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1

Tetrodotoxin poisoning outbreak from imported dried puffer fish - minneapolis, Minnesota, 2014.  

PubMed

On June 13, 2014, two patients went to the Hennepin County Medical Center Emergency Department in Minneapolis, Minnesota, with symptoms suggestive of tetrodotoxin poisoning (i.e., oral paresthesias, weakness, and dyspnea) after consuming dried puffer fish (also known as globefish) purchased during a recent visit to New York City. The patients said two friends who consumed the same fish had similar, although less pronounced, symptoms and had not sought care. The Minnesota Department of Health conducted an investigation to determine the source of the product and samples were sent to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition for chemical and genetic analysis. Genetic analysis identified the product as puffer fish (Lagocephalus lunaris) and chemical analysis determined it was contaminated with high levels of tetrodotoxin. A traceback investigation was unable to determine the original source of the product. Tetrodotoxin is a deadly, potent poison; the minimum lethal dose in an adult human is estimated to be 2-3 mg. Tetrodotoxin is a heat-stable and acid-stable, nonprotein, alkaloid toxin found in many species of the fish family Tetraodontidae (puffer fish) as well as in certain gobies, amphibians, invertebrates, and the blue-ringed octopus. Tetrodotoxin exerts its effects by blocking voltage-activated sodium channels, terminating nerve conduction and muscle action potentials, leading to progressive paralysis and, in extreme cases, to death from respiratory failure. Because these fish were reportedly purchased in the United States, they pose a substantial U.S. public health hazard given the potency of the toxin and the high levels of toxin found in the fish. PMID:25551594

Cole, Jon B; Heegaard, William G; Deeds, Jonathan R; McGrath, Sara C; Handy, Sara M

2015-01-01

2

Toxicity of Cultured Bullseye Puffer Fish Sphoeroides annulatus  

PubMed Central

The toxin content in various life cycle stages of tank-cultivated bullseye puffer (Sphoeroides annulatus) were analyzed by mouse bioassay and ESI-MS spectrometry analysis. The presence of toxin content was determined in extracts of sperm, eggs, embryo, larvae, post-larvae, juvenile, pre-adult, and adult fish, as well as in food items used during the cultivation of the species. Our findings show that only the muscle of juveniles, the viscera of pre-adults, and muscle, liver, and gonad of adult specimens were slightly toxic (<1 mouse unit). Thus, cultivated S. annulatus, as occurs with other cultivated puffer fish species, does not represent a food safety risk to consumers. This is the first report of toxin analysis covering the complete life stages of a puffer fish under controlled conditions. PMID:22412804

Nuñez-Vazquez, Erick J.; Garcia-Ortega, Armando; Campa-Cordova, Angel I.; de la Parra, Isabel Abdo; Ibarra-Martinez, Lilia; Heredia-Tapia, Alejandra; Ochoa, Jose L.

2012-01-01

3

Determination of tetrodotoxin and its analogs in the puffer fish Takifugu oblongus from Bangladesh by hydrophilic interaction chromatography and mass-spectrometric detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tetrodotoxin (TTX) and its analogs (TTXs), widely distributed among marine as well as terrestrial animals, induce dangerous\\u000a intoxications. These highly potential toxins are also known as the causative agent of puffer fish poisoning. A newly developed\\u000a highly sensitive method for determination of TTXs based on hydrophilic interaction chromatography and mass-spectrometric detection\\u000a is presented. TTX, anhydrotetrodotoxin, 11-deoxytetrodotoxin and trideoxytetrodotoxin were determined

Marc Diener; Bernd Christian; M. Sagir Ahmed; Bernd Luckas

2007-01-01

4

[Ciguatera fish poisoning].  

PubMed

Ciguatera, an ichtyosarcotoxism linked to the consumption of usually healthy coral fish is a common poisoning in the Pacific, Caribbean and Indian Ocean where it is endemic. However, increased tourism and commercial transportation of tropical fish for consumption make it an unexceptional intoxication in countries away from its endemic area. Environmental stresses such as climate changes also contribute to the expansion of its geographical area. The non-specific clinical symptomatology is characterized by the occurrence of gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, nervous and general signs few hours after eating a ciguatoxic fish. The diagnosis is clinical and relatively easy in endemic areas but much less for physicians who are rarely confronted with, which is a source of prolonged diagnostic delays and a significant increase in spending. Treatment of ciguatera is symptomatic but new treatments, still experimental, give a real hope for the future. PMID:25001048

Oehler, Erwan; Bouchut, Jérémie

2014-09-01

5

Analysis of the dopamine receptor family in the compact genome of the puffer fish Fugu rubripes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genome of the puffer fish, Fugu rubripes (Fugu), is approximately 400 Mb, 7.5 times smaller than that of human. We have isolated four dopamine receptor-like genes from Fugu genomic DNA. These genes show high sequence and structural homology to the known dopamine receptor genes, although, in contrast to previously described genes from this species, the intron size is comparable

Alexander D. Macrae; Sydney Brenner

1995-01-01

6

A Tetrodotoxin-Producing Vibrio Strain, LM1, from the Puffer Fish Fugu vermicularis radiatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

identified as members of the genus Vibrio (21). Also, Simidu et al. (29) demonstrated that many species of marine bacteria, including Vibrio spp. (21), Pseudomonas spp. (33), and actino- mycetes (1), produce TTX. Three individual F. vermicularis radiatus puffer fish (male; body weight, 45 g) were collected at Pusan, Korea, in March 1998, transported live to the laboratory, and maintained

MYOUNG-JA LEE; DONG-YOUN JEONG; WOO-SEONG KIM; HYUN-DAE KIM; CHEORL-HO KIM; WON-WHAN PARK; YONG-HA PARK; KYUNG-SAM KIM; HYUNG-MIN KIM; DONG-SOO KIM

2000-01-01

7

Toxic Marine Puffer Fish in Thailand Seas and Tetrodotoxin They Contained  

PubMed Central

A total of 155 puffers caught from two of Thailand’s seas, the Gulf of Siam and the Andaman seas, during April to July 2010 were included in this study. Among 125 puffers from the Gulf of Siam, 18 were Lagocephalus lunaris and 107 were L. spadiceus which were the same two species found previously in 2000-2001. Thirty puffers were collected from the Andaman seas, 28 Tetraodon nigroviridis and two juvenile Arothron reticularis; the two new species totally replaced the nine species found previously in 1992-1993. Conventional mouse bioassay was used to determine the toxicity in all fish tissue extracts, i.e., liver, reproductive tissue, digestive tissue and muscle. One of each of the species L. lunaris and L. spadiceus (5.56 and 0.93%, respectively) were toxic. All 28 T. nigroviridis and 2 A. reticularis (100%) from the Andaman seas were toxic. The toxicity scores in T. nigroviridis tissues were much higher than in the respective tissues of the other three fish species. Liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) revealed that the main toxic principle was tetrodotoxin (TTX). This study is the first to report TTX in L. spadiceus. Our findings raised a concern for people, not only Thais but also inhabitants of other countries situated on the Andaman coast; consuming puffers of the Andaman seas is risky due to potential TTX intoxication. PMID:22069694

Chulanetra, Monrat; Sookrung, Nitat; Srimanote, Potjanee; Indrawattana, Nitaya; Thanongsaksrikul, Jeeraphong; Sakolvaree, Yuwaporn; Chongsa-Nguan, Manas; Kurazono, Hisao; Chaicumpa, Wanpen

2011-01-01

8

Poisoning - fish and shellfish  

MedlinePLUS

... blooming in the ocean, such as during “"red tide." A red tide occurs when there is a rapid increase in ... poisonings also increases when there is a "red tide." Shellfish poisoning occurs in seafood with two shells ...

9

Distribution of tetrodotoxin, saxitoxin, and their analogs among tissues of the puffer fish Fugu pardalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The anatomical distribution of tetrodotoxin (TTX), saxitoxin (STX) and their analogs (TTXs, STXs) in three female and three male specimens of the marine puffer fish Fugu pardalis from Miyagi Prefecture, 2005, Japan, were studied. 5-DeoxyTTX, 11-deoxyTTX, and 5,6,11-trideoxyTTX were quantified by liquid chromatography\\/mass spectrometry (LC\\/MS) for the first time, and other TTXs and STXs were determined by liquid chromatography-fluorescent detection

Junho Jang; Mari Yotsu-Yamashita

2006-01-01

10

Molecular Cloning of Two Cannabinoid Type 1-like Receptor Genes from the Puffer Fish Fugu rubripes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The puffer fish,Fugu rubripes(Fugu), has been proposed as a model vertebrate genome. We have characterized two putative G-protein-coupled receptor encoding genes, FCB1A and FCB1B, obtained by degenerate PCR and low-stringency hybridization of a Fugu genomic library. These two genes show high homology to the human cannabinoid receptor type 1 (HCB1), but very low homology to the type 2 receptor. The

Fuminori Yamaguchi; Alexander D. Macrae; Sydney Brenner

1996-01-01

11

Genomic Structure and Nucleotide Sequence of the p55 Gene of the Puffer Fish Fugu rubripes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The p55 gene, which codes for a 55-kDa erythrocyte membrane protein, has been cloned and sequenced from the genome of the Japanese puffer fish Fugu rubripes (Fugu). This organism has the smallest recorded vertebrate genome and therefore provides an efficient way to sequence genes at the genomic level. The gene encoding p55 covers 5.5 kb from the beginning to the

Greg Elgar; Fraser Rattray; John Greystrong; Sydney Brenner

1995-01-01

12

An overview of the marine food poisoning in Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the course of the last decade, huge events related to harmful algal blooms (HAB) have severely affected the environment in Mexico, even causing several human casualties. The tally of the toxins known up to date in Mexican waters includes: neurotoxin shellfish poisoning (NSP), paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP), amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP), tetrodotoxin (TTX) or puffer fish poisoning, ciguatera fish

A. P Sierra-Beltrán; A Cruz; E Núñez; L. M Del Villar; J Cerecero; J. L Ochoa

1998-01-01

13

Species Discrimination among Three Kinds of Puffer Fish Using an Electronic Nose Combined with Olfactory Sensory Evaluation  

PubMed Central

Species discrimination among three kinds of puffer fish, Takifugu obscurus, Takifugu flavidus and Takifugu rubripes, was conducted using an electronic nose combined with olfactory sensory evaluation. All data were treated by multivariate data processing based on principal component analysis (PCA) and discriminant factor analysis (DFA). The results showed the discriminant model by PCA method and DFA method. Using PCA and DFA, it was shown that the electronic nose was able to reasonably distinguish between each of the eleven puffer fish groups, with a discrimination index of 85. The olfactory sensory evaluation was undertaken in accordance to Sensory analysis—Methodology—Initiation and training of assessors in the detection and recognition of odors (BS ISO 5496-2006), and the results showed that the evaluation was able to identify puffer fish samples according to their species, geographical origin and age. Results from this analysis demonstrate that the E-nose can be used to complement the discrimination of odors by sensory evaluation from the three species of puffer fish studied here. PMID:23112731

Zhang, Meixiu; Wang, Xichang; Liu, Yuan; Xu, Xinglian; Zhou, Guanghong

2012-01-01

14

Examination of transformation among tetrodotoxin and its analogs in the living cultured juvenile puffer fish, kusafugu, Fugu niphobles by intramuscular administration  

Microsoft Academic Search

In puffer fish, tetrodotoxin (TTX) exists as the major toxin with chemically equilibrium analogs (4-epiTTX, 4,9-anhydroTTX) and chemically non-equilibrium analogs (deoxy analogs, 11-oxoTTX, 4-S-cysteinylTTX). There are two purposes to this study: 1) to search for the reason why TTX is the most major analog in puffer fish, even 4,9-anhydroTTX is chemically more stable, 2) to investigate whether or not chemically

Michiko Kono; Takashi Matsui; Kiyoshi Furukawa; Takuhiko Takase; Kunio Yamamori; Hideko Kaneda; Daisuke Aoki; Jun-Ho Jang; Mari Yotsu-Yamashita

2008-01-01

15

Genotoxicity of tetrodotoxin from puffer fish tested in root meristem cells of Allium cepa L.  

PubMed

Tetrodotoxin (TTX) extracted and purified from puffer fish Arothron nigropunctatus was tested for genotoxicity employing the root meristem cells of Allium cepa as the assay system. The genotoxicity endpoints investigated were mitotic index (MI), meta-anaphases with spindle aberrations, interphases with micronuclei (MNC) and sister chromatid exchanges (SCE) in metaphase chromosomes. The results demonstrated that TTX inhibited mitosis at concentrations of > or = 30 microM as evident by the fall of MI, but failed to induce MNC at significant levels at any of the concentrations tested (10-100 microM). TTX was thus proved to be neither clastogenic nor aneugenic in the present study. It was, however, noteworthy that TTX at far lower concentrations, 0.1-5.0 microM, significantly enhanced the frequencies of SCE which indicated possible interference of the toxin in DNA replication and repair. PMID:9237772

Khora, S S; Panda, K K; Panda, B B

1997-07-01

16

LC/MS analysis of tetrodotoxin and its deoxy analogs in the marine puffer fish Fugu niphobles from the southern coast of Korea, and in the brackishwater puffer fishes Tetraodon nigroviridis and Tetraodon biocellatus from Southeast Asia.  

PubMed

Tetrodotoxin (TTX) and its deoxy analogs, 5-deoxyTTX, 11-deoxyTTX, 6,11-dideoxyTTX, and 5,6,11-trideoxyTTX, were quantified in the tissues of three female and three male specimens of the marine puffer fish, Fugu niphobles, from the southern coast of Korea, and in the whole body of the brackishwater puffer fishes, Tetraodon nigroviridis (12 specimens) and Tetrodon biocellatus (three specimens) from Southeast Asia using LC/MS in single ion mode (SIM). Identification of these four deoxy analogs in the ovarian tissue of F. niphobles were further confirmed by LC/MS/MS. TTX and 5,6,11-trideoxyTTX were detected in all three puffer fish species as the major TTX analogs, similar to Japanese Fugu pardalis. While 6,11-dideoxyTTX was also found to be a major analog in almost all tissues of Korean F. niphobles, this analog was minor in the two Tetraodon species and Japanese F. pardalis. Among the tissues of F. niphobles, the concentrations of TTXs were highest in the ovaries (female) and skin (female and male). PMID:20479966

Jang, Jun-Ho; Lee, Jong-Soo; Yotsu-Yamashita, Mari

2010-01-01

17

Universal spectrum for DNA base CG frequency distribution in Takifugu rubripes (Puffer fish) genome  

E-print Network

The frequency distribution of DNA bases A, C, G, T exhibit fractal fluctuations ubiquitous to dynamical systems in nature. The power spectra of fractal fluctuations exhibit inverse power law form signifying long-range correlations between local (small-scale) and global (large-scale) perturbations. The author has developed a general systems theory based on classical statistical physics for fractal fluctuations which predicts that the probability distribution of eddy amplitudes and the variance (square of eddy amplitude)spectrum of fractal fluctuations follow the universal Boltzmann inverse power law expressed as a function of the golden mean. The model predicted distribution is very close to statistical normal distribution for fluctuations within two standard deviations from the mean and exhibits a fat long tail. In this paper it is shown that DNA base CG frequency distribution in Takifugu rubripes (Puffer fish) Genome Release 4 exhibit universal inverse power law form consistent with model prediction. The observed long-range correlations in the DNA bases implies that the non-coding 'junk' or 'selfish' DNA which appear to be redundant, may also contribute to the efficient functioning of the protein coding DNA, a result supported by recent studies.

A. M. Selvam

2011-03-04

18

Isolation and Identification of a New Tetrodotoxin-Producing Bacterial Species, Raoultella terrigena, from Hong Kong Marine Puffer Fish Takifugu niphobles  

PubMed Central

Puffer fish, Takifugu niphobles, collected from the Hong Kong coastal waters were screened for tetrodotoxin-producing bacteria. A Gram-negative, non-acid-fast, non-sporing and rod shaped bacterial strain (designated as gutB01) was isolated from the intestine of the puffer fish and was shown to produce tetrodotoxin (TTX). Based on the Microbial Identification (MIDI) and 16S-23S rDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) phylogenetic analysis, the strain was identified as Raoultella terrigena. The TTX production ability of the strain was confirmed by mouse bioassay, ELISA and mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF). Our results reiterate that the TTX found in puffer fish was likely produced by the associated bacteria and TTX are widely produced amongst a diversity of bacterial species. PMID:22163191

Yu, Vincent Chung-Him; Yu, Peter Hoi-Fu; Ho, Kin-Chung; Lee, Fred Wang-Fat

2011-01-01

19

Gill transcriptome response to changes in environmental calcium in the green spotted puffer fish  

PubMed Central

Background Calcium ion is tightly regulated in body fluids and for euryhaline fish, which are exposed to rapid changes in environmental [Ca2+], homeostasis is especially challenging. The gill is the main organ of active calcium uptake and therefore plays a crucial role in the maintenance of calcium ion homeostasis. To study the molecular basis of the short-term responses to changing calcium availability, the whole gill transcriptome obtained by Super Serial Analysis of Gene Expression (SuperSAGE) of the euryhaline teleost green spotted puffer fish, Tetraodon nigroviridis, exposed to water with altered [Ca2+] was analysed. Results Transfer of T. nigroviridis from 10 ppt water salinity containing 2.9 mM Ca2+ to high (10 mM Ca2+ ) and low (0.01 mM Ca2+) calcium water of similar salinity for 2-12 h resulted in 1,339 differentially expressed SuperSAGE tags (26-bp transcript identifiers) in gills. Of these 869 tags (65%) were mapped to T. nigroviridis cDNAs or genomic DNA and 497 (57%) were assigned to known proteins. Thirteen percent of the genes matched multiple tags indicating alternative RNA transcripts. The main enriched gene ontology groups belong to Ca2+ signaling/homeostasis but also muscle contraction, cytoskeleton, energy production/homeostasis and tissue remodeling. K-means clustering identified co-expressed transcripts with distinct patterns in response to water [Ca2+] and exposure time. Conclusions The generated transcript expression patterns provide a framework of novel water calcium-responsive genes in the gill during the initial response after transfer to different [Ca2+]. This molecular response entails initial perception of alterations, activation of signaling networks and effectors and suggests active remodeling of cytoskeletal proteins during the initial acclimation process. Genes related to energy production and energy homeostasis are also up-regulated, probably reflecting the increased energetic needs of the acclimation response. This study is the first genome-wide transcriptome analysis of fish gills and is an important resource for future research on the short-term mechanisms involved in the gill acclimation responses to environmental Ca2+ changes and osmoregulation. PMID:20716350

2010-01-01

20

Ciguatera fish poisoning. A southern California epidemic.  

PubMed Central

Ciguatera fish poisoning results from the bioconcentration of a variety of toxins produced by marine dinoflagellates. Signs and symptoms vary widely, but it usually presents as gastrointestinal and neurologic complaints beginning shortly after the ingestion of fish containing the toxins. Symptoms may persist for months and sometimes even years. Although cases have been reported throughout the United States, epidemics are most common along tropical and subtropical coasts and usually involve the ingestion of large carnivorous fish. We review the literature and report the first epidemic of 25 cases of ciguatera fish poisoning presenting to area hospitals in Southern California that were successfully tracked by the Department of Health Services and isolated to fish caught off the coast of Baja California, Mexico. Images Figure 1. PMID:7667980

Barton, E D; Tanner, P; Turchen, S G; Tunget, C L; Manoguerra, A; Clark, R F

1995-01-01

21

The evolution of vertebrate blood coagulation as viewed from a comparison of puffer fish and sea squirt genomes.  

PubMed

The blood coagulation scheme for the puffer fish, Fugu rubripes, has been reconstructed on the basis of orthologs of genes for mammalian blood clotting factors being present in its genome. As expected, clotting follows the same fundamental pattern as has been observed in other vertebrates, even though genes for some clotting factors found in mammals are absent and some others are present in more than one gene copy. All told, 26 different proteins involved in clotting or fibrinolysis were searched against the puffer fish genome. Of these, orthologs were found for 21. Genes for the "contact system" factors (factor XI, factor XII, and prekallikrein) could not be identified. On the other hand, two genes were found for factor IX and four for factor VII. It was evident that not all four factor VII genes are functional, essential active-site residues having been replaced in two of them. A search of the genome of a urochordate, the sea squirt, Ciona intestinalis, did not turn up any genuine orthologs for these 26 factors, although paralogs and/or constituent domains were evident for virtually all of them. PMID:12808152

Jiang, Yong; Doolittle, Russell F

2003-06-24

22

Protective effects of aqueous extract of Artemisia campestris against puffer fish Lagocephalus lagocephalus extract-induced oxidative damage in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aerial parts of Artemisia campestris are often used in Tunisian poisoning cases and are known to possess significant antioxidant activities. The objective of this study is to evaluate the protective effects of an aqueous extract (5g\\/l) of A. campestris leaves and stems (AE), on oxidative damages induced by liver extract (LT) from poisonous fish Lagocephalus lagocephalus in wistar rats.

Mongi Saoudi; Mohamed Salah Allagui; Abdelwaheb Abdelmouleh; Kamel Jamoussi; Abdelfattah El Feki

2010-01-01

23

Food poisonings by ingestion of cyprinid fish.  

PubMed

Raw or dried gallbladders of cyprinid fish have long been ingested as a traditional medicine in the Asian countries, particularly in China, for ameliorating visual acuity, rheumatism, and general health; however, sporadic poisoning incidences have occurred after their ingestion. The poisoning causes complex symptoms in patients, including acute renal failure, liver dysfunction, paralysis, and convulsions of limbs. The causative substance for the poisoning was isolated, and its basic properties were examined. The purified toxin revealed a minimum lethal dose of 2.6 mg/20 g in mouse, when injected intraperitoneally. The main symptoms were paralysis and convulsions of the hind legs, along with other neurological signs. Liver biopsy of the euthanized mice clearly exhibited hepatocytes necrosis and infiltration of neutrophils and lymphocytes, suggesting the acute dysfunction of the liver. Blood tests disclosed the characteristics of acute renal failure and liver injury. Infrared (IR) spectrometry, fast atom bombardment (FAB) mass spectrometry, and 1H- and 13C-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis indicated, a molecular formula of C27H48O8S, containing a sulfate ester group for the toxin. Thus, we concluded that the structure of carp toxin to be 5?-cyprinol sulfate (5?-cholestane-3?, 7?, 12?, 26, 27-pentol 26-sulfate). This indicated that carp toxin is a nephro- and hepato- toxin, which could be the responsible toxin for carp bile poisoning in humans. PMID:24476713

Asakawa, Manabu; Noguchi, Tamao

2014-02-01

24

Food Poisonings by Ingestion of Cyprinid Fish  

PubMed Central

Raw or dried gallbladders of cyprinid fish have long been ingested as a traditional medicine in the Asian countries, particularly in China, for ameliorating visual acuity, rheumatism, and general health; however, sporadic poisoning incidences have occurred after their ingestion. The poisoning causes complex symptoms in patients, including acute renal failure, liver dysfunction, paralysis, and convulsions of limbs. The causative substance for the poisoning was isolated, and its basic properties were examined. The purified toxin revealed a minimum lethal dose of 2.6 mg/20 g in mouse, when injected intraperitoneally. The main symptoms were paralysis and convulsions of the hind legs, along with other neurological signs. Liver biopsy of the euthanized mice clearly exhibited hepatocytes necrosis and infiltration of neutrophils and lymphocytes, suggesting the acute dysfunction of the liver. Blood tests disclosed the characteristics of acute renal failure and liver injury. Infrared (IR) spectrometry, fast atom bombardment (FAB) mass spectrometry, and 1H- and 13C-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis indicated, a molecular formula of C27H48O8S, containing a sulfate ester group for the toxin. Thus, we concluded that the structure of carp toxin to be 5?-cyprinol sulfate (5?-cholestane-3?, 7?, 12?, 26, 27-pentol 26-sulfate). This indicated that carp toxin is a nephro- and hepato- toxin, which could be the responsible toxin for carp bile poisoning in humans. PMID:24476713

Asakawa, Manabu; Noguchi, Tamao

2014-01-01

25

Ciguatera Fish Poisoning: Treatment, Prevention and Management  

PubMed Central

Ciguatera Fish Poisoning (CFP) is the most frequently reported seafood-toxin illness in the world, and it causes substantial physical and functional impact. It produces a myriad of gastrointestinal, neurologic and/or cardiovascular symptoms which last days to weeks, or even months. Although there are reports of symptom amelioration with some interventions (e.g. IV mannitol), the appropriate treatment for CFP remains unclear to many physicians. We review the literature on the treatments for CFP, including randomized controlled studies and anecdotal reports. The article is intended to clarify treatment options, and provide information about management and prevention of CFP, for emergency room physicians, poison control information providers, other health care providers, and patients. PMID:19005579

Friedman, Melissa A.; Fleming, Lora E.; Fernandez, Mercedes; Bienfang, Paul; Schrank, Kathleen; Dickey, Robert; Bottein, Marie-Yasmine; Backer, Lorraine; Ayyar, Ram; Weisman, Richard; Watkins, Sharon; Granade, Ray; Reich, Andrew

2008-01-01

26

Saxitoxin as a toxic principle of a freshwater puffer, Tetraodon fangi, in Thailand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Saxitoxin was identified in a freshwater puffer, Tetraodon fangi, which caused food poisoning in Thailand. Tetrodotoxin, a puffer toxin, was not detected in the species by the HPLC-fluorometric analysis, showing that tetrodotoxin is absent or under any detectable level. The result of this study shows that saxitoxin can be a major toxin in puffer.

Shigeru Sato; Masaaki Kodama; Takehiko Ogata; Kriengsag Saitanu; Mami Furuya; Kazuo Hirayama; Katsumi Kakinuma

1997-01-01

27

JAMA Patient Page: Ciguatera Fish Poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... known for centuries. Fish eat the toxin-containing algae, and as larger fish eat smaller fish, the ... July 2011 affected 28 people. Ciguatera toxin–producing algae may be increasing because of warmer sea temperatures. ...

28

Protective effects of aqueous extract of Artemisia campestris against puffer fish Lagocephalus lagocephalus extract-induced oxidative damage in rats.  

PubMed

The aerial parts of Artemisia campestris are often used in Tunisian poisoning cases and are known to possess significant antioxidant activities. The objective of this study is to evaluate the protective effects of an aqueous extract (5g/l) of A. campestris leaves and stems (AE), on oxidative damages induced by liver extract (LT) from poisonous fish Lagocephalus lagocephalus in Wistar rats. AE was found to contain large amounts of K(+), Na(+), Ca(++) and significant antioxidant capacities highlighted by high level of polyphenols and scavenging activities for DPPH and superoxide anion. LT-injected rats (1ml/100g body wt) for 10 days showed (1) a reduced appetite and diarrhea resulting in a lower growth rate than controls, (2) a decrease in serum ALT and AST activities suggesting liver functional disorders, (3) an increase of serum urea and creatinine and reduced serum sodium and potassium concentrations highlighting renal insufficiency and (4) an oxidative stress as evidenced by the raise of TBARS and the inhibition of SOD, CAT and GSH-Px activities in liver, kidney and brain tissues Absorption of AE as a drink, for 20 days (10 pre-treatment days+10 experiment days) did not lead significant change of studied parameters but prevented all the disorders induced by LT. PMID:19765960

Saoudi, Mongi; Allagui, Mohamed Salah; Abdelmouleh, Abdelwaheb; Jamoussi, Kamel; El Feki, Abdelfattah

2010-11-01

29

An outbreak of ciguatera fish poisoning in Victoria.  

PubMed

An outbreak of ciguatera fish poisoning in outer Melbourne in September 1997 was traced to a 16.2 kg Maori Wrasse fish imported into Victoria from Trunk Reef in Queensland. The outbreak involved 46 individuals attending a banquet at an Asian restaurant at which four different dishes prepared from the flesh and viscera of the fish were offered. In all 30 individuals consumed at least one of these dishes and all reported one or more symptoms, in the main gastrointestinal and/or in 18 cases neurological. Seventeen cases were seen in four different hospitals and nine were treated with parenteral mannitol therapy. Nine of 18 cases were still symptomatic 10 weeks after the episode. Education of Asian restaurateurs and the wider community about the risks of ciguatera fish poisoning was undertaken. PMID:11190817

Ng, S; Gregory, J

2000-11-01

30

Histamine fish poisoning in Australia, 2001 to 2013.  

PubMed

We report on human illness due to histamine fish poisoning outbreaks in Australia from 2001 to 2013. Histamine fish poisoning results from the ingestion of histamine contained within the flesh of certain fish species that naturally contain histidine, which has been converted to histamine by spoilage bacteria following poor handling or temperature control after harvesting. While symptoms vary, allergic symptoms such as facial flushing, headaches and rashes are frequently reported. Using the OzFoodNet outbreak register, published case reports and surveillance reports, we found data on 57 outbreaks of histamine fish poisoning, which affected 187 people, of whom 14% were hospitalised. There were no deaths reported. Outbreaks were generally small in size, with a median of 2 cases per outbreak (range 1 to 22 people), with 88% of outbreaks comprising less than 5 people. Tuna (in the family Scombridae) was the most frequently reported food vehicle, while 18 outbreaks involved non-scombridae fish. Median incubation periods among the outbreaks were short; being less than 1 hour for 22 outbreaks. The most frequently reported symptoms were diarrhoea and rash. Symptoms of facial/body flushing were reported for at least one case in 19 outbreaks and tingling, burning or swelling of the skin, especially around the lips for at least 1 case in 13 outbreaks. In 3 outbreaks, one or more cases were reported to have had respiratory distress or difficulty breathing. While the condition is often mild, improved recognition and appropriate treatment is important, as it will reduce the possibility of any severe health effects resulting from this condition. Key features of histamine fish poisoning outbreaks are the high attack rate, rapid onset, the typical symptoms and their short duration. Commun Dis Intell 2014;38(4):E285-E293. PMID:25631589

Knope, Katrina; Sloan-Gardner, Timothy S; Stafford, Russell J

2014-01-01

31

Occurrence of a methyl derivative of saxitoxin in Bangladeshi freshwater puffers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new component of paralytic shellfish poison was isolated from a Bangladeshi freshwater puffer Tetraodon cutcutia. Its structure was deduced to be carbamoyl-N-methylsaxitoxin based on electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, [1H] NMR, and conversion experiments.

Lubna Zaman; Osamu Arakawa; Ako Shimosu; Yasuo Shida; Yoshio Onoue

1998-01-01

32

[Poisoning with weever fish venom: a case report].  

PubMed

Poland's access to the EU causes that there is the risk of poisoning from sources outside Poland. This is confirmed by the case reported below. The Weeverfish Trachinus draco lives in the coastal waters of West Africa and Europe (including those of the Mediterranean Sea) and belongs to the most poisonous fish species. The venom of Trachinus draco contains proteins that cause cellular membrane depolarisation, and haemolysis. A 35-yr. man was admitted to the Toxicological Department of the Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine for symptoms, such as: a strong pain, swelling and reddening of the left leg, that had appeared after contact with an unidentified fish when he had been enjoying a bath in the Mediterranean Sea. In the additional examinations, slight abnormalities were detected only in the results of blood agglutination test. The patient was discharged from the hospital 7 days later in good condition. PMID:20043595

?opaci?ski, Bogdan; Bak, Marek; Fiszer, Marta; Czerniak, Pawe?; Krakowiak, Anna

2009-01-01

33

[Imported tropical fish causes ciguatera fish poisoning in Germany].  

PubMed

Ciguatera is a seafood-borne illness caused by consumption of tropical fish contaminated with ciguatoxins, lipophilic polyethers that are produced in benthic dinoflagellates and accumulate through the marine food chain. Ciguatera cases in Europe usually occur in travellers returning from tropical and subtropical regions of the Pacific and Carribean, where ciguatera is endemic. In 2012, several cases of ciguatera occurred in Germany due to sale of contaminated fish products originating from the Indian Ocean. Although the symptomatology in these cases were typical of ciguatera, with patients reporting gastrointestinal discomfort including nausea, vomiting and diarrhea as well as neurological effects including widespread intense pruritus, paresthesias, hypothermia or altered temperature sensation and diffuse pain, correct diagnosis was delayed in all cases due to lack of awareness of the treating medical practitioners. In light of increasing global mobility, trade, and occurrence of ciguatoxic fish in previously non-endemic areas, ciguatera should be considered as a possible diagnosis if gastrointestinal and neurological symptoms occur shortly after consumption of fish. PMID:25612286

Zimmermann, Katharina; Eisenblätter, Anneka; Vetter, Irina; Ebbecke, Martin; Friedemann, Miriam; Desel, Herbert

2015-01-01

34

Histamine Poisoning from Ingestion of Fish or Scombroid Syndrome  

PubMed Central

The scombroid poisoning is due to the ingestion of poorly preserved fish (especially tuna, sardines, and mackerel) out of the cold chain. Under the influence of the proliferation of gram negative bacteria that occurs for heating, the histidine content in the muscle of the fish is converted into histamine, by the action of the enzyme histidine decarboxylase. If the histamine is ingested in large quantities, it causes an anaphylactoid reaction with a variety of symptoms from moderate to severe to life-threating. We will describe two cases that came under our observation after consuming a meal of bluefin tuna. The diagnosis of scombroid syndrome was made on the basis of the anamnestic data and the clinical one. The rapid resolution of the signs and symptoms after treatment with histamines H1-H2 receptor blockers confirmed the suspected diagnosis. PMID:25544905

Tortorella, Vincenzo; Masciari, Peppino; Pezzi, Mario; Mola, Assunta; Tiburzi, Simona Paola; Zinzi, Maria Concetta; Scozzafava, Annamaria; Verre, Mario

2014-01-01

35

Histamine poisoning and control measures in fish and fishery products.  

PubMed

Histamine poisoning is one of the most common form of intoxication caused by the ingestion of fish and fishery products. Cooking, canning, or freezing cannot reduce the levels of histamine because this compound is heat stable. All humans are susceptible to histamine and its effects can be described as intolerance or intoxication depending on the severity of the symptoms. The amount of histamine in food, the individual sensitivity, and the detoxification activity in human organism represent the main factors affecting the toxicological response in consumers. Histamine is the only biogenic amine with regulatory limits set by European Legislation, up to a maximum of 200 mg/kg in fresh fish and 400 mg/kg in fishery products treated by enzyme maturation in brine. PMID:25295035

Visciano, Pierina; Schirone, Maria; Tofalo, Rosanna; Suzzi, Giovanna

2014-01-01

36

Histamine poisoning and control measures in fish and fishery products  

PubMed Central

Histamine poisoning is one of the most common form of intoxication caused by the ingestion of fish and fishery products. Cooking, canning, or freezing cannot reduce the levels of histamine because this compound is heat stable. All humans are susceptible to histamine and its effects can be described as intolerance or intoxication depending on the severity of the symptoms. The amount of histamine in food, the individual sensitivity, and the detoxification activity in human organism represent the main factors affecting the toxicological response in consumers. Histamine is the only biogenic amine with regulatory limits set by European Legislation, up to a maximum of 200 mg/kg in fresh fish and 400 mg/kg in fishery products treated by enzyme maturation in brine. PMID:25295035

Visciano, Pierina; Schirone, Maria; Tofalo, Rosanna; Suzzi, Giovanna

2014-01-01

37

Isolation and structural determination of the first 8-epi-type tetrodotoxin analogs from the newt, Cynops ensicauda popei, and comparison of tetrodotoxin analogs profiles of this newt and the puffer fish, Fugu poecilonotus.  

PubMed

Identification of new tetrodotoxin (TTX) analogs from TTX-possessing animals might provide insight into its biosynthesis and metabolism. In this study, four new analogs, 8-epi-5,6,11-trideoxyTTX, 4,9-anhydro-8-epi-5,6,11-trideoxyTTX, 1-hydroxy-8-epi-5,6,11-trideoxyTTX, and 1-hydroxy-4,4a-anhydro-8-epi-5,6,11-trideoxyTTX, were isolated from the newt, Cynops ensicauda popei, and their structures were determined using spectroscopic methods. These are the first 8-epi-type analogs of TTX that have been found in a natural source. Furthermore, we examined the composition of the TTX analogs in this newt and in the ovary of the puffer fish, Fugu poecilonotus, using LC/MS. The results indicate that TTX and 11-deoxyTTX were present in both sources. However, 6-epiTTX and 8-epi-type analogs were detected only in the newt, while 5,6,11-trideoxyTTX was a specific and major analog in the puffer fish. Such considerable differences among analog compositions might reflect differences in the biosynthesis or metabolism of TTX between these animals. PMID:22611361

Kudo, Yuta; Yasumoto, Takeshi; Konoki, Keiichi; Cho, Yuko; Yotsu-Yamashita, Mari

2012-03-01

38

Isolation and Structural Determination of the First 8-epi-type Tetrodotoxin Analogs from the Newt, Cynops ensicauda popei, and Comparison of Tetrodotoxin Analogs Profiles of This Newt and the Puffer Fish, Fugu poecilonotus  

PubMed Central

Identification of new tetrodotoxin (TTX) analogs from TTX-possessing animals might provide insight into its biosynthesis and metabolism. In this study, four new analogs, 8-epi-5,6,11-trideoxyTTX, 4,9-anhydro-8-epi-5,6,11-trideoxyTTX, 1-hydroxy-8-epi-5,6,11-trideoxyTTX, and 1-hydroxy-4,4a-anhydro-8-epi-5,6,11-trideoxyTTX, were isolated from the newt, Cynops ensicauda popei, and their structures were determined using spectroscopic methods. These are the first 8-epi-type analogs of TTX that have been found in a natural source. Furthermore, we examined the composition of the TTX analogs in this newt and in the ovary of the puffer fish, Fugu poecilonotus, using LC/MS. The results indicate that TTX and 11-deoxyTTX were present in both sources. However, 6-epiTTX and 8-epi-type analogs were detected only in the newt, while 5,6,11-trideoxyTTX was a specific and major analog in the puffer fish. Such considerable differences among analog compositions might reflect differences in the biosynthesis or metabolism of TTX between these animals. PMID:22611361

Kudo, Yuta; Yasumoto, Takeshi; Konoki, Keiichi; Cho, Yuko; Yotsu-Yamashita, Mari

2012-01-01

39

The diversity and origins of toxins in ciguatera fish poisoning.  

PubMed

The source of the diversity of phytotoxins found in the marine food web is not well understood. It is not clear what roles these secondary metabolites might have in the phytoplankton that produce them. The phytotoxins do not appear to be deterrents of predation, although the production of antibiotics by marine macroalgae might be considered in this light (86). It is equally doubtful that the production and/or presence of these toxins confers a selective advantage on the phytoplankton producers, when in fact the diversity of naturally occurring phytoplankton species may well be maintained by lytic viral infections (22,64). On the other hand, these multiple, diverse toxins may be the products of the different adaptations and interactions that take place between microalgal vectors and the highly variable spectrum of their microbial symbionts. We do not know what selective signals these toxic products may be providing in the maintenance of the symbiont-host consortia in which they are produced, however, their diversity most likely reflects the diversity of symbiotic interactions that exist in these consortia. Woven into the very fabric of the traditional marine food web is an invisible empire of marine micro-organisms, that by its very existence may determine the intense diversity of toxins found in marine biota. Marine bacteria are very likely the most abundant organisms in the sea and to a large degree maintain a food web of their own, often referred to as the microbial loop (64). This microbial web sustains the biogeochemical cycles in the sea. Much of the food produced by phytoplankton and cyanobacteria is consumed by bacteria in the microbial loop and may never enter the food web of larger invertebrates and fishes. Traditionally, the marine food web has been viewed, so to speak, from the top, however, it is now clear that there is an enormous marine microbial food web from which the food web of larger invertebrates and fishes emanates (Figure 13). In many respects the phytotoxins are biomarkers of the interactions between these two food webs. In their very diversity these toxins reflect an amalgam of interacting collaborating forms of life, a complex of phytoplankton hosts and their microbial symbionts producing multiple toxins and their derivatives that ultimately result in the complex medical symptoms they produce in human consumers of poisoned seafood. The term ciguatera has been employed to describe the syndrome of the illness contracted by persons who have eaten tropical and semitropical finfish poisoned by ciguatoxin.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:7617831

Tosteson, T R

1995-06-01

40

Poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... breathing Unconsciousness (fainting) How can I prevent poisoning? The best way to guard against poisoning is to avoid exposure to harmful substances. The following are some tips: Keep all dangerous household ...

41

Ciguatera Fish Poisoning in the Pacific Islands (1998 to 2008)  

PubMed Central

Background Ciguatera is a type of fish poisoning that occurs throughout the tropics, particularly in vulnerable island communities such as the developing Pacific Island Countries and Territories (PICTs). After consuming ciguatoxin-contaminated fish, people report a range of acute neurologic, gastrointestinal, and cardiac symptoms, with some experiencing chronic neurologic symptoms lasting weeks to months. Unfortunately, the true extent of illness and its impact on human communities and ecosystem health are still poorly understood. Methods A questionnaire was emailed to the Health and Fisheries Authorities of the PICTs to quantify the extent of ciguatera. The data were analyzed using t-test, incidence rate ratios, ranked correlation, and regression analysis. Results There were 39,677 reported cases from 17 PICTs, with a mean annual incidence of 194 cases per 100,000 people across the region from 1998–2008 compared to the reported annual incidence of 104/100,000 from 1973–1983. There has been a 60% increase in the annual incidence of ciguatera between the two time periods based on PICTs that reported for both time periods. Taking into account under-reporting, in the last 35 years an estimated 500,000 Pacific islanders might have suffered from ciguatera. Conclusions This level of incidence exceeds prior ciguatera estimates locally and globally, and raises the status of ciguatera to an acute and chronic illness with major public health significance. To address this significant public health problem, which is expected to increase in parallel with environmental change, well-funded multidisciplinary research teams are needed to translate research advances into practical management solutions. PMID:22180797

Skinner, Mark P.; Brewer, Tom D.; Johnstone, Ron; Fleming, Lora E.; Lewis, Richard J.

2011-01-01

42

Ciguatera Fish Poisoning and Climate Change: Analysis of National Poison Center Data in the United States, 2001–2011  

PubMed Central

Background: Warm sea surface temperatures (SSTs) are positively related to incidence of ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP). Increased severe storm frequency may create more habitat for ciguatoxic organisms. Although climate change could expand the endemic range of CFP, the relationship between CFP incidence and specific environmental conditions is unknown. Objectives: We estimated associations between monthly CFP incidence in the contiguous United States and SST and storm frequency in the Caribbean basin. Methods: We obtained information on 1,102 CFP-related calls to U.S. poison control centers during 2001–2011 from the National Poison Data System. We performed a time-series analysis using Poisson regression to relate monthly CFP call incidence to SST and tropical storms. We investigated associations across a range of plausible lag structures. Results: Results showed associations between monthly CFP calls and both warmer SSTs and increased tropical storm frequency. The SST variable with the strongest association linked current monthly CFP calls to the peak August SST of the previous year. The lag period with the strongest association for storms was 18 months. If climate change increases SST in the Caribbean 2.5–3.5°C over the coming century as projected, this model implies that CFP incidence in the United States is likely to increase 200–400%. Conclusions: Using CFP calls as a marker of CFP incidence, these results clarify associations between climate variability and CFP incidence and suggest that, all other things equal, climate change could increase the burden of CFP. These findings have implications for disease prediction, surveillance, and public health preparedness for climate change. Citation: Gingold DB, Strickland MJ, Hess JJ. 2014. Ciguatera fish poisoning and climate change: analysis of National Poison Center data in the United States, 2001–2011. Environ Health Perspect 122:580–586;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307196 PMID:24618280

Strickland, Matthew J.; Hess, Jeremy J.

2014-01-01

43

Binding Properties of 3H-PbTx-3 and 3H-Saxitoxin to Brain Membranes and to Skeletal Muscle Membranes of Puffer Fish Fugu pardalis and the Primary Structure of a Voltage-Gated Na + Channel ?-Subunit (fMNa1) from Skeletal Muscle of F. pardalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dissociation constants for 3H-saxitoxin to brain membranes and to skeletal muscle membranes of puffer fish Fugu pardalis have been estimated to be 190- and 460-fold, respectively, larger than those to corresponding membranes of rat, by a rapid filtration assay, while these values for 3H-PbTx-3 have been estimated to be one-third and one-half of those to rat, respectively. We have

Mari Yotsu-Yamashita; Katsuhiko Nishimori; Yoko Nitanai; Masako Isemura; Atsuko Sugimoto; Takeshi Yasumoto

2000-01-01

44

Tetrodotoxin poisoning caused by Goby fish consumption in southeast China: a retrospective case series analysis  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: To investigate an unusual outbreak of tetrodotoxin poisoning in Leizhou, southeast China, a case series analysis was conducted to identify the source of illness. METHODS: A total of 22 individuals experienced symptoms of poisoning, including tongue numbness, dizziness, nausea and limb numbness and weakness. Two toxic species, Amoya caninus and Yongeichthys nebulosus, were morphologically identified from the batches of gobies consumed by the patients. Tetrodotoxin levels in the blood and Goby fish samples were detected using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. RESULTS: The tetrodotoxin levels in the remaining cooked Goby fish were determined to be 2090.12 µg/kg. For Amoya caninus, the toxicity levels were 1858.29 µg/kg in the muscle and 1997.19 µg/kg in the viscera and for Yongeichthys nebulosus, they were 2783.00 µg/kg in the muscle and 2966.21 µg/kg in the viscera. CONCLUSION: This outbreak demonstrates an underestimation of the risk of Goby fish poisoning. Furthermore, the relationships among the toxic species, climates and marine algae present should be clarified in the future.

You, Jie; Yue, YaJun; Xing, Feng; Xia, Wei; Lai, ShaoYang; Zhang, FengLei

2015-01-01

45

Occurrence of saxitoxins as a major toxin in the ovary of a marine puffer Arothron firmamentum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eleven male and 14 female specimens of a marine puffer Arothron firmamentum were collected from Oita and Iwate Prefectures, Japan. The toxicity assay using mouse showed that only ovary and skin of the female specimens were toxic, the toxicity scores being 5–740 as paralytic shellfish poison and <5–30MU\\/g as tetrodotoxin (TTX), respectively. The toxin extracts from the both tissues were

Kazuhito Nakashima; Osamu Arakawa; Shigeto Taniyama; Mamoru Nonaka; Tomohiro Takatani; Kunio Yamamori; Yuichi Fuchi; Tamao Noguchi

2004-01-01

46

The persistent problem of lead poisoning in birds from ammunition and fishing tackle  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Lead (Pb) is a metabolic poison that can negatively influence biological processes, leading to illness and mortality across a large spectrum of North American avifauna (>120 species) and other organisms. Pb poisoning can result from numerous sources, including ingestion of bullet fragments and shot pellets left in animal carcasses, spent ammunition left in the field, lost fishing tackle, Pb-based paints, large-scale mining, and Pb smelting activities. Although Pb shot has been banned for waterfowl hunting in the United States (since 1991) and Canada (since 1999), Pb exposure remains a problem for many avian species. Despite a large body of scientific literature on exposure to Pb and its toxicological effects on birds, controversy still exists regarding its impacts at a population level. We explore these issues and highlight areas in need of investigation: (1) variation in sensitivity to Pb exposure among bird species; (2) spatial extent and sources of Pb contamination in habitats in relation to bird exposure in those same locations; and (3) interactions between avian Pb exposure and other landscape-level stressors that synergistically affect bird demography. We explore multiple paths taken to reduce Pb exposure in birds that (1) recognize common ground among a range of affected interests; (2) have been applied at local to national scales; and (3) engage governmental agencies, interest groups, and professional societies to communicate the impacts of Pb ammunition and fishing tackle, and to describe approaches for reducing their availability to birds. As they have in previous times, users of fish and wildlife will play a key role in resolving the Pb poisoning issue.

Haig, Susan M.; D'Elia, Jesse; Eagles-Smith, Collin; Fair, Jeanne M.; Gervais, Jennifer; Herring, Garth; Rivers, James W.; Schulz, John H.

2014-01-01

47

A review of traditional remedies of ciguatera fish poisoning in the Pacific.  

PubMed

Ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) is an illness caused by eating tropical coral fish contaminated with ciguatoxins (CTXs). The clinical management of patients with CFP is generally supportive and symptomatic in nature as no antidote exists. Of the many drugs prescribed, several have been claimed to be efficient in small, uncontrolled studies, but the outcomes of treatments with these medicines are often contradictory. In New Caledonia, traditional remedies are commonly employed in the treatment of CFP and of the 90 plant species catalogued as useful in CFP, the most popular herbal remedy by far is a decoction prepared from the leaves of Heliotropium foertherianum Diane & Hilger (Boraginaceae). Other important plants used in the treatment of CFP include Euphorbia hirta L. (Euphorbiaceae) and Vitex L. sp. (Lamiaceae). This review focuses on the evidence for efficacy of these species and pharmacological studies which support their use. Other plants used in CFP and the conventional treatment of CFP are also discussed briefly. PMID:21287650

Kumar-Roiné, Shilpa; Taiana Darius, H; Matsui, Mariko; Fabre, Nicolas; Haddad, Mohamed; Chinain, Mireille; Pauillac, Serge; Laurent, Dominique

2011-07-01

48

Teratogenic effects and monetary cost of selenium poisoning of fish in Lake Sutton, North Carolina.  

PubMed

Selenium pollution from coal ash wastewater was investigated in Lake Sutton, NC. This lake has been continuously used as a cooling pond for a coal-fired power plant since 1972. Historic and recent levels of contamination in fish tissues (14-105µg Se/g dry weight in liver, 24-127 in eggs, 4-23 in muscle, 7-38 in whole-body) exceeded toxic thresholds and teratogenic effects were observed in fish collected in 2013. A high proportion (28.9 percent) of juvenile Lepomis spp. exhibited spinal and craniofacial malformations that were consistent with selenium poisoning. Teratogenic Deformity Index values indicated population-level impacts on the fishery. The partially monetized cost of resultant fishery losses was calculated at over $US 8.6 million annually, and over $US 217 million for the entire period of damage, which dates back to 1987 when chemical and biological monitoring began. PMID:24675445

Lemly, A Dennis

2014-06-01

49

A Phylogenetic Re-Analysis of Groupers with Applications for Ciguatera Fish Poisoning  

PubMed Central

Background Ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) is a significant public health problem due to dinoflagellates. It is responsible for one of the highest reported incidence of seafood-borne illness and Groupers are commonly reported as a source of CFP due to their position in the food chain. With the role of recent climate change on harmful algal blooms, CFP cases might become more frequent and more geographically widespread. Since there is no appropriate treatment for CFP, the most efficient solution is to regulate fish consumption. Such a strategy can only work if the fish sold are correctly identified, and it has been repeatedly shown that misidentifications and species substitutions occur in fish markets. Methods We provide here both a DNA-barcoding reference for groupers, and a new phylogenetic reconstruction based on five genes and a comprehensive taxonomical sampling. We analyse the correlation between geographic range of species and their susceptibility to ciguatera accumulation, and the co-occurrence of ciguatoxins in closely related species, using both character mapping and statistical methods. Results Misidentifications were encountered in public databases, precluding accurate species identifications. Epinephelinae now includes only twelve genera (vs. 15 previously). Comparisons with the ciguatera incidences show that in some genera most species are ciguateric, but statistical tests display only a moderate correlation with the phylogeny. Atlantic species were rarely contaminated, with ciguatera occurrences being restricted to the South Pacific. Conclusions The recent changes in classification based on the reanalyses of the relationships within Epinephelidae have an impact on the interpretation of the ciguatera distribution in the genera. In this context and to improve the monitoring of fish trade and safety, we need to obtain extensive data on contamination at the species level. Accurate species identifications through DNA barcoding are thus an essential tool in controlling CFP since meal remnants in CFP cases can be easily identified with molecular tools. PMID:25093850

Schoelinck, Charlotte; Hinsinger, Damien D.; Dettaï, Agnès; Cruaud, Corinne; Justine, Jean-Lou

2014-01-01

50

Invasive Lionfish (Pterois volitans): A Potential Human Health Threat for Ciguatera Fish Poisoning in Tropical Waters  

PubMed Central

Invasive Indo-Pacific lionfish (Pterois volitans) have rapidly expanded in the Western Atlantic over the past decade and have had a significant negative impact on reef fish biodiversity, habitat, and community structure, with lionfish out-competing native predators for resources. In an effort to reduce this population explosion, lionfish have been promoted for human consumption in the greater Caribbean region. This study examined whether the geographical expansion of the lionfish into a known ciguatera-endemic region can pose a human health threat for ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP). More than 180 lionfish were collected from waters surrounding the US Virgin Islands throughout 2010 and 2011. Ciguatoxin testing included an in vitro neuroblastoma cytotoxicity assay for composite toxicity assessment of sodium-channel toxins combined with confirmatory liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. A 12% prevalence rate of ciguatoxic lionfish exceeding the FDA guidance level of 0.1 µg/kg C-CTX-1 equivalents was identified in fish from the U.S. Virgin Islands, highlighting a potential consumption risk in this region. This study presents the first evidence that the invasive lionfish, pose a direct human health risk for CFP and highlights the need for awareness and research on this food safety hazard in known endemic areas. PMID:24378919

Robertson, Alison; Garcia, Ana C.; Flores Quintana, Harold A.; Smith, Tyler B.; Castillo, Bernard F.; Reale-Munroe, Kynoch; Gulli, Joseph A.; Olsen, David A.; Hooe-Rollman, Jennifer I.; Jester, Edward L. E.; Klimek, Brian J.; Plakas, Steven M.

2013-01-01

51

Invasive lionfish (Pterois volitans): a potential human health threat for ciguatera fish poisoning in tropical waters.  

PubMed

Invasive Indo-Pacific lionfish (Pterois volitans) have rapidly expanded in the Western Atlantic over the past decade and have had a significant negative impact on reef fish biodiversity, habitat, and community structure, with lionfish out-competing native predators for resources. In an effort to reduce this population explosion, lionfish have been promoted for human consumption in the greater Caribbean region. This study examined whether the geographical expansion of the lionfish into a known ciguatera-endemic region can pose a human health threat for ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP). More than 180 lionfish were collected from waters surrounding the US Virgin Islands throughout 2010 and 2011. Ciguatoxin testing included an in vitro neuroblastoma cytotoxicity assay for composite toxicity assessment of sodium-channel toxins combined with confirmatory liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. A 12% prevalence rate of ciguatoxic lionfish exceeding the FDA guidance level of 0.1 µg/kg C-CTX-1 equivalents was identified in fish from the U.S. Virgin Islands, highlighting a potential consumption risk in this region. This study presents the first evidence that the invasive lionfish, pose a direct human health risk for CFP and highlights the need for awareness and research on this food safety hazard in known endemic areas. PMID:24378919

Robertson, Alison; Garcia, Ana C; Quintana, Harold A Flores; Smith, Tyler B; Castillo, Bernard F; Reale-Munroe, Kynoch; Gulli, Joseph A; Olsen, David A; Hooe-Rollman, Jennifer I; Jester, Edward L E; Klimek, Brian J; Plakas, Steven M

2014-01-01

52

Food poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... Toxins in spoiled or tainted fish or shellfish Staphylococcus aureus Salmonella Shigella Infants and elderly people are at the greatest risk for food poisoning. You are also at higher risk if: ...

53

Ciguatera fish poisoning: A first epidemic in Germany highlights an increasing risk for European countries.  

PubMed

Toxin-producing microalgae are thriving worldwide due to coral reef destruction and global warming with major consequences on ecosystems, international trade and human health. Microalgae belonging to the family of flagellate protists, in particular dinoflagellates, secrete a variety of high-molecular-weight polyether toxins that accumulate through the marine food chain to cause disease in humans by acting as sodium channel activator toxins; ciguatera is the most frequent seafood-borne illness worldwide with 50,000 to 500,000 global incidences per annum and is usually limited to endemic areas located between 35° northern and 35° southern latitude. The rising global incidence frequency renders it a major human health problem, because no curative treatment is available yet and reliable detection assays are lacking. During the last decade ciguatera has increasingly become endemic in previously unaffected areas for two reasons: first global warming has contributed to the emergence of dinoflagellate species in subtropical and even temperate regions that previously had been constrained to tropical areas and second: in Europe globalization of fishing industry and tourism has led to a progressive increase in the number of ciguatera cases and a lack of awareness among medical personnel contributes to under-reporting. We review, through a recent ciguatera outbreak in Germany, the risk for ciguatera poisoning in Europe and highlight characteristic symptoms, current knowledge about disease pathomechanisms and treatment options. PMID:25448771

Mattei, César; Vetter, Irina; Eisenblätter, Anneka; Krock, Bernd; Ebbecke, Martin; Desel, Herbert; Zimmermann, Katharina

2014-10-22

54

Severe Tetrodotoxin Poisoning after Consumption of Lagocephalus sceleratus (Pufferfish, Fugu) Fished in Mediterranean Sea, Treated with Cholinesterase Inhibitor  

PubMed Central

Lagocephalus sceleratus, or better known as the pufferfish, or fugu, is widespread in Asia and Indo-Pacific regions. It is a poisonous fish containing tetrodotoxin (TTX) which is a potent neurotoxin. In the Far East, fugu is considered a delicate dish, especially in Japan where it is prepared by experts. Nevertheless, poisoning from Lagocephalus sceleratus is not a rare event. Recent data from Japan indicate an incidence of 45 patients per year and a mortality rate of 11%. Mediterranean sea is not the natural habitat of Lagocephalus sceleratus. However, by now multiple reports have established a firm presence of Lagocephalus sceleratus in Mediterranean region as well. This phenomenon is explained by migration of pufferfish across the Suez Channel (lessepsian migration) (Eisenman et al., 2008, Bentur et al., 2008). With lessepsian migration came the first reports of TTX poisoning in the Mediterranean region. We report a patient with a particularly severe and life-threatening TTX poisoning caused by consumption of Lagocephalus sceleratus and treated by cholinesterase inhibitor to a complete and uneventful recovery. PMID:24826342

Kheifets, Julia; Rozhavsky, Boris; Girsh Solomonovich, Zehava; Marianna, Rodman; Soroksky, Arie

2012-01-01

55

Severe Tetrodotoxin Poisoning after Consumption of Lagocephalus sceleratus (Pufferfish, Fugu) Fished in Mediterranean Sea, Treated with Cholinesterase Inhibitor.  

PubMed

Lagocephalus sceleratus, or better known as the pufferfish, or fugu, is widespread in Asia and Indo-Pacific regions. It is a poisonous fish containing tetrodotoxin (TTX) which is a potent neurotoxin. In the Far East, fugu is considered a delicate dish, especially in Japan where it is prepared by experts. Nevertheless, poisoning from Lagocephalus sceleratus is not a rare event. Recent data from Japan indicate an incidence of 45 patients per year and a mortality rate of 11%. Mediterranean sea is not the natural habitat of Lagocephalus sceleratus. However, by now multiple reports have established a firm presence of Lagocephalus sceleratus in Mediterranean region as well. This phenomenon is explained by migration of pufferfish across the Suez Channel (lessepsian migration) (Eisenman et al., 2008, Bentur et al., 2008). With lessepsian migration came the first reports of TTX poisoning in the Mediterranean region. We report a patient with a particularly severe and life-threatening TTX poisoning caused by consumption of Lagocephalus sceleratus and treated by cholinesterase inhibitor to a complete and uneventful recovery. PMID:24826342

Kheifets, Julia; Rozhavsky, Boris; Girsh Solomonovich, Zehava; Marianna, Rodman; Soroksky, Arie

2012-01-01

56

The protection of invertebrates, fish, and vascular plants against inorganic mercury poisoning by sulfur and selenium derivatives.  

PubMed

Protection of organisms against mercury (Hg) poisoning is most commonly associated with the antagonistic effects of selenium (Se)-compounds against mercury alkyls in higher animals. This study shows that there is no consistent difference among Periodic Group VIA derivatives including S(IV), S(II) organic, Se (IV), Se (II) organic, possibly Se VI, as well and Te (IV) in their ability to protect against mercury poisoning. The organisms used in assays were: Coleus explants (leaf abscission); turnip (germination); pea (growth inhibition and Hg uptake); a planarian (regeneration); the brineshrimp (excystment, phototaxy); the mealworm larva Tenebrio (metamorphosis) and the fish "tilapia" (survival, Hg uptake). Thiamine was the most effective of the Group VIA derivatives against the widest spectrum of organisms and test systems. In planarian regeneration, it was active where S and Se compounds failed. The most unexpected observation was the hastening of insect metamorphosis by HgCl2 and the enhancement of that effect by thiamine. PMID:2014999

Siegel, B Z; Siegel, S M; Correa, T; Dagan, C; Galvez, G; LeeLoy, L; Padua, A; Yaeger, E

1991-02-01

57

Consequences of experimental cortisol manipulations on the thermal biology of the checkered puffer (Sphoeroides testudineus) in laboratory and field environments.  

PubMed

Anthropogenic climate change is altering temperature regimes for coastal marine fishes. However, given that temperature changes will not occur in isolation of other stressors, it is necessary to explore the potential consequences of stress on the thermal tolerances and preferences of tropical marine fish in order to understand the thresholds for survival, and predict the associated coastal ecological consequences. In this study, we used exogenous cortisol injections to investigate the effects of a thermal challenge on checkered puffers (Sphoeroides testudineus) as a secondary stressor. There were no significant differences between control and cortisol-treated fish 48h following cortisol treatment for swimming ability (using a chase to exhaustion protocol), blood glucose concentrations or standard metabolic rate. In the lab, control and cortisol-treated puffers were exposed to ambient (29.1±1.5°C), ambient +5°C (heat shock) and ambient -5°C (cold shock) for 4h and to evaluate the consequences of abrupt temperature change on puff performance and blood physiology. Following cold shock, control fish exhibited increases in cortisol levels and weak 'puff' performance. Conversely, fish dosed with cortisol exhibited consistently high cortisol levels independent of thermal treatment, although there was a trend for an attenuated cortisol response in the cortisol-treated fish to the cold shock treatment. A 20-day complementary field study conducted in the puffer's natural habitat, a tidal creek in Eleuthera, The Bahamas, revealed that cortisol-injected fish selected significantly cooler temperatures, measured using accumulated thermal units, when compared to controls. These results, and particularly the discrepancies between consequences documented in the laboratory and the ecological trends observed in the field, highlight the need to establish the link between laboratory and field data to successfully develop management policies and conservation initiatives with regards to anthropogenic climate change. PMID:25526656

Cull, F; Suski, C D; Shultz, A; Danylchuk, A J; O'Connor, C M; Murchie, K J; Cooke, S J

2015-01-01

58

Lanolin poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

Wool wax poisoning; Wool alcohol poisoning; Glossylan poisoning; Golden dawn poisoning; Sparklelan poisoning ... on your skin. Because it is similar to wax, eating large amounts of lanolin can cause a ...

59

Differential expression patterns of PQRFamide peptide and its two receptor genes in the brain and pituitary of grass puffer during the reproductive cycle.  

PubMed

Pain-modulatory neuropeptides, PQRFamide (PQRFa) peptides, have recently been implicated in the regulation of reproduction in fish. As a first step toward investigating the role of PQRFa peptides on reproductive function in the grass puffer Takifugu niphobles, which is a semilunar spawner, we cloned genes encoding PQRFa peptide precursor (pqrfa) and its two types of receptors (pqrfa-r1 and pqrfa-r2), and examined changes in their expression levels in the brain and pituitary over several months during the reproductive cycle. The grass puffer PQRFa peptide precursor of 126 amino acid residues contains two putative PQRFa peptides, PQRFa-1 and PQRFa-2, which correspond to NPFF and NPAF in other vertebrates, respectively. The grass puffer PQRFa-R1 and PQRFa-R2 consist of 426 and 453 amino acid residues, respectively, and contain distinct characteristics of G-protein coupled receptors. These three genes were exclusively expressed in the brain and pituitary. The expression levels of pqrfa and pqrfa-r1 were significantly increased during the late stage of sexual maturation, but low in the spawning fish just after releasing sperms and eggs. Therefore, the grass puffer PQRFa peptide may have a role in the late stage of sexual maturation before spawning via PQRFa-R1. In contrast, the pqrfa-r2 expression showed maximum levels in the spawning fish and in the post-spawning period. The present results provide fundamental data suggesting that the grass puffer PQRFa peptide may have multiple roles in the control of reproduction that are dependent on the reproductive stages. PMID:25034121

Shahjahan, Md; Doi, Hiroyuki; Ando, Hironori

2015-01-01

60

ANTICHOLINESTERASE ACTION OF PESTICIDAL CARBAMATES IN THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM OF POISONED FISHES  

EPA Science Inventory

In the report, kinetic enzyme methods and statistical analyses are used to define the relationship between brain acetycholinesterase inhibition and near-median kills in replicate groups of marine fish in the laboratory by five carbamate pesticides....

61

High-performance liquid chromatographic determination of biogenic amines in fish implicated in food poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

A rapid, sensitive and reproducible high-performance liquid chromatographic procedure for the determination of nine biogenic amines in fish by improved benzoylation with benzoyl chloride was developed. The benzoylation of amines with benzoyl chloride at 30°C for 40 min was the optimal condition to eliminate the influence of interfering peaks during analysis. The calibration curve for each amine was linear within

Deng-Fwu Hwang; Sheng-Hsiung Chang; Chyuan-Yuan Shiua; Tuu-jyi Chai

1997-01-01

62

Lead poisoning and intestinal perforations in a snapping turtle (Chelydra serpentina) due to fishing gear ingestion.  

PubMed

An adult male snapping turtle (Chelydra serpentina) was presented to the Tufts Wildlife Clinic with generalized weakness and limited ability to walk. A fishing hook was lodged in the corner of its mouth, monofilament line trailed from its cloaca, and radiography revealed that the turtle had ingested two additional hooks and a large sinker. The hemogram showed leukocytosis. At exploratory celiotomy, the fishing line was seen to have acted as a linear foreign body and had perforated the intestines. Multiple enterotomies were performed to remove the sinker and line, and perforations were repaired. Two of the hooks could not be surgically or endoscopically retrieved. Blood lead concentration was 3.6 ppm prior to start of chelation therapy with calcium disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and declined to undetectable levels within 6 wk. The turtle recovered and was released. PMID:9226626

Borkowski, R

1997-03-01

63

Update on Methodologies Available for Ciguatoxin Determination: Perspectives to Confront the Onset of Ciguatera Fish Poisoning in Europe [1  

PubMed Central

Ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) occurs mainly when humans ingest finfish contaminated with ciguatoxins (CTXs). The complexity and variability of such toxins have made it difficult to develop reliable methods to routinely monitor CFP with specificity and sensitivity. This review aims to describe the methodologies available for CTX detection, including those based on the toxicological, biochemical, chemical, and pharmaceutical properties of CTXs. Selecting any of these methodological approaches for routine monitoring of ciguatera may be dependent upon the applicability of the method. However, identifying a reference validation method for CTXs is a critical and urgent issue, and is dependent upon the availability of certified CTX standards and the coordinated action of laboratories. Reports of CFP cases in European hospitals have been described in several countries, and are mostly due to travel to CFP endemic areas. Additionally, the recent detection of the CTX-producing tropical genus Gambierdiscus in the eastern Atlantic Ocean of the northern hemisphere and in the Mediterranean Sea, as well as the confirmation of CFP in the Canary Islands and possibly in Madeira, constitute other reasons to study the onset of CFP in Europe [1]. The question of the possible contribution of climate change to the distribution of toxin-producing microalgae and ciguateric fish is raised. The impact of ciguatera onset on European Union (EU) policies will be discussed with respect to EU regulations on marine toxins in seafood. Critical analysis and availability of methodologies for CTX determination is required for a rapid response to suspected CFP cases and to conduct sound CFP risk analysis. PMID:20631873

Caillaud, Amandine; de la Iglesia, Pablo; Darius, H. Taiana; Pauillac, Serge; Aligizaki, Katerina; Fraga, Santiago; Chinain, Mireille; Diogène, Jorge

2010-01-01

64

Isolation and characterization of polymorphic microsatellite loci from a dinucleotide-enriched genomic library of obscure puffer ( Takifugu obscurus ) and cross-species amplification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Obscure puffer (Takifugu obscurus) is an anadromous fish species in China. Here, we reported 10 polymorphic microsatellite loci isolated from a dinucleotide-enriched\\u000a genomic library of T. obscurus. The number of alleles, observed and expected heterozygosity per locus in 30 individuals ranged from four to 10, from 0.57\\u000a to 0.86 and from 0.68 to 0.90, respectively. Three loci significantly deviated from

Hongyu Ma; Songlin Chen; Xiaolin Liao; Tianjun Xu; Jiachun Ge

2009-01-01

65

Seasonal occurrence and microhabitat of the hyperparasitic monogenean Udonella fugu on the caligid Copepod Pseudocaligus fugu infecting the grass puffer Takifugu niphobles in the Seto Inland Sea, Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The seasonal occurrence and microhabitat of the monogenean Udonella fugu that hyperparasitizes exclusively on adults of the caligid copepod Pseudocaligus fugu that infects the skin of the grass puffer Takifugu niphobles were investigated in the Seto Inland Sea, western Japan from November 2004 to December 2006. The udonellids occurred and bred mostly during the occurrence of P. fugu on the fish host. The average prevalence and intensity of U. fugu on P. fugu during the whole investigation were 29% and 3.6, respectively. The main attachment sites of U. fugu were the posterior side of leg 3 and the dorsal marginal side of the cephalothorax for feeding and copulation, while eggs were predominantly located on the ventral side of the urosome to avoid detachment. More attention should be paid to the ecology of U. fugu, due to recent high prevalence of P. fugu on cultured tiger puffer in western Japan.

Okawachi, Hiroko; Ohtsuka, Susumu; Ismail, Norshida Binti; Venmathi Maran, B. A.; Ogawa, Kazuo

2012-09-01

66

Poison Prevention  

MedlinePLUS

... eaten or drunk something poisonous. If you suspect poisoning because of a telltale odor, unexplained stains on ... million American children younger than 6 years suffer poisoning every year. Household cleaners, personal care products, and ...

67

Mistletoe poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... berries. Mistletoe poisoning occurs when someone eats any part of this plant. Poisoning can also occur if you drink tea ... The poisonous ingredient is found in all parts of the plant, but especially in the leaves.

68

Big Fish on the Yangtze  

E-print Network

Broadcast Transcript: This is Randi Hacker with another Postcard from Asia from the KU Center for East Asian Studies. Once upon a time, in China's New Austerity Age, that is, now, a 2,300 ton, 295-foot glow-in-the-dark puffer fish statue...

Hacker, Randi

2013-12-04

69

Mushroom Poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

MENU Return to Web version Food Poisoning | Mushroom Poisoning Is it possible to tell if a wild mushroom is poisonous? You can't tell for sure if a ... watch the person for any symptoms of mushroom poisoning for the next 24 hours. Written by familydoctor.org editorial staff ... Reviewed/Updated: 04/14 Created: 09/00

70

Effects of dietary amylose/amylopectin ratio on growth performance, feed utilization, digestive enzymes, and postprandial metabolic responses in juvenile obscure puffer Takifugu obscurus.  

PubMed

The effect of dietary amylose/amylopectin (AM/AP) ratio on growth, feed utilization, digestive enzyme activities, plasma parameters, and postprandial blood glucose responses was evaluated in juvenile obscure puffer, Takifugu obscurus. Five isonitrogenous (430 g kg(-1) crude protein) and isolipidic (90 g kg(-1) crude lipid) diets containing an equal starch level (250 g kg(-1) starch) with different AM/AP ratio diets of 0/25, 3/22, 6/19, 9/16 and 12/13 were formulated. Each experimental diet was fed to triplicate groups (25 fish per tank), twice daily during a period of 60 days. After the growth trial, a postprandial blood response test was carried out. Fish fed diet 6/19 showed best growth, feed efficiency and protein efficiency ratio. Hepatosomatic index, plasma total cholesterol concentration, liver glycogen and lipid content, and gluconokinase, pyruvate kinase and fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase activities were lower in fish fed highest AM/AP diet (12/13) than in fish fed the low-amylose diets. Activities of liver and intestinal trypsin in fish fed diet 3/22 and diet 6/19 were higher than in fish fed diet 9/16 and diet 12/13. Activities of liver and intestinal amylase and intestinal lipase, and starch digestibility were negatively correlated with dietary AM/AP ratio. Fish fed diet 3/22 and diet 6/19 showed higher plasma total amino acid concentration than fish fed the other diets, while plasma urea nitrogen concentration and activities of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase showed the opposite trend. Equal values were found for viscerosomatic index and condition factor, whole body and muscle composition, plasma high-density and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations, and activities of lipase and hexokinase and glucose-6-phosphatase in liver. Postprandial plasma glucose and triglyceride peak value of fish fed diet 12/13 were lower than in fish fed the low-amylose diets, and the peak time of plasma glucose was later than in fish fed the other diets. Plasma glucose and triglyceride concentrations showed a significant difference at 2 and 4 h after a meal and varied between dietary treatments. According to regression analysis of weight gain against dietary AM/AP ratio, the optimum dietary AM/AP ratio for maximum growth of obscure puffer was 0.25. The present result indicates that dietary AM/AP ratio could affect growth performance and feed utilization, some plasma parameters, digestive enzyme as well as hepatic glucose metabolic enzyme activities in juvenile obscure puffer. PMID:24710601

Liu, Xiang-he; Ye, Chao-xia; Ye, Ji-dan; Shen, Bi-duan; Wang, Chun-yan; Wang, An-li

2014-10-01

71

Poison Ivy  

MedlinePLUS

... leaves of the plants. Look Out for Poison Plants These plants can be anywhere — from the woods ... pill or liquid form. Preventing Rashes From Poison Plants The best approach is to avoid getting the ...

72

Poison Ivy  

MedlinePLUS

... the poison ivy plant. The oil from the plant is carried in the smoke. Treatment How is poison ivy treated? Urushiol can bond to your skin within minutes. If you think that you've come in contact with poison ivy, you need to wash the area with plain cool water as soon as possible. This may help to ...

73

Identification of Caribbean ciguatoxins as the cause of an outbreak of fish poisoning among U.S. soldiers in Haiti  

Microsoft Academic Search

On 24 February 1995, six U.S. soldiers serving with the Multinational Force in Haiti became ill after eating a locally caught fish identified as the greater amberjack Seriola dumerili. The victims presented with nausea, vomiting, watery diarrhea and abdominal cramps 5–8 hr after consumption. Also present in some victims were numbness in the extremities or perioral region, bradycardia and scalp

Mark A. Poli; Richard J. Lewis; Robert W. Dickey; Steven M. Musser; Carole A. Buckner; Larry G. Carpenter

1997-01-01

74

The power of poison: pesticide poisoning of Africa's wildlife.  

PubMed

Poisons have long been used to kill wildlife throughout the world. An evolution has occurred from the use of plant- and animal-based toxins to synthetic pesticides to kill wildlife, a method that is silent, cheap, easy, and effective. The use of pesticides to poison wildlife began in southern Africa, and predator populations were widely targeted and eliminated. A steep increase has recently been observed in the intensity of wildlife poisonings, with corresponding population declines. However, the majority of poisonings go unreported. Under national laws, it is illegal to hunt wildlife using poisons in 83% of African countries. Pesticide regulations are inadequate, and enforcement of existing legislation is poor. Few countries have forensic field protocols, and most lack storage and testing facilities. Methods used to poison wildlife include baiting carcasses, soaking grains in pesticide solution, mixing pesticides to form salt licks, and tainting waterholes. Carbofuran is the most widely abused pesticide in Africa. Common reasons for poisoning are control of damage-causing animals, harvesting fish and bushmeat, harvesting animals for traditional medicine, poaching for wildlife products, and killing wildlife sentinels (e.g., vultures because their aerial circling alerts authorities to poachers' activities). Populations of scavengers, particularly vultures, have been decimated by poisoning. Recommendations include banning pesticides, improving pesticide regulations and controlling distribution, better enforcement and stiffer penalties for offenders, increasing international support and awareness, and developing regional pesticide centers. PMID:24716788

Ogada, Darcy L

2014-08-01

75

Consequences of experimental cortisol manipulations on the thermal biology of the checkered puffer (Sphoeroides testudineus) in laboratory  

E-print Network

Consequences of experimental cortisol manipulations on the thermal biology of the checkered puffer cortisol injections to investigate the effects of a thermal challenge on checkered puffers (Sphoeroides testudineus) as a secondary stressor. There were no sig- nificant differences between control and cortisol

Suski, Cory David

76

Methylmercury poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... 1222) can be called from anywhere in the United States. This national hotline number will let you talk ... service. All local poison control centers in the United States use this national number. You should call if ...

77

Methanol poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... measure and monitor the patient's vital signs, including temperature, pulse, breathing rate, and blood pressure. The patient may receive: Dialysis Medicine (antidote) to reverse the effect of the poison (fomepizole or ethanol) Medicines to ...

78

Poisonous Plants  

MedlinePLUS

... Related Links Insects and Scorpions Venomous Spiders Venomous Snakes Print page Get email updates Subscribe to RSS ... Insects and Scorpions Poisonous Plants Venomous Spiders Venomous Snakes Vector-Borne Diseases West Nile Virus Lyme Disease ...

79

Poisonous Contacts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In addition to its use as a lethal poison, arsenic has been used since ancient times to treat human illnesses, including infectious diseases and malignancies. This artical discusses how the findings of Zhang et al. add to our understanding of how arsenic's therapeutic effects have made acute promyelocytic leukemia "curable," with survival rates of 90%.

Scott Kogan (University of California San Francisco Cancer Center;)

2010-04-09

80

Yew poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... is found in various kinds of the yew plant. The poison is in most parts of the yew plant, but the highest amount ... information: Patient's age, weight, and condition Name and part of the plant that was swallowed, if known Time it was ...

81

Poison Ivy  

MedlinePLUS

... poison ivy”. The plant is found around the world, but it usually doesn’t grow in the desert or in high elevations. It usually grows in clusters in the woods, up in trees, and on the ground. Every part of the ...

82

Zigadenus Poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Significant toxicity can result from ingestion of certain species of the Zigadenus plant, an herb occasionally confused with nontoxic wild onions. A 50-year-old man inadvertently ingested Z paniculatus and presented to the emergency department with profound gastrointestinal toxicity, hypotension, and bradycardia. The pathophysiology and management of Zigadenus poisoning are reviewed. Emergency physicians, particularly in rural areas, should be aware of

Katherine L Heilpern

1995-01-01

83

Fish  

MedlinePLUS

... than others to get diseases from fish and amphibians. A person's age and health status may affect ... more likely to get diseases from fish and amphibians include infants, children younger than 5 years old, ...

84

[Poisoning with aluminum phospholipide used as a poison against moles].  

PubMed

Aluminium phosphide (AIP) is a poison used in Denmark to combat moles and vermines e.g. in granaries. On contact with water AIP releases phosphine gas, which has a strong cytotoxic action. We describe a lethal poisoning in a healthy 83 year old man, caused by ingestion of pellets containing AIP. After ingestion the primary symptoms were burning retrosternal pain, severe vomiting and diarrhoea which progressed to cardiac failure, arrhythmias and severe metabolic acidosis. The patient and his excreta smelled of garlic, ammonium carbide and decaying fish, which is characteristic of this poisoning. In spite of intensive care support the patient died in cardiac and respiratory failure 17 hours after ingestion of the pellets. Treatment is supportive. Knowledge about the toxicity of AIP is described and discussed. PMID:8966781

Andersen, T S; Holm, J W; Andersen, T S

1996-09-16

85

Zigadenus poisoning.  

PubMed

Significant toxicity can result from ingestion of certain species of the Zigadenus plant, an herb occasionally confused with nontoxic wild onions. A 50-year-old man inadvertently ingested Z paniculatus and presented to the emergency department with profound gastrointestinal toxicity, hypotension, and bradycardia. The pathophysiology and management of Zigadenus poisoning are reviewed. Emergency physicians, particularly in rural areas, should be aware of the morbidity caused by ingestion of some Zigadenus species. PMID:7832360

Heilpern, K L

1995-02-01

86

2004 NaturePublishing Group Genome duplication in the teleost fish  

E-print Network

Recerca en Informa`tica Biome`dica, IMIM-UPF and Programa de Bioinforma`tica i Geno`mica (CRG), Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain 7 CNRS UMR 5558 Biome´trie et Biologie Evolutive, Universite´ Lyon 1, 69622 Villeurbanne ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Tetraodon nigroviridis is a freshwater puffer fish with the smallest known vertebrate genome. Here, we

Kellis, Manolis

87

Ink remover poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... poisonous if swallowed in large doses) Wood alcohol (methanol, which is very poisonous) ... Brain damage Decreased breathing Stupor Unconsciousness Symptoms of methanol and isopropyl alcohol poisoning may include: Eyes, ears, ...

88

Poison Help Line  

MedlinePLUS

... LR, Green JL, Rumack BH, Giffin SL. 2008 Annual Report of the American Association of Poison Control Centers’ National Poison Data System (NPDS): 26th Annual Report . 2009. Clinical Toxicology (2009) 47, 911–1084. Poison ...

89

Imprudent fishing harvests and consequent trophic cascades on the West Florida shelf over the last half century: A harbinger of increased human deaths from paralytic shellfish poisoning along the southeastern United States, in response to oligotrophication?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Within the context of ubiquitous overfishing of piscivores, recent consequent increments of jellyfish and clupeids have occurred at the zooplanktivore trophic level in the eastern Gulf of Mexico (GOM), after overfishing of one of their predators, i.e. red snapper. Initiation of a local trophic cascade thence led to declines of herbivore stocks, documented here on the West Florida shelf. These exacerbating world-wide trophic cascades have resulted in larger harmful algal blooms (HABs), already present at the base of most coastal food webs. Impacts on human health have thus far been minimal within nutrient-rich coastal regions. To provide a setting for past morbidities, consideration is given to chronologies of other trophic cascades within eutrophic, cold water marine ecosystems of the Scotian Sea, in the Gulf of Alaska, off Southwest Africa, within the Barents, White, and Black Seas, in the Gulf of Maine, and finally in the North Sea. Next, comparison is now made here of recent ten-fold increments within Florida waters of both relatively benign and saxitoxic HABs, some of which are fatal to humans. These events are placed in a perspective of other warm shelf systems of the South China and Caribbean Seas to assess prior and possible future poison toxicities of oligotrophic coastal habitats. Past wide-spread kills of fishes and sea urchins over the Caribbean Sea and the downstream GOM are examined in relation to the potential transmission of dinoflagellate saxitoxin and other epizootic poison vectors by western boundary currents over larger "commons" than local embayments. Furthermore, since some HABs produce more potent saxitoxins upon nutrient depletion, recent decisions to ban seasonal fertilizer applications to Florida lawns may have unintended consequences. In the future, human-killing phytoplankton, rather than relatively benign fish-killing HABs of the past, may be dispersed along the southeastern United States seaboard.

Walsh, J. J.; Tomas, C. R.; Steidinger, K. A.; Lenes, J. M.; Chen, F. R.; Weisberg, R. H.; Zheng, L.; Landsberg, J. H.; Vargo, G. A.; Heil, C. A.

2011-06-01

90

Mania following organophosphate poisoning  

PubMed Central

Organophosphate poisoning is the most common poisoning in developing countries. Although the acute muscarinic and nicotinic side-effects of organophosphate poisoning are well known and easily recognized, but neuropsychiatric changes are rarely reported. We are reporting a case of a 33-year-old female who developed manic episode following acute organophosphate poisoning.

Mohapatra, Satyakam; Rath, Neelmadhav

2014-01-01

91

Prevention of Food Poisoning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The programed text provides a single lesson, four-hour, correspondence subcourse on the prevention of food poisoning. It covers the following areas: a definition of food poisoning; chemical food poisoning; biological food poisoning; causes and prevention of trichinosis; six factors controlling bacteria growth; bacterial infection; prevention of…

Army Quartermaster School, Ft. Lee, VA.

92

Incidence of animal poisoning cases in the Czech Republic: current situation  

PubMed Central

This article reports the most frequent cases of poisoning in farm animals, horses, cats, dogs, wild animals, fish and honey-bees in the Czech Republic. At present, there are fewer cases of acute poisoning caused by high doses of toxic substances but there are more and more cases of chronic poisoning as a consequence of environmental pollution. PMID:21217846

Modrá, Helena; Svobodová, Zde?ka

2009-01-01

93

Ciguatera poisoning after ingestion of imported jellyfish: diagnostic application of serum immunoassay.  

PubMed

Ciguatera fish poisoning is an important public health problem wherever humans consume tropical and subtropical fish. It accounts for over half of fish-related poisonings in the United States but is uncommonly diagnosed and underreported. Produced by dinoflagellates, ciguatoxin accumulates up the food chain in herbivorous and carnivorous fishes. Cnidaria jellyfish and related invertebrates) have not previously been associated with direct ciguatera intoxication in humans. We report the first case of ciguatera fish poisoning associated with cnidarian ingestion. A 12-year-old Tongan female presented to our Emergency Department with mid-abdominal pain, nausea, change in mental status, and new-onset movement disorder after ingestion of jellyfish imported from American Samoa. Clinical diagnosis was confirmed by strongly positive serum identification of ciguatoxin and related polyether toxins (including okadaic acid) with a rapid extraction method (REM) and highly reliable solid-phase immunobead assay (S-PIA) performed by the Food Toxicology Research Group, University of Arizona. Ciguatera pathophysiology, clinical presentation, differential diagnosis (including consideration of palytoxin poisoning), and treatment are briefly reviewed. We emphasize the growing incidence of ciguatera fish poisoning outside "high-risk" areas. In regions with immigrant populations, privately imported exotic fish may be toxin vectors. Marine species other than carnivorous fish are now suspect in human ciguatera intoxication. Reliable tests can aid in premarket fish testing, diagnosis, and follow-up of ciguatera fish poisoning. The global prevalence of marine toxins demands fishermen, consumers, and physicians maintain a high index of suspicion for ciguatera fish poisoning. PMID:11990093

Zlotnick, B A; Hintz, S; Park, D L; Auerbach, P S

1995-08-01

94

Poison Ivy, Oak, and Sumac  

MedlinePLUS

... the poison ivy, poison oak, and poison sumac plants adhere to the skin. Once the oil has been washed off, there is no risk of spreading poison ivy, poison oak, or poison sumac to other parts of the body. Be sure to wash any ...

95

Recovery of fish stocks in the Seto Inland Sea.  

PubMed

The total amount of fisheries' yield in the Seto Inland Sea in 1999 was 571,000 MT, consisting of 256,000 MT by fishing and 315,000 MT from aquaculture. About 40,000 people engaged in the fishing and aquaculture industries, earned 129 billion yen (1100 million US$) by fishing and 89 billion yen (770 million $US) by aquaculture. The averaged annual catch for the Seto Inland Sea by fishing was 13 MT/km(2). Division into time periods in terms of eutrophication levels can be made: before 1960 when red sea bream were abundant with ecological divergence (before eutrophication), from 1960 to 1990 when the biomass of anchovy was large (during eutrophication), and after 1990 when the jellyfishes were abundant (excessive eutrophication or high N:P ratio). The fish production will decrease in the sea of jellyfishes. Actually, the amount of catch was 462,000 MT in 1982 which decreased 265,000 MT in 1993, corresponding to 43% in twelve years, then keeping the same level. A big reduction was seen in the catches of the spotlined sardine, anchovy, Spanish mackerel, tiger puffer, short-necked clam, sea cucumber and others. The tiger puffer and Spanish mackerel were abundant as predators in the sea of anchovy. The biomass of anchovy was at its maximum in 1986 and decreased to less than one third in 1996. The stocks of tiger puffer and Spanish mackerel greatly decreased because of the higher fishing pressure compared to the anchovy stock. The fishing power of individual fisheries targeting on the tiger puffer and Spanish mackerel increased substantially when fishing vessel and fishing gear improved, resulting in an excessive fishing effort. A large quantity of small immature fishes is usually caught in the Seto Inland Sea, resulting in growth and/or recruitment overfishing for many species. Hence, it is necessary to promote management of the fisheries so as not to reduce the fish stocks, and to allow the Seto Inland Sea to return from being a sea of jellyfishes to a sea of anchovy, with decreased eutrophication levels. PMID:12787608

Nagai, T

2003-01-01

96

[Occupational phosphine poisoning].  

PubMed

The authors report their observations on late sequelae of phosphine poisoning. For 18 months after acute poisoning signs of nervous system damage persisted (objective changes, EEG abnormalities). PMID:3444514

Kurzbauer, H; Kiesler, A

1987-01-01

97

The Power of Poison  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This striking new exhibition from the American Museum of Natural History explores the cultural, historical, and biological powers of poison. Designed to complement an in situ exhibit, visitors can learn about poison in nature, myth, and legend. A video introduction to the exhibit is a great place to start and visitors can also meet the curator, Dr. Mark Siddall. In the Poison in Nature area, users can learn how poison is used by tree frogs and other species to defend their territory. The Villains and Victims area includes profiles of notable people in history who have used poison in a nefarious fashion. Additionally, this area contains a free app that features three poison "mysteries" for interested parties to solve. Finally, visitors should be sure to check out the Poison for Good area, which contains information about how treatments from the yew tree (which is quite poisonous) can be used as an anti-cancer medicine.

Siddall, Mark Edward, 1966-

2013-11-16

98

Hydrochloric acid poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

Hydrocholoric acid is a clear, poisonous liquid. It is highly corrosive, which means it immediately causes severe damage, such ... poisoning due to swallowing or breathing in hydrochloric acid. This is for information only and not for ...

99

Prevent Unintentional Poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... emergency departments. And the number of deaths is rising. Learn what you can do to reduce your— ... of poisoning in the United States, including occurrence, costs and risk factors. Unintentional Poisoning: CDC Activities Summary ...

100

Boric acid poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... acid poisoning usually occurs when someone swallows powdered roach-killing products that contain the chemical. Chronic poisoning ... and ant pesticides Photography chemicals Powders to kill roaches Some eye wash products Note: This list may ...

101

Blue nightshade poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

Blue nightshade poisoning occurs when someone eats parts of the blue nightshade plant. This is for information only and ... The poison is found in the blue nightshade (Solanum dulcamara) plant, especially in the fruit and leaves.

102

Lead poisoning: An overview  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A problem that should be of great concern to all of us is the lead poisoning of children. First, I would like to present a short overview concerning the reasons everyone should care about lead poisoning, then discuss the history of lead poisoning, what is happening today across the country, and the future.

Gendel, Neil

1993-01-01

103

Powered control mechanisms contributing to dynamically stable swimming in porcupine puffers (Teleostei: Diodon holocanthus)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Balances of multiple varying forces must be the basis for the unusually great dynamic stability of swimming pufferfishes. We used high-speed digital video recordings to study biomechanics and kinematics of rectilinear swimming at different speeds of five porcupine puffers in a water tunnel. We measured critical swimming speeds ( U crit); fin biomechanics, kinematics, and coordination; recoil movements; and gait changes. Major propulsors were pectoral fins at lower speeds; dorsal, anal, and caudal fins at higher speeds. Precise coordination of fin movements produced small recoil movements at speeds below U crit. The unusual body shape probably contributes to unconscious stability control.

Wiktorowicz, Alexis M.; Lauritzen, Dean V.; Gordon, Malcolm S.

2007-11-01

104

Detecting Conserved Regulatory Elements with the Model Genome of the Japanese Puffer Fish, Fugu rubripes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Comparative vertebrate genome sequencing offers a powerful method for detecting conserved regulatory sequences. We propose that the compact genome of the teleost Fugu rubripes is well suited for this purpose. The evolutionary distance of teleosts from other vertebrates offers the maximum stringency for such evolutionary comparisons. To illustrate the comparative genome approach for F. rubripes, we use sequence comparisons between

Samuel Aparicio; Alastair Morrison; Alex Gould; Jonathan Gilthorpe; Chitrita Chaudhuri; Peter Rigby; Robb Krumlauf; Sydney Brenner

1995-01-01

105

Outsmarting Poison Ivy and Other Poisonous Plants  

MedlinePLUS

... poison sumac. Protectants such as baking soda or colloidal oatmeal relieve minor irritation and itching. Aluminum acetate ... Food and Drug Administration 10903 New Hampshire Avenue Silver Spring, MD 20993 1-888-INFO-FDA (1- ...

106

[Acute salicylate poisoning].  

PubMed

Although aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid) has become widely available without prescription, cases of self-poisoning due to overdose of salicylates are quite uncommon, with a low reported mortality. However, severe poisoning with these preparations is life threatening. Besides the aspirin, there are other sources of salicylate poisoning, such as an excessive application of topical agents, ingestion of salicylate containing ointments, use of keratolytic agents or agents containing methyl salicylate (e.g. oil of wintergreen). Most of these preparations are liquid, highly concentrated and lipid soluble, and, therefore, they are able to provoke a severe, rapid salicylate poisoning. On the basis of clinical and metabolic features or salicylate concentration in plasma it is very important to diagnose severe poisoning with salicylates in time and prescribe an adequate treatment. In the present review article various aspects of salicylate poisoning and its treatment are discussed: epidemiology, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of salicylates, clinical manifestations of their toxicity, management, enhanced elimination and prognosis. PMID:16467617

Reingardiene, Dagmara; Lazauskas, Robertas

2006-01-01

107

Phosphorus poisoning in waterfowl  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Black ducks and mallards were found to be highly susceptible to phosphorus poisoning. 3 mg. of white phosphorus per kg. of body weight given in a single dose resulted in death of a black duck in 6 hours. Pathologic changes in both acute and chronic poisoning were studied. Data are presented showing that diagnosis can be made accurately by chemical analysis of stored tissues in cases of phosphorus poisoning.

Coburn, D.R.; DeWitt, J.B.; Derby, J.V., Jr.; Ediger, E.

1950-01-01

108

Red Tide and Shellfish Poisoning  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This EnviroFacts informational page discusses how red tide develops and how people might be affected by this phenomenon. It covers physical damage, oxygen depletion, direct poisoning, and indirect poisoning including paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP), diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP), neurotoxic shellfish poisoning (NSP), amnesiac shellfish poisoning (ASP), and aerosol toxins. The page concludes with a discussion of red tide and the role of the sea fisheries research institute.

Maneveldt, Gavin W.

109

The gas bladder of puffers and porcupinefishes (Acanthomorpha: Tetraodontiformes): phylogenetic interpretations.  

PubMed

The anatomy of the gas bladder of Diodontidae (porcupinefishes) and Tetraodontidae (pufferfishes) was studied on the basis of dissections and magnetic resonance imaging. Among the examined taxa of Tetraodontiformes, only puffers and porcupinefishes possess a thick walled and dorsally U-shaped or crescent-moon-shaped gas bladder. In the tetraodontid genus Lagocephalus the gas bladder is reduced to a rudiment. The species belonging to the genera Canthigaster, Arothron, and some species of Tetraodon differ in the positioning of their crescent-moon-shaped gas bladder. These observations confirm the close relationship of: (i) Diodontidae and Tetraodontidae and (ii) Canthigaster, Arothron, and some species of Tetraodon. The heterogeneity of the genus Tetraodon is supported by the gas bladder morphology, as previously suggested by molecular studies. PMID:24634057

Chanet, Bruno; Guintard, Claude; Lecointre, Guillaume

2014-08-01

110

Sweet clover poisoning  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sweet clover poisoning is a hemorrhagic disease produced when spoiled sweet clover (Melilotus officinalis and M. alba) hay or silage that contain dicumarol are consumed by livestock. This chapter reviews the clinical and pathologic lesions or poisoning. It also reviews current strategies and treat...

111

Suspected Pesticide Poisoning  

PubMed Central

Of 1125 calls to a regional poison control center about suspected pesticide poisonings, more than half concerned children younger than 6 years, most of whom had ingested small amounts and required no treatment other than drinking fluids. Adults represented a small proportion of victims, but were more likely to have consumed moderate or large quantities, to have symptoms, and to need referral. PMID:21228985

Sellar, Christine; Ferguson, Joyce A.

1991-01-01

112

Human Pentachlorophenol Poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pentachlorophenol (PCP) was, and still is, one of the most frequently used fungicides and pesticides, Its toxicity is due to interference with oxidative phosphorylation. Acute and chronic poisoning may occur by dermal absorption, inhalation or ingestion. Chronic poisoning occurs mainly in sawmill workers or people living in log homes treated with PCPcontaining wood protecting formulations. Quantitative determination of PCP in

Philippe G. Jorens; Paul J. C. Schepens

1993-01-01

113

Paraquat Poisoning in Children  

PubMed Central

Four children with paraquat poisoning are described, with 2 fatalities. In one fatal case delay in treatment occurred as the nature of the ingested fluid was uncertain. A method for rapid detection of paraquat in the urine is referred to. The treatment of paraquat poisoning consists of immediate gastric lavage and forced osmotic diuresis. PMID:5427860

McDonagh, Brian J.; Martin, John

1970-01-01

114

Sodium bisulfate poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

In the United States, call 1-800-222-1222 to speak with a local poison control center. This hotline number will let ... service. All local poison control centers in the United States use this national number. You should call if ...

115

Accidental carbon monoxide poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Improved home insulation and increased use of space heaters have increased the potential for accidental carbon monoxide (CO) poisonings in the home. CO is a major environmental pollutant in today's society and is also contained in cigarette smoke. The toxic effects, metabolic pathways, and treatment of CO poisoning are described.

D. L. Jackson; H. Menges

1980-01-01

116

Lead Poisoning in Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication is a guide to help social and health workers plan a preventive campaign against lead poisoning, a cause of mental retardation other neurological handicaps, and death among children. The main victims are 1- to 6-year-olds living in areas where deteriorating housing prevails. Among the causes of lead poisoning are: ingestion of…

Lin-Fu, Jane S.

117

Poisonous Plants Web Pages  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Spearheaded by Dr. Mary C. Smith and Professor Dan Brown of Cornell University's College of Veterinary Medicine and Department of Animal Science respectively, Poisonous Plants Web Pages contains color images of poisonous plants and affected animals, and provides information concerning the biological mechanisms, diagnosis and prevention of animal poisoning due to toxic plants and other natural flora (fungi, etc.). Pictures and information can be accessed through an alphabetical list of Latin botanical names (common names are also included), a list of the specific type of poisons present, or a list of species of animals commonly affected. Additionally, there are several links to related poisonous plant sites. Although text is not yet complete for many species, pictures for each plant and links to related sites are provided.

1997-01-01

118

Chapter 1 Childhood Lead Poisoning Childhood Lead Poisoning  

E-print Network

Chapter 1 Childhood Lead Poisoning 1 Childhood Lead Poisoning in the United States The problem of childhood lead poisoning. Child- hood lead poisoning is a major, preventable environmental health problem environmental sources of lead exposure, especially from gasoline and food. But 83% of all homes built

119

Multiple, recurring origins of aposematism and diet specialization in poison frogs  

E-print Network

Multiple, recurring origins of aposematism and diet specialization in poison frogs Juan Carlos taxa, but, in vertebrates, it is mostly evident in amphibians, reptiles, and fishes. Poison frogs the family in two discrete groups of primitively cryptic and more derived aposematic frogs. Recent molecular

120

Superwarfarin (brodifacoum) poisoning.  

PubMed

A case of self-ingestion of brodifacoum that resulted in spontaneous intra-abdominal haemorrhage, circulatory shock, rhabdomyolysis and acute renal failure is reported. Current knowledge and management of superwarfarin poisoning are discussed. PMID:9452861

Corke, P J

1997-12-01

121

Sodium hypochlorite poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... poisoning, especially if the product is mixed with ammonia. This is for information only and not for ... amounts can cause more serious symptoms. NEVER mix ammonia with sodium hypochlorite (bleach or bleach-containing products). ...

122

Poison Control Centers  

MedlinePLUS

... Oregon Pennsylvania Rhode Island South Carolina South Dakota Tennessee Texas Utah Vermont Virginia Washington West Virginia Wisconsin ... TN 37831 Online Email not for emergency use. Tennessee Florida Poison Information Center - Miami Address Jackson Memorial ...

123

Sulfuric acid poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

Sulfuric acid is a very strong chemical that is corrosive. Corrosive means it can cause severe burns and ... or mucous membranes. This article discusses poisoning from sulfuric acid. This is for information only and not for ...

124

Hair dye poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... Arsenic Bismuth Denatured alcohol Lead (see lead poisoning ) Mercury Pyrogallol Silver Note: This list may not include ... product is swallowed. Continued exposure to lead or mercury can lead to permanent brain and nervous system ( ...

125

Acid soldering flux poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... 1222) can be called from anywhere in the United States. This national hotline number will let you talk ... service. All local poison control centers in the United States use this national number. You should call if ...

126

Metal polish poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... 1222) can be called from anywhere in the United States. This national hotline number will let you talk ... service. All local poison control centers in the United States use this national number. You should call if ...

127

Household glue poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

Glue poisoning ... Glue Note: This list may not include all sources of household glue. ... Symptoms of breathing in ("sniffing") glue fumes may include: ... appearance Excitability Headache Irritability Loss of appetite ...

128

Occupational cyanide poisoning.  

PubMed

Cyanide poisoning has existed for centuries. In most cases, cyanide is combined with other toxic substances; for example with carbon monoxide in fire smoke. Cases of pure cyanide poisoning are rare, and usually due to accidental exposure. Their treatment is based on oxygenation and the infusion of hydroxocobalamin. The seriousness of this type of poisoning calls for a rapid and specific response, which demonstrates the usefulness of non-hospital based medical treatment. The authors report here the case of a man who was the victim of occupational poisoning with sodium cyanide and who was treated at the workplace by fire-fighters and the Service Mobile d'Urgence et Reanimation emergency ambulance service. PMID:22674698

Amizet, Loic; Pruvot, Gauthier; Remy, Sophie; Kfoury, Michel

2011-01-01

129

Caladium plant poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... oxalate crystals Asparagine, a protein found in the plant Note: All parts of the plants are poisonous if large amounts ... age, weight, and condition The name of the plant and the parts eaten The amount swallowed The time it was ...

130

Wart remover poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

Wart removers are medicines used to eliminate warts , which are small, usually painless growths on the skin caused by a virus. Wart remover poisoning occurs when someone accidentally or intentionally swallows ...

131

Hair bleach poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

Hair lightener poisoning ... Hydrogen peroxide Some hair bleaches Note: This list may not include all sources of hair bleach. ... al., eds. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice . 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Mosby; 2013:chap ...

132

Stoddard solvent poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

Stoddard solvent is a flammable, liquid chemical that smells like kerosene. Stoddard solvent poisoning occurs when someone ... swelling Nervous system: Burning sensations Convulsions Dizziness ... problems Nervousness Numbness in arms and legs Unconsciousness ...

133

Rhubarb leaves poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... Flush the skin and eyes with lots of water, if the plant touched these areas. ... the amount of poison swallowed and how quickly treatment is received. ... in kidney failure. Deaths have been reported, but are rare.

134

Occupational cyanide poisoning  

PubMed Central

Cyanide poisoning has existed for centuries. In most cases, cyanide is combined with other toxic substances; for example with carbon monoxide in fire smoke. Cases of pure cyanide poisoning are rare, and usually due to accidental exposure. Their treatment is based on oxygenation and the infusion of hydroxocobalamin. The seriousness of this type of poisoning calls for a rapid and specific response, which demonstrates the usefulness of non-hospital based medical treatment. The authors report here the case of a man who was the victim of occupational poisoning with sodium cyanide and who was treated at the workplace by fire-fighters and the Service Mobile d’Urgence et Reanimation emergency ambulance service. PMID:22674698

Amizet, Loic; Pruvot, Gauthier; Remy, Sophie; Kfoury, Michel

2011-01-01

135

Metal cleaner poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

Metal cleaners are very strong chemical products that contain acids. This article discusses poisoning from swallowing or ... Metal cleaners contain organic compounds called hydrocarbons, including: 1,2 butylene oxide Boric acid Cocoyl sarcosine Dicarboxylic ...

136

Kudoa dianae sp. n. (Myxosporea: Multivalvulida), a new parasite of bullseye puffer, Sphoeroides annulatus (Tetraodontiformes: Tetraodontidae).  

PubMed

A new multivalvulid myxosporean species, Kudoa dianae sp. n., is described from bullseye puffer, Sphoeroides annulatus (Jenyns) (Tetraodontiformes: Tetraodontidae). Plasmodia develop in extramuscular sites, in the wall of oesophagus and less frequently on mesenteries. Mature spores can reach lumen of the digestive tract directly by disruption of plasmodial wall or via macrophage transport to the oesophageal epithelium. New species is characterised by morphology of spores and by the complete sequence of SSU rRNA gene that differs from all hitherto known sequences of Kudoa species. Spore morphology (moderate-sized, simple non-ornate spores, quadrate in apical view) clusters with that of Kudoa scienae, K. cerebralis, K. chilkaensis, K. leiostomi, K. finduli, K. cascasia and K. ovivora. Analysis of phylogenetic relationships (using SSU rRNA gene sequences) among five Kudoa species, the molecular data of which are available thus far, revealed that K. dianae is distinguishable from these five species and that its closest relation is with K. miniauiriculata. PMID:11993546

Dyková, Iva; Fajer Avila, Emma Josefina; Fiala, Ivan

2002-01-01

137

In Case of Pesticide Poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... to tell whether the person is suffering from heat exhaustion or pesticide poisoning. The table below compares the symptoms. Symptoms of Heat Exhaustion Symptoms of Organophosphate/ Carbamate Poisoning Sweating Sweating Headache ...

138

Oil-based paint poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

Paint - oil based - poisoning ... Hydrocarbons are the primary poisonous ingredient in oil paints. Some oil paints have heavy metals such as lead, mercury, cobalt, and barium added as pigment. These heavy metals can cause additional ...

139

Carbon monoxide poisoning  

PubMed Central

Carbon monoxide poisoning is a significant cause of illness and death. Its protean symptoms probably lead to a gross underestimation of its true incidence. Low levels of carbon monoxide aggravate chronic cardiopulmonary problems, and high levels are associated with cardiac arrhythmias and cerebral edema. Patients who survive acute poisoning are at risk of delayed neurologic sequelae. The measurement of carboxyhemoglobin levels does not reveal the tissue levels of carbon monoxide but is useful in determining therapy. Treatment includes the monitoring and management of cardiac arrhythmias and oxygenation. Hyperbaric oxygenation is beneficial, but there are currently no definite criteria for its use. PMID:4027805

Dolan, Michael C.

1985-01-01

140

MR in trichloroethane poisoning.  

PubMed

We present a case of acute trichloroethane intoxication caused by inhalation of typewriter correction fluid. CT and MR findings revealed lesions in the basal ganglia and cortex similar to those observed in patients with methanol and carbon monoxide poisoning. PMID:8791934

del Amo, M; Berenguer, J; Pujol, T; Mercader, J M

1996-01-01

141

Diarrheic Shellfish Poisoning  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web page discusses Diarrheic Shellfish Poisoning (DSP), a gastrointestinal illness caused by the consumption of contaminated shellfish. The associated toxins are okadaic acid and its derivatives, which are produced by the marine dinoflagellate Dinophysis. This page describes clinical presentation (symptoms) of DSP, diagnosis, management and treatment, chemical structure of okadaic acid, molecular mechanism of action, and references.

142

Poisonous Koda Millet  

Microsoft Academic Search

THERE have been several well-ascertained examples of poisoning from diseased or improperly-prepared Koda millet (Paspalum scrobiculatum) during the past year in India. Owing to the prevailing scarcity of the usual food-grains, it is probable that Koda millet has been extensively sold and eaten in localities where its use is ordinarily unknown.

A. E. Grant

1898-01-01

143

Lead Poisoning in Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Urban children are exposed to lead through the air they breathe, the water they drink, and the food and nonfood substances they ingest. The history, diagnosis, and treatment of lead poisoning in these children are discussed. Includes information on the toxicology of lead and the various risk classes. (JN)

Boeckx, Roger L.

1986-01-01

144

Percutaneous organophosphate poisoning.  

PubMed

After cutaneous application of the organophosphate insecticide Diazinon for pubic lice, our patient had symptoms of cholinergic excess, lost consciousness, and had a seizure. Because of the high index of clinical suspicion for potentially lethal organophosphate poisoning, the patient received empiric therapy with pralidoxime and atropine and completely recovered. PMID:3629322

Halle, A; Sloas, D D

1987-09-01

145

Super Rat Poison Man  

E-print Network

Bob Square Tie. But Zheng Xiaoyu, the deposed head of China's State Food and Drug Administration begs to be excused. A rat poison manufacturer here in China applied for permission to name some of its products after him, partly because he's corrupt...

Hacker, Randi; Tsutsui, William

2007-04-04

146

Poison Ivy Dermatitis  

MedlinePLUS

... Leaves of three - let it be!" aptly describes this woody vine with 2-4" leaflets in groups of three. The center leaf has a longer stem than the other two. Poison ivy clings to tree trunks and other vertical surfaces with hair-like ...

147

Carbolic acid poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

Carbolic acid is a sweet-smelling clear liquid that is added to many different products. Carbolic acid poisoning occurs when someone touches or swallows this chemical. This is for information only and not for use in the treatment or management ...

148

Acute poisoning: an update.  

PubMed Central

Treatment of the patient who has taken an overdose of a harmful substance includes support of vital functions and toxicologic analysis. Early recognition of signs and symptoms indicating poisoning by a specific agent or group of related chemicals is essential since specific antidotes may be lifesaving. Activated charcoal is an effective gastrointestinal decontaminant that adsorbs many common drugs. Administration of weak acids as an antidote to alkali ingestion is to be condemned; the only treatment should be dilution with water. The use of physostigmine as a specific antidote for the anticholinergic syndrome has been very successful; the incidence of this syndrome as a result of poisoning by tricyclic antidepressants is increasing. Effective therapy for acetaminophen overdose is still being investigated, but activated charcoal and methionine, if given early enough, seem to be effective. PMID:890634

Raymond, C. W.

1977-01-01

149

[Poisoning by bee sting].  

PubMed

Among the human pathologies produced by venomous animals, bee stings constitute the largest number of accidents in several countries, exceeding the mortality rate caused by other venomous animals such as snakes, spiders or scorpions. The clinical picture after the bee sting may include anaphylaxis or poisoning. The latter is produced by massive attacks and is a serious problem that may put the patient's life at risk. People that are poisoned display hemolysis, rhabdomiolysis and acute renal failure that together with other systemic failures can bring about death. The knowledge of the physiopathological mechanisms involved in the massive attack of bees is crucial for health care professionals as to date we do not have antivenoms with proven clinical efficacy. In this review we include the bee's biological aspects, venom composition and its relation with the occurrence and severity of accidents as well as epidemiological data that can be useful for this type of accidents. PMID:16025987

de Roodt, Adolfo R; Salomón, Oscar D; Orduna, Tomás A; Robles Ortiz, Luis E; Paniagua Solís, Jorge F; Alagón Cano, Alejandro

2005-01-01

150

Acute accidental phosgene poisoning  

PubMed Central

Phosgene is a highly toxic gas to which accidental exposure may occur in occupational workers. This case report describes the clinical presentation and management of accidental phosgene poisoning happened after the leakage of phosgene gas from nearby pipeline. The need to suspect phosgene gas exposure and observe such patients is crucial for life saving, especially in view of the delay in clinical deterioration observed in some patients who subsequently develop adult respiratory distress syndrome. PMID:22602834

Gutch, Manish; Jain, Nirdesh; Agrawal, Avinash; Consul, Suchi

2012-01-01

151

[Familial lead poisoning].  

PubMed

A 1 year and 9 month old patient was admitted with ataxia. CBC showed a microcytic, hypocromic anemia with intense basophilic sttipling of erythrocytes. Lead poisoning was suspected and confirmed with a blood lead level of 167 micrograms/dl. The patient was treated with EDTA and BAL. It was discovered that family burned old car batteries for food cooking. Four members were intoxicated, with blood lead levels at or above 50 micrograms/dl. PMID:2519417

Ríos, E; Dal Borgo, P; Riveros, A; Díaz, S M

1989-06-01

152

Poisonous plant vouchers.  

PubMed

Every published report of plant poisoning, whether experimental or accidental, should document plant identification. The essential elements are: complete botanical Latin name including species, specific epithet and author(s); name of the collaborating botanist who identified the plant; and herbarium and collection number of a voucher specimen from the exposure lot. Additional information to aid identification might include plant photographs, drawings, and descriptions. PMID:10349708

Wagstaff, D J; Wiersema, J H; Lellinger, D B

1999-06-01

153

Genome duplication in the teleost fish Tetraodon nigroviridis reveals the early vertebrate proto-karyotype.  

PubMed

Tetraodon nigroviridis is a freshwater puffer fish with the smallest known vertebrate genome. Here, we report a draft genome sequence with long-range linkage and substantial anchoring to the 21 Tetraodon chromosomes. Genome analysis provides a greatly improved fish gene catalogue, including identifying key genes previously thought to be absent in fish. Comparison with other vertebrates and a urochordate indicates that fish proteins have diverged markedly faster than their mammalian homologues. Comparison with the human genome suggests approximately 900 previously unannotated human genes. Analysis of the Tetraodon and human genomes shows that whole-genome duplication occurred in the teleost fish lineage, subsequent to its divergence from mammals. The analysis also makes it possible to infer the basic structure of the ancestral bony vertebrate genome, which was composed of 12 chromosomes, and to reconstruct much of the evolutionary history of ancient and recent chromosome rearrangements leading to the modern human karyotype. PMID:15496914

Jaillon, Olivier; Aury, Jean-Marc; Brunet, Frédéric; Petit, Jean-Louis; Stange-Thomann, Nicole; Mauceli, Evan; Bouneau, Laurence; Fischer, Cécile; Ozouf-Costaz, Catherine; Bernot, Alain; Nicaud, Sophie; Jaffe, David; Fisher, Sheila; Lutfalla, Georges; Dossat, Carole; Segurens, Béatrice; Dasilva, Corinne; Salanoubat, Marcel; Levy, Michael; Boudet, Nathalie; Castellano, Sergi; Anthouard, Véronique; Jubin, Claire; Castelli, Vanina; Katinka, Michael; Vacherie, Benoît; Biémont, Christian; Skalli, Zineb; Cattolico, Laurence; Poulain, Julie; De Berardinis, Véronique; Cruaud, Corinne; Duprat, Simone; Brottier, Philippe; Coutanceau, Jean-Pierre; Gouzy, Jérôme; Parra, Genis; Lardier, Guillaume; Chapple, Charles; McKernan, Kevin J; McEwan, Paul; Bosak, Stephanie; Kellis, Manolis; Volff, Jean-Nicolas; Guigó, Roderic; Zody, Michael C; Mesirov, Jill; Lindblad-Toh, Kerstin; Birren, Bruce; Nusbaum, Chad; Kahn, Daniel; Robinson-Rechavi, Marc; Laudet, Vincent; Schachter, Vincent; Quétier, Francis; Saurin, William; Scarpelli, Claude; Wincker, Patrick; Lander, Eric S; Weissenbach, Jean; Roest Crollius, Hugues

2004-10-21

154

Managing aluminum phosphide poisonings.  

PubMed

Aluminum phosphide (AlP) is a cheap, effective and commonly used pesticide. However, unfortunately, it is now one of the most common causes of poisoning among agricultural pesticides. It liberates lethal phosphine gas when it comes in contact either with atmospheric moisture or with hydrochloric acid in the stomach. The mechanism of toxicity includes cellular hypoxia due to the effect on mitochondria, inhibition of cytochrome C oxidase and formation of highly reactive hydroxyl radicals. The signs and symptoms are nonspecific and instantaneous. The toxicity of AlP particularly affects the cardiac and vascular tissues, which manifest as profound and refractory hypotension, congestive heart failure and electrocardiographic abnormalities. The diagnosis of AlP usually depends on clinical suspicion or history, but can be made easily by the simple silver nitrate test on gastric content or on breath. Due to no known specific antidote, management remains primarily supportive care. Early arrival, resuscitation, diagnosis, decrease the exposure of poison (by gastric lavage with KMnO(4), coconut oil), intensive monitoring and supportive therapy may result in good outcome. Prompt and adequate cardiovascular support is important and core in the management to attain adequate tissue perfusion, oxygenation and physiologic metabolic milieu compatible with life until the tissue poison levels are reduced and spontaneous circulation is restored. In most of the studies, poor prognostic factors were presence of acidosis and shock. The overall outcome improved in the last decade due to better and advanced intensive care management. PMID:21887030

Gurjar, Mohan; Baronia, Arvind K; Azim, Afzal; Sharma, Kalpana

2011-07-01

155

Managing aluminum phosphide poisonings  

PubMed Central

Aluminum phosphide (AlP) is a cheap, effective and commonly used pesticide. However, unfortunately, it is now one of the most common causes of poisoning among agricultural pesticides. It liberates lethal phosphine gas when it comes in contact either with atmospheric moisture or with hydrochloric acid in the stomach. The mechanism of toxicity includes cellular hypoxia due to the effect on mitochondria, inhibition of cytochrome C oxidase and formation of highly reactive hydroxyl radicals. The signs and symptoms are nonspecific and instantaneous. The toxicity of AlP particularly affects the cardiac and vascular tissues, which manifest as profound and refractory hypotension, congestive heart failure and electrocardiographic abnormalities. The diagnosis of AlP usually depends on clinical suspicion or history, but can be made easily by the simple silver nitrate test on gastric content or on breath. Due to no known specific antidote, management remains primarily supportive care. Early arrival, resuscitation, diagnosis, decrease the exposure of poison (by gastric lavage with KMnO4, coconut oil), intensive monitoring and supportive therapy may result in good outcome. Prompt and adequate cardiovascular support is important and core in the management to attain adequate tissue perfusion, oxygenation and physiologic metabolic milieu compatible with life until the tissue poison levels are reduced and spontaneous circulation is restored. In most of the studies, poor prognostic factors were presence of acidosis and shock. The overall outcome improved in the last decade due to better and advanced intensive care management. PMID:21887030

Gurjar, Mohan; Baronia, Arvind K; Azim, Afzal; Sharma, Kalpana

2011-01-01

156

Chronic arsenic poisoning.  

PubMed

Symptomatic arsenic poisoning is not often seen in occupational exposure settings. Attempted homicide and deliberate long-term poisoning have resulted in chronic toxicity. Skin pigmentation changes, palmar and plantar hyperkeratoses, gastrointestinal symptoms, anemia, and liver disease are common. Noncirrhotic portal hypertension with bleeding esophageal varices, splenomegaly, and hypersplenism may occur. A metallic taste, gastrointestinal disturbances, and Mee's lines may be seen. Bone marrow depression is common. 'Blackfoot disease' has been associated with arsenic-contaminated drinking water in Taiwan; Raynaud's phenomenon and acrocyanosis also may occur. Large numbers of persons in areas of India, Pakistan, and several other countries have been chronically poisoned from naturally occurring arsenic in ground water. Toxic delirium and encephalopathy can be present. CCA-treated wood (chromated copper arsenate) is not a health risk unless burned in fireplaces or woodstoves. Peripheral neuropathy may also occur. Workplace exposure or chronic ingestion of arsenic-contaminated water or arsenical medications is associated with development of skin, lung, and other cancers. Treatment may incklude the use of chelating agents such as dimercaprol (BAL), dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA), and dimercaptopanesulfonic acid (DMPS). PMID:11869818

Hall, Alan H

2002-03-10

157

PESTICIDE POISONINGS REPORTED BY FLORIDA CITRUS FIELDWORKERS  

EPA Science Inventory

In a 1981 survey of 1811 Florida citrus fieldworkers, 25 pesticide related poisoning incidents involving 29 fieldworkers were reported. Suspected poisonings were categorized into possible and confirmed poisonings, and from these reports it was possible to project an estimated 438...

158

[Seafood poisoning in Madagascar: current state of knowledge and results of a retrospective study of the inhabitants of coastal villages].  

PubMed

In 1996 and 1997, a knowledge, attitude and practice survey concerning seafood poisonings was conducted in 560 villages spread along the Madagascar coasts, gathering 585,000 people. 175 serious and 205 mild seafood poisonings after fish, shark and turtle meals occured during the period 1930 to 1996. Squales (mainly Sphyrnidae and Cacharinidae familiesi) are the most often responsible of serious poisoning (48% of episodes), then other fishes (37%), and mainly of the Clupeidae family (herrings, sardinels), then marine turtles (11%), with Eretmochelys imbricata and Chelonia mydas, and finally crabs (4%). Neurological symptoms are predominant in squale poisonings, neurological symptoms associated with gastrointestinal symptoms are present in 50% of all kind of seafood poisoning episods. Most of episods incame on the East Coast (mainly Toamasina and Antisiranana Region) and on the South-West Coast (Toliara Region). Mild seafood poisonings are spread along all the Coasts but central East Coast; fishes are the most often responsible (41% of episodes). Gastro-intestinal symptoms are the most conmon. More than 50% of t interviewed people knows about poisoning risks with some kind of marine animals, but less than 20% practice preventive measures such as giving a piece of fished animal to a domestic animal before eating. These results are used to plan a comprehensive epidemiological surveillance and control programme. PMID:10623871

Ribes, G C; Ramarokoto, S; Rabearintsoa, S; Robinson, R; Ranaivoson, G; Rakotonjanabelo, L A; Rabeson, D

1999-01-01

159

Poisonous snakebite in Utah.  

PubMed Central

A retrospective study was done of poisonous snakebite in Utah to determine the current epidemiology and scope of treatment, reviewing emergency department logs and other sources statewide for a 69-month period. Of 61 cases of poisonous snakebite identified, 13 occurred in snake hobbyists or venom laboratory personnel and were considered nonaccidental, and 48 were inflicted by native noncaptive snakes. These bites were considered accidental, and all were presumed to be from rattlesnakes. Nearly three fourths of the victims were male, ranging in age from 2 to 56 years (mean, 22 years). Most accidental bites occurred in areas of high human populations, during the summer months, in the afternoon or evening hours, and during recreational activities. Of the 48 bites, 11 (23%) were provoked. Two thirds of bites were on the upper extremities, and a third were on the lower extremities. More than half of the victims had no first-aid treatment recorded. Of those who did receive first aid, many were subjected to possibly harmful treatments, including tourniquets and ice application. The median time to a hospital was 68 minutes, with a range of 15 to 440 minutes. Swelling and discoloration were the most common signs and pain and paresthesia the most common symptoms. Half the bites resulted in minimal or no envenomation, 17 (35%) produced moderate envenomation, and 6 (12%) severe envenomation. Most patients with moderate or severe envenomation received antivenin, but the dosages given were usually less than recommended dosages. Five patients received surgical treatment based on clinical findings. One child died in a snake-handling incident. Long-term morbidity was unknown due to lack of follow-up. The Utah Poison Control Center was poorly utilized as a reporting and informational resource. Images Figure 1. PMID:8553638

Plowman, D M; Reynolds, T L; Joyce, S M

1995-01-01

160

Juniper tar poisoning.  

PubMed

Juniper tar (cade oil) is distilled from the branches and wood of Juniperus oxycedrus. It contains etheric oils, triterpene and phenols, and is used for many purposes in folk medicine. A case is reported of a previously healthy man who ingested a spoonful of home-made extract of Juniperus oxycedrus. The poisoning caused fever, severe hypotension, renal failure, hepatotoxicity, and severe cutaneous burns on the face. After supportive and symptomatic treatment, the patient improved and was discharged in a good condition on the eleventh day. PMID:15732446

Koruk, Suda Tekin; Ozyilkan, Esin; Kaya, Pinar; Colak, Dilsen; Donderici, Omer; Cesaretli, Yildirim

2005-01-01

161

Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning (PSP)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web page discusses Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning (PSP), a marine toxin disease with both gastrointestinal and neurologic symptoms reported worldwide. It is caused predominantly by the consumption of contaminated shellfish. Gonyaulacoid dinoflagellates are the source of PSP marine toxins. These unicellular dinoflagellates develop algal blooms throughout the world and produce at least 12 toxins which are tetrahydropurines, and heat and acid stable. Saxitoxin was the first characterized and the best understood. This page describes clinical presentation of PSP (including symptoms), diagnosis, management and treatment, the chemical structure of saxitoxin, molecular mechanism of action, and references.

2009-06-30

162

Molecular cloning of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5HT) type 1 receptor genes from the Japanese puffer fish, Fugu rubripes  

Microsoft Academic Search

To characterize the structure of Fugu G-protein coupled receptor family and its evolutionary divergence, we have cloned and sequenced the Fugu 5-HT type 1 receptor genes by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) with degenerate primers followed by phage library screening. The analysis of the deduced amino acid sequences showed that F1A? and F1A? have the highest homology to the human 5-HT1A

Fuminori Yamaguchi; Sydney Brenner

1997-01-01

163

Identifying Plant Poisoning in Livestock  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Poisonous plant intoxication is a common and often deadly problem that annually costs the livestock industry more than $340 million in the western United States alone. Despite the cost or frequency, definitively identifying or diagnosing poisoning by plants in livestock is challenging. The purpos...

164

Population Cycles of Poisonous Plants  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A poisonous plant is harmless until it is consumed. Once eaten the degree of damage depends on the amount of the plant consumed or more specifically the amount of toxin entering and absorbed by the body. Poisoning therefore, depends on two principal variables; the toxin level in the plant and the ...

165

Halogeton poisoning in range cattle.  

PubMed

Acute Halogeton glomeratus poisoning occurred in 16 of 680 range cattle during and following a trail drive. Signs of toxicosis included posterior ataxia, recumbency, coma, and death. Histopathologically, abundant, refractile calcium oxalate crystals were seen in renal tubules. Inasmuch as the plant is generally unpalatable for cattle, poisoning in this case was enhanced by a preceding period of food deprivation. PMID:7410153

Lincoln, S D; Black, B

1980-04-15

166

Acute poisonings with dipyridil herbicides.  

PubMed

Severe cases of poisoning with pesticides, especially suicidal ones, continue to be a diagnostic and therapeutic problem in Regional Toxicological Centre in Lublin. The present author describes the pathomechanism of poisonings with dipyridil herbicides basing on the literature on the subject. The present article presents our own observations of the treatment of acute poisonings with the above herbicides, the clinical course, and complications from various internal organs, outcome and prognosis in this type of poisoning cases in the Lublin macro-region basing on the comprehensive material gathered. Our observations confirm high toxicity of dipyridil, especially in the cases of suicidal poisoning with changes in many internal organs and often a lethal outcome. High mortality rate in these cases motivates for finding better prevention methods not only when they are produced and distributed but also when they are used on fields. PMID:9478105

Brzeski, Z

1997-01-01

167

Fatal aluminum phosphide poisoning.  

PubMed

A 39-year-old man committed suicide by ingestion of aluminum phosphide, a potent mole pesticide, which was available at the victim's workplace. The judicial authority ordered an autopsy, which ruled out any other cause of death. The victim was discovered 10 days after the ingestion of the pesticide. When aluminum phosphide comes into contact with humidity, it releases large quantities of hydrogen phosphine (PH3), a very toxic gas. Macroscopic examination during the autopsy revealed a very important asphyxia syndrome with major visceral congestion. Blood, urine, liver, kidney, adrenal, and heart samples were analyzed. Phosphine gas was absent in the blood and urine but present in the brain (94 mL/g), the liver (24 mL/g), and the kidneys (41 mL/g). High levels of phosphorus were found in the blood (76.3 mg/L) and liver (8.22 mg/g). Aluminum concentrations were very high in the blood (1.54 mg/L), brain (36 microg/g), and liver (75 microg/g) compared to the usual published values. Microscopic examination revealed congestion of all the organs studied and obvious asphyxia lesions in the pulmonary parenchyma. All these results confirmed a diagnosis of poisoning by aluminum phosphide. This report points out that this type of poisoning is rare and that hydrogen phosphine is very toxic. The phosphorus and aluminum concentrations observed and their distribution in the different viscera are discussed in relation to data in the literature. PMID:10732945

Anger, F; Paysant, F; Brousse, F; Le Normand, I; Develay, P; Gaillard, Y; Baert, A; Le Gueut, M A; Pepin, G; Anger, J P

2000-03-01

168

Cleistanthus collinus poisoning  

PubMed Central

Cleistanthus collinus, a toxic shrub, is used for deliberate self-harm in rural South India. MEDLINE (PUBMED) and Google were searched for published papers using the search/ MeSH terms “Cleistanthus collinus,” “Euphorbiaceae,” “Diphyllin,” “Cleistanthin A,” Cleistanthin B” and “Oduvanthalai.” Non-indexed journals and abstracts were searched by tracing citations in published papers. The toxic principles in the leaf include arylnaphthalene lignan lactones — Diphyllin and its glycoside derivatives Cleistanthin A and B. Toxin effect in animal models demonstrate neuromuscular blockade with muscle weakness, distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA) and type 2 respiratory failure with conflicting evidence of cardiac involvement. Studies suggest a likely inhibition of thiol/thiol enzymes by the lignan-lactones, depletion of glutathione and ATPases in tissues. V-type H+ ATPase inhibition in the renal tubule has been demonstrated. Mortality occurs in up to 40% of C. collinus poisonings. Human toxicity results in renal tubular dysfunction, commonly dRTA, with resultant hypokalemia and normal anion gap metabolic acidosis. Aggressive management of these metabolic derangements is crucial. Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is seen in severe cases. Cardiac rhythm abnormalities have been demonstrated in a number of clinical studies, though the role of temporary cardiac pacemakers in reducing mortality is uncertain. Consumption of decoctions of C. collinus leaves, hypokalemia, renal failure, severe metabolic acidosis, ARDS and cardiac arrhythmias occur in severe poisonings and predict mortality. Further study is essential to delineate mechanisms of organ injury and interventions, including antidotes, which will reduce mortality. PMID:22787347

Chrispal, Anugrah

2012-01-01

169

Effect of hydraulic loading rate on the efficiency of effluent treatment in a recirculating puffer aquaculture system coupled with constructed wetlands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Constructed wetlands (CWs) were integrated into an indoor recirculating aquaculture system of obscure puffer (Takifugu obscurus) for effluent treatment. The effect of hydraulic loading rate (HLR) on the efficiency of effluent treatment by CWs was examined for over a month. The CWs were operated under brackish conditions (salinity 7.4-7.6) at 3 different HLRs (0.762, 0.633, and 0.458 m d-1) 3 times, 10 days each. Overall, the CWs exhibited high efficiency in removal of total ammonium nitrogen (by 81.03-92.81%) and nitrite nitrogen (by 99.40%-99.68%). The efficiency of CWs in removal of total ammonium nitrogen, nitrate nitrogen, total Kjeldahl nitrogen, total phosphorous, and total suspended solids (TSS) increased with the decrease of HLR. The CWs operated at the 3 HLRs in a decreasing trend proves to be effective, providing a useful method for effluent treatment in commercial puffer aquaculture systems.

Xu, Jiabo; Shi, Yonghai; Zhang, Genyu; Liu, Jianzhong; Zhu, Yazhu

2013-11-01

170

Mechanical sensitivity of the facial nerve fibers innervating the anterior palate of the puffer, Fugu pardalis , and their central projection to the primary taste center  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1.Mechanical and chemical sensitivity of the palatine nerve, ramus palatinus facialis, innervating the anterior palate of the puffer,Fugu pardalis, and their central projection to the primary taste center were investigated.2.Application of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) to the central cut end of the palatine nerve resulted in retrogradely labeled neurons in the geniculate ganglion but no such neurons in the trigeminal

Sadao Kiyohara; Iwao Hidaka; Junzoh Kitoh; Satoru Yamashita

1985-01-01

171

Corrosive Poisonings in Adults  

PubMed Central

Ingestion of corrosive substances may cause severe to serious injuries of the upper gastrointestinal tract and the poisoning can even result in death. Acute corrosive intoxications pose a major problem in clinical toxicology since the most commonly affected population are the young with psychic disorders, suicidal intent and alcohol addiction. The golden standard for determination of the grade and extent of the lesion is esophagogastroduodenoscopy performed in the first 12-24 hours following corrosive ingestion. The most common late complications are esophageal stenosis, gastric stenosis of the antrum and pyloris, and rarely carcinoma of the upper gastrointestinal tract. Treatment of the acute corrosive intoxications include: neutralization of corrosive agents, antibiotics, anti-secretory therapy, nutritional support, collagen synthesis inhibitors, esophageal dilation and stent placement, and surgery. PMID:23678319

Chibishev, Andon; Pereska, Zanina; Chibisheva, Vesna; Simonovska, Natasa

2012-01-01

172

[Fatal paraquat poisoning].  

PubMed

Paraquat is a potent bipiridilium herbicide, largely used by farmers. Is very toxic in the concentrated liquid form supplied. When ingested, even a minimum quantity, can be letal. We present a case of a 69 years old man who intencionaly ingested 60 ml of paraquat and 20 ml of NaOH. Tow hours after the ingestion, the patient wes admited to the emergency service. He was treated with gastrointestinal lavage, activated charcoal, füller's hearth, catárticos, fluid and electrolytes, mannitol, dopamine and haemoperfusion. Despite therapy, the patient developed a multiple organic failure and died fiveteen hours after admission. Clinical course and therapeutical management are described of this deliberale self poisoning infrequently reported in Spain. PMID:8948818

Bajo Bajo, A; Sanz Ortega, F; Santos Perez, M E; Thomson Okatsu, K; Zapico Alvarez, N; Garcia Perez, A

1996-02-01

173

Nitrate and Prussic Acid Poisoning  

E-print Network

Nitrate and prussic acid poisoning in cattle are noninfectious conditions that can kill livestock. This publication explains the causes and symptoms of these conditions as well as preventive measures and sampling and testing steps....

Stichler, Charles; Reagor, John C.

2001-09-05

174

FTIR analysis of food poisons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Single and rapid analyses of chemical poisons or contaminants in different food matrices are explored. Various FT-IR accessories are utilized and compared for the detection sensitivity. Detection enhancements by combining with chromatographic techniques are investigated.

Yasui, Sritana C.

1992-03-01

175

[Hyperbaric oxygen treatment of poisoning.  

PubMed

Experiments have suggested reduction of neurological sequelae from carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning by treatment with hyper-baric oxygen (HBO). Randomised clinical trials have, however, been ambiguous. The discrepancy may be explained by timing of HBO relative to exposure. For other asphyxiants data are too sparse for a qualified judgement. Until more evidence is avail-able, we suggest that HBO is used exclusively for moderate an d severe CO poisoning within a time window of 12 hours. PMID:25292230

Jacobsen, Peter; Carlsen, Rasmus; Ebbehøj, Niels Erik

2014-07-21

176

Expansion of methylmercury poisoning outside of Minamata: An epidemiological study on chronic methylmercury poisoning outside of Minamata  

SciTech Connect

The first methylmercury poisoning by consumption of fish arose in Minamata, Japan, in 1953. Methylmercury dispersed from Minamata to the to the Shiranui Sea until 1968. Mercury concentration in the hair of residents on the coast of the Shiranui Sea was 10 to 20 times higher than in nonpolluted people in Kumamoto Prefecture in 1960. People on the coast of the Shiranui Sea have consumed fish containing low-dose methylmercury without a ban over decades until 1968. We studied the effect of long-term consumption of methylmercury on those people 10 years later after the end of methylmercury dispersion. Our epidemiological study clarified that people in a fishing village (Ooura) on the coast of the Shiranui Sea showed a significantly higher frequency of neurological signs characteristics of methylmercury poisoning (hypoesthesia, ataxia, impairment of hearing, visual change, and dysarthria) in comparison with people in a nonpolluted fishing village (Ichiburi). The neurological disorders were still detected 10 years later in Ooura after the end of methylmercury dispersion from Minamata: hypoesthesia showed the highest frequency in Ooura. These results suggest that people on the coast of the Shiranui Sea were affected by long-term dietary exposure to methylmercury. 14 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

Ninomiya, Tadashi [Yoron Hospital, Kagoshima (Japan)] [Yoron Hospital, Kagoshima (Japan); Ohmori, Hiroyuki; Hashimoto, Kiyomi [Kumamoto Univ. Medical School (Japan)] [and others] [Kumamoto Univ. Medical School (Japan); and others

1995-07-01

177

Tetrodotoxin Blockage of Sodium Conductance Increase in Lobster Giant Axons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies suggested that tetrodotoxin, a poison from the puffer fish, blocks conduction of nerve and muscle through its rather selective inhibition of the sodium-carrying mechanism. In order to verify this hypothesis, observations have been made of sodium and potassium currents in the lobster giant axons treated with tetrodotoxin by means of the sucrose-gap voltage- clamp technique. Tetrodotoxin at concentrations

TOSHIO NARAHASHI; JOHN W. MOORE; WILLIAM R. SCOTT

1964-01-01

178

Antineoplastic Components of Marine Animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

REFERENCES to the biological properties of marine organisms date back to antiquity1. For example, hieroglyphics on the tomb of the Egyptian Pharaoh Ti (approximately 2700 BC) described the poisonous puffer fish Tetraodon stellatus. Perhaps the earliest recorded use of a marine organism in primitive medical practice occurred when the Roman, Plinius Secundus (AD 29-79), recommended that the sting unit of

George R. Pettit; John F. Day

1970-01-01

179

Neurotoxic shellfish poisoning.  

PubMed

Neurotoxic shellfish poisoning (NSP) is caused by consumption of molluscan shellfish contaminated with brevetoxins primarily produced by the dinoflagellate, Karenia brevis. Blooms of K. brevis, called Florida red tide, occur frequently along the Gulf of Mexico. Many shellfish beds in the US (and other nations) are routinely monitored for presence of K. brevis and other brevetoxin-producing organisms. As a result, few NSP cases are reported annually from the US. However, infrequent larger outbreaks do occur. Cases are usually associated with recreationally-harvested shellfish collected during or post red tide blooms. Brevetoxins are neurotoxins which activate voltage-sensitive sodium channels causing sodium influx and nerve membrane depolarization. No fatalities have been reported, but hospitalizations occur. NSP involves a cluster of gastrointestinal and neurological symptoms: nausea and vomiting, paresthesias of the mouth, lips and tongue as well as distal paresthesias, ataxia, slurred speech and dizziness. Neurological symptoms can progress to partial paralysis; respiratory distress has been recorded. Recent research has implicated new species of harmful algal bloom organisms which produce brevetoxins, identified additional marine species which accumulate brevetoxins, and has provided additional information on the toxicity and analysis of brevetoxins. A review of the known epidemiology and recommendations for improved NSP prevention are presented. PMID:19005578

Watkins, Sharon M; Reich, Andrew; Fleming, Lora E; Hammond, Roberta

2008-01-01

180

Neurotoxic Shellfish Poisoning  

PubMed Central

Neurotoxic shellfish poisoning (NSP) is caused by consumption of molluscan shellfish contaminated with brevetoxins primarily produced by the dinoflagellate, Karenia brevis. Blooms of K. brevis, called Florida red tide, occur frequently along the Gulf of Mexico. Many shellfish beds in the US (and other nations) are routinely monitored for presence of K. brevis and other brevetoxin-producing organisms. As a result, few NSP cases are reported annually from the US. However, infrequent larger outbreaks do occur. Cases are usually associated with recreationally-harvested shellfish collected during or post red tide blooms. Brevetoxins are neurotoxins which activate voltage-sensitive sodium channels causing sodium influx and nerve membrane depolarization. No fatalities have been reported, but hospitalizations occur. NSP involves a cluster of gastrointestinal and neurological symptoms: nausea and vomiting, paresthesias of the mouth, lips and tongue as well as distal paresthesias, ataxia, slurred speech and dizziness. Neurological symptoms can progress to partial paralysis; respiratory distress has been recorded. Recent research has implicated new species of harmful algal bloom organisms which produce brevetoxins, identified additional marine species which accumulate brevetoxins, and has provided additional information on the toxicity and analysis of brevetoxins. A review of the known epidemiology and recommendations for improved NSP prevention are presented. PMID:19005578

Watkins, Sharon M.; Reich, Andrew; Fleming, Lora E.; Hammond, Roberta

2008-01-01

181

Sabatier Catalyst Poisoning Investigation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Carbon Dioxide Reduction Assembly (CRA) on the International Space Station (ISS) has been operational since 2010. The CRA uses a Sabatier reactor to produce water and methane by reaction of the metabolic CO2 scrubbed from the cabin air and the hydrogen byproduct from the water electrolysis system used for metabolic oxygen generation. Incorporating the CRA into the overall air revitalization system has facilitated life support system loop closure on the ISS reducing resupply logistics and thereby enhancing longer term missions. The CRA utilizes CO2 which has been adsorbed in a 5A molecular sieve within the Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly, CDRA. There is a potential of compounds with molecular dimensions similar to, or less than CO2 to also be adsorbed. In this fashion trace contaminants may be concentrated within the CDRA and subsequently desorbed with the CO2 to the CRA. Currently, there is no provision to remove contaminants prior to entering the Sabatier catalyst bed. The risk associated with this is potential catalyst degradation due to trace organic contaminants in the CRA carbon dioxide feed acting as catalyst poisons. To better understand this risk, United Technologies Aerospace System (UTAS) has teamed with MSFC to investigate the impact of various trace contaminants on the CRA catalyst performance at relative ISS cabin air concentrations and at about 200/400 times of ISS concentrations, representative of the potential concentrating effect of the CDRA molecular sieve. This paper summarizes our initial assessment results.

Nallette, Tim; Perry, Jay; Abney, Morgan; Knox, Jim; Goldblatt, Loel

2013-01-01

182

FISH SPERMATOLOGY FISH SPERMATOLOGY  

E-print Network

FISH SPERMATOLOGY #12;FISH SPERMATOLOGY Alpha Science International Ltd. Oxford, U.K. = Editors Research Institute of Fish Culture and Hydrobiology, University of South Bohemia, Vodnany, Czech Republic of the publisher. ISBN 978-1-84265-369-2 Printed in India #12;Fish Spermatology is dedicated to Professor Roland

Villefranche sur mer

183

Clinical marine toxicology: a European perspective for clinical toxicologists and poison centers.  

PubMed

Clinical marine toxicology is a rapidly changing area. Many of the new discoveries reported every year in Europe involve ecological disturbances--including global warming--that have induced modifications in the chorology, behavior, and toxicity of many species of venomous or poisonous aquatic life including algae, ascidians, fish and shellfish. These changes have raised a number of public issues associated, e.g., poisoning after ingestion of contaminated seafood, envenomation by fish stings, and exposure to harmful microorganism blooms. The purpose of this review of medical and scientific literature in marine toxicology is to highlight the growing challenges induced by ecological disturbances that confront clinical toxicologists during the everyday job in the European Poison Centers. PMID:23917333

Schmitt, Corinne; De Haro, Luc

2013-08-01

184

Clinical Marine Toxicology: A European Perspective for Clinical Toxicologists and Poison Centers  

PubMed Central

Clinical marine toxicology is a rapidly changing area. Many of the new discoveries reported every year in Europe involve ecological disturbances—including global warming—that have induced modifications in the chorology, behavior, and toxicity of many species of venomous or poisonous aquatic life including algae, ascidians, fish and shellfish. These changes have raised a number of public issues associated, e.g., poisoning after ingestion of contaminated seafood, envenomation by fish stings, and exposure to harmful microorganism blooms. The purpose of this review of medical and scientific literature in marine toxicology is to highlight the growing challenges induced by ecological disturbances that confront clinical toxicologists during the everyday job in the European Poison Centers. PMID:23917333

Schmitt, Corinne; de Haro, Luc

2013-01-01

185

16 CFR 1700.15 - Poison prevention packaging standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Poison prevention packaging standards. 1700.15 Section 1700...PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION POISON PREVENTION PACKAGING ACT OF 1970 REGULATIONS POISON PREVENTION PACKAGING § 1700.15 Poison prevention...

2013-01-01

186

16 CFR 1700.15 - Poison prevention packaging standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 false Poison prevention packaging standards. 1700.15 Section 1700...PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION POISON PREVENTION PACKAGING ACT OF 1970 REGULATIONS POISON PREVENTION PACKAGING § 1700.15 Poison prevention...

2014-01-01

187

Phycotoxins: chemistry, mechanisms of action and shellfish poisoning.  

PubMed

Phycotoxins are natural metabolites produced by micro-algae. Through accumulation in the food chain, these toxins may concentrate in different marine organisms, including filter-feeding bivalves, burrowing and grazing organisms, herbivorous and predatory fish. Human poisoning due to ingestion of seafood contaminated by phycotoxins has occurred in the past, and harmful algal blooms (HABs) are naturally occurring events. Still, we are witnessing a global increase in HABs and seafood contaminations, whose causative factors are only partially understood. Phycotoxins are small to medium-sized natural products and belong to many different groups of chemical compounds. The molecular mass ranges from approximately 300 to over 3000 Da, and the compound classes represented include amino acids, alkaloids and polyketides. Each compound group typically has several main compounds based on the same or similar structure. However, most groups also have several analogues, which are either produced by the algae or through metabolism in fish or shellfish or other marine organisms. The different phycotoxins have distinct molecular mechanisms of action. Saxitoxins, ciguatoxins, brevetoxins, gambierol, palytoxins, domoic acid, and, perhaps, cyclic imines, alter different ion channels and/or pumps at the level of the cell membrane. The normal functioning of neuronal and other excitable tissues is primarily perturbed by these mechanisms, leading to adverse effects in humans. Okadaic acid and related compounds inhibit serine/threonine phosphoprotein phosphatases, and disrupt major mechanisms controlling cellular functions. Pectenotoxins bind to actin filaments, and alter cellular cytoskeleton. The precise mechanisms of action of yessotoxins and azaspiracids, in turn, are still undetermined. The route of human exposure to phycotoxins is usually oral, although living systems may become exposed to phycotoxins through other routes. Based on recorded symptoms, the major poisonings recognized so far include paralytic, neurotoxic, amnesic, diarrheic shellfish poisonings, ciguatera, as well as palytoxin and azaspiracid poisonings. PMID:20358682

Rossini, Gian Paolo; Hess, Philipp

2010-01-01

188

"Suicide" as Seen in Poison Control Centers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Data on age and sex characteristics, intent and diagnosis of suicide, and toxicology are presented for 1,103 cases of poisoning (children ages 6-18 years) admitted to 50 poison control centers during 1 year. (KW)

McIntire, Matilda S.; Angle, Carol R.

1971-01-01

189

CDC Vital Signs: Alcohol Poisoning Deaths  

MedlinePLUS

... page: About CDC.gov . Vital Signs Share Compartir Alcohol Poisoning Deaths A deadly consequence of binge drinking ... drinking. Issue Details Problem There are 2,200 alcohol poisoning deaths in the US each year. Alcohol ...

190

Mescalbean (Sophora secundiflora) Poisonous for Livestock.  

E-print Network

. secundiflona leaf poisoning. It is interesting to note that the writers have also found a decided increase in the inorganic phos- phorus in the blood serum of sheep suffering from bitterweed, Actinea odorata, poisoning. The serum calcium in all cases...

Boughton, I. B. (Ivan Bertrand); Hardy, W. T. (William Tyree)

1935-01-01

191

Diurnal and circadian oscillations in expression of kisspeptin, kisspeptin receptor and gonadotrophin-releasing hormone 2 genes in the grass puffer, a semilunar-synchronised spawner.  

PubMed

In seasonally breeding animals, the circadian and photoperiodic regulation of neuroendocrine system is important for precisely-timed reproduction. Kisspeptin, encoded by the Kiss1 gene, acts as a principal positive regulator of the reproductive axis by stimulating gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurone activity in vertebrates. However, the precise mechanisms underlying the cyclic regulation of the kisspeptin neuroendocrine system remain largely unknown. The grass puffer, Takifugu niphobles, exhibits a unique spawning rhythm: spawning occurs 1.5-2 h before high tide on the day of spring tide every 2 weeks, and the spawning rhythm is connected to circadian and lunar-/tide-related clock mechanisms. The grass puffer has only one kisspeptin gene (kiss2), which is expressed in a single neural population in the preoptic area (POA), and has one kisspeptin receptor gene (kiss2r), which is expressed in the POA and the nucleus dorsomedialis thalami. Both kiss2 and kiss2r show diurnal variations in expression levels, with a peak at Zeitgeber time (ZT) 6 (middle of day time) under the light/dark conditions. They also show circadian expression with a peak at circadian time 15 (beginning of subjective night-time) under constant darkness. The synchronous and diurnal oscillations of kiss2 and kiss2r expression suggest that the action of Kiss2 in the diencephalon is highly dependent on time. Moreover, midbrain GnRH2 gene (gnrh2) but not GnRH1 or GnRH3 genes show a unique semidiurnal oscillation with two peaks at ZT6 and ZT18 within a day. The cyclic expression of kiss2, kiss2r and gnrh2 may be important in the control of the precisely-timed diurnal and semilunar spawning rhythm of the grass puffer, possibly through the circadian clock and melatonin, which may transmit the photoperiodic information of daylight and moonlight to the reproductive neuroendocrine centre in the hypothalamus. PMID:24824153

Ando, H; Ogawa, S; Shahjahan, Md; Ikegami, T; Doi, H; Hattori, A; Parhar, I

2014-07-01

192

A Model Poison Control System  

PubMed Central

Responding to the need for a poison information, education, data collection and research resource in California's Bay Area and North Coast counties, the San Francisco Bay Area Regional Poison Control Center has become an integral part of the region's emergency medical services. In the first 33 months after it opened, more than 54,000 calls for assistance were received, nearly a third from medical professionals. Through the cooperation and collaboration of public, private and university resources and interests, a cost-effective, comprehensive and accessible system has evolved for public and professional use. Through our experience a system has developed that can serve as a model for poison information services throughout the western states. Emerging public concern for toxicology issues will continue to refine this model. PMID:7179955

Tong, Theodore G.; Becker, Charles E.; Foliart, Donna; Morse, Linda

1982-01-01

193

[Phosphine poisoning in healthcare workers].  

PubMed

Phosphine gas constitutes a potential and serious little-known cause of poisoning of professional nature of the medical staff and nursing care of patients who voluntarily swallow phosphides rodenticides purposes suicide. The objective of this paper is to inform to healthcare workers from urgencies, forensic and occupational health services on this occupational hazard. We present the case of a nurse who suffered from poisoning by gas phosphine confirmed through an environmental monitoring of gases in an emergency department carried out by the government service of civil protection of the State of Jalisco. PMID:21894233

Arredondo Trujillo, Francisco; Hurtado Pérez, Martha Patricia; Castañeda Borrayo, Yaocihuatl

2011-01-01

194

Lead Poisoning in Rural Scotland  

PubMed Central

Nine people from four families living in rural parts of Scotland have been found to suffer from clinical or biochemical effects of lead poisoning. Five had symptoms and four had unequivocal evidence of excessive lead exposure. The source of lead has been traced to the domestic water supply which in all cases was grossly contaminated with lead acquired from lead plumbing systems, including lead storage tanks. Clinical improvement followed the replacement of lead piping in two families studied. Lead poisoning is a possible cause of chronic ill health in areas of plumbosolvent water. PMID:5031206

Beattie, A. D.; Dagg, J. H.; Goldberg, A.; Wang, I.; Ronald, J.

1972-01-01

195

Pleural effusion in aluminum phosphide poisoning  

PubMed Central

Aluminium phosphide (ALP) is a common agrochemical pesticide poisoning with high mortality rate. Primary manifestations are due to myocardial and gastrointestinal involvement. Pleural effusion in ALP poisoning is occasionally reported. We report a case of pleural effusion that developed after ALP ingestion and resolved along with recovery from poisoning. PMID:23243353

Garg, Kranti; Mohapatra, Prasanta R.; Sodhi, Mandeep K.; Janmeja, Ashok K.

2012-01-01

196

Plants Poisonous to Your Horse - Part I  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Horses are relatively selective grazers and generally are poisoned less frequently than other livestock. However there are exceptions. Some poisonous plants are palatable to horses and exposed horses readily eat them. Most equine poisonings occur as result to toxic plants contaminating feeds. Mo...

197

Lead Poisoning: A Need for Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Each year approximately 200 children die of lead poisoning. Especially vulnerable to the toxic effects of lead poisoning are the nervous system, kidneys, and the bones. Physiological effects of lead on the school-age child, screening processes, and roles of school personnel in dealing with suspected victims of lead poisoning are discussed. (JN)

Lipnickey, Susan Cross

1981-01-01

198

Modern strategies in therapy of organophosphate poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Considering the various microscopic reactions as well as toxicokinetic and pharmacokinetic principles in therapy of organophosphate poisoning, the administration of obidoxime by an initial bolus dose followed by continuous infusion appears rational. Using this protocol, six patients each with parathion or oxydemeton methyl poisoning were treated. In parathion poisoning, reactivation was possible up to 7 days. At paraoxon concentrations >0.1

H. Thiermann; L. Szinicz; F. Eyer; F. Worek; P. Eyer; N. Felgenhauer; T. Zilker

1999-01-01

199

Echocardiographic findings after acute carbon monoxide poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Myocardial lesions are frequently seen at necropsy after fatal carbon monoxide poisoning. Clinically, while there have been numerous reports of chest pain and electrocardiographic changes associated with acute carbon monoxide poisoning, other evidence for left ventricular abnormality has not been reported. The echocardiographic findings in five cases of non-fatal poisoning are presented here. Abnormal left ventricular wall motion was shown

B C Corya; M J Black; P L McHenry

1976-01-01

200

Carbon monoxide poisoning: a review for clinicians  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning continues to be a significant health problem both in the United States and in many other countries. CO poisoning is associated with a high incidence of severe morbidity and mortality. Epidemics of CO poisoning commonly occur during winter months and sources include: smoke from fires, fumes from heating systems burning fuels, and exhaust fumes from motor

Joseph Varon; Paul E. Marik; Robert E. Fromm Jr; Alfredo Gueler

1999-01-01

201

Handbook of Common Poisonings in Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This handbook for physicians, emergency room personnel and pharmacists lists the manufacturer, description, toxicity, symptoms and findings, treatment, and references for 73 poison substances considered by the Subcommittee on Accidental Poisoning of the American Academy of Pediatrics to be most significant in terms of accidental poisoning of…

Food and Drug Administration (DHEW), Washington, DC.

202

AID from bony fish catalyzes class switch recombination  

PubMed Central

Class switch recombination was the last of the lymphocyte-specific DNA modification reactions to appear in the evolution of the adaptive immune system. It is absent in cartilaginous and bony fish, and it is common to all tetrapods. Class switching is initiated by activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID), an enzyme expressed in cartilaginous and bony fish that is also required for somatic hypermutation. Fish AID differs from orthologs found in tetrapods in several respects, including its catalytic domain and carboxy-terminal region, both of which are essential for the switching reaction. To determine whether evolution of class switch recombination required alterations in AID, we assayed AID from Japanese puffer and zebra fish for class-switching activity in mouse B cells. We find that fish AID catalyzes class switch recombination in mammalian B cells. Thus, AID had the potential to catalyze this reaction before the teleost and tetrapod lineages diverged, suggesting that the later appearance of a class-switching reaction was dependent on the evolution of switch regions and multiple constant regions in the IgH locus. PMID:16157688

Barreto, Vasco M.; Pan-Hammarstrom, Qiang; Zhao, Yaofeng; Hammarstrom, Lennart; Misulovin, Ziva; Nussenzweig, Michel C.

2005-01-01

203

[KAP study (knowledge-attitude-practice) on seafood poisoning on the southwest coast of Madagascar].  

PubMed

In June and July 1996, a knowledge, attitude and practice survey concerning seafood poisonings was conducted in Tuléar Province, 41 villages spread along 300 km of cost, with some 34,000 inhabitants, were included in the survey. 84 seafood poisonings after fish, shark and turtle meals occurred during the period 1931 to 1995; 14 of them were responsible of deaths. The family of toxic fishes are Clupeidae, Tetraodontidae, Scaridae and Siganidae. Sphyrna lewini is the shark species the most often responsible for poisonings. Three turtle species are involved in poisonings: Eretmochelys imbricata, Chelonia mydas and Dermochelys coriacea. Clinical patterns were related to marine toxins. Although the communities were aware of the risks, there was no change in seafood meal practice. Preventive measures are not very often used. Practical techniques to detect toxins, although very simple, are not systematically carried out. For a better understanding of the seafood poisoning risk in Madagascar, a retrospective survey in the villages located in coastal areas all around Madagascar was to be carried out in 1997. An eco-toxicological survey will likewise probably be organised in an Indian Ocean regional approach. PMID:10214522

Robinson, R; Champetier de Ribes, G; Ranaivoson, G; Rejely, M; Rabeson, D

1999-02-01

204

Paraquat poisoning - management and prognosis.  

PubMed

Paraquat poisoning has become a significant clinical problem since the early 1960s. Its high mortality has posed a major challenge to clinicians treating these patients. Two patients who survived and one who did not are reported. The management of these patients and the possible factors affecting their outcome are discussed. PMID:7332290

Lee, E J; Pang, M; Woo, K T

1981-04-01

205

Biogenic amines in fish, fish products and shellfish: a review.  

PubMed

Fish, cephalopods and shellfish provide a healthy source of high-quality proteins, essential vitamins, minerals and polyunsaturated fatty acids. The beneficial effects of fish consumption on human health such as protection against coronary heart disease and certain cancer may be offset by fish decomposition and the formation of chemical contaminants such as biogenic amines. There are several toxicological effects of biogenic amines on humans, especially histamine. It is the causative agent of histamine or scombroid fish poisoning which is a significant public health problem. In individuals with diminished histamine detoxification, ingestion of even a low or moderate histamine- or tyramine-containing fish may lead to food intolerance. Biogenic amines such as putrescine, tyramine and cadaverine can potentiate histamine toxicity. Furthermore, dietary polyamine intake should be minimised in some cancer patients. Besides their potential toxicity, biogenic amines are used for the evaluation of hygienic quality of different marine and freshwater species. Spoilage pattern and biogenic amine formation are species specific. Histamine has been traditionally used as an indicator of the quality of histidine-rich fish (dark-muscle fish). On the other hand, putrescine and cadaverine are the most objective indicators of quality of histidine-poor fish (white-muscle fish), shellfish and fermented seafood products. PMID:21834642

Prester, Ljerka

2011-11-01

206

Presentation of a general algorithm to include effect assessment on secondary poisoning in the derivation of environmental quality criteria. Part 1. Aquatic food chains  

SciTech Connect

Effect assessment on secondary poisoning can be an asset to effect assessments on direct poisoning in setting quality criteria for the environment. This study presents an algorithm for effect assessment on secondary poisoning. The water-fish-fish-eating bird or mammal pathway was analyzed as an example of a secondary poisoning pathway. Parameters used in this algorithm are the bioconcentration factor for fish (BCF) and the no-observed-effect concentration for the group of fish-eating birds and mammals (NOECfish-eater). For the derivation of reliable BCFs preference is given to the use of experimentally derived BCFs over QSAR estimates. NOECs for fish eaters are derived by extrapolating toxicity data on single species. Because data on fish-eating species are seldom available, toxicity data on all birds and mammalian species were used. The proposed algorithm (MAR = NOECfish-eater/BCF) was used to calculate MARS (maximum acceptable risk levels) for the compounds lindane, dieldrin, cadmium, mercury, PCB153, and PCB118. By subsequently, comparing these MARs to MARs derived by effect assessment for aquatic organisms, it was concluded that for methyl mercury and PCB153 secondary poisoning of fish-eating birds and mammals could be a critical pathway. For these compounds, effects on populations of fish-eating birds and mammals can occur at levels in surface water below the MAR calculated for aquatic ecosystems. Secondary poisoning of fish-eating birds and mammals is not likely to occur for cadmium at levels in water below the MAR calculated for aquatic ecosystems.

Romijn, C.A.; Luttik, R.; van de Meent, D.; Slooff, W.; Canton, J.H. (National Institute of Public Health and Environmental Protection (RIVM), Bilthoven (Netherlands))

1993-08-01

207

Neorickettsia helminthoeca and salmon poisoning disease: a review.  

PubMed

Neorickettsia helminthoeca is an obligate intra-cytoplasmic bacterium that causes salmon poisoning disease (SPD), an acute, febrile, fatal disease of dogs. The complex life-cycle of this pathogen involves stages in an intestinal fluke (Nanophyetus salmincola), a river snail (Oxytrema silicula), in fish, and in fish-eating mammals. This complexity has created confusion with respect to the various bacterial and parasitic infections associated with the disease and its significance in dogs in specific geographical locations has likely to have previously been under-estimated. This paper addresses the history, taxonomy, microbiology of N. helminthoeca and summarises the pathogenesis, clinical signs and pathological features associated with infection. Furthermore, the biological cycles, treatment, control, and both public and veterinary health impacts associated with this pathogen and the intestinal fluke N. salmincola are discussed. PMID:20044285

Headley, Selwyn Arlington; Scorpio, Diana G; Vidotto, Odilon; Dumler, J Stephen

2011-02-01

208

Cardiovascular Abnormalities in Carbon Monoxide Poisoning.  

PubMed

Acute carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is the most common cause of poisoning and poisoning-related death in the United States. It manifests as broad spectrum of symptoms ranging from mild headache, nausea, and fatigue to dizziness, syncope, coma, seizures resulting in cardiovascular collapse, respiratory failure, and death. Cardiovascular complications of CO poisoning has been well reported and include myocardial stunning, left ventricular dysfunction, pulmonary edema, and arrhythmias. Acute myocardial ischemia has also been reported from increased thrombogenicity due to CO poisoning. Myocardial toxicity from CO exposure is associated with increased short-term and long-term mortality. Carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) levels do not correlate well with the clinical severity of CO poisoning. Supplemental oxygen remains the cornerstone of therapy for CO poisoning. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy increases CO elimination and has been used with wide variability in patients with evidence of neurological and myocardial injury from CO poisoning, but its benefit in limiting or reversing cardiac injury is unknown. We present a comprehensive review of literature on cardiovascular manifestations of CO poisoning and propose a diagnostic algorithm for managing patients with CO poisoning. PMID:24518173

Garg, Jalaj; Krishnamoorthy, Parasuram; Palaniswamy, Chandrasekar; Khera, Sahil; Ahmad, Hasan; Jain, Diwakar; Aronow, Wilbert S; Frishman, William H

2014-02-10

209

Brodifacoum poisoning with toxicokinetic data.  

PubMed

The case of a 46-year-old woman who survived after a brodifacoum poisoning is presented. The patient was admitted due to a severe coagulopathy. Initial prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time were both greater than 110 seconds and the patient suffered severe gastric and pulmonary hemorrhage requiring fresh frozen plasma transfusion and parenteral phytonadione administration (up to 100 mg per day). Serum brodifacoum levels were determined by HPLC during seven months. Five days after admission, serum brodifacoum level was 1302 ng/ml. Serum brodifacoum levels decreased till day 209 when became not detectable. Brodifacoum elimination showed a first order kinetic and a 56-day half-life. Investigation of superwarfarin should be considered in any patient with vitamin K dependent coagulation disorder. It would be also useful to obtain periodic brodifacoum levels and build the corresponding elimination curve to help direct phytonadione therapy in poisoned patients. PMID:17503253

Olmos, Valentina; López, Clara Magdalena

2007-01-01

210

Lead poisoning in sandhill cranes.  

PubMed

Seven Florida sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis pratensis) and 6 greater sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis tabida) were exposed to lead-base paint containing 27% lead. One bird of each subspecies died enroute to the hospital, with a clinical history of anorexia, weakness, and open-mouth breathing of 36 hours' duration. There were no gross lesions, and microscopic lesions were limited to focal hepatic necrosis and hemosiderosis. Two of each subspecies of cranes developed clinical signs of lead poisoning, which included anorexia, weakness, green diarrhea, regurgitation, and open-mouth breathing. Diagnosis of lead poisoning was confirmed on the basis of blood lead concentrations ranging from 146 microgram/100 ml to 378 microgram/100 ml. These 4 cranes were treated successfully with calcium disodium edetate intramuscularly. Seven of the birds remained clinically normal despite high blood lead levels, especially in the greater sandhill cranes. PMID:411773

Kennedy, S; Crisler, J P; Smith, E; Bush, M

1977-11-01

211

Hybanthus calceolaria poisoning in cattle.  

PubMed

Hybanthus calceolaria, also known as "papaconha" or "ipepacuanha," is a herbaceous plant found in northeastern Brazil, which is often implicated by farmers as the cause of neurological signs in livestock grazing. Several poisoning outbreaks associated with the ingestion of this plant were observed in cattle in the municipalities of Colônia de Gurguéia in the state of Piauí and Sirinhaém in the state of Pernambuco, Brazil. The main clinical signs were ataxia, recumbency, and myokymia. No significant lesions were observed during necropsy or on histological examination. The disease was experimentally reproduced by the administration of 2 daily doses of 40 g/kg/body weight of the fresh green plant containing fruits. The plants without fruits were nontoxic, which is in accordance with the farmers' information, as it was stated that the poisoning only occurs when the plant is fruiting. PMID:25085870

Carvalho, Fabricio K L; Nascimento, Eduardo M; Rocha, Brena P; Mendonça, Fábio S; Veschi, Josir L A; Silva, Silvana M M S; Medeiros, Rosane M T; Riet-Correa, Franklin

2014-09-01

212

Strychnine poisoning of aquatic birds.  

PubMed

Strychnine poisoning was diagnosed in free-flying mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) and a ring-billed gull (Larus delawarensis) found dead on a pond in a zoo. The probable source of toxin was improperly applied strychnine-treated grain used for control of rodents on adjacent farm land. Ingesta of the birds contained 19.7-85.1 mg/kg of strychnine. PMID:3586216

Wobeser, G; Blakley, B R

1987-04-01

213

Parkinsonism after Carbon Monoxide Poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Of 242 patients with carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning examined between 1986 and 1996, parkinsonism was diagnosed in 23 (9.5%). There were 11 men and 12 women. The age at onset ranged from 16 to 69 (mean 45.8) years, with the peak incidence during the 6th decade. The latency before the appearance of parkinsonism varied from 2 to 26 (median 4)

Il Saing Choi

2002-01-01

214

Congenital PCB poisoning: a reevaluation  

SciTech Connect

A review of the literature reveals a need to clarify the pathologic physiology of congenital polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) poisoning, which is characterized by intrauterine growth retardation, brown staining of the skin and mucous membranes as in Addison's disease, natal teeth, widely open fontanelles and sagittal suture and apparent overgrowth of the gingiva. The skull abnormalities may represent irregular calcification, with natal teeth appearing because the bone of the mandible is penetrated more easily than usual. Some fetuses were poisoned at the time the mothers ingested the oil; others were affected in the subsequent years from residual contamination in the mothers' bodies. The misadventure in Japan was repeated in Taiwan in 1979. The seven congenital cases in Taiwan reported thus far seem to differ from those in Japan. In Taiwan the noses were somewhat black, two of the infants did not have low birth weight and the osseous abnormalities of the skull and gingival hyperplasia were not observed. Systematic followup studies should be made in Taiwan of the children born within 2 years of maternal poisoning with PCBs. Special attention should be given to age at first dentition and skull-X-rays for spotty calcification, among other measures of physical, neurologic and intellectual development.

Miller, R.W.

1985-05-01

215

Acute fatal poisoning with Tolfenpyrad.  

PubMed

The authors present a fatal case of poisoning with Tolfenpyrad (TFP), a pesticide first approved in Japan in 2002. A man in his fifties was found dead in the supine position at his son's home and the small towel with a smell of naphthalene was found nearby. Forensic autopsy was unremarkable, except for a very small amount of light pink fluid in the stomach, with naphthalene odour. The toxicological analyses revealed the presence of TFP and its major metabolite PTCA (4-[4-[(4-chloro-3-ethyl-1-methylpyrazol-5-yl)carbonylaminomethyl]phenoxy]benzoic acid), together with naphthalene and methyl naphthalenes in the post-mortem sample, with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) respectively. The plasma concentrations of each substance were quantified as 1.97 ?g/ml (TFP), 2.88 ?g/ml (PTCA), 1.70 ?g/ml (naphthalene), 0.67 ?g/ml (1-methyl naphthalene) and 1.44 ?g/ml (2-methyl naphthalene). According to these results together with autopsy findings, the cause of his death was determined to be acute Tolfenpyrad poisoning. This is the first case report of fatal poisoning attributable to an intake of TFP product. PMID:24237799

Hikiji, Wakako; Yamaguchi, Koji; Saka, Kanju; Hayashida, Makiko; Ohno, Youkichi; Fukunaga, Tatsushige

2013-11-01

216

77 FR 16645 - National Poison Prevention Week, 2012  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Proclamation 8784--National Poison Prevention Week, 2012 Memorandum of March 16, 2012...March 16, 2012 National Poison Prevention Week, 2012 By the President of the United States...anniversary of National Poison Prevention Week, I encourage all Americans to help...

2012-03-21

217

76 FR 16521 - National Poison Prevention Week, 2011  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Proclamation 8638--National Poison Prevention Week, 2011 Presidential Documents Federal Register...March 18, 2011 National Poison Prevention Week, 2011 By the President of the United States...preventable. During National Poison Prevention Week, I encourage all Americans to...

2011-03-23

218

75 FR 13215 - National Poison Prevention Week, 2010  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...March 15, 2010 National Poison Prevention Week, 2010 By the President of the United States...1962, during National Poison Prevention Week we alert American families about the dangers...campaigns like National Poison Prevention Week, childhood death rates from...

2010-03-19

219

Is Nai Habarala (Alocasia cucullata) a poisonous plant?  

PubMed

Nai Habarala is not documented as a poisonous plant. However, we report two cases of fatal poisoning following ingestion of its fruit. The clinical manifestations have a similarity to cyanogenic glycoside poisoning. PMID:8342179

Goonasekera, C D; Vasanthathilake, V W; Ratnatunga, N; Seneviratne, C A

1993-06-01

220

Tetrodotoxin Poisoning Due to Pufferfish and Gastropods, and Their Intoxication Mechanism  

PubMed Central

Marine pufferfish generally contain a large amount of tetrodotoxin (TTX) in their skin and viscera, and have caused many incidences of food poisoning, especially in Japan. Edible species and body tissues of pufferfish, as well as their allowable fishing areas, are therefore clearly stipulated in Japan, but still 2 to 3 people die every year due to pufferfish poisoning. TTX is originally produced by marine bacteria, and pufferfish are intoxicated through the food chain that starts with the bacteria. Pufferfish become nontoxic when fed TTX-free diets in a closed environment in which there is no possible invasion of TTX-bearing organisms. On the other hand, TTX poisoning due to marine snails has recently spread through Japan, China, Taiwan, and Europe. In addition, TTX poisoning of dogs due to the ingestion of sea slugs was recently reported in New Zealand. TTX in these gastropods also seems to be exogenous; carnivorous large snails are intoxicated by eating toxic starfish, and necrophagous small-to-medium snails, the viscera of dead pufferfish after spawning. Close attention must be paid to the geographic expansion and/or diversification of TTX-bearing organisms, and to the sudden occurrence of other forms of TTX poisoning due to their ingestion. PMID:23724281

Noguchi, Tamao; Onuki, Kazue; Arakawa, Osamu

2011-01-01

221

Molecular Structure of Saxitoxin  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The toxin found in the fish is known as Saxitioxin. The compound is a neurotoxin, causing numbness and tingling in the lips when ingested, and may lead to paralysis and death if untreated. This toxin is produced by the bacteria Gonyaulax Monilata, found in Dinoflagellate algae. In the United States, there have been a number of poisonings in Florida in people who ingested puffer fish from local waters.

2003-04-09

222

The Chemical Nature of Mercury in Human Brain Following Poisoning or Environmental Exposure  

PubMed Central

Methylmercury is among the most potentially toxic species to which human populations are exposed, both at high levels through poisonings and at lower levels through consumption of fish and other seafood. However, the molecular mechanisms of methylmercury toxicity in humans remain poorly understood. We used synchrotron X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) to study mercury chemical forms in human brain tissue. Individuals poisoned with high levels of methylmercury species showed elevated cortical selenium with significant proportions of nanoparticulate mercuric selenide plus some inorganic mercury and methylmercury bound to organic sulfur. Individuals with a lifetime of high fish consumption showed much lower levels of mercuric selenide and methylmercury cysteineate. Mercury exposure did not perturb organic selenium levels. These results elucidate a key detoxification pathway in the central nervous system and provide new insights into the appropriate methods for biological monitoring. PMID:22826746

2010-01-01

223

Isolation and characterization of bacteria from the copepod Pseudocaligus fugu ectoparasitic on the panther puffer Takifugu pardalis with the emphasis on TTX.  

PubMed

A total of 50 bacterial isolates was obtained from the copepod Pseudocaligus fugu, which is a common parasite, collected from the body surface of the panther puffer Takifugu pardalis. On the basis of colony characteristics, these bacterial isolates were grouped into six types, of which only two (Types-I and -II) showed a high affinity for adhesion to the carapace of the banana shrimp Penaeus merguiensis. These two types of adhesive bacteria were identified through 16S rRNA sequence analysis as Shewanella woodyi (Type-I) and Roseobacter sp. (Type-II). Representative isolates of these two adhesive bacteria were examined for tetrodotoxin (TTX) production by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-fluorometric system, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). It was rather unexpectedly revealed that TTX and anhydroTTX were present in the supernatant of culture of the Type-II isolate Roseobacter sp. PMID:17698158

Maran, B A Venmathi; Iwamoto, Emi; Okuda, Jun; Matsuda, Shuhei; Taniyama, Shigeto; Shida, Yasuo; Asakawa, Manabu; Ohtsuka, Susumu; Nakai, Toshihiro; Boxshall, Geoffrey A

2007-11-01

224

Ultradian oscillation in expression of four melatonin receptor subtype genes in the pineal gland of the grass puffer, a semilunar-synchronized spawner, under constant darkness.  

PubMed

Melatonin receptor gene expression as well as melatonin synthesis and secretion activities were examined in the pineal gland of the grass puffer, which exhibits unique lunar/tidal cycle-synchronized mass spawing: spawning occurs before high tide on the day of spring tide during spawing season. Melatonin synthesizing activity was assessed by the abundance of arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase 2 (AANAT2) mRNA. The amount of aanat2 mRNA was low during light phase and initiated to increase after the light was turned off. The secretion of melatonin from primary pineal organ culture was stimulated after the light was turned off and ceased immediately after the light was turned on. The expression levels of four melatonin receptor subtype genes (mel 1a 1.4, mel 1a 1.7, mel1b, and mel1c) showed synchronous variations, and the levels tended to be high during the dark phase under light/dark conditions. These results suggest that the action of melatonin on the pineal gland is highly dependent on light and photoperiod, possibly with stronger action during night time. Under constant darkness, the expression of four melatonin receptor subtype genes showed unique ultradian oscillations with the period of 14.0-15.4 h, suggesting the presence of a circatidal oscillator in the pineal gland. The present results indicate that melatonin may serve local chronobiological functions in the pineal gland. These cyclic expressions of melatonin receptor genes in the pineal gland may be important in the control of the lunar/tidal cycle-synchronized mass spawning in the grass puffer. PMID:25688184

Ikegami, Taro; Maruyama, Yusuke; Doi, Hiroyuki; Hattori, Atsuhiko; Ando, Hironori

2015-01-01

225

Ultradian oscillation in expression of four melatonin receptor subtype genes in the pineal gland of the grass puffer, a semilunar-synchronized spawner, under constant darkness  

PubMed Central

Melatonin receptor gene expression as well as melatonin synthesis and secretion activities were examined in the pineal gland of the grass puffer, which exhibits unique lunar/tidal cycle-synchronized mass spawing: spawning occurs before high tide on the day of spring tide during spawing season. Melatonin synthesizing activity was assessed by the abundance of arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase 2 (AANAT2) mRNA. The amount of aanat2 mRNA was low during light phase and initiated to increase after the light was turned off. The secretion of melatonin from primary pineal organ culture was stimulated after the light was turned off and ceased immediately after the light was turned on. The expression levels of four melatonin receptor subtype genes (mel1a1.4, mel1a1.7, mel1b, and mel1c) showed synchronous variations, and the levels tended to be high during the dark phase under light/dark conditions. These results suggest that the action of melatonin on the pineal gland is highly dependent on light and photoperiod, possibly with stronger action during night time. Under constant darkness, the expression of four melatonin receptor subtype genes showed unique ultradian oscillations with the period of 14.0–15.4 h, suggesting the presence of a circatidal oscillator in the pineal gland. The present results indicate that melatonin may serve local chronobiological functions in the pineal gland. These cyclic expressions of melatonin receptor genes in the pineal gland may be important in the control of the lunar/tidal cycle-synchronized mass spawning in the grass puffer.

Ikegami, Taro; Maruyama, Yusuke; Doi, Hiroyuki; Hattori, Atsuhiko; Ando, Hironori

2015-01-01

226

Profenofos metabolites in human poisoning.  

PubMed

Profenofos and its metabolites were determined in a case of fatal poisoning. Little profenofos and large amounts of metabolites were detected by gas chromatography/flame photometric detection in the acid extracts of blood and urine after methylation with diazomethane. Four major metabolites containing phosphorus were identified with the synthesized metabolites, namely, despropylated profenofos, desethylated profenofos and des-S-propylated profenofos, respectively. 4-Bromo-2-chlorophenol (BCP), an aryl moiety of profenofos, was also determined in blood and urine with high performance liquid chromatograph (HPLC) as free or conjugated metabolites. PMID:11182275

Gotoh, M; Sakata, M; Endo, T; Hayashi, H; Seno, H; Suzuki, O

2001-02-15

227

[Fatal poisoning due to Indigofera].  

PubMed

Indigo, also known in Morocco as Nila, is a dye widely used in the coloring of Moroccan handicrafts. It is obtained from fermentation reactions on the leaves and branches of true indigo, Indigofera tinctoria, which is a widespread plant in tropical Africa and Asia. We report a case of fatal poisoning in a 3-year-old child after administration of indigo for therapeutic purposes. Death resulted from multiple organ failure. The toxicity of this compound is little known in the literature and deserves to be explored through toxicokinetic and toxicodynamic studies, in order to better determine the toxic constituents of the dye. PMID:22169568

Labib, S; Berdai, M-A; Bendadi, A; Achour, S; Harandou, M

2012-01-01

228

Chronic Copper Poisoning in Sheep.  

E-print Network

LIBRARY, - A & M COLLEGE, CAiQFUS. E-109-8M-L180 TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION A. B. CONNER, DIRECTOR COLLEGE STATION: BRAZOS COUNTY. TEXAS BULLETIN NO. 499 DECEMBER, 1934 DIVISION OF VETERINARY SCIENCE CHRONIC COPPER POISONING.... Beasley. $4. S., Asst. Agronomist S. D. Reynolds, Jr., Feed Inspector Publications : P. A. Moore, Feed Inspector A. I3 Jackson, Chief E. J. Wilson, B. S.. Feed Inspector H. G. Wickes. D. V. M.. Feed Inspector SUBSTATIO~L>'., No. 1. Beeville. Bee...

Boughton, I. B. (Ivan Bertrand); Hardy, W. T. (William Tyree)

1934-01-01

229

Indian carp (Labeo rohita) gall bladder poisoning-report of four cases in a single family.  

PubMed

The ingestion of Indian carp gallbladder may result in transient hepatitis with subsequent acute renal failure. This case series also illustrates the importance of understanding the use and potential serious complications of alternative medicines. So fish gallbladder poisoning should be considered in unexplained acute renal failure in Chinese and Asian patients. We report four family members who developed acute renal failure and toxic hepatitis at the same time following ingestion of raw Indian carp (Labeo rohita) gall bladder. PMID:21207198

Patnaik, Rashmi; Kar, Subhranshu Sekhar; Ray, Rajib; Mahapatro, Samarendra

2011-06-01

230

Upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage caused by superwarfarin poisoning.  

PubMed

Superwarfarins are a class of rodenticides. Gastrointestinal hemorrhage is a fatal complication of superwarfarin poisoning, requiring immediate treatment. Here, we report a 55-year-old woman with tardive upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage caused by superwarfarin poisoning after endoscopic cold mucosal biopsy. PMID:20355251

Zhao, Shu Lei; Li, Peng; Ji, Ming; Zong, Ye; Zhang, Shu Tian

2010-04-01

231

Upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage caused by superwarfarin poisoning  

PubMed Central

Superwarfarins are a class of rodenticides. Gastrointestinal hemorrhage is a fatal complication of superwarfarin poisoning, requiring immediate treatment. Here, we report a 55-year-old woman with tardive upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage caused by superwarfarin poisoning after endoscopic cold mucosal biopsy. PMID:20355251

Zhao, Shu-Lei; Li, Peng; Ji, Ming; Zong, Ye; Zhang, Shu-Tian

2010-01-01

232

Poison Awareness: A Discussion Leader's Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Because over 40,000 children are annually poisoned by household products, this guide for group leaders emphasizes hazards and preventive actions. Major objectives are defined: (1) to raise the audience's knowledge/awareness level concerning major hazards associated with potentially poisonous household products, (2) to point out primary hazard…

National Evaluation Systems, Inc., Amherst, MA.

233

The Poison Control Center--Its Role  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Poison Control Centers are being utilized by more schools of pharmacy each year as training sites for students. This paper discusses what such a center is, its services, changes anticipated in the poison center system in the next several years and how they may influence pharmacy education, specifically as it relates to clinical toxicology.…

Manoguerra, Anthony S.

1976-01-01

234

Acute diquat poisoning with intracerebral bleeding  

PubMed Central

A case of severe diquat poisoning complicated by the development of aggressive behaviour, oliguric renal failure, and intracerebral bleeding is described. The patient was successfully managed and made a complete recovery. In this paper special attention has been given to the major clinical differences between diquat and paraquat intoxication.???Keywords: poisoning; diquat; paraquat PMID:11320278

Saeed, S; Wilks, M; Coupe, M

2001-01-01

235

Datura poisoning--the Angel's Trumpet.  

PubMed

A group of seven ate flowers of Datura arborea ("The Angel's Trumpet" or "Trumpet Lilies") and suffered severe hallucinations. One member of the group drowned in shallow water while suffering from these effects. Although poisoning with related species is common, poisoning with this plant is rare, perhaps due to its terrifying rather than pleasurable hallucinogenic effect. PMID:4069765

Hayman, J

1985-07-01

236

FLUOROACETAMIDE (1081) POISONING IN WILD BIRDS  

Microsoft Academic Search

An outbreak of poisoning in four greylag geese (Anser anser) and 35-45 teal (Aizas crecca) is described. Laboratory findings led to the conclusion that a wheat bait containing the rodenticide fluoracetamide (1081) caused the poisoning. Circumstantial evidence incriminated fluoracetamide as the cause of death in white- fronted geese (Anser albifrons), mallards (Anas platyr\\/zynclzos), and chukars (Alec-

A. SHLOSBERGand; M. N. EGYED; Beit Dagan; H. MENDELSSOHN; Y. LANGER; B. Nesin

1975-01-01

237

Treatment of methyl bromide poisoning with haemodialysis.  

PubMed Central

Acute accidental methyl bromide poisoning was treated with haemodialysis. The treatment was successful in removing bromide from the blood but the patient persists with severe neuropsychiatric sequelae. To the best of our knowledge haemodialysis has not been used previously for the treatment of organic bromide poisoning. PMID:7831171

Moosa, M. R.; Jansen, J.; Edelstein, C. L.

1994-01-01

238

Poison Ivy: Tips for Treating and Preventing  

MedlinePLUS

... to air turn brownish black. Before urushiol hits the air, it is clear or a pale yellow. It may have yellow-white berries. Poison sumac: This plant has 7 to 13 leaflets on each leaf. It grows in standing water as a tall shrub or small tree. How to protect your skin from poison ivy, ...

239

Diagnosis & Treatment of Poisoning by Pesticides.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report succinctly discusses the steps necessary to diagnose and treat poisoning from pesticides, especially organophosphates, carbamates and chlorinated hydrocarbons. Immediate and continuing steps in the care of poisoning victims are outlined with supportive information on where to locate emergency assistance. (CS)

Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Pesticide Programs.

240

Harmful Algal Blooms: Amnesic Shellfish Poisoning  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This University of Maryland SeaGrant web page discusses amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP), also known as domoic acid poisoning (DAP). The page discusses the production of domoic acid by the diatom Pseudo-nitzschia, geographic locations of detection, and economic impacts.

Kane, Andrew; Jacobs, Dan; Seagrant, University O.

241

Fish Hearing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides related information about hearing in fish, including the sensory stimulus of sound in the underwater environment, mechanoreceptors in fish, pressure perception and the swimbladder, specializations in sound conduction peculiar to certain fish families. Includes numerous figures. (CS)

Blaxter, J. H. S.

1980-01-01

242

Management of the critically poisoned patient  

PubMed Central

Background Clinicians are often challenged to manage critically ill poison patients. The clinical effects encountered in poisoned patients are dependent on numerous variables, such as the dose, the length of exposure time, and the pre-existing health of the patient. The goal of this article is to introduce the basic concepts for evaluation of poisoned patients and review the appropriate management of such patients based on the currently available literature. Methods An unsystematic review of the medical literature was performed and articles pertaining to human poisoning were obtained. The literature selected was based on the preference and clinical expertise of authors. Discussion If a poisoning is recognized early and appropriate testing and supportive care is initiated rapidly, the majority of patient outcomes will be good. Judicious use of antidotes should be practiced and clinicians should clearly understand the indications and contraindications of antidotes prior to administration. PMID:19563673

Boyle, Jennifer S; Bechtel, Laura K; Holstege, Christopher P

2009-01-01

243

Monogeneans (Platyhelminthes) from marine fishes of Tongyeong, Korea.  

PubMed

Monogeneans (Platyhelminthes) mostly parasitize on fins, skin and gills of fishes. In Korea, the study on monogeneans is limited, although, fishes are frequently encountered with severe infection of monogeneans. Hence, some of ranched and wild fishes were collected from Tongyeong marine living resources research and conservation center, southern part of Korea to screen and understand the infection of monogeneans. All three fish hosts were found with the infection of monogeneans including five species from four different families. They are: (1) Anoplodiscus spari Yamaguti (Publ Seto Mar Biol Lab Kyoto Univ 7:53-88, 1958) (Anoplodiscidae) from the fins and body surface of blackhead seabream Acanthopagrus schlegelii schlegelii (Bleeker); (2) A. tai Ogawa (Fish Pathol 29:5-10, 1994) from the fins of red seabream Pagrus major (Temminck and Schlegel); (3) Benedenia sekii Yamaguti (Studies on the helminth fauna of Japan. Part 19. Fourteen new ectoparasitic trematodes of fishes. Published by the author, Kyoto, 1937), Meserve (Rep Allan Hancock Paci Exped (1932-1937) 2:31-89, 1938) (Capsalidae) from the body surface of P. major; (4) Choricotyle elongata Goto (J Coll Sci Imp Univ Tokyo 8:1-273, 1894) (Diclidophoridae) from the gills of P. major; (5) Udonella fugu Freeman and Ogawa (Int J Parasitol 40:255-264, 2010) (Udonellidae) hyperparasitized on the body of parasitic copepod Pseudocaligus fugu (Yamaguti 1936) (Caligidae) infecting the wild grass puffer Takifugu niphobles (Jordan and Snyder). Capsalids are commonly reported in Korea, except B. sekii, however, other reported genera are uncommon. Hence, all reported monogeneans are considered as a first record from Korea. PMID:25035585

Venmathi Maran, B A; Oh, Sung-Yong; Moon, Seong Yong; Soh, Ho Young; Kim, Chong-Kwan; Myoung, Jung-Goo

2014-09-01

244

Family tetrodotoxin poisoning in Reunion Island (Southwest Indian Ocean) following the consumption of Lagocephalus sceleratus (Pufferfish).  

PubMed

Pufferfish poisoning has rarely been reported in the southwestern Indian Ocean and in the French overseas territories. In Reunion Island, the last notified documented case occurred in 1989 and people are no longer aware of the potential toxicity of pufferfish. We report a family hospitalized for a tetrodotoxin poisoning following the consumption of Lagocephalus sceleratus caught on the coast of Reunion Island in September 2013. Two patients presenting acute vital functions failures were admitted in an ICU. Ten people were admitted simultaneously to the emergency department after consuming L. sceleratus with signs of toxicity appearing within 2 hours. Treatment was supportive, but included the need for mechanical ventilation for two patients. All those affected had complete and uneventful recoveries within a few days. The fish consumed was identified as L. sceleratus, a species known to contain tetrodotoxin. The diagnosis of tetrodotoxin poisoning was suggested by typical clinical manifestations together with the history of very recent consumption of tetrodotoxin-containing fish. Tetrodotoxin was later detected at high levels in food remnants. To the best of our knowledge, there has been no documented case series of tetrodotoxin poisoning reported from Reunion Island for the last 25 years and from the entire Indian Ocean area since 1998. Pufferfish intoxication is one of the most common causes of poisoning among people in coastal regions of Asia but it has also recently been reported in areas where it was previously unknown, particularly along the Mediterranean shores and in Spain. Public health education in French overseas territories and along the Mediterranean shores should be adapted to include increased awareness of the danger of consuming pufferfish. Health teams must be aware of such clinical presentations. PMID:24570117

Puech, B; Batsalle, B; Roget, P; Turquet, J; Quod, J-P; Allyn, J; Idoumbin, J-P; Chane-Ming, J; Villefranque, J; Mougin-Damour, K; Vandroux, D; Gaüzère, B-A

2014-05-01

245

Non-Traditional Vectors for Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning  

PubMed Central

Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP), due to saxitoxin and related compounds, typically results from the consumption of filter-feeding molluscan shellfish that concentrate toxins from marine dinoflagellates. In addition to these microalgal sources, saxitoxin and related compounds, referred to in this review as STXs, are also produced in freshwater cyanobacteria and have been associated with calcareous red macroalgae. STXs are transferred and bioaccumulate throughout aquatic food webs, and can be vectored to terrestrial biota, including humans. Fisheries closures and human intoxications due to STXs have been documented in several non-traditional (i.e. non-filter-feeding) vectors. These include, but are not limited to, marine gastropods, both carnivorous and grazing, crustacea, and fish that acquire STXs through toxin transfer. Often due to spatial, temporal, or a species disconnection from the primary source of STXs (bloom forming dinoflagellates), monitoring and management of such non-traditional PSP vectors has been challenging. A brief literature review is provided for filter feeding (traditional) and non-filter feeding (non-traditional) vectors of STXs with specific reference to human effects. We include several case studies pertaining to management actions to prevent PSP, as well as food poisoning incidents from STX(s) accumulation in non-traditional PSP vectors. PMID:18728730

Deeds, Jonathan R.; Landsberg, Jan H.; Etheridge, Stacey M.; Pitcher, Grant C.; Longan, Sara Watt

2008-01-01

246

Poisoning by organophosphorus insecticides and sensory neuropathy  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES—Poisoning by organophosphate insecticides causes cholinergic toxicity. Organophosphate induced delayed polyneuropathy (OPIDP) is a sensory-motor distal axonopathy which usually occurs after ingestion of large doses of certain organophosphate insecticides and has so far only been reported in patients with preceding cholinergic toxicity. Surprisingly, it was recently reported by other authors that an exclusively sensory neuropathy developed in eight patients after repeated unquantified exposures to chlorpyrifos, which did not cause clear-cut cholinergic toxicity. The objective was to assess whether an exclusively sensory neuropathy develops in patients severely poisoned by various OPs.?METHODS—Toxicological studies and electrophysiological measurements were performed in peripheral motor and sensory nerves in 11 patients after acute organophosphate poisoning among which two subjects were poisoned with chlorpyrifos.?RESULTS—Three patients developed OPIDP, including one poisoned by chlorpyrifos. Exclusively sensory neuropathy was never seen after either single or repeated acute organophosphate poisoning. A mild sensory component was associated with a severe motor component in two of the three cases of OPIDP, the other was an exclusively motor polyneuropathy.?CONCLUSION—A sensory-motor polyneuropathy caused by organophosphate insecticides might occur after a severe poisoning and the sensory component, if present, is milder than the motor one. Bearing in mind the toxicological characteristics of these organophosphate insecticides, other causes should be sought for sensory peripheral neuropathies in patients who did not display severe cholinergic toxicity a few weeks before the onset of symptoms and signs.?? PMID:9576536

Moretto, A.; Lotti, M.

1998-01-01

247

Hyperbaric oxygen therapy for carbon monoxide poisoning.  

PubMed

Despite established exposure limits and safety standards, and the availability of carbon monoxide (CO) alarms, each year 50,000 people in the United States visit emergency departments for CO poisoning. Carbon monoxide poisoning can occur from brief exposures to high levels of CO, or from longer exposures to lower levels. Common symptoms include headaches, nausea and vomiting, dizziness, general malaise, and altered mental status. Some patients may have chest pain, shortness of breath and myocardial ischemia, and may require mechanical ventilation and treatment of shock. Individuals poisoned by CO often go on to develop neurological problems, including cognitive sequelae, anxiety and depression, persistent headaches, dizziness, sleep problems, motor weakness, vestibular and balance problems, gaze abnormalities, peripheral neuropathies, hearing loss, tinnitus and Parkinsonian-like syndrome. While breathing oxygen hastens the removal of carboxyhemoglobin (COHb), hyperbaric oxygen (HBO2) hastens COHb elimination and favorably modulates inflammatory processes instigated by CO poisoning, an effect not observed with breathing normobaric oxygen. Hyperbaric oxygen improves mitochondrial function, inhibits lipid peroxidation transiently, impairs leukocyte adhesion to injured microvasculature, and reduces brain inflammation caused by the CO-induced adduct formation of myelin basic protein. Based upon three supportive randomized clinical trials in humans and considerable evidence from animal studies, HBO2 should be considered for all cases of acute symptomatic CO poisoning. Hyperbaric oxygen is indicated for CO poisoning complicated by cyanide poisoning, often concomitantly with smoke inhalation. PMID:25109087

Weaver, Lindell K

2014-01-01

248

Know the Facts Lead poisoning is caused by swallowing or  

E-print Network

Know the Facts Lead poisoning is caused by swallowing or breathing lead. Children under 6 years old problems.FACT Lead poisoning hurts the brain and nervous system. Some of the effects of lead poisoning may and speech · Make it hard to pay attention and learn FACT Most children get lead poisoning from paint

249

Carbon monoxide poisoning of proton exchange membrane fuel cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) performance degrades when carbon monoxide (CO) is present in the fuel gas; this is referred to as CO poisoning. This paper investigates CO poisoning of PEMFCs by reviewing work on the electrochemistry of CO and hydrogen, the experimental performance of PEMFCs exhibiting CO poisoning, methods to mitigate CO poisoning and theoretical models of

J. J. Baschuk; Xianguo Li

2001-01-01

250

Poisoned Pacific: The legacy of French nuclear testing  

SciTech Connect

The author points out that France hosted a summit meeting of the seven wealthiest nations on earth in the summer of 1989, celebrating the bicentenary of the French Revolution. Although introducing a new subject to the economic summit - present environmental concerns - nothing was said about the poisoning of the islands and islanders from 159 nuclear tests (44 atmospheric, 115 underground) since 1966 on two tiny atolls (Moruroa and Fangataufa) in French Polynesia. The first test rained dead fish from a lagoon; others spread radiation throughout the region. De Gaulle's promise of independence to the Polynesians during World War II, as soon as the war was over, was forgotten once nuclear testing began. The atolls and the patience of the Polynesians have been used up; and a colony that once was nearly self-sufficient now imports 80% of its food.

Danielsson, B.

1990-03-01

251

Transgenic Fish  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fish into which foreign DNA is artificially introduced and integrated into their genome are called transgenic fish. Since the development of the first transgenic fish in 1985, techniques to produce transgenic fish have improved tremendously, resulting in the production of genetically modified (GM) ...

252

Surreptitious superwarfarin poisoning with brodifacoum.  

PubMed

Because of the emergence of warfarin resistance in rodents, second-generation anticoagulants named "superwarfarins" were developed and marketed in over-the-counter rodenticide products. The availability of these compounds has resulted in accidental or intentional human ingestions, which cause severe bleeding. The methods for diagnosis and treatment of patients using superwarfarins are different from those for patients taking the regular warfarins. We report a case of intentional superwarfarin ingestion that caused petechiae and hematuria. Although the patient denied taking anticoagulant, the persistence of vitamin K-dependent factor deficiency led us to investigate the serum for anticoagulant rodenticides. We found high levels of brodifacoum, a superwarfarin compound. This case emphasizes the need for suspicion of superwarfarin poisoning in patients who show unexplained bleeding due to deficiency of vitamin K-dependent factors and resistance to treatment. PMID:9347822

Tecimer, C; Yam, L T

1997-10-01

253

Emergency care of insecticide poisonings.  

PubMed

Insecticide poisoning is an increasing event which requires a thorough knowledge base for diagnosis and management. Awareness of the importance of decontamination is fundamental not only in the prehospital care phase but also in the emergency department. A thorough knowledge of the essentials of emergency and critical care is indispensable for the management and support of ventilatory and circulatory functions. Specific antidotal therapy utilizing atropine and pralidoxime is usually necessary in the immediate care of acute cases. In addition, use of pralidoxime after acute exposure may contribute to a beneficial outcome. Appropriate laboratory determinations in the acute phase are necessary parameters for successful outcomes. The use of cholinesterase determinations for diagnostic and prognostic purposes is discussed. PMID:7815041

Hillman, J V

1994-11-01

254

Lead Poisoning Mimicking Acute Porphyria!  

PubMed Central

We are presenting a case of a 13-year-old autistic boy whose urine porphyrin test came positive on three separate occasions. The child was brought to emergency department of Kasturba Medical College Hospital, Attavar, Mangalore, India, with fever and acute abdominal pain, with no previous history of any serious illness. Investigations revealed thalassemia trait,microcytic hypochromic anaemia while the other biochemical and haematological parameters were normal. False positive urine porphyrin test may be seen in porphyria induced by liver cancer, hepatitis and heavy metal poisoning such as lead, arsenic and mercury. Blood lead (PbB) level was 59.5?g/dl. Further evaluation revealed a daily consumption of native medicine in the form of syrup. PMID:25653942

L N, Akshatha; Shenoy, Mamatha T; P, Sadashiva Rao; B, Prashanth

2014-01-01

255

Connective tissue disease features after thallium poisoning.  

PubMed

We present 5 patients in whom thallium poisoning (1) mimicked systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) with positive antinuclear antibodies; (2) caused a SLE-like illness with positive antinuclear antibodies and rheumatoid factor that was followed by a persistent chronic polyarthritis; (3) mimicked SLE with negative antinuclear antibodies and no residual disease; (4) caused arthralgia, Raynaud's phenomenon and palmar erythema with negative antinuclear antibodies followed by keratoconjunctivitis sicca; and (5) triggered the onset of SLE with diffuse proliferative glomerulonephritis. Although the notion exists that thallium poisoning may simulate seronegative SLE, these associations between connective tissue diseases and thallium poisoning have not been previously recorded. PMID:2787403

Alarcón-Segovia, D; Amigo, M C; Reyes, P A

1989-02-01

256

Pattern of poisoning in Japan: selection of drugs and poisons for systematic toxicological analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patterns of poisoning are known to be different in different countries, because of the local environmental, cultural, and\\u000a religious situations. Therefore, in Japan, it is important to know the pattern of poisoning in our own country and to prepare\\u000a for every poisoning case by establishing an efficient systematic toxicological analysis system in forensic practice. We conducted\\u000a a retrospective study of

Keiko Kudo; Tomomi Ishida; Wakako Hikiji; Yosuke Usumoto; Takahiro Umehara; Kumi Nagamatsu; Akiko Tsuji; Noriaki Ikeda

2010-01-01

257

Morphological abnormalities and sensorimotor deficits in larval fish exposed to dissolved saxitoxin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dietary uptake of one suite of dinoflagellate-produced neurotoxins, that are commonly called paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins, is known to cause acute fish kills. However, little is known about the effects of dissolved phase exposure and the potential sublethal effects of this route of exposure on early developmental stages of fish. Toxin exposure during early development is of particular

Kathi A. Lefebvre; Vera L. Trainer; Nathaniel L. Scholz

2004-01-01

258

Fatal brodifacoum poisoning in a pony.  

PubMed

Fatal brodifacoum poisoning in a pony is described; this condition has not previously been reported in ponies. Discussion of what factors in the pony's history and treatment may have predisposed to the severity and ultimate death is provided. PMID:17616062

Ayala, Ignacio; Rodríguez, Ma Jesús; Martos, Nieves; Zilberschtein, José; Ruíz, Isidro; Motas, Miguel

2007-06-01

259

Cornell University Poisonous Plants Informational Database  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This database provides information on plants and other natural flora such as fungi that grow in the United States and may be poisonous to livestock or other animals. The information includes images of plants, pictures of affected animals and presentations on botany, chemistry, toxicology, diagnosis, and prevention of poisoning. The data are searchable by scientific or common name, primary poison, and species of animal most often affected. There are also alphabetical listings of plants by genus and species and by common names, a list of toxic agents found in plants, and a list of commonly affected animals (including humans). Other materials include a discussion of the possible benefits or toxic effects of medicinal plants on livestock, a frequently-asked-questions feature, and links to other websites with information on poisonous plants.

Brown, Dan L.

260

Mercury Poisoning Linked to Skin Products  

MedlinePLUS

... skin products taken from store shelves contained mercury . Photos of some illegal mercury-containing products are shown ... Lightening Products Found to Contain Mercury (includes product photos) Texas DSHS Warns of Mercury Poisoning Linked to ...

261

American Association of Poison Control Centers  

MedlinePLUS

... and home, environmental toxins, drugs and medicine, and animal and insect bites and stings. Bath Salts Synthetic cathinones, or “bath salts” are powerful drugs that can cause hallucinations and violent behavior. E-Cigarette Devices and Liquid Nicotine Local poison ...

262

Potato plant poisoning - green tubers and sprouts  

MedlinePLUS

Potato plant poisoning occurs when someone eats the green tubers or new sprouts of the potato plant. ... is found throughout the plant, but especially in green potatoes and new sprouts. Never eat potatoes that ...

263

Neurological manifestation of carbon monoxide poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

The clinical signs and post-mortem findings in a case of carbon monoxide poisoning are described, and correlated with the computer tomographic (CT) scan appearances. The value of serial CT scanning as a diagnostic tool is highlighted.

I. K. Hart; P. G. Kennedy; J. H. Adams; N. E. Cunningham

1988-01-01

264

Cholestatic presentation of yellow phosphorus poisoning.  

PubMed

Yellow phosphorus, a component of certain pesticide pastes and fireworks, is well known to cause hepatotoxicity. Poisoning with yellow phosphorus classically manifests with acute hepatitis leading to acute liver failure which may need liver transplantation. We present a case of yellow phosphorus poisoning in which a patient presented with florid clinical features of cholestasis highlighting the fact that cholestasis can rarely be a presenting feature of yellow phosphorus hepatotoxicity. PMID:24554916

Lakshmi, C P; Goel, Amit; Basu, Debdatta

2014-01-01

265

Hyperbaric Oxygen for Acute Carbon Monoxide Poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background Patients with acute carbon monoxide poisoning commonly have cognitive sequelae. We conducted a double-blind, randomized trial to evaluate the effect of hyperbaric-oxygen treatment on such cognitive sequelae. Methods We randomly assigned patients with symptomatic acute carbon monoxide poisoning in equal proportions to three chamber sessions within a 24-hour period, consisting of either three hyperbaric-oxygen treatments or one normobaric-oxygen treatment

Lindell K. Weaver; Ramona O. Hopkins; Karen J. Chan; Susan Churchill; C. Gregory Elliott; Terry P. Clemmer; James F. Orme; Frank O. Thomas; Alan H. Morris

2002-01-01

266

Cholestatic presentation of yellow phosphorus poisoning  

PubMed Central

Yellow phosphorus, a component of certain pesticide pastes and fireworks, is well known to cause hepatotoxicity. Poisoning with yellow phosphorus classically manifests with acute hepatitis leading to acute liver failure which may need liver transplantation. We present a case of yellow phosphorus poisoning in which a patient presented with florid clinical features of cholestasis highlighting the fact that cholestasis can rarely be a presenting feature of yellow phosphorus hepatotoxicity. PMID:24554916

Lakshmi, C. P.; Goel, Amit; Basu, Debdatta

2014-01-01

267

Aluminum phosphide poisoning: an unsolved riddle.  

PubMed

Aluminum phosphide (ALP), a widely used insecticide and rodenticide, is also infamous for the mortality and morbidity it causes in ALP-poisoned individuals. The toxicity of metal phosphides is due to phosphine liberated when ingested phosphides come into contact with gut fluids. ALP poisoning is lethal, having a mortality rate in excess of 70%. Circulatory failure and severe hypotension are common features of ALP poisoning and frequent cause of death. Severe poisoning also has the potential to induce multi-organ failure. The exact site or mechanism of its action has not been proved in humans. Rather than targeting a single organ to cause gross damage, ALP seems to work at the cellular level, resulting in widespread damage leading to multiorgan dysfunction (MOD) and death. There has been proof in vitro that phosphine inhibits cytochrome c oxidase. However, it is unlikely that this interaction is the primary cause of its toxicity. Mitochondria could be the possible site of maximum damage in ALP poisoning, resulting in low ATP production followed by metabolic shutdown and MOD; also, owing to impairment in electron flow, there could be free radical generation and damage, again producing MOD. Evidence of reactive oxygen species-induced toxicity owing to ALP has been observed in insects and rats. A similar mechanism could also play a role in humans and contribute to the missing link in the pathogenesis of ALP toxicity. There is no specific antidote for ALP poisoning and supportive measures are all that are currently available. PMID:21607993

Anand, R; Binukumar, B K; Gill, Kiran Dip

2011-08-01

268

Total mercury-monomethylmercury content of several species of fish  

Microsoft Academic Search

The toxicity of mercury, especially of its vapor s has been known to man almost since the discovery of the element. In the past several years mercury has been found as a contaminant of marine and fresh-water fish. Recently epidemics of poisoning, termed Minamata disease, occurred in Minamata and Niigata, Japan. The causative agent in both incidents was shown to

Laverne R. Kamps; Richard Carr; Hanford Miller

1972-01-01

269

SECONDARY POISONING OF EAGLES FOLLOWING INTENTIONAL POISONING OF COYOTES WITH ANTICHOLINESTERASE PESTICIDES IN WESTERN CANADA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Records of eagles, coyotes (Canis latrans), and red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) necropsied at the Western College of Veterinary Medicine, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada, between 1967 and 2002 were reviewed for cases suggestive of anticholinesterase poisoning. From 1993 to 2002, 54 putative poisoning incidents involving 70 bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) and 10 golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetus) were identified. Of these, 50 incidents

G. Wobeser; T. Bollinger; F. A. Leighton; B. Blakley; P. Mineau

2004-01-01

270

Antarctic Fishes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains the adaptations to Antarctic waters that Notothenioidei, a group of advanced bony fishes, have exhibited. Discusses the fishes' mechanisms of production of antifreeze properties and their capacities for neutral buoyancy in water. (ML)

Eastman, Joseph T.; DeVries, Arthur L.

1986-01-01

271

Internet Fish  

E-print Network

I have invented "Internet Fish," a novel class of resource-discovery tools designed to help users extract useful information from the Internet. Internet Fish (IFish) are semi-autonomous, persistent information brokers; ...

LaMacchia, Brian A.

1996-08-01

272

THE PHOTOSENSITIVE RETINAL PIGMENTS OF FISHES FROM RELATIVELY TURBID COASTAL WATERS  

PubMed Central

Digitonin extracts have been prepared from the retinae of a dozen species of marine and euryhaline teleost fishes from turbid water habitats. Spectrophotometric analysis of the extracts shows that the photosensitive retinal pigments of these species have maximum absorption above 500 mµ. In nine species there are retinene1 pigments with ?max between 504 and 512 mµ. In the marine but euryhaline mullet, Mugil cephalus, there is a porphyropsin with ?max 520 mµ. A mixture of rhodopsin and porphyropsin in an extract of a marine puffer, Sphoeroides annulatus, was disclosed by partial bleaching with colored light. In addition, one other species has a 508 mµ pigment, of which the nature of the chromophore was not determined. The habitats in which these fishes live are relatively turbid, with the water greenish or yellowish in color. The spectral transmission of such waters is probably maximal between 520 and 570 mµ. It is suggested that the fishes have become adapted to these conditions by small but significant shifts in spectral absorption of their retinal pigments. These pigments are decidedly more effective than rhodopsin in absorption of wavelengths above 500 mµ. This offers a possible interpretation of the confusing array of retinal pigments described from marine and euryhaline fishes. PMID:13587924

Munz, Frederick W.

1958-01-01

273

[The study of status and advances on tetramine poisoning].  

PubMed

Tetramethylenedisulphotetramine(TETS) is virulent rodenticides which was strictly forbidden to use in China. Poison dose of TETS is very little, LD50 in rats in 0.1 mg/kg. Manifestations and signs of TETS poisoning are showed in 5 min. The long dated effect of poisoning is extremely strict. Mamy studys on TETS are restricted on the treatment of TETS poisoning, while that of poisoning mechanism is very few. This paper reviewed TETS poisoning mechanism, pathological changes and research advances. PMID:15150879

Zhu, Chuan-hong; Liu, Liang; Liu, Yan

2004-01-01

274

Acute pesticides poisonings in pregnant women.  

PubMed

44 pregnant women were treated at the Department of Clinical Toxicology in years 1986-1996 as a result of acute poisonings with different xenobiotics. Acute pesticide poisoning that involved 4 cases were always severe and had dramatic clinical course. Carbofuran intoxication stated in a 17-year-old woman (18 weeks of pregnancy) resulted in fetus death. Toxicological findings revealed that the level of the poison in the mothers blood was comparable to that in the fetus. Carbofuran evidently passed the placental barrier in concentration which was sufficient to cause the fetus death. In the second woman (20-year-old, 12 weeks pregnant) who was classified as severely poisoned on admission to the clinic a spontaneous abortion was stated on 27th day after poisoning. The highest level of carbofuran in the blood of the mother was 9.71 micrograms/g. A 30-year-old woman, 10 weeks pregnant took formothion (50 ml) per vaginam in order to provoke abortion. She was classified as moderately poisoned. Gynecological examination and ultrasonography confirmed the pregnancy. The fetus heart tones were audible. The patient was discharged from hospital after 3 days at her own request in a good general condition. The concentration of formothion in washings from vagina was similar to the levels observed in blood serum on the patient admission to the Clinic, and 24 hour later. A 21-year-old woman, 5 month pregnant ingested an unknown amount of endosulfan to provoke abortion. Gynecological examination and abdominal ultrasonography revealed longitudinal pelvic presentation of fetus. Neither fetal movement nor heart tones were audible as early as four hours after the clinical symptoms occurred. Such low concentration of endosulfan in the blood of the mother as 0.47 microgram/g of the poison caused relatively quick fetus death. The highest levels of endosulfan were found in the liver and in the fetus kidneys. PMID:9478098

Sancewicz-Pach, K; Groszek, B; Pach, D; K?ys, M

1997-01-01

275

Experimental Study on Pressure Distribution in Upper Flow Path and Gas Blast Angle of Nozzle in Tandem-puffer Interrupting Chamber  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pressure measurement with insulation tubes is successfully performed at the nozzle throat, in the upper flow path and in the thermal room for the two types of tandem-puffer (self-blast chamber) adopting different gas blast angle of nozzle. The pressure rise mechanism with auto-expansion effect of arc is discussed. The pressure rise in the upper flow path and the thermal chamber is driven by propagation of pressure wave from the arc to the thermal chamber. And several types of oscillation caused by rarefaction wave after the pressure wave and multi-reflection of the pressure wave are superposed on the pressure profile. Finally, an influence of the gas blast angle of the nozzle on cooling of stagnation point (thermal interruption capability) is explained based on the results of these measurement and 2-dimensional thermo-fluid analysis. A little larger gas blast angle of the nozzle leads to stronger gas flow to the stagnation point caused by a little larger resistance to the pressure wave and the gas flow.

Shinkai, Takeshi; Udagawa, Keisuke; Suzuki, Katsumi

276

Fatherly Fish  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In the hit movie Finding Nemo, Marlin the clown fish searches the ocean for his missing son. While it's unlikely that a real clown fish could make this long journey, some male fish do show a fatherly attitude toward their offspring. You'll hear about one in this Science Update.

Science Update

2003-10-13

277

Bony Fishes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Sea World informational resource on bony fishes. Excellent introduction to bony fishes including information on their classification, habitat, physical characteristics, diet, reproduction, and much more. Includes photographs and illustrations throughout, and features a spreadsheet showing the different subclasses and the number of species found within each. Site also provides a comprehensive list of books about bony fishes for the younger reader.

278

Fish forms  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners create a three-dimensional sculpture while examining the characteristics of fish. Learners use clay and other craft supplies to model a fish's body, fins, scales, eyes, gills, and mouth. Then learners will discuss the function of each part and how fish differ amongst each other.

California Academy of Sciences

2008-01-01

279

Fatal paralytic shellfish poisoning in Kittlitz's Murrelet (Brachyramphus brevirostris) nestlings, Alaska, USA.  

PubMed

Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) is an acute toxic illness in humans resulting from ingestion of shellfish contaminated with a suite of neurotoxins (saxitoxins) produced by marine dinoflagellates, most commonly in the genus Alexandrium. Poisoning also has been sporadically suspected and, less often, documented in marine wildlife, often in association with an outbreak in humans. Kittlitz's Murrelet (Brachyramphus brevirostris) is a small, rare seabird of the Northern Pacific with a declining population. From 2008 to 2012, as part of a breeding ecology study, multiple Kittlitz's Murrelet nests on Kodiak Island, Alaska, were monitored by remote cameras. During the 2011 and 2012 breeding seasons, nestlings from several sites died during mild weather conditions. Remote camera observations revealed that the nestlings died shortly after consuming sand lance (Ammodytes hexapterus), a fish species known to biomagnify saxitoxin. High levels of saxitoxin were subsequently documented in crop content in 87% of nestling carcasses. Marine bird deaths from PSP may be underreported. PMID:25098307

Shearn-Bochsler, Valerie; Lance, Ellen W; Corcoran, Robin; Piatt, John; Bodenstein, Barbara; Frame, Elizabeth; Lawonn, James

2014-10-01

280

A mechanism for diversity in warning signals: Conspicuousness versus toxicity in poison frogs  

E-print Network

A mechanism for diversity in warning signals: Conspicuousness versus toxicity in poison frogs natural variation among poison frog species measured with spectral reflectance and toxicity assays, we components using natural variation among poison frog species. Poison frogs (Dendrobatidae) display some

Cummings, Molly E.

281

The Dolastatins  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Certain marine animals were known to the ancients for their potent biological constituents and presumed use in primitive medicine.\\u000a The early periods of recorded history contain references to support these assumptions (1). Illustrative are hieroglyphics on the Egyptian Pharaoh Ti’s tomb (approximately 2700 BC) that describe the poisonous puffer\\u000a fish Tetraodon stellatus. One of the earliest recorded uses of a

G. R. Pettit

282

Liver histopathology of fatal phosphine poisoning.  

PubMed

Two commonly used pesticides in agriculture are phosphides of aluminium and zinc. Both of these metal phosphides act through elaboration of toxic phosphine gas. The poisoning in Iran is mostly oral and suicidal. Phosphine is rapidly absorbed throughout the gastrointestinal tract after ingestion and it is partly carried to the liver by the portal vein. In this study the liver histopathology of fatal poisoning is scrutinized. A descriptive, retrospective study was performed on 38 fatal phosphine poisonings. The slides of liver specimens of the cases were retrieved and studied separately by two pathologists. The poisoning was suicidal in 33 (86.5%) of cases. Portal inflammation was negligible in 37 cases and only in one of the cases, a moderate degree of chronic inflammation accompanied by granuloma formation was observed. Major histopathologic findings were as follows: mild sinusoidal congestion; 12 cases (31.6%), severe sinusoidal congestion; 25 cases (45.8%), central vein congestion; 23 cases (60.5%), centrilobular necrosis; 3 cases (7.9%), hepatocytes nuclear fragmentation; 6 cases (15.8%), sinusoidal clusters of polymorphonuclear leukocytes; 12 cases (31.6%), and mild macrovesicular steatosis; 5 cases (13.2%). Fine isomorphic cytoplasmic vacuoles were observed in 36 cases (94.7%). These vacuoles were distributed uniformly in all hepatic zones in the majority (75%) of cases. This study reveals that the main histopathologic findings of fatal phosphine poisoning in the liver are fine cytoplasmic vacuolization of hepatocytes and sinusoidal congestion. PMID:16806774

Saleki, Sepideh; Ardalan, Farid Azmoudeh; Javidan-Nejad, Abdullah

2007-03-01

283

Nicotine replacement products: poisoning in children.  

PubMed

Nicotine is widely used in smoking cessation aids. They are marketed in many forms, including: chewing gum, sublingual tablets, lozenges, transdermal patches, cartridges for oral inhalation, and mouth spray. French poison control and toxico-vigilance centres identified 318 cases of exposure to nicotine replacement products in children under the age of 10 years between 2000 and 2010. The exposure provoked symptoms in 62 of these children, about two-thirds of whom were under the age of 4 years. A U.S. analysis identified 1768 cases of poisoning in children under the age of 6 years involving smokeless tobacco products, reported between 2006 and 2008.84% of these cases occurred in children under the age of 3 years. The first signs of nicotine poisoning are gastrointestinal (vomiting, diarrhoea), cardiovascular (tachycardia, hypertension) and neuropsychological (tremor of the extremities). With higher doses, these effects are rapidly followed by loss of consciousness, convulsions or respiratory failure. In children, poisoning can occur after ingestion of 1 mg of nicotine per kilogram of body weight. A dose of this magnitude is sometimes fatal in adults. Most cases of poisoning involving transdermal patches occur when a child finds an unused patch, or a used patch that an adult has discarded in a bin without taking proper precautions. Sometimes they involve patches that have become detached from an adult's skin. In practice, it is important to warn adults using smoking cessation aids containing nicotine that these products are dangerous PMID:24926513

2014-05-01

284

Pancreatitis in wild zinc-poisoned waterfowl  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Four waterfowl were collected in the Tri-State Mining District (Oklahoma, Kansas and Missouri, USA), an area known to be contaminated with lead, cadmium and zinc (Zn). They were part of a larger group of 20 waterfowl collected to determine the exposure of birds to metal contamination at the site. The four waterfowl (three Branta canadensis, one Anas platyrhynchos) had mild to severe degenerative abnormalities of the exocrine pancreas, as well as tissue (pancreas, liver) concentrations of Zn that were considered toxic. The mildest condition was characterized by generalized atrophy of exocrine cells that exhibited cytoplasmic vacuoles and a relative lack of zymogen. The most severe condition was characterized by acini with distended lumens and hyperplastic exocrine tissue that completely lacked zymogen; these acini were widely separated by immature fibrous tissue. Because the lesions were nearly identical to the lesions reported in chickens and captive waterfowl that had been poisoned with ingested Zn, and because the concentrations of Zn in the pancreas and liver of the four birds were consistent with the concentrations measured in Zn-poisoned birds, we concluded that these waterfowl were poisoned by Zn. This may be the first reported case of zinc poisoning in free-ranging wild birds poisoned by environmental Zn.

Sileo, L.; Beyer, W.N.; Mateo, R.

2003-01-01

285

Pancreatitis in wild zinc-poisoned waterfowl  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Four waterfowl were collected in the TriState Mining District (Oklahoma, Kansas and Missouri, USA), an area known to be contaminated with lead, cadmium and zinc (Zn). They were part of a larger group of 20 waterfowl collected to determine the exposure of birds to metal contamination at the site. The four waterfowl (three Branta canadensis, one Anas platyrhynchos) had mild to severe degenerative abnormalities of the exocrine pancreas, as well as tissue (pancreas, liver) concentrations of Zn that were considered toxic. The mildest condition was characterized by generalized atrophy of exocrine cells that exhibited cytoplasmic vacuoles and a relative lack of zymogen. The most severe condition was characterized by acini with distended lumens and hyperplastic exocrine tissue that completely lacked zymogen; these acini were widely separated by immature fibrous tissue. Because the lesions were nearly identical to the lesions reported in chickens and captive waterfowl that had been poisoned with ingested Zn, and because the concentrations of Zn in the pancreas and liver of the four birds were consistent with the concentrations measured in Zn-poisoned birds, we concluded that these waterfowl were poisoned by Zn. This may be the first reported case of zinc poisoning in free-ranging wild birds poisoned by environmental Zn.

Sileo, L.; Beyer, W.N.; Mateo, R.

2003-01-01

286

An outbreak of foxglove leaf poisoning.  

PubMed

Comfrey (Symphytum officinale) leaves resemble those of foxglove (Digitalis purpurea) when the plant is not in bloom and, therefore, cardiac glycoside poisoning may occur when people confuse foxglove with comfrey. We report an outbreak of foxglove leaf poisoning following the use of alleged "comfrey" herbal tea. Nine patients were involved and initially presented with nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and dizziness. Significant cardiotoxicity developed later among the 3 patients who also had mild hyperkalemia. Peak serum digoxin concentration measured by immunoassay was elevated in all patients and ranged from 4.4 ng/mL to 139.5 ng/mL. Patients with severe cardiotoxicity were treated with temporary cardiac pacing. Moreover, 40-80 mg of digoxin-specific antibody therapy was given without any effect. All patients recovered uneventfully. Our report highlights the potential risk of misidentification of herbs; in this case, D. purpurea was mistaken for S. officinale. Physicians should be aware that cardiac glycoside poisoning could arise from such misidentification. Public education about the toxicity of D. purpurea poisoning may reduce the risk of misidentification and subsequent poisoning. PMID:20171590

Lin, Chun-Chi; Yang, Chen-Chang; Phua, Dong-Haur; Deng, Jou-Fang; Lu, Li-Hua

2010-02-01

287

An accidental poisoning with mitragynine.  

PubMed

An increasing number of drugs of abuse are sold word wide over the internet. Names like "legal highs", "herbal highs" etc. give the impression that these are safe products, although the risk of fatal reactions might be substantial. Leaves from the plant Mitragyna speciosa, contain active compounds like mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine. It has been reported that the potency of 7-hydroxymitragynine at the ?-opioid receptor is 30 times higher than that of mitragynine and 17 times higher than that of morphine. Case reports regarding poisoning with Kratom are reported, but the toxic or lethal ranges for the concentrations of the active substances have not been established, and concentrations of 7-hydroxymitragynine have not been reported previously. We present a case report where a middle aged man was found dead at home. The deceased had a history of drug abuse and mental illness for several years. At autopsy, there were no significant pathological findings. Post-mortem analysis of peripheral blood revealed: zopiclone 0.043mg/L, citalopram 0.36mg/L and lamotrigine 5.4mg/L, i.e. concentrations regularly seen after therapeutic ingestion of these drugs. Additionally mitragynine 1.06mg/L and 7-hydroxymitragynine 0.15mg/L were detected in blood and both also in urine. The high concentrations of mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine indicate that the cause of death is intoxication by these substances; and the circumstances point toward the manner of death being accidental. We recommend that both mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine are analyzed for in cases with suspected Kratom intoxication. PMID:25453780

Karinen, Ritva; Fosen, Jan Toralf; Rogde, Sidsel; Vindenes, Vigdis

2014-10-24

288

Fish Prints  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this hands-on art activity, learners will study and identify features of the external anatomy of a fish. They will have the opportunity to learn the different functions of fish anatomy along with new vocabulary terms while handling a real fish in their art project. Also, a discussion may take place about the different kinds of fish and how different shapes are more beneficial for certain environments. As a wrap up, learners can become familiar about issues related to the conservation of fish, such as overfishing, habitat destruction, and invasive species. This activity is standards-based.

Sciences, California A.

2008-01-01

289

Mean platelet volume in patients with carbon monoxide poisoning.  

PubMed

Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is frequent and can lead to high morbidity and mortality. Some studies have indicated increased platelet activation and aggregation in CO poisoning. Thus, we investigated mean platelet volume (MPV), an indicator of platelet activation, in patients with CO poisoning. We included 193 (117 women) patients who presented with a diagnosis of CO poisoning between June 2011 and March 2013. Control group was composed of 39 (15 women) patients. Troponin and creatine kinase MB levels were significantly higher in the CO poisoning group. Platelet counts were significantly higher in patients with CO poisoning (281 ± 76 vs 248 ± 65 × 10(9), respectively; P = .01). Similarly, MPV was significantly higher in the CO poisoning group (8.9 ± 0.8 vs 7.9 ± 0.9 fL, respectively; P < .001). Elevated MPV values may indicate that patients with CO poisoning have a higher risk of thromboembolic and cardiovascular complications due to platelet activation. PMID:23901146

Karabacak, Mustafa; Varol, Ercan; Türkdogan, Kenan Ahmet; Duman, Ali; Akpinar, Orhan; Karabacak, Pinar

2014-03-01

290

Bacillus cereus and its food poisoning toxins.  

PubMed

Bacillus cereus is becoming one of the more important causes of food poisoning in the industrialised world. It produces one emetic toxin and three different enterotoxins. The emetic toxin is a ring-shaped structure of three repeats of four amino and/or oxy acids: [D-O-Leu-D-Ala-L-O-Val-L-Val]3. This ring structure has a molecular mass of 1.2 kDa, and is chemically closely related to the potassium ionophore valinomycin. Two of the three enterotoxins have been shown to be involved in food poisoning. They both consist of three different proteins that act together. One of these enterotoxins is also a haemolysin. This haemolytic enterotoxin is transcribed from one operon. The third enterotoxin is a single component protein, but has not been shown to be involved in food poisoning. PMID:9435100

Granum, P E; Lund, T

1997-12-15

291

Acute pesticide poisoning in England and Wales.  

PubMed

Between 1979 and 1983 less than 1% of admissions from acute poisoning in the UK were due to pesticides and fewer than 4% of admissions in those under 5 years were from this cause. Organochlorine, organophosphorus and carbamate insecticides account for only 10% of the total in both children and adults. Suspected pesticide poisoning was the cause of fewer than 0.3% of home accidents in those under 10 years of age and less than 4% of suspected poisonings documented by the Home Accident Surveillance System. Rodenticides were thought to be involved in 62% of these cases. Of children who presented to hospital 42% were admitted and 93% of these were discharged home within 2 days. In the UK, the morbidity from acute pesticide poisoning in children is low and the mortality is nil and there is therefore no evidence to support the view that paediatric pesticide intoxication is a significant clinical problem. Though no fatalities were recorded in children, pesticides were responsible for 1.3% of all deaths due to poisoning in the UK between 1979 and 1983. In adults admitted to hospital, the mortality from pesticide poisoning is approximately 12% and three quarters of these deaths are due to the deliberate ingestion of paraquat. The general term pesticide refers to a group of products that are used as insecticides, acaricides, fungicides, herbicides, rodenticides, and plant growth agents. Chemically, the group includes bipyridilium compounds, carbamates, chloralose, chlorates, coumarins, dinitro compounds, dithiocarbamates, fluoroacetates, organochlorine organophosphorus and organotin compounds, pentachlorophenol, phenoxyacetates, phosphine (as magnesium and aluminium phosphides), pyrethrins, pyrethroids and triazines.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:10281618

Vale, T J; Meredith, T J; Buckley, B M

1987-02-01

292

Management of acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning  

PubMed Central

Summary Organophosphorus pesticide self-poisoning is an important clinical problem in rural regions of the developing world, and kills an estimated 200?000 people every year. Unintentional poisoning kills far fewer people but is a problem in places where highly toxic organophosphorus pesticides are available. Medical management is difficult, with case fatality generally more than 15%. We describe the limited evidence that can guide therapy and the factors that should be considered when designing further clinical studies. 50 years after first use, we still do not know how the core treatments—atropine, oximes, and diazepam—should best be given. Important constraints in the collection of useful data have included the late recognition of great variability in activity and action of the individual pesticides, and the care needed cholinesterase assays for results to be comparable between studies. However, consensus suggests that early resuscitation with atropine, oxygen, respiratory support, and fluids is needed to improve oxygen delivery to tissues. The role of oximes is not completely clear; they might benefit only patients poisoned by specific pesticides or patients with moderate poisoning. Small studies suggest benefit from new treatments such as magnesium sulphate, but much larger trials are needed. Gastric lavage could have a role but should only be undertaken once the patient is stable. Randomised controlled trials are underway in rural Asia to assess the effectiveness of these therapies. However, some organophosphorus pesticides might prove very difficult to treat with current therapies, such that bans on particular pesticides could be the only method to substantially reduce the case fatality after poisoning. Improved medical management of organophosphorus poisoning should result in a reduction in worldwide deaths from suicide. PMID:17706760

Eddleston, Michael; Buckley, Nick A; Eyer, Peter; Dawson, Andrew H

2008-01-01

293

Histopathological, hematological, condition-factor, and organ weight changes associated with selenium accumulation in fish from Belews Lake, North Carolina  

Microsoft Academic Search

Green sunfish (Lepomis cyanellus) were collected from two study sites in Belews Lake, North Carolina, for assessment of correlations between several biological parameters and bioaccumulation of selenium. The fish had elevated concentrations of selenium in the hepatopancreas (liver) and exhibited histopathological and other manifestations of selenium poisoning. Condition-factors of Belews Lake fish were significantly correlated with selenium concentrations in hepatopancreas

Elsie M. B. Sorensen; Peter M. Cumbie; Thomas L. Bauer; James S. Bell; Charles W. Harlan

1984-01-01

294

Laboratory diagnosis of zinc phosphide poisoning.  

PubMed

Zinc phosphide, a readily-available rodenticide, poses a significant risk for intoxication in animals. Animals have been poisoned by ingesting treated bait or the carcasses of poisoned rodents. Toxicity is due to the liberation of phosphine gas in the stomach. Clinical signs include central nervous system excitation, depression and vomition. Similarities of clinical signs with other central nervous system toxicants make the diagnosis difficult without a specific diagnostic test. The procedure outlined in this paper detects phosphine liberated from zinc phosphide by the addition of hydrochloric acid as well as the phosphine previously generated by contact with stomach acid. PMID:7900268

Guale, F G; Stair, E L; Johnson, B W; Edwards, W C; Haliburton, J C

1994-12-01

295

Important Poisonous Plants in Tibetan Ethnomedicine  

PubMed Central

Tibetan ethnomedicine is famous worldwide, both for its high effectiveness and unique cultural background. Many poisonous plants have been widely used to treat disorders in the Tibetan medicinal system. In the present review article, some representative poisonous plant species are introduced in terms of their significance in traditional Tibetan medicinal practices. They are Aconitum pendulum, Strychnos nux-vomica, Datura stramonium and Anisodus tanguticus, for which the toxic chemical constituents, bioactivities and pharmacological functions are reviewed herein. The most important toxins include aconitine, strychnine, scopolamine, and anisodamine. These toxic plants are still currently in use for pain-reduction and other purposes by Tibetan healers after processing. PMID:25594733

Ma, Lijuan; Gu, Ronghui; Tang, Li; Chen, Ze-E; Di, Rong; Long, Chunlin

2015-01-01

296

Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning: A Case Series  

PubMed Central

We describe a case series of seven patients presenting to an emergency department with symptoms of paralytic shellfish poisoning. They developed varying degrees of nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, weakness, ataxia and paresthesias after eating mussels harvested from a beach near their resort. Four patients were admitted to the hospital, one due to increasing respiratory failure requiring endotracheal intubation and the remainder for respiratory monitoring. All patients made a full recovery, most within 24 hours. The ability to recognize and identify paralytic shellfish poisoning and manage its complications are important to providers of emergency medicine. PMID:25035737

Hurley, William; Wolterstorff, Cameron; MacDonald, Ryan; Schultz, Debora

2014-01-01

297

[The viper--Finland's only poisonous snake].  

PubMed

The viper (Vipera berus) is the most common poisonous snake in Europe, and the only one in Finland. In viper bites, highly varying amounts of venom end up into the victim, whereby prediction of the progression of symptoms of poisoning is very difficult. A severe clinical picture must always be anticipated. The size of the victim has also an effect on the outcome. Adequate monitoring and when necessary, massive fluid therapy are essential in the treatment. Due to possible kidney damage, anti-inflammatory drugs are not recommended. Severe or rapidly progressing symptoms require the use of an antidote. PMID:21834338

Vuori, Arno

2011-01-01

298

Home Science One fish, two fish, dumb fish, dead fish DAILY SECTIONS  

E-print Network

Home Science One fish, two fish, dumb fish, dead fish Home DAILY SECTIONS News Sports Opinion Arts America! Study Spanish & Volunteer ONE FISH, TWO FISH, DUMB FISH, DEAD FISH | Print | E- mail Written scientists say fish are capable of deducing how they stack up against the competition by simply watching

Fernald, Russell

299

Esophagobronchial fistula - A rare complication of aluminum phosphide poisoning  

PubMed Central

Aluminum phosphide is a systemic lethal poison. Fistulous communication between esophagus and airway tract (esophagorespiratory fistula) has rarely been reported in the survivors of aluminum phosphide poisoning. We report a case of benign esophagobronchial fistula secondary to aluminum phosphide poisoning, which to best of our knowledge has not been reported in the medical literature. PMID:21264171

Bhargava, Sumeet; Rastogi, Rajul; Agarwal, Ajay; Jindal, Gaurav

2011-01-01

300

Early carbon monoxide intoxication: happy to be poisoned?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon monoxide poisoning is the commonest cause of death by poisoning in the UK and chronic exposure is thought to be a frequently missed diagnosis. Early recognition of carbon monoxide poisoning is vital to institute prompt treatment and to prevent exposure to others. An incident of mass exposure to carbon monoxide is presented where euphoria, lasting several hours, was the

S F J Clarke; A Crosby; D Kumar

2005-01-01

301

Appendectomy due to lead poisoning: a case-report  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Lead poisoning is a common occupational health hazard in developing countries and many misdiagnoses and malpractices may occur due to unawareness of lead poisoning symptoms. CASE PRESENTATION: We report a case of occupational lead poisoning in an adult battery worker with abdominal colic who initially underwent appendectomy with removal of normal appendix. Later on he was diagnosed with lead

S Mohammadi; AH Mehrparvar; M Aghilinejad

2008-01-01

302

21 CFR 109.6 - Added poisonous or deleterious substances.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...tolerance for an added poisonous or deleterious substance in any food may be established...limit for an added poisonous or deleterious substance in any food may be established...level for an added poisonous or deleterious substance in any food may be...

2012-04-01

303

21 CFR 509.6 - Added poisonous or deleterious substances.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...tolerance for an added poisonous or deleterious substance in any food may be established...limit for an added poisonous or deleterious substance in any food may be established...level for an added poisonous or deleterious substance in any food may be...

2013-04-01

304

21 CFR 509.6 - Added poisonous or deleterious substances.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...tolerance for an added poisonous or deleterious substance in any food may be established...limit for an added poisonous or deleterious substance in any food may be established...level for an added poisonous or deleterious substance in any food may be...

2010-04-01

305

21 CFR 509.6 - Added poisonous or deleterious substances.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...tolerance for an added poisonous or deleterious substance in any food may be established...limit for an added poisonous or deleterious substance in any food may be established...level for an added poisonous or deleterious substance in any food may be...

2014-04-01

306

21 CFR 509.6 - Added poisonous or deleterious substances.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...tolerance for an added poisonous or deleterious substance in any food may be established...limit for an added poisonous or deleterious substance in any food may be established...level for an added poisonous or deleterious substance in any food may be...

2011-04-01

307

21 CFR 109.6 - Added poisonous or deleterious substances.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...tolerance for an added poisonous or deleterious substance in any food may be established...limit for an added poisonous or deleterious substance in any food may be established...level for an added poisonous or deleterious substance in any food may be...

2010-04-01

308

21 CFR 109.6 - Added poisonous or deleterious substances.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...tolerance for an added poisonous or deleterious substance in any food may be established...limit for an added poisonous or deleterious substance in any food may be established...level for an added poisonous or deleterious substance in any food may be...

2011-04-01

309

21 CFR 109.6 - Added poisonous or deleterious substances.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...tolerance for an added poisonous or deleterious substance in any food may be established...limit for an added poisonous or deleterious substance in any food may be established...level for an added poisonous or deleterious substance in any food may be...

2014-04-01

310

21 CFR 109.6 - Added poisonous or deleterious substances.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...tolerance for an added poisonous or deleterious substance in any food may be established...limit for an added poisonous or deleterious substance in any food may be established...level for an added poisonous or deleterious substance in any food may be...

2013-04-01

311

21 CFR 509.6 - Added poisonous or deleterious substances.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...tolerance for an added poisonous or deleterious substance in any food may be established...limit for an added poisonous or deleterious substance in any food may be established...level for an added poisonous or deleterious substance in any food may be...

2012-04-01

312

78 FR 17069 - National Poison Prevention Week, 2013  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...March 15, 2013 National Poison Prevention Week, 2013 By the President of the United States...have marked National Poison Prevention Week by highlighting the steps we can take to...loved ones from accidental poisoning. This week, we carry that tradition forward by...

2013-03-20

313

Corpus callosum atrophy and neuropsychological outcome following carbon monoxide poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study assessed the effects of carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning on the corpus callosum (CC). Sixty-two CO-poisoned patients had MRI scans and a battery of neuropsychological tests within 24 h (day of exposure) of CO poisoning and at 6 months post CO exposure. Serial quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (QMRI) analysis of the CC was carried out, with the day of

Scott S Porter; Ramona O Hopkins; Lindell K Weaver; Erin D Bigler; Duane D Blatter

2002-01-01

314

Seasonal variation in carbon monoxide poisoning in urban Korea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seasonal variation in carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning during 1969-78 was examined using the monthly hospital admissions and environmental weather data from Seoul, Korea. The results showed that there were nine times as many cases of CO poisoning in December as in August. CO poisoning cases were significantly correlated with temperature and domestic fires but not significantly with relative humidity. The

Y S Kim

1985-01-01

315

Fight Homemade Poisons: Home Food Care and Preservation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of a series of instructional materials produced by the Literacy Council of Alaska, this booklet provides information about food poisoning. Using a simplified vocabulary and shorter sentences, it explains the various kinds of food poisoning, how people get food poisoning, and how to prevent it. (FL)

Keller, Rosanne

316

[Survival after oral poisoning with insecticide against moles containing aluminium phosphide].  

PubMed

A 31-year-old man presented with abdominal pain and vomiting with a smell of garlic and rotten fish. He was brought to the ER being circulatory affected, metabolic acidotic and he developed more episodes of arrhythmia. Oral poisoning with aluminium phosphide is a very serious condition due to release of the toxic phosphine gas. Treatment is symptomatic. To avoid contamination of the staff is it important to use air-tight containers for excretions and furthermore to use chemical clothing and breathing protection. PMID:23763928

Møller Eggertsen, Peter; Kristensen, Asgerd Krogh; Bredahl, Claus

2013-06-10

317

Selected Bibliography on Lead Poisoning in Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This comprehensive bibliography was prepared in response to the growing interest in the problem of childhood lead poisoning. Most of the papers noted are from the pediatric literature and include only those published in English. A limited number of papers on experiments in laboratory animals are cited. Documents are grouped under several general…

Lin-Fu, Jane S., Comp.

318

A systematic review of aluminium phosphide poisoning.  

PubMed

Every year, about 300,000 people die because of pesticide poisoning worldwide. The most common pesticide agents are organophosphates and phosphides, aluminium phosphide (AlP) in particular. AlP is known as a suicide poison that can easily be bought and has no effective antidote. Its toxicity results from the release of phosphine gas as the tablet gets into contact with moisture. Phosphine gas primarily affects the heart, lungs, gastrointestinal tract, and kidneys. Poisoning signs and symptoms include nausea, vomiting, restlessness, abdominal pain, palpitation, refractory shock, cardiac arrhythmias, pulmonary oedema, dyspnoea, cyanosis, and sensory alterations. Diagnosis is based on clinical suspicion, positive silver nitrate paper test to phosphine, and gastric aspirate and viscera biochemistry. Treatment includes early gastric lavage with potassium permanganate or a combination with coconut oil and sodium bicarbonate, administration of charcoal, and palliative care. Specific therapy includes intravenous magnesium sulphate and oral coconut oil. Moreover, acidosis can be treated with early intravenous administration of sodium bicarbonate, cardiogenic shock with fluid, vasopresor, and refractory cardiogenic shock with intra-aortic baloon pump or digoxin. Trimetazidine may also have a useful role in the treatment, because it can stop ventricular ectopic beats and bigeminy and preserve oxidative metabolism. This article reviews the epidemiological, toxicological, and clinical/pathological aspects of AlP poisoning and its management. PMID:22450207

Mehrpour, Omid; Jafarzadeh, Mostafa; Abdollahi, Mohammad

2012-03-01

319

Fatal brodifacoum poisoning in a pony  

PubMed Central

Fatal brodifacoum poisoning in a pony is described; this condition has not previously been reported in ponies. Discussion of what factors in the pony’s history and treatment may have predisposed to the severity and ultimate death is provided. PMID:17616062

Ayala, Ignacio; Rodríguez, Mª Jesús; Martos, Nieves; Zilberschtein, José; Ruíz, Isidro; Motas, Miguel

2007-01-01

320

Carbon monoxide poisoning — a public health perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon monoxide (CO) may be the cause of more than one-half of the fatal poisonings reported in many countries; fatal cases also are grossly under-reported or misdiagnosed by medical professionals. Therefore, the precise number of individuals who have suffered from CO intoxication is not known. The health effects associated with exposure to CO range from the more subtle cardiovascular and

James A. Raub; Monique Mathieu-Nolf; Neil B. Hampson; Stephen R. Thom

2000-01-01

321

Detection of Kaminsky DNS Cache Poisoning Attack  

Microsoft Academic Search

We statistically investigated the total inbound standard DNS resolution traffic from the Internet to the top domain DNS server in a university campus network through January 1st to December 31st, 2010. The following results are obtained: (1) We found five Kaminsky DNS Cache Poisoning (Kaminsky) attacks in observation of rapid decrease in the unique source IP address based entropy of

Yasuo Musashi; Masaya Kumagai; Shinichiro Kubota; Kenichi Sugitani

2011-01-01

322

Dns cache poisoning-the next generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The old problem of DNS cache poisoning has again reared its ugly head. While some would argue that the domain name system protocol is inherently vulnerable to this style of attack due to the weakness of 16-bit transaction IDs, we cannot ignore the immediate threat while waiting for something better to come along. There are new attacks, which make DNS

J. Stewart

2003-01-01

323

Important poisonous plants of the United States  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Poisonous plants and the secondary compounds they produce cause large economic losses to the livestock industry throughout the world. Catastrophic losses have occurred in certain regions of the U.S. when changing conditions alter the typical forage availability and create unusual management challen...

324

Psychiatric Hospitalization after Deliberate Self-Poisoning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The decision for psychiatric hospitalization after deliberate self-poisoning (DSP) is not well understood. This study, a longitudinal cohort study of 3,148 consecutive DSP patients found 920 (29.2%) subjects were referred for psychiatric hospitalization, 576 (18.3%) on involuntary basis. A logistic regression analysis showed increased risk for:…

Carter, Gregory L.; Safranko, Ivan; Lewin, Terry J.; Whyte, Ian M.; Bryant, Jennifer L.

2006-01-01

325

Poisoning by Indigofera lespedezioides in horses  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Poisoning by Indigofera lespedezioides is reported in horses in the state of Roraima, northern Brazil. The main clinical signs are anorexia, sleepiness, unsteady gait, severe ataxia, weakness, stumbling, and progressive weight loss. To induce the disease experimentally, a 7-year-old horse was introd...

326

Diarrhetic Shellfish Poisoning, Washington, USA, 2011  

PubMed Central

Diarrhetic shellfish poisoning is a gastrointestinal illness caused by consumption of bivalves contaminated with dinophysistoxins. We report an illness cluster in the United States in which toxins were confirmed in shellfish from a commercial harvest area, leading to product recall. Ongoing surveillance is needed to prevent similar illness outbreaks. PMID:23876232

Duchin, Jeffrey S.; Borchert, Jerry; Quintana, Harold Flores; Robertson, Alison

2013-01-01

327

Poisonous Plants of the United States  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Poisonous plants cause significant economic losses to the livestock industry throughout the world from death losses, abortions, birth defects, increased veterinary care, and other related factors. This chapter is not intended to be all-inclusive, but provides current research information on importan...

328

"The Most Poisonous Force in Technology"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Walt Mossberg, personal-technology columnist for "The Wall Street Journal," highlighted technology trends in his speech to a group of college presidents and other administrators. Mr. Mossberg touched a nerve when he called information-technology departments of large organizations, including colleges, "the most regressive and poisonous force in…

Carnevale, Dan

2007-01-01

329

Harmful Algal Blooms: Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This University of Maryland SeaGrant web page explores outbreaks of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP), a problem on both the East and West coasts of the US that is caused by several closely related species in the genus Alexandrium. The page explores the underlying physical mechanisms and localization of PSP outbreaks, as well as economic impact.

Jacobs, Dan

330

Acute Oral Poisoning Due to Chloracetanilide Herbicides  

PubMed Central

Chloracetanilide herbicides (alachlor, butachlor, metachlor) are used widely. Although there are much data about chronic low dose exposure to chloracetanilide in humans and animals, there are few data about acute chloracetanilide poisoning in humans. This study investigated the clinical feature of patients following acute oral exposure to chloracetanilide. We retrospectively reviewed the data on the patients who were admitted to two university hospitals from January 2006 to December 2010. Thirty-five patients were enrolled. Among them, 28, 5, and 2 cases of acute alachlor, metachlor, butachlor poisoning were included. The mean age was 49.8 ± 15.4 yr. The poison severity score (PSS) was 17 (48.6%), 10 (28.6%), 5 (14.3%), 2 (5.7%), and 1 (2.9%) patients with a PSS of 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively. The age was higher for the symptomatic patients (1-4 PSS) than that for the asymptomatic patients (0 PSS) (43.6 ± 15.2 vs 55.7 ± 13.5). The arterial blood HCO3 ¯ was lower in the symptomatic patients (1-4 PSS) than that in the asymptomatic patients (0 PSS). Three patients were a comatous. One patient died 24 hr after the exposure. In conclusion, although chloracetanilide poisoning is usually of low toxicity, elder patients with central nervous system symptoms should be closely monitored and cared after oral exposure. PMID:22323855

Seok, Su-Jin; Choi, Sang-Cheon; Yang, Jong-Oh; Lee, Eun-Young; Song, Ho-Yeon; Hong, Sae-Yong

2012-01-01

331

Acute oral poisoning due to chloracetanilide herbicides.  

PubMed

Chloracetanilide herbicides (alachlor, butachlor, metachlor) are used widely. Although there are much data about chronic low dose exposure to chloracetanilide in humans and animals, there are few data about acute chloracetanilide poisoning in humans. This study investigated the clinical feature of patients following acute oral exposure to chloracetanilide. We retrospectively reviewed the data on the patients who were admitted to two university hospitals from January 2006 to December 2010. Thirty-five patients were enrolled. Among them, 28, 5, and 2 cases of acute alachlor, metachlor, butachlor poisoning were included. The mean age was 49.8 ± 15.4 yr. The poison severity score (PSS) was 17 (48.6%), 10 (28.6%), 5 (14.3%), 2 (5.7%), and 1 (2.9%) patients with a PSS of 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively. The age was higher for the symptomatic patients (1-4 PSS) than that for the asymptomatic patients (0 PSS) (43.6 ± 15.2 vs 55.7 ± 13.5). The arterial blood HCO?? was lower in the symptomatic patients (1-4 PSS) than that in the asymptomatic patients (0 PSS). Three patients were a comatous. One patient died 24 hr after the exposure. In conclusion, although chloracetanilide poisoning is usually of low toxicity, elder patients with central nervous system symptoms should be closely monitored and cared after oral exposure. PMID:22323855

Seok, Su-Jin; Choi, Sang-Cheon; Gil, Hyo-Wook; Yang, Jong-Oh; Lee, Eun-Young; Song, Ho-Yeon; Hong, Sae-Yong

2012-02-01

332

Poisonous Plants. LC Science Tracer Bullet.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There are a number of sources of information on the more than 700 species of plants, ferns, horsetails, and fungi that can cause toxic, though rarely fatal, reactions in humans and animals. This guide is intended for those who wish to review published materials on poisonous plants in the collections of the Library of Congress. It is not intended…

Carter, Constance, Comp.

333

Gastrointestinal decontamination in the acutely poisoned patient  

PubMed Central

Objective To define the role of gastrointestinal (GI) decontamination of the poisoned patient. Data Sources A computer-based PubMed/MEDLINE search of the literature on GI decontamination in the poisoned patient with cross referencing of sources. Study Selection and Data Extraction Clinical, animal and in vitro studies were reviewed for clinical relevance to GI decontamination of the poisoned patient. Data Synthesis The literature suggests that previously, widely used, aggressive approaches including the use of ipecac syrup, gastric lavage, and cathartics are now rarely recommended. Whole bowel irrigation is still often recommended for slow-release drugs, metals, and patients who "pack" or "stuff" foreign bodies filled with drugs of abuse, but with little quality data to support it. Activated charcoal (AC), single or multiple doses, was also a previous mainstay of GI decontamination, but the utility of AC is now recognized to be limited and more time dependent than previously practiced. These recommendations have resulted in several treatment guidelines that are mostly based on retrospective analysis, animal studies or small case series, and rarely based on randomized clinical trials. Conclusions The current literature supports limited use of GI decontamination of the poisoned patient. PMID:21992527

2011-01-01

334

Carbon Monoxide Poisoning in an Elementary School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Described is an investigation conducted by municipal inspection and code enforcement personnel following an episode of carbon monoxide poisoning among elementary school children in a small eastern Pennsylvania community in 1975. The need for a reevaluation of existing building code standards is emphasized. (BT)

Comfort, Robert J.; Daveler, Jay

1977-01-01

335

Delayed postanoxic encephalopathy after carbon monoxide poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Delayed postanoxic encephalopathy causes deterioration and relapse of cognitive ability and behavioural movement a few weeks after complete recovery from initial hypoxic injury. A case is reported of delayed postanoxic encephalopathy after carbon monoxide poisoning, which was diagnosed with diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging. The literature is also reviewed.

O Y Kwon; S P Chung; Y R Ha; I S Yoo; S W Kim

2004-01-01

336

Severe chorea after acute carbon monoxide poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ten days after an acute exposure to carbon monoxide, a 33-year-old woman exhibited severe chorea. CT scan revealed bilateral lucencies of the pallidum and anterior arm of the internal capsule. Chorea was successfully treated by chlorpromazine and did not relapse after treatment withdrawal. The mechanism of chorea in acute carbon monoxide poisoning is discussed.

P Davous; P Rondot; M H Marion; B Gueguen

1986-01-01

337

Experimental Panicum miliaceum poisoning in sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical, laboratory and necropsy findings of experimentally produced Panicum miliaceum poisoning in sheep. Ten native apparently healthy male crossbred sheep, aged about 6–8 months old were used in the experiment. The animals were randomly divided into two groups, five sheep as control and five as experimental group. Both groups were kept

K. Badiei; K. Mostaghni; S. Nazifi; A. Khodakaram Tafti; M. Ghane; S. A. Momeni

2009-01-01

338

Harmful Algal Blooms: Neurotoxic Shellfish Poisoning  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This University of Maryland SeaGrant web page discusses the toxic dinoflagellate Gymnodinium breve and its role in red tide blooms and Neurotoxic Shellfish Poisoning (NSP). The page explores the economic, ecological, and health-related effects of red tide blooms, and the causative accumulation of G. breve into blooms that produce the powerful neurotoxins known as brevetoxins.

Kane, Andrew; Jacobs, Dan; The Aquatic Pathobiology Center, University of Maryland; Maryland SeaGrant

339

Poison frogs rely on experience to find the way home in the rainforest  

PubMed Central

Among vertebrates, comparable spatial learning abilities have been found in birds, mammals, turtles and fishes, but virtually nothing is known about such abilities in amphibians. Overall, amphibians are the most sedentary vertebrates, but poison frogs (Dendrobatidae) routinely shuttle tadpoles from terrestrial territories to dispersed aquatic deposition sites. We hypothesize that dendrobatid frogs rely on learning for flexible navigation. We tested the role of experience with the local cues for poison frog way-finding by (i) experimentally displacing territorial males of Allobates femoralis over several hundred metres, (ii) using a harmonic direction finder with miniature transponders to track these small frogs, and (iii) using a natural river barrier to separate the translocated frogs from any familiar landmarks. We found that homeward orientation was disrupted by the translocation to the unfamiliar area but frogs translocated over similar distances in their local area showed significant homeward orientation and returned to their territories via a direct path. We suggest that poison frogs rely on spatial learning for way-finding in their local area. PMID:25411379

Pašukonis, Andrius; Warrington, Ian; Ringler, Max; Hödl, Walter

2014-01-01

340

Poison frogs rely on experience to find the way home in the rainforest.  

PubMed

Among vertebrates, comparable spatial learning abilities have been found in birds, mammals, turtles and fishes, but virtually nothing is known about such abilities in amphibians. Overall, amphibians are the most sedentary vertebrates, but poison frogs (Dendrobatidae) routinely shuttle tadpoles from terrestrial territories to dispersed aquatic deposition sites. We hypothesize that dendrobatid frogs rely on learning for flexible navigation. We tested the role of experience with the local cues for poison frog way-finding by (i) experimentally displacing territorial males of Allobates femoralis over several hundred metres, (ii) using a harmonic direction finder with miniature transponders to track these small frogs, and (iii) using a natural river barrier to separate the translocated frogs from any familiar landmarks. We found that homeward orientation was disrupted by the translocation to the unfamiliar area but frogs translocated over similar distances in their local area showed significant homeward orientation and returned to their territories via a direct path. We suggest that poison frogs rely on spatial learning for way-finding in their local area. PMID:25411379

Pašukonis, Andrius; Warrington, Ian; Ringler, Max; Hödl, Walter

2014-11-01

341

A rapid detection method for paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins by cell bioassay.  

PubMed

We report here a rapid detection method for paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins using a cultured neuroblastoma cell line, modified from the bioassay system previously established by Manger et al. [Manger, R.L., Leja, L.S., Lee, S.Y., Hungerford, J.M., Kirkpatrick, M.A., Yasumoto, T., Wekell, M.M., 2003. Detection of paralytic shellfish poison by rapid cell bioassay: antagonism of voltage-gated sodium channel active toxins in vitro. J. AOAC Int. 86 (3), 540-543]. In the present study, we made two major modifications to the previous method. The first is the use of maitotoxin, a marine toxin of ciguatera fish poisoning, which enables the incubation period to be reduced to 6 h when applied to the microplate 15 min prior to the end of the incubation. The second is the use of WST-8, a dehydrogenase detecting water-soluble tetrazolium salt for determining the target cell viability, which permits the omission of a washing step and simplifies the counting process. In addition, we attempted to reduce the required materials as much as possible. Thus, our modified method should be useful for screening the PSP-toxins from shellfish. PMID:15922387

Okumura, Masanao; Tsuzuki, Hideaki; Tomita, Ban-Ichi

2005-07-01

342

Fish Research  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video segment from IdahoPTV's D4K explains the Chinook salmon's life cycle in the Pacific Northwest and why it is an endangered species. A fisheries biologist takes students through some steps of fish research with explanations of the kinds of information biologists gather to perhaps help manage fish recovery.

Ptv, Idaho

2011-10-06

343

Robot Fish  

E-print Network

Broadcast transcript: Usually you expect this kind of news from Japan but this time it's South Korea where scientists have just created a robotic fish. Yes, folks, this is an electronic fish that can live underwater. At depths of up to 100 meters...

Hacker, Randi

2009-12-30

344

Fish Face  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

The Pacific sand lance is an important forage fish found in Puget Sound.  They employ a unique strategy of burrowing into sand to rest and conserve energy, and to avoid predation.  The USGS is currently studying forage fish spawning, and how human development may be affecting their habitat....

345

Recognizing and Preventing Overexposure to Methylmercury from Fish and Seafood Consumption: Information for Physicians  

PubMed Central

Fish is a valuable source of nutrition, and many people would benefit from eating fish regularly. But some people eat a lot of fish, every day or several meals per week, and thus can run a significant risk of overexposure to methylmercury. Current advice regarding methylmercury from fish consumption is targeted to protect the developing brain and nervous system but adverse health effects are increasingly associated with adult chronic low-level methylmercury exposure. Manifestations of methylmercury poisoning are variable and may be difficult to detect unless one considers this specific diagnosis and does an appropriate test (blood or hair analysis). We provide information to physicians to recognize and prevent overexposure to methylmercury from fish and seafood consumption. Physicians are urged to ask patients if they eat fish: how often, how much, and what kinds. People who eat fish frequently (once a week or more often) and pregnant women are advised to choose low mercury fish. PMID:21785592

Silbernagel, Susan M.; Carpenter, David O.; Gilbert, Steven G.; Gochfeld, Michael; Groth, Edward; Hightower, Jane M.; Schiavone, Frederick M.

2011-01-01

346

VERTEBRATES OF FISH LAKE  

E-print Network

VERTEBRATES OF FISH LAKE CAUTION! FISH LAKE SCAVANGER HUNT RED HEADED is another majestic bird of Fish Lake. These birds can be seen perched at Fish Lake. CLUB-TAIL DRAGONFLY INSECTS OF FISH LAKE There are A LOT

Minnesota, University of

347

Childhood self-poisoning: a one-year review.  

PubMed

Self-poisoning in children is a serious health concern accounting for 2% and 5% of childhood deaths in the developed and developing world, respectively. Type of poison and intent varies between age groups, with alcohol poisoning becoming increasingly common in teenagers. The aim of the study was to identify the characteristics of paediatric self-poisoning at Ninewells Hospital, Dundee, as a function of age, sex, intent and type of poison. Data from patients under the age of 17 presenting to Ninewells Hospital's Emergency Department with self-poisoning from 1 December 2008 to 30 November 2009 inclusive were identified, classified and analysed using chi-square testing. Overall there was no significant difference in gender. However, females significantly dominated in the ?12<17 years age group, with older females also significantly more likely to deliberately self-poison. Alcohol was the sole cause of accidental self-poisoning in this age group while paracetamol was used in the majority of cases of deliberate self-poisoning. In the <6 years age group, household chemical ingestion and over-the-counter medications were the most common poisons. The findings reflect previous published data and national trends. The prevalence of alcohol abuse in the ?12<17 years age group is a major public health issue that must be addressed. PMID:23138578

Neilson, Z E; Morrison, W

2012-11-01

348

Fish Stories  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This 48 minute radio broadcast contains three fish tales. First discussed is the fact that researchers have found that much of the fish sold as red snapper in the United States may actually be something else. The show explores the unusual behavior of the midshipman fish, which hums to attract a mate. New research indicates a connection between the hormone levels in the female of the species and its ability to hear the humming males. Finally, the show discusses jellyfish, and whether jelly blooms have an environmental significance.

349

[Mushroom poisoning--classification, symptoms and therapy].  

PubMed

The most serious poisonings are the hepatotoxic ones which are caused above all by Amanita phalloides, virosa, verna, Lepiota helveola, Galerina marginata, Gyromitra esculenta, Hypholoma fasciculare, and nephroptoxic intoxications which are caused above all by Cortinarius orrelanus and Paxillus involutus. Neurotoxic and psychotropic intoxications develop after ingestion of Inocybe, Clitocybe, Amanita-panterina, muscaria and Psilocybe. Most frequently the gastroenteric type of mushroom poisoning is encountered which is caused by many species e.g. Boletus satanas, Entoloma sinuatum and others. In the diagnosis anamnestic data are used, the clinical picture, mycological and toxicological examinations of residues of mushrooms, their spores and toxins. Therapeutic strategy comprises elimination methods gastric lavage, intestinal lavage and administration of large amounts of animal charcoal, forced diuresis, haemoperfusion, haemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis, administration of antidotes and symptomatic treatment, i.e. mainly rehydration and restoration of the mineral balance. Early and comprehensive treatment are important. PMID:9601842

Kohn, R; Mot'ovská, Z

1997-04-01

350

Accidental poisoning in children in Jaipur (Rajasthan)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 1. \\u000a \\u000a The study includes data of 80 cases of chemical poisoning in children under 12 years of age.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 2. \\u000a \\u000a 78.7% of all the poisonings occurred between 0–3 years, of which the maximum incidence (59.7%) was encountered between 1–3\\u000a years.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 3. \\u000a \\u000a Males were predominantly affected.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 4. \\u000a \\u000a Household substances were responsible for the maximum number of cases (73.7%) in which kerosene

Usha Sharma; S. Saxena Jaipur

1974-01-01

351

Saturnine curse: a history of lead poisoning  

SciTech Connect

Over the past ten years there has been increasing recognition of subacute and chronic lead poisoning and a growing awareness of its pathophysiology and clinical effects. Besides the classic manifestations of abdominal colic, seizures, and anemia progressing to gout, renal disease, and neuropathy, more subtle manifestations are now being increasingly recognized, such as the development of hypertension, neurobehavioral changes, reproductive and endocrine abnormalities, a possible role in carcinogenesis, and an overall increase in morbidity and mortality. Lead was one of the seven metals of antiquity, and it has accompanied the Eurasian and American civilizations since their beginnings. Lead is an extremely pernicious metal with a multitude of adverse effects. The recurring nature of lead poisoning throughout the development of civilization can truly be referred to as the saturnine curse. 16 references.

Green, D.W.

1985-01-01

352

Experimental lead poisoning in the baboon  

PubMed Central

Hopkins, A. (1970).Brit. J. industr. Med.,27, 130-140. Experimental lead poisoning in the baboon. Twelve large and three infant baboons were poisoned by the intratracheal injection of lead carbonate in doses ranging from 50 to 135 mg/kg for 39 to 362 days. Eight baboons had one or more epileptic fits. Weakness of the limbs, believed to be of central origin, was seen in three of them. The effect of single and multiple doses of lead on the blood lead is recorded. Anaemia and punctate basophilia were not found. Measurements of nerve conduction velocity, electromyography and histological examination showed no abnormality of the peripheral nerves. The different effects of lead upon different species are discussed. Images PMID:4987891

Hopkins, Anthony

1970-01-01

353

Gastrointestinal hemorrhage in aluminum phosphide poisoning.  

PubMed

Poisoning, both accidental and intentional, is a significant contributor to the mortality and morbidity throughout the world. The commonest pesticide poisoning is organophosphates followed by phosphides. Ingestion of phosphides can induce severe gastrointestinal irritation leading to hemorrhage and ulcerations. Gastrointestinal hemorrhages and ulcerations beyond the duodenum have not been reported in the literature. Here, we report a case of severe hemorrhages and ulcerations in stomach, duodenum, jejunum, and ileum observed in a 45-year-old male who had consumed five tablets of Celphos(®) (each 3 g with 56% aluminum phosphide and 44% Ammonium carbonate) to commit suicide. He started vomiting after consumption, and the vomitus was blood-tinged. Once the treatment was instituted, he was stable for a day and thereafter his condition gradually deteriorated. He died on the 4th day of hospitalization, and autopsy revealed features of multiorgan failure and extensive gastrointestinal hemorrhages. PMID:25098904

Hugar, Basappa S; Praveen, Shivaramareddy; Hosahally, Jayanth S; Kainoor, Sunilkumar; Shetty, Akshith Raj S

2015-01-01

354

[Fatal voluntary poisoning by parenteral paraquat].  

PubMed

Paraquat is a potent herbicide, very toxic in the concentrated liquid form as supplied to farmers. Suicidal poisoning represents a serious emergency with a known high mortality rate. Suicidal poisoning following the parenteral route has been rarely reported. A 16-year-old girl was admitted to our emergency unit after subcutaneous injection of gramoxone 20% (about 400 mg of paraquat). Despite immediate surgical excision and revision, and subsequent antioxidant treatment with N-acetylcysteine (400 mg/kg/day during 48 hours), she died 17 days later from refractory hypoxemia following pulmonary fibrosis. From this observation and from the literature, it appears that an effective treatment does not depend on changes in the toxicokinetics of the herbicide (hemoperfusion, antidotes, drugs). PMID:1925459

Pedrazzini, G B; Saglini, V; Pedrinis, E; Mombelli, G; Domenighetti, G

1991-09-01

355

Aluminum phosphide poisoning--a review.  

PubMed

Aluminum phosphide poisoning is common in the rural belt of Northern India. The release of cytotoxic phosphine gas primarily affects the heart, lungs, gastrointestinal tract and kidneys, although all organs can be involved. The cellular site of action of phosphine requires further definition. Diagnosis is made by clinical suspicion, silver nitrate test and biochemical examination of the gastric aspirate and viscera. Treatment consists of early gastric lavage, vasopressors and supportive care. Specific therapy with intravenous magnesium sulphate is recommended. PMID:7837309

Gupta, S; Ahlawat, S K

1995-01-01

356

Hearing Loss due to Carbon Monoxide Poisoning.  

PubMed

Carbon monoxide poisoning is one of the rare causes of hearing loss which may cause reversible or irreversible, unilateral or bilateral hearing loss after acute or chronic exposure. In this report, we present a case of bilateral sensorineural hearing loss in a secondary smelting workshop worker after an acute exposure to carbon monoxide. This complication was diagnosed by pure-tone audiometry and confirmed by transient evoked otoacoustic emissions. Hearing loss has not improved after 3 months of followup. PMID:23762709

Mehrparvar, Amir Houshang; Davari, Mohammad Hossein; Mollasadeghi, Abolfazl; Vahidi, Mohammad Reza; Mostaghaci, Mehrdad; Bahaloo, Maryam; Shokouh, Pedram

2013-01-01

357

Lead poisoning in six captive avian species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus), brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater), common grackles (Quiscalus quiscula), mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), northern bobwhites (Colinus virginianus), and eastern screech-owls (Otus asio) were poisoned with a concentration of lead (Pb) acetate in the diet which was increased by 60% each week until half of the birds in each treatment group died; surviving birds and all control birds except

W. Nelson Beyer; James W. Spann; Louis Sileo; J. Christian Franson

1988-01-01

358

Elevated cardiac enzymes due to mushroom poisoning.  

PubMed

Mushroom poisoning is an important reason of plant toxicity. Wild mushrooms that gathered from pastures and forests can be dangerous for human health. The clinical outcomes and symptoms of mushroom toxicity vary from mild gastrointestinal symptoms to acute multiple organ failure. Toxic effects to kidney and liver of amatoxin are common but cardiotoxic effects are unusual. In this case, we reported the cardiotoxic effect of amatoxin with the elevated troponin-I without any additional finding in electrocardiography, echocardiography and angiography. PMID:25567466

Avc?, Sema; Usul, Eren; Kavak, Nezih; Büyükcam, Fatih; Arslan, Engin Deniz; Genç, Selim; Özkan, Seda

2014-01-01

359

Clinical and epidemiological aspects of methylmercury poisoning.  

PubMed Central

An opportunity to study the effects of methylmercury poisoning in humans was provided by the large outbreak in Iraq in 1971-2. In adults, poisoning resulted from the ingestion of home-made bread prepared from methylmercury-treated seed grain and there was a highly significant correlation between the amount of bread ingested and blood mercury levels. Poisoning in infants resulted either from prior exposure in utero or from suckling or both. Blood mercury levels were higher in infants and children than in adults. There was no increased incidence of congenital defects. Symptoms and signs of poisoning and histopathological changes were mainly confined to the CNS. Symptoms developed, on average, 1-2 months after exposure. In children there was mental retardation with delayed onset of speech and impaired motor, sensory and autonomic function. Severely affected children were blind and deaf. In adults, the clinical picture could be classified as 1, mild (mainly of sensory symptoms) 2, moderate (sensory symptoms accompanied by cerebellar signs) and 3, severe (gross ataxia with marked visual and hearing loss which, in some cases, progressed to akinetic mutism followed by coma). Grades 1 and 2 carried a better prognosis thant grade 3. Interference with transmission at the myoneural junction was found in 14% of patients studied. There was no evidence of peripheral nerve involvement per se and sensory symptoms may be of central origin. The clinical differences between the Iraqi and Japanese outbreaks may be a result, in part at least, of the severe, prolonged and continuous exposure which occurred in the latter outbreak. Improvement was observed among the mild and moderate group. Treatment with chelating agents, thiol resin, haemodialysis and exchange transfusion lowered blood mercury concentrations but produced no convincing clinical benefit. To be effective, treatment may need to be instituted soon after exposure. PMID:7383945

Bakir, F.; Rustam, H.; Tikriti, S.; Al-Damluji, S. F.; Shihristani, H.

1980-01-01

360

Acute phenylbutazone poisoning in a child.  

PubMed

Accidental acute intoxication with phenylbutazone in a 2 1/2-year-old child produced an acute picture of coma, convulsions, diarrhoea, and of cholestatic jaundice which evolved over the succeeding 10 days. Transient, unexplained hyperglycaemia occurred during the first few hours of the illness. Recovery was complete within three weeks after the poisoning. Her clinical progress was monitored with the aid of regular estimations of plasma phenylbutazone levels. PMID:6843432

Bury, R W; Mashford, M L; Glaun, B P; Saaroni, G

1983-05-14

361

Iatrogenic salt poisoning in captive sandhill cranes.  

PubMed

Salt poisoning developed in captive sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis) when sea salt was added to normal drinking water to produce a sodium chloride concentration of 1%. Two of 18 cranes died and 2 were euthanatized when moribund. Muscle weakness, paresis, dyspnea, and depression were observed. Brain and serum sodium, serum uric acid, and plasma osmolality values were abnormally high. Lesions were those of visceral gout, renal tubular necrosis, nephrosis, and skeletal muscle necrosis. PMID:7328005

Franson, J C; Sileo, L; Fleming, W J

1981-12-01

362

Bacillus cereus and its food poisoning toxins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacillus cereus is becoming one of the more important causes of food poisoning in the industrialised world. It produces one emetic toxin and three different enterotoxins. The emetic toxin is a ring-shaped structure of three repeats of four amino and\\/or oxy acids: [d-O-Leu-d-Ala-l-O-Val-l-Val]3. This ring structure has a molecular mass of 1.2 kDa, and is chemically closely related to the

Per Einar Granum; Terje Lund

1997-01-01

363

INTENTIONAL POISONING OF BIRDS WITH PARATHION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intentional poisoning of birds by farmers is not uncommon but is rarely documented and given proper attention. Two recent cases from New York are illustrative. In the first, at least 5,120 birds, mostly Red-winged Black- birds (Age&us phoeniceus), Common Grackles (Quisculus quisculu) and Brown- headed Cowbirds (Molothrus ater) were killed by parathion- (an organophosphate insecticide) treated corn, which had been

WARD B. STONE; STEPHEN R. OVERMANN; JOSEPH C. OKONIEWSKI

364

POISON SPIDER FIELD CHEMICAL FLOOD PROJECT, WYOMING  

Microsoft Academic Search

A reservoir engineering and geologic study concluded that approximate 7,852,000 bbls of target oil exits in Poison Spider. Field pore volume, OOIP, and initial oil saturation are defined. Potential injection water has a total dissolved solids content of 1,275 mg\\/L with no measurable divalent cations. If the Lakota water consistently has no measurable cations, the injection water does not require

Douglas Arnell; Malcolm Pitts; Jie Qi

2004-01-01

365

Delayed Movement Disorders after Carbon Monoxide Poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Of 242 patients with carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning examined between 1986 and 1996, delayed movement disorders were diagnosed in 32 (13.2%). There were 15 men and 17 women. Ages at insult ranged from 9 to 69 years (mean 45.3 years). Of the 32 patients with delayed movement disorders, 23 (71.9%) had parkinsonism, 5 dystonia, 3 chorea and 1 myoclonus. All

Il Saing Choi; Hwa Young Cheon

1999-01-01

366

Deactivation and poisoning of fuel cell catalysts  

SciTech Connect

The deactivation and poisoning phenomena reviewed are: the poisoning of anode (fuel electrode) catalyst by carbon monoxide and hydrogen sulfide; the deactivation of the cathode (air electrode) catalyst by sintering; and the deactivation of the cathode by corrosion of the support. The anode catalyst is Pt supported on a conductive, high area carbon black, usually at a loading of 10 w/o. This catalyst is tolerant to some level of carbon monoxide or hydrogen sulfide or both in combination, the level depending on temperature and pressure. Carbon monoxide poisoning has been studied extensively, including detailed adsorption studies at various temperatures and pressures. Predictive models have been developed that effectively predict anode tolerance to carbon monoxide. Much less is known about hydrogen sulfide poisoning. Typical tolerance levels are 2% CO, and 10 ppM H/sub 2/S. The cathode catalyst is typically Pt supported on a graphitic carbon black, usually a furnace black heat-treated to 2700/sup 0/C. The Pt loading is typically 10 w/o, and the dispersion (or percent exposed) as-prepared is typically 30%. The loss of dispersion in use depends on the operational parameters, most especially the cathode potential history, i.e. higher potentials cause more rapid decrease in dispersion. The mechanism of loss of dispersion is not well known. The graphitic carbon support corrodes at a finite rate that is also potential dependent. Support corrosion causes thickening of the eletrolyte film between the gas pores and the catalyst particles, which in turn causes increased diffusional resistance and performance loss. In addition, support corrosion may also cause loss of Pt into the separator. Support corrosion appears to be the life limiting factor for phosphoric acid fuel cells.

Ross, P.N. Jr.

1985-06-01

367

Loading pattern sensitivity to burnable poison availability  

Microsoft Academic Search

An in-core fuel management study was performed utilizing the FORMOSA optimization code. Specifically, the authors studied the effectiveness of burnable poisons independent of core reactivity hold-down needs for three different objective functions: assembly quadrant power peaking P{sub max}{sup quad} minimization, end-of-cycle reactivity k{sub eff}{sup EOC} maximization, and discharge burnup BU{sup dis} maximization. The study consisted of determining near-optimum loading patterns

S. Sun; G. I. Maldonado; P. J. Turnisky

1992-01-01

368

Moldy sweetclover poisoning in a horse.  

PubMed

A six year old Percheron mare was presented with a history of spontaneous unilateral epistaxis of 24 hours duration. The blood one stage prothrombin and partial thromboplastin times were markedly prolonged. A diagnosis of moldy sweetclover poisoning was made on the basis of the history and clinical and laboratory findings. A single whole blood transfusion and four daily intravenous injections of vitamin K(3) proved to be a successful treatment. PMID:6159959

McDonald, G K

1980-09-01

369

Iatrogenic salt poisoning in captive sandhill cranes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Salt poisoning developed in captive sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis) when sea salt was added to normal drinking water to produce a sodium chloride concentration of 1%. Two of 18 cranes died and 2 were euthanatized when moribund. Muscle weakness, paresis, dyspnea, and depression were observed. Brain and serum sodium, serum uric acid,:and plasma osmolality values were abnormally high. Lesions were those of visceral gout, renal tubular necrosis, nephrosis, and skeletal muscle.necrosis.

Franson, J.C.; Sileo, L.; Fleming, W.J.

1981-01-01

370

Selected elements of Poison Pax Paxillus involutus.  

PubMed

Concentrations of Ag, Al, Ba, Ca, Cd, Co, Cu, Cr, Cs, Fe, Ga, Hg, K, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Ni, Pb, Rb, Se, Sb, Sr, V, Tl and Zn have been determined in the whole fruiting bodies as well as separately in caps and stalks of Poison Pax collected from three geographically distant sites across Poland. The elements were determined using ICP-MS, ICP-OES, HG-AAS and CV-AAS, respectively. Based on arithmetic mean and median values for Poison Pax specimens from the Lezno site the elements such as Ag, Co, Cr, Cs, Mn, Mo, K, Pb, Rb, Sb, Se, V and Tl occur at similar concentration both in the caps and stalks, while for Cd, Cu, Hg, Mg and Zn around two-fold greater concentrations were noted in caps than stalks (cap/stalk concentration quotient > 1). Cs, Cd, Ni and Rb occurred at much greater concentration in specimens collected from the K?odzka Hollow in the Sudety Mountains when compared to the lowland site (Mann-Whitney U-test), and slightly greater values were noted also for Cr, Mo and Rb, while for Ca, Co, Mg and Mn were smaller The results provide useful environmental and biological baseline level of information for metallic elements of Poison Pax. PMID:17616889

Falandysz, J; Kunito, T; Kubota, R; Brzostowski, A; Justyna, Mazur A; Falandysz, J; Tanabe, S

2007-07-01

371

Fish Allergy  

MedlinePLUS

... Always read ingredient labels to identify fish ingredients. Salmon, tuna and halibut are the most common kinds ... Hake Halibut Herring Mahi Mahi Perch Pike Pollock Salmon Scrod Swordfish Sole Snapper Tilapia Trout Tuna Some ...

372

Designer Fish.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Described is an activity in which students are asked to design a fish that would survive in a natural system. A project to computerize the activity is discussed. The development of this artificial intelligence software is detailed. (CW)

Hall, William R., Jr.

1990-01-01

373

About Fish  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity introduces students to an animal that is to be the subject of much experimentation by them. Because most fish have a relatively simple form and exhibit a wide variety of colors and patterns, they prove to be an excellent animal for experimental study of many aspects of coloration. The body of the lesson is devoted to a description and discussion of the external structure of fish.

Ipsen, David; Gillfillan, Gretchen L.; Judy Diamond (Revised New Edition); Judy Scotchmoor (Revised New Edition); Stebbins, Robert

2008-04-01

374

Acute paraquat poisoning with sinus bradycardia: A case report.  

PubMed

Paraquat (PQ) is a highly toxic herbicide, which not only leads to acute organ damage, but also to a variety of complications. Patients with severe PQ-induced poisoning may succumb to multiple organ failure involving the circulatory and respiratory systems. Although numerous studies have been performed investigating PQ poisoning, cases of extreme bradycardia caused by acute PQ-induced poisoning are rare. In the present case report, a 59-year-old male who ingested PQ was admitted to the Department of Poisoning and Occupational Disease at Qilu Hospital of Shandong University (Jinan, China) after three days. The patient received treatment known as the 'Qilu scheme', which was established in the Department of Poisoning and Occupational Disease. However, the heart rate of the patient remained low following the administration of conventional medicines, until thyroid tablets were administered. To the best of our knowledge, cases of bradycardia following PQ poisoning are rare. PMID:25289040

Song, Chengzhen; Kan, Baotian; Yu, Guangcai; Jian, Xiangdong; Wang, Jieru; Sun, Jing

2014-11-01

375

ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction Due to Carbon Monoxide Poisoning  

PubMed Central

Carbon monoxide is formed as a result of combustion of any carbon compound and can lead to hypoxia in many organs including the brain and the heart. Carbon monoxide poisoning in the United States is the leading cause of the fatal poisonings. In this study we present a case with no-known accompanying disease in the light of literature where myocardial infarction was developed as a result of carbon monoxide poisoning.

Gonullu, Hayriye; Karadas, Sevdegul; Aydin, Irfan; Vuruskan, Ertan

2011-01-01

376

ATROPINE AEROSOL SPRAY (AAS) BY NASAL APPLICATION IN ORGANOPHOSPHATE POISONING  

Microsoft Academic Search

Atropine aerosol spray (AAS) was used to treat three organophosphorus (OP)-intoxicated patients to determine if alternate routes of drug administration were as efficacious as intramuscular or intravenous routes when treating OP poisoning. Case I was a seriously intoxicated 20-year-old man classified as Namba IV (severe poisoning). Case II was a 25- year-old man classified as Namba II (mild poisoning), with

Gurayten Özyurt; Hülya Bilgin; Melda Gedik Kutsal

377

Cyanobacterial poisoning in livestock, wild mammals and birds – an overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

Poisoning of livestock by toxic cyanobacteria was first reported in the 19th century, and throughout the 20th century cyanobacteria–related poisonings of livestock and wildlife in all continents have been described. Some mass mortality\\u000a events involving unrelated fauna in prehistoric times have also been attributed to cyanotoxin poisoning; if correct, this\\u000a serves as a reminder that toxic cyanobacteria blooms predate anthropogenic

Ian Stewart; Alan A. Seawright; Glen R. Shaw

378

Multi-organ Dysfunction Syndrome with Dual Organophosphate Pesticides Poisoning  

PubMed Central

Organophosphate (OP) pesticide self-poisoning is common in developing countries. Poisoning with dual OP compounds is rare. Multi-organ dysfunction after OP poisoning has a high mortality rate. We report the case of a 27-year-old man who developed multi-organ dysfunction syndrome with fatal outcome after intentional ingestion of 50:50 mixture of two OP compounds, dichlorvos and profenofos. PMID:24403738

Mishra, Ajay; Pandya, Himanshu V.; Dave, Nikhil; Mehta, Manan

2013-01-01

379

Quasiparticle Poisoning in a Single Cooper-Pair Box  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the pheonomenon of quasiparticle poisoning in a single Cooper-pair box (SCB). We have designed, fabricated, and tested an SCB that demonstrates a transition between poisoned and unpoisoned Coulomb staircases, depending on the speed with which the gate charge is swept. Poisoning is shown to be suppressed at moderately high sweep rates. Coulomb staircases were measured for a variety of sweep rates, and quasiparticle tunneling rates were extracted from this data.

Schneiderman, J. F.; Delsing, P.; Johansson, G.; Shaw, M. D.; Bozler, H. M.; Echternach, P. M.

2006-09-01

380

An Atropa belladonna L. poisoning with acute subdural hematoma.  

PubMed

Atropa belladonna L. is a plant long known to cause poisoning. But no cases of acute subdural hematoma resulting from such poisoning have been reported so far. Care must also be taken in terms of acute pancreatitis and rhabdomyolysis in cases of such poisoning. The plant may sometimes be mistaken for the Caucasian blueberry, V. arctostaphylos L. At least one anti-cholinesterase toxidrome finding was determined in all the nine cases of belladonna poisoning in this series. No elevated creatine kinase was reported in one case with acute subdural hematoma and hyperamylasemia. PMID:21540312

Cikla, Ulas; Turkmen, Suha; Karaca, Yunus; Ayaz, Faik Ahmet; Ayaz, Ahmet Faik; Turedi, Suleyman; Gunduz, Abdulkadir

2011-12-01

381

Edinburgh Research Explorer Effect of the UK's revised paracetamol poisoning management  

E-print Network

Edinburgh Research Explorer Effect of the UK's revised paracetamol poisoning management guidelines of the UK's revised paracetamol poisoning management guidelines on admissions, adverse reactions and costs. 2014 #12;Effect of the UK's revised paracetamol poisoning management guidelines on admissions, adverse

Edinburgh, University of

382

21 CFR 2.110 - Definition of ammonia under Federal Caustic Poison Act.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Definition of ammonia under Federal Caustic Poison Act. 2...Caustic Poisons § 2.110 Definition of ammonia under Federal Caustic Poison Act. ...determining whether an article containing ammonia is subject to the Federal Caustic...

2013-04-01

383

21 CFR 2.110 - Definition of ammonia under Federal Caustic Poison Act.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Definition of ammonia under Federal Caustic Poison Act. 2...Caustic Poisons § 2.110 Definition of ammonia under Federal Caustic Poison Act. ...determining whether an article containing ammonia is subject to the Federal Caustic...

2010-04-01

384

21 CFR 2.110 - Definition of ammonia under Federal Caustic Poison Act.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false Definition of ammonia under Federal Caustic Poison Act. 2...Caustic Poisons § 2.110 Definition of ammonia under Federal Caustic Poison Act. ...determining whether an article containing ammonia is subject to the Federal Caustic...

2011-04-01

385

21 CFR 2.110 - Definition of ammonia under Federal Caustic Poison Act.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 false Definition of ammonia under Federal Caustic Poison Act. 2...Caustic Poisons § 2.110 Definition of ammonia under Federal Caustic Poison Act. ...determining whether an article containing ammonia is subject to the Federal Caustic...

2014-04-01

386

21 CFR 2.110 - Definition of ammonia under Federal Caustic Poison Act.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 false Definition of ammonia under Federal Caustic Poison Act. 2...Caustic Poisons § 2.110 Definition of ammonia under Federal Caustic Poison Act. ...determining whether an article containing ammonia is subject to the Federal Caustic...

2012-04-01

387

24 CFR 965.701 - Lead-based paint poisoning prevention.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lead-based paint poisoning prevention. 965.701 Section...PROJECTS-GENERAL PROVISIONS Lead-Based Paint Poisoning Prevention § 965.701 Lead-based paint poisoning prevention. The...

2010-04-01

388

24 CFR 965.701 - Lead-based paint poisoning prevention.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Lead-based paint poisoning prevention. 965.701 Section...PROJECTS-GENERAL PROVISIONS Lead-Based Paint Poisoning Prevention § 965.701 Lead-based paint poisoning prevention. The...

2012-04-01

389

24 CFR 965.701 - Lead-based paint poisoning prevention.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Lead-based paint poisoning prevention. 965.701 Section...PROJECTS-GENERAL PROVISIONS Lead-Based Paint Poisoning Prevention § 965.701 Lead-based paint poisoning prevention. The...

2011-04-01

390

24 CFR 965.701 - Lead-based paint poisoning prevention.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Lead-based paint poisoning prevention. 965.701 Section...PROJECTS-GENERAL PROVISIONS Lead-Based Paint Poisoning Prevention § 965.701 Lead-based paint poisoning prevention. The...

2013-04-01

391

24 CFR 965.701 - Lead-based paint poisoning prevention.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Lead-based paint poisoning prevention. 965.701 Section...PROJECTS-GENERAL PROVISIONS Lead-Based Paint Poisoning Prevention § 965.701 Lead-based paint poisoning prevention. The...

2014-04-01

392

3 CFR 8352 - Proclamation 8352 of March 13, 2009. National Poison Prevention Week, 2009  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...thousand deaths due to poisoning take place in the United States every year. Poisoning most frequently...dosages, and installing carbon monoxide detectors can all help...event of a potential poisoning, experts at...

2010-01-01

393

Global perspectives on poisonous plants: the 9th international symposium on poisonous plants.  

PubMed

The 9th International Symposium on Poisonous Plants (ISOPP9) was held July 15-21, 2013, at the Inner Mongolia Agricultural University in Hohhot, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region of China. The symposium consisted of three days of oral and poster presentations, followed by a tour of the Xilinhot Region of the Mongolian Grasslands, encompassing grazing conditions consisting of desert, grassland, and steppes. This was the first time that an ISOPP meeting has been held in Asia and provided an opportunity for visitors from outside China to become aware of livestock poisonings caused by plant species with which they were previously not familiar while at the same time demonstrating that many of the problems experienced around the world have a common etiology. Presentations focused on botany, veterinary science, toxicology, mechanism of action, and chemistry. As is appropriate for the Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, this cluster of papers consists of selected oral and poster presentations in which the chemistry of the toxins played a significant role. The symposium revealed that there is considerable scope for isolation, structural elucidation, and analysis of the toxins from the numerous poisonous plant species that have been identified in China. It became apparent that there are abundant opportunities for chemists both within China and abroad to collaborate with Chinese scientists working on biological aspects of livestock poisonings. PMID:24661202

Molyneux, Russell J; Panter, Kip E; Zhao, Mengli

2014-07-30

394

Secondary poisoning of eagles following intentional poisoning of coyotes with anticholinesterase pesticides in western Canada.  

PubMed

Records of eagles, coyotes (Canis latrans), and red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) necropsied at the Western College of Veterinary Medicine, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada, between 1967 and 2002 were reviewed for cases suggestive of anticholinesterase poisoning. From 1993 to 2002, 54 putative poisoning incidents involving 70 bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) and 10 golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetus) were identified. Of these, 50 incidents occurred in Saskatchewan, two were in Manitoba, and one occurred in each of Alberta and the Northwest Territories. The diagnosis was confirmed in eight instances by demonstration of pesticide in ingesta from eagles or known use of pesticide at the site together with brain cholinesterase (AChE) reduction of >50% in at least one animal. A presnmptive diagnosis of poisoning was made in 33 incidents based on brain AChE reduction of >50% in at least one animal; 13 incidents were considered suspicious because of circumstantial evidence of the death of eagles in association with other species and limited AChE reduction. Other wild species were found dead in 85% of the incidents involving eagles. Coyotes, foxes, black-billed magpies (Pica pica), and striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis) were associated with 34, six, six, and three incidents, respectively. There were eight additional incidents that did not involve eagles in which poisoning was diagnosed in coyotes. Carbofuran was identified in nine incidents. Carbamate poisoning was indicated on the basis of reactivation of brain AChE activity in two additional incidents. Brain AChE activity was not reduced from normal in eagles in four of seven incidents in which carbofuran was identified. The organophosplorous insecticide terbufos was found together with carbofuran in one incident. Brain AChE activity was measured in wild canids and in eagles in 15 incidents; in all of these incidents, brain AChE was redulced by >50% in at least one mammal, whereas this level of reduction occrred in eagles in only four incidents. Use of anticholinesterase pesticides to poison coyotes is illegal, but the practice continues and secondary poisoning of eagles is a problem of unknown proportions in western North America. PMID:15362815

Wobeser, G; Bollinger, T; Leighton, F A; Blakley, B; Mineau, P

2004-04-01

395

Self-poisoning of the mind.  

PubMed

Rational-choice theory tries to explain behaviour on the assumption that individuals optimize. Some forms of irrational behaviour can be explained by assuming that the individual is subject to hedonic, pleasure-seeking mechanisms, such as wishful thinking or adaptive preference formation. In this paper, I draw attention to psychic mechanisms, originating in the individual, which make her worse off. I first consider the ideas of counterwishful thinking and of counteradaptive preference formation and then, drawing heavily on Proust, the self-poisoning of the mind that occurs through the operation of amour-propre. PMID:20026460

Elster, Jon

2010-01-27

396

Myocardial Rupture following Carbon Monoxide Poisoning.  

PubMed

We present the first case of severe cardiotoxicity of carbon monoxide leading to myocardial rupture and fatal outcome. 83-year-old woman was hospitalized 4 hours after the fire in her house with no respiratory or cardiac symptoms. After two days, she has suffered sudden collapse leading to cardiac arrest. Postmortem examination revealed intramural haemorrhage with myocardial rupture at the apex of the left ventricle. Minimal stenosis was noted in the proximal coronary arteries with no evidence of distal occlusion or any other long-standing heart disease. This case supports recommendations for targeted cardiovascular investigations in cases of CO poisoning. PMID:25110594

Dragelyt?, Gabija; Plenta, J?ris; Chmieliauskas, Sigitas; Jasulaitis, Algimantas; Raudys, Romas; Jovaiša, Tomas; Badaras, Robertas

2014-01-01

397

Myocardial Rupture following Carbon Monoxide Poisoning  

PubMed Central

We present the first case of severe cardiotoxicity of carbon monoxide leading to myocardial rupture and fatal outcome. 83-year-old woman was hospitalized 4 hours after the fire in her house with no respiratory or cardiac symptoms. After two days, she has suffered sudden collapse leading to cardiac arrest. Postmortem examination revealed intramural haemorrhage with myocardial rupture at the apex of the left ventricle. Minimal stenosis was noted in the proximal coronary arteries with no evidence of distal occlusion or any other long-standing heart disease. This case supports recommendations for targeted cardiovascular investigations in cases of CO poisoning. PMID:25110594

Dragelyt?, Gabija; Plenta, J?ris; Chmieliauskas, Sigitas; Jasulaitis, Algimantas; Raudys, Romas; Jovaiša, Tomas; Badaras, Robertas

2014-01-01

398

Ingestion of Poison by the Boll Weevil.  

E-print Network

AGRICULTURAL AND MECHANICAL COLLEGE OF TEXAS T. 0. WALTON, President STATION STAFF? Administration : Veterinary Science : A. B. Conner, M. S., Director *M. Francis. D. V. M., Chief R. E. Karper, M. S., Vice-Director H. Schmidt. D. V. M., Veterinarian... made daily over a period of four to six days, and the final mortality per- centages which were attributed to each articular combination of Fig. 1. Cal~es used in studying the ingestion poison-dust distribution on the of roison by the boll weevil...

Reinhard, H. J. (Henry Jonathan); Thomas, F. L. (Frank Lincoln)

1933-01-01

399

Kratom exposures reported to Texas poison centers.  

PubMed

Kratom use is a growing problem in the United States. Kratom exposures reported to Texas poison centers between January 1998 and September 2013 were identified. No kratom exposures were reported from 1998 to 2008 and 14 exposures were reported from 2009 to September 2013. Eleven patients were male, and 11 patients were in their 20s. The kratom was ingested in 12 patients, inhaled in 1, and both ingested and inhaled in 1. Twelve patients were managed at a healthcare facility and the remaining 2 were managed at home. PMID:24325774

Forrester, Mathias B

2013-01-01

400

DDE poisoning in an adult Bald eagle.  

PubMed

A 12-year-old female bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) was found in May 1993 on Santa Catalina Island, California (USA), in a debilitated condition, exhibiting ataxia and tremors; it died within hours. On necropsy, the bird was emaciated but had no evidence of disease or physical injury. Chemical analyses were negative for organophosphorus pesticides and lead poisoning. High concentrations of DDE (wet weight basis) were found in the brain (212 ppm), liver (838 ppm), and serum (53 ppm). Mobilization of DDE, from depleted fat deposits, probably resulted in the lethal concentration in the eagle's brain. PMID:9131562

Garcelon, D K; Thomas, N J

1997-04-01

401

Lessons to be learnt from organophosphorus pesticide poisoning for the treatment of nerve agent poisoning.  

PubMed

The increasing threat of nerve agent use for terrorist purposes against civilian and military population calls for effective therapeutic preparedness. At present, administration of atropine and an oxime are recommended, although effectiveness of this treatment is not proved in clinical trials. Here, monitoring of intoxications with organophosphorus (OP) pesticides may be of help, as their actions are closely related to those of nerve agents and intoxication and therapy follow the same principles. To this end, the clinical course of poisoning and the effectiveness of antidotal therapy were investigated in patients requiring artificial ventilation being treated with atropine and obidoxime. However, poisoning with OP pesticides shows extremely heterogeneous pictures of cholinergic crisis frequently associated with clinical complications. To achieve valuable information for the therapy of nerve agent poisoning, cases resembling situations in nerve agent poisoning had to be extracted: (a) intoxication with OPs forming reactivatable OP-AChE-complexes with short persistence of the OP in the body resembling inhalational sarin intoxication; (b) intoxication with OPs resulting rapidly in an aged OP-AChE-complex resembling inhalational soman intoxication; (c) intoxications with OPs forming a reactivatable AChE-OP complex with prolonged persistence of the OP in the body resembling percutaneous VX intoxication. From these cases it was concluded that sufficient reactivation of nerve agent inhibited non-aged AChE should be possible, if the poison load was not too high and the effective oximes were administered early and with an appropriate duration. When RBC-AChE activity was higher than some 30%, neuromuscular transmission was relatively normal. Relatively low atropine doses (several milligrams) should be sufficient to cope with muscarinic symptoms during oxime therapy. PMID:17161895

Thiermann, H; Szinicz, L; Eyer, P; Felgenhauer, N; Zilker, T; Worek, F

2007-04-20

402

Residual cognitive deficits 50 years after lead poisoning during childhood  

Microsoft Academic Search

The long term neurobehavioural consequences of childhood lead poisoning are not known. In this study adult subjects with a documented history of lead poisoning before age 4 and matched controls were examined with an abbreviated battery of neuropsychological tests including measures of attention, reasoning, memory, motor speed, and current mood. The subjects exposed to lead were inferior to controls on

R F White; R Diamond; S Proctor; C Morey; H Hu

1993-01-01

403

Delay Fast Packets (DFP): Prevention of DNS Cache Poisoning  

E-print Network

Delay Fast Packets (DFP): Prevention of DNS Cache Poisoning Shimrit Tzur-David Kiril Lashchiver,kiril,dolev,anker@cs.huji.ac.il Abstract. The Domain Name System (DNS) protocol is used as a naming sys- tem for computers, services the attacker inserts incorrect data into the DNS cache. In order to successfully poison the cache, the attacker

Dolev, Danny

404

An Action-Research Project: Community Lead Poisoning Prevention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This action-research project focused on gathering data on awareness of lead poisoning, as well as disseminating information on lead poisoning prevention in a metropolitan midwestern city. This project reflects an action-research approach to service learning and was in collaboration with a grass-roots organization. This paper outlines the daunting…

Rajaram, Shireen S.

2007-01-01

405

Get the Lead Out: Facts about Childhood Lead Poisoning [and] Housekeeping Tips To Reduce Lead Exposure [and] Nutrition and Lead Poisoning [and] The Medical Consequences of Lead Poisoning [and] Lead Poisoning for Health Care Providers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document is comprised of five fact sheets from the Illinois Department of Public Health regarding childhood lead poisoning. Recent studies claim that childhood lead poisoning can contribute to problems later in life, such as academic failure, juvenile delinquency, and high blood pressure. Directed to parents, caregivers, and health care…

Illinois State Dept. of Public Health, Springfield.

406

Recognition and Management of Pesticide Poisonings. Third Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual aids health professionals in recognizing and treating pesticide poisonings. Suggested treatments are appropriate for implementation in the small hospitals and clinics which usually receive the victims of pesticide poisoning. Classes of compounds covered include: (1) organophosphate cholinesterase-inhibiting pesticides; (2) carbamate…

Morgan, Donald P.

407

Poisonous plants: effects on embryo and fetal development.  

PubMed

Poisonous plant research in the United States began over 100 years ago as a result of livestock losses from toxic plants as settlers migrated westward with their flocks, herds, and families. Major losses were soon associated with poisonous plants, such as locoweeds, selenium accumulating plants, poison-hemlock, larkspurs, Veratrum, lupines, death camas, water hemlock, and others. Identification of plants associated with poisoning, chemistry of the plants, physiological effects, pathology, diagnosis, and prognosis, why animals eat the plants, and grazing management to mitigate losses became the overarching mission of the current Poisonous Plant Research Laboratory. Additionally, spin-off benefits resulting from the animal research have provided novel compounds, new techniques, and animal models to study human health conditions (biomedical research). The Poisonous Plant Research Laboratory has become an international leader of poisonous plant research as evidenced by the recent completion of the ninth International Symposium on Poisonous Plant Research held July 2013 in Hohhot, Inner Mongolia, China. In this article, we review plants that negatively impact embryo/fetal and neonatal growth and development, with emphasis on those plants that cause birth defects. Although this article focuses on the general aspects of selected groups of plants and their effects on the developing offspring, a companion paper in this volume reviews current understanding of the physiological, biochemical, and molecular mechanisms of toxicoses and teratogenesis. PMID:24339034

Panter, Kip E; Welch, Kevin D; Gardner, Dale R; Green, Benedict T

2013-12-01

408

GROWER REPORTED PESTICIDE POISONINGS AMONG FLORIDA CITRUS FIELDWORKERS  

EPA Science Inventory

In a 1981 survey of 436 Florida citrus growers, 27 pesticide related poisoning incidents were reported that were to have taken place within one year of the interview date. From these reports it is possible to estimate that there are 376 citrus fieldworker poisonings per year in F...

409

Deaths from Pesticide Poisoning: Are we lacking a global response?  

PubMed Central

Self-poisoning with pesticides accounts for around a third of all suicides worldwide. To tackle this problem, WHO announced a Global Public Health initiative in 2005. Planned approaches will range from Government regulatory action to the development of new treatments for pesticide poisoning. With broad-based support this strategy will have a major impact on the global burden of suicide. PMID:16946353

Bertolote, JM; Fleischmann, A; Eddleston, M; Gunnell, D

2008-01-01

410

Effectiveness of interventions in reducing pesticide overexposure and poisonings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The objective of this paper was to review the effectiveness of interventions to reduce pesticide overexposure and poisonings in worker populations.Methods: We used the Cochrane Collaboration search strategy to search the following databases for articles that tested the effectiveness of interventions in reducing human pesticide exposure or poisonings: MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSHTC). Interventions considered included

Matthew C Keifer

2000-01-01

411

Collection of lead-poisoned catalysts in houston. Technical report  

SciTech Connect

This report describes a project involving the testing of lead-poisoned catalytic converters in the Houston, Texas, area. Five lead-poisoned catalysts were collected from motor vehicles. Various methods to evaluate the conditions of the degraded catalysts included weight and backpressure measurements, and x-ray diffraction to define substrate structure.

Harvey, C.A.

1986-09-01

412

Pitfalls in diagnosis and management of carbon monoxide poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five members of one family suffering from carbon monoxide poisoning are described. Three were initially diagnosed as food poisoning cases at another hospital. A high level of suspicion is required to ensure early diagnosis. Indications for hyperbaric oxygen include: loss of consciousness, neurological signs and symptoms other than mild headache, cardiac complications, carboxyhaemoglobin > 40%, and pregnancy.

B Roy; R Crawford

1996-01-01

413

Confirmation of the Pulse Oximetry Gap in Carbon Monoxide Poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study objective: To demonstrate the degree to which pulse oximetry overestimates actual oxyhemoglobin (O2Hb) saturation in patients with carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning. This phenomenon has been reported in fewer than 20 humans in the English medical literature. Methods: A retrospective chart review of 191 patients evaluated for CO poisoning at a regional hyperbaric center identified 124 patients 10 years of

William P Bozeman; Roy AM Myers; Robert A Barish

1997-01-01

414

The Brain Lesion Responsible for Parkinsonism After Carbon Monoxide Poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Parkinsonism is a common neurological sequela of carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning, but its pathophysiological mechanism has yet to be clarified. Objectives: To describe a married couple who were both affected by CO poisoning, but only 1 of whom devel- oped CO-induced parkinsonism, and to discuss the pos- sible underlying pathophysiological mechanism of CO- induced parkinsonism by comparing the neuroimaging

Young H. Sohn; Yong Jeong; Hyun S. Kim; Joo H. Im; Jin-Soo Kim

2000-01-01

415

[Fatal poisoning by Atractylis gummifera L.: a case report].  

PubMed

We report the case of a 13-year-old child admitted to the ICU because of Atractylis gummifera poisoning. This plant is poisonous, with a liver tropism and is a public health problem in the pediatric population. Beyond this observation, we review this intoxication, whose diagnosis is clinical, treatment is symptomatic and prevention is crucial. PMID:23562315

Mouaffak, Y; Boutbaoucht, M; Ejlaidi, A; Toufiki, R; Younous, S

2013-05-01

416

Characteristics of unintentional carbon monoxide poisoning in Northwest Iran – Tabriz  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study describes the epidemiology and characteristics of unintentional carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning in Northwest Iran between 2007 and 2009 using multiple data sources including records of the main provider of emergency medical transportation, death certificate reports of the Legal Medicine Organization and through household surveys. A total of 1005 people were diagnosed with non-fatal CO poisoning. Ninety deaths were

Iman Dianat; Jalil Nazari

2011-01-01

417

Effects of poisoning nonindigenous slugs in a boreal forest  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the impact of poisoning nonindigenous slugs on abundance of other soil arthropod groups occurring on the soil surface of a boreal forest. The experimental design consisted of counting soil fauna under boxes from 20 plots during weekly surveys before (year 1) and after (year 2) treatment (metaldehyde poison) with con- trol and experimental plots. Slug abundance was

Steven H. Ferguson

2004-01-01

418

790 MMWR September 3, 2004 Outbreak of Aflatoxin Poisoning --  

E-print Network

790 MMWR September 3, 2004 Outbreak of Aflatoxin Poisoning -- Eastern and Central Provinces laboratory testing of food collected from the affected area revealed high levels of aflatoxin, suggesting that the outbreak was caused by afla toxin poisoning, as was a previous outbreak in the same area in 1981 (1

419

Knowledge is key to safety; Plants that poison horses  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Horses are relatively selective grazers and generally they are poisoned less frequently than other livestock. However, there are exceptions. Some poisonous plants are palatable to horses and exposed horses readily eat them. Other plants may be eaten by some horses even though they are unpalatable...

420

Diagnosis and Treatment of Amanita Phalloides-Type Mushroom Poisoning  

PubMed Central

The number of cases of mushroom poisoning is increasing as a result of the increasing popularity of “wild” mushroom consumption. Amanitin and phalloidin cytotoxins found in some Amanita and Galerina species produce the most severe and frequent life-threatening symptoms of Amanita phalloidestype poisoning. Delay in onset of symptoms, individual susceptibility variation and lack of rapid and reliable identification have contributed to the significant morbidity and mortality of this type of poisoning. A rapid chromatographic assay for identifying the potent cytotoxins and apparently successful management using thioctic acid of two cases of A. phalloides-type mushroom poisoning are reported. All known cases of A. phalloides-type mushroom poisoning treated with thioctic acid in the United States are summarized. PMID:788340

Becker, Charles E.; Tong, Theodore G.; Roe, Robert L.; Scott, Robert A. T.; MacQuarrie, Michael B.; Boerner, Udo; Bartter, Frederic

1976-01-01

421

Acute abdominal pain and constipation due to lead poisoning.  

PubMed

Although uncommon, lead poisoning should be considered as a differential diagnosis in cases of unexplained acute abdominal pain in both adults and children. We present the case of a 35-year-old Asian male who presented with abdominal pain and constipation secondary to lead poisoning. Initially, the source of lead exposure was not apparent; this was later found to be due to ingestion of an Ayurvedic herbal medicine for the treatment of infertility. Lead poisoning due to the ingestion of Ayurvedic remedies is well described. We discuss the diagnosis, pathophysiology and treatment of lead poisoning. This case illustrates one of the rarer medical causes of acute abdominal pain and emphasizes the need to take a thorough history (including specific questioning regarding the use of over-the-counter and traditional/ herbal remedies) in cases of suspected poisoning or drug toxicity. PMID:24364054

Mongolu, S; Sharp, P

2013-01-01

422

Ponderosa pine and broom snakeweed: poisonous plants that affect livestock.  

PubMed

Ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) and the snakeweeds (Gutierrezia sarothrae and G. microcephala) are two groups of range plants that are poisonous to livestock. Ponderosa pine causes late-term abortions in cattle, and the snakeweeds are toxic and also cause abortions in cattle, sheep, and goats. Research is underway at the USDA-ARS-Poisonous Plants Research Laboratory to better understand livestock poisonings caused by grazing ponderosa pine needles and the snakeweeds and to provide methods of reducing losses to the livestock and supporting industries. This review includes the history of the problem, a brief description of the signs of poisoning, the research, to identify the chemical toxins, and current management practices on prevention of poisonings. PMID:10091125

Gardner, D R; James, L F; Panter, K E; Pfister, J A; Ralphs, M H; Stegelmeier, B L

1999-02-01

423

Theory of microbe motion in a poisoned environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The motility of a microorganism which tries to avoid a poisoned environment by chemotaxis is studied within a simple model which couples its velocity to the concentration field of the poison. The latter is time independent but inhomogeneous in space. The presence of the poison is assumed to irreversibly reduce the propulsion speed. The model is solved analytically for different couplings of the total poison dose experienced by the microbe to the propulsion mechanism. In a stationary poison field resulting from a constant emission of a fixed point source, we find a power law for the distance traveled by the microbe as a function of time with a nonuniversal exponent which depends on the coupling in the model. With an inverted sign in the couplings, the acceleration of microbe motion induced by a food field can also be described.

Hoell, Christian; Löwen, Hartmut

2011-10-01

424

Lead poisoning of swans in British Columbia  

SciTech Connect

Between February 29 and March 15, 1992, 30 trumpeter swans (Cygnus buccinator) were found dead or debilitated at Judson Lake in the lower Fraser valley of southwestern British Columbia. Autopsies of 17 swans revealed the cause of death as lead poisoning from ingestion of lead shot. Lead shot was present in the gizzards of 20 of the swans examined; average number of pellets was nine. Lead was detected in all liver and kidney samples tested. Liver lead concentrations ranged from 21 to 166 ug/g dry wt., with a mean of 64 ug/g d.w. Lead levels in kidneys ranged from 212 to 303 ug/g d.w., with a mean of 120 ug/g d.w. The amount of lead shot in the gizzard was not well correlated with lead levels in the liver and kidney; correlation coefficients of 0.20 and 0.54 were attained, respectively. High iron levels were noted in livers. Other elements (Se, Co, Zn, Mn, Cd, Ca, Mg) were not elevated in either the liver or kidney. The incident prompted the authors to review lead poisoning of swans in British Columbia; data from published and unpublished sources are analyzed, presented and discussed.

Wilson, L.K.; Elliott, J.E. [Canadian Wildlife Service, Delta, British Columbia (Canada); Langelier, K.M. [Island Veterinary Hospital, Nanaimo, British Columbia (Canada); Scheuhammer, A.M. [Canadian Wildlife Service, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Bowes, V. [Animal Health Centre, Abbotsford, British Columbia (Canada)

1994-12-31

425

Adrenocortical involvement in aluminium phosphide poisoning.  

PubMed

The effect of aluminium phosphide (AlP) which is a systemic poison on the adrenal cortex was studied in 30 patients of AlP poisoning. A significant rise in the plasma cortisol level (greater than 1048 nmol/l) was observed in the twenty patients. Mortality was 50 per cent. Autopsy study could be undertaken only in 10 patients. Histopathology showed mild to moderate changes. In the rest (10 patients), the adrenal cortex was critically involved and the cortisol level failed to rise beyond normal levels (less than 690 nmol/l). The histopathology revealed severe changes (complete lipid depletion, haemorrhage, necrosis etc.) and all these patients died. In the critically ill patients, the cortisol levels remained low because of severe adreno-cortical involvement. The changes in the adrenal cortex could be due to shock or to cellular toxic effect of phosphine. The histopathological changes in various viscera showed congestion, edema and cellular infiltration. In the heart, there were patchy areas of necrosis, while the liver showed fatty changes and the lungs showed, in addition areas of gray/red hepatization. There was no adrenal apoplexy or extensive haemorrhage that could explain shock in these patients. Cardiogenic shock could not be confirmed due to lack of facilities for haemodynamic monitoring, but there was histopathological evidence in support of cardiovascular shock. PMID:2620956

Chugh, S N; Ram, S; Sharma, A; Arora, B B; Saini, A S; Malhotra, K C

1989-08-01

426

The Anaemia of Lead Poisoning: A Review  

PubMed Central

Lead intoxication has been recognized as a clinical entity since ancient times. Hippocrates (370 B.C.) was probably the first person to associate lead with clinical symptoms, since when the harmful effects of lead on the body have been well documented. Early observations culminated in the brilliant monograph of Tanquerel des Planches (1839) in which the clinical aspects of the disease were completely outlined and most of the early signs of the disease were mentioned. So complete was this work that virtually nothing has been added to des Planches's observations since their publication. The earliest reference to lead anaemia was made in 1831 by Laennec, who described thinness of the blood and pallor of the tissues in cases of lead poisoning at necropsy. The first direct evidence of the effect of lead on red blood cells was presented by Andral and Gavarret (1840), who counted the number of red blood cells in cases of lead poisoning and found the count to be much lower than normal. Since these early reports a great deal of work has been undertaken to try to discover the means by which lead causes anaemia, but it is probably true to say that at the present time this mechanism is still not fully understood. This review is an attempt to draw together at least some of the theories which have been advanced in the past and to present them, it is hoped, in an easily accessible manner for future workers in this field. Images PMID:5326074

Waldron, H. A.

1966-01-01

427

Dynamic transition in etching with poisoning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study a lattice model for etching of a crystalline solid including the deposition of a poisoning species. The model considers normal and lateral erosion of the columns of the solid by a flux of etching particles and the blocking effects of impurities formed at the surface. As the probability p of formation of this poisoning species increases, the etching rate decreases and a continuous transition to a pinned phase is observed. The transition is in the directed percolation (DP) class, with the fraction of the exposed columns as the order parameter. This interpretation is consistent with a mapping of the interface problem in d+1 dimensions onto a d-dimensional contact process, and is confirmed by numerical results in d=1 and d=2. In the etching phase, the interface width scales with Kardar-Parisi-Zhang (KPZ) exponents, and shows a crossover from the critical DP behavior (W˜t) to KPZ near the critical point, at etching times of the order of (pc-p)-??. Anomalous roughening is observed at criticality, with the roughness exponent related to DP exponents as ?c=??/??>1. The main differences from previously studied DP transitions in growth models and isotropic percolation transitions in etching models are discussed. Investigations in real systems are suggested.

Aarão Reis, F. D.

2003-10-01

428

Treatment of lead poisoning in wild geese.  

PubMed

Twenty-seven wild geese (Anser albifrons) suffering from lead poisoning caused by ingestion of lead shot were treated with disodium calcium ethylenediaminetetraacetate. The concentration of lead in blood ranged from 0.4 to 23.0 micrograms/ml, with a mean concentration of 5.6 micrograms/ml. In 22 of the birds, 1 to 48 lead pellets (mean, 10.5 pellets/bird) were seen on radiographs of their gizzards. Eleven of 27 birds recovered 3 to 8 weeks after the initiation of treatment. In the birds that recovered, the lead pellets were rapidly eroded as the birds recovered their appetites in response to treatment, and disappeared radiographically between treatment days 17 and 52. The birds that did not survive died within 4 weeks, despite decreased concentrations of lead in blood. Of these 16 birds, 15 had radiographic evidence of impaction of the proventriculus at the first examination and no evidence of resolution of the impaction at the time of death. In contrast, only 2 of the 11 geese that recovered had impaction of the proventriculus at the time of admission. Thus, the condition of the proventriculus seems to be the first consideration to evaluate in the prognosis of lead poisoning in geese. PMID:1624358

Murase, T; Ikeda, T; Goto, I; Yamato, O; Jin, K; Maede, Y

1992-06-01

429

Amaranthus retroflexus (redroot pigweed) poisoning in cattle.  

PubMed

Amaranthus retroflexus (redroot pigweed)-induced nephrotoxicity was diagnosed in 6 herds of cattle from 3 counties in southwest Missouri. Forty-eight cows and calves died and another 35 were clinically affected. Serum urea nitrogen concentration, determined in 4 affected calves, was between 55 and 284 mg/dl, and serum creatinine concentration was between 6.7 and 29.9 mg/dl. Postmortem examination of affected cows and calves revealed amber-colored fluid in peritoneal cavities and retroperitoneal perirenal edema. Histologic examination of kidney sections revealed widespread degeneration and necrosis of proximal and distal tubules. Compared with archived kidney sections from cattle with Quercus (oak) poisoning, distal renal tubules were more severely affected. Oak poisoning also was associated with a higher prevalence of interstitial fibrosis and renal tubular oxalosis. We concluded that ingestion of the aerial and leafy portions of pigweed by cattle in drought situations does not necessarily lead to nitrate-induced sudden death associated with consumption of the nitrate-containing stems. PMID:8045809

Casteel, S W; Johnson, G C; Miller, M A; Chudomelka, H J; Cupps, D E; Haskins, H E; Gosser, H S

1994-04-01

430

Dynamic transition in etching with poisoning.  

PubMed

We study a lattice model for etching of a crystalline solid including the deposition of a poisoning species. The model considers normal and lateral erosion of the columns of the solid by a flux of etching particles and the blocking effects of impurities formed at the surface. As the probability p of formation of this poisoning species increases, the etching rate decreases and a continuous transition to a pinned phase is observed. The transition is in the directed percolation (DP) class, with the fraction of the exposed columns as the order parameter. This interpretation is consistent with a mapping of the interface problem in d+1 dimensions onto a d-dimensional contact process, and is confirmed by numerical results in d=1 and d=2. In the etching phase, the interface width scales with Kardar-Parisi-Zhang (KPZ) exponents, and shows a crossover from the critical DP behavior (W approximately t) to KPZ near the critical point, at etching times of the order of (pc-p)(-nu(||)). Anomalous roughening is observed at criticality, with the roughness exponent related to DP exponents as alphac=nu(||)/nu(perpendicular)>1. The main differences from previously studied DP transitions in growth models and isotropic percolation transitions in etching models are discussed. Investigations in real systems are suggested. PMID:14682948

Aarão Reis, F D A

2003-10-01

431

The good and the bad of poisonous plants: An introduction to the USDA-ARS Poisonous Plant Research Laboratory  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Introduction: This article provides an overview of the Poisonous Plant Research Laboratory (PPRL), about the unique services and activities of the PPRL, and the potential assistance we can provide to plant poisoning incidences. Discussion: The PPRL is a federal research laboratory. It is part of th...

432

Multiple, recurring origins of aposematism and diet specialization in poison frogs  

PubMed Central

Aposematism is the association, in a prey organism, of the presence of a warning signal with unprofitability to predators. The origin of aposematism is puzzling, because of its predicted low probability of establishment in a population due to the prey's increased conspicuousness. Aposematism is a widespread trait in invertebrate taxa, but, in vertebrates, it is mostly evident in amphibians, reptiles, and fishes. Poison frogs (Dendrobatidae) are one of the most well known examples of the co-occurrence of warning coloration and toxicity. This monophyletic group of mostly diurnal leaf-litter Neotropical anurans has both toxic/colorful and palatable/cryptic species. Previous studies suggested a single origin of toxicity and warning coloration, dividing the family in two discrete groups of primitively cryptic and more derived aposematic frogs. Recent molecular phylogenetic analyses using mostly aposematic taxa supported this conclusion and proposed a single tandem origin of toxicity and conspicuous warning coloration. By using expanded taxon and character sampling, we reexamined the phylogenetic correlation between the origins of toxicity and warning coloration. At least four or five independent origins of aposematism have occurred within poison frogs; by using simulations, we rejected hypotheses of one, two, or three origins of aposematism (P < 0.002). We also found that diet specialization is linked with the evolution of aposematism. Specialization on prey, such as ants and termites, may have evolved independently at least two times. PMID:14555763

Santos, Juan Carlos; Coloma, Luis A.; Cannatella, David C.

2003-01-01

433

A study on poisoning cases in a tertiary care hospital  

PubMed Central

Acute poisoning with various substance is common everywhere. The earlier the initial resuscitations, gastric decontamination and use of specific antidotes, the better the outcome. The aim of this study was to characterize the poisoning cases admitted to the tertiary care hospital, Warangal district, Andhra Pradesh, Southern India. All cases admitted to the emergency department of the hospital between the months of January and December, 2007, were evaluated retrospectively. We reviewed data obtained from the hospital medical records and included the following factors: socio-demographic characteristics, agents and route of intake and time of admission of the poisoned patients. During the outbreak in 2007, 2,226 patients were admitted to the hospital with different poisonings; the overall case fatality rate was 8.3% (n = 186). More detailed data from 2007 reveals that two-third of the patients were 21–30 years old, 5.12% (n = 114) were male and 3.23% (n = 72) were female, who had intentionally poisoned themselves. In summary, the tertiary care hospitals of the Telangana region, Warangal, indicate that significant opportunities for reducing mortality are achieved by better medical management and further sales restrictions on the most toxic pesticides. This study highlighted the lacunae in the services of tertiary care hospitals and the need to establish a poison information center for the better management and prevention of poisoning cases. PMID:22096334

Kumar, Subash Vijaya; Venkateswarlu, B.; Sasikala, M.; Kumar, G. Vijay

2010-01-01

434

Fish Trade  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson plan presents the global economic, political and social aspects of fisheries, aquaculture and fish collecting, and demonstrates how the practices of all the world's nations affect one another. Students read a number of short articles and use on-line resources to gather information on fisheries and aquaculture, then participate in discussion and essay assignments. Discussion questions, standards alignment, assessment, extensions and additional reference links are provided.

435

Effects of packaging and appearance on childhood poisoning. Vacor rat poison  

SciTech Connect

Over a 13-month period, 14 patients were hospitalized at Milwaukee Children's Hospital for rodenticide ingestions. Ten of the 14 patients ingested Vacor Rat Poison (N-3-pyridylmethyl N'-p-nitrophenyl urea). Small children could easily mistake Vacor, which resembles corn meal, for breakfast cereal. To intervene for safer packaging of toxic substances, pediatricians need to be aware of the health hazard posed to children by attractive packaging.

Schum, T.R.; Lachman, B.S.

1982-05-01

436

S100B protein in carbon monoxide poisoning: a pilot study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is the most common form of lethal poisoning. The aim of this prospective clinical study was to assess the possible role of S100B, the structural protein in the astroglia, as a biochemical marker of brain injury in carbon monoxide poisoning. Serum S100B determination was performed in 38 consecutive patients poisoned by carbon monoxide who were admitted

Miran Brvar; Hugon Možina; Josko Osredkar; Martin Možina; Marko No?; Andrej Bru?an; Matjaž Bunc

2004-01-01

437

Biomedical applications of poisonous plant research.  

PubMed

Research designed to isolate and identify the bioactive compounds responsible for the toxicity of plants to livestock that graze them has been extremely successful. The knowledge gained has been used to design management techniques to prevent economic losses, predict potential outbreaks of poisoning, and treat affected animals. The availability of these compounds in pure form has now provided scientists with tools to develop animal models for human diseases, study modes of action at the molecular level, and apply such knowledge to the development of potential drug candidates for the treatment of a number of genetic and infectious conditions. These advances are illustrated by specific examples of biomedical applications of the toxins of Veratrum californicum (western false hellebore), Lupinus species (lupines), and Astragalus and Oxytropis species (locoweeds). PMID:15161174

James, Lynn F; Panter, Kip E; Gaffield, William; Molyneux, Russell J

2004-06-01

438

Acute poisoning with methidathion: a case.  

PubMed

An acute poisoning in a 50-year-old man who ingested approximately 6.2 g of the phosphorus ester methidathion is described. The patient was treated with three haemoperfusions 23, 44 and 115 h after ingestion, with continuous gastric lavage, atropine and pralidoxime administration and with prolonged mechanical ventilation. Haemoperfusion was an ineffective epuration technique since it removed only 0.22% of the ingested methidathion. The clinical course wavered because of a probable redistribution of phosphorus ester from fat to blood. A plasma level higher than 100 micrograms l-1 was associated with the most serious phases. Methidathion was present in the plasma until the sixth day, in the urine until the seventh and in the gastric juice until the eighth. Its absence in the fat biopsy made on the tenth day was an aid to therapy. The phosphorus ester did not inhibit lymphocyte neuropathy target esterase (NTE), neither did it induce development of delayed polyneuropathy. PMID:2271234

Zoppellari, R; Targa, L; Tonini, P; Zatelli, R

1990-11-01

439

Glyphosate surfactant herbicide poisoning and management  

PubMed Central

Glyphosate is a widely used herbicide in agriculture, forestry, industrial weed control and aquatic environments. Glyphosate potential as herbicide was first reported in 1971. It is a non-selective herbicide. It can cause a wide range of clinical manifestations in human beings like skin and throat irritation to hypotension, oliguria and death. We are reporting a case of a 35-year-old male patient who was admitted to our tertiary care hospital following intentional ingestion of around 200 ml of herbicide containing glyphosate. Initially, gastric lavage done and the patient was managed with intubation and mechanical ventilation, noradrenaline and vasopressin infusion, continuous veno-venous hemodiafiltration and intravenous (IV) lipid emulsion (20% intralipid 100 ml), patient was successfully treated and discharged home. This case report emphasizes on timely systemic supportive measure as a sole method of treatment since this poison has no known specific antidote and the use of IV lipid emulsion for a successful outcome. PMID:24914265

Mahendrakar, Kranthi; Venkategowda, Pradeep M.; Rao, S. Manimala; Mutkule, Dnyaneshwar P.

2014-01-01

440

Retrospective searching for poisonous plant vouchers.  

PubMed

Few published reports of plant poisoning, whether experimental or accidental, document vouchers. This can be rectified by retrospective location of vouchers through determination of a collaborating botanist or herbarium of deposit. An absolute voucher is referenced in the toxicology report. For a probable voucher the report does not identify an herbarium specimen, but the report and the specimen label or sheet agree on plant name, collector's name, collection date and place. A possible voucher is perhaps from the exposure lot, but was collected by the collaborating botanist at a somewhat earlier or later date than the exposure date. On the other hand, a supporting specimen was collected by the collaborating botanist but is not from the exposure lot. Vouchers and supporting specimens for some species of Asclepias tested for toxicity by CD Marsh and coworkers were found in the US National Herbarium at the Smithsonian Institution, Washington DC. PMID:10349707

Wagstaff, D J; Lellinger, D B; Wiersema, J H

1999-06-01

441

Glyphosate surfactant herbicide poisoning and management.  

PubMed

Glyphosate is a widely used herbicide in agriculture, forestry, industrial weed control and aquatic environments. Glyphosate potential as herbicide was first reported in 1971. It is a non-selective herbicide. It can cause a wide range of clinical manifestations in human beings like skin and throat irritation to hypotension, oliguria and death. We are reporting a case of a 35-year-old male patient who was admitted to our tertiary care hospital following intentional ingestion of around 200 ml of herbicide containing glyphosate. Initially, gastric lavage done and the patient was managed with intubation and mechanical ventilation, noradrenaline and vasopressin infusion, continuous veno-venous hemodiafiltration and intravenous (IV) lipid emulsion (20% intralipid 100 ml), patient was successfully treated and discharged home. This case report emphasizes on timely systemic supportive measure as a sole method of treatment since this poison has no known specific antidote and the use of IV lipid emulsion for a successful outcome. PMID:24914265

Mahendrakar, Kranthi; Venkategowda, Pradeep M; Rao, S Manimala; Mutkule, Dnyaneshwar P

2014-05-01

442

Ayurvedic herbal medicine and lead poisoning  

PubMed Central

Although the majority of published cases of lead poisoning come from occupational exposures, some traditional remedies may also contain toxic amounts of lead. Ayurveda is a system of traditional medicine that is native to India and is used in many parts of world as an alternative to standard treatment regimens. Here, we report the case of a 58-year-old woman who presented with abdominal pain, anemia, liver function abnormalities, and an elevated blood lead level. The patient was found to have been taking the Ayurvedic medicine Jambrulin prior to presentation. Chemical analysis of the medication showed high levels of lead. Following treatment with an oral chelating agent, the patient's symptoms resolved and laboratory abnormalities normalized. This case highlights the need for increased awareness that some Ayurvedic medicines may contain potentially harmful levels of heavy metals and people who use them are at risk of developing associated toxicities. PMID:22185092

2011-01-01

443

Paraquat poisoning: A case report and review of literature  

PubMed Central

Paraquat (1, r-dimethyl-4,4’-bipyridium dichloride), a brown syrupy liquid is an effective herbicide that has low chronic toxicity because of its rapid deactivation on contact with soil. A high dose of paraquat or severe poisoning has a poor prognosis. At present there is no specific antidote to paraquat poisoning, hence the need to focus on prevention and in case of exposure or ingestion, aggressive decontamination to prevent further absorption. Although uncommon, paraquat ingestion can lead to severe and often fatal toxicity. However, despite its widespread availability, reports of this herbicide poisoning in India are uncommon. PMID:24672279

Raghu, Kondle; Mahesh, Vidavalur; Sasidhar, Parri; Reddy, Polam R.; Venkataramaniah, Vajja; Agrawal, Amit

2013-01-01

444

Standardized treatment of severe methanol poisoning with ethanol and hemodialysis  

SciTech Connect

Seven patients with methanol poisoning were treated with ethanol, hemodialysis and supportive measures. The interval between ingestion and initiation of ethanol therapy varied from 3 to 67 hours and from ingestion to dialysis from 9 to 93 hours. All patients survived, but one had permanent visual impairment. A 10% ethanol solution administered intravenously is a safe and effective antidote for severe methanol poisoning. Ethanol therapy is recommended when plasma methanol concentrations are higher than 20 mg per dl, when ingested doses are greater than 30 ml and when there is evidence of acidosis or visual abnormalities in cases of suspected methanol poisoning. 13 references, 1 figure, 2 table.

Ekins, B.R.; Rollins, D.E.; Duffy, D.P.; Gregory, M.C.

1985-03-01

445

Grayanotoxin (Mad Honey) - Ongoing Consumption After Poisoning  

PubMed Central

Background: Some honey types in certain geographical regions may cause toxic effects on people. This type of honey is known as “mad honey” in Turkey. The toxic ingredient of this honey is called Grayanotoxin I. The consumption of mad honey can cause severe bradycardia, hypotension, dizziness, nausea and vomiting. Aims: Our study is aimed at analysing patients diagnosed with mad honey poisoning and their behaviour towards the consumption of this honey after diagnosis. Study Design: Cross sectional study. Methods: This cross-sectional study was based on complaints and findings of mad honey poisoning. Patient information and findings at the time of admission were compared with those at one month after discharge through telephone interviews. They were asked if either they or their relatives had continued consuming the same honey. Frequency data such as gender, purpose of honey consumption, first complaints and continuance of honey consumption are shown as number (n) and percentage (%). A Chi Square test was conducted to determine the difference between groups. Results: 38 patients were participated in this study; 18 of the patients had to be followed up in a coronary intensive care unit. We were able to reach 34 patients by phone after discharge. It was found that 12 of 16 patients discharged after emergency unit observation or their close relatives were continuing to consume mad honey, whereas 16 (88.9%) of the 18 patients under coronary intensive care had discontinued consuming mad honey. The difference in the continuation of mad honey consumption between patient groups followed-up in the intensive care unit and those discharged after emergency observation was statistically significant. Conclusion: Hazards associated with and serious consequences following the consumption of mad honey must be clearly explained to patients who are found to be consuming mad honey. PMID:25207122

Ero?lu, Serkan Emre; Urgan, O?uz; Onur, Özge Ecmel; Denizba??, Arzu; Ako?lu, Haldun

2013-01-01

446

Morphological and genetical description of Loma psittaca sp. n. isolated from the Amazonian fish species Colomesus psittacus.  

PubMed

A previously unrecognised fish-infecting microsporidia (Loma psittaca n. sp.), found adherent to the intestinal mucosa of the freshwater puffer fish Colomesus psittacus (Teleostei, Tetraodontidae) from lower Amazon River, was described based on light and transmission electron microscope and phylogenetic analysis. The whitish xenoma was completely filled by numerous spores, including several developmental stages of the parasite. In all of these stages, the nuclei were monokaryotic. The merogonial plasmodium divided by binary fission and the sporont gave rise to disporoblastic ovoid spores measuring 4.2 +/- 0.4 x 2.8 +/- 0.4 microm. In mature spores, the polar filament was arranged in 10-11 (rarely 12) coils in one row in turn of posterior vacuole. The polaroplast had two distinct regions around the manubrium. The polyribosomes were organised in coiled tapes. The small subunit rRNA gene was sequenced and maximum parsimony analysis placed the microsporidian described here in the clade that includes the genera Ichthyosporidium, Loma and Pseudoloma. Based on differences from previously described microsporidians, such as ultrastructural characteristics of the xenoma, developmental stages including the spore and phylogenetic analysis supported the recognition of a new species, herein named L. psittaca n. sp. PMID:19593585

Casal, Graça; Matos, Edilson; Teles-Grilo, M Leonor; Azevedo, Carlos

2009-10-01

447

Physiology of food poisoning microorganisms and the major problems in food poisoning control.  

PubMed

There remains considerable public concern regarding the current high level of food poisoning disease in Europe and the fact that, year by year, it continues to rise rather than fall. At the same time, there are strong and increasing demands from consumers for foods that are more convenient, fresher, more natural, less heavily processed (e.g. 'REPFEDS' and 'Sous Vide' foods, mildly heated and distributed at chill temperatures; Lund and Notermans, 1992), less heavily preserved (e.g. less acid, less salt, less sugar; Gould, 1995) and less reliant on additive preservatives than hitherto (e.g. sulphite, nitrite, organic acids and esters; Russell and Gould, 1991). Most of these trends result in a general reduction in the intrinsic preservation of foods. Furthermore, many food poisoning microorganisms escape the attention of preservation techniques altogether, reaching the consumer more or less directly from contaminated foods, most often foods of animal origin. It has therefore been argued that a substantial reduction in food poisoning in the near future will be difficult to achieve unless we obtain a greatly improved understanding of the physiology of the most important target organisms (Knochel and Gould, 1995). This knowledge must then be exploited in ways which effectively improve our means for the control of these hazards and reduce the risk to the consumer. A three year AAIR Concerted Action Programme (PL920630: 'Physiology of Food Poisoning Microorganisms') was therefore initiated in 1992 in order to bring together research groups working on the physiology and related aspects of food poisoning microorganisms. The principal objectives of the programme were: 1. To determine the physiological, biochemical and genetical bases of the organisms' survival of and responses to food-relevant stresses; 2. to determine the physiological and genetical factors influencing infectivity and toxinogenesis; 3. to understand the physiological bases of those synergistic systems that are already empirically applied or that have future potential; 4. to make a wide range of modern techniques in which particular members have expertise more widely available. As can be read in the subsequent contributions to this special issue, the area is a fruitful one for microbiological research and the Programme has been successful in bringing together disparate strands of the topic. It has also highlighted areas where this scientific knowledge may be better exploited in improving the microbiological safety of foods for the consumer. PMID:8750661

Gould, G W; Abee, T; Granum, P E; Jones, M V

1995-12-01

448

Fish Biology Introduction  

E-print Network

Lab 10: Fish Biology Introduction The effective management of fish populations requires knowledge of the growth rate of the fish. This requires determination of the age of fish to develop a relationship between the size and age of fish. For an inventory, this information provides insights to evaluate the potential

Jochem, Frank J.

449

Chemotherapy of fish parasites  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are few agents on the market that control fish parasites. These are substances that are mainly used in other hosts; due to the different metabolism of fish, they often have only moderate effects on fish parasites. Therefore, the research and development of fish-specific antiparasitic compounds is needed to avoid the high losses suffered by commercial fish hatcheries. Drugs similar

Giinter Schmahl; Horst Taraschewski; Heinz Mehlhorn

1989-01-01

450

Hydrogen peroxide as a fungicide for fish culture  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Antifungal agents are needed to maintain healthy stocks of fish in the intensive culture systems currently employed in fish hatcheries. Malachite green has been the most widely used antifungal agent; however, its potential for producing teratology in animals and fish precludes further use in fish culture. Preliminary studies at the National Fisheries Research Center, La Crosse, WI, USA (La Crosse Center) indicate that hydrogen peroxide is effective for control of Saprolegnia sp. fungus on incubating eggs of rainbow trout. It is also effective against a wide variety of other organisms such as bacteria, yeasts, viruses, and spores, and has been proposed as a treatment for sea lice on salmon. Hydrogen peroxide and its primary decomposition products, oxygen and water, are not systemic poisons and are considered environmentally compatible. In response to a petition from the La Crosse Center, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recently classified hydrogen peroxide as a 'low regulatory priority' when used for control of fungus on fish and fish eggs. Preliminary tests conducted at the La Crosse Center suggest that prophylactic treatments of 250 to 500 ppm (based on 100% active ingredient) for 15 minutes every other day will inhibit fungal infections on healthy rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) eggs. This treatment regime also seems to inhibit fungal development and increase hatching success among infected eggs. Efficacy and safety of hydrogen peroxide as a fungicide for fish are currently being evaluated.

Dawson, V.K.; Rach, J.J.; Schreier, T.M.

1994-01-01

451

Seasonal Changes of Fish Assemblages in a Subtropical Lagoon in the SE Gulf of California  

PubMed Central

The composition and seasonal changes of the fish assemblage in a coastal lagoon system in southeastern Gulf of California were assessed from December 2001 to July 2005. A total of 20,877 organisms belonging to 191 species and 47 families were analyzed. We determined that almost all the species inhabiting the system were found; however some rare species were not captured in our study. The majority of the species found were demersal but in every season at least one pelagic or benthopelagic species showed high abundances. The moonfish, Selene peruviana, was the most abundant species, whilst the puffer, Sphoeroides annulatus, was the main species in terms of biomass. The species composition changed seasonally; results from the Simpson diversity index and the cumulative species curve show that seasonally almost all the species in the system for a given season were found. These changes were also reflected in the multivariate results. The seasonal variations could be attributed to the migration of species out of the system as they grow and the arrival of new ones, which could also be related to temperature patterns since this environmental factor changes considerably through the year. PMID:24672403

Amezcua, F.; Amezcua-Linares, F.

2014-01-01

452

A case of homicidal poisoning involving several drugs.  

PubMed

Accidental or suicidal poisonings due to benzodiazepines have been previously reported. A case of fatal, homicidal poisoning with benzodiazepines, antipyretic analgesics (anti-inflammatory drugs), and beer is described here. In this homicidal poisoning, the drugs and beer were given to the decedent by his wife. Autopsy findings showed no clinically significant macroscopic findings except for slight postmortem change. Capillary gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry was employed to quantitate the drugs in biological fluids and stomach contents. Six drugs (brotizolam, triazolam, ibuprofen, dihydrocodeine, phenylpropanolamine, and chlorpheniramine) were identified and quantitated in blood, urine, and stomach contents. Although each drug was present in a very small quantity, the cause of death was determined to be the combination of these drugs and alcohol poisoning. PMID:9399131

Saito, T; Takeichi, S; Nakajima, Y; Yukawa, N; Osawa, M

1997-01-01

453

[Clinical practice guidelines in acetaminophen poisoning--pre-hospital management].  

PubMed

We described guidelines for personel working in poison information service in case of acute paracetamol overdose. The guidelines were created with respect to EBM (Evidence Based Medicine) by the American Association of Control Centers. PMID:19788141

Pach, Janusz; Targosz, Dorota; Satora, Leszek; Morawska, Jowanka; Anand, Jacek Sein

2009-01-01

454

Reassessment of the microcytic anemia of lead poisoning  

SciTech Connect

Hematologic abnormalities in childhood lead poisoning may be due, in part, to the presence of other disorders, such as iron deficiency or thalassemia minor. In order to reassess increased lead burden as a cause of microcytic anemia, we studied 58 children with class III or IV lead poisoning, normal iron stores, and no inherited hemoglobinopathy. Anemia occurred in 12% and microcytosis in 21% of these children. The combination of anemia and microcytosis was found in only one of 58 patients (2%). When only children with class IV lead poisoning were studied, the occurrence of microcytosis increased to 46%. However, the combination of microcytosis and anemia was found in only one of these 13 more severely affected patients. Microcytic anemia was similarly uncommon in children with either blood lead concentration greater than or equal to 50 microgram/100 ml. These data indicate that microcytosis and anemia occur much less commonly than previously reported in childhood lead poisoning uncomplicated by other hematologic disorders.

Cohen, A.R.; Trotzky, M.S.; Pincus, D.

1981-06-01

455

21 CFR 1230.13 - Labeling of “poison”.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 1230.13 Section 1230.13 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...CERTAIN OTHER ACTS ADMINISTERED BY THE FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL CAUSTIC POISON ACT Labeling § 1230.13...

2012-04-01

456

21 CFR 1230.13 - Labeling of “poison”.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 1230.13 Section 1230.13 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...CERTAIN OTHER ACTS ADMINISTERED BY THE FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL CAUSTIC POISON ACT Labeling § 1230.13...

2014-04-01

457

21 CFR 1230.13 - Labeling of “poison”.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 1230.13 Section 1230.13 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...CERTAIN OTHER ACTS ADMINISTERED BY THE FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL CAUSTIC POISON ACT Labeling § 1230.13...

2010-04-01

458

21 CFR 1230.13 - Labeling of “poison”.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 1230.13 Section 1230.13 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...CERTAIN OTHER ACTS ADMINISTERED BY THE FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL CAUSTIC POISON ACT Labeling § 1230.13...

2013-04-01

459

21 CFR 1230.13 - Labeling of “poison”.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 1230.13 Section 1230.13 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...CERTAIN OTHER ACTS ADMINISTERED BY THE FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL CAUSTIC POISON ACT Labeling § 1230.13...

2011-04-01

460

Alcohol Poisoning Kills 6 Americans Every Day, CDC Says  

MedlinePLUS

... enable JavaScript. Alcohol Poisoning Kills 6 Americans Every Day, CDC Says Older adults hardest hit by binge- ... six people die in the United States each day after consuming far too much alcohol in too ...

461

Use of Glycopyrrolate and Atropine in Acute Organophosphorus Poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two cases of organophosphorus poisoning are reported. Both were treated with a combination of atropine and glycopyrrolate as well as benzodiazepine and pralidoxime. The advantages of glycopyrrolate over atropine are discussed.

J. A. Tracey; H. Gallagher

1990-01-01

462

Use of glycopyrrolate and atropine in acute organophosphorus poisoning.  

PubMed

Two cases of organophosphorus poisoning are reported. Both were treated with a combination of atropine and glycopyrrolate as well as benzodiazepine and pralidoxime. The advantages of glycopyrrolate over atropine are discussed. PMID:2340198

Tracey, J A; Gallagher, H

1990-03-01

463

An interesting cause of pulmonary emboli: Acute carbon monoxide poisoning  

SciTech Connect

Carbon monoxide poisoning, a public health problem of considerable significance, is a relatively frequent event today, resulting in thousands of hospitalizations annually. A 70-year-old lady was seen in the emergency department with a provisional diagnosis of carbon monoxide poisoning. The previous night, she slept in a tightly closed room heated with coal ember. She was found unconscious in the morning with poor ventilation. She had a rare presentation of popliteal vein thrombosis, pulmonary emboli, and possible tissue necrosis with carbon monoxide poisoning. Oxygen treatment with low-molecular-weight heparin (nadroparine) and warfarin therapy resulted in an improvement in both popliteal and pulmonary circulations. In conclusion, the presence of pulmonary emboli should be sought in patients with carbon monoxide poisoning.

Sevinc, A.; Savli, H.; Atmaca, H. [Gaziantep University, Gaziantep (Turkey). School of Medicine

2005-07-01

464

Can carbon monoxide-poisoned victims be organ donors?  

PubMed Central

The increasing demand for organ allografts to treat end-stage organ failure has driven changes in traditional donor criteria. Patients who have succumbed to carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning, a common cause of toxicological mortality, are usually rejected as organ donors. To fulfill the increasing demand, selection criteria must be expanded to include CO-poisoned donors. However, the use of allografts exposed to high CO concentrations is still under debate. Basic research and literature review data suggest that patients with brain death caused by CO poisoning should be considered appropriate organ donors. Accepting organs from CO-poisoned victims could increase the number of potential donors and lower the death rate of patients on the waiting lists. This review and reported cases may increase awareness among emergency department physicians, as well as transplant teams, that patients dying of CO exposure may be acceptable organ donors. PMID:25097755

2014-01-01

465

Arsenic trioxide poisoning: a description of two acute overdoses.  

PubMed

Arsenic is a traditional poison that has a history extending back into ancient times, as a medicinal agent, a homicidal poison and more recently in deliberate and unintentional self-poisoning. We report two cases of acute poisoning with an unwettable formulation of arsenic trioxide. Both patients had early gastrointestinal toxicity and were treated with early whole bowel irrigation (WBI). Chelation therapy with dimercaptosuccinic acid (dimercaptosuccinate, DMSA) was commenced within 24 hours and serial blood and urine arsenic concentrations were measured. Neither patient suffered any adverse outcome in spite of very high blood and urine concentrations of arsenic. Arsenic quantification in blood, urine and faeces suggested that enhanced gastrointestinal decontamination was minimally effective for decontamination and that DMSA for at least two weeks was required. PMID:15311855

Isbister, Geoffrey K; Dawson, Andrew H; Whyte, Ian M

2004-07-01

466

Fish Tales  

SciTech Connect

This talk is about fishing and the friendships that have resulted in its pursuit. It is also about theoretical physics, and the relationship of imagination and fantasy to the establishment of ideas about nature. Fishermen, like theoretical physicists, are well known for their inventive imaginations. Perhaps neither are as clever as sailors, who conceived of the mermaid. If one doubts the power of this fantasy, one should remember the ghosts of the many sailors who drowned pursuing these young nymphs. An extraordinary painting by J. Waterhouse is shown as Fig. 1. The enchantment of a mermaid must reflect an extraordinary excess of imagination on the part of the sailor, perhaps together with an impractical turn of mind. A consummated relationship with a mermaid is after all, by its very nature a fantasy incapable of realization. To a theoretical physicist, she is symbolic of many ideas we develop. There are many truths known to fisherman in which one might also find parallels to the goals of scientists: (1) A fish is the only animal that keeps growing after its death; (2) Nothing makes a fish bigger than almost being caught; (3) ''...of all the liars among mankind, the fisherman is the most trustworthy.'' (William Sherwood Fox, in Silken Lines and Silver Hooks); and (4) Men and fish are alike. They both get into trouble when they open their mouths. These quotes may be interpreted as reflecting skepticism regarding the honesty of fisherman, and probably do not reflect adequate admiration for a creative imagination. Is it fair to criticize a person for believing a falsehood that he or she sincerely believes to be true? The fisherman simultaneously invents the lie, and believes in it himself. The parallel with theoretical physics is perhaps only approximate, although we physicists may invent stories that we come to believe, on some rare occasions our ideas actually correspond to a more or less true descriptions of nature. These minor philosophical differences are not really the central issue, however. It is more to the point that both fishermen and scientists enjoy creating a good story, and we also enjoy a story well told. The correct mixture of truth, lie, fantasy and excitement is a witches brew.

McLerran, L.

2010-07-06

467

Locoweed (Oxytropis sericea) poisoning and congestive heart failure in cattle.  

PubMed

Locoweed (Oxytropis sericea), when fed to calves at high elevations, increased the prevalence and severity of congestive heart failure. Forced exercise did not increase the prevalence of congestive heart failure, but it did increase severity. Calves consuming locoweed at high elevations developed signs and gross lesions of congestive heart failure and microscopic lesions of congestive heart failure and locoweed poisoning. Calves fed locoweed at low elevations developed only signs and lesions of locoweed poisoning. PMID:3793593

James, L F; Hartley, W J; Nielsen, D; Allen, S; Panter, K E

1986-12-15

468

Carbon monoxide poisoning and nonoliguric acute renal failure.  

PubMed Central

Carbon monoxide poisoning in a 37-year-old man was complicated by neurologic damage, skin changes, muscle necrosis and nonoliguric renal failure. The relation between nontraumatic rhabdomyolysis and acute renal failure in carbon monoxide poisoning is reviewed. Recognition of the acute renal failure in such cases is important, for this complication can be fatal; the prognosis is excellent, however, if proper medical management is provided. PMID:679099

Bessoudo, R.; Gray, J.

1978-01-01

469

Acute intravascular hemolysis and methemoglobinemia following naphthalene ball poisoning.  

PubMed

Naphthalene (C10H8) is a natural component of fossil fuels such as petroleum, diesel and coal. The common consumer products made from naphthalene are moth repellents, in the form of mothballs or crystals, and toilet deodorant blocks. Major toxic effects of naphthalene are due to precipitation of acute intravascular hemolysis. Very few cases of naphthalene poisoning and its effects have been reported from India. We report a case of accidental naphthalene poisoning, who presented with intravascular hemolysis and methemoglobinemia. PMID:25332608

Kapoor, Rajan; Suresh, P; Barki, Satish; Mishra, Mayank; Garg, M K

2014-09-01

470

Acute carbon monoxide poisoning: Emergency management and hyperbaric oxygen therapy  

SciTech Connect

An ice storm in February 1989 resulted in numerous incidences of carbon monoxide poisoning in central Mississippi secondary to exposure to open fires in unventilated living spaces. Sixteen cases were treated during this period at the University of Mississippi Medical Center and 6 received Hyperbaric Oxygen therapy. These 6 cases and the mechanisms of CO poisoning are discussed and recommendations for emergency management are reviewed.10 references.

Severance, H.W.; Kolb, J.C.; Carlton, F.B.; Jorden, R.C.

1989-10-01

471

Age–sex differences in medicinal self-poisonings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Deliberate self-harm (DSH) is related to suicide and DSH repetition is common. DSH hospital presentations are often self-poisonings\\u000a with medicinal agents. While older age and male sex are known risk factors for suicide, it is unclear how these factors are\\u000a related to the nature and severity of medicinal self-poisoning (SP). Such knowledge can guide prevention strategies emphasizing\\u000a detecting and treating

Anne E. Rhodes; Jennifer Bethell; Julie Spence; Paul S. Links; David L. Streiner; R. Liisa Jaakkimainen

2008-01-01

472

Unintentional poisoning hospitalisations among young children in Victoria  

PubMed Central

Objectives—To describe the epidemiology of unintentional childhood poisoning hospitalisation in Victoria, Australia, in order to monitor trends and identify areas for research and prevention. Methods—For children under 5 years, all Victorian public hospital admissions, July 1987 to June 1995, due to unintentional poisoning by drugs, medicines, and other substances were analysed. Similar cases were also extracted from the database of the Royal Children's Hospital intensive care unit, Melbourne for the years 1979–91. Log linear regression modelling was used for trend analyses. Results—The annual average childhood unintentional poisoning rate was 210.7 per 100 000. Annual rates for males consistently exceeded those for females. The most common agents were those acting on the respiratory system and on smooth and skeletal muscles (muscle relaxants, cough and cold medicines, antiasthmatics), aromatic analgesics (paracetamol), and systemic agents (including antihistamines). Further investigation is justified for cardiac agents, some respiratory agents, and asthma medications. Conclusions—Childhood poisoning hospitalisation rates have not decreased in Victoria over recent years. A focused, agent specific approach, as well as a series of generic measures for the prevention of poisoning to children under 5 is advocated. The ongoing surveillance, collection and analysis of data, in addition to research on specific poisoning agents are essential components of any prevention strategy. PMID:10323567

Hoy, J.; Day, L.; Tibballs, J.; Ozanne-Smith, J.

1999-01-01

473

Structural equation modeling of pesticide poisoning, depression, safety, and injury.  

PubMed

The role of pesticide poisoning in risk of injuries may operate through a link between pesticide-induced depressive symptoms and reduced engagement in safety behaviors. The authors conducted structural equation modeling of cross-sectional data to examine the pattern of associations between pesticide poisoning, depressive symptoms, safety knowledge, safety behaviors, and injury. Interviews of 1637 Colorado farm operators and their spouses from 964 farms were conducted during 1993-1997. Pesticide poisoning was assessed based on a history of ever having been poisoned. The Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression scale was used to assess depressive symptoms. Safety knowledge and safety behaviors were assessed using ten items for each latent variable. Outcomes were safety behaviors and injuries. A total of 154 injuries occurred among 1604 individuals with complete data. Pesticide poisoning, financial problems, health, and age predicted negative affect/somatic depressive symptoms with similar effect sizes; sex did not. Depression was more strongly associated with safety behavior than was safety knowledge. Two safety behaviors were significantly associated with an increased risk of injury. This study emphasizes the importance of financial problems and health on depression, and provides further evidence for the link between neurological effects of past pesticide poisoning on risk-taking behaviors and injury. PMID:24125049

Beseler, Cheryl L; Stallones, Lorann

2013-01-01

474

Cooperative Extension Service Preventing Food Poisoning And Food Infection  

E-print Network

Food safety concerns every food handling facility. Each year, thousands of individuals suffer the discomfort and pain resulting from foodborne illness. To prevent such illnesses, understanding the bacteria that cause food poisoning is essential. The term food poisoning is generally used to describe illness caused by al types of foodborne microorganisms. Food poisoning and food infection are different, although the symptoms are similar. True food poisoning or food intoxication is caused by eating food that contains a toxin or poison due to bacterial growth in food. The bacteria which produced and excreted the toxic waste products into the food may be killed, but the toxin they produced causes the illness or digestive upset to occur. Staphylococcus aureus and Clostridium botulinum are two species of bacteria that cause food poisoning. Food infection is the second type of foodborne illness. It is caused by eating food that contains certain types of live bacteria which are present in the food. Once the food is consumed, the bacterial cells themselves continue to grow and illness can result. Salmonellosis is a good example of foodborne infection. Vibrio parahaemolyticus is another infection organism and is found primarily in shellfish from polluted waters. Clostridium perfringens grows in warm food like beef stews or gravies and produces toxins. It also

Estes Reynolds; George Schuler; William Hurst; P. T. Tybor; Extension Food Science; Food Poisoning

475

POISON SPIDER FIELD CHEMICAL FLOOD PROJECT, WYOMING  

SciTech Connect

A reservoir engineering and geologic study concluded that approximate 7,852,000 bbls of target oil exits in Poison Spider. Field pore volume, OOIP, and initial oil saturation are defined. Potential injection water has a total dissolved solids content of 1,275 mg/L with no measurable divalent cations. If the Lakota water consistently has no measurable cations, the injection water does not require softening to dissolve alkali. Produced water total dissolved solids were 2,835 mg/L and less than 20 mg/L hardness as the sum of divalent cations. Produced water requires softening to dissolve chemicals. Softened produced water was used to dissolve chemicals in these evaluations. Crude oil API gravity varies across the field from 19.7 to 22.2 degrees with a dead oil viscosity of 95 to 280 cp at 75 F. Interfacial tension reductions of up to 21,025 fold (0.001 dyne/cm) were developed with fifteen alkaline-surfactant combinations at some alkali concentration. An additional three alkaline-surfactant combinations reduced the interfacial tension greater than 5,000 fold. NaOH generally produced the lowest interfacial tension values. Interfacial tension values of less than 0.021 dyne/cm were maintained when the solutions were diluted with produced water to about 60%. Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} when mixed with surfactants did not reduce interfacial tension values to levels at which incremental oil can be expected. NaOH without surfactant interfacial tension reduction is at a level where some additional oil might be recovered. Most of the alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions producing ultra low interfacial tension gave type II- phase behavior. Only two solutions produced type III phase behavior. Produced water dilution resulted in maintenance of phase type for a number of solutions at produced water dilutions exceeding 80% dilution. The average loss of phase type occurred at 80% dilution. Linear corefloods were performed to determine relative permeability end points, chemical-rock compatibility, polymer injectivity, dynamic chemical retention by rock, and recommended injected polymer concentration. Average initial oil saturation was 0.796 Vp. Produced water injection recovered 53% OOIP leaving an average residual oil saturation of 0.375 Vp. Poison Spider rock was strongly water-wet with a mobility ratio for produced water displacing the 280 cp crude oil of 8.6. Core was not sensitive to either alkali or surfactant injection. Injectivity increased 60 to 80% with alkali plus surfactant injection. Low and medium molecular weight polyacrylamide polymers (Flopaam 3330S and Flopaam 3430S) dissolved in either an alkaline-surfactant solution or softened produced water injected and flowed through Poison Spider rock. Recommended injected polyacrylamide concentration is 2,100 mg/L for both polymers for a unit mobility ratio. Radial corefloods were performed to evaluate oil recovery efficiency of different chemical solutions. Waterflood oil recovery averaged 46.4 OOIP and alkaline-surfactant-polymer flood oil recovery averaged an additional 18.1% OIP for a total of 64.6% OOIP. Oil cut change due to injection of a 1.5 wt% Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} plus 0.05 wt% Petrostep B-100 plus 0.05 wt% Stepantan AS1216 plus 2100 mg/L Flopaam 3430S was from 2% to a peak of 23.5%. Additional study might determine the impact on oil recovery of a lower polymer concentration. An alkaline-surfactant-polymer flood field implementation outline report was written.

Douglas Arnell; Malcolm Pitts; Jie Qi

2004-11-01

476

Histamine Levels in Fish from Markets in Lima, Perú†  

PubMed Central

Illnesses associated with seafood are an important public health concern worldwide, particularly considering the steady increase in seafood consumption. However, research about the risks associated with seafood products is scarce in developing countries. Histamine fish poisoning is the most common form of fish intoxication caused by seafood and usually presents as an allergic reaction. This condition occurs when fish are not kept appropriately refrigerated and histamine is formed in the tissues. Histamine levels of >500 ppm usually are associated with clinical illness. We assessed histamine levels in fish from markets in Lima, Peru, with a quantitative competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Thirty-eight specimens were purchased from wholesale and retail markets: 17 bonito (Sarda sarda), 16 mackerel (Scomber japonicus peruanus), and 5 mahi-mahi (Coryphaena hippurus). Seven fish (18%) had histamine levels of 1 to 10 ppm (three mackerel and four bonito) and three (8%) had >10 ppm (three mackerel, 35 to 86 ppm). Fish from retail markets had detectable histamine levels (>1 ppm) more frequently than did fish bought at wholesale fish markets: 9 (36%) of 25 fish versus 1 (8%) of 13 fish, respectively (P = 0.063). Higher histamine levels were correlated with later time of purchase during the day (Spearman’s rho = 0.37, P = 0.024). Mackerel purchased at retail markets after 2 p.m. had a 75% prevalence of histamine levels of >10 ppm. Mackerel purchased late in the day in retail markets frequently contained high histamine levels, although the overall prevalence of elevated histamine levels was low. Despite the small sample, our findings highlight the need to reinforce seafood safety regulations and quality control in developing countries such as Peru. PMID:19517744

Gonzaga, Victor E.; Lescano, Andres G.; Huamán, Alfredo A.; Salmón-Mulanovich, Gabriela; Blazes, David L.

2014-01-01

477

Using Quasiparticle Poisoning To Detect Photons  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

According to a proposal, a phenomenon associated with excitation of quasiparticles in certain superconducting quantum devices would be exploited as a means of detecting photons with exquisite sensitivity. The phenomenon could also be exploited to perform medium-resolution spectroscopy. The proposal was inspired by the observation that Coulomb blockade devices upon which some quantum logic gates are based are extremely sensitive to quasiparticles excited above the superconducting gaps in their leads. The presence of quasiparticles in the leads can be easily detected via the charge states. If quasiparticles could be generated in the leads by absorption of photons, then the devices could be used as very sensitive detectors of electromagnetic radiation over the spectral range from x-rays to submillimeter waves. The devices in question are single-Cooper-pair boxes (SCBs), which are mesoscopic superconducting devices developed for quantum computing. An SCB consists of a small superconducting island connected to a reservoir via a small tunnel junction and connected to a voltage source through a gate capacitor. An SCB is an artificial two-level quantum system, the Hamiltonian of which can be controlled by the gate voltage. One measures the expected value of the charge of the eigenvectors of this quantum system by use of a radio-frequency single-electron transistor. A plot of this expected value of charge as a function of gate voltage resembles a staircase that, in the ideal case, consists of steps of height 2 e (where e is the charge of one electron). Experiments have shown that depending on the parameters of the device, quasiparticles in the form of "broken" Cooper pairs present in the reservoir can tunnel to the island, giving rise to steps of 1 e. This effect is sometimes called "poisoning." Simulations have shown that an extremely small average number of quasiparticles can generate a 1-e periodic signal. In a device according to the proposal, this poisoning would be turned to advantage. Depending on the wavelength, an antenna or other component would be used to couple radiation into the reservoir, wherein the absorption of photons would break Cooper pairs, thereby creating quasiparticles that, in turn, would tunnel to the island, creating a 1-e signal. On the basis of conservative estimates of device parameters derived from experimental data and computational simulations that fit the data, it has been estimated that the noise equivalent power of a device according to the proposal could be as low as 6 10(exp -22) W/Hz(exp 1/2). It has also been estimated that the spectroscopic resolution (photon energy divided by increment of photon energy) of such a device in visible light would exceed 100.

Echternach, Pierre; Day, Peter

2006-01-01

478

Lipid rescue 911: Are poison centers recommending intravenous fat emulsion therapy for severe poisoning?  

PubMed

Intravenous fat emulsion (IFE) therapy is a novel treatment that has been used to reverse the acute toxicity of some xenobiotics with varied success. We sought to determine how US Poison Control Centers (PCCs) have incorporated IFE as a treatment strategy for poisoning. A closed-format multiple-choice survey instrument was developed, piloted, revised, and then sent electronically to every medical director of an accredited US PCC in March 2011. Addresses were obtained from the American Association of Poison Control Centers listserv, and participation was voluntary and remained anonymous. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. The majority of PCC medical directors completed the survey (45 out of 57; 79 %). Of the 45 respondents, all felt that IFE therapy played a role in the acute overdose setting. Most PCCs (30 out of 45; 67 %) have a protocol for IFE therapy. In a scenario with "cardiac arrest" due to a single xenobiotic, directors stated that their center would "always" or "often" recommend IFE after overdose of bupivacaine (43 out of 45; 96 %), verapamil (36 out of 45; 80 %), amitriptyline (31 out of 45; 69 %), or an unknown xenobiotic (12 out of 45; 27 %). In a scenario with "shock" due to a single xenobiotic, directors stated that their PCC would "always" or "often" recommend IFE after overdose of bupivacaine (40 out of 45; 89 %), verapamil (28 out of 45; 62 %), amitriptyline (25 out of 45; 56 %), or an unknown xenobiotic (8 out of 45; 18 %). IFE therapy is being recommended by US PCCs; protocols and dosing regimens are nearly uniform. Most directors feel that IFE is safe but are more likely to recommend IFE in patients with cardiac arrest than in patients with severe hemodynamic compromise. PMID:23661336

Christian, Michael R; Pallasch, Erin M; Wahl, Michael; Mycyk, Mark B

2013-09-01

479

Muscular strength and vibration thresholds during two years after acute poisoning with organophosphate insecticides  

PubMed Central

Methods: This study concerns the third of a series of three examinations of hand strength and vibration thresholds in a two year period after acute OP poisoning among 48 Nicaraguan men. The first two examinations were performed at hospital discharge and seven weeks after poisoning, and the present examination two years later. Twenty eight cattle ranchers and fishermen who had never experienced pesticide poisoning were examined as controls, also three times over the two year period. The poisonings were categorised as caused by "non-neuropathic" OPs and "neuropathic" OPs, each subdivided in moderate and severe poisonings. Results: Men poisoned with OP insecticides had persistent reduced hand strength. We previously reported weakness at hospital discharge for OP poisoned in all categories that worsened seven weeks later for those severely poisoned with neuropathic OPs. Strength improved over time, but the poisoned were still weaker than controls two years after the poisoning, most noticeably among the subjects most severely poisoned with neuropathic OPs. Also, index finger and toe vibration thresholds were slightly increased at the end of the two year period, among men with OP poisonings in all categories, but patterns of onset and evolvement of impairment of vibration sensitivity were less clear than with grip and pinch strength. Conclusions: Persistent, mainly motor, impairment of the peripheral nervous system was found in men two years after OP poisoning, in particular in severe occupational and intentional poisonings with neuropathic OPs. This finding is possibly due to remaining organophosphate induced delayed polyneuropathy. PMID:14691285

Miranda, J; McConnell, R; Wesseling, C; Cuadra, R; Delgado, E; Torres, E; Keifer, M; Lundberg, I

2004-01-01

480

Adjuncts and alternatives to oxime therapy in organophosphate poisoning--is there evidence of benefit in human poisoning? A review.  

PubMed

Organophosphate poisoning is common in developing countries. The morbidity and mortality with organophosphate poisoning is relatively high despite the use of atropine as specific antidotal therapy and oximes to reactivate acetylcholinesterase. Several adjunct and alternative therapies have been explored in animal and human studies. We reviewed the literature to ascertain if there was evidence of benefit of such therapies. Adjunct and alternative therapies included treatments to reduce poison absorption by topical application of creams, enhance toxin elimination by haemoperfusion or bioremediation and neutralise the poison by scavenging free organophosphate with cholinesterase-rich human plasma. In addition, magnesium, clonidine, diazepam, N-acetyl cysteine and adenosine receptor agonists have also been used to counteract poison effects. Detailed assessment was limited by the paucity of trials on adjunct/alternative therapies. The limited evidence from the review process suggested potential benefit from the use of human plasma infusion, early initiation of haemoperfusion and intravenous magnesium, in addition to standard therapy with atropine and pralidoxime. There appeared to be no additional benefit with alkalinisation or use of glycopyrrolate instead of atropine in human trials. Diazepam administration has been advocated by military authorities if symptoms developed following exposure to organophosphate. Bioremediation, clonidine, N-acetyl cysteine and adenosine receptor agonists have been evaluated only in animal models. The impact of adjunct and alternate therapies on outcomes in human poisoning needs to be further explored before implementation as standard treatment. PMID:18564794

Peter, J V; Moran, J L; Pichamuthu, K; Chacko, B

2008-05-01

481

Microbiological spoilage of fish and fish products  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spoilage of fresh and lightly preserved fish products is caused by microbial action. This paper reviews the current knowledge in terms of the microbiology of fish and fish products with particular emphasis on identification of specific spoilage bacteria and the qualitative and quantitative biochemical indicators of spoilage. Shewanella putrefaciens and Pseudomonas spp. are the specific spoilage bacteria of iced fresh

Lone Gram; Hans Henrik Huss

1996-01-01

482

Acquired coagulopathy due to anticoagulant rodenticide poisoning.  

PubMed

A 35-year-old woman was admitted to hospital because of epistaxis, hematomas, and metrorrhagia. Laboratory data indicated severe coagulopathy with prolonged prothrombin time and decreased serum concentrations of vitamin K-dependent clotting factors II, VII, IX, and X. The patient denied taking any oral anticoagulants. She was given transfusions of red blood cells, fresh frozen plasma (1,180 mL) and phytomenadione daily for 6 weeks (total dose 550 mg), which normalized the coagulation factors concentration. After all other possible causes of acquired coagulopathy had been excluded, rodenticide poisoning was suspected on the basis of her epidemiologic history. The patient was a war refugee from Bosnia and Herzegovina. During her absence, the troops of United Nations Protection Force performed rodent extermination in and around her house. History data and therapeutic effects suggested that the coagulopathy had been caused by prolonged exposure to long-acting anticoagulant rodenticide. This could also explain the need for protracted phytomenadione therapy. PMID:12402407

Hui?, Mirjana; Franceti?, Igor; Bakran, Ivan; Macoli?-Sarini?, Viola; Bilusi?, Marinko

2002-10-01

483

A clinical study of viper bite poisoning.  

PubMed

Thirty-one consecutive cases of snake bite were studied in the Benue Valley, Nigeria where carpet viper (Echis carinatus) bite constitutes a serious health problem. E. carinatus was responsible for 26 cases, the night adder (Causus maculatus) for three and the puff adder (Bitis arietans) for two. There were two fatalities, both late admissions following E. carinatus poisoning. One patient died after a subarachnoid haemorrhage and the other after tissue necrosis and the complications of a tightly applied tourniquet. Another fatality after E. carinatus bite was suspected in a patient who discharged himself from hospital after Behringwerke antivenom failed to control bleeding and coagulopathy. Other cases of Behringwerke antivenom's failure and of slow response to treatment confirmed the pressing need for a more effective Echis antivenom in West Africa. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used for diagnosing the biting species and was the only means of identifying the three cases bitten by C. maculatus and one case bitten by B. arietans. PMID:3689023

Pugh, R N; Theakston, R D

1987-04-01

484

[Spider poisoning in Portugal: fact or myth?].  

PubMed

There are 800 known species of spiders in Portugal. Of these, only two may cause any kind of medical condition: the Mediterranean black-widow (Latrodectus tredecimguttatus) and the violin spider (Loxosceles rufescens). Both are relatively common in the country, the latter inclusively in urban areas. It is frequent in Portugal for some types of necrotic lesión to be attributed to spider bites. However, as in the rest of the world, evidences are often circumstantial. Most probably, some of the reported cases may in fact represent misdiagnoses of serious conditions such as infections by Streptococcus group A or Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus. The correct diagnosis of spider poisoning must always be submitted to the following steps: (1) confirmation or observation of the biting, with verification of medical signs compatible with it; (2) the spider should be captured immediately or right after the bite, dead or alive; (3) identification of the spider by a taxonomist. It is extremely important that the medical community does not associate any necrotic lesion with a spider bite based on merely circumstantial evidence. Doing it is to neglect the real cause of such condition and to delay the effective cure. In reality, given their rarity, spider bite lesions should be relegated to the end of the differential diagnostic list of necrotic skin lesions. PMID:20353705

Cardoso, Pedro; Almeida, A Paulo G

2010-01-01

485

Experiences with acute organophosphate poisonings in Crete.  

PubMed

Nine human acute poisonings due to intentional ingestion of organophosphorous pesticides are presented. Six of the victims died. Six patients were treated in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) from 34 h to 45 d, while 3 were found dead by relatives. Two of the patients treated in the ICU fully recovered after 15 and 24 d while the third survivor developed delayed neuropathy. Organophosphate blood levels were determined on admission and during therapy, and in 1 case atropine and pralidoxime levels were also detected. Significant fluctuations of the plasma cholinesterase activity were observed during therapy. Postmortem analysis revealed higher levels of pesticides in organs (eg 23.1 micrograms fenthion/g kidney) and in fat (135.2 micrograms fenthion/g) than in blood (eg 4.8 micrograms fenthion/ml) and vitreous humor. Considerable pesticide was measured in testis (eg 5.8 micrograms fenthion/g, 0.8 micrograms methidathion/g) and uterus (170.5 micrograms malathion/g). Extracorporeal decontamination to enhance pesticide elimination is a therapeutic challenge. PMID:8693683

Tsatsakis, A M; Aguridakis, P; Michalodimitrakis, M N; Tsakalov, A K; Alegakis, A K; Koumantakis, E; Troulakis, G

1996-04-01

486

An unusual case of carbon monoxide poisoning.  

PubMed Central

Carbon monoxide, a gas originating from incomplete combustion of carbon-based fuels, is an important cause of human deaths. In this paper, we describe an unusual carbon monoxide poisoning in a dwelling without obvious sources of combustion gases, for which two adults had to be treated in a hyperbaric chamber. Carbon monoxide readings were taken in the house and in the neighboring homes. Methane gas and nitrogen oxide levels were also monitored in the house air. Soil samples were collected around the house and tested for hydrocarbon residues. The investigation revealed the presence of a pocket of carbon monoxide under the foundation of the house. The first readings revealed carbon monoxide levels of 500 ppm in the basement. The contamination lasted for a week. The investigation indicated that the probable source of contamination was the use of explosives at a nearby rain sewer construction site. The use of explosives in a residential area can constitute a major source of carbon monoxide for the neighboring populations. This must be investigated, and public health authorities, primary-care physicians, governmental authorities, and users and manufacturers of explosives must be made aware of this problem. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:10379009

Auger, P L; Levesque, B; Martel, R; Prud'homme, H; Bellemare, D; Barbeau, C; Lachance, P; Rhainds, M

1999-01-01

487

[Paraquat poisoning. Case report and overview].  

PubMed

Paraquat poisoning in Germany is rare. Because plasma levels do not necessarily match the ingested amount of paraquat, repeated measurement of plasma levels is imperative. There is a large potential in the prehospital phase to improve prognosis: further resorption must be terminated by rigorous charcoal administration and early tracheal intubation if necessary. Because paraquat can be resorbed by dermal contact, steps to ensure sufficient protection of emergency medical personnel must be taken.As soon as further resorption has been prevented sufficiently, forced diuresis, renal replacement therapy, and hemoperfusion can be of help, but still remain controversial. To reduce pulmonary fibrosis, inspiratory oxygen concentrations must be adjusted to the minimal amount needed to ensure satisfactory tissue oxygenation. Data supporting the advantageous use of cyclophosphamide combined with methylprednisolone for the treatment of pulmonary fibrosis were recently published. Since the toxic mechanism implies a mismatch of oxidants and anti-oxidants, co-administration of ascorbic acid and N-acetylcysteine are simple treatments with few side effects. PMID:22349538

Spangenberg, T; Grahn, H; van der Schalk, H; Kuck, K H

2012-05-01

488

Lead poisoning and parasitism in a flock of mute swans (Cygnus olor) in Scotland.  

PubMed

Increased mortality in a flock of non-breeding mute swans (Cygnus olor) on a Scottish loch was investigated. Postmortem examinations were carried out on eight adult and six immature swans. The commonest cause of death, found in eight birds, was lead poisoning associated with the ingestion of large lead fishing weights. Heavy parasitic burdens were found in five immature birds, involving combinations of the gizzard worm Amidostomum species, the thornyheaded worms Polymorphus minutus and Profilicollis anatis, and the tracheal trematode Orchipedum tracheicola. Other parasites of lesser significance were the biting louse Trinoton anserinum, the tapeworm Wardoides nyrocae, the hairworm Capillaria species and the intestinal trematode Echinoparyphium recurvatum. Eight of the 14 swans carried trematodes of the family Schistosomatidae, which may be involved in human cercarial dermatitis or 'swimmers' itch'. It is suggested that the increased mortality arose through a combination of increased numbers of swans on the loch, and a fall in the water level of the loch which exposed the birds to previously inaccessible lead fishing weights and to the intermediate hosts of a range of internal parasites. PMID:9460217

Pennycott, T W

1998-01-01

489

Fish availability in supermarkets and fish markets in New Jersey  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is considerable interest in fish consumption, contaminant loads in edible fish, and the risk from consuming fish. Both the benefits and the risks from eating fish are publicized. Most of this attention has focused on recreational anglers and self-caught fish, although the vast majority of fish that people eat are purchased from commercial sources: fish markets and supermarkets. We

Joanna Burger; Alan H. Stern; Carline Dixon; Christopher Jeitner; Sheila Shukla; Sean Burke; Michael Gochfeld

2004-01-01

490

Lead poisoning of sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Two wild and two captive sandhill cranes (Grm cnt~ndensisw) ere diagnosed by National Wildlife Health Laboratory personnel as having died from lead toxicity. Ingestion of lead fishing weights by the wild cranes and of unspent .22 caliber shell cartridges by the captive cranes were responsible for these deaths. One crane force-fed lead pellets showed an increase of blood lead levels from 0.77 ppm to 23.8 ppm (wet weight) just before its death 15 days following exposure. Liver lead concentrations of sandhill cranes dying of,causes other than lead toxicity are presented.

Windingstad, R.M.; Kerr, S.M.; Locke, L.N.; Hurt, J.J.

1984-01-01

491

Accidental Children Poisoning With Methadone: An Iranian Pediatric Sectional Study  

PubMed Central

Objective Toxic poisoning with methadone is common in children in Iran. Our study was carried out due to the changing pattern of methadone poisoning in recent years and increasing methadone toxicity. Materials & Methods In this descriptive-sectional study, all of the methadone poisoned children younger than 12 years who were admitted to the Loghman Hakim Hospital in 2012, were assessed. Clinical symptoms and signs, para-clinical findings, and treatment were evaluated. Results In this study, 16 boys and 15 girls who had been poisoned by methadone were enrolled. The mean age of patients was 55 months. All patients had been poisoned randomly or due to parent’s mistakes. The mean time of symptoms onset after methadone consumption was 1 hour and 30 Min, indicating a relatively long time after onset of symptoms. Clinical findings were drowsiness (75%), miotic pupil (68 %), vomiting (61%), rapid shallow breathing (57%) and apnea (40%). In paraclinical tests, respiratory acidosis (69%) and leukocytosis (55.2%) were seen. The most important finding was increase in distance of QT in ECG (23.8%). The mean time of treatment with naloxone infusion was 51 hours. Three percent of patients had a return of symptoms after discontinuation of methadone. In patients with apnea, a longer course of treatment was required, and this difference was significant. Also, 17% of patients with apnea had aspiration pneumonia, which was statistically significant. Conclusion We suggest long time treatment with naloxone and considering the probability of return of symptoms after discontinuation of methadone. PMID:24665315

JABBEHDARI, Sayena; FARNAGHI, Fariba; SHARIATMADARI, Seyed Fakhreddin; JAFARI, Narjes; MEHREGAN, Fatemeh-Fereshteh; Karimzadeh, Parvaneh

2013-01-01

492

Olive leaf extract inhibits lead poisoning-induced brain injury  

PubMed Central

Olive leaves have an antioxidant capacity, and olive leaf extract can protect the blood, spleen and hippocampus in lead-poisoned mice. However, little is known about the effects of olive leaf extract on lead-induced brain injury. This study was designed to determine whether olive leaf extract can inhibit lead-induced brain injury, and whether this effect is associated with antioxidant capacity. First, we established a mouse model of lead poisoning by continuous intragastric administration of lead acetate for 30 days. Two hours after successful model establishment, lead-poisoned mice were given olive leaf extract at doses of 250, 500 or 1 000 mg/kg daily by intragastric administration for 50 days. Under the transmission electron microscope, olive leaf extract attenuated neuronal and capillary injury and reduced damage to organelles and the matrix around the capillaries in the frontal lobe of the cerebral cortex in the lead-poisoned mice. Olive leaf extract at a dose of 1 000 mg/kg had the greatest protective effect. Spectrophotometry showed that olive leaf extract significantly increased the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, alkaline phosphatase and acid phosphatase, while it reduced malondialdehyde content, in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, immunohistochemical staining revealed that olive leaf extract dose-dependently decreased Bax protein expression in the cerebral cortex of lead-poisoned mice. Our findings indicate that olive leaf extract can inhibit lead-induced brain injury by increasing antioxidant capacity and reducing apoptosis. PMID:25206510

Wang, Yu; Wang, Shengqing; Cui, Wenhui; He, Jiujun; Wang, Zhenfu; Yang, Xiaolu

2013-01-01

493

Olive leaf extract inhibits lead poisoning-induced brain injury.  

PubMed

Olive leaves have an antioxidant capacity, and olive leaf extract can protect the blood, spleen and hippocampus in lead-poisoned mice. However, little is known about the effects of olive leaf extract on lead-induced brain injury. This study was designed to determine whether olive leaf extract can inhibit lead-induced brain injury, and whether this effect is associated with antioxidant capacity. First, we established a mouse model of lead poisoning by continuous intragastric administration of lead acetate for 30 days. Two hours after successful model establishment, lead-poisoned mice were given olive leaf extract at doses of 250, 500 or 1 000 mg/kg daily by intragastric administration for 50 days. Under the transmission electron microscope, olive leaf extract attenuated neuronal and capillary injury and reduced damage to organelles and the matrix around the capillaries in the frontal lobe of the cerebral cortex in the lead-poisoned mice. Olive leaf extract at a dose of 1 000 mg/kg had the greatest protective effect. Spectrophotometry showed that olive leaf extract significantly increased the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, alkaline phosphatase and acid phosphatase, while it reduced malondialdehyde content, in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, immunohistochemical staining revealed that olive leaf extract dose-dependently decreased Bax protein expression in the cerebral cortex of lead-poisoned mice. Our findings indicate that olive leaf extract can inhibit lead-induced brain injury by increasing antioxidant capacity and reducing apoptosis. PMID:25206510

Wang, Yu; Wang, Shengqing; Cui, Wenhui; He, Jiujun; Wang, Zhenfu; Yang, Xiaolu

2013-08-01

494

[Food poisoning--importance of international perspective].  

PubMed

It is important to obtain the information on food security in the countries other than Japan since more than 60 % of the food consumed come from these countries. Food security is now considered as a global issue. A global trend persuading us to provide safe food to humans is based on the concept of human security development associated with a sense of human mission to sustain one's life. Another global tendency pushing us to secure safety and hygiene of food is driven by the economic pressure coming from the rules in international trade established by Codex Committee under FAO/WHO. In contrast to these trends under globalization requesting safe and hygienic food, food habits based on tradition or religion are maintained locally in various parts of the world. These local habits include eating raw or improperly cooked foods, which may become a risk of being exposed to food poisoning pathogens. This issue may be adequately solved by a risk assessment approach based on the concept of appropriate level of protection (ALOP). Like or not, people in some local areas live in the unhygienic environment where they are unintentionally and frequently exposed to enteric pathogens or immunologically cross-reacting microorganisms through which they may acquire specific immunity to the pathogens and escape from infection by the pathogens. There are therefore many areas in the world where people understand the necessity to provide safe food at the international level (globalization) but actually consume food in varying hygienic conditions from area to area due in part to traditional food habits or living environments (localization); we call this situation as glocalization (global+local). PMID:22894059

Nishibuchi, Mitsuaki

2012-08-01

495

An unusual outbreak of food poisoning.  

PubMed

On August 25 1990, over 400 people who attended a Thailand handicappeds' sport day at a provincial physical education college developed gastrointestinal symptoms after having dinner. An epidemiological team want to determine causes(s) and recommend how to prevent and control a food poisoning outbreak. The investigation included interviewing all 1,210 persons who attended the sport's day. In addition, an environmental survey, laboratory analysis of food samples, and rectal, ear, throat and nasal swabs from foodhandlers were also performed. A case was defined as a person who ate any items of dinner food and experienced vomiting, nausea, abdominal pain, and diarrhea. There were 485 cases out of 1,094 persons, an attack rate of 43%. Interviews were completed for 470 out of 485 cases. The three most common symptoms were nausea (93%), vomiting (88%), and abdominal pain (81.5). The mean incubation period was 3.20 hours. Three out of four items of food had a significant association with illness. Among these 3 items, eclairs had to the highest crude relative risk, 7.0 (95% CI = 4.8, 10.2). For statistical analysis, logistic regression by unconditional method was used, and found that only eclairs which were prepared during the night before the dinner and kept at room temperature for at least 12 hours before serving, remained statistically significant in the model (RR = 11.96; 95% CI = 9-22). Laboratory examination of foods and foodhandlers indicated heavy growth of Staphylococcus aureus producing toxins A and C and Bacillus cereus in eclairs. Culture of nasal swabs from healthy foodhandlers identified B. cereus and S. aureus of different phage types from those in eclairs.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8525424

Thaikruea, L; Pataraarechachai, J; Savanpunyalert, P; Naluponjiragul, U

1995-03-01

496

Diethylene glycol poisoning in Gurgaon, India, 1998.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To discover the cause of acute renal failure in 36 children aged 2 months to 6 years who were admitted to two hospitals in Delhi between 1 April and 9 June 1998. METHODS: Data were collected from hospital records, parents and doctors of the patients, and district health officials. Further information was obtained from house visits and community surveys; blood and stool samples were collected from other ill children, healthy family members and community contacts. Samples of drinking-water and water from a tube-well were tested for coliform organisms. FINDINGS: Most of the children (26/36) were from the Gurgaon district in Haryana or had visited Gurgaon town for treatment of a minor illness. Acute renal failure developed after an episode of acute febrile illness with or without watery diarrhoea or mild respiratory symptoms for which the children had been treated with unknown medicines by private medical practitioners. On admission to hospital the children were not dehydrated. Median blood urea concentration was 150 mg/dl (range 79-311 mg/dl) and median serum creatinine concentration was 5.6 mg/dl (range 2.6-10.8 mg/dl). Kidney biopsy showed acute tubular necrosis. Thirty-three children were known to have died despite being treated with peritoneal dialysis and supportive therapy. CONCLUSION: Cough expectorant manufactured by a company in Gurgaon was found to be contaminated with diethylene glycol (17.5% v/v), but a sample of acetaminophen manufactured by the same company tested negative for contamination when gas-liquid chromatography was used. Thus, poisoning with diethylene glycol seems to be the cause of acute renal failure in these children. PMID:11242827

Singh, J.; Dutta, A. K.; Khare, S.; Dubey, N. K.; Harit, A. K.; Jain, N. K.; Wadhwa, T. C.; Gupta, S. R.; Dhariwal, A. C.; Jain, D. C.; Bhatia, R.; Sokhey, J.

2001-01-01

497

3 CFR 8940 - Proclamation 8940 of March 15, 2013. National Poison Prevention Week, 2013  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...protect ourselves and our loved ones from accidental poisoning. This week, we carrythat tradition forward by encouraging common-sense precautions and raising awareness about how to respond in a poison emergency. Thanks to greater public...

2014-01-01

498

Factors associated with self-reported symptoms of acute pesticide poisoning among farmers in northwestern Jamaica  

PubMed Central

Pesticide poisoning is a major public health concern in developing countries. We conducted a population survey among farmers in three parishes of northwestern Jamaica to determine the occurrence of acute pesticide poisoning and to identify factors associated with pesticide poisoning. Approximately 16% of 359 farmers who participated in the study reported one or more incidents of acute pesticide poisoning within the last two years. Only 25% of the farmers reported ever receiving training in pesticide handling or safety. The majority (68%) of farmers who reported pesticide poisoning never sought medical attention for poisoning. The factors found to be associated with pesticide poisoning in this study indicate that implementation of specific intervention strategies and education of farmers is needed in order to improve safe handling, use and disposal of pesticides and reduce incidents of acute pesticide poisoning. PMID:24484363

Ncube, Ngqabutho M.; Fogo, Christopher; Bessler, Patricia; Jolly, Curtis M.; Jolly, Pauline E.

2011-01-01

499

Electrochimica Acta 49 (2004) 23332341 Transient carbon monoxide poisoning of a polymer electrolyte  

E-print Network

Electrochimica Acta 49 (2004) 2333­2341 Transient carbon monoxide poisoning of a polymer reserved. Keywords: Fuel cell; Hydrogen; Carbon monoxide poisoning; Reformer; Automotive 1. Introduction containing diluted hydrogen and trace quantities of carbon monoxide (CO) was experimentally investigated

500

Attempted induction of chronic copper poisoning in boma confined impala.  

PubMed

Induction of chronic copper poisoning in ten boma-confined impala was attempted in a randomized, single dose, parallel designed, titration study using five increasing oral doses, ranging between 125 mg/kg to 1000 mg/kg, of copper oxide needles. Two untreated impala were kept as controls. Impala (n = 1) from each treatment group were culled 52 d and 105 d after treatment and examined for tissue copper accumulation and signs of chronic copper poisoning. Despite the high doses of copper administered to the impala and liver copper concentrations above 150 ppm WM achieved in two animals, no clinical signs related to chronic copper poisoning were observed. Faecal copper concentrations indicated that the major portion of copper oxide particles was excreted in the faeces. PMID:10631706

Grobler, D G; Swan, G E

1999-09-01