Sample records for puffer fish poisoning

  1. [Puffer fish poisoning].

    PubMed

    Ababou, A; Mosadik, A; Squali, J; Fikri, K O; Lazreq, C; Sbihi, A

    2000-03-01

    We report three cases of a collective tetrodotoxin poisoning, after ingestion of puffer fish eggs. This neurotoxin is the most potent membrane stabilizer, blocking the nervous conduction and resulting in death from respiratory paralysis in case of massive ingestion. The father died at admission, the mother and her daughter presented an acute respiratory failure and a flaccid tetraplegia, with favourable outcome after 24 hours. PMID:10782242

  2. [Fatal poisoning caused by puffer fish (Tetrodontidae): report of a case involving a child].

    PubMed

    Santana Neto, Pedro de Lima; Aquino, Elisabeth Cristina Moreira de; Silva, José Afrânio da; Amorim, Maria Lucineide Porto; Oliveira Júnior, Américo Ernesto de; Haddad Júnior, Vidal

    2010-01-01

    A case of poisoning resulting from ingestion of viscera from a spotted puffer fish (Sphoeroides testudineus) by a two-year-old child is described. The child presented cold sweating, progressive muscle weakness, cardiorespiratory arrest and death. The risks of consuming the meat and viscera of puffer fish, which is a common occurrence in certain regions of Brazil, are discussed. PMID:20305977

  3. Saxitoxin Puffer Fish Poisoning in the United States, with the First Report of Pyrodinium bahamense as the Putative Toxin Source

    PubMed Central

    Landsberg, Jan H.; Hall, Sherwood; Johannessen, Jan N.; White, Kevin D.; Conrad, Stephen M.; Abbott, Jay P.; Flewelling, Leanne J.; Richardson, R. William; Dickey, Robert W.; Jester, Edward L.E.; Etheridge, Stacey M.; Deeds, Jonathan R.; Van Dolah, Frances M.; Leighfield, Tod A.; Zou, Yinglin; Beaudry, Clarke G.; Benner, Ronald A.; Rogers, Patricia L.; Scott, Paula S.; Kawabata, Kenji; Wolny, Jennifer L.; Steidinger, Karen A.

    2006-01-01

    Background From January 2002 to May 2004, 28 puffer fish poisoning (PFP) cases in Florida, New Jersey, Virginia, and New York were linked to the Indian River Lagoon (IRL) in Florida. Saxitoxins (STXs) of unknown source were first identified in fillet remnants from a New Jersey PFP case in 2002. Methods We used the standard mouse bioassay (MBA), receptor binding assay (RBA), mouse neuroblastoma cytotoxicity assay (MNCA), Ridascreen ELISA, MIST Alert assay, HPLC, and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) to determine the presence of STX, decarbamoyl STX (dc-STX), and N-sulfocarbamoyl (B1) toxin in puffer fish tissues, clonal cultures, and natural bloom samples of Pyrodinium bahamense from the IRL. Results We found STXs in 516 IRL southern (Sphoeroides nephelus), checkered (Sphoeroides testudineus), and bandtail (Sphoeroides spengleri) puffer fish. During 36 months of monitoring, we detected STXs in skin, muscle, and viscera, with concentrations up to 22,104 ?g STX equivalents (eq)/100 g tissue (action level, 80 ?g STX eq/100 g tissue) in ovaries. Puffer fish tissues, clonal cultures, and natural bloom samples of P. bahamense from the IRL tested toxic in the MBA, RBA, MNCA, Ridascreen ELISA, and MIST Alert assay and positive for STX, dc-STX, and B1 toxin by HPLC and LC-MS. Skin mucus of IRL southern puffer fish captive for 1-year was highly toxic compared to Florida Gulf coast puffer fish. Therefore, we confirm puffer fish to be a hazardous reservoir of STXs in Florida’s marine waters and implicate the dinoflagellate P. bahamense as the putative toxin source. Conclusions Associated with fatal paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) in the Pacific but not known to be toxic in the western Atlantic, P. bahamense is an emerging public health threat. We propose characterizing this food poisoning syndrome as saxitoxin puffer fish poisoning (SPFP) to distinguish it from PFP, which is traditionally associated with tetrodotoxin, and from PSP caused by STXs in shellfish. PMID:17035133

  4. Tetrodotoxin poisoning outbreak from imported dried puffer fish--Minneapolis, Minnesota, 2014.

    PubMed

    Cole, Jon B; Heegaard, William G; Deeds, Jonathan R; McGrath, Sara C; Handy, Sara M

    2015-01-01

    On June 13, 2014, two patients went to the Hennepin County Medical Center Emergency Department in Minneapolis, Minnesota, with symptoms suggestive of tetrodotoxin poisoning (i.e., oral paresthesias, weakness, and dyspnea) after consuming dried puffer fish (also known as globefish) purchased during a recent visit to New York City. The patients said two friends who consumed the same fish had similar, although less pronounced, symptoms and had not sought care. The Minnesota Department of Health conducted an investigation to determine the source of the product and samples were sent to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition for chemical and genetic analysis. Genetic analysis identified the product as puffer fish (Lagocephalus lunaris) and chemical analysis determined it was contaminated with high levels of tetrodotoxin. A traceback investigation was unable to determine the original source of the product. Tetrodotoxin is a deadly, potent poison; the minimum lethal dose in an adult human is estimated to be 2-3 mg. Tetrodotoxin is a heat-stable and acid-stable, nonprotein, alkaloid toxin found in many species of the fish family Tetraodontidae (puffer fish) as well as in certain gobies, amphibians, invertebrates, and the blue-ringed octopus. Tetrodotoxin exerts its effects by blocking voltage-activated sodium channels, terminating nerve conduction and muscle action potentials, leading to progressive paralysis and, in extreme cases, to death from respiratory failure. Because these fish were reportedly purchased in the United States, they pose a substantial U.S. public health hazard given the potency of the toxin and the high levels of toxin found in the fish. PMID:25551594

  5. Concentrations of Saxitoxin and Tetrodotoxin in Three Species of Puffers from the Indian River Lagoon, Florida, the Location for Multiple Cases of Saxitoxin Puffer Poisoning from 2002 to 2004

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jonathan R. Deeds; Kevin D. White; Stacey M. Etheridge; Jan H. Landsberg

    2008-01-01

    In response to multiple, unexpected cases of saxitoxin poisoning that started in January 2002, southern puffers Sphoeroides nephelus, checkered puffers S. testudineus, and bandtail puffers S. spengleri were collected from April to August 2002 from several locations in the Indian River Lagoon (IRL), Florida. Fish were analyzed for saxitoxin (STX) and tetrodotoxin (TTX) content in muscle, liver, and gonad tissues

  6. Toxicity of Cultured Bullseye Puffer Fish Sphoeroides annulatus

    PubMed Central

    Nuñez-Vazquez, Erick J.; Garcia-Ortega, Armando; Campa-Cordova, Angel I.; de la Parra, Isabel Abdo; Ibarra-Martinez, Lilia; Heredia-Tapia, Alejandra; Ochoa, Jose L.

    2012-01-01

    The toxin content in various life cycle stages of tank-cultivated bullseye puffer (Sphoeroides annulatus) were analyzed by mouse bioassay and ESI-MS spectrometry analysis. The presence of toxin content was determined in extracts of sperm, eggs, embryo, larvae, post-larvae, juvenile, pre-adult, and adult fish, as well as in food items used during the cultivation of the species. Our findings show that only the muscle of juveniles, the viscera of pre-adults, and muscle, liver, and gonad of adult specimens were slightly toxic (<1 mouse unit). Thus, cultivated S. annulatus, as occurs with other cultivated puffer fish species, does not represent a food safety risk to consumers. This is the first report of toxin analysis covering the complete life stages of a puffer fish under controlled conditions. PMID:22412804

  7. CIGUATERA: TROPICAL FISH POISONING

    E-print Network

    CIGUATERA: TROPICAL FISH POISONING Marine Biological I · ·' iw« L I B R >*· ** Y JUL 3 -1350 WOODS POISONING By William Arcisz, Bacteriologist, Formerly with the Fishery Research Laboratory Branch in which Fish Poisoning is Prevalento........... 3 Symptoms of Ciguatera ...... 00

  8. Histamine fish poisoning revisited

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leigh Lehane; June Olley

    2000-01-01

    Histamine (or scombroid) fish poisoning (HFP) is reviewed in a risk-assessment framework in an attempt to arrive at an informed characterisation of risk. Histamine is the main toxin involved in HFP, but the disease is not uncomplicated histamine poisoning. Although it is generally associated with high levels of histamine (?50 mg\\/100 g) in bacterially contaminated fish of particular species, the

  9. [Seafood poisonings. Part II. Fish poisonings].

    PubMed

    Ciszowski, Krzysztof; Mietka-Ciszowska, Aneta

    2012-01-01

    Fish plays a significant role in human life, mainly as part of a balanced healthy diet and a good source of many of nutrients. However, contact with fish may be harmful or even life-threatening to man. Toxic effects, that fish exerts toward men (ichthyotoxism), result from envenomations by poison. ous fish equipped in venom apparatus (ichthyoacanthotoxism), direct contact with venom produced by skin glandules (ichthyocrinotoxism), or consuming fish containing toxins for nutritional purposes (ichthyosarcotoxism). In the present review, different fish-borne food poisonings are presented including their etiology, pathogenesis, symptomatology and treatment. In fact, the majority of fish poisonings are intoxications with toxins primary produced by bacteria, cyanobacteria and algae. These are consumed and accumulated in the food chain by herbivorous and predatory fish, that in turn may be a cause of poisonings in humans. PMID:23243919

  10. [Morphological differences and classifications of small spines of puffer fishes].

    PubMed

    Fujimoto, Yoshimichi; Uchida, Kenichi; Oyaizu, Makoto; Hamano, Yonekazu

    2007-08-01

    The differences among the small spines of 6 species of puffers have been clarified by means of microscopic observation. Small spines of puffers arise from the basement, which is composed of spines protruding from the surface skin, with roots extending horizontally in all directions in the layer under the surface skin. Using the characteristic shapes of the basement, we have classified the puffer group of "Sansaifugu" (Takifugu flavidus) and "Mefugu" (T. obscurus) as Type I and the group of "Shirosabafugu" (Lagocephalus wheeleri), "Kurosabafugu" (L. gloveri), "Dokusabafugu" (L. lunaris) and "Motosabafugu" (L. spadiceus) as Type II. The number of fore and back roots, including the branches at the ends, further varies in each group. The length and width of each root were measured. As a result, similar species within the group comprising "Sansaifugu" (T. flavidus) and "Mefugu" (T. obscurus) and 4 species of the "Sabafugu" (Lagocephalus) group including "Dokusabafugu" (L. lunaris) have been clearly distinguished. We conclude that examination of the shape of the basement of small spines can be an effective identification index. PMID:17892006

  11. Histamine fish poisoning revisited.

    PubMed

    Lehane, L; Olley, J

    2000-06-30

    Histamine (or scombroid) fish poisoning (HFP) is reviewed in a risk-assessment framework in an attempt to arrive at an informed characterisation of risk. Histamine is the main toxin involved in HFP, but the disease is not uncomplicated histamine poisoning. Although it is generally associated with high levels of histamine (> or =50 mg/100 g) in bacterially contaminated fish of particular species, the pathogenesis of HFP has not been clearly elucidated. Various hypotheses have been put forward to explain why histamine consumed in spoiled fish is more toxic than pure histamine taken orally, but none has proved totally satisfactory. Urocanic acid, like histamine, an imidazole compound derived from histidine in spoiling fish, may be the "missing factor" in HFP. cis-Urocanic acid has recently been recognised as a mast cell degranulator, and endogenous histamine from mast cell degranulation may augment the exogenous histamine consumed in spoiled fish. HFP is a mild disease, but is important in relation to food safety and international trade. Consumers are becoming more demanding, and litigation following food poisoning incidents is becoming more common. Producers, distributors and restaurants are increasingly held liable for the quality of the products they handle and sell. Many countries have set guidelines for maximum permitted levels of histamine in fish. However, histamine concentrations within a spoiled fish are extremely variable, as is the threshold toxic dose. Until the identity, levels and potency of possible potentiators and/or mast-cell-degranulating factors are elucidated, it is difficult to establish regulatory limits for histamine in foods on the basis of potential health hazard. Histidine decarboxylating bacteria produce histamine from free histidine in spoiling fish. Although some are present in the normal microbial flora of live fish, most seem to be derived from post-catching contamination on board fishing vessels, at the processing plant or in the distribution system, or in restaurants or homes. The key to keeping bacterial numbers and histamine levels low is the rapid cooling of fish after catching and the maintenance of adequate refrigeration during handling and storage. Despite the huge expansion in trade in recent years, great progress has been made in ensuring the quality and safety of fish products. This is largely the result of the introduction of international standards of food hygiene and the application of risk analysis and hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) principles. PMID:10898459

  12. Toxicity and toxin identification in Colomesus asellus, an Amazonian (Brazil) freshwater puffer fish.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Joacir Stolarz; Fernandes, Solange Cristina Rego; Schwartz, Carlos Alberto; Bloch, Carlos; Melo, Jorge Alex Taquita; Rodrigues Pires, Osmindo; de Freitas, José Carlos

    2006-07-01

    Toxicity and toxin identification in Colomesus asellus, an Amazonian (Brazil) freshwater puffer fish. By using four different techniques--mouse bioassay, ELISA, HPLC and mass spectrometry-we evaluated the toxicity in the extracts of C. asellus, a freshwater puffer fish from the rivers of the Amazon, and identified for the first time the components responsible for its toxicity. The T20G10 monoclonal antibody raised against TTX, and employed in an indirect competitive enzyme immunoassay, showed very low affinity for the C. asellus extracts, indicating that TTX and its analogs are not the main toxic components of the extracts. This antibody was efficient in detecting presence of TTX in a total extract of Sphoeroides spengleri, which is one of the most toxic puffer fish found in the Atlantic coast. Extracts of C. asellus were toxic when administered intraperitonially into mice with an average toxicity of 38.6+/-12 mouse unit (MU)/g, while HPLC analysis indicated a lower toxin content (7.6+/-0 5MU/g). The HPLC profile showed no traces of TTX, but only the presence of PSPs (STX, GTX 2 and GTX 3). These toxins were also confirmed by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. PMID:16822534

  13. [Ciguatera fish poisoning].

    PubMed

    Oehler, Erwan; Bouchut, Jérémie

    2014-09-01

    Ciguatera, an ichtyosarcotoxism linked to the consumption of usually healthy coral fish is a common poisoning in the Pacific, Caribbean and Indian Ocean where it is endemic. However, increased tourism and commercial transportation of tropical fish for consumption make it an unexceptional intoxication in countries away from its endemic area. Environmental stresses such as climate changes also contribute to the expansion of its geographical area. The non-specific clinical symptomatology is characterized by the occurrence of gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, nervous and general signs few hours after eating a ciguatoxic fish. The diagnosis is clinical and relatively easy in endemic areas but much less for physicians who are rarely confronted with, which is a source of prolonged diagnostic delays and a significant increase in spending. Treatment of ciguatera is symptomatic but new treatments, still experimental, give a real hope for the future. PMID:25001048

  14. Metabolomic investigation of pathogenesis of myxosporean emaciation disease of tiger puffer fish Takifugu rubripes.

    PubMed

    Kodama, H; Otani, K; Iwasaki, T; Takenaka, S; Horitani, Y; Togase, H

    2014-07-01

    Serum biochemical analysis was undertaken to study the pathophysiological details of emaciation disease of the tiger puffer fish Takifugu rubripes (Temminck and Schlegel). Serum parameters were measured by biochemical analysis using automated dry chemistry and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Serum concentrations of albumin, amylase, calcium, creatinine, glucose and total protein were significantly lower in the emaciated fish when compared with those of normal fish. Regression analyses found close correlation between concentrations of total protein, albumin, amylase, glucose and progress of the disease. In contrast, serum alanine aminotransferase increased significantly in emaciated fish indicating liver function disorder. Further, GC/MS metabolic profiling of the puffer serum showed that the profile of the emaciated fish was distinct to that of non-infected control. The serum content of amino acids including glycine, 5-oxo-proline and proline, and ascorbic acid, fumaric acid and glycerol increased significantly in serum in moderately emaciated fish. The serum glucose, linolenic acid and tyrosine level decreased significantly in the late phase of the disease. Our results clearly show that prolonged intestinal damage caused by myxosporean infection impairs absorption of nutrients, resulting in extreme emaciation. PMID:23952965

  15. An overview of the marine food poisoning in Mexico

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. P Sierra-Beltrán; A Cruz; E Núñez; L. M Del Villar; J Cerecero; J. L Ochoa

    1998-01-01

    In the course of the last decade, huge events related to harmful algal blooms (HAB) have severely affected the environment in Mexico, even causing several human casualties. The tally of the toxins known up to date in Mexican waters includes: neurotoxin shellfish poisoning (NSP), paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP), amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP), tetrodotoxin (TTX) or puffer fish poisoning, ciguatera fish

  16. Captain Cook on poison fish.

    PubMed

    Doherty, Michael J

    2005-12-13

    On his second voyage of discovery, Captain James Cook charted much of the South Pacific. The journey was long, from 1772 to 1775. During the exploration, the geographic, ethnographic, and scientific variety provided no shortage of work for the accompanying naturalists, astronomers, navigators, and painters. Culinary discoveries included new species of fish, many of which were sketched, dressed, and ultimately eaten. The examined journals and correspondence document clinical poisonings after ingestion of two different species of fish. The clinical findings are described and likely represent ciguatera and tetrodotoxin poisonings. Mechanisms of these toxin's actions are discussed in light of more recent studies. PMID:16344524

  17. Ciguatera fish poisoning. A southern California epidemic.

    PubMed Central

    Barton, E D; Tanner, P; Turchen, S G; Tunget, C L; Manoguerra, A; Clark, R F

    1995-01-01

    Ciguatera fish poisoning results from the bioconcentration of a variety of toxins produced by marine dinoflagellates. Signs and symptoms vary widely, but it usually presents as gastrointestinal and neurologic complaints beginning shortly after the ingestion of fish containing the toxins. Symptoms may persist for months and sometimes even years. Although cases have been reported throughout the United States, epidemics are most common along tropical and subtropical coasts and usually involve the ingestion of large carnivorous fish. We review the literature and report the first epidemic of 25 cases of ciguatera fish poisoning presenting to area hospitals in Southern California that were successfully tracked by the Department of Health Services and isolated to fish caught off the coast of Baja California, Mexico. Images Figure 1. PMID:7667980

  18. SODIUM CYANIDE AS A FISH POISON Marine Biological Laboratory

    E-print Network

    SODIUM CYANIDE AS A FISH POISON Marine Biological Laboratory APR 2 '^ 1958 WOODS HOLE, MASS CYANIDE AS A FISH POISON By W. R. Bridges Cooperative Fishery Research Laboratory Southern Illinois as a fish poison. At concentrations of 1 p. p.m. sodium cyanide and at a variety of temperature and p

  19. Naturally Occurring Fish Poisons from Plants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cannon, Jonathan G.; Burton, Robert A.; Wood, Steven G.; Owen, Noel L.

    2004-01-01

    The fish poisons derived from plants used throughout the world, not only as piscicides but also for a range of other uses, including insecticident and in folk medicines, is presented. The aim of this review is to provide a useful background for students interested in natural products.

  20. Food Poisonings by Ingestion of Cyprinid Fish

    PubMed Central

    Asakawa, Manabu; Noguchi, Tamao

    2014-01-01

    Raw or dried gallbladders of cyprinid fish have long been ingested as a traditional medicine in the Asian countries, particularly in China, for ameliorating visual acuity, rheumatism, and general health; however, sporadic poisoning incidences have occurred after their ingestion. The poisoning causes complex symptoms in patients, including acute renal failure, liver dysfunction, paralysis, and convulsions of limbs. The causative substance for the poisoning was isolated, and its basic properties were examined. The purified toxin revealed a minimum lethal dose of 2.6 mg/20 g in mouse, when injected intraperitoneally. The main symptoms were paralysis and convulsions of the hind legs, along with other neurological signs. Liver biopsy of the euthanized mice clearly exhibited hepatocytes necrosis and infiltration of neutrophils and lymphocytes, suggesting the acute dysfunction of the liver. Blood tests disclosed the characteristics of acute renal failure and liver injury. Infrared (IR) spectrometry, fast atom bombardment (FAB) mass spectrometry, and 1H- and 13C-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis indicated, a molecular formula of C27H48O8S, containing a sulfate ester group for the toxin. Thus, we concluded that the structure of carp toxin to be 5?-cyprinol sulfate (5?-cholestane-3?, 7?, 12?, 26, 27-pentol 26-sulfate). This indicated that carp toxin is a nephro- and hepato- toxin, which could be the responsible toxin for carp bile poisoning in humans. PMID:24476713

  1. Food poisonings by ingestion of cyprinid fish.

    PubMed

    Asakawa, Manabu; Noguchi, Tamao

    2014-02-01

    Raw or dried gallbladders of cyprinid fish have long been ingested as a traditional medicine in the Asian countries, particularly in China, for ameliorating visual acuity, rheumatism, and general health; however, sporadic poisoning incidences have occurred after their ingestion. The poisoning causes complex symptoms in patients, including acute renal failure, liver dysfunction, paralysis, and convulsions of limbs. The causative substance for the poisoning was isolated, and its basic properties were examined. The purified toxin revealed a minimum lethal dose of 2.6 mg/20 g in mouse, when injected intraperitoneally. The main symptoms were paralysis and convulsions of the hind legs, along with other neurological signs. Liver biopsy of the euthanized mice clearly exhibited hepatocytes necrosis and infiltration of neutrophils and lymphocytes, suggesting the acute dysfunction of the liver. Blood tests disclosed the characteristics of acute renal failure and liver injury. Infrared (IR) spectrometry, fast atom bombardment (FAB) mass spectrometry, and 1H- and 13C-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis indicated, a molecular formula of C27H48O8S, containing a sulfate ester group for the toxin. Thus, we concluded that the structure of carp toxin to be 5?-cyprinol sulfate (5?-cholestane-3?, 7?, 12?, 26, 27-pentol 26-sulfate). This indicated that carp toxin is a nephro- and hepato- toxin, which could be the responsible toxin for carp bile poisoning in humans. PMID:24476713

  2. Ciguatera Fish Poisoning: Treatment, Prevention and Management

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, Melissa A.; Fleming, Lora E.; Fernandez, Mercedes; Bienfang, Paul; Schrank, Kathleen; Dickey, Robert; Bottein, Marie-Yasmine; Backer, Lorraine; Ayyar, Ram; Weisman, Richard; Watkins, Sharon; Granade, Ray; Reich, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    Ciguatera Fish Poisoning (CFP) is the most frequently reported seafood-toxin illness in the world, and it causes substantial physical and functional impact. It produces a myriad of gastrointestinal, neurologic and/or cardiovascular symptoms which last days to weeks, or even months. Although there are reports of symptom amelioration with some interventions (e.g. IV mannitol), the appropriate treatment for CFP remains unclear to many physicians. We review the literature on the treatments for CFP, including randomized controlled studies and anecdotal reports. The article is intended to clarify treatment options, and provide information about management and prevention of CFP, for emergency room physicians, poison control information providers, other health care providers, and patients. PMID:19005579

  3. Bad Fish, Bad Bird Neurotoxin Poisoning from Fish and Fowl

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Kristina Hannam

    2010-01-01

    This "clicker case" is based on the General Biology edition of James Hewlett’s “Bad Fish” case in our collection. The case follows the story of biologist Dr. Westwood, who is accidentally poisoned, first while traveling in Asia and then in the South Pacific. Students learn about Dr. Westwood’s experiences and about nerve cell physiology—focusing especially on the role of ion channels in maintaining and changing electrical gradients across the cell membrane (resting potential and action potentials). They then apply what they learn in each part of the case to determine the mechanism of neurotoxin poisonings described in the case. The case is presented in class via PowerPoint (~2MB).  Students use personal response systems, or “clickers,” to answer the multiple-choice questions that punctuate the PowerPoint presentation as they explore the underlying mechanism of Dr. Westwood’s poisoning.

  4. Fish-Related Food Poisoning in Florida Under-Reported

    MedlinePLUS

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_153325.html Fish-Related Food Poisoning in Florida Under-Reported Survey ... by barracuda, grouper and other locally caught sport fish sickens Floridians in greater numbers than previously believed, ...

  5. Histamine fish poisoning in Australia, 2001 to 2013.

    PubMed

    Knope, Katrina; Sloan-Gardner, Timothy S; Stafford, Russell J

    2014-12-01

    We report on human illness due to histamine fish poisoning outbreaks in Australia from 2001 to 2013. Histamine fish poisoning results from the ingestion of histamine contained within the flesh of certain fish species that naturally contain histidine, which has been converted to histamine by spoilage bacteria following poor handling or temperature control after harvesting. While symptoms vary, allergic symptoms such as facial flushing, headaches and rashes are frequently reported. Using the OzFoodNet outbreak register, published case reports and surveillance reports, we found data on 57 outbreaks of histamine fish poisoning, which affected 187 people, of whom 14% were hospitalised. There were no deaths reported. Outbreaks were generally small in size, with a median of 2 cases per outbreak (range 1 to 22 people), with 88% of outbreaks comprising less than 5 people. Tuna (in the family Scombridae) was the most frequently reported food vehicle, while 18 outbreaks involved non-scombridae fish. Median incubation periods among the outbreaks were short; being less than 1 hour for 22 outbreaks. The most frequently reported symptoms were diarrhoea and rash. Symptoms of facial/body flushing were reported for at least one case in 19 outbreaks and tingling, burning or swelling of the skin, especially around the lips for at least 1 case in 13 outbreaks. In 3 outbreaks, one or more cases were reported to have had respiratory distress or difficulty breathing. While the condition is often mild, improved recognition and appropriate treatment is important, as it will reduce the possibility of any severe health effects resulting from this condition. Key features of histamine fish poisoning outbreaks are the high attack rate, rapid onset, the typical symptoms and their short duration. PMID:25631589

  6. Ciguatera Fish Poisoning in Hawai‘i and the Pacific

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, Wyatt R; Bienfang, Paul K

    2014-01-01

    Ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) is a foodborne illness caused by fish containing ciguatoxin (CTX). The toxin is produced by the microalgae Gambierdiscus spp. which are then eaten by reef fish; humans contract the illness when eating either fish that have eaten the algae, or carnivorous fish that have eaten those fish. CTX is an odorless, tasteless, and colorless neurotoxin that blocks voltage-sensitive Na+ channels and accumulates in many tissues of the fish, especially the viscera. The illness is typically mild to moderate in severity with gastrointestinal (diarrhea, cramping, nausea, vomiting) and neurological (paraesthesias, cold allodynia, fatigue, pruritis) manifestations. Rarely, the disease can be more severe with significant neuropathic or cardiac effects such as bradycardia and hypotension. Endemic to Hawai‘i and islands throughout the Caribbean and Pacific, CFP incidence rates range from several to thousands of cases per 100,000 per year. Since fishing is important for local food supply, exportation, and recreation throughout the Pacific, CFP is medically and economically significant in these areas. We present a case of CFP from Hawai‘i to illustrate the disease, demonstrating that the diagnosis is primarily clinical, with confirmatory tests from fish samples available in some cases. Treatment is supportive and symptomatic with no disease specific remedy. The prognosis for most cases is good with a short duration of self-limited symptoms, but for some cases neurological sequelae can become chronic. With no effective treatment, education on which species of reef fish and which body parts to avoid eating is essential in the prevention of CFP. PMID:25478299

  7. A large outbreak of scombroid fish poisoning associated with eating escolar fish (Lepidocybium flavobrunneum).

    PubMed

    Feldman, K A; Werner, S B; Cronan, S; Hernandez, M; Horvath, A R; Lea, C S; Au, A M; Vugia, D J

    2005-02-01

    In August 2003, an outbreak of scombroid fish poisoning occurred at a retreat centre in California, USA. In a retrospective cohort study, 42 (75%) of the 56 dinner attendees who ate escolar fish (Lepidocybium flavobrunneum) met the case definition. Individuals who ate at least 2 oz of fish were 1.5 times more likely to develop symptoms than those who ate less (relative risk 1.5, 95% confidence interval 0.9-2.6), and to develop more symptoms (median 7 vs. 3 symptoms, P = 0.03). Patients who took medicine had a longer duration of symptoms than those who did not (median 4 vs. 1.5 h, P = 0.05), and experienced a greater number of symptoms (median 8 vs. 3 symptoms, P = 0.0002). Samples of fish contained markedly elevated histamine levels (from 2000 to 3800 ppm). This is one of the largest reported outbreaks of scombroid fish poisoning in the United States and was associated with a rare vehicle for scombroid fish poisoning, escolar. PMID:15724707

  8. Histamine poisoning and control measures in fish and fishery products

    PubMed Central

    Visciano, Pierina; Schirone, Maria; Tofalo, Rosanna; Suzzi, Giovanna

    2014-01-01

    Histamine poisoning is one of the most common form of intoxication caused by the ingestion of fish and fishery products. Cooking, canning, or freezing cannot reduce the levels of histamine because this compound is heat stable. All humans are susceptible to histamine and its effects can be described as intolerance or intoxication depending on the severity of the symptoms. The amount of histamine in food, the individual sensitivity, and the detoxification activity in human organism represent the main factors affecting the toxicological response in consumers. Histamine is the only biogenic amine with regulatory limits set by European Legislation, up to a maximum of 200 mg/kg in fresh fish and 400 mg/kg in fishery products treated by enzyme maturation in brine. PMID:25295035

  9. Histamine poisoning from ingestion of fish or scombroid syndrome.

    PubMed

    Tortorella, Vincenzo; Masciari, Peppino; Pezzi, Mario; Mola, Assunta; Tiburzi, Simona Paola; Zinzi, Maria Concetta; Scozzafava, Annamaria; Verre, Mario

    2014-01-01

    The scombroid poisoning is due to the ingestion of poorly preserved fish (especially tuna, sardines, and mackerel) out of the cold chain. Under the influence of the proliferation of gram negative bacteria that occurs for heating, the histidine content in the muscle of the fish is converted into histamine, by the action of the enzyme histidine decarboxylase. If the histamine is ingested in large quantities, it causes an anaphylactoid reaction with a variety of symptoms from moderate to severe to life-threating. We will describe two cases that came under our observation after consuming a meal of bluefin tuna. The diagnosis of scombroid syndrome was made on the basis of the anamnestic data and the clinical one. The rapid resolution of the signs and symptoms after treatment with histamines H1-H2 receptor blockers confirmed the suspected diagnosis. PMID:25544905

  10. Poisoning

    MedlinePLUS

    ... been swallowed, DO NOT give the person activated charcoal. DO NOT give children ipecac syrup. DO NOT ... poison from being absorbed, you may receive: Activated charcoal A tube through the nose into the stomach ...

  11. Preventing fishing-sinker-induced lead poisoning of common loons through Canadian policy and regulative reform

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Merilyn P. Twiss; Vernon G. Thomas

    1998-01-01

    Ingestion of fishing-weights causes lead toxicosis in waterbirds. An estimated average of 125 to 187 million lead sinkers are deposited in Canadian waters annually, with about half in Ontario. Of 215 dead common loons (Gavia immer) collected in Canadian waters, 23% died of lead poisoning; most specimens were from Ontario. Results of a questionnaire circulated to principal interest groups and

  12. Study of an outbreak of ciguatera fish poisoning in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Wong, Chun-Kwan; Hung, Patricia; Lee, Kellie L H; Kam, Kai-Man

    2005-10-01

    Ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) has been a significant and increasing public health problem in Hong Kong since 1980s. With growing demand for imported live coral fishes, the number of people who suffered from this disease has also been increasing. An outbreak of CFP in 2004 was the second most prominent in record as compared with the most significant one that occurred in 1998. In 2004, out of a total of 823 reported food poisoning outbreaks involving 3159 persons, 65 incidents (7.9%) affecting 247 people (7.8%) were attributed to CFP. Validated mouse bioassay analysis of surveillance samples revealed that seven samples (13%) were confirmed to be contaminated with ciguatoxins (CTXs). Typical symptoms of CTXs were found in mice injected with 20mg of fish extracts. The causative fishes included Cheilinus undulatus, Epinephelus coioides, Plectropomus areolatus, and Plectropomus leopardus. Most of these CTX-positive samples analyzed had only trace amounts of CTXs in their extract, except a C. undulatus sample which contained a mice lethal dose (2.5MU/20mg ether extract). This fish species was also the major origin of coral fish that caused clusters of CFP in the last quarter of 2004. Cigua-Check analysis of 20 flesh grains from seven CTX-positive fishes, previously confirmed as CTX-positive samples by mouse bioassay, showed that 50% of flesh grains were CTX contaminated. PMID:16085209

  13. Epidemiology and clinical features of ciguatera fish poisoning in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Chan, Thomas Y K

    2014-10-01

    In the present review, the main objective was to describe the epidemiology and clinical features of ciguatera fish poisoning in Hong Kong. From 1989 to 2008, the annual incidence of ciguatera varied between 3.3 and 64.9 (median 10.2) per million people. The groupers have replaced the snappers as the most important cause of ciguatera. Pacific-ciguatoxins (CTX) are most commonly present in reef fish samples implicated in ciguatera outbreaks. In affected subjects, the gastrointestinal symptoms often subside within days, whereas the neurological symptoms can persist for weeks or even months. Bradycardia and hypotension, which can be life-threatening, are common. Treatment of ciguatera is primarily supportive and symptomatic. Intravenous mannitol (1 g/kg) has also been suggested. To prevent ciguatera outbreaks, the public should be educated to avoid eating large coral reef fishes, especially the CTX-rich parts. A Code of Practice on Import and Sale of Live Marine Fish for Human Consumption for Prevention and Control of Ciguatera Fish Poisoning was introduced from 2004 to 2013. The Food Safety Ordinance with a tracing mechanism came into full effect in February 2012. The Government would be able to trace the sources of the fishes more effectively and take prompt action when dealing with ciguatera incidents. PMID:25333356

  14. Epidemiology and Clinical Features of Ciguatera Fish Poisoning in Hong Kong

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Thomas Y. K.

    2014-01-01

    In the present review, the main objective was to describe the epidemiology and clinical features of ciguatera fish poisoning in Hong Kong. From 1989 to 2008, the annual incidence of ciguatera varied between 3.3 and 64.9 (median 10.2) per million people. The groupers have replaced the snappers as the most important cause of ciguatera. Pacific-ciguatoxins (CTX) are most commonly present in reef fish samples implicated in ciguatera outbreaks. In affected subjects, the gastrointestinal symptoms often subside within days, whereas the neurological symptoms can persist for weeks or even months. Bradycardia and hypotension, which can be life-threatening, are common. Treatment of ciguatera is primarily supportive and symptomatic. Intravenous mannitol (1 g/kg) has also been suggested. To prevent ciguatera outbreaks, the public should be educated to avoid eating large coral reef fishes, especially the CTX-rich parts. A Code of Practice on Import and Sale of Live Marine Fish for Human Consumption for Prevention and Control of Ciguatera Fish Poisoning was introduced from 2004 to 2013. The Food Safety Ordinance with a tracing mechanism came into full effect in February 2012. The Government would be able to trace the sources of the fishes more effectively and take prompt action when dealing with ciguatera incidents. PMID:25333356

  15. Tetrodotoxin poisoning caused by Goby fish consumption in southeast China: a retrospective case series analysis

    PubMed Central

    You, Jie; Yue, YaJun; Xing, Feng; Xia, Wei; Lai, ShaoYang; Zhang, FengLei

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate an unusual outbreak of tetrodotoxin poisoning in Leizhou, southeast China, a case series analysis was conducted to identify the source of illness. METHODS: A total of 22 individuals experienced symptoms of poisoning, including tongue numbness, dizziness, nausea and limb numbness and weakness. Two toxic species, Amoya caninus and Yongeichthys nebulosus, were morphologically identified from the batches of gobies consumed by the patients. Tetrodotoxin levels in the blood and Goby fish samples were detected using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. RESULTS: The tetrodotoxin levels in the remaining cooked Goby fish were determined to be 2090.12 µg/kg. For Amoya caninus, the toxicity levels were 1858.29 µg/kg in the muscle and 1997.19 µg/kg in the viscera and for Yongeichthys nebulosus, they were 2783.00 µg/kg in the muscle and 2966.21 µg/kg in the viscera. CONCLUSION: This outbreak demonstrates an underestimation of the risk of Goby fish poisoning. Furthermore, the relationships among the toxic species, climates and marine algae present should be clarified in the future. PMID:25672425

  16. Ciguatera Fish Poisoning in East Asia and Southeast Asia

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Thomas Y. K.

    2015-01-01

    In the coastal countries of East Asia and Southeast Asia, ciguatera should be common because of the extensive tropical and subtropical coral reefs along the coasts and in the neighboring seas with ciguatoxic fishes. An extensive search of journal databases, the Internet and the government websites was performed to identify all reports of ciguatera from the regions. Based on the official data and large published case series, the incidence of ciguatera was higher in the coastal cities (Hong Kong, Foshan, Zhongshan) of southern China than in Japan (Okinawa Prefecture). In Singapore, ciguatera appeared to be almost unknown. In other countries, only isolated cases or small case series were reported, but under-reporting was assumed to be common. Ciguatera may cause severe acute illness and prolonged neurological symptoms. Ciguatera represents an important public health issue for endemic regions, with significant socio-economic impact. Coordinated strategies to improve risk assessment, risk management and risk communication are required. The systematic collection of accurate data on the incidence and epidemiology of ciguatera should enable better assessment and management of its risk. Much more work needs to be done to define the size threshold for important coral reef fish species from different regions, above which the risk of ciguatera significantly increases. PMID:26042615

  17. The persistent problem of lead poisoning in birds from ammunition and fishing tackle

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haig, Susan M.; D'Elia, Jesse; Eagles-Smith, Collin; Fair, Jeanne M.; Gervais, Jennifer; Herring, Garth; Rivers, James W.; Schulz, John H.

    2014-01-01

    Lead (Pb) is a metabolic poison that can negatively influence biological processes, leading to illness and mortality across a large spectrum of North American avifauna (>120 species) and other organisms. Pb poisoning can result from numerous sources, including ingestion of bullet fragments and shot pellets left in animal carcasses, spent ammunition left in the field, lost fishing tackle, Pb-based paints, large-scale mining, and Pb smelting activities. Although Pb shot has been banned for waterfowl hunting in the United States (since 1991) and Canada (since 1999), Pb exposure remains a problem for many avian species. Despite a large body of scientific literature on exposure to Pb and its toxicological effects on birds, controversy still exists regarding its impacts at a population level. We explore these issues and highlight areas in need of investigation: (1) variation in sensitivity to Pb exposure among bird species; (2) spatial extent and sources of Pb contamination in habitats in relation to bird exposure in those same locations; and (3) interactions between avian Pb exposure and other landscape-level stressors that synergistically affect bird demography. We explore multiple paths taken to reduce Pb exposure in birds that (1) recognize common ground among a range of affected interests; (2) have been applied at local to national scales; and (3) engage governmental agencies, interest groups, and professional societies to communicate the impacts of Pb ammunition and fishing tackle, and to describe approaches for reducing their availability to birds. As they have in previous times, users of fish and wildlife will play a key role in resolving the Pb poisoning issue.

  18. [Toxin profiles in fish implicated in ciguatera fish poisoning in Amami and Kakeroma Islands, Kagoshima Prefecture, Japan].

    PubMed

    Yogi, Kentaro; Oshiro, Naomasa; Matsuda, Seiko; Sakugawa, Satsuki; Matsuo, Toshiaki; Yasumoto, Takeshi

    2013-01-01

    Ciguatoxins (CTXs) responsible for ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) in Amami Islands, Kagoshima, Japan in 2008 were determined by LC-MS/MS analysis. Ciguatoxin-1B (CTX1B), 54-deoxyCTX1B, and 52-epi-54-deoxyCTX1B were detected in Variola louti and Lutjanus monostigma. The toxin profile distinctly differed from that of a CFP-related fish from Miyazaki, which mainly contained ciguatoxin-3C type toxins. Toxin profiles were species-specific, as observed in fish from Okinawa. The LC-MS/MS and mouse bioassay (MBA) methods produced comparable data, though 54-deoxyCTX1B was not taken into consideration owing to the lack of toxicity data. To improve assessment, toxicity data for this compound are needed. A reef fish caught on the same occasion and judged nontoxic by MBA (<0.025 MU/g) was found to contain low levels of CTX, indicating a potential risk for CFP. PMID:24389468

  19. Teratogenic effects and monetary cost of selenium poisoning of fish in Lake Sutton, North Carolina.

    PubMed

    Lemly, A Dennis

    2014-06-01

    Selenium pollution from coal ash wastewater was investigated in Lake Sutton, NC. This lake has been continuously used as a cooling pond for a coal-fired power plant since 1972. Historic and recent levels of contamination in fish tissues (14-105µg Se/g dry weight in liver, 24-127 in eggs, 4-23 in muscle, 7-38 in whole-body) exceeded toxic thresholds and teratogenic effects were observed in fish collected in 2013. A high proportion (28.9 percent) of juvenile Lepomis spp. exhibited spinal and craniofacial malformations that were consistent with selenium poisoning. Teratogenic Deformity Index values indicated population-level impacts on the fishery. The partially monetized cost of resultant fishery losses was calculated at over $US 8.6 million annually, and over $US 217 million for the entire period of damage, which dates back to 1987 when chemical and biological monitoring began. PMID:24675445

  20. A Phylogenetic Re-Analysis of Groupers with Applications for Ciguatera Fish Poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Schoelinck, Charlotte; Hinsinger, Damien D.; Dettaï, Agnès; Cruaud, Corinne; Justine, Jean-Lou

    2014-01-01

    Background Ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) is a significant public health problem due to dinoflagellates. It is responsible for one of the highest reported incidence of seafood-borne illness and Groupers are commonly reported as a source of CFP due to their position in the food chain. With the role of recent climate change on harmful algal blooms, CFP cases might become more frequent and more geographically widespread. Since there is no appropriate treatment for CFP, the most efficient solution is to regulate fish consumption. Such a strategy can only work if the fish sold are correctly identified, and it has been repeatedly shown that misidentifications and species substitutions occur in fish markets. Methods We provide here both a DNA-barcoding reference for groupers, and a new phylogenetic reconstruction based on five genes and a comprehensive taxonomical sampling. We analyse the correlation between geographic range of species and their susceptibility to ciguatera accumulation, and the co-occurrence of ciguatoxins in closely related species, using both character mapping and statistical methods. Results Misidentifications were encountered in public databases, precluding accurate species identifications. Epinephelinae now includes only twelve genera (vs. 15 previously). Comparisons with the ciguatera incidences show that in some genera most species are ciguateric, but statistical tests display only a moderate correlation with the phylogeny. Atlantic species were rarely contaminated, with ciguatera occurrences being restricted to the South Pacific. Conclusions The recent changes in classification based on the reanalyses of the relationships within Epinephelidae have an impact on the interpretation of the ciguatera distribution in the genera. In this context and to improve the monitoring of fish trade and safety, we need to obtain extensive data on contamination at the species level. Accurate species identifications through DNA barcoding are thus an essential tool in controlling CFP since meal remnants in CFP cases can be easily identified with molecular tools. PMID:25093850

  1. Invasive lionfish (Pterois volitans): a potential human health threat for ciguatera fish poisoning in tropical waters.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Alison; Garcia, Ana C; Quintana, Harold A Flores; Smith, Tyler B; Castillo, Bernard F; Reale-Munroe, Kynoch; Gulli, Joseph A; Olsen, David A; Hooe-Rollman, Jennifer I; Jester, Edward L E; Klimek, Brian J; Plakas, Steven M

    2014-01-01

    Invasive Indo-Pacific lionfish (Pterois volitans) have rapidly expanded in the Western Atlantic over the past decade and have had a significant negative impact on reef fish biodiversity, habitat, and community structure, with lionfish out-competing native predators for resources. In an effort to reduce this population explosion, lionfish have been promoted for human consumption in the greater Caribbean region. This study examined whether the geographical expansion of the lionfish into a known ciguatera-endemic region can pose a human health threat for ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP). More than 180 lionfish were collected from waters surrounding the US Virgin Islands throughout 2010 and 2011. Ciguatoxin testing included an in vitro neuroblastoma cytotoxicity assay for composite toxicity assessment of sodium-channel toxins combined with confirmatory liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. A 12% prevalence rate of ciguatoxic lionfish exceeding the FDA guidance level of 0.1 µg/kg C-CTX-1 equivalents was identified in fish from the U.S. Virgin Islands, highlighting a potential consumption risk in this region. This study presents the first evidence that the invasive lionfish, pose a direct human health risk for CFP and highlights the need for awareness and research on this food safety hazard in known endemic areas. PMID:24378919

  2. Ciguatera fish poisoning: a first epidemic in Germany highlights an increasing risk for European countries.

    PubMed

    Mattei, César; Vetter, Irina; Eisenblätter, Anneka; Krock, Bernd; Ebbecke, Martin; Desel, Herbert; Zimmermann, Katharina

    2014-12-01

    Toxin-producing microalgae are thriving worldwide due to coral reef destruction and global warming with major consequences on ecosystems, international trade and human health. Microalgae belonging to the family of flagellate protists, in particular dinoflagellates, secrete a variety of high-molecular-weight polyether toxins that accumulate through the marine food chain to cause disease in humans by acting as sodium channel activator toxins; ciguatera is the most frequent seafood-borne illness worldwide with 50,000 to 500,000 global incidences per annum and is usually limited to endemic areas located between 35° northern and 35° southern latitude. The rising global incidence frequency renders it a major human health problem, because no curative treatment is available yet and reliable detection assays are lacking. During the last decade ciguatera has increasingly become endemic in previously unaffected areas for two reasons: first global warming has contributed to the emergence of dinoflagellate species in subtropical and even temperate regions that previously had been constrained to tropical areas and second: in Europe globalization of fishing industry and tourism has led to a progressive increase in the number of ciguatera cases and a lack of awareness among medical personnel contributes to under-reporting. We review, through a recent ciguatera outbreak in Germany, the risk for ciguatera poisoning in Europe and highlight characteristic symptoms, current knowledge about disease pathomechanisms and treatment options. PMID:25448771

  3. Consequences of experimental cortisol manipulations on the thermal biology of the checkered puffer (Sphoeroides testudineus) in laboratory and field environments.

    PubMed

    Cull, F; Suski, C D; Shultz, A; Danylchuk, A J; O'Connor, C M; Murchie, K J; Cooke, S J

    2015-01-01

    Anthropogenic climate change is altering temperature regimes for coastal marine fishes. However, given that temperature changes will not occur in isolation of other stressors, it is necessary to explore the potential consequences of stress on the thermal tolerances and preferences of tropical marine fish in order to understand the thresholds for survival, and predict the associated coastal ecological consequences. In this study, we used exogenous cortisol injections to investigate the effects of a thermal challenge on checkered puffers (Sphoeroides testudineus) as a secondary stressor. There were no significant differences between control and cortisol-treated fish 48h following cortisol treatment for swimming ability (using a chase to exhaustion protocol), blood glucose concentrations or standard metabolic rate. In the lab, control and cortisol-treated puffers were exposed to ambient (29.1±1.5°C), ambient +5°C (heat shock) and ambient -5°C (cold shock) for 4h and to evaluate the consequences of abrupt temperature change on puff performance and blood physiology. Following cold shock, control fish exhibited increases in cortisol levels and weak 'puff' performance. Conversely, fish dosed with cortisol exhibited consistently high cortisol levels independent of thermal treatment, although there was a trend for an attenuated cortisol response in the cortisol-treated fish to the cold shock treatment. A 20-day complementary field study conducted in the puffer's natural habitat, a tidal creek in Eleuthera, The Bahamas, revealed that cortisol-injected fish selected significantly cooler temperatures, measured using accumulated thermal units, when compared to controls. These results, and particularly the discrepancies between consequences documented in the laboratory and the ecological trends observed in the field, highlight the need to establish the link between laboratory and field data to successfully develop management policies and conservation initiatives with regards to anthropogenic climate change. PMID:25526656

  4. Differential expression patterns of PQRFamide peptide and its two receptor genes in the brain and pituitary of grass puffer during the reproductive cycle.

    PubMed

    Shahjahan, Md; Doi, Hiroyuki; Ando, Hironori

    2015-01-01

    Pain-modulatory neuropeptides, PQRFamide (PQRFa) peptides, have recently been implicated in the regulation of reproduction in fish. As a first step toward investigating the role of PQRFa peptides on reproductive function in the grass puffer Takifugu niphobles, which is a semilunar spawner, we cloned genes encoding PQRFa peptide precursor (pqrfa) and its two types of receptors (pqrfa-r1 and pqrfa-r2), and examined changes in their expression levels in the brain and pituitary over several months during the reproductive cycle. The grass puffer PQRFa peptide precursor of 126 amino acid residues contains two putative PQRFa peptides, PQRFa-1 and PQRFa-2, which correspond to NPFF and NPAF in other vertebrates, respectively. The grass puffer PQRFa-R1 and PQRFa-R2 consist of 426 and 453 amino acid residues, respectively, and contain distinct characteristics of G-protein coupled receptors. These three genes were exclusively expressed in the brain and pituitary. The expression levels of pqrfa and pqrfa-r1 were significantly increased during the late stage of sexual maturation, but low in the spawning fish just after releasing sperms and eggs. Therefore, the grass puffer PQRFa peptide may have a role in the late stage of sexual maturation before spawning via PQRFa-R1. In contrast, the pqrfa-r2 expression showed maximum levels in the spawning fish and in the post-spawning period. The present results provide fundamental data suggesting that the grass puffer PQRFa peptide may have multiple roles in the control of reproduction that are dependent on the reproductive stages. PMID:25034121

  5. Fish faddism causing low-level mercury poisoning in the Caribbean: two case reports

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Two otherwise healthy middle-aged males presented with persistent abdominal and lower- back pain, progressive weakness, paraesthesias, fatigue and weight loss over 8-12 months. Extensive work-up failed to localize organ pathology. Both men, strongly aware of the nutritional benefits of fish had a diet dedicated of canned and fresh fish. Raised blood mercury levels confirmed clinical suspicion and serial levels declined with symptom resolution after excluding dietary fish. To gain reported health benefits of fish as a healthy food modest consumption is encouraged. Efforts to monitor fish consumption and mercury residues in fish are recommended in Trinidad and Tobago. PMID:20126317

  6. A large outbreak of scombroid fish poisoning associated with eating yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares) at a military mass catering in Dakar, Senegal.

    PubMed

    Demoncheaux, J-P; Michel, R; Mazenot, C; Duflos, G; Iacini, C; de Laval, F; Delaval, F; Saware, E M; Renard, J-C

    2012-06-01

    On 26 November 2010, an outbreak of scombroid fish poisoning occurred in the French Armed Forces in Dakar, Senegal. This chemical intoxication, due to high histamine concentration in fish, is often mistaken for an allergic reaction. A case-control study was undertaken including the 71 cases and 78 randomly selected controls among lunch attendees. The usual symptoms for scombroid fish poisoning were observed in cases, i.e. flushing (85.9%), headache (83.1%), rapid/weak pulse (59.1%) and diarrhoea (47.9%). Symptoms occurred from within a few minutes to up to 3 h following the meal. Most patients quickly recovered with antihistamine and/or symptomatic treatment. Tuna was the only food item positively associated with illness (odds ratio 36.3, 95% confidence interval 6.3-210.0), with the risk of illness increasing with the quantity of fish consumed. No bacterial contamination was found in leftover food, but histamine concentration in tuna was found to be 4900 mg/kg, almost 50-fold higher than the concentration allowed by European regulations. This report is unique because of the large size of the case series - to our knowledge, the largest event of scombroid fish poisoning ever reported - and the chemical and bacteriological analyses results obtained on leftover food. PMID:21875451

  7. High-performance liquid chromatographic determination of biogenic amines in fish implicated in food poisoning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Deng-Fwu Hwang; Sheng-Hsiung Chang; Chyuan-Yuan Shiua; Tuu-jyi Chai

    1997-01-01

    A rapid, sensitive and reproducible high-performance liquid chromatographic procedure for the determination of nine biogenic amines in fish by improved benzoylation with benzoyl chloride was developed. The benzoylation of amines with benzoyl chloride at 30°C for 40 min was the optimal condition to eliminate the influence of interfering peaks during analysis. The calibration curve for each amine was linear within

  8. Food Poisoning

    MedlinePLUS

    ... find out how to avoid it. What Is Food Poisoning? Food poisoning comes from eating foods that ... and store foods properly. Continue Do I Have Food Poisoning? Someone who has food poisoning might: have ...

  9. Poison Ivy

    MedlinePLUS

    MENU Return to Web version Poison Ivy Overview What is poison ivy? Poison ivy is a very common plant found in most parts of the United States. ... This is because most people are allergic to poison ivy. Symptoms What does a poison ivy rash ...

  10. Effects of dietary amylose/amylopectin ratio on growth performance, feed utilization, digestive enzymes, and postprandial metabolic responses in juvenile obscure puffer Takifugu obscurus.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiang-he; Ye, Chao-xia; Ye, Ji-dan; Shen, Bi-duan; Wang, Chun-yan; Wang, An-li

    2014-10-01

    The effect of dietary amylose/amylopectin (AM/AP) ratio on growth, feed utilization, digestive enzyme activities, plasma parameters, and postprandial blood glucose responses was evaluated in juvenile obscure puffer, Takifugu obscurus. Five isonitrogenous (430 g kg(-1) crude protein) and isolipidic (90 g kg(-1) crude lipid) diets containing an equal starch level (250 g kg(-1) starch) with different AM/AP ratio diets of 0/25, 3/22, 6/19, 9/16 and 12/13 were formulated. Each experimental diet was fed to triplicate groups (25 fish per tank), twice daily during a period of 60 days. After the growth trial, a postprandial blood response test was carried out. Fish fed diet 6/19 showed best growth, feed efficiency and protein efficiency ratio. Hepatosomatic index, plasma total cholesterol concentration, liver glycogen and lipid content, and gluconokinase, pyruvate kinase and fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase activities were lower in fish fed highest AM/AP diet (12/13) than in fish fed the low-amylose diets. Activities of liver and intestinal trypsin in fish fed diet 3/22 and diet 6/19 were higher than in fish fed diet 9/16 and diet 12/13. Activities of liver and intestinal amylase and intestinal lipase, and starch digestibility were negatively correlated with dietary AM/AP ratio. Fish fed diet 3/22 and diet 6/19 showed higher plasma total amino acid concentration than fish fed the other diets, while plasma urea nitrogen concentration and activities of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase showed the opposite trend. Equal values were found for viscerosomatic index and condition factor, whole body and muscle composition, plasma high-density and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations, and activities of lipase and hexokinase and glucose-6-phosphatase in liver. Postprandial plasma glucose and triglyceride peak value of fish fed diet 12/13 were lower than in fish fed the low-amylose diets, and the peak time of plasma glucose was later than in fish fed the other diets. Plasma glucose and triglyceride concentrations showed a significant difference at 2 and 4 h after a meal and varied between dietary treatments. According to regression analysis of weight gain against dietary AM/AP ratio, the optimum dietary AM/AP ratio for maximum growth of obscure puffer was 0.25. The present result indicates that dietary AM/AP ratio could affect growth performance and feed utilization, some plasma parameters, digestive enzyme as well as hepatic glucose metabolic enzyme activities in juvenile obscure puffer. PMID:24710601

  11. Formation of histamine and biogenic amines in cold-smoked tuna: an investigation of psychrotolerant bacteria from samples implicated in cases of histamine fish poisoning.

    PubMed

    Emborg, Jette; Dalgaard, Paw

    2006-04-01

    Two outbreaks and a single case of histamine fish poisoning associated with cold-smoked tuna (CST) were reported in Denmark during 2004. The bacteria most likely responsible for histamine formation in CST implicated in histamine fish poisoning was identified for the first time in this study. Product characteristics and profiles of biogenic amines in the implicated products were also recorded. In the single poisoning case, psychrotolerant Morganella morganii-like bacteria most likely was responsible for the histamine production in CST with 2.2% +/- 0.6% NaCl in the water phase (WPS). In outbreak 1, Photobacterium phosphoreum most likely formed the histamine in CST with 1.3% +/- 0.1% WPS. In outbreak 2, which involved 10 persons, the bacteria responsible for histamine formation could not be determined. The measured concentrations of WPS were very low compared with those of randomly collected commercial samples of CST and cold-smoked blue marlin (4.1 to 12.7% WPS). Challenge tests at 5 degrees C with psychrotolerant M. morganii and P. phosphoreum in CST with 4.4% WPS revealed growth and toxic histamine formation by the psychrotolerant M. morganii-like bacteria but not by P. phosphoreum. In a storage trial with naturally contaminated CST containing 6.9% WPS, lactic acid bacteria dominated the microbiota, and no significant histamine formation was observed during the shelf life of about 40 days at 5 degrees C and of about 16 days at 10 degrees C. To prevent toxic histamine formation, CST should be produced with >5% WPS and distributed with a declared 5 degrees C shelf life of 3 to 4 weeks or less. PMID:16629036

  12. Mushroom Poisoning

    MedlinePLUS

    MENU Return to Web version Food Poisoning | Mushroom Poisoning Is it possible to tell if a wild mushroom is poisonous? You can't tell for sure if a ... watch the person for any symptoms of mushroom poisoning for the next 24 hours. Written by familydoctor.org editorial staff ... Reviewed/Updated: 04/14 Created: 09/00

  13. Genome duplication in the teleost fish Tetraodon nigroviridis reveals the early vertebrate proto-karyotype

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Olivier Jaillon; Jean-Marc Aury; Frédéric Brunet; Jean-Louis Petit; Nicole Stange-Thomann; Evan Mauceli; Laurence Bouneau; Cécile Fischer; Catherine Ozouf-Costaz; Alain Bernot; Sophie Nicaud; David Jaffe; Sheila Fisher; Georges Lutfalla; Carole Dossat; Béatrice Segurens; Corinne Dasilva; Marcel Salanoubat; Michael Levy; Nathalie Boudet; Sergi Castellano; Véronique Anthouard; Claire Jubin; Vanina Castelli; Michael Katinka; Benoît Vacherie; Christian Biémont; Zineb Skalli; Laurence Cattolico; Julie Poulain; Véronique de Berardinis; Corinne Cruaud; Simone Duprat; Philippe Brottier; Jean-Pierre Coutanceau; Jérôme Gouzy; Genis Parra; Guillaume Lardier; Charles Chapple; Kevin J. McKernan; Paul McEwan; Stephanie Bosak; Manolis Kellis; Jean-Nicolas Volff; Roderic Guigó; Michael C. Zody; Jill Mesirov; Kerstin Lindblad-Toh; Bruce Birren; Chad Nusbaum; Daniel Kahn; Marc Robinson-Rechavi; Vincent Laudet; Vincent Schachter; Francis Quétier; William Saurin; Claude Scarpelli; Patrick Wincker; Eric S. Lander; Jean Weissenbach; Hugues Roest Crollius

    2004-01-01

    Tetraodon nigroviridis is a freshwater puffer fish with the smallest known vertebrate genome. Here, we report a draft genome sequence with long-range linkage and substantial anchoring to the 21 Tetraodon chromosomes. Genome analysis provides a greatly improved fish gene catalogue, including identifying key genes previously thought to be absent in fish. Comparison with other vertebrates and a urochordate indicates that

  14. Insecticide poisoning

    MedlinePLUS

    ... in the treatment or management of an actual poison exposure. If you have an exposure, you should ... emergency number (such as 911) or the National Poison Control Center at 1-800-222-1222. See ...

  15. Consequences of experimental cortisol manipulations on the thermal biology of the checkered puffer (Sphoeroides testudineus) in laboratory

    E-print Network

    Suski, Cory David

    Consequences of experimental cortisol manipulations on the thermal biology of the checkered puffer cortisol injections to investigate the effects of a thermal challenge on checkered puffers (Sphoeroides testudineus) as a secondary stressor. There were no sig- nificant differences between control and cortisol

  16. Paralytic shellfish poisoning: a review.

    PubMed

    Morse, E V

    1977-12-01

    Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) in man results from the consumption of mussels, clams, and oysters that have fed on toxic dinoflagellates. Motile, marine protozoa of the dinoflagellate group often produce "blooms," i.e., red tides, which color the sea. Not all genera or species are toxic to fish and mammals, nor are the toxic principles the same in all poisonous protozoa. At least 5 of the group are known to cause poisonings in man. Shellfish poisonings other than PSP are also recognized. The PSP toxin, saxitoxin, is concentrated in the viscera and occasionally in the mantle and syphon of marine bivalves. Cooking does not completely destroy the low molecular weight poisonous factor. Reported mortality ranges from 8.5 to 23.2%. The disease is of significant public health concern in some localities of the world from May to November. PMID:924835

  17. Stonefish poisoning.

    PubMed

    Lyon, Richard Mark

    2004-01-01

    Scuba diving is becoming an increasingly popular recreation. Divers are traveling further afield, often to remote dive locations. These locations are often home to poisonous marine creatures such as stonefish. A case of acute stonefish poisoning in a scuba diver is described, including his treatment, the difficulties encountered with his management and evacuation, and his subsequent return to full health. The proper management of stonefish poisoning is reviewed, and the implications for divers traveling to remote locations are given. PMID:15636379

  18. Tetrahydrozoline poisoning

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and not for use in the treatment or management of an actual poison exposure. If you have an exposure, you should call your local emergency number (such as 911) or a local poison control center at 1-800-222-1222.

  19. Merthiolate poisoning

    MedlinePLUS

    In the United States, call 1-800-222-1222 to speak with a local poison control center. This hotline number will let ... service. All local poison control centers in the United States use this national number. You should call if ...

  20. Malathion poisoning

    MedlinePLUS

    ... insecticide, a product used to kill or control bugs. Poisoning may occur if you swallow malathion, handle ... tearing Small or dilated pupils (not reactive to light) Heart and blood Low or high blood pressure ...

  1. Diazinon poisoning

    MedlinePLUS

    ... insecticide, a product used to kill or control bugs. Poisoning can occur if you swallow this product. ... ears, nose, and throat Small pupils (unreactive to light) Tearing, increased Heart and blood circulation Low or ...

  2. Lead Poisoning

    MedlinePLUS

    ... contact with it! Sources of Lead Poisoning HOUSE PAINTS: Before1950, lead-based paint was used on the inside and outside of ... surface. In 1977, federal regulations banned lead from paint for general use. But homes built before 1977 ...

  3. Photographic fixative poisoning

    MedlinePLUS

    Photographic developer poisoning; Hydroquinone poisoning; Quinone poisoning; Sulfite poisoning ... Hydroquinones Quinones Sodium thiosulfate Sodium sulfite/bisulfite Boric acid Photographic fixative can also break down (decompose) to form sulfur ...

  4. Case Report Lead Poisoning in Common Loons (Gavia immer)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. N. Locke; A S. M. Kerr; D. Zoromskic

    SUMMARY Two emaciated common loons (Gavia immer) were believed to have died of lead poisoning when fragments of fishing lines and lead sinkers were discovered in their stomachs. Later a third emaciated loon, which had only the remnants of fishing line in its stomach, was suspected of being a possible lead-poisoning victim when all other test results were negative. The

  5. Poison Ivy, Oak, and Sumac

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Z Diseases and treatments M - P Poison ivy Poison ivy, oak, and sumac Rash from poison ivy. ... to an emergency room immediately. Learn more about poison ivy: Poison ivy: Signs and symptoms Poison ivy: ...

  6. Poisonous Contacts

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Scott Kogan (University of California San Francisco Cancer Center; )

    2010-04-09

    In addition to its use as a lethal poison, arsenic has been used since ancient times to treat human illnesses, including infectious diseases and malignancies. This artical discusses how the findings of Zhang et al. add to our understanding of how arsenic's therapeutic effects have made acute promyelocytic leukemia "curable," with survival rates of 90%.

  7. Scientific Poisoning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chemist

    1876-01-01

    FOR giving instruction to one person in the art of poisoning without detection, the medical student, Vance, is undergoing the very lenient punishment of eighteen months' imprisonment. What would be the appropriate penalty to inflict upon the responsible editors of newspapers who initiate the public generally into Vance's secret?

  8. Redescription and genetic characterization of Cucullanus dodsworthi (Nematoda: Cucullanidae) from the checkered puffer Sphoeroides testudineus (Pisces: Tetraodontiformes).

    PubMed

    Mejía-Madrid, Hugo H; Aguirre-Macedo, María Leopoldina

    2011-08-01

    Cucullanus dodsworthi Barreto, 1922 was originally described from the checkered puffer fish, Sphoeroides testudineus (Linnaeus), from Brazilian waters. New material of this nematode species was recovered from the same type host species from Mexican waters off the Yucatán Peninsula. This material was compared with Brazilian specimens. Although Mexican material closely resembles the original description of C. dodsworthi in general appearance, previously undescribed characters, as observed by light and scanning electron microscopy, are described for the first time in this species from both Brazilian and Mexican specimens. These characters include lateral body alae or conspicuous lateral fields that begin in the cervical region and end anterior to first pair of adcloacal papillae in males and at the anus level in females, cephalic and caudal alae absent; presence of pseudobuccal capsule with simple buccal frame well sclerotized with dorsal arrow structures, lateral structures, and lateral reniform structures; deirids, excretory pore, and postdeirids; slight anal protuberance in both sexes, unpaired precloacal papilla in males, phasmids near pair 10 in males and near tail tip in females; female with protruding vulvar lips and smooth eggs. In the absence of better descriptions of this genus, it can be concluded that C. dodsworthi is the only species of marine Cucullanus from the Americas that possesses lateral body alae. Molecular characterization of C. dodsworthi with SSU (18S) and ITS2 rDNA genes is included. A preliminary genetic comparison between SSU rDNA of C. dodsworthi , Truttaedacnitis truttae (Fabricius, 1794), and Dichelyne mexicanus Caspeta-Mandujano, Moravec and Salgado-Maldonado, 1999 places C. dodsworthi as a putative sister taxon to T. truttae . The finding of C. dodsworthi in Mexican marine waters also represents a new geographical record. PMID:21506838

  9. Overview of Poisoning

    MedlinePLUS

    ... on information gleaned from the poisoned person and bystanders, and sometimes on blood and urine tests. Drugs ... priority in helping a poisoned person is for bystanders not to become poisoned themselves. People exposed to ...

  10. [Scombroid poisoning at an Icelandic restaurant].

    PubMed

    Sigmundsdóttir, Gudrún; Magnússon, Sigmundur; Ingólfsson, Rögnvaldur; Thorvaldsdóttir, Ingibjörg Rósa; Haraldsdóttir, Vilhelmína; Gíslason, Davíd

    2005-03-01

    We report four cases of scombroid poisoning. During a lunch meeting three males had the same dish: a club sandwich with raw tuna. All developed erythema over the face and neck within two hours of eating the tuna. The severity of symptoms varied. Other symptoms were profuse sweating, a feeling of intense thirst and palpitations. The symptoms disappeared after few hours. Samples obtained from the tuna revealed histamine levels above the recommended FDA levels. We also report a case with similar symptoms after eating canned tuna in a mixed salad. Scombroid poisoning has been associated with the consumption of dark-flesh fish with high levels of histidine, which can be converted to histamine by decarboxylase from Gram-negative bacteria in the fish. The fish most often implicated is tuna. It is of great importance to increase the awareness of this type of poisoning for correct diagnosis and to prevent other cases by improving storage. PMID:16155322

  11. House of Poison: Poisons in the Home.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Rosanne

    One of a series of instructional materials produced by the Literacy Council of Alaska, this booklet provides information about common household poisons. Using a simplified vocabulary and shorter sentences, it provides statistics concerning accidental poisonings; a list of the places poisons are usually found in the home; steps to make the home…

  12. Imprudent fishing harvests and consequent trophic cascades on the West Florida shelf over the last half century: A harbinger of increased human deaths from paralytic shellfish poisoning along the southeastern United States, in response to oligotrophication?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, J. J.; Tomas, C. R.; Steidinger, K. A.; Lenes, J. M.; Chen, F. R.; Weisberg, R. H.; Zheng, L.; Landsberg, J. H.; Vargo, G. A.; Heil, C. A.

    2011-06-01

    Within the context of ubiquitous overfishing of piscivores, recent consequent increments of jellyfish and clupeids have occurred at the zooplanktivore trophic level in the eastern Gulf of Mexico (GOM), after overfishing of one of their predators, i.e. red snapper. Initiation of a local trophic cascade thence led to declines of herbivore stocks, documented here on the West Florida shelf. These exacerbating world-wide trophic cascades have resulted in larger harmful algal blooms (HABs), already present at the base of most coastal food webs. Impacts on human health have thus far been minimal within nutrient-rich coastal regions. To provide a setting for past morbidities, consideration is given to chronologies of other trophic cascades within eutrophic, cold water marine ecosystems of the Scotian Sea, in the Gulf of Alaska, off Southwest Africa, within the Barents, White, and Black Seas, in the Gulf of Maine, and finally in the North Sea. Next, comparison is now made here of recent ten-fold increments within Florida waters of both relatively benign and saxitoxic HABs, some of which are fatal to humans. These events are placed in a perspective of other warm shelf systems of the South China and Caribbean Seas to assess prior and possible future poison toxicities of oligotrophic coastal habitats. Past wide-spread kills of fishes and sea urchins over the Caribbean Sea and the downstream GOM are examined in relation to the potential transmission of dinoflagellate saxitoxin and other epizootic poison vectors by western boundary currents over larger "commons" than local embayments. Furthermore, since some HABs produce more potent saxitoxins upon nutrient depletion, recent decisions to ban seasonal fertilizer applications to Florida lawns may have unintended consequences. In the future, human-killing phytoplankton, rather than relatively benign fish-killing HABs of the past, may be dispersed along the southeastern United States seaboard.

  13. Five gonadotrophin-releasing hormone receptors in a teleost fish: isolation, tissue distribution and phylogenetic relationships

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Natalia Moncaut; Gustavo Somoza; Deborah M; Adelino V M Canário

    2005-01-01

    Gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is the main neurohormone controlling gonadotrophin release in all vertebrates, and in teleost fish also of growth hormone and possibly of other adenohypophyseal hormones. Over 20 GnRHs have been identified in vertebrates and protochoordates and shown to bind cognate G-protein couple receptors (GnRHR). We have searched the puffer fish, Fugu rubripes, genome sequencing database, identified five GnRHR

  14. Poison Help Line

    MedlinePLUS

    ... This Web site tells you about poisons, poison safety and prevention, and when to contact your poison center. ... Fund poison centers serving all states, Puerto Rico, District of Columbia, Guam, Federated States of Micronesia, and American Samoa. Establish and maintain a single, national ...

  15. Mania following organophosphate poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Mohapatra, Satyakam; Rath, Neelmadhav

    2014-01-01

    Organophosphate poisoning is the most common poisoning in developing countries. Although the acute muscarinic and nicotinic side-effects of organophosphate poisoning are well known and easily recognized, but neuropsychiatric changes are rarely reported. We are reporting a case of a 33-year-old female who developed manic episode following acute organophosphate poisoning. PMID:25540555

  16. Prevention of Food Poisoning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Army Quartermaster School, Ft. Lee, VA.

    The programed text provides a single lesson, four-hour, correspondence subcourse on the prevention of food poisoning. It covers the following areas: a definition of food poisoning; chemical food poisoning; biological food poisoning; causes and prevention of trichinosis; six factors controlling bacteria growth; bacterial infection; prevention of…

  17. Universal spectrum for DNA base CG frequency distribution in Takifugu rubripes (Puffer fish) genome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. M. Selvam

    2007-01-01

    The frequency distribution of DNA bases A, C, G, T exhibit fractal\\u000afluctuations, namely a zigzag pattern of an increase followed by a decrease of\\u000aall orders of magnitude along the length of the DNA molecule. Selfsimilar\\u000afractal fluctuations are ubiquitous to space-time fluctuations of dynamical\\u000asystems in nature. The power spectra of fractal fluctuations exhibit inverse\\u000apower law form

  18. Oak Poisoning in Livestock. 

    E-print Network

    Dollahite, J. W.; Housholder, G. T.; Camp, B. J.

    1966-01-01

    April 1966 r Oak Poisoning *. . TEXAS A&M UNIVERSITY Texas Agricultural Experiment Station R. E. Patterson, Director, College Station, Texas Summary Oak poisoning is a major problem in the production of livestock in areas where oak occurs.... The blossoms, buds, young leaves and acorns are poisonous. Cattle, sheep, goats, swine, rabbits and guinea pigs are susceptible to oak poisoning. A gallotannin isolated from oak has been demonstrated to be poisonous. Calcium hydroxide is an antidote...

  19. Recovery of fish stocks in the Seto Inland Sea.

    PubMed

    Nagai, T

    2003-01-01

    The total amount of fisheries' yield in the Seto Inland Sea in 1999 was 571,000 MT, consisting of 256,000 MT by fishing and 315,000 MT from aquaculture. About 40,000 people engaged in the fishing and aquaculture industries, earned 129 billion yen (1100 million US$) by fishing and 89 billion yen (770 million $US) by aquaculture. The averaged annual catch for the Seto Inland Sea by fishing was 13 MT/km(2). Division into time periods in terms of eutrophication levels can be made: before 1960 when red sea bream were abundant with ecological divergence (before eutrophication), from 1960 to 1990 when the biomass of anchovy was large (during eutrophication), and after 1990 when the jellyfishes were abundant (excessive eutrophication or high N:P ratio). The fish production will decrease in the sea of jellyfishes. Actually, the amount of catch was 462,000 MT in 1982 which decreased 265,000 MT in 1993, corresponding to 43% in twelve years, then keeping the same level. A big reduction was seen in the catches of the spotlined sardine, anchovy, Spanish mackerel, tiger puffer, short-necked clam, sea cucumber and others. The tiger puffer and Spanish mackerel were abundant as predators in the sea of anchovy. The biomass of anchovy was at its maximum in 1986 and decreased to less than one third in 1996. The stocks of tiger puffer and Spanish mackerel greatly decreased because of the higher fishing pressure compared to the anchovy stock. The fishing power of individual fisheries targeting on the tiger puffer and Spanish mackerel increased substantially when fishing vessel and fishing gear improved, resulting in an excessive fishing effort. A large quantity of small immature fishes is usually caught in the Seto Inland Sea, resulting in growth and/or recruitment overfishing for many species. Hence, it is necessary to promote management of the fisheries so as not to reduce the fish stocks, and to allow the Seto Inland Sea to return from being a sea of jellyfishes to a sea of anchovy, with decreased eutrophication levels. PMID:12787608

  20. [Venomous and poisonous animals. IV. Envenomations by venomous aquatic vertebrates].

    PubMed

    Bédry, R; De Haro, L

    2007-04-01

    Epidemiological information on marine envenomation is generally less extensive in Europe than in tropical regions where these injuries are more severe and the need for medical advice is more frequent. For these reasons use of regional Poison Control Centers in the area where the injury occurs must be encouraged. The purpose of this review is to describe envenomation by bony fish (lion fish, stone fish, and catfish), cartilaginous fish (stingrays and poisonous sharks), or other venomous aquatic vertebrates (moray-eels and marine snakes). Understanding of these envenomation syndromes is important not only in tropical areas but also in Europe where importation of dangerous species has increased in recent years. PMID:17691425

  1. Mercury poisoning in a wild mink

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. WOBESER; M. SWIFT

    1976-01-01

    Mercury poisoning was diagnosed in a clinically-ill wild mink (Mustela vision) on the basis of clinical signs, histopathologic lesions and tissue mercury concentrations. The probable source of mercury was through ingestion of fish from the nearby South Saskatchewan River which is known to be contaminated with mercury. This is believed to be the first documented case of mercury intoxication of

  2. Neurotoxic Shellfish Poisoning

    MedlinePLUS

    Neurotoxic Shellfish Poisoning Causative organism: Karenia brevis Toxins produced: Brevetoxins Neurotoxic Shellfish Poisoning (NSP) produces an intoxication ... and neurological symptoms predominate. In addition, formation of toxic aerosols by wave action can produce respiratory asthma- ...

  3. Poison Control Centers

    MedlinePLUS

    ... use. Arizona BC Drug & Poison Information Centre Address 655 West 12th Avenue Vancouver, BC V5Z 4r4 Online ... Florida Florida/USVI Poison Information Center - Jacksonville Address 655 West Eighth Street, Box C-23 Jacksonville, FL ...

  4. Blue nightshade poisoning

    MedlinePLUS

    Blue nightshade poisoning occurs when someone eats parts of the blue nightshade plant. This is for information only and ... The poison is found in the blue nightshade (Solanum dulcamara) plant, especially in the fruit and leaves.

  5. [Occupational phosphine poisoning].

    PubMed

    Kurzbauer, H; Kiesler, A

    1987-01-01

    The authors report their observations on late sequelae of phosphine poisoning. For 18 months after acute poisoning signs of nervous system damage persisted (objective changes, EEG abnormalities). PMID:3444514

  6. The poison warrant: A powerful poison pill

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cynthia Van Hulle; Koen Geens

    1993-01-01

    Following the hostile bid for Société Générale in Belgium, companies have adopted 'poison' warrants as a means of deterring raiders. They appear to circumvent many important rules of Belgian takeover legislation. Cynthia Van Hulle and Koen Geens demonstrate that poison warrants would mainly benefit larger shareholders in companies subject to attack.

  7. Lead Poisoning in Childhood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pueschel, Siegfried M., Ed.; Linakis, James G., Ed.; Anderson, Angela C., Ed.

    The magnitude of childhood lead poisoning has been inexplicably neglected by modern medicine and by legislators. However, since the 1970s, increased attention has been focused on lead poisoning, and advances have been made in several areas, including understanding of the neurodevelopmental and behavioral ramifications of lead poisoning, and…

  8. LEAD POISONING PREVENTION INFORMATION

    E-print Network

    Families AreForever LEAD POISONING PREVENTION INFORMATION FOR PARENTS & PROSPECTIVE-lead levels There is no safe level of lead in the body. Often, symptoms are not obvious, so lead poisoning's medical examination in the U.S. or contact your state or local Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention Program

  9. Cloning and expression of cDNA encoding lysyl hydroxylase 1, 2 and 3 in tiger puffer Takifugu rubripes.

    PubMed

    Tsukamoto, Hiroshi; Yokoyama, Yoshihiro; Suzuki, Tohru; Mizuta, Shoshi; Yoshinaka, Reiji; Akahane, Yoshiaki

    2013-10-01

    Lysyl hydroxylase (LH) catalyzes the hydroxylation of lysine residues in collagens, and contributes to the formation of more stable collagen cross-links. However, in teleost, there is little information about collagen modification enzymes including lysyl oxidase (LOX) family members. Here, we cloned cDNAs encoding LH1, 2 and 3 from tiger puffer Takifugu rubripes. To determine the mRNA expressions of LH family members in a tiger puffer, we performed a northern blot analysis. Results showed that both fgLH1 and fgLH3 mRNAs were almost constitutively expressed in tissues, but highly expressed in muscle and ovary, respectively. However, fgLH2 mRNA was detected only in RT-PCR, indicating that expression level of fgLH2 is very low in tissues. It may be that low expression level of fgLH2 contributes to the fewer contents of stable collagen cross-links in tiger puffer tissues. To further investigate expression profiles of fgLHs, we examined gene expressions in embryos during development. In embryos, expression profiles differ among three fgLHs, indicating that there are functional differences among the three fgLHs. This is the first report that examined gene expression patterns of three LHs in emrbyos and adult tissues in teleost. PMID:23954882

  10. The many faces of methylmercury poisoning

    SciTech Connect

    Elhassani, S.B.

    1982-10-01

    Methylmercury (MM) is a very potent neurotoxic agent. Its role in polluting the environment is well documented. A vast amount of study over the past several decades has finally provided insight into many aspects of its effect. Exposure to MM may be through ingestion of poisoned fish or inadvertent misuse of grain treated with the poison as a fungicide. Major epidemics have occurred in Japan (Fetal Minamata disease), Iraq, Pakistan, Guatemala, and Ghana. Sporadic incidences have occurred in the United States and Canada. There is no effective antidote to counteract the effect of MM on the central nervous system, although the information documented should provide hope for more effective therapy in acute cases.

  11. Scombroid poisoning. Report of an outbreak.

    PubMed

    Lerke, P A; Werner, S B; Taylor, S L; Guthertz, L S

    1978-11-01

    An outbreak of scombroid poisoning occurred in San Francisco in the fall of 1977. The vehicle was sashimi prepared from spoiled tuna fish. Prompt public health measures prevented further consumption of the implicated food. Laboratory studies showed the presence in the tuna of bacterial species capable of producing large amounts of histamine, a substance strongly implicated in scombroid poisoning. Chemical analysis showed that histamine is very unevenly distributed in the flesh of spoiling tuna, therefore accounting for the sometimes random occurrence of disease among people eating the same food at the same table. PMID:569397

  12. Marijuana poisoning.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, Kevin T; Bronstein, Alvin C; Newquist, Kristin L

    2013-02-01

    The plant Cannabis sativa has been used for centuries for the effects of its psychoactive resins. The term "marijuana" typically refers to tobacco-like preparations of the leaves and flowers. The plant contains more than 400 chemicals but the cannabinoid ?-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is the major psychoactive constituent. "Hashish" is the resin extracted from the tops of flowering plants and generally has a much higher THC concentration. Marijuana is the most commonly used illicit drug in the United States. Currently, several states have passed legislation to decriminalize possession of small amounts of marijuana for both medical and personal use and several other states have similar legislation under consideration. The most common form of marijuana use in humans is inhalation of the smoke of marijuana cigarettes, followed by ingestion. In animals, although secondhand smoke inhalation is possible, the most common source of exposure is through ingestion of the owner's marijuana supply. The minimum lethal oral dose for dogs for THC is more than 3 g/kg. Although the drug has a high margin of safety, deaths have been seen after ingestion of food products containing the more concentrated medical-grade THC butter. There are two specific cannabinoid receptors in humans and dogs, CB1 (primarily in central nervous system) and CB2 (peripheral tissues). In animals, following oral ingestion, clinical effects begin within 60 minutes. All of the neuropharmacologic mechanisms by which cannabinoids produce psychoactive effects have not been identified. However, CB1 activity is believed to be responsible for the majority of cannabinoid clinical effects. Highly lipid soluble, THC is distributed in fat, liver, brain, and renal tissue. Fifteen percent of THC is excreted into the urine and the rest is eliminated in the feces through biliary excretion. Clinical signs of canine intoxication include depression, hypersalivation, mydriasis, hypermetria, vomiting, urinary incontinence, tremors, hypothermia, and bradycardia. Higher dosages may additionally cause nystagmus, agitation, tachypnea, tachycardia, ataxia, hyperexcitability, and seizures. Treatment of marijuana ingestion in animals is largely supportive. Vital signs including temperature and heart rate and rhythm must be continually monitored. Stomach content and urine can be tested for cannabinoids. Gas chromatography and mass spectrometry can be utilized for THC detection but usually may take several days and are not practical for initiation of therapy. Human urine drug-screening tests can be unreliable for confirmation of marijuana toxicosis in dogs owing to the interference of a large number of the metabolites in canine urine. False negatives may also arise if testing occurs too recently following THC ingestion. Thus, the use of human urine drug-screening tests in dogs remains controversial. No specific antidote presently exists for THC poisoning. Sedation with benzodiazepines may be necessary if dogs are severely agitated. Intravenous fluids may be employed to counter prolonged vomiting and to help control body temperature. Recently, the use of intralipid therapy to bind the highly lipophilic THC has been utilized to help reduce clinical signs. The majority of dogs experiencing intoxication after marijuana ingestion recover completely without sequellae. Differential diagnoses of canine THC toxicosis include human pharmaceuticals with central nervous system stimulatory effects, drugs with central nervous system depressant effects, macrolide parasiticides, xylitol, and hallucinogenic mushrooms. PMID:23796481

  13. Glyphosate poisoning.

    PubMed

    Bradberry, Sally M; Proudfoot, Alex T; Vale, J Allister

    2004-01-01

    Glyphosate is used extensively as a non-selective herbicide by both professional applicators and consumers and its use is likely to increase further as it is one of the first herbicides against which crops have been genetically modified to increase their tolerance. Commercial glyphosate-based formulations most commonly range from concentrates containing 41% or more glyphosate to 1% glyphosate formulations marketed for domestic use. They generally consist of an aqueous mixture of the isopropylamine (IPA) salt of glyphosate, a surfactant, and various minor components including anti-foaming and colour agents, biocides and inorganic ions to produce pH adjustment. The mechanisms of toxicity of glyphosate formulations are complicated. Not only is glyphosate used as five different salts but commercial formulations of it contain surfactants, which vary in nature and concentration. As a result, human poisoning with this herbicide is not with the active ingredient alone but with complex and variable mixtures. Therefore, It is difficult to separate the toxicity of glyphosate from that of the formulation as a whole or to determine the contribution of surfactants to overall toxicity. Experimental studies suggest that the toxicity of the surfactant, polyoxyethyleneamine (POEA), is greater than the toxicity of glyphosate alone and commercial formulations alone. There is insufficient evidence to conclude that glyphosate preparations containing POEA are more toxic than those containing alternative surfactants. Although surfactants probably contribute to the acute toxicity of glyphosate formulations, the weight of evidence is against surfactants potentiating the toxicity of glyphosate. Accidental ingestion of glyphosate formulations is generally associated with only mild, transient, gastrointestinal features. Most reported cases have followed the deliberate ingestion of the concentrated formulation of Roundup (The use of trade names is for product identification purposes only and does not imply endorsement.) (41% glyphosate as the IPA salt and 15% POEA). There is a reasonable correlation between the amount ingested and the likelihood of serious systemic sequelae or death. Advancing age is also associated with a less favourable prognosis. Ingestion of >85 mL of the concentrated formulation is likely to cause significant toxicity in adults. Gastrointestinal corrosive effects, with mouth, throat and epigastric pain and dysphagia are common. Renal and hepatic impairment are also frequent and usually reflect reduced organ perfusion. Respiratory distress, impaired consciousness, pulmonary oedema, infiltration on chest x-ray, shock, arrythmias, renal failure requiring haemodialysis, metabolic acidosis and hyperkalaemia may supervene in severe cases. Bradycardia and ventricular arrhythmias are often present pre-terminally. Dermal exposure to ready-to-use glyphosate formulations can cause irritation and photo-contact dermatitis has been reported occasionally; these effects are probably due to the preservative Proxel (benzisothiazolin-3-one). Severe skin burns are very rare. Inhalation is a minor route of exposure but spray mist may cause oral or nasal discomfort, an unpleasant taste in the mouth, tingling and throat irritation. Eye exposure may lead to mild conjunctivitis, and superficial corneal injury is possible if irrigation is delayed or inadequate. Management is symptomatic and supportive, and skin decontamination with soap and water after removal of contaminated clothing should be undertaken in cases of dermal exposure. PMID:15862083

  14. Chapter 1 Childhood Lead Poisoning Childhood Lead Poisoning

    E-print Network

    Chapter 1 Childhood Lead Poisoning 1 Childhood Lead Poisoning in the United States The problem of childhood lead poisoning. Child- hood lead poisoning is a major, preventable environmental health problem in the United States before 1978 still contain some lead- ScreeningfYoungfChildrenf orfLeadfPoisoning 13 #12

  15. Effects of Endrin on Blood and Tissue Chemistry of a Marine Fish

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ronald Eisler; Philip H. Edmunds

    1966-01-01

    Adult northern puffers, Sphaeroides maculatus, were exposed to graded concentrations of endrin, a chlorinated hydrocarbon insecticide, at 20 C, 24‰ salinity, and pH 8.0. All animals subjected to 10.0 ppb of endrin died within 24 hours. At concentrations of 1.0 ppb of endrin, or lower, no mortality occurred within 96 hours.Blood and tissue samples from fish surviving the 96-hour exposure

  16. Chronic phase lipids in sera of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), chronic ciguatera fish poisoning (CCFP), hepatitis B, and cancer with antigenic epitope resembling ciguatoxin, as assessed with MAb-CTX.

    PubMed

    Hokama, Y; Uto, G A; Palafox, N A; Enlander, D; Jordan, E; Cocchetto, A

    2003-01-01

    Clinical reports and descriptions of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) and chronic ciguatera fish poisoning (CCFP) show great similarities in clinical symptomology. These similarities in the literature suggested the exploration of lipids in sera of CFS, CCFP, and other diseases with the membrane immunobead assay (MIA), which is typically used for screening ciguateric ocean fish. Sera from patients with other diseases, including hepatitis B, cancer, and diabetes, were included to assess the degree of specificity involved. Sera were treated with acetone in a ratio of 1 part serum to 4 parts acetone. The suspension was centrifuged, and the acetone layer was evaporated. The residue was weighed and redissolved in 1.0 mL methanol and tested by the MIA, undiluted and titered to 1:160. The undiluted acetone fraction of the 37 normal showed +/- activity to +activity with 16 no titer, 15 with 1:5 titer and two with 1:10 titer, and four with > or =1:40 titers. One hundred fifteen CFS sera showed 1 with 1+ and 114 with 2+ activity in the undiluted samples, 1 with 1:10 titer, 3 with 1:20 titer, 31 with 1:40 titer, 50 with 1:80 titer, and 30 with 160 titer. Thus 95.6% of the samples had > or =1:40 titer. Eight hepatitis B sera samples had > or =1:40 titers. Four CCFP samples had > or =1:40 titers. Three of 16 cancer samples had 1:40 titer. These data are summarized in Fig. 1. As shown in Table 1, a significant increase (P<0.001) in the chronic phase lipids (CPLs) was shown relative to the normal group. A preliminary chemical study in C18 octadecylsilyl columns showed all fractions (100% chloroform, 9:1 chloroform : methanol, 1:1 chloroform : methanol, and 100% methanol) to contain lipids reactive to MAb-CTX with different intensities. Prostaglandins were shown in 100% methanol fraction. Competitive MIA with crude fish ciguatoxin and CFS with synthetic JKLM ciguatoxin epitope suggested similarities in structure with ciguatoxin. This was compatible with the neuroblastoma assay demonstrated in the C(18) column fractions 9:1 and 1:1, chloroform : methanol solvents. PMID:12784262

  17. Poisonous Plant Management. 

    E-print Network

    McGinty, Allan

    1985-01-01

    inflammation, swelling and sloughing of the skin. In contrast, chronic poisoning from perennial broomweed is less obvious with the only symptom often being abortion. It is difficult to differentiate this symptom from problems arising from improper... :nay .b.e benefici~1. For example, Senecio poisoning is Identified many times by observing a hard, yellow liver in affected animals. Nitrate poisoning is often identified by chocolate-brown colored blood present for 2 to 4 hours after death_ After...

  18. Wheat Pasture Poisoning

    E-print Network

    Crookshank, H. R.; Sims, Frank H.

    1956-01-01

    Tech Field Laboratory near Panhandle by personnel of the Texas Agricultural Experiment Station, Texas Technological College and the U. S. Department of Agriculture on wheat pasture poisoning. The condition known as wheat pasture poisoning occurs primarily... serum of normal cows was compared with the serum of cows affected with wheat pasture poisoning, a decrease in inarganic phos- phate, total and diffusible calcium, magnesium and the albumin-globulin ratio was found in the cases. The total serum protein...

  19. Red Tide and Shellfish Poisoning

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Maneveldt, Gavin W.

    This EnviroFacts informational page discusses how red tide develops and how people might be affected by this phenomenon. It covers physical damage, oxygen depletion, direct poisoning, and indirect poisoning including paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP), diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP), neurotoxic shellfish poisoning (NSP), amnesiac shellfish poisoning (ASP), and aerosol toxins. The page concludes with a discussion of red tide and the role of the sea fisheries research institute.

  20. Lead poisoning in common loons (Gavia immer).

    PubMed

    Locke, L N; Kerr, S M; Zoromski, D

    1982-01-01

    Two emaciated common loons (Gavia immer) were believed to have died of lead poisoning when fragments of fishing lines and lead sinkers were discovered in their stomachs. Later a third emaciated loon, which had only the remnants of fishing line in its stomach, was suspected of being a possible lead-poisoning victim when all other test results were negative. The liver lead levels in the first two loons were 20.6 ppm and 46.1 ppm (wet weight), and the level in the third was 38.52 ppm (wet weight). Thirteen common loons dying of other causes had liver lead levels of less than 1 ppm (wet weight). PMID:7103895

  1. Aluminium phosphide poisoning.

    PubMed

    Bogle, R G; Theron, P; Brooks, P; Dargan, P I; Redhead, J

    2006-01-01

    We describe a lethal poisoning in a healthy woman caused by deliberate ingestion of aluminium phosphide (AlP), a pesticide used to kill rodents and insects. Toxicity of AlP and review of cases reported to the National Poisons Information Service (London) 1997-2003 are discussed. PMID:16373788

  2. Recording acute poisoning deaths

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. J. Flanagan; C. Rooney

    2002-01-01

    Recording deaths from acute poisoning\\/substance abuse is not straightforward. The International Classification of Diseases (ICD), used to code mortality statistics, is aimed towards recording the underlying cause of death such as suicide or drug dependence rather than gathering data on poisoning per se. Despite the inherent difficulties clear trends can be observed from the data available for England and Wales.

  3. RECORDING ACUTE POISONING DEATHS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    RJ Flanagan; C Rooney

    Recording deaths from acute poisoning\\/substance abuse is not straightforward. The International Classification of Diseases (ICD), used to code mortality statistics, is aimed towards recording underlying cause of death such as suicide or drug dependence rather than gathering data on poisoning per se. Despite the inherent difficulties clear trends can be observed from the data available for England & Wales. There

  4. Poisonous Plants Web Pages

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    1997-01-01

    Spearheaded by Dr. Mary C. Smith and Professor Dan Brown of Cornell University's College of Veterinary Medicine and Department of Animal Science respectively, Poisonous Plants Web Pages contains color images of poisonous plants and affected animals, and provides information concerning the biological mechanisms, diagnosis and prevention of animal poisoning due to toxic plants and other natural flora (fungi, etc.). Pictures and information can be accessed through an alphabetical list of Latin botanical names (common names are also included), a list of the specific type of poisons present, or a list of species of animals commonly affected. Additionally, there are several links to related poisonous plant sites. Although text is not yet complete for many species, pictures for each plant and links to related sites are provided.

  5. Case report: lead poisoning in common loons (Gavia immer)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Locke, L.N.; Kerr, Stephen M.; Zoromski, D.

    1982-01-01

    Two emaciated common loons (Gavia immer) were believed to have died of lead poisoning when fragments of fishing lines and lead sinkers were discovered in their stomachs. Later a third emaciated loon, which had only the remnants of fishing line in its stomach, was suspected of being a possible lead-poisoning victim when all other test results were negative. The liver lead levels in the first two loons were 20.6 ppm and 46.1 ppm (wet weight), and the level in the third was 38.52 ppm (wet weight). Thirteen common loons dying of other causes had liver lead levels of less than 1 ppm (wet weight).

  6. Look Out! It's Poison Ivy!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darlington, Elizabeth, Day

    1986-01-01

    Provides background information on poison ivy and offers suggestions for instructional activities. Includes illustrations of the varieties of poison ivy leaf forms and poison ivy look-alikes. Highlights interesting facts and cases associated with poison ivy and its relatives. (ML)

  7. Study on Worm Poisoning Technology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bing Wu; Xiao-chun Yun; Xiang Cui

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, concepts of worm poisoning and PoisonWorm are presented and the feasibility of worm poisoning is testified. A propagation model named SIRP Model and PoisonWorm's side-effect on network traffic are given and compared with the classical epidemic Kermack-Mckendrick model. The feasibility and necessity of PoisonWorm and its application are highlighted in an active defense system against Internet worms.

  8. Worm Poisoning Technology and Application

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiang Cui; Zhou Yonglin; Zou Xin; Wu Bing

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, the concept of Worm Poisoning and PoisonWorm are presented and the feasibility of Worm Poisoning is emphatically testified. A propagation model called SIRP model and the side-effect to network traffic of PoisonWorm are given and compared to the classical epidemic Kermack-Mckendrick model. We highlight the feasibility and necessity of PoisonWorm and its application in active defense system

  9. Hair dye poisoning

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Arsenic Bismuth Denatured alcohol Lead (see lead poisoning ) Mercury Pyrogallol Silver Note: This list may not include ... product is swallowed. Continued exposure to lead or mercury can lead to permanent brain and nervous system ( ...

  10. Ink remover poisoning

    MedlinePLUS

    Ink remover is a chemical used to get out ink stains. Ink remover poisoning occurs when someone swallows this substance. ... Ink removers Liquid bleaches Note: This list may not include all sources of ink removers.

  11. Automatic dishwasher soap poisoning

    MedlinePLUS

    ... from breathing in the poison) Skin Irritation Burns Necrosis (tissue death) in the skin or tissues underneath ... severe blood loss has occurred Chest x-ray EKG (electrocardiogram, or heart tracing) Fluids through a vein ( ...

  12. Caladium plant poisoning

    MedlinePLUS

    ... describes poisoning caused by eating parts of the Caladium plant and other plants belonging to the Araceae ... Caladium and related plants may be purchased as houseplants or used in landscapes. Types include Caladium esculentum ...

  13. Nail polish poisoning

    MedlinePLUS

    ... K. General approach to the poisoned patient. In: Marx J, ed. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical ... Mosby; 2013:chap 147. Lee DC. Hydrocarbons. In: Marx J, ed. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical ...

  14. Mineral spirits poisoning

    MedlinePLUS

    Mineral spirits are liquid chemicals used to thin paint and as a degreaser. Mineral spirits poisoning occurs ... Mineral spirits ( Stoddard solvent ) Some paints Some floor and ... fluids White spirits Note: This list may not be all-inclusive.

  15. Lead Poisoning (For Parents)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... commonly, kids get lead poisoning from lead-based paint , which was used in many U.S. homes until ... 1970s, when the government banned the manufacture of paint containing lead. That's why kids who live in ...

  16. The Poisons Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Barbara A.

    1998-01-01

    Details a project in which students explore and study the poisons in their environment by asking and finding answers to their own research questions. Includes some suggestions for involving students successfully in inquiry-based learning. (DDR)

  17. Household glue poisoning

    MedlinePLUS

    Glue poisoning ... Glue Note: This list may not include all sources of household glue. ... Symptoms of breathing in ("sniffing") glue fumes may include: ... appearance Excitability Headache Irritability Loss of appetite ...

  18. Medical hazards of the coral reef.

    PubMed

    Sorokin, M

    1975-01-01

    An account is given of some aspects of poisonings sustained by coming into contact with animals of the coral reefs of the Fiji Islands. Poisonings can be grouped into those in which the toxin is introduced parenterally-envenomings, and those in which it is ingested. Illustrative case histories are presented of injuries from 2 echinoderms and of envenoming from the "deadly" stonefish. A therapeutic approach to puffer-fish poisoning is mentioned and the problem of ciguatera poisoning is outlined. PMID:1170656

  19. [Neurological symptoms in poisoning].

    PubMed

    Neu, I

    1980-10-01

    Acute and chronic intoxications become manifest in primary neurological symptoms. After a definition of poisoning the autonomic, neurological and psychological disturbances are briefly discussed and the therapeutic measures presented in a table. Later, the neurological symptoms are described with reference to oberservations of cases of lead, thallium, E 605 (parathion), carbon monoxide, mercury, amphetamine and botulin poisoning. Four table and 9 figures supplement the text. PMID:6775212

  20. Bitterweed Poisoning in Sheep. 

    E-print Network

    Hardy, W. T. (William Tyree)

    1931-01-01

    A & f~l COLLEGE, 'PYAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION A. B. CONNER, I COLLEGE STATION. BRAZO )IRECTC IS COUNT' ETIN NO. 433 C.. . .-, )R Y, TEXAS AUGUST, 1931 Bitterweed Poisoning in Sheep. - *-. " AGRICULTURAL AND MECHANICAL COLLEGE... cooperation with U. S. Department nf Agriculture. Bitterweed, Actinea odorata (DC.) Kuntze, has been shown to be poisonous to sheep. This plant grows from Kansas south to Mexico and from central Texas west to California. In Texas it occurs in greatest...

  1. Is It Poison Ivy?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    With this Web site from Florida Plants Online, you don't need to be a botanist to tell poison ivy apart from its benign look-alike, Virginia creeper. Photos and detailed identification tips, as well as numerous links to additional information, help readers learn how to avoid "one of nature's most dreaded plants." The site also includes information on how to diagnose a poison ivy reaction (including a link to images of contact dermatitis).

  2. Using Poison Center Exposure Calls to Predict Methadone Poisoning Deaths

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nabarun Dasgupta; Jonathan Davis; Michele Jonsson Funk; Richard Dart

    2012-01-01

    PurposeThere are more drug overdose deaths in the Untied States than motor vehicle fatalities. Yet the US vital statistics reporting system is of limited value because the data are delayed by four years. Poison centers report data within an hour of the event, but previous studies suggested a small proportion of poisoning deaths are reported to poison centers (PC). In

  3. Poison control center - emergency number

    MedlinePLUS

    For a POISON EMERGENCY call: 1-800-222-1222 ANYWHERE IN THE UNITED STATES This national hotline number will let you ... is a free and confidential service. All local poison control centers in the United States use this ...

  4. Dieldrin poisoning of dogs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. L. Harrison; B. W. Manktelow

    1960-01-01

    ExtractDieldrin poisoning in sheepdogs was suspected early in 1958, and during the next two years specimens from 40 similar cases were submitted to Wallaceville for examination. The symptoms described by field veterinarians were all of the same general pattern and similar to the syndrome producedin other species by the chlorinated hydrocarbon group of insecticides (Garner, 1957). Dieldrin was recovered from

  5. Tainted Water, Poison Paint.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Natale, Jo Anna

    1991-01-01

    Recent research shows lead poisoning is more widespread and even more dangerous to infants and young children than previously thought. A bill proposed in Congress would require schools and day-care centers to test for lead. Summarizes lead's health hazards and how to test drinking water. (MLF)

  6. Diarrheic Shellfish Poisoning

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This web page discusses Diarrheic Shellfish Poisoning (DSP), a gastrointestinal illness caused by the consumption of contaminated shellfish. The associated toxins are okadaic acid and its derivatives, which are produced by the marine dinoflagellate Dinophysis. This page describes clinical presentation (symptoms) of DSP, diagnosis, management and treatment, chemical structure of okadaic acid, molecular mechanism of action, and references.

  7. [Plant poisoning cases in Turkey].

    PubMed

    Oztekin-Mat, A

    1994-01-01

    In Turkey, the majority of the population live in rural areas where they use wild plants as food and medicine. The confusion of an edible plant with a poisonous one give rise to serious poisoning which may even result in death. The incidence of plant poisoning in Turkey is about 6% and especially high among children between ages of 2 and 11 living in rural areas. The number of species that cause poisoning is around twenty and Hyoscyamus niger (Solanaceae), Colchicum species (Liliaceae), Conium maculatum (Umbelliferae) and Prunus species (Rosaceae) are the most important. Mushroom poisoning is more frequent in spring and fall. The main reasons are their widespread usage as food and the inexperience of the gatherers in distinguishing the edibles from the poisonous. Amanita phalloides, A. verna, A. muscaria, A. pantherina are responsible for severe cases of poisoning. PMID:7857034

  8. Four new records of fish species (Cypriniformes: Nemacheilidae, Balitoridae; Characiformes: Prochilodontidae) and corrections of two misidentified fish species (Tetraodontiformes: Tetraodontidae; Beloniformes: Belonidae) in Yunnan, China.

    PubMed

    Endruweit, Marco

    2014-01-01

    In this study, six fish species of five families are reported for the first time from Yunnan Province, China. The nemacheilid Schistura amplizona Kottelat, 2000 is reported from the Luosuojiang River and Nanlahe River subbasins, Mekong basin; the prochilodontid Prochilodus lineatus (Valenciennes, 1837), the balitorid Vanmanenia serrilineata Kottelat, 2000, and the tetraodontid Monotrete turgidus Kottelat, 2000, from Nanlahe River subbasin, Mekong basin; the balitorid Beaufortia daon (Mai, 1978), and the belonid Xenentodon canciloides (Bleeker, 1854), both, from Black River subbasin, Red River basin. The freshwater puffer M. turgidus and the needlefish X. canciloides have been previously misidentified as Tetraodon leiurus (Bleeker, 1950) and Tylosurus strongylurus (van Hasselt, 1823), respectively. PMID:24470454

  9. Can poison control data be used for pharmaceutical poisoning surveillance?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher A Naun; Cody S Olsen; J Michael Dean; Lenora M Olson; Lawrence J Cook; Heather T Keenan

    2011-01-01

    ObjectiveTo determine the association between the frequencies of pharmaceutical exposures reported to a poison control center (PCC) and those seen in the emergency department (ED).DesignA statewide population-based retrospective comparison of frequencies of ED pharmaceutical poisonings with frequencies of pharmaceutical exposures reported to a regional PCC. ED poisonings, identified by International Classification of Diseases, Version 9 (ICD-9) codes, were grouped into

  10. [Poisoning by bee sting].

    PubMed

    de Roodt, Adolfo R; Salomón, Oscar D; Orduna, Tomás A; Robles Ortiz, Luis E; Paniagua Solís, Jorge F; Alagón Cano, Alejandro

    2005-01-01

    Among the human pathologies produced by venomous animals, bee stings constitute the largest number of accidents in several countries, exceeding the mortality rate caused by other venomous animals such as snakes, spiders or scorpions. The clinical picture after the bee sting may include anaphylaxis or poisoning. The latter is produced by massive attacks and is a serious problem that may put the patient's life at risk. People that are poisoned display hemolysis, rhabdomiolysis and acute renal failure that together with other systemic failures can bring about death. The knowledge of the physiopathological mechanisms involved in the massive attack of bees is crucial for health care professionals as to date we do not have antivenoms with proven clinical efficacy. In this review we include the bee's biological aspects, venom composition and its relation with the occurrence and severity of accidents as well as epidemiological data that can be useful for this type of accidents. PMID:16025987

  11. Poisonous Plant Management.

    E-print Network

    McGinty, Allan

    1985-01-01

    milkweed Asclepias Horsetail subverticiLlata milkweed Asclepias verticiLLata Whorled milkweed AstragaLus Peavine, emoryanus emory loco AstragaLus spp. Locoweed Avena fatua vaL sativa Baileya Desert muLtiradiata baileya Baptisia spp. False indigo..., prostration, coma Calcium . rich feeds may reduce oxalate poisoning Oxytropis Lambert loco, Unknown See Astragalus spp. Rare in Texas lambert;; crazyweed, point loco Panicum Blue panic urn Unknown Labored respiration Blue panic urn is a valuable...

  12. Homicidal arsenic poisoning.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Andrew; Taylor, Andrew; Leese, Elizabeth; Allen, Sam; Morton, Jackie; McAdam, Julie

    2015-07-01

    The case of a 50-year-old man who died mysteriously after being admitted to hospital is reported. He had raised the possibility of being poisoned prior to his death. A Coroner's post-mortem did not reveal the cause of death but this was subsequently established by post-mortem trace element analysis of liver, urine, blood and hair all of which revealed very high arsenic concentrations. PMID:25344454

  13. Lead Poison Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    With NASA contracts, Whittaker Corporations Space Science division has developed an electro-optical instrument to mass screen for lead poisoning. Device is portable and detects protoporphyrin in whole blood. Free corpuscular porphyrins occur as an early effect of lead ingestion. Also detects lead in urine used to confirm blood tests. Test is inexpensive and can be applied by relatively unskilled personnel. Similar Whittaker fluorometry device called "drug screen" can measure morphine and quinine in urine much faster and cheaper than other methods.

  14. Acute accidental phosgene poisoning.

    PubMed

    Gutch, Manish; Jain, Nirdesh; Agrawal, Avinash; Consul, Suchi

    2012-01-01

    Phosgene is a highly toxic gas to which accidental exposure may occur in occupational workers. This case report describes the clinical presentation and management of accidental phosgene poisoning happened after the leakage of phosgene gas from nearby pipeline. The need to suspect phosgene gas exposure and observe such patients is crucial for life saving, especially in view of the delay in clinical deterioration observed in some patients who subsequently develop adult respiratory distress syndrome. PMID:22602834

  15. Fragmentation Considered Poisonous

    E-print Network

    Herzberg, Amir

    2012-01-01

    We present practical poisoning and name-server block- ing attacks on standard DNS resolvers, by off-path, spoofing adversaries. Our attacks exploit large DNS responses that cause IP fragmentation; such long re- sponses are increasingly common, mainly due to the use of DNSSEC. In common scenarios, where DNSSEC is partially or incorrectly deployed, our poisoning attacks allow 'com- plete' domain hijacking. When DNSSEC is fully de- ployed, attacker can force use of fake name server; we show exploits of this allowing off-path traffic analy- sis and covert channel. When using NSEC3 opt-out, attacker can also create fake subdomains, circumvent- ing same origin restrictions. Our attacks circumvent resolver-side defenses, e.g., port randomisation, IP ran- domisation and query randomisation. The (new) name server (NS) blocking attacks force re- solver to use specific name server. This attack allows Degradation of Service, traffic-analysis and covert chan- nel, and also facilitates DNS poisoning. We validated the attac...

  16. Methanol poisoning: characteristic MRI findings.

    PubMed

    Jain, Nirdesh; Himanshu, Dandu; Verma, Shailendra Prasad; Parihar, Anit

    2013-01-01

    Acute methanol intoxication is not an unusual poisoning. It can have serious neurological sequelae. We emphasize how neuroimaging can help in distinguishing methanol poisoning from other causes of acute unconsciousness in alcoholic patients such as hypoglycemic brain damage and carbon monoxide poisoning or head injury, which are frequently observed in alcoholic patients and are also responsible for altered sensorium. The most important findings in MR brain imaging in methanol poisoning have been bilateral putaminal hemorrhagic necrosis. Other less common findings are subcortical and deep white matter lesions, cerebral and cerebellar cortical lesions, and midbrain lesions, cerebral and intraventricular hemorrhage, and even enhancement of necrotic lesions, we found almost the entire spectrum of MRI findings in this patient with methanol poisoning. Neurological sequelae can entail the course and prognosis in methanol poisoning. The patient died because of ventilator-associated pneumonia that developed in the course of prolonged hospitalization. PMID:22634487

  17. Chemical and Biological Summer Poisons

    PubMed Central

    Lees, Ronald E. M.

    1972-01-01

    Summer has its own special poisoning hazards for the vacationer, gardener or outdoorsman. Because of the comparative variety of accidental human poisonings from contact with these seasonal toxic substances, either artificial or natural, many family physicians are unfamiliar with their effects. Some of us, unfortunately, will be called upon to deal with them over the next few months. This article highlights some of the hazards, outlines their toxicology and summarizes the treatment of the poisoned patient. PMID:20468771

  18. CDC Vital Signs: Alcohol Poisoning Deaths

    MedlinePLUS

    ... VitalSigns RSS Error processing SSI file Alcohol Poisoning Deaths Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... Details Problem There are 2,200 alcohol poisoning deaths in the US each year. Alcohol poisoning deaths: ...

  19. Ethylene glycol poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Vale, J. A.; Widdop, B.; Bluett, N. H.

    1976-01-01

    Although an uncommon cause of death in Great Britain, ethylene glycol poisoning is potentially serious in that renal and cardiopulmonary failure and central nervous system dysfunction can occur when doses of the order of 100 ml or more are ingested. A case is described in which a child who swallowed approximately 100 ml of ethylene glycol was treated by prolonged peritoneal dialysis. In addition, measures were taken to correct a marked acidosis. Substantial amounts of ethylene glycol were removed by the dialysis fluid and the child made a complete physical and mental recovery. PMID:981106

  20. Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning (PSP)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This web page discusses Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning (PSP), a marine toxin disease with both gastrointestinal and neurologic symptoms reported worldwide. It is caused predominantly by the consumption of contaminated shellfish. Gonyaulacoid dinoflagellates are the source of PSP marine toxins. These unicellular dinoflagellates develop algal blooms throughout the world and produce at least 12 toxins which are tetrahydropurines, and heat and acid stable. Saxitoxin was the first characterized and the best understood. This page describes clinical presentation of PSP (including symptoms), diagnosis, management and treatment, the chemical structure of saxitoxin, molecular mechanism of action, and references.

  1. Halogeton poisoning in range cattle.

    PubMed

    Lincoln, S D; Black, B

    1980-04-15

    Acute Halogeton glomeratus poisoning occurred in 16 of 680 range cattle during and following a trail drive. Signs of toxicosis included posterior ataxia, recumbency, coma, and death. Histopathologically, abundant, refractile calcium oxalate crystals were seen in renal tubules. Inasmuch as the plant is generally unpalatable for cattle, poisoning in this case was enhanced by a preceding period of food deprivation. PMID:7410153

  2. Tips for Identifying Poison Ivy

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This online article, from Biodiversity Counts, is a tip sheet to help students learn how to spot and avoid poison ivy. It has an overview of the different varieties of the plant that grow in the Americas and Asia, an illustration of the compound leaf with three leaflets (trifoliate) and details about poison ivy's leaf type, leaf arrangement, growth form, flowers, fruits, and relatives.

  3. Diurnal and circadian oscillations in expression of kisspeptin, kisspeptin receptor and gonadotrophin-releasing hormone 2 genes in the grass puffer, a semilunar-synchronised spawner.

    PubMed

    Ando, H; Ogawa, S; Shahjahan, Md; Ikegami, T; Doi, H; Hattori, A; Parhar, I

    2014-07-01

    In seasonally breeding animals, the circadian and photoperiodic regulation of neuroendocrine system is important for precisely-timed reproduction. Kisspeptin, encoded by the Kiss1 gene, acts as a principal positive regulator of the reproductive axis by stimulating gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurone activity in vertebrates. However, the precise mechanisms underlying the cyclic regulation of the kisspeptin neuroendocrine system remain largely unknown. The grass puffer, Takifugu niphobles, exhibits a unique spawning rhythm: spawning occurs 1.5-2 h before high tide on the day of spring tide every 2 weeks, and the spawning rhythm is connected to circadian and lunar-/tide-related clock mechanisms. The grass puffer has only one kisspeptin gene (kiss2), which is expressed in a single neural population in the preoptic area (POA), and has one kisspeptin receptor gene (kiss2r), which is expressed in the POA and the nucleus dorsomedialis thalami. Both kiss2 and kiss2r show diurnal variations in expression levels, with a peak at Zeitgeber time (ZT) 6 (middle of day time) under the light/dark conditions. They also show circadian expression with a peak at circadian time 15 (beginning of subjective night-time) under constant darkness. The synchronous and diurnal oscillations of kiss2 and kiss2r expression suggest that the action of Kiss2 in the diencephalon is highly dependent on time. Moreover, midbrain GnRH2 gene (gnrh2) but not GnRH1 or GnRH3 genes show a unique semidiurnal oscillation with two peaks at ZT6 and ZT18 within a day. The cyclic expression of kiss2, kiss2r and gnrh2 may be important in the control of the precisely-timed diurnal and semilunar spawning rhythm of the grass puffer, possibly through the circadian clock and melatonin, which may transmit the photoperiodic information of daylight and moonlight to the reproductive neuroendocrine centre in the hypothalamus. PMID:24824153

  4. Oxygen Poisoning in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Fenn, Wallace O.; Henning, Marcia; Philpott, Mary

    1967-01-01

    Fruit flies live longer at the partial pressure of oxygen found in air than at either larger or smaller partial pressures. Flies exposed to 1 atm of oxygen for 8 hr every day do not recover completely in the remaining 16 hr. In general, intermittent exposures to 1 atm of oxygen are better tolerated than continuous exposure to the same average oxygen concentration per day, but exposures to higher pressures of 2–5 atm of oxygen for as little as a half hour every two days markedly shorten the life-span. Older flies consume more oxygen per minute and are more sensitive to oxygen poisoning than young flies, and the rate of dying in 6 atm of O2, or the reciprocal of the survival time, is a linear function of the age. The oxygen pressure-time curve can be well expressed by the general empirical equation (POO2)2 x time = 120 where P is in atmosphere and survival time in hours. The progress of oxygen poisoning appears to be linear with time rather than exponential. PMID:6034764

  5. Organochlorine poisoning of herons

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ohlendorf, H.M.; Swineford, D.M.; Locke, L.N.

    1979-01-01

    Over a period of years interested individuals have submitted many dead or moribund herons of various species to our laboratory to learn whether the birds had been affected by diseases or organochlorine poisoning. Residue concentrations in carcasses of birds and mammals are considered the best measure of sublethal exposure, whereas residues in brains are best to use for diagnosing death by most organochlorine chemicals.... The purpose of the present paper is to document the occurrence and concentration of organochlorine residues in the brains of herons from various areas in the United States. By comparing these residue concentrations with laboratory-determined diagnostic lethal levels, we conclude that some herons were killed by organochlorine poisoning; others were at least seriously endangered by the residues they carried. Complete results of carcass analyses for these and other herons, as well as further details? on residues in brains, will be reported elsewhere. Overall, we analyzed carcasses or brains of more than 70 herons found dead or moribund and 36 others taken in planned collections. Residue levels in carcasses of many herons were not high enough to warrant analysis of brains. In the present paper we compare carcass and brain residues of dieldrin in 23 herons of which both carcass and brain were analyzed.

  6. Fugu I

    E-print Network

    Hacker, Randi

    2008-11-12

    Broadcast Transcript: The Japanese have serious thrill issues, dude. For hundreds of years, they've eaten fugu, a type of puffer fish whose liver is the seat of a poison called tetrodotoxin that causes paralysis then death even while your mind stays...

  7. Childhood Lead Poisoning What Is the Problem?

    E-print Network

    CS239775 Childhood Lead Poisoning What Is the Problem? Approximately 500,000 U.S. children aged 1. Lead poisoning can affect nearly every system in the body. Because lead poisoning often occurs with no obvious symptoms, it frequently goes unrecognized. Lead poisoning can cause learning disabilities

  8. Near fatal percutaneous paraquat poisoning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Okonek; R. Wronski; W. Niedermayer; M. Okonek; A. Lamer

    1983-01-01

    Summary A fatal paraquat poisoning can occur when relatively large areas of skin are contaminated with a concentrated solution of paraquat (Gramoxone). A paraquat absorption takes place of the same magnitude as that with an equal dose per os.

  9. FTIR analysis of food poisons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasui, Sritana C.

    1992-03-01

    Single and rapid analyses of chemical poisons or contaminants in different food matrices are explored. Various FT-IR accessories are utilized and compared for the detection sensitivity. Detection enhancements by combining with chromatographic techniques are investigated.

  10. Nitrate and Prussic Acid Poisoning 

    E-print Network

    Stichler, Charles; Reagor, John C.

    2001-09-05

    Nitrate and prussic acid poisoning in cattle are noninfectious conditions that can kill livestock. This publication explains the causes and symptoms of these conditions as well as preventive measures and sampling and testing steps....

  11. RPV housed ATWS poison tank

    SciTech Connect

    Oosterkamp, W.J.

    1992-09-08

    This patent describes a boiling water reactor (BWR) wherein housed within a reactor pressure vessel (RPV) is a nuclear core and an upper steam dome connected to a steam outlet in the RPV. The improvement comprises: a pressurized vessel disposed in the steam dome containing a neutron poison effective for inactivating the core and a first line for assaying the poison which first line runs to the outside of the RPV, the vessel being vented to the steam dome to pressurize the poison contained therein, the vessel being connected by a second line terminating beneath the core, the second line containing a valve which is actuable to release the poison through the line upon its actuation.

  12. Chronic Copper Poisoning in Sheep.

    E-print Network

    Boughton, I. B. (Ivan Bertrand); Hardy, W. T. (William Tyree)

    1934-01-01

    POISONING IN SHEEP A trouble occurring among sheep on numerous ranches in the Edwards plateau region of Texas characterized clinically by generalized icterus, hemoglobinuria and hematuria, inappetence, and extreme weakness, was found to be chronic copper... liver; enlarged, very dark brown to black kidneys; a swollen, "blackberry jam" spleen; generalized icterus; poorly- collapsed, doughy lungs, and a pale flaccid heart. As a matter of fact the condition is really a cumulative poisoning since...

  13. Chronic Copper Poisoning in Sheep. 

    E-print Network

    Boughton, I. B. (Ivan Bertrand); Hardy, W. T. (William Tyree)

    1934-01-01

    LIBRARY, - A & M COLLEGE, CAiQFUS. E-109-8M-L180 TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION A. B. CONNER, DIRECTOR COLLEGE STATION: BRAZOS COUNTY. TEXAS BULLETIN NO. 499 DECEMBER, 1934 DIVISION OF VETERINARY SCIENCE CHRONIC COPPER POISONING... of copper sulphate caused chronic copper poisoning among flocks of range sheep on several West Texas ranches during the past year. The salt licks were placed before the sheep as a means of preventing or controlling stomach worm infestation despite a...

  14. Clinical Marine Toxicology: A European Perspective for Clinical Toxicologists and Poison Centers

    PubMed Central

    Schmitt, Corinne; de Haro, Luc

    2013-01-01

    Clinical marine toxicology is a rapidly changing area. Many of the new discoveries reported every year in Europe involve ecological disturbances—including global warming—that have induced modifications in the chorology, behavior, and toxicity of many species of venomous or poisonous aquatic life including algae, ascidians, fish and shellfish. These changes have raised a number of public issues associated, e.g., poisoning after ingestion of contaminated seafood, envenomation by fish stings, and exposure to harmful microorganism blooms. The purpose of this review of medical and scientific literature in marine toxicology is to highlight the growing challenges induced by ecological disturbances that confront clinical toxicologists during the everyday job in the European Poison Centers. PMID:23917333

  15. Neurotoxic Shellfish Poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Watkins, Sharon M.; Reich, Andrew; Fleming, Lora E.; Hammond, Roberta

    2008-01-01

    Neurotoxic shellfish poisoning (NSP) is caused by consumption of molluscan shellfish contaminated with brevetoxins primarily produced by the dinoflagellate, Karenia brevis. Blooms of K. brevis, called Florida red tide, occur frequently along the Gulf of Mexico. Many shellfish beds in the US (and other nations) are routinely monitored for presence of K. brevis and other brevetoxin-producing organisms. As a result, few NSP cases are reported annually from the US. However, infrequent larger outbreaks do occur. Cases are usually associated with recreationally-harvested shellfish collected during or post red tide blooms. Brevetoxins are neurotoxins which activate voltage-sensitive sodium channels causing sodium influx and nerve membrane depolarization. No fatalities have been reported, but hospitalizations occur. NSP involves a cluster of gastrointestinal and neurological symptoms: nausea and vomiting, paresthesias of the mouth, lips and tongue as well as distal paresthesias, ataxia, slurred speech and dizziness. Neurological symptoms can progress to partial paralysis; respiratory distress has been recorded. Recent research has implicated new species of harmful algal bloom organisms which produce brevetoxins, identified additional marine species which accumulate brevetoxins, and has provided additional information on the toxicity and analysis of brevetoxins. A review of the known epidemiology and recommendations for improved NSP prevention are presented. PMID:19005578

  16. Poisoning with Organophosphorus Insecticides

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, W. J. Russell; Kalow, Werner; Sellers, Edward A.

    1965-01-01

    Because of an increasing incidence of poisoning with the newer organophosphorus anticholinesterase insecticides, these compounds have been reviewed in terms of their history and pharmacology, relationship with other drugs, factors affecting toxicity, mechanism of action, toxic signs and treatment. The modern organophosphorus pesticide requires metabolic conversion before toxicity develops. Insects have a greater propensity for this conversion than humans. Nevertheless, this conversion does occur in humans and can be potentiated by other drugs. Toxicity also varies with age, sex, route and frequency of administration, and previous exposure. The mechanism of toxicity is inhibition of acetylcholinesterase, causing an intoxicating build-up of acetylcholine. Signs and symptoms consist of the clinical manifestations of unopposed parasympathetic and central activity. Treatment must be initiated early. Respiration must be maintained and the effects of acetylcholine must be counteracted by massive doses of atropine. Metaraminol enhances the antagonistic action of atropine against acetylcholine and may also be given. Once acetylcholinesterase is inactivated, restoration is slow. Recovery can be accelerated by enzyme reactivators like the oxime compounds. Pyridine aldoxime (Pralidoxime, Protopam, P2S and 2-PAM) can be given in combination with atropine and metaraminol (AMP therapy) and may be the treatment of choice. PMID:5831217

  17. Animal-related fatalities--part II: characteristic autopsy findings and variable causes of death associated with envenomation, poisoning, anaphylaxis, asphyxiation, and sepsis.

    PubMed

    Bury, Danielle; Langlois, Neil; Byard, Roger W

    2012-03-01

    In addition to blunt and sharp trauma, animal-related fatalities may result from envenomation, poisoning, anaphylaxis, asphyxiation, and sepsis. Although the majority of envenomation deaths are caused by hornets, bees, and wasps, the mechanism of death is most often anaphylaxis. Envenomation resulting from the injection of a poison or toxin into a victim occurs with snakes, spiders, and scorpions on land. Marine animal envenomation may result from stings and bites from jellyfish, octopus, stonefish, cone fish, stingrays, and sea snakes. At autopsy, the findings may be extremely subtle, and so a history of exposure is required. Poisoning may also occur from ingesting certain fish, with three main forms of neurotoxin poisoning involving ciguatera, tetrodotoxin ingestion, and paralytic shellfish poisoning. Asphyxiation may follow upper airway occlusion or neck/chest compression by animals, and sepsis may follow bites. Autopsy analysis of cases requires extensive toxinological, toxicological, and biochemical analyses of body fluids. PMID:21981407

  18. AID from bony fish catalyzes class switch recombination

    PubMed Central

    Barreto, Vasco M.; Pan-Hammarstrom, Qiang; Zhao, Yaofeng; Hammarstrom, Lennart; Misulovin, Ziva; Nussenzweig, Michel C.

    2005-01-01

    Class switch recombination was the last of the lymphocyte-specific DNA modification reactions to appear in the evolution of the adaptive immune system. It is absent in cartilaginous and bony fish, and it is common to all tetrapods. Class switching is initiated by activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID), an enzyme expressed in cartilaginous and bony fish that is also required for somatic hypermutation. Fish AID differs from orthologs found in tetrapods in several respects, including its catalytic domain and carboxy-terminal region, both of which are essential for the switching reaction. To determine whether evolution of class switch recombination required alterations in AID, we assayed AID from Japanese puffer and zebra fish for class-switching activity in mouse B cells. We find that fish AID catalyzes class switch recombination in mammalian B cells. Thus, AID had the potential to catalyze this reaction before the teleost and tetrapod lineages diverged, suggesting that the later appearance of a class-switching reaction was dependent on the evolution of switch regions and multiple constant regions in the IgH locus. PMID:16157688

  19. Phycotoxins: chemistry, mechanisms of action and shellfish poisoning.

    PubMed

    Rossini, Gian Paolo; Hess, Philipp

    2010-01-01

    Phycotoxins are natural metabolites produced by micro-algae. Through accumulation in the food chain, these toxins may concentrate in different marine organisms, including filter-feeding bivalves, burrowing and grazing organisms, herbivorous and predatory fish. Human poisoning due to ingestion of seafood contaminated by phycotoxins has occurred in the past, and harmful algal blooms (HABs) are naturally occurring events. Still, we are witnessing a global increase in HABs and seafood contaminations, whose causative factors are only partially understood. Phycotoxins are small to medium-sized natural products and belong to many different groups of chemical compounds. The molecular mass ranges from approximately 300 to over 3000 Da, and the compound classes represented include amino acids, alkaloids and polyketides. Each compound group typically has several main compounds based on the same or similar structure. However, most groups also have several analogues, which are either produced by the algae or through metabolism in fish or shellfish or other marine organisms. The different phycotoxins have distinct molecular mechanisms of action. Saxitoxins, ciguatoxins, brevetoxins, gambierol, palytoxins, domoic acid, and, perhaps, cyclic imines, alter different ion channels and/or pumps at the level of the cell membrane. The normal functioning of neuronal and other excitable tissues is primarily perturbed by these mechanisms, leading to adverse effects in humans. Okadaic acid and related compounds inhibit serine/threonine phosphoprotein phosphatases, and disrupt major mechanisms controlling cellular functions. Pectenotoxins bind to actin filaments, and alter cellular cytoskeleton. The precise mechanisms of action of yessotoxins and azaspiracids, in turn, are still undetermined. The route of human exposure to phycotoxins is usually oral, although living systems may become exposed to phycotoxins through other routes. Based on recorded symptoms, the major poisonings recognized so far include paralytic, neurotoxic, amnesic, diarrheic shellfish poisonings, ciguatera, as well as palytoxin and azaspiracid poisonings. PMID:20358682

  20. 332 BULLETIN OF THE UNITED STATES FISH COMMISSION. mackerel, about 2 inches long, was one day placed in an aquarium with

    E-print Network

    the power of stinging sererely, while many other ~ fish, and frequently such as are larger than those to eat a substance F3hich acts like poison on most other fish, or which is at least refused by them

  1. Alsike clover poisoning: A review

    PubMed Central

    Nation, P. Nicholas

    1989-01-01

    Trifolium hybridum (alsike clover) has been implicated as the cause of two diseases of the horse. One of these is photosensitivity, of which alsike clover is only one of a number of presumed causal agents. The other is a fatal syndrome which is known as “alsike clover poisoning” and which is manifest by progressive loss of condition, signs of hepatic failure, and varying degrees of neurological impairment. The underlying lesion of alsike clover poisoning is fibrosis and proliferation of the biliary tree. The experimental evidence implicating alsike clover as the cause of this syndrome comes entirely from a series of feeding trials performed by Dr. Frank Schofield between 1928 and 1933. This review surveys the literature on the association of alsike clover with both photosensitivity and biliary fibrosis in horses, and summarizes the clinical and pathological features of “alsike clover poisoning”. The experimental evidence that has been used to implicate Trifolium hybridum as the cause of alsike clover poisoning is critically examined. It is concluded that the existing experimental evidence is insufficient to prove that Trifolium hybridum is the cause of alsike clover poisoning. PMID:17423321

  2. Alsike clover poisoning: A review.

    PubMed

    Nation, P N

    1989-05-01

    Trifolium hybridum (alsike clover) has been implicated as the cause of two diseases of the horse. One of these is photosensitivity, of which alsike clover is only one of a number of presumed causal agents. The other is a fatal syndrome which is known as "alsike clover poisoning" and which is manifest by progressive loss of condition, signs of hepatic failure, and varying degrees of neurological impairment. The underlying lesion of alsike clover poisoning is fibrosis and proliferation of the biliary tree. The experimental evidence implicating alsike clover as the cause of this syndrome comes entirely from a series of feeding trials performed by Dr. Frank Schofield between 1928 and 1933.This review surveys the literature on the association of alsike clover with both photosensitivity and biliary fibrosis in horses, and summarizes the clinical and pathological features of "alsike clover poisoning". The experimental evidence that has been used to implicate Trifolium hybridum as the cause of alsike clover poisoning is critically examined. It is concluded that the existing experimental evidence is insufficient to prove that Trifolium hybridum is the cause of alsike clover poisoning. PMID:17423321

  3. American Association of Poison Control Centers

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Alerts Prevention National Poison Data System Our Work Alerts Keep Up-to-Date on the Latest Poison ... effects like psychotic episodes and seizures. View all alerts right left Safe Kids Worldwide 2015 Annual Medication ...

  4. Ingestion of Poison by the Boll Weevil.

    E-print Network

    Reinhard, H. J. (Henry Jonathan); Thomas, F. L. (Frank Lincoln)

    1933-01-01

    , Anthonomus grandis Boh., secures a lethal dose of poison on cotton plants dusted with any arsenical is of fundamental importance to the question of weevil control by the use of poisons under cotton-field conditions. The discouraging results...

  5. Domoic Acid and Amnesiac Shellfish Poisoning

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    SeaGrant; Oregon State University; NOAA

    This National SeaGrant (PDF) publication discusses Red Tide, Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning (PSP), Domoic Acid, and Amnesiac Shellfish Poisoning (ASP). It includes a description of symptoms as well as a contact number for the shellfish harvest hotline.

  6. Poisonous birds: A timely review.

    PubMed

    Ligabue-Braun, Rodrigo; Carlini, Célia Regina

    2015-06-01

    Until very recently, toxicity was not considered a trait observed in birds, but works published in the last two decades started to shed light on this subject. Poisonous birds are rare (or little studied), and comprise Pitohui and Ifrita birds from Papua New Guinea, the European quail, the Spoor-winged goose, the Hoopees, the North American Ruffed grouse, the Bronzewings, and the Red warbler. A hundred more species are considered unpalatable or malodorous to humans and other animals. The present review intends to present the current understanding of bird toxicity, possibly pointing to an ignored research field. Whenever possible, biochemical characteristics of these poisons and their effects on humans and other animals are discussed, along with historical aspects of poison discovery and evolutionary hypothesis regarding their function. PMID:25839151

  7. Ultradian oscillation in expression of four melatonin receptor subtype genes in the pineal gland of the grass puffer, a semilunar-synchronized spawner, under constant darkness

    PubMed Central

    Ikegami, Taro; Maruyama, Yusuke; Doi, Hiroyuki; Hattori, Atsuhiko; Ando, Hironori

    2015-01-01

    Melatonin receptor gene expression as well as melatonin synthesis and secretion activities were examined in the pineal gland of the grass puffer, which exhibits unique lunar/tidal cycle-synchronized mass spawing: spawning occurs before high tide on the day of spring tide during spawing season. Melatonin synthesizing activity was assessed by the abundance of arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase 2 (AANAT2) mRNA. The amount of aanat2 mRNA was low during light phase and initiated to increase after the light was turned off. The secretion of melatonin from primary pineal organ culture was stimulated after the light was turned off and ceased immediately after the light was turned on. The expression levels of four melatonin receptor subtype genes (mel1a1.4, mel1a1.7, mel1b, and mel1c) showed synchronous variations, and the levels tended to be high during the dark phase under light/dark conditions. These results suggest that the action of melatonin on the pineal gland is highly dependent on light and photoperiod, possibly with stronger action during night time. Under constant darkness, the expression of four melatonin receptor subtype genes showed unique ultradian oscillations with the period of 14.0–15.4 h, suggesting the presence of a circatidal oscillator in the pineal gland. The present results indicate that melatonin may serve local chronobiological functions in the pineal gland. These cyclic expressions of melatonin receptor genes in the pineal gland may be important in the control of the lunar/tidal cycle-synchronized mass spawning in the grass puffer. PMID:25688184

  8. Ultradian oscillation in expression of four melatonin receptor subtype genes in the pineal gland of the grass puffer, a semilunar-synchronized spawner, under constant darkness.

    PubMed

    Ikegami, Taro; Maruyama, Yusuke; Doi, Hiroyuki; Hattori, Atsuhiko; Ando, Hironori

    2015-01-01

    Melatonin receptor gene expression as well as melatonin synthesis and secretion activities were examined in the pineal gland of the grass puffer, which exhibits unique lunar/tidal cycle-synchronized mass spawing: spawning occurs before high tide on the day of spring tide during spawing season. Melatonin synthesizing activity was assessed by the abundance of arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase 2 (AANAT2) mRNA. The amount of aanat2 mRNA was low during light phase and initiated to increase after the light was turned off. The secretion of melatonin from primary pineal organ culture was stimulated after the light was turned off and ceased immediately after the light was turned on. The expression levels of four melatonin receptor subtype genes (mel 1a 1.4, mel 1a 1.7, mel1b, and mel1c) showed synchronous variations, and the levels tended to be high during the dark phase under light/dark conditions. These results suggest that the action of melatonin on the pineal gland is highly dependent on light and photoperiod, possibly with stronger action during night time. Under constant darkness, the expression of four melatonin receptor subtype genes showed unique ultradian oscillations with the period of 14.0-15.4 h, suggesting the presence of a circatidal oscillator in the pineal gland. The present results indicate that melatonin may serve local chronobiological functions in the pineal gland. These cyclic expressions of melatonin receptor genes in the pineal gland may be important in the control of the lunar/tidal cycle-synchronized mass spawning in the grass puffer. PMID:25688184

  9. [Dimenhydrinate poisoning in childhood (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Borkenstein, M; Haidvogl, M

    1978-01-01

    Treatment of a Dimenhydrinate poisoning (Vertirosan B6) with Physostigmine salicylate (Antrilirium) is reported. The symptoms of this anticholinergic poisoning (hyperactivity, ataxia, tremor, rubeosis faciei, hallucinations) disappeared rapidly after a single intravenous injection of Physostigmine salicylate. A table of some of the most common drugs capable of producing anticholinergic poisoning is added. PMID:643296

  10. A "Poisoning" Attack Against Online Anomaly Detection

    E-print Network

    Freytag, Johann-Christoph

    A "Poisoning" Attack Against Online Anomaly Detection Marius Kloft Department of Computer Science it is robust against targeted "poisoning" attacks. The latter have been first investigated by Nelson et al. [1 of all data points observed so far. The key idea of a poisoning attack is to insert specially crafted

  11. Countering Poisonous Inputs with Memetic Neuroevolution

    E-print Network

    Togelius, Julian

    Countering Poisonous Inputs with Memetic Neuroevolution Julian Togelius1 , Tom Schaul1 , J-dimensional and/or ill-chosen state description. Evidently, some controller inputs are "poisonous also ex- plore which types of inputs are poisonous for two different reinforcement learning problems. 1

  12. National Poison Prevention Week Promotional Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poison Prevention Week Council, Washington, DC.

    This collection of materials for parents, early childhood workers, the elderly, and anyone in situations requiring safeguards against poisoning, spans the years 1993 and 1994 and is intended to promote National Poison Prevention Week. The materials included are: (1) the 31-page, illustrated report on National Poison Prevention Week for 1993,…

  13. 76 FR 9585 - Poison Control Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-18

    ...Resources and Services Administration Poison Control Program AGENCY: Health Resources...SUNY d.b.a. the Upstate New York Poison Control Center. HRSA will also transfer...Corporation d.b.a. the New York City Poison Control Center. These transfers are...

  14. Handbook of Common Poisonings in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Food and Drug Administration (DHEW), Washington, DC.

    This handbook for physicians, emergency room personnel and pharmacists lists the manufacturer, description, toxicity, symptoms and findings, treatment, and references for 73 poison substances considered by the Subcommittee on Accidental Poisoning of the American Academy of Pediatrics to be most significant in terms of accidental poisoning of…

  15. Chapter 6: Research Priorities Childhood Lead Poisoning

    E-print Network

    Chapter 6: Research Priorities 6 Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention Research Priorities If we are to improve lead poisoning prevention strategies, we need additional research in the following areas: 1 to control lead hazards in housing. · The effectiveness of family education about lead poisoning prevention

  16. Pesticide poisoning surveillance through regional poison control centers.

    PubMed

    Olson, D K; Sax, L; Gunderson, P; Sioris, L

    1991-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe pesticide exposure in the population of callers to Minnesota Regional Poison Centers. Case files from 1988 reporting pesticide exposure to humans were identified in cooperation with the Minnesota Center for Health Statistics. Data analysis was conducted by computer using SAS statistical package. Of the 1,428 case files indicating pesticide as the primary substance of exposure to Minnesota residents, a mean age of 5 years (range, one month to 85 years) was identified; 50 percent of all cases were below age 3 years. Males accounted for 1.3 times as many cases as females. Insecticide was identified in the largest percentage of case files (74 percent) followed by herbicide (12 percent), rodenticide (11 percent) and fungicide-nonmedicinal (3 percent). Ingestion was the most common route of exposure; 85 percent of all calls originated from a residence. While insecticides are still the most common types of pesticide call, herbicide has surpassed insecticide in production and sales in the US. In this study, herbicide type exposure calls present a much different picture than other pesticide types. The usefulness of poison control centers for examination of pesticide poisoning is explored. Since reporting occurs coincidental with the exposure and its associated symptoms, each pesticide poisoning report could potentially serve as a true sentinel health event. PMID:2029045

  17. Poisoning of wild birds from exposure to anticholinesterase compounds and lead: diagnostic methods and selected cases

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Franson, J.C.; Smith, M.R.

    1999-01-01

    Organophosphorus and carbamate compounds have largely replaced chlorinated hydrocarbons for pesticidal use in the United States, and many cases of poisoning resulting from exposure to these anticholinesterase agents have occurred in free-living birds. Although lead shot has been prohibited for waterfowl hunting throughout the United States since 1991, lead poisoning from the ingestion of spent lead shot is still occasionally seen in wild birds, and lead poisoning from the ingestion of fishing sinkers is an emerging issue of concern. A thorough history, a complete necropsy evaluation, and appropriate laboratory analysis of tissues are required to diagnose toxicoses in wild birds, including those caused by anticholinesterase compounds and lead. The interpretation of brain cholinesterase (ChE) activity results depends on the methods of analysis and comparison with expected normal enzyme activities in brain tissue from the same species. Although lead residues in tissues vary among species, many lead poisoned birds have tissue residues that are much higher than the lower threshold commonly accepted for a diagnosis of lead poisoning. We review histories, necropsy findings, and analytical methodologies and results for selected anticholinesterase and lead poisoning cases diagnosed in wild raptors, waterfowl, and loons.

  18. Prolonged toxicity of organophosphate poisoning.

    PubMed

    Merrill, D G; Mihm, F G

    1982-08-01

    A case of poisoning with a new organophosphate (fenthion) is reported in which the initial cholinergic crisis was delayed 5 days and recurred 24 days after ingestion. Psychosis was a persistent and sometimes singular manifestation. Because of the high lipid solubility of this pesticide, toxin analysis of repeated fat biopsies was an essential component of the management of this patient. PMID:7094603

  19. Approach to the poisoned patient

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jerrold B. Leikin

    1996-01-01

    Routine poison management involves the following: (1) stabilization, (2) toxidrome recognition, (3) decontamination, (4) antidote administration, (5) enhanced elimination of toxin, and (6) supportive care. Stabilization involves airway, ventilation, and circulation support. In the patient with altered mental status, oxygen, naloxone, glucose, and thiamine should be administered. Symptom complexes that relate to specific classifications of toxins are referred to as

  20. The Solanaceae: foods and poisons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    The plant family Solanaceae contains important foodstuffs such as the potato, tomato and aubergine, together with powerful poisons including mandrake, henbane and deadly nightshade. In the first article in this short series on the family, the history and importance of the potato are described. It was first cultivated by the Inca people in the altiplano of the Andes in prehistoric

  1. Catalytic Poisons and Magnetic Susceptibility

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. H. Dilke; D. D. Eley; E. B. Maxted

    1948-01-01

    THE alkyl sulphides are powerful catalytic poisons for palladium, and the nature of the adsorption link is therefore of great interest. On chemical grounds., Maxted1 has suggested a co-ordinate link from the sulphur atom to the metal. Here We record some preliminary measurements on the change in magnetic susceptibility of palladium due to adsorption of dimethyl sulphide. We conclude that

  2. Paracetamol poisoning: beyond the nomogram.

    PubMed

    Bateman, D Nicholas

    2015-07-01

    Paracetamol poisoning is the commonest overdose seen in the UK. The management of patients with paracetamol poisoning has been little changed for the past 40?years, with a weight related dose of antidote (acetylcysteine) and treatment based on nomograms relating paracetamol concentration to time from ingestion. In 2012 the UK Commission on Human Medicines recommended a revision of the nomogram, following the death of a young woman, lowering the treatment threshold for all patients. As a result many more patients were treated. This has resulted in a large increase in admissions and in the proportion suffering adverse reactions to the antidote acetylcysteine since, interestingly, higher paracetamol concentrations inhibit anaphylactoid reactions to the antidote. New approaches to assessing the toxicity of paracetamol are now emerging using new biomarkers in blood. This article discusses new approaches to risk assessment and treatment for paracetamol overdose based on recent research in this area. PMID:26099917

  3. Fatal poisonings in Trabzon (Turkey).

    PubMed

    Birincioglu, Ismail; Karadeniz, Hulya; Teke, Hacer Yasar

    2011-05-01

    The aim of this study was to present the characteristics of medicolegal autopsies of fatal poisonings in Trabzon (Turkey), performed from 1998 to 2008, to contribute to the available data on this topic. A retrospective study of the forensic records and the toxicological data of all autopsies performed over that period revealed that 285 cases (6.34%) of the 4492 total autopsies performed were attributed to fatal poisoning. Major toxic substances were classified in five categories as follows: carbon monoxide (CO), insecticides, prescription medications, narcotic drugs, and alcohol (methyl and ethyl). CO was the most frequent cause of death (63.2%), followed by insecticides (17.2%), prescription medications and narcotic drugs (9.8%), alcohol (7.7%), and others (mushroom, rodenticide, and botulism) (2.1%). Ages of the patients ranged from 1 to 86 years (21.55 ± 36.56). PMID:21447071

  4. Dialysis in the poisoned patient.

    PubMed

    Bayliss, George

    2010-04-01

    Patients who ingest toxic substances may require extracorporeal removal of the poisons or their toxic metabolites if native renal clearance is not sufficient because of acute kidney injury, acuity of symptoms, or burden of toxin. Here, a case is presented, and the literature on renal replacement therapy in the event of acute intoxication is reviewed. Extracorporeal therapy efficacy is examined in terms of the characteristics of the toxin (molecular size, charge, protein, or lipid binding); the patient (body habitus and volume of distribution); and the process (membrane effects on extraction ratios and sieving, role of blood, and dialysate flow rates). The choice of extracorporeal therapy and hemodialysis prescriptions for specific poisonings are discussed. PMID:20337746

  5. Lead poisoning in sandhill cranes.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, S; Crisler, J P; Smith, E; Bush, M

    1977-11-01

    Seven Florida sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis pratensis) and 6 greater sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis tabida) were exposed to lead-base paint containing 27% lead. One bird of each subspecies died enroute to the hospital, with a clinical history of anorexia, weakness, and open-mouth breathing of 36 hours' duration. There were no gross lesions, and microscopic lesions were limited to focal hepatic necrosis and hemosiderosis. Two of each subspecies of cranes developed clinical signs of lead poisoning, which included anorexia, weakness, green diarrhea, regurgitation, and open-mouth breathing. Diagnosis of lead poisoning was confirmed on the basis of blood lead concentrations ranging from 146 microgram/100 ml to 378 microgram/100 ml. These 4 cranes were treated successfully with calcium disodium edetate intramuscularly. Seven of the birds remained clinically normal despite high blood lead levels, especially in the greater sandhill cranes. PMID:411773

  6. Datura stramonium poisoning in children.

    PubMed

    Adegoke, S A; Alo, L A

    2013-01-01

    Although substance abuse is fairly common among adolescents, poisoning from Datura stramonium (a broadleaf annual erect herb with spine-covered seed capsule) is uncommon in children and has not been reported in our locality. We present the case of two children admitted at the Children Emergency Room of a teaching hospital following ingestion of extract of Datura stramonium. They developed neurotoxicity (confusion, agitation, mydriasis, and hallucination) and were managed symptomatically with good outcome. A high index of suspicion and early management of poison in children is imperative if a favorable outcome is expected. Early presentation and the presence of an eyewitness contributed to the very good outcome in these index cases. In this report, we discussed the symptomatology and management of Datura toxicity in children. PMID:23377485

  7. Texas Plants Poisonous to Livestock.

    E-print Network

    Sperry, Omer Edison

    1964-01-01

    , MANAGEMENT AND TREAT- MENT. The signs antl lesions of this poisoning are similar to those of horsetail milkweed, and the same prevention and treatment me.thocls are recommended. Astragalus emoryanus-Peavine, Red-stemmed Peavine, Emory Loco DESCRIPTION... of Astragalus na\\e wen reduced to variety status of A. mollissimzls (GouIt1 1962). Although these three locos are similar in toxicity and management, the descriptions and clistributions differ and are presented for each variety concerned. Other information...

  8. The treatment of acetaminophen poisoning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. F. Prescott; J A J H Critchley

    1983-01-01

    Acetaminophen has become a very popular over-the-counter analgesic in some countries and as a result it is used increasingly as an agent for self-poisoning. Without treatment only a minority of patients develop severe liver damage and 1 to 2% die in hepatic failure. Until Mitchell and his colleagues discovered the biochemical mechanisms of toxicity in 1973 there was no effective

  9. Poison hemlock ( Conium maculatum L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Vetter

    2004-01-01

    One of the most poisonous species amongst higher plants is Conium maculatum. It is a very common nitrophile weed species, belonging to the Apiaceae (formerly Umbelliferae) family. It contains some piperidine alkaloids (coniine, N-methyl-coniine, conhydrine, pseudoconhydrine, ?-coniceine), which are formed by the cyclisation of an eight-carbon chain derived from four acetate units. ?-Coniceine is the precursor of the other hemlock

  10. Phencyclidine. Nine cases of poisoning.

    PubMed

    Liden, C B; Lovejoy, F H; Costello, C E

    1975-11-01

    In nine cases of phencyclidine hydrochloride poisoning, early signs of overdose included drowsiness, nystagmus, miotic pupils, blood pressure elevation, increased deep tendon reflexes, ataxia, anxiety, and agitation. In more severe cases, seizures, spasticity, and opisthotonos were seen in addition to deep coma and respiratory depression. Treatment included removal by emetics or lavage, hydration, and a quiet, reassuring environment. Spasticity, agitation, and ocular manifestions responded to diazepam. Psychiatric intervention was instituted after the patients were stable and no longer agitated. PMID:1242171

  11. Biomarkers of Neurotoxic Shellfish Poisoning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ann Abraham; Steven M. Plakas; Leanne J. Flewelling; Kathleen R. El Said; Edward L. E. Jester; Hudson R. Granade; Kevin D. White; Robert W. Dickey

    2008-01-01

    Urine specimens from patients diagnosed with neurotoxic shellfish poisoning (NSP) were examined for biomarkers of brevetoxin intoxication. Brevetoxins were concentrated from urine by using solid-phase extraction (SPE), and analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS\\/MS). Urine extracts were fractionated by LC, and fractions analyzed for brevetoxins by ELISA. In subsequent LC-MS\\/MS analyses, several brevetoxin metabolites

  12. Congenital PCB poisoning: a reevaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, R.W.

    1985-05-01

    A review of the literature reveals a need to clarify the pathologic physiology of congenital polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) poisoning, which is characterized by intrauterine growth retardation, brown staining of the skin and mucous membranes as in Addison's disease, natal teeth, widely open fontanelles and sagittal suture and apparent overgrowth of the gingiva. The skull abnormalities may represent irregular calcification, with natal teeth appearing because the bone of the mandible is penetrated more easily than usual. Some fetuses were poisoned at the time the mothers ingested the oil; others were affected in the subsequent years from residual contamination in the mothers' bodies. The misadventure in Japan was repeated in Taiwan in 1979. The seven congenital cases in Taiwan reported thus far seem to differ from those in Japan. In Taiwan the noses were somewhat black, two of the infants did not have low birth weight and the osseous abnormalities of the skull and gingival hyperplasia were not observed. Systematic followup studies should be made in Taiwan of the children born within 2 years of maternal poisoning with PCBs. Special attention should be given to age at first dentition and skull-X-rays for spotty calcification, among other measures of physical, neurologic and intellectual development.

  13. Acute fatal poisoning with Tolfenpyrad.

    PubMed

    Hikiji, Wakako; Yamaguchi, Koji; Saka, Kanju; Hayashida, Makiko; Ohno, Youkichi; Fukunaga, Tatsushige

    2013-11-01

    The authors present a fatal case of poisoning with Tolfenpyrad (TFP), a pesticide first approved in Japan in 2002. A man in his fifties was found dead in the supine position at his son's home and the small towel with a smell of naphthalene was found nearby. Forensic autopsy was unremarkable, except for a very small amount of light pink fluid in the stomach, with naphthalene odour. The toxicological analyses revealed the presence of TFP and its major metabolite PTCA (4-[4-[(4-chloro-3-ethyl-1-methylpyrazol-5-yl)carbonylaminomethyl]phenoxy]benzoic acid), together with naphthalene and methyl naphthalenes in the post-mortem sample, with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) respectively. The plasma concentrations of each substance were quantified as 1.97 ?g/ml (TFP), 2.88 ?g/ml (PTCA), 1.70 ?g/ml (naphthalene), 0.67 ?g/ml (1-methyl naphthalene) and 1.44 ?g/ml (2-methyl naphthalene). According to these results together with autopsy findings, the cause of his death was determined to be acute Tolfenpyrad poisoning. This is the first case report of fatal poisoning attributable to an intake of TFP product. PMID:24237799

  14. Poison hemlock (Conium maculatum L.).

    PubMed

    Vetter, J

    2004-09-01

    One of the most poisonous species amongst higher plants is Conium maculatum. It is a very common nitrophile weed species, belonging to the Apiaceae (formerly Umbelliferae) family. It contains some piperidine alkaloids (coniine, N-methyl-coniine, conhydrine, pseudoconhydrine, gamma-coniceine), which are formed by the cyclisation of an eight-carbon chain derived from four acetate units. gamma-Coniceine is the precursor of the other hemlock alkaloids. All vegetative organs, flowers and fruits contain alkaloids. The concentrations (both absolute and relative) of the different alkaloids depend on plant varieties, on ecological conditions and on the age of the plant. The characteristic biological effects of the plants are summarised on cattle, sheep, goat, swine, rabbit, elk, birds and insects and the symptoms of the human toxicosis (some cases of poisonings) are discussed according to the literature data. The general symptoms of hemlock poisoning are effects on nervous system (stimulation followed by paralysis of motor nerve endings and CNS stimulation and later depression), vomiting, trembling, problems in movement, slow and weak later rapid pulse, rapid respiration, salivation, urination, nausea, convulsions, coma and death. PMID:15234067

  15. The nation's first poison control center: taking a stand against accidental childhood poisoning in Chicago.

    PubMed

    Burda, A M; Burda, N M

    1997-04-01

    Prior to the 1950's, there existed no formal system for poison prevention or treatment in the US. Estimates place the number of pediatric poisoning fatalities at over 400/y at that time. After World War II, urbanization and modern technological methods brought forth over 250,000 different brand name products on the market. Health care professionals presented with cases of acute poisoning usually had little knowledge of what ingredients were contained in these new products, making it difficult to treat these patients. In the 1930's, pharmacist Louis Gdalman established a poison information service at St Luke's hospital. Because of Gdalman's training in pharmacy and chemistry, physicians throughout Chicago and the US called on him in search of assistance. In the late 1940's, Gdalman began recording information on small cards, and developed a standard data collection from. By the 1950's he had established an extensive library on the management of acute and chronic poisonings. In 1948, a national effort to reduce the number of accidents in children was started by the American Academy of Pediatrics, and a committee was formed in Chicago to address this public safety need. In November, 1953, the poison center at Presbyterian-St Luke's Hospital was formally recognized, and the poison program model spread nationwide. As the number of poison centers grew, coordination was achieved through the National Clearing House for Poison Control Centers, founded in 1957, and the American Association of Poison Control Centers, created in 1958. By 1970, the number of poison centers in the US was reported to be 597. The need for large and better centers led to regional poison control centers. Other outgrowths were the formation of the National Poison Prevention Week Council, the enactment of the Poison Prevention Packaging Act, development of "Mr. Yuk" and other symbols, and formation of the National Animal Poison Control Center. As a result, the number of children dying from accidental poisoning has dropped to under 50/y. PMID:9080638

  16. Metal Poisons for Criticality in Waste Streams

    SciTech Connect

    Williamson, T.G.; Goslen, A.Q.

    1996-06-26

    Many of the wastes from processing fissile materials contain metals which may serve as nuclear criticality poisons. It would be advantageous to the criticality evaluation of these wastes to demonstrate that the poisons remain with the fissile materials and to demonstrate an always safe poison-to-fissile ratio. The first task, demonstrating that the materials stay together, is the job of the chemist, the second, calculating an always safe ratio, is an object of this paper.

  17. 75 FR 13215 - National Poison Prevention Week, 2010

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-19

    ...March 15, 2010 National Poison Prevention Week, 2010 By the President of the United States...1962, during National Poison Prevention Week we alert American families about the dangers...campaigns like National Poison Prevention Week, childhood death rates from...

  18. 77 FR 16645 - National Poison Prevention Week, 2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-21

    ...Proclamation 8784--National Poison Prevention Week, 2012 Memorandum of March 16, 2012...March 16, 2012 National Poison Prevention Week, 2012 By the President of the United States...anniversary of National Poison Prevention Week, I encourage all Americans to help...

  19. 76 FR 16521 - National Poison Prevention Week, 2011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-23

    ...Proclamation 8638--National Poison Prevention Week, 2011 Presidential Documents Federal Register...March 18, 2011 National Poison Prevention Week, 2011 By the President of the United States...preventable. During National Poison Prevention Week, I encourage all Americans to...

  20. 21 CFR 1230.13 - Labeling of “poison”.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL CAUSTIC POISON ACT Labeling § 1230.13 Labeling of “poison”. The following are styles of uncondensed...required on a label in stating the word “poison” they must not be smaller than those...

  1. 16 CFR 1700.15 - Poison prevention packaging standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Poison prevention packaging standards. 1700...Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION POISON PREVENTION PACKAGING ACT OF 1970 REGULATIONS POISON PREVENTION PACKAGING § 1700.15...

  2. 16 CFR 1700.15 - Poison prevention packaging standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Poison prevention packaging standards. 1700...Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION POISON PREVENTION PACKAGING ACT OF 1970 REGULATIONS POISON PREVENTION PACKAGING § 1700.15...

  3. 49 CFR 172.540 - POISON GAS placard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false POISON GAS placard. 172.540 Section 172...SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.540 POISON GAS placard. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON GAS placard must be as follows:...

  4. 49 CFR 172.540 - POISON GAS placard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false POISON GAS placard. 172.540 Section 172...SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.540 POISON GAS placard. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON GAS placard must be as follows:...

  5. 16 CFR 1700.15 - Poison prevention packaging standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Poison prevention packaging standards. 1700...Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION POISON PREVENTION PACKAGING ACT OF 1970 REGULATIONS POISON PREVENTION PACKAGING § 1700.15...

  6. 21 CFR 1230.13 - Labeling of “poison”.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL CAUSTIC POISON ACT Labeling § 1230.13 Labeling of “poison”. The following are styles of uncondensed...required on a label in stating the word “poison” they must not be smaller than those...

  7. 49 CFR 172.429 - POISON INHALATION HAZARD label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false POISON INHALATION HAZARD label. 172.429...SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.429 POISON INHALATION HAZARD label. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON INHALATION HAZARD label must be as...

  8. 49 CFR 172.555 - POISON INHALATION HAZARD placard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false POISON INHALATION HAZARD placard. 172...SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.555 POISON INHALATION HAZARD placard. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON INHALATION HAZARD placard must be...

  9. 21 CFR 1230.13 - Labeling of “poison”.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL CAUSTIC POISON ACT Labeling § 1230.13 Labeling of “poison”. The following are styles of uncondensed...required on a label in stating the word “poison” they must not be smaller than those...

  10. 49 CFR 172.555 - POISON INHALATION HAZARD placard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false POISON INHALATION HAZARD placard. 172...SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.555 POISON INHALATION HAZARD placard. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON INHALATION HAZARD placard must be...

  11. 49 CFR 172.540 - POISON GAS placard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false POISON GAS placard. 172.540 Section 172...SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.540 POISON GAS placard. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON GAS placard must be as follows:...

  12. 21 CFR 1230.13 - Labeling of “poison”.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL CAUSTIC POISON ACT Labeling § 1230.13 Labeling of “poison”. The following are styles of uncondensed...required on a label in stating the word “poison” they must not be smaller than those...

  13. 49 CFR 172.429 - POISON INHALATION HAZARD label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false POISON INHALATION HAZARD label. 172.429...SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.429 POISON INHALATION HAZARD label. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON INHALATION HAZARD label must be as...

  14. 49 CFR 172.429 - POISON INHALATION HAZARD label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false POISON INHALATION HAZARD label. 172.429...SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.429 POISON INHALATION HAZARD label. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON INHALATION HAZARD label must be as...

  15. 21 CFR 1230.13 - Labeling of “poison”.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL CAUSTIC POISON ACT Labeling § 1230.13 Labeling of “poison”. The following are styles of uncondensed...required on a label in stating the word “poison” they must not be smaller than those...

  16. 49 CFR 172.555 - POISON INHALATION HAZARD placard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false POISON INHALATION HAZARD placard. 172...SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.555 POISON INHALATION HAZARD placard. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON INHALATION HAZARD placard must be...

  17. 16 CFR 1700.15 - Poison prevention packaging standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Poison prevention packaging standards. 1700...Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION POISON PREVENTION PACKAGING ACT OF 1970 REGULATIONS POISON PREVENTION PACKAGING § 1700.15...

  18. Fish FAQ

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Northeast Fisheries Science Center answers your question regarding all things fish. Hundreds of fish and other marine fauna questions are answered in the FAQ section. Site also links to several external fish FAQs, as well as other internal and external resources, including kids sites, fish images, species synopses, how to age a fish. The site also features a glossary of fish terms and insight into the different ways fish are caught.

  19. Lead Poisoning of Waterfowl by Contaminated Sediment in the Coeur d'Alene River

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Sileo; L. H. Creekmore; D. J. Audet; M. R. Snyder; C. U. Meteyer; J. C. Franson; L. N. Locke; M. R. Smith; D. L. Finley

    2001-01-01

    The Coeur d'Alene River basin in Idaho has been contaminated by mine tailings that have impaired the health of wildlife since\\u000a the early 1900s. In other parts of the world, virtually all lead poisoning of waterfowl is caused by the ingestion of manmade\\u000a lead artifacts, primarily spent lead shotshell pellets or, occasionally, fishing sinkers. However, in the Coeur d'Alene River

  20. Pattern of pediatric poisoning in the east Karadeniz region between 2002 and 2006: increased suicide poisoning.

    PubMed

    Mutlu, M; Cansu, A; Karakas, T; Kalyoncu, M; Erduran, E

    2010-02-01

    In the present study, 386 patients with the diagnosis of poisoning admitted to the Pediatric Emergency Unit of Farabi Hospital of Medical Faculty of Karadeniz Technical University between January 2002 and December 2006 were retrospectively evaluated with respect to gender, age, cause of poisoning, type of substance used, route of exposure, reason for the intake, signs and symptoms, time of referral to the hospital, hospitalization period, and prognosis. The age group of most poisoning cases was <5 years of age and constituted 51% (n = 197) of all cases. The main toxic agent was drugs (70.2%), followed by foods (8.8%), rodenticides (7%), insecticides/pesticides (4.9%), and carbon monoxide (4.7%). In childhood poisonings, accidental drug poisoning was frequent in toddlers, whereas suicidal poisoning was frequent in adolescents. The suicidal poisoning rate was 23.8% among all poisoning patients, and 98.9% of these patients were adolescents. The suicidal poisoning rates for males and females were 30% and 70%, respectively. An increase in suicidal and inhalation poisonings was observed when compared with previous studies that have been conducted in the same region. The results of the present study suggest that poisonings still represents an important health problem that could be prevented by safe drug storage at home, as well as parental education on adolescence issues, particularly those regarding females. PMID:20019095

  1. Childhood Lead Poisoning: Resources for Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance to End Childhood Lead Poisoning, Washington, DC.

    The current approach to dealing with childhood lead poisoning has led to repeated diagnoses of poisoning because such children are treated and then returned to their hazardous environments. This handbook, the third in a three-volume set, provides examples of specific materials currently or recently used in ongoing state and local childhood lead…

  2. Preventing ways of acute poisoning in children

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S M Ganieva; A I Iskandarov; M O Abdurahmanova

    2010-01-01

    Among evils, bringing children by civilisation and technical progress for the last decades, especially significant are traumas and poisoning. The aim of study is carry out of quantitative diagnostics criteria and evaluation severity degree of chemical traumas in children and recommendations on their prevention. Material for study were 62 cases of acute poisoning among children at the age from 5

  3. Summer Spurs Calls to Poison Centers

    MedlinePLUS

    ... hot foods hot and cold foods cold. By programming 1-800-222-1222 into your phone, you can reach a poison center from anywhere in the United States. SOURCE: Nebraska Regional Poison Center, news release HealthDay Copyright (c) 2015 HealthDay . All rights reserved. More Health News ...

  4. Red Tide or Neurotoxic Shellfish Poisoning

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This web page discusses Red Tide and Neurotoxic Shellfish Poisoning, a milder gastroenteritis with neurologic symptoms compared with Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning. The classic causative organism is the dinoflagellate Gymnodinium breve, which produces neurotoxic toxins known as brevetoxins. This page describes clinical presentation of NSP (including symptoms), diagnosis, management and treatment, molecular mechanism of action, and references.

  5. Argument Strategies: Antidote to Tylenol's Poisoned Image.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benoit, William L.; Lindsey, James J.

    1987-01-01

    Analyzes how the manufacturer dealt with the Tylenol poisonings: the link between Tylenol and the poisoning was denied, its image as a safe product was bolstered, capsules were differentiated from other products, and as a result, sales recovered. Extends the applicability of apologia as a way to analyze other media campaigns. (SKC)

  6. Effects of rodent poisoning on Powelliphanta traversi

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shaun J. Bennett; Rachel J. Standish; Ian A. N. Stringer

    Rat predation is a threat to lowland Powelliphanta traversi (giant predatory land snail), and we have shown that 'press' poisoning of rodents (rats and mice) using brodifacoum baits significantly reduces rat abundance relative to non- poisoned areas. The effect on P. t. traversi was evident by the increase in population size, mainly due to adult migration, and a decrease in

  7. Validation of a Poison Prevention Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gill, Noel C.; Braden, Barbara T.

    Two way analyses of variance and cross-group descriptive comparisons assessed the effectiveness of the Siop Poison Prevention Program, which included an educational program and the use of warning labels, on improving verbal and visual discrimination of poisonous and nonpoisonous products for preschool children. The study sample consisted of 156…

  8. Poison control center - Emergency number (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    For a poison emergency call 1-800-222-1222 anywhere in the United States. This national hotline number will let you ... is a free and confidential service. All local poison control centers in the U.S. use this national ...

  9. Xenon poisoning calculations based on tube power

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Erkman

    1953-01-01

    A method of calculating the steady state xenon poisoning was developed using parameters derived from the power production of individual tubes in the pile. The power of individual tubes was recorded automatically at some of the production piles. The necessary parameter is derived from these data by the use of IBM computers. This method of calculating xenon poisoning eliminates the

  10. Management of the critically poisoned patient

    PubMed Central

    Boyle, Jennifer S; Bechtel, Laura K; Holstege, Christopher P

    2009-01-01

    Background Clinicians are often challenged to manage critically ill poison patients. The clinical effects encountered in poisoned patients are dependent on numerous variables, such as the dose, the length of exposure time, and the pre-existing health of the patient. The goal of this article is to introduce the basic concepts for evaluation of poisoned patients and review the appropriate management of such patients based on the currently available literature. Methods An unsystematic review of the medical literature was performed and articles pertaining to human poisoning were obtained. The literature selected was based on the preference and clinical expertise of authors. Discussion If a poisoning is recognized early and appropriate testing and supportive care is initiated rapidly, the majority of patient outcomes will be good. Judicious use of antidotes should be practiced and clinicians should clearly understand the indications and contraindications of antidotes prior to administration. PMID:19563673

  11. Emergency management of poisoning in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Lau, F L

    2000-09-01

    The emergency management of poisoning is important in reducing the risk of mortality and morbidity in poisoned patients. This article reviews the Hong Kong system of prehospital and emergency care of poisoning, with reference to recent advances in this field. Administering activated charcoal is recommended for the gastro-intestinal decontamination of most poisons, unless doing so is contra-indicated. Gastric lavage should be considered only in life-threatening cases of poisoning that present within the first hour. Newer antidotes that are available in Hong Kong accident and emergency departments include hydroxocobalamin, stonefish and snake antevenenes, digoxin-specific antibodies, esmolol hydrochloride, and octreotide. The 'golden hour' concept of gastro-intestinal decontamination is advocated and ways to ensure that decontamination is performed within the 'golden hour' are suggested. PMID:11025848

  12. Lead poisoning in six captive avian species

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beyer, W.N.; Spann, J.W.; Sileo, L.; Franson, J.C.

    1988-01-01

    Red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus), brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater), common grackles (Quiscalus quiscula), mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), northern bobwhites (Colinus virginianus), and eastern screech-owls (Otus asio) were poisoned with a concentration of lead (Pb) acetate in the diet which was increased by 60% each week until half of the birds in each treatment group died; surviving birds and all control birds except screech-owis were then killed by euthanasia. An additional group of mallards was poisoned with Pb shot. The gizzards of mallards poisoned either way usually were stained with bile; some of these birds also had proventricular impaction. Most poisoned birds of the other species were emaciated but lacked other gross lesions caused by Pb poisoning. In birds other than mallards, Pb poisoning could not be diagnosed without histological or hematological examinations or analysis of tissues. Poisoned birds of all six species could be reliably separated from control birds by an increase in the protoporphyrin concentrations in the blood and by a decrease in the activity of delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) in red blood cells. Hepatic iron (Fe) concentrations varied so much among individual birds that even though median hepatic Fe concentrations increased in poisoned birds, hepatic Fe concentrations were not useful in identifying poisoned birds. Renal intranuclear inclusion bodies occurred in 83% of all birds dying from Pb poisoning. Nephrosis, myocardial necrosis, and arterial fibrinoid necrosis were occasionally present. Median hepatic Pb concentrations varied from 20 ppm (wet wt) in male red-winged blackbirds to 111 ppm in female northern bobwhites. Median renal Pb concentrations varied from 22 ppm in redwinged blackbirds to 190 ppm in female northern bobwhites. Hepatic and renal Pb concentrations varied substantially among birds within each species. Median hepatic and renal Pb concentrations of birds that died were not statistically different (p > 0.05) from those of birds that were killed. Lead shot and Pb acetate affected mallards similarly.

  13. Lead poisoning in six captive avian species

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beyer, W.N.; Spann, J.W.; Sileo, L.; Franson, J.C.

    1988-01-01

    Red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus), brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater), common grackles (Quiscalus quiscula), mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), northern bobwhites (Colinus virginianus), and eastern screech-owls (Otus asio) were poisoned with a concentration of lead (Pb) acetate in the diet which was increased by 60% each week until half of the birds in each treatment group died; surviving birds and all control birds except screech-owls were then killed by euthanasia. An additional group of mallards was poisoned with Pb shot. The gizzards of mallards poisoned either way usually were stained with bile; some of these birds also had proventricular impaction. Most poisoned birds of the other species were emaciated but lacked other gross lesions caused by Pb poisoning. In birds other than mallards, Pb poisoning could not be diagnosed without histological or hematological examinations or analysis of tissues. Poisoned birds of all six species could be reliably separated from control birds by an increase in the protoporphyrin concentrations in the blood and by a decrease in the activity of delta-aminoievulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) in red blood cells. Hepatic iron (Fe) concentrations varied so much among individual birds that even though median hepatic Fe concentrations increased in poisoned birds, hepatic Fe concentrations were not useful in identifying poisoned birds. Renal intranuclear inclusion bodies occurred in 83% of all birds dying from Pb poisoning. Nephrosis, myocardial necrosis, and arterial fibrinoid necrosis were occasionally present. Median hepatic Pb concentrations varied from 20 ppm (wet wt) in male red-winged blackbirds to III ppm in female northern bobwhites. Median renal Pb concentrations varied from 22 ppm in red-winged blackbirds to 190 ppm in female northern bobwhites. Hepatic and renal Pb concentrations varied substantially among birds within each species. Median hepatic and renal Pb concentrations of birds that died were not statistically different (p > 0.05) from those of birds that were killed. Lead shot and Pb acetate affected mallards similarly.

  14. The treatment of acetaminophen poisoning

    SciTech Connect

    Prescott, L.F.; Critchley, J.A.

    1983-01-01

    Acetaminophen has become a very popular over-the-counter analgesic in some countries and as a result it is used increasingly as an agent for self-poisoning. Without treatment only a minority of patients develop severe liver damage and 1 to 2% die in hepatic failure. Until Mitchell and his colleagues discovered the biochemical mechanisms of toxicity in 1973 there was no effective treatment. They showed that the metabolic activation of acetaminophen resulted in the formation of a reactive arylating intermediate, and that hepatic reduced glutathione played an essential protective role by preferential conjugation and inactivation of the metabolite. Early treatment with sulphydryl compounds and glutathione precursors has been dramatically effective in preventing liver damage, renal failure, and death following acetaminophen overdosage. It seems likely that these agents act primarily by stimulating glutathione synthesis. Inhibition of the metabolic activation of acetaminophen is another potential therapeutic approach that has not yet been put to the test clinically. The clinical management of acetaminophen poisoning has been transformed and it is particularly gratifying to have effective treatment based on a well established biochemical mechanism of toxicity. It is likely that effective treatment will be developed for toxicity caused through similar mechanisms by other agents.

  15. Open air carbon monoxide poisoning.

    PubMed

    Jumbelic, M I

    1998-01-01

    An unusual manner of carbon monoxide poisoning claimed the lives of two adults in two separate incidents. In the first case, a young man was four wheeling in a swampy area when his jeep became stuck in the mud as he continued to floor the accelerator. Carbon monoxide fumes entered the vehicle through the rusted floorboards, killing the driver. In the second case, two teens were skinny dipping behind a motor boat when they became affected by the boat exhaust. One of the youths was overcome and submerged into the lake. Both incidents were initially attributed to incorrect causes--a car accident and a drowning--because of the false notion that carbon monoxide is not a hazard in a ventilated area. The carboxyhemoglobin levels in these victims were 78 and 62% respectively. It was only through laboratory testing that carbon monoxide poisoning was identified as the cause of their demise. Physicians as well as the public need to be aware of the potential for this life threatening hazard to occur so that there can be proper emergency treatment and the prevention of fatalities. PMID:9456553

  16. Poisoning

    MedlinePLUS

    ... nail polish remover and other personal care products Paint thinner Pesticides used in the house or in ... when using cleaners and chemicals. Avoid using pesticides, paint thinner or other chemicals inside the house or ...

  17. Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention Program Community Awareness Pilot

    E-print Network

    Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention Program Community Awareness Pilot #12;1 THE GOOD NEWS- Exposure to Lead is Preventable Lead Poisoning Is a REAL Problem; Did You Know? Lead is a highly toxic substance the effects of lead poisoning, but lead poisoning is much more frequent in children than in adults. For many

  18. International Symposium Women as Visionaries, Healers and Poisoners

    E-print Network

    Peters, Achim

    International Symposium Women as Visionaries, Healers and Poisoners ­ Autonomous Female Religious:45 Dinner SUNDAY 05.05.2013 CONTESTED GENDER AND SOCIAL ROLES: FEMALE HEALERS AND POISONERS 09:30 Anna) -- The gender of the poisoner: containership, analogic kinship and female poisoning lineages (dug rgyud) among

  19. SURF: Detecting and Measuring Search Poisoning College of Computing

    E-print Network

    SURF: Detecting and Measuring Search Poisoning Long Lu College of Computing Georgia Inst, search poison- ing techniques disregard any term relevance constraint and are em- ployed to poison-hungry web- sites for malicious purposes. To accurately detect search poisoning cases, we designed a novel

  20. Stealthy Poisoning Attacks on PCA-based Anomaly Detectors

    E-print Network

    Tygar, Doug

    Stealthy Poisoning Attacks on PCA-based Anomaly Detectors Benjamin I. P. Rubinstein1 Blaine Nelson1 detection, we present and evaluate short-term and long-term data poison- ing schemes that trade-off between poisoning duration and the volume of traffic injected for poisoning. Stealthy Boil- ing Frog attacks

  1. Carbon monoxide poisoning of proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. J. Baschuk; Xianguo Li

    2001-01-01

    SUMMARY Proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) performance degrades when carbon monoxide (CO) is present in the fuel gas; this is referred to as CO poisoning. This paper investigates CO poisoning of PEMFCs by reviewing work on the electrochemistry of CO and hydrogen, the experimental performance of PEMFCs exhibiting CO poisoning, methods to mitigate CO poisoning and theoretical models of

  2. Methadone toxicity in a poisoning referral center

    PubMed Central

    Taheri, Fatemeh; Yaraghi, Ahmad; Sabzghabaee, Ali Mohammad; Moudi, Maryam; Eizadi-Mood, Nastaran; Gheshlaghi, Farzad; Farajzadegan, Ziba

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Methadone poisoning can occur accidentally or intentionally for suicide or homicide purposes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the epidemiological and clinical manifestations of Methadone poisoning. Methods: A descriptive analytical study was performed from 2010 to 2012 in the poisoning emergency and clinical toxicology departments of Noor hospital affiliated with Isfahan University of Medical Sciences (Isfahan, Iran). All patients with Methadone poisoning within this period of time were investigated. Different variables were recorded in a checklist. Findings: A total of 385 patients were studied. About 85.7% had ingested only Methadone and 14.3% had ingested other medications with Methadone. Mean ± standard deviation of the age was 32.1 ± 15 years (range: 1-90). Most of the patients were male (76.4%). Nearly 40% of the patients were narcotic addicts, 25.5% were addicts under surveillance of Methadone maintenance therapy centers and 34.5% were non-addicts. Intentional poisoning was observed in most of the patients (57.7%). Most of the patients had a low level of consciousness on admission (58.2%). Respiratory depression and hypotension was observed in 35.6% and 12.7% of the cases as the most common symptoms. Regarding vital signs, there was a significant difference in respiratory rate on admission among different evaluated groups (P = 0.02). Length of hospital stay was 18.79 ± 0.72 h (range: 4-240 h, median: 15 h). About 57 patients (25.8%) from the intentionally poisoned patients and 19 patients (12.3%) from the unintentionally poisoned patients had a history of psychiatric disorder (P = 0.001). Most of the patients survived without complications. Conclusion: Addiction, age, gender, attempt to suicide and a history of psychiatric disorder were of the most important factors effective in Methadone poisoning, which should be considered in the public training and prevention of poisoning. PMID:24991620

  3. DDT poisoning in a Cooper's hawk collected in 1980

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Prouty, R.M.; Pattee, O.H.; Schmeling, S.K.

    1982-01-01

    In April 1980, a Cooper's hawk (Accipiter cooperii) was found on the ground in Lakewood, Colorado, unable to fly and in convulsion. The bird died shortly thereafter. The hawk was packed in dry ice and shipped air express to the Fish and Wildlife Service, U. S. Department of the Interior, National Wildlife Health Laboratory, Madison, Wisconsin, for necropsy. Following necropsy, the brain, gastrointestinal tract, and remaining carcass except skin, feet, wings, liver, and kidney were packed in dry ice and shipped air express to the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, Laurel, Maryland, for chemical residue analysis. Because the bird's behavior before death suggested some form of poisoning, the kidney was assayed for thallium, the liver for lead, and the gastrointestinal tract for strychnine, sodium fluoroacetate, and arsenic. When these assays proved negative, the bird was analyzed for organochlorine pesticides. Necropsy findings and pesticide residue analyses are reported here.

  4. Poisoned Pacific: The legacy of French nuclear testing

    SciTech Connect

    Danielsson, B.

    1990-03-01

    The author points out that France hosted a summit meeting of the seven wealthiest nations on earth in the summer of 1989, celebrating the bicentenary of the French Revolution. Although introducing a new subject to the economic summit - present environmental concerns - nothing was said about the poisoning of the islands and islanders from 159 nuclear tests (44 atmospheric, 115 underground) since 1966 on two tiny atolls (Moruroa and Fangataufa) in French Polynesia. The first test rained dead fish from a lagoon; others spread radiation throughout the region. De Gaulle's promise of independence to the Polynesians during World War II, as soon as the war was over, was forgotten once nuclear testing began. The atolls and the patience of the Polynesians have been used up; and a colony that once was nearly self-sufficient now imports 80% of its food.

  5. Morphological abnormalities and sensorimotor deficits in larval fish exposed to dissolved saxitoxin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kathi A. Lefebvre; Vera L. Trainer; Nathaniel L. Scholz

    2004-01-01

    The dietary uptake of one suite of dinoflagellate-produced neurotoxins, that are commonly called paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins, is known to cause acute fish kills. However, little is known about the effects of dissolved phase exposure and the potential sublethal effects of this route of exposure on early developmental stages of fish. Toxin exposure during early development is of particular

  6. [Advancement of methanol poisoning mechanism research].

    PubMed

    Chen, Jie-min; Wang, Li-xin; Xia, Wen-tao

    2010-08-01

    The methanol poisoning by oral intake or skin contact occurs occasionally, which may have serious consequences including blindness and/or death. Methanol and its metabolites, formaldehyde and formic acid, are associated with metabolic acidosis, visual dysfunction and neurological symptoms. At present, the mechanism of methanol poisoning primarily focuses on the cell hypoxia, the alteration of structure and biological activity induced by free radical and lactic acid. Meanwhile, methanol poisoning causes changes in the balance between the production of free radicals and antioxidant capacity and in the proteases-protease inhibitors system, which lead to a series of disturbances. PMID:20967961

  7. Chronic mercury poisoning: Report of two siblings.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Cahide; Okur, Mesut; Geylani, Hadi; Caksen, Hüseyin; Tuncer, O?uz; Ata?, Bülent

    2010-01-01

    Mercury exists as organic inorganic and elementary forms in nature and is one of the most toxic metals that are poisonous for human beings. Mercury is commonly used in many different sectors of industry such as in insects formulas, agriculture products, lamps, batteries, paper, dyes, electrical/electronic devices, jewelry, and in dentistry. In this study, two siblings (one a 7-year-old boy and the other a 13 years old girl) are reported who developed chronic mercury poisoning as a result of long-term contact with batteries. Our aim is to emphasize the importance of mercury poisoning that is extremely rarely seen in childhood. PMID:20808663

  8. Metal Poisons in Waste Tanks (U)

    SciTech Connect

    Williamson, T.G. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States)

    1996-10-14

    Many of the storage tanks with waste from processing fissile materials contain, along with the fissile material, metals which may serve as nuclear criticality poisons. It would be advantageous to the criticality evaluation of these wastes if it can be demonstrated that the poisons remain with the fissile materials and if an always safe poison-to-fissile ratio can be established. The first task, demonstrating that the materials stay together, is the job of the chemist, the second, demonstrating an always safe ratio, is the job of the physicist. The latter task is the object of this paper

  9. Poisonous plants in New Zealand: a review of those that are most commonly enquired about to the National Poisons Centre

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. J. Slaughter; D. M. Beasley; B. S. Lambie; G. T. Wilkins; L. J. Schep

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: New Zealand has a number of plants, both native and introduced, contact with which can lead to poisoning. The New Zealand National Poisons Centre (NZNPC) frequently receives enquiries regarding exposures to poisonous plants. Poisonous plants can cause harm following inadvertent ingestion, via skin contact, eye exposures or inhalation of sawdust or smoked plant matter. AIM: The purpose of this

  10. Poisoning of resin supported catalyst

    SciTech Connect

    Hunter, D.L.; Moore, S.E.

    1987-02-10

    A method is described of enhancing performance of a combined hydroformylation/reduction reaction of an olefin liquid feed in the presence of a resin-supported transition metal complex catalyst. The method comprises: (a) preparing a resin-supported transition metal complex catalyst for use in a combined hydroformylation/reduction reaction substantially free of halides and halide salts in the metal complex catalyst; and (b) introducing an olefin liquid feed to the resin-supported catalyst for conducting a combined hydroformylation/reduction reaction, in the presence of CO and H/sub 2/. The olefin feed has a specified maximum limit of halide concentration sufficiently low to enable continued indefinite operation of the combined hydroformylation/reduction reaction process without halide poisoning.

  11. THE PHOTOSENSITIVE RETINAL PIGMENTS OF FISHES FROM RELATIVELY TURBID COASTAL WATERS

    PubMed Central

    Munz, Frederick W.

    1958-01-01

    Digitonin extracts have been prepared from the retinae of a dozen species of marine and euryhaline teleost fishes from turbid water habitats. Spectrophotometric analysis of the extracts shows that the photosensitive retinal pigments of these species have maximum absorption above 500 mµ. In nine species there are retinene1 pigments with ?max between 504 and 512 mµ. In the marine but euryhaline mullet, Mugil cephalus, there is a porphyropsin with ?max 520 mµ. A mixture of rhodopsin and porphyropsin in an extract of a marine puffer, Sphoeroides annulatus, was disclosed by partial bleaching with colored light. In addition, one other species has a 508 mµ pigment, of which the nature of the chromophore was not determined. The habitats in which these fishes live are relatively turbid, with the water greenish or yellowish in color. The spectral transmission of such waters is probably maximal between 520 and 570 mµ. It is suggested that the fishes have become adapted to these conditions by small but significant shifts in spectral absorption of their retinal pigments. These pigments are decidedly more effective than rhodopsin in absorption of wavelengths above 500 mµ. This offers a possible interpretation of the confusing array of retinal pigments described from marine and euryhaline fishes. PMID:13587924

  12. Amanita phalloides-Type Mushroom Poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Healey, Kathy; Woo, Olga F.; Olson, Kent R.; Pond, Susan M.; Seward, James; Becker, Charles E.

    1982-01-01

    In the fall of 1981 the San Francisco Bay Area Regional Poison Control Center received more than 100 calls regarding wild mushroom ingestion. Ten cases, including three fatalities, had all the features of Amanita phalloides poisoning. Encephalopathy, coma and renal insufficiency occurred in all three patients who died, but did not occur in those who survived. Two of the three patients who died arrived at the hospital late in the course of their illness, and severe gastroenteritis with accompanying dehydration probably contributed to their deaths. The poison control center promoted public awareness of the mushroom hazard through newspaper and television stories and by notifying local health departments. It also has devised a simple form to improve the quality of data collection and to assist in later verification of suspected A phalloides poisoning. PMID:7179945

  13. Paint, lacquer, and varnish remover poisoning

    MedlinePLUS

    ... or breathing in (sniffing) products to remove paint, lacquer , or varnish . This is for information only and ... Paint, lacquer, and varnish removers may contain the following poisonous ingredients: Benzyl alcohol Ethanol Formic acid Methyl alcohol Methylene ...

  14. Red Tide and Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dale, Barrie; Yentsch, Clarice M.

    1978-01-01

    Discusses the nature and cause of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP). Includes toxic dinoflagellate ecology, taxonomy and life history, and chemistry of the toxins. Recent work with trace metals and directions of future research are also given. (MA)

  15. Cornell University Poisonous Plants Informational Database

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Dr. Dan L. Brown

    This database provides information on plants and other natural flora such as fungi that grow in the United States and may be poisonous to livestock or other animals. The information includes images of plants, pictures of affected animals and presentations on botany, chemistry, toxicology, diagnosis, and prevention of poisoning. The data are searchable by scientific or common name, primary poison, and species of animal most often affected. There are also alphabetical listings of plants by genus and species and by common names, a list of toxic agents found in plants, and a list of commonly affected animals (including humans). Other materials include a discussion of the possible benefits or toxic effects of medicinal plants on livestock, a frequently-asked-questions feature, and links to other websites with information on poisonous plants.

  16. FACTS AND FALLACIES ON INDUSTRIAL POISONING

    PubMed Central

    Thienes, Clinton H.

    1957-01-01

    Misdiagnosis of diseases as due to industrial poisoning leads to much misunderstanding, higher taxes and insurance rates and “compensation neuroses.” It is important to know the concentration of the suspected poison and its specific effects in order to logically indict it as the cause of illness. Examples discussed to illustrate some of the pitfalls of diagnosis in industrial medicine are methylbromide, carbon monoxide, ozone, oxides of nitrogen and of sulfur, hydrogen sulfide, benzene analogs, boron and fluorides. PMID:13460717

  17. Mescalbean (Sophora secundiflora) Poisonous for Livestock. 

    E-print Network

    Boughton, I. B. (Ivan Bertrand); Hardy, W. T. (William Tyree)

    1935-01-01

    R6-103 5-6m TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION A. B. CONNER, DIRECTOR COLLEGE STATION, BRAZOS COUNTY, TEXAS BULLETIN NO. 519 DECEMBER', 1935 -- DIVISION OF VETERINARY SCIENCE MESCALBEAN (SOPHORA SECUNDIFLORA) POISONOUS FOR LIVESTOCK... AGRJCULTURAL AND MECHANICAL COLLEGE OF TEXAS T. 0. WALTON, President poisoning among range sheep resulting from eating green leaves of Sophora seczcndiflora (commonly known as mescalbean, mountain laurel, or coralbean) sometimes occurs' during the late...

  18. Ingestion of Poison by the Boll Weevil. 

    E-print Network

    Reinhard, H. J. (Henry Jonathan); Thomas, F. L. (Frank Lincoln)

    1933-01-01

    during the dusting operation. The activities of both sexes of weevils, observed under natural conditions and on cotton plants which had been dusted with calcium arsenate or talc, are influenced to a considerable degree by the presence of these dusts.... The effectiveness of calcium arsenate in controlling weevils when applied to plants in the absence of dew did not appear attributable to poison ingested with food alone. Furthermore, tests conducted on weevil control by the use of sweetened liquid poison mopped...

  19. Hyperbaric Oxygen for Acute Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lindell K. Weaver; Ramona O. Hopkins; Karen J. Chan; Susan Churchill; C. Gregory Elliott; Terry P. Clemmer; James F. Orme; Frank O. Thomas; Alan H. Morris

    2002-01-01

    Background Patients with acute carbon monoxide poisoning commonly have cognitive sequelae. We conducted a double-blind, randomized trial to evaluate the effect of hyperbaric-oxygen treatment on such cognitive sequelae. Methods We randomly assigned patients with symptomatic acute carbon monoxide poisoning in equal proportions to three chamber sessions within a 24-hour period, consisting of either three hyperbaric-oxygen treatments or one normobaric-oxygen treatment

  20. High ethylmercury in river fish by man-made pollution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sumie Yamanaka; Kiichi Ueda

    1975-01-01

    Unusually high levels of mercury around 1 ppM were found in fish from the Shokotsu and the Muka Rivers (in Hokkaido), the Jinzu and the Oyabe Rivers (in Toyama Pref.), the Hono River (in Nara Pref.), in addition to the notorious Minamata Bay and the Agano River, where human poisoning incidents have been reported. In the Jinzu River, the extraordinary

  1. Rhabdomyolysis in 114 patients with acute poisonings

    PubMed Central

    Mousavi, Seyed Reza; Vahabzadeh, Maryam; Mahdizadeh, Adeleh; Vafaee, Mansooreh; Sadeghi, Mahmood; Afshari, Reza; Balali-Mood, Mahdi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Rhabdomyolysis is a clinical and biochemical syndrome, which is observed in some patients with acute chemical and/or pharmaceutical poisonings. We aimed to investigate rhabdomyolysis in patients with acute poisonings due to different chemicals, natural toxins or drug overdose. Materials and Methods: Following approval of the University medical research committee and obtaining informed consents from the patients or their relatives, all patients with acute poisonings who were treated between March 2009 and February 2010 in the Toxicologic Ward of Imam Reza Hospital and had serum creatine phosphokinase (CPK) above 975 IU/L (as a definition for rhabdomyolysis) were studied. Results: Of 3555 hospitalized poisoned patients, 114 patients had rhabdomyolysis with CPK of 5996 ± 892 IU/L (mean ± standard error). The most common intoxication to induce the rhabdomyolysis was opioid overdose (28%). Acute renal failure (ARF) was diagnosed in 11 (8.7%) patients. There was a linear correlation between CPK and creatinine (P < 0.001), which in turn had a significant correlation with death (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Patients with acute poisoning were at risk of rhabdomyolysis. Acute opioid poisoning was the most common cause of toxic rhabdomyolysis in the intoxicated patients, and ARF was the main complication.

  2. SECONDARY POISONING OF EAGLES FOLLOWING INTENTIONAL POISONING OF COYOTES WITH ANTICHOLINESTERASE PESTICIDES IN WESTERN CANADA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Wobeser; T. Bollinger; F. A. Leighton; B. Blakley; P. Mineau

    2004-01-01

    Records of eagles, coyotes (Canis latrans), and red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) necropsied at the Western College of Veterinary Medicine, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada, between 1967 and 2002 were reviewed for cases suggestive of anticholinesterase poisoning. From 1993 to 2002, 54 putative poisoning incidents involving 70 bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) and 10 golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetus) were identified. Of these, 50 incidents

  3. Myonecrosis in carbon monoxide poisoning.

    PubMed

    Herman, G D; Shapiro, A B; Leikin, J

    1988-02-01

    Myonecrosis is an unusual sequelae to carbon monoxide poisoning with only 16 cases having been reported in the English-language literature. At the University of Illinois Hospital, we encountered a 25-year-old fire academy student who presented to our Emergency Department with a carboxyhemoglobin level of 16% following a training exercise in a smoke-filled room. The patient was not wearing a self-contained breathing apparatus and his duration of exposure was 7-8 min, by which time he had blacked out for about 1 min. Upon arrival, the patient was lethargic, with a moderate inhalation burn. The patient was treated with hyperbaric oxygen at 2 1/2 ATA. Following 90 min of hyperbaric oxygen, slight flexor compartment weakness, along with tenderness of the proximal lower extremities was noted. CPK was elevated to 65,998 (100% mm) with urine dipstick being positive for blood and only occasional rbc's seen in the urine sediment. The patient did well with forced diuresis and alkalinization of the urine. No oliguria was noted and the CPK fell to 893 five days later. This is the only case in the English-language literature who developed myonecrosis from carbon monoxide, despite hyperbaric oxygen treatment. We believe that this case demonstrates that hyperbaric oxygen cannot prevent the development of myonecrosis induced by carbon monoxide. PMID:3354179

  4. Lead poisoning of spectacled eiders (Somateria fischeri) and of a common eider (Somateria mollissima) in Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Franson, J.C.; Petersen, M.R.; Meteyer, C.U.; Smith, M.R.

    1995-01-01

    Lead poisoning was diagnosed in four spectacled eiders (Somateria fischeri) and one common eider (Somateria mollissima) found dead or moribund at the Yukon Delta National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska (USA) in 1992, 1993, and 1994. Ingested lead shot was found in the lower esophagus of one spectacled eider and in the gizzard of the common eider. Lead concentrations in the livers of the spectacled eiders were 26 to 38 ppm wet weight, and 52 ppm wet weight in the liver of the common eider. A blood sample collected from one of the spectacled eiders before it was euthanized had a lead concentration of 8.5 ppm wet weight. This is the first known report of lead poisoning in the spectacled eider, recently listed as a threatened species by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

  5. Fatal paralytic shellfish poisoning in Kittlitz's Murrelet (Brachyramphus brevirostris) nestlings, Alaska, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shearn-Bochsler, Valerie I.; Lance, Ellen W.; Corcoran, Robin; Piatt, John; Bodenstein, Barbara; Frame, Elizabeth; Lawonn, James

    2014-01-01

    Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) is an acute toxic illness in humans resulting from ingestion of shellfish contaminated with a suite of neurotoxins (saxitoxins) produced by marine dinoflagellates, most commonly in the genus Alexandrium. Poisoning also has been sporadically suspected and, less often, documented in marine wildlife, often in association with an outbreak in humans. Kittlitz's Murrelet (Brachyramphus brevirostris) is a small, rare seabird of the Northern Pacific with a declining population. From 2008 to 2012, as part of a breeding ecology study, multiple Kittlitz's Murrelet nests on Kodiak Island, Alaska, were monitored by remote cameras. During the 2011 and 2012 breeding seasons, nestlings from several sites died during mild weather conditions. Remote camera observations revealed that the nestlings died shortly after consuming sand lance (Ammodytes hexapterus), a fish species known to biomagnify saxitoxin. High levels of saxitoxin were subsequently documented in crop content in 87% of nestling carcasses. Marine bird deaths from PSP may be underreported.

  6. Using poison center data for postdisaster surveillance.

    PubMed

    Wolkin, Amy; Schnall, Amy H; Law, Royal; Schier, Joshua

    2014-10-01

    The role of public health surveillance in disaster response continues to expand as timely, accurate information is needed to mitigate the impact of disasters. Health surveillance after a disaster involves the rapid assessment of the distribution and determinants of disaster-related deaths, illnesses, and injuries in the affected population. Public health disaster surveillance is one mechanism that can provide information to identify health problems faced by the affected population, establish priorities for decision makers, and target interventions to meet specific needs. Public health surveillance traditionally relies on a wide variety of data sources and methods. Poison center (PC) data can serve as data sources of chemical exposures and poisonings during a disaster. In the US, a system of 57 regional PCs serves the entire population. Poison centers respond to poison-related questions from the public, health care professionals, and public health agencies. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) uses PC data during disasters for surveillance of disaster-related toxic exposures and associated illnesses to enhance situational awareness during disaster response and recovery. Poison center data can also be leveraged during a disaster by local and state public health to supplement existing surveillance systems. Augmenting traditional surveillance data (ie, emergency room visits and death records) with other data sources, such as PCs, allows for better characterization of disaster-related morbidity and mortality. Poison center data can be used during a disaster to detect outbreaks, monitor trends, track particular exposures, and characterize the epidemiology of the event. This timely and accurate information can be used to inform public health decision making during a disaster and mitigate future disaster-related morbidity and mortality. Wolkin A , Schnall AH , Law R , Schier J . Using poison center data for postdisaster surveillance. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2014;29(5):1-4 . PMID:25205009

  7. Control of Histamine-Producing Bacteria and Histamine Formation in Fish Muscle by Trisodium Phosphate.

    PubMed

    Bjornsdottir-Butler, Kristin; Green, David P; Bolton, Greg E; McClellan-Green, Patricia D

    2015-06-01

    Scombrotoxin fish poisoning remains the primary cause of seafood poisoning outbreaks despite preventive guidelines. The purpose of this study was to investigate the use of pH for the control of growth and histamine formation by histamine-producing bacteria in fish muscle. We examined pH effects on growth and histamine formation in tuna fish infusion broth and in inoculated tuna and mahi-mahi fish muscle. Histamine production was significantly less for all bacterial strains at pH 8.5 compared to pH 5.5 in tuna fish infusion broth with no significant difference in growth. Elevated pH due to phosphate treatment of fish muscle tissues significantly reduced histamine formation with no effect on the growth of histamine-producing bacteria. This study revealed that phosphate treatment of mahi-mahi and tuna fish muscle resulted in significantly lower histamine production over 4 d of storage at 10 °C. Phosphate treatment of fish muscle may serve as a secondary barrier in addition to FDA recommended time and temperature controls for reducing public health concerns of scombrotoxin fish poisoning. PMID:25920380

  8. Fish Prints

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    California Academy of Sciences

    2008-01-01

    In this hands-on art activity, learners will study and identify features of the external anatomy of a fish. They will have the opportunity to learn the different functions of fish anatomy along with new vocabulary terms while handling a real fish in their art project. Also, a discussion may take place about the different kinds of fish and how different shapes are more beneficial for certain environments. As a wrap up, learners can become familiar about issues related to the conservation of fish, such as overfishing, habitat destruction, and invasive species. This activity is standards-based.

  9. Pancreatitis in wild zinc-poisoned waterfowl

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sileo, L.; Beyer, W.N.; Mateo, R.

    2003-01-01

    Four waterfowl were collected in the Tri-State Mining District (Oklahoma, Kansas and Missouri, USA), an area known to be contaminated with lead, cadmium and zinc (Zn). They were part of a larger group of 20 waterfowl collected to determine the exposure of birds to metal contamination at the site. The four waterfowl (three Branta canadensis, one Anas platyrhynchos) had mild to severe degenerative abnormalities of the exocrine pancreas, as well as tissue (pancreas, liver) concentrations of Zn that were considered toxic. The mildest condition was characterized by generalized atrophy of exocrine cells that exhibited cytoplasmic vacuoles and a relative lack of zymogen. The most severe condition was characterized by acini with distended lumens and hyperplastic exocrine tissue that completely lacked zymogen; these acini were widely separated by immature fibrous tissue. Because the lesions were nearly identical to the lesions reported in chickens and captive waterfowl that had been poisoned with ingested Zn, and because the concentrations of Zn in the pancreas and liver of the four birds were consistent with the concentrations measured in Zn-poisoned birds, we concluded that these waterfowl were poisoned by Zn. This may be the first reported case of zinc poisoning in free-ranging wild birds poisoned by environmental Zn.

  10. Pancreatitis in wild zinc-poisoned waterfowl

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sileo, L.; Beyer, W.N.; Mateo, R.

    2003-01-01

    Four waterfowl were collected in the TriState Mining District (Oklahoma, Kansas and Missouri, USA), an area known to be contaminated with lead, cadmium and zinc (Zn). They were part of a larger group of 20 waterfowl collected to determine the exposure of birds to metal contamination at the site. The four waterfowl (three Branta canadensis, one Anas platyrhynchos) had mild to severe degenerative abnormalities of the exocrine pancreas, as well as tissue (pancreas, liver) concentrations of Zn that were considered toxic. The mildest condition was characterized by generalized atrophy of exocrine cells that exhibited cytoplasmic vacuoles and a relative lack of zymogen. The most severe condition was characterized by acini with distended lumens and hyperplastic exocrine tissue that completely lacked zymogen; these acini were widely separated by immature fibrous tissue. Because the lesions were nearly identical to the lesions reported in chickens and captive waterfowl that had been poisoned with ingested Zn, and because the concentrations of Zn in the pancreas and liver of the four birds were consistent with the concentrations measured in Zn-poisoned birds, we concluded that these waterfowl were poisoned by Zn. This may be the first reported case of zinc poisoning in free-ranging wild birds poisoned by environmental Zn.

  11. An accidental poisoning with mitragynine.

    PubMed

    Karinen, Ritva; Fosen, Jan Toralf; Rogde, Sidsel; Vindenes, Vigdis

    2014-10-24

    An increasing number of drugs of abuse are sold word wide over the internet. Names like "legal highs", "herbal highs" etc. give the impression that these are safe products, although the risk of fatal reactions might be substantial. Leaves from the plant Mitragyna speciosa, contain active compounds like mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine. It has been reported that the potency of 7-hydroxymitragynine at the ?-opioid receptor is 30 times higher than that of mitragynine and 17 times higher than that of morphine. Case reports regarding poisoning with Kratom are reported, but the toxic or lethal ranges for the concentrations of the active substances have not been established, and concentrations of 7-hydroxymitragynine have not been reported previously. We present a case report where a middle aged man was found dead at home. The deceased had a history of drug abuse and mental illness for several years. At autopsy, there were no significant pathological findings. Post-mortem analysis of peripheral blood revealed: zopiclone 0.043mg/L, citalopram 0.36mg/L and lamotrigine 5.4mg/L, i.e. concentrations regularly seen after therapeutic ingestion of these drugs. Additionally mitragynine 1.06mg/L and 7-hydroxymitragynine 0.15mg/L were detected in blood and both also in urine. The high concentrations of mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine indicate that the cause of death is intoxication by these substances; and the circumstances point toward the manner of death being accidental. We recommend that both mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine are analyzed for in cases with suspected Kratom intoxication. PMID:25453780

  12. Unusual case of methanol poisoning

    SciTech Connect

    Shapiro, L.; Henderson, M. (St. James's Univ. Hospital, Leeds (United Kingdom). Dept. of Chemical Pathology); Madi, S.; Mellor, L. (St. James's Univ. Hospital, Leeds (United Kingdom). Dept. of Medicine, and Pharmacy)

    1993-01-09

    A 31-year-old man with a history of alcohol abuse presented to the accident and emergency department complaining of blurred vision. 4 h previously he had drunk 300 mL de-icer fluid. Electrolytes, urea, creatinine, glucose, and blood-gas analysis were normal. Measured osmolality, however, was 368 mosmol/kg with a calculated osmolality of 300 mosmol/kg, which indicated a greatly increased osmolar gap. He was therefore given 150 mL whisky and admitted. Methanol was later reported as 200 mg/dL. Ethylene glycol was not detected, but another glycol, propylene glycol, was present at 47 mg/dL. 10 h after ingestion an intravenous infusion of ethanol was started and he was hemodialysed for 7 h. After dialysis he was given a further 100 mL whisky and the rate of ethanol infusion was reduced to 11 g per h. Methanol and ethanol were measured twice daily until methanol was under 10/mg/dL: The recommendation is that blood ethanol be maintained between 100 and 200 mg/dL during treatment of methanol poisoning. This concentration was not achieved, presumably because of the high rate of ethanol metabolism often found in alcoholics. Antifreeze solutions commonly contain methanol and ethylene glycol. Sometimes propylene glycol is substituted because it has properties similar to those of ethylene glycol but is less toxic. The authors postulate that propylene glycol inhibited the metabolism of methanol in the patient, thus sparing him from the toxic effects of methanol.

  13. Fatal pediatric poisoning from leaded paint--Wisconsin, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-03-29

    Although fatal lead poisoning among children occurs rarely in the United States, it represents a medical and public health emergency. This report summarizes the investigation of a child who died from poisoning associated with ingestion of lead-based paint.

  14. "Still at War! From Poison Gas to Drones"

    E-print Network

    Stein, Oliver

    "Still at War! From Poison Gas to Drones" European Cultural Days 2014 Opening Address on Friday, 16 decided on the title of our symposium, "Still at War! From Poison Gas to Drones", one thing was clear

  15. Poison Ivy, Oak and Sumac Rashes Can Be Serious

    MedlinePLUS

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_152188.html Poison Ivy, Oak and Sumac Rashes Can Be Serious ... 23, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Itchy, blistering rashes from poison ivy, oak and sumac are common and are ...

  16. Poison Center Data for Public Health Surveillance: Poison Center and Public Health Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Law, Royal K.; Schier, Josh; Schauben, Jay; Wheeler, Katherine; Mulay, Prakash

    2013-01-01

    Objective To describe the use of poison center data for public health surveillance from the poison center, local, state, and federal public health perspectives and to generate meaningful discussion on how to address the challenges to collaboration. Introduction Since 2008, poisoning has become the leading cause of injury-related death in the United States (US); since 1980, the poisoning-related fatality rate in the US has almost tripled.1 Many poison-related injuries and deaths are reported to regional poison centers (PCs) which receive about 2.4 million reports of human chemical and poison exposures annually.2 Federal, state, and local public health (PH) agencies often collaborate with poison centers and use PC data for public health surveillance of poisoning-related health issues. Many state and local PH agencies have partnerships with regional PCs for direct access to local PC data which help them perform this function. At the national level, CDC conducts public health surveillance for exposures and illnesses of public health significance using the National Poison Data System (NPDS), the national PC reporting database. Though most PC and PH officials agree that PC data play an important role in PH practice and surveillance, collaboration between PH agencies and PCs has been hindered by numerous challenges. To address these challenges and bolster collaboration, the Poison Center and Public Health Collaborations Community of Practice (CoP) was created in 2010 by CDC as a means to share experiences, identify best practices, and facilitate relationships among federal, state and local public health agencies and PCs. To date, the Poison Center and Public Health Collaborations CoP includes over 200 members from state and local public health, regional PCs, CDC, the American Association of Poison Control Centers (AAPCC), and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). A leadership team was created with representatives of the many stakeholders of the community to drive its direction and oversee activities. Methods The panel will consist of 4 presenters and 1 moderator, who are members of the Poison Center and Public Health Collaborations CoP leadership team. Each presenter will bring a unique perspective of the use of PC data for PH practice and surveillance: CDC, state department of health, a local department of health, and a PC. Royal Law from the CDC National Center for Environmental Health will present on using PC data for identification of exposures and illnesses of public health significance identified from NPDS data collected from all 57 PCs. Dr. Jay Schauben from the Florida/USVI Poison Information Center - Jacksonville will discuss PC participation in surveillance and use of PC data for tracking and mitigation of PH events in Florida. Dr. Prakash Mulay from the Florida Department of Health will discuss utilization of PC data to enhance ESSENCE-based chemical-associated exposure and illness surveillance in Florida. Katherine Wheeler from the New York City (NYC) Department of Health and Mental Hygiene will discuss NYC’s use of PC data in surveillance of potential emerging issues, from energy drinks to synthetic marijuana. Each presenter will discuss the use of PC data for PH practice and surveillance in his or her organization and jurisdiction, the successes of using PC data, and their challenges. Results The moderator will engage the audience by facilitating discussion of the successes and challenges to using PC data for PH practice and surveillance with the audience. Sample questions: What are your current capacities and collaborative activities between your state/local health department and your poison center? What non-funding related barriers hinder the collaboration between your state/local health department and poison center? If more funding were available, how would you use this funding to increase the level of interactivity with the poison center and state/local health department?

  17. Ecological conversion efficiency and its influencers in twelve species of fish in the Yellow Sea Ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Qisheng; Guo, Xuewu; Sun, Yao; Zhang, Bo

    2007-09-01

    The ecological conversion efficiencies in twelve species of fish in the Yellow Sea Ecosystem, i.e., anchovy ( Engraulis japonicus), rednose anchovy ( Thrissa kammalensis), chub mackerel ( Scomber japonicus), halfbeak ( Hyporhamphus sajori), gizzard shad ( Konosirus punctatus), sand lance ( Ammodytes personatus), red seabream ( Pagrus major), black porgy ( Acanthopagrus schlegeli), black rockfish ( Sebastes schlegeli), finespot goby ( Chaeturichthys stigmatias), tiger puffer ( Takifugu rubripes), and fat greenling ( Hexagrammos otakii), were estimated through experiments conducted either in situ or in a laboratory. The ecological conversion efficiencies were significantly different among these species. As indicated, the food conversion efficiencies and the energy conversion efficiencies varied from 12.9% to 42.1% and from 12.7% to 43.0%, respectively. Water temperature and ration level are the main factors influencing the ecological conversion efficiencies of marine fish. The higher conversion efficiency of a given species in a natural ecosystem is acquired only under the moderate environment conditions. A negative relationship between ecological conversion efficiency and trophic level among ten species was observed. Such a relationship indicates that the ecological efficiency in the upper trophic levels would increase after fishing down marine food web in the Yellow Sea ecosystem.

  18. Histopathological, hematological, condition-factor, and organ weight changes associated with selenium accumulation in fish from Belews Lake, North Carolina

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elsie M. B. Sorensen; Peter M. Cumbie; Thomas L. Bauer; James S. Bell; Charles W. Harlan

    1984-01-01

    Green sunfish (Lepomis cyanellus) were collected from two study sites in Belews Lake, North Carolina, for assessment of correlations between several biological parameters and bioaccumulation of selenium. The fish had elevated concentrations of selenium in the hepatopancreas (liver) and exhibited histopathological and other manifestations of selenium poisoning. Condition-factors of Belews Lake fish were significantly correlated with selenium concentrations in hepatopancreas

  19. Determination and frying loss of histamine in striped marlin fillets implicated in a foodborne poisoning.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yi-Chen; Lin, Chia-Min; Huang, Chun-Yung; Huang, Ya-Ling; Chen, Hwi-Chang; Huang, Tzou-Chi; Tsai, Yung-Hsiang

    2013-05-01

    An incident of foodborne poisoning causing illness in 67 victims due to ingestion of fried fish fillets occurred in June 2011, in southern Taiwan. Of the five suspected fish fillets, one fried sample contained 62.0 mg/100 g and one raw sample contained 89.6 mg/100 g histamine, levels which are greater than the potential hazard action level (50 mg/100 g) in most illness cases. Given the allergy-like symptoms of the victims and the high histamine content in the suspected fish samples, this foodborne poisoning was strongly suspected to be caused by histamine intoxication. Five histamine-producing bacterial strains capable of producing 59 to 562 ppm of histamine in Trypticase soy broth supplemented with 1.0% L-histidine were identified as Enterobacter aerogenes (two strains), Raoultella ornithinolytica (two strains), and Morganella morganii (one strain). The degradation loss of histamine in suspected raw fillets was 28% after they were fried at 170°C for 5 min. PMID:23643129

  20. Seasonal variation in carbon monoxide poisoning in urban Korea.

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Y S

    1985-01-01

    Seasonal variation in carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning during 1969-78 was examined using the monthly hospital admissions and environmental weather data from Seoul, Korea. The results showed that there were nine times as many cases of CO poisoning in December as in August. CO poisoning cases were significantly correlated with temperature and domestic fires but not significantly with relative humidity. The epidemiological and clinical investigation of CO poisoning in the home needs to be studied in further detail. PMID:3989440

  1. Secondary phorate poisoning of large carnivores in India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nallusamy Kalaivanan; Ragothaman Venkataramanan; Chirukandoth Sreekumar; Alagarsamy Saravanan; Rajeev K. Srivastava

    2011-01-01

    India, with its huge human population and fragmented wildlife habitat, is plagued with human–animal conflicts. In conflict\\u000a areas, large carnivores are often primary targets for malicious poisoning. The effects of certain poisons do not stop with\\u000a the target animal but also affects other species of wildlife in the form of secondary poisoning. This paper describes incidences\\u000a of secondary poisoning of

  2. Phosphide poisoning: a review of literature.

    PubMed

    Bumbrah, Gurvinder Singh; Krishan, Kewal; Kanchan, Tanuj; Sharma, Madhulika; Sodhi, Gurvinder Singh

    2012-01-10

    Metal phosphides in general and aluminium phosphide in particular are potent insecticides and rodenticides. These are commercially used for protection of crops during storage, as well as during transportation. However, these are highly toxic substances. Their detrimental effects may range from nausea and headache to renal failure and death. It is, therefore, pertinent to ensure their circumspect handling to avoid poisoning episodes. Its poisoning has a high mortality and recent years have seen an increase in the number of poisoning cases and deaths caused by suicidal ingestion. Yet due to their broad spectrum applications, these chemicals cannot be written off. The present communication reviews the various aspects of toxicity associated with metal phosphides. PMID:21763089

  3. Appendectomy due to lead poisoning: a case-report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S Mohammadi; AH Mehrparvar; M Aghilinejad

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Lead poisoning is a common occupational health hazard in developing countries and many misdiagnoses and malpractices may occur due to unawareness of lead poisoning symptoms. CASE PRESENTATION: We report a case of occupational lead poisoning in an adult battery worker with abdominal colic who initially underwent appendectomy with removal of normal appendix. Later on he was diagnosed with lead

  4. Carbon Monoxide Poisoning Presenting as an Isolated Seizure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leonard Y Herman

    1998-01-01

    Seizures are generally regarded as a manifestation of extreme, generally near-fatal carbon monoxide poisoning. A case is described in which a seizure attributable to carbon monoxide poisoning occurred in a small child at a level not thought to be associated with serious neurologic toxicity. A literature review of the occurrence of seizures in carbon monoxide poisoning found that no particular

  5. 78 FR 17069 - National Poison Prevention Week, 2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-20

    ...March 15, 2013 National Poison Prevention Week, 2013 By the President of the United States...have marked National Poison Prevention Week by highlighting the steps we can take to...loved ones from accidental poisoning. This week, we carry that tradition forward by...

  6. Fight Homemade Poisons: Home Food Care and Preservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Rosanne

    One of a series of instructional materials produced by the Literacy Council of Alaska, this booklet provides information about food poisoning. Using a simplified vocabulary and shorter sentences, it explains the various kinds of food poisoning, how people get food poisoning, and how to prevent it. (FL)

  7. 14 CFR 137.39 - Economic poison dispensing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Economic poison dispensing. 137.39 Section 137...Operating Rules § 137.39 Economic poison dispensing. (a) Except as provided...dispensed from an aircraft, any economic poison that is registered with the U.S....

  8. Delay Fast Packets (DFP): Prevention of DNS Cache Poisoning

    E-print Network

    Dolev, Danny

    Delay Fast Packets (DFP): Prevention of DNS Cache Poisoning Shimrit Tzur-David Kiril Lashchiver, or any other network resource. This paper presents a solution for the cache poisoning attack in which the attacker inserts incorrect data into the DNS cache. In order to successfully poison the cache, the attacker

  9. 14 CFR 137.39 - Economic poison dispensing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Economic poison dispensing. 137.39 Section 137...Operating Rules § 137.39 Economic poison dispensing. (a) Except as provided...dispensed from an aircraft, any economic poison that is registered with the U.S....

  10. CDC Lead Poisoning Prevention and Treatment Recommendations for Refugee Children

    E-print Network

    CDC Lead Poisoning Prevention and Treatment Recommendations for Refugee Children 1. Background: · Lead poisoning remains one of the most common and preventable pediatric environmental conditions in the United States. · Lead is a poison that affects virtually every system in the human body. · Lead

  11. THE HYMENOPTEROUS POISON APPARATUS. VI. CAMPONOTU8 PENNSYLYANICUS

    E-print Network

    Villemant, Claire

    THE HYMENOPTEROUS POISON APPARATUS. VI. CAMPONOTU8 PENNSYLYANICUS (HYMENOPTERA: FORMICIDAE:or illustrations are in millimeters. In preparation for chemical analysis, poison sacs were dissected rom workers compounds present in the poison gland secretion were re- solved by applying the .contents of fifty glands

  12. ANTIDOTE: Understanding and Defending against Poisoning of Anomaly Detectors

    E-print Network

    Rubinstein, Benjamin

    ANTIDOTE: Understanding and Defending against Poisoning of Anomaly Detectors Benjamin I. P poisoning techniques and develop a defense, in the context of a particular anomaly detector--namely the PCA-subspace method for detecting anomalies in backbone networks. For three poisoning schemes, we show how at- tackers

  13. Evidence for selection on coloration in a Panamanian poison frog

    E-print Network

    Cummings, Molly E.

    ORIGINAL ARTICLE Evidence for selection on coloration in a Panamanian poison frog: a coalescent University, Durham, NC 27705, USA. ABSTRACT Aim The strawberry poison frog, Oophaga pumilio, has undergone in the strawberry poison frog. Keywords Aposematism, Bocas del Toro, coalescence, coloration, Dendrobates, Dendro

  14. 14 CFR 137.39 - Economic poison dispensing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Economic poison dispensing. 137.39 Section 137...Operating Rules § 137.39 Economic poison dispensing. (a) Except as provided...dispensed from an aircraft, any economic poison that is registered with the U.S....

  15. Preventing CO poisoning: Tracking the impact of legislative and

    E-print Network

    Preventing CO poisoning: Tracking the impact of legislative and regulatory changes in New York City data partners ­ NYCDOHMH - Office of Vital Statistics, Injury Epidemiology, and the NYC Poison Control Poisoning Surveillance: Unintentional deaths 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 Frequency

  16. 14 CFR 137.39 - Economic poison dispensing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Economic poison dispensing. 137.39 Section 137...Operating Rules § 137.39 Economic poison dispensing. (a) Except as provided...dispensed from an aircraft, any economic poison that is registered with the U.S....

  17. Fragmentation Considered Poisonous Amir Herzberg and Haya Shulman

    E-print Network

    Lewenstein, Moshe

    Fragmentation Considered Poisonous Amir Herzberg and Haya Shulman Department of Computer Science--We present effective off-path DNS cache poisoning attacks, circumventing all widely-used defenses against poison- ing, based on echoing of random challenges from request to response, e.g., port randomisation

  18. 111Screening Young Children for Lead Poisoning Chapter 5: Resources

    E-print Network

    111Screening Young Children for Lead Poisoning Chapter 5: Resources 5 CDC Resources and Information poisoning prevention activities. Grant program. CDC provides funding to states and localities through the State and Community-Based Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention Program grants for screening, for ensuring

  19. A POWER CALIBRATION METHOD USING THE XENON POISONING

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Damy de Souza Santos; P. Saraiva de Toledo

    1959-01-01

    A method of power calibration using the reactivity variation due to ; xenon poisoning is developed. Two cases are considered: reactivity variation ; after reacting the xenon equillbrium poisoning; time variation of reactiviyy due ; to the non-equilibrium xenon poisoning. Both methods are applicable in the high ; flux region. In the second method some care must be taken in

  20. [Hemolysis in mushroom poisoning: facts and hypotheses].

    PubMed

    Flammer, R; Gallen, S

    1983-10-22

    Primary hemolysis induced by antigens and toxins of mushrooms must be distinguished from hemolysis secondary to shock and disseminated intravascular coagulation with disruption of erythrocytes caused by severe poisoning with many mushroom species. Primary hemolysis is well documented as immunohemolysis after repeated ingestion of involute paxillus (Paxillus involutus). Direct hemolysis is reported after eating raw mushrooms with a high content of hemolysins. Hemolysis is only speculative in monomethylhydrazine poisoning by false morels (Gyromitra esculenta). Secondary hemolysis due to shock is not uncommon. Hemolysis in connection with enzymopenia of erythrocytes has not been documented as yet. In the present study the various hemolytic syndromes are described and discussed. PMID:6359399

  1. Important Poisonous Plants in Tibetan Ethnomedicine

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Lijuan; Gu, Ronghui; Tang, Li; Chen, Ze-E; Di, Rong; Long, Chunlin

    2015-01-01

    Tibetan ethnomedicine is famous worldwide, both for its high effectiveness and unique cultural background. Many poisonous plants have been widely used to treat disorders in the Tibetan medicinal system. In the present review article, some representative poisonous plant species are introduced in terms of their significance in traditional Tibetan medicinal practices. They are Aconitum pendulum, Strychnos nux-vomica, Datura stramonium and Anisodus tanguticus, for which the toxic chemical constituents, bioactivities and pharmacological functions are reviewed herein. The most important toxins include aconitine, strychnine, scopolamine, and anisodamine. These toxic plants are still currently in use for pain-reduction and other purposes by Tibetan healers after processing. PMID:25594733

  2. Acute poisonings with drugs of abuse.

    PubMed

    Pach, J; Pach, K; Targosz, D; Winnik, L; Obara, M

    1995-01-01

    The drug overdose resulting in acute intoxication diagnosed in the 106 drug abusers in period form June to December 1994. The screening drugs identification was performed using immunoassays Triage and Vitalab Eclair manufactured by MERCK. Benzodiazepines followed by barbiturates and opiods were most often the cause of acute poisonings among the adult Kraków inhabitants. The results presented indicate that only adequate clinical observation, laboratory tests performance and establishing of intoxication state (acute poisoning, chronic intoxication or withdrawal) allows a complete patient evaluation. PMID:7644695

  3. Important poisonous plants in tibetan ethnomedicine.

    PubMed

    Ma, Lijuan; Gu, Ronghui; Tang, Li; Chen, Ze-E; Di, Rong; Long, Chunlin

    2015-01-01

    Tibetan ethnomedicine is famous worldwide, both for its high effectiveness and unique cultural background. Many poisonous plants have been widely used to treat disorders in the Tibetan medicinal system. In the present review article, some representative poisonous plant species are introduced in terms of their significance in traditional Tibetan medicinal practices. They are Aconitum pendulum, Strychnos nux-vomica, Datura stramonium and Anisodus tanguticus, for which the toxic chemical constituents, bioactivities and pharmacological functions are reviewed herein. The most important toxins include aconitine, strychnine, scopolamine, and anisodamine. These toxic plants are still currently in use for pain-reduction and other purposes by Tibetan healers after processing. PMID:25594733

  4. [Survival after oral poisoning with insecticide against moles containing aluminium phosphide].

    PubMed

    Møller Eggertsen, Peter; Kristensen, Asgerd Krogh; Bredahl, Claus

    2013-06-10

    A 31-year-old man presented with abdominal pain and vomiting with a smell of garlic and rotten fish. He was brought to the ER being circulatory affected, metabolic acidotic and he developed more episodes of arrhythmia. Oral poisoning with aluminium phosphide is a very serious condition due to release of the toxic phosphine gas. Treatment is symptomatic. To avoid contamination of the staff is it important to use air-tight containers for excretions and furthermore to use chemical clothing and breathing protection. PMID:23763928

  5. Clinical predictors of completed suicide and repeated self-poisoning in 8895 self-poisoning patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Allgulander; L. D. Fisher

    1990-01-01

    Summary The diagnoses of 8895 patients who were admitted for intentional self-poisoning with psychoactive drugs were studied in order to find predictors for subsequent completed suicide and repeated self-poisoning. Automated record linkage by means of the Swedish personal identification numbers was performed between the Stockholm County inpatient registry and the cause-of-death registry. With Cox regression models, several diagnostic predictors were

  6. Texas Range Plants Poisonous to Livestock. 

    E-print Network

    Sperry, Omer Edison

    1955-01-01

    tobacco Phytolaccn ctmericana, Pokeweed Psoralea te?z,uiflora, Scurf pea ---------..--..-. Ricinzts conzmunis, Castor bean -.------....--. .. REFERENCES INDEX ---------. .----------------------------------------- Tws Range Plants Poisonous... mo; of the time and eventually, in the more seriou cases, is unable to rise. Most cases of poisoninr result in constipation, vomiting, quickened an1 labored respiration and almost continuous drib bling of urine. The abnormal respiration in sick...

  7. A Case report: Ammonium dichromate poisoning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Asif Hasan

    We have presented a case report on ammonium dichromate poisoning to highlight the awareness of medical professionals about the toxicity of chromates and to minimize the fatalities. Its diagnosis depends mainly on history, clinical examination and post mortem findings. Chemical analysis is usually not helpful in this case, as it is a highly dissociable compound. In this case report, we

  8. Harmful Algal Blooms: Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Andrew Kane

    This University of Maryland SeaGrant web page explores outbreaks of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP), a problem on both the East and West coasts of the US that is caused by several closely related species in the genus Alexandrium. The page explores the underlying physical mechanisms and localization of PSP outbreaks, as well as economic impact.

  9. Anticholinergic poisoning with adulterated intranasal cocaine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alan L Weiner; Marc J Bayer; Charles A McKay; Margaret DeMeo; Elizabeth Starr

    1998-01-01

    In recent years, emergency physicians have encountered a growing number of patients who present with anticholinergic toxicity after using adulterated heroin. Anticholinergic poisoning caused by adulterated cocaine is far less common. This report describes the case of a 39-year-old man who arrived in the emergency department several hours after the nasal insufflation of cocaine. Classic symptoms of anticholinergic toxicity were

  10. Lead poisoning of a marbled godwit

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Locke, L.N.; Smith, M.R.; Windingstad, R.M.; Martin, S.J.

    1991-01-01

    A thin adult female marbled godwit (Limosa fedoa) found dead at Benton Lake National Wildlife Refuge, Montana, was found to have 17 ingested lead shot in its gizzard. Its liver contained 51.7 ppm lead (wet weight). Based on these necropsy findings a diagnosis of lead poisoning was made.

  11. Poisonous Plants. LC Science Tracer Bullet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Constance, Comp.

    There are a number of sources of information on the more than 700 species of plants, ferns, horsetails, and fungi that can cause toxic, though rarely fatal, reactions in humans and animals. This guide is intended for those who wish to review published materials on poisonous plants in the collections of the Library of Congress. It is not intended…

  12. Coturnism: Human Poisoning By European Migratory Quail

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David C. Lewis; Elizabeth Metallinos-Katzaras; Louis E. Grivetti

    1987-01-01

    Coturnism is human poisoning from European migratory quail (Coturnix commix coturnix L.). While the name is recent, coturnism has been documented since antiquity. Most cases exhibit generalized weakness, progressing to severe muscle pain and lower limb paralysis, vomiting and discolored urine (myoglobinuria). Patients may experience severe gastroenteritis-diarrhea, fever, voice loss and death from cardiac or kidney failure. Toxic quail cannot

  13. Hemlock alkaloids from Socrates to poison aloes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tom Reynolds

    2005-01-01

    Hemlock (Conium maculatum L. Umbelliferae) has long been known as a poisonous plant. Toxicity is due to a group of piperidine alkaloids of which the representative members are coniine and ?-coniceine. The latter is the more toxic and is the first formed biosynthetically. Its levels in relation to coniine vary widely according to environmental conditions and to provenance of the

  14. PARALYTIC SHELLFISH POISONING IN TENAKEE, SOUTHEASTERN ALASKA

    E-print Network

    NOTES PARALYTIC SHELLFISH POISONING IN TENAKEE, SOUTHEASTERN ALASKA: A POSSIBLE CAUSE PSP and Hilliard 1955; Sparks 1966; Neal 1967), it has often been assumed that this species is the cause of PSP by the University of Alaska failed to find a significant correlation between the occurrence of PSP and G. catenella

  15. Experimental Panicum miliaceum poisoning in sheep

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Badiei; K. Mostaghni; S. Nazifi; A. Khodakaram Tafti; M. Ghane; S. A. Momeni

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical, laboratory and necropsy findings of experimentally produced Panicum miliaceum poisoning in sheep. Ten native apparently healthy male crossbred sheep, aged about 6–8 months old were used in the experiment. The animals were randomly divided into two groups, five sheep as control and five as experimental group. Both groups were kept

  16. Psychiatric Hospitalization after Deliberate Self-Poisoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Gregory L.; Safranko, Ivan; Lewin, Terry J.; Whyte, Ian M.; Bryant, Jennifer L.

    2006-01-01

    The decision for psychiatric hospitalization after deliberate self-poisoning (DSP) is not well understood. This study, a longitudinal cohort study of 3,148 consecutive DSP patients found 920 (29.2%) subjects were referred for psychiatric hospitalization, 576 (18.3%) on involuntary basis. A logistic regression analysis showed increased risk for:…

  17. Selected Bibliography on Lead Poisoning in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin-Fu, Jane S., Comp.

    This comprehensive bibliography was prepared in response to the growing interest in the problem of childhood lead poisoning. Most of the papers noted are from the pediatric literature and include only those published in English. A limited number of papers on experiments in laboratory animals are cited. Documents are grouped under several general…

  18. Lead poisoning in captive wild animals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. C. Zook; R. M. Sauer; F. M. GARNERL

    1972-01-01

    Lead poisoning was diagnosed post-mortem in 34 simian primates, 11 parrots, and 3 Australian fruit bats at the National Zoological Park. Diagnoses were made by the finding of acid-fast intranuclear inclusion bodies in renal epithelia or hepatocytes and, in most cases, by finding excess lead in samples of liver. The estimated prevalence of lead intoxication among autopsied primates and parrots

  19. Fatal diphenhydramine poisoning in a dog

    PubMed Central

    Buchweitz, John P.; Raverty, Stephen A.; Johnson, Margaret B.; Lehner, Andreas F.

    2014-01-01

    We report a fatal diphenhydramine poisoning of a 10-year-old, male poodle-cross dog with pre-existing conditions and suspected co-ingestion of ethanol. This case illustrates that diphenhydramine overdose can be fatal in certain circumstances and that analytical toxicology may play an important role in animal death investigations. PMID:25392554

  20. Poisoning with delayed-release tablets

    PubMed Central

    Meadow, S. R.; Leeson, Gerald A.

    1974-01-01

    Accidental poisoning with delayed-release tablets causes symptoms at a time when the tablets can no longer be retrieved from the stomach. A child died from eating 23 tablets of Debendox, which is a delayed-release tablet containing dicyclomine and doxylamine. A second child survived a similar overdose, having been subjected to vigorous purgation and peritoneal dialysis. PMID:4830120

  1. Poisoning due to Chinese proprietary medicines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas YK Chan; Kenneth KC Lee; Albert YW Chan; Julian AJH Critchley

    1995-01-01

    1 To determine the toxic potentials of those Chinese pro prietary medicines (CPM) which are commonly used for self-poisoning by adults in Hong Kong, all patients admit ted to four of the eight general medical wards at the Prince of Wales Hospital between January 1988 and December 1993 were retrospectively studied.2 There were 54 women and 17 men with their

  2. BURNABLE POISONS IN SMALL POWER REACTORS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. M. Smith; J. Jeffrey

    1959-01-01

    In the design of small reactors suitable for propulsion purposes the ; need for a large amount of excess reactivity to compensate for the effects of ; depletion and fission product poisoning leads to a difficult engineering problem ; in the accommodation of an adequate amount of control rods to shut the reactor ; down. Moreover, unless a complex control

  3. Soluble poison flux quenching in nuclear reactors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Ravetto; B. D. Ganapol

    1990-01-01

    Recently, there have been significant developments in the area of inherently safe nuclear reactor conceptual designs. Among these there is much interest in the so-called PIUS reactor, where safety is to be guaranteed by the timely introduction of borated water into the core. In the event of an accidental reactivity insertion followed by a power excursion, the poison introduction would

  4. Poison control centers: can their value be measured?

    PubMed

    King, W D; Palmisano, P A

    1991-06-01

    Most regions of the United States are served by poison control centers that provide 24-hour toxicologic guidance resulting in the home management of most poison exposures. It has been suggested that without public access to a poison control hotline the majority of poison-exposed patients would seek medical care in emergency departments or other outpatient visits. This study compares the patterns of community response to poison exposure in Louisiana before and after the discontinuance of the state poison control service, and also compares these patterns to the situation in Alabama, which maintained poison center services throughout the study period. After discontinuance of the poison control service in Louisiana, poison exposure cases had up to four times the rate of "self-referral" to health care facilities and less than half the rate of home management when compared to Alabama cases. Before the closing of the Louisiana center, Alabama and Louisiana triage patterns for poison exposures were nearly identical. The maximum annual cost attributable to unnecessary outpatient service utilization in Louisiana was estimated to be $1.4 million, an amount more than three times the annual poison control center state appropriation. PMID:2052960

  5. H4IIE RAT HEPATOMA CELL BIOASSAY-DERIVED 2,3,7,8-TETRACHLORODIBENZO-P-DIOXIN EQUIVALENTS (TCDD-EQS) IN COLONIAL FISH-EATING WATERBIRD EGGS FROM THE GREAT LAKES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fish-eating waterbirds from the Great Lakes of North America have shown symptoms of poisoning similar to those observed in laboratory exposures of various avian species to planar halogenated hydrocarbons (PHHs). HHs, include among others, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychl...

  6. Recent Advances in the Clinical Management of Lead Poisoning.

    PubMed

    Kianoush, Sina; Sadeghi, Mahmood; Balali-Mood, Mahdi

    2015-06-01

    Lead poisoning is a historic universal disease. Acute or chronic lead exposure may cause reversible or even permanent damages in human beings. Environmental lead exposure is a global health concern in children. Occupational lead poisoning is still a health issue, particularly in developing countries. During the last decades, new methods and medications have been advocated for the prevention and treatment of lead poisoning. This review deals mainly with recent developments in the management of lead poisoning. Sources of lead exposure are introduced, and methods for the primary prevention of lead poisoning are discussed. Details for the screening of adults and children are also explained to serve as a practical guideline for the secondary prevention. Standard chelation therapy in different groups and up-to-date less toxic new medications for the treatment of lead poisoning are finally discussed. Our published clinical research on the therapeutic effects of garlic tablets in mild to moderate occupational lead poisoning will also be discussed. PMID:26069169

  7. Poison frogs rely on experience to find the way home in the rainforest

    PubMed Central

    Pašukonis, Andrius; Warrington, Ian; Ringler, Max; Hödl, Walter

    2014-01-01

    Among vertebrates, comparable spatial learning abilities have been found in birds, mammals, turtles and fishes, but virtually nothing is known about such abilities in amphibians. Overall, amphibians are the most sedentary vertebrates, but poison frogs (Dendrobatidae) routinely shuttle tadpoles from terrestrial territories to dispersed aquatic deposition sites. We hypothesize that dendrobatid frogs rely on learning for flexible navigation. We tested the role of experience with the local cues for poison frog way-finding by (i) experimentally displacing territorial males of Allobates femoralis over several hundred metres, (ii) using a harmonic direction finder with miniature transponders to track these small frogs, and (iii) using a natural river barrier to separate the translocated frogs from any familiar landmarks. We found that homeward orientation was disrupted by the translocation to the unfamiliar area but frogs translocated over similar distances in their local area showed significant homeward orientation and returned to their territories via a direct path. We suggest that poison frogs rely on spatial learning for way-finding in their local area. PMID:25411379

  8. Fish Face

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    The Pacific sand lance is an important forage fish found in Puget Sound.  They employ a unique strategy of burrowing into sand to rest and conserve energy, and to avoid predation.  The USGS is currently studying forage fish spawning, and how human development may be affecting their habitat....

  9. Texture Fish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Julie

    2007-01-01

    In an effort to provide an opportunity for her first graders to explore texture through an engaging subject, the author developed a three-part lesson that features fish in a mixed-media artwork: (1) Exploring Textured Paint; (2) Creating the Fish; and (3) Role Playing. In this lesson, students effectively explore texture through painting, drawing,…

  10. Water-quality inspection by analyzing motionality of fish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Sae-Jin; Kim, Kyung-Soo; Choi, Hyung-Il; Lee, Hyung-Ki; Lee, Young-Ho

    1996-10-01

    To secure clean water, we need to monitor water quality and detect out harmful materials, if any contained in the water, as early as possible. In general, fish are believed to be more sensitive to water quality than humans are. When fish are moving slowly in a cluster, the water quality is believed to be good enough. However, fish keep afloat on the water or they behave wildly when poisonous materials are added into the water. This paper describes the system which visually inspects water quality by analyzing the motionality of fish. The motionality features are defined by characterizing changes of behavioral patterns of fish. These features are then used in making a fuzzy decision about water quality. The methodology described in this paper is expected to be reliable, and to enable quick and accurate detection or assessment of hazardous chemicals contained in the water.

  11. Staphylococcal food poisoning in the United Kingdom, 1969-90.

    PubMed

    Wieneke, A A; Roberts, D; Gilbert, R J

    1993-06-01

    Between 1969 and 1990 strains of Staphylococcus aureus from 359 outbreaks and sporadic cases of staphylococcal food poisoning in the United Kingdom were examined in the PHLS Food Hygiene Laboratory for the production of enterotoxin. In a number of instances the incriminated foods were also examined for the presence of enterotoxin. Strains from 79% of incidents produced enterotoxin A alone or together with another enterotoxin. The level of S. aureus present in the foods ranged from no viable S. aureus detected to 1.5 x 10(10) c.f.u./g with a median of 3.0 x 10(7) c.f.u./g. Enterotoxin was detected in foods in the absence of viable S. aureus in only two outbreaks and in both cheese was the implicated food. Meat, poultry or their products were the vehicle in 75% of incidents with ham and chicken most frequently implicated. Other foods included fish and shellfish (7%) and milk and milk products (8%). Most contamination took place in the home followed by restaurants and shops. Seventy-one percent of the incident strains were lysed by phages of group III or I/III. PMID:8519317

  12. Staphylococcal food poisoning in the United Kingdom, 1969-90.

    PubMed Central

    Wieneke, A. A.; Roberts, D.; Gilbert, R. J.

    1993-01-01

    Between 1969 and 1990 strains of Staphylococcus aureus from 359 outbreaks and sporadic cases of staphylococcal food poisoning in the United Kingdom were examined in the PHLS Food Hygiene Laboratory for the production of enterotoxin. In a number of instances the incriminated foods were also examined for the presence of enterotoxin. Strains from 79% of incidents produced enterotoxin A alone or together with another enterotoxin. The level of S. aureus present in the foods ranged from no viable S. aureus detected to 1.5 x 10(10) c.f.u./g with a median of 3.0 x 10(7) c.f.u./g. Enterotoxin was detected in foods in the absence of viable S. aureus in only two outbreaks and in both cheese was the implicated food. Meat, poultry or their products were the vehicle in 75% of incidents with ham and chicken most frequently implicated. Other foods included fish and shellfish (7%) and milk and milk products (8%). Most contamination took place in the home followed by restaurants and shops. Seventy-one percent of the incident strains were lysed by phages of group III or I/III. PMID:8519317

  13. Detoxification of Organophosphate Poisoning Using Nanoparticle Bioscavengers.

    PubMed

    Pang, Zhiqing; Hu, Che-Ming J; Fang, Ronnie H; Luk, Brian T; Gao, Weiwei; Wang, Fei; Chuluun, Erdembileg; Angsantikul, Pavimol; Thamphiwatana, Soracha; Lu, Weiyue; Jiang, Xinguo; Zhang, Liangfang

    2015-06-23

    Organophosphate poisoning is highly lethal as organophosphates, which are commonly found in insecticides and nerve agents, cause irreversible phosphorylation and inactivation of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), leading to neuromuscular disorders via accumulation of acetylcholine in the body. Direct interception of organophosphates in the systemic circulation thus provides a desirable strategy in treatment of the condition. Inspired by the presence of AChE on red blood cell (RBC) membranes, we explored a biomimetic nanoparticle consisting of a polymeric core surrounded by RBC membranes to serve as an anti-organophosphate agent. Through in vitro studies, we demonstrated that the biomimetic nanoparticles retain the enzymatic activity of membrane-bound AChE and are able to bind to a model organophosphate, dichlorvos, precluding its inhibitory effect on other enzymatic substrates. In a mouse model of organophosphate poisoning, the nanoparticles were shown to improve the AChE activity in the blood and markedly improved the survival of dichlorvos-challenged mice. PMID:26053868

  14. Saturnine curse: a history of lead poisoning

    SciTech Connect

    Green, D.W.

    1985-01-01

    Over the past ten years there has been increasing recognition of subacute and chronic lead poisoning and a growing awareness of its pathophysiology and clinical effects. Besides the classic manifestations of abdominal colic, seizures, and anemia progressing to gout, renal disease, and neuropathy, more subtle manifestations are now being increasingly recognized, such as the development of hypertension, neurobehavioral changes, reproductive and endocrine abnormalities, a possible role in carcinogenesis, and an overall increase in morbidity and mortality. Lead was one of the seven metals of antiquity, and it has accompanied the Eurasian and American civilizations since their beginnings. Lead is an extremely pernicious metal with a multitude of adverse effects. The recurring nature of lead poisoning throughout the development of civilization can truly be referred to as the saturnine curse. 16 references.

  15. Accidental poisoning in children in Jaipur (Rajasthan)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Usha Sharma; S. Saxena Jaipur

    1974-01-01

    Summary  \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 1. \\u000a \\u000a The study includes data of 80 cases of chemical poisoning in children under 12 years of age.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 2. \\u000a \\u000a 78.7% of all the poisonings occurred between 0–3 years, of which the maximum incidence (59.7%) was encountered between 1–3\\u000a years.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 3. \\u000a \\u000a Males were predominantly affected.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 4. \\u000a \\u000a Household substances were responsible for the maximum number of cases (73.7%) in which kerosene

  16. Case study: fatal poisoning by malathion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. S Thompson; R. G Treble; A Magliocco; J. R Roettger; J. C Eichhorst

    1998-01-01

    A case involving a fatal poisoning (suicide) by the insecticide malathion is described. The intact insecticide was found in the post-mortem blood and gastric contents at concentrations of 1.8 and 978 ?g\\/ml, respectively. None of the insecticide was found in the autopsied liver tissue. Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) techniques were used for the identification and quantification of malathion in the

  17. Metal poisons for criticality in waste streams

    SciTech Connect

    Williamson, T.G.; Goslen, A.Q. [Westinghouse Savannah River Site, Aiken, SC (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Many of the wastes from processing fissile materials contain metals that may serve as neutron poisons. It would be advantageous to the criticality evaluation of these wastes to demonstrate that the poisons remain with the fissile materials and to demonstrate an always safe poison-to-fissile ratio. The first task, demonstrating that the materials stay together, is the job of the chemist; the second, calculating an always safe ratio, is an object of this paper. In an earlier study, the authors demonstrated safe ratios for iron, manganese, and chromium oxides to {sup 235}U. In these studies, the Hansen-Roach 16-group cross sections were used with the Savannah River site code HRXN. Multiplication factors were computed, and safe ratios were defined such that the adjusted neutron multiplication factors (k values) were <0.95. These safe weight ratios were Fe:{sup 235}U - 77:1; Mn:{sup 235}U - 30:1; and Cr:{sup 235}U - 52:1. Palmer has shown that for certain mixtures of aluminum, iron, and zirconium with {sup 235}U, the computed infinite multiplication factors may differ by as much as 20% with different cross sections and processing systems. Parks et al. have further studied these mixtures and state, {open_quotes}...these metal/uranium mixtures are very sensitive to the metal cross-section data in the intermediate-energy range and the processing methods that are used.{close_quotes} They conclude with a call for more experimental data. The purpose of this study is to reexamine earlier work with cross sections and processing codes used at Westinghouse Savannah River Company today. This study will focus on {sup 235}U mixtures with iron, manganese and chromium. Sodium will be included in the list of poisons because it is abundant in many of the waste materials.

  18. Organophosphate poisonings with parathion and dimethoate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ulrich Hoffmann; Thomas Papendorf

    2006-01-01

    Objective  Organophosphate toxicity is the leading cause of morbidity and death in poisoning by insecticides. The clinical symptoms of\\u000a pesticide toxicity range from the classic cholinergic syndrome to flaccid paralysis and intractable seizures. The mainstays\\u000a of therapy are atropine, oximes, benzodiazepines and supportive care. The toxicokinetics vary not only with the extent of\\u000a exposure, but also with the chemical structure of

  19. Iatrogenic salt poisoning in captive sandhill cranes.

    PubMed

    Franson, J C; Sileo, L; Fleming, W J

    1981-12-01

    Salt poisoning developed in captive sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis) when sea salt was added to normal drinking water to produce a sodium chloride concentration of 1%. Two of 18 cranes died and 2 were euthanatized when moribund. Muscle weakness, paresis, dyspnea, and depression were observed. Brain and serum sodium, serum uric acid, and plasma osmolality values were abnormally high. Lesions were those of visceral gout, renal tubular necrosis, nephrosis, and skeletal muscle necrosis. PMID:7328005

  20. Iatrogenic salt poisoning in captive sandhill cranes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Franson, J.C.; Sileo, L.; Fleming, W.J.

    1981-01-01

    Salt poisoning developed in captive sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis) when sea salt was added to normal drinking water to produce a sodium chloride concentration of 1%. Two of 18 cranes died and 2 were euthanatized when moribund. Muscle weakness, paresis, dyspnea, and depression were observed. Brain and serum sodium, serum uric acid,:and plasma osmolality values were abnormally high. Lesions were those of visceral gout, renal tubular necrosis, nephrosis, and skeletal muscle.necrosis.

  1. INTENTIONAL POISONING OF BIRDS WITH PARATHION

    Microsoft Academic Search

    WARD B. STONE; STEPHEN R. OVERMANN; JOSEPH C. OKONIEWSKI

    Intentional poisoning of birds by farmers is not uncommon but is rarely documented and given proper attention. Two recent cases from New York are illustrative. In the first, at least 5,120 birds, mostly Red-winged Black- birds (Age&us phoeniceus), Common Grackles (Quisculus quisculu) and Brown- headed Cowbirds (Molothrus ater) were killed by parathion- (an organophosphate insecticide) treated corn, which had been

  2. Elevated cardiac enzymes due to mushroom poisoning.

    PubMed

    Avc?, Sema; Usul, Eren; Kavak, Nezih; Büyükcam, Fatih; Arslan, Engin Deniz; Genç, Selim; Özkan, Seda

    2014-01-01

    Mushroom poisoning is an important reason of plant toxicity. Wild mushrooms that gathered from pastures and forests can be dangerous for human health. The clinical outcomes and symptoms of mushroom toxicity vary from mild gastrointestinal symptoms to acute multiple organ failure. Toxic effects to kidney and liver of amatoxin are common but cardiotoxic effects are unusual. In this case, we reported the cardiotoxic effect of amatoxin with the elevated troponin-I without any additional finding in electrocardiography, echocardiography and angiography. PMID:25567466

  3. POISON SPIDER FIELD CHEMICAL FLOOD PROJECT, WYOMING

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Douglas Arnell; Malcolm Pitts; Jie Qi

    2004-01-01

    A reservoir engineering and geologic study concluded that approximate 7,852,000 bbls of target oil exits in Poison Spider. Field pore volume, OOIP, and initial oil saturation are defined. Potential injection water has a total dissolved solids content of 1,275 mg\\/L with no measurable divalent cations. If the Lakota water consistently has no measurable cations, the injection water does not require

  4. White phosphorus poisoning--explosive encounter.

    PubMed

    Pande, T K; Pandey, S

    2004-03-01

    Poisoning by white or yellow phosphorus is reported in various forms and also in ages varying from infants to adults, but spontaneous combustion and explosion during its management has never been described. This incidence occurred while attempting to pass a Ryle's tube. Its free end first exhibited a yellow flame and this later on led to an explosive encounter. Role of static electricity generated while handling plastic materials leading to ignition and explosion cannot be overlooked. PMID:15636320

  5. Use of dialytic therapies for poisoning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James F. Winchester; Nikolas Harbord; Donald A. Feinfeld

    The nephrologist is often consulted in poisoning cases. Although management may involve attention to incident renal failure\\u000a or electrolyte and acid-base disorders, blood purification may also be necessary [1]. The application of dialysis therapies\\u000a or hemoperfusion to enhance clearance of intoxicants is an essential task for the nephrologist.\\u000a \\u000a This chapter will outline the principles and use of dialysis and related

  6. Bacillus cereus and its food poisoning toxins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Per Einar Granum; Terje Lund

    1997-01-01

    Bacillus cereus is becoming one of the more important causes of food poisoning in the industrialised world. It produces one emetic toxin and three different enterotoxins. The emetic toxin is a ring-shaped structure of three repeats of four amino and\\/or oxy acids: [d-O-Leu-d-Ala-l-O-Val-l-Val]3. This ring structure has a molecular mass of 1.2 kDa, and is chemically closely related to the

  7. Hemlock alkaloids from Socrates to poison aloes.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Tom

    2005-06-01

    Hemlock (Conium maculatum L. Umbelliferae) has long been known as a poisonous plant. Toxicity is due to a group of piperidine alkaloids of which the representative members are coniine and gamma-coniceine. The latter is the more toxic and is the first formed biosynthetically. Its levels in relation to coniine vary widely according to environmental conditions and to provenance of the plants. Surprisingly, these piperidine alkaloids have turned up in quite unrelated species in the monocotyledons as well as the dicotyledons. Aloes, for instance, important medicinal plants, are not regarded as poisonous although some species are very bitter. Nevertheless a small number of mostly local species contain the alkaloids, especially gamma-coniceine and there have been records of human poisoning. The compounds are recognized by their characteristic mousy smell. Both acute and chronic symptoms have been described. The compounds are neurotoxins and death results from respiratory failure, recalling the effects of curare. Chronic non-lethal ingestion by pregnant livestock leads to foetal malformation. Both acute and chronic toxicity are seen with stock in damp meadows and have been recorded as problems especially in North America. The alkaloids derive biosynthetically from acetate units via the polyketide pathway in contrast to other piperidine alkaloids which derive from lysine. PMID:15955542

  8. Acute paraquat poisoning with sinus bradycardia: A case report

    PubMed Central

    SONG, CHENGZHEN; KAN, BAOTIAN; YU, GUANGCAI; JIAN, XIANGDONG; WANG, JIERU; SUN, JING

    2014-01-01

    Paraquat (PQ) is a highly toxic herbicide, which not only leads to acute organ damage, but also to a variety of complications. Patients with severe PQ-induced poisoning may succumb to multiple organ failure involving the circulatory and respiratory systems. Although numerous studies have been performed investigating PQ poisoning, cases of extreme bradycardia caused by acute PQ-induced poisoning are rare. In the present case report, a 59-year-old male who ingested PQ was admitted to the Department of Poisoning and Occupational Disease at Qilu Hospital of Shandong University (Jinan, China) after three days. The patient received treatment known as the ‘Qilu scheme’, which was established in the Department of Poisoning and Occupational Disease. However, the heart rate of the patient remained low following the administration of conventional medicines, until thyroid tablets were administered. To the best of our knowledge, cases of bradycardia following PQ poisoning are rare. PMID:25289040

  9. Self-poisoning and Moon Phases in Oslo

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Jacobsen; P. S. Frederichsen; K. M. Knutsen; Y. Sørum; T. Talseth; O. R. Ødegaard

    1986-01-01

    1 During 1980 the relation between the moon phases and 1187 cases of self-poisonings in Oslo was studied.2 In contrast to a previous report from India no significant correlation was found between the full moon and self-poisoning.3 The aetiology of self-poisonings in western countries is rather more complex than to be explained by speculative 'human tidal waves'.

  10. Comparison of chlorine-poisoned experiments to calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Hicks, J.; Wilson, R.E.

    2000-07-01

    The Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) has fissile materials in salt, which could be processed for disposal more efficiently if the nuclear poison effect of the chlorine were validated. The authors conclude that chlorine can be credited as poison when present in thermal systems. The 27-, 44-, and 238-group libraries in SCALE and the ENDFB-B libraries with MCNP underpredict the poisonous effect of chlorine in thermal systems.

  11. Electrocardiographic Predictors of Adverse Cardiovascular Events in Suspected Poisoning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alex F. Manini; Lewis S. Nelson; Adam H. Skolnick; William Slater; Robert S. Hoffman

    2010-01-01

    Poisoning is the second leading cause of injury-related fatality in the USA and the leading cause of cardiac arrest in victims\\u000a under 40 years of age. The study objective was to define the electrocardiographic (ECG) predictors of adverse cardiovascular\\u000a events (ACVE) complicating suspected acute poisoning (SAP). This was a case-control study in adults at three tertiary-care\\u000a hospitals and one regional Poison

  12. Delay among the general public in telephoning a poison center.

    PubMed

    McKnight, R H; Dawson, S K; Westneat, S C; Rodgers, G C; Ross, M P

    1996-04-01

    Delay in seeking treatment for poisonings can hinder patient recovery. Our study examined delay in notifying a poison center about green tobacco sickness (GTS), a form of nicotine poisoning resulting from dermal contact with tobacco leaves. We conducted a follow-up survey of 55 cases of GTS reported by telephone to the kentucky Regional Poison Center in 1993. The "delay" group (38.2% of the cases) was defined as those callers who stated in the follow-up report that they should have phoned the poison center sooner than they did. Characteristics of the callers who delayed and the GTS patients they reported were compared with characteristics of the "non-delay" group. Delay was associated with callers' awareness of the poison center's expertise in agricultural poisonings and with age and sex of the patient. Our findings point to the need to target groups such as farmers with an educational campaign to make them more aware of the extent of the poison center's services and to encourage timely reporting of occupational poisonings. PMID:8693693

  13. An Atropa belladonna L. poisoning with acute subdural hematoma.

    PubMed

    Cikla, Ulas; Turkmen, Suha; Karaca, Yunus; Ayaz, Faik Ahmet; Ayaz, Ahmet Faik; Turedi, Suleyman; Gunduz, Abdulkadir

    2011-12-01

    Atropa belladonna L. is a plant long known to cause poisoning. But no cases of acute subdural hematoma resulting from such poisoning have been reported so far. Care must also be taken in terms of acute pancreatitis and rhabdomyolysis in cases of such poisoning. The plant may sometimes be mistaken for the Caucasian blueberry, V. arctostaphylos L. At least one anti-cholinesterase toxidrome finding was determined in all the nine cases of belladonna poisoning in this series. No elevated creatine kinase was reported in one case with acute subdural hematoma and hyperamylasemia. PMID:21540312

  14. 49 CFR 175.630 - Special requirements for Division 6.1 (poisonous) material and Division 6.2 (infectious...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...substances) materials. (a) A package required to bear a POISON, POISON INHALATION HAZARD, or INFECTIOUS SUBSTANCE label...been used to transport any package required to bear a POISON or POISON INHALATION HAZARD label unless,...

  15. 49 CFR 175.630 - Special requirements for Division 6.1 (poisonous) material and Division 6.2 (infectious...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...substances) materials. (a) A package required to bear a POISON, POISON INHALATION HAZARD, or INFECTIOUS SUBSTANCE label...been used to transport any package required to bear a POISON or POISON INHALATION HAZARD label unless,...

  16. 49 CFR 175.630 - Special requirements for Division 6.1 (poisonous) material and Division 6.2 (infectious...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...substances) materials. (a) A package required to bear a POISON, POISON INHALATION HAZARD, or INFECTIOUS SUBSTANCE label...been used to transport any package required to bear a POISON or POISON INHALATION HAZARD label unless,...

  17. 49 CFR 175.630 - Special requirements for Division 6.1 (poisonous) material and Division 6.2 (infectious...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...substances) materials. (a) A package required to bear a POISON, POISON INHALATION HAZARD, or INFECTIOUS SUBSTANCE label...been used to transport any package required to bear a POISON or POISON INHALATION HAZARD label unless,...

  18. 24 CFR 965.701 - Lead-based paint poisoning prevention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lead-based paint poisoning prevention. 965.701 Section...PROJECTS-GENERAL PROVISIONS Lead-Based Paint Poisoning Prevention § 965.701 Lead-based paint poisoning prevention. The...

  19. CDC Recommendations for Lead Poisoning Prevention in Newly Arrived Refugee Children

    E-print Network

    CDC Recommendations for Lead Poisoning Prevention in Newly Arrived Refugee Children Lead poisoning remains one of the most common and preventable pediatric environmental conditions even though Poisoning Prevention Branch and Division of Global Migration and Quarantine, in collaboration

  20. Gastric Lavage in Acute Organophosphorus Pesticide poisoning (GLAOP) – a randomised controlled trial of multiple vs. single gastric lavage in unselected acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yi Li; XueZhong Yu; Zhong Wang; HouLi Wang; XiangHuai Zhao; YuPing Cao; WeiZhan Wang; Michael Eddleston

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Organophosphorus (OP) pesticide poisoning is the most common form of pesticide poisoning in many Asian countries. Guidelines in western countries for management of poisoning indicate that gastric lavage should be performed only if two criteria are met: within one hour of poison ingestion and substantial ingested amount. But the evidence on which these guidelines are based is from medicine

  1. Branchial and renal pathology in the fish exposed chronically to methoxy ethyl mercuric chloride

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tejendra S. Gill; Jagdish C. Pant; Hema Tewari

    1988-01-01

    Pathological manifestations causally related to pesticide poisoning have been described in both surficial and internal tissues of the fishes (Eller 1971; Couch 1975; Anees 1978). Konar (1970) observed extensive nuclear degeneration in liver, intestinal tract, and kidney of the rohu, Labeo rohita exposed to sublethal levels of heptachlor. Agallol and thiodan evoked histopathological disorders in the widowtetra, Gymnocorymbus ternetzi (Amminikutty

  2. Using poison center data for national public health surveillance for chemical and poison exposure and associated illness.

    PubMed

    Wolkin, Amy F; Martin, Colleen A; Law, Royal K; Schier, Josh G; Bronstein, Alvin C

    2012-01-01

    The National Poison Data System (NPDS) is a national near-real-time surveillance system that improves situational awareness for chemical and poison exposures, according to data from US poison centers. NPDS is the successor to the Toxic Exposure Surveillance System. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) use these data, which are owned and managed by the American Association of Poison Control Centers, to improve public health surveillance for chemical and poison exposures and associated illness, identify early markers of chemical events, and enhance situational awareness during outbreaks. Information recorded in this database is from self-reported calls from the public or health care professionals. In 2009, NPDS detected 22 events of public health significance and CDC used the system to monitor several multistate outbreaks. One of the limitations of the system is that exposures do not necessarily represent a poisoning. Incorporating NPDS data into the public health surveillance network and subsequently using NPDS to rapidly identify chemical and poison exposures exemplifies the importance of the poison centers and NPDS to public health surveillance. This integration provides the opportunity to improve the public health response to chemical and poison exposures, minimizes morbidity and mortality, and serves as an important step forward in surveillance technology and integration. PMID:21937144

  3. Intoxication aigu et chronique au cadmium Acute and chronic cadmium poisoning

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    poisoning Summary (176 words): Key words : cadmium - poisoning - pneumonia - nephropathy - osteomalacia of osteomalacia and diffuse osteoporosis. Cadmium is classified as certain carcinogen agent for humans by IARC

  4. A "scorpion fish" (Trachinus vipera) sting: fishermen's hazard.

    PubMed

    Dehaan, A; Ben-Meir, P; Sagi, A

    1991-10-01

    "Scorpion fish" is a nickname given by fishermen to members of the Trachinidae family as a result of their unusual stinging mechanism. These fish are found throughout the eastern Atlantic region from the North Sea through the Mediterranean and Black Seas and along the western coast of Northern and Central Africa. They are characterised by poisonous glands located at the base and sides of the spines of their anterior back fin and at the base of a spine located on the gill cover. Because of the unusual location of the glands, fishermen handling these fish frequently suffer local injuries. A case of necrosis of the tip of the middle finger after a "scorpion fish" sting is described. PMID:1931733

  5. Global perspectives on poisonous plants: the 9th international symposium on poisonous plants.

    PubMed

    Molyneux, Russell J; Panter, Kip E; Zhao, Mengli

    2014-07-30

    The 9th International Symposium on Poisonous Plants (ISOPP9) was held July 15-21, 2013, at the Inner Mongolia Agricultural University in Hohhot, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region of China. The symposium consisted of three days of oral and poster presentations, followed by a tour of the Xilinhot Region of the Mongolian Grasslands, encompassing grazing conditions consisting of desert, grassland, and steppes. This was the first time that an ISOPP meeting has been held in Asia and provided an opportunity for visitors from outside China to become aware of livestock poisonings caused by plant species with which they were previously not familiar while at the same time demonstrating that many of the problems experienced around the world have a common etiology. Presentations focused on botany, veterinary science, toxicology, mechanism of action, and chemistry. As is appropriate for the Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, this cluster of papers consists of selected oral and poster presentations in which the chemistry of the toxins played a significant role. The symposium revealed that there is considerable scope for isolation, structural elucidation, and analysis of the toxins from the numerous poisonous plant species that have been identified in China. It became apparent that there are abundant opportunities for chemists both within China and abroad to collaborate with Chinese scientists working on biological aspects of livestock poisonings. PMID:24661202

  6. Food Poisoning and Staphylococcus aureus Enterotoxins

    PubMed Central

    Argudín, María Ángeles; Mendoza, María Carmen; Rodicio, María Rosario

    2010-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus produces a wide variety of toxins including staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs; SEA to SEE, SEG to SEI, SER to SET) with demonstrated emetic activity, and staphylococcal-like (SEl) proteins, which are not emetic in a primate model (SElL and SElQ) or have yet to be tested (SElJ, SElK, SElM to SElP, SElU, SElU2 and SElV). SEs and SEls have been traditionally subdivided into classical (SEA to SEE) and new (SEG to SElU2) types. All possess superantigenic activity and are encoded by accessory genetic elements, including plasmids, prophages, pathogenicity islands, vSa genomic islands, or by genes located next to the staphylococcal cassette chromosome (SCC) implicated in methicillin resistance. SEs are a major cause of food poisoning, which typically occurs after ingestion of different foods, particularly processed meat and dairy products, contaminated with S. aureus by improper handling and subsequent storage at elevated temperatures. Symptoms are of rapid onset and include nausea and violent vomiting, with or without diarrhea. The illness is usually self-limiting and only occasionally it is severe enough to warrant hospitalization. SEA is the most common cause of staphylococcal food poisoning worldwide, but the involvement of other classical SEs has been also demonstrated. Of the new SE/SEls, only SEH have clearly been associated with food poisoning. However, genes encoding novel SEs as well as SEls with untested emetic activity are widely represented in S. aureus, and their role in pathogenesis may be underestimated. PMID:22069659

  7. [Acute carbon tetrachloride poisoning (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Berg, E; Fischer, R

    1976-09-10

    Three cases of acute CCI4 poisoning are reported which came for admission in the stage of hepatorenal insufficiency. All three intoxications occurred in the home by inhalation as a result of disregarding the safety precautions. The patients remembered using the noxa only after renewed questioning by the doctors. All three patients were able to be discharged cured after appropriate therapy, including peritoneal or hemodialysis. A disturbance of the capacity for urine concentration could be demonstrated up to 3 years after the exposure, as a last limitation of function. PMID:822322

  8. Lead poisoning in swans in Japan.

    PubMed

    Honda, K; Lee, D P; Tatsukawa, R

    1990-01-01

    We investigated the occurrence, source and exposure time of lead poisoning in whooper swans (Cygnus cygnus cygnus) and Bewick's swans (Cygnus columbianus bewickii) in Japan during the winters of 1984-1987. Concentrations of lead in various tissues and physiological evidence of lead shot in some birds indicated that lead shotgun pellets were the source of lead, and exposure occurred after the birds arrived in Japan. Mortality probably occurred within 30 days after exposure to, and retention of, lead shot in the gizzard. PMID:15092262

  9. Kratom exposures reported to Texas poison centers.

    PubMed

    Forrester, Mathias B

    2013-01-01

    Kratom use is a growing problem in the United States. Kratom exposures reported to Texas poison centers between January 1998 and September 2013 were identified. No kratom exposures were reported from 1998 to 2008 and 14 exposures were reported from 2009 to September 2013. Eleven patients were male, and 11 patients were in their 20s. The kratom was ingested in 12 patients, inhaled in 1, and both ingested and inhaled in 1. Twelve patients were managed at a healthcare facility and the remaining 2 were managed at home. PMID:24325774

  10. DDE poisoning in an adult Bald eagle.

    PubMed

    Garcelon, D K; Thomas, N J

    1997-04-01

    A 12-year-old female bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) was found in May 1993 on Santa Catalina Island, California (USA), in a debilitated condition, exhibiting ataxia and tremors; it died within hours. On necropsy, the bird was emaciated but had no evidence of disease or physical injury. Chemical analyses were negative for organophosphorus pesticides and lead poisoning. High concentrations of DDE (wet weight basis) were found in the brain (212 ppm), liver (838 ppm), and serum (53 ppm). Mobilization of DDE, from depleted fat deposits, probably resulted in the lethal concentration in the eagle's brain. PMID:9131562

  11. Accidental poisoning with biodiesel preservative biocide

    PubMed Central

    Aslanidis, T; Ourailoglou, V; Boultoukas, E; Giannakou-Peftoulidou, M

    2014-01-01

    Although biodiesel fuels’ use is getting more and more popular, there are only few reports in the literature of poisoning with such agents, and none referring to their preservatives: biocides. We present the management of a 49-year-old Caucasian male who was admitted, after accidental ingestion of biocide solution, in the intensive care unit of a tertiary hospital. In spite of his devastating condition upon arrival to the hospital, he had a remarkable recovery with no local or systemic sequel due to multidisciplinary and early supportive approach of his care. PMID:25336882

  12. Majorana qubit decoherence by quasiparticle poisoning

    E-print Network

    Rainis, Diego

    2012-01-01

    We consider the problem of quasiparticle poisoning in a nanowire-based realization of a Majorana qubit, where a spin-orbit-coupled semiconducting wire is placed on top of a (bulk) superconductor. By making use of recent experimental data exhibiting evidence of a low-temperature residual non-equilibrium quasiparticle population in superconductors, we show by means of analytical and numerical calculations that the dephasing time due to the tunneling of quasiparticles into the nanowire may be problematically short to allow for qubit manipulation.

  13. Majorana qubit decoherence by quasiparticle poisoning

    E-print Network

    Diego Rainis; Daniel Loss

    2012-05-30

    We consider the problem of quasiparticle poisoning in a nanowire-based realization of a Majorana qubit, where a spin-orbit-coupled semiconducting wire is placed on top of a (bulk) superconductor. By making use of recent experimental data exhibiting evidence of a low-temperature residual non-equilibrium quasiparticle population in superconductors, we show by means of analytical and numerical calculations that the dephasing time due to the tunneling of quasiparticles into the nanowire may be problematically short to allow for qubit manipulation.

  14. Lessons to be learnt from organophosphorus pesticide poisoning for the treatment of nerve agent poisoning.

    PubMed

    Thiermann, H; Szinicz, L; Eyer, P; Felgenhauer, N; Zilker, T; Worek, F

    2007-04-20

    The increasing threat of nerve agent use for terrorist purposes against civilian and military population calls for effective therapeutic preparedness. At present, administration of atropine and an oxime are recommended, although effectiveness of this treatment is not proved in clinical trials. Here, monitoring of intoxications with organophosphorus (OP) pesticides may be of help, as their actions are closely related to those of nerve agents and intoxication and therapy follow the same principles. To this end, the clinical course of poisoning and the effectiveness of antidotal therapy were investigated in patients requiring artificial ventilation being treated with atropine and obidoxime. However, poisoning with OP pesticides shows extremely heterogeneous pictures of cholinergic crisis frequently associated with clinical complications. To achieve valuable information for the therapy of nerve agent poisoning, cases resembling situations in nerve agent poisoning had to be extracted: (a) intoxication with OPs forming reactivatable OP-AChE-complexes with short persistence of the OP in the body resembling inhalational sarin intoxication; (b) intoxication with OPs resulting rapidly in an aged OP-AChE-complex resembling inhalational soman intoxication; (c) intoxications with OPs forming a reactivatable AChE-OP complex with prolonged persistence of the OP in the body resembling percutaneous VX intoxication. From these cases it was concluded that sufficient reactivation of nerve agent inhibited non-aged AChE should be possible, if the poison load was not too high and the effective oximes were administered early and with an appropriate duration. When RBC-AChE activity was higher than some 30%, neuromuscular transmission was relatively normal. Relatively low atropine doses (several milligrams) should be sufficient to cope with muscarinic symptoms during oxime therapy. PMID:17161895

  15. [The differential diagnosis of severe poisoning using electroencephalographic findings].

    PubMed

    Aleksandrovski?, V N

    1976-01-01

    The author conducted a clinical and EEG study of 308 patients with severe acute poisoning (by barbiturates, phosphororganic compounds, ethyl alcohol, noxiron, elenium, narcotics, carbon monoxide, tubazide, ethylenglycole and dichlorethan). It is shown that EEG changes in combination with clinical and toxicological data permit to qualify more precisely the form of poisoning and conduct specific therapy. PMID:1266493

  16. A prospective study of acute poisonings in Finnish hospital patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Outi Lapatto-Reiniluoto; Kari T Kivistö; Sinikka Pohjola-Sintonen; Kimmo Luomanmäki; Pertti J Neuvonen

    1998-01-01

    1 We have carried out a prospective study of all adult patients presenting with acute poisoning during one month to the Helsinki University Central Hospital (Meilahti Hospital).2 Two hundred and twenty-six cases of acute poisoning (113 males and 113 females) presented to the emergency department. Most cases in both men (66%) and women (67%) involved alcohol. As to drugs, psychotropic

  17. An Action-Research Project: Community Lead Poisoning Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rajaram, Shireen S.

    2007-01-01

    This action-research project focused on gathering data on awareness of lead poisoning, as well as disseminating information on lead poisoning prevention in a metropolitan midwestern city. This project reflects an action-research approach to service learning and was in collaboration with a grass-roots organization. This paper outlines the daunting…

  18. Carbon Monoxide Poisoning After an Ice Storm in Kentucky, 2009

    PubMed Central

    Lutterloh, Emily C.; Iqbal, Shahed; Clower, Jacquelyn H.; Spillerr, Henry A.; Riggs, Margaret A.; Sugg, Tennis J.; Humbaugh, Kraig E.; Cadwell, Betsy L.; Thoroughman, Douglas A.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality during natural disasters. On January 26–27, 2009, a severe ice storm occurred in Kentucky, causing widespread, extended power outages and disrupting transportation and communications. After the storm, CO poisonings were reported throughout the state. The objectives of this investigation were to determine the extent of the problem, identify sources of CO poisoning, characterize cases, make recommendations to reduce morbidity and mortality, and develop prevention strategies. Methods. We obtained data from the Kentucky Regional Poison Center (KRPC), hyperbaric oxygen treatment (HBOT) facilities, and coroners. Additionally, the Kentucky Department for Public Health provided statewide emergency department (ED) and hospitalization data. Results. During the two weeks after the storm, KRPC identified 144 cases of CO poisoning; exposure sources included kerosene heaters, generators, and propane heaters. Hospitals reported 202 ED visits and 26 admissions. Twenty-eight people received HBOT. Ten deaths were attributed to CO poisoning, eight of which were related to inappropriate generator location. Higher rates of CO poisoning were reported in areas with the most ice accumulation. Conclusions. Although CO poisonings are preventable, they continue to occur in postdisaster situations. Recommendations include encouraging use of CO alarms, exploring use of engineering controls on generators to decrease CO exposure, providing specific information regarding safe use and placement of CO-producing devices, and using multiple communication methods to reach people without electricity. PMID:21563718

  19. Effects of poisoning nonindigenous slugs in a boreal forest

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven H. Ferguson

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the impact of poisoning nonindigenous slugs on abundance of other soil arthropod groups occurring on the soil surface of a boreal forest. The experimental design consisted of counting soil fauna under boxes from 20 plots during weekly surveys before (year 1) and after (year 2) treatment (metaldehyde poison) with con- trol and experimental plots. Slug abundance was

  20. Intentional Self-Poisoning with Glyphosate-Containing Herbicides

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. B. Menkes; W. A. Temple; I. R. Edwards

    1991-01-01

    Four cases of self-poisoning with 'Roundup' herbicide are described, one of them fatal. One of the survivors had a protracted hospital stay and considerable clinical and laboratory detail is presented. Serious self-poisoning is associated with massive gastrointestinal fluid loss and renal failure. The management of such cases and the role of surfactant toxicity are discussed.

  1. 790 MMWR September 3, 2004 Outbreak of Aflatoxin Poisoning --

    E-print Network

    790 MMWR September 3, 2004 Outbreak of Aflatoxin Poisoning -- Eastern and Central Provinces laboratory testing of food collected from the affected area revealed high levels of aflatoxin, suggesting that the outbreak was caused by afla toxin poisoning, as was a previous outbreak in the same area in 1981 (1

  2. The Brain Lesion Responsible for Parkinsonism After Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Young H. Sohn; Yong Jeong; Hyun S. Kim; Joo H. Im; Jin-Soo Kim

    2000-01-01

    Background: Parkinsonism is a common neurological sequela of carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning, but its pathophysiological mechanism has yet to be clarified. Objectives: To describe a married couple who were both affected by CO poisoning, but only 1 of whom devel- oped CO-induced parkinsonism, and to discuss the pos- sible underlying pathophysiological mechanism of CO- induced parkinsonism by comparing the neuroimaging

  3. Acute Poisoning in Children; Data of a Pediatric Emergency Unit

    PubMed Central

    Sahin, Sabiha; Bora Carman, Kursat; Dinleyici, Ener Cagr?

    2011-01-01

    Objective Acute Poisoning in children is still an important public health problem and represents a frequent cause of admission in emergency units. The epidemiological surveillance specific for each country is necessary to determine the extent and characteristics of the problem, according to which related preventive measures can be taken. Methods The present retrospective study describes the epidemiology of accidental and suicidal poisonings in a pediatric population admitted to the Pediatric Emergency Department of Eskisehir Osmangazi University Hospital during the year 2009. Findings Two hundred eighteen children were reffered to the emergency department due to acute poisoning. 48.4% of patients were boys and 51.6% were girls. The majority of cases were due to accidental poisoning (73.3% of all patients). Drugs were the most common agent causing the poisoning (48.3%), followed by ingestion of corrosive substance (23.1%) and carbon monoxide (CO) intoxication (12.5%). Tricyclic antidepressant was the most common drug (11.7%). Methylphenidate poisoning, the second common drug. 262 patients were discharged from hospital within 48 hours. Conclusion Preventable accidental poisonings are still a significant cause of morbidity among children in developing countries. Drugs and corrosive agents are the most frequent agents causing poisoning. PMID:23056835

  4. Selenium Poisoning in Livestock: A Review and Progress

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. F. James; K. E. Panter; H. F. Mayland; M. R. Miller; Dale C. Baker

    Selenium in certain soils may be taken up by plants in amounts to render them toxic. Seleniferous forage can be found in most of the western states. Intoxication of livestock by seleniferous plants has been classified as acute and chronic. Acute poisoning results from consumption of plants having high levels of Se; chronic Se poisoning has been described in two

  5. Residual cognitive deficits 50 years after lead poisoning during childhood

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R F White; R Diamond; S Proctor; C Morey; H Hu

    1993-01-01

    The long term neurobehavioural consequences of childhood lead poisoning are not known. In this study adult subjects with a documented history of lead poisoning before age 4 and matched controls were examined with an abbreviated battery of neuropsychological tests including measures of attention, reasoning, memory, motor speed, and current mood. The subjects exposed to lead were inferior to controls on

  6. Coupled IVPs to Investigate a Nuclear Reactor Poison Burn Up

    SciTech Connect

    Faghihi, F. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, School of Engineering, Shiraz University 71348-51154, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2009-09-09

    A set of coupled IVPs that describe the change rate of an important poison, in a nuclear reactor, has been written herein. Specifically, in this article, we have focused on the samarium-149 (as a poison) burnup in a desired pressurized water nuclear reactor and its concentration are given using our MATLAB-linked 'solver'.

  7. Development of Improved Burnable Poisons for Commercial Nuclear Power Reactors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. L. Grossbeck; J. P. A. Renier; Tim Bigelow

    2003-01-01

    Burnable poisons are used in nuclear reactors to produce a more level distribution of power in the reactor core and to reduce to necessity for a large control system. An ideal burnable poison would burn at the same rate as the fuel. In this study, separation of neutron-absorbing isotopes was investigated in order to eliminate isotopes that remain as absorbers

  8. Theory of microbe motion in a poisoned environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoell, Christian; Löwen, Hartmut

    2011-10-01

    The motility of a microorganism which tries to avoid a poisoned environment by chemotaxis is studied within a simple model which couples its velocity to the concentration field of the poison. The latter is time independent but inhomogeneous in space. The presence of the poison is assumed to irreversibly reduce the propulsion speed. The model is solved analytically for different couplings of the total poison dose experienced by the microbe to the propulsion mechanism. In a stationary poison field resulting from a constant emission of a fixed point source, we find a power law for the distance traveled by the microbe as a function of time with a nonuniversal exponent which depends on the coupling in the model. With an inverted sign in the couplings, the acceleration of microbe motion induced by a food field can also be described.

  9. Fish Ears

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Science Update

    2004-08-23

    Sometimes the key to solving a medical problem turns up in unexpected places. For example, new discoveries about a fish's mating ritual may shed light on a cause of hearing loss in humans. This Science Update explores the correlation between levels of estrogen in female and sensitivity of hearing.

  10. Acute suicidal self-poisonings during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Sein Anand, Jacek; Chodorowski, Zygmunt; Ciechanowicz, Robert; Klimaszyk, Dorota; Lukasik-G?ebocka, Magdalena

    2005-01-01

    Selected clinical aspects of suicidal attempts during pregnancy were presented. Nineteen pregnant females, in the age range 17-27 (mean 22 +/- 2.58), were admitted to the Clinic of Acute Poisonings in Gda?sk and Toxicological Ward in Pozna? between 2001 and 2004 because of acute suicidal intoxication. The main attention was put on reasons of self-intoxication, the timing of attempted suicide as well as the influence of intoxication on the mother and the child. For most admitted women it was their first pregnancy (12 cases, 63.2%). The week of pregnancy varied from 4 to 37 (mean 19 +/- 9.3) weeks. The most popular drugs for attempting suicide among pregnant females were benzodiazepines (7 cases, 36.8%). The most often reason of suicidal attempts was unplanned pregnancy (9 cases, 47.4%). There were two miscarriages and one premature birth observed in our cases. Acute self-poisonings during pregnancy appeared to be a relatively marginal problem in the analyzed toxicology clinics and occurred in merely 0.38% of all women hospitalized between 2001 and 2004 in both clinics. The main reason of suicidal attempts in pregnant women was unplanned pregnancy (9 cases, 47.4%). None of the studied females admitted that the main reason of suicidal attempt was an abortion induction. PMID:16225088

  11. Seasonal Changes of Fish Assemblages in a Subtropical Lagoon in the SE Gulf of California

    PubMed Central

    Amezcua, F.; Amezcua-Linares, F.

    2014-01-01

    The composition and seasonal changes of the fish assemblage in a coastal lagoon system in southeastern Gulf of California were assessed from December 2001 to July 2005. A total of 20,877 organisms belonging to 191 species and 47 families were analyzed. We determined that almost all the species inhabiting the system were found; however some rare species were not captured in our study. The majority of the species found were demersal but in every season at least one pelagic or benthopelagic species showed high abundances. The moonfish, Selene peruviana, was the most abundant species, whilst the puffer, Sphoeroides annulatus, was the main species in terms of biomass. The species composition changed seasonally; results from the Simpson diversity index and the cumulative species curve show that seasonally almost all the species in the system for a given season were found. These changes were also reflected in the multivariate results. The seasonal variations could be attributed to the migration of species out of the system as they grow and the arrival of new ones, which could also be related to temperature patterns since this environmental factor changes considerably through the year. PMID:24672403

  12. Enhanced ARP: Preventing ARP Poisoning-based Man-in-the-Middle Attacks

    E-print Network

    Nam, Seung Yeob

    1 Enhanced ARP: Preventing ARP Poisoning-based Man-in-the-Middle Attacks Seung Yeob Nam, Member- tion Protocol (ARP) is proposed to prevent ARP poisoning-based Man-in-the-Middle (MITM) attacks deployable. Index Terms--ARP cache poisoning, Man-in-the-Middle attack, ARP poisoning prevention, voting. I

  13. Acute poisoning is a common reason for visits to emergency departments and for hospitalization

    E-print Network

    Bushman, Frederic

    ACUTE POISONING jUNE 2012, Issue 6 Acute poisoning is a common reason for visits to emergency departments and for hospitalization worldwide. The prevalence of acute poisoning in Southern Africa varies between 1 and 17%1 and available evidence from Botswana suggests that acute poisoning ranks third among

  14. Fish gelatin.

    PubMed

    Boran, Gokhan; Regenstein, Joe M

    2010-01-01

    Gelatin is a multifunctional ingredient used in foods, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, and photographic films as a gelling agent, stabilizer, thickener, emulsifier, and film former. As a thermoreversible hydrocolloid with a narrower gap between its melting and gelling temperatures, both of which are below human body temperature, gelatin provides unique advantages over carbohydrate-based gelling agents. Gelatin is mostly produced from pig skin, and cattle hides and bones. Some alternative raw materials have recently gained attention from both researchers and the industry not just because they overcome religious concerns shared by Jews and Muslims but also because they provide, in some cases, technological advantages over mammalian gelatins. Fish skins from a number of fish species are among the other sources that have been comprehensively studied as sources for gelatin production. Fish skins have a significant potential for the production of high-quality gelatin with different melting and gelling temperatures over a much wider range than mammalian gelatins, yet still have a sufficiently high gel strength and viscosity. Gelatin quality is industrially determined by gel strength, viscosity, melting or gelling temperatures, the water content, and microbiological safety. For gelatin manufacturers, yield from a particular raw material is also important. Recent experimental studies have shown that these quality parameters vary greatly depending on the biochemical characteristics of the raw materials, the manufacturing processes applied, and the experimental settings used for quality control tests. In this review, the gelatin quality achieved from different fish species is reviewed along with the experimental procedures used to determine gelatin quality. In addition, the chemical structure of collagen and gelatin, the collagen-gelatin conversion, the gelation process, and the gelatin market are discussed. PMID:20691955

  15. Fish Trade

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This lesson plan presents the global economic, political and social aspects of fisheries, aquaculture and fish collecting, and demonstrates how the practices of all the world's nations affect one another. Students read a number of short articles and use on-line resources to gather information on fisheries and aquaculture, then participate in discussion and essay assignments. Discussion questions, standards alignment, assessment, extensions and additional reference links are provided.

  16. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of obidoxime in sarin-poisoned rats.

    PubMed

    Alioth-Streichenberg, C M; Bodmer, D M; Waser, P G

    1991-05-01

    The pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of the oxime obidoxime (Toxogonin, 50 mg/kg iv) were investigated in anesthetized normal rats and in sarin-poisoned (50 micrograms/kg iv) rats. The kinetics were described by a two-compartment open model. The elimination half-life ranged from 35 min in normal rats to 86 min in sarin-poisoned rats. Obidoxime excretion occurred predominantly by the renal route, amounting to 4.6% of the administered dose in normal rats and to 0.9% in sarin-poisoned rats within the first hour of administration. The significantly diminished glomerular filtration rate confirmed the retardation of obidoxime excretion in sarin poisoning. The mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) response to obidoxime, measured in normal rats, was a transient hypotension, but to sarin an immediate hypertension. In sarin-poisoned rats the therapeutic sequence of administration of obidoxime and atropine (5 mg/kg iv) seemed to be important: the administration of atropine 10 min after and of obidoxime 20 min after sarin poisoning exerted a stabilizing effect on MAP. No serum albumin binding was found for obidoxime. Competition experiments at the isolated nicotinic receptor demonstrated the anticholinergic activity of obidoxime. The affinity of obidoxime was 1000 times smaller than that of acetylcholine. It is concluded that obidoxime, due to its prolonged residence time in the organism in sarin poisoning, exerts a "curare-like" inhibition and protection of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor and, combined with atropine, a synergistic effect on blood pressure normalization. PMID:2020972

  17. Intermediate syndrome with delayed distal polyneuropathy from ethyl parathion poisoning.

    PubMed

    Nisse, P; Forceville, X; Cezard, C; Ameri, A; Mathieu-Nolf, M

    1998-12-01

    An acute poisoning in a 44-y-old female who ingested 50 ml of ethyl parathion concentrate (25 g) is described. She was treated by gastric lavage, administration of pralidoxime and atropine, and mechanical ventilation. As signs of intoxication disappeared at day 3, treatment was discontinued. The patient had a relapse of acute cholinergic crisis at day 4, and the same treatment was applied again. The acute poisoning phase was followed by an intermediate syndrome and delayed distal polyneuropathy. The clinical course of this severe ethyl parathion poisoning was favorable after 40 d. PMID:9830697

  18. The selected information sources on poisoning and toxicology.

    PubMed

    Sato, C

    1998-03-01

    The third leading cause of unintentional injury death in 1993 was poisoning by solids and liquids, just behind motor vehicle accidents and falls. Poisoning and toxicology impacts all health care professionals. Physicians and emergency medicine professionals manage acute care, health educators address prevention and public education, and researchers focus on advancements. This article is an introduction to selected basic through advanced print and electronic information sources for anyone interested in poisoning and toxicology. All sources are available through the Hawaii Medical Library. PMID:9581051

  19. Acute copper sulphate poisoning: a case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Franchitto, Nicolas; Gandia-Mailly, Peggy; Georges, Bernard; Galinier, Anne; Telmon, Norbert; Ducassé, Jean Louis; Rougé, Daniel

    2008-07-01

    Voluntary copper poisoning is a rare mode of suicide. We report a case of copper sulphate poisoning in a patient presenting delusions with mystic demands for purification. The initial gastrointestinal symptoms were followed by intravascular haemolysis and renal failure. The course was favourable after symptomatic treatment and specific copper chelation therapy. However, the pathogenesis is not fully understood and with the present state of knowledge, no one treatment can be said to be superior to another. The authors discuss the various treatments of this rare poisoning through a review of the available literature. PMID:18482790

  20. Glyphosate surfactant herbicide poisoning and management.

    PubMed

    Mahendrakar, Kranthi; Venkategowda, Pradeep M; Rao, S Manimala; Mutkule, Dnyaneshwar P

    2014-05-01

    Glyphosate is a widely used herbicide in agriculture, forestry, industrial weed control and aquatic environments. Glyphosate potential as herbicide was first reported in 1971. It is a non-selective herbicide. It can cause a wide range of clinical manifestations in human beings like skin and throat irritation to hypotension, oliguria and death. We are reporting a case of a 35-year-old male patient who was admitted to our tertiary care hospital following intentional ingestion of around 200 ml of herbicide containing glyphosate. Initially, gastric lavage done and the patient was managed with intubation and mechanical ventilation, noradrenaline and vasopressin infusion, continuous veno-venous hemodiafiltration and intravenous (IV) lipid emulsion (20% intralipid 100 ml), patient was successfully treated and discharged home. This case report emphasizes on timely systemic supportive measure as a sole method of treatment since this poison has no known specific antidote and the use of IV lipid emulsion for a successful outcome. PMID:24914265

  1. Prolonged cardiotoxicity from poison lilly (Veratrum viride).

    PubMed

    Prince, L A; Stork, C M

    2000-10-01

    A 51-y-o otherwise healthy male presented to the emergency department 45 min after ingesting a soup made with boiled "leeks". Physical examination was significant for severe vomiting depressed mental status, and sluggishly reactive 2-3 mm pupils. Heart rate was 30 bpm and bp was 40/p mmHg requiring atropine and fluid resuscitation. After 60 min substernal chest pressure was noted and an ECG showed new V2-V6 ST segment depression. Recurrent hypotension required the use ofa dopamine infusion. At this time, the regional poison control center botanist identified a sample of the ingested material as Veratrum viride. The patient improved slowly over the next 24 hours, although bradycardia and heart block persisted for approximately 48 hours. PMID:11003119

  2. Biomedical applications of poisonous plant research.

    PubMed

    James, Lynn F; Panter, Kip E; Gaffield, William; Molyneux, Russell J

    2004-06-01

    Research designed to isolate and identify the bioactive compounds responsible for the toxicity of plants to livestock that graze them has been extremely successful. The knowledge gained has been used to design management techniques to prevent economic losses, predict potential outbreaks of poisoning, and treat affected animals. The availability of these compounds in pure form has now provided scientists with tools to develop animal models for human diseases, study modes of action at the molecular level, and apply such knowledge to the development of potential drug candidates for the treatment of a number of genetic and infectious conditions. These advances are illustrated by specific examples of biomedical applications of the toxins of Veratrum californicum (western false hellebore), Lupinus species (lupines), and Astragalus and Oxytropis species (locoweeds). PMID:15161174

  3. Curare: the South American arrow poison.

    PubMed

    Lee, M R

    2005-02-01

    The history of curare is both curious and convoluted. A product of South American culture it emerged in the sixteenth century from the mists of antiquity at the same time as quinine, coca, and chocolate. Like quinine, at first came the extract but no plant, and later the plant but no chemical compound. It took more than 300 years and the efforts of many explorers and scientists to resolve the problem. These included Condamine, Humboldt, Brodie, Waterton, Bernard, Dale, Walker, and King. Finally, the pure compound d-tubocurarine was isolated from the liana Chondrodendron and synthesised. Its specific physiological action was blockade of the effect of acetylcholine at the neuro-muscular junction. Such a paralytic poison could be used to kill oneself or others. The bizarre plot to kill the Prime Minister, Lloyd George, during the First World War is described. Fortunately this nefarious plan was thwarted by the Secret Service! PMID:15825249

  4. N-acetylcysteine overdose after acetaminophen poisoning.

    PubMed

    Mahmoudi, Ghafar Ali; Astaraki, Peyman; Mohtashami, Azita Zafar; Ahadi, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    N-acetylcysteine (NAC) is used widely and effectively in oral and intravenous forms as a specific antidote for acetaminophen poisoning. Here we report a rare case of iatrogenic NAC overdose following an error in preparation of the solution, and describe its clinical symptoms. Laboratory results and are presented and examined. A 23-year-old alert female patient weighing 65 kg presented to the emergency ward with weakness, lethargy, extreme fatigue, nausea, and dizziness. She had normal arterial blood gas and vital signs. An excessive dosage of NAC over a short period of time can lead to hemolysis, thrombocytopenia, and acute renal failure in patients with normal glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, and finally to death. Considering the similarity between some of the clinical symptoms of acetaminophen overdose and NAC overdose, it is vitally important for the administration phases and checking of the patient's symptoms to be carried out attentively and cautiously. PMID:25767408

  5. N-acetylcysteine overdose after acetaminophen poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Mahmoudi, Ghafar Ali; Astaraki, Peyman; Mohtashami, Azita Zafar; Ahadi, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    N-acetylcysteine (NAC) is used widely and effectively in oral and intravenous forms as a specific antidote for acetaminophen poisoning. Here we report a rare case of iatrogenic NAC overdose following an error in preparation of the solution, and describe its clinical symptoms. Laboratory results and are presented and examined. A 23-year-old alert female patient weighing 65 kg presented to the emergency ward with weakness, lethargy, extreme fatigue, nausea, and dizziness. She had normal arterial blood gas and vital signs. An excessive dosage of NAC over a short period of time can lead to hemolysis, thrombocytopenia, and acute renal failure in patients with normal glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, and finally to death. Considering the similarity between some of the clinical symptoms of acetaminophen overdose and NAC overdose, it is vitally important for the administration phases and checking of the patient’s symptoms to be carried out attentively and cautiously. PMID:25767408

  6. Community partnerships in preventing childhood lead poisoning

    SciTech Connect

    Dugbatey, K. [St. Louis Univ., MO (United States); Evans, R.G.; Lienhop, M.T.; Stelzer, M.

    1995-11-01

    Childhood lead poisoning is an environmental health problem that has no socio-economic, racial/ethnic, or regional boundaries. Because the key element in the exposure pathway is lead-based paint, it is more likely to impact inner city urban populations than those living in suburban areas. Suburban development primarily occurred after lead was removed from lead-based paint. It is maximally effective to adopt strategies that promote grassroots community development in designing preventive interventions. This paper reviews such a strategy for building community partnerships that have been instrumental in the development and implementation of an innovative lead education program. Saint Louis University School of Public Health reaches out to private and public nonprofit community organizations in this community-based lead education program.

  7. Grayanotoxin poisoning: 'mad honey disease' and beyond.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Suze A; Kleerekooper, Iris; Hofman, Zonne L M; Kappen, Isabelle F P M; Stary-Weinzinger, Anna; van der Heyden, Marcel A G

    2012-09-01

    Many plants of the Ericaceae family, Rhododendron, Pieris, Agarista and Kalmia, contain diterpene grayanotoxins. Consumption of grayanotoxin containing leaves, flowers or secondary products as honey may result in intoxication specifically characterized by dizziness, hypotension and atrial-ventricular block. Symptoms are caused by an inability to inactivate neural sodium ion channels resulting in continuous increased vagal tone. Grayanotoxin containing products are currently sold online, which may pose an increasing risk. In humans, intoxication is rarely lethal, in contrast to cattle and pet poisoning cases. Scientific evidence for the medicinal properties of grayanotoxin containing preparations, such as honey or herbal preparation in use in folk medicine, is scarce, and such use may even be harmful. PMID:22528814

  8. Glyphosate surfactant herbicide poisoning and management

    PubMed Central

    Mahendrakar, Kranthi; Venkategowda, Pradeep M.; Rao, S. Manimala; Mutkule, Dnyaneshwar P.

    2014-01-01

    Glyphosate is a widely used herbicide in agriculture, forestry, industrial weed control and aquatic environments. Glyphosate potential as herbicide was first reported in 1971. It is a non-selective herbicide. It can cause a wide range of clinical manifestations in human beings like skin and throat irritation to hypotension, oliguria and death. We are reporting a case of a 35-year-old male patient who was admitted to our tertiary care hospital following intentional ingestion of around 200 ml of herbicide containing glyphosate. Initially, gastric lavage done and the patient was managed with intubation and mechanical ventilation, noradrenaline and vasopressin infusion, continuous veno-venous hemodiafiltration and intravenous (IV) lipid emulsion (20% intralipid 100 ml), patient was successfully treated and discharged home. This case report emphasizes on timely systemic supportive measure as a sole method of treatment since this poison has no known specific antidote and the use of IV lipid emulsion for a successful outcome. PMID:24914265

  9. Clinical management of field worker organophosphate poisoning.

    PubMed

    Midtling, J E; Barnett, P G; Coye, M J; Velasco, A R; Romero, P; Clements, C L; O'Malley, M A; Tobin, M W; Rose, T G; Monosson, I H

    1985-04-01

    A group of 16 cauliflower workers poisoned by residues of the organophosphate insecticides mevinphos and phosphamidon was followed in weekly clinics with interviews and determinations of plasma and erythrocyte cholinesterase levels. None had preexposure baseline values. Although six had initial erythrocyte cholinesterase values within the laboratory normal range, subsequent testing showed their erythrocyte activity had been significantly inhibited. While the most severe symptoms of the 16 subjects resolved after 28 days, their erythrocyte cholinesterase levels did not reach a plateau until an average of 66 days after exposure, after which most patients continued to report blurred vision, headache, weakness or anorexia. These findings support the view that the diagnostic utility of single cholinesterase levels is limited in the absence of baseline values. PMID:4013266

  10. TIME-DEPENDENT FISSION-PRODUCT POISONS IN U-235 AND NATURAL URANIUM FUELS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. R. Stuart; T. R. England

    1962-01-01

    Fission-product poison in the core of the PWR seedblanket reactor was ; calculated. The fission-product poison in U²³⁵ is compared with that of ; natural uranium and Pu²³⁹ The effects of a power-dependent poison are ; described. The aggregate poison stability is discussed. The values of ; calculated and experimental poisons are compared. The results are based on ; explicit

  11. Chemotherapy of fish parasites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Giinter Schmahl; Horst Taraschewski; Heinz Mehlhorn

    1989-01-01

    There are few agents on the market that control fish parasites. These are substances that are mainly used in other hosts; due to the different metabolism of fish, they often have only moderate effects on fish parasites. Therefore, the research and development of fish-specific antiparasitic compounds is needed to avoid the high losses suffered by commercial fish hatcheries. Drugs similar

  12. A Contribution to the Establishment of Reference Values for Total Mercury Levels in Hair and Fish in Amazonia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. C. O. Santos; V. M. Câmara; I. M. Jesus; E. S. Brabo; E. C. B. Loureiro; A. F. S. Mascarenhas; K. F. Fayal; G. C. Sá Filho; F. E. S. Sagica; M. O. Lima; H. Higuchi; I. M. Silveira

    2002-01-01

    Studies on mercury levels in the Amazonian Region have typically lacked background or reference parameters. A sectional study on Hg concentration in hair and fish was conducted, together with an assessment of the prevalence of signs and symptoms related to Hg poisoning, in four communities in the Amazon Basin not impacted by gold mining, located either by a river course

  13. Hydrogen peroxide as a fungicide for fish culture

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dawson, V.K.; Rach, J.J.; Schreier, T.M.

    1994-01-01

    Antifungal agents are needed to maintain healthy stocks of fish in the intensive culture systems currently employed in fish hatcheries. Malachite green has been the most widely used antifungal agent; however, its potential for producing teratology in animals and fish precludes further use in fish culture. Preliminary studies at the National Fisheries Research Center, La Crosse, WI, USA (La Crosse Center) indicate that hydrogen peroxide is effective for control of Saprolegnia sp. fungus on incubating eggs of rainbow trout. It is also effective against a wide variety of other organisms such as bacteria, yeasts, viruses, and spores, and has been proposed as a treatment for sea lice on salmon. Hydrogen peroxide and its primary decomposition products, oxygen and water, are not systemic poisons and are considered environmentally compatible. In response to a petition from the La Crosse Center, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recently classified hydrogen peroxide as a 'low regulatory priority' when used for control of fungus on fish and fish eggs. Preliminary tests conducted at the La Crosse Center suggest that prophylactic treatments of 250 to 500 ppm (based on 100% active ingredient) for 15 minutes every other day will inhibit fungal infections on healthy rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) eggs. This treatment regime also seems to inhibit fungal development and increase hatching success among infected eggs. Efficacy and safety of hydrogen peroxide as a fungicide for fish are currently being evaluated.

  14. Fish Tales

    SciTech Connect

    McLerran, L.

    2010-07-06

    This talk is about fishing and the friendships that have resulted in its pursuit. It is also about theoretical physics, and the relationship of imagination and fantasy to the establishment of ideas about nature. Fishermen, like theoretical physicists, are well known for their inventive imaginations. Perhaps neither are as clever as sailors, who conceived of the mermaid. If one doubts the power of this fantasy, one should remember the ghosts of the many sailors who drowned pursuing these young nymphs. An extraordinary painting by J. Waterhouse is shown as Fig. 1. The enchantment of a mermaid must reflect an extraordinary excess of imagination on the part of the sailor, perhaps together with an impractical turn of mind. A consummated relationship with a mermaid is after all, by its very nature a fantasy incapable of realization. To a theoretical physicist, she is symbolic of many ideas we develop. There are many truths known to fisherman in which one might also find parallels to the goals of scientists: (1) A fish is the only animal that keeps growing after its death; (2) Nothing makes a fish bigger than almost being caught; (3) ''...of all the liars among mankind, the fisherman is the most trustworthy.'' (William Sherwood Fox, in Silken Lines and Silver Hooks); and (4) Men and fish are alike. They both get into trouble when they open their mouths. These quotes may be interpreted as reflecting skepticism regarding the honesty of fisherman, and probably do not reflect adequate admiration for a creative imagination. Is it fair to criticize a person for believing a falsehood that he or she sincerely believes to be true? The fisherman simultaneously invents the lie, and believes in it himself. The parallel with theoretical physics is perhaps only approximate, although we physicists may invent stories that we come to believe, on some rare occasions our ideas actually correspond to a more or less true descriptions of nature. These minor philosophical differences are not really the central issue, however. It is more to the point that both fishermen and scientists enjoy creating a good story, and we also enjoy a story well told. The correct mixture of truth, lie, fantasy and excitement is a witches brew.

  15. Know the Facts Lead poisoning is caused by swallowing or

    E-print Network

    and speech · Make it hard to pay attention and learn FACT Most children get lead poisoning from paint. Sometimes lead comes from things other than paint in your home, such as: · Candy, toys, glazed pottery

  16. [Poisons and men: historical, legal and toxicological aspects].

    PubMed

    Frati, P; Pasquali, A; Zampi, M; Froldi, R

    2001-01-01

    Humanity has always practised the poisoning. At first, magic and mistery characterized this ritual. Then, thanks to a more careful legislation and to empirical research it became subject of toxicology. PMID:12362937

  17. 49 CFR 172.313 - Poisonous hazardous materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 false Poisonous hazardous materials. 172.313 Section 172.313...Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS HAZARDOUS...

  18. 49 CFR 172.313 - Poisonous hazardous materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 false Poisonous hazardous materials. 172.313 Section 172.313...Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS HAZARDOUS...

  19. 49 CFR 172.313 - Poisonous hazardous materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 false Poisonous hazardous materials. 172.313 Section 172.313...Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS HAZARDOUS...

  20. 49 CFR 172.313 - Poisonous hazardous materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 false Poisonous hazardous materials. 172.313 Section 172.313...Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS HAZARDOUS...

  1. Be Food Safe: Protect Yourself from Food Poisoning

    MedlinePLUS

    ... this? Submit Button Past Emails CDC Features Be Food Safe: Protect Yourself from Food Poisoning Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Most ... had diarrhea for more than 3 days. Be Food-Safe Savvy: Know the Risks and Rules Everyone ...

  2. 21 CFR 509.6 - Added poisonous or deleterious substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS UNAVOIDABLE CONTAMINANTS IN ANIMAL FOOD AND FOOD-PACKAGING MATERIAL General Provisions § 509.6 Added poisonous or deleterious...

  3. 21 CFR 109.6 - Added poisonous or deleterious substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION UNAVOIDABLE CONTAMINANTS IN FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION AND FOOD-PACKAGING MATERIAL General Provisions § 109.6 Added poisonous or...

  4. Reassessment of the microcytic anemia of lead poisoning

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, A.R.; Trotzky, M.S.; Pincus, D.

    1981-06-01

    Hematologic abnormalities in childhood lead poisoning may be due, in part, to the presence of other disorders, such as iron deficiency or thalassemia minor. In order to reassess increased lead burden as a cause of microcytic anemia, we studied 58 children with class III or IV lead poisoning, normal iron stores, and no inherited hemoglobinopathy. Anemia occurred in 12% and microcytosis in 21% of these children. The combination of anemia and microcytosis was found in only one of 58 patients (2%). When only children with class IV lead poisoning were studied, the occurrence of microcytosis increased to 46%. However, the combination of microcytosis and anemia was found in only one of these 13 more severely affected patients. Microcytic anemia was similarly uncommon in children with either blood lead concentration greater than or equal to 50 microgram/100 ml. These data indicate that microcytosis and anemia occur much less commonly than previously reported in childhood lead poisoning uncomplicated by other hematologic disorders.

  5. 77 FR 64997 - Advisory Committee on Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-24

    ...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES...Advisory Committee on Childhood Lead Poisoning...Assistant Secretary for Health; and the Director...and technological developments and their practical implications for childhood lead...

  6. DepenDNS: Dependable Mechanism against DNS Cache Poisoning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Hung-Min; Chang, Wen-Hsuan; Chang, Shih-Ying; Lin, Yue-Hsun

    DNS cache poisoning attacks have been proposed for a long time. In 2008, Kaminsky enhanced the attacks to be powerful based on nonce query method. By leveraging Kaminsky's attack, phishing becomes large-scale since victims are hard to detect attacks. Hence, DNS cache poisoning is a serious threat in the current DNS infrastructure. In this paper, we propose a countermeasure, DepenDNS, to prevent from cache poisoning attacks. DepenDNS queries multiple resolvers concurrently to verify an trustworthy answer while users perform payment transactions, e.g., auction, banking. Without modifying any resolver or authority server, DepenDNS is conveniently deployed on client side. In the end of paper, we conduct several experiments on DepenDNS to show its efficiency. We believe DepenDNS is a comprehensive solution against cache poisoning attacks.

  7. Testing for Lead Poisoning Are we testing the right kids?

    E-print Network

    Testing for Lead Poisoning Are we testing the right kids? City of Atlanta 2005 September 25, 2006 indicates risk ­ Medicaid/PeachCare for Kids/WIC eligible ­ reside in homes built before 1978 ­ adopted from

  8. INCREASED SUSCEPTIBILITY TO PARATHION POISONING FOLLOWING MURINE CYTOMEGALOVIRUS INFECTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Increased Susceptibility to Parathion Poisoning Following Murine Cytomegalovirus Infection. Fifty to 100 percent mortality occurred in mice treated with ordinarily sublethal doses of parathion 2 to 5 days post infection with murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV). These mortalities appear...

  9. Nek4 Status Differentially Alters Sensitivity to Microtubule Poisons

    E-print Network

    Doles, Jason D.

    Microtubule poisons are widely used in cancer treatment, but the factors determining the relative efficacy of different drugs in this class remain obscure. In this study, we identified the NIMA kinase Nek4 in a genetic ...

  10. Pilot study on agricultural pesticide poisoning in Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Ouedraogo, Mustapha; Ouedraogo, Richard; Ilboudo, Sylvain; Guissou, Pierre I.

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiologic data related to agricultural pesticide poisoning cases in Burkina Faso were collected. The study was carried out using retrospective (from January 2002 to June 2010) surveys conducted among farmers and healthcare centers. One hundred and fifty-three (153) pest control products were recorded during the survey and 56 active ingredients were identified. Out of the 153 pest control products, 49 (i.e. 32%) were authorized for sale in Burkina Faso. The main risk factors are socio-demographic characteristics of farmers, their low education level, and some attitudes and practices on using agricultural pesticides. Pesticide poisonings are relatively frequent and their management was not always efficacious. Actions are needed to reduce pesticide poisoning as a global public health problem and to improve management of pesticide poisoning. To this purpose, advanced investigations should be carried out over a longer period of time to complement the present pilot study. PMID:24678256

  11. Food Chain Aspects of Chlordane Poisoning in Birds and Bats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Stansley; D. E. Roscoe; E. Hawthorne; R. Meyer

    2001-01-01

    We have observed recurring chlordane poisonings of large numbers of common grackles (Quiscalus quiscula), European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris), and American robins (Turdus migratorius) at suburban roosts in New Jersey during the month of July. This paper describes aspects of the food chain uptake of chlordane\\u000a that account for the periodicity of these poisonings. Chlordane concentrations ranged from < 0.02 to

  12. Recent Advances in the Treatment of Organophosphorous Poisonings

    PubMed Central

    Balali-Mood, Mahdi; Saber, Hamidreza

    2012-01-01

    Organophosphorous compounds have been employed as pesticides and chemical warfare nerve agents. Toxicity of organophosphorous compounds is a result of excessive cholinergic stimulation through inhibition of acetyl cholinesterase. Clinical manifestations include cholinergic syndromes, central nervous system and cardiovascular disorders. Organophosphorous pesticide poisonings are common in developing worlds including Iran and Sri Lanka. Nerve agents were used during the Iraq-Iran war in 1983-1988 and in a terrorist attack in Japan in 1994-1995. Following decontamination, depending on the severity of intoxication the administration of atropine to counteract muscarinic over-stimulation, and an oxime to reactivate acetyl cholinesterase are indicated. Supportive and intensive care therapy including diazepam to control convulsions and mechanical respiration may be required. Recent investigations have revealed that intravenous infusion of sodium bicarbonate to produce mild to moderate alkalinization is effective. Gacyclidine; an antiglutamatergic compound, was also proved to be beneficial in conjunction with atropine, pralidoxime, and diazepam in nerve agent poisoning. Intravenous magnesium sulfate decreased hospitalization duration and improved outcomes in patients with organophosphorous poisoning. Bio-scavengers including fresh frozen plasma or albumin have recently been suggested as a useful therapy through clearing of free organophosphates. Hemofiltration and antioxidants are also suggested for organophosphorous poisoning. Recombinant bacterial phosphotriesterases and hydrolases that are able to transfer organophosphorous-degrading enzymes are very promising in delayed treatment of organophosphorous poisoning. Recently, encapsulation of drugs or enzymes in nanocarriers has also been proposed. Given the signs and symptoms of organophosphorous poisoning, health professionals should remain updated about the recent advances in treatment of organophosphorous poisoning poisonings. PMID:23115436

  13. Acute carbon monoxide poisoning: Emergency management and hyperbaric oxygen therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Severance, H.W.; Kolb, J.C.; Carlton, F.B.; Jorden, R.C.

    1989-10-01

    An ice storm in February 1989 resulted in numerous incidences of carbon monoxide poisoning in central Mississippi secondary to exposure to open fires in unventilated living spaces. Sixteen cases were treated during this period at the University of Mississippi Medical Center and 6 received Hyperbaric Oxygen therapy. These 6 cases and the mechanisms of CO poisoning are discussed and recommendations for emergency management are reviewed.10 references.

  14. Age–sex differences in medicinal self-poisonings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anne E. Rhodes; Jennifer Bethell; Julie Spence; Paul S. Links; David L. Streiner; R. Liisa Jaakkimainen

    2008-01-01

    Background  Deliberate self-harm (DSH) is related to suicide and DSH repetition is common. DSH hospital presentations are often self-poisonings\\u000a with medicinal agents. While older age and male sex are known risk factors for suicide, it is unclear how these factors are\\u000a related to the nature and severity of medicinal self-poisoning (SP). Such knowledge can guide prevention strategies emphasizing\\u000a detecting and treating

  15. Cyclometalated platinum(II) complexes as topoisomerase II? poisons.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jia; Leung, Chung-Hang; Chow, Andy Lok-Fung; Sun, Raymond Wai-Yin; Yan, Siu-Cheong; Che, Chi-Ming

    2011-01-14

    A platinum(II)-based major groove binder [Pt(II)(C^N)(C?NR)(2)](+) (HC^N = 2-phenylpyridine (phpy), R = 2-naphthyl) was identified as a potent human topoisomerase II? poison. It stabilizes the covalent TopoII?-DNA cleavage complex and induces cancer cell death with potency significantly higher than the widely clinically used TopoII? poison Vp-16. PMID:21072335

  16. The pathology of experimental coyotillo Karwinskia humboldtiana poisoning in goats 

    E-print Network

    Dewan, Manik Lal

    1964-01-01

    THE PATHOLOGY OF EXPERINENTAL COYOTILLO (KARMINSKIA HDNBOLDTIANA) POISONING IN GOATS A Tbesis By Nanak Lal Dewan Approved as to style and content by: I Chairman oP Cosmittee I ', ' . :(. ' Head oP Department sr '~ J Nember Jannar 1964... description of tho gross and nicrescopic change in experinentally poisoned sheep, cattle, guinea pigs and chichens published in 1928, is tha only hnown investigation on tho pathelogy ef coyotillo. Litt1e progress has been node in the control...

  17. Identification of poisonous plants by DNA barcoding approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ilaria Bruni; Fabrizio De Mattia; Andrea Galimberti; Gabriele Galasso; Enrico Banfi; Maurizio Casiraghi; Massimo Labra

    2010-01-01

    The plant exposures are one of the most frequent poisonings reported to poison control centres. The diagnosis of intoxicated\\u000a patients is usually based on the morphological analysis of ingested plant portions; this procedure requires experience in\\u000a systematic botany, because the plant identification is based on few evident traits. The objective of this research is to test\\u000a DNA barcoding approach as

  18. 300 eMW OCR POWER SHAPING ROD POISON MATERIAL

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1959-01-01

    Studies were performed to optimize the poison material in the power ; shaping rods of the 3OO Mw(e) OCR for minimum annual cost. The following poison ; materials were investigated; EuâOâ, SmâOâ, GdâO\\/sub ; 3\\/, DyâO\\/ sub 3\\/, dispersed in stainless steel, and Bââ stainless ; steel alloys. The economic comparison of these materials is presented. (W. ; L.H.)

  19. Tips for Babysitting Safely Most poisonings happen in the home and to children under the age of 6. As a

    E-print Network

    Oliver, Douglas L.

    Tips for Babysitting Safely Most poisonings happen in the home and to children under the age of 6 below can be used to keep the children safe from poisons. What is a poison? A poison is any medicine or product that hurts you if used in the wrong amount, by the wrong person or in the wrong way. Poisons can

  20. Fishing amplifies forage fish population collapses

    PubMed Central

    Essington, Timothy E.; Moriarty, Pamela E.; Froehlich, Halley E.; Hodgson, Emma E.; Koehn, Laura E.; Oken, Kiva L.; Siple, Margaret C.; Stawitz, Christine C.

    2015-01-01

    Forage fish support the largest fisheries in the world but also play key roles in marine food webs by transferring energy from plankton to upper trophic-level predators, such as large fish, seabirds, and marine mammals. Fishing can, thereby, have far reaching consequences on marine food webs unless safeguards are in place to avoid depleting forage fish to dangerously low levels, where dependent predators are most vulnerable. However, disentangling the contributions of fishing vs. natural processes on population dynamics has been difficult because of the sensitivity of these stocks to environmental conditions. Here, we overcome this difficulty by collating population time series for forage fish populations that account for nearly two-thirds of global catch of forage fish to identify the fingerprint of fisheries on their population dynamics. Forage fish population collapses shared a set of common and unique characteristics: high fishing pressure for several years before collapse, a sharp drop in natural population productivity, and a lagged response to reduce fishing pressure. Lagged response to natural productivity declines can sharply amplify the magnitude of naturally occurring population fluctuations. Finally, we show that the magnitude and frequency of collapses are greater than expected from natural productivity characteristics and therefore, likely attributed to fishing. The durations of collapses, however, were not different from those expected based on natural productivity shifts. A risk-based management scheme that reduces fishing when populations become scarce would protect forage fish and their predators from collapse with little effect on long-term average catches. PMID:25848018

  1. Potential plant poisonings in dogs and cats in southern Africa.

    PubMed

    Botha, C J; Penrith, M L

    2009-06-01

    Plant poisoning occurs less commonly in dogs and cats than in herbivorous livestock, but numerous cases have been documented worldwide, most of them caused by common and internationally widely cultivated ornamental garden and house plants. Few cases of poisoning of cats and dogs have been reported in southern Africa, but many of the plants that have caused poisoning in these species elsewhere are widely available in the subregion and are briefly reviewed in terms of toxic principles, toxicity, species affected, clinical signs, and prognosis. The list includes Melia azedarach (syringa), Brunfelsia spp. (yesterday, today and tomorrow), Datura stramonium (jimsonweed, stinkblaar), a wide variety of lilies and lily-like plants, cycads, plants that contain soluble oxalates, plants containing cardiac glycosides and other cardiotoxins and euphorbias (Euphorbia pulcherrima, E. tirucalli). Poisoning by plant products such as macadamia nuts, onions and garlic, grapes and raisins, cannabis (marijuana, dagga) or hashish and castor oil seed or seedcake is also discussed. Many of the poisonings are not usually fatal, but others frequently result in death unless rapid action is taken by the owner and the veterinarian, underlining the importance of awareness of the poisonous potential of a number of familiar plants. PMID:19831265

  2. Nodal Diffusion Burnable Poison Treatment for Prismatic Reactor Cores

    SciTech Connect

    A. M. Ougouag; R. M. Ferrer

    2010-10-01

    The prismatic block version of the High Temperature Reactor (HTR) considered as a candidate Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR)design may use burnable poison pins in locations at some corners of the fuel blocks (i.e., assembly equivalent structures). The presence of any highly absorbing materials, such as these burnable poisons, within fuel blocks for hexagonal geometry, graphite-moderated High Temperature Reactors (HTRs) causes a local inter-block flux depression that most nodal diffusion-based method have failed to properly model or otherwise represent. The location of these burnable poisons near vertices results in an asymmetry in the morphology of the assemblies (or blocks). Hence the resulting inadequacy of traditional homogenization methods, as these “spread” the actually local effect of the burnable poisons throughout the assembly. Furthermore, the actual effect of the burnable poison is primarily local with influence in its immediate vicinity, which happens to include a small region within the same assembly as well as similar regions in the adjacent assemblies. Traditional homogenization methods miss this artifact entirely. This paper presents a novel method for treating the local effect of the burnable poison explicitly in the context of a modern nodal method.

  3. Histamine Levels in Fish from Markets in Lima, Perú†

    PubMed Central

    Gonzaga, Victor E.; Lescano, Andres G.; Huamán, Alfredo A.; Salmón-Mulanovich, Gabriela; Blazes, David L.

    2014-01-01

    Illnesses associated with seafood are an important public health concern worldwide, particularly considering the steady increase in seafood consumption. However, research about the risks associated with seafood products is scarce in developing countries. Histamine fish poisoning is the most common form of fish intoxication caused by seafood and usually presents as an allergic reaction. This condition occurs when fish are not kept appropriately refrigerated and histamine is formed in the tissues. Histamine levels of >500 ppm usually are associated with clinical illness. We assessed histamine levels in fish from markets in Lima, Peru, with a quantitative competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Thirty-eight specimens were purchased from wholesale and retail markets: 17 bonito (Sarda sarda), 16 mackerel (Scomber japonicus peruanus), and 5 mahi-mahi (Coryphaena hippurus). Seven fish (18%) had histamine levels of 1 to 10 ppm (three mackerel and four bonito) and three (8%) had >10 ppm (three mackerel, 35 to 86 ppm). Fish from retail markets had detectable histamine levels (>1 ppm) more frequently than did fish bought at wholesale fish markets: 9 (36%) of 25 fish versus 1 (8%) of 13 fish, respectively (P = 0.063). Higher histamine levels were correlated with later time of purchase during the day (Spearman’s rho = 0.37, P = 0.024). Mackerel purchased at retail markets after 2 p.m. had a 75% prevalence of histamine levels of >10 ppm. Mackerel purchased late in the day in retail markets frequently contained high histamine levels, although the overall prevalence of elevated histamine levels was low. Despite the small sample, our findings highlight the need to reinforce seafood safety regulations and quality control in developing countries such as Peru. PMID:19517744

  4. POISON SPIDER FIELD CHEMICAL FLOOD PROJECT, WYOMING

    SciTech Connect

    Douglas Arnell; Malcolm Pitts; Jie Qi

    2004-11-01

    A reservoir engineering and geologic study concluded that approximate 7,852,000 bbls of target oil exits in Poison Spider. Field pore volume, OOIP, and initial oil saturation are defined. Potential injection water has a total dissolved solids content of 1,275 mg/L with no measurable divalent cations. If the Lakota water consistently has no measurable cations, the injection water does not require softening to dissolve alkali. Produced water total dissolved solids were 2,835 mg/L and less than 20 mg/L hardness as the sum of divalent cations. Produced water requires softening to dissolve chemicals. Softened produced water was used to dissolve chemicals in these evaluations. Crude oil API gravity varies across the field from 19.7 to 22.2 degrees with a dead oil viscosity of 95 to 280 cp at 75 F. Interfacial tension reductions of up to 21,025 fold (0.001 dyne/cm) were developed with fifteen alkaline-surfactant combinations at some alkali concentration. An additional three alkaline-surfactant combinations reduced the interfacial tension greater than 5,000 fold. NaOH generally produced the lowest interfacial tension values. Interfacial tension values of less than 0.021 dyne/cm were maintained when the solutions were diluted with produced water to about 60%. Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} when mixed with surfactants did not reduce interfacial tension values to levels at which incremental oil can be expected. NaOH without surfactant interfacial tension reduction is at a level where some additional oil might be recovered. Most of the alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions producing ultra low interfacial tension gave type II- phase behavior. Only two solutions produced type III phase behavior. Produced water dilution resulted in maintenance of phase type for a number of solutions at produced water dilutions exceeding 80% dilution. The average loss of phase type occurred at 80% dilution. Linear corefloods were performed to determine relative permeability end points, chemical-rock compatibility, polymer injectivity, dynamic chemical retention by rock, and recommended injected polymer concentration. Average initial oil saturation was 0.796 Vp. Produced water injection recovered 53% OOIP leaving an average residual oil saturation of 0.375 Vp. Poison Spider rock was strongly water-wet with a mobility ratio for produced water displacing the 280 cp crude oil of 8.6. Core was not sensitive to either alkali or surfactant injection. Injectivity increased 60 to 80% with alkali plus surfactant injection. Low and medium molecular weight polyacrylamide polymers (Flopaam 3330S and Flopaam 3430S) dissolved in either an alkaline-surfactant solution or softened produced water injected and flowed through Poison Spider rock. Recommended injected polyacrylamide concentration is 2,100 mg/L for both polymers for a unit mobility ratio. Radial corefloods were performed to evaluate oil recovery efficiency of different chemical solutions. Waterflood oil recovery averaged 46.4 OOIP and alkaline-surfactant-polymer flood oil recovery averaged an additional 18.1% OIP for a total of 64.6% OOIP. Oil cut change due to injection of a 1.5 wt% Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} plus 0.05 wt% Petrostep B-100 plus 0.05 wt% Stepantan AS1216 plus 2100 mg/L Flopaam 3430S was from 2% to a peak of 23.5%. Additional study might determine the impact on oil recovery of a lower polymer concentration. An alkaline-surfactant-polymer flood field implementation outline report was written.

  5. Clinical effects and outcome of feline permethrin spot-on poisonings reported to the Veterinary Poisons Information Service (VPIS), London

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicholas M. Sutton; Nicola Bates; Alexander Campbell

    2007-01-01

    Permethrin is a pyrethroid insecticide used in dermally applied spot-on flea treatments for dogs. Permethrin-based spot-on preparations are contraindicated in cats because of the high risk of toxicosis. The Veterinary Poisons Information Service (VPIS) is a 24-h access telephone service that provides veterinary professionals in the United Kingdom with information on the management of poisoned animals. In a review of

  6. Lipid rescue 911: Are poison centers recommending intravenous fat emulsion therapy for severe poisoning?

    PubMed

    Christian, Michael R; Pallasch, Erin M; Wahl, Michael; Mycyk, Mark B

    2013-09-01

    Intravenous fat emulsion (IFE) therapy is a novel treatment that has been used to reverse the acute toxicity of some xenobiotics with varied success. We sought to determine how US Poison Control Centers (PCCs) have incorporated IFE as a treatment strategy for poisoning. A closed-format multiple-choice survey instrument was developed, piloted, revised, and then sent electronically to every medical director of an accredited US PCC in March 2011. Addresses were obtained from the American Association of Poison Control Centers listserv, and participation was voluntary and remained anonymous. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. The majority of PCC medical directors completed the survey (45 out of 57; 79 %). Of the 45 respondents, all felt that IFE therapy played a role in the acute overdose setting. Most PCCs (30 out of 45; 67 %) have a protocol for IFE therapy. In a scenario with "cardiac arrest" due to a single xenobiotic, directors stated that their center would "always" or "often" recommend IFE after overdose of bupivacaine (43 out of 45; 96 %), verapamil (36 out of 45; 80 %), amitriptyline (31 out of 45; 69 %), or an unknown xenobiotic (12 out of 45; 27 %). In a scenario with "shock" due to a single xenobiotic, directors stated that their PCC would "always" or "often" recommend IFE after overdose of bupivacaine (40 out of 45; 89 %), verapamil (28 out of 45; 62 %), amitriptyline (25 out of 45; 56 %), or an unknown xenobiotic (8 out of 45; 18 %). IFE therapy is being recommended by US PCCs; protocols and dosing regimens are nearly uniform. Most directors feel that IFE is safe but are more likely to recommend IFE in patients with cardiac arrest than in patients with severe hemodynamic compromise. PMID:23661336

  7. Microbiological spoilage of fish and fish products

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lone Gram; Hans Henrik Huss

    1996-01-01

    Spoilage of fresh and lightly preserved fish products is caused by microbial action. This paper reviews the current knowledge in terms of the microbiology of fish and fish products with particular emphasis on identification of specific spoilage bacteria and the qualitative and quantitative biochemical indicators of spoilage. Shewanella putrefaciens and Pseudomonas spp. are the specific spoilage bacteria of iced fresh

  8. Adjuncts and alternatives to oxime therapy in organophosphate poisoning--is there evidence of benefit in human poisoning? A review.

    PubMed

    Peter, J V; Moran, J L; Pichamuthu, K; Chacko, B

    2008-05-01

    Organophosphate poisoning is common in developing countries. The morbidity and mortality with organophosphate poisoning is relatively high despite the use of atropine as specific antidotal therapy and oximes to reactivate acetylcholinesterase. Several adjunct and alternative therapies have been explored in animal and human studies. We reviewed the literature to ascertain if there was evidence of benefit of such therapies. Adjunct and alternative therapies included treatments to reduce poison absorption by topical application of creams, enhance toxin elimination by haemoperfusion or bioremediation and neutralise the poison by scavenging free organophosphate with cholinesterase-rich human plasma. In addition, magnesium, clonidine, diazepam, N-acetyl cysteine and adenosine receptor agonists have also been used to counteract poison effects. Detailed assessment was limited by the paucity of trials on adjunct/alternative therapies. The limited evidence from the review process suggested potential benefit from the use of human plasma infusion, early initiation of haemoperfusion and intravenous magnesium, in addition to standard therapy with atropine and pralidoxime. There appeared to be no additional benefit with alkalinisation or use of glycopyrrolate instead of atropine in human trials. Diazepam administration has been advocated by military authorities if symptoms developed following exposure to organophosphate. Bioremediation, clonidine, N-acetyl cysteine and adenosine receptor agonists have been evaluated only in animal models. The impact of adjunct and alternate therapies on outcomes in human poisoning needs to be further explored before implementation as standard treatment. PMID:18564794

  9. VIGILANCE POISON: Illegal poisoning and lead intoxication are the main factors affecting avian scavenger survival in the Pyrenees (France).

    PubMed

    Berny, Philippe; Vilagines, Lydia; Cugnasse, Jean-Marc; Mastain, Olivier; Chollet, Jean-Yves; Joncour, Guy; Razin, Martine

    2015-08-01

    A specific surveillance program has been set up to monitor avian scavenger populations in the French Pyrenean Mountains, hosting a high proportion of the French populations. The two main purposes of the study were to identify all causes of death and to investigate poisoning cases. All 170 birds found dead during the 7-year program were submitted to full necropsy, X-Ray, parasitological investigations and consistent analytical toxicology screenings (Cholinesterase inhibitors, anticoagulant rodenticides, organochlorine insecticides, Pb, Cd). Over the study period, 8 Bearded Vultures, 120 Griffon Vultures, 8 Egyptian Vultures and 34 Red kites were eventually collected. Mortality events were often multifactorial, but poisoning was by far the most common cause of death (24.1%), followed by trauma/fall (12%), bacterial diseases and starvation (8%) and electrocution (6%). Illicit use of banned pesticides was identified as a common cause of poisoning (53% of all poisoning cases) and lead poisoning was also identified as a significant toxicant issue (17% of all poisoning cases). Lead isotopic signature could be associated primarily with ammunition. Last, a positive association between trauma and lead contamination was detected, indicating that lead could be a significant contributor to different causes of death. These results urge for severe restrictions on the use of lead ammunition to prevent scavengers from detrimental exposure. PMID:25913360

  10. A clinical study of viper bite poisoning.

    PubMed

    Pugh, R N; Theakston, R D

    1987-04-01

    Thirty-one consecutive cases of snake bite were studied in the Benue Valley, Nigeria where carpet viper (Echis carinatus) bite constitutes a serious health problem. E. carinatus was responsible for 26 cases, the night adder (Causus maculatus) for three and the puff adder (Bitis arietans) for two. There were two fatalities, both late admissions following E. carinatus poisoning. One patient died after a subarachnoid haemorrhage and the other after tissue necrosis and the complications of a tightly applied tourniquet. Another fatality after E. carinatus bite was suspected in a patient who discharged himself from hospital after Behringwerke antivenom failed to control bleeding and coagulopathy. Other cases of Behringwerke antivenom's failure and of slow response to treatment confirmed the pressing need for a more effective Echis antivenom in West Africa. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used for diagnosing the biting species and was the only means of identifying the three cases bitten by C. maculatus and one case bitten by B. arietans. PMID:3689023

  11. Experiences with acute organophosphate poisonings in Crete.

    PubMed

    Tsatsakis, A M; Aguridakis, P; Michalodimitrakis, M N; Tsakalov, A K; Alegakis, A K; Koumantakis, E; Troulakis, G

    1996-04-01

    Nine human acute poisonings due to intentional ingestion of organophosphorous pesticides are presented. Six of the victims died. Six patients were treated in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) from 34 h to 45 d, while 3 were found dead by relatives. Two of the patients treated in the ICU fully recovered after 15 and 24 d while the third survivor developed delayed neuropathy. Organophosphate blood levels were determined on admission and during therapy, and in 1 case atropine and pralidoxime levels were also detected. Significant fluctuations of the plasma cholinesterase activity were observed during therapy. Postmortem analysis revealed higher levels of pesticides in organs (eg 23.1 micrograms fenthion/g kidney) and in fat (135.2 micrograms fenthion/g) than in blood (eg 4.8 micrograms fenthion/ml) and vitreous humor. Considerable pesticide was measured in testis (eg 5.8 micrograms fenthion/g, 0.8 micrograms methidathion/g) and uterus (170.5 micrograms malathion/g). Extracorporeal decontamination to enhance pesticide elimination is a therapeutic challenge. PMID:8693683

  12. Lethal poisoning with ethiofencarb and ethanol.

    PubMed

    Al-Samarraie, Muhammad S J; Karinen, Ritva; Rognum, Torleiv; Hasvold, Inger; Opdal Stokke, Mimi; Christophersen, Asbjørg S

    2009-09-01

    Ethiofencarb is one of the carbamate compounds, which are, in general, less toxic than organophosphorus insecticides. This is due to their reversible acetylcholinesterase inhibition and relative inability to cross the blood-brain barrier. Generally, ethiofencarb is regarded to be of low toxicity (LD(50) > 200 mg/kg); however, severe poisoning and death are not uncommon. To our knowledge, no measurements of ethiofencarb and its metabolites in human postmortem whole blood have been published. We present here a case report of fatal ethiofencarb intoxication with quantitative analysis of ethiofencarb and its metabolites in ante- and postmortem blood. In addition, postmortem urine was collected and analyzed. A 56-year-old man, who worked as a gardener, was found in poor condition, sitting in his car seat. He had been vomiting. The man was admitted to the local hospital about 1 h later. At admission, he was conscious, but unable to speak clearly. His condition deteriorated, and he developed severe pulmonary edema. Resuscitation with atropine and adrenaline were attempted, but he died approximately 3 h after admission. The analysis of postmortem peripheral blood revealed 0.12 g/100 mL ethanol, 26.4 mg/L ethiofencarb, 37.9 mg/L ethiofencarbsulfoxide, and 0.9 mg/L ethiofencarbsulfone. Ethanol (0.26 g/100 mL), ethiofencarb, ethiofencarbsulfoxide, and ethiofencarbsulfone were also detected in urine. PMID:19796510

  13. Developments in alternative treatments for organophosphate poisoning.

    PubMed

    Iyer, Rupa; Iken, Brian; Leon, Alex

    2015-03-01

    Organophosphosphates (OPs) are highly effective acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors that are used worldwide as cheap, multi-purpose insecticides. OPs are also used as chemical weapons forming the active core of G-series and V-series chemical agents including tabun, sarin, soman, cyclosarin, VX, and their chemical analogs. Human exposure to any of these compounds leads to neurotoxic accumulation of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, resulting in abnormal nerve function and multiple secondary health complications. Suicide from deliberate exposure to OPs is particularly prevalent in developing countries across the world and constitutes a major global health crisis. The prevalence and accessible nature of OP compounds within modern agricultural spheres and concern over their potential use in biochemical weapon attacks have incentivized both government agencies and medical researchers to enact stricter regulatory policies over their usage and to begin developing more proactive medical treatments in cases of OP poisoning. This review will discuss the research undertaken in recent years that has investigated new supplementary drug options for OP treatment and support therapy, including progress in the development of enzymatic prophylaxis. PMID:25595305

  14. First records of known endoparasitic species of Pseudempleurosoma Yamaguti, 1965 (Monogenoidea: Dactylogyridae) from tetraodontid and rachycentrid fish off the northern coast of the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Mendoza-Franco, Edgar F; Vidal-Martínez, Víctor M

    2011-12-01

    Monogenoideans infecting the rectum of the wild checkered puffer fish, Sphoeroides testudineus (Tetraodontidae), and the pyloric ceca of the cultured cobia, Rachycentron canadum (Rachycentridae), from the northern coast of the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico, were morphologically identified as Pseudempleurosoma carangis Yamaguti, 1965 and Pseudempleurosoma gibsoni Santos, Mourão and Cárdenas, 2001 (Dactylogyridae), respectively. Morphometric comparison between the paratypes of P. carangis and those from S. testudineus showed that the latter differ only in the length of the body, germarium, and dorsal anchors. Similarly, a small form of P. gibsoni based on body size was detected in the present study. These metric differences may be attributable to the host effect, i.e., S. testudineus/R. canadum versus Caranx lugubris (Carangidae) (type host of P. carangis) from Hawaii and Paralonchurus brasiliensis (Sciaenidae) (type host of P. gibsoni) from Brazil, or by the degree of maturity, or both. In view of these considerations, new illustrations and several supplemental observations for P. carangis and P. gibsoni are provided. The present findings also represent new geographical records, and new sites of infection, e.g., rectum and pyloric ceca, for species of Pseudempleurosoma, and the first known endoparasitic monogenoideans infecting tetraodontid and rachycentrid fishes in Mexico. PMID:21612419

  15. Influence of mercury accumulation on fish

    SciTech Connect

    Dokholyan, V.K.; Akhmedov, A.M.; Akhmedova, T.P.; Shleyfer, G.S.

    1981-01-01

    Questions of the accumulation and distribution of mercury in the organs and tissues of different species of fish were examined in relation to the influence of mercury on survival, physiological and biochemical indices of the blood and brain. In the sturgeon and the roach, mercury accumulated primarily in the kidneys, liver, spleen and gills. The uneven distribution is evidently due to differentiation and differences in the degree of intensity of the metabolic processes of the cells in the organs and tissues, and the physico-chemical mechanism of the interaction of mercury with the biological structure is also important. There are substantial changes in the composition of the blood as a result of intoxication. In the sturgeon and roach a drop is noted in erythrocytes, hemoglobin and leukocytes and qualitative changes in the red blood cells also occur. Deviations were also noted in the correlation of individual forms of leukocytes. These changes are evidently provoked both by the direct presence of mercury in the blood stream and by its disruption of the functions of the hematopoetic organs. Mercury poisoning leads to disruption of the nitrogen metabolism of the brain of the fish. With the accumulation of mercury in fish to a certain critical level, the metabolic processes are inhibited or altered and the defense functions of the blood are weakened. 17 references, 6 figures, 4 tables.

  16. Adult Prescription Drug Use and Pediatric Medication Exposures and Poisonings

    PubMed Central

    Ayers, John W.; Brownstein, John S.; Bronstein, Alvin C.; Ewald, Michele Burns; Bourgeois, Florence T.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Nontherapeutic medication ingestions continue to be a major pediatric health problem, with recent increases in ingestions despite a number of public health interventions. It is unknown how changes in adult prescription drug use relate to pediatric medication poisonings. The objective of the study was to measure the association between changing adult prescription drug patterns and pediatric medication exposures and poisonings and identify high-risk classes of medications and pediatric age groups. METHODS: We measured monthly pediatric exposures and poisonings using the National Poison Data System and prescriptions written for adults using the National Ambulatory Medical Care Surveys for 2000 through 2009. Associations between adult prescriptions for oral hypoglycemics, antihyperlipidemics, ?-blockers, and opioids and exposures and poisonings among children 0 to 5, 6 to 12, and 13 to 19 years were analyzed by using multiple time-series analysis. Emergency department visits, serious injuries, and hospitalizations stemming from these associations were described. RESULTS: Adult medication prescriptions were statistically significantly associated with exposures and poisonings in children of all ages, with the strongest association observed for opioids. Across medications, the greatest risk was among children 0 to 5 years old, followed by 13- to 19-year-olds. Rates of emergency department visits were highest for events related to hypoglycemics (60.1%) and ?-blockers (59.7%), whereas serious injuries and hospitalizations occurred most frequently with opioids (26.8% and 35.2%, respectively) and hypoglycemics (19.5% and 49.4%, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Increasing adult drug prescriptions are strongly associated with rising pediatric exposures and poisonings, particularly for opioids and among children 0 to 5 years old. These associations have sizable impacts, including high rates of serious injury and health care use. PMID:23733792

  17. Pesticide poisoning: a major health problem in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Van der Hoek, W; Konradsen, F; Athukorala, K; Wanigadewa, T

    1998-01-01

    Acute pesticide poisoning is a major public health problem in Sri Lanka. In several agricultural districts, it precedes all other causes of death in government hospitals. Most of the acute poisoning cases are intentional (suicide) and occur among young adults, mainly males. Poisoning due to occupational exposure is also common, but less well documented. In an irrigation area in Sri Lanka a very high incidence of serious pesticide poisoning was observed, with 68% due to intentional ingestion of liquid pesticides. It is argued that the easy availability and widespread use of highly hazardous pesticides is the most important reason for this high number of poisoning cases. The frequent application of highly hazardous pesticides in high concentrations was often irrational and posed serious health and financial risks to the farmers. Sales promotion activities and credit facilities promoted this excessive pesticide use, which was not counteracted by an agricultural extension service. Hazardous practices when spraying pesticides were due to the impossibility of applying recommended protective measures under the local conditions, rather than to lack of knowledge. Current emphasis on programs that promote the safe use of pesticides through education and training of farmers will be ineffective in Sri Lanka because knowledge is already high and most poisoning cases are intentional. Instead, enforcement of legislation to restrict availability of the most hazardous pesticides would result in an immediate health benefit. Improved agricultural extension services to promote alternative non-chemical methods of pest control is the most important strategy, in the long term, to prevent acute pesticide poisoning. PMID:9460829

  18. Ooey, Gooey, FISH GUTS!

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Maryellen Timmons

    2004-04-01

    Hook your students onto inquiry-based science by implementing this ooey, gooey fish guts activity into your science curriculum. The author developed this fish dissection lesson as an inexpensive, safe, and clean alternative to the traditional and costly fish dissections on the "market." Students use inquiry, prediction, and teamwork to determine what fish eat and where they fit in the food web.

  19. Diazepam in the treatment of organophosphorus ester pesticide poisoning.

    PubMed

    Marrs, Timothy C

    2003-01-01

    Although the main site of action of diazepam, as with other benzodiazepines, is at the gamma-aminobutyric acid A (GABAA) receptor, the degree to which the beneficial actions of diazepam in organophosphorus (OP) ester pesticide poisoning are mediated through the GABAA receptor has been a matter of controversy. Although in most series of OP intoxications, convulsions have been relatively uncommon, it is probable that convulsions produce long-term sequelae in the central nervous system by causing structural damage. Animal studies have demonstrated that diazepam prevents and treats convulsions produced by OPs and may prevent the late effects caused by damage to the central nervous system induced by such convulsions. Consequently, the use of diazepam is an important part of the treatment regimen of severe OP poisoning as it prevents, or at least reduces the duration of, convulsions. In addition, case reports suggest that diazepam will also ameliorate muscle fasciculation, a subjectively unpleasant feature of OP pesticide poisoning. There are no data, either experimental or clinical, demonstrating any clear effect of diazepam alone on lethality in OP poisoning. In fact, in one study of large animals, diazepam, given alone, increased lethality. In animals experimentally poisoned with OPs, combined treatment with atropine and diazepam significantly lowered lethality compared with atropine treatment alone, indicating a clear beneficial effect. There are numerous case reports of the use of diazepam, generally as an adjunct to other more specific OP antidotes such as atropine and/or pyridinium oximes. Based on this evidence and pharmacodynamic studies in experimental animals, diazepam should be given to patients poisoned with OPs whenever convulsions or pronounced muscle fasciculation are present. In severe poisoning, diazepam administration should be considered even before these complications develop. Although diazepam has a large therapeutic index, there appears to be no place for its routine use in OP poisoning. Diazepam should be given intravenously to patients treated in hospital for OP poisoning, although the intramuscular route is used to administer diazepam outside hospital, such as on the battlefield, when an auto-injector is employed. It should be recognised, however, that absorption by the intramuscular route is poor. PMID:15071817

  20. Acute and subacute organophosphate poisoning in the rat.

    PubMed

    De Bleecker, J; Lison, D; Van Den Abeele, K; Willems, J; De Reuck, J

    1994-01-01

    The intermediate syndrome in organophosphate poisoning is clinically characterized by weakness in the territory of cranial nerves, weakness of respiratory, neck and proximal limb muscles, and depressed deep tendon reflexes. It occurs between the acute cholinergic crisis and the usual onset of organophosphate-induced delayed neurotoxicity. The weakness has been ascribed to muscle fiber necrosis. Fenthion has been the most common cause. This study assesses the occurrence of the necrotizing myopathy in rats in relation to the clinical course and the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition after poisoning with organophosphates representative for each of the major types of organophosphate-related neurotoxicity. Marked differences are noted in the duration of cholinergic symptoms and of AChE inhibition after either paraoxon and mipafox, or fenthion poisoning. The necrotizing myopathy begins shortly after the initial decline in AChE activity with all organophosphates studied. Maximal muscle involvement occurs within the first 2 days of the poisoning with all organophosphates studied. The myopathy is not aggravated by a further decline in AChE activity in fenthion poisoning. Our data argues against the monophasic necrotizing myopathy being the cause of the intermediate syndrome, and is suggestive of persistent AChE inhibition being involved. PMID:7991223

  1. Warnings unheeded: A history of child lead poisoning

    SciTech Connect

    Rabin, R. (Department of Labor and Industries, Newton, MA (USA))

    1989-12-01

    Child lead poisoning has been a major public health issue only for the last 20-25 years. However, awareness that lead-based paint is a source of lead poisoning in children dates back to the first few years of the twentieth century. Articles in medical journals and textbooks appeared in the United States and elsewhere, recounting cases of children poisoned by the lead paint in their homes on woodwork, baby cribs, and other furniture. The number of positively diagnosed cases was limited both by the imprecision of diagnostic tools and physicians' lack of familiarity with the signs and symptoms of plumbism in children. Nevertheless, a number of hospitals and at least one large city health department recorded numerous cases of child lead poisoning in the 1920s and 1930s. The mounting evidence in those years made it clear that child lead poisoning was a serious public health hazard. And the activities and statements of the lead industry's representatives left little doubt that they were aware of the dangers of lead paint. Nevertheless, the lead paint companies continued to manufacture and sell their product well past 1940.

  2. Jimsonweed poisoning associated with a homemade stew - Maryland, 2008.

    PubMed

    2010-02-01

    In the early morning hours of July 9, 2008, six adult family members were admitted to a hospital emergency department in Maryland with hallucinations, confusion, mydriasis, and tachycardia of approximately 3-4 hours duration. Approximately 4-5 hours earlier, all six family members had shared a meal of homemade stew and bread. Subsequent investigation by the Montgomery County Department of Health and Human Services (MCDHHS) and the Maryland Department of Health and Mental Hygiene (MDHMH) determined that the stew contained jimsonweed (Datura stramonium), a plant in the nightshade family that contains atropine and scopolamine and has been associated with anticholinergic-type poisoning. This report describes the poisoning incident, which resulted in six hospitalizations, and the subsequent multidisciplinary investigation. Health-care providers and public health officials should be aware that jimsonweed poisoning can occur among many age groups, including younger persons, who typically consume the plant material for recreational purposes, or persons of any age group who might unknowingly ingest the plant. A prompt diagnosis of jimsonweed poisoning is complicated by the difficulties in eliciting exposure histories in persons with altered mental status and the variable presentations of affected persons. Consultation with horticulturalists, poison control centers, and specialized laboratories might be necessary to investigate cases and outbreaks. PMID:20134399

  3. Effect of catalysts on dc corona discharge poisoning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pekárek, S.

    2011-02-01

    The processes of ozone generation in non-thermal plasma produced by an electrical discharge in air at atmospheric pressure are burdened by the presence of nitrogen oxides, which on the one hand contribute to ozone generation and on the other hand are responsible for unpleasant discharge poisoning. The term discharge poisoning refers to the situation when the discharge ozone formation completely breaks down. Discharge poisoning can be affected by placing a catalyst in the discharge chamber. For the dc hollow needle to mesh corona discharge enhanced by the flow of air through the needle electrode we studied the effect of titanium dioxide TiO2, ZSM-5 zeolite or Cu++ZSM-5 zeolite on discharge poisoning by monitoring the ozone, nitrogen monoxide and nitrogen dioxide discharge production. We found that placing globules of any of these catalysts on the mesh decreases the energy density of the onset of discharge poisoning, and this energy density is smallest for a discharge with globules of a TiO2 on the mesh.

  4. Diethylene glycol poisoning in Gurgaon, India, 1998.

    PubMed Central

    Singh, J.; Dutta, A. K.; Khare, S.; Dubey, N. K.; Harit, A. K.; Jain, N. K.; Wadhwa, T. C.; Gupta, S. R.; Dhariwal, A. C.; Jain, D. C.; Bhatia, R.; Sokhey, J.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To discover the cause of acute renal failure in 36 children aged 2 months to 6 years who were admitted to two hospitals in Delhi between 1 April and 9 June 1998. METHODS: Data were collected from hospital records, parents and doctors of the patients, and district health officials. Further information was obtained from house visits and community surveys; blood and stool samples were collected from other ill children, healthy family members and community contacts. Samples of drinking-water and water from a tube-well were tested for coliform organisms. FINDINGS: Most of the children (26/36) were from the Gurgaon district in Haryana or had visited Gurgaon town for treatment of a minor illness. Acute renal failure developed after an episode of acute febrile illness with or without watery diarrhoea or mild respiratory symptoms for which the children had been treated with unknown medicines by private medical practitioners. On admission to hospital the children were not dehydrated. Median blood urea concentration was 150 mg/dl (range 79-311 mg/dl) and median serum creatinine concentration was 5.6 mg/dl (range 2.6-10.8 mg/dl). Kidney biopsy showed acute tubular necrosis. Thirty-three children were known to have died despite being treated with peritoneal dialysis and supportive therapy. CONCLUSION: Cough expectorant manufactured by a company in Gurgaon was found to be contaminated with diethylene glycol (17.5% v/v), but a sample of acetaminophen manufactured by the same company tested negative for contamination when gas-liquid chromatography was used. Thus, poisoning with diethylene glycol seems to be the cause of acute renal failure in these children. PMID:11242827

  5. [Food poisoning--importance of international perspective].

    PubMed

    Nishibuchi, Mitsuaki

    2012-08-01

    It is important to obtain the information on food security in the countries other than Japan since more than 60 % of the food consumed come from these countries. Food security is now considered as a global issue. A global trend persuading us to provide safe food to humans is based on the concept of human security development associated with a sense of human mission to sustain one's life. Another global tendency pushing us to secure safety and hygiene of food is driven by the economic pressure coming from the rules in international trade established by Codex Committee under FAO/WHO. In contrast to these trends under globalization requesting safe and hygienic food, food habits based on tradition or religion are maintained locally in various parts of the world. These local habits include eating raw or improperly cooked foods, which may become a risk of being exposed to food poisoning pathogens. This issue may be adequately solved by a risk assessment approach based on the concept of appropriate level of protection (ALOP). Like or not, people in some local areas live in the unhygienic environment where they are unintentionally and frequently exposed to enteric pathogens or immunologically cross-reacting microorganisms through which they may acquire specific immunity to the pathogens and escape from infection by the pathogens. There are therefore many areas in the world where people understand the necessity to provide safe food at the international level (globalization) but actually consume food in varying hygienic conditions from area to area due in part to traditional food habits or living environments (localization); we call this situation as glocalization (global+local). PMID:22894059

  6. Lead poisoning of sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Windingstad, R.M.; Kerr, S.M.; Locke, L.N.; Hurt, J.J.

    1984-01-01

    Two wild and two captive sandhill cranes (Grm cnt~ndensisw) ere diagnosed by National Wildlife Health Laboratory personnel as having died from lead toxicity. Ingestion of lead fishing weights by the wild cranes and of unspent .22 caliber shell cartridges by the captive cranes were responsible for these deaths. One crane force-fed lead pellets showed an increase of blood lead levels from 0.77 ppm to 23.8 ppm (wet weight) just before its death 15 days following exposure. Liver lead concentrations of sandhill cranes dying of,causes other than lead toxicity are presented.

  7. Factors associated with self-reported symptoms of acute pesticide poisoning among farmers in northwestern Jamaica

    PubMed Central

    Ncube, Ngqabutho M.; Fogo, Christopher; Bessler, Patricia; Jolly, Curtis M.; Jolly, Pauline E.

    2011-01-01

    Pesticide poisoning is a major public health concern in developing countries. We conducted a population survey among farmers in three parishes of northwestern Jamaica to determine the occurrence of acute pesticide poisoning and to identify factors associated with pesticide poisoning. Approximately 16% of 359 farmers who participated in the study reported one or more incidents of acute pesticide poisoning within the last two years. Only 25% of the farmers reported ever receiving training in pesticide handling or safety. The majority (68%) of farmers who reported pesticide poisoning never sought medical attention for poisoning. The factors found to be associated with pesticide poisoning in this study indicate that implementation of specific intervention strategies and education of farmers is needed in order to improve safe handling, use and disposal of pesticides and reduce incidents of acute pesticide poisoning. PMID:24484363

  8. Proposal to measure the quasiparticle poisoning time of Majorana bound states

    E-print Network

    Lee, Patrick A.

    We propose a method of measuring the fermion parity lifetime of Majorana fermion modes due to quasiparticle poisoning. We model quasiparticle poisoning by coupling the Majorana modes to electron reservoirs, explicitly ...

  9. Stay on marked paths to avoid poison ivy. Watch young children carefully around river and creeks.

    E-print Network

    Shyy, Wei

    Caution · Stay on marked paths to avoid poison ivy. · Watch young children carefully around river or outdoor cooking are not permitted. Poison Ivy Hours · Trails and gardens open 8 am to dusk. · Conservatory

  10. A comparison of the histamine production in fish packaged aerobically and anaerobically

    E-print Network

    Lu, Shin

    1975-01-01

    or decarboxylating histidine (Nash, 1952). Most of the bacteria on meat are distinguished from most of the species commonly encountered on fish by being favorably affected by the addition of glucose. Complicated effect@ including both stimulating and retarding...(Tokyo). 25:336. Kawabata, T. , and Suzuki, S. 1959. Studies on the food poisoning associated with putrefaction of marine products. VIII. Distri- bution of 1-(- )histidine decarboxylase among proteus organisms and the specificity of decarboxylating...

  11. Paraquat - A deadly poison: Report of a case and review

    PubMed Central

    Saravu, Kavitha; Sekhar, Sonal; Pai, Ananth; Barkur, Ananthakrishna Shastry; Rajesh, V.; Earla, Jagadeswara Rao

    2013-01-01

    Paraquat is a bipyridilium herbicide used widely in our country and is a highly toxic compound. A 16-year-old female patient was admitted to the emergency department of our tertiary care hospital in South India with the history of alleged consumption of paraquat poison. Since there is dearth of high quality evidence- based treatment for this poisoning, different treatment modalities have been tried to manage patient's condition. In this case, none of the strategies could work well. Most of the patients reported with paraquat intoxication are from agricultural background; usually such patients cannot afford the treatment expenses. This paper presents a fatal case of acute poisoning with paraquat who succumbed to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). PMID:24082617

  12. Mercury poisoning in two 13-year-old twin sisters.

    PubMed

    Khodashenas, Ezzat; Aelami, Mohammadhassan; Balali-Mood, Mahdi

    2015-03-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a toxic agent that evaporates in room temperature and its inhalation may cause poisoning. Due to the nonspecific symptoms, diagnosis is difficult in special circumstances with no initial history of Hg exposure. We report two such cases of Hg poisoning. The patients were two sisters, presenting with pain in extremities, itchy rashes, sweating, salivation, weakness, and mood changes. They have used a compound that contains mercury, for treatment of pedicullosis three months before admission. This compound was purchased from a herbal shop and was applied locally on the scalps for 2 days. Their urinary mercury concentrations were 50 and 70 mg/L. They were successfully treated by D-penicillamine and gabapentin. In a patient with any kind of bone and joint pain, skin rash erythema and peripheral neuropathy, mercury poisoning should be considered as a differential diagnosis. PMID:26109979

  13. Histopathological changes in cases of aluminium phosphide poisoning.

    PubMed

    Sinha, U S; Kapoor, A K; Singh, A K; Gupta, A; Mehrotra, Ravi

    2005-04-01

    Of a total of 205 poisoning deaths in our hospital in 2003, 83 cases were due to Aluminium phosphide poisoning and were further analyzed. Most vulnerable age group was 21-40 years and M:F ratio was 2:1. On naked eye examination, almost all the vital organs were found to be congested. On microscopic study, the liver showed central venous congestion, degeneration, haemorrhage, sinusoidal dilation, bile stasis, centrilobular necrosis, Kupffer cell hyperplasia, infiltration by mononuclear cells and fatty change. Microscopy of the lungs revealed alveolar thickening, oedema, dilated capillaries, collapsed alveoli and haemorrhage. In the kidney, changes were degeneration, infiltration, tubular dilation and cloudy swelling. Changes in the brain included congestion and coagulative necrosis and in the stomach, congestion and haemorrhage. Easy availability of this cheap and highly toxic substance was responsible for the sudden spurt of poisoning with aluminium phosphide. PMID:16758658

  14. Acute organophosphorus poisoning complicated by acute coronary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Pankaj, Madhu; Krishna, Kavita

    2014-07-01

    We report a case of 30 year old alcoholic male admitted with vomiting, drowsiness, limb weakness and fasciculations after alleged history of consumption of 30 ml of chlorpyriphos insecticide. He had low serum cholinesterase levels. With standard treatment for organophosphorus poisoning (OPP), he improved gradually until day 5, when he developed neck and limb weakness and respiratory distress. This intermediate syndrome was treated with oximes, atropine and artificial ventilation. During treatment, his ECG showed fresh changes of ST elevation. High CPK & CPK-MB levels, septal hypokinesia on 2D echo suggested acute coronary syndrome. Coronary angiography was postponed due to his bedridden and obtunded status. The patient finally recovered fully by day 15 and was discharged. Acute coronary syndrome is a rare occurrence in OP poisoning. The present case thus emphasises the need for careful electrocardiographic and enzymatic monitoring of all patients of organophosphorus poisoning to prevent potential cardiac complication which can prove fatal. PMID:25672037

  15. Toxicological Profiles of Poisonous, Edible, and Medicinal Mushrooms

    PubMed Central

    Jo, Woo-Sik; Hossain, Md. Akil

    2014-01-01

    Mushrooms are a recognized component of the human diet, with versatile medicinal properties. Some mushrooms are popular worldwide for their nutritional and therapeutic properties. However, some species are dangerous because they cause toxicity. There are many reports explaining the medicinal and/or toxic effects of these fungal species. Cases of serious human poisoning generally caused by the improper identification of toxic mushroom species are reported every year. Different substances responsible for the fatal signs and symptoms of mushroom toxicity have been identified from various poisonous mushrooms. Toxicity studies of mushroom species have demonstrated that mushroom poisoning can cause adverse effects such as liver failure, bradycardia, chest pain, seizures, gastroenteritis, intestinal fibrosis, renal failure, erythromelalgia, and rhabdomyolysis. Correct categorization and better understanding are essential for the safe and healthy consumption of mushrooms as functional foods as well as for their medicinal use. PMID:25346597

  16. Lead poisoning of raptors in France and elsewhere.

    PubMed

    Pain, D J; Amiard-Triquet, C

    1993-04-01

    Although lead poisoning, through the ingestion of gunshot embedded in prey, is known to have been a significant mortality factor for several raptor species in the United States (Haliaeetus leucocephalus and Gymnogyps Californianus), very little published information is available concerning raptors in Europe. This paper presents the results of liver lead analysis from 222 raptors collected throughout France and reviews other published and unpublished European information. Of the 11 diurnal and 6 nocturnal raptor species investigated in this study, elevated liver lead concentrations, suggestive of shot ingestion, were found in 3 (Accipiter nisus, A. gentilis, Buteo buteo). The likelihood of a species to ingest shot appears related to feeding habits, with scavengers and predators that take game species the most susceptible. Raptor species at risk from lead poisoning, including some of high conservation value, are described, and future priorities for lead poisoning research and policy are suggested. PMID:7682502

  17. Toxicological profiles of poisonous, edible, and medicinal mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Jo, Woo-Sik; Hossain, Md Akil; Park, Seung-Chun

    2014-09-01

    Mushrooms are a recognized component of the human diet, with versatile medicinal properties. Some mushrooms are popular worldwide for their nutritional and therapeutic properties. However, some species are dangerous because they cause toxicity. There are many reports explaining the medicinal and/or toxic effects of these fungal species. Cases of serious human poisoning generally caused by the improper identification of toxic mushroom species are reported every year. Different substances responsible for the fatal signs and symptoms of mushroom toxicity have been identified from various poisonous mushrooms. Toxicity studies of mushroom species have demonstrated that mushroom poisoning can cause adverse effects such as liver failure, bradycardia, chest pain, seizures, gastroenteritis, intestinal fibrosis, renal failure, erythromelalgia, and rhabdomyolysis. Correct categorization and better understanding are essential for the safe and healthy consumption of mushrooms as functional foods as well as for their medicinal use. PMID:25346597

  18. Mercury poisoning in two 13-year-old twin sisters

    PubMed Central

    Khodashenas, Ezzat; Aelami, Mohammadhassan; Balali-Mood, Mahdi

    2015-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a toxic agent that evaporates in room temperature and its inhalation may cause poisoning. Due to the nonspecific symptoms, diagnosis is difficult in special circumstances with no initial history of Hg exposure. We report two such cases of Hg poisoning. The patients were two sisters, presenting with pain in extremities, itchy rashes, sweating, salivation, weakness, and mood changes. They have used a compound that contains mercury, for treatment of pedicullosis three months before admission. This compound was purchased from a herbal shop and was applied locally on the scalps for 2 days. Their urinary mercury concentrations were 50 and 70 mg/L. They were successfully treated by D-penicillamine and gabapentin. In a patient with any kind of bone and joint pain, skin rash erythema and peripheral neuropathy, mercury poisoning should be considered as a differential diagnosis.

  19. [Poisonings with the herbicides glyphosate and glyphosate-trimesium].

    PubMed

    Mortensen, O S; Sørensen, F W; Gregersen, M; Jensen, K

    2000-08-28

    Generally the herbicide glyphosate is considered harmless to humans. Glyphosate-trimesium is labelled harmful (Xn), whereas glyphosate-isopropylamine carries no warning sign. As cases of serious poisoning have emerged contacts to the Poison Information Centre have been reviewed. The persons exposed were mainly smaller children and adults 20 to 59 years of age. Oral exposure was recorded in 47 persons, inhalation exposure in 24 and topical contact in 42. About one fourth of the exposed persons were asymptomatic. Most of the symptomatic poisonings demonstrated complaints from the mouth, the gastrointestinal tract and the airways. Eleven patients were admitted to hospital. Two died, one of them having ingested the isopropylamine salt, the other the trimesium salt. Death ensued quickly in the latter patient. A similar fate was observed in a child--not included in the present material--who had also ingested the trimesium compound. PMID:10986892

  20. Seven cases of fatal aconite poisoning: forensic experience in China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qian; Zhuo, Luo; Liu, Liang; Zhu, Shaohua; Sunnassee, Ananda; Liang, Man; Zhou, Lan; Liu, Yan

    2011-10-10

    This paper presents seven fatal cases of aconite poisoning encountered in the Tongji Center for Medicolegal Expertise in Hubei (TCMEH), China, from 1999 to 2008 retrospectively. In six of the cases, deaths occurred after drinking homemade medicated liquor containing aconite, and in one case death was due to ingestion of traditional Chinese medication containing aconite. Forensic autopsy and pathological examinations ruled out the presence of physical trauma or life-threatening diseases. Diagnosis of aconite poisoning was made after postmortem toxicological analysis. Animal experiment was performed in one case demonstrating that the medicated liquor could cause death rapidly. We present the autopsy and histopathological findings, toxicological analysis, and results of animal experiment done on samples from those seven cases. As an important herbal Chinese medicine, Aconitum species deserve special attention, especially because it contains poisonous alkaloids. PMID:21640529

  1. Pharmaceutical and chemical pediatric poisoning in Kuwait: a retrospective survey

    PubMed Central

    Abahussain, Eman A.; Ball, Douglas E.

    2009-01-01

    Past studies of pediatric poisoning in Kuwait have suggested differences at hospital level which could impact on the implementation of public health interventions. The objective was to compare pediatric poisoning admissions at general hospitals in Kuwait. Methods Retrospective survey of all pediatric poisoning cases at the six general hospitals from January 2004 to December 2005. Case data were documented using ICD-10 criteria and the poisoning severity score. Aggregated data was also obtained from five private hospitals. Results 978 children were admitted in public hospitals over 2004 and 2005 (no fatalities) being 1.8% and 1.6% of all pediatric admissions (private hospitals admitted 293 cases). The majority of the poisoning cases came from Jahra hospital (>35%), the median age was 2.3 yrs, 93% of cases were under 6 yrs old and 71% were Kuwaiti. Two thirds of cases involved pharmaceuticals although this varied between hospitals with a tendency for more severe cases with chemical poisoning (p=0.011). Kerosene was an important problem at Jahra hospital (34.7% of chemical exposures). Non-opioid analgesics constituted 22.3% of medication exposures with hormones and drugs affecting the autonomic nervous system also common with some difference in pattern between institutions. Conclusion Case demographics do not vary significantly between the hospitals but there are differences in the nature of toxic agents to which children are exposed suggesting that preventive and educational programs could be targeted to specific areas for maximal effect particularly with regard to household chemical and kerosene exposures. PMID:25152792

  2. Prognostic Significance of Various Biochemical Parameters in Acute Organophosphorus Poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Sumathi, M. E.; Kumar, S. Harish; Shashidhar, K. N.; Takkalaki, Nandini

    2014-01-01

    Background: Organophosphorus (OP) compounds are a heterogeneous group of insecticides widely used in agricultural industry. These OP compounds are likely to have more adverse effects in developing countries like India due to its easy availability and less awareness which results in high morbidity and mortality. Aims and objectives: 1. To estimate plasma cholinesterase, amylase, lipase and, creatine phosphokinase (CPK) in acute OP poisoning. 2. To correlate these biochemical parameters with plasma cholinesterase levels in OP poisoning. 3. To determine the use of a biochemical marker in predicting the severity of acute OP poisoning. Materials and Methods: A hospital based observational study was conducted on 53 subjects who have clinically diagnosed of acute OP poisoning and admitted in emergency unit of a tertiary care rural hospital. Subjects of either gender of all age-groups were included in the study. On admission, plasma cholinesterase, serum amylase, lipase and CPK were measured. Based on plasma cholinesterase activity at the time of admission, subjects were divided into three groups. Group I-having 20-50% of plasma cholinesterase activity; Group II-10-20% of plasma cholinesterase activity; and group III-<10% of plasma cholinesterase activity. Results: Serum amylase, lipase and CPK were negatively correlated with plasma cholinesterase levels. Serum amylase showed statistically significant negative correlation with plasma cholinesterase. Serum amylase showed the highest diagnostic accuracy for assessing severity of poisoning followed by CPK and Lipase. Conclusion: OP poisoning is associated with hyperamylasemia. Serum amylase, lipase and CPK can be used as an additional prognostic indicator with plasma cholinesterase levels. Serum amylase could be considered as a better predictor of severity followed by CPK and lipase. PMID:25253926

  3. Paradox findings may challenge orthodox reasoning in acute organophosphate poisoning.

    PubMed

    Eyer, Peter; Worek, Franz; Thiermann, Horst; Eddleston, Michael

    2010-09-01

    It is generally accepted that inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is the most important acute toxic action of organophosphorus compounds, leading to accumulation of acetylcholine followed by a dysfunction of cholinergic signaling. However, the degree of AChE inhibition is not uniformly correlated with cholinergic dysfunction, probably because the excess of essential AChE varies among tissues. Moreover, the cholinergic system shows remarkable plasticity, allowing modulations to compensate for dysfunctions of the canonical pathway. A prominent example is the living (-/-) AChE knockout mouse. Clinical experience indicates that precipitous inhibition of AChE leads to more severe poisoning than more protracted yet finally complete inhibition. The former situation is seen in parathion, the latter in oxydemeton methyl poisoning. At first glance, this dichotomy is surprising since parathion is a pro-poison and has to be activated to the oxon, while the latter is still the ultimate inhibitor. Also oxime therapy in organophosphorus poisoning apparently gives perplexing results: Oximes are usually able to reactivate diethylphosphorylated AChE, but the efficiency may be occasionally markedly smaller than expected from kinetic data. Dimethylphosphorylated AChE is in general less amenable to oxime therapy, which largely fails in some cases of dimethoate poisoning where aging was much faster than expected from a dimethylphosphorylated enzyme. Similarly, poisoning by profenofos, an O,S-dialkyl phosphate, leads to a rapidly aged enzyme. Most surprisingly, these patients were usually well on admission, yet their erythrocyte AChE was completely inhibited. Analysis of the kinetic constants of the most important reaction pathways, determination of the reactant concentrations in vivo and comparison with computer simulations may reveal unexpected toxic reactions. Pertinent examples will be presented and the potentially underlying phenomena discussed. PMID:19883634

  4. Effect of interleukin-10 on pancreatic damage caused by organophosphate poisoning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Ikizceli; Y. Yurumez; L. Avsaro?ullari; C. Kucuk; E. M. Sozuer; I. Soyuer; Y. Yavuz; S. Muhtaroglu

    2005-01-01

    Organophosphate poisoning is a common cause of severe morbidity and mortality in emergency departments. Acute pancreatitis is a frequently reported consequence of organophosphate poisoning, but preventing this potentially severe complication has not been the subject of much research. We tested whether interleukin-10, a cytoprotective agent, could prevent or diminish pathological signs of acute pancreatitis caused by organophosphate poisoning. Thirty rats

  5. The Hospital Management of Fatal Self-Poisoning in Industrialized Countries: An Opportunity for Suicide Prevention?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kapur, Navneet; Turnbull, Pauline; Hawton, Keith; Simkin, Sue; Mackway-Jones, Kevin; Gunnell, David

    2006-01-01

    Suicide by self-poisoning is a prevalent cause of death worldwide. A substantial proportion of individuals who poison themselves come into contact with medical services before they die. Our focus in the current study was the medical management of drug self-poisoning in industrialized countries and its possible contribution to suicide prevention.…

  6. Suicide and unintentional poisoning mortality trends in the United States, 1987-2006: two unrelated phenomena?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ian RH Rockett; Gerry Hobbs; Diego De Leo; Steven Stack; James L Frost; Alan M Ducatman; Nestor D Kapusta; Rheeda L Walker

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Two counter trends in injury mortality have been separately reported in the US in recent times - a declining suicide rate and a rapidly rising unintentional poisoning mortality rate. Poisoning suicides are especially difficult to detect, and injury of undetermined intent is the underlying cause-of-death category most likely to reflect this difficulty. We compare suicide and poisoning mortality trends

  7. iScreening Young Children for Lead Poisoning Foreword..........................................................................................v

    E-print Network

    iScreening Young Children for Lead Poisoning Contents Foreword #12;ii Screening Young Children for Lead Poisoning List of Tables and Figures Table 1.1. Quantity.1. Assessing childrens exposure to lead.............22 Table 2.2. Childhood lead poisoning prevention

  8. Identification and characterization of toxigenic Bacillus cereus isolates responsible for two food-poisoning outbreaks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emilia Ghelardi; Francesco Celandroni; Sara Salvetti; Claudia Barsotti; Angelo Baggiani; Sonia Senesi

    2002-01-01

    The epidemiology of Bacillus cereus strains responsible for food poisoning is scantly known, mostly because the genotypic and toxigenic properties of the B. cereus strains isolated during food-poisoning outbreaks have been never catalogued. The occurrence of two simultaneous food-poisoning outbreaks gave us the opportunity to wonder whether (i) the identity of individual strains isolated from clinical, environmental, and food samples

  9. The Pattern of Poisoning in Southwestern Region of Iran: Envenoming as the Major Cause

    PubMed Central

    Jalali, Amir; Savari, Marzie; Dehdardargahi, Shaiesteh; Azarpanah, Armita

    2012-01-01

    Background: An analysis performed on the collected data from the Local Drug and Poison Information Centre (DPIC) of Jundishapur University revealed that stings are the main causes of poisonings with frequency of 56%, followed by drug poisoning in 31%, and chemical exposure poisoning in 5.5% in Khuzestan, the southwestern province of Iran. Objectives: The aim of the present study was to report the prevalence of poisoning in Khuzestan province referred to hospitals during the year 2007, on the basis of documents from the local Drug and Poison Information Centre (DPIC) and the main Khuzestan Hospitals Discharge Registry, to elucidate demographic trends of poisoning in this region. Materials and Methods: In the present study, 3258 cases of poisoning including 4.7% of all admissions to hospitals of Khuzestan during one year (2007) were investigated. Antidepressant drugs were the main-drug category inducing poisoning (24.37%). Others include sedative-hypnotics (19%), tricyclic antidepressants (TCA) (14.7%) and cardiovascular drugs (11.4%). Results: The research showed that most poisonings are occurred in autumn (29.6%) season. Besides the high poisoning rate of envenoming by animals in Khuzestan province, it seems that the pattern of poisoning is different with other Iran and worldwide regions. Conclusions: This may raise the attention of health service policy makers in Iran to establish a more effective diagnosis, management and implementing health policy services. PMID:24624164

  10. Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention Program What Is the Public Health Issue?

    E-print Network

    to combat childhood lead poisoning. Additionally, CDC has: · Funded 58 childhood lead poisoning prevention; · Provided training to public health professionals through CDC's Lead Poisoning Prevention Training Center quality, timely, and accurate analysis of results; and · Published targeted screening and case management

  11. Ferns, poison oak, and an unknown hairy plant on the forest floor

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Katie Hale (California State University, Fullerton; Student, Biological Sciences)

    2007-01-13

    Poison oak and the unknown hairy plant are similar, not in appearance, but because they both have characteristics that deter predators. The three leaflets of poison oak distinguish the plant as poisonous. The hair on hairy plants, on the other hand, is unattractive to insects for food.

  12. A Profile of Calls to a Poison Information Center Regarding Older Adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kimberly A. Skarupski; Rita Mrvos; Edward P. Krenzelok

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: The authors sought to examine the nature of calls to poison information centers by adults ages 50 and over. Methods: The authors used data from the national Toxic Exposure Surveillance System and conducted a retrospective review of all cases reported to an American Association of Poison Control Centers Certified Regional Poison Information Center in 1998 and 1999 (N =

  13. The Arizona Poison and Drug Information Center's toll-free line

    E-print Network

    Arizona, University of

    carefully. · Do not mix household cleaning products together. · Never call medicine candy. · Teach children. Don't force the eyelids open. Poison on the skin? Remove any clothing that the poison touched. Run tap water over the skin for 15 minutes. Bite or sting by a venomous creature? Call the Poison Center. WHAT

  14. deSEO: Combating Search-Result Poisoning John P. John,

    E-print Network

    Abadi, Martín

    deSEO: Combating Search-Result Poisoning John P. John, , Fang Yu§ , Yinglian Xie§ , Arvind malware by poisoning search results for popular queries. Such attacks, although recent, appear to be both through search engine optimiza- tion (SEO) techniques, attackers are able to poison the search results

  15. The Hitchhiker's Guide to DNS Cache Poisoning Sooel Son and Vitaly Shmatikov

    E-print Network

    Shmatikov, Vitaly

    The Hitchhiker's Guide to DNS Cache Poisoning Sooel Son and Vitaly Shmatikov The University of Texas at Austin Abstract. DNS cache poisoning is a serious threat to today's Internet. We de­ velop it to systematically investigate different types of cache poisoning and to generate templates for attack payloads. We

  16. Cover illustration courtesy of the Los Angeles County Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention Program

    E-print Network

    Cover illustration courtesy of the Los Angeles County Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention Program Committee on Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention Edited by Birt Harvey, MD Centers for Disease Control, Director Lead Poisoning Prevention Branch Gary P. Noonan, MPA, Acting Chief U.S. Department of Health

  17. POISONED FEEDBACK: THE IMPACT OF MALICIOUS USERS IN CLOSED-LOOP MULTIUSER MIMO SYSTEMS

    E-print Network

    Swindlehurst, A. Lee

    POISONED FEEDBACK: THE IMPACT OF MALICIOUS USERS IN CLOSED-LOOP MULTIUSER MIMO SYSTEMS Amitav systems based on malicious feedback of CSI. In particular, we examine malicious or poisoned feedback of the trans- mitter are listed in Sec. 3. Numerical results that depict the impact of poisoned feedback

  18. 49 CFR 174.680 - Division 6.1 (poisonous) materials with foodstuffs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...section, a carrier may not transport any package bearing a POISON or POISON INHALATION HAZARD label in the same car with any material... (b) A carrier must separate any package bearing a POISON label displaying the text “PG III,” or bearing...

  19. A Poisoning-Resilient TCP Stack Amit Mondal and Aleksandar Kuzmanovic

    E-print Network

    Kuzmanovic, Aleksandar

    A Poisoning-Resilient TCP Stack Amit Mondal and Aleksandar Kuzmanovic Northwestern University {a-mondal, akuzma}@cs.northwestern.edu Abstract-- We treat the problem of large-scale TCP poisoning: an attacker of mitigating large-scale poisoning attacks. We show, by means of analytical modeling, simulations, and Internet

  20. The Hitchhiker's Guide to DNS Cache Poisoning Sooel Son and Vitaly Shmatikov

    E-print Network

    Shmatikov, Vitaly

    The Hitchhiker's Guide to DNS Cache Poisoning Sooel Son and Vitaly Shmatikov The University of Texas at Austin Abstract. DNS cache poisoning is a serious threat to today's Internet. We de- velop it to systematically investigate different types of cache poisoning and to generate templates for attack payloads. We