo-Pacific lionfish (Pterois volitans) have rapidly expanded in the Western Atlantic over the past decade and have had a significant negative impact on reef fish biodiversity, habitat, and community structure, with lionfish out-competing native predators for resources. In an effort to reduce this population explosion, lionfish have been promoted for human consumption in the greater Caribbean region. This study examined whether the geographical expansion of the lionfish into a known ciguatera-endemic region can pose a human health threat for ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP). More than 180 lionfish were collected from waters surrounding the US Virgin Islands throughout 2010 and 2011. Ciguatoxin testing included an in vitro neuroblastoma cytotoxicity assay for composite toxicity assessment of sodium-channel toxins combined with confirmatory liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. A 12% prevalence rate of ciguatoxic lionfish exceeding the FDA guidance level of 0.1 µg/kg C-CTX-1 equivalents was identified in fish from the U.S. Virgin Islands, highlighting a potential consumption risk in this region. This study presents the first evidence that the invasive lionfish, pose a direct human health risk for CFP and highlights the need for awareness and research on this food safety hazard in known endemic areas. PMID:24378919

Robertson, Alison; Garcia, Ana C.; Flores Quintana, Harold A.; Smith, Tyler B.; Castillo, Bernard F.; Reale-Munroe, Kynoch; Gulli, Joseph A.; Olsen, David A.; Hooe-Rollman, Jennifer I.; Jester, Edward L. E.; Klimek, Brian J.; Plakas, Steven M.

2013-01-01

57

Impact of chronic lead poisoning on the hematological and biochemical profiles of a fish, Barbus conchonius (Ham)  

SciTech Connect

The contamination of natural waters by lead is mostly caused by a variety of anthropogenic activities related to increased mining operations and industrial uses of this metal. Adverse effects of lead poisoning in the fishes have been reported with references to both hematological and biochemical variables. The aim of present investigation was to study the effects of chronically administered sublethal levels of inorganic lead on the hematological and biochemical profiles of widely distributed freshwater fish, Barbus conchonius. The variables such as erythrocyte numbers, hemoglobin, hematocrit, mean corpuscular volume, blood glucose, glycogen in liver, skeletal muscles, and myocardium, and cholesterol in blood, liver, ovary, and testes were evaluated.

Tewari, H.; Gill, S.T.; Pant, J.

1987-05-01

58

Cutting the longline to extinction: new sea turtle campaign takes aim at industrial longline fishing and mercury-poisoned seafood.  

PubMed

Chanting "Get on the right track . . . stop killing the leatherback!," a festive protest of people of many ages dressed in colorful turtle costumes wound its way along the busy streets of San Francisco's Fishermen's Wharf. The action last October marked the launching of the Bay Area-based Sea Turtle Restoration Project's Save the Leatherback (www.savetheleatherback.com) campaign for a moratorium on longline fishing in the Pacific Ocean. Longline fishing in the Pacific kills tens of thousands of sea turtles annually to serve up swordfish, shark, and tuna poisoned with high levels of methylmercury for lucrative seafood markets in Japan, the United States, and Europe. PMID:17208747

Ovetz, Robert

2004-01-01

59

Ciguatera fish poisoning: a first epidemic in Germany highlights an increasing risk for European countries.  

PubMed

Toxin-producing microalgae are thriving worldwide due to coral reef destruction and global warming with major consequences on ecosystems, international trade and human health. Microalgae belonging to the family of flagellate protists, in particular dinoflagellates, secrete a variety of high-molecular-weight polyether toxins that accumulate through the marine food chain to cause disease in humans by acting as sodium channel activator toxins; ciguatera is the most frequent seafood-borne illness worldwide with 50,000 to 500,000 global incidences per annum and is usually limited to endemic areas located between 35° northern and 35° southern latitude. The rising global incidence frequency renders it a major human health problem, because no curative treatment is available yet and reliable detection assays are lacking. During the last decade ciguatera has increasingly become endemic in previously unaffected areas for two reasons: first global warming has contributed to the emergence of dinoflagellate species in subtropical and even temperate regions that previously had been constrained to tropical areas and second: in Europe globalization of fishing industry and tourism has led to a progressive increase in the number of ciguatera cases and a lack of awareness among medical personnel contributes to under-reporting. We review, through a recent ciguatera outbreak in Germany, the risk for ciguatera poisoning in Europe and highlight characteristic symptoms, current knowledge about disease pathomechanisms and treatment options. PMID:25448771

Mattei, César; Vetter, Irina; Eisenblätter, Anneka; Krock, Bernd; Ebbecke, Martin; Desel, Herbert; Zimmermann, Katharina

2014-12-01

60

Poison Ivy  

MedlinePLUS

... their hair. Burning the poison ivy plant. The oil from the plant is carried in the smoke. Treatment How is ... skin. Products that contain solvents such as mineral oil (brand names: ... touched the plant (like camping, sporting, fishing or hunting gear). If ...

61

Consequences of experimental cortisol manipulations on the thermal biology of the checkered puffer (Sphoeroides testudineus) in laboratory and field environments.  

PubMed

Anthropogenic climate change is altering temperature regimes for coastal marine fishes. However, given that temperature changes will not occur in isolation of other stressors, it is necessary to explore the potential consequences of stress on the thermal tolerances and preferences of tropical marine fish in order to understand the thresholds for survival, and predict the associated coastal ecological consequences. In this study, we used exogenous cortisol injections to investigate the effects of a thermal challenge on checkered puffers (Sphoeroides testudineus) as a secondary stressor. There were no significant differences between control and cortisol-treated fish 48h following cortisol treatment for swimming ability (using a chase to exhaustion protocol), blood glucose concentrations or standard metabolic rate. In the lab, control and cortisol-treated puffers were exposed to ambient (29.1±1.5°C), ambient +5°C (heat shock) and ambient -5°C (cold shock) for 4h and to evaluate the consequences of abrupt temperature change on puff performance and blood physiology. Following cold shock, control fish exhibited increases in cortisol levels and weak 'puff' performance. Conversely, fish dosed with cortisol exhibited consistently high cortisol levels independent of thermal treatment, although there was a trend for an attenuated cortisol response in the cortisol-treated fish to the cold shock treatment. A 20-day complementary field study conducted in the puffer's natural habitat, a tidal creek in Eleuthera, The Bahamas, revealed that cortisol-injected fish selected significantly cooler temperatures, measured using accumulated thermal units, when compared to controls. These results, and particularly the discrepancies between consequences documented in the laboratory and the ecological trends observed in the field, highlight the need to establish the link between laboratory and field data to successfully develop management policies and conservation initiatives with regards to anthropogenic climate change. PMID:25526656

Cull, F; Suski, C D; Shultz, A; Danylchuk, A J; O'Connor, C M; Murchie, K J; Cooke, S J

2015-01-01

62

Scombroid Poisoning  

PubMed Central

An outbreak of scombroid poisoning occurred in San Francisco in the fall of 1977. The vehicle was sashimi prepared from spoiled tuna fish. Prompt public health measures prevented further consumption of the implicated food. Laboratory studies showed the presence in the tuna of bacterial species capable of producing large amounts of histamine, a substance strongly implicated in scombroid poisoning. Chemical analysis showed that histamine is very unevenly distributed in the flesh of spoiling tuna, therefore accounting for the sometimes random occurrence of disease among people eating the same food at the same table. PMID:569397

Lerke, Peter A.; Werner, S. Benson; Taylor, Stephen L.; Guthertz, Linda S.

1978-01-01

63

Fish, so foul! Foodborne illness caused by combined fi sh histamine and wax ester poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nine people who ate a fi sh curry from a mobile canteen experienced increased heart rate, fl ushed skin, headache, nausea and diarrhoea shortly afterwards. These symptoms, which lasted for a mean of nine hours, were thought to have been associated with a combination of fi sh histamine and wax ester poisoning. The incriminated fi sh used was eventually identifi

Alexander Leask; Peter Yankos; Mark J Ferson

64

Assessing the Incidence of Ciguatera Fish Poisoning with Two Surveys Conducted in Culebra, Puerto Rico, during 2005 and 2006  

PubMed Central

Background: Although ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) is the most common seafood intoxication worldwide, its burden has been difficult to establish because there are no biomarkers to diagnose human exposure. Objective: We explored the incidence of CFP, percentage of CFP case-patients with laboratory-confirmed ciguatoxic meal remnants, cost of CFP illness, and potential risk factors for CFP. Methods: During 2005 and again during 2006, we conducted a census of all occupied households on the island of Culebra, Puerto Rico, where locally caught fish are a staple food. We defined CFP case-patients as persons with gastrointestinal symptoms (abdominal pain, vomiting, diarrhea, or nausea) and neurological symptoms (extremity paresthesia, arthralgia, myalgia, malaise, pruritus, headache, dizziness, metallic taste, visual disturbance, circumoral paresthesia, temperature reversal, or toothache) or systemic symptoms (e.g., bradycardia) within 72 hr of eating fish during the previous year. Participants were asked to save fish remnants eaten by case-patients for ciguatoxin analysis at the Food and Drug Administration laboratory in Dauphin Island, Alabama (USA). Results: We surveyed 340 households during 2005 and 335 households during 2006. The estimated annual incidence of possible CFP was 4.0 per 1,000 person-years, and that of probable CFP was 7.5 per 1,000 person-years. One of three fish samples submitted by probable case-patients was positive for ciguatoxins. None of the case-patients required respiratory support. Households that typically consumed barracuda were more likely to report CFP (p = 0.02). Conclusions: Our estimates, which are consistent with previous studies using similar case findings, contribute to the overall information available to support public health decision making about CFP prevention. PMID:22275728

Luber, George; Conklin, Laura; Tosteson, Thomas R.; Granade, Hudson R.; Dickey, Robert W.; Backer, Lorraine C.

2012-01-01

65

A large outbreak of scombroid fish poisoning associated with eating yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares) at a military mass catering in Dakar, Senegal.  

PubMed

On 26 November 2010, an outbreak of scombroid fish poisoning occurred in the French Armed Forces in Dakar, Senegal. This chemical intoxication, due to high histamine concentration in fish, is often mistaken for an allergic reaction. A case-control study was undertaken including the 71 cases and 78 randomly selected controls among lunch attendees. The usual symptoms for scombroid fish poisoning were observed in cases, i.e. flushing (85.9%), headache (83.1%), rapid/weak pulse (59.1%) and diarrhoea (47.9%). Symptoms occurred from within a few minutes to up to 3 h following the meal. Most patients quickly recovered with antihistamine and/or symptomatic treatment. Tuna was the only food item positively associated with illness (odds ratio 36.3, 95% confidence interval 6.3-210.0), with the risk of illness increasing with the quantity of fish consumed. No bacterial contamination was found in leftover food, but histamine concentration in tuna was found to be 4900 mg/kg, almost 50-fold higher than the concentration allowed by European regulations. This report is unique because of the large size of the case series - to our knowledge, the largest event of scombroid fish poisoning ever reported - and the chemical and bacteriological analyses results obtained on leftover food. PMID:21875451

Demoncheaux, J-P; Michel, R; Mazenot, C; Duflos, G; Iacini, C; de Laval, F; Delaval, F; Saware, E M; Renard, J-C

2012-06-01

66

ANTICHOLINESTERASE ACTION OF PESTICIDAL CARBAMATES IN THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM OF POISONED FISHES  

EPA Science Inventory

In the report, kinetic enzyme methods and statistical analyses are used to define the relationship between brain acetycholinesterase inhibition and near-median kills in replicate groups of marine fish in the laboratory by five carbamate pesticides....

67

Food Poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... find out how to avoid it. What Is Food Poisoning? Food poisoning comes from eating foods that contain ... and store foods properly. Continue Do I Have Food Poisoning? Someone who has food poisoning might: have an ...

68

Screening of tetrodotoxin in puffers using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tetrodotoxin (TTX), a toxic compound found in some puffers can cause death to humans through consumption. We have developed a simplified method for the screening of TTX in puffers using GC–MS. A puffer tissue of 0.5g was treated with 5mL of 0.1% acetic acid, followed by alkaline hydrolysis, LLE or liquid–liquid extraction and N-methyl-N-TMS-trifluoroacetamide derivatization. The developed method used only

Che Nin Man; Norjuliana Mohd Noor; Gam Lay Harn; Razak Lajis; Samsur Mohamad

2010-01-01

69

High-performance liquid chromatographic determination of biogenic amines in fish implicated in food poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

A rapid, sensitive and reproducible high-performance liquid chromatographic procedure for the determination of nine biogenic amines in fish by improved benzoylation with benzoyl chloride was developed. The benzoylation of amines with benzoyl chloride at 30°C for 40 min was the optimal condition to eliminate the influence of interfering peaks during analysis. The calibration curve for each amine was linear within

Deng-Fwu Hwang; Sheng-Hsiung Chang; Chyuan-Yuan Shiua; Tuu-jyi Chai

1997-01-01

70

Seasonal occurrence and microhabitat of the hyperparasitic monogenean Udonella fugu on the caligid Copepod Pseudocaligus fugu infecting the grass puffer Takifugu niphobles in the Seto Inland Sea, Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The seasonal occurrence and microhabitat of the monogenean Udonella fugu that hyperparasitizes exclusively on adults of the caligid copepod Pseudocaligus fugu that infects the skin of the grass puffer Takifugu niphobles were investigated in the Seto Inland Sea, western Japan from November 2004 to December 2006. The udonellids occurred and bred mostly during the occurrence of P. fugu on the fish host. The average prevalence and intensity of U. fugu on P. fugu during the whole investigation were 29% and 3.6, respectively. The main attachment sites of U. fugu were the posterior side of leg 3 and the dorsal marginal side of the cephalothorax for feeding and copulation, while eggs were predominantly located on the ventral side of the urosome to avoid detachment. More attention should be paid to the ecology of U. fugu, due to recent high prevalence of P. fugu on cultured tiger puffer in western Japan.

Okawachi, Hiroko; Ohtsuka, Susumu; Ismail, Norshida Binti; Venmathi Maran, B. A.; Ogawa, Kazuo

2012-09-01

71

Update on Methodologies Available for Ciguatoxin Determination: Perspectives to Confront the Onset of Ciguatera Fish Poisoning in Europe [1  

PubMed Central

Ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) occurs mainly when humans ingest finfish contaminated with ciguatoxins (CTXs). The complexity and variability of such toxins have made it difficult to develop reliable methods to routinely monitor CFP with specificity and sensitivity. This review aims to describe the methodologies available for CTX detection, including those based on the toxicological, biochemical, chemical, and pharmaceutical properties of CTXs. Selecting any of these methodological approaches for routine monitoring of ciguatera may be dependent upon the applicability of the method. However, identifying a reference validation method for CTXs is a critical and urgent issue, and is dependent upon the availability of certified CTX standards and the coordinated action of laboratories. Reports of CFP cases in European hospitals have been described in several countries, and are mostly due to travel to CFP endemic areas. Additionally, the recent detection of the CTX-producing tropical genus Gambierdiscus in the eastern Atlantic Ocean of the northern hemisphere and in the Mediterranean Sea, as well as the confirmation of CFP in the Canary Islands and possibly in Madeira, constitute other reasons to study the onset of CFP in Europe [1]. The question of the possible contribution of climate change to the distribution of toxin-producing microalgae and ciguateric fish is raised. The impact of ciguatera onset on European Union (EU) policies will be discussed with respect to EU regulations on marine toxins in seafood. Critical analysis and availability of methodologies for CTX determination is required for a rapid response to suspected CFP cases and to conduct sound CFP risk analysis. PMID:20631873

Caillaud, Amandine; de la Iglesia, Pablo; Darius, H. Taiana; Pauillac, Serge; Aligizaki, Katerina; Fraga, Santiago; Chinain, Mireille; Diogène, Jorge

2010-01-01

72

Effects of trophic poisoning with methylmercury on the appetitive elements of the agonistic sequence in fighting-fish (Betta splendens).  

PubMed

The aggressive display in Betta splendens is particularly prominent, and vital to its adaptation to the environment. Methylmercury is an organic variation of Hg that presents particularly pronounced neuro-behavioral effects. The present experiments aim to test the effect of acute and chronic poisoning with methylmercury on the display in Bettas. The animals were poisoned by trophic means in both experiments (16 ug/kg in acute poisoning; 16 ug/kg/day for chronic poisoning), and tested in agonistic pairs. The total frequency of the display was recorded, analyzing the topography of the agonistic response. The methylmercury seems to present a dose- and detoxification-dependent effect on these responses, with a more pronounced effect on motivity in acute poisoning and on emotionality in the chronic poisoning. It is possible that this effect could be mediated by alteration in the mono-amino-oxidase systems. PMID:17992970

Gouveia, Amauri; de Oliveira, Caio Maximino; Romão, Cynthia Ferreira; de Brito, Thiago Marques; Ventura, Dora Fix

2007-11-01

73

[Mercury poisoning].  

PubMed

Mercury is a widespread heavy metal with potential severe impacts on human health. Exposure conditions to mercury and profile of toxicity among humans depend on the chemical forms of the mercury: elemental or metallic mercury, inorganic or organic mercury compounds. This article aims to reviewing and synthesizing the main knowledge of the mercury toxicity and its organic compounds that clinicians should know. Acute inhalation of metallic or inorganic mercury vapours mainly induces pulmonary diseases, whereas chronic inhalation rather induces neurological or renal disorders (encephalopathy and interstitial or glomerular nephritis). Methylmercury poisonings from intoxicated food occurred among some populations resulting in neurological disorders and developmental troubles for children exposed in utero. Treatment using chelating agents is recommended in case of symptomatic acute mercury intoxication; sometimes it improves the clinical effects of chronic mercury poisoning. Although it is currently rare to encounter situations of severe intoxication, efforts remain necessary to decrease the mercury concentration in the environment and to reduce risk on human health due to low level exposure (dental amalgam, fish contamination by organic mercury compounds…). In case of occupational exposure to mercury and its compounds, some disorders could be compensated in France. Clinicians should work with toxicologists for the diagnosis and treatment of mercury intoxication. PMID:20579784

Bensefa-Colas, L; Andujar, P; Descatha, A

2011-07-01

74

Food poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

Food poisoning occurs when you swallow food or water that contains bacteria, parasites, viruses, or the toxins made ... Food poisoning can affect one person or a group of people who all ate the same food. It ...

75

Acetone poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

Acetone is a chemical used in many household products. This article discusses poisoning from swallowing acetone-based products. Poisoning may also occur from breathing in fumes or absorption through the skin. This ...

76

Genome duplication in the teleost fish Tetraodon nigroviridis reveals the early vertebrate proto-karyotype  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tetraodon nigroviridis is a freshwater puffer fish with the smallest known vertebrate genome. Here, we report a draft genome sequence with long-range linkage and substantial anchoring to the 21 Tetraodon chromosomes. Genome analysis provides a greatly improved fish gene catalogue, including identifying key genes previously thought to be absent in fish. Comparison with other vertebrates and a urochordate indicates that

Olivier Jaillon; Jean-Marc Aury; Frédéric Brunet; Jean-Louis Petit; Nicole Stange-Thomann; Evan Mauceli; Laurence Bouneau; Cécile Fischer; Catherine Ozouf-Costaz; Alain Bernot; Sophie Nicaud; David Jaffe; Sheila Fisher; Georges Lutfalla; Carole Dossat; Béatrice Segurens; Corinne Dasilva; Marcel Salanoubat; Michael Levy; Nathalie Boudet; Sergi Castellano; Véronique Anthouard; Claire Jubin; Vanina Castelli; Michael Katinka; Benoît Vacherie; Christian Biémont; Zineb Skalli; Laurence Cattolico; Julie Poulain; Véronique de Berardinis; Corinne Cruaud; Simone Duprat; Philippe Brottier; Jean-Pierre Coutanceau; Jérôme Gouzy; Genis Parra; Guillaume Lardier; Charles Chapple; Kevin J. McKernan; Paul McEwan; Stephanie Bosak; Manolis Kellis; Jean-Nicolas Volff; Roderic Guigó; Michael C. Zody; Jill Mesirov; Kerstin Lindblad-Toh; Bruce Birren; Chad Nusbaum; Daniel Kahn; Marc Robinson-Rechavi; Vincent Laudet; Vincent Schachter; Francis Quétier; William Saurin; Claude Scarpelli; Patrick Wincker; Eric S. Lander; Jean Weissenbach; Hugues Roest Crollius

2004-01-01

77

Carbolic acid poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

Phenol poisoning; Phenylic acid poisoning; Hydroxybenzene poisoning; Phenic acid poisoning; Benzenol poisoning ... Phenol ... and Disease Registry (ATSDR). 2008. Toxicological profile for Phenol. Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human ...

78

Poison Ivy  

MedlinePLUS

... say: yoo-ROO-shee-ol), a colorless, odorless oil (called resin) contained in the leaves of the plants. Look Out for Poison Plants These plants can ... you're in areas that could contain poison plants. If you come into contact with urushiol oil, try to wash it off your skin right ...

79

Sachet poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... and not for use in the treatment or management of an actual poison exposure. If you have an exposure, you should call your local emergency number (such as 911) or the National Poison Control Center at 1-800-222-1222.

80

Merthiolate poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... and not for use in the treatment or management of an actual poison exposure. If you have an exposure, you should call your local emergency number (such as 911) or 1-800-222-1222 for a local poison control center.

81

Aftershave poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... and not for use in the treatment or management of an actual poison exposure. If you have an exposure, you should call your local emergency number (such as 911) or the National Poison Control Center at 1-800-222-1222.

82

Deodorant poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... and not for use in the treatment or management of an actual poison exposure. If you have an exposure, you should call your local emergency number (such as 911) or the National Poison Control Center at 1-800-222-1222.

83

Ammonia poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... and not for use in the treatment or management of an actual poison exposure. If you have an exposure, you should call your local emergency number (such as 911) or the National Poison Control Center at 1-800-222-1222.

84

Propane poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... and not for use in the treatment or management of an actual poison exposure. If you have an exposure, you should call your local emergency number (such as 911) or 1-800-222-1222 for a local poison control center.

85

Ethanol poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... and not for use in the treatment or management of an actual poison exposure. If you have an exposure, you should call your local emergency number (such as 911) or 1-800-222-1222 for a local poison control center.

86

The power of poison: pesticide poisoning of Africa's wildlife.  

PubMed

Poisons have long been used to kill wildlife throughout the world. An evolution has occurred from the use of plant- and animal-based toxins to synthetic pesticides to kill wildlife, a method that is silent, cheap, easy, and effective. The use of pesticides to poison wildlife began in southern Africa, and predator populations were widely targeted and eliminated. A steep increase has recently been observed in the intensity of wildlife poisonings, with corresponding population declines. However, the majority of poisonings go unreported. Under national laws, it is illegal to hunt wildlife using poisons in 83% of African countries. Pesticide regulations are inadequate, and enforcement of existing legislation is poor. Few countries have forensic field protocols, and most lack storage and testing facilities. Methods used to poison wildlife include baiting carcasses, soaking grains in pesticide solution, mixing pesticides to form salt licks, and tainting waterholes. Carbofuran is the most widely abused pesticide in Africa. Common reasons for poisoning are control of damage-causing animals, harvesting fish and bushmeat, harvesting animals for traditional medicine, poaching for wildlife products, and killing wildlife sentinels (e.g., vultures because their aerial circling alerts authorities to poachers' activities). Populations of scavengers, particularly vultures, have been decimated by poisoning. Recommendations include banning pesticides, improving pesticide regulations and controlling distribution, better enforcement and stiffer penalties for offenders, increasing international support and awareness, and developing regional pesticide centers. PMID:24716788

Ogada, Darcy L

2014-08-01

87

Identification of Caribbean ciguatoxins as the cause of an outbreak of fish poisoning among U.S. soldiers in Haiti  

Microsoft Academic Search

On 24 February 1995, six U.S. soldiers serving with the Multinational Force in Haiti became ill after eating a locally caught fish identified as the greater amberjack Seriola dumerili. The victims presented with nausea, vomiting, watery diarrhea and abdominal cramps 5–8 hr after consumption. Also present in some victims were numbness in the extremities or perioral region, bradycardia and scalp

Mark A. Poli; Richard J. Lewis; Robert W. Dickey; Steven M. Musser; Carole A. Buckner; Larry G. Carpenter

1997-01-01

88

Venomous bites, stings, and poisoning.  

PubMed

This article discusses the epidemiology, prevention, clinical features, first aid and medical treatment of venomous bites by snakes, lizards, and spiders; stings by fish, jellyfish, echinoderms, and insects; and poisoning by fish and molluscs, in all parts of the world. Of these envenoming and poisonings, snake bite causes the greatest burden of human suffering, killing 46,000 people each year in India alone and more than 100,000 worldwide and resulting in physical handicap in many survivors. Specific antidotes (antivenoms/antivenins) are available to treat envenoming by many of these taxa but supply and distribution is inadequate in many tropical developing countries. PMID:22632635

Warrell, David A

2012-06-01

89

Benzene poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... be found in: Additives to gasoline and diesel fuel Many industrial solvents Various paint, lacquer , and varnish ... Mirkin DB. Benzene and related aromatic hydrocarbons. In: Shannon MW, ... of Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ...

90

Methanol poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... vital signs, including temperature, pulse, breathing rate, and blood pressure. The patient may receive: Dialysis Medicine (antidote) to reverse the effect of the poison (fomepizole or ethanol) Medicines to treat symptoms Tube through the nose ...

91

Lacquer poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... control or a health care professional. If the chemical was swallowed, immediately give the person water, unless instructed otherwise by a health care provider. If the person breathed in the poison, immediately move him or her to fresh air.

92

Insecticide poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

Aaron CK. Organophosphates and carbamates. In: Shannon MW, Borron SW, Burns MJ, eds. Haddad and Winchester's Clinical Management of Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders Elsevier; ...

93

Copper poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

Jones AL, Dargan PI. Hepatic toxicology. In: Shannon MW, Borron SW, Burns MJ, eds. Haddad and Winchester's Clinical Management of Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders Elsevier; 2007: ...

94

Everyday Poisons  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This reading and writing activity (on pages 2-9) teaches what plant parts should be avoided, how a person can get rid of toxins, symptoms of plant poisoning, and how plants create poisons to repel predators. Excerpts from a video and biography of Fatima Johnson, an anthropologist who studies plants and people in Africa, are available online, and the full versions can be purchased on DVD. An interactive version of the activity, and tips for using this resource, are also online.

University of Nebraska State Museum

2001-01-01

95

Puff and bite: The relationship between the glucocorticoid stress response and anti-predator performance in checkered puffer (Sphoeroides testudineus).  

PubMed

Individual variation in the endocrine stress response has been linked to survival and performance in a variety of species. Here, we evaluate the relationship between the endocrine stress response and anti-predator behaviors in wild checkered puffers (Sphoeroides testudineus) captured at Eleuthera Island, Bahamas. The checkered puffer has a unique and easily measurable predator avoidance strategy, which is to inflate or 'puff' to deter potential predators. In this study, we measured baseline and stress-induced circulating glucocorticoid levels, as well as bite force, a performance measure that is relevant to both feeding and predator defence, and 'puff' performance. We found that puff performance and bite force were consistent within individuals, but generally decreased following a standardized stressor. Larger puffers were able to generate a higher bite force, and larger puffers were able to maintain a more robust puff performance following a standardized stressor relative to smaller puffers. In terms of the relationship between the glucocorticoid stress response and performance metrics, we found no relationship between post-stress glucocorticoid levels and either puff performance or bite force. However, we did find that baseline glucocorticoid levels predicted the ability of a puffer to maintain a robust puff response following a repeated stressor, and this relationship was more pronounced in larger individuals. Our work provides a novel example of how baseline glucocorticoids can predict a fitness-related anti-predator behavior. PMID:25745817

Cull, Felicia; O'Connor, Constance M; Suski, Cory D; Shultz, Aaron D; Danylchuk, Andy J; Cooke, Steven J

2015-04-01

96

Case Report Lead Poisoning in Common Loons (Gavia immer)  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Two emaciated common loons (Gavia immer) were believed to have died of lead poisoning when fragments of fishing lines and lead sinkers were discovered in their stomachs. Later a third emaciated loon, which had only the remnants of fishing line in its stomach, was suspected of being a possible lead-poisoning victim when all other test results were negative. The

L. N. Locke; A S. M. Kerr; D. Zoromskic

97

[Mushroom poisoning].  

PubMed

Mushroom poisoning is a regular complaint for consultation in emergency facilities. These situations are usually benign and symptomatic treatment is sufficient. However, severe damage can occur, potentially life-threatening. We review the various syndromes associated with the toxins involved, their management and the major signs that are suggestive of serious injury and requiring hospitalization. PMID:24024391

Trueb, L; Carron, P-N; Saviuc, P

2013-08-14

98

Poisonous Contacts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In addition to its use as a lethal poison, arsenic has been used since ancient times to treat human illnesses, including infectious diseases and malignancies. This artical discusses how the findings of Zhang et al. add to our understanding of how arsenic's therapeutic effects have made acute promyelocytic leukemia "curable," with survival rates of 90%.

Scott Kogan (University of California San Francisco Cancer Center; )

2010-04-09

99

Fish  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this project you will learn about different types of fish. In your science journal write what you know about fish. Draw a picture of a common fish you might see where you live. On the handout record the information you learn during this unit. Click here to see the Angel Fish. Record information on Handout #1. Now go to the Clown Fish. ...

Ms. Hunter

2009-07-07

100

fish  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this project you will learn about different types of fish. In your science journal write what you know about fish. Draw a picture of a common fish you might see where you live. On the handout record the information you learn during this unit. Click here to see the Angel Fish. Record information on Handout #1. Now go to the Clown Fish. ...

cory jones

2009-09-28

101

Seasonality of parasitic copepods on bullseye puffer, Sphoeroides annulatus (Pisces: Tetraodontidae), from the northwestern coast of Mexico.  

PubMed

Seasonal occurrence of parasitic copepods in wild bullseye puffer, Sphoeroides annulatus (Pisces: Tetraodontidae), was analyzed in conjunction with variation of biotic and abiotic factors. Eleven samples were taken between February 2007 and February 2008 in Santa María La Reforma lagoon (northwestern coast of México). In total, 337 fish was examined; 5 parasitic copepod species were observed, including Acantholochus zairae , Caligus serratus , Lepeophtheirus simplex , Pseudochondracanthus diceraus , and Parabrachiella sp. The most common species were L. simplex , P. diceraus, and C. serratus (overall prevalence, 59, 53, and 35%, respectively), which significantly varied in prevalence and mean intensity between sampling months. A seasonal pattern was only observed for L. simplex, with higher infection levels in the warmest month than in the coldest month. Statistical analyses indicated that the intensity of L. simplex was positively correlated with water temperature. There were no significant differences in prevalence and intensity of infection among female and male hosts. At the component community level, species richness ranged between 4 and 5 during most of the study period, and no seasonality was observed in the number of individuals, Shannon diversity index, evenness index, or the Berger-Parker dominance index. At the infracommunity level, 4 descriptors used (mean species richness, mean number of individuals, mean Brillouin's diversity index, and mean Berger-Parker index) varied significantly between sampling months, but no seasonality was observed, except for a slight increase in the number of individuals during the warmest month. A significant positive association was detected between number of individuals and water temperature and between host size and both species richness and number of individuals. This is the first account of the ecology of these 5 parasitic copepods. Although no significant association was detected between fish condition factor and the burden of parasitic copepods, given the high occurrence of the caligid copepod L. simplex , we suggest that this copepod could represent a threat for the culture of S. annulatus . PMID:21506849

Morales-Serna, Francisco Neptalí; Rubio-Godoy, Miguel; Gómez, Samuel

2011-08-01

102

Poison Help Line  

MedlinePLUS

... Poison Help Line The toll-free Poison Help line, 1-800-222-1222 , which connects you to your ... and Services Administration (HRSA) , funds the Poison Help line ( 1-800-222-1222 ), which connects you to your ...

103

Fish  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Fish are vertebrates, meaning they have a skeletal system to support their bodies. All fish live underwater. Fish have gills to help them breathe underwater and fins to help them swim. Most fish are cold-blooded, meaning their body temperature is regulated by the surrounding water temperature.

Olivia Worland (Purdue University; Biological Sciences)

2008-06-12

104

Staphylococcal Food Poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... 8747 Contact CDC-INFO Home > Disease Listing > Staphylococcal Food Poisoning Staphylococcal Food Poisoning Disease Listing | General Information | Technical Information | Additional Information ...

105

Neurotoxic Shellfish Poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

Neurotoxic Shellfish Poisoning Causative organism: Karenia brevis Toxins produced: Brevetoxins Neurotoxic Shellfish Poisoning (NSP) produces an intoxication syndrome nearly identical to that of ciguatera in which gastrointestinal and ...

106

Redescription and genetic characterization of Cucullanus dodsworthi (Nematoda: Cucullanidae) from the checkered puffer Sphoeroides testudineus (Pisces: Tetraodontiformes).  

PubMed

Cucullanus dodsworthi Barreto, 1922 was originally described from the checkered puffer fish, Sphoeroides testudineus (Linnaeus), from Brazilian waters. New material of this nematode species was recovered from the same type host species from Mexican waters off the Yucatán Peninsula. This material was compared with Brazilian specimens. Although Mexican material closely resembles the original description of C. dodsworthi in general appearance, previously undescribed characters, as observed by light and scanning electron microscopy, are described for the first time in this species from both Brazilian and Mexican specimens. These characters include lateral body alae or conspicuous lateral fields that begin in the cervical region and end anterior to first pair of adcloacal papillae in males and at the anus level in females, cephalic and caudal alae absent; presence of pseudobuccal capsule with simple buccal frame well sclerotized with dorsal arrow structures, lateral structures, and lateral reniform structures; deirids, excretory pore, and postdeirids; slight anal protuberance in both sexes, unpaired precloacal papilla in males, phasmids near pair 10 in males and near tail tip in females; female with protruding vulvar lips and smooth eggs. In the absence of better descriptions of this genus, it can be concluded that C. dodsworthi is the only species of marine Cucullanus from the Americas that possesses lateral body alae. Molecular characterization of C. dodsworthi with SSU (18S) and ITS2 rDNA genes is included. A preliminary genetic comparison between SSU rDNA of C. dodsworthi , Truttaedacnitis truttae (Fabricius, 1794), and Dichelyne mexicanus Caspeta-Mandujano, Moravec and Salgado-Maldonado, 1999 places C. dodsworthi as a putative sister taxon to T. truttae . The finding of C. dodsworthi in Mexican marine waters also represents a new geographical record. PMID:21506838

Mejía-Madrid, Hugo H; Aguirre-Macedo, María Leopoldina

2011-08-01

107

Lead shot poisons bald eagles  

SciTech Connect

This article describes the controversy between the US Fish and Wildlife Service, the National Wildlife Federation and the increased mortality of bald eagles. The eagles are being poisoned by preying on waterfowl which have ingested lead shot or have been wounded by shot and not recovered. The controversy has resulted in the establishment of new criteria for so-called non-toxic shot waterfowl hunting.

Cohn, J.P.

1985-09-01

108

Fish  

MedlinePLUS

... than others to get diseases from fish and amphibians. A person's age and health status may affect ... more likely to get diseases from fish and amphibians include infants, children younger than 5 years old, ...

109

Prevention of Food Poisoning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The programed text provides a single lesson, four-hour, correspondence subcourse on the prevention of food poisoning. It covers the following areas: a definition of food poisoning; chemical food poisoning; biological food poisoning; causes and prevention of trichinosis; six factors controlling bacteria growth; bacterial infection; prevention of…

Army Quartermaster School, Ft. Lee, VA.

110

Mania following organophosphate poisoning  

PubMed Central

Organophosphate poisoning is the most common poisoning in developing countries. Although the acute muscarinic and nicotinic side-effects of organophosphate poisoning are well known and easily recognized, but neuropsychiatric changes are rarely reported. We are reporting a case of a 33-year-old female who developed manic episode following acute organophosphate poisoning. PMID:25540555

Mohapatra, Satyakam; Rath, Neelmadhav

2014-01-01

111

Imprudent fishing harvests and consequent trophic cascades on the West Florida shelf over the last half century: A harbinger of increased human deaths from paralytic shellfish poisoning along the southeastern United States, in response to oligotrophication?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Within the context of ubiquitous overfishing of piscivores, recent consequent increments of jellyfish and clupeids have occurred at the zooplanktivore trophic level in the eastern Gulf of Mexico (GOM), after overfishing of one of their predators, i.e. red snapper. Initiation of a local trophic cascade thence led to declines of herbivore stocks, documented here on the West Florida shelf. These exacerbating world-wide trophic cascades have resulted in larger harmful algal blooms (HABs), already present at the base of most coastal food webs. Impacts on human health have thus far been minimal within nutrient-rich coastal regions. To provide a setting for past morbidities, consideration is given to chronologies of other trophic cascades within eutrophic, cold water marine ecosystems of the Scotian Sea, in the Gulf of Alaska, off Southwest Africa, within the Barents, White, and Black Seas, in the Gulf of Maine, and finally in the North Sea. Next, comparison is now made here of recent ten-fold increments within Florida waters of both relatively benign and saxitoxic HABs, some of which are fatal to humans. These events are placed in a perspective of other warm shelf systems of the South China and Caribbean Seas to assess prior and possible future poison toxicities of oligotrophic coastal habitats. Past wide-spread kills of fishes and sea urchins over the Caribbean Sea and the downstream GOM are examined in relation to the potential transmission of dinoflagellate saxitoxin and other epizootic poison vectors by western boundary currents over larger "commons" than local embayments. Furthermore, since some HABs produce more potent saxitoxins upon nutrient depletion, recent decisions to ban seasonal fertilizer applications to Florida lawns may have unintended consequences. In the future, human-killing phytoplankton, rather than relatively benign fish-killing HABs of the past, may be dispersed along the southeastern United States seaboard.

Walsh, J. J.; Tomas, C. R.; Steidinger, K. A.; Lenes, J. M.; Chen, F. R.; Weisberg, R. H.; Zheng, L.; Landsberg, J. H.; Vargo, G. A.; Heil, C. A.

2011-06-01

112

Incidence of animal poisoning cases in the Czech Republic: current situation  

PubMed Central

This article reports the most frequent cases of poisoning in farm animals, horses, cats, dogs, wild animals, fish and honey-bees in the Czech Republic. At present, there are fewer cases of acute poisoning caused by high doses of toxic substances but there are more and more cases of chronic poisoning as a consequence of environmental pollution. PMID:21217846

Modrá, Helena; Svobodová, Zde?ka

2009-01-01

113

Lead poisoning in a Mississippi sandhill crane  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Lead poisoning from the ingestion of spent lead shot is well documented in waterfowl (Sanderson and Bellrose 1986) and has been reported in other wetland (Locke et al. 1991, Windingstad et al. 1984) and upland (Hunter and Rosen 1965, Locke and Bagley 1967) avian species. Ingested fishing weights have been implicated in lead poisoning of Trumpeter Swans (Cygnus buccinator) (Blus et al. 1989), Common Loons (Gavia immer) (Locke et al. 1982, Franson and Cliplef 1992, Pokras and Chafe1 1992), Mute Swans (Cygnus olor) (Birkhead 1982), and Sandhill Cranes (Grus canadensis) (Windingstad et al. 1984). The significance of lead poisoning as a mortality factor in avian species other than waterfowl is probably underestimated (Locke and Friend 1992), and any cause of mortality becomes particularly important in species with small population sizes. We report here the first known case of lead poisoning in a Mississippi Sandhill Crane (Grus canadensis pulla), a critically endangered subspecies.

Franson, J. Christian; Hereford, Scott G.

1994-01-01

114

A review of lead poisoning in swans  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Nearly 10,000 swans of six species or subspecies from 14 countries have died from poisoning caused by lead that originated from ingestion of fishing weights, shotgun pellets (shot), or contaminated vegetation or sediments associated with mining and smelting wastes. Lead contamination in mute swans in England caused local population declines during the late 1970s and 1980s. More tundra swans died from lead poisoning than any other species. The extreme record involved an estimated 7200 tundra swans that died over five winters at one locality in North Carolina. The recent legislation to ban lead fishing weights in most of England and Wales and recent replacement of lead shot with steel shot for waterfowl hunting in the United States and a few areas of Europe, including Denmark, are expected to reduce the incidence of lead poisoning in swans.

Blus, L.J.

1994-01-01

115

[Venomous and poisonous animals. IV. Envenomations by venomous aquatic vertebrates].  

PubMed

Epidemiological information on marine envenomation is generally less extensive in Europe than in tropical regions where these injuries are more severe and the need for medical advice is more frequent. For these reasons use of regional Poison Control Centers in the area where the injury occurs must be encouraged. The purpose of this review is to describe envenomation by bony fish (lion fish, stone fish, and catfish), cartilaginous fish (stingrays and poisonous sharks), or other venomous aquatic vertebrates (moray-eels and marine snakes). Understanding of these envenomation syndromes is important not only in tropical areas but also in Europe where importation of dangerous species has increased in recent years. PMID:17691425

Bédry, R; De Haro, L

2007-04-01

116

Food poisoning prevention  

MedlinePLUS

... ways to prepare and store food to prevent food poisoning . It includes tips about what foods to avoid, ... will not be eating. MORE TIPS FOR PREVENTING FOOD POISONING: All milk, yogurt, cheese and other dairy products ...

117

Bracken fern poisoning  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Bracken fern (Pteridium aquilinum) is found throughout the world and enzootic hematuria, bright blindness, and bracken staggers. This chapter reviews the plant, the various poisoning syndrome that it produces, the current strategies to prevent poisoning, and recommended treatments....

118

Poison Control Centers  

MedlinePLUS

... Email not for emergency use. Virginia California Poison Control System Central Office Address University of California San Francisco ... Email not for emergency use. California California Poison Control System - Fresno/Madera Division Address Children's Hospital Central California ...

119

Lip moisturizer poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

This poisoning results from eating or swallowing lip moisturizers containing para-aminobenzoic acid. This is for information only and not for use in the treatment or management of an actual poison ...

120

Hydrochloric acid poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

Hydrocholoric acid is a clear, poisonous liquid. It is highly corrosive, which means it immediately causes severe damage, such ... poisoning due to swallowing or breathing in hydrochloric acid. This is for information only and not for ...

121

Overview of Poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... prescription and over-the-counter drugs, illicit drugs, gases, chemicals, vitamins, food, mushrooms, plants, and animal venom. ... and poisoning-related deaths. Other common poisons include gases, household products, agricultural products, plants, industrial chemicals, vitamins, ...

122

Blue nightshade poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

Blue nightshade poisoning occurs when someone eats parts of the blue nightshade plant. This is for information only and ... The poison is found in the blue nightshade (Solanum dulcamara) plant, especially in the fruit and leaves.

123

The Power of Poison  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This striking new exhibition from the American Museum of Natural History explores the cultural, historical, and biological powers of poison. Designed to complement an in situ exhibit, visitors can learn about poison in nature, myth, and legend. A video introduction to the exhibit is a great place to start and visitors can also meet the curator, Dr. Mark Siddall. In the Poison in Nature area, users can learn how poison is used by tree frogs and other species to defend their territory. The Villains and Victims area includes profiles of notable people in history who have used poison in a nefarious fashion. Additionally, this area contains a free app that features three poison "mysteries" for interested parties to solve. Finally, visitors should be sure to check out the Poison for Good area, which contains information about how treatments from the yew tree (which is quite poisonous) can be used as an anti-cancer medicine.

Siddall, Mark Edward, 1966-

2013-11-16

124

Detecting Conserved Regulatory Elements with the Model Genome of the Japanese Puffer Fish, Fugu rubripes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Comparative vertebrate genome sequencing offers a powerful method for detecting conserved regulatory sequences. We propose that the compact genome of the teleost Fugu rubripes is well suited for this purpose. The evolutionary distance of teleosts from other vertebrates offers the maximum stringency for such evolutionary comparisons. To illustrate the comparative genome approach for F. rubripes, we use sequence comparisons between

Samuel Aparicio; Alastair Morrison; Alex Gould; Jonathan Gilthorpe; Chitrita Chaudhuri; Peter Rigby; Robb Krumlauf; Sydney Brenner

1995-01-01

125

Lead poisoning: An overview  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A problem that should be of great concern to all of us is the lead poisoning of children. First, I would like to present a short overview concerning the reasons everyone should care about lead poisoning, then discuss the history of lead poisoning, what is happening today across the country, and the future.

Gendel, Neil

1993-01-01

126

Lead Poisoning in Childhood.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The magnitude of childhood lead poisoning has been inexplicably neglected by modern medicine and by legislators. However, since the 1970s, increased attention has been focused on lead poisoning, and advances have been made in several areas, including understanding of the neurodevelopmental and behavioral ramifications of lead poisoning, and…

Pueschel, Siegfried M., Ed.; Linakis, James G., Ed.; Anderson, Angela C., Ed.

127

Lead poisoning: The invisible disease. Waterfowl Management handbook  

SciTech Connect

Lead poisoning is an intoxication resulting from absorption of hazardous levels of lead into body tissues. Lead pellets from shot shells, when ingested, are the most common source of lead poisoning in migratory birds. Other far less common sources include lead fishing sinkers, mine wastes, paint pigments, bullets, and other lead objects that are swallowed. Lead poisoning has affected every major species of waterfowl in North America and has also been reported in a wide variety of other birds. The annual magnitude of lead poisoning losses for individual species cannot be precisely determined. However, reasonable estimates of lead-poisoning losses in different species can be made on the basis of waterfowl mortality reports and gizzard analyses. Within the United States, annual losses from lead poisoning have been estimated at between 1.6 and 2.4 million waterfowl, based on a fall flight of 100 million birds.

Friend, M.

1989-01-01

128

Recovery of fish stocks in the Seto Inland Sea.  

PubMed

The total amount of fisheries' yield in the Seto Inland Sea in 1999 was 571,000 MT, consisting of 256,000 MT by fishing and 315,000 MT from aquaculture. About 40,000 people engaged in the fishing and aquaculture industries, earned 129 billion yen (1100 million US$) by fishing and 89 billion yen (770 million $US) by aquaculture. The averaged annual catch for the Seto Inland Sea by fishing was 13 MT/km(2). Division into time periods in terms of eutrophication levels can be made: before 1960 when red sea bream were abundant with ecological divergence (before eutrophication), from 1960 to 1990 when the biomass of anchovy was large (during eutrophication), and after 1990 when the jellyfishes were abundant (excessive eutrophication or high N:P ratio). The fish production will decrease in the sea of jellyfishes. Actually, the amount of catch was 462,000 MT in 1982 which decreased 265,000 MT in 1993, corresponding to 43% in twelve years, then keeping the same level. A big reduction was seen in the catches of the spotlined sardine, anchovy, Spanish mackerel, tiger puffer, short-necked clam, sea cucumber and others. The tiger puffer and Spanish mackerel were abundant as predators in the sea of anchovy. The biomass of anchovy was at its maximum in 1986 and decreased to less than one third in 1996. The stocks of tiger puffer and Spanish mackerel greatly decreased because of the higher fishing pressure compared to the anchovy stock. The fishing power of individual fisheries targeting on the tiger puffer and Spanish mackerel increased substantially when fishing vessel and fishing gear improved, resulting in an excessive fishing effort. A large quantity of small immature fishes is usually caught in the Seto Inland Sea, resulting in growth and/or recruitment overfishing for many species. Hence, it is necessary to promote management of the fisheries so as not to reduce the fish stocks, and to allow the Seto Inland Sea to return from being a sea of jellyfishes to a sea of anchovy, with decreased eutrophication levels. PMID:12787608

Nagai, T

2003-01-01

129

Marijuana poisoning.  

PubMed

The plant Cannabis sativa has been used for centuries for the effects of its psychoactive resins. The term "marijuana" typically refers to tobacco-like preparations of the leaves and flowers. The plant contains more than 400 chemicals but the cannabinoid ?-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is the major psychoactive constituent. "Hashish" is the resin extracted from the tops of flowering plants and generally has a much higher THC concentration. Marijuana is the most commonly used illicit drug in the United States. Currently, several states have passed legislation to decriminalize possession of small amounts of marijuana for both medical and personal use and several other states have similar legislation under consideration. The most common form of marijuana use in humans is inhalation of the smoke of marijuana cigarettes, followed by ingestion. In animals, although secondhand smoke inhalation is possible, the most common source of exposure is through ingestion of the owner's marijuana supply. The minimum lethal oral dose for dogs for THC is more than 3 g/kg. Although the drug has a high margin of safety, deaths have been seen after ingestion of food products containing the more concentrated medical-grade THC butter. There are two specific cannabinoid receptors in humans and dogs, CB1 (primarily in central nervous system) and CB2 (peripheral tissues). In animals, following oral ingestion, clinical effects begin within 60 minutes. All of the neuropharmacologic mechanisms by which cannabinoids produce psychoactive effects have not been identified. However, CB1 activity is believed to be responsible for the majority of cannabinoid clinical effects. Highly lipid soluble, THC is distributed in fat, liver, brain, and renal tissue. Fifteen percent of THC is excreted into the urine and the rest is eliminated in the feces through biliary excretion. Clinical signs of canine intoxication include depression, hypersalivation, mydriasis, hypermetria, vomiting, urinary incontinence, tremors, hypothermia, and bradycardia. Higher dosages may additionally cause nystagmus, agitation, tachypnea, tachycardia, ataxia, hyperexcitability, and seizures. Treatment of marijuana ingestion in animals is largely supportive. Vital signs including temperature and heart rate and rhythm must be continually monitored. Stomach content and urine can be tested for cannabinoids. Gas chromatography and mass spectrometry can be utilized for THC detection but usually may take several days and are not practical for initiation of therapy. Human urine drug-screening tests can be unreliable for confirmation of marijuana toxicosis in dogs owing to the interference of a large number of the metabolites in canine urine. False negatives may also arise if testing occurs too recently following THC ingestion. Thus, the use of human urine drug-screening tests in dogs remains controversial. No specific antidote presently exists for THC poisoning. Sedation with benzodiazepines may be necessary if dogs are severely agitated. Intravenous fluids may be employed to counter prolonged vomiting and to help control body temperature. Recently, the use of intralipid therapy to bind the highly lipophilic THC has been utilized to help reduce clinical signs. The majority of dogs experiencing intoxication after marijuana ingestion recover completely without sequellae. Differential diagnoses of canine THC toxicosis include human pharmaceuticals with central nervous system stimulatory effects, drugs with central nervous system depressant effects, macrolide parasiticides, xylitol, and hallucinogenic mushrooms. PMID:23796481

Fitzgerald, Kevin T; Bronstein, Alvin C; Newquist, Kristin L

2013-02-01

130

The many faces of methylmercury poisoning  

SciTech Connect

Methylmercury (MM) is a very potent neurotoxic agent. Its role in polluting the environment is well documented. A vast amount of study over the past several decades has finally provided insight into many aspects of its effect. Exposure to MM may be through ingestion of poisoned fish or inadvertent misuse of grain treated with the poison as a fungicide. Major epidemics have occurred in Japan (Fetal Minamata disease), Iraq, Pakistan, Guatemala, and Ghana. Sporadic incidences have occurred in the United States and Canada. There is no effective antidote to counteract the effect of MM on the central nervous system, although the information documented should provide hope for more effective therapy in acute cases.

Elhassani, S.B.

1982-10-01

131

Outsmarting Poison Ivy and Other Poisonous Plants  

MedlinePLUS

... or red in fall. May have greenish-white flowers and whitish-yellow berries. Poison Oak: Grows as ... or red in fall. May have yellow-greenish flowers and and whitish green fruits hang in loose ...

132

Numerical simulation of two-dimensional gas flow in puffer-type SF 6 circuit breaker during short current interruption  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents a model to analyze the convection-stabilized local thermodynamic equilibrium electric arc occurring in the arc-quenching chamber of puffer-type circuit breakers during a short-current interruption, which is described with the axial-symmetric Euler's equations and coupled with a one-dimensional electric field. Employing the modified fluid in cell (FLIC) method, the gas flow has been calculated during both loading and

Lin Xin; Lian Jianhua; Xu Jianyan

1998-01-01

133

78 FR 69992 - Guidance for Industry on Purchasing Reef Fish Species Associated With the Hazard of Ciguatera...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration...Hazard of Ciguatera Fish Poisoning; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration...SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration...Hazard of Ciguatera Fish Poisoning.'' The...

2013-11-22

134

78 FR 18273 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Purchasing Reef Fish Species Associated With the Hazard of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration...Hazard of Ciguatera Fish Poisoning; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration...SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration...Hazard of Ciguatera Fish Poisoning.'' The draft...

2013-03-26

135

Phosphorus poisoning in waterfowl  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Black ducks and mallards were found to be highly susceptible to phosphorus poisoning. 3 mg. of white phosphorus per kg. of body weight given in a single dose resulted in death of a black duck in 6 hours. Pathologic changes in both acute and chronic poisoning were studied. Data are presented showing that diagnosis can be made accurately by chemical analysis of stored tissues in cases of phosphorus poisoning.

Coburn, D.R.; DeWitt, J.B.; Derby, J.V., Jr.; Ediger, E.

1950-01-01

136

Red Tide and Shellfish Poisoning  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This EnviroFacts informational page discusses how red tide develops and how people might be affected by this phenomenon. It covers physical damage, oxygen depletion, direct poisoning, and indirect poisoning including paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP), diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP), neurotoxic shellfish poisoning (NSP), amnesiac shellfish poisoning (ASP), and aerosol toxins. The page concludes with a discussion of red tide and the role of the sea fisheries research institute.

Maneveldt, Gavin W.

137

Fate of benzoate paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins from Gymnodinium catenatum in shellfish and fish detected by pre-column oxidation and liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection.  

PubMed

Several cultured strains of Gymnodinium catenatum isolated worldwide have been shown to produce important proportions of the recently discovered benzoate paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins GC1 through GC3. These toxins pose a new challenge for the HPLC analysis of shellfish predating during blooms of this microalga because due to their hydrophobicity are retained along the C18 solid-phase extraction step employed to eliminate interferences. The production of GC toxins was confirmed in a clone of G.catenatum isolated from the Portuguese Northwest coast during the winter bloom of 2005, in addition to a clone from 1989 reported previously by other authors. The major peroxide oxidation products of GC1+2 and GC3 were, respectively, dcGTX2+3 and dcSTX. The search of benzoate analogues in bivalves contaminated during the winter 2005 bloom showed these analogues constituted a minor component of the N(1)-H containing toxins, as selectively detected by peroxide oxidation. While in G.catenatum GC1-3 were the major components after C1+2 and B1, in bivalves dcGTX2+3 and dcSTX were the major components after C1+2 and B1. Similar conclusions were later extended to more shellfish species naturally contaminated during the autumn bloom of 2007. In the gut content of sardines GC toxins were present, while in crabs predating upon shellfish, these were absent. A generalised conversion of GC toxins into decarbamoyl analogues was confirmed by in vitro incubations of bivalve's digestive glands with semi-purified GC toxins. This is the first report of widespread carbamoylase activity in shellfish, exclusively targeted at benzoate PSP analogues and that is heat-inactivated. Despite the high proportion of benzoate analogues produced by G.catenatum, analyses of bivalves contaminated with PSP toxins seem to be simplified due to the important conversion of benzoate into decarbamoyl analogues that occurs in bivalves. These last analogues are detected by common HPLC methods used for food protection. PMID:18371975

Vale, Paulo

2008-05-01

138

Lead Poisoning in Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication is a guide to help social and health workers plan a preventive campaign against lead poisoning, a cause of mental retardation other neurological handicaps, and death among children. The main victims are 1- to 6-year-olds living in areas where deteriorating housing prevails. Among the causes of lead poisoning are: ingestion of…

Lin-Fu, Jane S.

139

Preventing Accidental Poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... six, and close to half of poisonings in children of this age group involve a misuse of medicines. Below are safety tips that every parent, caregiver, and grandparent should use to prevent accidental poisonings: Avoid taking medications in the presence of children, as they often ...

140

Eliminating Lead Poisoning  

E-print Network

Eliminating Childhood Lead Poisoning: A Federal Strategy Targeting Lead Paint Hazards President Poisoning: A Federal Strategy Targeting Lead Paint Hazards February 2000 President`s Task Force was that the lead paint, dust and soil in and around our treasured home was the culprit. Worse yet, a month later

141

Mass carbon monoxide poisoning  

PubMed Central

The largest occurrence of carbon monoxide poisoning in Britain demonstrates the potential for mass accidental poisoning. It emphasises the need for strict public health controls and the importance of good liaison between emergency services to ensure that such events are quickly recognised and that the necessary resources are organised. PMID:10658990

McGuffie, C; Wyatt, J; Kerr, G; Hislop, W

2000-01-01

142

Oxalic acid poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... and not for use in the treatment or management of an actual poison exposure. If you have an exposure, you should call your local emergency number (such as 911) or a local poison control center at 1-800-222-1222.

143

Automatic dishwasher soap poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... and not for use in the treatment or management of an actual poison exposure. If you have an exposure, you should call your local emergency number (such as 911) or the National Poison Control Center at 1-800-222-1222.

144

Drain cleaner poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... and not for use in the treatment or management of an actual poison exposure. If you have an exposure, you should call your local emergency number (such as 911) or a local poison control center at 1-800-222-1222.

145

Mercuric chloride poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... and not for use in the treatment or management of an actual poison exposure. If you have an exposure, you should call your local emergency number (such as 911) or a local poison control center at 1-800-222-1222.

146

Cuticle remover poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... and not for use in the treatment or management of an actual poison exposure. If you have an exposure, you should call your local emergency number (such as 911) or the National Poison Control Center at 1-800-222-1222.

147

Nitric acid poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... and not for use in the treatment or management of an actual poison exposure. If you have an exposure, you should call your local emergency number (such as 911) or a local poison control center at 1-800-222-1222.

148

Hair spray poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... and not for use in the treatment or management of an actual poison exposure. If you have an exposure, you should call your local emergency number (such as 911) or the National Poison Control Center at 1-800-222-1222.

149

Pine oil poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... and not for use in the treatment or management of an actual poison exposure. If you have an exposure, you should call your local emergency number (such as 911) or the National Poison Control Center at 1-800-222-1222.

150

Hand lotion poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... and not for use in the treatment or management of an actual poison exposure. If you have an exposure, you should call your local emergency number (such as 911) or the National Poison Control Center at 1-800-222-1222.

151

Fuel oil poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... and not for use in the treatment or management of an actual poison exposure. If you have an exposure, you should call your local emergency number (such as 911) or the National Poison Control Center at 1-800-222-1222.

152

Hair bleach poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... and not for use in the treatment or management of an actual poison exposure. If you have an exposure, you should call your local emergency number (such as 911) or the National Poison Control Center at 1-800-222-1222.

153

Potassium carbonate poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... and not for use in the treatment or management of an actual poison exposure. If you have an exposure, you should call your local emergency number (such as 911) or a local poison control center at 1-800-222-1222.

154

Lighter fluid poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... and not for use in the treatment or management of an actual poison exposure. If you have an exposure, you should call your local emergency number (such as 911) or the National Poison Control Center at 1-800-222-1222.

155

Plastic casting resin poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... and not for use in the treatment or management of an actual poison exposure. If you have an exposure, you should call your local emergency number (such as 911) or the National Poison Control Center at 1-800-222-1222.

156

Plastic resin hardener poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... and not for use in the treatment or management of an actual poison exposure. If you have an exposure, you should call your local emergency number (such as 911) or the National Poison Control Center at 1-800-222-1222.

157

Face powder poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... and not for use in the treatment or management of an actual poison exposure. If you have an exposure, you should call your local emergency number (such as 911) or the National Poison Control Center at 1-800-222-1222.

158

Aluminium phosphide poisoning.  

PubMed

We describe a lethal poisoning in a healthy woman caused by deliberate ingestion of aluminium phosphide (AlP), a pesticide used to kill rodents and insects. Toxicity of AlP and review of cases reported to the National Poisons Information Service (London) 1997-2003 are discussed. PMID:16373788

Bogle, R G; Theron, P; Brooks, P; Dargan, P I; Redhead, J

2006-01-01

159

Lead poisoning in common loons (Gavia immer).  

PubMed

Two emaciated common loons (Gavia immer) were believed to have died of lead poisoning when fragments of fishing lines and lead sinkers were discovered in their stomachs. Later a third emaciated loon, which had only the remnants of fishing line in its stomach, was suspected of being a possible lead-poisoning victim when all other test results were negative. The liver lead levels in the first two loons were 20.6 ppm and 46.1 ppm (wet weight), and the level in the third was 38.52 ppm (wet weight). Thirteen common loons dying of other causes had liver lead levels of less than 1 ppm (wet weight). PMID:7103895

Locke, L N; Kerr, S M; Zoromski, D

1982-01-01

160

Poisonous Plants Web Pages  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Spearheaded by Dr. Mary C. Smith and Professor Dan Brown of Cornell University's College of Veterinary Medicine and Department of Animal Science respectively, Poisonous Plants Web Pages contains color images of poisonous plants and affected animals, and provides information concerning the biological mechanisms, diagnosis and prevention of animal poisoning due to toxic plants and other natural flora (fungi, etc.). Pictures and information can be accessed through an alphabetical list of Latin botanical names (common names are also included), a list of the specific type of poisons present, or a list of species of animals commonly affected. Additionally, there are several links to related poisonous plant sites. Although text is not yet complete for many species, pictures for each plant and links to related sites are provided.

1997-01-01

161

Chapter 1 Childhood Lead Poisoning Childhood Lead Poisoning  

E-print Network

Chapter 1 Childhood Lead Poisoning 1 Childhood Lead Poisoning in the United States The problem of childhood lead poisoning. Child- hood lead poisoning is a major, preventable environmental health problem environmental sources of lead exposure, especially from gasoline and food. But 83% of all homes built

162

Look Out! It's Poison Ivy!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides background information on poison ivy and offers suggestions for instructional activities. Includes illustrations of the varieties of poison ivy leaf forms and poison ivy look-alikes. Highlights interesting facts and cases associated with poison ivy and its relatives. (ML)

Darlington, Elizabeth, Day

1986-01-01

163

Case report: lead poisoning in common loons (Gavia immer)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Two emaciated common loons (Gavia immer) were believed to have died of lead poisoning when fragments of fishing lines and lead sinkers were discovered in their stomachs. Later a third emaciated loon, which had only the remnants of fishing line in its stomach, was suspected of being a possible lead-poisoning victim when all other test results were negative. The liver lead levels in the first two loons were 20.6 ppm and 46.1 ppm (wet weight), and the level in the third was 38.52 ppm (wet weight). Thirteen common loons dying of other causes had liver lead levels of less than 1 ppm (wet weight).

Locke, L.N.; Kerr, Stephen M.; Zoromski, D.

1982-01-01

164

Sulfuric acid poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

Sulfuric acid is a very strong chemical that is corrosive. Corrosive means it can cause severe burns and ... or mucous membranes. This article discusses poisoning from sulfuric acid. This is for information only and not for ...

165

Occupational cyanide poisoning  

PubMed Central

Cyanide poisoning has existed for centuries. In most cases, cyanide is combined with other toxic substances; for example with carbon monoxide in fire smoke. Cases of pure cyanide poisoning are rare, and usually due to accidental exposure. Their treatment is based on oxygenation and the infusion of hydroxocobalamin. The seriousness of this type of poisoning calls for a rapid and specific response, which demonstrates the usefulness of non-hospital based medical treatment. The authors report here the case of a man who was the victim of occupational poisoning with sodium cyanide and who was treated at the workplace by fire-fighters and the Service Mobile d’Urgence et Reanimation emergency ambulance service. PMID:22674698

Amizet, Loic; Pruvot, Gauthier; Remy, Sophie; Kfoury, Michel

2011-01-01

166

Sodium carbonate poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

Sodium carbonate (also known as washing soda or soda ash) is a chemical found in many household and ... products. This article focuses on poisoning due to sodium carbonate. This is for information only and not for ...

167

Calcium hydroxide poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

Calcium hydroxide is a white powder produced by mixing calcium oxide ("lime") with water. Calcium hydroxide poisoning ... Blood in the stool Burns in the esophagus (food pipe) Severe abdominal pain Vomiting Vomiting blood Heart ...

168

Caulking compound poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

Caulking compounds are substances used to seal cracks and holes around windows and other openings. Caulking compound poisoning occurs when someone swallows these substances. This is for information only and not ...

169

Household glue poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

Glue poisoning ... Glue Note: This list may not include all sources of household glue. ... Symptoms of breathing in ("sniffing") glue fumes may include: ... appearance Excitability Headache Irritability Loss of appetite ...

170

Tips to Prevent Poisonings  

MedlinePLUS

... local take back programs in your community. Household Chemicals and Carbon Monoxide Information about drug overdoses and ... using a product that may be poisonous. Keep chemical products in their original bottles or containers. Do ...

171

Poisonous Plant Management.  

E-print Network

parts of plant are nuttallii deathcamas weakness, low temperature, weak and poisonous, even when dry irregular pulse, irregular breathing, coma 11 County Extension Office ~ Texas Agricultural . Extension -':: Service The Texas A&M University System...

McGinty, Allan

1985-01-01

172

Metal cleaner poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

Metal cleaners are very strong chemical products that contain acids. This article discusses poisoning from swallowing or ... Metal cleaners contain organic compounds called hydrocarbons, including: 1,2 butylene oxide Boric acid Cocoyl sarcosine Dicarboxylic ...

173

Mineral spirits poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

Mineral spirits are liquid chemicals used to thin paint and as a degreaser. Mineral spirits poisoning occurs ... Mineral spirits ( Stoddard solvent ) Some paints Some floor and ... fluids White spirits Note: This list may not be all-inclusive.

174

Hydrogen peroxide poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

White SR, Hedge MW. Gastrointestinal toxicology. In: Shannon MW, Borron SW, Burns MJ, eds. Haddad and Winchester's Clinical Management of Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders Elsevier; 2007: ...

175

Ammonium hydroxide poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

Belson M. Ammonia and Nitrogen Oxides. In: Shannon MW, Borron SW, Burns MJ, eds. Haddad and Winchester's Clinical Management of Poisoning and Drug Overdose. 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders Elsevier; 2007: ...

176

Is It Poison Ivy?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

With this Web site from Florida Plants Online, you don't need to be a botanist to tell poison ivy apart from its benign look-alike, Virginia creeper. Photos and detailed identification tips, as well as numerous links to additional information, help readers learn how to avoid "one of nature's most dreaded plants." The site also includes information on how to diagnose a poison ivy reaction (including a link to images of contact dermatitis).

177

Wheat Pasture Poisoning.  

E-print Network

the time the first symptoms develop until the animal passes into the comatose condi- ;ion. If treatment is not begun before coma, there ir little chance of recovery. While wheat pasture poisoning has been re- yrted in dry cows, heifers and sheep, we... used gave definite positive tests. It is felt, however, that further work of this nature might be of value. TREATMENT OF CASES During the period covered by these studies, the basic treatment for wheat pasture poisoning has been the intravenous...

Crookshank, H. R.; Sims, Frank H.

1956-01-01

178

A review of lead poisoning in swans (Cygnus spp.)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Nearly 10,000 swans of six species or subspecies from 14 countries have died from poisoning caused by lead that originated from ingestion of fishing weights, shotgun pellets (shot), or contaminated vegetation or sediments associated with mining and smelting wastes. Lead contamination in mute swans in England caused local population declines during the late 1970s and 1980s. More tundra swans died from lead poisoning than any other species. The extreme record involved an estimated 7200 tundra swans that died over five winters at one locality in North Carolina. The recent legislation to ban lead fishing weights in most of England and Wales and recent replacement of lead shot with steel shot for waterfowl hunting in the United States and a few areas of Europe, including Denmark, are expected to reduce the incidence of lead poisoning in swans.

Blus, L.J.

1994-01-01

179

Oil-based paint poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

Paint - oil based - poisoning ... Hydrocarbons are the primary poisonous ingredient in oil paints. Some oil paints have heavy metals such as lead, mercury, cobalt, and barium added as pigment. These heavy metals can cause additional ...

180

In Case of Pesticide Poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... from a local hospital, physician, or the nearest poison control center. If you believe you have been ... handle a pesticide poisoning, call the National Pesticide Information Center at 1-800-858-7378 (toll-free to ...

181

Boric Acid Poisoning  

PubMed Central

Boric acid poisoning in 11 infants, occurring in the newborn nursery as a result of the accidental and inadvertent use of 2.5% boric acid in the preparation of the formulae, is reported. Five of the infants died. All except two exhibited the classical symptomatology of acute boric acid poisoning, namely, diarrhea, vomiting, erythema, exfoliation, desquamation of the skin, and marked central nervous system irritation. Early manifestations of poisoning were nonspecific, and one patient died before skin manifestations were noted. Peritoneal dialysis, instituted in nine cases, was found to be the most effective method of treatment. It is recommended that boric acid, which is of doubtful therapeutic value, should be completely removed from hospitals, dispensaries and pharmacopoeias. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2 PMID:14166459

Wong, L. C.; Heimbach, M. D.; Truscott, D. R.; Duncan, B. D.

1964-01-01

182

Methemoglobinemia in aluminum phosphide poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction. Acute aluminum phosphide (AlP) poisoning is one of the most common causes of acute pesticide poisoning in Iran. Hydrogen phosphide or phosphine gas is produced following reaction of AlP with water even at ambient humidity. Methemoglobinemia is a rare finding following phosphine poisoning. In this paper, two cases of fatal AlP poisoning complicated by methemoglobinemia are reported. Case Report.

Shahin Shadnia; Kambiz Soltaninejad; Hossein Hassan ian-Moghadam; Anahaita Sadeghi; Hormat Rahimzadeh; Nasim Zamani; Alireza Ghasemi-Toussi; Mohammad Abdollahi

2011-01-01

183

Carbon monoxide poisoning  

PubMed Central

Carbon monoxide poisoning is a significant cause of illness and death. Its protean symptoms probably lead to a gross underestimation of its true incidence. Low levels of carbon monoxide aggravate chronic cardiopulmonary problems, and high levels are associated with cardiac arrhythmias and cerebral edema. Patients who survive acute poisoning are at risk of delayed neurologic sequelae. The measurement of carboxyhemoglobin levels does not reveal the tissue levels of carbon monoxide but is useful in determining therapy. Treatment includes the monitoring and management of cardiac arrhythmias and oxygenation. Hyperbaric oxygenation is beneficial, but there are currently no definite criteria for its use. PMID:4027805

Dolan, Michael C.

1985-01-01

184

Poison Ivy, Oak and Sumac  

MedlinePLUS

If you spend time outdoors, chances are you have been bothered by poison ivy, poison oak or poison sumac at some point. Most people are sensitive to the plants' oily sap. The sap is in the root, stems, ... skin and how sensitive you are to it. Problems can also happen if the ...

185

Bupropion poisoning: a case series  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To investigate the toxicity of bupropion hydrochloride in deliberate self- poisoning in adults and accidental ingestion by children. Design and setting: Prospective study of cases identified from calls to the New South Wales Poisons Information Centre (NSW PIC), with follow-up through hospital medical records. Participants: Patients with bupropion poisoning managed in hospital, about whom the NSW PIC was contacted

Corrine R Balit; Christa N Lynch; Geoffrey K Isbister

186

Poison Ivy, Oak, and Sumac  

MedlinePLUS

... A "black dot variant" has been described. (The oil from the plant leaves a black dot on the skin.) Extreme ... to wash all potentially exposed areas since the oil of the poison ivy, poison oak, and poison sumac plants adhere to the skin. Once the oil has ...

187

Lead Poisoning in Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Urban children are exposed to lead through the air they breathe, the water they drink, and the food and nonfood substances they ingest. The history, diagnosis, and treatment of lead poisoning in these children are discussed. Includes information on the toxicology of lead and the various risk classes. (JN)

Boeckx, Roger L.

1986-01-01

188

Diarrheic Shellfish Poisoning  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web page discusses Diarrheic Shellfish Poisoning (DSP), a gastrointestinal illness caused by the consumption of contaminated shellfish. The associated toxins are okadaic acid and its derivatives, which are produced by the marine dinoflagellate Dinophysis. This page describes clinical presentation (symptoms) of DSP, diagnosis, management and treatment, chemical structure of okadaic acid, molecular mechanism of action, and references.

189

Tainted Water, Poison Paint.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent research shows lead poisoning is more widespread and even more dangerous to infants and young children than previously thought. A bill proposed in Congress would require schools and day-care centers to test for lead. Summarizes lead's health hazards and how to test drinking water. (MLF)

Natale, Jo Anna

1991-01-01

190

Oven cleaner poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... water for at least 15 minutes. If the chemical was swallowed, immediately give the person water or milk, unless instructed otherwise by a health care provider. If the person breathed in the poison, immediately move him or her to fresh air.

191

Sodium bisulfate poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... that make it hard to swallow. If the chemical is on the skin or in the eyes, flush with lots of water for at least 15 minutes. If the person breathed in the poison, immediately move him or her to fresh air.

192

Mildew remover poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... control or a health care professional. If the chemical is on the skin or in the eyes, flush with lots of water for at least 15 minutes. If the person breathed in the poison, immediately move him or her to fresh air.

193

Potassium hydroxide poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... water for at least 15 minutes. If the chemical was swallowed, immediately give the person water or milk, unless instructed otherwise by a health care provider. If the person breathed in the poison, immediately move him or her to fresh air.

194

Metal polish poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... control or a health care professional. If the chemical is on the skin or in the eyes, flush with lots of water for at least 15 minutes. If the person breathed in the poison, immediately move him or her to fresh air.

195

Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... sea otters + , sea birds. Squid, zooplankton, and other benthic invertebrates. *Found to contain algal toxins, or to be adversely affected by toxic or harmful marine algae. + Causative algae implicated, not confirmed. Medical Community Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning Additional Information on PSP including: ...

196

Caladium plant poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... eating parts of the Caladium plant and other plants belonging to the Araceae family. This is for information only and not for use in the treatment or management of an actual poison exposure. If you have an exposure, you should call ...

197

Carbon Monoxide Poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... How can I avoid CO poisoning from my car or truck? Have a mechanic check the exhaust system of your car or truck every year. A small leak in ... to a build up of CO inside the car. Never run your car or truck inside a ...

198

[Plant poisoning cases in Turkey].  

PubMed

In Turkey, the majority of the population live in rural areas where they use wild plants as food and medicine. The confusion of an edible plant with a poisonous one give rise to serious poisoning which may even result in death. The incidence of plant poisoning in Turkey is about 6% and especially high among children between ages of 2 and 11 living in rural areas. The number of species that cause poisoning is around twenty and Hyoscyamus niger (Solanaceae), Colchicum species (Liliaceae), Conium maculatum (Umbelliferae) and Prunus species (Rosaceae) are the most important. Mushroom poisoning is more frequent in spring and fall. The main reasons are their widespread usage as food and the inexperience of the gatherers in distinguishing the edibles from the poisonous. Amanita phalloides, A. verna, A. muscaria, A. pantherina are responsible for severe cases of poisoning. PMID:7857034

Oztekin-Mat, A

1994-01-01

199

[Poisoning and drug emergency in practice].  

PubMed

Intoxicated patients make up 5-10% of all patients seen at emergency departments. The management of these patients is not always simple. Many of them are seen after ingestions of relatively non-toxic substances that require minimal medical care, intentional poisoning however often requires the highest standards of medical and nursing care and therefore the admission to an emergency department is mandatory. At admission, the involved substances are often not known since some of the patients are comatose. In such cases, the information from relatives and friends can be very crucial but to get hold of these sometimes essential "hints" is not always easy. Knowledge of the specific toxic agent allows the physician to plan a rational approach to the definitive management of the intoxicated patient after the vital functions have been stabilised. In some cases, very rare intoxications but with typical clinical signs do occur (e.g scromboid fish poisoning, coprinus-syndrome), which needs special diagnostic and therapeutic steps and a great deal of clinical experience. In most cases it is preferable to contact the Poison Control Center for additional advice. PMID:15999939

Kohler, H P; Nohl, E

2005-06-01

200

Management of thallium poisoning.  

PubMed

A case of acute thallium poisoning in a 67-year-old Chinese woman is described. She presented with acute pain in the chest, abdomen, and lower limbs. The diagnosis was not made, however, until alopecia developed. Detoxification treatment, which included Prussian blue (potassium ferric hexacyanoferrate) was then given, but further neurological damage occurred. The patient's motor function recovered after 1 year, but residual sensory neuropathy remained. This case illustrates that tissue-bound thallium may cause prolonged neurological damage if detoxification therapy is not commenced within 72 hours of the onset of acute poisoning. Acute abdominal pain and painful neuropathy in the lower extremities are important early diagnostic clues for timely therapy. However, by the time alopecia develops-typically around 2 weeks after the onset of symptoms-detoxification therapy may not be able to prevent the development of prolonged neurological damage. PMID:11025853

Pau, P W

2000-09-01

201

Mechanical sensitivity of the facial nerve fibers innervating the anterior palate of the puffer, Fugu pardalis , and their central projection to the primary taste center  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1.Mechanical and chemical sensitivity of the palatine nerve, ramus palatinus facialis, innervating the anterior palate of the puffer,Fugu pardalis, and their central projection to the primary taste center were investigated.2.Application of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) to the central cut end of the palatine nerve resulted in retrogradely labeled neurons in the geniculate ganglion but no such neurons in the trigeminal

Sadao Kiyohara; Iwao Hidaka; Junzoh Kitoh; Satoru Yamashita

1985-01-01

202

Managing aluminum phosphide poisonings.  

PubMed

Aluminum phosphide (AlP) is a cheap, effective and commonly used pesticide. However, unfortunately, it is now one of the most common causes of poisoning among agricultural pesticides. It liberates lethal phosphine gas when it comes in contact either with atmospheric moisture or with hydrochloric acid in the stomach. The mechanism of toxicity includes cellular hypoxia due to the effect on mitochondria, inhibition of cytochrome C oxidase and formation of highly reactive hydroxyl radicals. The signs and symptoms are nonspecific and instantaneous. The toxicity of AlP particularly affects the cardiac and vascular tissues, which manifest as profound and refractory hypotension, congestive heart failure and electrocardiographic abnormalities. The diagnosis of AlP usually depends on clinical suspicion or history, but can be made easily by the simple silver nitrate test on gastric content or on breath. Due to no known specific antidote, management remains primarily supportive care. Early arrival, resuscitation, diagnosis, decrease the exposure of poison (by gastric lavage with KMnO(4), coconut oil), intensive monitoring and supportive therapy may result in good outcome. Prompt and adequate cardiovascular support is important and core in the management to attain adequate tissue perfusion, oxygenation and physiologic metabolic milieu compatible with life until the tissue poison levels are reduced and spontaneous circulation is restored. In most of the studies, poor prognostic factors were presence of acidosis and shock. The overall outcome improved in the last decade due to better and advanced intensive care management. PMID:21887030

Gurjar, Mohan; Baronia, Arvind K; Azim, Afzal; Sharma, Kalpana

2011-07-01

203

Carbon monoxide poisoning (acute)  

PubMed Central

Introduction Carbon monoxide is an odourless, colourless gas, and poisoning causes hypoxia, cell damage, and death. Exposure to carbon monoxide is measured either directly from blood samples and expressed as a percentage of carboxyhaemoglobin, or indirectly using the carbon monoxide in expired breath. Carboxyhaemoglobin percentage is the most frequently used biomarker of carbon monoxide exposure. Although the diagnosis of carbon monoxide poisoning can be confirmed by detecting elevated levels of carboxyhaemoglobin in the blood, the presence of clinical signs and symptoms after known exposure to carbon monoxide should not be ignored. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of oxygen treatments for acute carbon monoxide poisoning? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to March 2007 (BMJ Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 12 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review, we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: 100% hyperbaric oxygen, oxygen 28%, and oxygen 100% by non-re-breather mask. PMID:19445736

2008-01-01

204

Carbon monoxide poisoning (acute)  

PubMed Central

Introduction Carbon monoxide is an odourless, colourless gas, and poisoning causes hypoxia, cell damage, and death. Exposure to carbon monoxide is measured either directly from blood samples and expressed as a percentage of carboxyhaemoglobin, or indirectly using the carbon monoxide in expired breath. Carboxyhaemoglobin percentage is the most frequently used biomarker of carbon monoxide exposure. Although the diagnosis of carbon monoxide poisoning can be confirmed by detecting elevated levels of carboxyhaemoglobin in the blood, the presence of clinical signs and symptoms after known exposure to carbon monoxide should not be ignored. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of oxygen treatments for acute carbon monoxide poisoning? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to June 2010 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 12 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review, we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: 100% hyperbaric oxygen, oxygen 28%, and oxygen 100% by non-re-breather mask. PMID:21418677

2010-01-01

205

Chemical and Biological Summer Poisons  

PubMed Central

Summer has its own special poisoning hazards for the vacationer, gardener or outdoorsman. Because of the comparative variety of accidental human poisonings from contact with these seasonal toxic substances, either artificial or natural, many family physicians are unfamiliar with their effects. Some of us, unfortunately, will be called upon to deal with them over the next few months. This article highlights some of the hazards, outlines their toxicology and summarizes the treatment of the poisoned patient. PMID:20468771

Lees, Ronald E. M.

1972-01-01

206

PESTICIDE POISONINGS REPORTED BY FLORIDA CITRUS FIELDWORKERS  

EPA Science Inventory

In a 1981 survey of 1811 Florida citrus fieldworkers, 25 pesticide related poisoning incidents involving 29 fieldworkers were reported. Suspected poisonings were categorized into possible and confirmed poisonings, and from these reports it was possible to project an estimated 438...

207

Four new records of fish species (Cypriniformes: Nemacheilidae, Balitoridae; Characiformes: Prochilodontidae) and corrections of two misidentified fish species (Tetraodontiformes: Tetraodontidae; Beloniformes: Belonidae) in Yunnan, China.  

PubMed

In this study, six fish species of five families are reported for the first time from Yunnan Province, China. The nemacheilid Schistura amplizona Kottelat, 2000 is reported from the Luosuojiang River and Nanlahe River subbasins, Mekong basin; the prochilodontid Prochilodus lineatus (Valenciennes, 1837), the balitorid Vanmanenia serrilineata Kottelat, 2000, and the tetraodontid Monotrete turgidus Kottelat, 2000, from Nanlahe River subbasin, Mekong basin; the balitorid Beaufortia daon (Mai, 1978), and the belonid Xenentodon canciloides (Bleeker, 1854), both, from Black River subbasin, Red River basin. The freshwater puffer M. turgidus and the needlefish X. canciloides have been previously misidentified as Tetraodon leiurus (Bleeker, 1950) and Tylosurus strongylurus (van Hasselt, 1823), respectively. PMID:24470454

Endruweit, Marco

2014-01-01

208

Poisonous snakebite in Utah.  

PubMed Central

A retrospective study was done of poisonous snakebite in Utah to determine the current epidemiology and scope of treatment, reviewing emergency department logs and other sources statewide for a 69-month period. Of 61 cases of poisonous snakebite identified, 13 occurred in snake hobbyists or venom laboratory personnel and were considered nonaccidental, and 48 were inflicted by native noncaptive snakes. These bites were considered accidental, and all were presumed to be from rattlesnakes. Nearly three fourths of the victims were male, ranging in age from 2 to 56 years (mean, 22 years). Most accidental bites occurred in areas of high human populations, during the summer months, in the afternoon or evening hours, and during recreational activities. Of the 48 bites, 11 (23%) were provoked. Two thirds of bites were on the upper extremities, and a third were on the lower extremities. More than half of the victims had no first-aid treatment recorded. Of those who did receive first aid, many were subjected to possibly harmful treatments, including tourniquets and ice application. The median time to a hospital was 68 minutes, with a range of 15 to 440 minutes. Swelling and discoloration were the most common signs and pain and paresthesia the most common symptoms. Half the bites resulted in minimal or no envenomation, 17 (35%) produced moderate envenomation, and 6 (12%) severe envenomation. Most patients with moderate or severe envenomation received antivenin, but the dosages given were usually less than recommended dosages. Five patients received surgical treatment based on clinical findings. One child died in a snake-handling incident. Long-term morbidity was unknown due to lack of follow-up. The Utah Poison Control Center was poorly utilized as a reporting and informational resource. Images Figure 1. PMID:8553638

Plowman, D M; Reynolds, T L; Joyce, S M

1995-01-01

209

[Accidental oral mercurochrome poisoning].  

PubMed

Neonatal mercury poisoning, especially that due to merbromin ingestion, is uncommon. We describe the case of a 10 day old newborn infant who was given mercurochrome orally for 7 days due to misunderstanding of medical instructions. Initial symptoms included loss of appetite and low weight increase. Elevated blood mercury concentrations were found. Chelating therapy with dimercaprol was initiated and the patient's evolution was good. We discuss the potential toxicity of mercury and emphasise the importance of the transmission of information by physicians, especially to the immigrant population. PMID:11141371

Ayala Curiel J; Nieto Conde C; Santana Rodríguez C; Urbón Artero A; Gracia Remiro R

2000-11-01

210

Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning (PSP)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web page discusses Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning (PSP), a marine toxin disease with both gastrointestinal and neurologic symptoms reported worldwide. It is caused predominantly by the consumption of contaminated shellfish. Gonyaulacoid dinoflagellates are the source of PSP marine toxins. These unicellular dinoflagellates develop algal blooms throughout the world and produce at least 12 toxins which are tetrahydropurines, and heat and acid stable. Saxitoxin was the first characterized and the best understood. This page describes clinical presentation of PSP (including symptoms), diagnosis, management and treatment, the chemical structure of saxitoxin, molecular mechanism of action, and references.

211

Tips for Identifying Poison Ivy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online article, from Biodiversity Counts, is a tip sheet to help students learn how to spot and avoid poison ivy. It has an overview of the different varieties of the plant that grow in the Americas and Asia, an illustration of the compound leaf with three leaflets (trifoliate) and details about poison ivy's leaf type, leaf arrangement, growth form, flowers, fruits, and relatives.

212

Population Cycles of Poisonous Plants  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A poisonous plant is harmless until it is consumed. Once eaten the degree of damage depends on the amount of the plant consumed or more specifically the amount of toxin entering and absorbed by the body. Poisoning therefore, depends on two principal variables; the toxin level in the plant and the ...

213

Identifying Plant Poisoning in Livestock  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Poisonous plant intoxication is a common and often deadly problem that annually costs the livestock industry more than $340 million in the western United States alone. Despite the cost or frequency, definitively identifying or diagnosing poisoning by plants in livestock is challenging. The purpos...

214

Amnesic Shellfish Poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... toxin, domoic acid. Shellfish beds are closed to harvesting when the domoic acid concentration reaches 20 µg/g shellfish meat. However, since fish and crab viscera can also contain domoic acid, ...

215

[Mushroom poisoning in Portugal].  

PubMed

The renewed interest in mycology has been reflected in growing use of wild mushrooms in culinary, driven by its nutritional, organoleptic and commercial value. However, the international scientific literature describes several syndromes of poisoning by mushrooms. We live, therefore, a paradigm conducive to an increase of mycetism, whose diagnosis requires a high level of suspicion and knowledge of clinical profiles. In Portugal, the real dimension of this problem is unknown. Although some mycetisms, such as the hepatotoxic syndrome, have high morbidity and mortality, their relative incidences are unknown. Add up to the shortage of international scientific literature, often outdated and inappropriate to clinical practice. In this context, this article provides an updated epidemiological and clinical perspective emphasizing a narrative and descriptive information on the forms of presentation, differential diagnosis and therapeutic approach, with the ultimate goal of the elaboration of a national diagram-oriented approach to decision-making diagnosis. We analyzed all the clinical records of patients admitted into ten hospitals between 1990 and 2008, notified with the code 988.1 of GDH (acute poisoning by mushrooms). There were registered demographic data, way of presentation, time between ingestion and onset of symptoms, the annual distribution, clinical profile, clinical and analytical treatment performed and complications. We identified 93 cases of acute poisoning by mushrooms, with equal gender distribution and inclusion of individuals of all age groups (from 1 to 85 years), but with greater representation from 21 to 50 years. There was a bimodal seasonal pattern, with a higher peak between September and December and a second in the spring. The hepatotoxic profile presentation corresponded to 63.4% and 31.7% of the cases to gastroenteritis syndrome. The mortality in cases of hepatotoxicity was 11.8%. The developmental profile of the rate of prothrombin time (PT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and bilirubin, was an important setting for diagnosis and prognosis. TGO increases early, always within 48 hours, having an essential role in the diagnosis of hepatotoxicity. Despite the late elevation of bilirubin, the cases of death revealed that there was an earlier increase, reaching higher values, which seems to have a prognostic value, to be evaluated with further studies. Finally, we propose a diagram of diagnostic performance, considerating the generalized lack of mycological diagnosis in Portugal, which emphasizes the need for a careful history, focused on quantifying the latency period. PMID:22849912

Brandão, José Luís; Pinheiro, J; Pinho, D; Correia da Silva, D; Fernandes, E; Fragoso, G; Costa, M I; Silva, A

2011-12-01

216

Poisoning mortality, 1985-1995.  

PubMed Central

Poisoning was reported as the underlying cause of death for 18,549 people in the United States in 1995 and was ranked as the third leading cause of injury mortality, following deaths from motor vehicle traffic injuries and firearm injuries. Poisoning was the leading cause of injury death for people ages 35 to 44 years. Poisoning death rates were higher in 1995 than in any previous year since at least 1979. From 1990 to 1995, the age-adjusted rate of death from poisoning increased 25%; all of the increase was associated with drugs. About three-fourths of poisoning deaths (77%) in 1995 were caused by drugs. The age-adjusted rate of drug-related poisoning deaths for males (7.2 per 100,000) in 1995 was more than twice that for females (3.0 per 100,000). From 1985 to 1995, poisoning death rates for males ages 35-54 years nearly doubled to 20.4 per 100,000, and the drug-related poisoning death rate for males ages 35-54 years nearly tripled, reaching 16.1 per 100,000. From 1990 to 1995, death rates associated with opiates and cocaine more than doubled among males ages 35-54 years. The numbers of opiate and cocaine poisoning deaths for 1995 more than doubled when all multiple cause of death codes were examined instead of only the underlying cause of death codes. Images p217-a p217-b p218-a p219-a PMID:9633866

Fingerhut, L A; Cox, C S

1998-01-01

217

Occult Carbon Monoxide Poisoning  

PubMed Central

A syndrome of headache, fatigue, dizziness, paresthesias, chest pain, palpitations and visual disturbances was associated with chronic occult carbon monoxide exposure in 26 patients in a primary care setting. A causal association was supported by finding a source of carbon monoxide in a patient's home, workplace or vehicle; results of screening tests that ruled out other illnesses; an abnormally high carboxyhemoglobin level in 11 of 14 patients tested, and abatement or resolution of symptoms when the source of carbon monoxide was removed. Exposed household pets provided an important clue to the diagnosis in some cases. Recurrent occult carbon monoxide poisoning may be a frequently overlooked cause of persistent or recurrent headache, fatigue, dizziness, paresthesias, abdominal pain, diarrhea and unusual spells. PMID:3825110

Kirkpatrick, John N.

1987-01-01

218

Corrosive Poisonings in Adults  

PubMed Central

Ingestion of corrosive substances may cause severe to serious injuries of the upper gastrointestinal tract and the poisoning can even result in death. Acute corrosive intoxications pose a major problem in clinical toxicology since the most commonly affected population are the young with psychic disorders, suicidal intent and alcohol addiction. The golden standard for determination of the grade and extent of the lesion is esophagogastroduodenoscopy performed in the first 12-24 hours following corrosive ingestion. The most common late complications are esophageal stenosis, gastric stenosis of the antrum and pyloris, and rarely carcinoma of the upper gastrointestinal tract. Treatment of the acute corrosive intoxications include: neutralization of corrosive agents, antibiotics, anti-secretory therapy, nutritional support, collagen synthesis inhibitors, esophageal dilation and stent placement, and surgery. PMID:23678319

Chibishev, Andon; Pereska, Zanina; Chibisheva, Vesna; Simonovska, Natasa

2012-01-01

219

[Veratrum album poisoning (author's transl)].  

PubMed

Ingestion of plant material rarely gives rise to manifest clinical intoxication. This is due to the relatively low toxicity of most of the poisonous plants of Central Europe. Veratrum album is an important exception on account of its highly toxic alkaloids. Seven cases of overt intoxication from veratrum album have been reported to the Austrian Poison Information Centre during the past 5 years. On the basis of these case reports toxicological and clinical aspects of this rare form of poisoning are discussed. PMID:7303696

Hruby, K; Lenz, K; Krausler, J

1981-09-01

220

Can poison control data be used for pharmaceutical poisoning surveillance?  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine the association between the frequencies of pharmaceutical exposures reported to a poison control center (PCC) and those seen in the emergency department (ED). Design A statewide population-based retrospective comparison of frequencies of ED pharmaceutical poisonings with frequencies of pharmaceutical exposures reported to a regional PCC. ED poisonings, identified by International Classification of Diseases, Version 9 (ICD-9) codes, were grouped into substance categories. Using a reproducible algorithm facilitated by probabilistic linkage, codes from the PCC classification system were mapped into the same categories. A readily identifiable subset of PCC calls was selected for comparison. Measurements Correlations between frequencies of quarterly exposures by substance categories were calculated using Pearson correlation coefficients and partial correlation coefficients with adjustment for seasonality. Results PCC reported exposures correlated with ED poisonings in nine of 10 categories. Partial correlation coefficients (rp) indicated strong associations (rp>0.8) for three substance categories that underwent large changes in their incidences (opiates, benzodiazepines, and muscle relaxants). Six substance categories were moderately correlated (rp>0.6). One category, salicylates, showed no association. Limitations Imperfect overlap between ICD-9 and PCC codes may have led to miscategorization. Substances without changes in exposure frequency have inadequate variability to detect association using this method. Conclusion PCC data are able to effectively identify trends in poisonings seen in EDs and may be useful as part of a pharmaceutical poisoning surveillance system. The authors developed an algorithm-driven technique for mapping American Association of Poison Control Centers codes to ICD-9 codes and identified a useful subset of poison control exposures for analysis. PMID:21422101

Olsen, Cody S; Dean, J Michael; Olson, Lenora M; Cook, Lawrence J; Keenan, Heather T

2011-01-01

221

TRPV1 as a key determinant in ciguatera and neurotoxic shellfish poisoning  

PubMed Central

Ciguatera fish poisoning and neurotoxic shellfish poisoning are distinct clinical entities characterized by gastrointestinal and neurological disturbances, following the consumption of certain reef fish and shellfish containing toxic polyether compounds sporadically present in certain toxic marine dinoflagellates. The biotransformation and bioaccumulation of gambierol and brevetoxin, and their congeners, are believed to be involved in the pathogenesis of these “food-chain diseases”, for which no effective treatments are available. Here, we describe for the first time the potent effect of gambierol and brevetoxin on TRPV1 channels, a key player in thermal and pain sensation. Our findings may lead to promising new therapeutic interventions. PMID:17659256

Cuypers, Eva; Yanagihara, Angel; Rainier, Jon D.; Tytgat, Jan

2007-01-01

222

Diurnal and circadian oscillations in expression of kisspeptin, kisspeptin receptor and gonadotrophin-releasing hormone 2 genes in the grass puffer, a semilunar-synchronised spawner.  

PubMed

In seasonally breeding animals, the circadian and photoperiodic regulation of neuroendocrine system is important for precisely-timed reproduction. Kisspeptin, encoded by the Kiss1 gene, acts as a principal positive regulator of the reproductive axis by stimulating gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurone activity in vertebrates. However, the precise mechanisms underlying the cyclic regulation of the kisspeptin neuroendocrine system remain largely unknown. The grass puffer, Takifugu niphobles, exhibits a unique spawning rhythm: spawning occurs 1.5-2 h before high tide on the day of spring tide every 2 weeks, and the spawning rhythm is connected to circadian and lunar-/tide-related clock mechanisms. The grass puffer has only one kisspeptin gene (kiss2), which is expressed in a single neural population in the preoptic area (POA), and has one kisspeptin receptor gene (kiss2r), which is expressed in the POA and the nucleus dorsomedialis thalami. Both kiss2 and kiss2r show diurnal variations in expression levels, with a peak at Zeitgeber time (ZT) 6 (middle of day time) under the light/dark conditions. They also show circadian expression with a peak at circadian time 15 (beginning of subjective night-time) under constant darkness. The synchronous and diurnal oscillations of kiss2 and kiss2r expression suggest that the action of Kiss2 in the diencephalon is highly dependent on time. Moreover, midbrain GnRH2 gene (gnrh2) but not GnRH1 or GnRH3 genes show a unique semidiurnal oscillation with two peaks at ZT6 and ZT18 within a day. The cyclic expression of kiss2, kiss2r and gnrh2 may be important in the control of the precisely-timed diurnal and semilunar spawning rhythm of the grass puffer, possibly through the circadian clock and melatonin, which may transmit the photoperiodic information of daylight and moonlight to the reproductive neuroendocrine centre in the hypothalamus. PMID:24824153

Ando, H; Ogawa, S; Shahjahan, Md; Ikegami, T; Doi, H; Hattori, A; Parhar, I

2014-07-01

223

FTIR analysis of food poisons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Single and rapid analyses of chemical poisons or contaminants in different food matrices are explored. Various FT-IR accessories are utilized and compared for the detection sensitivity. Detection enhancements by combining with chromatographic techniques are investigated.

Yasui, Sritana C.

1992-03-01

224

Ototoxicity (Ear Poisoning) (For Parents)  

MedlinePLUS

... the drugs. When a medication damages the inner ear — the part of the ear responsible for receiving/sending sounds and controlling balance — it's called ototoxicity or "ear poisoning." The degree of damage to the ear ...

225

Carbon Monoxide (CO) Poisoning Prevention  

MedlinePLUS

... vents and flues free of debris, especially if winds are high. Flying debris can block ventilation lines. ... family by acting wisely in case of a power outage and learning the symptoms of CO poisoning. ...

226

Poison ivy - oak - sumac rash  

MedlinePLUS

... spend time outdoors. The plant has three shiny green leaves and a red stem. Poison ivy typically ... B. Dermatologic presentations. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, et al, eds. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts ...

227

Poison Ivy: Signs and Symptoms  

MedlinePLUS

... causes Diagnosis, treatment, and outcome Tips for managing Hives Signs, symptoms Who gets, causes Diagnosis, treatment Tips ... Rash from poison ivy: Redness, small, itchy bumps (hives), and itchy skin are common. If this is ...

228

Chronic Copper Poisoning in Sheep.  

E-print Network

LIBRARY, - A & M COLLEGE, CAiQFUS. E-109-8M-L180 TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION A. B. CONNER, DIRECTOR COLLEGE STATION: BRAZOS COUNTY. TEXAS BULLETIN NO. 499 DECEMBER, 1934 DIVISION OF VETERINARY SCIENCE CHRONIC COPPER POISONING... of copper sulphate caused chronic copper poisoning among flocks of range sheep on several West Texas ranches during the past year. The salt licks were placed before the sheep as a means of preventing or controlling stomach worm infestation despite a...

Boughton, I. B. (Ivan Bertrand); Hardy, W. T. (William Tyree)

1934-01-01

229

Triaryl phosphate poisoning in cattle.  

PubMed

Clinical signs, pathologic changes and biochemical changes occurred in cattle with natural and experimental triaryl phosphate poisoning. Natural poisoning was caused by triaryl phosphates escaping from a gas pipeline compressor station. The clinical signs were posterior motor paralysis, dyspnea, diarrhea and agalactia. Experimental doses of 1/2-1 gm/kg body weight of these organophosphate compounds caused depression of cholinesterase and axonal degeneration in the spinal cord. PMID:857397

Beck, B E; Wood, C D; Whenham, G R

1977-03-01

230

[A case of Veratrum poisoning].  

PubMed

A poisoning from a Veratrum album infusion mistaken for Gentiana lutea is described. Confusion between these two plants can easily occur because they are very similar, although flowers and disposition of leaves allow their botanic determinat: V. album leaves are alternate and flowers are white, while G. lutea leaves are opposite and flowers yellow. The poisoning involves gastrointestinal (pyrosis, vomiting) and cardiocirculatory systems (bradyarrhy-thmias, A-V dissociation, vasodilatation) Atropine is the drug of choice. PMID:9045097

Festa, M; Andreetto, B; Ballaris, M A; Panio, A; Piervittori, R

1996-05-01

231

Tetrodotoxin Blockage of Sodium Conductance Increase in Lobster Giant Axons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies suggested that tetrodotoxin, a poison from the puffer fish, blocks conduction of nerve and muscle through its rather selective inhibition of the sodium-carrying mechanism. In order to verify this hypothesis, observations have been made of sodium and potassium currents in the lobster giant axons treated with tetrodotoxin by means of the sucrose-gap voltage- clamp technique. Tetrodotoxin at concentrations

TOSHIO NARAHASHI; JOHN W. MOORE; WILLIAM R. SCOTT

1964-01-01

232

Cholinergic Crisis after Rodenticide Poisoning  

PubMed Central

Rodenticides have historically been common agents in attempted suicides. As most rodenticides in the United States (U.S.) are superwarfarins, these ingestions are generally managed conservatively with close monitoring for coagulopathy, and if necessary, correction of any resulting coagulopathy. However, alternate forms of rodenticides are imported illegally into the U.S. and may be ingested either accidentally or in suicide attempts. We present an unusual case of poisoning by the illegally imported rodenticide, “Tres Pasitos.” The main ingredient of this rat poison is aldicarb, a potent carbamate pesticide that causes fulminant cholinergic crisis. This case is relevant and timely because carbamates and organophosphates are still used as insecticides and emergency physicians (EP) working in rural areas may have to evaluate and manage patients with these poisonings. As international travel and immigration have increased, so has the possibility of encountering patients who have ingested toxic substances from other countries. In addition, there has been increased concern about the possibility of acts of terrorism using chemical substances that cause cholinergic toxidromes.1,2 EPs must be able to recognize and manage these poisonings. This report describes the mechanism of action, clinical manifestations, laboratory evaluation and management of this type of poisoning. The pertinent medical literature on poisoning with aldicarb and similar substances is reviewed. PMID:21293782

Waseem, Muhammad; Perry, Christopher; Bomann, Scott; Pai, Meena; Gernsheimer, Joel

2010-01-01

233

Sabatier Catalyst Poisoning Investigation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Carbon Dioxide Reduction Assembly (CRA) on the International Space Station (ISS) has been operational since 2010. The CRA uses a Sabatier reactor to produce water and methane by reaction of the metabolic CO2 scrubbed from the cabin air and the hydrogen byproduct from the water electrolysis system used for metabolic oxygen generation. Incorporating the CRA into the overall air revitalization system has facilitated life support system loop closure on the ISS reducing resupply logistics and thereby enhancing longer term missions. The CRA utilizes CO2 which has been adsorbed in a 5A molecular sieve within the Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly, CDRA. There is a potential of compounds with molecular dimensions similar to, or less than CO2 to also be adsorbed. In this fashion trace contaminants may be concentrated within the CDRA and subsequently desorbed with the CO2 to the CRA. Currently, there is no provision to remove contaminants prior to entering the Sabatier catalyst bed. The risk associated with this is potential catalyst degradation due to trace organic contaminants in the CRA carbon dioxide feed acting as catalyst poisons. To better understand this risk, United Technologies Aerospace System (UTAS) has teamed with MSFC to investigate the impact of various trace contaminants on the CRA catalyst performance at relative ISS cabin air concentrations and at about 200/400 times of ISS concentrations, representative of the potential concentrating effect of the CDRA molecular sieve. This paper summarizes our initial assessment results.

Nallette, Tim; Perry, Jay; Abney, Morgan; Knox, Jim; Goldblatt, Loel

2013-01-01

234

Neurotoxic shellfish poisoning.  

PubMed

Neurotoxic shellfish poisoning (NSP) is caused by consumption of molluscan shellfish contaminated with brevetoxins primarily produced by the dinoflagellate, Karenia brevis. Blooms of K. brevis, called Florida red tide, occur frequently along the Gulf of Mexico. Many shellfish beds in the US (and other nations) are routinely monitored for presence of K. brevis and other brevetoxin-producing organisms. As a result, few NSP cases are reported annually from the US. However, infrequent larger outbreaks do occur. Cases are usually associated with recreationally-harvested shellfish collected during or post red tide blooms. Brevetoxins are neurotoxins which activate voltage-sensitive sodium channels causing sodium influx and nerve membrane depolarization. No fatalities have been reported, but hospitalizations occur. NSP involves a cluster of gastrointestinal and neurological symptoms: nausea and vomiting, paresthesias of the mouth, lips and tongue as well as distal paresthesias, ataxia, slurred speech and dizziness. Neurological symptoms can progress to partial paralysis; respiratory distress has been recorded. Recent research has implicated new species of harmful algal bloom organisms which produce brevetoxins, identified additional marine species which accumulate brevetoxins, and has provided additional information on the toxicity and analysis of brevetoxins. A review of the known epidemiology and recommendations for improved NSP prevention are presented. PMID:19005578

Watkins, Sharon M; Reich, Andrew; Fleming, Lora E; Hammond, Roberta

2008-01-01

235

Expansion of methylmercury poisoning outside of Minamata: An epidemiological study on chronic methylmercury poisoning outside of Minamata  

SciTech Connect

The first methylmercury poisoning by consumption of fish arose in Minamata, Japan, in 1953. Methylmercury dispersed from Minamata to the to the Shiranui Sea until 1968. Mercury concentration in the hair of residents on the coast of the Shiranui Sea was 10 to 20 times higher than in nonpolluted people in Kumamoto Prefecture in 1960. People on the coast of the Shiranui Sea have consumed fish containing low-dose methylmercury without a ban over decades until 1968. We studied the effect of long-term consumption of methylmercury on those people 10 years later after the end of methylmercury dispersion. Our epidemiological study clarified that people in a fishing village (Ooura) on the coast of the Shiranui Sea showed a significantly higher frequency of neurological signs characteristics of methylmercury poisoning (hypoesthesia, ataxia, impairment of hearing, visual change, and dysarthria) in comparison with people in a nonpolluted fishing village (Ichiburi). The neurological disorders were still detected 10 years later in Ooura after the end of methylmercury dispersion from Minamata: hypoesthesia showed the highest frequency in Ooura. These results suggest that people on the coast of the Shiranui Sea were affected by long-term dietary exposure to methylmercury. 14 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

Ninomiya, Tadashi [Yoron Hospital, Kagoshima (Japan)] [Yoron Hospital, Kagoshima (Japan); Ohmori, Hiroyuki; Hashimoto, Kiyomi [Kumamoto Univ. Medical School (Japan)] [and others] [Kumamoto Univ. Medical School (Japan); and others

1995-07-01

236

Clinical Marine Toxicology: A European Perspective for Clinical Toxicologists and Poison Centers  

PubMed Central

Clinical marine toxicology is a rapidly changing area. Many of the new discoveries reported every year in Europe involve ecological disturbances—including global warming—that have induced modifications in the chorology, behavior, and toxicity of many species of venomous or poisonous aquatic life including algae, ascidians, fish and shellfish. These changes have raised a number of public issues associated, e.g., poisoning after ingestion of contaminated seafood, envenomation by fish stings, and exposure to harmful microorganism blooms. The purpose of this review of medical and scientific literature in marine toxicology is to highlight the growing challenges induced by ecological disturbances that confront clinical toxicologists during the everyday job in the European Poison Centers. PMID:23917333

Schmitt, Corinne; de Haro, Luc

2013-01-01

237

Alsike clover poisoning: A review  

PubMed Central

Trifolium hybridum (alsike clover) has been implicated as the cause of two diseases of the horse. One of these is photosensitivity, of which alsike clover is only one of a number of presumed causal agents. The other is a fatal syndrome which is known as “alsike clover poisoning” and which is manifest by progressive loss of condition, signs of hepatic failure, and varying degrees of neurological impairment. The underlying lesion of alsike clover poisoning is fibrosis and proliferation of the biliary tree. The experimental evidence implicating alsike clover as the cause of this syndrome comes entirely from a series of feeding trials performed by Dr. Frank Schofield between 1928 and 1933. This review surveys the literature on the association of alsike clover with both photosensitivity and biliary fibrosis in horses, and summarizes the clinical and pathological features of “alsike clover poisoning”. The experimental evidence that has been used to implicate Trifolium hybridum as the cause of alsike clover poisoning is critically examined. It is concluded that the existing experimental evidence is insufficient to prove that Trifolium hybridum is the cause of alsike clover poisoning. PMID:17423321

Nation, P. Nicholas

1989-01-01

238

Alsike clover poisoning: A review.  

PubMed

Trifolium hybridum (alsike clover) has been implicated as the cause of two diseases of the horse. One of these is photosensitivity, of which alsike clover is only one of a number of presumed causal agents. The other is a fatal syndrome which is known as "alsike clover poisoning" and which is manifest by progressive loss of condition, signs of hepatic failure, and varying degrees of neurological impairment. The underlying lesion of alsike clover poisoning is fibrosis and proliferation of the biliary tree. The experimental evidence implicating alsike clover as the cause of this syndrome comes entirely from a series of feeding trials performed by Dr. Frank Schofield between 1928 and 1933.This review surveys the literature on the association of alsike clover with both photosensitivity and biliary fibrosis in horses, and summarizes the clinical and pathological features of "alsike clover poisoning". The experimental evidence that has been used to implicate Trifolium hybridum as the cause of alsike clover poisoning is critically examined. It is concluded that the existing experimental evidence is insufficient to prove that Trifolium hybridum is the cause of alsike clover poisoning. PMID:17423321

Nation, P N

1989-05-01

239

Fatal 'Bhang' poisoning.  

PubMed

A young adult male of about 25 years of age consumed a glass (about 300 ml) of Bhang on the holy occasion of ShivRatri. The deceased died within 24 hours of consuming the Bhang. The deceased had suffered from rheumatic heart disease with multiple valvular involvements. He had also undergone open-heart surgery in the past. Fatality due to Bhang is extremely rare and therefore the case is presented. An attempt is made to review the literature. Bhang is one of the Indian preparations of Indian hemp (Cannabis sativa). It is prepared by the wet grinding of the leaves of the plant. The bolus is then consumed in various ways. Water is used as a vehicle. In the present case a bolus of about 1 to 2 gm was mixed in a glass of water. ShivRatri is a Hindu festival. On this day prayers are offered to Lord Shiva, who is the god of all evils and poisons. Bhang is a special article, which is offered to Lord Shiva on this auspicious day. Then, the devotees consume it as the God. Gujrat is a dry state (possession, consumption, sale, etc. of alcohol, Bhang, opium and other psychotropic substance, etc. is governed by particular laws), but on the holy occasion of ShivRati, for a day, the law is relaxed for the use of Bhang. In most other parts of the country, particularly, in northern India, it is a common practice to consume various preparations of Indian hemp like Bhang, Charas, Ganja, sweetmeat, etc. The bolus mentioned above is probably the minimum single dose. PMID:11693232

Gupta, B D; Jani, C B; Shah, P H

2001-10-01

240

Long Term Effects of Food Poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... One in six Americans will get sick from food poisoning this year. That’s about 48 million people. Most ... serious effects associated with several common types of food poisoning. Kidney failure Hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS) is a ...

241

Poison oak rash on the arm (image)  

MedlinePLUS

Poison oak rash on the arm. Several plants produce toxins that cause skin reaction. This is the appearance of poison oak dermatitis. Note the typical linear streaks produced either by scratching or brushing ...

242

"Suicide" as Seen in Poison Control Centers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Data on age and sex characteristics, intent and diagnosis of suicide, and toxicology are presented for 1,103 cases of poisoning (children ages 6-18 years) admitted to 50 poison control centers during 1 year. (KW)

McIntire, Matilda S.; Angle, Carol R.

1971-01-01

243

American Association of Poison Control Centers  

MedlinePLUS

... Alerts Prevention National Poison Data System Our Work Alerts Keep Up-to-Date on the Latest Poison ... cause serious harm to young children. View all alerts right left Safe Kids Worldwide 2015 Annual Medication ...

244

Domoic Acid and Amnesiac Shellfish Poisoning  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This National SeaGrant (PDF) publication discusses Red Tide, Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning (PSP), Domoic Acid, and Amnesiac Shellfish Poisoning (ASP). It includes a description of symptoms as well as a contact number for the shellfish harvest hotline.

SeaGrant; Oregon State University; NOAA

245

Mercury Poisoning Linked to Skin Products  

MedlinePLUS

... mail this page Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Mercury Poisoning Linked to Skin Products Search the Consumer ... these products on Flickr. Signs and Symptoms of Mercury Poisoning irritability shyness tremors changes in vision or ...

246

Accidental poisoning with "Chinese chalk".  

PubMed

We present a 1.5-year old, 11 kg, female infant with a history of bronchial hyper-responsiveness who accidentally ingested half of a "Chinese chalk". A day later, the infant showed vomiting, cough, fever, drowsiness, and irritability and her clinical conditions progressively worsened. She was admitted to the emergency department with cough, respiratory distress, and hepatomegaly. It has been reported that the chalk may contain deltamethrin and cypermethrin. The patient was successfully treated with supportive therapy. This report identifies "Chinese chalk" as a potential source of accidental poisoning in children and should be considered as part of the differential diagnoses in the emergency rooms since poisoning with these compounds may be misdiagnosed as organophosphate poisoning due to the presentation of similar symptoms. PMID:18551820

Martínez-Navarrete, Juan; Loria-Castellanos, Jorge; Nava-Ocampo, Alejandro A

2008-04-01

247

The poisonous rocks of Kärkevagge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The black schist in Kärkevagge, Swedish Lapland has been reported to weather easily and produce a poisonous effect on vegetation. This research was an investigation of that phenomenon as part of a larger study of weathering in Kärkevagge. In July 1999, soil and plant samples were collected downslope of a "poisonous" boulder. Samples from the adjacent unaffected slope served as references. Biomass, plant elemental composition, and soil fertility were determined. Most plants within 1.4 m downslope of the poison boulder were dead, and effects on plant growth could be seen to about 6 m. Plants near the boulder had elevated levels of K, B, Al, Cd, Se, and Fe, and lower levels of Ca, Mn, and Ba compared to reference plants. In the soil near the poison boulder, extractable S, Cd, and Fe and salt contents were greater, while pH and extractable Cl, P, Ca, Mg, K, Ba, Ni, and Cr were lower than in the reference soil. At 10 m downslope of the boulder, soil and plant chemistry was more similar to the reference materials, but some effects were still noted. Elemental analyses of the poison boulder and soil revealed no particular plant toxins, although contents of Fe and S were higher and Ca lower than in reference materials. We believe the poison is sulfuric acid, which forms as a consequence of pyrite oxidation. The dark color of the boulder is consistent with a pyrite-bearing lithology and other field observations and laboratory analyses support the hypothesis. Coatings on local rocks include jarosite, gypsum, and copiapite, secondary minerals associated with pyrite oxidation and weathering accelerated by sulfuric acid. Radiocarbon dating indicates that the rock fell off the cliff some time before 245 14C years BP.

Darmody, R. G.; Allen, C. E.; Thorn, C. E.; Dixon, J. C.

2001-11-01

248

The epidemiology of childhood poisonings in Cyprus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Information on childhood poisonings in Cyprus is limited. Our objective was to examine the epidemiology of poisonings among\\u000a children in Cyprus. All children up to 15 years of age admitted for poisoning to the Archbishop Makarios Hospital in Nicosia,\\u000a Cyprus between 2005 and 2008 were included in our study. All hospital poisoning records were reviewed. A total of 257 children\\u000a were

Maria Koliou; Chrystalla Ioannou; Kyriaki Andreou; Alexandra Petridou; Elpidoforos Soterakis Soteriades

2010-01-01

249

[Phosphine poisoning in healthcare workers].  

PubMed

Phosphine gas constitutes a potential and serious little-known cause of poisoning of professional nature of the medical staff and nursing care of patients who voluntarily swallow phosphides rodenticides purposes suicide. The objective of this paper is to inform to healthcare workers from urgencies, forensic and occupational health services on this occupational hazard. We present the case of a nurse who suffered from poisoning by gas phosphine confirmed through an environmental monitoring of gases in an emergency department carried out by the government service of civil protection of the State of Jalisco. PMID:21894233

Arredondo Trujillo, Francisco; Hurtado Pérez, Martha Patricia; Castañeda Borrayo, Yaocihuatl

2011-01-01

250

Handbook of Common Poisonings in Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This handbook for physicians, emergency room personnel and pharmacists lists the manufacturer, description, toxicity, symptoms and findings, treatment, and references for 73 poison substances considered by the Subcommittee on Accidental Poisoning of the American Academy of Pediatrics to be most significant in terms of accidental poisoning of…

Food and Drug Administration (DHEW), Washington, DC.

251

[Pulmonary fibrosis following nitrous gas poisoning].  

PubMed

Authors in the autopsy material of the Department of Forensic Medicine of Semmelweis Medical University analysed nitrous-gas-poisoning cases. In the period of 1971--1975 out of 22 223 autopsy cases one case of nitrous gas-poisoning occurred. Data of the literature are summarized. Possible pathomechanism of the nitrous gas poisoning is also discussed. PMID:876260

Balogh, I; Héjj, G; Sótonyi, P

1977-04-01

252

Lead Poisoning: A Need for Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Each year approximately 200 children die of lead poisoning. Especially vulnerable to the toxic effects of lead poisoning are the nervous system, kidneys, and the bones. Physiological effects of lead on the school-age child, screening processes, and roles of school personnel in dealing with suspected victims of lead poisoning are discussed. (JN)

Lipnickey, Susan Cross

1981-01-01

253

Mercury poisoning as a mining hazard  

Microsoft Academic Search

A review is presented of the occurrence of mercury poisoning in personnel engaged in mercury mining and allied industries. Methods for diagnosis and protection against mercury poisoning are discussed. It is pointed out that in industrial mercury poisoning the portals of entry to the body may include skin absorption from dust on the body or clothing, inhalation of mercury dust

S. J. Davenport; D. Harrington

1941-01-01

254

Helping Parents Prevent Lead Poisoning. ERIC Digest.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children are at greater risk than adults for lead poisoning because children absorb lead more readily than adults, and a small amount of lead in children's bodies can do a great deal of harm. Some of the causes and effects of childhood lead poisoning and suggests some lead poisoning prevention strategies that parent educators can share with…

Binns, Helen J.; Ricks, Omar Benton

255

Pleural effusion in aluminum phosphide poisoning.  

PubMed

Aluminium phosphide (ALP) is a common agrochemical pesticide poisoning with high mortality rate. Primary manifestations are due to myocardial and gastrointestinal involvement. Pleural effusion in ALP poisoning is occasionally reported. We report a case of pleural effusion that developed after ALP ingestion and resolved along with recovery from poisoning. PMID:23243353

Garg, Kranti; Mohapatra, Prasanta R; Sodhi, Mandeep K; Janmeja, Ashok K

2012-10-01

256

Pleural effusion in aluminum phosphide poisoning  

PubMed Central

Aluminium phosphide (ALP) is a common agrochemical pesticide poisoning with high mortality rate. Primary manifestations are due to myocardial and gastrointestinal involvement. Pleural effusion in ALP poisoning is occasionally reported. We report a case of pleural effusion that developed after ALP ingestion and resolved along with recovery from poisoning. PMID:23243353

Garg, Kranti; Mohapatra, Prasanta R.; Sodhi, Mandeep K.; Janmeja, Ashok K.

2012-01-01

257

Modern strategies in therapy of organophosphate poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Considering the various microscopic reactions as well as toxicokinetic and pharmacokinetic principles in therapy of organophosphate poisoning, the administration of obidoxime by an initial bolus dose followed by continuous infusion appears rational. Using this protocol, six patients each with parathion or oxydemeton methyl poisoning were treated. In parathion poisoning, reactivation was possible up to 7 days. At paraoxon concentrations >0.1

H. Thiermann; L. Szinicz; F. Eyer; F. Worek; P. Eyer; N. Felgenhauer; T. Zilker

1999-01-01

258

[Ciguatoxin and edible reef fishes].  

PubMed

Referring to the various human and animal clinical response to consumption of reef fish, the authors precise the importance of ingested dose and the role of cumulative effects. They point out the arbitrary character of distinguishing poisonous and edible fish of the same species. At the light of these data they find ciguatoxin in edible fish from known latent ciguateric potential species in atoxic areas. Therefore ciguatoxin does appear as a natural biotoxin permanently produced in most of the polynesian coral reefs ecosystems. The occurence of clinical disorders by men and animals results from a sudden increase of its production following biological transitory modification of some coral reef biota. PMID:1243745

Bagnis, R; Vernoux, J P

1975-01-01

259

Lead poisoning by contaminated flour.  

PubMed

Between October 1982 and June 1983, 43 patients were identified with symptomatic lead poisoning in three Arab villages of the Nablus district. Because of the clustering of clinical poisoning by household units, investigation was focussed on potential sources common to all members of the households. After excluding water, olive oil and a variety of foodstuff, lead in high concentrations was discovered in locally ground flour in all affected households. The source of poisoning was lead poured into the fissures between the metal housing and the driveshaft of the millstone. Significant lead contamination of freshly ground flour was demonstrated in 23% of the 146 community flour mills operating in West Bank villages. Since the completion of these studies, similar outbreaks of lead poisoning caused by contaminated flourmills have been identified in the Upper Galilee and in Spain. As the methods of milling in the Mediterranean area are similar, a coordinated international effort is needed in order to eliminate this health hazard from countries where similar community stone mills are still in use. PMID:2485923

Hershko, C; Eisenberg, A; Avni, A; Grauer, F; Acker, C; Hamdallah, M; Shahin, S; Moreb, J; Richter, E; Weissenberg, E

1989-01-01

260

[Therapy of acute salicylate poisoning].  

PubMed

Poisoning with salicylic acid and its derivatives is a quite common event, leading to possibly life-threatening complications. A case of fatal intoxication of a sixty-year old patient with acetylsalicylic acid is described and the therapeutic options are discussed. In acute poisoning it is mandatory to initiate simple and effective measures first. This gives time for discussing and planning the more laborious procedures. The initial treatment of salicylate poisoning is based on the prevention of further absorption by a sufficiently large quantity of orally administered activated charcoal (approximately 1 g/kg b.w.). Given repeatedly, activated charcoal may enhance non-renal clearance of salicylates. Intravenously administered sodium bicarbonate counteracts the metabolic acidosis. Moreover, bicarbonate therapy limits tissue distribution of the drug and enhances its renal excretion. The availability of glycine for salicylic acid metabolism may be limited in poisoning because glycine has been used for forming the conjugation product salicyluric acid. Glycine may be administered orally to overcome this bottleneck. Gastric lavage has been proven to be of limited efficacy. This efficacy is further diminished if gastric lavage is performed late after drug ingestion. When it is performed, however, activated charcoal should be administered before and after gastric lavage. Whenever the more simple treatment options fail, hemodialysis or hemoperfusion should be additionally considered since these procedures are effective in removing salicylates from the body. PMID:8211029

Herren, T; Como, F; Krähenbühl, S; Wyss, P A

1993-09-25

261

The Solanaceae: foods and poisons  

Microsoft Academic Search

The plant family Solanaceae contains important foodstuffs such as the potato, tomato and aubergine, together with powerful poisons including mandrake, henbane and deadly nightshade. In the first article in this short series on the family, the history and importance of the potato are described. It was first cultivated by the Inca people in the altiplano of the Andes in prehistoric

262

Poisoning of wild birds from exposure to anticholinesterase compounds and lead: diagnostic methods and selected cases  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Organophosphorus and carbamate compounds have largely replaced chlorinated hydrocarbons for pesticidal use in the United States, and many cases of poisoning resulting from exposure to these anticholinesterase agents have occurred in free-living birds. Although lead shot has been prohibited for waterfowl hunting throughout the United States since 1991, lead poisoning from the ingestion of spent lead shot is still occasionally seen in wild birds, and lead poisoning from the ingestion of fishing sinkers is an emerging issue of concern. A thorough history, a complete necropsy evaluation, and appropriate laboratory analysis of tissues are required to diagnose toxicoses in wild birds, including those caused by anticholinesterase compounds and lead. The interpretation of brain cholinesterase (ChE) activity results depends on the methods of analysis and comparison with expected normal enzyme activities in brain tissue from the same species. Although lead residues in tissues vary among species, many lead poisoned birds have tissue residues that are much higher than the lower threshold commonly accepted for a diagnosis of lead poisoning. We review histories, necropsy findings, and analytical methodologies and results for selected anticholinesterase and lead poisoning cases diagnosed in wild raptors, waterfowl, and loons.

Franson, J.C.; Smith, M.R.

1999-01-01

263

FISH SPERMATOLOGY FISH SPERMATOLOGY  

E-print Network

FISH SPERMATOLOGY #12;FISH SPERMATOLOGY Alpha Science International Ltd. Oxford, U.K. = Editors Research Institute of Fish Culture and Hydrobiology, University of South Bohemia, Vodnany, Czech Republic of the publisher. ISBN 978-1-84265-369-2 Printed in India #12;Fish Spermatology is dedicated to Professor Roland

Villefranche sur mer

264

Ultradian oscillation in expression of four melatonin receptor subtype genes in the pineal gland of the grass puffer, a semilunar-synchronized spawner, under constant darkness.  

PubMed

Melatonin receptor gene expression as well as melatonin synthesis and secretion activities were examined in the pineal gland of the grass puffer, which exhibits unique lunar/tidal cycle-synchronized mass spawing: spawning occurs before high tide on the day of spring tide during spawing season. Melatonin synthesizing activity was assessed by the abundance of arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase 2 (AANAT2) mRNA. The amount of aanat2 mRNA was low during light phase and initiated to increase after the light was turned off. The secretion of melatonin from primary pineal organ culture was stimulated after the light was turned off and ceased immediately after the light was turned on. The expression levels of four melatonin receptor subtype genes (mel 1a 1.4, mel 1a 1.7, mel1b, and mel1c) showed synchronous variations, and the levels tended to be high during the dark phase under light/dark conditions. These results suggest that the action of melatonin on the pineal gland is highly dependent on light and photoperiod, possibly with stronger action during night time. Under constant darkness, the expression of four melatonin receptor subtype genes showed unique ultradian oscillations with the period of 14.0-15.4 h, suggesting the presence of a circatidal oscillator in the pineal gland. The present results indicate that melatonin may serve local chronobiological functions in the pineal gland. These cyclic expressions of melatonin receptor genes in the pineal gland may be important in the control of the lunar/tidal cycle-synchronized mass spawning in the grass puffer. PMID:25688184

Ikegami, Taro; Maruyama, Yusuke; Doi, Hiroyuki; Hattori, Atsuhiko; Ando, Hironori

2015-01-01

265

Ultradian oscillation in expression of four melatonin receptor subtype genes in the pineal gland of the grass puffer, a semilunar-synchronized spawner, under constant darkness  

PubMed Central

Melatonin receptor gene expression as well as melatonin synthesis and secretion activities were examined in the pineal gland of the grass puffer, which exhibits unique lunar/tidal cycle-synchronized mass spawing: spawning occurs before high tide on the day of spring tide during spawing season. Melatonin synthesizing activity was assessed by the abundance of arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase 2 (AANAT2) mRNA. The amount of aanat2 mRNA was low during light phase and initiated to increase after the light was turned off. The secretion of melatonin from primary pineal organ culture was stimulated after the light was turned off and ceased immediately after the light was turned on. The expression levels of four melatonin receptor subtype genes (mel1a1.4, mel1a1.7, mel1b, and mel1c) showed synchronous variations, and the levels tended to be high during the dark phase under light/dark conditions. These results suggest that the action of melatonin on the pineal gland is highly dependent on light and photoperiod, possibly with stronger action during night time. Under constant darkness, the expression of four melatonin receptor subtype genes showed unique ultradian oscillations with the period of 14.0–15.4 h, suggesting the presence of a circatidal oscillator in the pineal gland. The present results indicate that melatonin may serve local chronobiological functions in the pineal gland. These cyclic expressions of melatonin receptor genes in the pineal gland may be important in the control of the lunar/tidal cycle-synchronized mass spawning in the grass puffer. PMID:25688184

Ikegami, Taro; Maruyama, Yusuke; Doi, Hiroyuki; Hattori, Atsuhiko; Ando, Hironori

2015-01-01

266

Presentation of a general algorithm to include effect assessment on secondary poisoning in the derivation of environmental quality criteria. Part 1. Aquatic food chains  

SciTech Connect

Effect assessment on secondary poisoning can be an asset to effect assessments on direct poisoning in setting quality criteria for the environment. This study presents an algorithm for effect assessment on secondary poisoning. The water-fish-fish-eating bird or mammal pathway was analyzed as an example of a secondary poisoning pathway. Parameters used in this algorithm are the bioconcentration factor for fish (BCF) and the no-observed-effect concentration for the group of fish-eating birds and mammals (NOECfish-eater). For the derivation of reliable BCFs preference is given to the use of experimentally derived BCFs over QSAR estimates. NOECs for fish eaters are derived by extrapolating toxicity data on single species. Because data on fish-eating species are seldom available, toxicity data on all birds and mammalian species were used. The proposed algorithm (MAR = NOECfish-eater/BCF) was used to calculate MARS (maximum acceptable risk levels) for the compounds lindane, dieldrin, cadmium, mercury, PCB153, and PCB118. By subsequently, comparing these MARs to MARs derived by effect assessment for aquatic organisms, it was concluded that for methyl mercury and PCB153 secondary poisoning of fish-eating birds and mammals could be a critical pathway. For these compounds, effects on populations of fish-eating birds and mammals can occur at levels in surface water below the MAR calculated for aquatic ecosystems. Secondary poisoning of fish-eating birds and mammals is not likely to occur for cadmium at levels in water below the MAR calculated for aquatic ecosystems.

Romijn, C.A.; Luttik, R.; van de Meent, D.; Slooff, W.; Canton, J.H. (National Institute of Public Health and Environmental Protection (RIVM), Bilthoven (Netherlands))

1993-08-01

267

Reappraisal of somatosensory disorders in methylmercury poisoning.  

PubMed

The first well-documented methylmercury (MeHg) poisoning by consumption of fish arose in Minamata, Japan in 1953. MeHg had dispersed from Minamata to the Shiranui Sea. The temporal changes in MeHg in the umbilical cords indicate that residents living around that Sea had been exposed to low-dose MeHg through fish consumption for about 20 years (at least from 1950 to 1968). They have complained of paresthesia at the distal parts of the extremities and around the lip even 30 years after the cessation of exposure to anthropogenic MeHg. The thresholds of touch and two-point discrimination of those residents and Minamata disease (MD) patients were examined using the quantifiable instruments. They could perceive the stimulation of touch although their touch thresholds significantly increased in comparison to those of the control people. Their touch thresholds increased at the proximal extremities and the trunks as well as at the distal extremities. The evenly distributed increases at both distal and proximal parts revealed that the persistent somatosensory disturbances were not caused by the injuries to their peripheral nerves. The thresholds of two-point discrimination, which are associated with the function of the somatosensory cortex, increased at both forefingers and the lip in both groups. Taking into consideration that, the apraxia limb kinetics, astereognosis and disorder of active sensation, which are all associated with damage to the somatosensory cortex, were detected, it is proposed that the persisting somatosensory disorders after discontinuation of exposure to MeHg were induced by diffuse damage to the somatosensory cortex. PMID:16087068

Ninomiya, Tadashi; Imamura, Keiko; Kuwahata, Misako; Kindaichi, Michiaki; Susa, Mari; Ekino, Shigeo

2005-01-01

268

Lead poisoning in sandhill cranes.  

PubMed

Seven Florida sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis pratensis) and 6 greater sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis tabida) were exposed to lead-base paint containing 27% lead. One bird of each subspecies died enroute to the hospital, with a clinical history of anorexia, weakness, and open-mouth breathing of 36 hours' duration. There were no gross lesions, and microscopic lesions were limited to focal hepatic necrosis and hemosiderosis. Two of each subspecies of cranes developed clinical signs of lead poisoning, which included anorexia, weakness, green diarrhea, regurgitation, and open-mouth breathing. Diagnosis of lead poisoning was confirmed on the basis of blood lead concentrations ranging from 146 microgram/100 ml to 378 microgram/100 ml. These 4 cranes were treated successfully with calcium disodium edetate intramuscularly. Seven of the birds remained clinically normal despite high blood lead levels, especially in the greater sandhill cranes. PMID:411773

Kennedy, S; Crisler, J P; Smith, E; Bush, M

1977-11-01

269

Datura stramonium poisoning in children.  

PubMed

Although substance abuse is fairly common among adolescents, poisoning from Datura stramonium (a broadleaf annual erect herb with spine-covered seed capsule) is uncommon in children and has not been reported in our locality. We present the case of two children admitted at the Children Emergency Room of a teaching hospital following ingestion of extract of Datura stramonium. They developed neurotoxicity (confusion, agitation, mydriasis, and hallucination) and were managed symptomatically with good outcome. A high index of suspicion and early management of poison in children is imperative if a favorable outcome is expected. Early presentation and the presence of an eyewitness contributed to the very good outcome in these index cases. In this report, we discussed the symptomatology and management of Datura toxicity in children. PMID:23377485

Adegoke, S A; Alo, L A

2013-01-01

270

Zolpidem poisoning in a cat.  

PubMed

Zolpidem (Stilnox) is a non-benzodiazepine hypnotic drug of the imidazopyridine class intended for treatment of insomnia in humans. A 16-year-old neutered cat, weighing 3.8 kg, was presented with sudden onset of stupor, disorientation, severe ataxia, vomiting and hypersalivation. Symptomatic treatment was given when ingestion of 1.25 mg/kg zolpidem (half of a 10-mg tablet) was confirmed, because no information on the efficacy and safety of the use of flumazenil in the treatment of zolpidem poisoning in cats has been published to date. As zolpidem is prescribed with increasing frequency in humans, the occurrence of accidental poisonings of pets is likely to increase. PMID:20633172

Czopowicz, M; Szalus-Jordanow, O; Frymus, T

2010-08-01

271

Psychiatric aspects of methylmercury poisoning  

PubMed Central

Forty-three patients with methylmercury poisoning were studied; 74·4% showed some degree of depression. Their blood levels of mercury were higher than the average values for the whole group, and considerably higher than the blood levels of the non-depressed patients. Irritability was observed in 44·2% of the patients, all except one of the 19 being under 30 years of age. There was general improvement in the mental states of the patients who were hospitalized. Mercury binding compounds did not seem to have a significant effect in enhancing recovery from the depressive state. The possibility of there being two distinct syndromes, due to organic and inorganic mercury poisoning, is discussed. PMID:4420813

Maghazaji, H. I.

1974-01-01

272

Poison hemlock ( Conium maculatum L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the most poisonous species amongst higher plants is Conium maculatum. It is a very common nitrophile weed species, belonging to the Apiaceae (formerly Umbelliferae) family. It contains some piperidine alkaloids (coniine, N-methyl-coniine, conhydrine, pseudoconhydrine, ?-coniceine), which are formed by the cyclisation of an eight-carbon chain derived from four acetate units. ?-Coniceine is the precursor of the other hemlock

J. Vetter

2004-01-01

273

Nitrate and Prussic Acid Poisoning  

E-print Network

fertilized can accumu- late toxic levels. Turning cattle into holding pens or corrals full of manure with carelessweeds or grasses can result in immediate poisoning. Nitrates do not accumulate when there is nor- mal rainfall or irrigation. Under those.... Nitrate accumulates and is stored in lower leaves and stems, ready for the plant to mobilize and use when rapid growth resumes. Nitrate levels can change from day to day and even from morning until evening. Small grains can accumulate toxic levels...

Stichler, Charles; Reagor, John C.

2001-09-05

274

Congenital PCB poisoning: a reevaluation  

SciTech Connect

A review of the literature reveals a need to clarify the pathologic physiology of congenital polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) poisoning, which is characterized by intrauterine growth retardation, brown staining of the skin and mucous membranes as in Addison's disease, natal teeth, widely open fontanelles and sagittal suture and apparent overgrowth of the gingiva. The skull abnormalities may represent irregular calcification, with natal teeth appearing because the bone of the mandible is penetrated more easily than usual. Some fetuses were poisoned at the time the mothers ingested the oil; others were affected in the subsequent years from residual contamination in the mothers' bodies. The misadventure in Japan was repeated in Taiwan in 1979. The seven congenital cases in Taiwan reported thus far seem to differ from those in Japan. In Taiwan the noses were somewhat black, two of the infants did not have low birth weight and the osseous abnormalities of the skull and gingival hyperplasia were not observed. Systematic followup studies should be made in Taiwan of the children born within 2 years of maternal poisoning with PCBs. Special attention should be given to age at first dentition and skull-X-rays for spotty calcification, among other measures of physical, neurologic and intellectual development.

Miller, R.W.

1985-05-01

275

Poison hemlock (Conium maculatum L.).  

PubMed

One of the most poisonous species amongst higher plants is Conium maculatum. It is a very common nitrophile weed species, belonging to the Apiaceae (formerly Umbelliferae) family. It contains some piperidine alkaloids (coniine, N-methyl-coniine, conhydrine, pseudoconhydrine, gamma-coniceine), which are formed by the cyclisation of an eight-carbon chain derived from four acetate units. gamma-Coniceine is the precursor of the other hemlock alkaloids. All vegetative organs, flowers and fruits contain alkaloids. The concentrations (both absolute and relative) of the different alkaloids depend on plant varieties, on ecological conditions and on the age of the plant. The characteristic biological effects of the plants are summarised on cattle, sheep, goat, swine, rabbit, elk, birds and insects and the symptoms of the human toxicosis (some cases of poisonings) are discussed according to the literature data. The general symptoms of hemlock poisoning are effects on nervous system (stimulation followed by paralysis of motor nerve endings and CNS stimulation and later depression), vomiting, trembling, problems in movement, slow and weak later rapid pulse, rapid respiration, salivation, urination, nausea, convulsions, coma and death. PMID:15234067

Vetter, J

2004-09-01

276

The Solanaceae: foods and poisons.  

PubMed

The plant family Solanaceae contains important foodstuffs such as the potato, tomato and aubergine, together with powerful poisons including mandrake, henbane and deadly nightshade. In the first article in this short series on the family, the history and importance of the potato are described. It was first cultivated by the Inca people in the altiplano of the Andes in prehistoric times. Then it was translocated to Europe by the Spanish invaders. Originally reviled as'peasant food', it was regarded with great suspicion as an evil plant and a potential cause of leprosy. Over several centuries it gradually became established throughout Britain, France and the continent, and in particular in Ireland, where its growth allowed the population to expand very rapidly between 1750 and 1850. In the late 1840s, nemesis arrived in the form of the potato blight and the Irish famine. The 'tatties' went black, a great hunger ensued and thousands died. Later, the causative fungus was isolated and steps were taken to avoid further similar disasters. It is not generally appreciated that potatoes can be poisonous if they are turning green or sprouting (chitting). The tuber is then producing toxic quantities of the alkaloid alpha-solanine. The clinical syndrome of potato poisoning is described briefly. PMID:17153152

Lee, M R

2006-06-01

277

Outbreak investigation: Salmonella food poisoning  

PubMed Central

Background An outbreak of food poisoning was reported from a Military establishment on 29 May 2011 when 43 cases of food poisoning reported sick in a span of few hours. Methods A retrospective-prospective study was conducted. Data regarding the onset of symptoms, presenting features and history of food items consumed was collected. A detailed inspection of the mess for hygiene and sanitary status, cooking and storage procedure, and rodent nuisance was also carried out. Results A total of 53 cases of food poisoning occurred between 29 and 31 May 2011. All cases had symptoms of diarrohea followed by fever (96.2%), headache (84.9%), abdominal pain (50.1%), nausea and vomiting (49.1%) and bodyache (39.6%) respectively. Based on the Attributable Risk (AR = 46.67%) and Relative Risk (RR = 4.5, 95% CI = 1.22–16.54) Potato-bitter gourd vegetable served during dinner on 28 May 2011 was incriminated as the food item responsible for outbreak. Conclusion Symptomatology, incubation period and presence of rodent nuisance suggested contamination of Potato–bitter gourd vegetable with non-typhoidal Salmonella spp. PMID:24600149

Kunwar, R.; Singh, Harpreet; Mangla, Vipra; Hiremath, R.

2013-01-01

278

The anthelmintic effect of medium-chain fatty acids against the monogenean Heterobothrium okamotoi in the tiger puffer Takifugu rubripes: evaluation of doses of caprylic acid at different water temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The anthelmintic effect of short-chain (carbon numbers C2 and C4) and medium-chain (carbon numbers C6–C10) fatty acids against the monogenean Heterobothrium okamotoi was examined using in vitro trials. The effective dose for the oral administration of the fatty acid that was most effective in the in vitro trials was examined using challenge trials with H. okamotoi in the tiger puffer

Noritaka Hirazawa; Syun-ichirou Oshima; Toru Mitsuboshi; Kazuhiko Hata

2001-01-01

279

Nephropathy in Chronic Lead Poisoning  

PubMed Central

This paper presents a study of renal function in 102 patients with lead poisoning admitted to the Occupational Diseases Clinic in Bucharest during the past 10 years; nearly half the patients had no history of lead colic. Every possible cause of renal damage, other than lead, was excluded by a careful differential diagnosis. Renal function was investigated by repeated determinations of blood urea, creatinine and uric acid, urea clearance, and endogenous creatinine clearance tests. Significant decreases of the clearance values (less than 50 ml./min. urea clearance and less than 80 ml./min. creatinine clearance), persistent high blood urea (more than 50 mg./100 ml.), and high blood creatinine (more than 1·2 mg./100 ml.) were found in a significant number of cases. These signs of impaired renal function were more frequent in the group of patients with chronic lead poisoning who had had several episodes of colic and an occupational exposure of more than 10 years. A high blood pressure was also found more frequently in this group of patients. Undercompensated and decompensated renal failure was found in 17 patients, most of whom had been exposed to lead for more than 10 years and had a history of several attacks of colic. Arterial hypertension accompanied the chronic renal failure in 13 patients, the renal impairment generally preceding the rise in blood pressure by several years. The duration of occupational lead exposure, the high absorption in the past, and the long period of observation of these patients, most of whom were repeatedly hospitalized, may explain the relatively high incidence (17 cases) of nephropathy with chronic renal failure in the present group. Impairment of urea clearance seems to be the earliest sign, at a time when the creatinine clearance is still normal. As the duration of exposure lengthens and the patient is subjected to active episodes of poisoning the creatinine clearance also deteriorates. Persistent urea retention and high creatininaemia may follow in time, accompanied rather frequently by arterial hypertension. A study of some of the cases followed for several years demonstrated this progressive evolution of lead nephropathy. A functional and transitory impairment of renal function is very probably caused by an impairment of intrarenal circulation, resulting from marked vasoconstriction of the renal vessels, forming part of the generalized vasoconstriction of lead poisoning. Prolonged exposure and frequently recurring episodes of acute poisoning may lead to progressive impairment of renal function and to the development of organic lesions. Special attention should be paid to renal function tests in all cases with prolonged exposure to lead in order to prevent the development of severe lead nephropathy. PMID:5663423

Lilis, Ruth; Gavrilescu, N.; Nestorescu, B.; Dumitriu, C.; Roventa, Ana

1968-01-01

280

Aluminium phosphide poisoning: a case report.  

PubMed

This paper reports the case of a family in which three children were presented at Emergency Room (ER) with poisoning after the use of a pesticide at home. Initially, the cases were managed as routine cases of organophosphorus poisoning; however, the death of two children made the health team members realise that the poison's effects were delayed and devastating. Later, the compound was identified as Aluminium Phosphide (ALP), and the life of the last surviving child in the family was saved. PMID:22455303

Hirani, Shela Akbar Ali; Rahman, Arshalooz

2010-01-01

281

76 FR 16521 - National Poison Prevention Week, 2011  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Proclamation 8638--National Poison Prevention Week, 2011 Presidential Documents Federal Register...March 18, 2011 National Poison Prevention Week, 2011 By the President of the United States...preventable. During National Poison Prevention Week, I encourage all Americans to...

2011-03-23

282

77 FR 16645 - National Poison Prevention Week, 2012  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Proclamation 8784--National Poison Prevention Week, 2012 Memorandum of March 16, 2012...March 16, 2012 National Poison Prevention Week, 2012 By the President of the United States...anniversary of National Poison Prevention Week, I encourage all Americans to help...

2012-03-21

283

75 FR 13215 - National Poison Prevention Week, 2010  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...March 15, 2010 National Poison Prevention Week, 2010 By the President of the United States...1962, during National Poison Prevention Week we alert American families about the dangers...campaigns like National Poison Prevention Week, childhood death rates from...

2010-03-19

284

Molecular Structure of Saxitoxin  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The toxin found in the fish is known as Saxitioxin. The compound is a neurotoxin, causing numbness and tingling in the lips when ingested, and may lead to paralysis and death if untreated. This toxin is produced by the bacteria Gonyaulax Monilata, found in Dinoflagellate algae. In the United States, there have been a number of poisonings in Florida in people who ingested puffer fish from local waters.

2003-04-09

285

Tetrodotoxin poisoning due to pufferfish and gastropods, and their intoxication mechanism.  

PubMed

Marine pufferfish generally contain a large amount of tetrodotoxin (TTX) in their skin and viscera, and have caused many incidences of food poisoning, especially in Japan. Edible species and body tissues of pufferfish, as well as their allowable fishing areas, are therefore clearly stipulated in Japan, but still 2 to 3 people die every year due to pufferfish poisoning. TTX is originally produced by marine bacteria, and pufferfish are intoxicated through the food chain that starts with the bacteria. Pufferfish become nontoxic when fed TTX-free diets in a closed environment in which there is no possible invasion of TTX-bearing organisms. On the other hand, TTX poisoning due to marine snails has recently spread through Japan, China, Taiwan, and Europe. In addition, TTX poisoning of dogs due to the ingestion of sea slugs was recently reported in New Zealand. TTX in these gastropods also seems to be exogenous; carnivorous large snails are intoxicated by eating toxic starfish, and necrophagous small-to-medium snails, the viscera of dead pufferfish after spawning. Close attention must be paid to the geographic expansion and/or diversification of TTX-bearing organisms, and to the sudden occurrence of other forms of TTX poisoning due to their ingestion. PMID:23724281

Noguchi, Tamao; Onuki, Kazue; Arakawa, Osamu

2011-01-01

286

First identification of the neurotoxin homoanatoxin-a from mats of Hydrocoleum lyngbyaceum (marine cyanobacterium) possibly linked to giant clam poisoning in New Caledonia.  

PubMed

We report the first identification of homoanatoxin-a from benthic marine cyanobacteria (Hydrocoleum lyngbyaceum) samples collected in Lifou (Loyalty Islands, New Caledonia), where cases of giant clams (Tridacna maxima) intoxications were recorded during a severe ciguatera fish poisoning outbreak. Homoanatoxin-a was also detected in extracts of giant clams harvested in the surroundings of the contaminated area suggesting the possible link between these poisoning events and the occurrence of potentially neurotoxic Hydrocoleum. PMID:19895826

Méjean, Annick; Peyraud-Thomas, Caroline; Kerbrat, Anne Sophie; Golubic, Stjepko; Pauillac, Serge; Chinain, Mireille; Laurent, Dominique

2010-10-01

287

Poisoning in the United States: 2012 emergency medicine report of the national poison data system.  

PubMed

Deaths from drug overdose have become the leading cause of injury death in the United States, where the poison center system is available to provide real-time advice and collect data about a variety of poisonings. In 2012, emergency medical providers were confronted with new poisonings, such as bath salts (substituted cathinones) and Spice (synthetic cannabinoid drugs), as well as continued trends in established poisonings such as from prescription opioids. This article addresses current trends in opioid poisonings; new substances implicated in poisoning cases, including unit-dose laundry detergents, bath salts, Spice, and energy drinks; and the role of poison centers in public health emergencies such as the Fukushima radiation incident. PMID:25523411

Dart, Richard C; Bronstein, Alvin C; Spyker, Daniel A; Cantilena, Louis R; Seifert, Steven A; Heard, Stuart E; Krenzelok, Edward P

2015-04-01

288

FLUOROACETAMIDE (1081) POISONING IN WILD BIRDS  

Microsoft Academic Search

An outbreak of poisoning in four greylag geese (Anser anser) and 35-45 teal (Aizas crecca) is described. Laboratory findings led to the conclusion that a wheat bait containing the rodenticide fluoracetamide (1081) caused the poisoning. Circumstantial evidence incriminated fluoracetamide as the cause of death in white- fronted geese (Anser albifrons), mallards (Anas platyr\\/zynclzos), and chukars (Alec-

A. SHLOSBERGand; M. N. EGYED; Beit Dagan; H. MENDELSSOHN; Y. LANGER; B. Nesin

1975-01-01

289

Poison Awareness: A Discussion Leader's Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Because over 40,000 children are annually poisoned by household products, this guide for group leaders emphasizes hazards and preventive actions. Major objectives are defined: (1) to raise the audience's knowledge/awareness level concerning major hazards associated with potentially poisonous household products, (2) to point out primary hazard…

National Evaluation Systems, Inc., Amherst, MA.

290

Acute diquat poisoning with intracerebral bleeding  

PubMed Central

A case of severe diquat poisoning complicated by the development of aggressive behaviour, oliguric renal failure, and intracerebral bleeding is described. The patient was successfully managed and made a complete recovery. In this paper special attention has been given to the major clinical differences between diquat and paraquat intoxication.???Keywords: poisoning; diquat; paraquat PMID:11320278

Saeed, S; Wilks, M; Coupe, M

2001-01-01

291

Current management of the poisoned patient.  

PubMed

Management of the poisoned patient is a common and difficult problem for many practitioners. I present a clinical approach to the management of these patients, with emphasis on recent advances and controversies. Efficacy of gastric emptying, activated charcoal, manipulation of urinary pH, and indications for dialysis are discussed. Poisonings for which specific antidotes are available are reviewed. PMID:3393948

Yarbrough, B E

1988-07-01

292

Pesticide poisoning of animals of wild fauna.  

PubMed

Poisoning of rare birds of prey (7 Aegipius monachus and 1 Aquila chrysaetus) and 11 foxes by carbofuran is reported. The poisoning is an ecological disaster because of the death of A monachus, which is a rare species. Identification, confirmation and distribution of the toxic substance was performed by TLC and HPLC techniques. PMID:8727224

Antoniou, V; Zantopoulos, N; Skartsi, D; Tsoukali-Papadopoulou, H

1996-06-01

293

The Poison Control Center--Its Role  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Poison Control Centers are being utilized by more schools of pharmacy each year as training sites for students. This paper discusses what such a center is, its services, changes anticipated in the poison center system in the next several years and how they may influence pharmacy education, specifically as it relates to clinical toxicology.…

Manoguerra, Anthony S.

1976-01-01

294

An Outbreak of Foxglove Leaf Poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Comfrey (Symphytum officinale) leaves resemble those of foxglove (Digitalis purpurea) when the plant is not in bloom and, therefore, cardiac glycoside poisoning may occur when people confuse foxglove with comfrey. We report an outbreak of foxglove leaf poisoning following the use of alleged \\

Chun-Chi Lin; Chen-Chang Yang; Dong-Haur Phua; Jou-Fang Deng; Li-Hua Lu

2010-01-01

295

Poison Ivy: Tips for Treating and Preventing  

MedlinePLUS

... oak or poison sumac is caused by an oil found in these plants called urushiol (you-ROO-shee-all). When this ... when you came into contact with the poisonous plant. The oil can stick to clothing, and if it touches ...

296

Acute pulmonary edema following carbon monoxide poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes a patient who presented with coma and acute pulmonary edema after severe carbon monoxide poisoning. Hemodynamic evaluation revealed elevated systemic and pulmonary arterial, pulmonary wedge and right atrial pressures, together with an increased cardiac output. These findings are compatible with the hypothesis that a neurogenic mechanism plays a role in the pulmonary edema of carbon monoxide poisoning.

R. Naeije; A. Peretz; A. Cornil

1980-01-01

297

Toilet bowl cleaners and deodorizers poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... and not for use in the treatment or management of an actual poison exposure. If you have an exposure, you should call your local emergency number (such as 911) or the National Poison Control Center at 1-800-222-1222.

298

76 FR 9585 - Poison Control Program  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Research Foundation of SUNY d.b.a. the Upstate New York Poison...Winthrop University d.b.a. the Long Island Regional...Hospitals Corporation d.b.a. the New York City Poison...citizens of New York, 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. These...

2011-02-18

299

Red Tide or Neurotoxic Shellfish Poisoning  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web page discusses Red Tide and Neurotoxic Shellfish Poisoning, a milder gastroenteritis with neurologic symptoms compared with Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning. The classic causative organism is the dinoflagellate Gymnodinium breve, which produces neurotoxic toxins known as brevetoxins. This page describes clinical presentation of NSP (including symptoms), diagnosis, management and treatment, molecular mechanism of action, and references.

300

A survey of poison control centers worldwide  

PubMed Central

To stem the rising incidence of toxic exposure as well as the associated morbidity and mortality, the past century has seen the establishment and evolution of poison control centers (PCCs) worldwide. Depending on the location, PCCs vary in terms of staffing model, services offered, and funding sources. In this article, we discuss a survey of poison control centers worldwide. PMID:23351559

2012-01-01

301

Harmful Algal Blooms: Amnesic Shellfish Poisoning  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This University of Maryland SeaGrant web page discusses amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP), also known as domoic acid poisoning (DAP). The page discusses the production of domoic acid by the diatom Pseudo-nitzschia, geographic locations of detection, and economic impacts.

Andrew Kane

302

Intensive care management of organophosphate insecticide poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

INTRODUCTION: Organophosphate (OP) insecticides inhibit both cholinesterase and pseudo-cholinesterase activities. The inhibition of acetylcholinesterase causes accumulation of acetylcholine at synapses, and overstimulation of neurotransmission occurs as a result of this accumulation. The mortality rate of OP poisoning is high. Early diagnosis and appropriate treatment is often life saving. Treatment of OP poisoning consists of intravenous atropine and oximes. The clinical

Murat Sungur; Muhammed Güven

2001-01-01

303

Diagnosis & Treatment of Poisoning by Pesticides.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report succinctly discusses the steps necessary to diagnose and treat poisoning from pesticides, especially organophosphates, carbamates and chlorinated hydrocarbons. Immediate and continuing steps in the care of poisoning victims are outlined with supportive information on where to locate emergency assistance. (CS)

Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Pesticide Programs.

304

The Chemical Nature of Mercury in Human Brain Following Poisoning or Environmental Exposure  

PubMed Central

Methylmercury is among the most potentially toxic species to which human populations are exposed, both at high levels through poisonings and at lower levels through consumption of fish and other seafood. However, the molecular mechanisms of methylmercury toxicity in humans remain poorly understood. We used synchrotron X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) to study mercury chemical forms in human brain tissue. Individuals poisoned with high levels of methylmercury species showed elevated cortical selenium with significant proportions of nanoparticulate mercuric selenide plus some inorganic mercury and methylmercury bound to organic sulfur. Individuals with a lifetime of high fish consumption showed much lower levels of mercuric selenide and methylmercury cysteineate. Mercury exposure did not perturb organic selenium levels. These results elucidate a key detoxification pathway in the central nervous system and provide new insights into the appropriate methods for biological monitoring. PMID:22826746

2010-01-01

305

Mad honey poisoning mimicking acute myocardial infarction.  

PubMed

We report a case of acute poisoning in a 48-year-old man who presented with chest pain, abdominal pain, dizziness, sweatiness, blurred vision, and severe hypotension after ingestion of honey. His electrocardiogram showed sinus bradycardia and transient ST elevation. He made a good recovery after treatment with atropine and close monitoring. Grayanotoxin was detected in his urine and the honey he ingested, which confirmed a diagnosis of mad honey poisoning. This is a condition prevalent in the Black Sea region around Turkey but rarely seen locally. Although mad honey poisoning is life-threatening, early use of atropine is life-saving. Such poisoning may present with ST elevation in the electrocardiogram and symptoms mimicking acute myocardial infarction. It is therefore essential for clinicians to recognise this unusual form of poisoning and avoid the disastrous use of thrombolytic therapy. PMID:23918513

Chen, Sammy P L; Lam, Y H; Ng, Vember C H; Lau, F L; Sze, Y C; Chan, W T; Mak, Tony W L

2013-08-01

306

Management of the critically poisoned patient  

PubMed Central

Background Clinicians are often challenged to manage critically ill poison patients. The clinical effects encountered in poisoned patients are dependent on numerous variables, such as the dose, the length of exposure time, and the pre-existing health of the patient. The goal of this article is to introduce the basic concepts for evaluation of poisoned patients and review the appropriate management of such patients based on the currently available literature. Methods An unsystematic review of the medical literature was performed and articles pertaining to human poisoning were obtained. The literature selected was based on the preference and clinical expertise of authors. Discussion If a poisoning is recognized early and appropriate testing and supportive care is initiated rapidly, the majority of patient outcomes will be good. Judicious use of antidotes should be practiced and clinicians should clearly understand the indications and contraindications of antidotes prior to administration. PMID:19563673

Boyle, Jennifer S; Bechtel, Laura K; Holstege, Christopher P

2009-01-01

307

[Poisoning with sleep supporting drugs].  

PubMed

Emergencies caused by acute poisoning amount to 3-5% of the actions carried out by the emergency medical service. Sleep supporting drugs have a 35% part in the acute drug-induced poisoning, primarily within the framework of suicidal or parasuicidal actions. In this case, benzodiazepines occupy a top position, followed by H1-antihistaminic agents with strong sedative effects, and the so-called anxiolytic agents of the "second generation". In general, intoxication with sleep supporting drugs lead to disturbances of consciousness with different degrees of seriousness. Careful (external) anamnesis, inspection of the environment and clinical investigations could be helpful to evaluate the diagnosis. Hypoglycemia and neurological illnesses are to be excluded differential diagnostically. Preclinical therapy follows the "five finger rule" (stabilization of the vital functions, detoxification, antidote therapy, asservation, transportation). Specific procedures (preclinical stomach lavage, antidote therapy) are indicated in rare cases, only (mainly mixed intoxication with ethanol). Subsequent therapeutic procedures under clinical conditions are demonstrated using selected examples. PMID:11233496

Kretzschmar, M

2001-01-01

308

Acute poisoning with bromofosmethyl (bromophos).  

PubMed

One hour after suicidal ingestion of about 20 mL of a 38% solution of bromofosmethyl, CAS: 2104-96-3 (bromophos), a 52 year-old female was admitted to the hospital with extreme miosis, hypersalivation, hyperperistalsis and muscular fibrillation. Gastric lavage was performed and activated charcoal administered. Cholinergic symptoms were antagonized by repeated doses of 0.5 mg atropine. Because of the high dose of bromophos, hemoperfusion was performed with amberlite XAD4. The bromophos clearance during hemoperfusion was 95 mL/min (flow 200 mL/min). The patient received two doses of 500 mg obidoxime for recurrent muscular fibrillation. The further clinical course was uneventful. On day 4, the patient was transferred to a psychiatric ward because of persistent suicidality. In contrast to poisoning by most organophosphates, red blood cell acetyl cholinesterase was only minimally depressed but the plasma butyryl cholinesterase was initially decreased and normalized within a few days. The records of 25 patients reported to our Poison Control Center with ingestion of more than 1 g bromophos were also evaluated. The most frequent symptoms were miosis, hyperperistalsis, hypersalivation, agitation, nausea/vomiting and convulsions. Nine of the patients had no symptoms. Bromophos is relatively less toxic than its phosphate derivative, parathion. PMID:2051507

Köppel, C; Thomsen, T; Heinemeyer, G; Roots, I

1991-01-01

309

Unexpected double lethal oleander poisoning.  

PubMed

Nerium oleander is a very popular urban ornamental plant in Europe, but it is also extremely dangerous because it contains several types of glycosides, accidental ingestion of which can cause cardiac arrhythmias and even deaths. The rarity of such cases makes it difficult to think of oleander poisoning without evidences that suggest this possibility as the cause of the unexpected death. This report concerns the discovery of the bodies of 2 young people, a man and a woman, in a forest in conditions of extreme malnutrition. Medicolegal investigations showed neither pathologic nor traumatic causes of death, but the presence of vegetal remains in the stomach was noticed. A common toxicological analysis resulted negative, but the implementation of more detailed investigations showed the presence of digoxin in the blood of both cadavers, excluding the possibility of a pharmaceutical provenience of digoxin, this laboratory result was interpreted as evidence of ingestion of oleander, which contains oleandrine, the cross reaction of which with digoxin is widely described in the literature. Identification of the 2 subjects, which occurred after 4 years, strengthened the hypothesis of accidental poisoning by oleander because it was ascertained that the 2 young people were vegans--extreme vegetarians who reject the ingestion of foods of animal origin and live by eating only what they find in nature. PMID:21926903

Papi, Luigi; Luciani, Alessandro Bassi; Forni, David; Giusiani, Mario

2012-03-01

310

[Acute and chronic cadmium poisoning].  

PubMed

Cadmium is a metallic impurity in various minerals. The two main cadmium exposure sources in general population are food and tobacco smoking. Its industrial exploitation has grown in the early twentieth century. Cadmium is used in accumulators or alkaline batteries (80%) and in pigments for paints or plastics (10%), in electrolytic process by deposit or by cadmium plating on metals or to reduce melting points (welding rods...). Cadmium is a cumulative toxic substance whose half-time for elimination is about 20 to 40 years and it is mainly stored in the liver and kidneys. Inhalation of cadmium oxide fumes may cause inhalation fevers or chemical pneumonitis. Cadmium chronic poisoning causes mainly renal tubulopathy and could be the cause of osteomalacia and diffuse osteoporosis. Cadmium is classified as certain carcinogen agent for humans by International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). The most relevant biological index exposure is the urinary cadmium. According to literature, no chelating agent can be still used in human cadmium poisonings. In France, some diseases caused by occupational exposure to cadmium may be compensated. PMID:19709784

Andujar, P; Bensefa-Colas, L; Descatha, A

2010-02-01

311

Lead Poisoning of Waterfowl by Contaminated Sediment in the Coeur d'Alene River  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Coeur d'Alene River basin in Idaho has been contaminated by mine tailings that have impaired the health of wildlife since\\u000a the early 1900s. In other parts of the world, virtually all lead poisoning of waterfowl is caused by the ingestion of manmade\\u000a lead artifacts, primarily spent lead shotshell pellets or, occasionally, fishing sinkers. However, in the Coeur d'Alene River

L. Sileo; L. H. Creekmore; D. J. Audet; M. R. Snyder; C. U. Meteyer; J. C. Franson; L. N. Locke; M. R. Smith; D. L. Finley

2001-01-01

312

Poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... nail polish remover and other personal care products Paint thinner Pesticides used in the house or in ... when using cleaners and chemicals. Avoid using pesticides, paint thinner or other chemicals inside the house or ...

313

Monocrotophos poisoning through contaminated millet flour.  

PubMed

Several episodes of mass poisoning by organophosphates (OPs) have been reported from the developing countries. The diagnosis of OP-poisoning is mainly based on the characteristic clinical features and history of exposure to a known OP compound. Estimation of serum and red blood cell (RBC) cholinesterase activities are helpful in confirming the diagnosis. However, there is controversy regarding a definite relationship between serum cholinesterase activity and the severity of clinical manifestations and prognosis. This report describes an episode of mass monocrotophos poisoning that occurred due to accidental ingestion of monocrotophos-contaminated millet (so-called bavta) flour involving eight severely poisoned persons. Clinical presentation included severe abdominal pain, diarrhoea, vomiting, pupil narrowing, and difficulty breathing. On hospital admission, plasma cholinesterase (PChE) and especially RBC acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activities correlated well with clinical symptoms presented by the patients. This case study highlights the need for clinicians to be aware of OP-pesticide poisoning from food sources and the need to look for depressed PChE and AChE activities that may point to OP exposure, so that OP-poisoning can be identified immediately and patients can receive specific treatment, rather than general treatment for food poisoning. PMID:23152387

Patel, Ashwin B; Dewan, Aruna; Kaji, Bharat C

2012-09-01

314

Acute plant poisoning and antitoxin antibodies.  

PubMed

Plant poisoning is normally a problem of young children who unintentionally ingest small quantities of toxic plants with little resulting morbidity and few deaths. In some regions of the world, however, plant poisonings are important clinical problems causing much morbidity and mortality. While deaths do occur after unintentional poisoning with plants such as Atractylis gummifera (bird-lime or blue thistle) and Blighia sapida (ackee tree), the majority of deaths globally occur following intentional self-poisoning with plants such as Thevetia peruviana (yellow oleander) and Cerbera manghas (pink-eyed cerbera or sea mango). Antitoxins developed against colchicine and cardiac glycosides would be useful for plant poisonings--anti-digoxin Fab fragments have been shown to be highly effective in T. peruviana poisoning. Unfortunately, their great cost limits their use in the developing world where they would make a major difference in patient management. Therapy for some other plant poisonings might also benefit from the development of antitoxins. However, until issues of cost and supply are worked out, plant antitoxins are going to remain a dream in many of the areas where they are now urgently required. PMID:12807314

Eddleston, Michael; Persson, Hans

2003-01-01

315

Lead Poisoning Mimicking Acute Porphyria!  

PubMed Central

We are presenting a case of a 13-year-old autistic boy whose urine porphyrin test came positive on three separate occasions. The child was brought to emergency department of Kasturba Medical College Hospital, Attavar, Mangalore, India, with fever and acute abdominal pain, with no previous history of any serious illness. Investigations revealed thalassemia trait,microcytic hypochromic anaemia while the other biochemical and haematological parameters were normal. False positive urine porphyrin test may be seen in porphyria induced by liver cancer, hepatitis and heavy metal poisoning such as lead, arsenic and mercury. Blood lead (PbB) level was 59.5?g/dl. Further evaluation revealed a daily consumption of native medicine in the form of syrup. PMID:25653942

L N, Akshatha; Shenoy, Mamatha T; P, Sadashiva Rao; B, Prashanth

2014-01-01

316

Lead poisoning mimicking acute porphyria!  

PubMed

We are presenting a case of a 13-year-old autistic boy whose urine porphyrin test came positive on three separate occasions. The child was brought to emergency department of Kasturba Medical College Hospital, Attavar, Mangalore, India, with fever and acute abdominal pain, with no previous history of any serious illness. Investigations revealed thalassemia trait,microcytic hypochromic anaemia while the other biochemical and haematological parameters were normal. False positive urine porphyrin test may be seen in porphyria induced by liver cancer, hepatitis and heavy metal poisoning such as lead, arsenic and mercury. Blood lead (PbB) level was 59.5?g/dl. Further evaluation revealed a daily consumption of native medicine in the form of syrup. PMID:25653942

L N, Akshatha; M S, Rukmini; Shenoy, Mamatha T; P, Sadashiva Rao; B, Prashanth

2014-12-01

317

Chelation therapy in nickel poisoning.  

PubMed

For the treatment of acute poisoning from the inhalation of nickel carbonyl, sodium diethyldithiocarbamate (Dithiocarb) has proved to be a specific antidote; tetraethylthiuram (Antabuse) is effective to a lesser degree; d-penicillamine and dimercaprol (BAL) have limited therapeutic value. For the treatment of nickel eczema and dermatitis, favorable response has been obtained by placing patients on a diet of low nickel content together with the oral administration of Dithiocarb or Antabuse. No specific therapy has been advanced for the treatment of nickel cancer in humans. In experimental animals, Dithiocarb has an inhibitory effect on the production of rat rhabdomyosarcomas induced by the intramuscular implantation of nickel subsulfide, and N-methyl formamide inhibits the growth of transplantable nickel fibromas in rats. It is suggested that for the treatment of tumors arising from the implantations of nickel-containing prostheses in humans, chelation therapy be considered. PMID:6260008

Sunderman, F W

1981-01-01

318

Chronic mercury poisoning: Report of two siblings  

PubMed Central

Mercury exists as organic inorganic and elementary forms in nature and is one of the most toxic metals that are poisonous for human beings. Mercury is commonly used in many different sectors of industry such as in insects formulas, agriculture products, lamps, batteries, paper, dyes, electrical/electronic devices, jewelry, and in dentistry. In this study, two siblings (one a 7-year-old boy and the other a 13 years old girl) are reported who developed chronic mercury poisoning as a result of long-term contact with batteries. Our aim is to emphasize the importance of mercury poisoning that is extremely rarely seen in childhood. PMID:20808663

Yilmaz, Cahide; Okur, Mesut; Geylani, Hadi; Çaksen, Hüseyin; Tuncer, O?uz; Ata?, Bülent

2010-01-01

319

Enhanced poison elimination in critical care.  

PubMed

Nephrologists and critical care physicians are commonly involved in the treatment of severely poisoned patients. Various techniques exist presently to enhance the elimination of poisons. Corporeal treatments occur inside of the body and include multiple-dose activated charcoal, resin binding, forced diuresis, and urinary pH alteration. Extracorporeal treatments include hemodialysis, hemoperfusion, peritoneal dialysis, continuous renal replacement therapy, exchange transfusion, and plasmapheresis. This review illustrates the potential indications and limitations in the application of these modalities as well as the pharmacological characteristics of poisons amenable to enhanced elimination. PMID:23265601

Ghannoum, Marc; Gosselin, Sophie

2013-01-01

320

Metal Poisons in Waste Tanks (U)  

SciTech Connect

Many of the storage tanks with waste from processing fissile materials contain, along with the fissile material, metals which may serve as nuclear criticality poisons. It would be advantageous to the criticality evaluation of these wastes if it can be demonstrated that the poisons remain with the fissile materials and if an always safe poison-to-fissile ratio can be established. The first task, demonstrating that the materials stay together, is the job of the chemist, the second, demonstrating an always safe ratio, is the job of the physicist. The latter task is the object of this paper

Williamson, T.G. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States)

1996-10-14

321

One Fish Two Fish.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This activity explains fisheries resource management to seven-year olds. First-grade students learn concepts such as offspring viability, life expectancy, and distribution of species, which help to determine when, where, and how people fish and the importance of fishing responsibly. Lists materials, procedures, and extensions. (SJR)

Hoffman, Michele

1998-01-01

322

Poisonous plants in New Zealand: a review of those that are most commonly enquired about to the National Poisons Centre  

Microsoft Academic Search

INTRODUCTION: New Zealand has a number of plants, both native and introduced, contact with which can lead to poisoning. The New Zealand National Poisons Centre (NZNPC) frequently receives enquiries regarding exposures to poisonous plants. Poisonous plants can cause harm following inadvertent ingestion, via skin contact, eye exposures or inhalation of sawdust or smoked plant matter. AIM: The purpose of this

R. J. Slaughter; D. M. Beasley; B. S. Lambie; G. T. Wilkins; L. J. Schep

2012-01-01

323

Poisoned Pacific: The legacy of French nuclear testing  

SciTech Connect

The author points out that France hosted a summit meeting of the seven wealthiest nations on earth in the summer of 1989, celebrating the bicentenary of the French Revolution. Although introducing a new subject to the economic summit - present environmental concerns - nothing was said about the poisoning of the islands and islanders from 159 nuclear tests (44 atmospheric, 115 underground) since 1966 on two tiny atolls (Moruroa and Fangataufa) in French Polynesia. The first test rained dead fish from a lagoon; others spread radiation throughout the region. De Gaulle's promise of independence to the Polynesians during World War II, as soon as the war was over, was forgotten once nuclear testing began. The atolls and the patience of the Polynesians have been used up; and a colony that once was nearly self-sufficient now imports 80% of its food.

Danielsson, B.

1990-03-01

324

Fatal poisonings in Oslo: a one-year observational study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Acute poisonings are common and are treated at different levels of the health care system. Since most fatal poisonings occur outside hospital, these must be included when studying characteristics of such deaths. The pattern of toxic agents differs between fatal and non-fatal poisonings. By including all poisoning episodes, cause-fatality rates can be calculated. METHODS: Fatal and non-fatal acute poisonings

Mari A Bjornaas; Brita Teige; Knut E Hovda; Oivind Ekeberg; Fridtjof Heyerdahl; Dag Jacobsen

2010-01-01

325

Fish FAQ  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Northeast Fisheries Science Center answers your question regarding all things fish. Hundreds of fish and other marine fauna questions are answered in the FAQ section. Site also links to several external fish FAQs, as well as other internal and external resources, including kids sites, fish images, species synopses, how to age a fish. The site also features a glossary of fish terms and insight into the different ways fish are caught.

326

Depletion optimization of lumped burnable poisons in pressurized water reactors  

SciTech Connect

Techniques were developed to construct a set of basic poison depletion curves which deplete in a monotonical manner. These curves were combined to match a required optimized depletion profile by utilizing either linear or non-linear programming methods. Three computer codes, LEOPARD, XSDRN, and EXTERMINATOR-2 were used in the analyses. A depletion routine was developed and incorporated into the XSDRN code to allow the depletion of fuel, fission products, and burnable poisons. The Three Mile Island Unit-1 reactor core was used in this work as a typical PWR core. Two fundamental burnable poison rod designs were studied. They are a solid cylindrical poison rod and an annular cylindrical poison rod with water filling the central region.These two designs have either a uniform mixture of burnable poisons or lumped spheroids of burnable poisons in the poison region. Boron and gadolinium are the two burnable poisons which were investigated in this project. Thermal self-shielding factor calculations for solid and annular poison rods were conducted. Also expressions for overall thermal self-shielding factors for one or more than one size group of poison spheroids inside solid and annular poison rods were derived and studied. Poison spheroids deplete at a slower rate than the poison mixture because each spheroid exhibits some self-shielding effects of its own. The larger the spheroid, the higher the self-shielding effects due to the increase in poison concentration.

Kodah, Z.H.

1982-01-01

327

Cornell University Poisonous Plants Informational Database  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This database provides information on plants and other natural flora such as fungi that grow in the United States and may be poisonous to livestock or other animals. The information includes images of plants, pictures of affected animals and presentations on botany, chemistry, toxicology, diagnosis, and prevention of poisoning. The data are searchable by scientific or common name, primary poison, and species of animal most often affected. There are also alphabetical listings of plants by genus and species and by common names, a list of toxic agents found in plants, and a list of commonly affected animals (including humans). Other materials include a discussion of the possible benefits or toxic effects of medicinal plants on livestock, a frequently-asked-questions feature, and links to other websites with information on poisonous plants.

Dr. Dan L. Brown

328

Red Tide and Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the nature and cause of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP). Includes toxic dinoflagellate ecology, taxonomy and life history, and chemistry of the toxins. Recent work with trace metals and directions of future research are also given. (MA)

Dale, Barrie; Yentsch, Clarice M.

1978-01-01

329

Lead Poisoning and the Suburban Child  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports on recent findings which suggest that lead poisoning stems not only from paint ingestion, is not limited to ghetto children, and may be linked to some learning and behavioral difficulties in children. (Author/SF)

Graham, Ada; Graham, Frank

1974-01-01

330

An Electrophysiological Study of Acute Tetrodotoxin Poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

To evaluate the electrophysiological changes in patients with acute tetrodotoxin (TTX) poisoning from ingestion of globefish\\u000a (Tetraodontidae) patients exposed to TTX were compared with age-matched controls. The cohort of TTX-poisoning cases was clinically\\u000a subdivided into mild, moderate, or severe cases. The motor nerve conduction velocity (MCV), sensory nerve conduction velocity\\u000a (SCV), F-wave, H-reflex, and somatosensory-evoked potentials (SEP) of the median,

Dinghua Liu; Jianyu Zhang; Bojun Han; Lang Pen; Dongbai Liu

2011-01-01

331

Mescalbean (Sophora secundiflora) Poisonous for Livestock.  

E-print Network

R6-103 5-6m TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION A. B. CONNER, DIRECTOR COLLEGE STATION, BRAZOS COUNTY, TEXAS BULLETIN NO. 519 DECEMBER', 1935 -- DIVISION OF VETERINARY SCIENCE MESCALBEAN (SOPHORA SECUNDIFLORA) POISONOUS FOR LIVESTOCK... AGRJCULTURAL AND MECHANICAL COLLEGE OF TEXAS T. 0. WALTON, President poisoning among range sheep resulting from eating green leaves of Sophora seczcndiflora (commonly known as mescalbean, mountain laurel, or coralbean) sometimes occurs' during the late...

Boughton, I. B. (Ivan Bertrand); Hardy, W. T. (William Tyree)

1935-01-01

332

Cholestatic presentation of yellow phosphorus poisoning  

PubMed Central

Yellow phosphorus, a component of certain pesticide pastes and fireworks, is well known to cause hepatotoxicity. Poisoning with yellow phosphorus classically manifests with acute hepatitis leading to acute liver failure which may need liver transplantation. We present a case of yellow phosphorus poisoning in which a patient presented with florid clinical features of cholestasis highlighting the fact that cholestasis can rarely be a presenting feature of yellow phosphorus hepatotoxicity. PMID:24554916

Lakshmi, C. P.; Goel, Amit; Basu, Debdatta

2014-01-01

333

Cholestatic presentation of yellow phosphorus poisoning.  

PubMed

Yellow phosphorus, a component of certain pesticide pastes and fireworks, is well known to cause hepatotoxicity. Poisoning with yellow phosphorus classically manifests with acute hepatitis leading to acute liver failure which may need liver transplantation. We present a case of yellow phosphorus poisoning in which a patient presented with florid clinical features of cholestasis highlighting the fact that cholestasis can rarely be a presenting feature of yellow phosphorus hepatotoxicity. PMID:24554916

Lakshmi, C P; Goel, Amit; Basu, Debdatta

2014-01-01

334

Hyperbaric Oxygen for Acute Carbon Monoxide Poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background Patients with acute carbon monoxide poisoning commonly have cognitive sequelae. We conducted a double-blind, randomized trial to evaluate the effect of hyperbaric-oxygen treatment on such cognitive sequelae. Methods We randomly assigned patients with symptomatic acute carbon monoxide poisoning in equal proportions to three chamber sessions within a 24-hour period, consisting of either three hyperbaric-oxygen treatments or one normobaric-oxygen treatment

Lindell K. Weaver; Ramona O. Hopkins; Karen J. Chan; Susan Churchill; C. Gregory Elliott; Terry P. Clemmer; James F. Orme; Frank O. Thomas; Alan H. Morris

2002-01-01

335

Aluminum phosphide poisoning: an unsolved riddle.  

PubMed

Aluminum phosphide (ALP), a widely used insecticide and rodenticide, is also infamous for the mortality and morbidity it causes in ALP-poisoned individuals. The toxicity of metal phosphides is due to phosphine liberated when ingested phosphides come into contact with gut fluids. ALP poisoning is lethal, having a mortality rate in excess of 70%. Circulatory failure and severe hypotension are common features of ALP poisoning and frequent cause of death. Severe poisoning also has the potential to induce multi-organ failure. The exact site or mechanism of its action has not been proved in humans. Rather than targeting a single organ to cause gross damage, ALP seems to work at the cellular level, resulting in widespread damage leading to multiorgan dysfunction (MOD) and death. There has been proof in vitro that phosphine inhibits cytochrome c oxidase. However, it is unlikely that this interaction is the primary cause of its toxicity. Mitochondria could be the possible site of maximum damage in ALP poisoning, resulting in low ATP production followed by metabolic shutdown and MOD; also, owing to impairment in electron flow, there could be free radical generation and damage, again producing MOD. Evidence of reactive oxygen species-induced toxicity owing to ALP has been observed in insects and rats. A similar mechanism could also play a role in humans and contribute to the missing link in the pathogenesis of ALP toxicity. There is no specific antidote for ALP poisoning and supportive measures are all that are currently available. PMID:21607993

Anand, R; Binukumar, B K; Gill, Kiran Dip

2011-08-01

336

Hearts and flowers: Bryophyllum poisoning of cattle.  

PubMed

Findings from natural cases and experiments with cattle emphasise that flowering plants are the most important form of Bryophyllum (Kalanchoe) spp in poisonings in Australia. The main life-threatening lesion is myocardial. The effects on the alimentary tract are less important than was believed previously. B. tubiflorum, B. daigremontianum x B. tubiflorum, B. pinnatum and B. proliferum caused 41 recorded poisoning incidents affecting 379 cattle in Queensland between 1960 and 1984. Poisoning occurred between May and October--the flowering season of these plants. Experimental B. tubiflorum poisoning and natural poisonings produced anorexia, depression, ruminal atony, diarrhoea, heart rate and rhythm abnormalities, dyspnoea and death. Increased plasma concentrations of urea, creatinine and glucose and decreased chloride were measured experimentally. Both natural and experimental cases had myocardial degeneration and necrosis with haemorrhages of the heart and alimentary tract. Cattle with severe dyspnoea had atelectasis and emphysema of the lungs. Some cattle had mild nephrosis. The median lethal doses of B. tubiflorum flowers, roots and leaf plus stem were 0.7, 2.3 and 5.0 g dry matter/kg liveweight respectively (7, 7 and 40 g wet weight/kg). Bufadienolides have been isolated recently from B. tubiflorum flowers and the syndrome is consistent with cardiac glycoside poisoning. PMID:3778371

McKenzie, R A; Dunster, P J

1986-07-01

337

Acute Plant Poisoning and Antitoxin Antibodies  

PubMed Central

Plant poisoning is normally a problem of young children who unintentionally ingest small quantities of toxic plants with little resulting morbidity and few deaths. In some regions of the world, however, plants are important clinical problems causing much morbidity and mortality. While deaths do occur after unintentional poisoning with plants such as Atractylis gummifera (bird-lime or blue thistle) and Blighia sapida (ackee tree), the majority of deaths globally occur following intentional self-poisoning with plants such as Thevetia peruviana (yellow oleander) and Cerbera manghas (pink-eyed cerbera or sea mango). Antitoxins developed against colchicine and cardiac glycosides would be useful for plant poisonings - anti-digoxin Fab fragments have been shown to be highly effective in T. peruviana poisoning. Unfortunately, their great cost limits their use in the developing world where they would make a major difference in patient management. Therapy for some other plant poisonings might also benefit from the development of antitoxins. However, until issues of cost and supply are worked out, plant anti-toxins are going to remain a dream in many of the areas where they are now urgently required. PMID:12807314

Eddleston, Michael; Persson, Hans

2007-01-01

338

Lead poisoning of waterfowl by contaminated sediment in the Coeur d'Alene River.  

PubMed

The Coeur d'Alene River basin in Idaho has been contaminated by mine tailings that have impaired the health of wildlife since the early 1900s. In other parts of the world, virtually all lead poisoning of waterfowl is caused by the ingestion of manmade lead artifacts, primarily spent lead shotshell pellets or, occasionally, fishing sinkers. However, in the Coeur d'Alene River basin in Idaho, nonartifactual lead poisoning was the ultimate cause of death of most of 219 (77%) of 285 waterfowl carcasses that had been found sick or dead from 1992 through 1997. The majority of these 219 waterfowl (172 tundra swans [Cygnus columbianus], 33 Canada geese [Branta canadensis], and 14 other species) were poisoned by ingesting river sediment that was contaminated with lead. The next most common cause of death (20 instances, 7%) was lead poisoning accompanied by ingested shotshell pellets. The remaining 46 waterfowl succumbed to trauma, infectious diseases (aspergillosis, avian cholera, tuberculosis), or miscellaneous problems, or the cause of death was not determined. PMID:11503074

Sileo, L; Creekmore, L H; Audet, D J; Snyder, M R; Meteyer, C U; Franson, J C; Locke, L N; Smith, M R; Finley, D L

2001-10-01

339

City Fishing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A program of supplying opportunities for fishing at locations within and near urban areas was developed. This effort included stocking, management of bodies of water for fishing, and presentation of fishing clinics for urban fishermen. (RE)

Lange, Robert E.

1979-01-01

340

Fish tapeworm  

MedlinePLUS

Fish tapeworm is an infection with a parasite found in fish. ... The fish tapeworm ( Diphyllobothrium latum ), is the largest parasite that infects humans. Humans become infected when they eat raw ...

341

Childhood and adolescence poisoning in NSW, Australia: an analysis of age, sex, geographic, and poison types  

PubMed Central

Objective: This study aims to investigate whether there is any association between the types of poison substances and geographic locations for different age groups and sex. Design: This is a population based epidemiological study utilising routinely collected inpatient statistics. Setting: Data are collected as part of the routine vital health information system via all hospitals in New South Wales (NSW), Australia. Patients: All patients aged between 0–19 years who were admitted to a hospital because of poisoning by the four major types of substances that were defined in the study in NSW in 2000. Main results: The standardised incidence ratios of poisoning related hospitalisation between metropolitan and rural areas varied across different poison types when compared with the NSW average. While there are few differences between metropolitan and rural areas for analgesic and chemical related poisoning admissions across different age groups and sex, differences in the standardised incidence ratios between geographic locations for psychotropic and venom related poisoning admissions were found. No significant difference in standardised mortality ratios were found between metropolitan and rural areas except for females in the 10–14 years age group (standardised mortality ratio 3.24, 95% confidence interval 1.69 to 6.21). Conclusions: The results obtained in this study, on the whole, provide some evidence for an association between poison types and geographic locations for psychotropic and venom related poisoning. PMID:14693896

Lam, L

2003-01-01

342

Morphological abnormalities and sensorimotor deficits in larval fish exposed to dissolved saxitoxin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dietary uptake of one suite of dinoflagellate-produced neurotoxins, that are commonly called paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins, is known to cause acute fish kills. However, little is known about the effects of dissolved phase exposure and the potential sublethal effects of this route of exposure on early developmental stages of fish. Toxin exposure during early development is of particular

Kathi A. Lefebvre; Vera L. Trainer; Nathaniel L. Scholz

2004-01-01

343

Pancreatitis in wild zinc-poisoned waterfowl  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Four waterfowl were collected in the TriState Mining District (Oklahoma, Kansas and Missouri, USA), an area known to be contaminated with lead, cadmium and zinc (Zn). They were part of a larger group of 20 waterfowl collected to determine the exposure of birds to metal contamination at the site. The four waterfowl (three Branta canadensis, one Anas platyrhynchos) had mild to severe degenerative abnormalities of the exocrine pancreas, as well as tissue (pancreas, liver) concentrations of Zn that were considered toxic. The mildest condition was characterized by generalized atrophy of exocrine cells that exhibited cytoplasmic vacuoles and a relative lack of zymogen. The most severe condition was characterized by acini with distended lumens and hyperplastic exocrine tissue that completely lacked zymogen; these acini were widely separated by immature fibrous tissue. Because the lesions were nearly identical to the lesions reported in chickens and captive waterfowl that had been poisoned with ingested Zn, and because the concentrations of Zn in the pancreas and liver of the four birds were consistent with the concentrations measured in Zn-poisoned birds, we concluded that these waterfowl were poisoned by Zn. This may be the first reported case of zinc poisoning in free-ranging wild birds poisoned by environmental Zn.

Sileo, L.; Beyer, W.N.; Mateo, R.

2003-01-01

344

Pancreatitis in wild zinc-poisoned waterfowl  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Four waterfowl were collected in the Tri-State Mining District (Oklahoma, Kansas and Missouri, USA), an area known to be contaminated with lead, cadmium and zinc (Zn). They were part of a larger group of 20 waterfowl collected to determine the exposure of birds to metal contamination at the site. The four waterfowl (three Branta canadensis, one Anas platyrhynchos) had mild to severe degenerative abnormalities of the exocrine pancreas, as well as tissue (pancreas, liver) concentrations of Zn that were considered toxic. The mildest condition was characterized by generalized atrophy of exocrine cells that exhibited cytoplasmic vacuoles and a relative lack of zymogen. The most severe condition was characterized by acini with distended lumens and hyperplastic exocrine tissue that completely lacked zymogen; these acini were widely separated by immature fibrous tissue. Because the lesions were nearly identical to the lesions reported in chickens and captive waterfowl that had been poisoned with ingested Zn, and because the concentrations of Zn in the pancreas and liver of the four birds were consistent with the concentrations measured in Zn-poisoned birds, we concluded that these waterfowl were poisoned by Zn. This may be the first reported case of zinc poisoning in free-ranging wild birds poisoned by environmental Zn.

Sileo, L.; Beyer, W.N.; Mateo, R.

2003-01-01

345

Pancreatitis in wild zinc-poisoned waterfowl.  

PubMed

Four waterfowl were collected in the Tri-State Mining District (Oklahoma, Kansas and Missouri, USA), an area known to be contaminated with lead, cadmium and zinc (Zn). They were part of a larger group of 20 waterfowl collected to determine the exposure of birds to metal contamination at the site. The four waterfowl (three Branta canadensis, one Anas platyrhynchos) had mild to severe degenerative abnormalities of the exocrine pancreas, as well as tissue (pancreas, liver) concentrations of Zn that were considered toxic. The mildest condition was characterized by generalized atrophy of exocrine cells that exhibited cytoplasmic vacuoles and a relative lack of zymogen. The most severe condition was characterized by acini with distended lumens and hyperplastic exocrine tissue that completely lacked zymogen; these acini were widely separated by immature fibrous tissue. Because the lesions were nearly identical to the lesions reported in chickens and captive waterfowl that had been poisoned with ingested Zn, and because the concentrations of Zn in the pancreas and liver of the four birds were consistent with the concentrations measured in Zn-poisoned birds, we concluded that these waterfowl were poisoned by Zn. This may be the first reported case of zinc poisoning in free-ranging wild birds poisoned by environmental Zn. PMID:14676018

Sileo, Louis; Nelson Beyer, W; Mateo, Rafael

2003-12-01

346

Fatal paralytic shellfish poisoning in Kittlitz's Murrelet (Brachyramphus brevirostris) nestlings, Alaska, USA.  

PubMed

Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) is an acute toxic illness in humans resulting from ingestion of shellfish contaminated with a suite of neurotoxins (saxitoxins) produced by marine dinoflagellates, most commonly in the genus Alexandrium. Poisoning also has been sporadically suspected and, less often, documented in marine wildlife, often in association with an outbreak in humans. Kittlitz's Murrelet (Brachyramphus brevirostris) is a small, rare seabird of the Northern Pacific with a declining population. From 2008 to 2012, as part of a breeding ecology study, multiple Kittlitz's Murrelet nests on Kodiak Island, Alaska, were monitored by remote cameras. During the 2011 and 2012 breeding seasons, nestlings from several sites died during mild weather conditions. Remote camera observations revealed that the nestlings died shortly after consuming sand lance (Ammodytes hexapterus), a fish species known to biomagnify saxitoxin. High levels of saxitoxin were subsequently documented in crop content in 87% of nestling carcasses. Marine bird deaths from PSP may be underreported. PMID:25098307

Shearn-Bochsler, Valerie; Lance, Ellen W; Corcoran, Robin; Piatt, John; Bodenstein, Barbara; Frame, Elizabeth; Lawonn, James

2014-10-01

347

Fatal paralytic shellfish poisoning in Kittlitz's Murrelet (Brachyramphus brevirostris) nestlings, Alaska, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) is an acute toxic illness in humans resulting from ingestion of shellfish contaminated with a suite of neurotoxins (saxitoxins) produced by marine dinoflagellates, most commonly in the genus Alexandrium. Poisoning also has been sporadically suspected and, less often, documented in marine wildlife, often in association with an outbreak in humans. Kittlitz's Murrelet (Brachyramphus brevirostris) is a small, rare seabird of the Northern Pacific with a declining population. From 2008 to 2012, as part of a breeding ecology study, multiple Kittlitz's Murrelet nests on Kodiak Island, Alaska, were monitored by remote cameras. During the 2011 and 2012 breeding seasons, nestlings from several sites died during mild weather conditions. Remote camera observations revealed that the nestlings died shortly after consuming sand lance (Ammodytes hexapterus), a fish species known to biomagnify saxitoxin. High levels of saxitoxin were subsequently documented in crop content in 87% of nestling carcasses. Marine bird deaths from PSP may be underreported.

Shearn-Bochsler, Valerie I.; Lance, Ellen W.; Corcoran, Robin; Piatt, John; Bodenstein, Barbara; Frame, Elizabeth; Lawonn, James

2014-01-01

348

Unusual case of methanol poisoning  

SciTech Connect

A 31-year-old man with a history of alcohol abuse presented to the accident and emergency department complaining of blurred vision. 4 h previously he had drunk 300 mL de-icer fluid. Electrolytes, urea, creatinine, glucose, and blood-gas analysis were normal. Measured osmolality, however, was 368 mosmol/kg with a calculated osmolality of 300 mosmol/kg, which indicated a greatly increased osmolar gap. He was therefore given 150 mL whisky and admitted. Methanol was later reported as 200 mg/dL. Ethylene glycol was not detected, but another glycol, propylene glycol, was present at 47 mg/dL. 10 h after ingestion an intravenous infusion of ethanol was started and he was hemodialysed for 7 h. After dialysis he was given a further 100 mL whisky and the rate of ethanol infusion was reduced to 11 g per h. Methanol and ethanol were measured twice daily until methanol was under 10/mg/dL: The recommendation is that blood ethanol be maintained between 100 and 200 mg/dL during treatment of methanol poisoning. This concentration was not achieved, presumably because of the high rate of ethanol metabolism often found in alcoholics. Antifreeze solutions commonly contain methanol and ethylene glycol. Sometimes propylene glycol is substituted because it has properties similar to those of ethylene glycol but is less toxic. The authors postulate that propylene glycol inhibited the metabolism of methanol in the patient, thus sparing him from the toxic effects of methanol.

Shapiro, L.; Henderson, M. (St. James's Univ. Hospital, Leeds (United Kingdom). Dept. of Chemical Pathology); Madi, S.; Mellor, L. (St. James's Univ. Hospital, Leeds (United Kingdom). Dept. of Medicine, and Pharmacy)

1993-01-09

349

An accidental poisoning with mitragynine.  

PubMed

An increasing number of drugs of abuse are sold word wide over the internet. Names like "legal highs", "herbal highs" etc. give the impression that these are safe products, although the risk of fatal reactions might be substantial. Leaves from the plant Mitragyna speciosa, contain active compounds like mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine. It has been reported that the potency of 7-hydroxymitragynine at the ?-opioid receptor is 30 times higher than that of mitragynine and 17 times higher than that of morphine. Case reports regarding poisoning with Kratom are reported, but the toxic or lethal ranges for the concentrations of the active substances have not been established, and concentrations of 7-hydroxymitragynine have not been reported previously. We present a case report where a middle aged man was found dead at home. The deceased had a history of drug abuse and mental illness for several years. At autopsy, there were no significant pathological findings. Post-mortem analysis of peripheral blood revealed: zopiclone 0.043mg/L, citalopram 0.36mg/L and lamotrigine 5.4mg/L, i.e. concentrations regularly seen after therapeutic ingestion of these drugs. Additionally mitragynine 1.06mg/L and 7-hydroxymitragynine 0.15mg/L were detected in blood and both also in urine. The high concentrations of mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine indicate that the cause of death is intoxication by these substances; and the circumstances point toward the manner of death being accidental. We recommend that both mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine are analyzed for in cases with suspected Kratom intoxication. PMID:25453780

Karinen, Ritva; Fosen, Jan Toralf; Rogde, Sidsel; Vindenes, Vigdis

2014-10-24

350

Spotted Fish  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Spotted Fish model attempts to track the trait change [spot size] of a population of spotted fish in a pond with ample food supply with a constant number of predators. The predators in the pond are attracted to the fishes spots, and the chance of a fish being spotted and eaten by a predator is proportional to it`s spot size squared.

David Joiner

351

Transgenic Fish  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fish into which foreign DNA is artificially introduced and integrated into their genome are called transgenic fish. Since the development of the first transgenic fish in 1985, techniques to produce transgenic fish have improved tremendously, resulting in the production of genetically modified (GM) ...

352

THE PHOTOSENSITIVE RETINAL PIGMENTS OF FISHES FROM RELATIVELY TURBID COASTAL WATERS  

PubMed Central

Digitonin extracts have been prepared from the retinae of a dozen species of marine and euryhaline teleost fishes from turbid water habitats. Spectrophotometric analysis of the extracts shows that the photosensitive retinal pigments of these species have maximum absorption above 500 mµ. In nine species there are retinene1 pigments with ?max between 504 and 512 mµ. In the marine but euryhaline mullet, Mugil cephalus, there is a porphyropsin with ?max 520 mµ. A mixture of rhodopsin and porphyropsin in an extract of a marine puffer, Sphoeroides annulatus, was disclosed by partial bleaching with colored light. In addition, one other species has a 508 mµ pigment, of which the nature of the chromophore was not determined. The habitats in which these fishes live are relatively turbid, with the water greenish or yellowish in color. The spectral transmission of such waters is probably maximal between 520 and 570 mµ. It is suggested that the fishes have become adapted to these conditions by small but significant shifts in spectral absorption of their retinal pigments. These pigments are decidedly more effective than rhodopsin in absorption of wavelengths above 500 mµ. This offers a possible interpretation of the confusing array of retinal pigments described from marine and euryhaline fishes. PMID:13587924

Munz, Frederick W.

1958-01-01

353

21 CFR 1230.13 - Labeling of “poison”.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...CONTINUED) REGULATIONS UNDER CERTAIN OTHER ACTS ADMINISTERED BY THE FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL CAUSTIC POISON ACT Labeling § 1230.13 Labeling of “poison”. The following are styles of uncondensed Gothic capital...

2014-04-01

354

21 CFR 1230.13 - Labeling of “poison”.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...CONTINUED) REGULATIONS UNDER CERTAIN OTHER ACTS ADMINISTERED BY THE FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL CAUSTIC POISON ACT Labeling § 1230.13 Labeling of “poison”. The following are styles of uncondensed Gothic capital...

2013-04-01

355

21 CFR 1230.13 - Labeling of “poison”.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...CONTINUED) REGULATIONS UNDER CERTAIN OTHER ACTS ADMINISTERED BY THE FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL CAUSTIC POISON ACT Labeling § 1230.13 Labeling of “poison”. The following are styles of uncondensed Gothic capital...

2011-04-01

356

21 CFR 1230.13 - Labeling of “poison”.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...CONTINUED) REGULATIONS UNDER CERTAIN OTHER ACTS ADMINISTERED BY THE FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL CAUSTIC POISON ACT Labeling § 1230.13 Labeling of “poison”. The following are styles of uncondensed Gothic capital...

2010-04-01

357

21 CFR 1230.13 - Labeling of “poison”.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...CONTINUED) REGULATIONS UNDER CERTAIN OTHER ACTS ADMINISTERED BY THE FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL CAUSTIC POISON ACT Labeling § 1230.13 Labeling of “poison”. The following are styles of uncondensed Gothic capital...

2012-04-01

358

77 FR 64997 - Advisory Committee on Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...improvements in national childhood lead poisoning prevention efforts. Matters...include the following: Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention Update--Status...HUD Guidelines (Second Edition); Lead-based paint/hazards standard review;...

2012-10-24

359

Mad honey poisoning?related asystole  

PubMed Central

Mad honey poisoning is well known in the eastern Black Sea region of Turkey. The cause of the poisoning is the toxin grayanotoxin, found in honey obtained from the nectar of Rhododendron species on the mountains in the region. A 60?year?old man was brought to the emergency department with dizziness and syncope after eating a few spoonfuls of honey. While the patient was being treated, bradycardia and asystole developed. The patient was given 0.5 mg of atropine, and asystole began and ended. The patient was transferred to the catheter laboratory and a temporary pacemaker was implanted. Mad honey poisoning related asystole has not been previously reported, and the rapid response to atropine is significant. PMID:17652692

Gunduz, Abdulkadir; Durmus, Ismet; Turedi, Suleyman; Nuhoglu, Irfan; Ozturk, Serkan

2007-01-01

360

Apallic syndrome in chronic mercury poisoning.  

PubMed

This report includes five cases afflicted by chronic mercury poisoning which was observed in Iraq in 1972. All five cases showed the symptomatology of a severe cerebral damage combined with peripheral nerve lesion. The clinical picture reveals an apallic syndrome or a prestage ensuring in the full-blown picture. The combination of CNS lesions with polyneuropathy is typical of mercury poisoning with failure of all brain functions and the appearance of brain stem automatism, combined with severe muscular atrophy. When such conditions are established the remission seems to be impossible. The historical as well as the clinical and morphological facts of the Minamata disease is reviewed. The different stages of chronic mercury poisoning in Iraq are described. PMID:199444

Gerstenbrand, F; Hamdi, T; Kothbauer, P; Rustam, H; Al Badri, M

1977-01-01

361

Phosphide poisoning: a review of literature.  

PubMed

Metal phosphides in general and aluminium phosphide in particular are potent insecticides and rodenticides. These are commercially used for protection of crops during storage, as well as during transportation. However, these are highly toxic substances. Their detrimental effects may range from nausea and headache to renal failure and death. It is, therefore, pertinent to ensure their circumspect handling to avoid poisoning episodes. Its poisoning has a high mortality and recent years have seen an increase in the number of poisoning cases and deaths caused by suicidal ingestion. Yet due to their broad spectrum applications, these chemicals cannot be written off. The present communication reviews the various aspects of toxicity associated with metal phosphides. PMID:21763089

Bumbrah, Gurvinder Singh; Krishan, Kewal; Kanchan, Tanuj; Sharma, Madhulika; Sodhi, Gurvinder Singh

2012-01-10

362

Methyl iodide poisoning: report of two cases.  

PubMed

Two workers were poisoned following exposure to methyl iodide with inadequate protective devices. Their cases are presented together with a review of literature. Both patients developed symptoms and signs of cerebellar lesions and damage of the third, fourth, or sixth cranial nerve pathways. Spinal cord lesions producing motor and sensory disturbances were present in one. Late psychiatric disorders were observed in both patients. Although these symptoms were very similar to those reported in the nine published cases of methyl iodide poisoning, the toxicological diagnosis was delayed in one case: as repeated overexposure produced recurrent attacks of multifocal neurological dysfunction, multiple sclerosis was initially diagnosed, although several of the features observed are unusual in this disease. The manifestations of methyl iodide poisoning are similar to those of intoxication with other monohalomethanes. All these compounds probably share the same mechanisms of action. This mechanism and its therapeutic consequences are discussed. PMID:8914723

Hermouet, C; Garnier, R; Efthymiou, M; Fournier, P

1996-12-01

363

Seasonal variation in carbon monoxide poisoning in urban Korea.  

PubMed Central

Seasonal variation in carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning during 1969-78 was examined using the monthly hospital admissions and environmental weather data from Seoul, Korea. The results showed that there were nine times as many cases of CO poisoning in December as in August. CO poisoning cases were significantly correlated with temperature and domestic fires but not significantly with relative humidity. The epidemiological and clinical investigation of CO poisoning in the home needs to be studied in further detail. PMID:3989440

Kim, Y S

1985-01-01

364

Evaluation of poison information services provided by a new poison information center  

PubMed Central

Aim: The aim of this study is to assess the nature and quality of services provided by poison information center established at a tertiary-care teaching hospital, Mysore. Settings and Design: This was a prospective observational study. Materials and Methods: The poison information center was officially established in September 2010 and began its functioning thereafter. The center is equipped with required resources and facility (e.g., text books, Poisindex, Drugdex, toll free telephone service, internet and online services) to provide poison information services. The poison information services provided by the center were recorded in documentation forms. The documentation form consists of numerous sections to collect information on: (a) Type of population (children, adult, elderly or pregnant) (b) poisoning agents (c) route of exposure (d) type of poisoning (intentional, accidental or environmental) (e) demographic details of patient (age, gender and bodyweight) (f) enquirer details (background, place of call and mode of request) (g) category and purpose of query and (h) details of provided service (information provided, mode of provision, time taken to provide information and references consulted). The nature and quality of poison information services provided was assessed using a quality assessment checklist developed in accordance with DSE/World Health Organization guidelines. Statistical Analysis: Chi-Square test (?2). Results: A total of 419 queries were received by the center. A majority (n = 333; 79.5%) of the queries were asked by the doctors to provide optimal care (n = 400; 95.5%). Most of the queries were received during ward rounds (n = 201; 48.0%), followed by direct access (n = 147; 35.1%). The poison information services were predominantly provided through verbal communication (n = 352; 84.0%). Upon receipt of queries, the required service was provided immediately (n = 103; 24.6%) or within 10-20 min (n = 296; 70.6%). The queries were mainly related to intentional poisoning (n = 258; 64.5%), followed by accidental poisoning (n = 142; 35.5%). The most common poisoning agents were medicines (n = 124; 31.0%). The service provided was graded as “Excellent” for the majority of queries (n = 360; 86%; P < 0.001), followed by “Very Good” (n = 50; 12%) and “Good” (n = 9; 2%). Conclusion: The poison information center provided requested services in a skillful, efficient and evidence-based manner to meet the needs of the requestor. The enquiries and information provided is documented in a clear and systematic manner. PMID:24130386

Churi, Shobha; Abraham, Lovin; Ramesh, M.; Narahari, M. G.

2013-01-01

365

Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning: A Case Series  

PubMed Central

We describe a case series of seven patients presenting to an emergency department with symptoms of paralytic shellfish poisoning. They developed varying degrees of nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, weakness, ataxia and paresthesias after eating mussels harvested from a beach near their resort. Four patients were admitted to the hospital, one due to increasing respiratory failure requiring endotracheal intubation and the remainder for respiratory monitoring. All patients made a full recovery, most within 24 hours. The ability to recognize and identify paralytic shellfish poisoning and manage its complications are important to providers of emergency medicine. PMID:25035737

Hurley, William; Wolterstorff, Cameron; MacDonald, Ryan; Schultz, Debora

2014-01-01

366

Resuscitative challenges in nerve agent poisoning.  

PubMed

The threat of weapons of mass destruction such as nerve agents has become real since last year. The medical community has established protocols for the rapid evacuation and decontamination of affected civilians. However, protocols for resuscitative measures or acute perioperative care in cases of life-saving surgical interventions in toxic-traumatized casualties are still lacking. The database concerning the effects of nerve agent poisoning in humans is limited, and is largely based on reports of unintentional exposures to pesticide organophosphate poisoning and similar chemical substances. In this review, we summarize the knowledge on the possible pharmacological interactions between nerve agents and acute care. PMID:12972890

Ben Abraham, Ron; Weinbroum, Avi A

2003-09-01

367

Ingestion of Poison by the Boll Weevil.  

E-print Network

in this manner. Additional data show that the weevil may pick up a letha1 dose of poison on any portion of the dusted cotton plant, indicating that the most effective control of the insect map be expected when the maximum plant surface is covered with poison... during the dusting operation. The activities of both sexes of weevils, observed under natural conditions and on cotton plants which had been dusted with calcium arsenate or talc, are influenced to a considerable degree by the presence of these dusts...

Reinhard, H. J. (Henry Jonathan); Thomas, F. L. (Frank Lincoln)

1933-01-01

368

Important poisonous plants in tibetan ethnomedicine.  

PubMed

Tibetan ethnomedicine is famous worldwide, both for its high effectiveness and unique cultural background. Many poisonous plants have been widely used to treat disorders in the Tibetan medicinal system. In the present review article, some representative poisonous plant species are introduced in terms of their significance in traditional Tibetan medicinal practices. They are Aconitum pendulum, Strychnos nux-vomica, Datura stramonium and Anisodus tanguticus, for which the toxic chemical constituents, bioactivities and pharmacological functions are reviewed herein. The most important toxins include aconitine, strychnine, scopolamine, and anisodamine. These toxic plants are still currently in use for pain-reduction and other purposes by Tibetan healers after processing. PMID:25594733

Ma, Lijuan; Gu, Ronghui; Tang, Li; Chen, Ze-E; Di, Rong; Long, Chunlin

2015-01-01

369

Fight Homemade Poisons: Home Food Care and Preservation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of a series of instructional materials produced by the Literacy Council of Alaska, this booklet provides information about food poisoning. Using a simplified vocabulary and shorter sentences, it explains the various kinds of food poisoning, how people get food poisoning, and how to prevent it. (FL)

Keller, Rosanne

370

Deaths from poisoning in New Zealand: 2001-2002  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims To describe the epidemiology and toxicology of poisoning deaths in New Zealand for 2001 and 2002. Methods Poisoning mortality data for 2001 and 2002 were collected from the Coronial Service Office (CSO) as part of the New Zealand chemical injury surveillance system. Results There was 235 and 234 poisoning deaths in 2001 and 2002 respectively, an annual rate of

Rebecca McDowell; Jeff Fowles; David Phillips

371

Warnings unheeded: A history of child lead poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Child lead poisoning has been a major public health issue only for the last 20-25 years. However, awareness that lead-based paint is a source of lead poisoning in children dates back to the first few years of the twentieth century. Articles in medical journals and textbooks appeared in the United States and elsewhere, recounting cases of children poisoned by the

R Rabin

1989-01-01

372

78 FR 17069 - National Poison Prevention Week, 2013  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...March 15, 2013 National Poison Prevention Week, 2013 By the President of the United States...have marked National Poison Prevention Week by highlighting the steps we can take to...loved ones from accidental poisoning. This week, we carry that tradition forward by...

2013-03-20

373

Esophagobronchial fistula - A rare complication of aluminum phosphide poisoning.  

PubMed

Aluminum phosphide is a systemic lethal poison. Fistulous communication between esophagus and airway tract (esophagorespiratory fistula) has rarely been reported in the survivors of aluminum phosphide poisoning. We report a case of benign esophagobronchial fistula secondary to aluminum phosphide poisoning, which to best of our knowledge has not been reported in the medical literature. PMID:21264171

Bhargava, Sumeet; Rastogi, Rajul; Agarwal, Ajay; Jindal, Gaurav

2011-01-01

374

Childhood Lead Poisoning. Rhode Island KIDS COUNT Issue Brief.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of the most common pediatric health problems is childhood lead poisoning. This report examines the preventable problem of lead poisoning. The report describes childhood lead poisoning as both a health problem to which infants and young children are most susceptible, and as a housing problem. More than half the housing units in Rhode Island…

Harrington, Ann-Marie, Ed.; Walsh, Catherine Boisvert, Ed.; Bryant, Elizabeth Burke, Ed.

1997-01-01

375

Acute cardiac toxicity of nerium oleander/indicum poisoning (kaner) poisoning.  

PubMed

We present a case of oleander leaf extract poisoning manifested by vomiting, lightheadedness, and heart block. Practicing physicians should understand the potential lethal properties of oleander and its availability throughout the world. PMID:21577379

Khan, Ibraheem; Kant, Chandra; Sanwaria, Anil; Meena, Lokesh

2010-10-01

376

Fish Mouths  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity (page 2 of the PDF) is a full inquiry investigation into environmental adaptation. Groups of learners will observe fish at a zoo, aquarium, or fish store and categorize which way the mouth of each identified fish faces. Based on observations made while the fish are fed and additional research, conclusions should be developed about how the fish fits into its environment. This activity can be used to teach learners about the importance of writing good notes while making observations. Relates to linked video, DragonflyTV GPS: California Fish.

Twin Cities Public Television, Inc.

2006-01-01

377

Poisonous Plants of the United States  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Poisonous plants cause significant economic losses to the livestock industry throughout the world from death losses, abortions, birth defects, increased veterinary care, and other related factors. This chapter is not intended to be all-inclusive, but provides current research information on importan...

378

Lead poisoning in captive wild animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lead poisoning was diagnosed post-mortem in 34 simian primates, 11 parrots, and 3 Australian fruit bats at the National Zoological Park. Diagnoses were made by the finding of acid-fast intranuclear inclusion bodies in renal epithelia or hepatocytes and, in most cases, by finding excess lead in samples of liver. The estimated prevalence of lead intoxication among autopsied primates and parrots

B. C. Zook; R. M. Sauer; F. M. GARNERL

1972-01-01

379

[Paraquat poisoning at the beginning of pregnancy].  

PubMed

Case report of a paraquat poisoning at the beginning of pregnancy (10 weeks) with mother and child survey. The baby was exempt of abnormalities and of normal weight. He was followed up to the age of 4 and did well clinically. These data are associated with a review of the literature. PMID:14567124

Raynal, P; Bossard, A E; Carles, G

2003-05-01

380

Poisonous Plants. LC Science Tracer Bullet.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There are a number of sources of information on the more than 700 species of plants, ferns, horsetails, and fungi that can cause toxic, though rarely fatal, reactions in humans and animals. This guide is intended for those who wish to review published materials on poisonous plants in the collections of the Library of Congress. It is not intended…

Carter, Constance, Comp.

381

Paint, lacquer, and varnish remover poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... control or a health care professional. If the chemical was swallowed, immediately give the person water or milk, unless instructed otherwise by a health care provider. If the person breathed in the poison, immediately move him or her to fresh air.

382

INCREASED LEAD ABSORPTION AND LEAD POISONING  

E-print Network

as encephalopathy. Fanconi syndrome, etc.). II. Background While lead from lead-based paint is only one of sever cause of lead poisoning in children. 1 ,2 Lead-based paint was commonly used on interior surfaces in paint peeling from indoor surfaces is well Jppreciated, lead-based paint on exterior surfaces Jccessible

383

Bat Mortality: Pesticide Poisoning and Migratory Stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organochlorine residues in the fat of young Mexican free-tailed bats, Tadarida brasiliensis, reached the brain and caused symptoms of poisoning after the fat mobilization that takes place during migratory flight was simulated. These chemical body burdens were obtained naturally under free-living conditions at the maternity roost. The data obtained support the hypothesis that pesticides have contributed to recent declines in

Kenneth N. Geluso; J. Scott Altenbach; Don E. Wilson

1976-01-01

384

Gallium poisoning: A rare case report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors present a case of a college student who suffered acute gallium poisoning as a result of accidental exposure to gallium halide complexes. This is extremely rare and has never been reported in the literature. Acute symptoms after the incident, which initially presented as dermatitis and appeared relatively not life-threatening, rapidly progressed to dangerous episodes of tachycardia, tremors, dyspnea,

Chris S. Ivanoff; Athena E. Ivanoff; Timothy L. Hottel

385

Coturnism: Human Poisoning By European Migratory Quail  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coturnism is human poisoning from European migratory quail (Coturnix commix coturnix L.). While the name is recent, coturnism has been documented since antiquity. Most cases exhibit generalized weakness, progressing to severe muscle pain and lower limb paralysis, vomiting and discolored urine (myoglobinuria). Patients may experience severe gastroenteritis-diarrhea, fever, voice loss and death from cardiac or kidney failure. Toxic quail cannot

David C. Lewis; Elizabeth Metallinos-Katzaras; Louis E. Grivetti

1987-01-01

386

Hemlock alkaloids from Socrates to poison aloes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hemlock (Conium maculatum L. Umbelliferae) has long been known as a poisonous plant. Toxicity is due to a group of piperidine alkaloids of which the representative members are coniine and ?-coniceine. The latter is the more toxic and is the first formed biosynthetically. Its levels in relation to coniine vary widely according to environmental conditions and to provenance of the

Tom Reynolds

2005-01-01

387

A systematic review of aluminium phosphide poisoning.  

PubMed

Every year, about 300,000 people die because of pesticide poisoning worldwide. The most common pesticide agents are organophosphates and phosphides, aluminium phosphide (AlP) in particular. AlP is known as a suicide poison that can easily be bought and has no effective antidote. Its toxicity results from the release of phosphine gas as the tablet gets into contact with moisture. Phosphine gas primarily affects the heart, lungs, gastrointestinal tract, and kidneys. Poisoning signs and symptoms include nausea, vomiting, restlessness, abdominal pain, palpitation, refractory shock, cardiac arrhythmias, pulmonary oedema, dyspnoea, cyanosis, and sensory alterations. Diagnosis is based on clinical suspicion, positive silver nitrate paper test to phosphine, and gastric aspirate and viscera biochemistry. Treatment includes early gastric lavage with potassium permanganate or a combination with coconut oil and sodium bicarbonate, administration of charcoal, and palliative care. Specific therapy includes intravenous magnesium sulphate and oral coconut oil. Moreover, acidosis can be treated with early intravenous administration of sodium bicarbonate, cardiogenic shock with fluid, vasopresor, and refractory cardiogenic shock with intra-aortic baloon pump or digoxin. Trimetazidine may also have a useful role in the treatment, because it can stop ventricular ectopic beats and bigeminy and preserve oxidative metabolism. This article reviews the epidemiological, toxicological, and clinical/pathological aspects of AlP poisoning and its management. PMID:22450207

Mehrpour, Omid; Jafarzadeh, Mostafa; Abdollahi, Mohammad

2012-03-01

388

Poisoning by Indigofera lespedezioides in horses  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Poisoning by Indigofera lespedezioides is reported in horses in the state of Roraima, northern Brazil. The main clinical signs are anorexia, sleepiness, unsteady gait, severe ataxia, weakness, stumbling, and progressive weight loss. To induce the disease experimentally, a 7-year-old horse was introd...

389

Status epilepticus: An association with pyrethroid poisoning  

PubMed Central

This report describes a 35 year old male who presented with seizures after consuming 4-5 bottles of “ALL-OUT” a commercial composition of pyrethroid used as insecticides. Our case report supports authors reporting an association of pyrethroid poisoning with status epilepticus. PMID:23983421

Panwar, Mamta; Usha, Ganapathy; Kumath, Manish

2013-01-01

390

Harmful Algal Blooms: Neurotoxic Shellfish Poisoning  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This University of Maryland SeaGrant web page discusses the toxic dinoflagellate Gymnodinium breve and its role in red tide blooms and Neurotoxic Shellfish Poisoning (NSP). The page explores the economic, ecological, and health-related effects of red tide blooms, and the causative accumulation of G. breve into blooms that produce the powerful neurotoxins known as brevetoxins.

Andrew Kane

391

Important poisonous plants of the United States  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Poisonous plants and the secondary compounds they produce cause large economic losses to the livestock industry throughout the world. Catastrophic losses have occurred in certain regions of the U.S. when changing conditions alter the typical forage availability and create unusual management challen...

392

Gastrointestinal decontamination in the acutely poisoned patient  

PubMed Central

Objective To define the role of gastrointestinal (GI) decontamination of the poisoned patient. Data Sources A computer-based PubMed/MEDLINE search of the literature on GI decontamination in the poisoned patient with cross referencing of sources. Study Selection and Data Extraction Clinical, animal and in vitro studies were reviewed for clinical relevance to GI decontamination of the poisoned patient. Data Synthesis The literature suggests that previously, widely used, aggressive approaches including the use of ipecac syrup, gastric lavage, and cathartics are now rarely recommended. Whole bowel irrigation is still often recommended for slow-release drugs, metals, and patients who "pack" or "stuff" foreign bodies filled with drugs of abuse, but with little quality data to support it. Activated charcoal (AC), single or multiple doses, was also a previous mainstay of GI decontamination, but the utility of AC is now recognized to be limited and more time dependent than previously practiced. These recommendations have resulted in several treatment guidelines that are mostly based on retrospective analysis, animal studies or small case series, and rarely based on randomized clinical trials. Conclusions The current literature supports limited use of GI decontamination of the poisoned patient. PMID:21992527

2011-01-01

393

Lead poisoning of a marbled godwit  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A thin adult female marbled godwit (Limosa fedoa) found dead at Benton Lake National Wildlife Refuge, Montana, was found to have 17 ingested lead shot in its gizzard. Its liver contained 51.7 ppm lead (wet weight). Based on these necropsy findings a diagnosis of lead poisoning was made.

Locke, L.N.; Smith, M.R.; Windingstad, R.M.; Martin, S.J.

1991-01-01

394

Electrophysiological studies in acute organophosphate poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electrophysiological studies in suicidal patients with organophosphate poisoning are reported. Patients often developed muscular weakness of variable severity owing to diplorisation block at nicotinic receptors. During such paralysis nerve conduction velocity and distal latencies were normal even in severely paralysed patients. The amplitude of the compound action potential was smaller than in controls and often showed a repetitive response. The

R S Wadia; S Chitra; R B Amin; R S Kiwalkar; H V Sardesai

1987-01-01

395

Harmful Algal Blooms: Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This University of Maryland SeaGrant web page explores outbreaks of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP), a problem on both the East and West coasts of the US that is caused by several closely related species in the genus Alexandrium. The page explores the underlying physical mechanisms and localization of PSP outbreaks, as well as economic impact.

Andrew Kane

396

Black Coloured Urine following Organophosphorus Poisoning: Report of Two Cases  

PubMed Central

Organophosphorus poisoning is common in rural Asia. Clinical features result from overactivity of acetylcholine receptors. Blackish discoloration of urine is not a feature of organophosphorus poisoning. Only one case of black colored urine following quinalphos poisoning has been reported in literature. We report two cases of organophosphorus poisoning from two different compounds, following which patients passed black colored urine, in the absence of haemolysis or rhabdomyolysis. These cases indicate that blackish discoloration of urine in organophosphorus poisoning might not be as uncommon as it was believed to be. Besides, urinary excretion of metabolites might be an underlying mechanism, rather than hemolysis. PMID:24826348

Mookkappan, Sudhagar; Shanmugham, Vijay; Kulirankal, Kiran

2014-01-01

397

Acute poisoning: understanding 90% of cases in a nutshell  

PubMed Central

The acutely poisoned patient remains a common problem facing doctors working in acute medicine in the United Kingdom and worldwide. This review examines the initial management of the acutely poisoned patient. Aspects of general management are reviewed including immediate interventions, investigations, gastrointestinal decontamination techniques, use of antidotes, methods to increase poison elimination, and psychological assessment. More common and serious poisonings caused by paracetamol, salicylates, opioids, tricyclic antidepressants, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, benzodiazepines, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and cocaine are discussed in detail. Specific aspects of common paediatric poisonings are reviewed. PMID:15811881

Greene, S; Dargan, P; Jones, A

2005-01-01

398

Renal Failure Prevalence in Poisoned Patients  

PubMed Central

Background: Renal failure is an important adverse effect of drug poisoning. Determining the prevalence and etiology of this serious side effect could help us find appropriate strategies for the prevention of renal failure in most affected patients. Objectives: The present study is aimed to identify drugs that induce renal failure and also to find the prevalence of renal failure in patients referred to emergency departments with the chief complaint of drug poisoning, in order to plan better therapeutic strategies to minimize the mortality associated with drug poisoning induced renal failure. Patients and Methods: This cross-sectional study surveyed 1500 poisoned patients referred to the Emergency Department of Baharloo Hospital in Tehran during 2010. Demographic data including age and gender as well as clinical data including type of medication, duration of hospital stay, and presence of renal failure were recorded. Mann-Whitney U test and chi-squared statistics were used to analyze the results. Results: A total number of 435 patients were poisoned with several drugs, 118 patients were intoxicated with sedative-hypnotic drugs, 279 patients were exposed to opium, and 478 patients were administered to other drugs. The method of intoxication included oral 84.3%, injective 9%, inhalation 4.3% and finally a combination of methods 2.3%. Laboratory results revealed that 134 cases had renal failure and 242 had rhabdomyolysis. The incidence of rhabdomyolysis and renal failure increased significantly with age, and also with time of admission to the hospital. Renal failure was reported in 25.1% of patients exposed to opium, vs. 18.2% of patients poisoned with aluminum phosphide, 16.7% of those with organophosphate, 8% with multiple drugs, 6.7% with alcohol, heavy metals and acids, and 1.7% with sedative hypnotics. Conclusions: Based on the findings of this study, there is a high probability of renal failure for patients poisoned with drugs such as opium, aluminum phosphide, and multiple drugs as well as the patients with delayed admission to the hospital, and it is necessary to seek appropriate treatment to prevent this significant side effect. PMID:24783168

Arefi, Mohammad; Taghaddosinejad, Fakhroddin; Salamaty, Peyman; Soroosh, Davood; Ashraf, Hami; Ebrahimi, Mohsen

2014-01-01

399

[Survival after oral poisoning with insecticide against moles containing aluminium phosphide].  

PubMed

A 31-year-old man presented with abdominal pain and vomiting with a smell of garlic and rotten fish. He was brought to the ER being circulatory affected, metabolic acidotic and he developed more episodes of arrhythmia. Oral poisoning with aluminium phosphide is a very serious condition due to release of the toxic phosphine gas. Treatment is symptomatic. To avoid contamination of the staff is it important to use air-tight containers for excretions and furthermore to use chemical clothing and breathing protection. PMID:23763928

Møller Eggertsen, Peter; Kristensen, Asgerd Krogh; Bredahl, Claus

2013-06-10

400

Age and paracetamol self-poisoning  

PubMed Central

Background: Whereas paracetamol poisoning is predominantly seen in adolescents and young adults, the majority of paracetamol associated deaths occur in an older population. Aims: The aim of the present study was to evaluate age as a risk factor for fulminant hepatic failure (FHF) and death in a large population of patients with paracetamol poisoning. Patients: A total of 746 patients transferred to a specialised unit with severe paracetamol poisoning and 273 unselected patients admitted from the local region over a 10 year period. Methods: A partly retrospective study based on hospital charts. The risk associated with age was evaluated by multivariate analysis. Results: Paracetamol poisoning most frequently occurred in the age group 15–24 years. Transferred patients were significantly older than local patients (median age 37 years v 29 years; p?=?0.0006). In contrast, FHF and death from paracetamol poisoning most frequently occurred in patients aged 40 years or above. In a logistic regression analysis, “age ?40 years” was associated with an excess risk of FHF (odds ratio (OR) 2.33 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.50–3.64)) and death or liver transplantation (OR 4.18 (95% CI 2.17–8.05)). In addition, older age was associated with other risk factors for paracetamol hepatotoxicity such as regular alcohol abuse and late presentation. Conclusions: Age 40 years or above was identified as a significant independent risk factor for FHF and mortality following paracetamol overdose. Patients aged 40 years or above should be considered as high risk patients, in particular when older age appears in combination with regular alcohol abuse or late presentation. PMID:15831917

Schmidt, L E

2005-01-01

401

Plasma biomarkers in carbon monoxide poisoning  

PubMed Central

Objectives The severity of acute carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is often based on non-specific clinical criteria because there are no reliable laboratory markers. We hypothesized that a pattern of plasma protein values might objectively discern CO poisoning severity. This was a pilot study to evaluate protein profiles in plasma samples collected from patients at the time of initial hospital evaluation. The goal was to assess whether any values differed from age- and sex-matched controls using a commercially available plasma screening package. Methods Frozen samples from 63 suspected CO poisoning patients categorized based on clinical signs, symptoms, and blood carboxyhemoglobin level were analyzed along with 42 age- and sex-matched controls using Luminex-based technology to determine the concentration of 180 proteins. Results Significant differences from control values were found for 99 proteins in at least one of five CO poisoning groups. A complex pattern of elevations in acute phase reactants and proteins associated with inflammatory responses including chemokines/cytokines and interleukins, growth factors, hormones, and an array of auto-antibodies was found. Fourteen protein values were significantly different from control in all CO groups, including patients with nominal carboxyhemoglobin elevations and relatively brief intervals of exposure. Conclusions The data demonstrate the complexity of CO pathophysiology and support a view that exposure causes acute inflammatory events in humans. This pilot study has insufficient power to discern reliable differences among patients who develop neurological sequelae but future trials are warranted to determine whether plasma profiles predict mortality and morbidity risks of CO poisoning. PMID:20095814

THOM, STEPHEN R.; BHOPALE, VEENA M.; MILOVANOVA, TATYANA M.; HARDY, KEVIN R.; LOGUE, CHRISTOPHER J.; LAMBERT, DAVID S.; TROXEL, ANDREA B.; BALLARD, KERRI; EISINGER, DOMINIC

2012-01-01

402

Internet Fish  

E-print Network

I have invented "Internet Fish," a novel class of resource-discovery tools designed to help users extract useful information from the Internet. Internet Fish (IFish) are semi-autonomous, persistent information brokers; ...

LaMacchia, Brian A.

1996-08-01

403

Fish Allergy  

MedlinePLUS

... Wheat Soy Fish Shellfish Other Symptoms Diagnosis & Testing Proven Methods Skin Prick Tests Blood Tests Oral Food ... Wheat Soy Fish Shellfish Other Symptoms Diagnosis & Testing Proven Methods Skin Prick Tests Blood Tests Oral Food ...

404

Antarctic Fishes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains the adaptations to Antarctic waters that Notothenioidei, a group of advanced bony fishes, have exhibited. Discusses the fishes' mechanisms of production of antifreeze properties and their capacities for neutral buoyancy in water. (ML)

Eastman, Joseph T.; DeVries, Arthur L.

1986-01-01

405

Bony Fishes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Sea World informational resource on bony fishes. Excellent introduction to bony fishes including information on their classification, habitat, physical characteristics, diet, reproduction, and much more. Includes photographs and illustrations throughout, and features a spreadsheet showing the different subclasses and the number of species found within each. Site also provides a comprehensive list of books about bony fishes for the younger reader.

406

Fish forms  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners create a three-dimensional sculpture while examining the characteristics of fish. Learners use clay and other craft supplies to model a fish's body, fins, scales, eyes, gills, and mouth. Then learners will discuss the function of each part and how fish differ amongst each other.

California Academy of Sciences

2008-01-01

407

Fatherly Fish  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In the hit movie Finding Nemo, Marlin the clown fish searches the ocean for his missing son. While it's unlikely that a real clown fish could make this long journey, some male fish do show a fatherly attitude toward their offspring. You'll hear about one in this Science Update.

Science Update

2003-10-13

408

Fish Dishes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an art project that was inspired by Greek pottery, specifically dishes shaped as fish. Explains that fourth-grade students drew a fish shape that was later used to create their clay version of the fish. Discusses how the students examined the pottery to make decisions about color and design. (CMK)

Derby, Marie

2003-01-01

409

Ecological conversion efficiency and its influencers in twelve species of fish in the Yellow Sea Ecosystem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ecological conversion efficiencies in twelve species of fish in the Yellow Sea Ecosystem, i.e., anchovy ( Engraulis japonicus), rednose anchovy ( Thrissa kammalensis), chub mackerel ( Scomber japonicus), halfbeak ( Hyporhamphus sajori), gizzard shad ( Konosirus punctatus), sand lance ( Ammodytes personatus), red seabream ( Pagrus major), black porgy ( Acanthopagrus schlegeli), black rockfish ( Sebastes schlegeli), finespot goby ( Chaeturichthys stigmatias), tiger puffer ( Takifugu rubripes), and fat greenling ( Hexagrammos otakii), were estimated through experiments conducted either in situ or in a laboratory. The ecological conversion efficiencies were significantly different among these species. As indicated, the food conversion efficiencies and the energy conversion efficiencies varied from 12.9% to 42.1% and from 12.7% to 43.0%, respectively. Water temperature and ration level are the main factors influencing the ecological conversion efficiencies of marine fish. The higher conversion efficiency of a given species in a natural ecosystem is acquired only under the moderate environment conditions. A negative relationship between ecological conversion efficiency and trophic level among ten species was observed. Such a relationship indicates that the ecological efficiency in the upper trophic levels would increase after fishing down marine food web in the Yellow Sea ecosystem.

Tang, Qisheng; Guo, Xuewu; Sun, Yao; Zhang, Bo

2007-09-01

410

Poison frogs rely on experience to find the way home in the rainforest  

PubMed Central

Among vertebrates, comparable spatial learning abilities have been found in birds, mammals, turtles and fishes, but virtually nothing is known about such abilities in amphibians. Overall, amphibians are the most sedentary vertebrates, but poison frogs (Dendrobatidae) routinely shuttle tadpoles from terrestrial territories to dispersed aquatic deposition sites. We hypothesize that dendrobatid frogs rely on learning for flexible navigation. We tested the role of experience with the local cues for poison frog way-finding by (i) experimentally displacing territorial males of Allobates femoralis over several hundred metres, (ii) using a harmonic direction finder with miniature transponders to track these small frogs, and (iii) using a natural river barrier to separate the translocated frogs from any familiar landmarks. We found that homeward orientation was disrupted by the translocation to the unfamiliar area but frogs translocated over similar distances in their local area showed significant homeward orientation and returned to their territories via a direct path. We suggest that poison frogs rely on spatial learning for way-finding in their local area. PMID:25411379

Pašukonis, Andrius; Warrington, Ian; Ringler, Max; Hödl, Walter

2014-01-01

411

Poison frogs rely on experience to find the way home in the rainforest.  

PubMed

Among vertebrates, comparable spatial learning abilities have been found in birds, mammals, turtles and fishes, but virtually nothing is known about such abilities in amphibians. Overall, amphibians are the most sedentary vertebrates, but poison frogs (Dendrobatidae) routinely shuttle tadpoles from terrestrial territories to dispersed aquatic deposition sites. We hypothesize that dendrobatid frogs rely on learning for flexible navigation. We tested the role of experience with the local cues for poison frog way-finding by (i) experimentally displacing territorial males of Allobates femoralis over several hundred metres, (ii) using a harmonic direction finder with miniature transponders to track these small frogs, and (iii) using a natural river barrier to separate the translocated frogs from any familiar landmarks. We found that homeward orientation was disrupted by the translocation to the unfamiliar area but frogs translocated over similar distances in their local area showed significant homeward orientation and returned to their territories via a direct path. We suggest that poison frogs rely on spatial learning for way-finding in their local area. PMID:25411379

Pašukonis, Andrius; Warrington, Ian; Ringler, Max; Hödl, Walter

2014-11-01

412

Effects of frequent fish predation on corals in Hawaii  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The abundance of lesions from fish bites on corals was quantified at nine shallow reefs in the main Hawaiian Islands. There were on average 117 bite scars m-2 on Pocillopora meandrina tissue from the barred filefish Cantherhines dumerilii, 69 bites m-2 on Porites compressa tissue, and 4 bites m-2 on Porites lobata tissue from the spotted puffer Arothron meleagris. Across sites, the frequency of A. meleagris bites on P. compressa per unit area of living coral cover declined exponentially with increasing coral cover. P. compressa nubbins in two size classes (1-2 cm and 4-5 cm) were transplanted onto six study reefs. Nubbins in the small size class were entirely removed by bites from A. meleagris, while nubbins ?4 cm were only partially consumed, leaving them able to recover. At sites with abundant P. compressa, predation had little effect on transplanted nubbins; at sites where P. compressa comprised less than 5% of living cover, all nubbins were preyed upon. A. meleagris bite lesions on P. compressa were monitored through time and fully recovered in 42 ± 4 days. A model of the risk of over-predation (a second predation event before the first is healed) decreased exponentially with increasing coral cover and increased linearly with increasing lesion healing time. The increased risk of over-predation at low coral cover could indicate an Allee effect limiting the recovery of coral populations if coral cover is substantially reduced by natural or anthropogenic disturbances.

Jayewardene, D.; Donahue, M. J.; Birkeland, C.

2009-06-01

413

[Mercury concentration in fish taken from the second Songhua River and mercury intake by fish-consumers].  

PubMed

Dynamic changes of standardized mercury concentration in fish taken from the Second Songhua River were evaluated from 1973 to 1991. It decreased 82.6% during this period. And, mercury intake of fish-consuming population and its source were studied. The results proved mercury concentration accumulated in some of the high risk population in 70's came up to and exceeded the threshold for chronic methylmercury poisoning. But, since 1983 mercury level in human body has been dropping greatly, and now falls down below the safety limit. The above facts showed mercury contamination in the Second Songhua River has been under control. But, fish intake should be still limited to appropriate amount to prevent from risk of poisoning. PMID:8143520

Wu, S A

1993-07-01

414

Fish Prints  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this hands-on art activity, learners will study and identify features of the external anatomy of a fish. They will have the opportunity to learn the different functions of fish anatomy along with new vocabulary terms while handling a real fish in their art project. Also, a discussion may take place about the different kinds of fish and how different shapes are more beneficial for certain environments. As a wrap up, learners can become familiar about issues related to the conservation of fish, such as overfishing, habitat destruction, and invasive species. This activity is standards-based.

2012-06-26

415

Animal poisoning in Italy: 10 years of epidemiological data from the Poison Control Centre of Milan.  

PubMed

From 2000 to 2010, the Poison Control Centre of Milan (CAV), in collaboration with the University of Milan, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Veterinary Sciences and Technologies for Food Safety, Toxicology Section, collected epidemiological information related to animal poisoning and classified it in an organised and computerised data bank. Data recorded were predominantly related to small animals and to some extent to horses, ruminants and other food-production animals. Few calls were registered involving exotics and no information was recorded on wildlife. The dog was reported to be the most common species involved in animal poisoning, and pesticides constituted the primary group of toxicants. In the case of pets, 'drugs' including veterinary parasiticide and drugs for human use constituted the second class of toxicants responsible for poisoning followed by household products, plants, zootoxins and metals. With regard to horses and farm animals, the second group consisted of phytotoxins, even if only episodically. In Italy, published data on this subject are scarce but this information is crucial for better management of the poisoning of domestic animals in an effort to reduce mortality. PMID:22271801

Caloni, F; Cortinovis, C; Rivolta, M; Davanzo, F

2012-04-21

416

Saturnine curse: a history of lead poisoning  

SciTech Connect

Over the past ten years there has been increasing recognition of subacute and chronic lead poisoning and a growing awareness of its pathophysiology and clinical effects. Besides the classic manifestations of abdominal colic, seizures, and anemia progressing to gout, renal disease, and neuropathy, more subtle manifestations are now being increasingly recognized, such as the development of hypertension, neurobehavioral changes, reproductive and endocrine abnormalities, a possible role in carcinogenesis, and an overall increase in morbidity and mortality. Lead was one of the seven metals of antiquity, and it has accompanied the Eurasian and American civilizations since their beginnings. Lead is an extremely pernicious metal with a multitude of adverse effects. The recurring nature of lead poisoning throughout the development of civilization can truly be referred to as the saturnine curse. 16 references.

Green, D.W.

1985-01-01

417

[Paraquat poisoning and hemoperfusion with activated charcoal].  

PubMed

Paraquat is a common herbicide in Spain. In our country there are a few cases of this intoxication and it presents a high mortality even if the patients ingest a minimal amount. We present two cases of accidental poisoning with paraquat. These patients were admitted three hours after ingestion of toxin. They were treated with with orogastric lavage, activated charcoal, N-acetylcysteine, Fuller's earth, cathartics, support measures and hemoperfusion with activated charcoal. With these treatments both patients had a undetectable levels of paraquat 48 hours after and improvement of their symptoms, gastric and intestinal predominantly . We present the graphics of evolution of the plasma and urine levels of paraquat in both patients. We review the different aspects of treatment and update of this poisoning. PMID:12152392

López Lago, A M; Rivero Velasco, C; Galban Rodríguez, C; Mariño Rozados, A; Piñeiro Sande, N; Ferrer Vizoso, E

2002-06-01

418

New sources add to lead poisoning concerns  

SciTech Connect

Lead poisoning again is edging to the forefront of medical concerns, spurred by the addition of unusual sources and a growing amount of information about the severity of its consequences. Ingesting or breathing in the lead from paint is till a major cause. Still, the source of lead is not always from paint. Lead can be inhaled from the dust that comes from the clothes, skin, shoes, and cars of people who work in lead-related industries. There also is the relatively new occupation of deleading homes that contain the older lead-based paint as part of building rehabilitation. Effects of lead poisoning are most pronounced in children and fetuses because it can damage the immature central nervous system.

Benevich, T. (North Park College, Chicago, IL (USA))

1990-02-09

419

Different approaches to acute organophosphorus poison treatment.  

PubMed

Organophosphorus compounds (OPCs) have a wide variety of applications and are a serious threat for self-poisoning, unintentional misuse, terrorist attack, occupational hazard and warfare attack. The present standard treatment has been reported to be unsatisfactory. Many novel approaches are being used and tested for acute organophosphorus (OP) poison treatment. The bioscavenger concept captured high attention among the scientific community during the last few decades. Other approaches like alkalinisation of blood plasma/serum and use of weak inhibitors against strong inhibitors, though it showed promising results, did not get such wide attention. The introduction of a novel broad-spectrum oxime has also been in focus. In this mini-review, an update of the overview of four different approaches has been discussed. The standard therapy that is atropine+oxime+benzodiazepine along with supportive measures will continue to be the best option with only the replacement of a single oxime to improve its broad-spectrum efficacy. PMID:23866522

Nurulain, Syed Muhammad

2012-07-01

420

Gastrointestinal hemorrhage in aluminum phosphide poisoning.  

PubMed

Poisoning, both accidental and intentional, is a significant contributor to the mortality and morbidity throughout the world. The commonest pesticide poisoning is organophosphates followed by phosphides. Ingestion of phosphides can induce severe gastrointestinal irritation leading to hemorrhage and ulcerations. Gastrointestinal hemorrhages and ulcerations beyond the duodenum have not been reported in the literature. Here, we report a case of severe hemorrhages and ulcerations in stomach, duodenum, jejunum, and ileum observed in a 45-year-old male who had consumed five tablets of Celphos(®) (each 3 g with 56% aluminum phosphide and 44% Ammonium carbonate) to commit suicide. He started vomiting after consumption, and the vomitus was blood-tinged. Once the treatment was instituted, he was stable for a day and thereafter his condition gradually deteriorated. He died on the 4th day of hospitalization, and autopsy revealed features of multiorgan failure and extensive gastrointestinal hemorrhages. PMID:25098904

Hugar, Basappa S; Praveen, Shivaramareddy; Hosahally, Jayanth S; Kainoor, Sunilkumar; Shetty, Akshith Raj S

2015-01-01

421

Bacillus cereus and its food poisoning toxins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacillus cereus is becoming one of the more important causes of food poisoning in the industrialised world. It produces one emetic toxin and three different enterotoxins. The emetic toxin is a ring-shaped structure of three repeats of four amino and\\/or oxy acids: [d-O-Leu-d-Ala-l-O-Val-l-Val]3. This ring structure has a molecular mass of 1.2 kDa, and is chemically closely related to the

Per Einar Granum; Terje Lund

1997-01-01

422

POISON SPIDER FIELD CHEMICAL FLOOD PROJECT, WYOMING  

Microsoft Academic Search

A reservoir engineering and geologic study concluded that approximate 7,852,000 bbls of target oil exits in Poison Spider. Field pore volume, OOIP, and initial oil saturation are defined. Potential injection water has a total dissolved solids content of 1,275 mg\\/L with no measurable divalent cations. If the Lakota water consistently has no measurable cations, the injection water does not require

Douglas Arnell; Malcolm Pitts; Jie Qi

2004-01-01

423

Intra-aural Route of Insecticide Poisoning  

PubMed Central

Organophosphate (OP) compounds are commonly ingested with the intention of deliberate self-harm. Parenteral route of OP compound exposure is an uncommon yet significant source of toxicity. Deliberate injections via intravenous, intramuscular, and subcutaneous routes and accidental dermal absorption due to occupational exposure have been described earlier. We report an unusual case of intentional insecticide poisoning by pouring the OP compound into both ears. This was successfully treated with aural irrigation using normal saline and prompt administration of the antidote. PMID:24082515

Kundavaram, Paul Prabhakar Abhilash; Majumdar, Swaratika; Das, Sohini

2013-01-01

424

Iatrogenic salt poisoning in captive sandhill cranes.  

PubMed

Salt poisoning developed in captive sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis) when sea salt was added to normal drinking water to produce a sodium chloride concentration of 1%. Two of 18 cranes died and 2 were euthanatized when moribund. Muscle weakness, paresis, dyspnea, and depression were observed. Brain and serum sodium, serum uric acid, and plasma osmolality values were abnormally high. Lesions were those of visceral gout, renal tubular necrosis, nephrosis, and skeletal muscle necrosis. PMID:7328005

Franson, J C; Sileo, L; Fleming, W J

1981-12-01

425

Iatrogenic salt poisoning in captive sandhill cranes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Salt poisoning developed in captive sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis) when sea salt was added to normal drinking water to produce a sodium chloride concentration of 1%. Two of 18 cranes died and 2 were euthanatized when moribund. Muscle weakness, paresis, dyspnea, and depression were observed. Brain and serum sodium, serum uric acid,:and plasma osmolality values were abnormally high. Lesions were those of visceral gout, renal tubular necrosis, nephrosis, and skeletal muscle.necrosis.

Franson, J.C.; Sileo, L.; Fleming, W.J.

1981-01-01

426

[Identification and prevention of meat poisoning].  

PubMed

In this contribution to a series 'Papers of Yesterday and Today' a retrospective review of developments in the identification and control of meat 'poisoning' defined as infections and intoxications following the ingestion of bacteriologically unsound meat and meat products is presented. Starting from two classical Dutch papers, viz. by H. J. H. Stempel (1891) and K. Hoefnagel (1899) illustrating the knowledge of meat 'poisoning' acquired in the nineties of the 19th century, developments in the field of bacteriological research on meats and the resulting efforts to manage meat 'poisoning' are summarised. Attention is paid to the role of Dutch veterinarians in investigations on the aetiology of meat infections resulting in the adoption of legal meat inspection in 1922 and the ensuing reduction in the occurrence of mass outbreaks of meat poisoning. However, despite marked improvement of the standard of hygiene in the food industry in general and expert monitoring of meat production lines by veterinarians in particular, infections and intoxications transmitted by meat and meat products are still quite prevalent. Essentially, their management can only be achieved by strict adherence to Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) throughout animal husbandry, slaughter, distribution and storage, termed longitudinally integrated safety assurance. Professional monitoring by an up-to-date meat inspection system, however, continues to be indispensable in the prevention of food-borne infections and intoxications. Some recommendations are made for effective intervention in the infection cycle of food-transmitted pathogens originating from the high infection pressure on slaughter lines, resulting from contamination acquired at previous stages of the animal production chain. PMID:3672466

van Logtestijn, J G; Koolmees, P A; Mossel, D A

1987-09-15

427

Bat mortality: pesticide poisoning and migratory stress.  

PubMed

Organochlorine residues in the fat of young Mexican free-tailed bats, Tadarida brasiliensis, reached the brain and caused symptoms of poisoning after the fat mobilization that takes place during migratory flight was simulated. These chemical body burdens were obtained naturally under free-living conditions at the maternity roost. The data obtained support the hypothesis that pesticides have contributed to recent declines in populations of this bat. PMID:959845

Geluso, K N; Altenbach, J S; Wilson, D E

1976-10-01

428

Lead poisoning in six captive avian species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus), brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater), common grackles (Quiscalus quiscula), mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), northern bobwhites (Colinus virginianus), and eastern screech-owls (Otus asio) were poisoned with a concentration of lead (Pb) acetate in the diet which was increased by 60% each week until half of the birds in each treatment group died; surviving birds and all control birds except

W. Nelson Beyer; James W. Spann; Louis Sileo; J. Christian Franson

1988-01-01

429

An autopsy case of carbamazepine poisoning.  

PubMed

We present a case of fatal carbamazepine poisoning. Quantitative analysis of carbamazepine using high performance liquid chromatography, revealed that the concentrations of carbamazepine were 50.2 microg/ml in the femoral venous blood and 60.3 microg/ml in the heart blood, respectively, and many unabsorbed tablets were also observed in the stomach contents. We concluded that the cause of death was due to carbamazepine overdose. PMID:21275226

Kinoshita, Hiroshi; Morikawa, Kimiko; Kuze, Azumi; Nagasaki, Yasushi; Takahashi, Motonori; Nishiguchi, Minori; Nishio, Hajime; Ueno, Yasuhiro; Jamal, Mostofa; Kubo, Yusuke; Tanaka, Naoko; Ameno, Kiyoshi

2010-04-01

430

Use of dialytic therapies for poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nephrologist is often consulted in poisoning cases. Although management may involve attention to incident renal failure\\u000a or electrolyte and acid-base disorders, blood purification may also be necessary [1]. The application of dialysis therapies\\u000a or hemoperfusion to enhance clearance of intoxicants is an essential task for the nephrologist.\\u000a \\u000a This chapter will outline the principles and use of dialysis and related

James F. Winchester; Nikolas Harbord; Donald A. Feinfeld

431

INTENTIONAL POISONING OF BIRDS WITH PARATHION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intentional poisoning of birds by farmers is not uncommon but is rarely documented and given proper attention. Two recent cases from New York are illustrative. In the first, at least 5,120 birds, mostly Red-winged Black- birds (Age&us phoeniceus), Common Grackles (Quisculus quisculu) and Brown- headed Cowbirds (Molothrus ater) were killed by parathion- (an organophosphate insecticide) treated corn, which had been

WARD B. STONE; STEPHEN R. OVERMANN; JOSEPH C. OKONIEWSKI

432

Understanding lactic acidosis in paracetamol (acetaminophen) poisoning  

PubMed Central

Paracetamol (acetaminophen) is one of the most commonly taken drugs in overdose in many areas of the world, and the most common cause of acute liver failure in both the UK and USA. Paracetamol poisoning can result in lactic acidosis in two different scenarios. First, early in the course of poisoning and before the onset of hepatotoxicity in patients with massive ingestion; a lactic acidosis is usually associated with coma. Experimental evidence from studies in whole animals, perfused liver slices and cell cultures has shown that the toxic metabolite of paracetamol, N-acetyl-p-benzo-quinone imine, inhibits electron transfer in the mitochondrial respiratory chain and thus inhibits aerobic respiration. This occurs only at very high concentrations of paracetamol, and precedes cellular injury by several hours. The second scenario in which lactic acidosis can occur is later in the course of paracetamol poisoning as a consequence of established liver failure. In these patients lactate is elevated primarily because of reduced hepatic clearance, but in shocked patients there may also be a contribution of peripheral anaerobic respiration because of tissue hypoperfusion. In patients admitted to a liver unit with paracetamol hepatotoxicity, the post-resuscitation arterial lactate concentration has been shown to be a strong predictor of mortality, and is included in the modified King's College criteria for consideration of liver transplantation. We would therefore recommend that post-resuscitation lactate is measured in all patients with a severe paracetamol overdose resulting in either reduced conscious level or hepatic failure. PMID:21143497

Shah, Anoop D; Wood, David M; Dargan, Paul I

2011-01-01

433

Hemlock alkaloids from Socrates to poison aloes.  

PubMed

Hemlock (Conium maculatum L. Umbelliferae) has long been known as a poisonous plant. Toxicity is due to a group of piperidine alkaloids of which the representative members are coniine and gamma-coniceine. The latter is the more toxic and is the first formed biosynthetically. Its levels in relation to coniine vary widely according to environmental conditions and to provenance of the plants. Surprisingly, these piperidine alkaloids have turned up in quite unrelated species in the monocotyledons as well as the dicotyledons. Aloes, for instance, important medicinal plants, are not regarded as poisonous although some species are very bitter. Nevertheless a small number of mostly local species contain the alkaloids, especially gamma-coniceine and there have been records of human poisoning. The compounds are recognized by their characteristic mousy smell. Both acute and chronic symptoms have been described. The compounds are neurotoxins and death results from respiratory failure, recalling the effects of curare. Chronic non-lethal ingestion by pregnant livestock leads to foetal malformation. Both acute and chronic toxicity are seen with stock in damp meadows and have been recorded as problems especially in North America. The alkaloids derive biosynthetically from acetate units via the polyketide pathway in contrast to other piperidine alkaloids which derive from lysine. PMID:15955542

Reynolds, Tom

2005-06-01

434

Diethylene glycol poisoning from transcutaneous absorption.  

PubMed

A case of transcutaneous diethylene glycol poisoning with severe acute kidney injury, but a positive outcome, is described. A man without significant medical history was admitted to our hospital due to anuria, gastrointestinal symptoms, and hypertension. Ultrasonography excluded vascular damage and postrenal obstruction. Laboratory tests showed acute kidney injury and metabolic acidosis with increased anion gap; hemodialysis therapy was started. The brother of the patient reported that the patient had been smearing his skin with brake fluid containing diethylene glycol to treat a "dermatitis." Only supportive therapy was given due to the lack of a specific antidote. Continuous venovenous hemofiltration was performed. The kidney biopsy showed acute toxic proximal tubulonecrosis, without deposition of oxalate crystals. His neurologic condition worsened dramatically; supportive care was continued. Over time, acute kidney injury and neurologic damage gradually improved; 33 days after admission, he went to a rehabilitation unit for 5 months, with complete clinical recovery. Historically, diethylene glycol has been the cause of large-scale poisonings from ingestion of contaminated drugs. The clinical evolution is unpredictable. Treatment is not well defined; early hemodialysis treatment reduces levels of toxic metabolites, and fomepizole could be useful in cases with an early diagnosis. A comparison of the characteristics of diethylene glycol versus ethylene glycol poisoning is given. PMID:25445099

Devoti, Elisabetta; Marta, Elisabetta; Belotti, Elena; Bregoli, Laura; Liut, Francesca; Maiorca, Paolo; Mazzucotelli, Valentina; Cancarini, Giovanni

2015-04-01

435

Understanding lactic acidosis in paracetamol (acetaminophen) poisoning.  

PubMed

Paracetamol (acetaminophen) is one of the most commonly taken drugs in overdose in many areas of the world, and the most common cause of acute liver failure in both the UK and USA. Paracetamol poisoning can result in lactic acidosis in two different scenarios. First, early in the course of poisoning and before the onset of hepatotoxicity in patients with massive ingestion; a lactic acidosis is usually associated with coma. Experimental evidence from studies in whole animals, perfused liver slices and cell cultures has shown that the toxic metabolite of paracetamol, N-acetyl-p-benzo-quinone imine, inhibits electron transfer in the mitochondrial respiratory chain and thus inhibits aerobic respiration. This occurs only at very high concentrations of paracetamol, and precedes cellular injury by several hours. The second scenario in which lactic acidosis can occur is later in the course of paracetamol poisoning as a consequence of established liver failure. In these patients lactate is elevated primarily because of reduced hepatic clearance, but in shocked patients there may also be a contribution of peripheral anaerobic respiration because of tissue hypoperfusion. In patients admitted to a liver unit with paracetamol hepatotoxicity, the post-resuscitation arterial lactate concentration has been shown to be a strong predictor of mortality, and is included in the modified King's College criteria for consideration of liver transplantation. We would therefore recommend that post-resuscitation lactate is measured in all patients with a severe paracetamol overdose resulting in either reduced conscious level or hepatic failure. PMID:21143497

Shah, Anoop D; Wood, David M; Dargan, Paul I

2011-01-01

436

Digitalis poisoning: historical and forensic aspects.  

PubMed

Since the introduction of digitalis into therapy approximately 200 years ago, there have been continuing admonitions concerning its toxicity. Over 400 years ago, herbalists listed the plant as being poisonous. In fiction, the homicidal use of digitalis has appeared in the writings of Mary Webb, Dorothy Sayers and Agatha Christie. Ten instances in real life of alleged homicide by digitalis and trials of the accused are listed. The drug has been used with suicidal intent rather infrequently, compared with other medications. Possibly, it is more commonly used for such a purpose in France than in England or the United States. The fraudulent use of digitalis in the support of claims for disability because of heart disease has occurred, and one large conspiracy of physicians and lawyers in the swindle of insurance companies during the 1930s is a shameful episode in the record of these professions. Although innocent, one professor of medicine who was involved committed suicide. Two pharmaceutical (manufacturing) blunders that occurred in Belgium and Holland with mislabeling are mentioned. These resulted in numerous deaths and the profession seemed rather slow to recognize the nature of these small epidemics of poisoning. Instances of psychiatric illness with digitalis seem well documented. The story of digitalis toxicity continues into the present and physicians should be vigilant regarding the drug's potential for poisoning that can result from prescribing digitalis with ignorance of proper dosage, pharmacodynamics or drug interactions, as well as from accidental overdose as in children and use with self-destructive or homicidal intent. PMID:6338083

Burchell, H B

1983-02-01

437

Home Science One fish, two fish, dumb fish, dead fish DAILY SECTIONS  

E-print Network

Home Science One fish, two fish, dumb fish, dead fish Home DAILY SECTIONS News Sports Opinion Arts America! Study Spanish & Volunteer ONE FISH, TWO FISH, DUMB FISH, DEAD FISH | Print | E- mail Written scientists say fish are capable of deducing how they stack up against the competition by simply watching

Fernald, Russell

438

H4IIE RAT HEPATOMA CELL BIOASSAY-DERIVED 2,3,7,8-TETRACHLORODIBENZO-P-DIOXIN EQUIVALENTS (TCDD-EQS) IN COLONIAL FISH-EATING WATERBIRD EGGS FROM THE GREAT LAKES  

EPA Science Inventory

Fish-eating waterbirds from the Great Lakes of North America have shown symptoms of poisoning similar to those observed in laboratory exposures of various avian species to planar halogenated hydrocarbons (PHHs). HHs, include among others, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychl...

439

Supervasmol33 Keshkala Poisoning: Role of ENT Surgoen.  

PubMed

Poisoning is the one of the common mode of suicide in India. Certain types of poisoning are common in particular region. Similarly, super vasmol poisoning is one of the commonest modes of suicidal attempt in our region. Hence, we took this matter with special interest and wants to emphasize the role of ENT Surgeon in such poisoning. This study informs the importance of amount of ingestion and early hospitalization. This study also deals with systemic complications, and its remedial measures to overcome the complications. PMID:24533399

Prabhakar, Mayabrahma

2014-01-01

440

Fish FAQ  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Northeast Fisheries Science Center of the National Marine Fisheries Service provides this wonderful site offering a myriad of answers to frequently asked fish questions. If your questions include "Do fish sleep?" or "How does a scallop move?" or "What is 'tomalley'?", you are sure to find the answers here--as well as many other fascinating fish facts. Answers are thorough, and many are accompanied by color graphics, tables, and photographs to illustrate principles and provide examples.

1999-01-01

441

Red Fish, Blue Fish, One Fish Becomes By Chandra Shekhar  

E-print Network

-authors Yohey Terai and Norihiro Okada of the Tokyo Institute of Technology in Japan analyzed the fishesRed Fish, Blue Fish, One Fish Becomes Two Fish By Chandra Shekhar ScienceNOW Daily News 1 October 2008 Beauty, as the saying goes, is in the eye of the beholder--and some fish have taken this idea

442

21 CFR 2.110 - Definition of ammonia under Federal Caustic Poison Act.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Definition of ammonia under Federal Caustic Poison Act. 2.110 Section 2.110...ADMINISTRATIVE RULINGS AND DECISIONS Caustic Poisons § 2.110 Definition of ammonia under Federal Caustic Poison Act. For the purpose of...

2013-04-01

443

21 CFR 2.110 - Definition of ammonia under Federal Caustic Poison Act.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... Definition of ammonia under Federal Caustic Poison Act. 2.110 Section 2.110...ADMINISTRATIVE RULINGS AND DECISIONS Caustic Poisons § 2.110 Definition of ammonia under Federal Caustic Poison Act. For the purpose of...

2014-04-01

444

21 CFR 2.110 - Definition of ammonia under Federal Caustic Poison Act.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Definition of ammonia under Federal Caustic Poison Act. 2.110 Section 2.110...ADMINISTRATIVE RULINGS AND DECISIONS Caustic Poisons § 2.110 Definition of ammonia under Federal Caustic Poison Act. For the purpose of...

2010-04-01

445

21 CFR 2.110 - Definition of ammonia under Federal Caustic Poison Act.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Definition of ammonia under Federal Caustic Poison Act. 2.110 Section 2.110...ADMINISTRATIVE RULINGS AND DECISIONS Caustic Poisons § 2.110 Definition of ammonia under Federal Caustic Poison Act. For the purpose of...

2011-04-01

446

21 CFR 2.110 - Definition of ammonia under Federal Caustic Poison Act.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Definition of ammonia under Federal Caustic Poison Act. 2.110 Section 2.110...ADMINISTRATIVE RULINGS AND DECISIONS Caustic Poisons § 2.110 Definition of ammonia under Federal Caustic Poison Act. For the purpose of...

2012-04-01

447

75 FR 66771 - Advisory Committee on Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention (ACCLPP)  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...reviews and reports regularly on childhood lead poisoning prevention...recommends improvements in national childhood lead poisoning prevention...1) The New York State Childhood Lead Poisoning Program...the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey...

2010-10-29

448

24 CFR 965.701 - Lead-based paint poisoning prevention.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Lead-based paint poisoning prevention. 965.701 Section...PROJECTS-GENERAL PROVISIONS Lead-Based Paint Poisoning Prevention § 965.701 Lead-based paint poisoning prevention. The...

2012-04-01

449

24 CFR 965.701 - Lead-based paint poisoning prevention.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Lead-based paint poisoning prevention. 965.701 Section...PROJECTS-GENERAL PROVISIONS Lead-Based Paint Poisoning Prevention § 965.701 Lead-based paint poisoning prevention. The...

2011-04-01

450

24 CFR 965.701 - Lead-based paint poisoning prevention.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Lead-based paint poisoning prevention. 965.701 Section...PROJECTS-GENERAL PROVISIONS Lead-Based Paint Poisoning Prevention § 965.701 Lead-based paint poisoning prevention. The...

2014-04-01

451

24 CFR 965.701 - Lead-based paint poisoning prevention.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lead-based paint poisoning prevention. 965.701 Section...PROJECTS-GENERAL PROVISIONS Lead-Based Paint Poisoning Prevention § 965.701 Lead-based paint poisoning prevention. The...

2010-04-01

452

24 CFR 965.701 - Lead-based paint poisoning prevention.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Lead-based paint poisoning prevention. 965.701 Section...PROJECTS-GENERAL PROVISIONS Lead-Based Paint Poisoning Prevention § 965.701 Lead-based paint poisoning prevention. The...

2013-04-01

453

Global perspectives on poisonous plants: The 9th International Symposium on Poisonous Plants  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The 9th International Symposium on Poisonous Plants (ISOPP9) was held from 15th-21st July, 2013, at the Inner Mongolia Agricultural University in Hohhot, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region of China. The Symposium consisted of three days of oral and poster presentations, followed by a tour of the Xilin...

454

Venomous Fish  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

While most fish are completely harmless to people, there are some species that are mildly to extremely venomous and can actually kill humans. In this video, Jonathan travels the world to meet some of the most venomous fish in the sea. Please see the accompanying study guide for educational objectives and discussion points.

Jonathan Bird Productions

2010-08-10

455

Fish Research  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video segment from IdahoPTV's D4K explains the Chinook salmon's life cycle in the Pacific Northwest and why it is an endangered species. A fisheries biologist takes students through some steps of fish research with explanations of the kinds of information biologists gather to perhaps help manage fish recovery.

Idaho PTV

2011-10-06

456

Fish oil  

MedlinePLUS

... children: Fish oil providing 17-26.8 mg/kg EPA and 7.3-11.5 mg/kg DHA for reducing symptoms. Maternal ingestion of fish ... pregnancy. For treating asthma: 17-26.8 mg/kg EPA and 7.3-11.5 mg/kg ...

457

Robot Fish  

E-print Network

Broadcast transcript: Usually you expect this kind of news from Japan but this time it's South Korea where scientists have just created a robotic fish. Yes, folks, this is an electronic fish that can live underwater. At depths of up to 100 meters...

Hacker, Randi

2009-12-30

458

Fish Tank  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive Flash applet is a number matching activity for up to ten objects. Students develop mouse skills as they click on a given number of moving fish, which land in their fish bowl. When children decide they have caught the right number, they can check their accuracy. Users may also listen to a counting song.

Dan Bunker

2010-01-01

459

Fish Face  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

The Pacific sand lance is an important forage fish found in Puget Sound.  They employ a unique strategy of burrowing into sand to rest and conserve energy, and to avoid predation.  The USGS is currently studying forage fish spawning, and how human development may be affecting their habitat....

460

Fish Kids  

MedlinePLUS

EPA's new Fish Kids site is a fun website that uses interactive stories and games to teach kids about fish advisories! It is designed for kids ages 8–12 and is best played with a teacher or parent who can help understand the more advanced topics.

461

Texture Fish  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In an effort to provide an opportunity for her first graders to explore texture through an engaging subject, the author developed a three-part lesson that features fish in a mixed-media artwork: (1) Exploring Textured Paint; (2) Creating the Fish; and (3) Role Playing. In this lesson, students effectively explore texture through painting, drawing,…

Stone, Julie

2007-01-01

462

Secondary poisoning of eagles following intentional poisoning of coyotes with anticholinesterase pesticides in western Canada.  

PubMed

Records of eagles, coyotes (Canis latrans), and red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) necropsied at the Western College of Veterinary Medicine, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada, between 1967 and 2002 were reviewed for cases suggestive of anticholinesterase poisoning. From 1993 to 2002, 54 putative poisoning incidents involving 70 bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) and 10 golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetus) were identified. Of these, 50 incidents occurred in Saskatchewan, two were in Manitoba, and one occurred in each of Alberta and the Northwest Territories. The diagnosis was confirmed in eight instances by demonstration of pesticide in ingesta from eagles or known use of pesticide at the site together with brain cholinesterase (AChE) reduction of >50% in at least one animal. A presnmptive diagnosis of poisoning was made in 33 incidents based on brain AChE reduction of >50% in at least one animal; 13 incidents were considered suspicious because of circumstantial evidence of the death of eagles in association with other species and limited AChE reduction. Other wild species were found dead in 85% of the incidents involving eagles. Coyotes, foxes, black-billed magpies (Pica pica), and striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis) were associated with 34, six, six, and three incidents, respectively. There were eight additional incidents that did not involve eagles in which poisoning was diagnosed in coyotes. Carbofuran was identified in nine incidents. Carbamate poisoning was indicated on the basis of reactivation of brain AChE activity in two additional incidents. Brain AChE activity was not reduced from normal in eagles in four of seven incidents in which carbofuran was identified. The organophosplorous insecticide terbufos was found together with carbofuran in one incident. Brain AChE activity was measured in wild canids and in eagles in 15 incidents; in all of these incidents, brain AChE was redulced by >50% in at least one mammal, whereas this level of reduction occrred in eagles in only four incidents. Use of anticholinesterase pesticides to poison coyotes is illegal, but the practice continues and secondary poisoning of eagles is a problem of unknown proportions in western North America. PMID:15362815

Wobeser, G; Bollinger, T; Leighton, F A; Blakley, B; Mineau, P

2004-04-01

463

Self-poisoning of the mind  

PubMed Central

Rational-choice theory tries to explain behaviour on the assumption that individuals optimize. Some forms of irrational behaviour can be explained by assuming that the individual is subject to hedonic, pleasure-seeking mechanisms, such as wishful thinking or adaptive preference formation. In this paper, I draw attention to psychic mechanisms, originating in the individual, which make her worse off. I first consider the ideas of counterwishful thinking and of counteradaptive preference formation and then, drawing heavily on Proust, the self-poisoning of the mind that occurs through the operation of amour-propre. PMID:20026460

Elster, Jon

2010-01-01

464

DDE poisoning in an adult bald eagle  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A 12-year-old female bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) was found in May 1993 on Santa Catalina Island, California (USA), in a debilitated condition, exhibiting ataxia and tremors; it died within hours. On necropsy, the bird was emaciated but had no evidence of disease or physical injury. Chemical analyses were negative for organophosphorus pesticides and lead poisoning. High concentrations of DDE (wet weight basis) were found in the brain (212 ppm), liver (838 ppm), and serum (53 ppm). Mobilization of DDE, from depleted fat deposits, probably resulted in the lethal concentration in the eagle's brain.

Garcelon, D.K.; Thomas, N.J.

1997-01-01

465

Lead poisoning in swans in Japan.  

PubMed

We investigated the occurrence, source and exposure time of lead poisoning in whooper swans (Cygnus cygnus cygnus) and Bewick's swans (Cygnus columbianus bewickii) in Japan during the winters of 1984-1987. Concentrations of lead in various tissues and physiological evidence of lead shot in some birds indicated that lead shotgun pellets were the source of lead, and exposure occurred after the birds arrived in Japan. Mortality probably occurred within 30 days after exposure to, and retention of, lead shot in the gizzard. PMID:15092262

Honda, K; Lee, D P; Tatsukawa, R

1990-01-01

466

Continuous arteriovenous hemoperfusion in meprobamate poisoning.  

PubMed

A patient with severe meprobamate poisoning presented within 4 h after suicidal ingestion of an unknown amount of the drug. The patient was unconscious, unresponsive, and hypotensive. Continuous arteriovenous hemoperfusion with coated activated charcoal resulted in a clearance of 198.8 +/- 15.6 mL/min with an extraction ratio of 0.66 +/- 0.05 (n = 3). There was almost complete elimination of the drug from the blood by 16 h. Continuous arteriovenous hemoperfusion, which can be performed in areas where dialysis facilities are not available, may be an effective adjunct to the treatment of acute meprobamate intoxication, particularly in patients with profound hypotension. PMID:8254705

Lin, J L; Lim, P S; Lai, B C; Lin, W L

1993-01-01

467

Kratom exposures reported to Texas poison centers.  

PubMed

Kratom use is a growing problem in the United States. Kratom exposures reported to Texas poison centers between January 1998 and September 2013 were identified. No kratom exposures were reported from 1998 to 2008 and 14 exposures were reported from 2009 to September 2013. Eleven patients were male, and 11 patients were in their 20s. The kratom was ingested in 12 patients, inhaled in 1, and both ingested and inhaled in 1. Twelve patients were managed at a healthcare facility and the remaining 2 were managed at home. PMID:24325774

Forrester, Mathias B

2013-01-01

468

VERTEBRATES OF FISH LAKE  

E-print Network

VERTEBRATES OF FISH LAKE CAUTION! FISH LAKE SCAVANGER HUNT RED HEADED is another majestic bird of Fish Lake. These birds can be seen perched at Fish Lake. CLUB-TAIL DRAGONFLY INSECTS OF FISH LAKE There are A LOT

Minnesota, University of

469

Childhood Lead Poisoning: Rhode Island Kids Count Issue Brief.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Noting that childhood lead poisoning is one of the most common preventable pediatric health problems, this report examines lead poisoning as a health problem to which infants and young children are most susceptible and as a housing problem directly related to a shortage of safe, affordable housing. The report details screening rates in Rhode…

Rhode Island KIDS COUNT, Providence.

470

790 MMWR September 3, 2004 Outbreak of Aflatoxin Poisoning --  

E-print Network

790 MMWR September 3, 2004 Outbreak of Aflatoxin Poisoning -- Eastern and Central Provinces laboratory testing of food collected from the affected area revealed high levels of aflatoxin, suggesting that the outbreak was caused by afla toxin poisoning, as was a previous outbreak in the same area in 1981 (1

471

Carbon Monoxide Poisoning After an Ice Storm in Kentucky, 2009  

PubMed Central

Objectives. Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality during natural disasters. On January 26–27, 2009, a severe ice storm occurred in Kentucky, causing widespread, extended power outages and disrupting transportation and communications. After the storm, CO poisonings were reported throughout the state. The objectives of this investigation were to determine the extent of the problem, identify sources of CO poisoning, characterize cases, make recommendations to reduce morbidity and mortality, and develop prevention strategies. Methods. We obtained data from the Kentucky Regional Poison Center (KRPC), hyperbaric oxygen treatment (HBOT) facilities, and coroners. Additionally, the Kentucky Department for Public Health provided statewide emergency department (ED) and hospitalization data. Results. During the two weeks after the storm, KRPC identified 144 cases of CO poisoning; exposure sources included kerosene heaters, generators, and propane heaters. Hospitals reported 202 ED visits and 26 admissions. Twenty-eight people received HBOT. Ten deaths were attributed to CO poisoning, eight of which were related to inappropriate generator location. Higher rates of CO poisoning were reported in areas with the most ice accumulation. Conclusions. Although CO poisonings are preventable, they continue to occur in postdisaster situations. Recommendations include encouraging use of CO alarms, exploring use of engineering controls on generators to decrease CO exposure, providing specific information regarding safe use and placement of CO-producing devices, and using multiple communication methods to reach people without electricity. PMID:21563718

Lutterloh, Emily C.; Iqbal, Shahed; Clower, Jacquelyn H.; Spillerr, Henry A.; Riggs, Margaret A.; Sugg, Tennis J.; Humbaugh, Kraig E.; Cadwell, Betsy L.; Thoroughman, Douglas A.

2011-01-01

472

SURF: Detecting and Measuring Search Poisoning College of Computing  

E-print Network

to promote a website's ranking only under a limited set of search keywords relevant to the website's content, search poison- ing techniques disregard any term relevance constraint and are em- ployed to poison STORAGE AND RETRIEVAL]: Infor- mation Search and Retrieval--Relevance feedback General Terms Security

473

Clinical and toxicological data in Fenthion and omethoate acute poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study paper reports on two cases of poisoning with the organophosphorus insecticides, fenthion and omethoate. The two victims were admitted in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) a few hours after ingestion of the two insecticides. They received appropriate treatment for organophosphorous poisoning (gastric lavage, activated charcoal, atropine and pralidoxime) and supportive care. Both patients survived. Organophosphate blood levels were

A. M. Tsatsakis; A. Manousakis; M. Anastasaki; M. Tzatzarakis; K. Katsanoulas; C. Delaki; P. Agouridakis

1998-01-01

474

Amatoxin-Containing Mushroom (Lepiota brunneoincarnata) Familial Poisoning.  

PubMed

Serious to fatal toxicity may occur with amanitin-containing mushrooms ingestions. A Lepiota brunneoincarnata familial poisoning with hepatic toxicity is reported. In such poisonings, acute gastroenteritis may be firstly misdiagnosed leading to delay in preventing liver dysfunction by silibinin or penicillin G. Mushroom picking finally requires experience and caution. PMID:25831030

Varvenne, David; Retornaz, Karine; Metge, Prune; De Haro, Luc; Minodier, Philippe

2015-04-01

475

Effects of poisoning nonindigenous slugs in a boreal forest  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the impact of poisoning nonindigenous slugs on abundance of other soil arthropod groups occurring on the soil surface of a boreal forest. The experimental design consisted of counting soil fauna under boxes from 20 plots during weekly surveys before (year 1) and after (year 2) treatment (metaldehyde poison) with con- trol and experimental plots. Slug abundance was

Steven H. Ferguson

2004-01-01

476

[Suspected azodicarbonamide poisoning in a patient with acute hemorrhaging pancreatitis].  

PubMed

The report describes the case of death of a 22-year old man due to acute hemorrhaging pancreatitis. Azodicarbonamide poisoning was suspected in this patient. Autopsy results, data from the literature and the knowledge about mechanisms of azodicarbonamide toxicity allowed for excluding poisoning with this substance as the cause of death. PMID:18432145

Zawadzki, Marcin; Maksymowicz, Krzysztof

2007-01-01

477

Fatal poisonings in Finland during the years 2004-2009.  

PubMed

Fatal alcohol and drug poisonings in Finland during the years 2004-2009 were studied. Cases were divided into those that occurred outside the hospitals (the majority of cases) and those that occurred within the hospitals (the minority of cases). Differences and similarities between the two groups were analysed. The postmortem toxicological investigation of all sudden and unexpected deaths in Finland is centralised at the Department of Forensic Medicine, University of Helsinki. We examined each fatal poisoning separately and verified the cause and place of death as well as the age and sex of the deceased. Fatal poisonings, including suicides, have remained unchanged for many years from the same high level, that is, about 1200 cases annually (22/100,000 inhabitants). The number of patients dying in hospitals due to poisoning has also remained stable (55-70 patients/year). However, the toxic agents involved in such poisonings have changed and deaths due to opioids are now being more numerous. The number of fatal unintentional drug poisonings rose significantly from 191 to 341 (3-6/100,000 inhabitants, p < 0.001) during the study years, and the difference between poisonings caused by drugs or alcohol also changed significantly (p < 0.001). Diminishing substantially, the number of all fatal poisonings will be challenging because of the high percentage of suicides. However, a reduction in unintentional drug overdoses, which are presently on the rise, should be possible. PMID:23696556

Lapatto-Reiniluoto, O; Vuori, E; Hoppu, K; Ojanperä, I

2013-06-01

478

LEAD POISONING IN CAPTIVE ANDEAN CONDORS (VULTUR GRYPHUS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Elevated lead in the tissues of raptors, especially those that scavenge, is a common occurrence, and lead poisoning appears to be a significant problem in the ongoing recovery effort for California condors (Gymnogyps californianus). Elevated blood lead levels have been found in released birds, and a number of birds have died of lead poisoning. In earlier work, we dosed turkey

Oliver H. Pattee; James W. Carpenter; Steven H. Fritts; Barnett A. Rattner; Stanley N. Wiemeyer; J. Andrew Royle; Milton R. Smith

479

Poisonous plants: effects on embryo and fetal development.  

PubMed

Poisonous plant research in the United States began over 100 years ago as a result of livestock losses from toxic plants as settlers migrated westward with their flocks, herds, and families. Major losses were soon associated with poisonous plants, such as locoweeds, selenium accumulating plants, poison-hemlock, larkspurs, Veratrum, lupines, death camas, water hemlock, and others. Identification of plants associated with poisoning, chemistry of the plants, physiological effects, pathology, diagnosis, and prognosis, why animals eat the plants, and grazing management to mitigate losses became the overarching mission of the current Poisonous Plant Research Laboratory. Additionally, spin-off benefits resulting from the animal research have provided novel compounds, new techniques, and animal models to study human health conditions (biomedical research). The Poisonous Plant Research Laboratory has become an international leader of poisonous plant research as evidenced by the recent completion of the ninth International Symposium on Poisonous Plant Research held July 2013 in Hohhot, Inner Mongolia, China. In this article, we review plants that negatively impact embryo/fetal and neonatal growth and development, with emphasis on those plants that cause birth defects. Although this article focuses on the general aspects of selected groups of plants and their effects on the developing offspring, a companion paper in this volume reviews current understanding of the physiological, biochemical, and molecular mechanisms of toxicoses and teratogenesis. PMID:24339034

Panter, Kip E; Welch, Kevin D; Gardner, Dale R; Green, Benedict T

2013-12-01

480

Recognition and Management of Pesticide Poisonings. Third Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual aids health professionals in recognizing and treating pesticide poisonings. Suggested treatments are appropriate for implementation in the small hospitals and clinics which usually receive the victims of pesticide poisoning. Classes of compounds covered include: (1) organophosphate cholinesterase-inhibiting pesticides; (2) carbamate…

Morgan, Donald P.

481

Strategic Plan for Preventing Childhood Lead Poisoning in Illinois.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The severity of the silent epidemic of lead poisoning and its long range effects on young children in impairment of intellectual ability, short-term memory, concentration, and reaction time have been recognized. A 3-year strategic plan for preventing childhood lead poisoning in Illinois was developed by a planning committee working through four…

Illinois State Dept. of Public Health, Springfield.

482

Lechuguilla (Agave lecheguilla) Poisoning in Sheep, Goats, and Laboratory Animals.  

E-print Network

.............................................. Review of literature 7 Fagopyrism ................................................. 7 Hypericism .................................................. 8 Trifoliosis .................................................. 10 Sudan grass... OF LITERATURE" Fagopyrism. (Buckwheat poisoning.) According to Merian (24), who reviewed the literature contributed prior to 1915, the first published report of buckwheat poisoning in farm animals was that by Hertwig in 1833. Hertwig observed...

Mathews, F. P. (Frank Patrick)

1937-01-01

483

111Screening Young Children for Lead Poisoning Chapter 5: Resources  

E-print Network

the State and Community-Based Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention Program grants for screening, for ensuring- tional Health and Nutrition Examination Survey #12;113Screening Young Children for Lead Poisoning Chapter levels in the U.S. population: phase 1 of the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

484

GROWER REPORTED PESTICIDE POISONINGS AMONG FLORIDA CITRUS FIELDWORKERS  

EPA Science Inventory

In a 1981 survey of 436 Florida citrus growers, 27 pesticide related poisoning incidents were reported that were to have taken place within one year of the interview date. From these reports it is possible to estimate that there are 376 citrus fieldworker poisonings per year in F...

485

The epidemiology of self-poisoning in the UK  

PubMed Central

Self-poisoning by ingestion or inhalation is common, and it is important to study its various epidemiological manifestations with clear definitions. Data on fatal self-poisonings are recorded nationally within the UK and are codified according to the International Classification of Diseases (ICD) revision relevant at the time. Most fatal self-poisonings are codified as suicides, accidental deaths or undetermined deaths (‘open verdicts’). Non-fatal self-poisoning data, whether accidental or as a manifestation of deliberate self-harm, are recorded through hospital discharge information nationally but are not routinely published in the same way as mortality data. The bulk of the UK's published epidemiological information on nonfatal self-poisoning episodes is largely based on individual hospitals' admission or discharge records (‘special studies’). After establishing definitions for different self-poisoning categories we discuss the published data on self-poisoning as they relate to suicide, accidental self-poisoning and deliberate self-harm in the UK. PMID:14616420

Camidge, D R; Wood, R J; Bateman, D N

2003-01-01

486

Knowledge is key to safety; Plants that poison horses  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Horses are relatively selective grazers and generally they are poisoned less frequently than other livestock. However, there are exceptions. Some poisonous plants are palatable to horses and exposed horses readily eat them. Other plants may be eaten by some horses even though they are unpalatable...

487

Selected Common Poisonous Plants of the United States' Rangelands  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Poisonous plants cause large economic losses throughout the rangelands of the world. In the 17 western states of the United States alone, it has been estimated that losses related to the ingestion of poisonous plants exceed $340 million annually. There are many plants that contribute to these large...

488

Theory of microbe motion in a poisoned environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The motility of a microorganism which tries to avoid a poisoned environment by chemotaxis is studied within a simple model which couples its velocity to the concentration field of the poison. The latter is time independent but inhomogeneous in space. The presence of the poison is assumed to irreversibly reduce the propulsion speed. The model is solved analytically for different couplings of the total poison dose experienced by the microbe to the propulsion mechanism. In a stationary poison field resulting from a constant emission of a fixed point source, we find a power law for the distance traveled by the microbe as a function of time with a nonuniversal exponent which depends on the coupling in the model. With an inverted sign in the couplings, the acceleration of microbe motion induced by a food field can also be described.

Hoell, Christian; Löwen, Hartmut

2011-10-01

489

Changes in rumen contents associated with lantana poisoning of sheep.  

PubMed

The effects of lantana poisoning on the microbial populations of the rumen and on fermentation within the rumen were compared to the effects of starvation in sheep. The protozoal and bacterial populations of the rumen were decreased to the same extent by lantana poisoning and starvation. Fermentation appeared to continue for several days in the rumen of lantana-poisoned animals, as shown by the concentrations of volatile fatty acids and ammonia, and the pH and rH of rumen fluid. It is suggested that this was due to retention of plant material in the static rumen of lantana-poisoned animals. It is concluded that lantana toxins do not affect rumen microorganisms directly and that the changes observed in lantana-poisoned animals are probably due to anorexia and rumen stasis. PMID:6138205

McSweeney, C S; Pass, M A; Henry, P

1983-01-01

490

Ponderosa pine and broom snakeweed: poisonous plants that affect livestock.  

PubMed

Ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) and the snakeweeds (Gutierrezia sarothrae and G. microcephala) are two groups of range plants that are poisonous to livestock. Ponderosa pine causes late-term abortions in cattle, and the snakeweeds are toxic and also cause abortions in cattle, sheep, and goats. Research is underway at the USDA-ARS-Poisonous Plants Research Laboratory to better understand livestock poisonings caused by grazing ponderosa pine needles and the snakeweeds and to provide methods of reducing losses to the livestock and supporting industries. This review includes the history of the problem, a brief description of the signs of poisoning, the research, to identify the chemical toxins, and current management practices on prevention of poisonings. PMID:10091125

Gardner, D R; James, L F; Panter, K E; Pfister, J A; Ralphs, M H; Stegelmeier, B L

1999-02-01

491

Theory of microbe motion in a poisoned environment.  

PubMed

The motility of a microorganism which tries to avoid a poisoned environment by chemotaxis is studied within a simple model which couples its velocity to the concentration field of the poison. The latter is time independent but inhomogeneous in space. The presence of the poison is assumed to irreversibly reduce the propulsion speed. The model is solved analytically for different couplings of the total poison dose experienced by the microbe to the propulsion mechanism. In a stationary poison field resulting from a constant emission of a fixed point source, we find a power law for the distance traveled by the microbe as a function of time with a nonuniversal exponent which depends on the coupling in the model. With an inverted sign in the couplings, the acceleration of microbe motion induced by a food field can also be described. PMID:22181211

Hoell, Christian; Löwen, Hartmut

2011-10-01

492

The epidemiology of poisonings in infants <6 months of age.  

PubMed

Contrary to popular belief, children that are less than six months of age are the common victims of unintentional poisoning. The purpose of this study was to examine the profile of poisoning exposures of children as they matriculate through their first six months of life by examining actual exposure data from a certified regional poison information center. Data analysis revealed that adult caregivers were responsible for the majority of exposures in children 0-3 months of age as a consequence of medication administration errors. Due to enhanced motor skills, children from 4-6 months of age frequently exposed themselves to potential poisons that were within their grasp. Parents and caregivers need to be educated proactively by health care professionals to prevent unintentional poisoning exposures in children less than six months of age. PMID:17724865

Kuspis, Denise A; Mrvos, Rita; Krenzelok, Edward P

2007-01-01

493

Lead poisoning and brain cell function  

SciTech Connect

Exposure to excessive amounts of inorganic lead during the toddler years may produce lasting adverse effects upon brain function. Maximal ingestion of lead occurs at an age when major changes are occurring in the density of brain synaptic connections. The developmental reorganization of synapses is, in part, mediated by protein kinases, and these enzymes are particularly sensitive to stimulation by lead. By inappropriately activating specific protein kinases, lead poisoning may disrupt the development of neural networks without producing overt pathological alterations. The blood-brain barrier is another potential vulnerable site for the neurotoxic action of lead. protein kinases appear to regulate the development of brain capillaries and the expression of the blood-brain barrier properties. Stimulation of protein kinase by lead may disrupt barrier development and alter the precise regulation of the neuronal environment that is required for normal brain function. Together, these findings suggest that the sensitivity of protein kinases to lead may in part underlie the brain dysfunction observed in children poisoned by this toxicant.

Goldstein, G.W. (Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (USA) Kennedy Institute, Baltimore, MD (USA))

1990-11-01

494

Methylene chloride poisoning in a cabinet worker.  

PubMed Central

More than a million workers are at risk for methylene chloride exposure. Aerosol sprays and paint stripping may also cause significant nonoccupational exposures. After methylene chloride inhalation, significant amounts of carbon monoxide are formed in vivo as a metabolic by-product. Poisoning predominantly affects the central nervous system and results from both carboxyhemoglobin formation and direct solvent-related narcosis. In this report, we describe a case of methylene chloride intoxication probably complicated by exogenous carbon monoxide exposure. The worker's presentation of intermittent headaches was consistent with both methylene chloride intoxication and carbon monoxide poisoning. The exposures and symptoms were corroborated by elevated carboxyhemoglobin saturations and a workplace inspection that documented significant exposures to both methylene chloride and carbon monoxide. When both carbon monoxide and methylene chloride are inhaled, additional carboxyhemoglobin formation is expected. Preventive efforts should include education, air monitoring, and periodic carboxyhemoglobin determinations. Methylene chloride should never be used in enclosed or poorly ventilated areas because of the well-documented dangers of loss of consciousness and death. Images Figure 1 PMID:10464079

Mahmud, M; Kales, S N

1999-01-01

495

Treatment of lead poisoning in wild geese.  

PubMed

Twenty-seven wild geese (Anser albifrons) suffering from lead poisoning caused by ingestion of lead shot were treated with disodium calcium ethylenediaminetetraacetate. The concentration of lead in blood ranged from 0.4 to 23.0 micrograms/ml, with a mean concentration of 5.6 micrograms/ml. In 22 of the birds, 1 to 48 lead pellets (mean, 10.5 pellets/bird) were seen on radiographs of their gizzards. Eleven of 27 birds recovered 3 to 8 weeks after the initiation of treatment. In the birds that recovered, the lead pellets were rapidly eroded as the birds recovered their appetites in response to treatment, and disappeared radiographically between treatment days 17 and 52. The birds that did not survive died within 4 weeks, despite decreased concentrations of lead in blood. Of these 16 birds, 15 had radiographic evidence of impaction of the proventriculus at the first examination and no evidence of resolution of the impaction at the time of death. In contrast, only 2 of the 11 geese that recovered had impaction of the proventriculus at the time of admission. Thus, the condition of the proventriculus seems to be the first consideration to evaluate in the prognosis of lead poisoning in geese. PMID:1624358

Murase, T; Ikeda, T; Goto, I; Yamato, O; Jin, K; Maede, Y

1992-06-01

496

TOXBASE: Poisons information on the internet  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To assess the uptake, usage and acceptability of TOXBASE, the National Poisons Information Service internet toxicology information service. Methods: An observational study of database usage, and a questionnaire of users were undertaken involving users of TOXBASE within the UK between August 1999, when the internet site was launched, and May 2000. The main outcome measures were numbers of registered users, usage patterns on the database, responses to user satisfaction questionnaire. Results: The number of registered users increased from 567 to 1500. There was a 68% increase in accident and emergency departments registered, a 159% increase in general practitioners, but a 324% increase in other hospital departments. Between January 2000 and the end of May there had been 60 281 accesses to the product database, the most frequent to the paracetamol entry (7291 accesses). Ecstasy was the seventh most frequent entry accessed. Altogether 165 of 330 questionnaires were returned. The majority came from accident and emergency departments, the major users of the system. Users were generally well (>95%) satisfied with ease and speed of access. A number of suggestions for improvements were put forward. Conclusions: TOXBASE has been extensively accessed since being placed on the internet (http://www.spib.axl.co.uk). The pattern of enquiries mirrors clinical presentation with poisoning. The system seems to be easily used. It is a model for future delivery of treatment guidelines at the point of patient care. PMID:11777868

Bateman, D; Good, A; Laing, W; Kelly, C

2002-01-01

497

Fishing Forecasts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

ROFFS stands for Roffer's Ocean Fishing Forecasting Service, Inc. Roffer combines satellite and computer technology with oceanographic information from several sources to produce frequently updated charts sometimes as often as 30 times a day showing clues to the location of marlin, sailfish, tuna, swordfish and a variety of other types. Also provides customized forecasts for racing boats and the shipping industry along with seasonal forecasts that allow the marine industry to formulate fishing strategies based on foreknowledge of the arrival and departure times of different fish. Roffs service exemplifies the potential for benefits to marine industries from satellite observations. Most notable results are reduced search time and substantial fuel savings.

1988-01-01

498

Fish stings and other marine envenomations.  

PubMed

West Virginia, it would seem, is an unlikely place for physicians to encounter patients with poisonous marine envenomations. To the contrary, West Virginias who vacation at the beach may be envenomated and require further evaluation and treatment when they return home. Likewise, certain aquarium pets or even freshwater fish may envenomate those who have contact with them. Such underwater sea creatures can cause local and systemic toxic or allergic reactions which potentially can be serious. This article describes these possible toxic encounters as well as first aid and medical management. PMID:1926838

Bee, M

1991-07-01

499

One Fish, Two Fish, Redfish, You Fish!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The recreational fishing activity presented in this article provides a hands-on, problem-based experience for students; it unites biology, math, economics, environmental policy, and population dynamics concepts. In addition, the activity allows students to shape environmental policy in a realistic setting and evaluate their peers' work. By…

White, Katherine; Timmons, Maryellen; Medders, Paul

2011-01-01

500

Renal replacement therapy in acute poisonings--one center experience.  

PubMed

The authors described three groups of patients after acute poisonings. In the first group were 60 patients after carbon tetrachioride poisoning, the second group consisted of 81 patients after mushroom poisoning and 20 patients after ethylene glycol poisoning were in the third group. Besides two patients with rare poisonings after potassium dichromate and after paraquat poisoning were analysed. All groups of patients with the kidney damage were presented from the diagnostic, differential diagnostic, conservative, ntra- and extracorporeal elimination treatment point of view. In the group of patients suffering from acute carbon tetrachloride poisoning and with acute renal failure following therapy was used: conservative treatment, exchange blood transfusion--in 4 patients in hepatic coma, renal replacement therapy (peritoneal dialysis, haemodialysis, plasmapheresis). From the total number of 60 patients 58 survived and 2 patients died in liver coma. Survival of patients after mushroom poisoning depended on amount of oral use of mushroom (Amanita phalloides), on early admission in dialysis centre and on early beginning of renal replacement therapy within 24 hr after acute poisoning. Twenty four patients from 81 patients of this group died. Main clinical signs of ethylene glycol poisoning were various neurological symptoms (cramps, hemiparesis, coma), severe metabolic acidosis (pH = 7.06 +/- 0.14), leucocytosis (26.4 +/- 5.5x 10(9)/L) and the signs of acute toxic hepatitis and of acute renal failure. Calcium oxalic crystals in urine were present in 17 patients and leucocytosis was observed in every patient. In the first 4 patients we administered intravenously ethylalcohol as an antidotum and later in other patients we used ethylalcohol in dialysis solution. The concentration of ethylalcohol in dialysis solution was 100 mg%. Severe metabolic acidosis improved in 17 patients using bicarbonate haemodialysis and 3 patients died before the possibility to use bicarbonate haemodialysis. Eighty-four hours after acute potassium dichromate poisoning and 24 hours after exchange blood transfusion during haemodialysis a 41-year old man died in haemorhagic shock, which developed after the extensive chemical burns of mucous membrane of gastrointestinal tract caused by this poison. Our patient after paraquat poisoning was treated by repeated charcoal haemoperfusion and haemodialysis. Despite of that therapy the patient died in severe respiratory insufficiency. PMID:24052974

Mydlík, Miroslav; Derzsiová, Katarina; Frank, Katarina

2013-01-01