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1

[Puffer fish poisoning].  

PubMed

We report three cases of a collective tetrodotoxin poisoning, after ingestion of puffer fish eggs. This neurotoxin is the most potent membrane stabilizer, blocking the nervous conduction and resulting in death from respiratory paralysis in case of massive ingestion. The father died at admission, the mother and her daughter presented an acute respiratory failure and a flaccid tetraplegia, with favourable outcome after 24 hours. PMID:10782242

Ababou, A; Mosadik, A; Squali, J; Fikri, K O; Lazreq, C; Sbihi, A

2000-03-01

2

A case report of puffer fish poisoning in singapore.  

PubMed

Although many Asians regard puffer fish as a delicacy since ancient times, puffer fish (Lageocephalus scitalleratus) is also a well-known source of possibly lethal food poisoning. The fish is gaining popularity in Singapore and can be found in quite a few restaurants now. Puffer fish contains tetrodotoxin (TTX), a potent poison affecting the neural pathway. Puffer fish poisoning may cause a constellation of symptoms, such as giddiness, numbness and tingling sensation of the mouth, paresthesia, and muscle weakness. Severe cases may present with respiratory depression, circulatory failure, and death. TTX poisonings have been reported in Japan, Taiwan, Hong Kong, Bangladesh, and the United States (Haque et al. 2008). We report a case of mild poisoning and suggest observation for such cases. PMID:24368916

Yong, Y S; Quek, L S; Lim, E K; Ngo, A

2013-01-01

3

Occurrence of paralytic shellfish poisons in thai freshwater puffers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Screening tests were carried out on the toxicity of freshwater puffers Tetraodon leiurus complex and Tetraodon suvatii collected from Udonthani province, north-eastern Thailand. Toxicity was highest in the liver and varied according to the location and season of fish catch. Fish which were reared in tap water for 3 months reduced the toxicity substantially. Partial purification was achieved by an

Attaya Kungsuwan; Osamu Arakawa; Manoon Promdet; Yoshio Onoue

1997-01-01

4

An epidemic survey on freshwater puffer poisoning in Bangladesh.  

PubMed

An epidemic investigation was carried out on freshwater puffer poisoning incidents in Bangladesh from April 1988 to May 1996. A lot of information on 10 poisoning cases involving 55 victims was collected through newspapers, interviewing the victims and their families, concerned hospital sources or questionnaires to them. Symptoms of the victims were partly similar to those caused by paralytic shellfish poison (PSP) or tetrodotoxin (TTX). Among them, however, muscle pain, discharge of black urine, and longer recovery time are clearly different. Further, serum creatine phosphokinase (CPK) values were found to be higher (230-450 and 298-430 IU/l) than normal values in two cases. From these different symptoms and high CPK values, it can be predicted/assumed that present freshwater puffer toxin is implicated in not only PSP, but also other toxin(s). PMID:11126510

Mahmud, Y; Arakawa, O; Noguchi, T

2000-11-01

5

Toxicity assessment of the puffer fish Lagocephalus lagocephalus from the Tunisian coast  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was undertaken to assess the risk of poisoning due to consumption of the puffer fish Lagocephalus lagocephalus collected along the Tunisian coast. Wistar rats were daily intraperitoneally injected, for 10 days, with acidic extracts of liver or flesh (muscles + skin) of L. lagocephalus. Control rats received injections of NaCl (0.9%). No mortality and no evident signs of

Mongi Saoudi; Abdelwaheb Abdelmouleh; Wassim Kammoun; Feriel Ellouze; Kamel Jamoussi; Abdelfattah El Feki

2008-01-01

6

Poisoning - fish and shellfish  

MedlinePLUS

Fish poisoning; Dinoflagellate poisoning; Seafood contamination; Paralytic shellfish poisoning; Ciguatera poisoning ... algae and algae-like organisms called dinoflagellates. Small fish that eat the algae become contaminated. If larger ...

7

Determination of tetrodotoxin and its analogs in the puffer fish Takifugu oblongus from Bangladesh by hydrophilic interaction chromatography and mass-spectrometric detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tetrodotoxin (TTX) and its analogs (TTXs), widely distributed among marine as well as terrestrial animals, induce dangerous\\u000a intoxications. These highly potential toxins are also known as the causative agent of puffer fish poisoning. A newly developed\\u000a highly sensitive method for determination of TTXs based on hydrophilic interaction chromatography and mass-spectrometric detection\\u000a is presented. TTX, anhydrotetrodotoxin, 11-deoxytetrodotoxin and trideoxytetrodotoxin were determined

Marc Diener; Bernd Christian; M. Sagir Ahmed; Bernd Luckas

2007-01-01

8

Histamine fish poisoning revisited  

Microsoft Academic Search

Histamine (or scombroid) fish poisoning (HFP) is reviewed in a risk-assessment framework in an attempt to arrive at an informed characterisation of risk. Histamine is the main toxin involved in HFP, but the disease is not uncomplicated histamine poisoning. Although it is generally associated with high levels of histamine (?50 mg\\/100 g) in bacterially contaminated fish of particular species, the

Leigh Lehane; June Olley

2000-01-01

9

Universal spectrum for DNA base CG frequency distribution in Takifugu rubripes (Puffer fish) genome  

E-print Network

The frequency distribution of DNA bases A, C, G, T exhibit fractal fluctuations ubiquitous to dynamical systems in nature. The power spectra of fractal fluctuations exhibit inverse power law form signifying long-range correlations between local (small-scale) and global (large-scale) perturbations. The author has developed a general systems theory based on classical statistical physics for fractal fluctuations which predicts that the probability distribution of eddy amplitudes and the variance (square of eddy amplitude)spectrum of fractal fluctuations follow the universal Boltzmann inverse power law expressed as a function of the golden mean. The model predicted distribution is very close to statistical normal distribution for fluctuations within two standard deviations from the mean and exhibits a fat long tail. In this paper it is shown that DNA base CG frequency distribution in Takifugu rubripes (Puffer fish) Genome Release 4 exhibit universal inverse power law form consistent with model prediction. The observed long-range correlations in the DNA bases implies that the non-coding 'junk' or 'selfish' DNA which appear to be redundant, may also contribute to the efficient functioning of the protein coding DNA, a result supported by recent studies.

A. M. Selvam

2007-04-17

10

Gill transcriptome response to changes in environmental calcium in the green spotted puffer fish  

PubMed Central

Background Calcium ion is tightly regulated in body fluids and for euryhaline fish, which are exposed to rapid changes in environmental [Ca2+], homeostasis is especially challenging. The gill is the main organ of active calcium uptake and therefore plays a crucial role in the maintenance of calcium ion homeostasis. To study the molecular basis of the short-term responses to changing calcium availability, the whole gill transcriptome obtained by Super Serial Analysis of Gene Expression (SuperSAGE) of the euryhaline teleost green spotted puffer fish, Tetraodon nigroviridis, exposed to water with altered [Ca2+] was analysed. Results Transfer of T. nigroviridis from 10 ppt water salinity containing 2.9 mM Ca2+ to high (10 mM Ca2+ ) and low (0.01 mM Ca2+) calcium water of similar salinity for 2-12 h resulted in 1,339 differentially expressed SuperSAGE tags (26-bp transcript identifiers) in gills. Of these 869 tags (65%) were mapped to T. nigroviridis cDNAs or genomic DNA and 497 (57%) were assigned to known proteins. Thirteen percent of the genes matched multiple tags indicating alternative RNA transcripts. The main enriched gene ontology groups belong to Ca2+ signaling/homeostasis but also muscle contraction, cytoskeleton, energy production/homeostasis and tissue remodeling. K-means clustering identified co-expressed transcripts with distinct patterns in response to water [Ca2+] and exposure time. Conclusions The generated transcript expression patterns provide a framework of novel water calcium-responsive genes in the gill during the initial response after transfer to different [Ca2+]. This molecular response entails initial perception of alterations, activation of signaling networks and effectors and suggests active remodeling of cytoskeletal proteins during the initial acclimation process. Genes related to energy production and energy homeostasis are also up-regulated, probably reflecting the increased energetic needs of the acclimation response. This study is the first genome-wide transcriptome analysis of fish gills and is an important resource for future research on the short-term mechanisms involved in the gill acclimation responses to environmental Ca2+ changes and osmoregulation. PMID:20716350

2010-01-01

11

CIGUATERA: TROPICAL FISH POISONING  

E-print Network

Examinations . . . ....... . Case Report and Results of Bacteriological and Toxicological Study of the Pacific Islands make numerous references to this phenomenon, A review of the literature on Ciguatera HOLE, MASS. SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC REPORT: FISHERIES No. 27 UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FISH

12

Protective effects of aqueous extract of Artemisia campestris against puffer fish Lagocephalus lagocephalus extract-induced oxidative damage in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aerial parts of Artemisia campestris are often used in Tunisian poisoning cases and are known to possess significant antioxidant activities. The objective of this study is to evaluate the protective effects of an aqueous extract (5g\\/l) of A. campestris leaves and stems (AE), on oxidative damages induced by liver extract (LT) from poisonous fish Lagocephalus lagocephalus in wistar rats.

Mongi Saoudi; Mohamed Salah Allagui; Abdelwaheb Abdelmouleh; Kamel Jamoussi; Abdelfattah El Feki

2010-01-01

13

Ciguatera fish poisoning in the Solomon Islands.  

PubMed

Ciguatera fish poisoning may have existed in the Solomon Islands long ago though there has never been any ciguatera fish poisoning tests been carried to confirm its presence. Suspected occurrences are infrequent and seasonal. Most cases of ciguatera fish poisoning are undocumented that when cases do occur they depend largely on traditional-knowledge and anecdotal information. Areas suspected to have ciguatoxic poisoning problem in the Solomon Islands includes Santa Cruz, Rennell and Bellona, Indispensable reefs, Ontong Java and Wagina island. Fish species considered ciguatoxic includes red emperor, red snapper, roundfaced batfish, barracuda and blue lined sea-bream. In any way ciguatera fish poisoning is as yet not a big health problem in the Solomon Islands. PMID:1340336

Oreihaka, E

1992-01-01

14

Epithelial remodeling and claudin mRNA abundance in the gill and kidney of puffer fish ( Tetraodon biocellatus ) acclimated to altered environmental ion levels  

Microsoft Academic Search

In water of varying ion content, the gills and kidney of fishes contribute significantly to the maintenance of salt and water\\u000a balance. However, little is known about the molecular architecture of the tight junction (TJ) complex and the regulation of\\u000a paracellular permeability characteristics in these tissues. In the current studies, puffer fish (Tetraodon biocellatus) were acclimated to freshwater (FW), seawater

Nicole M. Duffy; Phuong Bui; Mazdak Bagherie-Lachidan; Scott P. Kelly

2011-01-01

15

Claudin-8 and -27 tight junction proteins in puffer fish Tetraodon nigroviridis acclimated to freshwater and seawater.  

PubMed

Genes encoding for claudin-8 and -27 tight junction proteins in the euryhaline puffer fish (Tetraodon nigroviridis) were identified using its recently sequenced genome. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that multiple genes encoding for claudin-8 proteins (designated Tncldn8a, Tncldn8b, Tncldn8c and Tncldn8d) arose by tandem gene duplication. In contrast, both tandem and whole genome duplication events appear to have generated genes encoding for claudin-27 proteins (designated Tncldn27a, Tncldn27b, Tncldn27c and Tncldn27d). Tncldn8 and Tncldn27 mRNA were widely distributed in Tetraodon, suggesting involvement in various physiological processes. All Tncldn8 and Tncldn27 genes were expressed in gill and skin tissue (i.e., epithelia exposed directly to the external environment). A potential role for claudin-8 and -27 proteins in the regulation of hydromineral balance in Tetraodon was investigated by examining alterations in mRNA abundance in select ionoregulatory tissue of fish acclimated to freshwater (FW) and seawater (SW). In FW or SW, Tetraodon exhibited alterations in Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity (a correlate of transcellular transport) typical of a euryhaline teleost fish. Simultaneously, tissue and gene specific alterations in Tncldn8 and Tncldn27 transcript abundance occurred. These data provide some insight into the duplication history of cldn8 and cldn27 genes in fishes and suggest a possible role for claudin-8 and -27 proteins in the osmoregulatory strategies of euryhaline teleosts. PMID:19112569

Bagherie-Lachidan, Mazdak; Wright, Stephen I; Kelly, Scott P

2009-05-01

16

Contribution to the feeding ecology of the banded puffer fish Colomesus psittacus (Tetraodontidae) in north Brazilian mangrove creeks.  

PubMed

Stomach contents were examined from 102 banded puffer, Colomesus psittacus (Tetraodontidae), caught from intertidal mangrove creeks at diurnal neap tides between June and September, 1997 (early dry season) near Bragança (north Brazil). The study found that C. psittacus were specialized predators of Cirripedia (Balanus spp.) and Brachyuran crabs (Uca spp., Pachygrapsus gracilis) (mean: 58 and 38% by dry weight, respectively), emphasizing a short food chain in the mangrove system. Cirripedia and Brachyura dominated the diet in all size classes, however, the prey spectrum narrowed with fish size. The mean daily consumption of Cirripedia and Brachyura was 6.2% body weight of C. psittacus. On average C. psittacus consumed 100.3 g x ha(-1) x d(-1) of Cirripedia and 178.7 g x ha(-1) x d(-1) of Brachyura (wet weight). The predation on Brachyuran crabs--a significant driver of fluxes of organic matter and energy in the system--provides C. psittacus with an important ecological function in the mangrove food web. A plant-animal interaction is proposed where C. psittacus exerts a mutually beneficial cleaning function on the Aufwuchs (Cirripedia and associated epibiota) of Rhizophora mangle stilt roots. Our results and those of other studies suggest that C. psittacus encounter optimum foraging conditions in the mangrove at high inundations at daylight (spring tide-day) whereas darkness and low inundations are linked to poor foraging conditions (neap tide-night). The C. psittacus resource could be used as an alternative income in the region in terms of i) sustainable catch and filet processing for exports to East Asia, ii) developing certified aquaculture methods for breeding puffers for the aquarium trade. PMID:18094820

Krumme, U; Keuthen, H; Saint-Paul, U; Villwock, W

2007-08-01

17

Food poisonings by ingestion of cyprinid fish.  

PubMed

Raw or dried gallbladders of cyprinid fish have long been ingested as a traditional medicine in the Asian countries, particularly in China, for ameliorating visual acuity, rheumatism, and general health; however, sporadic poisoning incidences have occurred after their ingestion. The poisoning causes complex symptoms in patients, including acute renal failure, liver dysfunction, paralysis, and convulsions of limbs. The causative substance for the poisoning was isolated, and its basic properties were examined. The purified toxin revealed a minimum lethal dose of 2.6 mg/20 g in mouse, when injected intraperitoneally. The main symptoms were paralysis and convulsions of the hind legs, along with other neurological signs. Liver biopsy of the euthanized mice clearly exhibited hepatocytes necrosis and infiltration of neutrophils and lymphocytes, suggesting the acute dysfunction of the liver. Blood tests disclosed the characteristics of acute renal failure and liver injury. Infrared (IR) spectrometry, fast atom bombardment (FAB) mass spectrometry, and 1H- and 13C-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis indicated, a molecular formula of C27H48O8S, containing a sulfate ester group for the toxin. Thus, we concluded that the structure of carp toxin to be 5?-cyprinol sulfate (5?-cholestane-3?, 7?, 12?, 26, 27-pentol 26-sulfate). This indicated that carp toxin is a nephro- and hepato- toxin, which could be the responsible toxin for carp bile poisoning in humans. PMID:24476713

Asakawa, Manabu; Noguchi, Tamao

2014-02-01

18

Protective effects of aqueous extract of Artemisia campestris against puffer fish Lagocephalus lagocephalus extract-induced oxidative damage in rats.  

PubMed

The aerial parts of Artemisia campestris are often used in Tunisian poisoning cases and are known to possess significant antioxidant activities. The objective of this study is to evaluate the protective effects of an aqueous extract (5g/l) of A. campestris leaves and stems (AE), on oxidative damages induced by liver extract (LT) from poisonous fish Lagocephalus lagocephalus in Wistar rats. AE was found to contain large amounts of K(+), Na(+), Ca(++) and significant antioxidant capacities highlighted by high level of polyphenols and scavenging activities for DPPH and superoxide anion. LT-injected rats (1ml/100g body wt) for 10 days showed (1) a reduced appetite and diarrhea resulting in a lower growth rate than controls, (2) a decrease in serum ALT and AST activities suggesting liver functional disorders, (3) an increase of serum urea and creatinine and reduced serum sodium and potassium concentrations highlighting renal insufficiency and (4) an oxidative stress as evidenced by the raise of TBARS and the inhibition of SOD, CAT and GSH-Px activities in liver, kidney and brain tissues Absorption of AE as a drink, for 20 days (10 pre-treatment days+10 experiment days) did not lead significant change of studied parameters but prevented all the disorders induced by LT. PMID:19765960

Saoudi, Mongi; Allagui, Mohamed Salah; Abdelmouleh, Abdelwaheb; Jamoussi, Kamel; El Feki, Abdelfattah

2010-11-01

19

Bad Fish, Bad Bird Neurotoxin Poisoning from Fish and Fowl  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This "clicker case" is based on the General Biology edition of James Hewlett’s “Bad Fish” case in our collection. The case follows the story of biologist Dr. Westwood, who is accidentally poisoned, first while traveling in Asia and then in the South Pacific. Students learn about Dr. Westwood’s experiences and about nerve cell physiology—focusing especially on the role of ion channels in maintaining and changing electrical gradients across the cell membrane (resting potential and action potentials). They then apply what they learn in each part of the case to determine the mechanism of neurotoxin poisonings described in the case. The case is presented in class via PowerPoint (~2MB).  Students use personal response systems, or “clickers,” to answer the multiple-choice questions that punctuate the PowerPoint presentation as they explore the underlying mechanism of Dr. Westwood’s poisoning.

Hannam, Kristina

2010-01-01

20

SODIUM CYANIDE AS A FISH POISON Marine Biological Laboratory  

E-print Network

SODIUM CYANIDE AS A FISH POISON Marine Biological Laboratory APR 2 '^ 1958 WOODS HOLE, MASS CYANIDE AS A FISH POISON By W. R. Bridges Cooperative Fishery Research Laboratory Southern Illinois 1958 #12;ABSTRACT Laboratory and field experiments were conducted to evaluate the use of sodium cyanide

21

THE RELATIONSHIP OF MALATHION AND ITS METABOLITES TO FISH POISONING  

EPA Science Inventory

This study investigated the relation of short-term measurability of malathion and some of its metabolites in fish to poisoning of fish in the laboratory. Data indicated analysis for malathion monoacid in gut and measurement of brain acetylcholinesterase activity in fish from the ...

22

Fatal poisoning and other health hazards connected with industrial fishing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dalgaard, J. B., Dencker, F., Fallentin, B., Hansen, P., Kaempe, B., Steensberg, J., and Wilhardt, P. (1972).Brit. J. industr. Med.,29, 307-316. Fatal poisoning and other health hazards connected with industrial fishing. The literature about death and health problems related to work with fish for industrial use is reviewed. Three fatal cases and several instances of unconsciousness or cases of fainting

J. B. Dalgaard; F. Dencker; B. Fallentin; P. Hansen; B. Kaempe; J. Steensberg; P. Wilhardt

1972-01-01

23

Claudin-6, -10d and -10e contribute to seawater acclimation in the euryhaline puffer fish Tetraodon nigroviridis.  

PubMed

Expression profiles of claudin-6, -10d and -10e in the euryhaline teleost fish Tetraodon nigroviridis revealed claudin-6 in brain, eye, gill and skin tissue, while claudin-10d and -10e were found in brain, gill and skin only. In fishes, the gill and skin are important tissue barriers that interface directly with surrounding water, but these organs generally function differently in osmoregulation. Therefore, roles for gill and skin claudin-6, -10d and -10e in the osmoregulatory strategies of T. nigroviridis were investigated. In the gill epithelium, claudin-6, -10d and -10e co-localized with Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase immunoreactive (NKA-ir) ionocytes, and differences in sub-cellular localization could be observed in hypoosmotic (freshwater, FW) versus hyperosmotic (seawater, SW) environments. Claudin-10d and -10e abundance increased in the gills of fish acclimated to SW versus FW, while claudin-6 abundance decreased in the gills of fish acclimated to SW. Taken together with our knowledge of claudin-6 and -10 function in other vertebrates, data support the idea that in SW-acclimated T. nigroviridis, these claudins are abundant in gill ionocytes, where they contribute to the formation of a Na(+) shunt and 'leaky' epithelium, both of which are characteristic of salt-secreting SW fish gills. Skin claudin-10d and -10e abundance also increased in fish acclimated to SW versus those in FW, but so did claudin-6. In skin, claudin-6 was found to co-localize with NKA-ir cells, but claudin-10d and -10e did not. This study provides direct evidence that the gill epithelium contains salinity-responsive tight junction proteins that are abundant primarily in ionocytes. These same proteins also appear to play a role in the osmoregulatory physiology of the epidermis. PMID:24526724

Bui, Phuong; Kelly, Scott P

2014-05-15

24

Isolation and Structural Determination of the First 8-epi-type Tetrodotoxin Analogs from the Newt, Cynops ensicauda popei, and Comparison of Tetrodotoxin Analogs Profiles of This Newt and the Puffer Fish, Fugu poecilonotus  

PubMed Central

Identification of new tetrodotoxin (TTX) analogs from TTX-possessing animals might provide insight into its biosynthesis and metabolism. In this study, four new analogs, 8-epi-5,6,11-trideoxyTTX, 4,9-anhydro-8-epi-5,6,11-trideoxyTTX, 1-hydroxy-8-epi-5,6,11-trideoxyTTX, and 1-hydroxy-4,4a-anhydro-8-epi-5,6,11-trideoxyTTX, were isolated from the newt, Cynops ensicauda popei, and their structures were determined using spectroscopic methods. These are the first 8-epi-type analogs of TTX that have been found in a natural source. Furthermore, we examined the composition of the TTX analogs in this newt and in the ovary of the puffer fish, Fugu poecilonotus, using LC/MS. The results indicate that TTX and 11-deoxyTTX were present in both sources. However, 6-epiTTX and 8-epi-type analogs were detected only in the newt, while 5,6,11-trideoxyTTX was a specific and major analog in the puffer fish. Such considerable differences among analog compositions might reflect differences in the biosynthesis or metabolism of TTX between these animals. PMID:22611361

Kudo, Yuta; Yasumoto, Takeshi; Konoki, Keiichi; Cho, Yuko; Yotsu-Yamashita, Mari

2012-01-01

25

[Poisoning with weever fish venom: a case report].  

PubMed

Poland's access to the EU causes that there is the risk of poisoning from sources outside Poland. This is confirmed by the case reported below. The Weeverfish Trachinus draco lives in the coastal waters of West Africa and Europe (including those of the Mediterranean Sea) and belongs to the most poisonous fish species. The venom of Trachinus draco contains proteins that cause cellular membrane depolarisation, and haemolysis. A 35-yr. man was admitted to the Toxicological Department of the Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine for symptoms, such as: a strong pain, swelling and reddening of the left leg, that had appeared after contact with an unidentified fish when he had been enjoying a bath in the Mediterranean Sea. In the additional examinations, slight abnormalities were detected only in the results of blood agglutination test. The patient was discharged from the hospital 7 days later in good condition. PMID:20043595

?opaci?ski, Bogdan; Bak, Marek; Fiszer, Marta; Czerniak, Pawe?; Krakowiak, Anna

2009-01-01

26

Ciguatera fish poisoning - New York City, 2010-2011.  

PubMed

During August 2010-July 2011, the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene (DOHMH) received reports of six outbreaks and one single case of ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP), involving a total of 28 persons. CFP results from consumption of certain large, predatory, tropical reef fish that have bioaccumulated ciguatoxins (CTX). CFP is characterized by various gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, and neurologic symptoms. A prolonged period of acute illness can result, and the neurologic symptoms can last months, with variable asymptomatic and symptomatic periods. The first two outbreaks and the single case, involving 13 persons, were reported during August 6-September 13, 2010. DOHMH distributed a health alert in November 2010 requesting health-care providers be alert for CFP signs and symptoms. The health alert resulted in identification of 11 more cases that month and an additional two outbreaks involving four persons in July 2011. In comparison, only four CFP outbreaks, involving 21 persons total, had been reported in New York City (NYC) during the preceding 10 years (2000-2009). DOHMH's investigation revealed that 13 persons became ill after eating barracuda, and 15 became ill after eating grouper. Although specific and highly sensitive laboratory analyses can detect and confirm CTX in fish, no practical field tests are available for fish monitoring programs. CFP prevention depends on educating the public, seafood suppliers, and distributors about known CFP endemic areas and high-risk fish species. Traceback investigations of fish associated with outbreaks provide valuable information regarding fishing areas associated with CFP. Not all fish from CFP endemic areas are ciguatoxic, but persons who eat fish from endemic regions are at higher risk for CFP. If an illness is suspected to be CFP, public health authorities should be notified and informed of the case history for possible investigation and intervention measures. PMID:23364271

2013-02-01

27

Histamine poisoning and control measures in fish and fishery products  

PubMed Central

Histamine poisoning is one of the most common form of intoxication caused by the ingestion of fish and fishery products. Cooking, canning, or freezing cannot reduce the levels of histamine because this compound is heat stable. All humans are susceptible to histamine and its effects can be described as intolerance or intoxication depending on the severity of the symptoms. The amount of histamine in food, the individual sensitivity, and the detoxification activity in human organism represent the main factors affecting the toxicological response in consumers. Histamine is the only biogenic amine with regulatory limits set by European Legislation, up to a maximum of 200 mg/kg in fresh fish and 400 mg/kg in fishery products treated by enzyme maturation in brine. PMID:25295035

Visciano, Pierina; Schirone, Maria; Tofalo, Rosanna; Suzzi, Giovanna

2014-01-01

28

Ciguatera Fish Poisoning in the Pacific Islands (1998 to 2008)  

PubMed Central

Background Ciguatera is a type of fish poisoning that occurs throughout the tropics, particularly in vulnerable island communities such as the developing Pacific Island Countries and Territories (PICTs). After consuming ciguatoxin-contaminated fish, people report a range of acute neurologic, gastrointestinal, and cardiac symptoms, with some experiencing chronic neurologic symptoms lasting weeks to months. Unfortunately, the true extent of illness and its impact on human communities and ecosystem health are still poorly understood. Methods A questionnaire was emailed to the Health and Fisheries Authorities of the PICTs to quantify the extent of ciguatera. The data were analyzed using t-test, incidence rate ratios, ranked correlation, and regression analysis. Results There were 39,677 reported cases from 17 PICTs, with a mean annual incidence of 194 cases per 100,000 people across the region from 1998–2008 compared to the reported annual incidence of 104/100,000 from 1973–1983. There has been a 60% increase in the annual incidence of ciguatera between the two time periods based on PICTs that reported for both time periods. Taking into account under-reporting, in the last 35 years an estimated 500,000 Pacific islanders might have suffered from ciguatera. Conclusions This level of incidence exceeds prior ciguatera estimates locally and globally, and raises the status of ciguatera to an acute and chronic illness with major public health significance. To address this significant public health problem, which is expected to increase in parallel with environmental change, well-funded multidisciplinary research teams are needed to translate research advances into practical management solutions. PMID:22180797

Skinner, Mark P.; Brewer, Tom D.; Johnstone, Ron; Fleming, Lora E.; Lewis, Richard J.

2011-01-01

29

Poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... been swallowed, DO NOT give the person activated charcoal. DO NOT give children ipecac syrup. DO NOT ... poison from being absorbed, you may receive: Activated charcoal A tube through the nose into the stomach ...

30

Preventing fishing-sinker-induced lead poisoning of common loons through Canadian policy and regulative reform  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ingestion of fishing-weights causes lead toxicosis in waterbirds. An estimated average of 125 to 187 million lead sinkers are deposited in Canadian waters annually, with about half in Ontario. Of 215 dead common loons (Gavia immer) collected in Canadian waters, 23% died of lead poisoning; most specimens were from Ontario. Results of a questionnaire circulated to principal interest groups and

Merilyn P. Twiss; Vernon G. Thomas

1998-01-01

31

Poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... in doses that are too high Overdoses of illegal drugs Carbon monoxide from gas appliances Household products, such as laundry powder or furniture polish Pesticides Indoor or outdoor plants Metals such as lead and mercury The effects of poisoning range from short-term illness to ...

32

Epidemiology and Clinical Features of Ciguatera Fish Poisoning in Hong Kong  

PubMed Central

In the present review, the main objective was to describe the epidemiology and clinical features of ciguatera fish poisoning in Hong Kong. From 1989 to 2008, the annual incidence of ciguatera varied between 3.3 and 64.9 (median 10.2) per million people. The groupers have replaced the snappers as the most important cause of ciguatera. Pacific-ciguatoxins (CTX) are most commonly present in reef fish samples implicated in ciguatera outbreaks. In affected subjects, the gastrointestinal symptoms often subside within days, whereas the neurological symptoms can persist for weeks or even months. Bradycardia and hypotension, which can be life-threatening, are common. Treatment of ciguatera is primarily supportive and symptomatic. Intravenous mannitol (1 g/kg) has also been suggested. To prevent ciguatera outbreaks, the public should be educated to avoid eating large coral reef fishes, especially the CTX-rich parts. A Code of Practice on Import and Sale of Live Marine Fish for Human Consumption for Prevention and Control of Ciguatera Fish Poisoning was introduced from 2004 to 2013. The Food Safety Ordinance with a tracing mechanism came into full effect in February 2012. The Government would be able to trace the sources of the fishes more effectively and take prompt action when dealing with ciguatera incidents. PMID:25333356

Chan, Thomas Y. K.

2014-01-01

33

Epidemiology and clinical features of ciguatera fish poisoning in Hong Kong.  

PubMed

In the present review, the main objective was to describe the epidemiology and clinical features of ciguatera fish poisoning in Hong Kong. From 1989 to 2008, the annual incidence of ciguatera varied between 3.3 and 64.9 (median 10.2) per million people. The groupers have replaced the snappers as the most important cause of ciguatera. Pacific-ciguatoxins (CTX) are most commonly present in reef fish samples implicated in ciguatera outbreaks. In affected subjects, the gastrointestinal symptoms often subside within days, whereas the neurological symptoms can persist for weeks or even months. Bradycardia and hypotension, which can be life-threatening, are common. Treatment of ciguatera is primarily supportive and symptomatic. Intravenous mannitol (1 g/kg) has also been suggested. To prevent ciguatera outbreaks, the public should be educated to avoid eating large coral reef fishes, especially the CTX-rich parts. A Code of Practice on Import and Sale of Live Marine Fish for Human Consumption for Prevention and Control of Ciguatera Fish Poisoning was introduced from 2004 to 2013. The Food Safety Ordinance with a tracing mechanism came into full effect in February 2012. The Government would be able to trace the sources of the fishes more effectively and take prompt action when dealing with ciguatera incidents. PMID:25333356

Chan, Thomas Y K

2014-10-01

34

Fatal methane and cyanide poisoning as a result of handling industrial fish: a case report and review of the literature  

PubMed Central

The potential health hazards of handling industrial fish are well documented. Wet fish in storage consume oxygen and produce poisonous gases as they spoil. In addition to oxygen depletion, various noxious agents have been demonstrated in association with spoilage including carbon dioxide, sulphur dioxide, and ammonia. A fatal case of methane and cyanide poisoning among a group of deep sea trawler men is described. Subsequent independent investigation as a result of this case led to the discovery of cyanides as a further potential noxious agent. This is thus the first case in which cyanide poisoning has been recognised as a potentially fatal complication of handling spoiled fish. The previous literature is reviewed and the implications of the current case are discussed. Key Words: industrial fish • methane • cyanide PMID:11064677

Cherian, M; Richmond, I

2000-01-01

35

Erythrocytic and leukocytic responses to cadmium poisoning in freshwater fish, Puntius conchonius Ham  

SciTech Connect

Chronically sublethal concentrations of cadmium caused conspicuous hematological anomalies in the cyprinid fish, Puntius conchonius. Exposure to 0.63 and 0.84 mg/liter cadmium chloride (1/20 and 1/15 of 96-hr LC/sub 50/) induced morphological aberrations in mature erythrocytes including cytoplasmic vacuolation, hypochromia, deterioration of cellular membrane, basophilic stippling of cytoplasm, clumping of chromatin material and extrusion of nuclei, and schistocytosis. Anomalous basophils and monocytes were also encountered though less frequently. Decreased erythrocyte counts, hemoglobin and hematocrit values were also associated with chronic cadmium poisoning. The mean corpuscular hemoglobin and mean corpuscular volume increased (30 days) but mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration showed no obvious change. A significant thrombocytopenia (90 days), elevated small lymphocyte and basophil populations, and a mild neutropenia were manifested in the cadmium-exposed fish. Large lymphocytes were not significantly affected.

Gill, T.S.; Pant, J.C.

1985-04-01

36

A review of traditional remedies of ciguatera fish poisoning in the Pacific.  

PubMed

Ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) is an illness caused by eating tropical coral fish contaminated with ciguatoxins (CTXs). The clinical management of patients with CFP is generally supportive and symptomatic in nature as no antidote exists. Of the many drugs prescribed, several have been claimed to be efficient in small, uncontrolled studies, but the outcomes of treatments with these medicines are often contradictory. In New Caledonia, traditional remedies are commonly employed in the treatment of CFP and of the 90 plant species catalogued as useful in CFP, the most popular herbal remedy by far is a decoction prepared from the leaves of Heliotropium foertherianum Diane & Hilger (Boraginaceae). Other important plants used in the treatment of CFP include Euphorbia hirta L. (Euphorbiaceae) and Vitex L. sp. (Lamiaceae). This review focuses on the evidence for efficacy of these species and pharmacological studies which support their use. Other plants used in CFP and the conventional treatment of CFP are also discussed briefly. PMID:21287650

Kumar-Roiné, Shilpa; Taiana Darius, H; Matsui, Mariko; Fabre, Nicolas; Haddad, Mohamed; Chinain, Mireille; Pauillac, Serge; Laurent, Dominique

2011-07-01

37

Teratogenic effects and monetary cost of selenium poisoning of fish in Lake Sutton, North Carolina.  

PubMed

Selenium pollution from coal ash wastewater was investigated in Lake Sutton, NC. This lake has been continuously used as a cooling pond for a coal-fired power plant since 1972. Historic and recent levels of contamination in fish tissues (14-105µg Se/g dry weight in liver, 24-127 in eggs, 4-23 in muscle, 7-38 in whole-body) exceeded toxic thresholds and teratogenic effects were observed in fish collected in 2013. A high proportion (28.9 percent) of juvenile Lepomis spp. exhibited spinal and craniofacial malformations that were consistent with selenium poisoning. Teratogenic Deformity Index values indicated population-level impacts on the fishery. The partially monetized cost of resultant fishery losses was calculated at over $US 8.6 million annually, and over $US 217 million for the entire period of damage, which dates back to 1987 when chemical and biological monitoring began. PMID:24675445

Lemly, A Dennis

2014-06-01

38

2004 NaturePublishing Group Genome duplication in the teleost fish  

E-print Network

, France 9 Agencourt Bioscience Corporation, Massachusetts 01915, USA 10 Biofuture Research Group ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Tetraodon nigroviridis is a freshwater puffer fish with the smallest known vertebrate genome. Here, we

Kellis, Manolis

39

Invasive Lionfish (Pterois volitans): A Potential Human Health Threat for Ciguatera Fish Poisoning in Tropical Waters  

PubMed Central

Invasive Indo-Pacific lionfish (Pterois volitans) have rapidly expanded in the Western Atlantic over the past decade and have had a significant negative impact on reef fish biodiversity, habitat, and community structure, with lionfish out-competing native predators for resources. In an effort to reduce this population explosion, lionfish have been promoted for human consumption in the greater Caribbean region. This study examined whether the geographical expansion of the lionfish into a known ciguatera-endemic region can pose a human health threat for ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP). More than 180 lionfish were collected from waters surrounding the US Virgin Islands throughout 2010 and 2011. Ciguatoxin testing included an in vitro neuroblastoma cytotoxicity assay for composite toxicity assessment of sodium-channel toxins combined with confirmatory liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. A 12% prevalence rate of ciguatoxic lionfish exceeding the FDA guidance level of 0.1 µg/kg C-CTX-1 equivalents was identified in fish from the U.S. Virgin Islands, highlighting a potential consumption risk in this region. This study presents the first evidence that the invasive lionfish, pose a direct human health risk for CFP and highlights the need for awareness and research on this food safety hazard in known endemic areas. PMID:24378919

Robertson, Alison; Garcia, Ana C.; Flores Quintana, Harold A.; Smith, Tyler B.; Castillo, Bernard F.; Reale-Munroe, Kynoch; Gulli, Joseph A.; Olsen, David A.; Hooe-Rollman, Jennifer I.; Jester, Edward L. E.; Klimek, Brian J.; Plakas, Steven M.

2013-01-01

40

Seasonal occurrence and microhabitat of the hyperparasitic monogenean Udonella fugu on the caligid Copepod Pseudocaligus fugu infecting the grass puffer Takifugu niphobles in the Seto Inland Sea, Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The seasonal occurrence and microhabitat of the monogenean Udonella fugu that hyperparasitizes exclusively on adults of the caligid copepod Pseudocaligus fugu that infects the skin of the grass puffer Takifugu niphobles were investigated in the Seto Inland Sea, western Japan from November 2004 to December 2006. The udonellids occurred and bred mostly during the occurrence of P. fugu on the fish host. The average prevalence and intensity of U. fugu on P. fugu during the whole investigation were 29% and 3.6, respectively. The main attachment sites of U. fugu were the posterior side of leg 3 and the dorsal marginal side of the cephalothorax for feeding and copulation, while eggs were predominantly located on the ventral side of the urosome to avoid detachment. More attention should be paid to the ecology of U. fugu, due to recent high prevalence of P. fugu on cultured tiger puffer in western Japan.

Okawachi, Hiroko; Ohtsuka, Susumu; Ismail, Norshida Binti; Venmathi Maran, B. A.; Ogawa, Kazuo

2012-09-01

41

Influence of Arc Energy to Puffer Pressure Rise for SF6 Circuit Breaker  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to the principle of extinguishing for SF6 high voltage circuit breaker, the throat will be clogged, and the arc energy will be transferred into the puffer chamber to increase the puffer pressure. That makes the arc energy play an important part in pressure character. Based on the first law of thermodynamics, the law of hydrokinetics and the second law

Lin Xin; Liu Ke-bin

2008-01-01

42

Big Fish on the Yangtze  

E-print Network

of the wish to protect the ecological resources of the Yangtze which include the puffer fish, a deadly but popular delicacy. The cost of the fish? 70 million renminbi or 11 million dollars of which it is estimated that only $ 1.7 million was spent on actual...

Hacker, Randi

2013-12-04

43

A large outbreak of scombroid fish poisoning associated with eating yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares) at a military mass catering in Dakar, Senegal.  

PubMed

On 26 November 2010, an outbreak of scombroid fish poisoning occurred in the French Armed Forces in Dakar, Senegal. This chemical intoxication, due to high histamine concentration in fish, is often mistaken for an allergic reaction. A case-control study was undertaken including the 71 cases and 78 randomly selected controls among lunch attendees. The usual symptoms for scombroid fish poisoning were observed in cases, i.e. flushing (85.9%), headache (83.1%), rapid/weak pulse (59.1%) and diarrhoea (47.9%). Symptoms occurred from within a few minutes to up to 3 h following the meal. Most patients quickly recovered with antihistamine and/or symptomatic treatment. Tuna was the only food item positively associated with illness (odds ratio 36.3, 95% confidence interval 6.3-210.0), with the risk of illness increasing with the quantity of fish consumed. No bacterial contamination was found in leftover food, but histamine concentration in tuna was found to be 4900 mg/kg, almost 50-fold higher than the concentration allowed by European regulations. This report is unique because of the large size of the case series - to our knowledge, the largest event of scombroid fish poisoning ever reported - and the chemical and bacteriological analyses results obtained on leftover food. PMID:21875451

Demoncheaux, J-P; Michel, R; Mazenot, C; Duflos, G; Iacini, C; de Laval, F; Delaval, F; Saware, E M; Renard, J-C

2012-06-01

44

Update on Methodologies Available for Ciguatoxin Determination: Perspectives to Confront the Onset of Ciguatera Fish Poisoning in Europe [1  

PubMed Central

Ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) occurs mainly when humans ingest finfish contaminated with ciguatoxins (CTXs). The complexity and variability of such toxins have made it difficult to develop reliable methods to routinely monitor CFP with specificity and sensitivity. This review aims to describe the methodologies available for CTX detection, including those based on the toxicological, biochemical, chemical, and pharmaceutical properties of CTXs. Selecting any of these methodological approaches for routine monitoring of ciguatera may be dependent upon the applicability of the method. However, identifying a reference validation method for CTXs is a critical and urgent issue, and is dependent upon the availability of certified CTX standards and the coordinated action of laboratories. Reports of CFP cases in European hospitals have been described in several countries, and are mostly due to travel to CFP endemic areas. Additionally, the recent detection of the CTX-producing tropical genus Gambierdiscus in the eastern Atlantic Ocean of the northern hemisphere and in the Mediterranean Sea, as well as the confirmation of CFP in the Canary Islands and possibly in Madeira, constitute other reasons to study the onset of CFP in Europe [1]. The question of the possible contribution of climate change to the distribution of toxin-producing microalgae and ciguateric fish is raised. The impact of ciguatera onset on European Union (EU) policies will be discussed with respect to EU regulations on marine toxins in seafood. Critical analysis and availability of methodologies for CTX determination is required for a rapid response to suspected CFP cases and to conduct sound CFP risk analysis. PMID:20631873

Caillaud, Amandine; de la Iglesia, Pablo; Darius, H. Taiana; Pauillac, Serge; Aligizaki, Katerina; Fraga, Santiago; Chinain, Mireille; Diogene, Jorge

2010-01-01

45

Effects of trophic poisoning with methylmercury on the appetitive elements of the agonistic sequence in fighting-fish (Betta splendens).  

PubMed

The aggressive display in Betta splendens is particularly prominent, and vital to its adaptation to the environment. Methylmercury is an organic variation of Hg that presents particularly pronounced neuro-behavioral effects. The present experiments aim to test the effect of acute and chronic poisoning with methylmercury on the display in Bettas. The animals were poisoned by trophic means in both experiments (16 ug/kg in acute poisoning; 16 ug/kg/day for chronic poisoning), and tested in agonistic pairs. The total frequency of the display was recorded, analyzing the topography of the agonistic response. The methylmercury seems to present a dose- and detoxification-dependent effect on these responses, with a more pronounced effect on motivity in acute poisoning and on emotionality in the chronic poisoning. It is possible that this effect could be mediated by alteration in the mono-amino-oxidase systems. PMID:17992970

Gouveia, Amauri; de Oliveira, Caio Maximino; Romão, Cynthia Ferreira; de Brito, Thiago Marques; Ventura, Dora Fix

2007-11-01

46

Poison Ivy  

MedlinePLUS

MENU Return to Web version Poison Ivy Overview What is poison ivy? Poison ivy is a very common plant found in most parts of the United States. ... This is because most people are allergic to poison ivy. Symptoms What does a poison ivy rash ...

47

Genomics and Mapping of Teleostei (Bony Fish)  

PubMed Central

Until recently, the Human Genome Project held centre stage in the press releases concerning sequencing programmes. However, in October 2001, it was announced that the Japanese puffer fish (Takifugu rubripes, Fugu) was the second vertebrate organism to be sequenced to draft quality. Briefly, the spotlight was on fish genomes. There are currently two other fish species undergoing intensive sequencing, the green spotted puffer fish (Tetraodon nigroviridis) and the zebrafish (Danio rerio). But this trio are, in many ways, atypical representations of the current state of fish genomic research. The aim of this brief review is to demonstrate the complexity of fish as a group of vertebrates and to publicize the ‘lesser-known’ species, all of which have something to offer. PMID:18629122

2003-01-01

48

Genome duplication in the teleost fish Tetraodon nigroviridis reveals the early vertebrate proto-karyotype  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tetraodon nigroviridis is a freshwater puffer fish with the smallest known vertebrate genome. Here, we report a draft genome sequence with long-range linkage and substantial anchoring to the 21 Tetraodon chromosomes. Genome analysis provides a greatly improved fish gene catalogue, including identifying key genes previously thought to be absent in fish. Comparison with other vertebrates and a urochordate indicates that

Olivier Jaillon; Jean-Marc Aury; Frédéric Brunet; Jean-Louis Petit; Nicole Stange-Thomann; Evan Mauceli; Laurence Bouneau; Cécile Fischer; Catherine Ozouf-Costaz; Alain Bernot; Sophie Nicaud; David Jaffe; Sheila Fisher; Georges Lutfalla; Carole Dossat; Béatrice Segurens; Corinne Dasilva; Marcel Salanoubat; Michael Levy; Nathalie Boudet; Sergi Castellano; Véronique Anthouard; Claire Jubin; Vanina Castelli; Michael Katinka; Benoît Vacherie; Christian Biémont; Zineb Skalli; Laurence Cattolico; Julie Poulain; Véronique de Berardinis; Corinne Cruaud; Simone Duprat; Philippe Brottier; Jean-Pierre Coutanceau; Jérôme Gouzy; Genis Parra; Guillaume Lardier; Charles Chapple; Kevin J. McKernan; Paul McEwan; Stephanie Bosak; Manolis Kellis; Jean-Nicolas Volff; Roderic Guigó; Michael C. Zody; Jill Mesirov; Kerstin Lindblad-Toh; Bruce Birren; Chad Nusbaum; Daniel Kahn; Marc Robinson-Rechavi; Vincent Laudet; Vincent Schachter; Francis Quétier; William Saurin; Claude Scarpelli; Patrick Wincker; Eric S. Lander; Jean Weissenbach; Hugues Roest Crollius

2004-01-01

49

Osmoregulatory responses of expression of vasotocin, isotocin, prolactin and growth hormone genes following hypoosmotic challenge in a stenohaline marine teleost, tiger puffer (Takifugu rubripes).  

PubMed

To examine possible roles of vasotocin (VT), isotocin (IT), prolactin (PRL) and growth hormone (GH) in osmoregulation of a stenohaline marine teleost, tiger puffer (Takifugu rubripes), changes in expression levels of these genes following hypoosmotic challenge, were examined in two experiments. Fish were transferred from 100% seawater (SW) to 33% SW, 10% SW and fresh water (FW), and left for 3days in experiment I. In experiment II, fish were transferred to FW, and left for 1day. Changes in plasma osmolality, concentrations of Na(+) and Cl(-), and Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity in the gills and kidney were examined. Changes in the absolute amounts of VT, IT, PRL and GH mRNAs were determined by real-time PCR. In experiment I, almost all fish survived over 3days of acclimation. The plasma parameters decreased on day 1, and remained at similar levels until day 3. The renal Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity significantly increased in 10% SW and FW on day 1. The amounts of VT and IT mRNAs tended to decrease in the hypoosmotic conditions on day 1. The amounts of PRL mRNA significantly increased in the hypoosmotic conditions, whereas those of GH mRNA decreased in FW. In experiment II, the amount of VT mRNA significantly decreased in FW concomitantly with the changes in PRL and GH mRNAs. The present results suggest that the hyperosmotic responses may be regulated by neuroendocrine factors such as VT, PRL and GH in tiger puffer, as in case of euryhaline teleosts. Particularly, the present study first shows that the expression of VT gene may be down-regulated following hypoosmotic challenge in the stenohaline marine fish. PMID:19596077

Motohashi, Eiji; Hasegawa, Sanae; Mishiro, Kenzo; Ando, Hironori

2009-11-01

50

Intoxication par le poisson coffre  

Microsoft Academic Search

Puffer fish poisoning.We report three cases of a collective tetrodotoxin poisoning, after ingestion of puffer fish eggs. This neurotoxin is the most potent membrane stabilizer, blocking the nervous conduction and resulting in death from respiratory paralysis in case of massive ingestion. The father died at admission, the mother and her daughter presented an acute respiratory failure and a flaccid tetraplegia,

A Ababou; A Mosadik; J Squali; K. O Fikri; C Lazreq; A Sbihi

2000-01-01

51

Poison Ivy  

MedlinePLUS

... leaves of the plants. Look Out for Poison Plants These plants can be anywhere — from the woods ... pill or liquid form. Preventing Rashes From Poison Plants The best approach is to avoid getting the ...

52

Poison Ivy  

MedlinePLUS

... You can get poison ivy by touching the plant’s oils or something else that “urushiol” has touched. ... the sap oil that’s made by poison ivy plants that’s responsible for irritant reactions. It’s the same ...

53

Fish  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this project you will learn about different types of fish. In your science journal write what you know about fish. Draw a picture of a common fish you might see where you live. On the handout record the information you learn during this unit. Click here to see the Angel Fish. Record information on Handout #1. Now go to the Clown Fish. ...

Hunter, Ms.

2009-07-07

54

fish  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this project you will learn about different types of fish. In your science journal write what you know about fish. Draw a picture of a common fish you might see where you live. On the handout record the information you learn during this unit. Click here to see the Angel Fish. Record information on Handout #1. Now go to the Clown Fish. ...

Jones, Cory

2009-09-28

55

Mushroom poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  We aimed to review characteristics of mushrooms and mushroom poisoning and compare clinical picture, laboratory data, treatment\\u000a modalities and prognostic factors in children with amanita intoxication and non-amanita mushroom poisoning.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  We analyzed 39 pediatric patients through 1994–2004, retrospectively from the patient files and evaluated the patients in\\u000a two groups as patients with amanita intoxication and patients with non-amanita mushroom poisoning.

M. Erguven; O. Yilmaz; M. Deveci; N. Aksu; F. Dursun; M. Pelit; N. Cebeci

2007-01-01

56

Presentation of a general algorithm to include effect assessment on secondary poisoning in the derivation of environmental quality criteria. Part 1. Aquatic food chains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effect assessment on secondary poisoning can be an asset to effect assessments on direct poisoning in setting quality criteria for the environment. This study presents an algorithm for effect assessment on secondary poisoning. The water-fish-fish-eating bird or mammal pathway was analyzed as an example of a secondary poisoning pathway. Parameters used in this algorithm are the bioconcentration factor for fish

C. A. Romijn; R. Luttik; D. van de Meent; W. Slooff; J. H. Canton

1993-01-01

57

Fish  

MedlinePLUS

... Transplant Patients Infants and Young Children Publications & Materials Fish Share Compartir Fish, frogs, toads, and the water they live in ... more likely than others to get diseases from fish and amphibians. A person's age and health status ...

58

Kerosene poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... by a health care provider. Do NOT give water or milk if the person is unconscious (has a decreased level of alertness). If the person breathed in the poison, immediately move him or her to fresh air.

59

Lacquer poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... the chemical was swallowed, immediately give the person water, unless instructed otherwise by a health care provider. If the person breathed in the poison, immediately move him or her to fresh air.

60

Ink poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

Writing ink is a blend of: Dyes Pigments Solvents Water It is generally considered nonpoisonous. ... will give you further instructions. This is a free and confidential service. All local poison control centers ...

61

Antifreeze poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... Center at 1-800-222-1222. See also: Ethylene glycol poisoning ... Ethylene glycol Methanol Propylene glycol ... For ethylene glycol: Death may occur within the first 24 hours. If the patient survives, there may be little or ...

62

Fish  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Fish are vertebrates, meaning they have a skeletal system to support their bodies. All fish live underwater. Fish have gills to help them breathe underwater and fins to help them swim. Most fish are cold-blooded, meaning their body temperature is regulated by the surrounding water temperature.

Olivia Worland (Purdue University;Biological Sciences)

2008-06-12

63

Caladium plant poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... wings plant poisoning; Colocasia plant poisoning; Heart of Jesus plant poisoning; Texas Wonder plant poisoning ... For those who do not have severe oral contact with the plant, symptoms usually resolve within a few days. For those ...

64

Outsmarting Poison Ivy and Other Poisonous Plants  

MedlinePLUS

... RSS Feed Outsmarting Poison Ivy and Other Poisonous Plants Search the Consumer Updates Section Consumer Updates by ... hours to several days after exposure to the plant oil found in the sap of these poisonous ...

65

Case Report Lead Poisoning in Common Loons (Gavia immer)  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Two emaciated common loons (Gavia immer) were believed to have died of lead poisoning when fragments of fishing lines and lead sinkers were discovered in their stomachs. Later a third emaciated loon, which had only the remnants of fishing line in its stomach, was suspected of being a possible lead-poisoning victim when all other test results were negative. The

L. N. Locke; A S. M. Kerr; D. Zoromskic

66

Plant poisoning.  

PubMed

Each year over 100,000 exposures to toxic plants are reported to poison centers throughout the United States. Most of these exposures are of minimal toxicity largely because of the fact that they involve pediatric ingestions, which are of low quantity. The more serious poisonings usually involve adults who have either mistaken a plant as edible or have deliberately ingested the plant to derive perceived medicinal or toxic properties. The plants within this manuscript have been chosen because they have been documented to cause fatalities or account for emergency medicine visits. In this discussion, plants are grouped by their toxins rather than on the basis of their taxonomy. PMID:17482026

Froberg, Blake; Ibrahim, Danyal; Furbee, R Brent

2007-05-01

67

Poison Ivy, Oak, and Sumac  

MedlinePLUS

... Z Diseases and treatments M - P Poison ivy Poison ivy, oak, and sumac Rash from poison ivy. ... to an emergency room immediately. Learn more about poison ivy: Poison ivy: Signs and symptoms Poison ivy: ...

68

Zigadenus Poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Significant toxicity can result from ingestion of certain species of the Zigadenus plant, an herb occasionally confused with nontoxic wild onions. A 50-year-old man inadvertently ingested Z paniculatus and presented to the emergency department with profound gastrointestinal toxicity, hypotension, and bradycardia. The pathophysiology and management of Zigadenus poisoning are reviewed. Emergency physicians, particularly in rural areas, should be aware of

Katherine L Heilpern

1995-01-01

69

Poisonous Contacts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In addition to its use as a lethal poison, arsenic has been used since ancient times to treat human illnesses, including infectious diseases and malignancies. This artical discusses how the findings of Zhang et al. add to our understanding of how arsenic's therapeutic effects have made acute promyelocytic leukemia "curable," with survival rates of 90%.

Scott Kogan (University of California San Francisco Cancer Center;)

2010-04-09

70

The gas bladder of puffers and porcupinefishes (Acanthomorpha: Tetraodontiformes): phylogenetic interpretations.  

PubMed

The anatomy of the gas bladder of Diodontidae (porcupinefishes) and Tetraodontidae (pufferfishes) was studied on the basis of dissections and magnetic resonance imaging. Among the examined taxa of Tetraodontiformes, only puffers and porcupinefishes possess a thick walled and dorsally U-shaped or crescent-moon-shaped gas bladder. In the tetraodontid genus Lagocephalus the gas bladder is reduced to a rudiment. The species belonging to the genera Canthigaster, Arothron, and some species of Tetraodon differ in the positioning of their crescent-moon-shaped gas bladder. These observations confirm the close relationship of: (i) Diodontidae and Tetraodontidae and (ii) Canthigaster, Arothron, and some species of Tetraodon. The heterogeneity of the genus Tetraodon is supported by the gas bladder morphology, as previously suggested by molecular studies. PMID:24634057

Chanet, Bruno; Guintard, Claude; Lecointre, Guillaume

2014-08-01

71

Of Rivers, Fish and Poison  

Microsoft Academic Search

Every one of the diverse ecosystems of the Indian subcontinent is being degraded to some measure; but it is the freshwater e cosystems that are under t he greatest threat. T he root causes of this degradation lie in human institutions, in the inequities that plague our society. A significant number of our people depend directly on natural resources for

MADHAV GADGIL; NILESH HEDA

72

Accumulation of hydroxyl lipids and 4-hydroxy-2-hexenal in live fish infected with fish diseases.  

PubMed

Hydroxy lipids (L-OH) and 4-hydroxy-2-hexenal (HHE) levels as well as other parameters such as lipid level, lipid class, fatty acid composition, and other aldehydes levels in the liver of diseased fish were investigated. Although significant differences in lipid level, lipid class, fatty acid composition, and other aldehyde levels were not always observed between normal and diseased fish, L-OH and HHE levels were significantly higher in the liver of the diseased fish than in that of the normal fish cultured with the same feeds under the same conditions. In the liver of puffer fish (Fugu rubripes) infected with Trichodina, L-OH and HHE levels significantly increased from 25.29±5.04 to 47.70 ± 5.27 nmol/mg lipid and from 299.79±25.25 to 1,184.40±60.27 nmol/g tissue, respectively. When the levels of HHE and other aldehydes in the liver of the normal and diseased puffer fish were plotted, a linear relationship with a high correlation coefficient was observed between HHE and propanal (r2=0.9447). Increased L-OH and HHE levels in the liver of the diseased fish and a high correlation between HHE and propanal in the liver of the normal and diseased fish were also observed in flat fish (Paralichthys olivaceus) infected with streptococcus, yellowtail (Seriola quinqueradiata) infected with jaundice, and amberjack (S. purpurascens) infected with Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida. PMID:24390795

Tanaka, Ryusuke; Shigeta, Kazuhiro; Sugiura, Yoshimasa; Hatate, Hideo; Matsushita, Teruo

2014-04-01

73

Zigadenus poisoning.  

PubMed

Significant toxicity can result from ingestion of certain species of the Zigadenus plant, an herb occasionally confused with nontoxic wild onions. A 50-year-old man inadvertently ingested Z paniculatus and presented to the emergency department with profound gastrointestinal toxicity, hypotension, and bradycardia. The pathophysiology and management of Zigadenus poisoning are reviewed. Emergency physicians, particularly in rural areas, should be aware of the morbidity caused by ingestion of some Zigadenus species. PMID:7832360

Heilpern, K L

1995-02-01

74

Lead poisoning.  

PubMed Central

Lead poisoning is the most common disease of environmental origin in the United States today. Adult lead poisoning results primarily from exposure by inhalation in the workplace. Pediatric lead poisoning results principally from the ingestion of lead from environmental media, including paint chips, dust, soil, drinking water, ceramics, and medications. Lead is toxic to many organ systems, among them developing erythrocytes, the kidneys, and the nervous system. Lead-induced toxicity to the central nervous system causes delayed development, diminished intelligence, and altered behavior. In young children, this effect has been demonstrated convincingly to occur at blood lead levels between 10 and 20 micrograms per dl. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has recommended that a blood lead level of 10 micrograms per dl or higher be considered evidence of increased lead absorption, and the National Academy of Sciences has concurred in that recommendation. Unresolved issues in need of further study include the frequency of screening young children for lead, the question of whether women should be offered screening for lead before conceiving a pregnancy, the role of x-ray fluorescence analysis in assessing lead in bone, and the appropriate legislative response of the United States government to lead-based paint abatement. PMID:7941534

Landrigan, P J; Todd, A C

1994-01-01

75

Recognizing the Toxicodendrons (poison ivy, poison oak, and poison sumac).  

PubMed

Poison ivy, poison oak, and poison sumac are now classified in the genus Toxicodendron which is readily distinguished from Rhus. In the United States, there are two species of poison oak, Toxicodendron diversilobum (western poison oak) and Toxicodendron toxicarium (eastern poison oak). There are also two species of poison ivy, Toxicodendron rydbergii, a nonclimbing subshrub, and Toxicodendron radicans, which may be either a shrub or a climbing vine. There are nine subspecies of T. radicans, six of which are found in the United States. One species of poison sumac, Toxicodendron vernix, occurs in the United States. Distinguishing features of these plants and characteristics that separate Toxicodendron from Rhus are outlined in the text and illustrated in color plates. PMID:6451640

Guin, J D; Gillis, W T; Beaman, J H

1981-01-01

76

Mercuric chloride poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

Mercuric chloride is a very poisonous form of mercury. It is a type of mercury salt. There are ... mercury poisonings . This article discusses poisoning from swallowing mercuric chloride. This is for information only and not for ...

77

A pilot study of the cognitive and psychological correlates of chronic ciguatera poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ciguatera fish poisoning is the most frequently reported seafood-toxin illness in the world, caused by the consumption of coral reef fishes contaminated with a group of natural toxins produced by minute phytoplankton (dinoflagellates). These toxins are potent and cause both acute and chronic neurologic disease in humans.Although ciguatera fish poisoning is associated with established neurotoxins in animal models, and with

P Arena; B Levin; L. E Fleming; M. A Friedman; D Blythe

2004-01-01

78

Food poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... cases are caused by common bacteria such as Staphylococcus or E. coli. ... Toxins in spoiled or tainted fish or shellfish Staphylococcus aureus Salmonella Shigella Infants and elderly people are ...

79

House of Poison: Poisons in the Home.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of a series of instructional materials produced by the Literacy Council of Alaska, this booklet provides information about common household poisons. Using a simplified vocabulary and shorter sentences, it provides statistics concerning accidental poisonings; a list of the places poisons are usually found in the home; steps to make the home…

Keller, Rosanne

80

Imprudent fishing harvests and consequent trophic cascades on the West Florida shelf over the last half century: A harbinger of increased human deaths from paralytic shellfish poisoning along the southeastern United States, in response to oligotrophication?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Within the context of ubiquitous overfishing of piscivores, recent consequent increments of jellyfish and clupeids have occurred at the zooplanktivore trophic level in the eastern Gulf of Mexico (GOM), after overfishing of one of their predators, i.e. red snapper. Initiation of a local trophic cascade thence led to declines of herbivore stocks, documented here on the West Florida shelf. These exacerbating world-wide trophic cascades have resulted in larger harmful algal blooms (HABs), already present at the base of most coastal food webs. Impacts on human health have thus far been minimal within nutrient-rich coastal regions. To provide a setting for past morbidities, consideration is given to chronologies of other trophic cascades within eutrophic, cold water marine ecosystems of the Scotian Sea, in the Gulf of Alaska, off Southwest Africa, within the Barents, White, and Black Seas, in the Gulf of Maine, and finally in the North Sea. Next, comparison is now made here of recent ten-fold increments within Florida waters of both relatively benign and saxitoxic HABs, some of which are fatal to humans. These events are placed in a perspective of other warm shelf systems of the South China and Caribbean Seas to assess prior and possible future poison toxicities of oligotrophic coastal habitats. Past wide-spread kills of fishes and sea urchins over the Caribbean Sea and the downstream GOM are examined in relation to the potential transmission of dinoflagellate saxitoxin and other epizootic poison vectors by western boundary currents over larger "commons" than local embayments. Furthermore, since some HABs produce more potent saxitoxins upon nutrient depletion, recent decisions to ban seasonal fertilizer applications to Florida lawns may have unintended consequences. In the future, human-killing phytoplankton, rather than relatively benign fish-killing HABs of the past, may be dispersed along the southeastern United States seaboard.

Walsh, J. J.; Tomas, C. R.; Steidinger, K. A.; Lenes, J. M.; Chen, F. R.; Weisberg, R. H.; Zheng, L.; Landsberg, J. H.; Vargo, G. A.; Heil, C. A.

2011-06-01

81

Prevention of Food Poisoning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The programed text provides a single lesson, four-hour, correspondence subcourse on the prevention of food poisoning. It covers the following areas: a definition of food poisoning; chemical food poisoning; biological food poisoning; causes and prevention of trichinosis; six factors controlling bacteria growth; bacterial infection; prevention of…

Army Quartermaster School, Ft. Lee, VA.

82

Ciguatera-like poisoning in the Mediterranean.  

PubMed

A case of group poisoning from the consumption of the fish Sarpa salpa, caught in the Mediterranean coastal waters of Israel, is presented. Mullets and rabbitfish caught at the same site caused no harm. This is the third case of ciguatera poisoning in the region and the first to be transferred by a fish which is not a Red Sea immigrant. It implies that toxic algae dinoflagellates, originating from the Red Sea, crossed the Suez Canal and found their way to the Mediterranean coastal waters. PMID:3245127

Raikhlin-Eisenkraft, B; Finkelstein, Y; Spanier, E

1988-12-01

83

Pesticide poisoning.  

PubMed

Acute poisoning with pesticides is a global public health problem and accounts for as many as 300,000 deaths worldwide every year. The majority of deaths occur due to exposure to organophosphates, organochlorines and aluminium phosphide. Organophosphate compounds inhibit acetylcholinesterase resulting in acute toxicity. Intermediate syndrome can develop in a number of patients and may lead to respiratory paralysis and death. Management consists of proper oxygenation, atropine in escalating doses and pralidoxime in high doses. It is Important to decontaminate the skin while taking precautions to avoid secondary contamination of health personnel. Organochlorine pesticides are toxic to the central nervous system and sensitize the myocardium to catecholamines. Treatment involves supportive care and avoiding exogenous sympathomimetic agents. Ingestion of paraquat causes severe inflammation of the throat, corrosive injury to the gastrointestinal tract, renal tubular necrosis, hepatic necrosis and pulmonary fibrosis. Administration of oxygen should be avoided as it produces more fibrosis. Use of immunosuppressive agents have improved outcome in patients with paraquat poisoning. Rodenticides include thallium, superwarfarins, barium carbonate and phosphides (aluminium and zinc phosphide). Alopecia is an atypical feature of thallium toxicity. Most exposures to superwarfarins are harmless but prolonged bleeding may occur. Barium carbonate Ingestion can cause severe hypokalaemia and respiratory muscle paralysis. Aluminium phosphide is a highly toxic agent with mortality ranging from 37% to 100%. It inhibits mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase and leads to pulmonary and cardiac toxicity. Treatment is supportive with some studies suggesting a beneficial effect of magnesium sulphate. Pyrethroids and insect repellants (e.g. diethyltoluamide) are relatively harmless but can cause toxic effects to pulmonary and central nervous systems. Ethylene dibromide-a highly toxic, fumigant pesticide-produces oral ulcerations, followed by liver and renal toxicity, and is almost uniformly fatal. Physicians working in remote and rural areas need to be educated about early diagnosis and proper management using supportive care and antidotes, wherever available. PMID:18085124

Goel, Ashish; Aggarwal, Praveen

2007-01-01

84

Incidence of animal poisoning cases in the Czech Republic: current situation  

PubMed Central

This article reports the most frequent cases of poisoning in farm animals, horses, cats, dogs, wild animals, fish and honey-bees in the Czech Republic. At present, there are fewer cases of acute poisoning caused by high doses of toxic substances but there are more and more cases of chronic poisoning as a consequence of environmental pollution. PMID:21217846

Modra, Helena; Svobodova, Zdenka

2009-01-01

85

Poisoning: Effective Clinical Intervention  

PubMed Central

Poisoning accounts for 40-60% of suicides, is the commonest medical emergency in small children, and an important source of occupational injury. Prevention of unintentional poisoning involves primarily education of parents. In intervention, the patient—not the poison—must be treated. Self-poisoners require supportive but firm handling. Treatment is directed towards prevention of further absorption, removal of absorbed poison, symptomatic or supportive therapy, and administration of systemic antidotes. Careful attention should be paid to the physician's legal responsibilities in cases of poisoning. Imagesp2032-a PMID:21286544

Turner, T. J.

1982-01-01

86

A review of lead poisoning in swans  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Nearly 10,000 swans of six species or subspecies from 14 countries have died from poisoning caused by lead that originated from ingestion of fishing weights, shotgun pellets (shot), or contaminated vegetation or sediments associated with mining and smelting wastes. Lead contamination in mute swans in England caused local population declines during the late 1970s and 1980s. More tundra swans died from lead poisoning than any other species. The extreme record involved an estimated 7200 tundra swans that died over five winters at one locality in North Carolina. The recent legislation to ban lead fishing weights in most of England and Wales and recent replacement of lead shot with steel shot for waterfowl hunting in the United States and a few areas of Europe, including Denmark, are expected to reduce the incidence of lead poisoning in swans.

Blus, L.J.

1994-01-01

87

Poison Ivy Dermatitis  

MedlinePLUS

... Favorite Name: Category: Share: Yes No, Keep Private Poison Ivy Dermatitis Share | "Leaves of three - let it ... has a longer stem than the other two. Poison ivy clings to tree trunks and other vertical ...

88

Blue nightshade poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

Blue nightshade poisoning occurs when someone eats parts of the blue nightshade plant. This is for information only and ... The poison is found in the blue nightshade (Solanum dulcamara) plant, especially in the fruit and leaves.

89

Lead poisoning: An overview  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A problem that should be of great concern to all of us is the lead poisoning of children. First, I would like to present a short overview concerning the reasons everyone should care about lead poisoning, then discuss the history of lead poisoning, what is happening today across the country, and the future.

Gendel, Neil

1993-01-01

90

78 FR 69992 - Guidance for Industry on Purchasing Reef Fish Species Associated With the Hazard of Ciguatera...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration...Hazard of Ciguatera Fish Poisoning; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration...SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration...Hazard of Ciguatera Fish Poisoning.'' The...

2013-11-22

91

78 FR 18273 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Purchasing Reef Fish Species Associated With the Hazard of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration...Hazard of Ciguatera Fish Poisoning; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration...SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration...Hazard of Ciguatera Fish Poisoning.'' The draft...

2013-03-26

92

The many faces of methylmercury poisoning  

SciTech Connect

Methylmercury (MM) is a very potent neurotoxic agent. Its role in polluting the environment is well documented. A vast amount of study over the past several decades has finally provided insight into many aspects of its effect. Exposure to MM may be through ingestion of poisoned fish or inadvertent misuse of grain treated with the poison as a fungicide. Major epidemics have occurred in Japan (Fetal Minamata disease), Iraq, Pakistan, Guatemala, and Ghana. Sporadic incidences have occurred in the United States and Canada. There is no effective antidote to counteract the effect of MM on the central nervous system, although the information documented should provide hope for more effective therapy in acute cases.

Elhassani, S.B.

1982-10-01

93

Phosphorus poisoning in waterfowl  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Black ducks and mallards were found to be highly susceptible to phosphorus poisoning. 3 mg. of white phosphorus per kg. of body weight given in a single dose resulted in death of a black duck in 6 hours. Pathologic changes in both acute and chronic poisoning were studied. Data are presented showing that diagnosis can be made accurately by chemical analysis of stored tissues in cases of phosphorus poisoning.

Coburn, D.R.; DeWitt, J.B.; Derby, J.V., Jr.; Ediger, E.

1950-01-01

94

Lead Poisoning in Wild Birds  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Lead in its various forms has been used for thousands of years, originally in cooking utensils and glazes and more recently in many industrial and commercial applications. However, lead is a potent, potentially deadly toxin that damages many organs in the body and can affect all animals, including humans. By the mid 1990s, lead had been removed from many products in the United States, such as paint and fuel, but it is still commonly used in ammunition for hunting upland game birds, small mammals, and large game animals, as well as in fishing tackle. Wild birds, such as mourning doves, bald eagles, California condors, and loons, can die from the ingestion of one lead shot, bullet fragment, or sinker. According to a recent study on loon mortality, nearly half of adult loons found sick or dead during the breeding season in New England were diagnosed with confirmed or suspected lead poisoning from ingestion of lead fishing weights. Recent regulations in some states have restricted the use of lead ammunition on certain upland game hunting areas, as well as lead fishing tackle in areas frequented by common loons and trumpeter swans. A variety of alternatives to lead are available for use in hunting, shooting sports, and fishing activities.

Lahner, Lesanna L.; Franson, J. Christian

2009-01-01

95

Red Tide and Shellfish Poisoning  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This EnviroFacts informational page discusses how red tide develops and how people might be affected by this phenomenon. It covers physical damage, oxygen depletion, direct poisoning, and indirect poisoning including paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP), diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP), neurotoxic shellfish poisoning (NSP), amnesiac shellfish poisoning (ASP), and aerosol toxins. The page concludes with a discussion of red tide and the role of the sea fisheries research institute.

Maneveldt, Gavin W.; Matthews, Sue; Pitcher, Grant; Van Der Vyver, Irma

2010-01-29

96

[Poisonous mushrooms, mushroom poisons and mushroom poisoning. A review].  

PubMed

Of 1,500 different types of Norwegian mushrooms, 60-100 are considered poisonous. Fatal intoxications occur very infrequently. Lack of knowledge of picking and preparing mushrooms and accidental or deliberate consumption are recognised causes of mushroom poisoning. Delayed onset of symptoms (> 5-6 hrs) indicates serious poisoning, and these patients must be admitted to hospital. Cytotoxic toxins (e.g. amatoxin, orellanin) cause serious damage to the visceral organs (liver, kidney) and require intensive treatment, including hemoperfusion. Neurotoxic toxins may cause dramatic, but less harmful peripheral or central symptoms affecting the peripheral and central nervous systems, including hallucinations. Some mushrooms cause gastroenteritis of low clinical significance within a few hours after consumption. Interaction between mushrooms and alcohol may lead to a disulfiram-like effect. Induced vomiting and activated charcoal are important initial therapeutic measures. The precise history of the patient and the collecting of mushroom remnants, including vomitus, may help to identify the particular mushroom. In Norway, the National Poison Information Centre may be contacted for further advice. PMID:9411893

Holsen, D S; Aarebrot, S

1997-09-30

97

Lead poisoning in common loons (Gavia immer).  

PubMed

Two emaciated common loons (Gavia immer) were believed to have died of lead poisoning when fragments of fishing lines and lead sinkers were discovered in their stomachs. Later a third emaciated loon, which had only the remnants of fishing line in its stomach, was suspected of being a possible lead-poisoning victim when all other test results were negative. The liver lead levels in the first two loons were 20.6 ppm and 46.1 ppm (wet weight), and the level in the third was 38.52 ppm (wet weight). Thirteen common loons dying of other causes had liver lead levels of less than 1 ppm (wet weight). PMID:7103895

Locke, L N; Kerr, S M; Zoromski, D

1982-01-01

98

Caulking compound poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... substances used to seal cracks and holes around windows and other openings. Caulking compound poisoning occurs when someone swallows these substances. This is for information only and not for use in the treatment or management of an actual poison exposure. If ...

99

Lead Poisoning in Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication is a guide to help social and health workers plan a preventive campaign against lead poisoning, a cause of mental retardation other neurological handicaps, and death among children. The main victims are 1- to 6-year-olds living in areas where deteriorating housing prevails. Among the causes of lead poisoning are: ingestion of…

Lin-Fu, Jane S.

100

Accidental carbon monoxide poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Improved home insulation and increased use of space heaters have increased the potential for accidental carbon monoxide (CO) poisonings in the home. CO is a major environmental pollutant in today's society and is also contained in cigarette smoke. The toxic effects, metabolic pathways, and treatment of CO poisoning are described.

D. L. Jackson; H. Menges

1980-01-01

101

Mechanical sensitivity of the facial nerve fibers innervating the anterior palate of the puffer, Fugu pardalis , and their central projection to the primary taste center  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1.Mechanical and chemical sensitivity of the palatine nerve, ramus palatinus facialis, innervating the anterior palate of the puffer,Fugu pardalis, and their central projection to the primary taste center were investigated.2.Application of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) to the central cut end of the palatine nerve resulted in retrogradely labeled neurons in the geniculate ganglion but no such neurons in the trigeminal

Sadao Kiyohara; Iwao Hidaka; Junzoh Kitoh; Satoru Yamashita

1985-01-01

102

Chapter 1 Childhood Lead Poisoning Childhood Lead Poisoning  

E-print Network

Chapter 1 Childhood Lead Poisoning 1 Childhood Lead Poisoning in the United States The problem of childhood lead poisoning. Child- hood lead poisoning is a major, preventable environmental health problem lead-based paint and industrial sites and smelters that use or produce lead-contain- ing materials

103

Look Out! It's Poison Ivy!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides background information on poison ivy and offers suggestions for instructional activities. Includes illustrations of the varieties of poison ivy leaf forms and poison ivy look-alikes. Highlights interesting facts and cases associated with poison ivy and its relatives. (ML)

Darlington, Elizabeth, Day

1986-01-01

104

Case report: lead poisoning in common loons (Gavia immer)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Two emaciated common loons (Gavia immer) were believed to have died of lead poisoning when fragments of fishing lines and lead sinkers were discovered in their stomachs. Later a third emaciated loon, which had only the remnants of fishing line in its stomach, was suspected of being a possible lead-poisoning victim when all other test results were negative. The liver lead levels in the first two loons were 20.6 ppm and 46.1 ppm (wet weight), and the level in the third was 38.52 ppm (wet weight). Thirteen common loons dying of other causes had liver lead levels of less than 1 ppm (wet weight).

Locke, L.N.; Kerr, Stephen M.; Zoromski, D.

1982-01-01

105

Multiple, recurring origins of aposematism and diet specialization in poison frogs  

E-print Network

Multiple, recurring origins of aposematism and diet specialization in poison frogs Juan Carlos taxa, but, in vertebrates, it is mostly evident in amphibians, reptiles, and fishes. Poison frogs the family in two discrete groups of primitively cryptic and more derived aposematic frogs. Recent molecular

106

Homicide by poisoning.  

PubMed

By studying the number and method of homicidal poisoning in Miami-Dade County, Florida; New York City, NY; Oakland County, Michigan; and Sweden, we have confirmed that this is an infrequently established crime.Several difficulties come with the detection of homicidal poisonings. Presenting symptoms and signs are often misdiagnosed as natural disease, especially if the crime is committed in a hospital environment, suggesting that an unknown number of homicides go undetected.In the reported cases analyzed, the lethal agent of choice has changed over the years. In earlier years, traditional poisons such as arsenic, cyanide, and parathion were frequently used. Such poisonings are nowadays rare, and instead, narcotics are more commonly detected in victims of this crime. PMID:23361068

Finnberg, Amanda; Junuzovic, Mensura; Dragovic, Ljubisa; Ortiz-Reyes, Ruben; Hamel, Marianne; Davis, Joseph; Eriksson, Anders

2013-03-01

107

Household glue poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

Glue poisoning ... Glue Note: This list may not include all sources of household glue. ... Symptoms of breathing in ("sniffing") glue fumes may include: ... appearance Excitability Headache Irritability Loss of appetite ...

108

Oven cleaner poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... the chemical was swallowed, immediately give the person water or milk, unless instructed otherwise by a health care provider. If the person breathed in the poison, immediately move him or her to fresh air.

109

Potassium hydroxide poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... the chemical was swallowed, immediately give the person water or milk, unless instructed otherwise by a health care provider. If the person breathed in the poison, immediately move him or her to fresh air.

110

The Poisons Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Details a project in which students explore and study the poisons in their environment by asking and finding answers to their own research questions. Includes some suggestions for involving students successfully in inquiry-based learning. (DDR)

Crawford, Barbara A.

1998-01-01

111

Dye remover poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... remover is a chemical used to remove dye stains. Dye remover poisoning occurs when someone swallows this ... by IV Medicines to treat pain Oxygen Surgical removal of burned skin (skin debridement) Washing of the ...

112

Hair bleach poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

Hair bleach poisoning occurs when someone swallows or splashes this substance on their skin or in their eyes. This ... Hydrogen peroxide Some hair bleaches Note: This list may not include all sources of hair bleach.

113

Hair dye poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... Arsenic Bismuth Denatured alcohol Lead (see lead poisoning ) Mercury Pyrogallol Silver Note: This list may not include ... product is swallowed. Continued exposure to lead or mercury can lead to permanent brain and nervous system ( ...

114

Mineral spirits poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... the harmful effects from swallowing or breathing in mineral spirits. This is for information only and not ... The poisonous ingredients in mineral spirits are hydrocarbons, which ... only hydrogen and carbon. Examples are benzene and methane.

115

Swimming pool cleaner poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

Swimming pool cleaner poisoning occurs when someone swallows these substances, touches the chemicals and acids in them, ... breathes in their fumes. Chlorine, a chemical in swimming pool cleaners, is more likely than the acids ...

116

Gloriosa superba poisoning.  

PubMed

Suicidal attempts by consuming poisonous extracts of a creeper plant Gloriosa superba are frequent in this region. An instance of such poisoning is reported here, wherein a family engaged in business dealing with this plant consumed the crude liquid extract of its root. The symptoms were mainly gastrointestinal. The children had more severe symptoms which included sweating, hypotension, jaundice, bradycardia and convulsions. The features were reversible with symptomatic treatment alone. PMID:1308494

Aleem, H M

1992-08-01

117

Poisonous Plant Management.  

E-print Network

parts of plant are nuttallii deathcamas weakness, low temperature, weak and poisonous, even when dry irregular pulse, irregular breathing, coma 11 County Extension Office ~ Texas Agricultural . Extension -':: Service The Texas A&M University System... parts of plant are nuttallii deathcamas weakness, low temperature, weak and poisonous, even when dry irregular pulse, irregular breathing, coma 11 County Extension Office ~ Texas Agricultural . Extension -':: Service The Texas A&M University System...

McGinty, Allan

1985-01-01

118

A review of lead poisoning in swans (Cygnus spp.)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Nearly 10,000 swans of six species or subspecies from 14 countries have died from poisoning caused by lead that originated from ingestion of fishing weights, shotgun pellets (shot), or contaminated vegetation or sediments associated with mining and smelting wastes. Lead contamination in mute swans in England caused local population declines during the late 1970s and 1980s. More tundra swans died from lead poisoning than any other species. The extreme record involved an estimated 7200 tundra swans that died over five winters at one locality in North Carolina. The recent legislation to ban lead fishing weights in most of England and Wales and recent replacement of lead shot with steel shot for waterfowl hunting in the United States and a few areas of Europe, including Denmark, are expected to reduce the incidence of lead poisoning in swans.

Blus, L.J.

1994-01-01

119

Oil-based paint poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... the primary poisonous ingredient in oil paints. Some oil paints have heavy metals such as lead, mercury, cobalt, and barium added as pigment. These heavy metals can cause additional poisoning if swallowed in large amounts.

120

Poison control center - emergency number  

MedlinePLUS

For a POISON EMERGENCY call: 1-800-222-1222 ANYWHERE IN THE UNITED STATES This national hotline number will let you ... is a free and confidential service. All local poison control centers in the United States use this ...

121

Protecting Yourself from Poisonous Plants  

MedlinePLUS

... a poisonous plant: Immediately rinse skin with rubbing alcohol, poison plant wash, or degreasing soap (such as ... some protection. After use, clean tools with rubbing alcohol or soap and lots of water. Urushiol can ...

122

[Electronic poison information management system].  

PubMed

We describe deployment of electronic toxicological information database in poison control center of Pomeranian Center of Toxicology. System was based on Google Apps technology, by Google Inc., using electronic, web-based forms and data tables. During first 6 months from system deployment, we used it to archive 1471 poisoning cases, prepare monthly poisoning reports and facilitate statistical analysis of data. Electronic database usage made Poison Center work much easier. PMID:24466697

Kabata, Piotr; Waldman, Wojciech; Kaletha, Krystian; Sein Anand, Jacek

2013-01-01

123

Acute blasticidin S poisoning.  

PubMed

Blasticidin S is an effective fungicidal aminocylonucleoside antibiotic against a rice blast disease. We presented the first 4 reported cases of acute poisoning from ingesting blasticidin S for suicidal attempts. Three of the patients were fatal. The symptoms observed in the patients included vomiting immediately after ingestion and severe, persistent, watery diarrhea. The toxic effects of blasticidin S were noted in ectodermal tissues including the skin, conjunctiva, cornea, and intestine. Massive loss of intestinal fluid resulted in progressively pronounced hypotension associated with tachycardia. The treatment of choice for the poisoning consists of intravenous fluid administration and the management of body water and electrolyte balance. PMID:3824882

Yamashita, M; Nakamura, K; Naito, H; Suzuki, H; Tsuchiya, T; Hattori, T; Iwasaki, M; Eguchi, J

1987-02-01

124

Mushroom Poisoning in Canada  

PubMed Central

At least 150 cases of mushroom poisoning occur in Canada each year, 75% in the Province of Ontario. Eighty per cent of the total are in children under the age of 9, and most do not require hospitalization. Amanita virosa poisoning is a potentially fatal medical emergency which presents as an acute gastroenteritis, progressing to hepatorenal failure. Treatment consists of elimination of undigested mushrooms, rapid rehydration, management of acute liver and renal failure, and prevention of infection during the recovery phase. ImagesFIG. 1 PMID:5445050

Lough, John; Kinnear, D. G.

1970-01-01

125

Poisoning and epidemiology: 'toxicoepidemiology'.  

PubMed

1. There is little hypothesis-testing clinical research performed in toxicology. Randomized clinical trials are rare and most observational studies are performed on highly selected patients and are subject to marked bias. Thus, for many poisonings, our approach has been based almost entirely on deduction from known pharmacological/toxicological effects, generalizations from drugs within the same therapeutic class, animal data and case reports. This is also far from satisfactory, as many toxicological mechanisms are poorly understood and not related to the therapeutic class. 2. Although we need much better data to address the clinical and public health aspects of poisoning, there are many practical and ethical reasons why randomized clinical trials are difficult in this field. However, the scope for observational research, in particular population-based clinical epidemiology, is almost unlimited. The collection of data on human poisoning is facilitated because most non-fatal overdoses are admitted to hospital and by legal requirements to report to the coroner deaths that are due to poisoning. In the present article I argue that 'toxicoepidemiology', meaning the application of epidemiological methods to the problem of acute poisoning, is the best means we have of addressing deficiencies in our knowledge of poisoning. 3. Examples are given of a variety of observational research strategies, ranging from audit to meta-analysis, that may be applied to clinical toxicology. From coronial and clinical data obtained from reasonably well-defined populations, it has been possible to identify a number of previously unrecognized differences in the severity and spectrum of toxicity between and within drug classes. Also, the demographic risk factors for poisoning and the reproducibility, validity and optimal use of diagnostic and therapeutic interventions can be assessed. 4. The major limitations to the range of associations and interventions that may be studied are the need to achieve adequate power to study uncommon outcomes or poisonings and the ability to replicate findings at other centres using similar methodology. The expansion of data collection to other centres has the potential largely to overcome these obstacles. PMID:9590568

Buckley, N A

1998-01-01

126

Genome duplication in the teleost fish Tetraodon nigroviridis reveals the early vertebrate proto-karyotype.  

PubMed

Tetraodon nigroviridis is a freshwater puffer fish with the smallest known vertebrate genome. Here, we report a draft genome sequence with long-range linkage and substantial anchoring to the 21 Tetraodon chromosomes. Genome analysis provides a greatly improved fish gene catalogue, including identifying key genes previously thought to be absent in fish. Comparison with other vertebrates and a urochordate indicates that fish proteins have diverged markedly faster than their mammalian homologues. Comparison with the human genome suggests approximately 900 previously unannotated human genes. Analysis of the Tetraodon and human genomes shows that whole-genome duplication occurred in the teleost fish lineage, subsequent to its divergence from mammals. The analysis also makes it possible to infer the basic structure of the ancestral bony vertebrate genome, which was composed of 12 chromosomes, and to reconstruct much of the evolutionary history of ancient and recent chromosome rearrangements leading to the modern human karyotype. PMID:15496914

Jaillon, Olivier; Aury, Jean-Marc; Brunet, Frédéric; Petit, Jean-Louis; Stange-Thomann, Nicole; Mauceli, Evan; Bouneau, Laurence; Fischer, Cécile; Ozouf-Costaz, Catherine; Bernot, Alain; Nicaud, Sophie; Jaffe, David; Fisher, Sheila; Lutfalla, Georges; Dossat, Carole; Segurens, Béatrice; Dasilva, Corinne; Salanoubat, Marcel; Levy, Michael; Boudet, Nathalie; Castellano, Sergi; Anthouard, Véronique; Jubin, Claire; Castelli, Vanina; Katinka, Michael; Vacherie, Benoît; Biémont, Christian; Skalli, Zineb; Cattolico, Laurence; Poulain, Julie; De Berardinis, Véronique; Cruaud, Corinne; Duprat, Simone; Brottier, Philippe; Coutanceau, Jean-Pierre; Gouzy, Jérôme; Parra, Genis; Lardier, Guillaume; Chapple, Charles; McKernan, Kevin J; McEwan, Paul; Bosak, Stephanie; Kellis, Manolis; Volff, Jean-Nicolas; Guigó, Roderic; Zody, Michael C; Mesirov, Jill; Lindblad-Toh, Kerstin; Birren, Bruce; Nusbaum, Chad; Kahn, Daniel; Robinson-Rechavi, Marc; Laudet, Vincent; Schachter, Vincent; Quétier, Francis; Saurin, William; Scarpelli, Claude; Wincker, Patrick; Lander, Eric S; Weissenbach, Jean; Roest Crollius, Hugues

2004-10-21

127

LEAD POISONING PREVENTION INFORMATION  

E-print Network

issues (4,5). In very extreme cases, it can cause seizures or death. A blood lead concentration for Environmental Health, Healthy Homes and Lead Poisoning Prevention Branch Search engine keywords: CDC lead and Quarantine Search engine keywords: CDC international adoption immigrant health Child Welfare Information

128

Lead Poisoning in Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Urban children are exposed to lead through the air they breathe, the water they drink, and the food and nonfood substances they ingest. The history, diagnosis, and treatment of lead poisoning in these children are discussed. Includes information on the toxicology of lead and the various risk classes. (JN)

Boeckx, Roger L.

1986-01-01

129

Acute Paracetamol Poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Of 41 cases of acute paracetamol poisoning one died of gastrointestinal haemorrhage and acute massive necrosis of the liver, three became jaundiced, and 13 others had biochemical evidence of hepatocellular damage. Liver damage is a toxic effect which is present in most patients who ingest more than 15 g. of paracetamol. One patient with liver damage survived renal failure due

A. T. Proudfoot; N. Wright

1970-01-01

130

Animals and Poisonous Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

WITH reference to Mr. Bennett's inquiry as to the consumption of poisonous berries by birds, I remember a young blackbird, some years back, who used to frequent the garden of the house in which I was staying, and who eagerly swallowed the berries of the Daphne mezereum. He was rather tame and would take them when I threw them to

Edward M. Langley

1898-01-01

131

Diarrheic Shellfish Poisoning  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web page discusses Diarrheic Shellfish Poisoning (DSP), a gastrointestinal illness caused by the consumption of contaminated shellfish. The associated toxins are okadaic acid and its derivatives, which are produced by the marine dinoflagellate Dinophysis. This page describes clinical presentation (symptoms) of DSP, diagnosis, management and treatment, chemical structure of okadaic acid, molecular mechanism of action, and references.

2010-05-28

132

[Plant poisoning cases in Turkey].  

PubMed

In Turkey, the majority of the population live in rural areas where they use wild plants as food and medicine. The confusion of an edible plant with a poisonous one give rise to serious poisoning which may even result in death. The incidence of plant poisoning in Turkey is about 6% and especially high among children between ages of 2 and 11 living in rural areas. The number of species that cause poisoning is around twenty and Hyoscyamus niger (Solanaceae), Colchicum species (Liliaceae), Conium maculatum (Umbelliferae) and Prunus species (Rosaceae) are the most important. Mushroom poisoning is more frequent in spring and fall. The main reasons are their widespread usage as food and the inexperience of the gatherers in distinguishing the edibles from the poisonous. Amanita phalloides, A. verna, A. muscaria, A. pantherina are responsible for severe cases of poisoning. PMID:7857034

Oztekin-Mat, A

1994-01-01

133

Something fishy: six patients with an unusual cause of food poisoning!  

PubMed

Scombroid fish poisoning is a clinical syndrome attributed to the ingestion of contaminated fish. A toxin or toxins, known as scombrotoxin, result from decomposition by endogenous flora of the amino acid histidine liberating bioactive amines, predominantly histamine. The presentation has features of histamine toxicity, typically with urticaria, flushing, headache, abdominal cramps, diarrhoea and vomiting. The course is usually mild and self-limiting. The author describes six cases of scombroid poisoning after ingestion of fish from the same Canberra restaurant. One case resulted in significant hypotension necessitating a prolonged stay in the ED. PMID:12786652

Hall, Michael

2003-06-01

134

[Poisoning by bee sting].  

PubMed

Among the human pathologies produced by venomous animals, bee stings constitute the largest number of accidents in several countries, exceeding the mortality rate caused by other venomous animals such as snakes, spiders or scorpions. The clinical picture after the bee sting may include anaphylaxis or poisoning. The latter is produced by massive attacks and is a serious problem that may put the patient's life at risk. People that are poisoned display hemolysis, rhabdomiolysis and acute renal failure that together with other systemic failures can bring about death. The knowledge of the physiopathological mechanisms involved in the massive attack of bees is crucial for health care professionals as to date we do not have antivenoms with proven clinical efficacy. In this review we include the bee's biological aspects, venom composition and its relation with the occurrence and severity of accidents as well as epidemiological data that can be useful for this type of accidents. PMID:16025987

de Roodt, Adolfo R; Salomón, Oscar D; Orduna, Tomás A; Robles Ortiz, Luis E; Paniagua Solís, Jorge F; Alagón Cano, Alejandro

2005-01-01

135

Oak Poisoning in Livestock.  

E-print Network

(19). "Tannin" is a generic name for a group of complex ~tructures widely distributed in the higher plants. The )tanninsu yield gallic acid when subjected to acid Ilysis. Commercial "tannic acid" is an example of a snnin and is obtained from... of o:k poisoning were observed. - Purified shin oak tannin and commercial tannic acid \\we fed to rabbits in parallel studies. The serium tan- nin levels (1 8) (expressed as "tannic acid" equivalent) \\yere determined periodically. The times of death...

Dollahite, J. W.; Housholder, G. T.; Camp, B. J.

1966-01-01

136

Lead Poison Detection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

With NASA contracts, Whittaker Corporations Space Science division has developed an electro-optical instrument to mass screen for lead poisoning. Device is portable and detects protoporphyrin in whole blood. Free corpuscular porphyrins occur as an early effect of lead ingestion. Also detects lead in urine used to confirm blood tests. Test is inexpensive and can be applied by relatively unskilled personnel. Similar Whittaker fluorometry device called "drug screen" can measure morphine and quinine in urine much faster and cheaper than other methods.

1976-01-01

137

Acute accidental phosgene poisoning  

PubMed Central

Phosgene is a highly toxic gas to which accidental exposure may occur in occupational workers. This case report describes the clinical presentation and management of accidental phosgene poisoning happened after the leakage of phosgene gas from nearby pipeline. The need to suspect phosgene gas exposure and observe such patients is crucial for life saving, especially in view of the delay in clinical deterioration observed in some patients who subsequently develop adult respiratory distress syndrome. PMID:22602834

Gutch, Manish; Jain, Nirdesh; Agrawal, Avinash; Consul, Suchi

2012-01-01

138

[Familial lead poisoning].  

PubMed

A 1 year and 9 month old patient was admitted with ataxia. CBC showed a microcytic, hypocromic anemia with intense basophilic sttipling of erythrocytes. Lead poisoning was suspected and confirmed with a blood lead level of 167 micrograms/dl. The patient was treated with EDTA and BAL. It was discovered that family burned old car batteries for food cooking. Four members were intoxicated, with blood lead levels at or above 50 micrograms/dl. PMID:2519417

Ríos, E; Dal Borgo, P; Riveros, A; Díaz, S M

1989-06-01

139

Neurotoxic Shellfish Poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... in previously unaffected areas. U.S. Finfish, Shellfish and Wildlife Affected by NSP ... commercial and recreational species of fish, sea birds + , sea turtles, manatees + , dolphins *Found to ...

140

OXYGEN POISONING IN MAMMALS  

PubMed Central

1. Oxygen in concentrations of over 70 per cent of an atmosphere is poisonous to dogs, rabbits, guinea pigs and mice. 2. The poisonous effects manifest themselves in drowsiness, anorexia, loss of weight, increasing dyspnea, cyanosis and death from oxygen want. 3. The cause of oxygen want is a destructive lesion of the lungs. 4. The lesion may be characterized grossly as an hemorrhagic edema. Microscopically there is to be seen in varying degrees of intensity (a) capillary engorgement with hemorrhage, (b) the presence of interstitial and intraalveolar serum, (c) hypertrophy and desquamation of alveolar cells, (d) interstitial and alveolar infiltration of mononuclear cells. 5. The type of tissue reaction is not characteristic of an infectious process and no organisms have been recovered at autopsy from the heart's blood or from lung puncture. 6. The poisonous effects of inhalations of oxygen-rich mixtures do not appear to be related to impurities in the oxygen, nor are they related to faulty ventilation, excessive moisture or increased carbon dioxide in the atmosphere of the chambers in which the experimental animals were confined. PMID:19869294

Binger, Carl A. L.; Faulkner, James M.; Moore, Richmond L.

1927-01-01

141

Endrin-food-poisoning  

PubMed Central

Between 3 June and 15 July 1967 four explosive outbreaks of acute poisoning with the insecticide endrin occurred in Doha in Qatar and Hofuf in Saudi Arabia. Altogether 874 persons were hospitalized and 26 died. It is estimated that many others were poisoned whose symptoms were not so severe as to cause them to seek medical care or to enter hospital. The author describes the course of the outbreaks and the measures taken to ascertain their cause and prevent their extension and recurrence. It was found that the victims had eaten bread made from flour contaminated with endrin. In two different ships, both of them loaded and off-loaded at different ports, flour and endrin had been stowed in the same hold, with the endrin above the flour. In both ships the endrin containers had leaked and penetrated the sacks of flour which was later used to make bread. These two unconnected but nearly simultaneous mass poisonings emphasize the importance of regulating the carriage of insecticides and other toxic chemicals in such a way as to prevent the contamination of foodstuffs and similar substances during transport; both the World Health Organization and the Inter-Governmental Maritime Consultative Organization are working towards the establishment of regulations and practices to that end. PMID:5301732

Weeks, D. E.

1967-01-01

142

Texas Plants Poisonous to Livestock.  

E-print Network

to death. Plants that interfere with growth in weight or milk produc- tion are included. Loss from poisonous plants is one of the major economic problems in livestock production. A compilation of numer- ous reports indicates that the .annual loss from... nursing. Prevention of poisoning should be practiced when possible. Since certain plants are more poisonous to one type of animal than to another, a change in kind of livestock may be in order. Reduction of weed population and improvement of desirable...

Sperry, Omer Edison

1964-01-01

143

Severe lead poisoning and an abdominal foreign body in a mute swan (Cygnus olor).  

PubMed

The mute swan (Cygnus olor) is common on British waterways and frequently presents to wildlife hospitals with fishing tackle-related problems. Many of these birds have abnormally high blood lead levels after the ingestion of lead fishing weights. The ingestion of fishing line and tackle is also commonly seen. This case report describes the treatment of a swan with a particularly severe case of lead poisoning and the subsequent removal of an abdominal foreign body. PMID:16931366

Cousquer, Glen O

2006-09-01

144

Suicide through doxylamine poisoning.  

PubMed

Doxylamine is an antihistamine of the ethanolamine class. It is used primarily as a sleep-inducing agent. Only a few reports can be found in the literature about lethal intoxications with doxylamine, but many with combined intoxications. Doxylamine is, aside from diphenhydramine, the only chemically defined active ingredient in some sleeping medications which is available without a prescription in the Federal Republic of Germany. Two cases of doxylamine poisoning are presented, in which high doxylamine concentrations were found in the blood and organs. PMID:11348810

Bockholdt, B; Klug, E; Schneider, V

2001-06-01

145

Cap mushroom poisonings.  

PubMed

This paper presents species of fungi of high toxicity. Their consumption might have serious consequences for health and in many cases it might lead to death. Toxic compounds present in fungi have also been characterised, mechanisms of their toxic activity have been presented and clinical symptoms of poisoning have been described. Hallucinogenic mushrooms have also been mentioned as they have recently become a serious problem: many people use them to intoxicate themselves. There are also species of mushrooms that can be consumed under certain conditions since they can occasionally trigger off serious disturbances for the functioning of organisms. PMID:16145968

Gromysz-Ka?kowska, Kazimiera; Szubartowska, Ewa; Wójcik, Kazimiera

2004-01-01

146

Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning (PSP)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web page discusses Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning (PSP), a marine toxin disease with both gastrointestinal and neurologic symptoms reported worldwide. It is caused predominantly by the consumption of contaminated shellfish. Gonyaulacoid dinoflagellates are the source of PSP marine toxins. These unicellular dinoflagellates develop algal blooms throughout the world and produce at least 12 toxins which are tetrahydropurines, and heat and acid stable. Saxitoxin was the first characterized and the best understood. This page describes clinical presentation of PSP (including symptoms), diagnosis, management and treatment, the chemical structure of saxitoxin, molecular mechanism of action, and references.

2009-06-30

147

Ethylene glycol poisoning  

PubMed Central

Although an uncommon cause of death in Great Britain, ethylene glycol poisoning is potentially serious in that renal and cardiopulmonary failure and central nervous system dysfunction can occur when doses of the order of 100 ml or more are ingested. A case is described in which a child who swallowed approximately 100 ml of ethylene glycol was treated by prolonged peritoneal dialysis. In addition, measures were taken to correct a marked acidosis. Substantial amounts of ethylene glycol were removed by the dialysis fluid and the child made a complete physical and mental recovery. PMID:981106

Vale, J. A.; Widdop, B.; Bluett, N. H.

1976-01-01

148

Mushroom Poisoning-an overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are many thousands of mushroom species in the world, some are edible and some are poisonous due to containing significant toxins. The edible mushroom is a common food item with tempting flavour, taste and nutritive value; nowadays quite often grown at home and cultured with commercial marketing. Mushroom poisoning usually results from ingestion of wild mushrooms due to misidentification

B. S. Patowary

2010-01-01

149

Sensory neuron sodium channel Nav1.8 is essential for pain at low temperatures  

E-print Network

endings of slowly conduct- ing nociceptive fibres with the tetrodotoxin-resistant voltage inactivation of tetrodotoxin-sensitive VGSCs. In contrast, the inactivation properties of Nav1.8 are entirely.9) kinetics2,9­11 . Whereas fast VGSCs are selectively blocked by the puffer-fish poison tetrodotoxin (TTX

Kharasch, Evan

150

Food poisoning prevention  

MedlinePLUS

... solid, not runny DO NOT eat raw ground beef, chicken, eggs, or fish Heat all casseroles to ... dishes and utensils Use a thermometer when cooking beef (to at least 160 degrees Fahrenheit), poultry (to ...

151

Amnesic Shellfish Poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... µg/g shellfish meat. However, since fish and crab viscera can also contain domoic acid, the risk ... Sea birds P. australis Washington Oregon Razorclams + Dungeness crabs + *Found to contain algal toxins, or to be ...

152

Organophosphorus poisoning (acute)  

PubMed Central

Introduction Acetylcholinesterase inhibition by organophosphorus pesticides or organophosphate nerve agents can cause acute parasympathetic system dysfunction, muscle weakness, seizures, coma, and respiratory failure. Prognosis depends on the dose and relative toxicity of the specific compound, as well as pharmacokinetic factors. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of treatments for acute organophosphorus poisoning? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to April 2010 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 62 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: activated charcoal (single or multiple doses), alpha2 adrenergic receptor agonists, atropine, benzodiazepines, butyrylcholinesterase replacement therapy, cathartics, extracorporeal clearance, gastric lavage, glycopyrronium bromide (glycopyrrolate), ipecacuanha (ipecac), magnesium sulphate, milk or other home remedy immediately after ingestion, N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonists, organophosphorus hydrolases, oximes, removing contaminated clothes and washing the poisoned person, and sodium bicarbonate. PMID:21575287

2011-01-01

153

Cleistanthus collinus poisoning  

PubMed Central

Cleistanthus collinus, a toxic shrub, is used for deliberate self-harm in rural South India. MEDLINE (PUBMED) and Google were searched for published papers using the search/ MeSH terms “Cleistanthus collinus,” “Euphorbiaceae,” “Diphyllin,” “Cleistanthin A,” Cleistanthin B” and “Oduvanthalai.” Non-indexed journals and abstracts were searched by tracing citations in published papers. The toxic principles in the leaf include arylnaphthalene lignan lactones — Diphyllin and its glycoside derivatives Cleistanthin A and B. Toxin effect in animal models demonstrate neuromuscular blockade with muscle weakness, distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA) and type 2 respiratory failure with conflicting evidence of cardiac involvement. Studies suggest a likely inhibition of thiol/thiol enzymes by the lignan-lactones, depletion of glutathione and ATPases in tissues. V-type H+ ATPase inhibition in the renal tubule has been demonstrated. Mortality occurs in up to 40% of C. collinus poisonings. Human toxicity results in renal tubular dysfunction, commonly dRTA, with resultant hypokalemia and normal anion gap metabolic acidosis. Aggressive management of these metabolic derangements is crucial. Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is seen in severe cases. Cardiac rhythm abnormalities have been demonstrated in a number of clinical studies, though the role of temporary cardiac pacemakers in reducing mortality is uncertain. Consumption of decoctions of C. collinus leaves, hypokalemia, renal failure, severe metabolic acidosis, ARDS and cardiac arrhythmias occur in severe poisonings and predict mortality. Further study is essential to delineate mechanisms of organ injury and interventions, including antidotes, which will reduce mortality. PMID:22787347

Chrispal, Anugrah

2012-01-01

154

Oxygen Poisoning in Drosophila  

PubMed Central

Fruit flies live longer at the partial pressure of oxygen found in air than at either larger or smaller partial pressures. Flies exposed to 1 atm of oxygen for 8 hr every day do not recover completely in the remaining 16 hr. In general, intermittent exposures to 1 atm of oxygen are better tolerated than continuous exposure to the same average oxygen concentration per day, but exposures to higher pressures of 2–5 atm of oxygen for as little as a half hour every two days markedly shorten the life-span. Older flies consume more oxygen per minute and are more sensitive to oxygen poisoning than young flies, and the rate of dying in 6 atm of O2, or the reciprocal of the survival time, is a linear function of the age. The oxygen pressure-time curve can be well expressed by the general empirical equation (POO2)2 x time = 120 where P is in atmosphere and survival time in hours. The progress of oxygen poisoning appears to be linear with time rather than exponential. PMID:6034764

Fenn, Wallace O.; Henning, Marcia; Philpott, Mary

1967-01-01

155

Cleistanthus collinus poisoning.  

PubMed

Cleistanthus collinus, a toxic shrub, is used for deliberate self-harm in rural South India. MEDLINE (PUBMED) and Google were searched for published papers using the search/ MeSH terms "Cleistanthus collinus," "Euphorbiaceae," "Diphyllin," "Cleistanthin A," Cleistanthin B" and "Oduvanthalai." Non-indexed journals and abstracts were searched by tracing citations in published papers. The toxic principles in the leaf include arylnaphthalene lignan lactones - Diphyllin and its glycoside derivatives Cleistanthin A and B. Toxin effect in animal models demonstrate neuromuscular blockade with muscle weakness, distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA) and type 2 respiratory failure with conflicting evidence of cardiac involvement. Studies suggest a likely inhibition of thiol/thiol enzymes by the lignan-lactones, depletion of glutathione and ATPases in tissues. V-type H+ ATPase inhibition in the renal tubule has been demonstrated. Mortality occurs in up to 40% of C. collinus poisonings. Human toxicity results in renal tubular dysfunction, commonly dRTA, with resultant hypokalemia and normal anion gap metabolic acidosis. Aggressive management of these metabolic derangements is crucial. Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is seen in severe cases. Cardiac rhythm abnormalities have been demonstrated in a number of clinical studies, though the role of temporary cardiac pacemakers in reducing mortality is uncertain. Consumption of decoctions of C. collinus leaves, hypokalemia, renal failure, severe metabolic acidosis, ARDS and cardiac arrhythmias occur in severe poisonings and predict mortality. Further study is essential to delineate mechanisms of organ injury and interventions, including antidotes, which will reduce mortality. PMID:22787347

Chrispal, Anugrah

2012-04-01

156

Poisoning mortality, 1985-1995.  

PubMed Central

Poisoning was reported as the underlying cause of death for 18,549 people in the United States in 1995 and was ranked as the third leading cause of injury mortality, following deaths from motor vehicle traffic injuries and firearm injuries. Poisoning was the leading cause of injury death for people ages 35 to 44 years. Poisoning death rates were higher in 1995 than in any previous year since at least 1979. From 1990 to 1995, the age-adjusted rate of death from poisoning increased 25%; all of the increase was associated with drugs. About three-fourths of poisoning deaths (77%) in 1995 were caused by drugs. The age-adjusted rate of drug-related poisoning deaths for males (7.2 per 100,000) in 1995 was more than twice that for females (3.0 per 100,000). From 1985 to 1995, poisoning death rates for males ages 35-54 years nearly doubled to 20.4 per 100,000, and the drug-related poisoning death rate for males ages 35-54 years nearly tripled, reaching 16.1 per 100,000. From 1990 to 1995, death rates associated with opiates and cocaine more than doubled among males ages 35-54 years. The numbers of opiate and cocaine poisoning deaths for 1995 more than doubled when all multiple cause of death codes were examined instead of only the underlying cause of death codes. Images p217-a p217-b p218-a p219-a PMID:9633866

Fingerhut, L A; Cox, C S

1998-01-01

157

[Nitrofuran poisoning in veal calves].  

PubMed

Prolonged administration of furazolidone to calves may give rise to chronic furazolidone poisoning: retardation of growth, thrombocytopenia and leucopenia, occasionally changing into haemorrhagic diathesis. In acute nitrofuran poisoning neurological signs are observed as a consequence of monoamine oxidase inhibition. Five incidents of acute nitrofuran poisoning on veal calf farms are reported in the present paper, each with a mortality rate varying frm 46.7 per cent ot 70 per cent. Ten times the recommended dose of furazolidone or furadoltone was administered in each case. PMID:6845339

Postema, H J

1983-03-15

158

Metformin poisoning: A complex presentation.  

PubMed

The objective of this case report is to highlight presentation, complications and treatment of metformin poisoning. Patient after ingestion of 45gms of metformin developed colicky abdominal pain, severe tachypnea and vomiting. He developed severe lactic acidosis, cardiac arrest, pancreatitis and hemolytic anemia which was treated with charcoal, sodium bicarbonate, early initiation of high volume continuous veno-venous hemofiltration and supportive therapy. Metformin poisoning is a rare presentation and we discuss course of events in the management of metformin poisoning and its associated complications. PMID:21712882

Jagia, Manish; Taqi, Salah; Hanafi, Mahmud

2011-03-01

159

Can poison control data be used for pharmaceutical poisoning surveillance?  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine the association between the frequencies of pharmaceutical exposures reported to a poison control center (PCC) and those seen in the emergency department (ED). Design A statewide population-based retrospective comparison of frequencies of ED pharmaceutical poisonings with frequencies of pharmaceutical exposures reported to a regional PCC. ED poisonings, identified by International Classification of Diseases, Version 9 (ICD-9) codes, were grouped into substance categories. Using a reproducible algorithm facilitated by probabilistic linkage, codes from the PCC classification system were mapped into the same categories. A readily identifiable subset of PCC calls was selected for comparison. Measurements Correlations between frequencies of quarterly exposures by substance categories were calculated using Pearson correlation coefficients and partial correlation coefficients with adjustment for seasonality. Results PCC reported exposures correlated with ED poisonings in nine of 10 categories. Partial correlation coefficients (rp) indicated strong associations (rp>0.8) for three substance categories that underwent large changes in their incidences (opiates, benzodiazepines, and muscle relaxants). Six substance categories were moderately correlated (rp>0.6). One category, salicylates, showed no association. Limitations Imperfect overlap between ICD-9 and PCC codes may have led to miscategorization. Substances without changes in exposure frequency have inadequate variability to detect association using this method. Conclusion PCC data are able to effectively identify trends in poisonings seen in EDs and may be useful as part of a pharmaceutical poisoning surveillance system. The authors developed an algorithm-driven technique for mapping American Association of Poison Control Centers codes to ICD-9 codes and identified a useful subset of poison control exposures for analysis. PMID:21422101

Olsen, Cody S; Dean, J Michael; Olson, Lenora M; Cook, Lawrence J; Keenan, Heather T

2011-01-01

160

[Accidental poisoning and test for it].  

PubMed

There are many dangerous materials which cause poisoning, toxins or poisons, in our lives. We may suddenly suffer from the effects of these materials by inhalation or ingestion before we are aware of the risk. It is very important to identify toxins or poisons to prevent poisoning and treat the poisoned patients. We have to learn from previous accidents the way to resolve future problems. PMID:20821840

Sakamoto, Namiko; Kamijo, Yoshito; Soma, Kazui

2008-11-30

161

10 "Poison Pills" for Pets  

MedlinePLUS

... Your Veterinarian Pet Care Currently selected Emergency Care Animal Welfare Veterinary Careers Public Health 10 "Poison Pills" for Pets Anyone who takes medication prescribed for someone ... medications used in both animals and people, the effects, doses needed, and other ...

162

Lead poisoning from Ayurvedic medicines.  

PubMed

A case of lead poisoning with established exposure to Ayurvedic medicines is presented. This patient migrated from India to New Zealand 8 years previously. He regularly visits India where he purchases "herbal remedies" for his wellbeing. PMID:23799386

Tsutsui, Rayji S; Van Schalkwyk, Johan; Spriggs, David

2013-05-10

163

Poison Prevention Tips for Babysitters  

MedlinePLUS

... drops laundry products nail polish products and other cosmetics batteries bug and weed killers cigarettes alcohol mouthwash ... can be poisonous, such as a medicine or cosmetics in a purse, make sure to put your ...

164

In Case of Pesticide Poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... the United States, Puerto Rico, or the Virgin Islands). For health care professionals: To search EPA's Pesticide ... to tell whether the person is suffering from heat exhaustion or pesticide poisoning. The table below compares ...

165

Antidotes for acute cyanide poisoning.  

PubMed

Cyanide poisoning can present in multiple ways, given its widespread industrial use, presence in combustion products, multiple physical forms, and chemical structures. The primary target of toxicity is mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase. The onset and severity of poisoning depend on the route, dose, physicochemical structure and other variables. Common poisoning features include dyspnea, altered respiratory patterns, abnormal vital signs, altered mental status, seizures, and lactic acidosis. Our present knowledge supports cyanide poisoning treatment based on excellent supportive care with adjunctive antidotal therapy. Multiple antidotes exist and vary in regional availability. All currently marketed antidotes appear to be effective. Antidotal mechanisms include chelation, formation of stable, less toxic complexes, methemoglobin induction, and sulfane sulfur supplementation for detoxification by endogenous rhodanese. Each antidote has advantages and disadvantages. For example, hydroxocobalamin is safer than the methemoglobin inducers in patients with smoke inhalation. Research for new, safer and more effective cyanide antidotes continues. PMID:22352728

Borron, Stephen W; Baud, Frederic J

2012-08-01

166

Nitrate and Prussic Acid Poisoning  

E-print Network

Nitrate and prussic acid poisoning in cattle are noninfectious conditions that can kill livestock. This publication explains the causes and symptoms of these conditions as well as preventive measures and sampling and testing steps....

Stichler, Charles; Reagor, John C.

2001-09-05

167

Accidental poisoning in young children.  

PubMed Central

Cases of accidental childhood poisoning admitted to hospital were compared with community controls and hospital controls matched for age and sex. The relative risks of factors in the cases compared with both the control groups were significant for roughness, aggressiveness, noisiness, and pica behaviour in the child, and for large families. Mothers' knowledge of the toxicity of common household products and drugs did not give significant risk differences between cases and controls. The majority of poisonings occurred during the summer months. PMID:7069353

Basavaraj, D S; Forster, D P

1982-01-01

168

Triaryl phosphate poisoning in cattle.  

PubMed

Clinical signs, pathologic changes and biochemical changes occurred in cattle with natural and experimental triaryl phosphate poisoning. Natural poisoning was caused by triaryl phosphates escaping from a gas pipeline compressor station. The clinical signs were posterior motor paralysis, dyspnea, diarrhea and agalactia. Experimental doses of 1/2-1 gm/kg body weight of these organophosphate compounds caused depression of cholinesterase and axonal degeneration in the spinal cord. PMID:857397

Beck, B E; Wood, C D; Whenham, G R

1977-03-01

169

FISH SPERMATOLOGY FISH SPERMATOLOGY  

E-print Network

FISH SPERMATOLOGY #12;FISH SPERMATOLOGY Alpha Science International Ltd. Oxford, U.K. = Editors Research Institute of Fish Culture and Hydrobiology, University of South Bohemia, Vodnany, Czech Republic of the publisher. ISBN 978-1-84265-369-2 Printed in India #12;Fish Spermatology is dedicated to Professor Roland

Villefranche sur mer

170

Expansion of methylmercury poisoning outside of Minamata: An epidemiological study on chronic methylmercury poisoning outside of Minamata  

SciTech Connect

The first methylmercury poisoning by consumption of fish arose in Minamata, Japan, in 1953. Methylmercury dispersed from Minamata to the to the Shiranui Sea until 1968. Mercury concentration in the hair of residents on the coast of the Shiranui Sea was 10 to 20 times higher than in nonpolluted people in Kumamoto Prefecture in 1960. People on the coast of the Shiranui Sea have consumed fish containing low-dose methylmercury without a ban over decades until 1968. We studied the effect of long-term consumption of methylmercury on those people 10 years later after the end of methylmercury dispersion. Our epidemiological study clarified that people in a fishing village (Ooura) on the coast of the Shiranui Sea showed a significantly higher frequency of neurological signs characteristics of methylmercury poisoning (hypoesthesia, ataxia, impairment of hearing, visual change, and dysarthria) in comparison with people in a nonpolluted fishing village (Ichiburi). The neurological disorders were still detected 10 years later in Ooura after the end of methylmercury dispersion from Minamata: hypoesthesia showed the highest frequency in Ooura. These results suggest that people on the coast of the Shiranui Sea were affected by long-term dietary exposure to methylmercury. 14 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

Ninomiya, Tadashi [Yoron Hospital, Kagoshima (Japan)] [Yoron Hospital, Kagoshima (Japan); Ohmori, Hiroyuki; Hashimoto, Kiyomi [Kumamoto Univ. Medical School (Japan)] [and others] [Kumamoto Univ. Medical School (Japan); and others

1995-07-01

171

[Evaluation of Antilles fish ciguatoxicity by mouse and chick bioassays].  

PubMed

Ciguatera is a common seafood poisoning in Western Atlantic and French West Indies. Ciguatera fish poisoning in the Caribbean is a public health problem. A toxicological study was carried out on 178 Caribbean fish specimens (26 species) captured off Guadeloupe and Saint Barthelemy between 1993 and 1999. The mouse bioassay and the chick feeding test were used to control fish edibility. Ciguatoxins presence was assumed when symptomatology was typical of ciguatera in mouse and chick. Fishes were classified in three groups: non toxic fish (edible), low toxic fish (not edible) and toxic fish (not edible). 75% of fishes were non toxic. Toxic fish specimens belonged to four families of high trophic level carnivores: Carangidae, Lutjanidae, Serranidae et Sphyraenidae. Percentages of toxic fishes to humans reached 55% for Caranx latus and 33% for Caranx bartholomaei and Caranx lugubris. Only a significant correlation between weight and toxicity was only found for C. latus and snappers. Small carnivorous groupers (Serranidae) were also toxic. Atoxic fish species were (a) pelagic fish (Coryphaena hippurus, Auxis thazard and Euthynnus pelamis), (b) invertebrates feeders (Malacanthus plumieri, Balistes vetula), (c) small high-risk fish or (d) fish of edible benthic fish families. Liver of four fishes (Mycteroperca venenosa, Caranx bartholomaei, Seriola rivoliana, Gymnothorax funebris) contained ciguatoxins at a significant level although their flesh was safe. This study confirms the usefulness of mouse and chick bioassays for sanitary control of fish. PMID:12784589

Pottier, I; Vernoux, J P

2003-03-01

172

Sabatier Catalyst Poisoning Investigation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Carbon Dioxide Reduction Assembly (CRA) on the International Space Station (ISS) has been operational since 2010. The CRA uses a Sabatier reactor to produce water and methane by reaction of the metabolic CO2 scrubbed from the cabin air and the hydrogen byproduct from the water electrolysis system used for metabolic oxygen generation. Incorporating the CRA into the overall air revitalization system has facilitated life support system loop closure on the ISS reducing resupply logistics and thereby enhancing longer term missions. The CRA utilizes CO2 which has been adsorbed in a 5A molecular sieve within the Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly, CDRA. There is a potential of compounds with molecular dimensions similar to, or less than CO2 to also be adsorbed. In this fashion trace contaminants may be concentrated within the CDRA and subsequently desorbed with the CO2 to the CRA. Currently, there is no provision to remove contaminants prior to entering the Sabatier catalyst bed. The risk associated with this is potential catalyst degradation due to trace organic contaminants in the CRA carbon dioxide feed acting as catalyst poisons. To better understand this risk, United Technologies Aerospace System (UTAS) has teamed with MSFC to investigate the impact of various trace contaminants on the CRA catalyst performance at relative ISS cabin air concentrations and at about 200/400 times of ISS concentrations, representative of the potential concentrating effect of the CDRA molecular sieve. This paper summarizes our initial assessment results.

Nallette, Tim; Perry, Jay; Abney, Morgan; Knox, Jim; Goldblatt, Loel

2013-01-01

173

Lead poisoning and parasitism in a flock of mute swans (Cygnus olor) in Scotland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increased mortality in a flock of non-breeding mute swans (Cygnus olor) on a Scottish loch was investigated. Postmortem examinations were carried out on eight adult and six immature swans. The commonest cause of death, found in eight birds, was lead poisoning associated with the ingestion of large lead fishing weights. Heavy parasitic burdens were found in five immature birds, involving

T. W. Pennycott

1998-01-01

174

The epidemiology and prevention of paraquat poisoning.  

PubMed

In the UK there was an increase in the annual number of deaths associated with paraquat poisoning between 1966 and 1975. Since that time there has been little change in numbers. High mortality is associated commonly with suicidal intent. Serious accidental poisoning from paraquat has never been frequent in the UK and there have been no deaths reported in children since 1977. The National Poisons Information Service has monitored in detail all reports of paraquat poisoning since 1980. Of the 1074 cases recorded there were 209 deaths. In recent years serious poisoning has been more commonly associated with ingestion of concentrated products by males. Local exposure to paraquat has not resulted in systemic poisoning. International data for paraquat poisoning is incomplete and difficult to compare. There is a scarcity of morbidity data at both international and national levels. Information obtained from Poison Control Centres indicates that paraquat poisoning occurs in many countries but detailed comparisons are hindered by lack of standardised methods of recording. Various measures to prevent paraquat poisoning have been introduced. Their effectiveness has not been studied in detail. Some support is provided by the low incidence of serious accidental paraquat poisoning in the UK, but because of the suicidal nature of paraquat poisoning it is unlikely that current preventative measures will influence the number of deaths occurring each year. Preventative measures against paraquat poisoning should be tailored to national needs, based on and assessed by epidemiological studies. PMID:3546083

Onyon, L J; Volans, G N

1987-01-01

175

Fish Allergy  

MedlinePLUS

About Fish Allergy A fish allergy is not exactly the same as a seafood allergy. Seafood includes both fish ( ... medical alert bracelet. Continue What Happens in a Fish Allergy When someone is allergic to fish, the ...

176

Alsike clover poisoning: A review  

PubMed Central

Trifolium hybridum (alsike clover) has been implicated as the cause of two diseases of the horse. One of these is photosensitivity, of which alsike clover is only one of a number of presumed causal agents. The other is a fatal syndrome which is known as “alsike clover poisoning” and which is manifest by progressive loss of condition, signs of hepatic failure, and varying degrees of neurological impairment. The underlying lesion of alsike clover poisoning is fibrosis and proliferation of the biliary tree. The experimental evidence implicating alsike clover as the cause of this syndrome comes entirely from a series of feeding trials performed by Dr. Frank Schofield between 1928 and 1933. This review surveys the literature on the association of alsike clover with both photosensitivity and biliary fibrosis in horses, and summarizes the clinical and pathological features of “alsike clover poisoning”. The experimental evidence that has been used to implicate Trifolium hybridum as the cause of alsike clover poisoning is critically examined. It is concluded that the existing experimental evidence is insufficient to prove that Trifolium hybridum is the cause of alsike clover poisoning. PMID:17423321

Nation, P. Nicholas

1989-01-01

177

Alsike clover poisoning: A review.  

PubMed

Trifolium hybridum (alsike clover) has been implicated as the cause of two diseases of the horse. One of these is photosensitivity, of which alsike clover is only one of a number of presumed causal agents. The other is a fatal syndrome which is known as "alsike clover poisoning" and which is manifest by progressive loss of condition, signs of hepatic failure, and varying degrees of neurological impairment. The underlying lesion of alsike clover poisoning is fibrosis and proliferation of the biliary tree. The experimental evidence implicating alsike clover as the cause of this syndrome comes entirely from a series of feeding trials performed by Dr. Frank Schofield between 1928 and 1933.This review surveys the literature on the association of alsike clover with both photosensitivity and biliary fibrosis in horses, and summarizes the clinical and pathological features of "alsike clover poisoning". The experimental evidence that has been used to implicate Trifolium hybridum as the cause of alsike clover poisoning is critically examined. It is concluded that the existing experimental evidence is insufficient to prove that Trifolium hybridum is the cause of alsike clover poisoning. PMID:17423321

Nation, P N

1989-05-01

178

"Suicide" as Seen in Poison Control Centers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Data on age and sex characteristics, intent and diagnosis of suicide, and toxicology are presented for 1,103 cases of poisoning (children ages 6-18 years) admitted to 50 poison control centers during 1 year. (KW)

McIntire, Matilda S.; Angle, Carol R.

1971-01-01

179

Mercury Poisoning Linked to Skin Products  

MedlinePLUS

... Tobacco Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Articulos en Espanol Mercury Poisoning Linked to Skin Products Search the Consumer ... these products on Flickr. Signs and Symptoms of Mercury Poisoning irritability shyness tremors changes in vision or ...

180

[Acute poisoning with industrial products].  

PubMed

Poisonings with industrial products represent approximately 7% of the cases reported to the poison centres. Ingestion of petroleum distillates induces irritation of the gastrointestinal tract, central nervous system depression and aspiration pneumonitis which may be severe; treatment is mainly supportive. Ethylene and diethylene glycol poisonings produce central nervous system depression, anion gap metabolic acidosis, osmolar gap and acute tubular necrosis; in severe cases, hypocalcaemia, cerebral oedema and heart failure may be observed; treatment often associates supportive measures, haemodialysis and administration of competitive inhibitors of alcohol dehydrogenase (ethanol or 4-methylpyrazole). Glycol ethers induce central nervous system depression and metabolic acidosis; in addition, ethylene glycol monobutyl ether produces haemolysis; monomethyl and monoethyl ethers are responsible for bone marrow and lymphoid organ toxicity, they adversely affect spermatogenesis and are teratogens. PMID:10748668

Garnier, R

2000-02-15

181

Ingestion of Poison by the Boll Weevil.  

E-print Network

, Anthonomus grandis Boh., secures a lethal dose of poison on cotton plants dusted with any arsenical is of fundamental importance to the question of weevil control by the use of poisons under cotton-field conditions. The discouraging results..., Anthonomus grandis Boh., secures a lethal dose of poison on cotton plants dusted with any arsenical is of fundamental importance to the question of weevil control by the use of poisons under cotton-field conditions. The discouraging results...

Reinhard, H. J. (Henry Jonathan); Thomas, F. L. (Frank Lincoln)

1933-01-01

182

332 BlJLldETIN O F THE UNITED STATES FISH COMMISSION. Wheeler, L. T., Corsicann, Navnrro Co., Tex ._._...._.._._........_._...--__.106  

E-print Network

in the water. All were what we call bottom or rock fish with one exception, the flying fish, of which a groat332 BlJLldETIN O F THE UNITED STATES FISH COMMISSION. Number. Wheeler, L. T., Corsicann, Navnrro Co that the occasional mortality of the fish ofthe coast is caused by poisonous water coniing froni the Everglades

183

Childhood Lead Poisoning: Blueprint for Prevention.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Current programs to deal with childhood lead poisoning, the primary environmental disease of U.S. children, screen individual children, treat those with serious cases of lead poisoning, and subsequently return children to hazardous environments. This approach has led to repeated diagnoses of lead poisoning. This handbook is designed to convince…

Rochow, K. W. James; Rapuano, Maria

184

National Poison Prevention Week Promotional Materials.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This collection of materials for parents, early childhood workers, the elderly, and anyone in situations requiring safeguards against poisoning, spans the years 1993 and 1994 and is intended to promote National Poison Prevention Week. The materials included are: (1) the 31-page, illustrated report on National Poison Prevention Week for 1993,…

Poison Prevention Week Council, Washington, DC.

185

76 FR 9585 - Poison Control Program  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Resources and Services Administration Poison Control Program AGENCY: Health Resources...SUNY d.b.a. the Upstate New York Poison Control Center. HRSA will also transfer...Corporation d.b.a. the New York City Poison Control Center. These transfers are...

2011-02-18

186

Handbook of Common Poisonings in Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This handbook for physicians, emergency room personnel and pharmacists lists the manufacturer, description, toxicity, symptoms and findings, treatment, and references for 73 poison substances considered by the Subcommittee on Accidental Poisoning of the American Academy of Pediatrics to be most significant in terms of accidental poisoning of…

Food and Drug Administration (DHEW), Washington, DC.

187

Echocardiographic findings after acute carbon monoxide poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Myocardial lesions are frequently seen at necropsy after fatal carbon monoxide poisoning. Clinically, while there have been numerous reports of chest pain and electrocardiographic changes associated with acute carbon monoxide poisoning, other evidence for left ventricular abnormality has not been reported. The echocardiographic findings in five cases of non-fatal poisoning are presented here. Abnormal left ventricular wall motion was shown

B C Corya; M J Black; P L McHenry

1976-01-01

188

Carbon monoxide poisoning: a review for clinicians  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning continues to be a significant health problem both in the United States and in many other countries. CO poisoning is associated with a high incidence of severe morbidity and mortality. Epidemics of CO poisoning commonly occur during winter months and sources include: smoke from fires, fumes from heating systems burning fuels, and exhaust fumes from motor

Joseph Varon; Paul E. Marik; Robert E. Fromm Jr; Alfredo Gueler

1999-01-01

189

Animal poisoning in Europe. Part 3: Wildlife  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review article is the third in a series on animal poisoning in Europe and represents a collation of published and non-published wildlife poisoning data from Belgium, France, Greece, Italy and Spain over the last 10years. Birds, particularly waterfowl and raptors, were more commonly reported as victims of poisoning than wild mammals. In addition to specific but important toxicological disasters,

Raimon Guitart; Magda Sachana; Francesca Caloni; Siska Croubels; Virginie Vandenbroucke; Philippe Berny

2010-01-01

190

Ciguatera poisoning: a global issue with common management problems.  

PubMed

Ciguatera poisoning, a toxinological syndrome comprising an enigmatic mixture of gastrointestinal, neurocutaneous and constitutional symptoms, is a common food-borne illness related to contaminated fish consumption. As many as 50000 cases worldwide are reported annually, and the condition is endemic in tropical and subtropical regions of the Pacific Basin, Indian Ocean and Caribbean. Isolated outbreaks occur sporadically but with increasing frequency in temperate areas such as Europe and North America. Increase in travel between temperate countries and endemic areas and importation of susceptible fish has led to its encroachment into regions of the world where ciguatera has previously been rarely encountered. In the developed world, ciguatera poses a public health threat due to delayed or missed diagnosis. Ciguatera is frequently encountered in Australia. Sporadic cases are often misdiagnosed or not medically attended to, leading to persistent or recurrent debilitating symptoms lasting months to years. Without treatment, distinctive neurologic symptoms persist, occasionally being mistaken for multiple sclerosis. Constitutional symptoms may be misdiagnosed as chronic fatigue syndrome. A common source outbreak is easier to recognize and therefore notify to public health organizations. We present a case series of four adult tourists who developed ciguatera poisoning after consuming contaminated fish in Vanuatu. All responded well to intravenous mannitol. This is in contrast to a fifth patient who developed symptoms suggestive of ciguatoxicity in the same week as the index cases but actually had staphylococcal endocarditis with bacteraemia. In addition to a lack of response to mannitol, clinical and laboratory indices of sepsis were present in this patient. Apart from ciguatera, acute gastroenteritis followed by neurological symptoms may be due to paralytic or neurotoxic shellfish poisoning, scombroid and pufferfish toxicity, botulism, enterovirus 71, toxidromes and bacteraemia. Clinical aspects of ciguatera toxicity, its pathophysiology, diagnostic difficulties and epidemiology are discussed. PMID:11785597

Ting, J Y; Brown, A F

2001-12-01

191

Sarin poisoning in Matsumoto, Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

SummaryA presumed terrorist attack with sarin occurred in a residential area of the city of Matsumoto, Japan, on June 27, 1994. About 600 residents and rescue staff were poisoned; 58 were admitted to hospitals, and 7 died. We examined clinical and laboratory findings of 264 people who sought treatment and the results of health examinations on 155 residents done 3

N Yanagisawa; H Morita; T Nakajima; H Okudera; M Shimizu; H Hirabayashi; M Nohara; Y Midorikawa; S Mimura

1995-01-01

192

Drugs prescribed for self poisoners  

Microsoft Academic Search

Of 230 adults admitted for self poisoning over two months, 153 (67%) had previously been taking a total of 309 prescribed drugs. Of these patients, 119 (78%) had been given psychotropic drugs (usually benzodiazepines), 81 (53%) obtained them on repeat prescription, and 47 (31%) had been prescribed multiple psychotropic drugs, often in seemingly illogical combinations. The use of these drugs

L F Prescott; M S Highley

1985-01-01

193

Poisoning of wild birds from exposure to anticholinesterase compounds and lead: diagnostic methods and selected cases  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Organophosphorus and carbamate compounds have largely replaced chlorinated hydrocarbons for pesticidal use in the United States, and many cases of poisoning resulting from exposure to these anticholinesterase agents have occurred in free-living birds. Although lead shot has been prohibited for waterfowl hunting throughout the United States since 1991, lead poisoning from the ingestion of spent lead shot is still occasionally seen in wild birds, and lead poisoning from the ingestion of fishing sinkers is an emerging issue of concern. A thorough history, a complete necropsy evaluation, and appropriate laboratory analysis of tissues are required to diagnose toxicoses in wild birds, including those caused by anticholinesterase compounds and lead. The interpretation of brain cholinesterase (ChE) activity results depends on the methods of analysis and comparison with expected normal enzyme activities in brain tissue from the same species. Although lead residues in tissues vary among species, many lead poisoned birds have tissue residues that are much higher than the lower threshold commonly accepted for a diagnosis of lead poisoning. We review histories, necropsy findings, and analytical methodologies and results for selected anticholinesterase and lead poisoning cases diagnosed in wild raptors, waterfowl, and loons.

Franson, J.C.; Smith, M.R.

1999-01-01

194

Molecular Structure of Saxitoxin  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The toxin found in the fish is known as Saxitioxin. The compound is a neurotoxin, causing numbness and tingling in the lips when ingested, and may lead to paralysis and death if untreated. This toxin is produced by the bacteria Gonyaulax Monilata, found in Dinoflagellate algae. In the United States, there have been a number of poisonings in Florida in people who ingested puffer fish from local waters.

2003-04-09

195

Lead poisoning in sandhill cranes.  

PubMed

Seven Florida sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis pratensis) and 6 greater sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis tabida) were exposed to lead-base paint containing 27% lead. One bird of each subspecies died enroute to the hospital, with a clinical history of anorexia, weakness, and open-mouth breathing of 36 hours' duration. There were no gross lesions, and microscopic lesions were limited to focal hepatic necrosis and hemosiderosis. Two of each subspecies of cranes developed clinical signs of lead poisoning, which included anorexia, weakness, green diarrhea, regurgitation, and open-mouth breathing. Diagnosis of lead poisoning was confirmed on the basis of blood lead concentrations ranging from 146 microgram/100 ml to 378 microgram/100 ml. These 4 cranes were treated successfully with calcium disodium edetate intramuscularly. Seven of the birds remained clinically normal despite high blood lead levels, especially in the greater sandhill cranes. PMID:411773

Kennedy, S; Crisler, J P; Smith, E; Bush, M

1977-11-01

196

Malignant hyperthermia in endosulfan poisoning.  

PubMed

We are reporting a case of endosulfan poisoning, admitted in a state of altered consciousness, vomiting, and seizure. The diagnosis was based on history, physical examination and positive reports from toxicological screening. After 8 hrs of admission, a sudden rise in EtCO(2), respiratory rate, heart rate, blood pressure, and body temperature was noted. Masseter spasm was there and patient's elbow/knees could not be bent upon manipulation. Caffeine halothane contraction test later confirmed it to be malignant hyperthermia (MH). We suggest that if there is a sudden rise in body temperature, stiffness in limbs or massater spasm in a case of endosulfan poisoning, the diagnosis of MH should be considered as one possibility when etiology is not certain. PMID:22736908

Jain, Gaurav; Singh, Dinesh K; Yadav, Ghanshyam

2012-01-01

197

Strychnine poisoning of aquatic birds.  

PubMed

Strychnine poisoning was diagnosed in free-flying mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) and a ring-billed gull (Larus delawarensis) found dead on a pond in a zoo. The probable source of toxin was improperly applied strychnine-treated grain used for control of rodents on adjacent farm land. Ingesta of the birds contained 19.7-85.1 mg/kg of strychnine. PMID:3586216

Wobeser, G; Blakley, B R

1987-04-01

198

Parkinsonism after Carbon Monoxide Poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Of 242 patients with carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning examined between 1986 and 1996, parkinsonism was diagnosed in 23 (9.5%). There were 11 men and 12 women. The age at onset ranged from 16 to 69 (mean 45.8) years, with the peak incidence during the 6th decade. The latency before the appearance of parkinsonism varied from 2 to 26 (median 4)

Il Saing Choi

2002-01-01

199

Poison hemlock (Conium maculatum L.).  

PubMed

One of the most poisonous species amongst higher plants is Conium maculatum. It is a very common nitrophile weed species, belonging to the Apiaceae (formerly Umbelliferae) family. It contains some piperidine alkaloids (coniine, N-methyl-coniine, conhydrine, pseudoconhydrine, gamma-coniceine), which are formed by the cyclisation of an eight-carbon chain derived from four acetate units. gamma-Coniceine is the precursor of the other hemlock alkaloids. All vegetative organs, flowers and fruits contain alkaloids. The concentrations (both absolute and relative) of the different alkaloids depend on plant varieties, on ecological conditions and on the age of the plant. The characteristic biological effects of the plants are summarised on cattle, sheep, goat, swine, rabbit, elk, birds and insects and the symptoms of the human toxicosis (some cases of poisonings) are discussed according to the literature data. The general symptoms of hemlock poisoning are effects on nervous system (stimulation followed by paralysis of motor nerve endings and CNS stimulation and later depression), vomiting, trembling, problems in movement, slow and weak later rapid pulse, rapid respiration, salivation, urination, nausea, convulsions, coma and death. PMID:15234067

Vetter, J

2004-09-01

200

Poisoning deaths in married women.  

PubMed

Unnatural deaths of married women amongst the total female deaths have been an increasing trend in Indian society during the recent past years. These unnatural deaths may be suicide, homicide or even accidents. But these suicides and homicides are currently more commonly associated with the dowry disputes. In India, dowries are a continuing series of gifts endowed before and after the marriage. When dowry expectations are not met, the young bride may be killed or compelled to commit suicide, either by burning, poisoning or by some other means. Here, in the study, the main objective is to present the different epidemiological and medicolegal aspects of poisoning deaths in the married women. In a cohort of 200 married female deaths, 35 (18%) were poisoning deaths and these were analyzed from both epidemiological and medicolegal aspects. In this series, most of the women consumed organophosphorus compound and died within 10 days. The majority of the affected wives due to dowry problems were below 35 years of age. Most incidents occurred either during morning hour or during daytime. PMID:15261005

Kumar, Virendra

2004-02-01

201

Congenital PCB poisoning: a reevaluation.  

PubMed Central

A review of the literature reveals a need to clarify the pathologic physiology of congenital polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) poisoning, which is characterized by intrauterine growth retardation, brown staining of the skin and mucous membranes, as in Addison's disease, natal teeth, widely open fontanelles and sagittal suture and apparent overgrowth of the gingiva. The skull abnormalities may represent irregular calcification, with natal teeth appearing because the bone of the mandible is penetrated more easily than usual. Some fetuses were poisoned at the time the mothers ingested the oil; others were affected in the subsequent years from residual contamination in the mothers' bodies. The misadventure in Japan was repeated in Taiwan in 1979. The seven congenital cases in Taiwan reported thus far seem to differ from those in Japan. In Taiwan the noses were somewhat black, two of the infants did not have low birth weight and the osseous abnormalities of the skull and gingival hyperplasia were not observed. Systematic followup studies should be made in Taiwan of the children born within 2 years of maternal poisoning with PCBs. Special attention should be given to age at first dentition and skull X-rays for spotty calcification, among other measures of physical, neurologic and intellectual development. PMID:3928346

Miller, R W

1985-01-01

202

Congenital PCB poisoning: a reevaluation.  

PubMed

A review of the literature reveals a need to clarify the pathologic physiology of congenital polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) poisoning, which is characterized by intrauterine growth retardation, brown staining of the skin and mucous membranes, as in Addison's disease, natal teeth, widely open fontanelles and sagittal suture and apparent overgrowth of the gingiva. The skull abnormalities may represent irregular calcification, with natal teeth appearing because the bone of the mandible is penetrated more easily than usual. Some fetuses were poisoned at the time the mothers ingested the oil; others were affected in the subsequent years from residual contamination in the mothers' bodies. The misadventure in Japan was repeated in Taiwan in 1979. The seven congenital cases in Taiwan reported thus far seem to differ from those in Japan. In Taiwan the noses were somewhat black, two of the infants did not have low birth weight and the osseous abnormalities of the skull and gingival hyperplasia were not observed. Systematic followup studies should be made in Taiwan of the children born within 2 years of maternal poisoning with PCBs. Special attention should be given to age at first dentition and skull X-rays for spotty calcification, among other measures of physical, neurologic and intellectual development. PMID:3928346

Miller, R W

1985-05-01

203

Fish FAQ  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Northeast Fisheries Science Center answers your question regarding all things fish. Hundreds of fish and other marine fauna questions are answered in the FAQ section. Site also links to several external fish FAQs, as well as other internal and external resources, including kids sites, fish images, species synopses, how to age a fish. The site also features a glossary of fish terms and insight into the different ways fish are caught.

204

[Lead poisoning--a case report].  

PubMed

Lead poisoning may cause irreversible health defects, including anaemia, central nervous system problems and various organ defects. We describe a patient with lead poisoning. A 54-year-old woman was admitted to hospital with anaemia and unspecific gastrointestinal symptoms. Peripheral blood smear and bone marrow aspirate showed basophilic stippling of erythrocytes suggestive of lead poisoning, which was confirmed by high concentrations of lead in her blood. The lead source was the glazing of a ceramic wine jug. Chelating therapy was started. Haemoglobin was normalised; the patient returned to work after nine months. Correct diagnosis and treatment can prevent serious health problems caused by lead poisoning. PMID:12185736

Amundsen, Tore; Naess, Inger Anne; Hammerstrøm, Jens; Brudevold, Robert; Bjerve, Kristian S

2002-06-10

205

Poisoning from accidental ingestion of mushrooms.  

PubMed

Poisoning from the accidental ingestion of mushrooms is an uncommon cause of morbidity within Australia and unlike many other countries no deaths have yet been recorded. This review seeks to draw attention to the various syndromes associated with mushroom poisoning and their management, thereby helping to keep our good record intact. Although the number of toxic species is relatively small, the collection and ingestion of field varieties should be left to those absolutely certain of their quest. In cases of poisoning, identification of the offending mushroom is of paramount importance in the management. In suspected or known amatoxin poisoning prompt treatment favourably influences outcome. PMID:8326897

Barbato, M P

1993-06-21

206

21 CFR 1230.13 - Labeling of “poison”.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL CAUSTIC POISON ACT Labeling § 1230.13 Labeling of “poison”. The following are styles of uncondensed...required on a label in stating the word “poison” they must not be smaller than those...

2010-04-01

207

21 CFR 509.6 - Added poisonous or deleterious substances.  

...false Added poisonous or deleterious substances. 509.6 Section 509.6 Food...6 Added poisonous or deleterious substances. (a) Use of an added poisonous or deleterious substance, other than a pesticide...

2014-04-01

208

21 CFR 109.6 - Added poisonous or deleterious substances.  

...false Added poisonous or deleterious substances. 109.6 Section 109.6 Food...6 Added poisonous or deleterious substances. (a) Use of an added poisonous or deleterious substance, other than a pesticide...

2014-04-01

209

75 FR 13215 - National Poison Prevention Week, 2010  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...March 15, 2010 National Poison Prevention Week, 2010 By the President of the United States...1962, during National Poison Prevention Week we alert American families about the dangers...campaigns like National Poison Prevention Week, childhood death rates from...

2010-03-19

210

76 FR 16521 - National Poison Prevention Week, 2011  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Proclamation 8638--National Poison Prevention Week, 2011 Presidential Documents Federal Register...March 18, 2011 National Poison Prevention Week, 2011 By the President of the United States...preventable. During National Poison Prevention Week, I encourage all Americans to...

2011-03-23

211

77 FR 16645 - National Poison Prevention Week, 2012  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Proclamation 8784--National Poison Prevention Week, 2012 Memorandum of March 16, 2012...March 16, 2012 National Poison Prevention Week, 2012 By the President of the United States...anniversary of National Poison Prevention Week, I encourage all Americans to help...

2012-03-21

212

Fish Hearing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides related information about hearing in fish, including the sensory stimulus of sound in the underwater environment, mechanoreceptors in fish, pressure perception and the swimbladder, specializations in sound conduction peculiar to certain fish families. Includes numerous figures. (CS)

Blaxter, J. H. S.

1980-01-01

213

City Fishing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A program of supplying opportunities for fishing at locations within and near urban areas was developed. This effort included stocking, management of bodies of water for fishing, and presentation of fishing clinics for urban fishermen. (RE)

Lange, Robert E.

1979-01-01

214

Fish tapeworm  

MedlinePLUS

Fish tapeworm is an infection with a parasite found in fish. ... The fish tapeworm ( Diphyllobothrium latum ), is the largest parasite that infects humans. Humans become infected when they eat raw ...

215

Fish Allergy  

MedlinePLUS

Fish Allergy Finned fish can cause severe allergic reactions (such as anaphylaxis ). Therefore it is advised that ... necessarily mean that you must avoid both. Avoiding Fish The federal Food Allergen Labeling and Consumer Protection ...

216

Fish oil  

MedlinePLUS

... Fish may have earned its reputation as “brain food” because some people eat fish to help with ... nosebleeds. Taking fish oil supplements with meals or freezing them can often decrease these side effects. Consuming ...

217

Carbon monoxide poisoning from Sterno.  

PubMed Central

A high school student became ill and later unconscious while working over a heating table set over three cans of burning Sterno. Measurements of 1000 to 3000 parts per million of carbon monoxide were obtained around and above the apparatus. Although the room was well ventilated there was incomplete combustion of the canned heating fuel because the apparatus was surrounded by aluminum foil, which resulted in poor oxygenation of the flame area. This case demonstrates the hazards of carbon monoxide poisoning from incompletely burned Sterno. PMID:638911

Murray, T. J.

1978-01-01

218

Poisoning trends and the importance of educating patients about poison prevention.  

PubMed

Medical professionals are recognized as a vital link in communities for education and treatment of poisoning exposures. The Oklahoma Poison Control Center (OPCC) is a resource for medical professionals as well as the public. Nationally and in Oklahoma, among all age groups, analgesics are responsible for the most fatalities. Trends in common exposures in the age 5 and younger age group and the 13 through 19 age group, an acetaminophen protocol, information about the poison center and HIPPA privacy regulations, poison prevention tips and where to obtain educational materials are outlined. National Poison Prevention Week, March 21-27, 2004, is an excellent time to educate all age groups about poison prevention techniques and what to do when there is a poisoning emergency. Board certified toxicologists, pharmacists and registered nurses are available 24 hours a day, 7 days a week by calling 1-800-222-1222. PMID:15088817

McGoodwin, Lee; McKeown, Tracy

2004-03-01

219

Validation of a Poison Prevention Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two way analyses of variance and cross-group descriptive comparisons assessed the effectiveness of the Siop Poison Prevention Program, which included an educational program and the use of warning labels, on improving verbal and visual discrimination of poisonous and nonpoisonous products for preschool children. The study sample consisted of 156…

Gill, Noel C.; Braden, Barbara T.

220

Poison control center - Emergency number (image)  

MedlinePLUS

For a poison emergency call 1-800-222-1222 anywhere in the United States. This national hotline number will let you ... is a free and confidential service. All local poison control centers in the U.S. use this national ...

221

The Poison Control Center--Its Role  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Poison Control Centers are being utilized by more schools of pharmacy each year as training sites for students. This paper discusses what such a center is, its services, changes anticipated in the poison center system in the next several years and how they may influence pharmacy education, specifically as it relates to clinical toxicology.…

Manoguerra, Anthony S.

1976-01-01

222

Childhood Lead Poisoning What Is the Problem?  

E-print Network

and treating children who have been poisoned by lead. · Lead hazards in a child's environment mustCS239775 Childhood Lead Poisoning What Is the Problem? Approximately 500,000 U.S. children aged 1­5 years have blood lead levels above 5 micrograms of lead per deciliter of blood, the reference level

223

INCREASED LEAD ABSORPTION AND LEAD POISONING  

E-print Network

of lead are eliminated from their environment. Terms used in the document are defined as follows: LINCREASED LEAD ABSORPTION AND LEAD POISONING IN YOUNG CHILDREN A STATDIE:"IT BY THE CEJde slnt:t! the Surgeon GenerJi's Statement. "~edicJI Aspects of Childhood Lead POisoning," was issued

224

Hepatotoxic mushroom poisoning: diagnosis and management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hepatotoxic mushroom poisoning (due to Amanita, Lepiota and Galerina species) may be considered as a real medical emergency, since an early diagnosis and immediate treatment are required for a successful outcome. In this review the physio-pathological features and the clinical picture of amatoxin poisonings are described, as the basis for diagnosis and therapeutic decisions. The treatment schedule proposed is analyzed

Josep Piqueras

1989-01-01

225

Poison Awareness: A Discussion Leader's Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Because over 40,000 children are annually poisoned by household products, this guide for group leaders emphasizes hazards and preventive actions. Major objectives are defined: (1) to raise the audience's knowledge/awareness level concerning major hazards associated with potentially poisonous household products, (2) to point out primary hazard…

National Evaluation Systems, Inc., Amherst, MA.

226

Intensive care management of organophosphate insecticide poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

INTRODUCTION: Organophosphate (OP) insecticides inhibit both cholinesterase and pseudo-cholinesterase activities. The inhibition of acetylcholinesterase causes accumulation of acetylcholine at synapses, and overstimulation of neurotransmission occurs as a result of this accumulation. The mortality rate of OP poisoning is high. Early diagnosis and appropriate treatment is often life saving. Treatment of OP poisoning consists of intravenous atropine and oximes. The clinical

Murat Sungur; Muhammed Güven

2001-01-01

227

FLUOROACETAMIDE (1081) POISONING IN WILD BIRDS  

Microsoft Academic Search

An outbreak of poisoning in four greylag geese (Anser anser) and 35-45 teal (Aizas crecca) is described. Laboratory findings led to the conclusion that a wheat bait containing the rodenticide fluoracetamide (1081) caused the poisoning. Circumstantial evidence incriminated fluoracetamide as the cause of death in white- fronted geese (Anser albifrons), mallards (Anas platyr\\/zynclzos), and chukars (Alec-

A. SHLOSBERGand; M. N. EGYED; Beit Dagan; H. MENDELSSOHN; Y. LANGER; B. Nesin

1975-01-01

228

HYDRODYNAMICS OF A LIQUID POISON SCRAM SYSTEM  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study is nnade of the transient motion of a suddenly released column ; of liquid poison, such as mercury or borated water, as it moves through the ; control tubes of a reactor. Two basic systems are described. The first system ; consists of a tank of liquid poison, situated above the reactor, connecting ; directly to control tubes

Burgreen

1958-01-01

229

Lead Poisoning of Waterfowl by Contaminated Sediment in the Coeur d'Alene River  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Coeur d'Alene River basin in Idaho has been contaminated by mine tailings that have impaired the health of wildlife since\\u000a the early 1900s. In other parts of the world, virtually all lead poisoning of waterfowl is caused by the ingestion of manmade\\u000a lead artifacts, primarily spent lead shotshell pellets or, occasionally, fishing sinkers. However, in the Coeur d'Alene River

L. Sileo; L. H. Creekmore; D. J. Audet; M. R. Snyder; C. U. Meteyer; J. C. Franson; L. N. Locke; M. R. Smith; D. L. Finley

2001-01-01

230

Large outbreaks of Clostridium perfringens food poisoning associated with the consumption of boiled salmon.  

PubMed Central

Five large outbreaks of food poisoning are described in which clinical, epidemiological or laboratory data indicated Clostridium perfringens as the causative organism. The foodstuff common to all incidents was boiled salmon served cold as an hors d 'oeuvre. In all cases the fish had been subject to a long period of cooling or storage between boiling and consumption. It is thought that multiplication of the organism occurred during this time. Recommendations are made for the avoidance of further similar incidents. PMID:2874173

Hewitt, J. H.; Begg, N.; Hewish, J.; Rawaf, S.; Stringer, M.; Theodore-Gandi, B.

1986-01-01

231

Pediatric poisonings: recognition, assessment, and management.  

PubMed

Poisoning represents one of the most common medical emergencies encountered in young children in the United States, and accounts for a significant proportion of emergency room visits for the adolescent population. Poisoning is a significant and persistent cause of morbidity and mortality in children and adolescents. The scope of toxic substances involved in poisoning is broad, and requires health care providers to have an extensive knowledge of signs and symptoms of poisoning and specific therapeutic interventions and antidotes. Most children who ingest poisons suffer no harm; however, health care providers must recognize, assess, and manage those exposures that are most likely to cause serious injury, illness, or death and initiate appropriate management to minimize the physical injury that may occur. PMID:16344209

Madden, Maureen A

2005-12-01

232

Delayed cyanide poisoning following acetonitrile ingestion.  

PubMed Central

Acetonitrile (methyl cyanide) is a common industrial organic solvent but is a rare cause of poisoning. We report the first recorded UK case. Acetonitrile is slowly converted to cyanide, resulting in delayed toxicity. We describe a case of deliberate self-poisoning by a 39-year-old woman resulting in cyanide poisoning 11 hours later which was successfully treated by repeated boluses of sodium nitrite and thiosulphate. The half-life of conversion of acetonitrile was 40 hours and harmful blood cyanide levels persisted for over 24 hours after ingestion. Departments treating or advising in cases of poisoning need to be aware of the delayed toxicity of acetonitrile. Monitoring in an intensive care unit of cases of acetonitrile poisoning should continue for 24-48 hours. PMID:9196706

Mueller, M.; Borland, C.

1997-01-01

233

Management of oil of citronella poisoning.  

PubMed

The management for ingestion of oil of citronella, an essential oil, has traditionally been rigorous, including dilution with milk or oil, and gastric lavage or emesis, taking care to prevent aspiration. Recently our Centre handled five oil of citronella poisonings and their outcomes led us to review our management protocol which had been based on information from standard poisoning texts. The source data used to determine the human toxicity of oil of citronella and the appropriate management of poisoning included a case report of a fatal ingestion of oil of citronella in a child. On scrutiny, however, the management of this poisoning included now out-moded techniques, giving rise to uncertainties in establishing the true cause of the child's death. Our own experiences indicate that advice given in standard texts based on poisoning cases managed with out-moded techniques should be carefully evaluated. PMID:1675696

Temple, W A; Smith, N A; Beasley, M

1991-01-01

234

Unexpected double lethal oleander poisoning.  

PubMed

Nerium oleander is a very popular urban ornamental plant in Europe, but it is also extremely dangerous because it contains several types of glycosides, accidental ingestion of which can cause cardiac arrhythmias and even deaths. The rarity of such cases makes it difficult to think of oleander poisoning without evidences that suggest this possibility as the cause of the unexpected death. This report concerns the discovery of the bodies of 2 young people, a man and a woman, in a forest in conditions of extreme malnutrition. Medicolegal investigations showed neither pathologic nor traumatic causes of death, but the presence of vegetal remains in the stomach was noticed. A common toxicological analysis resulted negative, but the implementation of more detailed investigations showed the presence of digoxin in the blood of both cadavers, excluding the possibility of a pharmaceutical provenience of digoxin, this laboratory result was interpreted as evidence of ingestion of oleander, which contains oleandrine, the cross reaction of which with digoxin is widely described in the literature. Identification of the 2 subjects, which occurred after 4 years, strengthened the hypothesis of accidental poisoning by oleander because it was ascertained that the 2 young people were vegans--extreme vegetarians who reject the ingestion of foods of animal origin and live by eating only what they find in nature. PMID:21926903

Papi, Luigi; Luciani, Alessandro Bassi; Forni, David; Giusiani, Mario

2012-03-01

235

Lead poisoning in six captive avian species  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus), brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater), common grackles (Quiscalus quiscula), mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), northern bobwhites (Colinus virginianus), and eastern screech-owls (Otus asio) were poisoned with a concentration of lead (Pb) acetate in the diet which was increased by 60% each week until half of the birds in each treatment group died; surviving birds and all control birds except screech-owis were then killed by euthanasia. An additional group of mallards was poisoned with Pb shot. The gizzards of mallards poisoned either way usually were stained with bile; some of these birds also had proventricular impaction. Most poisoned birds of the other species were emaciated but lacked other gross lesions caused by Pb poisoning. In birds other than mallards, Pb poisoning could not be diagnosed without histological or hematological examinations or analysis of tissues. Poisoned birds of all six species could be reliably separated from control birds by an increase in the protoporphyrin concentrations in the blood and by a decrease in the activity of delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) in red blood cells. Hepatic iron (Fe) concentrations varied so much among individual birds that even though median hepatic Fe concentrations increased in poisoned birds, hepatic Fe concentrations were not useful in identifying poisoned birds. Renal intranuclear inclusion bodies occurred in 83% of all birds dying from Pb poisoning. Nephrosis, myocardial necrosis, and arterial fibrinoid necrosis were occasionally present. Median hepatic Pb concentrations varied from 20 ppm (wet wt) in male red-winged blackbirds to 111 ppm in female northern bobwhites. Median renal Pb concentrations varied from 22 ppm in redwinged blackbirds to 190 ppm in female northern bobwhites. Hepatic and renal Pb concentrations varied substantially among birds within each species. Median hepatic and renal Pb concentrations of birds that died were not statistically different (p > 0.05) from those of birds that were killed. Lead shot and Pb acetate affected mallards similarly.

Beyer, W.N.; Spann, J.W.; Sileo, L.; Franson, J.C.

1988-01-01

236

Lead poisoning in six captive avian species  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus), brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater), common grackles (Quiscalus quiscula), mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), northern bobwhites (Colinus virginianus), and eastern screech-owls (Otus asio) were poisoned with a concentration of lead (Pb) acetate in the diet which was increased by 60% each week until half of the birds in each treatment group died; surviving birds and all control birds except screech-owls were then killed by euthanasia. An additional group of mallards was poisoned with Pb shot. The gizzards of mallards poisoned either way usually were stained with bile; some of these birds also had proventricular impaction. Most poisoned birds of the other species were emaciated but lacked other gross lesions caused by Pb poisoning. In birds other than mallards, Pb poisoning could not be diagnosed without histological or hematological examinations or analysis of tissues. Poisoned birds of all six species could be reliably separated from control birds by an increase in the protoporphyrin concentrations in the blood and by a decrease in the activity of delta-aminoievulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) in red blood cells. Hepatic iron (Fe) concentrations varied so much among individual birds that even though median hepatic Fe concentrations increased in poisoned birds, hepatic Fe concentrations were not useful in identifying poisoned birds. Renal intranuclear inclusion bodies occurred in 83% of all birds dying from Pb poisoning. Nephrosis, myocardial necrosis, and arterial fibrinoid necrosis were occasionally present. Median hepatic Pb concentrations varied from 20 ppm (wet wt) in male red-winged blackbirds to III ppm in female northern bobwhites. Median renal Pb concentrations varied from 22 ppm in red-winged blackbirds to 190 ppm in female northern bobwhites. Hepatic and renal Pb concentrations varied substantially among birds within each species. Median hepatic and renal Pb concentrations of birds that died were not statistically different (p > 0.05) from those of birds that were killed. Lead shot and Pb acetate affected mallards similarly.

Beyer, W.N.; Spann, J.W.; Sileo, L.; Franson, J.C.

1988-01-01

237

Hyperbaric oxygen therapy for carbon monoxide poisoning.  

PubMed

Despite established exposure limits and safety standards, and the availability of carbon monoxide (CO) alarms, each year 50,000 people in the United States visit emergency departments for CO poisoning. Carbon monoxide poisoning can occur from brief exposures to high levels of CO, or from longer exposures to lower levels. Common symptoms include headaches, nausea and vomiting, dizziness, general malaise, and altered mental status. Some patients may have chest pain, shortness of breath and myocardial ischemia, and may require mechanical ventilation and treatment of shock. Individuals poisoned by CO often go on to develop neurological problems, including cognitive sequelae, anxiety and depression, persistent headaches, dizziness, sleep problems, motor weakness, vestibular and balance problems, gaze abnormalities, peripheral neuropathies, hearing loss, tinnitus and Parkinsonian-like syndrome. While breathing oxygen hastens the removal of carboxyhemoglobin (COHb), hyperbaric oxygen (HBO2) hastens COHb elimination and favorably modulates inflammatory processes instigated by CO poisoning, an effect not observed with breathing normobaric oxygen. Hyperbaric oxygen improves mitochondrial function, inhibits lipid peroxidation transiently, impairs leukocyte adhesion to injured microvasculature, and reduces brain inflammation caused by the CO-induced adduct formation of myelin basic protein. Based upon three supportive randomized clinical trials in humans and considerable evidence from animal studies, HBO2 should be considered for all cases of acute symptomatic CO poisoning. Hyperbaric oxygen is indicated for CO poisoning complicated by cyanide poisoning, often concomitantly with smoke inhalation. PMID:25109087

Weaver, Lindell K

2014-01-01

238

Carbon monoxide poisoning of proton exchange membrane fuel cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) performance degrades when carbon monoxide (CO) is present in the fuel gas; this is referred to as CO poisoning. This paper investigates CO poisoning of PEMFCs by reviewing work on the electrochemistry of CO and hydrogen, the experimental performance of PEMFCs exhibiting CO poisoning, methods to mitigate CO poisoning and theoretical models of

J. J. Baschuk; Xianguo Li

2001-01-01

239

The Dolastatins  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Certain marine animals were known to the ancients for their potent biological constituents and presumed use in primitive medicine.\\u000a The early periods of recorded history contain references to support these assumptions (1). Illustrative are hieroglyphics on the Egyptian Pharaoh Ti’s tomb (approximately 2700 BC) that describe the poisonous puffer\\u000a fish Tetraodon stellatus. One of the earliest recorded uses of a

G. R. Pettit

240

Non-Traditional Vectors for Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning  

PubMed Central

Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP), due to saxitoxin and related compounds, typically results from the consumption of filter-feeding molluscan shellfish that concentrate toxins from marine dinoflagellates. In addition to these microalgal sources, saxitoxin and related compounds, referred to in this review as STXs, are also produced in freshwater cyanobacteria and have been associated with calcareous red macroalgae. STXs are transferred and bioaccumulate throughout aquatic food webs, and can be vectored to terrestrial biota, including humans. Fisheries closures and human intoxications due to STXs have been documented in several non-traditional (i.e. non-filter-feeding) vectors. These include, but are not limited to, marine gastropods, both carnivorous and grazing, crustacea, and fish that acquire STXs through toxin transfer. Often due to spatial, temporal, or a species disconnection from the primary source of STXs (bloom forming dinoflagellates), monitoring and management of such non-traditional PSP vectors has been challenging. A brief literature review is provided for filter feeding (traditional) and non-filter feeding (non-traditional) vectors of STXs with specific reference to human effects. We include several case studies pertaining to management actions to prevent PSP, as well as food poisoning incidents from STX(s) accumulation in non-traditional PSP vectors. PMID:18728730

Deeds, Jonathan R.; Landsberg, Jan H.; Etheridge, Stacey M.; Pitcher, Grant C.; Longan, Sara Watt

2008-01-01

241

Minamata disease: methylmercury poisoning in Japan caused by environmental pollution.  

PubMed

Minamata disease (M. d.) is methylmercury (MeHg) poisoning that occurred in humans who ingested fish and shellfish contaminated by MeHg discharged in waste water from a chemical plant (Chisso Co. Ltd.). It was in May 1956, that M. d. was first officially "discovered" in Minamata City, south-west region of Japan's Kyushu Island. The marine products in Minamata Bay displayed high levels of Hg contamination (5.61 to 35.7 ppm). The Hg content in hair of patients, their family and inhabitants of the Shiranui Sea coastline were also detected at high levels of Hg (max. 705 ppm). Typical symptoms of M. d. are as follows: sensory disturbances (glove and stocking type), ataxia, dysarthria, constriction of the visual field, auditory disturbances and tremor were also seen. Further, the fetus was poisoned by MeHg when their mothers ingested contaminated marine life (named congenital M. d.). The symptom of patients were serious, and extensive lesions of the brain were observed. While the number of grave cases with acute M. d. in the initial stage was decreasing, the numbers of chronic M. d. patients who manifested symptoms gradually over an extended period of time was on the increase. For the past 36 years, of the 2252 patients who have been officially recognized as having M. d., 1043 have died. This paper also discusses the recent remaining problems. PMID:7734058

Harada, M

1995-01-01

242

THE PHOTOSENSITIVE RETINAL PIGMENTS OF FISHES FROM RELATIVELY TURBID COASTAL WATERS  

PubMed Central

Digitonin extracts have been prepared from the retinae of a dozen species of marine and euryhaline teleost fishes from turbid water habitats. Spectrophotometric analysis of the extracts shows that the photosensitive retinal pigments of these species have maximum absorption above 500 mµ. In nine species there are retinene1 pigments with ?max between 504 and 512 mµ. In the marine but euryhaline mullet, Mugil cephalus, there is a porphyropsin with ?max 520 mµ. A mixture of rhodopsin and porphyropsin in an extract of a marine puffer, Sphoeroides annulatus, was disclosed by partial bleaching with colored light. In addition, one other species has a 508 mµ pigment, of which the nature of the chromophore was not determined. The habitats in which these fishes live are relatively turbid, with the water greenish or yellowish in color. The spectral transmission of such waters is probably maximal between 520 and 570 mµ. It is suggested that the fishes have become adapted to these conditions by small but significant shifts in spectral absorption of their retinal pigments. These pigments are decidedly more effective than rhodopsin in absorption of wavelengths above 500 mµ. This offers a possible interpretation of the confusing array of retinal pigments described from marine and euryhaline fishes. PMID:13587924

Munz, Frederick W.

1958-01-01

243

The photosensitive retinal pigments of fishes from relatively turbid coastal waters.  

PubMed

Digitonin extracts have been prepared from the retinae of a dozen species of marine and euryhaline teleost fishes from turbid water habitats. Spectrophotometric analysis of the extracts shows that the photosensitive retinal pigments of these species have maximum absorption above 500 mmicro. In nine species there are retinene(1) pigments with lambda(max) between 504 and 512 mmicro. In the marine but euryhaline mullet, Mugil cephalus, there is a porphyropsin with lambda(max) 520 mmicro. A mixture of rhodopsin and porphyropsin in an extract of a marine puffer, Sphoeroides annulatus, was disclosed by partial bleaching with colored light. In addition, one other species has a 508 mmicro pigment, of which the nature of the chromophore was not determined. The habitats in which these fishes live are relatively turbid, with the water greenish or yellowish in color. The spectral transmission of such waters is probably maximal between 520 and 570 mmicro. It is suggested that the fishes have become adapted to these conditions by small but significant shifts in spectral absorption of their retinal pigments. These pigments are decidedly more effective than rhodopsin in absorption of wavelengths above 500 mmicro. This offers a possible interpretation of the confusing array of retinal pigments described from marine and euryhaline fishes. PMID:13587924

MUNZ, F W

1958-11-20

244

Metal Poisons in Waste Tanks (U)  

SciTech Connect

Many of the storage tanks with waste from processing fissile materials contain, along with the fissile material, metals which may serve as nuclear criticality poisons. It would be advantageous to the criticality evaluation of these wastes if it can be demonstrated that the poisons remain with the fissile materials and if an always safe poison-to-fissile ratio can be established. The first task, demonstrating that the materials stay together, is the job of the chemist, the second, demonstrating an always safe ratio, is the job of the physicist. The latter task is the object of this paper

Williamson, T.G. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States)

1996-10-14

245

Radiographic findings in congenital lead poisoning  

SciTech Connect

Because lead crosses the placenta throughout pregnancy, the fetus is at risk for lead poisoning. A full term, asymptomatic child was born with congenital lead poisoning secondary to maternal pica. Radiographic findings of a dense cranial vault, lead lines, and delayed skeletal and deciduous dental development were noted at birth. After chelation therapy, when the patient was seven months old, radiographs revealed normal skeletal maturation. Tooth eruption did not occur until 15 months of age. Newborn infants with these radiographic findings should be screened for subclinical, congenital lead poisoning.

Pearl, M.; Boxt, L.M.

1980-07-01

246

DDT poisoning in a Cooper's hawk collected in 1980  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In April 1980, a Cooper's hawk (Accipiter cooperii) was found on the ground in Lakewood, Colorado, unable to fly and in convulsion. The bird died shortly thereafter. The hawk was packed in dry ice and shipped air express to the Fish and Wildlife Service, U. S. Department of the Interior, National Wildlife Health Laboratory, Madison, Wisconsin, for necropsy. Following necropsy, the brain, gastrointestinal tract, and remaining carcass except skin, feet, wings, liver, and kidney were packed in dry ice and shipped air express to the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, Laurel, Maryland, for chemical residue analysis. Because the bird's behavior before death suggested some form of poisoning, the kidney was assayed for thallium, the liver for lead, and the gastrointestinal tract for strychnine, sodium fluoroacetate, and arsenic. When these assays proved negative, the bird was analyzed for organochlorine pesticides. Necropsy findings and pesticide residue analyses are reported here.

Prouty, R.M.; Pattee, O.H.; Schmeling, S.K.

1982-01-01

247

Carbon monoxide: an old poison with a new way of poisoning.  

PubMed

We present two events of carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning, which spread out through ventilation pipes to kill or injure neighbors. This is a previously undocumented poisoning process. In the first event, three people died and eight others suffered CO poisoning from a gas-powered water heater in an apartment building. Similar to the first event, three people expired and three others were injured by CO poisoning in the second event. We subsequently determined the cause of these tragedies were due to obstructions at the openings of ventilation pipes. CO is one of the most common causes of poisoning worldwide and these cases often result in tragedy. Early recognition of CO poisoning resulting from obstructed ventilation pipes will facilitate proper management and prevent possible lethal disasters. Additionally, all clinicians and other paramedical personnel ought to raise the suspicion of chemical-related casualties when encountering clusters of patients from a single locale. PMID:22939664

Chou, Cheng-Hsiu; Lai, Ching-Huang; Liou, Saou-Hsing; Loh, Ching-Hui

2012-08-01

248

Prognostic Aspects of Benzene Poisoning  

PubMed Central

In 1955, a benzene mass-poisoning was detected in a shoe factory in Finland. One hundred and forty-seven persons were heavily exposed, and more than 100 had abnormal blood counts. One died and 10 required hospital treatment. This paper deals with a re-examination of the involved workers nine years later. One hundred and twenty-five persons attended for re-examination. Eight had died, two refused, and 11 could not be located. The possibility of death due to benzene poisoning having occurred among these persons was ruled out by checking the national death register. Each of the subjects underwent a haematological examination which included the haemoglobin value and the erythrocyte, reticulocyte, leucocyte, and thrombocyte counts. A differential count of the leucocytes was also made. A randomly chosen group of 86 persons served as a control group. The thrombocytes of the whole patient group and the erythrocytes of the men were significantly lower than those of the controls, whereas the leucocytes of the whole group and the erythrocytes of the women failed to show any statistical difference. In a multiple discriminant function analysis, considering all three counts at the same time, only the men differed slightly from the controls at the re-examination. The analysis also showed that the prognosis of the severe cases did not differ from that of the mild ones, provided the acute stage had been passed. Some illustrative case reports are added. One patient developed leukaemia after a latency of seven years, whereas most of the others—chosen because of grave symptoms in the initial stage—have recovered. The results are discussed from the point of view of prognosis. PMID:5946130

Hernberg, S.; Savilahti, M.; Ahlman, K.; Asp, S.

1966-01-01

249

Poisoned food, poisoned uniforms, and anthrax: or, how guerillas die in war.  

PubMed

Many people believe that Rhodesia, struggling to maintain minority rule in Africa, used chemical and biological weapons against African guerilla armies in the liberation war. Clothes and food were routinely poisoned, and Rhodesian agents, perhaps in concert with global forces of reaction, caused the largest single outbreak of anthrax in modern times. Oral interviews with traditional healers and Rhodesians' confessional memoirs of the war suggest that deaths by poisoning or disease were not so straightforward, that guerillas and healers and doctors struggled to understand not only what caused death but also what kind of death a poisoned uniform or poisoned boot was. PMID:15484386

White, Luise

2004-01-01

250

Cornell University Poisonous Plants Informational Database  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This database provides information on plants and other natural flora such as fungi that grow in the United States and may be poisonous to livestock or other animals. The information includes images of plants, pictures of affected animals and presentations on botany, chemistry, toxicology, diagnosis, and prevention of poisoning. The data are searchable by scientific or common name, primary poison, and species of animal most often affected. There are also alphabetical listings of plants by genus and species and by common names, a list of toxic agents found in plants, and a list of commonly affected animals (including humans). Other materials include a discussion of the possible benefits or toxic effects of medicinal plants on livestock, a frequently-asked-questions feature, and links to other websites with information on poisonous plants.

Brown, Dan L.

251

Paint, lacquer, and varnish remover poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... the chemical was swallowed, immediately give the person water or milk, unless instructed otherwise by a health care provider. If the person breathed in the poison, immediately move him or her to fresh air.

252

Laundry detergent capsules and pediatric poisoning  

PubMed Central

Abstract Question A 4-year-old girl was brought into the emergency department vomiting after having had ingested a laundry detergent capsule (LDC) from under the sink at her house. What is the risk of LDC poisoning? What can be done to treat these children? Answer Laundry detergent capsules are relatively new to supermarket shelves in North America, and there has been an emergence of case reports in the literature describing LDC poisoning, which is worse than poisoning from other laundry detergents. Very little is known about the mechanisms causing these severe reactions, which include airway compromise and esophageal perforation, but the attractive appearance of these capsules and easy access at home has governments and health officials concerned about an increase in poisoning. No residual problems have been associated with these cases to date; however, further research is needed to assess long-term effects. PMID:24336541

Bonney, Asha G.; Mazor, Suzan; Goldman, Ran D.

2013-01-01

253

Lead Poisoning and the Suburban Child  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports on recent findings which suggest that lead poisoning stems not only from paint ingestion, is not limited to ghetto children, and may be linked to some learning and behavioral difficulties in children. (Author/SF)

Graham, Ada; Graham, Frank

1974-01-01

254

Neurological manifestation of carbon monoxide poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

The clinical signs and post-mortem findings in a case of carbon monoxide poisoning are described, and correlated with the computer tomographic (CT) scan appearances. The value of serial CT scanning as a diagnostic tool is highlighted.

I. K. Hart; P. G. Kennedy; J. H. Adams; N. E. Cunningham

1988-01-01

255

Amanita phalloides-Type Mushroom Poisoning  

PubMed Central

In the fall of 1981 the San Francisco Bay Area Regional Poison Control Center received more than 100 calls regarding wild mushroom ingestion. Ten cases, including three fatalities, had all the features of Amanita phalloides poisoning. Encephalopathy, coma and renal insufficiency occurred in all three patients who died, but did not occur in those who survived. Two of the three patients who died arrived at the hospital late in the course of their illness, and severe gastroenteritis with accompanying dehydration probably contributed to their deaths. The poison control center promoted public awareness of the mushroom hazard through newspaper and television stories and by notifying local health departments. It also has devised a simple form to improve the quality of data collection and to assist in later verification of suspected A phalloides poisoning. PMID:7179945

Healey, Kathy; Woo, Olga F.; Olson, Kent R.; Pond, Susan M.; Seward, James; Becker, Charles E.

1982-01-01

256

Red Tide and Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the nature and cause of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP). Includes toxic dinoflagellate ecology, taxonomy and life history, and chemistry of the toxins. Recent work with trace metals and directions of future research are also given. (MA)

Dale, Barrie; Yentsch, Clarice M.

1978-01-01

257

Fish Mouths  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity (page 2 of the PDF) is a full inquiry investigation into environmental adaptation. Groups of learners will observe fish at a zoo, aquarium, or fish store and categorize which way the mouth of each identified fish faces. Based on observations made while the fish are fed and additional research, conclusions should be developed about how the fish fits into its environment. This activity can be used to teach learners about the importance of writing good notes while making observations. Relates to linked video, DragonflyTV GPS: California Fish.

Twin Cities Public Television, Inc.

2006-01-01

258

Pesticide poisoning in Mexican seasonal farm workers.  

PubMed

The authors investigated pesticide poisoning in 200 seasonal farm workers employed in a small area in northwest Mexico. Of these workers, 45% were migrants from southern Mexico, and 70% were men. Most were about 20 years old; 59% could read at the third-grade level. Few had received information about pesticides; 30% did not wear personal protective gear; and 20% had experienced acute pesticide poisoning at least once during the season investigated. PMID:10026483

Chain-Castro, T J; Barrón-Aragón, R; Haro-García, L

1998-01-01

259

Hyperbaric Oxygen for Acute Carbon Monoxide Poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background Patients with acute carbon monoxide poisoning commonly have cognitive sequelae. We conducted a double-blind, randomized trial to evaluate the effect of hyperbaric-oxygen treatment on such cognitive sequelae. Methods We randomly assigned patients with symptomatic acute carbon monoxide poisoning in equal proportions to three chamber sessions within a 24-hour period, consisting of either three hyperbaric-oxygen treatments or one normobaric-oxygen treatment

Lindell K. Weaver; Ramona O. Hopkins; Karen J. Chan; Susan Churchill; C. Gregory Elliott; Terry P. Clemmer; James F. Orme; Frank O. Thomas; Alan H. Morris

2002-01-01

260

[Mushroom poisoning by brunneoincarnata: about two cases].  

PubMed

Amatoxin poisoning constitutes the main cause of death due to mushroom intoxication in Europe. This one was initially reported for the ingestion of Amanita phalloides with frequently fatal outcome. Prognosis of amatoxin poisoning initialy depends on the acute deshydratation and secondarily of the liver failure. Emergency liver transplantation is sometimes necessary. With the knowledge of mushroom, most of them involved other species which can often be linked to edible mushroom. We report a collective intoxication by Lepiota brunneoincarnata. PMID:18440193

Roux, X; Labadie, P; Morand, C; Fontaine, B; Coutant, G

2008-05-01

261

Acute Plant Poisoning and Antitoxin Antibodies  

PubMed Central

Plant poisoning is normally a problem of young children who unintentionally ingest small quantities of toxic plants with little resulting morbidity and few deaths. In some regions of the world, however, plants are important clinical problems causing much morbidity and mortality. While deaths do occur after unintentional poisoning with plants such as Atractylis gummifera (bird-lime or blue thistle) and Blighia sapida (ackee tree), the majority of deaths globally occur following intentional self-poisoning with plants such as Thevetia peruviana (yellow oleander) and Cerbera manghas (pink-eyed cerbera or sea mango). Antitoxins developed against colchicine and cardiac glycosides would be useful for plant poisonings - anti-digoxin Fab fragments have been shown to be highly effective in T. peruviana poisoning. Unfortunately, their great cost limits their use in the developing world where they would make a major difference in patient management. Therapy for some other plant poisonings might also benefit from the development of antitoxins. However, until issues of cost and supply are worked out, plant anti-toxins are going to remain a dream in many of the areas where they are now urgently required. PMID:12807314

Eddleston, Michael; Persson, Hans

2007-01-01

262

Poisoning by Jatropha ribifolia in goats.  

PubMed

Human poisoning by Jatropha species and poisoning when livestock have been fed processed plant material has been described. Additionally, poisoning has been experimentally reproduced in various animal models. But, no cases of poisoning in livestock grazing standing and unprocessed Jatropha spp. has been reported. This study reports the poisoning of goats with Jatropha ribifolia in the semiarid region of northeastern Brazil during the dry season. The mortality of the goats ranged from 6% to 40%. The main clinical signs were apathy, anorexia, soft feces, weight loss, and severe dehydration. The skin, lips, horns, and teeth of the affected goats were stained with a reddish pigment that is present in the J. ribifolia plant. Emaciation was the main lesion observed in one necropsied goat. In 2 out of 3 goats that ingested a single dose of J. ribifolia, 10 g or 20 g of leaves of the plant per kg body weight (g/kg), mild dehydration and soft feces were observed. The plant was also administered daily to two goats for 8 days. One animal received 10 g/kg per day, and the other received 20 g/kg per day and the goats showed clinical signs after 4 and 3 days, respectively. The goat that received 10 g/kg daily recovered, and the other was euthanized. The clinical signs and lesions that were observed were similar to those observed in the spontaneous cases. This is the first case of Jatropha spp. poisoning in grazing animals that ingested the plant spontaneously. PMID:22306581

Pimentel, Luciano A; Riet-Correa, Beatriz; Dantas, Antônio F; Medeiros, Rosane M T; Riet-Correa, Franklin

2012-04-01

263

Lead poisoning of waterfowl by contaminated sediment in the Coeur D'Alene River  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Coeur d'Alene River basin in Idaho has been contaminated by mine tailings that have impaired the health of wildlife since the early 1900s. In other parts of the world, virtually all lead poisoning of waterfowl is caused by the ingestion of manmade lead artifacts, primarily spent lead shotshell pellets or, occasionally, fishing sinkers. However, in the Coeur d'Alene River basin in Idaho, nonartifactual lead poisoning was the ultimate cause of death of most of 219 (77%) of 285 waterfowl carcasses that had been found sick or dead from 1992 through 1997. The majority of these 219 waterfowl (172 tundra swans [Cygnus columbianus], 33 Canada geese [Branta canadensis], and 14 other species) were poisoned by ingesting river sediment that was contaminated with lead. The next most common cause of death (20 instances, 7%) was lead poisoning accompanied by ingested shotshell pellets. The remaining 46 waterfowl succumbed to trauma, infectious diseases (aspergillosis, avian cholera, tuberculosis), or miscellaneous problems, or the cause of death was not determined.

Sileo, L.; Creekmore, L.H.; Audet, D.J.; Snyder, M.R.; Meteyer, C.U.; Franson, J.C.; Locke, L.N.; Smith, M.R.; Finley, D.L.

2001-01-01

264

Lead poisoning of waterfowl by contaminated sediment in the Coeur d'Alene River.  

PubMed

The Coeur d'Alene River basin in Idaho has been contaminated by mine tailings that have impaired the health of wildlife since the early 1900s. In other parts of the world, virtually all lead poisoning of waterfowl is caused by the ingestion of manmade lead artifacts, primarily spent lead shotshell pellets or, occasionally, fishing sinkers. However, in the Coeur d'Alene River basin in Idaho, nonartifactual lead poisoning was the ultimate cause of death of most of 219 (77%) of 285 waterfowl carcasses that had been found sick or dead from 1992 through 1997. The majority of these 219 waterfowl (172 tundra swans [Cygnus columbianus], 33 Canada geese [Branta canadensis], and 14 other species) were poisoned by ingesting river sediment that was contaminated with lead. The next most common cause of death (20 instances, 7%) was lead poisoning accompanied by ingested shotshell pellets. The remaining 46 waterfowl succumbed to trauma, infectious diseases (aspergillosis, avian cholera, tuberculosis), or miscellaneous problems, or the cause of death was not determined. PMID:11503074

Sileo, L; Creekmore, L H; Audet, D J; Snyder, M R; Meteyer, C U; Franson, J C; Locke, L N; Smith, M R; Finley, D L

2001-10-01

265

Total mercury-monomethylmercury content of several species of fish  

Microsoft Academic Search

The toxicity of mercury, especially of its vapor s has been known to man almost since the discovery of the element. In the past several years mercury has been found as a contaminant of marine and fresh-water fish. Recently epidemics of poisoning, termed Minamata disease, occurred in Minamata and Niigata, Japan. The causative agent in both incidents was shown to

Laverne R. Kamps; Richard Carr; Hanford Miller

1972-01-01

266

Internet Fish  

E-print Network

I have invented "Internet Fish," a novel class of resource-discovery tools designed to help users extract useful information from the Internet. Internet Fish (IFish) are semi-autonomous, persistent information brokers; ...

LaMacchia, Brian A.

1996-08-01

267

Fish Facts  

MedlinePLUS

... 1 serving) per week. • Do not eat these fish, which are high in mercury: • Swordfish • Tilefish • King mackerel • Shark • Check before eating fish caught in local waters. State health departments have ...

268

Botulinum Neurotoxin: Unique Folding of Enzyme Domain of the Most Poisonous Poison  

E-print Network

phosphate buffer (pH = 7.4), containing 50 mM NaCl, 1 mM DTT, and urea at the required concentration in a 1Botulinum Neurotoxin: Unique Folding of Enzyme Domain of the Most Poisonous Poison Supporting simulations, Urea Denaturation #12;Figure S1. Secondary structure dynamics of the BoNT/A in urea solution from

Barsegov, Valeri

269

SECONDARY POISONING OF EAGLES FOLLOWING INTENTIONAL POISONING OF COYOTES WITH ANTICHOLINESTERASE PESTICIDES IN WESTERN CANADA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Records of eagles, coyotes (Canis latrans), and red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) necropsied at the Western College of Veterinary Medicine, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada, between 1967 and 2002 were reviewed for cases suggestive of anticholinesterase poisoning. From 1993 to 2002, 54 putative poisoning incidents involving 70 bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) and 10 golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetus) were identified. Of these, 50 incidents

G. Wobeser; T. Bollinger; F. A. Leighton; B. Blakley; P. Mineau

2004-01-01

270

Fish forms  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners create a three-dimensional sculpture while examining the characteristics of fish. Learners use clay and other craft supplies to model a fish's body, fins, scales, eyes, gills, and mouth. Then learners will discuss the function of each part and how fish differ amongst each other.

Sciences, California A.

2008-01-01

271

Fish Dishes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an art project that was inspired by Greek pottery, specifically dishes shaped as fish. Explains that fourth-grade students drew a fish shape that was later used to create their clay version of the fish. Discusses how the students examined the pottery to make decisions about color and design. (CMK)

Derby, Marie

2003-01-01

272

Bony Fishes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Sea World informational resource on bony fishes. Excellent introduction to bony fishes including information on their classification, habitat, physical characteristics, diet, reproduction, and much more. Includes photographs and illustrations throughout, and features a spreadsheet showing the different subclasses and the number of species found within each. Site also provides a comprehensive list of books about bony fishes for the younger reader.

273

Fatherly Fish  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In the hit movie Finding Nemo, Marlin the clown fish searches the ocean for his missing son. While it's unlikely that a real clown fish could make this long journey, some male fish do show a fatherly attitude toward their offspring. You'll hear about one in this Science Update.

Science Update;

2003-10-13

274

Using poison center data for postdisaster surveillance.  

PubMed

The role of public health surveillance in disaster response continues to expand as timely, accurate information is needed to mitigate the impact of disasters. Health surveillance after a disaster involves the rapid assessment of the distribution and determinants of disaster-related deaths, illnesses, and injuries in the affected population. Public health disaster surveillance is one mechanism that can provide information to identify health problems faced by the affected population, establish priorities for decision makers, and target interventions to meet specific needs. Public health surveillance traditionally relies on a wide variety of data sources and methods. Poison center (PC) data can serve as data sources of chemical exposures and poisonings during a disaster. In the US, a system of 57 regional PCs serves the entire population. Poison centers respond to poison-related questions from the public, health care professionals, and public health agencies. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) uses PC data during disasters for surveillance of disaster-related toxic exposures and associated illnesses to enhance situational awareness during disaster response and recovery. Poison center data can also be leveraged during a disaster by local and state public health to supplement existing surveillance systems. Augmenting traditional surveillance data (ie, emergency room visits and death records) with other data sources, such as PCs, allows for better characterization of disaster-related morbidity and mortality. Poison center data can be used during a disaster to detect outbreaks, monitor trends, track particular exposures, and characterize the epidemiology of the event. This timely and accurate information can be used to inform public health decision making during a disaster and mitigate future disaster-related morbidity and mortality. Wolkin A , Schnall AH , Law R , Schier J . Using poison center data for postdisaster surveillance. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2014;29(5):1-4 . PMID:25205009

Wolkin, Amy; Schnall, Amy H; Law, Royal; Schier, Joshua

2014-10-01

275

Fish Prints  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this hands-on art activity, learners will study and identify features of the external anatomy of a fish. They will have the opportunity to learn the different functions of fish anatomy along with new vocabulary terms while handling a real fish in their art project. Also, a discussion may take place about the different kinds of fish and how different shapes are more beneficial for certain environments. As a wrap up, learners can become familiar about issues related to the conservation of fish, such as overfishing, habitat destruction, and invasive species. This activity is standards-based.

Sciences, California A.

2008-01-01

276

A mechanism for diversity in warning signals: Conspicuousness versus toxicity in poison frogs  

E-print Network

A mechanism for diversity in warning signals: Conspicuousness versus toxicity in poison frogs natural variation among poison frog species measured with spectral reflectance and toxicity assays, we components using natural variation among poison frog species. Poison frogs (Dendrobatidae) display some

Cummings, Molly E.

277

Fatal Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning in Kittlitz's Murrelet (Brachyramphus brevirostris) Nestlings, Alaska, USA.  

PubMed

Abstract Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) is an acute toxic illness in humans resulting from ingestion of shellfish contaminated with a suite of neurotoxins (saxitoxins) produced by marine dinoflagellates, most commonly in the genus Alexandrium. Poisoning also has been sporadically suspected and, less often, documented in marine wildlife, often in association with an outbreak in humans. Kittlitz's Murrelet (Brachyramphus brevirostris) is a small, rare seabird of the Northern Pacific with a declining population. From 2008 to 2012, as part of a breeding ecology study, multiple Kittlitz's Murrelet nests on Kodiak Island, Alaska, were monitored by remote cameras. During the 2011 and 2012 breeding seasons, nestlings from several sites died during mild weather conditions. Remote camera observations revealed that the nestlings died shortly after consuming sand lance (Ammodytes hexapterus), a fish species known to biomagnify saxitoxin. High levels of saxitoxin were subsequently documented in crop content in 87% of nestling carcasses. Marine bird deaths from PSP may be underreported. PMID:25098307

Shearn-Bochsler, Valerie; Lance, Ellen W; Corcoran, Robin; Piatt, John; Bodenstein, Barbara; Frame, Elizabeth; Lawonn, James

2014-10-01

278

An outbreak of foxglove leaf poisoning.  

PubMed

Comfrey (Symphytum officinale) leaves resemble those of foxglove (Digitalis purpurea) when the plant is not in bloom and, therefore, cardiac glycoside poisoning may occur when people confuse foxglove with comfrey. We report an outbreak of foxglove leaf poisoning following the use of alleged "comfrey" herbal tea. Nine patients were involved and initially presented with nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and dizziness. Significant cardiotoxicity developed later among the 3 patients who also had mild hyperkalemia. Peak serum digoxin concentration measured by immunoassay was elevated in all patients and ranged from 4.4 ng/mL to 139.5 ng/mL. Patients with severe cardiotoxicity were treated with temporary cardiac pacing. Moreover, 40-80 mg of digoxin-specific antibody therapy was given without any effect. All patients recovered uneventfully. Our report highlights the potential risk of misidentification of herbs; in this case, D. purpurea was mistaken for S. officinale. Physicians should be aware that cardiac glycoside poisoning could arise from such misidentification. Public education about the toxicity of D. purpurea poisoning may reduce the risk of misidentification and subsequent poisoning. PMID:20171590

Lin, Chun-Chi; Yang, Chen-Chang; Phua, Dong-Haur; Deng, Jou-Fang; Lu, Li-Hua

2010-02-01

279

Pancreatitis in wild zinc-poisoned waterfowl.  

PubMed

Four waterfowl were collected in the Tri-State Mining District (Oklahoma, Kansas and Missouri, USA), an area known to be contaminated with lead, cadmium and zinc (Zn). They were part of a larger group of 20 waterfowl collected to determine the exposure of birds to metal contamination at the site. The four waterfowl (three Branta canadensis, one Anas platyrhynchos) had mild to severe degenerative abnormalities of the exocrine pancreas, as well as tissue (pancreas, liver) concentrations of Zn that were considered toxic. The mildest condition was characterized by generalized atrophy of exocrine cells that exhibited cytoplasmic vacuoles and a relative lack of zymogen. The most severe condition was characterized by acini with distended lumens and hyperplastic exocrine tissue that completely lacked zymogen; these acini were widely separated by immature fibrous tissue. Because the lesions were nearly identical to the lesions reported in chickens and captive waterfowl that had been poisoned with ingested Zn, and because the concentrations of Zn in the pancreas and liver of the four birds were consistent with the concentrations measured in Zn-poisoned birds, we concluded that these waterfowl were poisoned by Zn. This may be the first reported case of zinc poisoning in free-ranging wild birds poisoned by environmental Zn. PMID:14676018

Sileo, Louis; Nelson Beyer, W; Mateo, Rafael

2003-12-01

280

Hypotension in Severe Dimethoate Self-Poisoning  

PubMed Central

Introduction Acute self-poisoning with the organophosphorus (OP) pesticide dimethoate has a human case fatality three-fold higher than poisoning with chlorpyrifos despite similar animal toxicity. The typical clinical presentation of severe dimethoate poisoning is quite distinct from that of chlorpyrifos and other OP pesticides: many patients present with hypotension that progresses to shock and death within 12–48 h post-ingestion. The pathophysiology of this syndrome is not clear. Case reports We present here three patients with proven severe dimethoate poisoning. Clinically, all had inappropriate peripheral vasodilatation and profound hypotension on presentation, which progressed despite treatment with atropine, i.v. fluids, pralidoxime chloride, and inotropes. All died 2.5–32 h post-admission. Continuous cardiac monitoring and quantification of troponin T provided little evidence for a primary cardiotoxic effect of dimethoate. Conclusion Severe dimethoate self-poisoning causes a syndrome characterized by marked hypotension with progression to distributive shock and death despite standard treatments. A lack of cardiotoxicity until just before death suggests that the mechanism is of OP-induced low systemic vascular resistance (SVR). Further invasive studies of cardiac function and SVR, and post-mortem histology, are required to better describe this syndrome and to establish the role of vasopressors and high-dose atropine in therapy. PMID:19003596

Davies, James; Roberts, Darren; Eyer, Peter; Buckley, Nick; Eddleston, Michael

2008-01-01

281

Nicotine replacement products: poisoning in children.  

PubMed

Nicotine is widely used in smoking cessation aids. They are marketed in many forms, including: chewing gum, sublingual tablets, lozenges, transdermal patches, cartridges for oral inhalation, and mouth spray. French poison control and toxico-vigilance centres identified 318 cases of exposure to nicotine replacement products in children under the age of 10 years between 2000 and 2010. The exposure provoked symptoms in 62 of these children, about two-thirds of whom were under the age of 4 years. A U.S. analysis identified 1768 cases of poisoning in children under the age of 6 years involving smokeless tobacco products, reported between 2006 and 2008.84% of these cases occurred in children under the age of 3 years. The first signs of nicotine poisoning are gastrointestinal (vomiting, diarrhoea), cardiovascular (tachycardia, hypertension) and neuropsychological (tremor of the extremities). With higher doses, these effects are rapidly followed by loss of consciousness, convulsions or respiratory failure. In children, poisoning can occur after ingestion of 1 mg of nicotine per kilogram of body weight. A dose of this magnitude is sometimes fatal in adults. Most cases of poisoning involving transdermal patches occur when a child finds an unused patch, or a used patch that an adult has discarded in a bin without taking proper precautions. Sometimes they involve patches that have become detached from an adult's skin. In practice, it is important to warn adults using smoking cessation aids containing nicotine that these products are dangerous PMID:24926513

2014-05-01

282

Unusual case of methanol poisoning  

SciTech Connect

A 31-year-old man with a history of alcohol abuse presented to the accident and emergency department complaining of blurred vision. 4 h previously he had drunk 300 mL de-icer fluid. Electrolytes, urea, creatinine, glucose, and blood-gas analysis were normal. Measured osmolality, however, was 368 mosmol/kg with a calculated osmolality of 300 mosmol/kg, which indicated a greatly increased osmolar gap. He was therefore given 150 mL whisky and admitted. Methanol was later reported as 200 mg/dL. Ethylene glycol was not detected, but another glycol, propylene glycol, was present at 47 mg/dL. 10 h after ingestion an intravenous infusion of ethanol was started and he was hemodialysed for 7 h. After dialysis he was given a further 100 mL whisky and the rate of ethanol infusion was reduced to 11 g per h. Methanol and ethanol were measured twice daily until methanol was under 10/mg/dL: The recommendation is that blood ethanol be maintained between 100 and 200 mg/dL during treatment of methanol poisoning. This concentration was not achieved, presumably because of the high rate of ethanol metabolism often found in alcoholics. Antifreeze solutions commonly contain methanol and ethylene glycol. Sometimes propylene glycol is substituted because it has properties similar to those of ethylene glycol but is less toxic. The authors postulate that propylene glycol inhibited the metabolism of methanol in the patient, thus sparing him from the toxic effects of methanol.

Shapiro, L.; Henderson, M. (St. James's Univ. Hospital, Leeds (United Kingdom). Dept. of Chemical Pathology); Madi, S.; Mellor, L. (St. James's Univ. Hospital, Leeds (United Kingdom). Dept. of Medicine, and Pharmacy)

1993-01-09

283

Mean platelet volume in patients with carbon monoxide poisoning.  

PubMed

Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is frequent and can lead to high morbidity and mortality. Some studies have indicated increased platelet activation and aggregation in CO poisoning. Thus, we investigated mean platelet volume (MPV), an indicator of platelet activation, in patients with CO poisoning. We included 193 (117 women) patients who presented with a diagnosis of CO poisoning between June 2011 and March 2013. Control group was composed of 39 (15 women) patients. Troponin and creatine kinase MB levels were significantly higher in the CO poisoning group. Platelet counts were significantly higher in patients with CO poisoning (281 ± 76 vs 248 ± 65 × 10(9), respectively; P = .01). Similarly, MPV was significantly higher in the CO poisoning group (8.9 ± 0.8 vs 7.9 ± 0.9 fL, respectively; P < .001). Elevated MPV values may indicate that patients with CO poisoning have a higher risk of thromboembolic and cardiovascular complications due to platelet activation. PMID:23901146

Karabacak, Mustafa; Varol, Ercan; Türkdogan, Kenan Ahmet; Duman, Ali; Akpinar, Orhan; Karabacak, Pinar

2014-03-01

284

Diagnosis and management of the poisoned child.  

PubMed

Pediatric toxic ingestions are treated commonly by pediatricians and emergency physicians. Significant injury after these ingestions is infrequent, but identifying the dangerous ingestion is sometimes a difficult task. By performing a detailed history, focused physical examination, and directed laboratory evaluation, an estimation of risk can be developed. This article introduced the term "toxic triage" to describe this process. The toxic triage estimation allows the clinician to make thoughtful decontamination and treatment decisions. Familiarity with the literature supporting or refuting each decontamination method allows educated decisions to be made. Supportive care is an integral part of treatment for all poisonings, from asymptomatic to life-threatening. Most antidotes are used rarely in clinical practice, but familiarity with common antidotes benefits those patients with specific hazardous ingestions. Prevention efforts have the potential to decrease the incidence of pediatric poisonings. The universal poison control center number provided should be distributed and posted in homes, clinics, and emergency departments. PMID:16419731

Barry, J Dave

2005-12-01

285

Abdominal imaging in zinc phosphide poisoning.  

PubMed

Radiography has been proved to be a good diagnostic tool in visualization of many radiopaque xenobiotics in clinical toxicology. Zinc is a potentially radiopaque material which is a constituent of the zinc phosphide (ZN2P3) rodenticide. We report two cases of zinc phosphide poisoning with positive abdominal X-rays in whom the diagnosis was confirmed by abdominal imaging. Positive abdominal imaging was an indication for aggressive management; however, aggressive treatment was not lifesaving in one of them. We aim to emphasize the diagnostic value of abdominal X-rays in zinc phosphide-poisoned patients. We also would like to suggest that zinc phosphide (ZP)-poisoned patients with positive X-rays have more chance to become unstable even if they are symptom free on presentation and should be more aggressively managed. PMID:24477450

Hassanian-Moghaddam, Hossein; Shahnazi, Makhtoom; Zamani, Nasim; Bahrami-Motlagh, Hooman

2014-06-01

286

Management of acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning.  

PubMed

Organophosphorus pesticide self-poisoning is an important clinical problem in rural regions of the developing world, and kills an estimated 200,000 people every year. Unintentional poisoning kills far fewer people but is a problem in places where highly toxic organophosphorus pesticides are available. Medical management is difficult, with case fatality generally more than 15%. We describe the limited evidence that can guide therapy and the factors that should be considered when designing further clinical studies. 50 years after first use, we still do not know how the core treatments--atropine, oximes, and diazepam--should best be given. Important constraints in the collection of useful data have included the late recognition of great variability in activity and action of the individual pesticides, and the care needed cholinesterase assays for results to be comparable between studies. However, consensus suggests that early resuscitation with atropine, oxygen, respiratory support, and fluids is needed to improve oxygen delivery to tissues. The role of oximes is not completely clear; they might benefit only patients poisoned by specific pesticides or patients with moderate poisoning. Small studies suggest benefit from new treatments such as magnesium sulphate, but much larger trials are needed. Gastric lavage could have a role but should only be undertaken once the patient is stable. Randomised controlled trials are underway in rural Asia to assess the effectiveness of these therapies. However, some organophosphorus pesticides might prove very difficult to treat with current therapies, such that bans on particular pesticides could be the only method to substantially reduce the case fatality after poisoning. Improved medical management of organophosphorus poisoning should result in a reduction in worldwide deaths from suicide. PMID:17706760

Eddleston, Michael; Buckley, Nick A; Eyer, Peter; Dawson, Andrew H

2008-02-16

287

Management of acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning  

PubMed Central

Summary Organophosphorus pesticide self-poisoning is an important clinical problem in rural regions of the developing world, and kills an estimated 200?000 people every year. Unintentional poisoning kills far fewer people but is a problem in places where highly toxic organophosphorus pesticides are available. Medical management is difficult, with case fatality generally more than 15%. We describe the limited evidence that can guide therapy and the factors that should be considered when designing further clinical studies. 50 years after first use, we still do not know how the core treatments—atropine, oximes, and diazepam—should best be given. Important constraints in the collection of useful data have included the late recognition of great variability in activity and action of the individual pesticides, and the care needed cholinesterase assays for results to be comparable between studies. However, consensus suggests that early resuscitation with atropine, oxygen, respiratory support, and fluids is needed to improve oxygen delivery to tissues. The role of oximes is not completely clear; they might benefit only patients poisoned by specific pesticides or patients with moderate poisoning. Small studies suggest benefit from new treatments such as magnesium sulphate, but much larger trials are needed. Gastric lavage could have a role but should only be undertaken once the patient is stable. Randomised controlled trials are underway in rural Asia to assess the effectiveness of these therapies. However, some organophosphorus pesticides might prove very difficult to treat with current therapies, such that bans on particular pesticides could be the only method to substantially reduce the case fatality after poisoning. Improved medical management of organophosphorus poisoning should result in a reduction in worldwide deaths from suicide. PMID:17706760

Eddleston, Michael; Buckley, Nick A; Eyer, Peter; Dawson, Andrew H

2008-01-01

288

Home Science One fish, two fish, dumb fish, dead fish DAILY SECTIONS  

E-print Network

Home Science One fish, two fish, dumb fish, dead fish Home DAILY SECTIONS News Sports Opinion Arts America! Study Spanish & Volunteer ONE FISH, TWO FISH, DUMB FISH, DEAD FISH | Print | E- mail Written scientists say fish are capable of deducing how they stack up against the competition by simply watching

Fernald, Russell

289

Determination and frying loss of histamine in striped marlin fillets implicated in a foodborne poisoning.  

PubMed

An incident of foodborne poisoning causing illness in 67 victims due to ingestion of fried fish fillets occurred in June 2011, in southern Taiwan. Of the five suspected fish fillets, one fried sample contained 62.0 mg/100 g and one raw sample contained 89.6 mg/100 g histamine, levels which are greater than the potential hazard action level (50 mg/100 g) in most illness cases. Given the allergy-like symptoms of the victims and the high histamine content in the suspected fish samples, this foodborne poisoning was strongly suspected to be caused by histamine intoxication. Five histamine-producing bacterial strains capable of producing 59 to 562 ppm of histamine in Trypticase soy broth supplemented with 1.0% L-histidine were identified as Enterobacter aerogenes (two strains), Raoultella ornithinolytica (two strains), and Morganella morganii (one strain). The degradation loss of histamine in suspected raw fillets was 28% after they were fried at 170°C for 5 min. PMID:23643129

Lee, Yi-Chen; Lin, Chia-Min; Huang, Chun-Yung; Huang, Ya-Ling; Chen, Hwi-Chang; Huang, Tzou-Chi; Tsai, Yung-Hsiang

2013-05-01

290

Observation unit experience for pediatric poison exposures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Short-Stay Emergency Department Observation Units (OU) are an alternative to hospitalization, but data on OU care of pediatric\\u000a poisoning exposures is limited. We report the experience of a pediatric OU with this population.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  We retrospectively reviewed the charts of children with poison exposure admitted to a pediatric OU during a 30-month period.\\u000a Data was collected pertaining to demographics, type of

Diane P. Calello; Elizabeth R. Alpern; Maureen McDaniel-Yakscoe; Brianna L. Garrett; Kathy N. Shaw; Kevin C. Osterhoudt

2009-01-01

291

Fish FAQ  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Northeast Fisheries Science Center of the National Marine Fisheries Service provides this wonderful site offering a myriad of answers to frequently asked fish questions. If your questions include "Do fish sleep?" or "How does a scallop move?" or "What is 'tomalley'?", you are sure to find the answers here--as well as many other fascinating fish facts. Answers are thorough, and many are accompanied by color graphics, tables, and photographs to illustrate principles and provide examples.

1999-01-01

292

Fight Homemade Poisons: Home Food Care and Preservation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of a series of instructional materials produced by the Literacy Council of Alaska, this booklet provides information about food poisoning. Using a simplified vocabulary and shorter sentences, it explains the various kinds of food poisoning, how people get food poisoning, and how to prevent it. (FL)

Keller, Rosanne

293

Seasonal variation in carbon monoxide poisoning in urban Korea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seasonal variation in carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning during 1969-78 was examined using the monthly hospital admissions and environmental weather data from Seoul, Korea. The results showed that there were nine times as many cases of CO poisoning in December as in August. CO poisoning cases were significantly correlated with temperature and domestic fires but not significantly with relative humidity. The

Y S Kim

1985-01-01

294

Corpus callosum atrophy and neuropsychological outcome following carbon monoxide poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study assessed the effects of carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning on the corpus callosum (CC). Sixty-two CO-poisoned patients had MRI scans and a battery of neuropsychological tests within 24 h (day of exposure) of CO poisoning and at 6 months post CO exposure. Serial quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (QMRI) analysis of the CC was carried out, with the day of

Scott S Porter; Ramona O Hopkins; Lindell K Weaver; Erin D Bigler; Duane D Blatter

2002-01-01

295

[Poisoning with deadly agaric (Amanita virosa). Symptoms, diagnosis and treatment].  

PubMed

Amatoxin poisonings are uncommon in Norway. We describe a case where a young couple was poisoned after accidental ingestion of Amanita virosa (deadly agaric). After hospital treatment they recovered without serious damage to the liver. We briefly review the biological actions of amatoxins, discuss the symptoms and signs of amatoxin poisoning in detail, and outline current recommendations on therapy. PMID:2363148

Madsen, S; Jenssen, K M

1990-05-30

296

Aluminium Phosphide Poisoning: A Growing Concern in Pediatric Population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aluminium phosphide (ALP), a cheap and freely available pesticide, has emerged a common agent responsible for poisoning in children with a resultant high mortali- ty(1). The poisoning is usually accidental in children but may be suicidal in adoles- cents(2). Twenty cases of ALP poisoning aged between 7-12 years who were admitted in the Pediatric Emergency Services between July 1995 to

INDIAN PEDIATRICS

1997-01-01

297

78 FR 17069 - National Poison Prevention Week, 2013  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...March 15, 2013 National Poison Prevention Week, 2013 By the President of the United States...have marked National Poison Prevention Week by highlighting the steps we can take to...loved ones from accidental poisoning. This week, we carry that tradition forward by...

2013-03-20

298

Acute cardiac toxicity of nerium oleander/indicum poisoning (kaner) poisoning.  

PubMed

We present a case of oleander leaf extract poisoning manifested by vomiting, lightheadedness, and heart block. Practicing physicians should understand the potential lethal properties of oleander and its availability throughout the world. PMID:21577379

Khan, Ibraheem; Kant, Chandra; Sanwaria, Anil; Meena, Lokesh

2010-10-01

299

Carbon monoxide poisoning: case studies and review.  

PubMed

This article describes carbon monoxide poisoning. Using a case study approach, the article covers pathophysiology, epidemiology, clinical presentation, and complications. A nursing care plan is presented to guide the critical care nurse in the care of patients in this type of condition. PMID:21983502

Ruth-Sahd, Lisa A; Zulkosky, Kristen; Fetter, Mary E

2011-01-01

300

"The Most Poisonous Force in Technology"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Walt Mossberg, personal-technology columnist for "The Wall Street Journal," highlighted technology trends in his speech to a group of college presidents and other administrators. Mr. Mossberg touched a nerve when he called information-technology departments of large organizations, including colleges, "the most regressive and poisonous force in…

Carnevale, Dan

2007-01-01

301

Harmful Algal Blooms: Neurotoxic Shellfish Poisoning  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This University of Maryland SeaGrant web page discusses the toxic dinoflagellate Gymnodinium breve and its role in red tide blooms and Neurotoxic Shellfish Poisoning (NSP). The page explores the economic, ecological, and health-related effects of red tide blooms, and the causative accumulation of G. breve into blooms that produce the powerful neurotoxins known as brevetoxins.

Kane, Andrew; Jacobs, Dan; The Aquatic Pathobiology Center, University of Maryland; Maryland SeaGrant

302

Food poisoning by clenbuterol in Portugal  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the occurrence of four cases of acute food poisoning, involving a total of 50 people, due to the ingestion of lamb and bovine meat containing residues of clenbuterol. Symptoms shown by the intoxicated people may be generally described as gross tremors of the extremities, tachycardia, nausea, headaches and dizziness. Analytical methodology developed for the determination of clenbuterol

Jorge Barbosa; Clara Cruz; José Martins; José Manuel Silva; Celeste Neves; Carlos Alves; Fernando Ramos; Maria Irene Noronha Da Silveira

2005-01-01

303

Gastrointestinal decontamination in the acutely poisoned patient  

PubMed Central

Objective To define the role of gastrointestinal (GI) decontamination of the poisoned patient. Data Sources A computer-based PubMed/MEDLINE search of the literature on GI decontamination in the poisoned patient with cross referencing of sources. Study Selection and Data Extraction Clinical, animal and in vitro studies were reviewed for clinical relevance to GI decontamination of the poisoned patient. Data Synthesis The literature suggests that previously, widely used, aggressive approaches including the use of ipecac syrup, gastric lavage, and cathartics are now rarely recommended. Whole bowel irrigation is still often recommended for slow-release drugs, metals, and patients who "pack" or "stuff" foreign bodies filled with drugs of abuse, but with little quality data to support it. Activated charcoal (AC), single or multiple doses, was also a previous mainstay of GI decontamination, but the utility of AC is now recognized to be limited and more time dependent than previously practiced. These recommendations have resulted in several treatment guidelines that are mostly based on retrospective analysis, animal studies or small case series, and rarely based on randomized clinical trials. Conclusions The current literature supports limited use of GI decontamination of the poisoned patient. PMID:21992527

2011-01-01

304

Fatal diphenhydramine poisoning in a dog.  

PubMed

We report a fatal diphenhydramine poisoning of a 10-year-old, male poodle-cross dog with pre-existing conditions and suspected co-ingestion of ethanol. This case illustrates that diphenhydramine overdose can be fatal in certain circumstances and that analytical toxicology may play an important role in animal death investigations. PMID:25392554

Buchweitz, John P; Raverty, Stephen A; Johnson, Margaret B; Lehner, Andreas F

2014-11-01

305

Carbon monoxide poisoning — a public health perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon monoxide (CO) may be the cause of more than one-half of the fatal poisonings reported in many countries; fatal cases also are grossly under-reported or misdiagnosed by medical professionals. Therefore, the precise number of individuals who have suffered from CO intoxication is not known. The health effects associated with exposure to CO range from the more subtle cardiovascular and

James A. Raub; Monique Mathieu-Nolf; Neil B. Hampson; Stephen R. Thom

2000-01-01

306

Delayed postanoxic encephalopathy after carbon monoxide poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Delayed postanoxic encephalopathy causes deterioration and relapse of cognitive ability and behavioural movement a few weeks after complete recovery from initial hypoxic injury. A case is reported of delayed postanoxic encephalopathy after carbon monoxide poisoning, which was diagnosed with diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging. The literature is also reviewed.

O Y Kwon; S P Chung; Y R Ha; I S Yoo; S W Kim

2004-01-01

307

Carbon Monoxide Poisoning in an Elementary School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Described is an investigation conducted by municipal inspection and code enforcement personnel following an episode of carbon monoxide poisoning among elementary school children in a small eastern Pennsylvania community in 1975. The need for a reevaluation of existing building code standards is emphasized. (BT)

Comfort, Robert J.; Daveler, Jay

1977-01-01

308

Severe chorea after acute carbon monoxide poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ten days after an acute exposure to carbon monoxide, a 33-year-old woman exhibited severe chorea. CT scan revealed bilateral lucencies of the pallidum and anterior arm of the internal capsule. Chorea was successfully treated by chlorpromazine and did not relapse after treatment withdrawal. The mechanism of chorea in acute carbon monoxide poisoning is discussed.

P Davous; P Rondot; M H Marion; B Gueguen

1986-01-01

309

Suicide by sodium tetraoxoselenate(VI) poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Selenium is one of the most toxic elements necessary for the life of mammals. Only a narrow range separates therapeutic (connected with a protective effect) and toxic doses. Selenium incorporated into animal or human tissues in larger amounts can exceed normal human levels and may be toxic (only elemental selenium and selenium sulphide are poorly absorbed). Acute poisonings with selenium

Teresa Lech

2002-01-01

310

Diarrhetic Shellfish Poisoning, Washington, USA, 2011  

PubMed Central

Diarrhetic shellfish poisoning is a gastrointestinal illness caused by consumption of bivalves contaminated with dinophysistoxins. We report an illness cluster in the United States in which toxins were confirmed in shellfish from a commercial harvest area, leading to product recall. Ongoing surveillance is needed to prevent similar illness outbreaks. PMID:23876232

Duchin, Jeffrey S.; Borchert, Jerry; Quintana, Harold Flores; Robertson, Alison

2013-01-01

311

?Health Education Policy and Accidental Child Poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

IN THE last few months the topic of accidental child poisoning has been frequently discussed in the media. This has been primarily due to the Safety Packaging for Medi cines Bill which at time of writing is about to receive its second reading in the Commons. The Bill proposes to make it compulsory for all prescribed and non-prescribed medicines which

M. W. Calnan

1975-01-01

312

Lead Paint Poisoning - A Man - Made Disease.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A research paper defining the environmental problem of lead paint poisoning is presented by the Ohio Department of Health. The Department of Health, Education, and Welfare estimates that in the United States 2.5 million children under the age of five live...

C. Pagnotto, G. Zelizer

1973-01-01

313

Experimental Panicum miliaceum poisoning in sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical, laboratory and necropsy findings of experimentally produced Panicum miliaceum poisoning in sheep. Ten native apparently healthy male crossbred sheep, aged about 6–8 months old were used in the experiment. The animals were randomly divided into two groups, five sheep as control and five as experimental group. Both groups were kept

K. Badiei; K. Mostaghni; S. Nazifi; A. Khodakaram Tafti; M. Ghane; S. A. Momeni

2009-01-01

314

Management of poisoning due to organophosphorus compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acute poisonings due to organophosphorus (OP) compounds often present as medical emergencies, which require management in intensive care. There is urgent need for resuscitation, support or correction of function of vital organs (correction of arrhythmias, provision of ventilatory care), decontamination and antidotes. The muscarinic effects of excess acetylcholine consequent to the inactivation of the acetylcholinesterase are countered by atropine and\\/or

P. T. Haywood; L. Karalliedde

2000-01-01

315

Psychiatric Hospitalization after Deliberate Self-Poisoning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The decision for psychiatric hospitalization after deliberate self-poisoning (DSP) is not well understood. This study, a longitudinal cohort study of 3,148 consecutive DSP patients found 920 (29.2%) subjects were referred for psychiatric hospitalization, 576 (18.3%) on involuntary basis. A logistic regression analysis showed increased risk for:…

Carter, Gregory L.; Safranko, Ivan; Lewin, Terry J.; Whyte, Ian M.; Bryant, Jennifer L.

2006-01-01

316

[Fatal E 605 poisoning following intravenous administration].  

PubMed

Lethal toxification by organophosphate insecticides like E-605 are mostly the result of oral ingestion for the purpose of suicide or accidental ingestion by inhalation. An unusual case is reported of E-605 poisoning by injection into the basilic vein. Referring to this case, our findings on distribution of the noxa are presented and discussed. PMID:6720107

Lemke, R; Erkens, M

1984-01-01

317

Acute Oral Poisoning Due to Chloracetanilide Herbicides  

PubMed Central

Chloracetanilide herbicides (alachlor, butachlor, metachlor) are used widely. Although there are much data about chronic low dose exposure to chloracetanilide in humans and animals, there are few data about acute chloracetanilide poisoning in humans. This study investigated the clinical feature of patients following acute oral exposure to chloracetanilide. We retrospectively reviewed the data on the patients who were admitted to two university hospitals from January 2006 to December 2010. Thirty-five patients were enrolled. Among them, 28, 5, and 2 cases of acute alachlor, metachlor, butachlor poisoning were included. The mean age was 49.8 ± 15.4 yr. The poison severity score (PSS) was 17 (48.6%), 10 (28.6%), 5 (14.3%), 2 (5.7%), and 1 (2.9%) patients with a PSS of 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively. The age was higher for the symptomatic patients (1-4 PSS) than that for the asymptomatic patients (0 PSS) (43.6 ± 15.2 vs 55.7 ± 13.5). The arterial blood HCO3 ¯ was lower in the symptomatic patients (1-4 PSS) than that in the asymptomatic patients (0 PSS). Three patients were a comatous. One patient died 24 hr after the exposure. In conclusion, although chloracetanilide poisoning is usually of low toxicity, elder patients with central nervous system symptoms should be closely monitored and cared after oral exposure. PMID:22323855

Seok, Su-Jin; Choi, Sang-Cheon; Yang, Jong-Oh; Lee, Eun-Young; Song, Ho-Yeon; Hong, Sae-Yong

2012-01-01

318

Black Coloured Urine following Organophosphorus Poisoning: Report of Two Cases  

PubMed Central

Organophosphorus poisoning is common in rural Asia. Clinical features result from overactivity of acetylcholine receptors. Blackish discoloration of urine is not a feature of organophosphorus poisoning. Only one case of black colored urine following quinalphos poisoning has been reported in literature. We report two cases of organophosphorus poisoning from two different compounds, following which patients passed black colored urine, in the absence of haemolysis or rhabdomyolysis. These cases indicate that blackish discoloration of urine in organophosphorus poisoning might not be as uncommon as it was believed to be. Besides, urinary excretion of metabolites might be an underlying mechanism, rather than hemolysis. PMID:24826348

Mookkappan, Sudhagar; Shanmugham, Vijay; Kulirankal, Kiran

2014-01-01

319

Acute poisoning: understanding 90% of cases in a nutshell  

PubMed Central

The acutely poisoned patient remains a common problem facing doctors working in acute medicine in the United Kingdom and worldwide. This review examines the initial management of the acutely poisoned patient. Aspects of general management are reviewed including immediate interventions, investigations, gastrointestinal decontamination techniques, use of antidotes, methods to increase poison elimination, and psychological assessment. More common and serious poisonings caused by paracetamol, salicylates, opioids, tricyclic antidepressants, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, benzodiazepines, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and cocaine are discussed in detail. Specific aspects of common paediatric poisonings are reviewed. PMID:15811881

Greene, S; Dargan, P; Jones, A

2005-01-01

320

Robot Fish  

E-print Network

Broadcast transcript: Usually you expect this kind of news from Japan but this time it's South Korea where scientists have just created a robotic fish. Yes, folks, this is an electronic fish that can live underwater. At depths of up to 100 meters...

Hacker, Randi

2009-12-30

321

Texture Fish  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In an effort to provide an opportunity for her first graders to explore texture through an engaging subject, the author developed a three-part lesson that features fish in a mixed-media artwork: (1) Exploring Textured Paint; (2) Creating the Fish; and (3) Role Playing. In this lesson, students effectively explore texture through painting, drawing,…

Stone, Julie

2007-01-01

322

Venomous Fish  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

While most fish are completely harmless to people, there are some species that are mildly to extremely venomous and can actually kill humans. In this video, Jonathan travels the world to meet some of the most venomous fish in the sea. Please see the accompanying study guide for educational objectives and discussion points.

Productions, Jonathan B.

2010-08-10

323

Fish Face  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

The Pacific sand lance is an important forage fish found in Puget Sound.  They employ a unique strategy of burrowing into sand to rest and conserve energy, and to avoid predation.  The USGS is currently studying forage fish spawning, and how human development may be affecting their habitat....

2010-08-16

324

Fish Research  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video segment from IdahoPTV's D4K explains the Chinook salmon's life cycle in the Pacific Northwest and why it is an endangered species. A fisheries biologist takes students through some steps of fish research with explanations of the kinds of information biologists gather to perhaps help manage fish recovery.

Ptv, Idaho

2011-10-06

325

Renal Failure Prevalence in Poisoned Patients  

PubMed Central

Background: Renal failure is an important adverse effect of drug poisoning. Determining the prevalence and etiology of this serious side effect could help us find appropriate strategies for the prevention of renal failure in most affected patients. Objectives: The present study is aimed to identify drugs that induce renal failure and also to find the prevalence of renal failure in patients referred to emergency departments with the chief complaint of drug poisoning, in order to plan better therapeutic strategies to minimize the mortality associated with drug poisoning induced renal failure. Patients and Methods: This cross-sectional study surveyed 1500 poisoned patients referred to the Emergency Department of Baharloo Hospital in Tehran during 2010. Demographic data including age and gender as well as clinical data including type of medication, duration of hospital stay, and presence of renal failure were recorded. Mann-Whitney U test and chi-squared statistics were used to analyze the results. Results: A total number of 435 patients were poisoned with several drugs, 118 patients were intoxicated with sedative-hypnotic drugs, 279 patients were exposed to opium, and 478 patients were administered to other drugs. The method of intoxication included oral 84.3%, injective 9%, inhalation 4.3% and finally a combination of methods 2.3%. Laboratory results revealed that 134 cases had renal failure and 242 had rhabdomyolysis. The incidence of rhabdomyolysis and renal failure increased significantly with age, and also with time of admission to the hospital. Renal failure was reported in 25.1% of patients exposed to opium, vs. 18.2% of patients poisoned with aluminum phosphide, 16.7% of those with organophosphate, 8% with multiple drugs, 6.7% with alcohol, heavy metals and acids, and 1.7% with sedative hypnotics. Conclusions: Based on the findings of this study, there is a high probability of renal failure for patients poisoned with drugs such as opium, aluminum phosphide, and multiple drugs as well as the patients with delayed admission to the hospital, and it is necessary to seek appropriate treatment to prevent this significant side effect. PMID:24783168

Arefi, Mohammad; Taghaddosinejad, Fakhroddin; Salamaty, Peyman; Soroosh, Davood; Ashraf, Hami; Ebrahimi, Mohsen

2014-01-01

326

Poison frogs rely on experience to find the way home in the rainforest.  

PubMed

Among vertebrates, comparable spatial learning abilities have been found in birds, mammals, turtles and fishes, but virtually nothing is known about such abilities in amphibians. Overall, amphibians are the most sedentary vertebrates, but poison frogs (Dendrobatidae) routinely shuttle tadpoles from terrestrial territories to dispersed aquatic deposition sites. We hypothesize that dendrobatid frogs rely on learning for flexible navigation. We tested the role of experience with the local cues for poison frog way-finding by (i) experimentally displacing territorial males of Allobates femoralis over several hundred metres, (ii) using a harmonic direction finder with miniature transponders to track these small frogs, and (iii) using a natural river barrier to separate the translocated frogs from any familiar landmarks. We found that homeward orientation was disrupted by the translocation to the unfamiliar area but frogs translocated over similar distances in their local area showed significant homeward orientation and returned to their territories via a direct path. We suggest that poison frogs rely on spatial learning for way-finding in their local area. PMID:25411379

Pašukonis, Andrius; Warrington, Ian; Ringler, Max; Hödl, Walter

2014-11-01

327

50 CFR 665.621 - Definitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...not listed as CHCRT) Cirrhitidae. Frogfishes Antennariidae. pipefishes, seahorses Syngnathidae. flounders, soles Bothidae. Trunkfishes Ostraciidae. puffer fishes, porcupine fishes Tetradontidae. Trumpetfish Aulostomus...

2010-10-01

328

50 CFR 665.621 - Definitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...not listed as CHCRT) Cirrhitidae. Frogfishes Antennariidae. pipefishes, seahorses Syngnathidae. flounders, soles Bothidae. Trunkfishes Ostraciidae. puffer fishes, porcupine fishes Tetradontidae. Trumpetfish Aulostomus...

2011-10-01

329

VERTEBRATES OF FISH LAKE  

E-print Network

VERTEBRATES OF FISH LAKE CAUTION! FISH LAKE SCAVANGER HUNT RED HEADED is another majestic bird of Fish Lake. These birds can be seen perched at Fish Lake. CLUB-TAIL DRAGONFLY INSECTS OF FISH LAKE There are A LOT

Minnesota, University of

330

H4IIE RAT HEPATOMA CELL BIOASSAY-DERIVED 2,3,7,8-TETRACHLORODIBENZO-P-DIOXIN EQUIVALENTS (TCDD-EQS) IN COLONIAL FISH-EATING WATERBIRD EGGS FROM THE GREAT LAKES  

EPA Science Inventory

Fish-eating waterbirds from the Great Lakes of North America have shown symptoms of poisoning similar to those observed in laboratory exposures of various avian species to planar halogenated hydrocarbons (PHHs). HHs, include among others, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychl...

331

Fishing Forecasts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

ROFFS stands for Roffer's Ocean Fishing Forecasting Service, Inc. Roffer combines satellite and computer technology with oceanographic information from several sources to produce frequently updated charts sometimes as often as 30 times a day showing clues to the location of marlin, sailfish, tuna, swordfish and a variety of other types. Also provides customized forecasts for racing boats and the shipping industry along with seasonal forecasts that allow the marine industry to formulate fishing strategies based on foreknowledge of the arrival and departure times of different fish. Roffs service exemplifies the potential for benefits to marine industries from satellite observations. Most notable results are reduced search time and substantial fuel savings.

1988-01-01

332

One Fish, Two Fish, Redfish, You Fish!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The recreational fishing activity presented in this article provides a hands-on, problem-based experience for students; it unites biology, math, economics, environmental policy, and population dynamics concepts. In addition, the activity allows students to shape environmental policy in a realistic setting and evaluate their peers' work. By…

White, Katherine; Timmons, Maryellen; Medders, Paul

2011-01-01

333

Designer Fish.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Described is an activity in which students are asked to design a fish that would survive in a natural system. A project to computerize the activity is discussed. The development of this artificial intelligence software is detailed. (CW)

Hall, William R., Jr.

1990-01-01

334

About Fish  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity introduces students to an animal that is to be the subject of much experimentation by them. Because most fish have a relatively simple form and exhibit a wide variety of colors and patterns, they prove to be an excellent animal for experimental study of many aspects of coloration. The body of the lesson is devoted to a description and discussion of the external structure of fish.

Ipsen, David; Gillfillan, Gretchen L.; Judy Diamond (Revised New Edition); Judy Scotchmoor (Revised New Edition); Stebbins, Robert

2008-04-01

335

Fish cognition.  

PubMed

The central nervous system, and the brain in particular, is one of the most remarkable products of evolution. This system allows an individual to acquire, process, store and act on information gathered from the environment. The resulting flexibility in behavior beyond genetically coded strategies is a prime adaptation in animals. The field of animal cognition examines the underlying processes and mechanisms. Fishes are a particularly interesting group of vertebrates to study cognition for two reasons (Figure 1). First, they occupy a key position in the vertebrate phylogenetic tree: the common ancestor of the tetrapods was a bony fish. Thus, all vertebrates share key genetic features that code for the body structure, including the vertebrate brain. Similarities in brain structure and function are hence likely to be due to common ancestry. A second reason to study fish cognition is that fish have had their own independent evolution/radiation since they split from tetrapods. Bony fishes are by far the most species-rich vertebrate group. As a consequence, they provide the best options for a comparative approach that aims to link the evolution of cognition to a species' ecology. Therefore, the study of fishes may reveal general principles of ecological effects on cognitive abilities in vertebrates. PMID:25291632

Bshary, Redouan; Brown, Culum

2014-10-01

336

[Hyperbaric oxygen for hydrogen sulfide poisoning].  

PubMed

Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a toxic gas produced in decaying substances containing organic sulfur. Exposure to the gas causes severe disturbances in the central nervous and respiratory systems. The mechanism of toxicity is disruption of the electron transport chain in mitochondria, resulting in intracellular hypoxia. Treatment of H2S poisoning includes mechanical ventilation with 100% oxygen and immediate administration of sodium nitrate. Treatment with hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) has been studied in animal models, and has also been used in a number of patients. However, the clinical effectiveness of this mode of therapy has not been clearly proven. Having recently treated a case of H2S poisoning, we suggest HBO to reduce mortality. PMID:7843654

Goldenberg, I; Shoshani, O; Mushkat, Y; Bentur, Y; Melamed, Y; Shupak, A

1994-11-01

337

Evaluation and management of common childhood poisonings.  

PubMed

Family physicians often manage substance ingestions in children, most of which are nontoxic in nature. Physicians should know the phone number of the poison control center, understand the appropriate initial assessment of suspected toxin ingestion, and recognize important toxidromes. Rapid triage is crucial, including airway, respiration, and circulation stabilization. Appropriate supportive or toxin-specific treatment should be initiated. Gastric decontamination, such as activated charcoal and gastric lavage, are no longer routinely recommended. These methods should be reserved for the most severe cases, with poison control center support. The use of ipecac is no longer recommended. A child with few symptoms or a witnessed toxin exposure may be monitored at home. However, some long-acting medications have delayed toxin effects and require additional surveillance. PMID:19275069

McGregor, Tamara; Parkar, Mehjabin; Rao, Shobha

2009-03-01

338

Saturnine curse: a history of lead poisoning  

SciTech Connect

Over the past ten years there has been increasing recognition of subacute and chronic lead poisoning and a growing awareness of its pathophysiology and clinical effects. Besides the classic manifestations of abdominal colic, seizures, and anemia progressing to gout, renal disease, and neuropathy, more subtle manifestations are now being increasingly recognized, such as the development of hypertension, neurobehavioral changes, reproductive and endocrine abnormalities, a possible role in carcinogenesis, and an overall increase in morbidity and mortality. Lead was one of the seven metals of antiquity, and it has accompanied the Eurasian and American civilizations since their beginnings. Lead is an extremely pernicious metal with a multitude of adverse effects. The recurring nature of lead poisoning throughout the development of civilization can truly be referred to as the saturnine curse. 16 references.

Green, D.W.

1985-01-01

339

Loading pattern sensitivity to burnable poison availability  

Microsoft Academic Search

An in-core fuel management study was performed utilizing the FORMOSA optimization code. Specifically, the authors studied the effectiveness of burnable poisons independent of core reactivity hold-down needs for three different objective functions: assembly quadrant power peaking P{sub max}{sup quad} minimization, end-of-cycle reactivity k{sub eff}{sup EOC} maximization, and discharge burnup BU{sup dis} maximization. The study consisted of determining near-optimum loading patterns

S. Sun; G. I. Maldonado; P. J. Turnisky

1992-01-01

340

Intra-aural Route of Insecticide Poisoning.  

PubMed

Organophosphate (OP) compounds are commonly ingested with the intention of deliberate self-harm. Parenteral route of OP compound exposure is an uncommon yet significant source of toxicity. Deliberate injections via intravenous, intramuscular, and subcutaneous routes and accidental dermal absorption due to occupational exposure have been described earlier. We report an unusual case of intentional insecticide poisoning by pouring the OP compound into both ears. This was successfully treated with aural irrigation using normal saline and prompt administration of the antidote. PMID:24082515

Kundavaram, Paul Prabhakar Abhilash; Majumdar, Swaratika; Das, Sohini

2013-05-01

341

INTENTIONAL POISONING OF BIRDS WITH PARATHION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intentional poisoning of birds by farmers is not uncommon but is rarely documented and given proper attention. Two recent cases from New York are illustrative. In the first, at least 5,120 birds, mostly Red-winged Black- birds (Age&us phoeniceus), Common Grackles (Quisculus quisculu) and Brown- headed Cowbirds (Molothrus ater) were killed by parathion- (an organophosphate insecticide) treated corn, which had been

WARD B. STONE; STEPHEN R. OVERMANN; JOSEPH C. OKONIEWSKI

342

Use of dialytic therapies for poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nephrologist is often consulted in poisoning cases. Although management may involve attention to incident renal failure\\u000a or electrolyte and acid-base disorders, blood purification may also be necessary [1]. The application of dialysis therapies\\u000a or hemoperfusion to enhance clearance of intoxicants is an essential task for the nephrologist.\\u000a \\u000a This chapter will outline the principles and use of dialysis and related

James F. Winchester; Nikolas Harbord; Donald A. Feinfeld

343

Lead poisoning in six captive avian species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus), brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater), common grackles (Quiscalus quiscula), mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), northern bobwhites (Colinus virginianus), and eastern screech-owls (Otus asio) were poisoned with a concentration of lead (Pb) acetate in the diet which was increased by 60% each week until half of the birds in each treatment group died; surviving birds and all control birds except

W. Nelson Beyer; James W. Spann; Louis Sileo; J. Christian Franson

1988-01-01

344

Bacillus cereus and its food poisoning toxins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacillus cereus is becoming one of the more important causes of food poisoning in the industrialised world. It produces one emetic toxin and three different enterotoxins. The emetic toxin is a ring-shaped structure of three repeats of four amino and\\/or oxy acids: [d-O-Leu-d-Ala-l-O-Val-l-Val]3. This ring structure has a molecular mass of 1.2 kDa, and is chemically closely related to the

Per Einar Granum; Terje Lund

1997-01-01

345

Oxalate (Rumex venosus) poisoning in cattle.  

PubMed

Fifteen range cows died of oxalate poisoning caused by ingestion of Rumex venosus. Ecchymotic and petechial hemorrhages were prominent on the abdominal serosal surfaces. Approximately 2 L of thin, yellowish fluid was in the abdominal cavity, and mesenteric lymph nodes were enlarged and edematous. Other findings included catarrhal abomasitis; enteritis; pale, edematous kidneys; congested lungs; fatty infiltration of the liver; and nephrosis. In the kidneys, birefringent crystals resembling oxalate crystals were demonstrable only when frozen sections were examined. PMID:670054

Dickie, C W; Hamann, M H; Carroll, W D; Chow, F H

1978-07-01

346

Delayed Movement Disorders after Carbon Monoxide Poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Of 242 patients with carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning examined between 1986 and 1996, delayed movement disorders were diagnosed in 32 (13.2%). There were 15 men and 17 women. Ages at insult ranged from 9 to 69 years (mean 45.3 years). Of the 32 patients with delayed movement disorders, 23 (71.9%) had parkinsonism, 5 dystonia, 3 chorea and 1 myoclonus. All

Il Saing Choi; Hwa Young Cheon

1999-01-01

347

Deactivation and poisoning of fuel cell catalysts  

SciTech Connect

The deactivation and poisoning phenomena reviewed are: the poisoning of anode (fuel electrode) catalyst by carbon monoxide and hydrogen sulfide; the deactivation of the cathode (air electrode) catalyst by sintering; and the deactivation of the cathode by corrosion of the support. The anode catalyst is Pt supported on a conductive, high area carbon black, usually at a loading of 10 w/o. This catalyst is tolerant to some level of carbon monoxide or hydrogen sulfide or both in combination, the level depending on temperature and pressure. Carbon monoxide poisoning has been studied extensively, including detailed adsorption studies at various temperatures and pressures. Predictive models have been developed that effectively predict anode tolerance to carbon monoxide. Much less is known about hydrogen sulfide poisoning. Typical tolerance levels are 2% CO, and 10 ppM H/sub 2/S. The cathode catalyst is typically Pt supported on a graphitic carbon black, usually a furnace black heat-treated to 2700/sup 0/C. The Pt loading is typically 10 w/o, and the dispersion (or percent exposed) as-prepared is typically 30%. The loss of dispersion in use depends on the operational parameters, most especially the cathode potential history, i.e. higher potentials cause more rapid decrease in dispersion. The mechanism of loss of dispersion is not well known. The graphitic carbon support corrodes at a finite rate that is also potential dependent. Support corrosion causes thickening of the eletrolyte film between the gas pores and the catalyst particles, which in turn causes increased diffusional resistance and performance loss. In addition, support corrosion may also cause loss of Pt into the separator. Support corrosion appears to be the life limiting factor for phosphoric acid fuel cells.

Ross, P.N. Jr.

1985-06-01

348

Storage stability of paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Variations in C toxins (C1- 2), GTX (gonyautoxin) 1-4, STX (saxitoxin) and NEO (neosaxitoxin) in scallop digestive glands and a mixture of purified paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins were studied during storage at ?35, 5 and 25°C and at different pH levels. Heated and unheated samples of homogenates and purified toxin mixtures were stored for 1 year and 4 months,

W. M Indrasena; T. A Gill

2000-01-01

349

Iatrogenic salt poisoning in captive sandhill cranes.  

PubMed

Salt poisoning developed in captive sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis) when sea salt was added to normal drinking water to produce a sodium chloride concentration of 1%. Two of 18 cranes died and 2 were euthanatized when moribund. Muscle weakness, paresis, dyspnea, and depression were observed. Brain and serum sodium, serum uric acid, and plasma osmolality values were abnormally high. Lesions were those of visceral gout, renal tubular necrosis, nephrosis, and skeletal muscle necrosis. PMID:7328005

Franson, J C; Sileo, L; Fleming, W J

1981-12-01

350

Acute Lead Poisoning In an Infant  

PubMed Central

A case of acute lead poisoning in an infant without overt clinical manifestations of encephalopathy is reported for the first time in Oman. The case was diagnosed at Rustaq Hospital on the basis of (i) history by the mother of giving the child a traditional remedy for treating constipation (ii) X-ray of abdomen showing radio-opaque speckles and (iii) detection of high blood lead levels (83.3 µg/dL) at the toxicology laboratory of the poison control centre. The source of lead was confirmed by high content of inorganic lead (20.2%) found in the sample of the traditional remedy (bint al dahab). The blood lead levels significantly decreased, after the intravenous calcium edetate (EDTA) therapy was given to the baby. The case highlights that early detection and treatment of acute lead poisoning in children can prevent morbidity and sequelae associated with encephalopathy. It also indicated the need for awareness and prevention programme for parents on this issue. PMID:22400095

Madhusudhanan, M.; Lall, S.B.

2007-01-01

351

Hemlock alkaloids from Socrates to poison aloes.  

PubMed

Hemlock (Conium maculatum L. Umbelliferae) has long been known as a poisonous plant. Toxicity is due to a group of piperidine alkaloids of which the representative members are coniine and gamma-coniceine. The latter is the more toxic and is the first formed biosynthetically. Its levels in relation to coniine vary widely according to environmental conditions and to provenance of the plants. Surprisingly, these piperidine alkaloids have turned up in quite unrelated species in the monocotyledons as well as the dicotyledons. Aloes, for instance, important medicinal plants, are not regarded as poisonous although some species are very bitter. Nevertheless a small number of mostly local species contain the alkaloids, especially gamma-coniceine and there have been records of human poisoning. The compounds are recognized by their characteristic mousy smell. Both acute and chronic symptoms have been described. The compounds are neurotoxins and death results from respiratory failure, recalling the effects of curare. Chronic non-lethal ingestion by pregnant livestock leads to foetal malformation. Both acute and chronic toxicity are seen with stock in damp meadows and have been recorded as problems especially in North America. The alkaloids derive biosynthetically from acetate units via the polyketide pathway in contrast to other piperidine alkaloids which derive from lysine. PMID:15955542

Reynolds, Tom

2005-06-01

352

Acute paraquat poisoning with sinus bradycardia: A case report  

PubMed Central

Paraquat (PQ) is a highly toxic herbicide, which not only leads to acute organ damage, but also to a variety of complications. Patients with severe PQ-induced poisoning may succumb to multiple organ failure involving the circulatory and respiratory systems. Although numerous studies have been performed investigating PQ poisoning, cases of extreme bradycardia caused by acute PQ-induced poisoning are rare. In the present case report, a 59-year-old male who ingested PQ was admitted to the Department of Poisoning and Occupational Disease at Qilu Hospital of Shandong University (Jinan, China) after three days. The patient received treatment known as the ‘Qilu scheme’, which was established in the Department of Poisoning and Occupational Disease. However, the heart rate of the patient remained low following the administration of conventional medicines, until thyroid tablets were administered. To the best of our knowledge, cases of bradycardia following PQ poisoning are rare. PMID:25289040

SONG, CHENGZHEN; KAN, BAOTIAN; YU, GUANGCAI; JIAN, XIANGDONG; WANG, JIERU; SUN, JING

2014-01-01

353

Improving poisoning diagnosis and surveillance of street pesticides.  

PubMed

An effective surveillance system is required to reduce pesticide exposures and poisonings, especially from street pesticides (illegal, unlabelled, and decanted agricultural pesticides used predominately for urban household purposes). Poisoning from any pesticide class, not only organophosphates, constitutes a medically notifiable condition in South Africa. Current practice, however, is to report only organophosphate cases, resulting in severe under-reporting. The lack of data concerning the link between poisonings and street pesticides has led to the mistaken assumption that urban populations are not at risk from significant pesticide exposures and poisonings. Without accurate statistics, healthcare professionals and policy makers are unaware of the contribution of street pesticide poisonings to the overall health burden. Accurate diagnosis is a prerequisite for notification and subsequent surveillance. An algorithm has been developed to enable healthcare professionals to improve the diagnosis and notification of pesticide poisonings. PMID:22668944

Rother, Hanna-Andrea

2012-06-01

354

Self-poisoning and Moon Phases in Oslo  

Microsoft Academic Search

1 During 1980 the relation between the moon phases and 1187 cases of self-poisonings in Oslo was studied.2 In contrast to a previous report from India no significant correlation was found between the full moon and self-poisoning.3 The aetiology of self-poisonings in western countries is rather more complex than to be explained by speculative 'human tidal waves'.

D. Jacobsen; P. S. Frederichsen; K. M. Knutsen; Y. Sørum; T. Talseth; O. R. Ødegaard

1986-01-01

355

An Atropa belladonna L. poisoning with acute subdural hematoma.  

PubMed

Atropa belladonna L. is a plant long known to cause poisoning. But no cases of acute subdural hematoma resulting from such poisoning have been reported so far. Care must also be taken in terms of acute pancreatitis and rhabdomyolysis in cases of such poisoning. The plant may sometimes be mistaken for the Caucasian blueberry, V. arctostaphylos L. At least one anti-cholinesterase toxidrome finding was determined in all the nine cases of belladonna poisoning in this series. No elevated creatine kinase was reported in one case with acute subdural hematoma and hyperamylasemia. PMID:21540312

Cikla, Ulas; Turkmen, Suha; Karaca, Yunus; Ayaz, Faik Ahmet; Ayaz, Ahmet Faik; Turedi, Suleyman; Gunduz, Abdulkadir

2011-12-01

356

Anguilliform fishes and sea kraits: neglected predators in coral-reef ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite intensive sampling efforts in coral reefs, densities and species richness of anguilliform fishes (eels) are difficult\\u000a to quantify because these fishes evade classical sampling methods such as underwater visual census and rotenone poisoning.\\u000a An alternative method revealed that in New Caledonia, eels are far more abundant and diverse than previously suspected. We\\u000a analysed the stomach contents of two species

I. Ineich; X. Bonnet; F. Brischoux; M. Kulbicki; B. Séret; R. Shine

2007-01-01

357

76 FR 78263 - Advisory Committee on Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention (ACCLPP)  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Prevention (CDC) Advisory Committee on Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention (ACCLPP...and their practical implications for childhood lead poisoning prevention efforts. The...also reviews and reports regularly on childhood lead poisoning prevention practices...

2011-12-16

358

78 FR 40743 - Advisory Committee on Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention (ACCLPP)  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Prevention (CDC) Advisory Committee on Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention (ACCLPP...and their practical implications for childhood lead poisoning prevention efforts. The...also reviews and reports regularly on childhood lead poisoning prevention practices...

2013-07-08

359

24 CFR 965.701 - Lead-based paint poisoning prevention.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Lead-based paint poisoning prevention. 965...PHA-OWNED OR LEASED PROJECTS-GENERAL PROVISIONS Lead-Based Paint Poisoning Prevention § 965.701 Lead-based paint poisoning prevention....

2011-04-01

360

24 CFR 965.701 - Lead-based paint poisoning prevention.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Lead-based paint poisoning prevention. 965...PHA-OWNED OR LEASED PROJECTS-GENERAL PROVISIONS Lead-Based Paint Poisoning Prevention § 965.701 Lead-based paint poisoning prevention....

2012-04-01

361

24 CFR 965.701 - Lead-based paint poisoning prevention.  

... 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Lead-based paint poisoning prevention. 965...PHA-OWNED OR LEASED PROJECTS-GENERAL PROVISIONS Lead-Based Paint Poisoning Prevention § 965.701 Lead-based paint poisoning prevention....

2014-04-01

362

24 CFR 965.701 - Lead-based paint poisoning prevention.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Lead-based paint poisoning prevention. 965...PHA-OWNED OR LEASED PROJECTS-GENERAL PROVISIONS Lead-Based Paint Poisoning Prevention § 965.701 Lead-based paint poisoning prevention....

2013-04-01

363

24 CFR 965.701 - Lead-based paint poisoning prevention.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lead-based paint poisoning prevention. 965...PHA-OWNED OR LEASED PROJECTS-GENERAL PROVISIONS Lead-Based Paint Poisoning Prevention § 965.701 Lead-based paint poisoning prevention....

2010-04-01

364

TOXICITY OF POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS (PCB'S) TO FISH AND OTHER AQUATIC LIFE  

EPA Science Inventory

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) have been shown to be widespread in the environment. Their significance in the aquatic environment as a poison is now being revealed. They are being detected in fish and other aquatic life at levels much higher than concentrations found in the wa...

365

Poisoned Painters: Organized Painters' Responses to Lead Poisoning in Early 20th-Century America  

Microsoft Academic Search

Workers often have a complex relationship with the technologies they use in the workoplace, and many influences can affect that relationship. This is well demonstrated in the story of unionized painters who, at the turn of this century, were sufferingfrom occupational lead poisoning because the paints of the day used lead as their primary pigment. At the beginning of the

Christopher A. Eldridge

1998-01-01

366

Morphological and genetical description of Loma psittaca sp. n. isolated from the Amazonian fish species Colomesus psittacus.  

PubMed

A previously unrecognised fish-infecting microsporidia (Loma psittaca n. sp.), found adherent to the intestinal mucosa of the freshwater puffer fish Colomesus psittacus (Teleostei, Tetraodontidae) from lower Amazon River, was described based on light and transmission electron microscope and phylogenetic analysis. The whitish xenoma was completely filled by numerous spores, including several developmental stages of the parasite. In all of these stages, the nuclei were monokaryotic. The merogonial plasmodium divided by binary fission and the sporont gave rise to disporoblastic ovoid spores measuring 4.2 +/- 0.4 x 2.8 +/- 0.4 microm. In mature spores, the polar filament was arranged in 10-11 (rarely 12) coils in one row in turn of posterior vacuole. The polaroplast had two distinct regions around the manubrium. The polyribosomes were organised in coiled tapes. The small subunit rRNA gene was sequenced and maximum parsimony analysis placed the microsporidian described here in the clade that includes the genera Ichthyosporidium, Loma and Pseudoloma. Based on differences from previously described microsporidians, such as ultrastructural characteristics of the xenoma, developmental stages including the spore and phylogenetic analysis supported the recognition of a new species, herein named L. psittaca n. sp. PMID:19593585

Casal, Graça; Matos, Edilson; Teles-Grilo, M Leonor; Azevedo, Carlos

2009-10-01

367

Secondary poisoning of eagles following intentional poisoning of coyotes with anticholinesterase pesticides in western Canada.  

PubMed

Records of eagles, coyotes (Canis latrans), and red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) necropsied at the Western College of Veterinary Medicine, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada, between 1967 and 2002 were reviewed for cases suggestive of anticholinesterase poisoning. From 1993 to 2002, 54 putative poisoning incidents involving 70 bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) and 10 golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetus) were identified. Of these, 50 incidents occurred in Saskatchewan, two were in Manitoba, and one occurred in each of Alberta and the Northwest Territories. The diagnosis was confirmed in eight instances by demonstration of pesticide in ingesta from eagles or known use of pesticide at the site together with brain cholinesterase (AChE) reduction of >50% in at least one animal. A presnmptive diagnosis of poisoning was made in 33 incidents based on brain AChE reduction of >50% in at least one animal; 13 incidents were considered suspicious because of circumstantial evidence of the death of eagles in association with other species and limited AChE reduction. Other wild species were found dead in 85% of the incidents involving eagles. Coyotes, foxes, black-billed magpies (Pica pica), and striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis) were associated with 34, six, six, and three incidents, respectively. There were eight additional incidents that did not involve eagles in which poisoning was diagnosed in coyotes. Carbofuran was identified in nine incidents. Carbamate poisoning was indicated on the basis of reactivation of brain AChE activity in two additional incidents. Brain AChE activity was not reduced from normal in eagles in four of seven incidents in which carbofuran was identified. The organophosplorous insecticide terbufos was found together with carbofuran in one incident. Brain AChE activity was measured in wild canids and in eagles in 15 incidents; in all of these incidents, brain AChE was redulced by >50% in at least one mammal, whereas this level of reduction occrred in eagles in only four incidents. Use of anticholinesterase pesticides to poison coyotes is illegal, but the practice continues and secondary poisoning of eagles is a problem of unknown proportions in western North America. PMID:15362815

Wobeser, G; Bollinger, T; Leighton, F A; Blakley, B; Mineau, P

2004-04-01

368

Fish Ears  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Sometimes the key to solving a medical problem turns up in unexpected places. For example, new discoveries about a fish's mating ritual may shed light on a cause of hearing loss in humans. This Science Update explores the correlation between levels of estrogen in female and sensitivity of hearing.

Science Update;

2004-08-23

369

Karuk Fishing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A booklet on traditional fishing practices of the Karuk Indians of northwestern California is presented in the formal, literary English speech of Norman Goodwin, a Karuk medicine man involved in preserving ancient tribal traditions. Empirical information and personal narratives are combined in descriptions of different kinds of nets, social rules…

Bennett, Ruth, Ed.; Goodwin, Norman

370

Disappearing Fish  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, authors like Herman Melville, Jules Verne, and Ernest Hemingway pitted grizzled adventurers against the mightiest creatures of the ocean. Today, the struggle of man-versus-nature is quite a different contest. Science reporter Bob Hirshon tells us that the world's biggest fish are now in serious jeopardy.

Science Update;

2003-07-21

371

Flying Fish  

Microsoft Academic Search

AN excellent opportunity of observing the aerial means of propulsion in the flying fish was afforded me during a six days' calm lately when crossing the Bay of Bengal. This must be my excuse for again touching this subject. I watched day by day some hundreds rise under the bows of the ship. The water surface was a glassy calm.

Alfred Carpenter

1885-01-01

372

Gone Fishing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a hands-on activity in which students create a model of an ocean ecosystem to gain an understanding of how humans can alter biodiversity through their actions. Uses differing levels of fishing technology to explore the concepts of sustainability and overfishing. (Author/SOE)

Olson-Demme, Hillary; Kisiel, Jim

2003-01-01

373

Self-poisoning of the mind  

PubMed Central

Rational-choice theory tries to explain behaviour on the assumption that individuals optimize. Some forms of irrational behaviour can be explained by assuming that the individual is subject to hedonic, pleasure-seeking mechanisms, such as wishful thinking or adaptive preference formation. In this paper, I draw attention to psychic mechanisms, originating in the individual, which make her worse off. I first consider the ideas of counterwishful thinking and of counteradaptive preference formation and then, drawing heavily on Proust, the self-poisoning of the mind that occurs through the operation of amour-propre. PMID:20026460

Elster, Jon

2010-01-01

374

Myocardial Rupture following Carbon Monoxide Poisoning  

PubMed Central

We present the first case of severe cardiotoxicity of carbon monoxide leading to myocardial rupture and fatal outcome. 83-year-old woman was hospitalized 4 hours after the fire in her house with no respiratory or cardiac symptoms. After two days, she has suffered sudden collapse leading to cardiac arrest. Postmortem examination revealed intramural haemorrhage with myocardial rupture at the apex of the left ventricle. Minimal stenosis was noted in the proximal coronary arteries with no evidence of distal occlusion or any other long-standing heart disease. This case supports recommendations for targeted cardiovascular investigations in cases of CO poisoning. PMID:25110594

Dragelyte, Gabija; Plenta, Juris; Chmieliauskas, Sigitas; Jasulaitis, Algimantas; Raudys, Romas; Jovaisa, Tomas; Badaras, Robertas

2014-01-01

375

Lead poisoning in swans in Japan.  

PubMed

We investigated the occurrence, source and exposure time of lead poisoning in whooper swans (Cygnus cygnus cygnus) and Bewick's swans (Cygnus columbianus bewickii) in Japan during the winters of 1984-1987. Concentrations of lead in various tissues and physiological evidence of lead shot in some birds indicated that lead shotgun pellets were the source of lead, and exposure occurred after the birds arrived in Japan. Mortality probably occurred within 30 days after exposure to, and retention of, lead shot in the gizzard. PMID:15092262

Honda, K; Lee, D P; Tatsukawa, R

1990-01-01

376

Mushroom poisoning: a case report from Jordan.  

PubMed

An eight years male child with his family ate fresh mushroom at lunch time from back garden at their home in a village in the North of Jordan. By the evening approximately six hours later all started feeling nausea, abdominal cramps and vomiting they rushed to nearest primary health care center. After getting general medical medication they were transfer to a referral hospital at city of Irbid. The boy got deteriorated with diarrhea in addition to the previous gastrointestinal complains and died on third day. The message from this case is to ascertain in the public opinion that unknown type of mushroom even eaten previously could be poisonous and fetal. PMID:22816180

Shotar, Ali M; Alzyoud, Sukaina A; Samara, Omar; Obeidat, Jamal; Qasaimeh, G R

2012-02-15

377

Nitroethane poisoning from an artificial fingernail remover.  

PubMed

Confusion between acetone fingernail polish removers and artificial fingernail products containing acetonitrile and N,N-dimethyl-p-toluidine has resulted in pediatric morbidity and mortality. In the present case, a 20-month-old boy drank less than one ounce of Remove Artificial Nail Remover containing 100% nitroethane. In the emergency department he displayed cyanosis and 39% methemoglobinemia. Following intravenous methylene blue, the child's methemoglobin level dropped to 5.7% and he recovered uneventfully. Toxicity from nitroethane has not previously been reported in humans. Poison centers and emergency department personnel should be alert to another nail product which may be easily confused with acetone-containing nail polish removers. PMID:8007041

Hornfeldt, C S; Rabe, W H

1994-01-01

378

DDE poisoning in an adult Bald eagle.  

PubMed

A 12-year-old female bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) was found in May 1993 on Santa Catalina Island, California (USA), in a debilitated condition, exhibiting ataxia and tremors; it died within hours. On necropsy, the bird was emaciated but had no evidence of disease or physical injury. Chemical analyses were negative for organophosphorus pesticides and lead poisoning. High concentrations of DDE (wet weight basis) were found in the brain (212 ppm), liver (838 ppm), and serum (53 ppm). Mobilization of DDE, from depleted fat deposits, probably resulted in the lethal concentration in the eagle's brain. PMID:9131562

Garcelon, D K; Thomas, N J

1997-04-01

379

Accidental poisoning with biodiesel preservative biocide  

PubMed Central

Although biodiesel fuels’ use is getting more and more popular, there are only few reports in the literature of poisoning with such agents, and none referring to their preservatives: biocides. We present the management of a 49-year-old Caucasian male who was admitted, after accidental ingestion of biocide solution, in the intensive care unit of a tertiary hospital. In spite of his devastating condition upon arrival to the hospital, he had a remarkable recovery with no local or systemic sequel due to multidisciplinary and early supportive approach of his care. PMID:25336882

Aslanidis, T; Ourailoglou, V; Boultoukas, E; Giannakou-Peftoulidou, M

2014-01-01

380

POISON MIXTURES WHICH IMPROVE THERMAL REACTOR OPERATING CHARACTERISTICS  

Microsoft Academic Search

A theoretical investigation was made regarding the effect of binary ; poison mixtures on the temperature defect and temperature coefficient in a simple ; reactor model. The poison mixtures investigated were gadolinium - erbium, ; gadolinium- europium, europium -- erbium, and europium -cadmium. It was found ; that, in this model, the magnitude of the negative temperature coefficient could ;

Bick

1963-01-01

381

Poisonous plants: effects on embryo and fetal development.  

PubMed

Poisonous plant research in the United States began over 100 years ago as a result of livestock losses from toxic plants as settlers migrated westward with their flocks, herds, and families. Major losses were soon associated with poisonous plants, such as locoweeds, selenium accumulating plants, poison-hemlock, larkspurs, Veratrum, lupines, death camas, water hemlock, and others. Identification of plants associated with poisoning, chemistry of the plants, physiological effects, pathology, diagnosis, and prognosis, why animals eat the plants, and grazing management to mitigate losses became the overarching mission of the current Poisonous Plant Research Laboratory. Additionally, spin-off benefits resulting from the animal research have provided novel compounds, new techniques, and animal models to study human health conditions (biomedical research). The Poisonous Plant Research Laboratory has become an international leader of poisonous plant research as evidenced by the recent completion of the ninth International Symposium on Poisonous Plant Research held July 2013 in Hohhot, Inner Mongolia, China. In this article, we review plants that negatively impact embryo/fetal and neonatal growth and development, with emphasis on those plants that cause birth defects. Although this article focuses on the general aspects of selected groups of plants and their effects on the developing offspring, a companion paper in this volume reviews current understanding of the physiological, biochemical, and molecular mechanisms of toxicoses and teratogenesis. PMID:24339034

Panter, Kip E; Welch, Kevin D; Gardner, Dale R; Green, Benedict T

2013-12-01

382

Characteristics of unintentional carbon monoxide poisoning in Northwest Iran – Tabriz  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study describes the epidemiology and characteristics of unintentional carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning in Northwest Iran between 2007 and 2009 using multiple data sources including records of the main provider of emergency medical transportation, death certificate reports of the Legal Medicine Organization and through household surveys. A total of 1005 people were diagnosed with non-fatal CO poisoning. Ninety deaths were

Iman Dianat; Jalil Nazari

2011-01-01

383

Effectiveness of interventions in reducing pesticide overexposure and poisonings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The objective of this paper was to review the effectiveness of interventions to reduce pesticide overexposure and poisonings in worker populations.Methods: We used the Cochrane Collaboration search strategy to search the following databases for articles that tested the effectiveness of interventions in reducing human pesticide exposure or poisonings: MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSHTC). Interventions considered included

Matthew C Keifer

2000-01-01

384

Know the Facts Lead poisoning is caused by swallowing or  

E-print Network

on their hands and toys. FACT A lead test is the only way to know if your child has lead poisoning. Most. Sometimes lead comes from things other than paint in your home, such as: · Candy, toys, glazed potteryKnow the Facts Lead poisoning is caused by swallowing or breathing lead. Children under 6 years old

385

Panther cap Amanita pantherina poisoning case report and review  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analysis of patients with mushroom poisoning hospitalized in the Clinic of Toxicology in Cracow revealed that only a small percentage of cases had been caused by the death cap Amanita phalloides (Vaill. ex Fr.) Secr. The most important factors contributing to intoxication are confusion of toxic mushrooms with edible species, and non-specific mushroom poisoning. The genus Amanita has a

Leszek Satora; Dorota Pach; Krzysztof Ciszowski; Lidia Winnik

2006-01-01

386

Effects of poisoning nonindigenous slugs in a boreal forest  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the impact of poisoning nonindigenous slugs on abundance of other soil arthropod groups occurring on the soil surface of a boreal forest. The experimental design consisted of counting soil fauna under boxes from 20 plots during weekly surveys before (year 1) and after (year 2) treatment (metaldehyde poison) with con- trol and experimental plots. Slug abundance was

Steven H. Ferguson

2004-01-01

387

The Brain Lesion Responsible for Parkinsonism After Carbon Monoxide Poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Parkinsonism is a common neurological sequela of carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning, but its pathophysiological mechanism has yet to be clarified. Objectives: To describe a married couple who were both affected by CO poisoning, but only 1 of whom devel- oped CO-induced parkinsonism, and to discuss the pos- sible underlying pathophysiological mechanism of CO- induced parkinsonism by comparing the neuroimaging

Young H. Sohn; Yong Jeong; Hyun S. Kim; Joo H. Im; Jin-Soo Kim

2000-01-01

388

Pitfalls in diagnosis and management of carbon monoxide poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five members of one family suffering from carbon monoxide poisoning are described. Three were initially diagnosed as food poisoning cases at another hospital. A high level of suspicion is required to ensure early diagnosis. Indications for hyperbaric oxygen include: loss of consciousness, neurological signs and symptoms other than mild headache, cardiac complications, carboxyhaemoglobin > 40%, and pregnancy.

B Roy; R Crawford

1996-01-01

389

Confirmation of the Pulse Oximetry Gap in Carbon Monoxide Poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study objective: To demonstrate the degree to which pulse oximetry overestimates actual oxyhemoglobin (O2Hb) saturation in patients with carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning. This phenomenon has been reported in fewer than 20 humans in the English medical literature. Methods: A retrospective chart review of 191 patients evaluated for CO poisoning at a regional hyperbaric center identified 124 patients 10 years of

William P Bozeman; Roy AM Myers; Robert A Barish

1997-01-01

390

Strategic Plan for Preventing Childhood Lead Poisoning in Illinois.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The severity of the silent epidemic of lead poisoning and its long range effects on young children in impairment of intellectual ability, short-term memory, concentration, and reaction time have been recognized. A 3-year strategic plan for preventing childhood lead poisoning in Illinois was developed by a planning committee working through four…

Illinois State Dept. of Public Health, Springfield.

391

Significance of operating experience with poison splines at KE Reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The demonstrated operating efficiency performance which has resulted from poison spline usage forces an economic decision concerning the self-supported and bumper fuel element programs. As originally conceived the projection fuel elements would preclude the insertion of a spline under the fuel charge; thus it is very important that means be devised either to make poison spline usage compatible with future

1960-01-01

392

Serious paracetamol poisoning and the results of liver transplantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Paracetamol poisoning is the most common cause of fulminant liver failure in the United Kingdom. An accurate assessment of prognosis at the time of referral will allow the appropriate application of liver transplantation in this setting. The outcome of 92 patients consecutively admitted to a specialist liver unit with severe poisoning has been examined. In patients who did not have

D J Mutimer; R C Ayres; J M Neuberger; M H Davies; J Holguin; J A Buckels; A D Mayer; P McMaster; E Elias

1994-01-01

393

Recognition and Management of Pesticide Poisonings. Third Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual aids health professionals in recognizing and treating pesticide poisonings. Suggested treatments are appropriate for implementation in the small hospitals and clinics which usually receive the victims of pesticide poisoning. Classes of compounds covered include: (1) organophosphate cholinesterase-inhibiting pesticides; (2) carbamate…

Morgan, Donald P.

394

111Screening Young Children for Lead Poisoning Chapter 5: Resources  

E-print Network

111Screening Young Children for Lead Poisoning Chapter 5: Resources 5 CDC Resources and Information;112 Screening Young Children for Lead Poisoning Chapter 5: Resources Blood lead surveillance data. CDC assists includes background information and space for additional state and local materials such as state policies

395

Artifactual elevation of lactate in ethylene glycol poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

The diagnosis of ethylene glycol poisoning is based on nonspecific clinical symptoms and signs and indirect and direct laboratory measurement. Few institutions have timely access to direct measurement of ethylene glycol. As a result, diagnosis sometimes can be delayed and therapy initiated late. We present two cases of ethylene glycol poisoning. These cases demonstrate the need to recognize the false

Michael Y Woo; Donald C Greenway; Steven P Nadler; Pierre Cardinal

2003-01-01

396

"Still at War! From Poison Gas to Drones"  

E-print Network

was born after the end of the Cold War. This standpoint allows for three observations to be made: 1"Still at War! From Poison Gas to Drones" European Cultural Days 2014 Opening Address on Friday, 16 decided on the title of our symposium, "Still at War! From Poison Gas to Drones", one thing was clear

Stein, Oliver

397

SURF: Detecting and Measuring Search Poisoning College of Computing  

E-print Network

, search poison- ing techniques disregard any term relevance constraint and are em- ployed to poison STORAGE AND RETRIEVAL]: Infor- mation Search and Retrieval--Relevance feedback General Terms Security of a website to the search crawlers, highlight its relevance under certain search terms, and promote its raking

398

Amanita poisoning during the second trimester of pregnancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amanita phalloides-type mushroom poisoning is well recognized as causing acute liver injury and often death. Less is known, however, of whether maternal Amanita poisoning is associated with fetal damage or not. In August 1991 four members of a family were hospitalized with food intoxication caused by Amanita phalloides and Amanita verna. One of them died from hepatic and renal failure.

I. Nagy; G. Pogátsa-Murray; S. Zalányi; P. Komlósi; F. László; I. Ungi

1994-01-01

399

Acute abdominal pain and constipation due to lead poisoning.  

PubMed

Although uncommon, lead poisoning should be considered as a differential diagnosis in cases of unexplained acute abdominal pain in both adults and children. We present the case of a 35-year-old Asian male who presented with abdominal pain and constipation secondary to lead poisoning. Initially, the source of lead exposure was not apparent; this was later found to be due to ingestion of an Ayurvedic herbal medicine for the treatment of infertility. Lead poisoning due to the ingestion of Ayurvedic remedies is well described. We discuss the diagnosis, pathophysiology and treatment of lead poisoning. This case illustrates one of the rarer medical causes of acute abdominal pain and emphasizes the need to take a thorough history (including specific questioning regarding the use of over-the-counter and traditional/ herbal remedies) in cases of suspected poisoning or drug toxicity. PMID:24364054

Mongolu, S; Sharp, P

2013-01-01

400

Ponderosa pine and broom snakeweed: poisonous plants that affect livestock.  

PubMed

Ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) and the snakeweeds (Gutierrezia sarothrae and G. microcephala) are two groups of range plants that are poisonous to livestock. Ponderosa pine causes late-term abortions in cattle, and the snakeweeds are toxic and also cause abortions in cattle, sheep, and goats. Research is underway at the USDA-ARS-Poisonous Plants Research Laboratory to better understand livestock poisonings caused by grazing ponderosa pine needles and the snakeweeds and to provide methods of reducing losses to the livestock and supporting industries. This review includes the history of the problem, a brief description of the signs of poisoning, the research, to identify the chemical toxins, and current management practices on prevention of poisonings. PMID:10091125

Gardner, D R; James, L F; Panter, K E; Pfister, J A; Ralphs, M H; Stegelmeier, B L

1999-02-01

401

Lead poisoning of swans in British Columbia  

SciTech Connect

Between February 29 and March 15, 1992, 30 trumpeter swans (Cygnus buccinator) were found dead or debilitated at Judson Lake in the lower Fraser valley of southwestern British Columbia. Autopsies of 17 swans revealed the cause of death as lead poisoning from ingestion of lead shot. Lead shot was present in the gizzards of 20 of the swans examined; average number of pellets was nine. Lead was detected in all liver and kidney samples tested. Liver lead concentrations ranged from 21 to 166 ug/g dry wt., with a mean of 64 ug/g d.w. Lead levels in kidneys ranged from 212 to 303 ug/g d.w., with a mean of 120 ug/g d.w. The amount of lead shot in the gizzard was not well correlated with lead levels in the liver and kidney; correlation coefficients of 0.20 and 0.54 were attained, respectively. High iron levels were noted in livers. Other elements (Se, Co, Zn, Mn, Cd, Ca, Mg) were not elevated in either the liver or kidney. The incident prompted the authors to review lead poisoning of swans in British Columbia; data from published and unpublished sources are analyzed, presented and discussed.

Wilson, L.K.; Elliott, J.E. [Canadian Wildlife Service, Delta, British Columbia (Canada); Langelier, K.M. [Island Veterinary Hospital, Nanaimo, British Columbia (Canada); Scheuhammer, A.M. [Canadian Wildlife Service, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Bowes, V. [Animal Health Centre, Abbotsford, British Columbia (Canada)

1994-12-31

402

Methylene chloride poisoning in a cabinet worker.  

PubMed Central

More than a million workers are at risk for methylene chloride exposure. Aerosol sprays and paint stripping may also cause significant nonoccupational exposures. After methylene chloride inhalation, significant amounts of carbon monoxide are formed in vivo as a metabolic by-product. Poisoning predominantly affects the central nervous system and results from both carboxyhemoglobin formation and direct solvent-related narcosis. In this report, we describe a case of methylene chloride intoxication probably complicated by exogenous carbon monoxide exposure. The worker's presentation of intermittent headaches was consistent with both methylene chloride intoxication and carbon monoxide poisoning. The exposures and symptoms were corroborated by elevated carboxyhemoglobin saturations and a workplace inspection that documented significant exposures to both methylene chloride and carbon monoxide. When both carbon monoxide and methylene chloride are inhaled, additional carboxyhemoglobin formation is expected. Preventive efforts should include education, air monitoring, and periodic carboxyhemoglobin determinations. Methylene chloride should never be used in enclosed or poorly ventilated areas because of the well-documented dangers of loss of consciousness and death. Images Figure 1 PMID:10464079

Mahmud, M; Kales, S N

1999-01-01

403

Mushroom poisoning: retrospective analysis of 294 cases  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE The objective of this study was to present special clinical and laboratory features of 294 cases of mushroom poisoning. MATERIALS AND METHODS In this retrospective study, 294 patients admitted to the Pediatric and Adult Emergency, Internal Medicine and ICU Departments of Cumhuriyet University Hospital were investigated. RESULTS Of 294 patients between the ages of 3 and 72 (28.97 ± 19.32), 173 were female, 121 were male and 90 were under the age of 16 years. One hundred seventy-three patients (58.8%) had consumed the mushrooms in the early summer. The onset of mushroom toxicity symptoms was divided into early (within 6 h after ingestion) and delayed (6 h to 20 d). Two hundred eighty-eight patients (97.9%) and six (2.1%) patients had early and delayed toxicity symptoms, respectively. The onset of symptoms was within two hours for 101 patients (34.3%). The most common first-noticed symptoms were in the gastrointestinal system. The patients were discharged within one to ten days. Three patients suffering from poisoning caused by wild mushrooms died from fulminant hepatic failure. CONCLUSION Education of the public about the consumption of mushrooms and education of health personnel working in health centers regarding early treatment and transfer to hospitals with appropriate facilities are important for decreasing the mortality. PMID:20535367

Eren, Sevki Hakan; Demirel, Yeltekin; Ugurlu, Serdal; Korkmaz, Ilhan; Aktas, Can; Guven, Fatma Mutlu Kukul

2010-01-01

404

The chemistry of poisons in amphibian skin.  

PubMed Central

Poisons are common in nature, where they often serve the organism in chemical defense. Such poisons either are produced de novo or are sequestered from dietary sources or symbiotic organisms. Among vertebrates, amphibians are notable for the wide range of noxious agents that are contained in granular skin glands. These compounds include amines, peptides, proteins, steroids, and both water-soluble and lipid-soluble alkaloids. With the exception of the alkaloids, most seem to be produced de novo by the amphibian. The skin of amphibians contains many structural classes of alkaloids previously unknown in nature. These include the batrachotoxins, which have recently been discovered to also occur in skin and feathers of a bird, the histrionicotoxins, the gephyrotoxins, the decahydroquinolines, the pumiliotoxins and homopumiliotoxins, epibatidine, and the samandarines. Some amphibian skin alkaloids are clearly sequestered from the diet, which consists mainly of small arthropods. These include pyrrolizidine and indolizidine alkaloids from ants, tricyclic coccinellines from beetles, and pyrrolizidine oximes, presumably from millipedes. The sources of other alkaloids in amphibian skin, including the batrachotoxins, the decahydroquinolines, the histrionicotoxins, the pumiliotoxins, and epibatidine, are unknown. While it is possible that these are produced de novo or by symbiotic microorganisms, it appears more likely that they are sequestered by the amphibians from as yet unknown dietary sources. PMID:7816854

Daly, J W

1995-01-01

405

Treatment of lead poisoning in wild geese.  

PubMed

Twenty-seven wild geese (Anser albifrons) suffering from lead poisoning caused by ingestion of lead shot were treated with disodium calcium ethylenediaminetetraacetate. The concentration of lead in blood ranged from 0.4 to 23.0 micrograms/ml, with a mean concentration of 5.6 micrograms/ml. In 22 of the birds, 1 to 48 lead pellets (mean, 10.5 pellets/bird) were seen on radiographs of their gizzards. Eleven of 27 birds recovered 3 to 8 weeks after the initiation of treatment. In the birds that recovered, the lead pellets were rapidly eroded as the birds recovered their appetites in response to treatment, and disappeared radiographically between treatment days 17 and 52. The birds that did not survive died within 4 weeks, despite decreased concentrations of lead in blood. Of these 16 birds, 15 had radiographic evidence of impaction of the proventriculus at the first examination and no evidence of resolution of the impaction at the time of death. In contrast, only 2 of the 11 geese that recovered had impaction of the proventriculus at the time of admission. Thus, the condition of the proventriculus seems to be the first consideration to evaluate in the prognosis of lead poisoning in geese. PMID:1624358

Murase, T; Ikeda, T; Goto, I; Yamato, O; Jin, K; Maede, Y

1992-06-01

406

A comparison of lead hazards in the housing environment of lead poisoned children versus non poisoned controls  

Microsoft Academic Search

An epidemiological study was undertaken to compare the lead hazards in the housing environment of lead poisoned children (aged 1–7) and matched non?poisoned control children. The results indicated a greater frequency and higher levels of lead in paint on both interior and exterior surfaces of the houses of the cases compared to the controls and suggested that intact painted surfaces

Charles Gilbert; Robert W. Tuthill; Edward J. Calabrese; Howard A. Peters

1979-01-01

407

Fish for Feed vs Fish for Food  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aquaculture is the fastest-growing food producing industry sector in the world. Demand for feed ingredients, particularly for preferred protein sources such as fishmeal, fish oil and ‘trash fish’, has also increased, raising questions about sustainability and uses of fish for aquaculture feeds or directly as human food. Approximately 30 million metric tonnes (MMT) of fish from capture fisheries are used

Geoff L. Allan

2004-01-01

408

Fish Trade  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson plan presents the global economic, political and social aspects of fisheries, aquaculture and fish collecting, and demonstrates how the practices of all the world's nations affect one another. Students read a number of short articles and use on-line resources to gather information on fisheries and aquaculture, then participate in discussion and essay assignments. Discussion questions, standards alignment, assessment, extensions and additional reference links are provided.

409

Impact of fishing methods on conservation of ichthyofauna of river Relli in Darjeeling Himalaya of West Bengal.  

PubMed

Impact of fishing methods and gears used on fish faunal diversity in spring-fed torrential river Relli in Darjeeling hill area of West Bengal was investigated in the present study. The fish species available in the river provide nutrition and recreation (rarely income generating) fora large number of people residing along the river bank and nearby villages and towns. The fishing methods observed therein have been categorized as, i) Scientific fishing methods, that is, collection of required number and size of fish so that sufficient population of fish remains balanced in the nature. ii) Unscientific fishing methods, that is, indiscriminate killing of large number of fish which adversely affect the water quality of rivers. Ten types of fishing methods are practiced in this area, for example, diversion of river channel, cast netting, scoop netting, angling, fish spearing, rock striking or hammering, dynamiting, electric fishing, river poisoning and traps utilized. Over the years uncontrolled and often indiscriminate fishing in the unmanaged hill-stream has resulted in a sharp decline in fish resources. The study gives a clear picture on the anthropogenic pressure on the river Relli and provides baseline data which may be helpful for conservation and management of the fish species and also formulating new fishery policy. PMID:21186715

Acharjee, Manik L; Barat, Sudip

2010-07-01

410

Case reports of extracorporeal treatments in poisoning: historical trends.  

PubMed

There are currently limited data on the trends in case reporting of poisoned patients undergoing enhanced elimination with an extracorporeal treatment (ECTR). The present manuscript specifically reviews the longitudinal trends of reports according to technique, poison, and country of publication. To identify case reports of ECTR use in the management of poisoning, multiple databases were searched. There were no limitations on language and year of publication. All case reports describing individual patients undergoing ECTR with the intent of enhancing the elimination of a poison were included in the analysis. Since 1913, 2908 reports were identified. There were an increasing number of published reports with time except for a slight decrease during the 1990s. Hemodialysis was by far the most commonly used ECTR in poisoning, followed by hemoperfusion. The number of reported peritoneal dialyses decreased steadily since 1980s. Methanol, ethylene glycol, lithium, and salicylates remained among the most commonly reported poisons in every decade. The large majority of publications originated from either Europe or North America, and more specifically from the United States, Germany, the United Kingdom, and China. Despite the emerging apparition of new techniques, hemodialysis remains to this day the favoured ECTR in the treatment of poisoned patients. PMID:24823834

Mardini, Joelle; Lavergne, Valery; Roberts, Darren; Ghannoum, Marc

2014-01-01

411

Chronic Neurobehavioral Effects of Tokyo Subway Sarin Poisoning in Relation to Posttraumatic Stress Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic neurobehavioral effects of acute sarin poisoning were evaluated in 9 male and 9 female patients who were exposed to sarin poisoning in the Tokyo subway incident in Japan. The investigators used nine neurobehavioral tests, as well as a posttraumatic stress disorder checklist, 6–8 mo after the poisoning occurred. Serum cholinesterase activity in patients on the day of poisoning (i.e.,

Kazuhito Yokoyama; Shunichi Araki; Katsuyuki Murata; Mariko Nishikitani; Tetsu Okumura; Shinichi Ishimatsu; Nobukatsu Takasu; Roberta F. White

1998-01-01

412

Subsumed under the vernacular name "poison frogs", the superfamily Dendrobatoidea contains the "non-  

E-print Network

Subsumed under the vernacular name "poison frogs", the superfamily Dendrobatoidea contains the "non- poisonous poison frogs" in the family Aromobatidae and the "true poison frogs" in the family Dendrobatidae and Comeault, 2009). Allobates femoralis is a semi-cryptic pan-Amazonian aromobatid frog (Amézquita et al

Ringler, Eva

413

S100B protein in carbon monoxide poisoning: a pilot study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is the most common form of lethal poisoning. The aim of this prospective clinical study was to assess the possible role of S100B, the structural protein in the astroglia, as a biochemical marker of brain injury in carbon monoxide poisoning. Serum S100B determination was performed in 38 consecutive patients poisoned by carbon monoxide who were admitted

Miran Brvar; Hugon Možina; Josko Osredkar; Martin Možina; Marko No?; Andrej Bru?an; Matjaž Bunc

2004-01-01

414

Great Lakes fish consumption and reproductive outcomes  

SciTech Connect

This epidemiological investigation determined prenatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), through contaminated fish consumption, and ascertained reproductive outcomes. Green Bay, Wisconsin was chosen as the study site because it was known for its environmental contamination of PCBs. These chemicals are environmentally stable and persistent, and tend to bioaccumulate up the food chain, with highest levels found in predatory sport fish from Lake Michigan. The Green Bay area provided a population with potential PCB exposure from sport fish consumption. Accidental poisoning incidents showed detrimental reproductive effects of high dose PCB exposures. A Michigan study found significant effects on birth weight and gestational age when mothers consumed two sport fish meals per month. This study population was drawn from women during their first prenatal visit at two Green Bay clinics during a one year period. 1,112 participants completed a self-administered questionnaire. Maternal and cord blood samples were obtained for selected PCB serum analyses. Reproductive outcome measures were abstracted from hospital labor reports. Study results indicated that maternal consumption was correlated to maternal PCB serum levels. Regression techniques estimated significant exposure coefficients for subsets of two birth size parameters. Birth length was positively associated with PCB exposure in shorter mothers. Significant associations of PCB exposure and birth weight percentiles were estimated for two income groups in the urban residence/weight gain less than 34 pounds subset.

Dar, E.

1989-01-01

415

Community partnerships in preventing childhood lead poisoning  

SciTech Connect

Childhood lead poisoning is an environmental health problem that has no socio-economic, racial/ethnic, or regional boundaries. Because the key element in the exposure pathway is lead-based paint, it is more likely to impact inner city urban populations than those living in suburban areas. Suburban development primarily occurred after lead was removed from lead-based paint. It is maximally effective to adopt strategies that promote grassroots community development in designing preventive interventions. This paper reviews such a strategy for building community partnerships that have been instrumental in the development and implementation of an innovative lead education program. Saint Louis University School of Public Health reaches out to private and public nonprofit community organizations in this community-based lead education program.

Dugbatey, K. [St. Louis Univ., MO (United States); Evans, R.G.; Lienhop, M.T.; Stelzer, M.

1995-11-01

416

Ayurvedic herbal medicine and lead poisoning  

PubMed Central

Although the majority of published cases of lead poisoning come from occupational exposures, some traditional remedies may also contain toxic amounts of lead. Ayurveda is a system of traditional medicine that is native to India and is used in many parts of world as an alternative to standard treatment regimens. Here, we report the case of a 58-year-old woman who presented with abdominal pain, anemia, liver function abnormalities, and an elevated blood lead level. The patient was found to have been taking the Ayurvedic medicine Jambrulin prior to presentation. Chemical analysis of the medication showed high levels of lead. Following treatment with an oral chelating agent, the patient's symptoms resolved and laboratory abnormalities normalized. This case highlights the need for increased awareness that some Ayurvedic medicines may contain potentially harmful levels of heavy metals and people who use them are at risk of developing associated toxicities. PMID:22185092

2011-01-01

417

Clinical and radiological findings in chlorfenapyr poisoning  

PubMed Central

This is a case report of suicidal ingestion of chlorfenapyr, presenting with neurological complications after a latent period of more than a week, and rapidly progressing to death within days of symptoms. Chlorfenapyr is a moderately hazardous pesticide according to World Health Organization toxicity classification, and kills target organism by depriving it of energy through interference with oxidative phosphorylation at mitochondrial level. A pro-pesticide, chlorfenapyr takes time to convert to its active form and either this active form or a toxic metabolite causes delayed neurological symptoms. It causes significant neurotoxicity in rat models. This case report provides for the first time from India (second worldwide), clinical and “radiological evidence” (magnetic resonance imaging showing demyelinating/oedematous changes) of “chlorfenapyr neurotoxicity in humans.” It also highlights the “latent period” between ingestion and onset of fatal manifestations. Earlier, similar case reports of human deaths with delayed onset neurological symptoms, due to chlorfenapyr poisoning have been reported, from Japan, Columbia, and Korea. PMID:23956576

Tharaknath, Vemuri Rama; Prabhakar, Y. V. S.; Kumar, K. Suseel; Babu, Noorthi Kalyan

2013-01-01

418

[Salinomycin poisoning in a Polish stud horse].  

PubMed

24 cases of salinomycin poisoning in horses occurring recently in Silesia are discussed. All of these horses, used for riding-purposes, were fed with concentrate containing 61 mg/kg salinomycin as faulty prepared by the manufacturer. Each horse received approximately two to three kilograms of this forage. All horses developed severe clinical signs of intoxication. Despite therapy eight horses died within three to six days. Ten others became recumbent and had to be euthanased. Only six horses survived. Clinical and laboratory examinations were performed and are discussed. Laboratory examination of blood included red blood cell count, haematocrit, concentration of haemoglobin, enzyme activities of ASAT, ALAT and AP, also levels of urea, creatinine, sodium, potassium, magnesium, calcium and inorganic phosphor. Blood gas was also analysed. The dominating laboratory results were very high enzyme levels and alkalosis. The most characteristic clinical change appeared as paralysis of the hindlimbs. PMID:9441047

Nicpon, J; Czerw, P; Harps, O; Deegen, E

1997-08-01

419

Glyphosate surfactant herbicide poisoning and management  

PubMed Central

Glyphosate is a widely used herbicide in agriculture, forestry, industrial weed control and aquatic environments. Glyphosate potential as herbicide was first reported in 1971. It is a non-selective herbicide. It can cause a wide range of clinical manifestations in human beings like skin and throat irritation to hypotension, oliguria and death. We are reporting a case of a 35-year-old male patient who was admitted to our tertiary care hospital following intentional ingestion of around 200 ml of herbicide containing glyphosate. Initially, gastric lavage done and the patient was managed with intubation and mechanical ventilation, noradrenaline and vasopressin infusion, continuous veno-venous hemodiafiltration and intravenous (IV) lipid emulsion (20% intralipid 100 ml), patient was successfully treated and discharged home. This case report emphasizes on timely systemic supportive measure as a sole method of treatment since this poison has no known specific antidote and the use of IV lipid emulsion for a successful outcome. PMID:24914265

Mahendrakar, Kranthi; Venkategowda, Pradeep M.; Rao, S. Manimala; Mutkule, Dnyaneshwar P.

2014-01-01

420

Biomedical applications of poisonous plant research.  

PubMed

Research designed to isolate and identify the bioactive compounds responsible for the toxicity of plants to livestock that graze them has been extremely successful. The knowledge gained has been used to design management techniques to prevent economic losses, predict potential outbreaks of poisoning, and treat affected animals. The availability of these compounds in pure form has now provided scientists with tools to develop animal models for human diseases, study modes of action at the molecular level, and apply such knowledge to the development of potential drug candidates for the treatment of a number of genetic and infectious conditions. These advances are illustrated by specific examples of biomedical applications of the toxins of Veratrum californicum (western false hellebore), Lupinus species (lupines), and Astragalus and Oxytropis species (locoweeds). PMID:15161174

James, Lynn F; Panter, Kip E; Gaffield, William; Molyneux, Russell J

2004-06-01

421

Ayurvedic herbal medicine and lead poisoning.  

PubMed

Although the majority of published cases of lead poisoning come from occupational exposures, some traditional remedies may also contain toxic amounts of lead. Ayurveda is a system of traditional medicine that is native to India and is used in many parts of world as an alternative to standard treatment regimens. Here, we report the case of a 58-year-old woman who presented with abdominal pain, anemia, liver function abnormalities, and an elevated blood lead level. The patient was found to have been taking the Ayurvedic medicine Jambrulin prior to presentation. Chemical analysis of the medication showed high levels of lead. Following treatment with an oral chelating agent, the patient's symptoms resolved and laboratory abnormalities normalized. This case highlights the need for increased awareness that some Ayurvedic medicines may contain potentially harmful levels of heavy metals and people who use them are at risk of developing associated toxicities. PMID:22185092

Gunturu, Krishna S; Nagarajan, Priyadharsini; McPhedran, Peter; Goodman, Thomas R; Hodsdon, Michael E; Strout, Matthew P

2011-01-01

422

Fish Biology Introduction  

E-print Network

Lab 10: Fish Biology Introduction The effective management of fish populations requires knowledge of the growth rate of the fish. This requires determination of the age of fish to develop a relationship between the size and age of fish. For an inventory, this information provides insights to evaluate the potential

Jochem, Frank J.

423

Find far fish fast  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Science author Nicholas Makris from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology helped to create the new fish finding tool. He says that the fish finder will help scientists better understand how fish behave. It will also let scientists calculate the number of fish in different parts of the ocean â a task that is incredibly difficult using current methods for fish counting.

American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS;)

2006-02-02

424

Hyperbaric oxygen in the treatment of carbon monoxide poisoning.  

PubMed

Carbon monoxide, a byproduct of incomplete hydrocarbon combustion, has been responsible for many accidental poisonings worldwide. The signs and symptoms of poisoning are diverse, ranging from headache, dizziness, and confusion to cardiac and neurological disturbances. Oxygen is the cornerstone of treatment, because it accelerates the dissociation of carbon monoxide from heme proteins. The role of hyperbaric oxygen in the treatment of CO poisoning is still questionable. Only a few randomized, controlled studies have been conducted, and their results are inconsistent. In the present review, we discuss the conclusions of four randomized controlled studies and propose a hyperbaric oxygen treatment protocol based on these conclusions. PMID:15902792

Domachevsky, Liran; Adir, Yochai; Grupper, Motti; Keynan, Yoav; Bentur, Yedidia

2005-01-01

425

Lead shot poisoning of a Pacific loon in Alaska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Lead poisoning, associated with ingestion of spent lead shot, was diagnosed in an adult female Pacific loon (Gavia pacifica) observed with partial paralysis on 13 June 2002 and found dead on 16 June 2002 on Kigigak Island, Yukon Delta National Wildlife Refuge, western Alaska, USA. A necropsy revealed three pellets of ingested lead shot in the loona??s gizzard and a lead liver concentration of 31 ppm wet weight, which was consistent with metallic lead poisoning. This is the first report of lead poisoning in a Pacific loon and is the only account of lead toxicosis associated with ingestion of lead shot in any loon species breeding in Alaska.

Wilson, H.M.; Oyen, J.L.; Sileo, L.

2004-01-01

426

Paraquat poisoning: A case report and review of literature  

PubMed Central

Paraquat (1, r-dimethyl-4,4’-bipyridium dichloride), a brown syrupy liquid is an effective herbicide that has low chronic toxicity because of its rapid deactivation on contact with soil. A high dose of paraquat or severe poisoning has a poor prognosis. At present there is no specific antidote to paraquat poisoning, hence the need to focus on prevention and in case of exposure or ingestion, aggressive decontamination to prevent further absorption. Although uncommon, paraquat ingestion can lead to severe and often fatal toxicity. However, despite its widespread availability, reports of this herbicide poisoning in India are uncommon. PMID:24672279

Raghu, Kondle; Mahesh, Vidavalur; Sasidhar, Parri; Reddy, Polam R.; Venkataramaniah, Vajja; Agrawal, Amit

2013-01-01

427

Pediatric toxicology: specialized approach to the poisoned child.  

PubMed

The poisoned child presents unique considerations in circumstances of exposure, clinical effects, diagnostic approach, and therapeutic interventions. The emergency provider must be aware of the pathophysiologic vulnerabilities of infants and children and substances that are especially toxic. Awareness is essential for situations in which the risk of morbidity and mortality is increased, such as child abuse by poisoning. Considerations in treatment include the need for attentive supportive care, pediatric implications for antidotal therapy, and extracorporeal removal methods such as hemodialysis in children. In this article, each of these issues and emerging poison hazards are discussed. PMID:24275168

Calello, Diane P; Henretig, Fred M

2014-02-01

428

Emergency management and treatment of the poisoned small animal patient.  

PubMed

This article reviews management of the acutely poisoned veterinary patient, including initial telephone triage, appropriate communication and history gathering from the pet owner, decontamination methods (including the use of appropriate emetic agents and dosing of activated charcoal), and general treatment of the poisoned patient. Symptomatic and supportive care of the poisoned patient includes the use of fluid therapy, gastrointestinal support (eg, antacids), central nervous system support (eg, muscle relaxants, anticonvulsants), sedatives/reversal agents (eg, phenothiazines, naloxone, flumazenil), hepatoprotectants, and miscellaneous antidotal therapy. PMID:23747259

Lee, Justine A

2013-07-01

429

Hydrogen peroxide as a fungicide for fish culture  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Antifungal agents are needed to maintain healthy stocks of fish in the intensive culture systems currently employed in fish hatcheries. Malachite green has been the most widely used antifungal agent; however, its potential for producing teratology in animals and fish precludes further use in fish culture. Preliminary studies at the National Fisheries Research Center, La Crosse, WI, USA (La Crosse Center) indicate that hydrogen peroxide is effective for control of Saprolegnia sp. fungus on incubating eggs of rainbow trout. It is also effective against a wide variety of other organisms such as bacteria, yeasts, viruses, and spores, and has been proposed as a treatment for sea lice on salmon. Hydrogen peroxide and its primary decomposition products, oxygen and water, are not systemic poisons and are considered environmentally compatible. In response to a petition from the La Crosse Center, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recently classified hydrogen peroxide as a 'low regulatory priority' when used for control of fungus on fish and fish eggs. Preliminary tests conducted at the La Crosse Center suggest that prophylactic treatments of 250 to 500 ppm (based on 100% active ingredient) for 15 minutes every other day will inhibit fungal infections on healthy rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) eggs. This treatment regime also seems to inhibit fungal development and increase hatching success among infected eggs. Efficacy and safety of hydrogen peroxide as a fungicide for fish are currently being evaluated.

Dawson, V. K.; Rach, J. J.; Schreier, T. M.

1994-01-01

430

Got a Sick Fish?  

MedlinePLUS

... Welfare Veterinary Careers Public Health Got a sick fish? Fish with disease can show a variety of signs. If you notice your pet fish having any unusual disease signs, contact your veterinarian ...

431

Toxic Bradycardias in the Critically Ill Poisoned Patient  

PubMed Central

Cardiovascular drugs are a common cause of poisoning, and toxic bradycardias can be refractory to standard ACLS protocols. It is important to consider appropriate antidotes and adjunctive therapies in the care of the poisoned patient in order to maximize outcomes. While rigorous studies are lacking in regards to treatment of toxic bradycardias, there are small studies and case reports to help guide clinicians' choices in caring for the poisoned patient. Antidotes, pressor support, and extracorporeal therapy are some of the treatment options for the care of these patients. It is important to make informed therapeutic decisions with an understanding of the available evidence, and consultation with a toxicologist and/or regional Poison Control Center should be considered early in the course of treatment. PMID:22545217

Givens, Melissa L.

2012-01-01

432

Treatment rationale for dogs poisoned with aldicarb (carbamate pesticide).  

PubMed

The treatment rationale for dogs poisoned by aldicarb is reviewed from a pharmacological perspective. The illegal use of aldicarb to maliciously poison dogs is a major problem in some parts of the world. In South Africa, it is probably the most common canine poisoning treated by companion animal veterinarians. Aldicarb poisoning is an emergency and veterinarians need to be able to diagnose it and start with effective treatment immediately to ensure a reasonable prognosis. Successful treatment depends on the timely use of an anti-muscarinic drug (e.g. atropine). Additional supportive treatment options, including fluid therapy, diphenhydramine, benzodiazepines and the prevention of further absorption (activated charcoal) should also be considered. Possible complications after treatment are also briefly discussed. PMID:22616438

Arnot, L F; Veale, D J H; Steyl, J C A; Myburgh, J G

2011-12-01

433

21 CFR 109.6 - Added poisonous or deleterious substances.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION UNAVOIDABLE CONTAMINANTS IN FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION AND FOOD-PACKAGING MATERIAL General Provisions § 109.6 Added poisonous or...

2010-04-01

434

DepenDNS: Dependable Mechanism against DNS Cache Poisoning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

DNS cache poisoning attacks have been proposed for a long time. In 2008, Kaminsky enhanced the attacks to be powerful based on nonce query method. By leveraging Kaminsky's attack, phishing becomes large-scale since victims are hard to detect attacks. Hence, DNS cache poisoning is a serious threat in the current DNS infrastructure. In this paper, we propose a countermeasure, DepenDNS, to prevent from cache poisoning attacks. DepenDNS queries multiple resolvers concurrently to verify an trustworthy answer while users perform payment transactions, e.g., auction, banking. Without modifying any resolver or authority server, DepenDNS is conveniently deployed on client side. In the end of paper, we conduct several experiments on DepenDNS to show its efficiency. We believe DepenDNS is a comprehensive solution against cache poisoning attacks.

Sun, Hung-Min; Chang, Wen-Hsuan; Chang, Shih-Ying; Lin, Yue-Hsun

435

Pattern of poisoning in a developing agricultural country  

PubMed Central

Four hundred and seventy-two cases of poisoning were seen over a two-year period in Kandy, Ceylon. The overall mortality was 23·7%. The pattern of poisoning was different from that in western countries in that 49·8% of the cases were due to insecticide poisoning and only 10·7% were due to drugs, including barbiturates. Insecticides accounted for 73·2% and drugs for only 4·5% of the 112 fatal cases. Of the fatal cases 51·7% were between the ages of 20 and 40 years and only 6·2% were over 50 years. The wastage of economically useful lives indicates the need for a poison centre. PMID:4816585

Senewiratne, B.; Thambipillai, Shanthi

1974-01-01

436

Nek4 Status Differentially Alters Sensitivity to Microtubule Poisons  

E-print Network

Microtubule poisons are widely used in cancer treatment, but the factors determining the relative efficacy of different drugs in this class remain obscure. In this study, we identified the NIMA kinase Nek4 in a genetic ...

Doles, Jason D.

437

Enzymes and bioscavengers for prophylaxis and treatment of organophosphate poisoning.  

PubMed

Organophosphorus (OP) pesticide poisoning causes significant morbidity and mortality, particularly in the developing world, with upwards of 3 million people poisoned each year. Although OP poisoning is not common in developed countries, recently greater attention has been given to these chemicals because of their similarity to chemical warfare agents. Despite the agricultural use of OP pesticides for roughly 60 years, no new therapies have been developed since the 1960s. A promising field of novel antidotes for OP poisoning, OP hydrolases, has recently garnered increased support. These bacterial enzymes have demonstrated tremendous prophylactic and antidotal efficacy against a few different OP classes in animal models. These studies, as well as the limitations and challenges of therapeutic development of these enzymes, are discussed. PMID:20036941

Bird, Steven B; Dawson, Andrew; Ollis, David

2010-01-01

438

Coating a nuclear fuel with a burnable poison  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method is described for coating a nuclear fuel with a burnable poison, comprising: (a) cleaning at least a section of the surface of the nuclear fuel; (b) choosing a burnable poison sputtering deposition rate that will heat the surface of the nuclear fuel to a generally steady-state temperature less than about 200°C; (c) sputtering, at the chosen deposition rate,

1986-01-01

439

Poisoning caused by the combined ingestion of nifedipine and metoprolol.  

PubMed

Poisonings due to ingestion of a calcium channel or beta-adrenergic blocker have been the subject of several previous reports, but reports of poisoning due to combined ingestion of these drugs are infrequent. This is a report of suicidal ingestion of nifedipine 600 mg, metoprolol 200 mg, and etizolam 20 mg. Intravenous dopamine, norepinephrine, and calcium chloride had little effect but the administration of methylprednisolone and glucagon were associated with an increase in systolic blood pressure above 100 mm Hg. PMID:8254703

Takahashi, H; Ohashi, N; Motokawa, K; Sato, S; Naito, H

1993-01-01

440

Recent Advances in the Treatment of Organophosphorous Poisonings  

PubMed Central

Organophosphorous compounds have been employed as pesticides and chemical warfare nerve agents. Toxicity of organophosphorous compounds is a result of excessive cholinergic stimulation through inhibition of acetyl cholinesterase. Clinical manifestations include cholinergic syndromes, central nervous system and cardiovascular disorders. Organophosphorous pesticide poisonings are common in developing worlds including Iran and Sri Lanka. Nerve agents were used during the Iraq-Iran war in 1983-1988 and in a terrorist attack in Japan in 1994-1995. Following decontamination, depending on the severity of intoxication the administration of atropine to counteract muscarinic over-stimulation, and an oxime to reactivate acetyl cholinesterase are indicated. Supportive and intensive care therapy including diazepam to control convulsions and mechanical respiration may be required. Recent investigations have revealed that intravenous infusion of sodium bicarbonate to produce mild to moderate alkalinization is effective. Gacyclidine; an antiglutamatergic compound, was also proved to be beneficial in conjunction with atropine, pralidoxime, and diazepam in nerve agent poisoning. Intravenous magnesium sulfate decreased hospitalization duration and improved outcomes in patients with organophosphorous poisoning. Bio-scavengers including fresh frozen plasma or albumin have recently been suggested as a useful therapy through clearing of free organophosphates. Hemofiltration and antioxidants are also suggested for organophosphorous poisoning. Recombinant bacterial phosphotriesterases and hydrolases that are able to transfer organophosphorous-degrading enzymes are very promising in delayed treatment of organophosphorous poisoning. Recently, encapsulation of drugs or enzymes in nanocarriers has also been proposed. Given the signs and symptoms of organophosphorous poisoning, health professionals should remain updated about the recent advances in treatment of organophosphorous poisoning poisonings. PMID:23115436

Balali-Mood, Mahdi; Saber, Hamidreza

2012-01-01

441

Long-term consequences of soman poisoning in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The organophosphorus compound soman produces long-lasting epileptic seizure activity which is associated to brain damage, more particularly in the hippocampus and the amygdala. The companion paper (see part 1 in the same journal issue) describes the neuropathology in the amygdala of soman-poisoned mice. The present paper examines the long-term effects of soman poisoning on emotional reactivity in mice, 30 or

Stéphanie Coubard; Daniel Béracochéa; Jean-Marc Collombet; Jean-Nicolas Philippin; Ali Krazem; Pierrette Liscia; Guy Lallement; Christophe Piérard

2008-01-01

442

Locoweed (Oxytropis sericea) poisoning and congestive heart failure in cattle.  

PubMed

Locoweed (Oxytropis sericea), when fed to calves at high elevations, increased the prevalence and severity of congestive heart failure. Forced exercise did not increase the prevalence of congestive heart failure, but it did increase severity. Calves consuming locoweed at high elevations developed signs and gross lesions of congestive heart failure and microscopic lesions of congestive heart failure and locoweed poisoning. Calves fed locoweed at low elevations developed only signs and lesions of locoweed poisoning. PMID:3793593

James, L F; Hartley, W J; Nielsen, D; Allen, S; Panter, K E

1986-12-15

443

Acute carbon monoxide poisoning: Emergency management and hyperbaric oxygen therapy  

SciTech Connect

An ice storm in February 1989 resulted in numerous incidences of carbon monoxide poisoning in central Mississippi secondary to exposure to open fires in unventilated living spaces. Sixteen cases were treated during this period at the University of Mississippi Medical Center and 6 received Hyperbaric Oxygen therapy. These 6 cases and the mechanisms of CO poisoning are discussed and recommendations for emergency management are reviewed.10 references.

Severance, H.W.; Kolb, J.C.; Carlton, F.B.; Jorden, R.C.

1989-10-01

444

Nodal Diffusion Burnable Poison Treatment for Prismatic Reactor Cores  

SciTech Connect

The prismatic block version of the High Temperature Reactor (HTR) considered as a candidate Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR)design may use burnable poison pins in locations at some corners of the fuel blocks (i.e., assembly equivalent structures). The presence of any highly absorbing materials, such as these burnable poisons, within fuel blocks for hexagonal geometry, graphite-moderated High Temperature Reactors (HTRs) causes a local inter-block flux depression that most nodal diffusion-based method have failed to properly model or otherwise represent. The location of these burnable poisons near vertices results in an asymmetry in the morphology of the assemblies (or blocks). Hence the resulting inadequacy of traditional homogenization methods, as these “spread” the actually local effect of the burnable poisons throughout the assembly. Furthermore, the actual effect of the burnable poison is primarily local with influence in its immediate vicinity, which happens to include a small region within the same assembly as well as similar regions in the adjacent assemblies. Traditional homogenization methods miss this artifact entirely. This paper presents a novel method for treating the local effect of the burnable poison explicitly in the context of a modern nodal method.

A. M. Ougouag; R. M. Ferrer

2010-10-01

445

Structural equation modeling of pesticide poisoning, depression, safety, and injury.  

PubMed

The role of pesticide poisoning in risk of injuries may operate through a link between pesticide-induced depressive symptoms and reduced engagement in safety behaviors. The authors conducted structural equation modeling of cross-sectional data to examine the pattern of associations between pesticide poisoning, depressive symptoms, safety knowledge, safety behaviors, and injury. Interviews of 1637 Colorado farm operators and their spouses from 964 farms were conducted during 1993-1997. Pesticide poisoning was assessed based on a history of ever having been poisoned. The Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression scale was used to assess depressive symptoms. Safety knowledge and safety behaviors were assessed using ten items for each latent variable. Outcomes were safety behaviors and injuries. A total of 154 injuries occurred among 1604 individuals with complete data. Pesticide poisoning, financial problems, health, and age predicted negative affect/somatic depressive symptoms with similar effect sizes; sex did not. Depression was more strongly associated with safety behavior than was safety knowledge. Two safety behaviors were significantly associated with an increased risk of injury. This study emphasizes the importance of financial problems and health on depression, and provides further evidence for the link between neurological effects of past pesticide poisoning on risk-taking behaviors and injury. PMID:24125049

Beseler, Cheryl L; Stallones, Lorann

2013-01-01

446

Fish and Tetrapods Geology 331  

E-print Network

Placoderms: armored fish Class Chondrichthyes: cartilaginous fish Class Osteichthyes: bony fish Subclass - a ray #12;Manta Ray #12;Fish Anatomy: Ray-finned fish #12;Osteichthyes: ray-finned fish: clownfish #12;Osteichthyes: ray-finned fish, deep water species #12;Lophius, an Eocene fish showing the ray fins

Kammer, Thomas

447

Histamine levels in fish from markets in Lima, Perú.  

PubMed

Illnesses associated with seafood are an important public health concern worldwide, particularly considering the steady increase in seafood consumption. However, research about the risks associated with seafood products is scarce in developing countries. Histamine fish poisoning is the most common form of fish intoxication caused by seafood and usually presents as an allergic reaction. This condition occurs when fish are not kept appropriately refrigerated and histamine is formed in the tissues. Histamine levels of > 500 ppm usually are associated with clinical illness. We assessed histamine levels in fish from markets in Lima, Peru, with a quantitative competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Thirty-eight specimens were purchased from wholesale and retail markets: 17 bonito (Sarda sarda), 16 mackerel (Scomber japonicus peruanus), and 5 mahi-mahi (Coryphaena hippurus). Seven fish (18%) had histamine levels of 1 to 10 ppm (three mackerel and four bonito) and three (8%) had > 10 ppm (three mackerel, 35 to 86 ppm). Fish from retail markets had detectable histamine levels (> 1 ppm) more frequently than did fish bought at wholesale fish markets: 9 (36%) of 25 fish versus 1 (8%) of 13 fish, respectively (P = 0.063). Higher histamine levels were correlated with later time of purchase during the day (Spearman's rho = 0.37, P = 0.024). Mackerel purchased at retail markets after 2 p.m. had a 75% prevalence of histamine levels of > 10 ppm. Mackerel purchased late in the day in retail markets frequently contained high histamine levels, although the overall prevalence of elevated histamine levels was low. Despite the small sample, our findings highlight the need to reinforce seafood safety regulations and quality control in developing countries such as Peru. PMID:19517744

Gonzaga, Victor E; Lescano, Andres G; Huamán, Alfredo A; Salmón-Mulanovich, Gabriela; Blazes, David L

2009-05-01

448

Histamine Levels in Fish from Markets in Lima, Per?†  

PubMed Central

Illnesses associated with seafood are an important public health concern worldwide, particularly considering the steady increase in seafood consumption. However, research about the risks associated with seafood products is scarce in developing countries. Histamine fish poisoning is the most common form of fish intoxication caused by seafood and usually presents as an allergic reaction. This condition occurs when fish are not kept appropriately refrigerated and histamine is formed in the tissues. Histamine levels of >500 ppm usually are associated with clinical illness. We assessed histamine levels in fish from markets in Lima, Peru, with a quantitative competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Thirty-eight specimens were purchased from wholesale and retail markets: 17 bonito (Sarda sarda), 16 mackerel (Scomber japonicus peruanus), and 5 mahi-mahi (Coryphaena hippurus). Seven fish (18%) had histamine levels of 1 to 10 ppm (three mackerel and four bonito) and three (8%) had >10 ppm (three mackerel, 35 to 86 ppm). Fish from retail markets had detectable histamine levels (>1 ppm) more frequently than did fish bought at wholesale fish markets: 9 (36%) of 25 fish versus 1 (8%) of 13 fish, respectively (P = 0.063). Higher histamine levels were correlated with later time of purchase during the day (Spearman’s rho = 0.37, P = 0.024). Mackerel purchased at retail markets after 2 p.m. had a 75% prevalence of histamine levels of >10 ppm. Mackerel purchased late in the day in retail markets frequently contained high histamine levels, although the overall prevalence of elevated histamine levels was low. Despite the small sample, our findings highlight the need to reinforce seafood safety regulations and quality control in developing countries such as Peru. PMID:19517744

Gonzaga, Victor E.; Lescano, Andres G.; Huaman, Alfredo A.; Salmon-Mulanovich, Gabriela; Blazes, David L.

2014-01-01

449

Lipid rescue 911: Are poison centers recommending intravenous fat emulsion therapy for severe poisoning?  

PubMed

Intravenous fat emulsion (IFE) therapy is a novel treatment that has been used to reverse the acute toxicity of some xenobiotics with varied success. We sought to determine how US Poison Control Centers (PCCs) have incorporated IFE as a treatment strategy for poisoning. A closed-format multiple-choice survey instrument was developed, piloted, revised, and then sent electronically to every medical director of an accredited US PCC in March 2011. Addresses were obtained from the American Association of Poison Control Centers listserv, and participation was voluntary and remained anonymous. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. The majority of PCC medical directors completed the survey (45 out of 57; 79 %). Of the 45 respondents, all felt that IFE therapy played a role in the acute overdose setting. Most PCCs (30 out of 45; 67 %) have a protocol for IFE therapy. In a scenario with "cardiac arrest" due to a single xenobiotic, directors stated that their center would "always" or "often" recommend IFE after overdose of bupivacaine (43 out of 45; 96 %), verapamil (36 out of 45; 80 %), amitriptyline (31 out of 45; 69 %), or an unknown xenobiotic (12 out of 45; 27 %). In a scenario with "shock" due to a single xenobiotic, directors stated that their PCC would "always" or "often" recommend IFE after overdose of bupivacaine (40 out of 45; 89 %), verapamil (28 out of 45; 62 %), amitriptyline (25 out of 45; 56 %), or an unknown xenobiotic (8 out of 45; 18 %). IFE therapy is being recommended by US PCCs; protocols and dosing regimens are nearly uniform. Most directors feel that IFE is safe but are more likely to recommend IFE in patients with cardiac arrest than in patients with severe hemodynamic compromise. PMID:23661336

Christian, Michael R; Pallasch, Erin M; Wahl, Michael; Mycyk, Mark B

2013-09-01

450

Clinical findings and follow-up evaluation of an outbreak of mushroom poisoning — survey of amanita phalloides poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary One hundred and sixty cases of mushroom poisoning during the period July–November 1981 are reported. The survey details 116 observations of short incubation syndromes and 44 cases of delayed syndrome, identified asAmanita Phalloides poisoning. Of the latter, 40 patients were adult (mean age 46 years, range 20–77; 18 females and 22 males) and 4 were children (= 12 years

R. Fantozzi; F. Ledda; L. Caramelli; F. Moroni; P. Blandina; E. Masini; P. Botti; S. Peruzzi; M. Zorn; P. F. Mannaioni

1986-01-01

451

Pattern of poisoning cases in a hospital in a Terai district of central Nepal.  

PubMed

Poisoning is a major global health problem and is one of the major causes of hospitalization through emergency. The objective of this study is to evaluate the characteristics of poisoning cases admitted to emergency department over a one year period. A hospital based study was carried out in the emergency department, Mahendra Adarsha Chikitsalaya, Chitwan analyzing the data of the poisoning cases attended for one year duration by searching all the medical records. A total of 921 poisoning cases presented to emergency department in the year 2007. The female to male ratio was 1.17:1. Most of poisoning occurred in the age group 15-24 years. Snake bite was the commonest form of poisoning amongst all cases. By occupation, 46.0% cases were in farmers. Accidental poisoning prevailed over intentional poisoning. Seasonal trend revealed maximum cases being in summer (42.4%). Poisoning shows seasonal trend and hence proper intervention is required in community level. PMID:22808805

Gurung, C K; Dahal, R; Khanal, P; Nepal, S; Jaiswal, A K

2011-09-01

452

Extracorporeal methods in the treatment of poisoning.  

PubMed

Among the various ways of managing poisoning, haemodialysis may help in enhancing excretion of the toxic substance. We report a case, a Russian male, 35 years old, who was rushed to the Gleneagles Hospital Medan from the airport after being evacuated from Banda Aceh together with another older Russian who died as they arrived at the admission and Emergency Department. From the result of intensive allo anamnesis and the high anion gap metabolic acidosis, in the absence of disturbed renal and liver function, we presumed this patient was suffering from methanol intoxication. The time of exposure was approximately 70 hours before. The exact length of dialysis time to excrete the noxious substance from the blood without plasma methanol determination was difficult. Moreover the time elapsed from exposure to treatment had been approximately 70 hours, which means the optic nerve had been so long exposed to formic acid, the toxic metabolite of methanol, that the damage should have been very severe. Ethanol is also known to be an antidote of methanol, which can be given orally by nasogastric tube, or i.v. It should be given early, and plasma ethanol level should be closely monitored to make it effective and safe. This was also unavailable. Another antidote is fomepizole which is also as yet unavailable in Medan. Folic acid, thiamin, and i.v. folinic acid are also recommended by the literature, as well as oral steroid. PMID:18560027

Lubis, Harun Rasyid; Lubis, A Rahim Rasyid; Hariman, Herman; Parwis, Beby

2008-04-01

453

Fatal poisoning by alcohol and heroin.  

PubMed

Drug abuse with alcohol consumption have been on the rise in Split-Dalmatian County for a while now. This article reports two separate cases with three deaths due to fatal combinations of heroin and alcohol. The first case of poisoning is related to a young couple, a 30-year-old man and a 28-year-old woman, who were found dead in a car, surrounded by cans of a variety alcoholic drinks. Two needles were found beside the bodies as well. The victims were registered drug abusers who had been in withdrawal programs. The second case was a 29-year-old man who was found dead in a house. Three fresh injection marks were visible on his right arm, and two needles were near his body. He was not known as a drug addict, but he had tried to commit suicide recently. Carboxyhaemoglobin was found in blood samples of both victims from the first case. The concentration was 25% and that could contribute to their death. In both described cases blood alcohol concentration was higher then 1.60 g kg(-1). Toxicology tests were positive for heroin, meconin, acetaminophen, 6-acetylmorphine, codeine, noscapine and papaverine. Ethanol, being a respiratory depressant, combined with morphine drastically increases the risk of rapid death due to respiration failure. PMID:17913687

Sutlovi?, Davorka; Definis-Gojanovi?, Marija

2007-09-01

454

Narcosis studies and oxygen poisoning of mice  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The research for a mechanism by which narcotic gases alter metabolism is reported. Possible sites of action by narcotic and anesthetic gases in isolated electron transport particles were explored. Using the relative activities of the NADH-oxygen, NADH-ferricyanide, succinate-cytochrome C and succinate-NAD oxidoreductase systems as parameters, the relative potency of volatile anesthetics were tested. Testing the relative ability of human subjects to contract and repay an oxygen debt while in the narcotic versus alert state, it was found that narcosis induced by 33% nitrous oxide increased the size of the oxygen debt contracted and the amount of oxygen required to repay it during recovery. Mice acclimatized to sea level (760 mm Hg), 5000 feet (632 mm Hg) or 15,000 feet 437 mm Hg) for from one to eight weeks were found to be more susceptible to convulsion and death as a function of altitude acclimatization when tested in hyperoxic environments. There were no reasonable explanations for the connection between hypoxia and oxygen poisoning but several practical implications for persons living at altitude are discussed.

1973-01-01

455

Fatal hydrogen sulphide poisoning in unconfined spaces.  

PubMed

Fatal hydrogen sulphide poisoning usually occurs in confined spaces. We report two fatal accidents in unconfined spaces. The first accident caused the death of three workers who entered an unconfined room in a silo of sludge at the same time that a truck dumped several tons of sludge from water purification stations. The hydrogen sulphide that had accumulated inside the silo spilled out into the interior of the room due to a 'splashing effect' caused by the impact of the dumped sludge. The second accident occurred when the foreman of a wastewater treatment plant entered one of the substations to perform routine checks and suddenly lost consciousness. Although he was rapidly transferred to an intensive care unit, death occurred a few hours later. Hydrogen sulphide production was, in this case, due to an 'embolism effect' produced by the displacement of wastewater when the substation pumps were activated. We suggest ways in which accidents such as these caused by sudden release of hydrogen sulphide can be prevented. PMID:21467246

Nogué, S; Pou, R; Fernández, J; Sanz-Gallén, P

2011-05-01

456

Rare Trophy Fish.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an art lesson in which third-grade students create mounted trophy fish. Explains how the students created the three-dimensional fish, the board on which to mount the fish, and the small paper plaque with information about the trophy fish. (CMK)

Schroeder, Denice

2000-01-01

457

Meat, Poultry and Fish  

MedlinePLUS

Meat, Poultry and Fish Updated:Aug 11,2014 AHA Recommendation Choose fish, shellfish, poultry without the skin, and trimmed lean meats, no more ... at least 2 servings of baked or grilled fish each week, especially oily fish. Choose low-sodium, ...

458

Adult Prescription Drug Use and Pediatric Medication Exposures and Poisonings  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Nontherapeutic medication ingestions continue to be a major pediatric health problem, with recent increases in ingestions despite a number of public health interventions. It is unknown how changes in adult prescription drug use relate to pediatric medication poisonings. The objective of the study was to measure the association between changing adult prescription drug patterns and pediatric medication exposures and poisonings and identify high-risk classes of medications and pediatric age groups. METHODS: We measured monthly pediatric exposures and poisonings using the National Poison Data System and prescriptions written for adults using the National Ambulatory Medical Care Surveys for 2000 through 2009. Associations between adult prescriptions for oral hypoglycemics, antihyperlipidemics, ?-blockers, and opioids and exposures and poisonings among children 0 to 5, 6 to 12, and 13 to 19 years were analyzed by using multiple time-series analysis. Emergency department visits, serious injuries, and hospitalizations stemming from these associations were described. RESULTS: Adult medication prescriptions were statistically significantly associated with exposures and poisonings in children of all ages, with the strongest association observed for opioids. Across medications, the greatest risk was among children 0 to 5 years old, followed by 13- to 19-year-olds. Rates of emergency department visits were highest for events related to hypoglycemics (60.1%) and ?-blockers (59.7%), whereas serious injuries and hospitalizations occurred most frequently with opioids (26.8% and 35.2%, respectively) and hypoglycemics (19.5% and 49.4%, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Increasing adult drug prescriptions are strongly associated with rising pediatric exposures and poisonings, particularly for opioids and among children 0 to 5 years old. These associations have sizable impacts, including high rates of serious injury and health care use. PMID:23733792

Ayers, John W.; Brownstein, John S.; Bronstein, Alvin C.; Ewald, Michele Burns; Bourgeois, Florence T.

2013-01-01

459

Is it a Fish?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is on page 8 of the pdf, part of the Sea Life Discovery Box. This is an activity exploring the characteristics of fish. Learners are asked if they have seen a fish and what elements they saw that let them know it was a fish. A song about fish may be sung, engaging young learners. Pictures and a book about fish are viewed and important elements that fish have are noted: "tail fin," "dorsal fin," "pectoral fins," "pelvic fins." A clownfish puppet is shown and learners identify its fish characteristics.

Omsi

2004-01-01

460

Lead poisoning and parasitism in a flock of mute swans (Cygnus olor) in Scotland.  

PubMed

Increased mortality in a flock of non-breeding mute swans (Cygnus olor) on a Scottish loch was investigated. Postmortem examinations were carried out on eight adult and six immature swans. The commonest cause of death, found in eight birds, was lead poisoning associated with the ingestion of large lead fishing weights. Heavy parasitic burdens were found in five immature birds, involving combinations of the gizzard worm Amidostomum species, the thornyheaded worms Polymorphus minutus and Profilicollis anatis, and the tracheal trematode Orchipedum tracheicola. Other parasites of lesser significance were the biting louse Trinoton anserinum, the tapeworm Wardoides nyrocae, the hairworm Capillaria species and the intestinal trematode Echinoparyphium recurvatum. Eight of the 14 swans carried trematodes of the family Schistosomatidae, which may be involved in human cercarial dermatitis or 'swimmers' itch'. It is suggested that the increased mortality arose through a combination of increased numbers of swans on the loch, and a fall in the water level of the loch which exposed the birds to previously inaccessible lead fishing weights and to the intermediate hosts of a range of internal parasites. PMID:9460217

Pennycott, T W

1998-01-01

461

A tale of two systems: poisoning management in Iran and the United States  

PubMed Central

Poisoning morbidity and mortality is high in the developing world. Systems for care of poisoned patients differ markedly between countries. In this paper a comparison of two very different systems for the care of poisoned patients, is presented. Specifically, the role of poison centers and poison treatment centers in the US and Iran are contrasted. A systematic literature search was undertaken utilizing the PubMed, Scopus, and Google Scholar and the keywords “poison centers”, “treatment” “Iran” “United States of America” and 100 publications were identified. From these, relevant data were found in 23 publications. The information was double-checked and data were summarized herein. We find that the system of the care of poisoned patients relies heavily on certified poison centers in the US and that only a few hospitals have well developed medical toxicology services. In contrast, in Iran, the poison center system is somehow less developed and the care of poisoned patients is provided in centralized high volume hospital poison units. Although both the US and Iran have highly developed systems for the care of poisoned patients they are distinctly different. Comparative studies based on these systems could provide important data for developing countries with more rudimentary poison control and treatment facilities. PMID:23718923

2013-01-01

462

Acute Liver Failure Caused by Amanita phalloides Poisoning  

PubMed Central

Mushroom poisoning is a relatively rare cause of acute liver failure (ALF). The present paper analyzes the pathogenesis, clinical features, prognostic indicators, and therapeutic strategies of ALF secondary to ingestion of Amanita phalloides, which represents the most common and deadly cause of mushroom poisoning. Liver damage from Amanita phalloides is related to the amanitins, powerful toxins that inhibit RNA polymerase II resulting in a deficient protein synthesis and cell necrosis. After an asymptomatic lag phase, the clinical picture is characterized by gastrointestinal symptoms, followed by the liver and kidney involvement. Amatoxin poisoning may progress into ALF and eventually death if liver transplantation is not performed. The mortality rate after Amanita phalloides poisoning ranges from 10 to 20%. The management of amatoxin poisoning consists of preliminary medical care, supportive measures, detoxification therapies, and orthotopic liver transplantation. The clinical efficacy of any modality of treatment is difficult to demonstrate since randomized, controlled clinical trials have not been reported. The use of extracorporeal liver assist devices as well as auxiliary liver transplantation may represent additional therapeutic options. PMID:22811920

Santi, Luca; Maggioli, Caterina; Mastroroberto, Marianna; Tufoni, Manuel; Napoli, Lucia; Caraceni, Paolo

2012-01-01

463

Acute Liver Failure Caused by Amanita phalloides Poisoning.  

PubMed

Mushroom poisoning is a relatively rare cause of acute liver failure (ALF). The present paper analyzes the pathogenesis, clinical features, prognostic indicators, and therapeutic strategies of ALF secondary to ingestion of Amanita phalloides, which represents the most common and deadly cause of mushroom poisoning. Liver damage from Amanita phalloides is related to the amanitins, powerful toxins that inhibit RNA polymerase II resulting in a deficient protein synthesis and cell necrosis. After an asymptomatic lag phase, the clinical picture is characterized by gastrointestinal symptoms, followed by the liver and kidney involvement. Amatoxin poisoning may progress into ALF and eventually death if liver transplantation is not performed. The mortality rate after Amanita phalloides poisoning ranges from 10 to 20%. The management of amatoxin poisoning consists of preliminary medical care, supportive measures, detoxification therapies, and orthotopic liver transplantation. The clinical efficacy of any modality of treatment is difficult to demonstrate since randomized, controlled clinical trials have not been reported. The use of extracorporeal liver assist devices as well as auxiliary liver transplantation may represent additional therapeutic options. PMID:22811920

Santi, Luca; Maggioli, Caterina; Mastroroberto, Marianna; Tufoni, Manuel; Napoli, Lucia; Caraceni, Paolo

2012-01-01

464

Deactivation and poisoning of fuel cell catalysts, revision  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The unique aspects of catalysts in the electrical generating unit of fuel cells are discussed. Fuel cell catalysts suffer from deactivation and poisoning phenomena that are either identical to or strongly analogous to the processes which occur in heterogeneous catalysis. Fuel cell performance is degraded by poisoning from impurities, loss of surface area of noble metal, and physical deterioration of the catalyst structure. The fuel cell catalyst is an integral part of the physical structure of the electrical generator, and there are at present no designs which are able to employ catalyst regeneration. Therefore, catalyst deactivation and poisoning phenomena are even more serious technological problems in fuel cells than in conventional reactors. The deactivation and poisoning phenomena reviewed in this paper are: the poisoning of anode (fuel electrode) catalyst by carbon monoxide; the deactivation of the cathode (air electrode) catalyst by loss of Pt dispersion; and the deactivation of the cathode by corrosion processes. The fuel cell technology discussed in the context of this phenomena is the phosphoric acid fuel cell. The operating conditions for this technology are typically 180 to 210 C, 95 to 99% acid, and in pressurized versions 50 to 120 psig.

Ross, P. N., Jr.

1985-09-01

465

A Regional Poison Prevention Education Service-Learning Project  

PubMed Central

Objective To create a service-learning project to provide poison prevention education to preschool through fifth-grade students. Design The School of Pharmacy collaborated with the Illinois Poison Center and campus departments to train pharmacy students as poison prevention educators. Seventy-eight first-year pharmacy students developed and gave age-appropriate, interactive presentations to more than 8,000 students at preschools and elementary schools. Assessment Preintervention and postintervention evaluations and reflections were collected from the pharmacy students. Ninety-nine percent agreed that they enjoyed the experience and 88% stated that they would continue to provide poison prevention presentations. Based on written assessment of the presentations, most of the preschool and elementary teachers agreed or strongly agreed that the presentations were organized, clear, appropriate for the students, and relevant, and that the pharmacy students appeared knowledgeable and professional. Conclusion Poison prevention education was an appropriate service-learning project for pharmacy students and provided a beneficial service to the community. PMID:19002285

Wuller, William R.; Karpinski, Julie P.

2008-01-01

466

Olive leaf extract inhibits lead poisoning-induced brain injury  

PubMed Central

Olive leaves have an antioxidant capacity, and olive leaf extract can protect the blood, spleen and hippocampus in lead-poisoned mice. However, little is known about the effects of olive leaf extract on lead-induced brain injury. This study was designed to determine whether olive leaf extract can inhibit lead-induced brain injury, and whether this effect is associated with antioxidant capacity. First, we established a mouse model of lead poisoning by continuous intragastric administration of lead acetate for 30 days. Two hours after successful model establishment, lead-poisoned mice were given olive leaf extract at doses of 250, 500 or 1 000 mg/kg daily by intragastric administration for 50 days. Under the transmission electron microscope, olive leaf extract attenuated neuronal and capillary injury and reduced damage to organelles and the matrix around the capillaries in the frontal lobe of the cerebral cortex in the lead-poisoned mice. Olive leaf extract at a dose of 1 000 mg/kg had the greatest protective effect. Spectrophotometry showed that olive leaf extract significantly increased the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, alkaline phosphatase and acid phosphatase, while it reduced malondialdehyde content, in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, immunohistochemical staining revealed that olive leaf extract dose-dependently decreased Bax protein expression in the cerebral cortex of lead-poisoned mice. Our findings indicate that olive leaf extract can inhibit lead-induced brain injury by increasing antioxidant capacity and reducing apoptosis. PMID:25206510

Wang, Yu; Wang, Shengqing; Cui, Wenhui; He, Jiujun; Wang, Zhenfu; Yang, Xiaolu

2013-01-01

467

Development of Improved Burnable Poisons for Commercial Nuclear Power Reactors  

SciTech Connect

Burnable poisons are used in nuclear reactors to produce a more level distribution of power in the reactor core and to reduce to necessity for a large control system. An ideal burnable poison would burn at the same rate as the fuel. In this study, separation of neutron-absorbing isotopes was investigated in order to eliminate isotopes that remain as absorbers at the end of fuel life, thus reducing useful fuel life. The isotopes Gd-157, Dy-164, and Er-167 were found to have desirable properties. These isotopes were separated from naturally occurring elements by means of plasma separation to evaluate feasibility and cost. It was found that pure Gd-157 could save approximately $6 million at the end of four years. However, the cost of separation, using the existing facility, made separation cost- ineffective. Using a magnet with three times the field strength is expected to reduce the cost by a factor of ten, making isotopically separated burnable poisons a favorable method of increasing fuel life in commercial reactors, in particular Generation-IV reactors. The project also investigated various burnable poison configurations, and studied incorporation of metallic burnable poisons into fuel cladding.

M. L. Grossbeck J-P.A. Renier Tim Bigelow

2003-09-30

468

Diethylene glycol poisoning in Gurgaon, India, 1998.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To discover the cause of acute renal failure in 36 children aged 2 months to 6 years who were admitted to two hospitals in Delhi between 1 April and 9 June 1998. METHODS: Data were collected from hospital records, parents and doctors of the patients, and district health officials. Further information was obtained from house visits and community surveys; blood and stool samples were collected from other ill children, healthy family members and community contacts. Samples of drinking-water and water from a tube-well were tested for coliform organisms. FINDINGS: Most of the children (26/36) were from the Gurgaon district in Haryana or had visited Gurgaon town for treatment of a minor illness. Acute renal failure developed after an episode of acute febrile illness with or without watery diarrhoea or mild respiratory symptoms for which the children had been treated with unknown medicines by private medical practitioners. On admission to hospital the children were not dehydrated. Median blood urea concentration was 150 mg/dl (range 79-311 mg/dl) and median serum creatinine concentration was 5.6 mg/dl (range 2.6-10.8 mg/dl). Kidney biopsy showed acute tubular necrosis. Thirty-three children were known to have died despite being treated with peritoneal dialysis and supportive therapy. CONCLUSION: Cough expectorant manufactured by a company in Gurgaon was found to be contaminated with diethylene glycol (17.5% v/v), but a sample of acetaminophen manufactured by the same company tested negative for contamination when gas-liquid chromatography was used. Thus, poisoning with diethylene glycol seems to be the cause of acute renal failure in these children. PMID:11242827

Singh, J.; Dutta, A. K.; Khare, S.; Dubey, N. K.; Harit, A. K.; Jain, N. K.; Wadhwa, T. C.; Gupta, S. R.; Dhariwal, A. C.; Jain, D. C.; Bhatia, R.; Sokhey, J.

2001-01-01

469

Lead poisoning of sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Two wild and two captive sandhill cranes (Grm cnt~ndensisw) ere diagnosed by National Wildlife Health Laboratory personnel as having died from lead toxicity. Ingestion of lead fishing weights by the wild cranes and of unspent .22 caliber shell cartridges by the captive cranes were responsible for these deaths. One crane force-fed lead pellets showed an increase of blood lead levels from 0.77 ppm to 23.8 ppm (wet weight) just before its death 15 days following exposure. Liver lead concentrations of sandhill cranes dying of,causes other than lead toxicity are presented.

Windingstad, R.M.; Kerr, S.M.; Locke, L.N.; Hurt, J.J.

1984-01-01

470

49 CFR 174.680 - Division 6.1 (poisonous) materials with foodstuffs.  

...PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS CARRIAGE BY RAIL Detailed Requirements for Division 6.1 (Poisonous) Materials § 174.680 Division 6.1 (poisonous) materials...

2014-10-01

471

24 CFR 200.77 - Lead-based paint poisoning prevention.  

...Urban Development 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Lead-based paint poisoning prevention. 200.77 Section 200...for Existing Projects Property Requirements § 200.77 Lead-based paint poisoning prevention. Requirements set...

2014-04-01

472

24 CFR 242.81 - Lead-based paint poisoning prevention.  

...Urban Development 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Lead-based paint poisoning prevention. 242.81 Section 242...INSURANCE FOR HOSPITALS Miscellaneous Requirements § 242.81 Lead-based paint poisoning prevention. Requirements set...

2014-04-01

473

The Arizona Poison and Drug Information Center's toll-free line  

E-print Network

The Arizona Poison and Drug Information Center's toll-free line is always open. Call us if: · You and stings: insects, scorpions, spiders, and snakes. COMMON HOUSEHOLD POISONS Call right away! Don't wait

Arizona, University of

474

Factors associated with self-reported symptoms of acute pesticide poisoning among farmers in northwestern Jamaica  

PubMed Central

Pesticide poisoning is a major public health concern in developing countries. We conducted a population survey among farmers in three parishes of northwestern Jamaica to determine the occurrence of acute pesticide poisoning and to identify factors associated with pesticide poisoning. Approximately 16% of 359 farmers who participated in the study reported one or more incidents of acute pesticide poisoning within the last two years. Only 25% of the farmers reported ever receiving training in pesticide handling or safety. The majority (68%) of farmers who reported pesticide poisoning never sought medical attention for poisoning. The factors found to be associated with pesticide poisoning in this study indicate that implementation of specific intervention strategies and education of farmers is needed in order to improve safe handling, use and disposal of pesticides and reduce incidents of acute pesticide poisoning. PMID:24484363

Ncube, Ngqabutho M.; Fogo, Christopher; Bessler, Patricia; Jolly, Curtis M.; Jolly, Pauline E.

2011-01-01

475

Preventing Carbon Monoxide Poisoning: Information for Older Adults and Their Caregivers  

MedlinePLUS

... CO poisoning due to their high frequency of pre-existing medical conditions. 1 While CO alarms can ... poisoned by carbon monoxide exposure. Older adults with pre-existing conditions, such as chronic heart disease, anemia, ...

476

Acute formic acid poisoning in a rubber plantation worker  

PubMed Central

Among the workers in a rubber plantation in South India, ingestion of formic acid either accidentally or with suicidal intention is a common problem. Formic acid is diluted and used for coagulation of rubber latex. Easy availability makes formic acid a common poison. The aim of this article is to study the case of formic acid poisoning, its complications and management. Patient was managed symptomatically. Antidote was not used and no nasogastric aspiration was done. Patient had dysphagia; nutrition was maintained with open gastrostomy done on day 5 and subsequent enteral feeding. Measures to prevent anticipated complications were undertaken. Stricture of the esophagus is a common complication leading to long-term morbidity. After initial management, all patients should be on follow-up for prevention and management of strictures. Workers should be educated on complications of formic acid poisoning and easy availability should be curtailed by enforcing remedial measures. PMID:25006314

More, Dattatrai Kashinath; Vora, Mahmedsaeed; Wills, Vimod

2014-01-01

477

Toxicological profiles of poisonous, edible, and medicinal mushrooms.  

PubMed

Mushrooms are a recognized component of the human diet, with versatile medicinal properties. Some mushrooms are popular worldwide for their nutritional and therapeutic properties. However, some species are dangerous because they cause toxicity. There are many reports explaining the medicinal and/or toxic effects of these fungal species. Cases of serious human poisoning generally caused by the improper identification of toxic mushroom species are reported every year. Different substances responsible for the fatal signs and symptoms of mushroom toxicity have been identified from various poisonous mushrooms. Toxicity studies of mushroom species have demonstrated that mushroom poisoning can cause adverse effects such as liver failure, bradycardia, chest pain, seizures, gastroenteritis, intestinal fibrosis, renal failure, erythromelalgia, and rhabdomyolysis. Correct categorization and better understanding are essential for the safe and healthy consumption of mushrooms as functional foods as well as for their medicinal use. PMID:25346597

Jo, Woo-Sik; Hossain, Md Akil; Park, Seung-Chun

2014-09-01

478

Genetic susceptibility to lead poisoning-A case report.  

PubMed

Lead poisoning is well documented in persons occupationally exposed to lead. What is less known is, that even in persons working in lead based industries, the effect of lead and the appearance of signs and symptoms of lead poisoning is genetically determined. Three genes related to lead metabolism, exhibiting polymorphism have already been demonstrated-?ALA-dehydratase, Vitamin D receptor gene and Hemochromatosis gene. These alleles determine the susceptibility of the individuals to lead. We present here a case of a lead acid battery worker, who presented without any signs and symptoms of lead poisoning except for a very high level of blood lead (82.8?g/dl and 47.5?g/dl 9 months later). PMID:23105707

Bijoor, Anita R; Venkatesh, T

2007-09-01

479

How Should Staphylococcal Food Poisoning Outbreaks Be Characterized?  

PubMed Central

Staphylococcal food poisoning is one of the most common food-borne diseases and results from the ingestion of staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs) preformed in food by enterotoxigenic strains of Staphylococcus aureus. To date, more than 20 SEs have been described: SEA to SElV. All SEs have superantigenic activity whereas only a few have been proved to be emetic, representing a potential hazard for consumers. Characterization of staphylococcal food poisoning outbreaks (SFPOs) has considerably progressed compared to 80 years ago, when staphylococci were simply enumerated and only five enterotoxins were known for qualitative detection. Today, SFPOs can be characterized by a number of approaches, such as the identification of S. aureus biovars, PCR and RT-PCR methods to identify the se genes involved, immunodetection of specific SEs, and absolute quantification by mass spectrometry. An integrated gene-to-protein approach for characterizing staphylococcal food poisoning is advocated. PMID:22069675

Hennekinne, Jacques-Antoine; Ostyn, Annick; Guillier, Florence; Herbin, Sabine; Prufer, Anne-Laure; Dragacci, Sylviane

2010-01-01

480

Neuropsychological performance in patients with carbon monoxide poisoning.  

PubMed

This study investigated changes in cognitive function in acute and delayed carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning groups with comprehensive neuropsychological tests at 1 month and 6 months after therapy. For this study, 11 patients with acute and 14 with delayed CO poisoning were recruited. The neuropsychological tests included psychomotor speed, visual-spatial ability, language, logical memory, working memory, and executive function. The results showed that patients with delayed neuropsychiatric syndrome (DNS) had poorer performance on neuropsychological tasks than did those with acute CO poisoning at the 1st month and reached almost the same level as the acute group on the neuropsychological tasks at the 6-month follow-up assessment. The DNS group had more significant progress on general cognitive function, psychomotor speed, and visual-spatial ability than did the acute group after continuous hyperbaric-oxygen therapy. PMID:25265309

Yeh, Zai-Ting; Tsai, Chung-Fen; Yip, Ping-Keung; Lo, Chiao-Yu; Peng, Su-Min; Chen, Shao-Yuan; Kung, Lan-Yu

2014-01-01

481

Toxicological Profiles of Poisonous, Edible, and Medicinal Mushrooms  

PubMed Central

Mushrooms are a recognized component of the human diet, with versatile medicinal properties. Some mushrooms are popular worldwide for their nutritional and therapeutic properties. However, some species are dangerous because they cause toxicity. There are many reports explaining the medicinal and/or toxic effects of these fungal species. Cases of serious human poisoning generally caused by the improper identification of toxic mushroom species are reported every year. Different substances responsible for the fatal signs and symptoms of mushroom toxicity have been identified from various poisonous mushrooms. Toxicity studies of mushroom species have demonstrated that mushroom poisoning can cause adverse effects such as liver failure, bradycardia, chest pain, seizures, gastroenteritis, intestinal fibrosis, renal failure, erythromelalgia, and rhabdomyolysis. Correct categorization and better understanding are essential for the safe and healthy consumption of mushrooms as functional foods as well as for their medicinal use. PMID:25346597

Jo, Woo-Sik; Hossain, Md. Akil

2014-01-01

482

Liquid Chromatographic Determination of Amnesic Shellfish Poison in Mussels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A simple, rapid, high-performance liquid chromatographic experiment suitable for undergraduate students is described for determining amnesic shellfish poison in mussels. The poison itself is an unusual naturally occurring amino acid, domoic acid, that has been found in seafood, particularly shellfish, worldwide. The symptoms of poisoning include amnesia (memory loss), loss of balance, mental confusion, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, coma, and in extreme cases death. The domoic acid is extracted from homogenized mussel tissue by boiling in water for 5 minutes. The homogenate is cooled and centrifuged, and an aliquot of the supernatant is diluted and analyzed by isocratic HPLC using a C18 column and an acetonitrile-water mobile phase at pH 2.5 with UV detection at 242 nm.

Duxbury, Mark

2000-10-01

483

Lead poisoning of raptors in France and elsewhere.  

PubMed

Although lead poisoning, through the ingestion of gunshot embedded in prey, is known to have been a significant mortality factor for several raptor species in the United States (Haliaeetus leucocephalus and Gymnogyps Californianus), very little published information is available concerning raptors in Europe. This paper presents the results of liver lead analysis from 222 raptors collected throughout France and reviews other published and unpublished European information. Of the 11 diurnal and 6 nocturnal raptor species investigated in this study, elevated liver lead concentrations, suggestive of shot ingestion, were found in 3 (Accipiter nisus, A. gentilis, Buteo buteo). The likelihood of a species to ingest shot appears related to feeding habits, with scavengers and predators that take game species the most susceptible. Raptor species at risk from lead poisoning, including some of high conservation value, are described, and future priorities for lead poisoning research and policy are suggested. PMID:7682502

Pain, D J; Amiard-Triquet, C

1993-04-01

484

Features of myocardial injury in severe organophosphate poisoning.  

PubMed

Abstract Background. In organophosphate (OP) poisoning cardiac complications may occur. However, the current body of knowledge largely consists of limited studies, and case reports are mainly on electrocardiogram (ECG) abnormalities. As definite myocardial injury is difficult to assess through ECG, we investigated the prevalence of myocardial injury through cardiac biochemical markers such as troponin I (TnI) in severe OP poisoning. Methods. We conducted a retrospective review of 99 consecutive OP insecticide poisoning cases that were diagnosed and treated at the emergency department of the Wonju Severance Christian Hospital between March 2008 and December 2013. Results. Based on Namba classification for OP poisoning, there were no patients with mild toxicity, 9 patients (9.1%) with moderate toxicity and 90 patients (90.9%) with severe toxicity. On ECG, normal sinus rhythm was most common, and ST depression and elevation were seen in 11 patients (11.1%). Elevation of TnI within 48 h was seen in 34 patients (34.3%). The median peak level and peak time of TnI were 0.305 (IQR, 0.078-2.335) ng/mL and 15 (IQR 6.9-34.4) hours, respectively. There were differences between patients with normal TnI and elevated TnI in terms of age (yrs), number of patients who were exposed to OP via the oral route, and initial Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS; 58 ± 17 vs. 66 ± 16, p = 0.015, 56 [87.5%] vs. 33 [97.1%], p = 0.048 and 12.0 [IQR, 8.0-15.0] vs. 9.0 [IQR, 5.8-12.0], p = 0.019). Conclusions. OP can cause direct myocardial injury during the acute early phase in severe OP poisoning. Monitoring of TnI may be needed in severe OP poisoning. PMID:25116419

Cha, Y S; Kim, H; Go, J; Kim, T H; Kim, O H; Cha, K C; Lee, K H; Hwang, S O

2014-09-01

485

Poisoning due to amatoxin-containing Lepiota species.  

PubMed

Twenty-seven consecutive mushroom poisoning cases were followed up over a period of 14 days. Fourteen out of 27 died of liver failure. There were no deaths from renal failure. The mushrooms were identified as the amatoxin-containing Lepiota species. Therapeutic measures included nasogastric lavage, charcoal, vitamin C, vitamin B, penicillin G, corticosteroids, oral streptomycin and, in the case of a few patients, limited amounts of thioctic acid. Of the ten haemodialysed, nine died. Unfortunately charcoal haemoperfusion was not available. It appeared that therapeutic measures were ineffective and it also seemed that the amount of mushroom ingested was the determining factor for the prognosis. An important point to make is that renal failure does not occur and liver failure is always delayed (group II). For this reason all suspected cases of mushroom poisoning, regardless of absence of clinical signs and symptoms, must be hospitalised for a period of at least one week. The poisonous properties of wild mushrooms have been recognized since ancient times. However, despite awareness of their inherent dangers, serious poisoning continues to occur. Fatal intoxications can be attributed almost entirely to the amtoxin-containing species. Amanita phalloides have been blamed for over 90% of poisoning deaths in North America. There are reports of intoxications of other amatoxin-containing species in Europe, but fatalities due to Lepiota species are reported only rarely. It was previously acknowledged that the interval between ingestion of mushrooms and the onset of symptoms is longer than expected in serious poisonings.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2282295

Paydas, S; Kocak, R; Erturk, F; Erken, E; Zaksu, H S; Gurcay, A

1990-11-01

486

Australian Museum Fish Site  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Recently redesigned, the Australian Museum Fish Site contains a host of resources for researchers, students, and interested visitors. The heart of the site is the Find a Fish section, a collection of hundreds of fact sheets on fish, sorted by common or scientific name. Each fact sheet includes a quick overview, one or more images, and suggestions for further reading. Visitors can also identify fish pictorially using the Identify a Fish section, which links back to the fact sheets. Other offerings include further information on the Museum's fish department, a student section, some short underwater movies, related links, a FAQ, and an internal search engine.

487

Argemone mexicana poisoning: autopsy findings of two cases.  

PubMed

Epidemic dropsy, a disease due to Argemone mexicana poisoning, is characterized by pathological accumulation of diluted lymph in body tissues and cavities. Recently, the largest epidemic of the disease in India affected Delhi and its neighboring states during the months of August-September 1998. Over 3000 persons fell ill, and more than 65 died in the state of Delhi alone. Two cases belonging to the same family died, out of the large number of cases admitted in this tertiary care teaching hospital situated in eastern part of Delhi. Autopsy findings of these two cases are presented and discussed here along with the review of toxicity due to this poisoning. PMID:11056284

Verma, S K; Dev, G; Tyagi, A K; Goomber, S; Jain, G V

2001-01-01

488

[Fatal colchicine poisoning--case report and review of literature].  

PubMed

Colchicine is a natural pseudo-alkaloid found in plants such as the autumn crocus (Colchicum autumnale) and glory lily (Gloriosa superba), which is used to treat gout and some other rheumatological disease. Colchicine binds to tubuline and prevents its polymerization into microtubules. It is thus able to impair those cellular functions that involve microtubules, eg. it arrests mitosis in metaphase. Tissues with high mitotic activity are preferentially affected. We report suicidal colchicine poisoning leading to death after 61 hours. Clinical course was typical for colchicine action. We observed severe diarrhea, cardiovascular shock, ARDS, multiorgan system failure and DIC. Postmortem toxicological studies confirm colchicine poisoning. PMID:21387793

Kicka, Mariusz; Olszowy, Zofia; Jankowski, Zbigniew; Celi?ski, Rafa?; K?opotowski, Tomasz; Bazylewicz, Anna; Mi?kiewicz, ?ukasz; Picheta, Sebastian

2010-01-01

489

Urban Lead Poisoning and Medical Geology: An Unfinished Story  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This GSA Today article presents the results of a study that examined the spatial relationship between lead toxicity in children and proximity to metropolitan roadways in Indianapolis, Indiana. The study concluded that the persistence of lead in surface soils is a potential route for the poisoning of urban youth, with socioeconomic status being a large contributor to the problem in areas with high ambient soil lead. The article also discusses the history of lead exposure and toxicity through paint, gasoline, and other sources, as well as the biochemical processes that incorporate lead and the neurological effects of lead poisoning. Figures and references accompany the text.

Filippelli, Gabriel M.; Laidlaw, Mark A.; Latimer, Jennifer C.; Raftis, Robyn; Today, Gsa

490

[A clinical analysis of twelve patients with Galerina autumnalis poisoning].  

PubMed

Twelve patients with Galerina Autumnalis (GA) poisoning were treated. Amatoxin and phallotoxin are the principal toxins of GA. After absorption from intestine into the liver, the toxins combine with RNA polymerase, resulting in block of messenger (mRNA) synthesis, hepatocellular damage, hepatitis, hepatic necrosis, serious coagulation abnormalities and DIC. The clinical characteristics are long latent period, short period of "pseudo-remission" and serious liver dysfunction. These were pathologically confirmed by autopsy. Our experiences with this poisoning are as follows: treatment should be carried out as early as possible, especially with gastric lavage and catharsis and special attention paid to the "pseudo-remission". PMID:8033656

Yin, W; Yang, Z R

1993-12-01

491

Mitochondrial degeneration after organic phosphate poisoning in prosimian primates.  

PubMed

The degenerative reaction of mitochondria to tricresylphosphate (TCP) poisoning in spinal ganglion cells of Slow Loris (Nycticebus coucang coucang) were studied with the electron microscope. In neurones of animals treated with TCP, mitochondria display various stages of alterations which confirm mitochondrial involvement in TCP poisoning. The role of degenerated mitochondria in the formation of neuronal lipofuscin is discussed. It is suggested that the lipofuscin granule is a metabolic product inherently related to mitochondrial degeneration, irrespective of the primary cause: ageing or intoxication. PMID:401474

Ahmed, M M; Glees, P

1977-01-01

492

Evaluation of REMEDi HS in the diagnosis of dimethoate poisoning.  

PubMed

The authors describe the evaluation of an automated rapid emergency drug profiling system (REMEDi HS), which is designed for clinical toxicology and therapeutic drug monitoring, in a severe case of dimethoate poisoning. Successful qualitative and quantitative determination of dimethoate in diluted serum samples was achieved. The authors found that dimethoate serum concentrations were properly measured with the REMEDi method and well correlated with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The results provide evidence that besides screening and rapid estimation of drug concentrations in human fluids, this system is a suitable tool in cases of symptomatic dimethoate poisoning. PMID:11897975

Regenthal, Ralf; Krueger, Mario; Trauer, Heiner; Boehm, Reinhard; Preiss, Rainer

2002-04-01

493

POISON RESISTANT CATALYST DEVELOPMENT AND TESTING  

SciTech Connect

The Alternative Fuels Field Test Unit (AFFTU) is a portable laboratory designed specifically to provide on-site evaluation of potential feedstocks for processes that produce alternative fuels from indigenous raw materials such as coal, natural gas or environmentally disadvantaged carbonaceous feedstocks. Since conversion of these raw materials into feed gas streams can produce a variety of bulk gas compositions, which furthermore can contain a myriad of trace components, it is necessary to evaluate each new feedstock on an individual basis. While it is possible to prepare blended gas mixtures to simulate the bulk composition of a known feedstock, it is neither possible nor cost-effective to simulate adequately the variety of trace chemicals present in that feedstock--some of which may not even be detected by routine analysis. Additionally, the transient composition of the gas during upsets or routine process changes may have an impact on the proposed process that is not foreseen in standard design. To address these concerns, the AFFTU was constructed with the following experimental capabilities: (1) A state-of-the-art gas chromatograph system to perform semi-continuous monitoring of both bulk composition and the concentration of key trace poisons down to one part per billion (ppb). (2) A 30-mL reactor system that can accept up to two feed streams from the customer, allowing a true life test with the actual gas projected for use in the proposed facility. (3) A manifold of four adsorbent beds, located upstream of the reactor, which permits the testing of adsorbents for the removal of contaminants from the feed stream. The effectiveness of these adsorbents may be evaluated either by analysis of the gas upstream and downstream of the bed (or at an intermediate point within the bed) or by observing the impact of the presence or absence of that bed on the actual stability of the catalyst activity. To achieve portability, the AFFTU was constructed in a commercial 48-foot trailer. Roughly half of the trailer is dedicated as ''office'' space, and it contains three personal computers that serve as an interface to the process control and handles data acquisition and analysis. The other half houses the laboratory, which is highly automated and designed for unattended operation. When not in use at a customer's site, the AFFTU is located at Air Products' Iron Run research facility, where it becomes an effective extension of the Alternative Fuels research laboratories.

Andrew W. Wang

2001-03-29

494

Developed by the Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention Program Geographic Information System Workgroup  

E-print Network

Developed by the Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention Program Geographic Information System Workgroup December, 2004 Using GIS to Assess and Direct Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention Guidance for State and Local Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention Programs #12;#12;Using GIS to Assess and Direct