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Sample records for puffer fish poisoning

  1. A Case Report of Puffer Fish Poisoning in Singapore

    PubMed Central

    Yong, Y. S.; Quek, L. S.; Lim, E. K.; Ngo, A.

    2013-01-01

    Although many Asians regard puffer fish as a delicacy since ancient times, puffer fish (Lageocephalus scitalleratus) is also a well-known source of possibly lethal food poisoning. The fish is gaining popularity in Singapore and can be found in quite a few restaurants now. Puffer fish contains tetrodotoxin (TTX), a potent poison affecting the neural pathway. Puffer fish poisoning may cause a constellation of symptoms, such as giddiness, numbness and tingling sensation of the mouth, paresthesia, and muscle weakness. Severe cases may present with respiratory depression, circulatory failure, and death. TTX poisonings have been reported in Japan, Taiwan, Hong Kong, Bangladesh, and the United States (Haque et al. 2008). We report a case of mild poisoning and suggest observation for such cases. PMID:24368916

  2. Tetrodotoxin poisoning outbreak from imported dried puffer fish--Minneapolis, Minnesota, 2014.

    PubMed

    Cole, Jon B; Heegaard, William G; Deeds, Jonathan R; McGrath, Sara C; Handy, Sara M

    2015-01-01

    On June 13, 2014, two patients went to the Hennepin County Medical Center Emergency Department in Minneapolis, Minnesota, with symptoms suggestive of tetrodotoxin poisoning (i.e., oral paresthesias, weakness, and dyspnea) after consuming dried puffer fish (also known as globefish) purchased during a recent visit to New York City. The patients said two friends who consumed the same fish had similar, although less pronounced, symptoms and had not sought care. The Minnesota Department of Health conducted an investigation to determine the source of the product and samples were sent to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition for chemical and genetic analysis. Genetic analysis identified the product as puffer fish (Lagocephalus lunaris) and chemical analysis determined it was contaminated with high levels of tetrodotoxin. A traceback investigation was unable to determine the original source of the product. Tetrodotoxin is a deadly, potent poison; the minimum lethal dose in an adult human is estimated to be 2-3 mg. Tetrodotoxin is a heat-stable and acid-stable, nonprotein, alkaloid toxin found in many species of the fish family Tetraodontidae (puffer fish) as well as in certain gobies, amphibians, invertebrates, and the blue-ringed octopus. Tetrodotoxin exerts its effects by blocking voltage-activated sodium channels, terminating nerve conduction and muscle action potentials, leading to progressive paralysis and, in extreme cases, to death from respiratory failure. Because these fish were reportedly purchased in the United States, they pose a substantial U.S. public health hazard given the potency of the toxin and the high levels of toxin found in the fish. PMID:25551594

  3. Multiple outbreaks of puffer fish intoxication in Bangladesh, 2008.

    PubMed

    Homaira, Nusrat; Rahman, Mahmudur; Luby, Stephen P; Rahman, Mostafizur; Haider, Mohammad Sabbir; Faruque, Labib Imran; Khan, Dawlat; Parveen, Shahana; Gurley, Emily S

    2010-08-01

    During April and June 2008, we investigated three outbreaks of marine puffer fish intoxication in three districts of Bangladesh (Narshingdi, Natore, and Dhaka). We also explored trade of marine puffer fish in Cox's Bazaar, a coastal area of the country. We identified 95 people who had consumed puffer fish; 63 (66%) developed toxicity characterized by tingling sensation in the body, perioral numbness, dizziness, and weakness, 14 of them died. All three outbreaks were caused by consumption of large (0.2-1.5 kg) marine puffer fish, sold in communities where people were unfamiliar with the marine variety of the fish and its toxicity. Coastal fishermen reported that some local businessmen distributed the fresh fish to non-coastal parts of the country, where people were unfamiliar with the larger variety, to make a quick profit. Lack of knowledge about marine puffer toxicity contributed to the outbreaks. Health communication campaigns will enhance people's knowledge and may prevent future outbreaks. PMID:20682896

  4. CIGUATERA: TROPICAL FISH POISONING

    E-print Network

    .0...... ............ ......... I4 Outbreaks of Poisoning .0. ................... ............ 5 Theories Regarding Fish Poisoning . ....... ' 7 Endogenuous Origin ... . .. ....... Bacterial Origin of an Outbreak of Barracuda Poisoning in St. Thomas,, V. I. ......................... 17 JjlSCUbu lOil 0000000000

  5. Poisoning - fish and shellfish

    MedlinePLUS

    ... contaminated waters. Scombroid poisoning usually occurs from large, dark meat fish such as tuna, mackerel, mahi mahi, and albacore. Because this poison develops after a fish is caught and dies, it does not matter where the fish is caught. The main factor ...

  6. Biological Activities of Tetrodotoxin-Producing Enterococcus faecium AD1 Isolated from Puffer Fishes

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Tu Hoang Khue; Nguyen, Huu Ngoc; Nghe, Dat Van; Nguyen, Kim Hoang

    2015-01-01

    Puffer fishes were collected from the central sea in Vietnam from spring to summer season. The eggs were incubated in MRS broth that was used to test the toxicity in mice and isolate the lactic acid bacteria community that could produce tetrodotoxin (TTX). Thin layer chromatography (TLC) and high performance lipid chromatography (HPLC) were used to detect and quantify TTX. As a result, Enterococcus faecium AD1 which was identified by biochemical test and 16S rRNA analysis could produce TTX 0.3?mg/mL when cultured in MRS broth. The bacterium was optimized for TTX production and gave 0.18?mg/mL, 0.07?mg/mL, and 0.15?mg/mL in media prepared from the meat-washing water of freshwater fishes (Pangasius bocourti, Oreochromis sp.) and sea fish (Auxis thazard), respectively, that are also hopeful to answer some poisoning cases related to eating fishes. Enterococcus faecium also showed the wide antimicrobial activities on yeast, Gram-negative and -positive bacteria. Extracted exopolysaccharide (EPS) that reacted with 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl to give IC50 at 5?mg/mL equaled 11?mg/mL ascorbic acid which could show effects on Hela-6 and Hep G2 using sulforhodamine B test. Enterococcus faecium can be claimed as a promising source in tetrodotoxin and biological compounds. PMID:26380310

  7. Ciguatera Fish Poisoning

    MedlinePLUS

    ... be adversely affected by toxic or harmful marine algae. + Causative algae implicated, not confirmed. Medical Community Ciguatera Fish Poisoning ... Contact Us | Related Links | Site Map The Harmful Algae Page is supported by a National Oceanic and ...

  8. Effects of crude oil and dispersed crude oil on the critical swimming speed of puffer fish, Takifugu rubripes.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiaoming; Xu, Chuancai; Liu, Haiying; Xing, Binbin; Chen, Lei; Zhang, Guosheng

    2015-05-01

    In order to examine the effects of crude oil and dispersed crude oil (DCO) on the swimming ability of puffer fish, Takifugu rubripes, the critical swimming speeds (U crit) of fish exposed to different concentrations of water-soluble fraction (WSF) of crude oil and DCO solution were determined in a swimming flume. WSF and DCO significantly affected the U crit of puffer fish (p < 0.05). The U crit of puffer fish exposed to 136 mg L(-1) WSF and 56.4 mg L(-1) DCO decreased 48.7 % and 43.4 %, respectively. DCO was more toxic to puffer fish than WSF. These results suggested that crude oil and chemically dispersed oil could weaken the swimming ability of puffer fish. PMID:25733446

  9. [Ciguatera fish poisoning].

    PubMed

    Oehler, Erwan; Bouchut, Jérémie

    2014-09-01

    Ciguatera, an ichtyosarcotoxism linked to the consumption of usually healthy coral fish is a common poisoning in the Pacific, Caribbean and Indian Ocean where it is endemic. However, increased tourism and commercial transportation of tropical fish for consumption make it an unexceptional intoxication in countries away from its endemic area. Environmental stresses such as climate changes also contribute to the expansion of its geographical area. The non-specific clinical symptomatology is characterized by the occurrence of gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, nervous and general signs few hours after eating a ciguatoxic fish. The diagnosis is clinical and relatively easy in endemic areas but much less for physicians who are rarely confronted with, which is a source of prolonged diagnostic delays and a significant increase in spending. Treatment of ciguatera is symptomatic but new treatments, still experimental, give a real hope for the future. PMID:25001048

  10. Efficiency of a rapid test for detection of tetrodotoxin in puffer fish.

    PubMed

    Thattiyaphong, Aree; Unahalekhaka, Jirapa; Mekha, Nanthawan; Nispa, Wansatip; Kluengklangdon, Panawan; Rojanapantip, Laddawan

    2014-01-01

    The selling and importing of puffer fish species and their products was banned in Thailand in 2002, because of possible neurotoxic effects. However, the sale of their flesh is still happening in Thai markets. Standard methods for toxin quantification (HPLC and LC-MS) have significant limitations, therefore a lateral flow, immuno-chromatographic test (TTX-IC) was developed as a tool for rapid detection of toxin. A total of 750 puffer fishes (387 Lagocephalus lunaris(LL), and 363 Lagocephalus spadiceus (LS)) and 100 edible fishes were caught in Thailand from June 2011-February 2012. Screening of TTX from their flesh by TTX-IC revealed that 69 samples (17.8%) of LL possessed TTX at dangerous levels but LS and edible fishes did not. A selected 339 samples were quantified by LC-MS/MS, showing 50 LL possessed TTX at dangerous levels. Comparison of results with LC-MS/MS showed the TTX-IC to have 94.0% sensitivity and 92.4% specificity. The TTX-IC will be a useful tool for TTX screening of a large number of samples, reducing the testing required by LC-MS/MS, thus reducing costs. All positive cases found should be confirmed by standard methods. PMID:24295175

  11. Bacterial diversity in the intestine of young farmed puffer fish Takifugu rubripes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yanyu; Zhang, Tao; Zhang, Congyao; Zhu, Ying; Ding, Jianfeng; Ma, Yuexin

    2015-07-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the bacterial community associated with the intestinal mucus of young farmed puffer fish Takifugu rubripes. Polymerase chain reaction and partial 16S rDNA sequencing was performed on DNA from bacteria cultivated on Zobell 2216E medium. All the isolates were classified into two phyla—Proteobacteria and Firmicutes. Proteobacteria were the dominant, culturable intestinal microbiota (68.3%). At the genus level, Vibrio, Enterobacter, Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Exiguobacterium, Staphylococcus, Acinetobacter, Pseudoalteromonas and Shewanella were isolated from the intestine, with representatives of the genera Vibrio, Enterobacter and Bacillus accounting for 70.7% of the total. This is the first report of Enterobacter, Bacillus, Exiguobacterium and Staphylococcus as part of the intestinal bacterial microflora in T. rubripes. The profile of the culturable bacterial community differed between samples collected from the same tank at 2-month intervals, as indicated by Bray-Curtis and Sorensen indices, and the impact on the intestinal physiology and health of puffer fish requires further investigation.

  12. Captain Cook on poison fish.

    PubMed

    Doherty, Michael J

    2005-12-13

    On his second voyage of discovery, Captain James Cook charted much of the South Pacific. The journey was long, from 1772 to 1775. During the exploration, the geographic, ethnographic, and scientific variety provided no shortage of work for the accompanying naturalists, astronomers, navigators, and painters. Culinary discoveries included new species of fish, many of which were sketched, dressed, and ultimately eaten. The examined journals and correspondence document clinical poisonings after ingestion of two different species of fish. The clinical findings are described and likely represent ciguatera and tetrodotoxin poisonings. Mechanisms of these toxin's actions are discussed in light of more recent studies. PMID:16344524

  13. Universal spectrum for DNA base CG frequency distribution in Takifugu rubripes (Puffer fish) genome

    E-print Network

    A. M. Selvam

    2011-03-04

    The frequency distribution of DNA bases A, C, G, T exhibit fractal fluctuations ubiquitous to dynamical systems in nature. The power spectra of fractal fluctuations exhibit inverse power law form signifying long-range correlations between local (small-scale) and global (large-scale) perturbations. The author has developed a general systems theory based on classical statistical physics for fractal fluctuations which predicts that the probability distribution of eddy amplitudes and the variance (square of eddy amplitude)spectrum of fractal fluctuations follow the universal Boltzmann inverse power law expressed as a function of the golden mean. The model predicted distribution is very close to statistical normal distribution for fluctuations within two standard deviations from the mean and exhibits a fat long tail. In this paper it is shown that DNA base CG frequency distribution in Takifugu rubripes (Puffer fish) Genome Release 4 exhibit universal inverse power law form consistent with model prediction. The observed long-range correlations in the DNA bases implies that the non-coding 'junk' or 'selfish' DNA which appear to be redundant, may also contribute to the efficient functioning of the protein coding DNA, a result supported by recent studies.

  14. Ciguatera fish poisoning in the Solomon Islands.

    PubMed

    Oreihaka, E

    1992-01-01

    Ciguatera fish poisoning may have existed in the Solomon Islands long ago though there has never been any ciguatera fish poisoning tests been carried to confirm its presence. Suspected occurrences are infrequent and seasonal. Most cases of ciguatera fish poisoning are undocumented that when cases do occur they depend largely on traditional-knowledge and anecdotal information. Areas suspected to have ciguatoxic poisoning problem in the Solomon Islands includes Santa Cruz, Rennell and Bellona, Indispensable reefs, Ontong Java and Wagina island. Fish species considered ciguatoxic includes red emperor, red snapper, roundfaced batfish, barracuda and blue lined sea-bream. In any way ciguatera fish poisoning is as yet not a big health problem in the Solomon Islands. PMID:1340336

  15. Gill transcriptome response to changes in environmental calcium in the green spotted puffer fish

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Calcium ion is tightly regulated in body fluids and for euryhaline fish, which are exposed to rapid changes in environmental [Ca2+], homeostasis is especially challenging. The gill is the main organ of active calcium uptake and therefore plays a crucial role in the maintenance of calcium ion homeostasis. To study the molecular basis of the short-term responses to changing calcium availability, the whole gill transcriptome obtained by Super Serial Analysis of Gene Expression (SuperSAGE) of the euryhaline teleost green spotted puffer fish, Tetraodon nigroviridis, exposed to water with altered [Ca2+] was analysed. Results Transfer of T. nigroviridis from 10 ppt water salinity containing 2.9 mM Ca2+ to high (10 mM Ca2+ ) and low (0.01 mM Ca2+) calcium water of similar salinity for 2-12 h resulted in 1,339 differentially expressed SuperSAGE tags (26-bp transcript identifiers) in gills. Of these 869 tags (65%) were mapped to T. nigroviridis cDNAs or genomic DNA and 497 (57%) were assigned to known proteins. Thirteen percent of the genes matched multiple tags indicating alternative RNA transcripts. The main enriched gene ontology groups belong to Ca2+ signaling/homeostasis but also muscle contraction, cytoskeleton, energy production/homeostasis and tissue remodeling. K-means clustering identified co-expressed transcripts with distinct patterns in response to water [Ca2+] and exposure time. Conclusions The generated transcript expression patterns provide a framework of novel water calcium-responsive genes in the gill during the initial response after transfer to different [Ca2+]. This molecular response entails initial perception of alterations, activation of signaling networks and effectors and suggests active remodeling of cytoskeletal proteins during the initial acclimation process. Genes related to energy production and energy homeostasis are also up-regulated, probably reflecting the increased energetic needs of the acclimation response. This study is the first genome-wide transcriptome analysis of fish gills and is an important resource for future research on the short-term mechanisms involved in the gill acclimation responses to environmental Ca2+ changes and osmoregulation. PMID:20716350

  16. Claudins in a primary cultured puffer fish (Tetraodon nigroviridis) gill epithelium model alter in response to acute seawater exposure.

    PubMed

    Bui, Phuong; Kelly, Scott P

    2015-11-01

    Gill epithelium permeability and qualitative/quantitative aspects of gill claudin (cldn) tight junction (TJ) protein transcriptomics were examined with a primary cultured model gill epithelium developed using euryhaline puffer fish (Tetraodon nigroviridis) gills. The model was prepared using seawater-acclimated fish gills and was cultured on permeable cell culture filter supports. The model is composed of 1-2 confluent layers of gill pavement cells (PVCs), with the outer layer exhibiting prominent apical surface microridges and TJs between adjacent cells. During development of electrophysiological characteristics, the model exhibits a sigmoidal increase in transpithelial resistance (TER) and plateaus around 30 k?cm(2). At this point paracellular movement of [(3)H]polyethylene glycol (PEG) 4000 was low at ~1.75 cm s(-1)×10(-7). When exposed to apical seawater (SW) epithelia exhibit a marked decrease in TER while PEG flux remained unchanged for at least 6 h. In association with this, transcript encoding cldn TJ proteins cldn3c, -23b, -27a, -27c, -32a and -33b increased during the first 6 h while cldn11a decreased. This suggests that these proteins are involved in maintaining barrier properties between gill PVCs of SW fishes. Gill cldn mRNA abundance also altered 6 and 12 h following abrupt SW exposure of puffer fish, but in a manner that differed qualitatively and quantitatively from the cultured model. This most likely reflects the cellular heterogeneity of whole tissue and/or the contribution of the endocrine system in intact fish. The current study provides insight into the physiological and transcriptomic response of euryhaline fish gill cells to a hyperosmotic environment. PMID:26239219

  17. Detection of Tetrodotoxins in Puffer Fish by a Self-Assembled Monolayer-Based Immunoassay and Comparison with Surface Plasmon Resonance, LC-MS/MS, and Mouse Bioassay.

    PubMed

    Reverté, Laia; de la Iglesia, Pablo; Del Río, Vanessa; Campbell, Katrina; Elliott, Christopher T; Kawatsu, Kentaro; Katikou, Panagiota; Diogène, Jorge; Campàs, Mònica

    2015-11-01

    The increasing occurrence of puffer fish containing tetrodotoxin (TTX) in the Mediterranean could represent a major food safety risk for European consumers and threaten the fishing industry. The work presented herein describes the development of a new enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (mELISA) based on the immobilization of TTX through dithiol monolayers self-assembled on maleimide plates, which provides an ordered and oriented antigen immobilization and favors the antigen-antibody affinity interaction. The mELISA was found to have a limit of detection (LOD) of TTX of 0.23 mg/kg of puffer fish matrix. The mELISA and a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) immunosensor previously developed were employed to establish the cross-reactivity factors (CRFs) of 5,6,11-trideoxy-TTX, 5,11-deoxy-TTX, 11-nor-TTX-6-ol, and 5,6,11-trideoxy-4-anhydro-TTX, as well as to determine TTX equivalent contents in puffer fish samples. Results obtained by both immunochemical tools were correlated (R(2) = 0.977). The puffer fish samples were also analyzed using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), and the corresponding CRFs were applied to the individual TTX contents. Results provided by the immunochemical tools, when compared with those obtained by LC-MS/MS, showed a good degree of correlation (R(2) = 0.991 and 0.979 for mELISA and SPR, respectively). The mouse bioassay (MBA) slightly overestimated the CRF adjusted TTX content of samples when compared with the data obtained from the other techniques. The mELISA has been demonstrated to be fit for the purpose for screening samples in monitoring programs and in research activities. PMID:26424329

  18. Naturally Occurring Fish Poisons from Plants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cannon, Jonathan G.; Burton, Robert A.; Wood, Steven G.; Owen, Noel L.

    2004-01-01

    The fish poisons derived from plants used throughout the world, not only as piscicides but also for a range of other uses, including insecticident and in folk medicines, is presented. The aim of this review is to provide a useful background for students interested in natural products.

  19. Food Poisonings by Ingestion of Cyprinid Fish

    PubMed Central

    Asakawa, Manabu; Noguchi, Tamao

    2014-01-01

    Raw or dried gallbladders of cyprinid fish have long been ingested as a traditional medicine in the Asian countries, particularly in China, for ameliorating visual acuity, rheumatism, and general health; however, sporadic poisoning incidences have occurred after their ingestion. The poisoning causes complex symptoms in patients, including acute renal failure, liver dysfunction, paralysis, and convulsions of limbs. The causative substance for the poisoning was isolated, and its basic properties were examined. The purified toxin revealed a minimum lethal dose of 2.6 mg/20 g in mouse, when injected intraperitoneally. The main symptoms were paralysis and convulsions of the hind legs, along with other neurological signs. Liver biopsy of the euthanized mice clearly exhibited hepatocytes necrosis and infiltration of neutrophils and lymphocytes, suggesting the acute dysfunction of the liver. Blood tests disclosed the characteristics of acute renal failure and liver injury. Infrared (IR) spectrometry, fast atom bombardment (FAB) mass spectrometry, and 1H- and 13C-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis indicated, a molecular formula of C27H48O8S, containing a sulfate ester group for the toxin. Thus, we concluded that the structure of carp toxin to be 5?-cyprinol sulfate (5?-cholestane-3?, 7?, 12?, 26, 27-pentol 26-sulfate). This indicated that carp toxin is a nephro- and hepato- toxin, which could be the responsible toxin for carp bile poisoning in humans. PMID:24476713

  20. THE RELATIONSHIP OF MALATHION AND ITS METABOLITES TO FISH POISONING

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study investigated the relation of short-term measurability of malathion and some of its metabolites in fish to poisoning of fish in the laboratory. Data indicated analysis for malathion monoacid in gut and measurement of brain acetylcholinesterase activity in fish from the ...

  1. Histopathology of fish. II. The salmon-poisoning fluk

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    1956-01-01

    THE SALMON-POISONING FLUKE is misnamed as far as the fish culturist is concerned, for the disease affects dogs, not fish. There is considerable evidence, however, that fish may also suffer from the complex chain of events leading from snail to dying dog. Histological studies indicate that young salmon and trout may be severely damaged by the encysted stage of the fluke.

  2. SODIUM CYANIDE AS A FISH POISON Marine Biological Laboratory

    E-print Network

    SODIUM CYANIDE AS A FISH POISON Marine Biological Laboratory APR 2 '^ 1958 WOODS HOLE, MASS of the Interior, Fred A. Seaton, Secretary Fish and Wildlife Service, Arnie J. Suomela, Commissioner SODIUM 1958 #12;ABSTRACT Laboratory and field experiments were conducted to evaluate the use of sodium cyanide

  3. Poisoning

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Return to Web version Poisoning Poisoning What is poison? A poison is any substance that is harmful to your body. There are many different types of poison. Many poisonous substances are products you have around ...

  4. Ciguatera fish poisoning in the Caribbean islands and Western Atlantic.

    PubMed

    Pottier, I; Vernoux, J P; Lewis, R J

    2001-01-01

    Ciguatera fish poisoning (ciguatera), a common poisoning caused by fish ingestion, is reviewed in the Western Atlantic and the Caribbean waters. It is endemic from Florida coasts (northern limit) to Martinique Island (southern limit), with outbreaks occurring from time to time. In the Caribbean, ciguatera causes a polymorphic syndrome with gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, and neurological signs and symptoms. Neurological and muscular dysfunctions can be treated by intravenous injection of D-mannitol. The lipid-soluble toxins involved are ciguatoxins that are likely produced by the dinoflagellate Gambierdiscus toxicus. G. toxicus strains are endemic in the Caribbean Sea and in theWestern Atlantic. Although it is likely that blooms of G. toxicus are ingested by herbivorous fishes, they are not implicated in ciguatera in the Caribbean. Rather, large carnivores (barracudas, jacks, snappers, groupers), consumers of smaller benthic fish, are often involved in ciguatera. Fish toxicity depends on fishing area and depth, fish size and tissues, and climatic disturbances. Ciguatoxins have been isolated and purified from Caribbean fish species. The structure of two epimers, C-CTX-1 and C-CTX-2 from horse-eye jack, comprise 14 trans-fused ether-linked rings and a hemiketal in terminal ring. Caribbean ciguatoxins are mainly detected in the laboratory by chicken, mouse, mosquito, or cell bioassays, and by analytical HPLC/tandem mass spectrometry down to parts per billion (ppb). A ciguatera management plan that integrates epidemiology, treatment, and a simple method of detection is required to ensure the protection of consumers. PMID:12882228

  5. Ciguatera fish poisoning in Hawai'i and the Pacific.

    PubMed

    Copeland, Nathanial K; Palmer, Wyatt R; Bienfang, Paul K

    2014-11-01

    Ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) is a foodborne illness caused by fish containing ciguatoxin (CTX). The toxin is produced by the microalgae Gambierdiscus spp. which are then eaten by reef fish; humans contract the illness when eating either fish that have eaten the algae, or carnivorous fish that have eaten those fish. CTX is an odorless, tasteless, and colorless neurotoxin that blocks voltage-sensitive Na(+) channels and accumulates in many tissues of the fish, especially the viscera. The illness is typically mild to moderate in severity with gastrointestinal (diarrhea, cramping, nausea, vomiting) and neurological (paraesthesias, cold allodynia, fatigue, pruritis) manifestations. Rarely, the disease can be more severe with significant neuropathic or cardiac effects such as bradycardia and hypotension. Endemic to Hawai'i and islands throughout the Caribbean and Pacific, CFP incidence rates range from several to thousands of cases per 100,000 per year. Since fishing is important for local food supply, exportation, and recreation throughout the Pacific, CFP is medically and economically significant in these areas. We present a case of CFP from Hawai'i to illustrate the disease, demonstrating that the diagnosis is primarily clinical, with confirmatory tests from fish samples available in some cases. Treatment is supportive and symptomatic with no disease specific remedy. The prognosis for most cases is good with a short duration of self-limited symptoms, but for some cases neurological sequelae can become chronic. With no effective treatment, education on which species of reef fish and which body parts to avoid eating is essential in the prevention of CFP. PMID:25478299

  6. Ciguatera Fish Poisoning in Hawai‘i and the Pacific

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, Wyatt R; Bienfang, Paul K

    2014-01-01

    Ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) is a foodborne illness caused by fish containing ciguatoxin (CTX). The toxin is produced by the microalgae Gambierdiscus spp. which are then eaten by reef fish; humans contract the illness when eating either fish that have eaten the algae, or carnivorous fish that have eaten those fish. CTX is an odorless, tasteless, and colorless neurotoxin that blocks voltage-sensitive Na+ channels and accumulates in many tissues of the fish, especially the viscera. The illness is typically mild to moderate in severity with gastrointestinal (diarrhea, cramping, nausea, vomiting) and neurological (paraesthesias, cold allodynia, fatigue, pruritis) manifestations. Rarely, the disease can be more severe with significant neuropathic or cardiac effects such as bradycardia and hypotension. Endemic to Hawai‘i and islands throughout the Caribbean and Pacific, CFP incidence rates range from several to thousands of cases per 100,000 per year. Since fishing is important for local food supply, exportation, and recreation throughout the Pacific, CFP is medically and economically significant in these areas. We present a case of CFP from Hawai‘i to illustrate the disease, demonstrating that the diagnosis is primarily clinical, with confirmatory tests from fish samples available in some cases. Treatment is supportive and symptomatic with no disease specific remedy. The prognosis for most cases is good with a short duration of self-limited symptoms, but for some cases neurological sequelae can become chronic. With no effective treatment, education on which species of reef fish and which body parts to avoid eating is essential in the prevention of CFP. PMID:25478299

  7. Ciguatera fish poisoning - New York City, 2010-2011.

    PubMed

    2013-02-01

    During August 2010-July 2011, the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene (DOHMH) received reports of six outbreaks and one single case of ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP), involving a total of 28 persons. CFP results from consumption of certain large, predatory, tropical reef fish that have bioaccumulated ciguatoxins (CTX). CFP is characterized by various gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, and neurologic symptoms. A prolonged period of acute illness can result, and the neurologic symptoms can last months, with variable asymptomatic and symptomatic periods. The first two outbreaks and the single case, involving 13 persons, were reported during August 6-September 13, 2010. DOHMH distributed a health alert in November 2010 requesting health-care providers be alert for CFP signs and symptoms. The health alert resulted in identification of 11 more cases that month and an additional two outbreaks involving four persons in July 2011. In comparison, only four CFP outbreaks, involving 21 persons total, had been reported in New York City (NYC) during the preceding 10 years (2000-2009). DOHMH's investigation revealed that 13 persons became ill after eating barracuda, and 15 became ill after eating grouper. Although specific and highly sensitive laboratory analyses can detect and confirm CTX in fish, no practical field tests are available for fish monitoring programs. CFP prevention depends on educating the public, seafood suppliers, and distributors about known CFP endemic areas and high-risk fish species. Traceback investigations of fish associated with outbreaks provide valuable information regarding fishing areas associated with CFP. Not all fish from CFP endemic areas are ciguatoxic, but persons who eat fish from endemic regions are at higher risk for CFP. If an illness is suspected to be CFP, public health authorities should be notified and informed of the case history for possible investigation and intervention measures. PMID:23364271

  8. Gonadal development and fertility of triploid grass puffer Takifugu niphobles induced by cold shock treatment.

    PubMed

    Hamasaki, Masaomi; Takeuchi, Yutaka; Miyaki, Kadoo; Yoshizaki, Goro

    2013-04-01

    Tiger puffer Takifugu rubripes is one of the most valuable fish species in Japan; however, there has not been much progress in their selective breeding until recently despite their potential in aquaculture. Their long generation time and the large body size of their broodstock make breeding difficult. Recently, we made a surrogate broodstock, which produced gametes of different species in salmonids. Therefore, by using closely related recipients, which have small body sizes and short generation times, it is possible to accelerate breeding of the tiger puffer. Thus, we considered the grass puffer Takifugu niphobles, which has a short generation time and a small maturation size, as a potential recipient for gamete production of the tiger puffer. Furthermore, if sterile triploid individuals are used as recipients, the resulting surrogate broodstock would produce only donor-derived gametes. Therefore, we examined conditions for inducing triploidy by suppressing meiosis II to retain the second polar body in grass puffer. We found that cold shock treatment, which is 5°C for 30 min starting from 5 min after fertilization, is optimal to obtain high triploidization and hatching rates. Although the resulting triploid grass puffers produced small amounts of gametes in both sexes, the offspring derived from the gametes could not live for over 3 days. Furthermore, we found that triploid grass puffer showed normal plasma sex steroid levels compared with diploids. These are important characteristics of triploid grass puffer as surrogate recipients used for germ cell transplantation. PMID:22842782

  9. Histamine poisoning from ingestion of fish or scombroid syndrome.

    PubMed

    Tortorella, Vincenzo; Masciari, Peppino; Pezzi, Mario; Mola, Assunta; Tiburzi, Simona Paola; Zinzi, Maria Concetta; Scozzafava, Annamaria; Verre, Mario

    2014-01-01

    The scombroid poisoning is due to the ingestion of poorly preserved fish (especially tuna, sardines, and mackerel) out of the cold chain. Under the influence of the proliferation of gram negative bacteria that occurs for heating, the histidine content in the muscle of the fish is converted into histamine, by the action of the enzyme histidine decarboxylase. If the histamine is ingested in large quantities, it causes an anaphylactoid reaction with a variety of symptoms from moderate to severe to life-threating. We will describe two cases that came under our observation after consuming a meal of bluefin tuna. The diagnosis of scombroid syndrome was made on the basis of the anamnestic data and the clinical one. The rapid resolution of the signs and symptoms after treatment with histamines H1-H2 receptor blockers confirmed the suspected diagnosis. PMID:25544905

  10. Histamine Poisoning from Ingestion of Fish or Scombroid Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Tortorella, Vincenzo; Masciari, Peppino; Pezzi, Mario; Mola, Assunta; Tiburzi, Simona Paola; Zinzi, Maria Concetta; Scozzafava, Annamaria; Verre, Mario

    2014-01-01

    The scombroid poisoning is due to the ingestion of poorly preserved fish (especially tuna, sardines, and mackerel) out of the cold chain. Under the influence of the proliferation of gram negative bacteria that occurs for heating, the histidine content in the muscle of the fish is converted into histamine, by the action of the enzyme histidine decarboxylase. If the histamine is ingested in large quantities, it causes an anaphylactoid reaction with a variety of symptoms from moderate to severe to life-threating. We will describe two cases that came under our observation after consuming a meal of bluefin tuna. The diagnosis of scombroid syndrome was made on the basis of the anamnestic data and the clinical one. The rapid resolution of the signs and symptoms after treatment with histamines H1-H2 receptor blockers confirmed the suspected diagnosis. PMID:25544905

  11. [Imported tropical fish causes ciguatera fish poisoning in Germany].

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Katharina; Eisenblätter, Anneka; Vetter, Irina; Ebbecke, Martin; Friedemann, Miriam; Desel, Herbert

    2015-01-01

    Ciguatera is a seafood-borne illness caused by consumption of tropical fish contaminated with ciguatoxins, lipophilic polyethers that are produced in benthic dinoflagellates and accumulate through the marine food chain. Ciguatera cases in Europe usually occur in travellers returning from tropical and subtropical regions of the Pacific and Carribean, where ciguatera is endemic. In 2012, several cases of ciguatera occurred in Germany due to sale of contaminated fish products originating from the Indian Ocean. Although the symptomatology in these cases were typical of ciguatera, with patients reporting gastrointestinal discomfort including nausea, vomiting and diarrhea as well as neurological effects including widespread intense pruritus, paresthesias, hypothermia or altered temperature sensation and diffuse pain, correct diagnosis was delayed in all cases due to lack of awareness of the treating medical practitioners. In light of increasing global mobility, trade, and occurrence of ciguatoxic fish in previously non-endemic areas, ciguatera should be considered as a possible diagnosis if gastrointestinal and neurological symptoms occur shortly after consumption of fish. PMID:25612286

  12. Poisoning

    MedlinePLUS

    ... touch something that makes you very ill. Some poisons can cause death. Poisoning usually occurs from: Taking ... of the lips and mouth, caused by drinking poison Chemical-smelling breath Chemical burns or stains on ...

  13. Rohdella amazonica n. sp. (Aspidogastrea: Aspidogastridae) from the Amazoninan banded puffer fish Colomesus psittacus (Bloch & Schneider, 1801).

    PubMed

    Giese, E G; Silva, M V O; Videira, M N; Furtado, A P; Matos, E R; Gonçalves, E C; Melo, F T V; Santos, J N

    2015-05-01

    Aspidogastreans are commonly found infecting freshwater and marine molluscs, teleosts fishes and freshwater turtles. The subclass comprises four families - Rugogastridae Schell 1973, Stichocotylidae Faust & Tang 1936, Multicalycidae Gibson & Chinabut 1984 and Aspidogastridae Poche 1907 - and it is characterized by the presence of a ventral adhesive disc divided into rows of alveoli. In the current work, using light and scanning electron microscopy and molecular approaches, a new species of Aspidogastridae of the genus Rohdella Gibson & Chinabut, 1984, is described as a parasite of Colomesus psittacus in Brazil. The new taxon is distinguishable by the presence of oesophageal glands, teguments covered by ciliated papillae, and the position and shape of the hermaphroditic duct. The present work describes the third species of the genus Rohdella, thereby adding new morphological and molecular data regarding Aspidogastridae. PMID:24572176

  14. Cardiovascular Complications in Ciguatera Fish Poisoning: A Wake-up Call.

    PubMed

    Senthilkumaran, Subramanian; Meenakshisundaram, Ramachandran; Michaels, Andrew D; Suresh, Ponnuswamy; Thirumalaikolundusubramanian, Ponniah

    2011-10-01

    Ciguatera fish poisoning occurs with ingestion of fish containing ciguatoxin. It causes a clinical syndrome that comprises classic gastrointestinal, neurological and cardiovascular symptoms. Ciguatoxin is a sodium channel agonist with cholinergic and adrenergic activity. Although cardiovascular symptoms are rare with ciguatoxin, we report two cases with bradycardia and hypotension. Fatality and long-term sequelae are not uncommon with ciguatoxin poisoning and educating the general population is essential. PMID:22574244

  15. The diversity and origins of toxins in ciguatera fish poisoning.

    PubMed

    Tosteson, T R

    1995-06-01

    The source of the diversity of phytotoxins found in the marine food web is not well understood. It is not clear what roles these secondary metabolites might have in the phytoplankton that produce them. The phytotoxins do not appear to be deterrents of predation, although the production of antibiotics by marine macroalgae might be considered in this light (86). It is equally doubtful that the production and/or presence of these toxins confers a selective advantage on the phytoplankton producers, when in fact the diversity of naturally occurring phytoplankton species may well be maintained by lytic viral infections (22,64). On the other hand, these multiple, diverse toxins may be the products of the different adaptations and interactions that take place between microalgal vectors and the highly variable spectrum of their microbial symbionts. We do not know what selective signals these toxic products may be providing in the maintenance of the symbiont-host consortia in which they are produced, however, their diversity most likely reflects the diversity of symbiotic interactions that exist in these consortia. Woven into the very fabric of the traditional marine food web is an invisible empire of marine micro-organisms, that by its very existence may determine the intense diversity of toxins found in marine biota. Marine bacteria are very likely the most abundant organisms in the sea and to a large degree maintain a food web of their own, often referred to as the microbial loop (64). This microbial web sustains the biogeochemical cycles in the sea. Much of the food produced by phytoplankton and cyanobacteria is consumed by bacteria in the microbial loop and may never enter the food web of larger invertebrates and fishes. Traditionally, the marine food web has been viewed, so to speak, from the top, however, it is now clear that there is an enormous marine microbial food web from which the food web of larger invertebrates and fishes emanates (Figure 13). In many respects the phytotoxins are biomarkers of the interactions between these two food webs. In their very diversity these toxins reflect an amalgam of interacting collaborating forms of life, a complex of phytoplankton hosts and their microbial symbionts producing multiple toxins and their derivatives that ultimately result in the complex medical symptoms they produce in human consumers of poisoned seafood. The term ciguatera has been employed to describe the syndrome of the illness contracted by persons who have eaten tropical and semitropical finfish poisoned by ciguatoxin.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:7617831

  16. Ciguatera Fish Poisoning in the Pacific Islands (1998 to 2008)

    PubMed Central

    Skinner, Mark P.; Brewer, Tom D.; Johnstone, Ron; Fleming, Lora E.; Lewis, Richard J.

    2011-01-01

    Background Ciguatera is a type of fish poisoning that occurs throughout the tropics, particularly in vulnerable island communities such as the developing Pacific Island Countries and Territories (PICTs). After consuming ciguatoxin-contaminated fish, people report a range of acute neurologic, gastrointestinal, and cardiac symptoms, with some experiencing chronic neurologic symptoms lasting weeks to months. Unfortunately, the true extent of illness and its impact on human communities and ecosystem health are still poorly understood. Methods A questionnaire was emailed to the Health and Fisheries Authorities of the PICTs to quantify the extent of ciguatera. The data were analyzed using t-test, incidence rate ratios, ranked correlation, and regression analysis. Results There were 39,677 reported cases from 17 PICTs, with a mean annual incidence of 194 cases per 100,000 people across the region from 1998–2008 compared to the reported annual incidence of 104/100,000 from 1973–1983. There has been a 60% increase in the annual incidence of ciguatera between the two time periods based on PICTs that reported for both time periods. Taking into account under-reporting, in the last 35 years an estimated 500,000 Pacific islanders might have suffered from ciguatera. Conclusions This level of incidence exceeds prior ciguatera estimates locally and globally, and raises the status of ciguatera to an acute and chronic illness with major public health significance. To address this significant public health problem, which is expected to increase in parallel with environmental change, well-funded multidisciplinary research teams are needed to translate research advances into practical management solutions. PMID:22180797

  17. Ciguatera Fish Poisoning and Climate Change: Analysis of National Poison Center Data in the United States, 2001–2011

    PubMed Central

    Strickland, Matthew J.; Hess, Jeremy J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Warm sea surface temperatures (SSTs) are positively related to incidence of ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP). Increased severe storm frequency may create more habitat for ciguatoxic organisms. Although climate change could expand the endemic range of CFP, the relationship between CFP incidence and specific environmental conditions is unknown. Objectives: We estimated associations between monthly CFP incidence in the contiguous United States and SST and storm frequency in the Caribbean basin. Methods: We obtained information on 1,102 CFP-related calls to U.S. poison control centers during 2001–2011 from the National Poison Data System. We performed a time-series analysis using Poisson regression to relate monthly CFP call incidence to SST and tropical storms. We investigated associations across a range of plausible lag structures. Results: Results showed associations between monthly CFP calls and both warmer SSTs and increased tropical storm frequency. The SST variable with the strongest association linked current monthly CFP calls to the peak August SST of the previous year. The lag period with the strongest association for storms was 18 months. If climate change increases SST in the Caribbean 2.5–3.5°C over the coming century as projected, this model implies that CFP incidence in the United States is likely to increase 200–400%. Conclusions: Using CFP calls as a marker of CFP incidence, these results clarify associations between climate variability and CFP incidence and suggest that, all other things equal, climate change could increase the burden of CFP. These findings have implications for disease prediction, surveillance, and public health preparedness for climate change. Citation: Gingold DB, Strickland MJ, Hess JJ. 2014. Ciguatera fish poisoning and climate change: analysis of National Poison Center data in the United States, 2001–2011. Environ Health Perspect 122:580–586;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307196 PMID:24618280

  18. Short report: persistent bradycardia caused by ciguatoxin poisoning after barracuda fish eggs ingestion in southern Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Hung, Yao-Min; Hung, Shih-Yuan; Chou, Kang-Ju; Huang, Neng-Chyan; Tung, Chung-Ni; Hwang, Deng-Fwu; Chung, Hsiao-Min

    2005-12-01

    We report an outbreak of ciguatoxin poisoning after barracuda fish ingestion in southern Taiwan. Three members of a family developed nausea, vomiting, watery diarrhea, and myalgias about 1 hour after eating three to ten eggs of a barracuda fish. Numbness of the lips and extremities followed the gastrointestinal symptoms about 2 hours after ingestion. Other manifestations included hyperthermia, hypotension, bradycardia, and hyperreflexia. Bradycardia persisted for several days, and one patient required a continuous infusion of intravenous atropine totaling 40 mg over 2 days. Further follow-up of the patients disclosed improvement of neurologic sequelae and bradycardia, but sensory abnormalities resolved several months later. In conclusion, ciguatoxin poisoning causes mainly gastrointestinal and neurologic effects of variable severity. In two patients with ciguatoxin poisoning after barracuda fish egg ingestion, persistent bradycardia required prolonged atropine infusion. PMID:16354806

  19. Removal of toxin (tetrodotoxin) from puffer ovary by traditional fermentation.

    PubMed

    Anraku, Kensaku; Nonaka, Kiku; Yamaga, Toshitaka; Yamamoto, Takatoshi; Shin, Min-Chul; Wakita, Masahito; Hamamoto, Ayaka; Akaike, Norio

    2013-01-01

    The amounts of puffer toxin (tetrodotoxin, TTX) extracted from the fresh and the traditional Japanese salted and fermented "Nukazuke" and "Kasuzuke" ovaries of Takifugu stictonotus (T. stictonotus) were quantitatively analyzed in the voltage-dependent sodium current (I(Na)) recorded from mechanically dissociated single rat hippocampal CA1 neurons. The amount of TTX contained in "Nukazuke" and "Kasuzuke" ovaries decreased to 1/50-1/90 times of that of fresh ovary during a salted and successive fermented period over a few years. The final toxin concentration after fermentation was almost close to the TTX level extracted from T. Rubripes" fresh muscle that is normally eaten. It was concluded that the fermented "Nukazuke" and "Kasuzuke" ovaries of puffer fish T. Stictonotus are safe and harmless as food. PMID:23334671

  20. An overview of the marine food poisoning in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Sierra-Beltrán, A P; Cruz, A; Núñez, E; Del Villar, L M; Cerecero, J; Ochoa, J L

    1998-11-01

    In the course of the last decade, huge events related to harmful algal blooms (HAB) have severely affected the environment in Mexico, even causing several human casualties. The tally of the toxins known up to date in Mexican waters includes: neurotoxin shellfish poisoning (NSP), paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP), amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP), tetrodotoxin (TTX) or puffer fish poisoning, ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) and diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP). Actual epidemiological figures profoundly modified the trends manifested on previous decades. Notwithstanding that the red tides are a long time known phenomena in Mexican coasts, no regular observation of the marine environment has been set up. Although there are monitoring activities for PSP toxins on the shellfish culturing facilities that are exploited for export to the U.S.A., these are only effectively applied on specific spots of the Mexican coasts, implying that the biggest part of the country coastal zones are not formerly surveyed. The misleads caused by the medical conception that food poisoning events are mainly due to microbial contamination, is among the factors why the marine food poisoning events are a neglected disease. In spite of the fact that no official statistics consider HAB related events as a subject of research or further monitoring by the health authorities, sporadic scientific documents related to poisoning events were produced in Mexico. An interesting picture is presented for most of the marine toxins mentioned. Trend and prognosis estimates made with such scarce information, provide a minimum measurement of the reality and urge the need for a permanent monitoring program on the Mexican coasts, a place with one of the greatest marine toxin diversity worldwide. PMID:9792163

  1. Epidemiology and clinical features of ciguatera fish poisoning in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Chan, Thomas Y K

    2014-10-01

    In the present review, the main objective was to describe the epidemiology and clinical features of ciguatera fish poisoning in Hong Kong. From 1989 to 2008, the annual incidence of ciguatera varied between 3.3 and 64.9 (median 10.2) per million people. The groupers have replaced the snappers as the most important cause of ciguatera. Pacific-ciguatoxins (CTX) are most commonly present in reef fish samples implicated in ciguatera outbreaks. In affected subjects, the gastrointestinal symptoms often subside within days, whereas the neurological symptoms can persist for weeks or even months. Bradycardia and hypotension, which can be life-threatening, are common. Treatment of ciguatera is primarily supportive and symptomatic. Intravenous mannitol (1 g/kg) has also been suggested. To prevent ciguatera outbreaks, the public should be educated to avoid eating large coral reef fishes, especially the CTX-rich parts. A Code of Practice on Import and Sale of Live Marine Fish for Human Consumption for Prevention and Control of Ciguatera Fish Poisoning was introduced from 2004 to 2013. The Food Safety Ordinance with a tracing mechanism came into full effect in February 2012. The Government would be able to trace the sources of the fishes more effectively and take prompt action when dealing with ciguatera incidents. PMID:25333356

  2. Epidemiology and Clinical Features of Ciguatera Fish Poisoning in Hong Kong

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Thomas Y. K.

    2014-01-01

    In the present review, the main objective was to describe the epidemiology and clinical features of ciguatera fish poisoning in Hong Kong. From 1989 to 2008, the annual incidence of ciguatera varied between 3.3 and 64.9 (median 10.2) per million people. The groupers have replaced the snappers as the most important cause of ciguatera. Pacific-ciguatoxins (CTX) are most commonly present in reef fish samples implicated in ciguatera outbreaks. In affected subjects, the gastrointestinal symptoms often subside within days, whereas the neurological symptoms can persist for weeks or even months. Bradycardia and hypotension, which can be life-threatening, are common. Treatment of ciguatera is primarily supportive and symptomatic. Intravenous mannitol (1 g/kg) has also been suggested. To prevent ciguatera outbreaks, the public should be educated to avoid eating large coral reef fishes, especially the CTX-rich parts. A Code of Practice on Import and Sale of Live Marine Fish for Human Consumption for Prevention and Control of Ciguatera Fish Poisoning was introduced from 2004 to 2013. The Food Safety Ordinance with a tracing mechanism came into full effect in February 2012. The Government would be able to trace the sources of the fishes more effectively and take prompt action when dealing with ciguatera incidents. PMID:25333356

  3. Tetrodotoxin poisoning caused by Goby fish consumption in southeast China: a retrospective case series analysis

    PubMed Central

    You, Jie; Yue, YaJun; Xing, Feng; Xia, Wei; Lai, ShaoYang; Zhang, FengLei

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate an unusual outbreak of tetrodotoxin poisoning in Leizhou, southeast China, a case series analysis was conducted to identify the source of illness. METHODS: A total of 22 individuals experienced symptoms of poisoning, including tongue numbness, dizziness, nausea and limb numbness and weakness. Two toxic species, Amoya caninus and Yongeichthys nebulosus, were morphologically identified from the batches of gobies consumed by the patients. Tetrodotoxin levels in the blood and Goby fish samples were detected using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. RESULTS: The tetrodotoxin levels in the remaining cooked Goby fish were determined to be 2090.12 µg/kg. For Amoya caninus, the toxicity levels were 1858.29 µg/kg in the muscle and 1997.19 µg/kg in the viscera and for Yongeichthys nebulosus, they were 2783.00 µg/kg in the muscle and 2966.21 µg/kg in the viscera. CONCLUSION: This outbreak demonstrates an underestimation of the risk of Goby fish poisoning. Furthermore, the relationships among the toxic species, climates and marine algae present should be clarified in the future. PMID:25672425

  4. Ciguatera Fish Poisoning in East Asia and Southeast Asia

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Thomas Y. K.

    2015-01-01

    In the coastal countries of East Asia and Southeast Asia, ciguatera should be common because of the extensive tropical and subtropical coral reefs along the coasts and in the neighboring seas with ciguatoxic fishes. An extensive search of journal databases, the Internet and the government websites was performed to identify all reports of ciguatera from the regions. Based on the official data and large published case series, the incidence of ciguatera was higher in the coastal cities (Hong Kong, Foshan, Zhongshan) of southern China than in Japan (Okinawa Prefecture). In Singapore, ciguatera appeared to be almost unknown. In other countries, only isolated cases or small case series were reported, but under-reporting was assumed to be common. Ciguatera may cause severe acute illness and prolonged neurological symptoms. Ciguatera represents an important public health issue for endemic regions, with significant socio-economic impact. Coordinated strategies to improve risk assessment, risk management and risk communication are required. The systematic collection of accurate data on the incidence and epidemiology of ciguatera should enable better assessment and management of its risk. Much more work needs to be done to define the size threshold for important coral reef fish species from different regions, above which the risk of ciguatera significantly increases. PMID:26042615

  5. Ciguatera fish poisoning in East Asia and southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Chan, Thomas Y K

    2015-06-01

    In the coastal countries of East Asia and Southeast Asia, ciguatera should be common because of the extensive tropical and subtropical coral reefs along the coasts and in the neighboring seas with ciguatoxic fishes. An extensive search of journal databases, the Internet and the government websites was performed to identify all reports of ciguatera from the regions. Based on the official data and large published case series, the incidence of ciguatera was higher in the coastal cities (Hong Kong, Foshan, Zhongshan) of southern China than in Japan (Okinawa Prefecture). In Singapore, ciguatera appeared to be almost unknown. In other countries, only isolated cases or small case series were reported, but under-reporting was assumed to be common. Ciguatera may cause severe acute illness and prolonged neurological symptoms. Ciguatera represents an important public health issue for endemic regions, with significant socio-economic impact. Coordinated strategies to improve risk assessment, risk management and risk communication are required. The systematic collection of accurate data on the incidence and epidemiology of ciguatera should enable better assessment and management of its risk. Much more work needs to be done to define the size threshold for important coral reef fish species from different regions, above which the risk of ciguatera significantly increases. PMID:26042615

  6. Determination of toxins involved in ciguatera fish poisoning in the Pacific by LC/MS.

    PubMed

    Yogi, Kentaro; Sakugawa, Satsuki; Oshiro, Naomasa; Ikehara, Tsuyoshi; Sugiyama, Kiminori; Yasumoto, Takeshi

    2014-01-01

    Ciguatera fish poisoning is the most extensive and difficult to control of the seafood poisonings. To facilitate monitoring of fish toxicity, toxin profiles were investigated by an LC/MS/MS method using 14 reference toxins on eight representative species of fish collected in four different areas of the Pacific. Snappers and groupers from Okinawa contained ciguatoxin-1B (CTX1B) and two deoxy congeners at variable but species-specific ratios, while red snapper, Lutjanus bohar, from Minamitorishima, and amberjack, Seriola dumerili, from Hawaii, contained both CTX1B-type and CTX3C-type toxins. Spotted knifejaw, Oplegnathus punctatus, from Okinawan waters, contained mainly CTX4A and CTX4B, but the same species caught at Miyazaki was contaminated primarily with the CTX3C-type toxins. Otherwise, the toxin profiles were consistently species-specific in fish collected from various locations around Okinawa over 20 years. The LC/MS/MS and mouse bioassay results agreed well, indicating the LC/MS/MS method is a promising alternative to the mouse bioassay. Pure CTX1B and CTX3C were prepared for use in future LC/MS/MS analysis. PMID:24830151

  7. The effects of natural disturbances, reef state, and herbivorous fish densities on ciguatera poisoning in Rarotonga, southern Cook Islands.

    PubMed

    Rongo, Teina; van Woesik, Robert

    2013-03-15

    Ciguatera poisoning is a critical public-health issue among Pacific island nations. Accurately predicting ciguatera outbreaks has become a priority, particularly in Rarotonga in the southern Cook Islands, which has reported the highest incidence of ciguatera poisoning globally. Since 2006, however, cases of ciguatera poisoning have declined, and in 2011 ciguatera cases were the lowest in nearly 20 years. Here we examined the relationships between cases of ciguatera poisoning, from 1994 to 2011, and: (i) coral cover, used as a proxy of reef state, (ii) the densities of herbivorous fishes, and (iii) reef disturbances. We found that coral cover was not a good predictor of cases of ciguatera poisoning, but high densities of the herbivorous fish Ctenochaetus striatus and reef disturbances were both strong predictors of ciguatera poisoning. Yet these two predictors were correlated, because the densities of C. striatus increased only after major cyclones had disturbed the reefs. Since 2006, the number of cyclones has decreased considerably in Rarotonga, because of the climatic shift toward the negative phase of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation. We suggest that fewer cyclones have led to decreases in both the densities of C. striatus and of the number of reported cases of ciguatera poisoning in Rarotonga. PMID:23313379

  8. The persistent problem of lead poisoning in birds from ammunition and fishing tackle

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haig, Susan M.; D'Elia, Jesse; Eagles-Smith, Collin; Fair, Jeanne M.; Gervais, Jennifer; Herring, Garth; Rivers, James W.; Schulz, John H.

    2014-01-01

    Lead (Pb) is a metabolic poison that can negatively influence biological processes, leading to illness and mortality across a large spectrum of North American avifauna (>120 species) and other organisms. Pb poisoning can result from numerous sources, including ingestion of bullet fragments and shot pellets left in animal carcasses, spent ammunition left in the field, lost fishing tackle, Pb-based paints, large-scale mining, and Pb smelting activities. Although Pb shot has been banned for waterfowl hunting in the United States (since 1991) and Canada (since 1999), Pb exposure remains a problem for many avian species. Despite a large body of scientific literature on exposure to Pb and its toxicological effects on birds, controversy still exists regarding its impacts at a population level. We explore these issues and highlight areas in need of investigation: (1) variation in sensitivity to Pb exposure among bird species; (2) spatial extent and sources of Pb contamination in habitats in relation to bird exposure in those same locations; and (3) interactions between avian Pb exposure and other landscape-level stressors that synergistically affect bird demography. We explore multiple paths taken to reduce Pb exposure in birds that (1) recognize common ground among a range of affected interests; (2) have been applied at local to national scales; and (3) engage governmental agencies, interest groups, and professional societies to communicate the impacts of Pb ammunition and fishing tackle, and to describe approaches for reducing their availability to birds. As they have in previous times, users of fish and wildlife will play a key role in resolving the Pb poisoning issue.

  9. A review of traditional remedies of ciguatera fish poisoning in the Pacific.

    PubMed

    Kumar-Roiné, Shilpa; Taiana Darius, H; Matsui, Mariko; Fabre, Nicolas; Haddad, Mohamed; Chinain, Mireille; Pauillac, Serge; Laurent, Dominique

    2011-07-01

    Ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) is an illness caused by eating tropical coral fish contaminated with ciguatoxins (CTXs). The clinical management of patients with CFP is generally supportive and symptomatic in nature as no antidote exists. Of the many drugs prescribed, several have been claimed to be efficient in small, uncontrolled studies, but the outcomes of treatments with these medicines are often contradictory. In New Caledonia, traditional remedies are commonly employed in the treatment of CFP and of the 90 plant species catalogued as useful in CFP, the most popular herbal remedy by far is a decoction prepared from the leaves of Heliotropium foertherianum Diane & Hilger (Boraginaceae). Other important plants used in the treatment of CFP include Euphorbia hirta L. (Euphorbiaceae) and Vitex L. sp. (Lamiaceae). This review focuses on the evidence for efficacy of these species and pharmacological studies which support their use. Other plants used in CFP and the conventional treatment of CFP are also discussed briefly. PMID:21287650

  10. Teratogenic effects and monetary cost of selenium poisoning of fish in Lake Sutton, North Carolina.

    PubMed

    Lemly, A Dennis

    2014-06-01

    Selenium pollution from coal ash wastewater was investigated in Lake Sutton, NC. This lake has been continuously used as a cooling pond for a coal-fired power plant since 1972. Historic and recent levels of contamination in fish tissues (14-105µg Se/g dry weight in liver, 24-127 in eggs, 4-23 in muscle, 7-38 in whole-body) exceeded toxic thresholds and teratogenic effects were observed in fish collected in 2013. A high proportion (28.9 percent) of juvenile Lepomis spp. exhibited spinal and craniofacial malformations that were consistent with selenium poisoning. Teratogenic Deformity Index values indicated population-level impacts on the fishery. The partially monetized cost of resultant fishery losses was calculated at over $US 8.6 million annually, and over $US 217 million for the entire period of damage, which dates back to 1987 when chemical and biological monitoring began. PMID:24675445

  11. [Toxin profiles in fish implicated in ciguatera fish poisoning in Amami and Kakeroma Islands, Kagoshima Prefecture, Japan].

    PubMed

    Yogi, Kentaro; Oshiro, Naomasa; Matsuda, Seiko; Sakugawa, Satsuki; Matsuo, Toshiaki; Yasumoto, Takeshi

    2013-01-01

    Ciguatoxins (CTXs) responsible for ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) in Amami Islands, Kagoshima, Japan in 2008 were determined by LC-MS/MS analysis. Ciguatoxin-1B (CTX1B), 54-deoxyCTX1B, and 52-epi-54-deoxyCTX1B were detected in Variola louti and Lutjanus monostigma. The toxin profile distinctly differed from that of a CFP-related fish from Miyazaki, which mainly contained ciguatoxin-3C type toxins. Toxin profiles were species-specific, as observed in fish from Okinawa. The LC-MS/MS and mouse bioassay (MBA) methods produced comparable data, though 54-deoxyCTX1B was not taken into consideration owing to the lack of toxicity data. To improve assessment, toxicity data for this compound are needed. A reef fish caught on the same occasion and judged nontoxic by MBA (<0.025 MU/g) was found to contain low levels of CTX, indicating a potential risk for CFP. PMID:24389468

  12. Invasive lionfish (Pterois volitans): a potential human health threat for ciguatera fish poisoning in tropical waters.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Alison; Garcia, Ana C; Quintana, Harold A Flores; Smith, Tyler B; Castillo, Bernard F; Reale-Munroe, Kynoch; Gulli, Joseph A; Olsen, David A; Hooe-Rollman, Jennifer I; Jester, Edward L E; Klimek, Brian J; Plakas, Steven M

    2014-01-01

    Invasive Indo-Pacific lionfish (Pterois volitans) have rapidly expanded in the Western Atlantic over the past decade and have had a significant negative impact on reef fish biodiversity, habitat, and community structure, with lionfish out-competing native predators for resources. In an effort to reduce this population explosion, lionfish have been promoted for human consumption in the greater Caribbean region. This study examined whether the geographical expansion of the lionfish into a known ciguatera-endemic region can pose a human health threat for ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP). More than 180 lionfish were collected from waters surrounding the US Virgin Islands throughout 2010 and 2011. Ciguatoxin testing included an in vitro neuroblastoma cytotoxicity assay for composite toxicity assessment of sodium-channel toxins combined with confirmatory liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. A 12% prevalence rate of ciguatoxic lionfish exceeding the FDA guidance level of 0.1 µg/kg C-CTX-1 equivalents was identified in fish from the U.S. Virgin Islands, highlighting a potential consumption risk in this region. This study presents the first evidence that the invasive lionfish, pose a direct human health risk for CFP and highlights the need for awareness and research on this food safety hazard in known endemic areas. PMID:24378919

  13. Invasive Lionfish (Pterois volitans): A Potential Human Health Threat for Ciguatera Fish Poisoning in Tropical Waters

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, Alison; Garcia, Ana C.; Flores Quintana, Harold A.; Smith, Tyler B.; Castillo, Bernard F.; Reale-Munroe, Kynoch; Gulli, Joseph A.; Olsen, David A.; Hooe-Rollman, Jennifer I.; Jester, Edward L. E.; Klimek, Brian J.; Plakas, Steven M.

    2013-01-01

    Invasive Indo-Pacific lionfish (Pterois volitans) have rapidly expanded in the Western Atlantic over the past decade and have had a significant negative impact on reef fish biodiversity, habitat, and community structure, with lionfish out-competing native predators for resources. In an effort to reduce this population explosion, lionfish have been promoted for human consumption in the greater Caribbean region. This study examined whether the geographical expansion of the lionfish into a known ciguatera-endemic region can pose a human health threat for ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP). More than 180 lionfish were collected from waters surrounding the US Virgin Islands throughout 2010 and 2011. Ciguatoxin testing included an in vitro neuroblastoma cytotoxicity assay for composite toxicity assessment of sodium-channel toxins combined with confirmatory liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. A 12% prevalence rate of ciguatoxic lionfish exceeding the FDA guidance level of 0.1 µg/kg C-CTX-1 equivalents was identified in fish from the U.S. Virgin Islands, highlighting a potential consumption risk in this region. This study presents the first evidence that the invasive lionfish, pose a direct human health risk for CFP and highlights the need for awareness and research on this food safety hazard in known endemic areas. PMID:24378919

  14. Ciguatera fish poisoning in Hong Kong--a 10-year perspective on the class of ciguatoxins.

    PubMed

    Wong, Chun-Kwan; Hung, Patricia; Lo, Janice Y C

    2014-08-01

    The present study used liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) to investigate retrospectively ciguatoxin (CTX)-positive samples as determined by mouse bioassay (MBA) in the past 10 years in Hong Kong. The results showed that Pacific CTXs (P-CTX-1, -2 and -3) were the most commonly observed toxins found in the samples, indicating Pacific Ocean areas as the most important origin of ciguatera fish poisoning. Clinical diagnosis from ciguatera patients also revealed the predominance of neurological illnesses in most cases, supporting intoxication of Pacific origin. This study demonstrated the ability of laboratory analysis to identify and quantify Pacific CTXs in suspected fish samples, so as to support the clinical diagnosis of ciguatera. Comparative analysis (Student's t-test and Spearman's rank correlation analysis) on the two CTX detection methods showed approximate linearity for overall P-CTXs (P-CTX-1, -2 and -3)/P-CTX-1 alone as derived by LC-MS/MS and total toxicity levels (P-CTX-1 equivalent) as determined by MBA. The LC-MS/MS method coupled with the rapid extraction method could allow the detection of trace amount of CTXs at levels below the clinically relevant limit, 0.1 ppb P-CTX-1 in fish flesh. For practical application, the adoption of a two-tiered approach for testing, chemical analysis by LC-MS/MS for toxic fish screening, coupled with biological assay by MBA for final toxicity confirmation, was proposed for first-line screening of CTX in potentially contaminated fish samples in the market, with an aim to minimizing the use of laboratory mice and at the same time providing reasonably effective means for routine analysis. PMID:24878373

  15. A Phylogenetic Re-Analysis of Groupers with Applications for Ciguatera Fish Poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Schoelinck, Charlotte; Hinsinger, Damien D.; Dettaï, Agnès; Cruaud, Corinne; Justine, Jean-Lou

    2014-01-01

    Background Ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) is a significant public health problem due to dinoflagellates. It is responsible for one of the highest reported incidence of seafood-borne illness and Groupers are commonly reported as a source of CFP due to their position in the food chain. With the role of recent climate change on harmful algal blooms, CFP cases might become more frequent and more geographically widespread. Since there is no appropriate treatment for CFP, the most efficient solution is to regulate fish consumption. Such a strategy can only work if the fish sold are correctly identified, and it has been repeatedly shown that misidentifications and species substitutions occur in fish markets. Methods We provide here both a DNA-barcoding reference for groupers, and a new phylogenetic reconstruction based on five genes and a comprehensive taxonomical sampling. We analyse the correlation between geographic range of species and their susceptibility to ciguatera accumulation, and the co-occurrence of ciguatoxins in closely related species, using both character mapping and statistical methods. Results Misidentifications were encountered in public databases, precluding accurate species identifications. Epinephelinae now includes only twelve genera (vs. 15 previously). Comparisons with the ciguatera incidences show that in some genera most species are ciguateric, but statistical tests display only a moderate correlation with the phylogeny. Atlantic species were rarely contaminated, with ciguatera occurrences being restricted to the South Pacific. Conclusions The recent changes in classification based on the reanalyses of the relationships within Epinephelidae have an impact on the interpretation of the ciguatera distribution in the genera. In this context and to improve the monitoring of fish trade and safety, we need to obtain extensive data on contamination at the species level. Accurate species identifications through DNA barcoding are thus an essential tool in controlling CFP since meal remnants in CFP cases can be easily identified with molecular tools. PMID:25093850

  16. Poisonous marine morsels.

    PubMed

    Harrison, L J

    1991-04-01

    Consumption of seafood is increasing and physicians should know more about ichthyosarcotoxism, or fish-flesh poisoning. It appears in a variety of forms: poisoning, ciguatera, tetrodotoxin and scombroid poisoning. Ingestion of certain marine turtles and mammals also has been incriminated as the cause of illness. Paralytic shellfish poisoning can be deadly. In addition, red tide may cause respiratory problems. PMID:2056299

  17. Cutting the longline to extinction: new sea turtle campaign takes aim at industrial longline fishing and mercury-poisoned seafood.

    PubMed

    Ovetz, Robert

    2004-01-01

    Chanting "Get on the right track . . . stop killing the leatherback!," a festive protest of people of many ages dressed in colorful turtle costumes wound its way along the busy streets of San Francisco's Fishermen's Wharf. The action last October marked the launching of the Bay Area-based Sea Turtle Restoration Project's Save the Leatherback (www.savetheleatherback.com) campaign for a moratorium on longline fishing in the Pacific Ocean. Longline fishing in the Pacific kills tens of thousands of sea turtles annually to serve up swordfish, shark, and tuna poisoned with high levels of methylmercury for lucrative seafood markets in Japan, the United States, and Europe. PMID:17208747

  18. Ciguatera fish poisoning: a first epidemic in Germany highlights an increasing risk for European countries.

    PubMed

    Mattei, César; Vetter, Irina; Eisenblätter, Anneka; Krock, Bernd; Ebbecke, Martin; Desel, Herbert; Zimmermann, Katharina

    2014-12-01

    Toxin-producing microalgae are thriving worldwide due to coral reef destruction and global warming with major consequences on ecosystems, international trade and human health. Microalgae belonging to the family of flagellate protists, in particular dinoflagellates, secrete a variety of high-molecular-weight polyether toxins that accumulate through the marine food chain to cause disease in humans by acting as sodium channel activator toxins; ciguatera is the most frequent seafood-borne illness worldwide with 50,000 to 500,000 global incidences per annum and is usually limited to endemic areas located between 35° northern and 35° southern latitude. The rising global incidence frequency renders it a major human health problem, because no curative treatment is available yet and reliable detection assays are lacking. During the last decade ciguatera has increasingly become endemic in previously unaffected areas for two reasons: first global warming has contributed to the emergence of dinoflagellate species in subtropical and even temperate regions that previously had been constrained to tropical areas and second: in Europe globalization of fishing industry and tourism has led to a progressive increase in the number of ciguatera cases and a lack of awareness among medical personnel contributes to under-reporting. We review, through a recent ciguatera outbreak in Germany, the risk for ciguatera poisoning in Europe and highlight characteristic symptoms, current knowledge about disease pathomechanisms and treatment options. PMID:25448771

  19. Acute poisoning in southern part of Bangladesh--the case load is decreasing.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, F R; Rahman, A U; Mohammed, F R; Chowdhury, A; Ahasan, H A M N; Bakar, M A

    2011-08-01

    This retrospective study was carried out in the Medicine Department of Khulna Medical College, the biggest tertiary hospital in the southern part of Bangladesh to observe the trends of poisoning in southern part of Bangladesh over four years including age and sex variation, mode of poisoning, type of poison used and outcome of poisoning. The hospital medical records of all patients, aged 10 years and above with history of acute poisoning from January, 2003 to December, 2006 were enrolled. Patients were categorized into four age group including Group (Gr.) I, Gr. II, Gr. III & Gr. IV having age range of 10-20, 21-30, 31-40 & >40 respectively. Underlying causes of poisoning were also observed totally and individually in different mode with male, female ratio and the percentage. Death cases according to mode of poisoning with demographic alignment were also observed. Statistical analysis were done using epi-info version 3.5.1 and measures were presented as proportion and percentage. Among 1903 cases, 1012 (53.1%) were male and 891 (46.8%) female with a ratio of 1.4: 1. The year wise total number of cases were progressively decreased from 627 (2003) to 353 (2006). Most commonly found toxic agent was Organo-Phosphate compound (526; 27.64%) with a very little sexual variation & this trend remained same in all study years. Poisoning with unknown substance was the second leading cause (16.03%) followed by Copper-sulphate (14.03%), Sedative (13.35%), Snakebite (12.93%) etc. Incidence of unknown poisoning, sedatives, snake-bite and corrosives were found to be gradually decreased over the study years. Male were found mostly affected in majority type of poisoning except Copper-sulphate, kerosene, puffer fish, paracetamol and other drugs category. Age group II (710; 37.3%) was the most vulnerable group with male (57.89%) preponderance followed by group I (643; 33.7%), III (329; 17.2%) and IV (221; 11.6%) respectively. Highest 1308 (68.7%) cases were suicidal in mode followed by 304 (15.9%) accidental and 291 (15.2%) homicidal. Out of 1903, 140 (7.3%) patients died. Death rate was highest in OPC poisoning (52.1%) followed by unknown substance (13.5%), snakebite and copper-sulphate (11.4%) etc. In an agro-based country like Bangladesh, it's very difficult to reduce the poisoning cases and mortality. Prospectively designed multi-centered studies are needed to reflect the epidemiological properties of poisonings throughout Bangladesh, and would be very valuable for the determination of preventive measures. PMID:21877607

  20. Neurotoxic marine poisoning.

    PubMed

    Isbister, Geoffrey K; Kiernan, Matthew C

    2005-04-01

    Marine poisoning results from the ingestion of marine animals that contain toxic substances and causes substantial illness in coastal regions. Three main clinical syndromes of marine poisoning have important neurological symptoms-ciguatera, tetrodotoxin poisoning, and paralytic shellfish poisoning. Ciguatera is the commonest syndrome of marine poisoning and is characterised by moderate to severe gastrointestinal effects (vomiting, diarrhoea, and abdominal cramps) and neurological effects (myalgia, paraesthesia, cold allodynia, and ataxia), but is rarely lethal. Tetrodotoxin poisoning and paralytic shellfish poisoning are less common but have a higher fatality rate than ciguatera. Mild gastrointestinal effects and a descending paralysis are characteristic of these types of poisoning. In severe poisoning, paralysis rapidly progresses to respiratory failure. Diagnosis of all types of marine poisoning is made from the circumstances of ingestion (type of fish and location) and the clinical effects. Because there are no antidotes, supportive care, including mechanical ventilation in patients with severe paralysis, is the mainstay of treatment. PMID:15778101

  1. Differential expression patterns of PQRFamide peptide and its two receptor genes in the brain and pituitary of grass puffer during the reproductive cycle.

    PubMed

    Shahjahan, Md; Doi, Hiroyuki; Ando, Hironori

    2015-01-01

    Pain-modulatory neuropeptides, PQRFamide (PQRFa) peptides, have recently been implicated in the regulation of reproduction in fish. As a first step toward investigating the role of PQRFa peptides on reproductive function in the grass puffer Takifugu niphobles, which is a semilunar spawner, we cloned genes encoding PQRFa peptide precursor (pqrfa) and its two types of receptors (pqrfa-r1 and pqrfa-r2), and examined changes in their expression levels in the brain and pituitary over several months during the reproductive cycle. The grass puffer PQRFa peptide precursor of 126 amino acid residues contains two putative PQRFa peptides, PQRFa-1 and PQRFa-2, which correspond to NPFF and NPAF in other vertebrates, respectively. The grass puffer PQRFa-R1 and PQRFa-R2 consist of 426 and 453 amino acid residues, respectively, and contain distinct characteristics of G-protein coupled receptors. These three genes were exclusively expressed in the brain and pituitary. The expression levels of pqrfa and pqrfa-r1 were significantly increased during the late stage of sexual maturation, but low in the spawning fish just after releasing sperms and eggs. Therefore, the grass puffer PQRFa peptide may have a role in the late stage of sexual maturation before spawning via PQRFa-R1. In contrast, the pqrfa-r2 expression showed maximum levels in the spawning fish and in the post-spawning period. The present results provide fundamental data suggesting that the grass puffer PQRFa peptide may have multiple roles in the control of reproduction that are dependent on the reproductive stages. PMID:25034121

  2. Lanolin poisoning

    MedlinePLUS

    Wool wax poisoning; Wool alcohol poisoning; Glossylan poisoning; Golden dawn poisoning; Sparklelan poisoning ... number will let you talk to experts in poisoning. They will give you further instructions. This is ...

  3. Contribution to the risk characterization of ciguatoxins: LOAEL estimated from eight ciguatera fish poisoning events in Guadeloupe (French West Indies).

    PubMed

    Hossen, Virginie; Soliño, Lucia; Leroy, Patricia; David, Eric; Velge, Pierre; Dragacci, Sylviane; Krys, Sophie; Flores Quintana, Harold; Diogène, Jorge

    2015-11-01

    From 2010 to 2012, 35 ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) events involving 87 individuals who consumed locally-caught fish were reported in Guadeloupe (French West Indies). For 12 of these events, the presence of ciguatoxins (CTXs) was indicated in meal remnants and in uncooked fish by the mouse bioassay (MBA). Caribbean ciguatoxins (C-CTXs) were confirmed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis. Using a cell-based assay (CBA), and the only available standard Pacific ciguatoxin-1 (P-CTX-1), the lowest toxins level detected in fish samples causing CFP was 0.022µgP-CTX-1 equivalent (eq.)·kg(-1) fish. Epidemiological and consumption data were compiled for most of the individuals afflicted, and complete data for establishing the lowest observable adverse effects level (LOAEL) were obtained from 8 CFP events involving 21 individuals. Based on toxin intakes, the LOAEL was estimated at 4.2ng P-CTX-1eq./individual corresponding to 48.4pgP-CTX-1eq.kg(-1) body weight (bw). Although based on limited data, these results are consistent with the conclusions of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) opinion which indicates that a level of 0.01µgP-CTX-1eq.kg(-1) fish, regardless of source, should not exert effects in sensitive individuals when consuming a single meal. The calculated LOAEL is also consistent with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration guidance levels for CTXs (0.1µgC-CTX-1eq.kg(-1) and 0.01µgP-CTX-1 eq.kg(-1) fish). PMID:26409497

  4. Molecular neuroendocrine basis of lunar-related spawning in grass puffer.

    PubMed

    Ando, Hironori; Shahjahan, Md; Hattori, Atsuhiko

    2013-01-15

    Grass puffer, Takifugu niphobles, exhibits unique spawning behavior: it spawns on beach in semilunar cycles during spring tide in early summer. The fish aggregate at certain seashore locations several hours before high tide every two weeks. To explore the molecular and neuroendocrine mechanisms underlying the regulation of the lunar-related spawning rhythm, seasonal and cyclic variations in gene expression for hypothalamic neuropeptides related to reproduction were examined by quantitative real-time PCR. The expression levels of genes for gonadotropin-releasing hormone, kisspeptin, LPXRFamide peptide and PQRFamide peptide in the hypothalamus varied differently depending on reproductive stage and gender, suggesting their specific roles in reproduction. In the spawning period, the expression levels of LPXRFamide peptide and its receptor genes showed diurnal and circadian variations in association with the expression of four subtypes of melatonin receptor genes. Together with the nocturnal secretion of melatonin from the pineal gland, melatonin may play an important role in transmitting the photoperiodic information of moonlight to the reproductive neuroendocrine center in the hypothalamus of grass puffer. PMID:22884736

  5. Assessing the Incidence of Ciguatera Fish Poisoning with Two Surveys Conducted in Culebra, Puerto Rico, during 2005 and 2006

    PubMed Central

    Luber, George; Conklin, Laura; Tosteson, Thomas R.; Granade, Hudson R.; Dickey, Robert W.; Backer, Lorraine C.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Although ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) is the most common seafood intoxication worldwide, its burden has been difficult to establish because there are no biomarkers to diagnose human exposure. Objective: We explored the incidence of CFP, percentage of CFP case-patients with laboratory-confirmed ciguatoxic meal remnants, cost of CFP illness, and potential risk factors for CFP. Methods: During 2005 and again during 2006, we conducted a census of all occupied households on the island of Culebra, Puerto Rico, where locally caught fish are a staple food. We defined CFP case-patients as persons with gastrointestinal symptoms (abdominal pain, vomiting, diarrhea, or nausea) and neurological symptoms (extremity paresthesia, arthralgia, myalgia, malaise, pruritus, headache, dizziness, metallic taste, visual disturbance, circumoral paresthesia, temperature reversal, or toothache) or systemic symptoms (e.g., bradycardia) within 72 hr of eating fish during the previous year. Participants were asked to save fish remnants eaten by case-patients for ciguatoxin analysis at the Food and Drug Administration laboratory in Dauphin Island, Alabama (USA). Results: We surveyed 340 households during 2005 and 335 households during 2006. The estimated annual incidence of possible CFP was 4.0 per 1,000 person-years, and that of probable CFP was 7.5 per 1,000 person-years. One of three fish samples submitted by probable case-patients was positive for ciguatoxins. None of the case-patients required respiratory support. Households that typically consumed barracuda were more likely to report CFP (p = 0.02). Conclusions: Our estimates, which are consistent with previous studies using similar case findings, contribute to the overall information available to support public health decision making about CFP prevention. PMID:22275728

  6. AGE, GROWTH, AND REPRODUCTION OF THE NORTHERN PUFFER, SPHOEROIDES MACULATUSI

    E-print Network

    , and weight-length relationships of puffers from New Jersey. Shipp and Yerger (1969) reviewed the taxonomy BU LLETlN: VOL. 71, NO.4, 1'173. the rate of growth, weight-length relationships, age at sexual by gross inspection of the gonads. In a preliminary study, otoliths, cleithra, opercles, jaw bones, fin

  7. ANTICHOLINESTERASE ACTION OF PESTICIDAL CARBAMATES IN THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM OF POISONED FISHES

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the report, kinetic enzyme methods and statistical analyses are used to define the relationship between brain acetycholinesterase inhibition and near-median kills in replicate groups of marine fish in the laboratory by five carbamate pesticides.

  8. Paraffin poisoning

    MedlinePLUS

    Wax poisoning - paraffin ... number will let you talk to experts in poisoning. They will give you further instructions. This is ... should call if you have any questions about poisoning or poison prevention. It does NOT need to ...

  9. Antifreeze poisoning

    MedlinePLUS

    Engine coolant poisoning ... number will let you talk to experts in poisoning. They will give you further instructions. This is ... should call if you have any questions about poisoning or poison prevention. It does NOT need to ...

  10. Wax poisoning

    MedlinePLUS

    Crayons poisoning ... number will let you talk to experts in poisoning. They will give you further instructions. This is ... should call if you have any questions about poisoning or poison prevention. It does NOT need to ...

  11. Sachet poisoning

    MedlinePLUS

    Potpourri poisoning ... number will let you talk to experts in poisoning. They will give you further instructions. This is ... should call if you have any questions about poisoning or poison prevention. It does NOT need to ...

  12. Depilatory poisoning

    MedlinePLUS

    Hair removal agents poisoning ... number will let you talk to experts in poisoning. They will give you further instructions. This is ... should call if you have any questions about poisoning or poison prevention. It does NOT need to ...

  13. Update on Methodologies Available for Ciguatoxin Determination: Perspectives to Confront the Onset of Ciguatera Fish Poisoning in Europe [1

    PubMed Central

    Caillaud, Amandine; de la Iglesia, Pablo; Darius, H. Taiana; Pauillac, Serge; Aligizaki, Katerina; Fraga, Santiago; Chinain, Mireille; Diogène, Jorge

    2010-01-01

    Ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) occurs mainly when humans ingest finfish contaminated with ciguatoxins (CTXs). The complexity and variability of such toxins have made it difficult to develop reliable methods to routinely monitor CFP with specificity and sensitivity. This review aims to describe the methodologies available for CTX detection, including those based on the toxicological, biochemical, chemical, and pharmaceutical properties of CTXs. Selecting any of these methodological approaches for routine monitoring of ciguatera may be dependent upon the applicability of the method. However, identifying a reference validation method for CTXs is a critical and urgent issue, and is dependent upon the availability of certified CTX standards and the coordinated action of laboratories. Reports of CFP cases in European hospitals have been described in several countries, and are mostly due to travel to CFP endemic areas. Additionally, the recent detection of the CTX-producing tropical genus Gambierdiscus in the eastern Atlantic Ocean of the northern hemisphere and in the Mediterranean Sea, as well as the confirmation of CFP in the Canary Islands and possibly in Madeira, constitute other reasons to study the onset of CFP in Europe [1]. The question of the possible contribution of climate change to the distribution of toxin-producing microalgae and ciguateric fish is raised. The impact of ciguatera onset on European Union (EU) policies will be discussed with respect to EU regulations on marine toxins in seafood. Critical analysis and availability of methodologies for CTX determination is required for a rapid response to suspected CFP cases and to conduct sound CFP risk analysis. PMID:20631873

  14. Synchronised expressions of LPXRFamide peptide and its receptor genes: seasonal, diurnal and circadian changes during spawning period in grass puffer.

    PubMed

    Shahjahan, M; Ikegami, T; Osugi, T; Ukena, K; Doi, H; Hattori, A; Tsutsui, K; Ando, H

    2011-01-01

    Among the RFamide peptide family, the LPXRFamide peptide (LPXRFa) group regulates the release of various pituitary hormones and, recently, LPXRFa genes were found to be regulated by photoperiod via melatonin. As a first step towards investigating the role of LPXRFa on reproductive function in grass puffer (Takifugu niphobles), which spawns in semilunar cycles, genes encoding LPXRFa and its receptor (LPXRFa-R) were cloned, and seasonal, diurnal and circadian changes in their absolute amounts of mRNAs in the brain and pituitary were examined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. The grass puffer LPXRFa precursor contains two putative RFamide peptides and one possible RYamide peptide. LPXRFa and LPXRFa-R genes were extensively expressed in the diencephalon and pituitary. The expression levels of both genes were significantly elevated during the spawning periods in both sexes in the brain and pituitary, although they were low in the spawning fish just after releasing eggs and sperm. The treatment of primary pituitary cultures with goldfish LPXRFa increased the amounts of follicle-stimulating hormone ?- and luteinising hormone ?-subunit mRNAs. In the diencephalon, LPXRFa and LPXRFa-R genes showed synchronised diurnal and circadian variations with one peak at zeitgeber time 3 and circadian time 15, respectively. The correlated expression patterns of LPXRFa and LPXRFa-R genes in the diencephalon and pituitary and the possible stimulatory effects of LPXRFa on gonadotrophin subunit gene expression suggest the functional significance of the LPXRFa and LPXRFa-R system in the regulation of lunar-synchronised spawning of grass puffer. PMID:21083774

  15. Poison Ivy

    MedlinePLUS

    MENU Return to Web version Poison Ivy Overview What is poison ivy? Poison ivy is a very common plant found in most parts of the United States. ... This is because most people are allergic to poison ivy. Symptoms What does a poison ivy rash ...

  16. Refrigerant poisoning

    MedlinePLUS

    Coolant poisoning; Freon poisoning; Fluorinated hydrocarbon poisoning; Sudden sniffing death syndrome ... Fluorinated hydrocarbons ... Wax PM, Beuhler MB. Hydrocarbons and volatile substances. In: ... Ma OJ, Cline DM, eds. Emergency Medicine: A Comprehensive Study ...

  17. Big Fish on the Yangtze

    E-print Network

    Hacker, Randi

    2013-12-04

    Broadcast Transcript: This is Randi Hacker with another Postcard from Asia from the KU Center for East Asian Studies. Once upon a time, in China's New Austerity Age, that is, now, a 2,300 ton, 295-foot glow-in-the-dark puffer fish statue...

  18. Outsmarting Poison Ivy and Other Poisonous Plants

    MedlinePLUS

    ... For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Outsmarting Poison Ivy and Other Poisonous Plants Share Tweet Linkedin ... in the sap of these poisonous plants. Recognizing Poison Ivy, Poison Oak, and Poison Sumac Open PDF ...

  19. Photographic fixative poisoning

    MedlinePLUS

    Photographic developer poisoning; Hydroquinone poisoning; Quinone poisoning; Sulfite poisoning ... number will let you talk to experts in poisoning. They will give you further instructions. This is ...

  20. Food poisoning.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, David T; Dobmeier, Stephen G; Bechtel, Laura K; Holstege, Christopher P

    2007-05-01

    Food poisoning is encountered throughout the world. Many of the toxins responsible for specific food poisoning syndromes are no longer limited to isolated geographic locations. With increased travel and the ease of transporting food products, it is likely that a patient may present to any emergency department with the clinical effects of food poisoning. Recognizing specific food poisoning syndromes allows emergency health care providers not only to initiate appropriate treatment rapidly but also to notify health departments early and thereby prevent further poisoning cases. This article reviews several potential food-borne poisons and describes each agent's mechanism of toxicity, expected clinical presentation, and currently accepted treatment. PMID:17482025

  1. Solder poisoning

    MedlinePLUS

    Antimony Bismuth Cadmium Copper Ethylene glycol Lead Mild acids Silver Tin Zinc ... Long-term poisoning with antimony and cadmium may lead to lung cancer. Recovery from acid poisoning depends on how much tissue has been ...

  2. Lead Poisoning

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Home » Discover & Explore » Pollution Print this page Share Lead Poisoning What is Lead, and why should I care? Lead is a ... you can avoid contact with it! Sources of Lead Poisoning HOUSE PAINTS: Before1950, lead-based paint was ...

  3. Diazinon poisoning

    MedlinePLUS

    Diazinon is an insecticide, a product used to kill or control bugs. Poisoning can occur if you swallow this product. This is for ... 1-800-222-1222. For information on other insecticide poisonings, see Insecticides .

  4. Poison Ivy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Digestive System How the Body Works Main Page Poison Ivy KidsHealth > Kids > Staying Safe > Playing It Safe ... the leaves of the plants. Look Out for Poison Plants These plants can be anywhere — from the ...

  5. Bee poison

    MedlinePLUS

    ... in the treatment or management of an actual poison exposure. If you have an exposure, you should ... emergency number (such as 911) or the National Poison Control Center at 1-800-222-1222. See ...

  6. Insecticide poisoning

    MedlinePLUS

    ... in the treatment or management of an actual poison exposure. If you have an exposure, you should ... emergency number (such as 911) or the National Poison Control Center at 1-800-222-1222. See ...

  7. Starch poisoning

    MedlinePLUS

    Cooking starch poisoning; Laundry starch poisoning ... Cooking and laundry starch are both made from vegetable products, most commonly: Corn Potatoes Rice Wheat Both are usually considered nonpoisonous (nontoxic), but ...

  8. Poisonous Plants

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Ewing, Jr., (poison ivy) and U.S. Department of Agriculture (poison oak) Overview Many native and exotic plants ... in this section courtesy of U.S. Department of Agriculture Plant Identification The old saying " Leaves of three, ...

  9. Poison Prevention

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Prevention Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Poison Prevention Article Body Post the Poison Help number 1-800-222-1222 on the ... or empty container of a toxic substance, call Poison Help immediately. More than a million American children ...

  10. The power of poison: pesticide poisoning of Africa's wildlife.

    PubMed

    Ogada, Darcy L

    2014-08-01

    Poisons have long been used to kill wildlife throughout the world. An evolution has occurred from the use of plant- and animal-based toxins to synthetic pesticides to kill wildlife, a method that is silent, cheap, easy, and effective. The use of pesticides to poison wildlife began in southern Africa, and predator populations were widely targeted and eliminated. A steep increase has recently been observed in the intensity of wildlife poisonings, with corresponding population declines. However, the majority of poisonings go unreported. Under national laws, it is illegal to hunt wildlife using poisons in 83% of African countries. Pesticide regulations are inadequate, and enforcement of existing legislation is poor. Few countries have forensic field protocols, and most lack storage and testing facilities. Methods used to poison wildlife include baiting carcasses, soaking grains in pesticide solution, mixing pesticides to form salt licks, and tainting waterholes. Carbofuran is the most widely abused pesticide in Africa. Common reasons for poisoning are control of damage-causing animals, harvesting fish and bushmeat, harvesting animals for traditional medicine, poaching for wildlife products, and killing wildlife sentinels (e.g., vultures because their aerial circling alerts authorities to poachers' activities). Populations of scavengers, particularly vultures, have been decimated by poisoning. Recommendations include banning pesticides, improving pesticide regulations and controlling distribution, better enforcement and stiffer penalties for offenders, increasing international support and awareness, and developing regional pesticide centers. PMID:24716788

  11. Lead poisoning

    MedlinePLUS

    Lead is a very strong poison. When a person swallows a lead object or breathes in lead dust, some of the poison can stay in ... Lead used to be very common in gasoline and house paint in the U.S. Children living in ...

  12. Mushroom Poisoning

    MedlinePLUS

    MENU ... can't tell for sure if a mushroom is poisonous by looking at it, unless you are an expert at identifying mushrooms. There are no tests to help you tell a poisonous mushroom from a nonpoisonous mushroom. Does it help to see how the wild ...

  13. Tetrahydrozoline poisoning

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and not for use in the treatment or management of an actual poison exposure. If you have an exposure, you should call your local emergency number (such as 911) or a local poison control center at 1-800-222-1222.

  14. Aftershave poisoning

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and not for use in the treatment or management of an actual poison exposure. If you have an exposure, you should call your local emergency number (such as 911) or the National Poison Control Center at 1-800-222-1222.

  15. Ink poisoning

    MedlinePLUS

    Mirkin DB. Benzene and related aromatic hydrocarbons. In: Shannon MW, Borron SW, Burns MJ, eds. Haddad and Winchester's Clinical Management of Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ...

  16. Lacquer poisoning

    MedlinePLUS

    Poisoning from lacquers is due to hydrocarbons, which are substances that contain only hydrogen and carbon. ... Lee DC. Hydrocarbons. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls, RM, eds. Rosen’s Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice. 8th ed. Philadelphia, ...

  17. Benzene poisoning

    MedlinePLUS

    Mirkin DB. Benzene and related aromatic hydrocarbons. In: Shannon MW, Borron SW, Burns MJ, eds. Haddad and Winchester's Clinical Management of Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ...

  18. Methanol poisoning

    MedlinePLUS

    ... nondrinking type of alcohol used for industrial and automotive purposes. This article discusses poisoning from an overdose ... heating sources Copy machine fluids De-icing fluid Fuel additives (octane boosters) Paint remover or thinner Shellac ...

  19. Naphthalene poisoning

    MedlinePLUS

    ... K. General approach to the poisoned patient. In: Marx J, ed. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical ... 147. Levine MD, Zane R. Chemical injuries. In: Marx J, ed. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical ...

  20. Food Poisoning

    MedlinePLUS

    ... uh) Campylobacter (say: kam-pe-low-BAK-tur) E. coli (say: EE KOLE-eye) To avoid food poisoning, ... Second Rule Botulism Being Safe in the Kitchen E. Coli Belly Pain Salmonellosis Why Do I Need to ...

  1. Gasoline poisoning

    MedlinePLUS

    This article discusses the harmful effects from swallowing gasoline or breathing in its fumes. This is for ... The poisonous ingredients in gasoline are chemicals called ... only hydrogen and carbon. Examples are benzene and methane.

  2. Shaving cream poisoning

    MedlinePLUS

    Shaving lotion poisoning ... number will let you talk to experts in poisoning. They will give you further instructions. This is ... should call if you have any questions about poisoning or poison prevention. It does NOT need to ...

  3. Cold wave lotion poisoning

    MedlinePLUS

    Thioglycolate poisoning ... number will let you talk to experts in poisoning. They will give you further instructions. This is ... should call if you have any questions about poisoning or poison prevention. It does NOT need to ...

  4. Hand lotion poisoning

    MedlinePLUS

    Hand cream poisoning ... number will let you talk to experts in poisoning. They will give you further instructions. This is ... should call if you have any questions about poisoning or poison prevention. It does NOT need to ...

  5. Rhubarb leaves poisoning

    MedlinePLUS

    Rheum officinale poisoning ... number will let you talk to experts in poisoning. They will give you further instructions. This is ... should call if you have any questions about poisoning or poison prevention. It does NOT need to ...

  6. Lip moisturizer poisoning

    MedlinePLUS

    Chapstick poisoning ... number will let you talk to experts in poisoning. They will give you further instructions. This is ... should call if you have any questions about poisoning or poison prevention. It does NOT need to ...

  7. Tips to Prevent Poisonings

    MedlinePLUS

    ... below were adapted from the American Association of Poison Control Centersâ?? poison prevention tips for children and adults. Drugs and ... Children Safe from Poisoning Be Prepared Put the poison help number, 1-800-222-1222, on or ...

  8. Ciguatera poisoning in the Cook Islands.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Stephanie; Withers, Tristan

    2014-01-01

    This case report presents two British medical students who contracted ciguatera poisoning while on elective in the Cook Islands. Thirty-six hours after consuming two reef fish they developed paraesthesia of the mouth, hands and feet, myalgia, pruritis and cold allodynia. Neurological examination was normal. Diagnosis of ciguatera poisoning was made on history of reef fish consumption and classical clinical presentation. Management was symptomatic (antihistamines) and both students made a full recovery within 10?weeks. PMID:24966268

  9. Protecting Yourself from Poisonous Plants

    MedlinePLUS

    ... risk of exposure to poisonous plants, such as poison ivy, poison oak, and poison sumac. When in contact with skin, the sap ... poisonous plant: Immediately rinse skin with rubbing alcohol, poison plant wash, or degreasing soap (such as dishwashing ...

  10. [Histamine food poisonings in Japan and other countries].

    PubMed

    Toda, Miou; Yamamoto, Miyako; Uneyama, Chikako; Morikawa, Kaoru

    2009-01-01

    Histamine food poisonings are allergy-like food poisonings caused by the ingestion of spoiled fish containing markedly elevated histamine levels. We examined histamine food poisonings in Japan from 1998 to 2008. In average 8 food poisonings and 150 cases were reported annually and there was no fatality case. In more than 80% of remaining food samples, histamine content exceeded 20 mg/100 g. These poisonings were caused by tuna, billfish (marlin) and mackerel, which contained higher level of histamine than other fishes in histamine food poisonings in Japan. Cooking methods of these fishes were mainly "broiled". We also studied histamine food poisonings in other countries. Tuna was the main fish in histamine food poisonings reported to Centers for the Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in the US and Ozfoodnet in Australia from 2000 to 2006. In the US, histamine food poisonings were also caused by mahimahi and escolar fish. Our review will be useful for in taking measures to reduce risk of histamine food poisonings. PMID:20306704

  11. [Mushroom poisoning].

    PubMed

    Trueb, L; Carron, P-N; Saviuc, P

    2013-08-14

    Mushroom poisoning is a regular complaint for consultation in emergency facilities. These situations are usually benign and symptomatic treatment is sufficient. However, severe damage can occur, potentially life-threatening. We review the various syndromes associated with the toxins involved, their management and the major signs that are suggestive of serious injury and requiring hospitalization. PMID:24024391

  12. Yew poisoning

    MedlinePLUS

    ... is found in various kinds of the yew plant. The poison is in most parts of the yew plant, but the highest amount ... information: Patient's age, weight, and condition Name and part of the plant that was swallowed, if known Time it was ...

  13. Poison Ivy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... poison ivy”. The plant is found around the world, but it usually doesn’t grow in the desert or in high elevations. It usually grows in clusters in the woods, up in trees, and on the ground. Every part of the ...

  14. 2004 NaturePublishing Group Genome duplication in the teleost fish

    E-print Network

    Kellis, Manolis

    Recerca en Informa`tica Biome`dica, IMIM-UPF and Programa de Bioinforma`tica i Geno`mica (CRG), Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain 7 CNRS UMR 5558 Biome´trie et Biologie Evolutive, Universite´ Lyon 1, 69622 Villeurbanne ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Tetraodon nigroviridis is a freshwater puffer fish with the smallest known vertebrate genome. Here, we

  15. Linking ciguatera poisoning to spatial ecology of fish: a novel approach to examining the distribution of biotoxin levels in the great barracuda by combining non-lethal blood sampling and biotelemetry.

    PubMed

    O'Toole, Amanda C; Dechraoui Bottein, Marie-Yasmine; Danylchuk, Andy J; Ramsdell, John S; Cooke, Steven J

    2012-06-15

    Ciguatera in humans is typically caused by the consumption of reef fish that have accumulated Ciguatoxins (CTXs) in their flesh. Over a six month period, we captured 38 wild adult great barracuda (Sphyraena barracuda), a species commonly associated with ciguatera in The Bahamas. We sampled three tissues (i.e., muscle, liver, and blood) and analysed them for the presence of ciguatoxins using a functional in vitro N2A bioassay. Detectable concentrations of ciguatoxins found in the three tissue types ranged from 2.51 to 211.74pg C-CTX-1 equivalents/g. Blood and liver toxin concentrations were positively correlated (?=0.86, P=0.003), indicating that, for the first time, blood sampling provides a non-lethal method of detecting ciguatoxin in wild fish. Non-lethal blood sampling also presents opportunities to couple this approach with biotelemetry and biologging techniques that enable the study of fish distribution and movement. To demonstrate the potential for linking ciguatoxin occurrence with barracuda spatial ecology, we also present a proof-of-concept case study where blood samples were obtained from 20 fish before releasing them with acoustic transmitters and tracking them in the coastal waters using a fixed acoustic telemetry array covering 44km(2). Fish that tested positive for CTX may have smaller home ranges than non-toxic fish (median distance travelled, U=2.21, P=0.03). Results presented from this study may help identify high risk areas and source-sink dynamics of toxins, potentially reducing the incidence and human health risk of ciguatera fish poisoning. Moreover, development of the non-lethal sampling approach and measurement of ciguatera from blood provide future opportunities to understand the mechanistic relationship between toxins and the spatial ecology of a broad range of marine fish species. PMID:22560748

  16. Lead poisoning.

    PubMed

    Landrigan, P J; Todd, A C

    1994-08-01

    Lead poisoning is the most common disease of environmental origin in the United States today. Adult lead poisoning results primarily from exposure by inhalation in the workplace. Pediatric lead poisoning results principally from the ingestion of lead from environmental media, including paint chips, dust, soil, drinking water, ceramics, and medications. Lead is toxic to many organ systems, among them developing erythrocytes, the kidneys, and the nervous system. Lead-induced toxicity to the central nervous system causes delayed development, diminished intelligence, and altered behavior. In young children, this effect has been demonstrated convincingly to occur at blood lead levels between 10 and 20 micrograms per dl. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has recommended that a blood lead level of 10 micrograms per dl or higher be considered evidence of increased lead absorption, and the National Academy of Sciences has concurred in that recommendation. Unresolved issues in need of further study include the frequency of screening young children for lead, the question of whether women should be offered screening for lead before conceiving a pregnancy, the role of x-ray fluorescence analysis in assessing lead in bone, and the appropriate legislative response of the United States government to lead-based paint abatement. PMID:7941534

  17. Mercuric chloride poisoning

    MedlinePLUS

    Mercuric chloride is a very poisonous form of mercury. It is a type of mercury salt. There are different ... poisonings . This article discusses poisoning from swallowing mercuric chloride. This is for information only and not for ...

  18. Household glue poisoning

    MedlinePLUS

    Glue poisoning ... Loss of appetite Nausea Red, runny nose Severe poisonings caused by swallowing glue may cause: Gastric outlet ... number will let you talk to experts in poisoning. They will give you further instructions. This is ...

  19. Redescription and genetic characterization of Cucullanus dodsworthi (Nematoda: Cucullanidae) from the checkered puffer Sphoeroides testudineus (Pisces: Tetraodontiformes).

    PubMed

    Mejía-Madrid, Hugo H; Aguirre-Macedo, María Leopoldina

    2011-08-01

    Cucullanus dodsworthi Barreto, 1922 was originally described from the checkered puffer fish, Sphoeroides testudineus (Linnaeus), from Brazilian waters. New material of this nematode species was recovered from the same type host species from Mexican waters off the Yucatán Peninsula. This material was compared with Brazilian specimens. Although Mexican material closely resembles the original description of C. dodsworthi in general appearance, previously undescribed characters, as observed by light and scanning electron microscopy, are described for the first time in this species from both Brazilian and Mexican specimens. These characters include lateral body alae or conspicuous lateral fields that begin in the cervical region and end anterior to first pair of adcloacal papillae in males and at the anus level in females, cephalic and caudal alae absent; presence of pseudobuccal capsule with simple buccal frame well sclerotized with dorsal arrow structures, lateral structures, and lateral reniform structures; deirids, excretory pore, and postdeirids; slight anal protuberance in both sexes, unpaired precloacal papilla in males, phasmids near pair 10 in males and near tail tip in females; female with protruding vulvar lips and smooth eggs. In the absence of better descriptions of this genus, it can be concluded that C. dodsworthi is the only species of marine Cucullanus from the Americas that possesses lateral body alae. Molecular characterization of C. dodsworthi with SSU (18S) and ITS2 rDNA genes is included. A preliminary genetic comparison between SSU rDNA of C. dodsworthi , Truttaedacnitis truttae (Fabricius, 1794), and Dichelyne mexicanus Caspeta-Mandujano, Moravec and Salgado-Maldonado, 1999 places C. dodsworthi as a putative sister taxon to T. truttae . The finding of C. dodsworthi in Mexican marine waters also represents a new geographical record. PMID:21506838

  20. A review of selected seafood poisonings.

    PubMed

    Clark, R F; Williams, S R; Nordt, S P; Manoguerra, A S

    1999-01-01

    Seafood poisoning has been recognized as a problem in both coastal and inland populations for millennia. Many types of sea creatures from shellfish to the largest fish have been implicated. Severe cases of many different types of seafood poisonings can result in fatalities. While the pathophysiology of the toxins is well known in some cases, others, like ciguatera, remain somewhat confusing. As a result, the treatment of these conditions remains controversial, although supportive care continues to be the mainstay of therapy. In this manuscript, we review the pathophysiology, clinical presentation, and treatment of some of the most common and toxic varieties of seafood poisoning resulting from toxins. PMID:10485519

  1. House of Poison: Poisons in the Home.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Rosanne

    One of a series of instructional materials produced by the Literacy Council of Alaska, this booklet provides information about common household poisons. Using a simplified vocabulary and shorter sentences, it provides statistics concerning accidental poisonings; a list of the places poisons are usually found in the home; steps to make the home…

  2. Differential expression of three types of gonadotropin-releasing hormone genes during the spawning season in grass puffer, Takifugu niphobles.

    PubMed

    Shahjahan, Md; Hamabata, Tomoko; Motohashi, Eiji; Doi, Hiroyuki; Ando, Hironori

    2010-05-15

    Grass puffer, Takifugu niphobles, has unique spawning behavior; spawning occurs on beach only for several days around new moon and full moon from spring to early summer. To investigate the role of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) in the reproductive function, genes encoding three types of GnRHs, namely seabream GnRH (sbGnRH), chicken GnRH-II (cGnRH-II) and salmon GnRH (sGnRH), were cloned and changes in their mRNA amounts were examined over the spawning season. In addition, changes in the pituitary gonadotropin subunit mRNAs and the plasma steroid hormones were examined over the spawning season. Fishes were assessed at four reproductive stages, i.e., in December (early maturation), in April (maturing), in May (spawning), and in July (post-spawning). Moreover, spawning fish just after releasing eggs and sperm were taken at a spawning bed. The amounts of sbGnRH mRNA were substantially elevated in May and the spawning fish in both sexes, concomitant with considerable elevations of follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone beta subunit mRNAs and plasma estradiol-17beta (E(2)) and testosterone (T) levels. There were strong positive correlations between the sbGnRH mRNA and the plasma E(2) and T levels over the spawning season in both sexes. The amounts of cGnRH-II mRNA showed no noticeable changes except for an increase in the post-spawning females. The amounts of sGnRH mRNA in the males were significantly increased in May, but they were low in the spawning males. In the females, sGnRH mRNA increased from the maturing stage and reached a maximum in the post-spawning stage, in which a positive correlation with the plasma cortisol levels was observed. These specific changes suggest that the expression of three types of GnRH genes is differentially regulated during the spawning season, and sex steroids may be important for the differential expression of GnRH genes. PMID:20138178

  3. Powered control mechanisms contributing to dynamically stable swimming in porcupine puffers (Teleostei: Diodon holocanthus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiktorowicz, Alexis M.; Lauritzen, Dean V.; Gordon, Malcolm S.

    2007-11-01

    Balances of multiple varying forces must be the basis for the unusually great dynamic stability of swimming pufferfishes. We used high-speed digital video recordings to study biomechanics and kinematics of rectilinear swimming at different speeds of five porcupine puffers in a water tunnel. We measured critical swimming speeds ( U crit); fin biomechanics, kinematics, and coordination; recoil movements; and gait changes. Major propulsors were pectoral fins at lower speeds; dorsal, anal, and caudal fins at higher speeds. Precise coordination of fin movements produced small recoil movements at speeds below U crit. The unusual body shape probably contributes to unconscious stability control.

  4. Powered control mechanisms contributing to dynamically stable swimming in porcupine puffers (Teleostei: Diodon holocanthus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiktorowicz, Alexis M.; Lauritzen, Dean V.; Gordon, Malcolm S.

    Balances of multiple varying forces must be the basis for the unusually great dynamic stability of swimming pufferfishes. We used high-speed digital video recordings to study biomechanics and kinematics of rectilinear swimming at different speeds of five porcupine puffers in a water tunnel. We measured critical swimming speeds (Ucrit); fin biomechanics, kinematics, and coordination; recoil movements; and gait changes. Major propulsors were pectoral fins at lower speeds; dorsal, anal, and caudal fins at higher speeds. Precise coordination of fin movements produced small recoil movements at speeds below Ucrit. The unusual body shape probably contributes to unconscious stability control.

  5. Prevention of Food Poisoning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Army Quartermaster School, Ft. Lee, VA.

    The programed text provides a single lesson, four-hour, correspondence subcourse on the prevention of food poisoning. It covers the following areas: a definition of food poisoning; chemical food poisoning; biological food poisoning; causes and prevention of trichinosis; six factors controlling bacteria growth; bacterial infection; prevention of…

  6. Imprudent fishing harvests and consequent trophic cascades on the West Florida shelf over the last half century: A harbinger of increased human deaths from paralytic shellfish poisoning along the southeastern United States, in response to oligotrophication?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, J. J.; Tomas, C. R.; Steidinger, K. A.; Lenes, J. M.; Chen, F. R.; Weisberg, R. H.; Zheng, L.; Landsberg, J. H.; Vargo, G. A.; Heil, C. A.

    2011-06-01

    Within the context of ubiquitous overfishing of piscivores, recent consequent increments of jellyfish and clupeids have occurred at the zooplanktivore trophic level in the eastern Gulf of Mexico (GOM), after overfishing of one of their predators, i.e. red snapper. Initiation of a local trophic cascade thence led to declines of herbivore stocks, documented here on the West Florida shelf. These exacerbating world-wide trophic cascades have resulted in larger harmful algal blooms (HABs), already present at the base of most coastal food webs. Impacts on human health have thus far been minimal within nutrient-rich coastal regions. To provide a setting for past morbidities, consideration is given to chronologies of other trophic cascades within eutrophic, cold water marine ecosystems of the Scotian Sea, in the Gulf of Alaska, off Southwest Africa, within the Barents, White, and Black Seas, in the Gulf of Maine, and finally in the North Sea. Next, comparison is now made here of recent ten-fold increments within Florida waters of both relatively benign and saxitoxic HABs, some of which are fatal to humans. These events are placed in a perspective of other warm shelf systems of the South China and Caribbean Seas to assess prior and possible future poison toxicities of oligotrophic coastal habitats. Past wide-spread kills of fishes and sea urchins over the Caribbean Sea and the downstream GOM are examined in relation to the potential transmission of dinoflagellate saxitoxin and other epizootic poison vectors by western boundary currents over larger "commons" than local embayments. Furthermore, since some HABs produce more potent saxitoxins upon nutrient depletion, recent decisions to ban seasonal fertilizer applications to Florida lawns may have unintended consequences. In the future, human-killing phytoplankton, rather than relatively benign fish-killing HABs of the past, may be dispersed along the southeastern United States seaboard.

  7. Incidence of animal poisoning cases in the Czech Republic: current situation

    PubMed Central

    Modrá, Helena; Svobodová, Zde?ka

    2009-01-01

    This article reports the most frequent cases of poisoning in farm animals, horses, cats, dogs, wild animals, fish and honey-bees in the Czech Republic. At present, there are fewer cases of acute poisoning caused by high doses of toxic substances but there are more and more cases of chronic poisoning as a consequence of environmental pollution. PMID:21217846

  8. Lead poisoning in a Mississippi sandhill crane

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Franson, J. Christian; Hereford, Scott G.

    1994-01-01

    Lead poisoning from the ingestion of spent lead shot is well documented in waterfowl (Sanderson and Bellrose 1986) and has been reported in other wetland (Locke et al. 1991, Windingstad et al. 1984) and upland (Hunter and Rosen 1965, Locke and Bagley 1967) avian species. Ingested fishing weights have been implicated in lead poisoning of Trumpeter Swans (Cygnus buccinator) (Blus et al. 1989), Common Loons (Gavia immer) (Locke et al. 1982, Franson and Cliplef 1992, Pokras and Chafe1 1992), Mute Swans (Cygnus olor) (Birkhead 1982), and Sandhill Cranes (Grus canadensis) (Windingstad et al. 1984). The significance of lead poisoning as a mortality factor in avian species other than waterfowl is probably underestimated (Locke and Friend 1992), and any cause of mortality becomes particularly important in species with small population sizes. We report here the first known case of lead poisoning in a Mississippi Sandhill Crane (Grus canadensis pulla), a critically endangered subspecies.

  9. Poisoning: Effective Clinical Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Turner, T. J.

    1982-01-01

    Poisoning accounts for 40-60% of suicides, is the commonest medical emergency in small children, and an important source of occupational injury. Prevention of unintentional poisoning involves primarily education of parents. In intervention, the patient—not the poison—must be treated. Self-poisoners require supportive but firm handling. Treatment is directed towards prevention of further absorption, removal of absorbed poison, symptomatic or supportive therapy, and administration of systemic antidotes. Careful attention should be paid to the physician's legal responsibilities in cases of poisoning. Imagesp2032-a PMID:21286544

  10. A review of lead poisoning in swans

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blus, L.J.

    1994-01-01

    Nearly 10,000 swans of six species or subspecies from 14 countries have died from poisoning caused by lead that originated from ingestion of fishing weights, shotgun pellets (shot), or contaminated vegetation or sediments associated with mining and smelting wastes. Lead contamination in mute swans in England caused local population declines during the late 1970s and 1980s. More tundra swans died from lead poisoning than any other species. The extreme record involved an estimated 7200 tundra swans that died over five winters at one locality in North Carolina. The recent legislation to ban lead fishing weights in most of England and Wales and recent replacement of lead shot with steel shot for waterfowl hunting in the United States and a few areas of Europe, including Denmark, are expected to reduce the incidence of lead poisoning in swans.

  11. Recovery of fish stocks in the Seto Inland Sea.

    PubMed

    Nagai, T

    2003-01-01

    The total amount of fisheries' yield in the Seto Inland Sea in 1999 was 571,000 MT, consisting of 256,000 MT by fishing and 315,000 MT from aquaculture. About 40,000 people engaged in the fishing and aquaculture industries, earned 129 billion yen (1100 million US$) by fishing and 89 billion yen (770 million $US) by aquaculture. The averaged annual catch for the Seto Inland Sea by fishing was 13 MT/km(2). Division into time periods in terms of eutrophication levels can be made: before 1960 when red sea bream were abundant with ecological divergence (before eutrophication), from 1960 to 1990 when the biomass of anchovy was large (during eutrophication), and after 1990 when the jellyfishes were abundant (excessive eutrophication or high N:P ratio). The fish production will decrease in the sea of jellyfishes. Actually, the amount of catch was 462,000 MT in 1982 which decreased 265,000 MT in 1993, corresponding to 43% in twelve years, then keeping the same level. A big reduction was seen in the catches of the spotlined sardine, anchovy, Spanish mackerel, tiger puffer, short-necked clam, sea cucumber and others. The tiger puffer and Spanish mackerel were abundant as predators in the sea of anchovy. The biomass of anchovy was at its maximum in 1986 and decreased to less than one third in 1996. The stocks of tiger puffer and Spanish mackerel greatly decreased because of the higher fishing pressure compared to the anchovy stock. The fishing power of individual fisheries targeting on the tiger puffer and Spanish mackerel increased substantially when fishing vessel and fishing gear improved, resulting in an excessive fishing effort. A large quantity of small immature fishes is usually caught in the Seto Inland Sea, resulting in growth and/or recruitment overfishing for many species. Hence, it is necessary to promote management of the fisheries so as not to reduce the fish stocks, and to allow the Seto Inland Sea to return from being a sea of jellyfishes to a sea of anchovy, with decreased eutrophication levels. PMID:12787608

  12. Hydrochloric acid poisoning

    MedlinePLUS

    Hydrochloric acid is a clear, poisonous liquid. It is highly corrosive, which means it immediately causes severe damage, such ... poisoning due to swallowing or breathing in hydrochloric acid. This is for information only and not for ...

  13. Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    MedlinePLUS

    ... them in. The most common symptoms of CO poisoning are Headache Dizziness Weakness Nausea Vomiting Chest pain ... often hard to tell if someone has CO poisoning, because the symptoms may be like those of ...

  14. Hydrofluoric acid poisoning

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Glass etching High-octane gasoline manufacturing Some household rust removers Note: This list may not be all ... you have any questions about poisoning or poison prevention. It does NOT need to be an emergency. ...

  15. Oxalic acid poisoning

    MedlinePLUS

    Oxalic acid may be found in some: Anti-rust products Bleaches Metal cleaners Rhubarb leaves Note: This ... you have any questions about poisoning or poison prevention. It does NOT need to be an emergency. ...

  16. Poison Control Centers

    MedlinePLUS

    Local Poison Centers Search Centers Name States Any state Alabama Alaska Arizona Arkansas California Colorado Connecticut Delaware District of ... 222-1222 immediately. Name State American Association of Poison Control Centers Address AAPCC Central Office NOT A ...

  17. Drain opener poisoning

    MedlinePLUS

    ... drinks these chemicals, or if someone splashes the poison into the eyes when pouring it or breathes ... in the treatment or management of an actual poison exposure. If you have an exposure, you should ...

  18. Bracken fern poisoning

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bracken fern (Pteridium aquilinum) is found throughout the world and enzootic hematuria, bright blindness, and bracken staggers. This chapter reviews the plant, the various poisoning syndrome that it produces, the current strategies to prevent poisoning, and recommended treatments....

  19. [Venomous and poisonous animals. IV. Envenomations by venomous aquatic vertebrates].

    PubMed

    Bédry, R; De Haro, L

    2007-04-01

    Epidemiological information on marine envenomation is generally less extensive in Europe than in tropical regions where these injuries are more severe and the need for medical advice is more frequent. For these reasons use of regional Poison Control Centers in the area where the injury occurs must be encouraged. The purpose of this review is to describe envenomation by bony fish (lion fish, stone fish, and catfish), cartilaginous fish (stingrays and poisonous sharks), or other venomous aquatic vertebrates (moray-eels and marine snakes). Understanding of these envenomation syndromes is important not only in tropical areas but also in Europe where importation of dangerous species has increased in recent years. PMID:17691425

  20. Oak Poisoning in Livestock. 

    E-print Network

    Dollahite, J. W.; Housholder, G. T.; Camp, B. J.

    1966-01-01

    and acorns are poisonous. Cattle, sheep, goats, swine, rabbits and guinea pigs are susceptible to oak poisoning. A gallotannin isolated from oak has been demonstrated to be poisonous. Calcium hydroxide is an antidote for tannic acid. Calcium hydroxide... of o:k poisoning were observed. - Purified shin oak tannin and commercial tannic acid \\we fed to rabbits in parallel studies. The serium tan- nin levels (1 8) (expressed as "tannic acid" equivalent) \\yere determined periodically. The times of death...

  1. Lead poisoning: An overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gendel, Neil

    1993-01-01

    A problem that should be of great concern to all of us is the lead poisoning of children. First, I would like to present a short overview concerning the reasons everyone should care about lead poisoning, then discuss the history of lead poisoning, what is happening today across the country, and the future.

  2. Lead Poisoning in Childhood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pueschel, Siegfried M., Ed.; Linakis, James G., Ed.; Anderson, Angela C., Ed.

    The magnitude of childhood lead poisoning has been inexplicably neglected by modern medicine and by legislators. However, since the 1970s, increased attention has been focused on lead poisoning, and advances have been made in several areas, including understanding of the neurodevelopmental and behavioral ramifications of lead poisoning, and…

  3. Numerical Study of SF6 Thermal Plasmas Inside a Puffer-assisted Self-blast Chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jong-Chul

    In this study, we calculated the whole arcing history of SF6 thermal plasmas happened inside a puffer-assisted self-blast chamber of high-voltage switchgears during the alternative current interruption process. It is very difficult to realize correctly these all phenomena using the computational schemes, therefore we have been trying to simplify the physics related in the problem. Most flows encountered in the process are turbulent and the ability to predict turbulence for this application is invaluable for the engineer to design the chamber reliably. The objective of this paper is to model turbulence by averaging the unsteadiness of the turbulence, which are called Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes models, and to compare the results with pressure and temperature field distributions during the whole arcing history. It has been found that the two-equation turbulent model predicts bigger mixing of momentum, heat and species than the zero-equation model does.

  4. Glyphosate poisoning.

    PubMed

    Bradberry, Sally M; Proudfoot, Alex T; Vale, J Allister

    2004-01-01

    Glyphosate is used extensively as a non-selective herbicide by both professional applicators and consumers and its use is likely to increase further as it is one of the first herbicides against which crops have been genetically modified to increase their tolerance. Commercial glyphosate-based formulations most commonly range from concentrates containing 41% or more glyphosate to 1% glyphosate formulations marketed for domestic use. They generally consist of an aqueous mixture of the isopropylamine (IPA) salt of glyphosate, a surfactant, and various minor components including anti-foaming and colour agents, biocides and inorganic ions to produce pH adjustment. The mechanisms of toxicity of glyphosate formulations are complicated. Not only is glyphosate used as five different salts but commercial formulations of it contain surfactants, which vary in nature and concentration. As a result, human poisoning with this herbicide is not with the active ingredient alone but with complex and variable mixtures. Therefore, It is difficult to separate the toxicity of glyphosate from that of the formulation as a whole or to determine the contribution of surfactants to overall toxicity. Experimental studies suggest that the toxicity of the surfactant, polyoxyethyleneamine (POEA), is greater than the toxicity of glyphosate alone and commercial formulations alone. There is insufficient evidence to conclude that glyphosate preparations containing POEA are more toxic than those containing alternative surfactants. Although surfactants probably contribute to the acute toxicity of glyphosate formulations, the weight of evidence is against surfactants potentiating the toxicity of glyphosate. Accidental ingestion of glyphosate formulations is generally associated with only mild, transient, gastrointestinal features. Most reported cases have followed the deliberate ingestion of the concentrated formulation of Roundup (The use of trade names is for product identification purposes only and does not imply endorsement.) (41% glyphosate as the IPA salt and 15% POEA). There is a reasonable correlation between the amount ingested and the likelihood of serious systemic sequelae or death. Advancing age is also associated with a less favourable prognosis. Ingestion of >85 mL of the concentrated formulation is likely to cause significant toxicity in adults. Gastrointestinal corrosive effects, with mouth, throat and epigastric pain and dysphagia are common. Renal and hepatic impairment are also frequent and usually reflect reduced organ perfusion. Respiratory distress, impaired consciousness, pulmonary oedema, infiltration on chest x-ray, shock, arrythmias, renal failure requiring haemodialysis, metabolic acidosis and hyperkalaemia may supervene in severe cases. Bradycardia and ventricular arrhythmias are often present pre-terminally. Dermal exposure to ready-to-use glyphosate formulations can cause irritation and photo-contact dermatitis has been reported occasionally; these effects are probably due to the preservative Proxel (benzisothiazolin-3-one). Severe skin burns are very rare. Inhalation is a minor route of exposure but spray mist may cause oral or nasal discomfort, an unpleasant taste in the mouth, tingling and throat irritation. Eye exposure may lead to mild conjunctivitis, and superficial corneal injury is possible if irrigation is delayed or inadequate. Management is symptomatic and supportive, and skin decontamination with soap and water after removal of contaminated clothing should be undertaken in cases of dermal exposure. PMID:15862083

  5. Marijuana poisoning.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, Kevin T; Bronstein, Alvin C; Newquist, Kristin L

    2013-02-01

    The plant Cannabis sativa has been used for centuries for the effects of its psychoactive resins. The term "marijuana" typically refers to tobacco-like preparations of the leaves and flowers. The plant contains more than 400 chemicals but the cannabinoid ?-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is the major psychoactive constituent. "Hashish" is the resin extracted from the tops of flowering plants and generally has a much higher THC concentration. Marijuana is the most commonly used illicit drug in the United States. Currently, several states have passed legislation to decriminalize possession of small amounts of marijuana for both medical and personal use and several other states have similar legislation under consideration. The most common form of marijuana use in humans is inhalation of the smoke of marijuana cigarettes, followed by ingestion. In animals, although secondhand smoke inhalation is possible, the most common source of exposure is through ingestion of the owner's marijuana supply. The minimum lethal oral dose for dogs for THC is more than 3 g/kg. Although the drug has a high margin of safety, deaths have been seen after ingestion of food products containing the more concentrated medical-grade THC butter. There are two specific cannabinoid receptors in humans and dogs, CB1 (primarily in central nervous system) and CB2 (peripheral tissues). In animals, following oral ingestion, clinical effects begin within 60 minutes. All of the neuropharmacologic mechanisms by which cannabinoids produce psychoactive effects have not been identified. However, CB1 activity is believed to be responsible for the majority of cannabinoid clinical effects. Highly lipid soluble, THC is distributed in fat, liver, brain, and renal tissue. Fifteen percent of THC is excreted into the urine and the rest is eliminated in the feces through biliary excretion. Clinical signs of canine intoxication include depression, hypersalivation, mydriasis, hypermetria, vomiting, urinary incontinence, tremors, hypothermia, and bradycardia. Higher dosages may additionally cause nystagmus, agitation, tachypnea, tachycardia, ataxia, hyperexcitability, and seizures. Treatment of marijuana ingestion in animals is largely supportive. Vital signs including temperature and heart rate and rhythm must be continually monitored. Stomach content and urine can be tested for cannabinoids. Gas chromatography and mass spectrometry can be utilized for THC detection but usually may take several days and are not practical for initiation of therapy. Human urine drug-screening tests can be unreliable for confirmation of marijuana toxicosis in dogs owing to the interference of a large number of the metabolites in canine urine. False negatives may also arise if testing occurs too recently following THC ingestion. Thus, the use of human urine drug-screening tests in dogs remains controversial. No specific antidote presently exists for THC poisoning. Sedation with benzodiazepines may be necessary if dogs are severely agitated. Intravenous fluids may be employed to counter prolonged vomiting and to help control body temperature. Recently, the use of intralipid therapy to bind the highly lipophilic THC has been utilized to help reduce clinical signs. The majority of dogs experiencing intoxication after marijuana ingestion recover completely without sequellae. Differential diagnoses of canine THC toxicosis include human pharmaceuticals with central nervous system stimulatory effects, drugs with central nervous system depressant effects, macrolide parasiticides, xylitol, and hallucinogenic mushrooms. PMID:23796481

  6. The many faces of methylmercury poisoning

    SciTech Connect

    Elhassani, S.B.

    1982-10-01

    Methylmercury (MM) is a very potent neurotoxic agent. Its role in polluting the environment is well documented. A vast amount of study over the past several decades has finally provided insight into many aspects of its effect. Exposure to MM may be through ingestion of poisoned fish or inadvertent misuse of grain treated with the poison as a fungicide. Major epidemics have occurred in Japan (Fetal Minamata disease), Iraq, Pakistan, Guatemala, and Ghana. Sporadic incidences have occurred in the United States and Canada. There is no effective antidote to counteract the effect of MM on the central nervous system, although the information documented should provide hope for more effective therapy in acute cases.

  7. 78 FR 69992 - Guidance for Industry on Purchasing Reef Fish Species Associated With the Hazard of Ciguatera...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-22

    ...AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration...Hazard of Ciguatera Fish Poisoning; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration...SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration...Hazard of Ciguatera Fish Poisoning.'' The...

  8. [Acute salicylate poisoning].

    PubMed

    Reingardiene, Dagmara; Lazauskas, Robertas

    2006-01-01

    Although aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid) has become widely available without prescription, cases of self-poisoning due to overdose of salicylates are quite uncommon, with a low reported mortality. However, severe poisoning with these preparations is life threatening. Besides the aspirin, there are other sources of salicylate poisoning, such as an excessive application of topical agents, ingestion of salicylate containing ointments, use of keratolytic agents or agents containing methyl salicylate (e.g. oil of wintergreen). Most of these preparations are liquid, highly concentrated and lipid soluble, and, therefore, they are able to provoke a severe, rapid salicylate poisoning. On the basis of clinical and metabolic features or salicylate concentration in plasma it is very important to diagnose severe poisoning with salicylates in time and prescribe an adequate treatment. In the present review article various aspects of salicylate poisoning and its treatment are discussed: epidemiology, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of salicylates, clinical manifestations of their toxicity, management, enhanced elimination and prognosis. PMID:16467617

  9. Wheat Pasture Poisoning

    E-print Network

    Crookshank, H. R.; Sims, Frank H.

    1956-01-01

    was confirmed by bacteriological culture and animal inoculation. Wheat bloat, though a separate condition, has been observed. Some other conditions which have been mis- taken for wheat pasture poisoning are : acetonemia in mature cows, prussic acid... of the Texas Agricultural Experiment Station, Texas Technological College and the U. S. Department of Agriculture on wheat pasture poisoning. The condition known as wheat pasture poisoning occurs primarily in sexually mature cows which are in the late stages...

  10. Phosphorus poisoning in waterfowl

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coburn, D.R.; DeWitt, J.B.; Derby, J.V., Jr.; Ediger, E.

    1950-01-01

    Black ducks and mallards were found to be highly susceptible to phosphorus poisoning. 3 mg. of white phosphorus per kg. of body weight given in a single dose resulted in death of a black duck in 6 hours. Pathologic changes in both acute and chronic poisoning were studied. Data are presented showing that diagnosis can be made accurately by chemical analysis of stored tissues in cases of phosphorus poisoning.

  11. 36 CFR 331.4 - Fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...by means of the use of drugs, poisons, explosives, bow and arrow or electricity is prohibited. (c) Commercial fishing...and fishing with gill nets, trammel nets, hoop nets, bow and arrow or trot lines is...

  12. 36 CFR 331.4 - Fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...by means of the use of drugs, poisons, explosives, bow and arrow or electricity is prohibited. (c) Commercial fishing...and fishing with gill nets, trammel nets, hoop nets, bow and arrow or trot lines is...

  13. 36 CFR 331.4 - Fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...by means of the use of drugs, poisons, explosives, bow and arrow or electricity is prohibited. (c) Commercial fishing...and fishing with gill nets, trammel nets, hoop nets, bow and arrow or trot lines is...

  14. Prevention of Poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Goluboff, Nathan

    1974-01-01

    Education of the public in prevention of accidental poisoning has been unsuccessful. The use of child-resistant containers for prescription drugs, patent medicines and household products is the most promising approach to this problem. The value of Syrup of Ipecac is stressed to induce early emesis, following ingestion of poisons. Medication errors in hospital are another serious cause of accidental poisoning and various examples are discussed. Every physician must take an interest in programs to prevent poisoning both in and out of hospital. PMID:20469129

  15. Poison Ivy, Oak, and Sumac

    MedlinePLUS

    ... U.S.) is a delayed allergic reaction. Brushing the plant on the skin results in blisters and slightly ... of poison ivy, poison oak, and poison sumac plants. People typically have itchy bumps (papules) and blisters ( ...

  16. Fate of benzoate paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins from Gymnodinium catenatum in shellfish and fish detected by pre-column oxidation and liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection.

    PubMed

    Vale, Paulo

    2008-05-01

    Several cultured strains of Gymnodinium catenatum isolated worldwide have been shown to produce important proportions of the recently discovered benzoate paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins GC1 through GC3. These toxins pose a new challenge for the HPLC analysis of shellfish predating during blooms of this microalga because due to their hydrophobicity are retained along the C18 solid-phase extraction step employed to eliminate interferences. The production of GC toxins was confirmed in a clone of G.catenatum isolated from the Portuguese Northwest coast during the winter bloom of 2005, in addition to a clone from 1989 reported previously by other authors. The major peroxide oxidation products of GC1+2 and GC3 were, respectively, dcGTX2+3 and dcSTX. The search of benzoate analogues in bivalves contaminated during the winter 2005 bloom showed these analogues constituted a minor component of the N(1)-H containing toxins, as selectively detected by peroxide oxidation. While in G.catenatum GC1-3 were the major components after C1+2 and B1, in bivalves dcGTX2+3 and dcSTX were the major components after C1+2 and B1. Similar conclusions were later extended to more shellfish species naturally contaminated during the autumn bloom of 2007. In the gut content of sardines GC toxins were present, while in crabs predating upon shellfish, these were absent. A generalised conversion of GC toxins into decarbamoyl analogues was confirmed by in vitro incubations of bivalve's digestive glands with semi-purified GC toxins. This is the first report of widespread carbamoylase activity in shellfish, exclusively targeted at benzoate PSP analogues and that is heat-inactivated. Despite the high proportion of benzoate analogues produced by G.catenatum, analyses of bivalves contaminated with PSP toxins seem to be simplified due to the important conversion of benzoate into decarbamoyl analogues that occurs in bivalves. These last analogues are detected by common HPLC methods used for food protection. PMID:18371975

  17. [Poisonous mushrooms, mushroom poisons and mushroom poisoning. A review].

    PubMed

    Holsen, D S; Aarebrot, S

    1997-09-30

    Of 1,500 different types of Norwegian mushrooms, 60-100 are considered poisonous. Fatal intoxications occur very infrequently. Lack of knowledge of picking and preparing mushrooms and accidental or deliberate consumption are recognised causes of mushroom poisoning. Delayed onset of symptoms (> 5-6 hrs) indicates serious poisoning, and these patients must be admitted to hospital. Cytotoxic toxins (e.g. amatoxin, orellanin) cause serious damage to the visceral organs (liver, kidney) and require intensive treatment, including hemoperfusion. Neurotoxic toxins may cause dramatic, but less harmful peripheral or central symptoms affecting the peripheral and central nervous systems, including hallucinations. Some mushrooms cause gastroenteritis of low clinical significance within a few hours after consumption. Interaction between mushrooms and alcohol may lead to a disulfiram-like effect. Induced vomiting and activated charcoal are important initial therapeutic measures. The precise history of the patient and the collecting of mushroom remnants, including vomitus, may help to identify the particular mushroom. In Norway, the National Poison Information Centre may be contacted for further advice. PMID:9411893

  18. Suspected Pesticide Poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Sellar, Christine; Ferguson, Joyce A.

    1991-01-01

    Of 1125 calls to a regional poison control center about suspected pesticide poisonings, more than half concerned children younger than 6 years, most of whom had ingested small amounts and required no treatment other than drinking fluids. Adults represented a small proportion of victims, but were more likely to have consumed moderate or large quantities, to have symptoms, and to need referral. PMID:21228985

  19. Aluminium phosphide poisoning.

    PubMed

    Bogle, R G; Theron, P; Brooks, P; Dargan, P I; Redhead, J

    2006-01-01

    We describe a lethal poisoning in a healthy woman caused by deliberate ingestion of aluminium phosphide (AlP), a pesticide used to kill rodents and insects. Toxicity of AlP and review of cases reported to the National Poisons Information Service (London) 1997-2003 are discussed. PMID:16373788

  20. Eliminating Lead Poisoning

    E-print Network

    Eliminating Childhood Lead Poisoning: A Federal Strategy Targeting Lead Paint Hazards President`s Task Force on Environmental Health Risks and Safety Risks to Children #12;Eliminating Childhood Lead Poisoning: A Federal Strategy Targeting Lead Paint Hazards February 2000 President`s Task Force

  1. Rubber cement poisoning

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and not for use in the treatment or management of an actual poison exposure. If you have an exposure, you should call your local emergency number (such as 911) or the National Poison Control Center at 1-800-222-1222.

  2. Oven cleaner poisoning

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and not for use in the treatment or management of an actual poison exposure. If you have an exposure, you should call your local emergency number (such as 911) or the National Poison Control Center at 1-800-222-1222.

  3. Metal polish poisoning

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and not for use in the treatment or management of an actual poison exposure. If you have an exposure, you should call your local emergency number (such as 911) or the National Poison Control Center at 1-800-222-1222.

  4. Sweet clover poisoning

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sweet clover poisoning is a hemorrhagic disease produced when spoiled sweet clover (Melilotus officinalis and M. alba) hay or silage that contain dicumarol are consumed by livestock. This chapter reviews the clinical and pathologic lesions or poisoning. It also reviews current strategies and treat...

  5. Lead Poisoning in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin-Fu, Jane S.

    This publication is a guide to help social and health workers plan a preventive campaign against lead poisoning, a cause of mental retardation other neurological handicaps, and death among children. The main victims are 1- to 6-year-olds living in areas where deteriorating housing prevails. Among the causes of lead poisoning are: ingestion of…

  6. Chapter 1 Childhood Lead Poisoning Childhood Lead Poisoning

    E-print Network

    Chapter 1 Childhood Lead Poisoning 1 Childhood Lead Poisoning in the United States The problem of childhood lead poisoning. Child- hood lead poisoning is a major, preventable environmental health problem in the United States. Blood lead levels (BLLs) as low as 10 ,g/dL are associated with harmful effects

  7. Traditional remedies used in the western Pacific for the treatment of ciguatera poisoning.

    PubMed

    Bourdy, G; Cabalion, P; Amade, P; Laurent, D

    1992-04-01

    Ciguatera is a specific type of food poisoning associated with the ingestion of tropical fish, which, although normally safe for consumption, may at times contain high amounts of ciguatoxin, as well as other chemically related toxins. Widespread in tropical regions where coral reefs are present, ciguatera fish poisoning constitutes a major hindrance for local fishing industries, local economies and foreign trade. Because no symptomatic treatment has been totally satisfactory, folk remedies remain of great interest. In this paper, a list of plants used in treating ciguatera poisoning in the Western Pacific region is presented, with emphasis on species whose exact utilization (part of plant used, preparation, dosage) has been determined. PMID:1608274

  8. 78 FR 18273 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Purchasing Reef Fish Species Associated With the Hazard of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-26

    ... Reef Fish Species Associated With the Hazard of Ciguatera Fish Poisoning; Availability AGENCY: Food and...: Purchasing Reef Fish Species Associated With the Hazard of Ciguatera Fish Poisoning.'' The draft guidance, when finalized, will advise primary seafood processors who purchase reef fish how to minimize the...

  9. Look Out! It's Poison Ivy!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darlington, Elizabeth, Day

    1986-01-01

    Provides background information on poison ivy and offers suggestions for instructional activities. Includes illustrations of the varieties of poison ivy leaf forms and poison ivy look-alikes. Highlights interesting facts and cases associated with poison ivy and its relatives. (ML)

  10. [Problems caused by poisonous tropical marine animals].

    PubMed

    Lääveri, Tinja; Räisänen-Sokolowski, Anne; Jama, Timo

    2014-01-01

    A Finnish physician encounters problems caused by tropical marine animals either during her/his own travelling or while treating travelers who have returned home. Certain species of medusae and cone shells as well as the stings by some fish species are life-threateningly poisonous. A person stung or bitten by any of the most dangerous species must immediately be admitted to the hospital. Foreign material remaining in tissues after stings by echinoderms and spiky fish may cause problems months after the actual injury. The injuries become easily infected, and antimicrobial drug therapy must thus cover gram-negative rod-shaped bacteria as well. PMID:25095477

  11. Recording acute poisoning deaths.

    PubMed

    Flanagan, R J; Rooney, C

    2002-08-14

    Recording deaths from acute poisoning/substance abuse is not straightforward. The International Classification of Diseases (ICD), used to code mortality statistics, is aimed towards recording the underlying cause of death such as suicide or drug dependence rather than gathering data on poisoning per se. Despite the inherent difficulties clear trends can be observed from the data available for England and Wales. There have been marked changes in the compounds featuring in suicidal poisoning in the last 35 years reflecting changes in the availability of poisons, notably carbon monoxide and prescription barbiturates. However, although the number of poisoning suicides has decreased in the recent years, suicides from other means have increased in males (suicides in 1999, 75% male), hence there has been little change in the annual total of suicides. There are also striking differences in drug abuse- and volatile substance abuse (VSA)-related deaths between males and females. Drug abuse-related fatal poisoning (83% male, 1979-1999, European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA) definition which does not include suicide), largely attributable to heroin and methadone, increased markedly during the 1990s, with a sharp rise in deaths attributed to accidental poisoning, although deaths involving methadone are now declining. VSA-related deaths (90% male, 1971-1999, almost entirely accidental deaths), nowadays predominantly from abuse of fuel gases (liquefied petroleum gas, LPG) from, for example, cigarette lighter refills, have declined from a peak in the early 1990s and are now becoming manifest in an older age group. These two latter instances especially provide examples where ICD-derived fatal poisoning data are inadequate and a 'poisons oriented' approach to data collection and analysis is necessary. PMID:12208016

  12. Case report: lead poisoning in common loons (Gavia immer)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Locke, L.N.; Kerr, Stephen M.; Zoromski, D.

    1982-01-01

    Two emaciated common loons (Gavia immer) were believed to have died of lead poisoning when fragments of fishing lines and lead sinkers were discovered in their stomachs. Later a third emaciated loon, which had only the remnants of fishing line in its stomach, was suspected of being a possible lead-poisoning victim when all other test results were negative. The liver lead levels in the first two loons were 20.6 ppm and 46.1 ppm (wet weight), and the level in the third was 38.52 ppm (wet weight). Thirteen common loons dying of other causes had liver lead levels of less than 1 ppm (wet weight).

  13. Multiple, recurring origins of aposematism and diet specialization in poison frogs

    E-print Network

    Multiple, recurring origins of aposematism and diet specialization in poison frogs Juan Carlos taxa, but, in vertebrates, it is mostly evident in amphibians, reptiles, and fishes. Poison frogs the family in two discrete groups of primitively cryptic and more derived aposematic frogs. Recent molecular

  14. Sodium hydroxide poisoning

    MedlinePLUS

    Sodium hydroxide is a very strong chemical that is also known as lye and caustic soda. This ... poisoning from touching, breathing in (inhaling), or swallowing sodium hydroxide. This is for information only and not ...

  15. Sodium carbonate poisoning

    MedlinePLUS

    Sodium carbonate (known as washing soda or soda ash) is a chemical found in many household and ... products. This article focuses on poisoning due to sodium carbonate. This is for information only and not ...

  16. Carbolic acid poisoning

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Carbolic acid poisoning occurs when someone touches or swallows this chemical. This is for information only and ... level of alertness) that make it hard to swallow. If the chemical is on the skin or ...

  17. Hair bleach poisoning

    MedlinePLUS

    Hair bleach poisoning occurs when someone swallows this substance or splashes it on their skin or in their ... Hydrogen peroxide Some hair bleaches Note: This list may not include all sources of hair bleach.

  18. Fuel oil poisoning

    MedlinePLUS

    Fuel oil poisoning occurs when someone swallows, breathes in (inhales), or touches fuel oil. This is for information only and not ... Fuel oil Kerosene Note: This list may not include all sources of fuel oil.

  19. Pine oil poisoning

    MedlinePLUS

    ... K. General approach to the poisoned patient. In: Marx J, ed. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical ... Mosby; 2013:chap 147. Lee DC. Hydrocarbons. In: Marx J, ed. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical ...

  20. Mineral spirits poisoning

    MedlinePLUS

    Mineral spirits are liquid chemicals used to thin paint and as a degreaser. Mineral spirits poisoning occurs ... Mineral spirits ( Stoddard solvent ) Some paints Some floor and ... fluids White spirits Note: This list may not be all-inclusive.

  1. Sulfuric acid poisoning

    MedlinePLUS

    Sulfuric acid is a very strong chemical that is corrosive. Corrosive means it can cause severe burns and ... or mucous membranes. This article discusses poisoning from sulfuric acid. This is for information only and not for ...

  2. Potassium carbonate poisoning

    MedlinePLUS

    Potassium carbonate is a white powder used to make soap, glass, and other items. This article discusses poisoning from swallowing or breathing in potassium carbonate. This is for information only and not ...

  3. Bug spray poisoning

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of bug sprays contain pyrethrins. Pyrethrins are a pesticide created from the chrysanthemum flower. It is generally ... Borron SW. Pyrethrins, repellants, and other pesticides. In: Shannon ... of Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ...

  4. Amnesic Shellfish Poisoning

    MedlinePLUS

    ... be adversely affected by toxic or harmful marine algae. + Causative algae implicated, not confirmed. Medical Community Amnesic Shellfish Poisoning ... Contact Us | Related Links | Site Map The Harmful Algae Page is supported by a National Oceanic and ...

  5. Staphylococcal Food Poisoning

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Information | Additional Information Frequently Asked Questions What is Staphylococcus ? What is staphylococcal food poisoning? What are the ... be used in a bioterrorist attack? What is Staphylococcus ? Staphylococcus aureus is a common bacterium found on ...

  6. Hair dye poisoning

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Arsenic Bismuth Denatured alcohol Lead (see lead poisoning ) Mercury Pyrogallol Silver Note: This list may not include ... product is swallowed. Continued exposure to lead or mercury can lead to permanent brain and nervous system ( ...

  7. Caladium plant poisoning

    MedlinePLUS

    ... oxalate crystals Asparagine, a protein found in the plant Note: All parts of the plants are poisonous if large amounts ... age, weight, and condition The name of the plant and the parts eaten The amount swallowed The time it was ...

  8. The Poisons Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Barbara A.

    1998-01-01

    Details a project in which students explore and study the poisons in their environment by asking and finding answers to their own research questions. Includes some suggestions for involving students successfully in inquiry-based learning. (DDR)

  9. Sodium hypochlorite poisoning

    MedlinePLUS

    ... poisoning, especially if the product is mixed with ammonia. This is for information only and not for ... hypochlorite, which may cause severe injury. NEVER mix ammonia with sodium hypochlorite (bleach or bleach-containing products). ...

  10. Metal cleaner poisoning

    MedlinePLUS

    Metal cleaners are very strong chemical products that contain acids. This article discusses poisoning from swallowing or ... Metal cleaners contain organic compounds called hydrocarbons, including: 1,2 butylene oxide Boric acid Cocoyl sarcosine Dicarboxylic ...

  11. Poisonous Plant Management. 

    E-print Network

    McGinty, Allan

    1985-01-01

    of hind legs, labored respiration Unknown Slow staggering gait, rough coat, staring look, emaciation, muscle incoordination Nitrates See nitrate poisoning and photosensitization Unknown Frothy green salivation, extreme weakness, rapid heartbeat... poisonous only and abdominal pain to sheep and goats phytotoxin Kallstroemia spp. Caltrop Unknown Weakness in hind legs and knuckling of One-third of animal's fetlock joint, posterior paralysis, convulsions weight of caltrop must be consumed...

  12. Patterns of self poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Bean, Philip

    1974-01-01

    A population of 935 hospital admissions for self poisoning over a five-year period, 1967-71, was taken from three general hospitals in the Chichester area. All admissions were followed up by use of coroner's records. The peak age group for accidental self poisonings was 0-9 with a further peak in the over 60 age group. The peak age for attempted suicides was 20-29. There were more women than men in the attempted suicide group but no difference in their mean age. A wide variety of drugs had been used, although the barbiturate/hypnotic group tended to predominate, and the overall pattern remained relatively steady apart from an increase in the use of tranquillizers. One in 10 of all patients was readmitted for self poisoning over the five-year period, although only 15 died as a result of this or a subsequent self poisoning. Compared with other suicides, open verdicts, and accidental deaths in West Sussex the self poisoning population had taken a wider range of drugs but proportionately fewer barbiturates. There appeared to be a link between self poisoning and availability of drugs, as shown by an increase in the use of tranquillizers, although barbiturates were still the major cause of death. PMID:4816584

  13. Medical hazards of the coral reef.

    PubMed

    Sorokin, M

    1975-01-01

    An account is given of some aspects of poisonings sustained by coming into contact with animals of the coral reefs of the Fiji Islands. Poisonings can be grouped into those in which the toxin is introduced parenterally-envenomings, and those in which it is ingested. Illustrative case histories are presented of injuries from 2 echinoderms and of envenoming from the "deadly" stonefish. A therapeutic approach to puffer-fish poisoning is mentioned and the problem of ciguatera poisoning is outlined. PMID:1170656

  14. Paint, lacquer, and varnish remover poisoning

    MedlinePLUS

    Paint remover poisoning ... number will let you talk to experts in poisoning. They will give you further instructions. This is ... should call if you have any questions about poisoning or poison prevention. It does NOT need to ...

  15. Potato plant poisoning - green tubers and sprouts

    MedlinePLUS

    Solanum tuberosum poisoning ... number will let you talk to experts in poisoning. They will give you further instructions. This is ... should call if you have any questions about poisoning or poison prevention. It does NOT need to ...

  16. A review of lead poisoning in swans (Cygnus spp.)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blus, L.J.

    1994-01-01

    Nearly 10,000 swans of six species or subspecies from 14 countries have died from poisoning caused by lead that originated from ingestion of fishing weights, shotgun pellets (shot), or contaminated vegetation or sediments associated with mining and smelting wastes. Lead contamination in mute swans in England caused local population declines during the late 1970s and 1980s. More tundra swans died from lead poisoning than any other species. The extreme record involved an estimated 7200 tundra swans that died over five winters at one locality in North Carolina. The recent legislation to ban lead fishing weights in most of England and Wales and recent replacement of lead shot with steel shot for waterfowl hunting in the United States and a few areas of Europe, including Denmark, are expected to reduce the incidence of lead poisoning in swans.

  17. Oil-based paint poisoning

    MedlinePLUS

    Paint - oil based - poisoning ... Hydrocarbons are the primary poisonous ingredient in oil paints. Some oil paints have heavy metals such as lead, mercury, cobalt, and barium added as pigment. These heavy metals can cause additional ...

  18. Poison control center - emergency number

    MedlinePLUS

    For a POISON EMERGENCY call: 1-800-222-1222 ANYWHERE IN THE UNITED STATES This national hotline number will let you ... is a free and confidential service. All local poison control centers in the United States use this ...

  19. Paralytic shellfish poisoning.

    PubMed Central

    Acres, J.; Gray, J.

    1978-01-01

    Two cases of paralytic shellfish poisoning after ingestion of mussels occurred in October 1977 in Nova Scotia. The incidence of this type of poisoning is relatively high among persons living on the coast of the Bay of Fundy and the estuary of the St. Lawrence River. The causative organism, Gonyaulax tamarensis, elaborates an endotoxin, saxitoxin, that blocks neuromuscular transmission in the motor axon and muscle membrane while leaving the end-plate unaffected; it also suppresses conduction in the atrioventricular node and inhibits the respiratory centre. The clinical manifestations are unique and include numbness of the lips, tongue and fingertips within minutes of ingestion of the poisoned shellfish, then numbness of the legs, arms and neck, with general muscular incoordination, and finally respiratory distress and muscular paralysis. Treatment is symptomatic and prevention can only occur by public education. Images FIG. 2 FIG. 3 PMID:570450

  20. Mushroom Poisoning in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Lough, John; Kinnear, D. G.

    1970-01-01

    At least 150 cases of mushroom poisoning occur in Canada each year, 75% in the Province of Ontario. Eighty per cent of the total are in children under the age of 9, and most do not require hospitalization. Amanita virosa poisoning is a potentially fatal medical emergency which presents as an acute gastroenteritis, progressing to hepatorenal failure. Treatment consists of elimination of undigested mushrooms, rapid rehydration, management of acute liver and renal failure, and prevention of infection during the recovery phase. ImagesFIG. 1 PMID:5445050

  1. Carbon monoxide poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Dolan, Michael C.

    1985-01-01

    Carbon monoxide poisoning is a significant cause of illness and death. Its protean symptoms probably lead to a gross underestimation of its true incidence. Low levels of carbon monoxide aggravate chronic cardiopulmonary problems, and high levels are associated with cardiac arrhythmias and cerebral edema. Patients who survive acute poisoning are at risk of delayed neurologic sequelae. The measurement of carboxyhemoglobin levels does not reveal the tissue levels of carbon monoxide but is useful in determining therapy. Treatment includes the monitoring and management of cardiac arrhythmias and oxygenation. Hyperbaric oxygenation is beneficial, but there are currently no definite criteria for its use. PMID:4027805

  2. Cow dung powder poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Sherfudeen, Khaja Mohideen; Kaliannan, Senthil Kumar; Dammalapati, Pavan Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Cow dung, which has germicidal property, was used in ancient days to clean living premises in South India. Nowadays, people are using commercially available synthetic cow dung powder. It is locally known as “saani powder” in Tamil Nadu. It is freely available in homes and is sometimes accidentally consumed by children. It is available in two colors - yellow and green. Cow dung powder poisoning is common in districts of Tamil Nadu such as Coimbatore, Tirupur, and Erode. We report two cases of yellow cow dung powder poisoning from our hospital.

  3. Bitterweed Poisoning in Sheep. 

    E-print Network

    Hardy, W. T. (William Tyree)

    1931-01-01

    ~~ulclance of other green, palatal~le vegetation arai1al)le to the sheep. EXPERIMENTAL WORK 111 order to determine the poisonous effects of the hitterweed and to establish other fnnclamental facts in connection therewith, feecling esperilnents wit11 bitterweed...-feeding with bitterweed. Sixteen of twenty experimental animals succumbed. The accurate minimum lethal close of bitterweed for sheep hsls not been cleterminnJ since work so far undertaken concerned itself mainly with determir the poisonous character of this weed. 7...

  4. LEAD POISONING PREVENTION INFORMATION

    E-print Network

    Families AreForever LEAD POISONING PREVENTION INFORMATION FOR PARENTS & PROSPECTIVE exams in the U.S. The risk for lead exposure is higher in many countries from which children are adopted than in the United States. Sources of lead exposure vary by country. Concern exists about children

  5. Methylmercury Poisoning in Iraq

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakir, F.; And Others

    1973-01-01

    Discusses incidence of methylmercury poisoning throughout the world with increasing industrial and agricultural use of mercury compounds. Describes recent epidemic in Iraq resulting from use of wheat treated with methylmercurial fungicide. New data are presented on the toxicity of methylmercury and its metabolic fate in the human body. (JR)

  6. Tainted Water, Poison Paint.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Natale, Jo Anna

    1991-01-01

    Recent research shows lead poisoning is more widespread and even more dangerous to infants and young children than previously thought. A bill proposed in Congress would require schools and day-care centers to test for lead. Summarizes lead's health hazards and how to test drinking water. (MLF)

  7. Lead Poisoning in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boeckx, Roger L.

    1986-01-01

    Urban children are exposed to lead through the air they breathe, the water they drink, and the food and nonfood substances they ingest. The history, diagnosis, and treatment of lead poisoning in these children are discussed. Includes information on the toxicology of lead and the various risk classes. (JN)

  8. Acute metaldehyde poisoning in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Shih, Chi-Chung; Chang, Shy-Shin; Chan, Yi-Ling; Chen, Jih-Chang; Chang, Meng-Wei; Tung, Meng-Sheng; Deng, Jou-Fang; Yang, Chen-Chang

    2004-06-01

    Metaldehyde, a cyclic tetramer of acetaldehyde, is a widely used molluscicide. Although cases with acute metaldehyde poisoning have been reported, the occurrence of severe poisoning is uncommon. To provide more information on human metaldehyde poisoning, we reviewed 15 cases of metaldehyde exposure reported to the Taiwan National Poison Control Center at the Taipei Veterans General Hospital between 1991 and 2002. While 7 patients were asymptomatic, the other 8 patients, including 4 who coingested alcohol or other poisons, exhibited toxic manifestations of abdominal pain, dizziness, nausea, irritation of oral mucosa, and seizures after oral exposure. One patient died after ingesting 12 g (or 258.6 mg/kg) of metaldehyde. Although the toxicity from metaldehyde is largely mild, the clinical course of metaldehyde poisoning may be rapidly deteriorating and fatal on rare occasions. Physicians should therefore be cautious in managing patients with metaldehyde poisoning, and vigorous supportive measures should be promptly instituted in patients who manifest severe toxicity. PMID:15171491

  9. 43 CFR 15.7 - Fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fishing. 15.7 Section 15.7 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior KEY LARGO CORAL REEF PRESERVE § 15.7 Fishing. (a) Spear fishing within the boundaries or confines of this Preserve is prohibited. (b) The use of poisons,...

  10. 43 CFR 15.7 - Fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fishing. 15.7 Section 15.7 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior KEY LARGO CORAL REEF PRESERVE § 15.7 Fishing. (a) Spear fishing within the boundaries or confines of this Preserve is prohibited. (b) The use of poisons,...

  11. 43 CFR 15.7 - Fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Fishing. 15.7 Section 15.7 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior KEY LARGO CORAL REEF PRESERVE § 15.7 Fishing. (a) Spear fishing within the boundaries or confines of this Preserve is prohibited. (b) The use of poisons,...

  12. 43 CFR 15.7 - Fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fishing. 15.7 Section 15.7 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior KEY LARGO CORAL REEF PRESERVE § 15.7 Fishing. (a) Spear fishing within the boundaries or confines of this Preserve is prohibited. (b) The use of poisons,...

  13. 43 CFR 15.7 - Fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fishing. 15.7 Section 15.7 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior KEY LARGO CORAL REEF PRESERVE § 15.7 Fishing. (a) Spear fishing within the boundaries or confines of this Preserve is prohibited. (b) The use of poisons,...

  14. Arsenic poisoning in livestock.

    PubMed

    el Bahri, L; Ben Romdane, S

    1991-06-01

    Arsenic is an important heavy metal intoxicant to livestock. Arsenical pesticides present significant hazards to animal health. The toxicity of arsenic varies with several factors--its chemical form, oxidation states, solubility. The phenylarsonic compounds are the least toxic and are used as feed additives in swine and poultry rations. However, roxarsone has a higher absolute toxicity than arsanilic acid. The mechanism of action is related to its reaction with sulfhydryl groups values to enzyme function and to its ability to uncouple oxydative phosphorylation. Most animals excrete arsenic quite readily. Toxicoses caused by inorganic and aliphatic organic arsenicals result in a different clinical syndrome than that from the phenylarsonic compounds. Arsenic poisoning may be confused with other types of intoxication. The specific antidote for inorganic arsenical poisoning is dimercaprol (BAL). PMID:1858306

  15. Boric acid poisoning.

    PubMed

    Schillinger, B M; Berstein, M; Goldberg, L A; Shalita, A R

    1982-11-01

    The skin manifestations associated with boric acid intoxication are particularly striking. We present a case report of a 44-year-old black woman who, following a suicide attempt, demonstrated the classic features of acute boric acid poisoning. She developed generalized erythema creating a "boiled lobster" appearance with massive areas of desquamation. A discussion of the history of the use of boric acid by the medical profession follows the patient presentation. PMID:6216273

  16. [Familial lead poisoning].

    PubMed

    Ríos, E; Dal Borgo, P; Riveros, A; Díaz, S M

    1989-06-01

    A 1 year and 9 month old patient was admitted with ataxia. CBC showed a microcytic, hypocromic anemia with intense basophilic sttipling of erythrocytes. Lead poisoning was suspected and confirmed with a blood lead level of 167 micrograms/dl. The patient was treated with EDTA and BAL. It was discovered that family burned old car batteries for food cooking. Four members were intoxicated, with blood lead levels at or above 50 micrograms/dl. PMID:2519417

  17. Poison ivy dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Baer, R L

    1986-06-01

    Eruptions caused by poison ivy (see Cover) and related plants are almost always a form of allergic contact dermatitis. Usually they can be readily recognized because of their characteristic streak- or line-like appearance. They usually clear within one to three weeks unless there is continued exposure to the allergen. Local treatment suffices in mild to moderate cases, but in more severe cases systemic corticosteroids can be added. PMID:2941246

  18. Bracken poisoning in cattle.

    PubMed

    2015-11-21

    Bracken poisoning in cattle: a classic case in 15-month-old-cattleChlamydia abortus as the cause of abortion in a dairy cowCobalt deficiency in preweaned lambsFirst case of Klebsiella pneumoniae septicaemia in pigs in 2015Mute swan mortalities on the River WearThese are among matters discussed in the Animal and Plant Health Agency's (APHA's) disease surveillance report for July and August 2015. PMID:26589986

  19. Lead Poison Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    With NASA contracts, Whittaker Corporations Space Science division has developed an electro-optical instrument to mass screen for lead poisoning. Device is portable and detects protoporphyrin in whole blood. Free corpuscular porphyrins occur as an early effect of lead ingestion. Also detects lead in urine used to confirm blood tests. Test is inexpensive and can be applied by relatively unskilled personnel. Similar Whittaker fluorometry device called "drug screen" can measure morphine and quinine in urine much faster and cheaper than other methods.

  20. Managing aluminum phosphide poisonings

    PubMed Central

    Gurjar, Mohan; Baronia, Arvind K; Azim, Afzal; Sharma, Kalpana

    2011-01-01

    Aluminum phosphide (AlP) is a cheap, effective and commonly used pesticide. However, unfortunately, it is now one of the most common causes of poisoning among agricultural pesticides. It liberates lethal phosphine gas when it comes in contact either with atmospheric moisture or with hydrochloric acid in the stomach. The mechanism of toxicity includes cellular hypoxia due to the effect on mitochondria, inhibition of cytochrome C oxidase and formation of highly reactive hydroxyl radicals. The signs and symptoms are nonspecific and instantaneous. The toxicity of AlP particularly affects the cardiac and vascular tissues, which manifest as profound and refractory hypotension, congestive heart failure and electrocardiographic abnormalities. The diagnosis of AlP usually depends on clinical suspicion or history, but can be made easily by the simple silver nitrate test on gastric content or on breath. Due to no known specific antidote, management remains primarily supportive care. Early arrival, resuscitation, diagnosis, decrease the exposure of poison (by gastric lavage with KMnO4, coconut oil), intensive monitoring and supportive therapy may result in good outcome. Prompt and adequate cardiovascular support is important and core in the management to attain adequate tissue perfusion, oxygenation and physiologic metabolic milieu compatible with life until the tissue poison levels are reduced and spontaneous circulation is restored. In most of the studies, poor prognostic factors were presence of acidosis and shock. The overall outcome improved in the last decade due to better and advanced intensive care management. PMID:21887030

  1. Pelagic paralysis.

    PubMed

    Mills, A R; Passmore, R

    1988-01-23

    Three conditions that may occur after consumption of seafood--puffer fish poisoning, ciguatera, and paralytic shellfish poisoning--are caused by a group of poisons that block voltage-gated sodium channels in myelinated and non-myelinated nerves. The conditions cannot be distinguished clinically and so constitute an entity for which the name pelagic paralysis is proposed. Variations in the clinical features can be accounted for by large differences in the amount of toxin present in the seafood. PMID:2892995

  2. Prallethrin poisoning: A diagnostic dilemma

    PubMed Central

    Chandra, Alka; Dixit, Madhu B.; Banavaliker, Jayant N.

    2013-01-01

    Pyrethroid insecticides are very widely used in agriculture and household due to their high effectiveness and low toxicity in humans. Despite their extensive worldwide use, there are a few reports of human pyrethroid poisoning. The poisoning has a varied presentation and its symptoms overlap with those of other compounds, which can lead to misdiagnosis. We present a case of poisoning with prallethrin, a pyrethroid compound, commonly available as All-Out. PMID:23494161

  3. Texas Plants Poisonous to Livestock. 

    E-print Network

    Sperry, Omer Edison

    1964-01-01

    sneezeweed 50 Ergot 25 Helenium microcephalum, Smallhead sneezeweed 50 Hydrocyanic or prussic acid poisoning 25 Hymenoxys odorata, Bittenveed 5 1 Nitrate poisoning 27 Isocoma wrightii, Rayless goldenrod, jimmyweed 52 Photosensitization Jatroplla.... Photosensitization with edematous swelling of face, ears and intermandibular space is seen frequently. Animals experimentally fed as little as 1 percent of their body weight of lechuguilla leaf material have developed signs of poisoning and died. LESIONS...

  4. CDC Vital Signs: Alcohol Poisoning Deaths

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Kit Read the MMWR Science Clips Alcohol Poisoning Deaths A deadly consequence of binge drinking Language: English ... drinking. Problem There are 2,200 alcohol poisoning deaths in the US each year. Alcohol poisoning deaths: ...

  5. PESTICIDE POISONINGS REPORTED BY FLORIDA CITRUS FIELDWORKERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In a 1981 survey of 1811 Florida citrus fieldworkers, 25 pesticide related poisoning incidents involving 29 fieldworkers were reported. Suspected poisonings were categorized into possible and confirmed poisonings, and from these reports it was possible to project an estimated 438...

  6. American Association of Poison Control Centers

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Alerts Prevention National Poison Data System Our Work Alerts Keep Up-to-Date on the Latest Poison ... effects like psychotic episodes and seizures. View all alerts right left Support Poison Centers on #GivingTuesday! Did ...

  7. Cap mushroom poisonings.

    PubMed

    Gromysz-Ka?kowska, Kazimiera; Szubartowska, Ewa; Wójcik, Kazimiera

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents species of fungi of high toxicity. Their consumption might have serious consequences for health and in many cases it might lead to death. Toxic compounds present in fungi have also been characterised, mechanisms of their toxic activity have been presented and clinical symptoms of poisoning have been described. Hallucinogenic mushrooms have also been mentioned as they have recently become a serious problem: many people use them to intoxicate themselves. There are also species of mushrooms that can be consumed under certain conditions since they can occasionally trigger off serious disturbances for the functioning of organisms. PMID:16145968

  8. Identifying Plant Poisoning in Livestock

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Poisonous plant intoxication is a common and often deadly problem that annually costs the livestock industry more than $340 million in the western United States alone. Despite the cost or frequency, definitively identifying or diagnosing poisoning by plants in livestock is challenging. The purpos...

  9. Population Cycles of Poisonous Plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A poisonous plant is harmless until it is consumed. Once eaten the degree of damage depends on the amount of the plant consumed or more specifically the amount of toxin entering and absorbed by the body. Poisoning therefore, depends on two principal variables; the toxin level in the plant and the ...

  10. TREAT ALCOHOL POISONING NOW! These instructions will show you how to save a person suffering from alcohol poisoning. Alcohol poisoning

    E-print Network

    New Mexico, University of

    TREAT ALCOHOL POISONING NOW! These instructions will show you how to save a person suffering from alcohol poisoning. Alcohol poisoning can be fatal, so if the proper precautions are not taken someone's life is at stake. The procedure should be started as soon as alcohol poisoning is suspected. It should

  11. 49 CFR 172.430 - POISON label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false POISON label. 172.430 Section 172.430... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.430 POISON label. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON label must be as follows: EC02MR91.029 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.407, the background on the POISON label...

  12. 49 CFR 172.430 - POISON label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false POISON label. 172.430 Section 172.430... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.430 POISON label. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON label must be as follows: EC02MR91.029 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.407, the background on the POISON label...

  13. Diurnal and circadian oscillations in expression of kisspeptin, kisspeptin receptor and gonadotrophin-releasing hormone 2 genes in the grass puffer, a semilunar-synchronised spawner.

    PubMed

    Ando, H; Ogawa, S; Shahjahan, Md; Ikegami, T; Doi, H; Hattori, A; Parhar, I

    2014-07-01

    In seasonally breeding animals, the circadian and photoperiodic regulation of neuroendocrine system is important for precisely-timed reproduction. Kisspeptin, encoded by the Kiss1 gene, acts as a principal positive regulator of the reproductive axis by stimulating gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurone activity in vertebrates. However, the precise mechanisms underlying the cyclic regulation of the kisspeptin neuroendocrine system remain largely unknown. The grass puffer, Takifugu niphobles, exhibits a unique spawning rhythm: spawning occurs 1.5-2 h before high tide on the day of spring tide every 2 weeks, and the spawning rhythm is connected to circadian and lunar-/tide-related clock mechanisms. The grass puffer has only one kisspeptin gene (kiss2), which is expressed in a single neural population in the preoptic area (POA), and has one kisspeptin receptor gene (kiss2r), which is expressed in the POA and the nucleus dorsomedialis thalami. Both kiss2 and kiss2r show diurnal variations in expression levels, with a peak at Zeitgeber time (ZT) 6 (middle of day time) under the light/dark conditions. They also show circadian expression with a peak at circadian time 15 (beginning of subjective night-time) under constant darkness. The synchronous and diurnal oscillations of kiss2 and kiss2r expression suggest that the action of Kiss2 in the diencephalon is highly dependent on time. Moreover, midbrain GnRH2 gene (gnrh2) but not GnRH1 or GnRH3 genes show a unique semidiurnal oscillation with two peaks at ZT6 and ZT18 within a day. The cyclic expression of kiss2, kiss2r and gnrh2 may be important in the control of the precisely-timed diurnal and semilunar spawning rhythm of the grass puffer, possibly through the circadian clock and melatonin, which may transmit the photoperiodic information of daylight and moonlight to the reproductive neuroendocrine centre in the hypothalamus. PMID:24824153

  14. [Accidental poisoning and test for it].

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Namiko; Kamijo, Yoshito; Soma, Kazui

    2008-11-30

    There are many dangerous materials which cause poisoning, toxins or poisons, in our lives. We may suddenly suffer from the effects of these materials by inhalation or ingestion before we are aware of the risk. It is very important to identify toxins or poisons to prevent poisoning and treat the poisoned patients. We have to learn from previous accidents the way to resolve future problems. PMID:20821840

  15. Poison Ivy/Oak/Sumac

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Prevention! The oil in poison ivy /oak/sumac plants (called urushiol ) can cause an allergic rash in ... 4 hours to 4 days after touching the plant oil blisters that ooze clear fluid bumps and ...

  16. Carbon Monoxide (CO) Poisoning Prevention

    MedlinePLUS

    ... vents and flues free of debris, especially if winds are high. Flying debris can block ventilation lines. ... family by acting wisely in case of a power outage and learning the symptoms of CO poisoning. ...

  17. Poison Ivy: Signs and Symptoms

    MedlinePLUS

    ... A - D E - H I - L M - P Melanoma Melasma Merkel cell carcinoma Microdermabrasion Moles Molluscum contagiosum Neurodermatitis Nummular dermatitis Pityriasis rosea Poison ivy Signs, symptoms Who gets, causes Diagnosis, treatment Tips Psoriasis Psoriatic arthritis Q - T ...

  18. Nitrate and Prussic Acid Poisoning 

    E-print Network

    Stichler, Charles; Reagor, John C.

    2001-09-05

    Nitrate and prussic acid poisoning in cattle are noninfectious conditions that can kill livestock. This publication explains the causes and symptoms of these conditions as well as preventive measures and sampling and testing steps....

  19. Triaryl phosphate poisoning in cattle.

    PubMed

    Beck, B E; Wood, C D; Whenham, G R

    1977-03-01

    Clinical signs, pathologic changes and biochemical changes occurred in cattle with natural and experimental triaryl phosphate poisoning. Natural poisoning was caused by triaryl phosphates escaping from a gas pipeline compressor station. The clinical signs were posterior motor paralysis, dyspnea, diarrhea and agalactia. Experimental doses of 1/2-1 gm/kg body weight of these organophosphate compounds caused depression of cholinesterase and axonal degeneration in the spinal cord. PMID:857397

  20. Cholinergic crisis after rodenticide poisoning.

    PubMed

    Waseem, Muhammad; Perry, Christopher; Bomann, Scott; Pai, Meena; Gernsheimer, Joel

    2010-12-01

    Rodenticides have historically been common agents in attempted suicides. As most rodenticides in the United States (U.S.) are superwarfarins, these ingestions are generally managed conservatively with close monitoring for coagulopathy, and if necessary, correction of any resulting coagulopathy. However, alternate forms of rodenticides are imported illegally into the U.S. and may be ingested either accidentally or in suicide attempts. We present an unusual case of poisoning by the illegally imported rodenticide, "Tres Pasitos." The main ingredient of this rat poison is aldicarb, a potent carbamate pesticide that causes fulminant cholinergic crisis. This case is relevant and timely because carbamates and organophosphates are still used as insecticides and emergency physicians (EP) working in rural areas may have to evaluate and manage patients with these poisonings. As international travel and immigration have increased, so has the possibility of encountering patients who have ingested toxic substances from other countries. In addition, there has been increased concern about the possibility of acts of terrorism using chemical substances that cause cholinergic toxidromes.1,2 EPs must be able to recognize and manage these poisonings. This report describes the mechanism of action, clinical manifestations, laboratory evaluation and management of this type of poisoning. The pertinent medical literature on poisoning with aldicarb and similar substances is reviewed. PMID:21293782

  1. Cholinergic Crisis after Rodenticide Poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Waseem, Muhammad; Perry, Christopher; Bomann, Scott; Pai, Meena; Gernsheimer, Joel

    2010-01-01

    Rodenticides have historically been common agents in attempted suicides. As most rodenticides in the United States (U.S.) are superwarfarins, these ingestions are generally managed conservatively with close monitoring for coagulopathy, and if necessary, correction of any resulting coagulopathy. However, alternate forms of rodenticides are imported illegally into the U.S. and may be ingested either accidentally or in suicide attempts. We present an unusual case of poisoning by the illegally imported rodenticide, “Tres Pasitos.” The main ingredient of this rat poison is aldicarb, a potent carbamate pesticide that causes fulminant cholinergic crisis. This case is relevant and timely because carbamates and organophosphates are still used as insecticides and emergency physicians (EP) working in rural areas may have to evaluate and manage patients with these poisonings. As international travel and immigration have increased, so has the possibility of encountering patients who have ingested toxic substances from other countries. In addition, there has been increased concern about the possibility of acts of terrorism using chemical substances that cause cholinergic toxidromes.1,2 EPs must be able to recognize and manage these poisonings. This report describes the mechanism of action, clinical manifestations, laboratory evaluation and management of this type of poisoning. The pertinent medical literature on poisoning with aldicarb and similar substances is reviewed. PMID:21293782

  2. Poisoning due to pyrethroids.

    PubMed

    Bradberry, Sally M; Cage, Sarah A; Proudfoot, Alex T; Vale, J Allister

    2005-01-01

    The first pyrethroid pesticide, allethrin, was identified in 1949. Allethrin and other pyrethroids with a basic cyclopropane carboxylic ester structure are type I pyrethroids. The insecticidal activity of these synthetic pyrethroids was enhanced further by the addition of a cyano group to give alpha-cyano (type II) pyrethroids, such as cypermethrin. The finding of insecticidal activity in a group of phenylacetic 3-phenoxybenzyl esters, which lacked the cyclopropane ring but contained the alpha-cyano group (and hence were type II pyrethroids) led to the development of fenvalerate and related compounds. All pyrethroids can exist as at least four stereoisomers, each with different biological activities. They are marketed as racemic mixtures or as single isomers. In commercial formulations, the activity of pyrethroids is usually enhanced by the addition of a synergist such as piperonyl butoxide, which inhibits metabolic degradation of the active ingredient. Pyrethroids are used widely as insecticides both in the home and commercially, and in medicine for the topical treatment of scabies and headlice. In tropical countries mosquito nets are commonly soaked in solutions of deltamethrin as part of antimalarial strategies. Pyrethroids are some 2250 times more toxic to insects than mammals because insects have increased sodium channel sensitivity, smaller body size and lower body temperature. In addition, mammals are protected by poor dermal absorption and rapid metabolism to non-toxic metabolites. The mechanisms by which pyrethroids alone are toxic are complex and become more complicated when they are co-formulated with either piperonyl butoxide or an organophosphorus insecticide, or both, as these compounds inhibit pyrethroid metabolism. The main effects of pyrethroids are on sodium and chloride channels. Pyrethroids modify the gating characteristics of voltage-sensitive sodium channels to delay their closure. A protracted sodium influx (referred to as a sodium 'tail current') ensues which, if it is sufficiently large and/or long, lowers the action potential threshold and causes repetitive firing; this may be the mechanism causing paraesthesiae. At high pyrethroid concentrations, the sodium tail current may be sufficiently great to prevent further action potential generation and 'conduction block' ensues. Only low pyrethroid concentrations are necessary to modify sensory neurone function. Type II pyrethroids also decrease chloride currents through voltage-dependent chloride channels and this action probably contributes the most to the features of poisoning with type II pyrethroids. At relatively high concentrations, pyrethroids can also act on GABA-gated chloride channels, which may be responsible for the seizures seen with severe type II poisoning. Despite their extensive world-wide use, there are relatively few reports of human pyrethroid poisoning. Less than ten deaths have been reported from ingestion or following occupational exposure. Occupationally, the main route of pyrethroid absorption is through the skin. Inhalation is much less important but increases when pyrethroids are used in confined spaces. The main adverse effect of dermal exposure is paraesthesiae, presumably due to hyperactivity of cutaneous sensory nerve fibres. The face is affected most commonly and the paraesthesiae are exacerbated by sensory stimulation such as heat, sunlight, scratching, sweating or the application of water. Pyrethroid ingestion gives rise within minutes to a sore throat, nausea, vomiting and abdominal pain. There may be mouth ulceration, increased secretions and/or dysphagia. Systemic effects occur 4-48 hours after exposure. Dizziness, headache and fatigue are common, and palpitations, chest tightness and blurred vision less frequent. Coma and convulsions are the principal life-threatening features. Most patients recover within 6 days, although there were seven fatalities among 573 cases in one series and one among 48 cases in another. Management is supportive. As paraesthesiae usually resolve in 12-24 hours, specific treatment is not

  3. UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF TME INTERIOR FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE

    E-print Network

    and beauty to the aquarium as well, and second, the presence of plants benefit s the fishes and the aquarium of eith~r poisonous bacteria or abundant algae growth, since the plants them- selv~ s use the natural

  4. Carbon dioxide poisoning.

    PubMed

    Langford, Nigel J

    2005-01-01

    Carbon dioxide is a physiologically important gas, produced by the body as a result of cellular metabolism. It is widely used in the food industry in the carbonation of beverages, in fire extinguishers as an 'inerting' agent and in the chemical industry. Its main mode of action is as an asphyxiant, although it also exerts toxic effects at cellular level. At low concentrations, gaseous carbon dioxide appears to have little toxicological effect. At higher concentrations it leads to an increased respiratory rate, tachycardia, cardiac arrhythmias and impaired consciousness. Concentrations >10% may cause convulsions, coma and death. Solid carbon dioxide may cause burns following direct contact. If it is warmed rapidly, large amounts of carbon dioxide are generated, which can be dangerous, particularly within confined areas. The management of carbon dioxide poisoning requires the immediate removal of the casualty from the toxic environment, the administration of oxygen and appropriate supportive care. In severe cases, assisted ventilation may be required. Dry ice burns are treated similarly to other cryogenic burns, requiring thawing of the tissue and suitable analgesia. Healing may be delayed and surgical intervention may be required in severe cases. PMID:16499405

  5. Neurotoxic Shellfish Poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Watkins, Sharon M.; Reich, Andrew; Fleming, Lora E.; Hammond, Roberta

    2008-01-01

    Neurotoxic shellfish poisoning (NSP) is caused by consumption of molluscan shellfish contaminated with brevetoxins primarily produced by the dinoflagellate, Karenia brevis. Blooms of K. brevis, called Florida red tide, occur frequently along the Gulf of Mexico. Many shellfish beds in the US (and other nations) are routinely monitored for presence of K. brevis and other brevetoxin-producing organisms. As a result, few NSP cases are reported annually from the US. However, infrequent larger outbreaks do occur. Cases are usually associated with recreationally-harvested shellfish collected during or post red tide blooms. Brevetoxins are neurotoxins which activate voltage-sensitive sodium channels causing sodium influx and nerve membrane depolarization. No fatalities have been reported, but hospitalizations occur. NSP involves a cluster of gastrointestinal and neurological symptoms: nausea and vomiting, paresthesias of the mouth, lips and tongue as well as distal paresthesias, ataxia, slurred speech and dizziness. Neurological symptoms can progress to partial paralysis; respiratory distress has been recorded. Recent research has implicated new species of harmful algal bloom organisms which produce brevetoxins, identified additional marine species which accumulate brevetoxins, and has provided additional information on the toxicity and analysis of brevetoxins. A review of the known epidemiology and recommendations for improved NSP prevention are presented. PMID:19005578

  6. [Managing childhood lead poisoning].

    PubMed

    Markowitz, Morri E

    2003-01-01

    This paper reviews the clinical management of children with lead poisoning. A first step is to define the measures to be used in their assessment and be aware of the limitations. Measurements of blood lead levels can be made on anticoagulated whole blood samples using either: atomic absorption spectroscopy or anodic stripping voltametry. However a more accurate method is fluorescent RX'ray of the skeleton or systematic biochemical tests of lead levels in urine. Remedies include elimination of lead in the environment, changes in children's behavior and dietary checks for adequate calcium and iron intake. Chelation therapy, using Ca edetate and succimer eliminates lead from the skeleton, which is then quickly excleted using a cathartic to help prevent re-absorption. Chelation may save lives where BLLs are very high. There is usually a short term reduction of BLLs with a subsequent rise. Serious cases may require repeat therapies. Chelation should be considered in children with BLLs > = 45 micrograms/dl. Chelation therapy reduces BLLs and associated symptoms. However cognitive decline may be irreversible, indicating that emphasis should be on prevention rather than cure. The English version of this paper is available at: http://www.insp.mx/salud/index.html. PMID:14746008

  7. Sabatier Catalyst Poisoning Investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nallette, Tim; Perry, Jay; Abney, Morgan; Knox, Jim; Goldblatt, Loel

    2013-01-01

    The Carbon Dioxide Reduction Assembly (CRA) on the International Space Station (ISS) has been operational since 2010. The CRA uses a Sabatier reactor to produce water and methane by reaction of the metabolic CO2 scrubbed from the cabin air and the hydrogen byproduct from the water electrolysis system used for metabolic oxygen generation. Incorporating the CRA into the overall air revitalization system has facilitated life support system loop closure on the ISS reducing resupply logistics and thereby enhancing longer term missions. The CRA utilizes CO2 which has been adsorbed in a 5A molecular sieve within the Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly, CDRA. There is a potential of compounds with molecular dimensions similar to, or less than CO2 to also be adsorbed. In this fashion trace contaminants may be concentrated within the CDRA and subsequently desorbed with the CO2 to the CRA. Currently, there is no provision to remove contaminants prior to entering the Sabatier catalyst bed. The risk associated with this is potential catalyst degradation due to trace organic contaminants in the CRA carbon dioxide feed acting as catalyst poisons. To better understand this risk, United Technologies Aerospace System (UTAS) has teamed with MSFC to investigate the impact of various trace contaminants on the CRA catalyst performance at relative ISS cabin air concentrations and at about 200/400 times of ISS concentrations, representative of the potential concentrating effect of the CDRA molecular sieve. This paper summarizes our initial assessment results.

  8. Expansion of methylmercury poisoning outside of Minamata: An epidemiological study on chronic methylmercury poisoning outside of Minamata

    SciTech Connect

    Ninomiya, Tadashi; Ohmori, Hiroyuki; Hashimoto, Kiyomi

    1995-07-01

    The first methylmercury poisoning by consumption of fish arose in Minamata, Japan, in 1953. Methylmercury dispersed from Minamata to the to the Shiranui Sea until 1968. Mercury concentration in the hair of residents on the coast of the Shiranui Sea was 10 to 20 times higher than in nonpolluted people in Kumamoto Prefecture in 1960. People on the coast of the Shiranui Sea have consumed fish containing low-dose methylmercury without a ban over decades until 1968. We studied the effect of long-term consumption of methylmercury on those people 10 years later after the end of methylmercury dispersion. Our epidemiological study clarified that people in a fishing village (Ooura) on the coast of the Shiranui Sea showed a significantly higher frequency of neurological signs characteristics of methylmercury poisoning (hypoesthesia, ataxia, impairment of hearing, visual change, and dysarthria) in comparison with people in a nonpolluted fishing village (Ichiburi). The neurological disorders were still detected 10 years later in Ooura after the end of methylmercury dispersion from Minamata: hypoesthesia showed the highest frequency in Ooura. These results suggest that people on the coast of the Shiranui Sea were affected by long-term dietary exposure to methylmercury. 14 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  9. Clinical Marine Toxicology: A European Perspective for Clinical Toxicologists and Poison Centers

    PubMed Central

    Schmitt, Corinne; de Haro, Luc

    2013-01-01

    Clinical marine toxicology is a rapidly changing area. Many of the new discoveries reported every year in Europe involve ecological disturbances—including global warming—that have induced modifications in the chorology, behavior, and toxicity of many species of venomous or poisonous aquatic life including algae, ascidians, fish and shellfish. These changes have raised a number of public issues associated, e.g., poisoning after ingestion of contaminated seafood, envenomation by fish stings, and exposure to harmful microorganism blooms. The purpose of this review of medical and scientific literature in marine toxicology is to highlight the growing challenges induced by ecological disturbances that confront clinical toxicologists during the everyday job in the European Poison Centers. PMID:23917333

  10. "Suicide" as Seen in Poison Control Centers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntire, Matilda S.; Angle, Carol R.

    1971-01-01

    Data on age and sex characteristics, intent and diagnosis of suicide, and toxicology are presented for 1,103 cases of poisoning (children ages 6-18 years) admitted to 50 poison control centers during 1 year. (KW)

  11. Animal-related fatalities--part II: characteristic autopsy findings and variable causes of death associated with envenomation, poisoning, anaphylaxis, asphyxiation, and sepsis.

    PubMed

    Bury, Danielle; Langlois, Neil; Byard, Roger W

    2012-03-01

    In addition to blunt and sharp trauma, animal-related fatalities may result from envenomation, poisoning, anaphylaxis, asphyxiation, and sepsis. Although the majority of envenomation deaths are caused by hornets, bees, and wasps, the mechanism of death is most often anaphylaxis. Envenomation resulting from the injection of a poison or toxin into a victim occurs with snakes, spiders, and scorpions on land. Marine animal envenomation may result from stings and bites from jellyfish, octopus, stonefish, cone fish, stingrays, and sea snakes. At autopsy, the findings may be extremely subtle, and so a history of exposure is required. Poisoning may also occur from ingesting certain fish, with three main forms of neurotoxin poisoning involving ciguatera, tetrodotoxin ingestion, and paralytic shellfish poisoning. Asphyxiation may follow upper airway occlusion or neck/chest compression by animals, and sepsis may follow bites. Autopsy analysis of cases requires extensive toxinological, toxicological, and biochemical analyses of body fluids. PMID:21981407

  12. Poisonous birds: A timely review.

    PubMed

    Ligabue-Braun, Rodrigo; Carlini, Célia Regina

    2015-06-01

    Until very recently, toxicity was not considered a trait observed in birds, but works published in the last two decades started to shed light on this subject. Poisonous birds are rare (or little studied), and comprise Pitohui and Ifrita birds from Papua New Guinea, the European quail, the Spoor-winged goose, the Hoopees, the North American Ruffed grouse, the Bronzewings, and the Red warbler. A hundred more species are considered unpalatable or malodorous to humans and other animals. The present review intends to present the current understanding of bird toxicity, possibly pointing to an ignored research field. Whenever possible, biochemical characteristics of these poisons and their effects on humans and other animals are discussed, along with historical aspects of poison discovery and evolutionary hypothesis regarding their function. PMID:25839151

  13. Lead Poisoning: A Need for Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipnickey, Susan Cross

    1981-01-01

    Each year approximately 200 children die of lead poisoning. Especially vulnerable to the toxic effects of lead poisoning are the nervous system, kidneys, and the bones. Physiological effects of lead on the school-age child, screening processes, and roles of school personnel in dealing with suspected victims of lead poisoning are discussed. (JN)

  14. Chapter 6: Research Priorities Childhood Lead Poisoning

    E-print Network

    Chapter 6: Research Priorities 6 Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention Research Priorities If we are to improve lead poisoning prevention strategies, we need additional research in the following areas: 1 to control lead hazards in housing. · The effectiveness of family education about lead poisoning prevention

  15. Childhood Lead Poisoning What Is the Problem?

    E-print Network

    CS239775 Childhood Lead Poisoning What Is the Problem? Approximately 500,000 U.S. children aged 1­5 years have blood lead levels above 5 micrograms of lead per deciliter of blood, the reference level. Lead poisoning can affect nearly every system in the body. Because lead poisoning often occurs

  16. INCREASED LEAD ABSORPTION AND LEAD POISONING

    E-print Network

    INCREASED LEAD ABSORPTION AND LEAD POISONING IN YOUNG CHILDREN A STATDIE:"IT BY THE CEJde slnt:t! the Surgeon GenerJi's Statement. "~edicJI Aspects of Childhood Lead POisoning," was issued:ld absorption Jnd lead poisoning. Such JCtivities for children will continue to be necessary until sources

  17. Compartment Syndrome Resulting from Carbon Monoxide Poisoning.

    PubMed

    Serbest, Sancar; Belhan, Oktay; Gürger, Murat; Tosun, Haci Bayram

    2015-12-01

    Every year, especially in the cooler Fall and Winter months, hundreds of people die because of carbon monoxide poisoning. This occurs usually as an accident. It is a significant cause of poisoning worldwide. We present a case of compartment syndrome in both lower extremities with accompanying acute renal failure and systemic capillary leakage syndrome because of carbon monoxide poisoning. PMID:26588033

  18. Helping Parents Prevent Lead Poisoning. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Binns, Helen J.; Ricks, Omar Benton

    Children are at greater risk than adults for lead poisoning because children absorb lead more readily than adults, and a small amount of lead in children's bodies can do a great deal of harm. Some of the causes and effects of childhood lead poisoning and suggests some lead poisoning prevention strategies that parent educators can share with…

  19. Plants Poisonous to Your Horse - Part I

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Horses are relatively selective grazers and generally are poisoned less frequently than other livestock. However there are exceptions. Some poisonous plants are palatable to horses and exposed horses readily eat them. Most equine poisonings occur as result to toxic plants contaminating feeds. Mo...

  20. Handbook of Common Poisonings in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Food and Drug Administration (DHEW), Washington, DC.

    This handbook for physicians, emergency room personnel and pharmacists lists the manufacturer, description, toxicity, symptoms and findings, treatment, and references for 73 poison substances considered by the Subcommittee on Accidental Poisoning of the American Academy of Pediatrics to be most significant in terms of accidental poisoning of…

  1. 49 CFR 172.554 - POISON placard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false POISON placard. 172.554 Section 172.554... SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.554 POISON placard. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON placard must be as follows: EC02MR91.057 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.519, the background on the...

  2. National Poison Prevention Week Promotional Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poison Prevention Week Council, Washington, DC.

    This collection of materials for parents, early childhood workers, the elderly, and anyone in situations requiring safeguards against poisoning, spans the years 1993 and 1994 and is intended to promote National Poison Prevention Week. The materials included are: (1) the 31-page, illustrated report on National Poison Prevention Week for 1993,…

  3. 76 FR 9585 - Poison Control Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-18

    ... SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Poison Control Program AGENCY: Health Resources and.... the Upstate New York Poison Control Center. HRSA will also transfer funds and duties from Winthrop University to the New York City Health & Hospitals Corporation d.b.a. the New York City Poison Control...

  4. 49 CFR 172.554 - POISON placard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false POISON placard. 172.554 Section 172.554... SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.554 POISON placard. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON placard must be as follows: EC02MR91.057 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.519, the background on the...

  5. AID from bony fish catalyzes class switch recombination

    PubMed Central

    Barreto, Vasco M.; Pan-Hammarstrom, Qiang; Zhao, Yaofeng; Hammarstrom, Lennart; Misulovin, Ziva; Nussenzweig, Michel C.

    2005-01-01

    Class switch recombination was the last of the lymphocyte-specific DNA modification reactions to appear in the evolution of the adaptive immune system. It is absent in cartilaginous and bony fish, and it is common to all tetrapods. Class switching is initiated by activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID), an enzyme expressed in cartilaginous and bony fish that is also required for somatic hypermutation. Fish AID differs from orthologs found in tetrapods in several respects, including its catalytic domain and carboxy-terminal region, both of which are essential for the switching reaction. To determine whether evolution of class switch recombination required alterations in AID, we assayed AID from Japanese puffer and zebra fish for class-switching activity in mouse B cells. We find that fish AID catalyzes class switch recombination in mammalian B cells. Thus, AID had the potential to catalyze this reaction before the teleost and tetrapod lineages diverged, suggesting that the later appearance of a class-switching reaction was dependent on the evolution of switch regions and multiple constant regions in the IgH locus. PMID:16157688

  6. Lead poisoning by contaminated flour.

    PubMed

    Hershko, C; Eisenberg, A; Avni, A; Grauer, F; Acker, C; Hamdallah, M; Shahin, S; Moreb, J; Richter, E; Weissenberg, E

    1989-01-01

    Between October 1982 and June 1983, 43 patients were identified with symptomatic lead poisoning in three Arab villages of the Nablus district. Because of the clustering of clinical poisoning by household units, investigation was focussed on potential sources common to all members of the households. After excluding water, olive oil and a variety of foodstuff, lead in high concentrations was discovered in locally ground flour in all affected households. The source of poisoning was lead poured into the fissures between the metal housing and the driveshaft of the millstone. Significant lead contamination of freshly ground flour was demonstrated in 23% of the 146 community flour mills operating in West Bank villages. Since the completion of these studies, similar outbreaks of lead poisoning caused by contaminated flourmills have been identified in the Upper Galilee and in Spain. As the methods of milling in the Mediterranean area are similar, a coordinated international effort is needed in order to eliminate this health hazard from countries where similar community stone mills are still in use. PMID:2485923

  7. Staphylococcal food poisoning and botulism

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, R. J.

    1974-01-01

    Staphylococcal food poisoning and botulism are caused by the ingestion of food containing exotoxins. Outbreaks of both are still a problem in many countries. This paper attempts to summarize information relating to these illnesses, together with advice on how their incidence may be reduced, or better still prevented. PMID:4619651

  8. Self-poisoning with metaldehyde.

    PubMed

    Bleakley, C; Ferrie, E; Collum, N; Burke, L

    2008-06-01

    Metaldehyde poisoning is rare. This case report details the largest toxic dose of self-poisoning with metaldehyde ever recorded in the literature to the authors' knowledge, the aim being to emphasise the features of metaldehyde toxicity and the potential for good clinical outcome. The patient was admitted unconscious with features consistent with poisoning. Appropriate critical care was instituted early with correction of his acid-base disorder, ventilatory support, correction of haemodynamic instability, anticonvulsant therapy and early admission to the critical care unit. An almost complete recovery was seen over the following weeks, the only lasting deficit being to short-term memory, a finding common to other reported incidents of metaldehyde toxicity. This case is notable in that the patient took more than one and a half times what is considered to be a lethal dose of metaldehyde (the largest reported), but has had a remarkably good clinical outcome that is proposed to be due to methodical and timely interventions delivered according to basic principles irrespective of the absence of the early identification of the poison. The case demonstrates several of the key features of metaldehyde toxicity and the emergency management of such a situation. The published literature pertaining to metaldehyde overdose is reviewed. PMID:18499834

  9. Poisoning of wild birds from exposure to anticholinesterase compounds and lead: diagnostic methods and selected cases

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Franson, J.C.; Smith, M.R.

    1999-01-01

    Organophosphorus and carbamate compounds have largely replaced chlorinated hydrocarbons for pesticidal use in the United States, and many cases of poisoning resulting from exposure to these anticholinesterase agents have occurred in free-living birds. Although lead shot has been prohibited for waterfowl hunting throughout the United States since 1991, lead poisoning from the ingestion of spent lead shot is still occasionally seen in wild birds, and lead poisoning from the ingestion of fishing sinkers is an emerging issue of concern. A thorough history, a complete necropsy evaluation, and appropriate laboratory analysis of tissues are required to diagnose toxicoses in wild birds, including those caused by anticholinesterase compounds and lead. The interpretation of brain cholinesterase (ChE) activity results depends on the methods of analysis and comparison with expected normal enzyme activities in brain tissue from the same species. Although lead residues in tissues vary among species, many lead poisoned birds have tissue residues that are much higher than the lower threshold commonly accepted for a diagnosis of lead poisoning. We review histories, necropsy findings, and analytical methodologies and results for selected anticholinesterase and lead poisoning cases diagnosed in wild raptors, waterfowl, and loons.

  10. Amitraz: a mimicker of organophosphate poisoning.

    PubMed

    Dhooria, Sahajal; Behera, Digambar; Agarwal, Ritesh

    2015-01-01

    Amitraz is used as an ectoparasiticide for dogs and cattle. Human poisoning due to amitraz may be misdiagnosed as organophosphate/carbamate (OPC) toxicity, since amitraz poisoning shares several clinical features (miosis, bradycardia and hypotension) encountered with OPC poisoning. A 19-year-old man with an alleged history of suicidal ingestion of a pesticide presented with drowsiness and was found to have constricted pupils, hypotension and bradycardia. He was diagnosed as a case of OPC poisoning and was treated with atropine and pralidoxime prior to presentation to our centre. Absence of a hypersecretory state, and the presence of hyperglycaemia and hypothermia along with a normal serum cholinesterase level suggested an alternate possibility. Retrieval of the poison container confirmed the diagnosis of amitraz poisoning. The patient made a rapid recovery with supportive management. Clinician awareness is key to successful management of this poisoning, which carries a good prognosis. PMID:26430228

  11. The Kidney in Lead Poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Radoševi?, Zdenko; Šari?, Marko; Beriti?, Tihomil; Kneževi?, Jelica

    1961-01-01

    Kidney damage due to lead is still an interesting problem of industrial toxicology. In spite of abundant literature data, much still remains to be explained. There are controversial opinions, not only on the type of renal lesions due to lead, but also on whether lead affects the kidney at all. In this paper our clinical observations on the effect of lead upon the kidney in 53 patients suffering from lead poisoning are presented. In 44 patients (40 men and four women) lead poisoning was due to occupation, and in nine (five men and four women) to the use of lead-glazed pottery. The length of exposure varied from two months to 35 years. In all cases the diagnosis of lead poisoning was made clinically and confirmed by laboratory tests. Permanent changes in the form of chronic nephropathy were observed in only two patients. These were the two cases in which exposure to lead was the longest and most intense. Twenty-three patients showed functional renal lesions tending to normalize. In addition to the cases of organic nephropathy, blood pressure was persistently raised in one further patient; in two patients a raised blood pressure was observed only in the acute stage of poisoning. On the basis of these findings we consider that lead intoxication can cause renal lesions. These lesions are for the most part functional and temporary. In cases of long and severe exposure and repeated lead intoxication, organic renal lesions seem possible. The disturbances of renal function observed in this study may be ascribed to disordered intrarenal circulation, due to the spastic effect of lead on intrarenal blood vessels, and to a direct toxic or indirect hypoxic effect of lead on the tubules. When investigating renal function, we have observed that the timing of individual tests is of paramount importance. Some lesions are subject to changes in the natural course of lead poisoning, and unless this is borne in mind, apparently contradictory results may be obtained. PMID:13739013

  12. Mushroom poisoning. Case reports and a review of therapy.

    PubMed

    Hanrahan, J P; Gordon, M A

    1984-02-24

    Four incidents of mushroom poisoning, representing four of the seven established groups of toxic mushrooms, are presented. These case reports illustrate the range of gastrointestinal and neurological symptoms caused by mushroom poisoning and reflect a nationwide increase in reports of serious poisonings in recent years. Severity of poisonings often parallels the time span between consumption and onset of symptoms, with serious poisonings having longer incubation periods. New therapies for amatoxin poisoning may reduce mortality caused by these poisonings. PMID:6420582

  13. Ultradian oscillation in expression of four melatonin receptor subtype genes in the pineal gland of the grass puffer, a semilunar-synchronized spawner, under constant darkness

    PubMed Central

    Ikegami, Taro; Maruyama, Yusuke; Doi, Hiroyuki; Hattori, Atsuhiko; Ando, Hironori

    2015-01-01

    Melatonin receptor gene expression as well as melatonin synthesis and secretion activities were examined in the pineal gland of the grass puffer, which exhibits unique lunar/tidal cycle-synchronized mass spawing: spawning occurs before high tide on the day of spring tide during spawing season. Melatonin synthesizing activity was assessed by the abundance of arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase 2 (AANAT2) mRNA. The amount of aanat2 mRNA was low during light phase and initiated to increase after the light was turned off. The secretion of melatonin from primary pineal organ culture was stimulated after the light was turned off and ceased immediately after the light was turned on. The expression levels of four melatonin receptor subtype genes (mel1a1.4, mel1a1.7, mel1b, and mel1c) showed synchronous variations, and the levels tended to be high during the dark phase under light/dark conditions. These results suggest that the action of melatonin on the pineal gland is highly dependent on light and photoperiod, possibly with stronger action during night time. Under constant darkness, the expression of four melatonin receptor subtype genes showed unique ultradian oscillations with the period of 14.0–15.4 h, suggesting the presence of a circatidal oscillator in the pineal gland. The present results indicate that melatonin may serve local chronobiological functions in the pineal gland. These cyclic expressions of melatonin receptor genes in the pineal gland may be important in the control of the lunar/tidal cycle-synchronized mass spawning in the grass puffer. PMID:25688184

  14. Ultradian oscillation in expression of four melatonin receptor subtype genes in the pineal gland of the grass puffer, a semilunar-synchronized spawner, under constant darkness.

    PubMed

    Ikegami, Taro; Maruyama, Yusuke; Doi, Hiroyuki; Hattori, Atsuhiko; Ando, Hironori

    2015-01-01

    Melatonin receptor gene expression as well as melatonin synthesis and secretion activities were examined in the pineal gland of the grass puffer, which exhibits unique lunar/tidal cycle-synchronized mass spawing: spawning occurs before high tide on the day of spring tide during spawing season. Melatonin synthesizing activity was assessed by the abundance of arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase 2 (AANAT2) mRNA. The amount of aanat2 mRNA was low during light phase and initiated to increase after the light was turned off. The secretion of melatonin from primary pineal organ culture was stimulated after the light was turned off and ceased immediately after the light was turned on. The expression levels of four melatonin receptor subtype genes (mel 1a 1.4, mel 1a 1.7, mel1b, and mel1c) showed synchronous variations, and the levels tended to be high during the dark phase under light/dark conditions. These results suggest that the action of melatonin on the pineal gland is highly dependent on light and photoperiod, possibly with stronger action during night time. Under constant darkness, the expression of four melatonin receptor subtype genes showed unique ultradian oscillations with the period of 14.0-15.4 h, suggesting the presence of a circatidal oscillator in the pineal gland. The present results indicate that melatonin may serve local chronobiological functions in the pineal gland. These cyclic expressions of melatonin receptor genes in the pineal gland may be important in the control of the lunar/tidal cycle-synchronized mass spawning in the grass puffer. PMID:25688184

  15. Elevation of Kiss2 and its receptor gene expression in the brain and pituitary of grass puffer during the spawning season.

    PubMed

    Shahjahan, Md; Motohashi, Eiji; Doi, Hiroyuki; Ando, Hironori

    2010-10-01

    Kisspeptins are a family of neuropeptides encoded by Kiss1 and Kiss2 genes, and participate in neuroendocrine regulation of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) secretion through activating their receptor, Kiss1r (or GPR54). Bioinformatic analyses have shown that there is a single gene for each kisspeptin (Kiss2) and its receptor (Kiss1r) in pufferfish, the function of which has yet to be elucidated. We cloned these two genes in grass puffer, which spawns on beach with semilunar cycles, and examined changes in their expression levels in the brain and pituitary at different reproductive stages over the spawning season. The Kiss2 precursor of 104 amino acid residues contains a putative kisspeptin peptide (SKFNLNPFGLRF). Kiss1r consists of 377 amino acid residues containing distinct characteristics of G-protein coupled receptors. Kiss2 and Kiss1r genes were expressed extensively in the brain, pituitary and gonads. The amounts of Kiss2 and Kiss1r mRNAs were significantly elevated during the spawning period in the brain and pituitary of both sexes. There were strong positive correlations between the amounts of Kiss2 and Kiss1r mRNAs in the brain and pituitary over the spawning season. Significant positive correlations were also observed between the amounts of Kiss2/Kiss1r mRNAs and GnRH1 mRNA in the brain. The present results indicate that the Kiss2/Kiss1r system most probably plays an important role in the regulation of reproductive function in the spawning period of grass puffer, possibly through the stimulation of GnRH1 secretion. Furthermore, Kiss2 may have a local action in the pituitary. PMID:20670626

  16. Paracetamol poisoning: beyond the nomogram.

    PubMed

    Bateman, D Nicholas

    2015-07-01

    Paracetamol poisoning is the commonest overdose seen in the UK. The management of patients with paracetamol poisoning has been little changed for the past 40?years, with a weight related dose of antidote (acetylcysteine) and treatment based on nomograms relating paracetamol concentration to time from ingestion. In 2012 the UK Commission on Human Medicines recommended a revision of the nomogram, following the death of a young woman, lowering the treatment threshold for all patients. As a result many more patients were treated. This has resulted in a large increase in admissions and in the proportion suffering adverse reactions to the antidote acetylcysteine since, interestingly, higher paracetamol concentrations inhibit anaphylactoid reactions to the antidote. New approaches to assessing the toxicity of paracetamol are now emerging using new biomarkers in blood. This article discusses new approaches to risk assessment and treatment for paracetamol overdose based on recent research in this area. PMID:26099917

  17. Deaths from Acute Lead Poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, F. W.; Delves, H. T.

    1972-01-01

    The three fatal cases of acute lead poisoning described show the difficulty experienced in reaching an early diagnosis of lead intoxication. A rapid micromethod is now available for the determination of whole blood lead levels on small samples of blood, using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Given an increased awareness of acute lead intoxication, the rapid confirmation of the diagnosis by the micromethod, and the early institution of adequate chelation therapy, then fatalities such as those described should not occur in the future. PMID:4624597

  18. Poisoning deaths in married women.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Virendra

    2004-02-01

    Unnatural deaths of married women amongst the total female deaths have been an increasing trend in Indian society during the recent past years. These unnatural deaths may be suicide, homicide or even accidents. But these suicides and homicides are currently more commonly associated with the dowry disputes. In India, dowries are a continuing series of gifts endowed before and after the marriage. When dowry expectations are not met, the young bride may be killed or compelled to commit suicide, either by burning, poisoning or by some other means. Here, in the study, the main objective is to present the different epidemiological and medicolegal aspects of poisoning deaths in the married women. In a cohort of 200 married female deaths, 35 (18%) were poisoning deaths and these were analyzed from both epidemiological and medicolegal aspects. In this series, most of the women consumed organophosphorus compound and died within 10 days. The majority of the affected wives due to dowry problems were below 35 years of age. Most incidents occurred either during morning hour or during daytime. PMID:15261005

  19. Outbreak investigation: Salmonella food poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Kunwar, R.; Singh, Harpreet; Mangla, Vipra; Hiremath, R.

    2013-01-01

    Background An outbreak of food poisoning was reported from a Military establishment on 29 May 2011 when 43 cases of food poisoning reported sick in a span of few hours. Methods A retrospective-prospective study was conducted. Data regarding the onset of symptoms, presenting features and history of food items consumed was collected. A detailed inspection of the mess for hygiene and sanitary status, cooking and storage procedure, and rodent nuisance was also carried out. Results A total of 53 cases of food poisoning occurred between 29 and 31 May 2011. All cases had symptoms of diarrohea followed by fever (96.2%), headache (84.9%), abdominal pain (50.1%), nausea and vomiting (49.1%) and bodyache (39.6%) respectively. Based on the Attributable Risk (AR = 46.67%) and Relative Risk (RR = 4.5, 95% CI = 1.22–16.54) Potato-bitter gourd vegetable served during dinner on 28 May 2011 was incriminated as the food item responsible for outbreak. Conclusion Symptomatology, incubation period and presence of rodent nuisance suggested contamination of Potato–bitter gourd vegetable with non-typhoidal Salmonella spp. PMID:24600149

  20. Congenital PCB poisoning: a reevaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, R.W.

    1985-05-01

    A review of the literature reveals a need to clarify the pathologic physiology of congenital polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) poisoning, which is characterized by intrauterine growth retardation, brown staining of the skin and mucous membranes as in Addison's disease, natal teeth, widely open fontanelles and sagittal suture and apparent overgrowth of the gingiva. The skull abnormalities may represent irregular calcification, with natal teeth appearing because the bone of the mandible is penetrated more easily than usual. Some fetuses were poisoned at the time the mothers ingested the oil; others were affected in the subsequent years from residual contamination in the mothers' bodies. The misadventure in Japan was repeated in Taiwan in 1979. The seven congenital cases in Taiwan reported thus far seem to differ from those in Japan. In Taiwan the noses were somewhat black, two of the infants did not have low birth weight and the osseous abnormalities of the skull and gingival hyperplasia were not observed. Systematic followup studies should be made in Taiwan of the children born within 2 years of maternal poisoning with PCBs. Special attention should be given to age at first dentition and skull-X-rays for spotty calcification, among other measures of physical, neurologic and intellectual development.

  1. The Solanaceae: foods and poisons.

    PubMed

    Lee, M R

    2006-06-01

    The plant family Solanaceae contains important foodstuffs such as the potato, tomato and aubergine, together with powerful poisons including mandrake, henbane and deadly nightshade. In the first article in this short series on the family, the history and importance of the potato are described. It was first cultivated by the Inca people in the altiplano of the Andes in prehistoric times. Then it was translocated to Europe by the Spanish invaders. Originally reviled as'peasant food', it was regarded with great suspicion as an evil plant and a potential cause of leprosy. Over several centuries it gradually became established throughout Britain, France and the continent, and in particular in Ireland, where its growth allowed the population to expand very rapidly between 1750 and 1850. In the late 1840s, nemesis arrived in the form of the potato blight and the Irish famine. The 'tatties' went black, a great hunger ensued and thousands died. Later, the causative fungus was isolated and steps were taken to avoid further similar disasters. It is not generally appreciated that potatoes can be poisonous if they are turning green or sprouting (chitting). The tuber is then producing toxic quantities of the alkaloid alpha-solanine. The clinical syndrome of potato poisoning is described briefly. PMID:17153152

  2. [Recent trends of mushroom poisoning in Japan].

    PubMed

    Yamaura, Yoshio

    2013-03-01

    The incidence of mushroom poisoning was studied statistically from 2001 to 2010 in Japan. The total incident of mushroom poisoning was 569 cases, which involved 1,920 patients and 10 deaths. The average incident was 56.9 cases per year, involving 192 patients and 1 death. On regional differences, the mushroom poisoning was more frequent in the northeastern part of Japan. The rate of total incidents for each type of poisoning, which were classified according to symptoms caused, 54.6% in the type of gastro-intestinal disorder, 11.6% in the type of neurological symptoms, and 2.4% in the type of intracellular disorder (violent vomiting, diarrhea and dehydration and hepato-nephrosis, or rhabdomyolysis, or erroneous perception, etc.), respectively. Two species of poisonous mushrooms with gastro-intestinal disorder, Lampteromyces japonicus and Rhodophyllus rhodopolius caused the majority (52%) of all poisonings in Japan. PMID:23600266

  3. Nephropathy in Chronic Lead Poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Lilis, Ruth; Gavrilescu, N.; Nestorescu, B.; Dumitriu, C.; Roventa, Ana

    1968-01-01

    This paper presents a study of renal function in 102 patients with lead poisoning admitted to the Occupational Diseases Clinic in Bucharest during the past 10 years; nearly half the patients had no history of lead colic. Every possible cause of renal damage, other than lead, was excluded by a careful differential diagnosis. Renal function was investigated by repeated determinations of blood urea, creatinine and uric acid, urea clearance, and endogenous creatinine clearance tests. Significant decreases of the clearance values (less than 50 ml./min. urea clearance and less than 80 ml./min. creatinine clearance), persistent high blood urea (more than 50 mg./100 ml.), and high blood creatinine (more than 1·2 mg./100 ml.) were found in a significant number of cases. These signs of impaired renal function were more frequent in the group of patients with chronic lead poisoning who had had several episodes of colic and an occupational exposure of more than 10 years. A high blood pressure was also found more frequently in this group of patients. Undercompensated and decompensated renal failure was found in 17 patients, most of whom had been exposed to lead for more than 10 years and had a history of several attacks of colic. Arterial hypertension accompanied the chronic renal failure in 13 patients, the renal impairment generally preceding the rise in blood pressure by several years. The duration of occupational lead exposure, the high absorption in the past, and the long period of observation of these patients, most of whom were repeatedly hospitalized, may explain the relatively high incidence (17 cases) of nephropathy with chronic renal failure in the present group. Impairment of urea clearance seems to be the earliest sign, at a time when the creatinine clearance is still normal. As the duration of exposure lengthens and the patient is subjected to active episodes of poisoning the creatinine clearance also deteriorates. Persistent urea retention and high creatininaemia may follow in time, accompanied rather frequently by arterial hypertension. A study of some of the cases followed for several years demonstrated this progressive evolution of lead nephropathy. A functional and transitory impairment of renal function is very probably caused by an impairment of intrarenal circulation, resulting from marked vasoconstriction of the renal vessels, forming part of the generalized vasoconstriction of lead poisoning. Prolonged exposure and frequently recurring episodes of acute poisoning may lead to progressive impairment of renal function and to the development of organic lesions. Special attention should be paid to renal function tests in all cases with prolonged exposure to lead in order to prevent the development of severe lead nephropathy. PMID:5663423

  4. Poisoning from accidental ingestion of mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Barbato, M P

    1993-06-21

    Poisoning from the accidental ingestion of mushrooms is an uncommon cause of morbidity within Australia and unlike many other countries no deaths have yet been recorded. This review seeks to draw attention to the various syndromes associated with mushroom poisoning and their management, thereby helping to keep our good record intact. Although the number of toxic species is relatively small, the collection and ingestion of field varieties should be left to those absolutely certain of their quest. In cases of poisoning, identification of the offending mushroom is of paramount importance in the management. In suspected or known amatoxin poisoning prompt treatment favourably influences outcome. PMID:8326897

  5. 77 FR 16645 - National Poison Prevention Week, 2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-21

    ...Proclamation 8784--National Poison Prevention Week, 2012 Memorandum of March 16, 2012...March 16, 2012 National Poison Prevention Week, 2012 By the President of the United States...anniversary of National Poison Prevention Week, I encourage all Americans to help...

  6. 76 FR 16521 - National Poison Prevention Week, 2011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-23

    ...Proclamation 8638--National Poison Prevention Week, 2011 Presidential Documents Federal Register...March 18, 2011 National Poison Prevention Week, 2011 By the President of the United States...preventable. During National Poison Prevention Week, I encourage all Americans to...

  7. 75 FR 13215 - National Poison Prevention Week, 2010

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-19

    ...March 15, 2010 National Poison Prevention Week, 2010 By the President of the United States...1962, during National Poison Prevention Week we alert American families about the dangers...campaigns like National Poison Prevention Week, childhood death rates from...

  8. Chromatin condensation in the erythrocytes of fish following exposure to cadmium

    SciTech Connect

    Gill, T.S.; Pant, J.C.

    1986-02-01

    Experimental cadmium poisoning in the fishes has been investigated and a variety of hematological changes have been observed. Studies on mammals have also revealed that Cd interferes with basic cellular processes and the metal has been shown to cause chromatin condensation and emptying of interchromatin spaces in cultured hepatocytes. The present work illustrates the effect of chronic Cd poisoning on the erythrocytes of a freshwater fish, Puntius conchonius with reference to chromatin condensation.

  9. Poisoning in the United States: 2012 emergency medicine report of the national poison data system.

    PubMed

    Dart, Richard C; Bronstein, Alvin C; Spyker, Daniel A; Cantilena, Louis R; Seifert, Steven A; Heard, Stuart E; Krenzelok, Edward P

    2015-04-01

    Deaths from drug overdose have become the leading cause of injury death in the United States, where the poison center system is available to provide real-time advice and collect data about a variety of poisonings. In 2012, emergency medical providers were confronted with new poisonings, such as bath salts (substituted cathinones) and Spice (synthetic cannabinoid drugs), as well as continued trends in established poisonings such as from prescription opioids. This article addresses current trends in opioid poisonings; new substances implicated in poisoning cases, including unit-dose laundry detergents, bath salts, Spice, and energy drinks; and the role of poison centers in public health emergencies such as the Fukushima radiation incident. PMID:25523411

  10. An episode of trichloroethylene poisoning.

    PubMed

    Tan, K J; Phoon, W H

    1980-10-01

    Trichloroethylene is commonly used in industry as a solvent and degreasing agent. An incident is described in which 14 out of 23 workers using trichloroethylene to clean machine parts in an electronics factory suffered symptoms of poisoning, including fainting in 3. Subsequent investigation showed the widespread use of trichloroethylene in that factory; containers of the chemical were also kept exposed. Industrial hygiene assessments revealed vapour levels which exceeded the permissible limit. The implementation of control measures brought the vapour levels to below 50 ppm, a safe level. PMID:7247335

  11. Diagnosis & Treatment of Poisoning by Pesticides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Pesticide Programs.

    This report succinctly discusses the steps necessary to diagnose and treat poisoning from pesticides, especially organophosphates, carbamates and chlorinated hydrocarbons. Immediate and continuing steps in the care of poisoning victims are outlined with supportive information on where to locate emergency assistance. (CS)

  12. Argument Strategies: Antidote to Tylenol's Poisoned Image.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benoit, William L.; Lindsey, James J.

    1987-01-01

    Analyzes how the manufacturer dealt with the Tylenol poisonings: the link between Tylenol and the poisoning was denied, its image as a safe product was bolstered, capsules were differentiated from other products, and as a result, sales recovered. Extends the applicability of apologia as a way to analyze other media campaigns. (SKC)

  13. Poison Awareness: A Discussion Leader's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Evaluation Systems, Inc., Amherst, MA.

    Because over 40,000 children are annually poisoned by household products, this guide for group leaders emphasizes hazards and preventive actions. Major objectives are defined: (1) to raise the audience's knowledge/awareness level concerning major hazards associated with potentially poisonous household products, (2) to point out primary hazard…

  14. Poison control center - Emergency number (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    For a poison emergency call 1-800-222-1222 anywhere in the United States. This national hotline number will let you ... is a free and confidential service. All local poison control centers in the U.S. use this national ...

  15. The Poison Control Center--Its Role

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manoguerra, Anthony S.

    1976-01-01

    Poison Control Centers are being utilized by more schools of pharmacy each year as training sites for students. This paper discusses what such a center is, its services, changes anticipated in the poison center system in the next several years and how they may influence pharmacy education, specifically as it relates to clinical toxicology.…

  16. The Chemical Nature of Mercury in Human Brain Following Poisoning or Environmental Exposure

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Methylmercury is among the most potentially toxic species to which human populations are exposed, both at high levels through poisonings and at lower levels through consumption of fish and other seafood. However, the molecular mechanisms of methylmercury toxicity in humans remain poorly understood. We used synchrotron X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) to study mercury chemical forms in human brain tissue. Individuals poisoned with high levels of methylmercury species showed elevated cortical selenium with significant proportions of nanoparticulate mercuric selenide plus some inorganic mercury and methylmercury bound to organic sulfur. Individuals with a lifetime of high fish consumption showed much lower levels of mercuric selenide and methylmercury cysteineate. Mercury exposure did not perturb organic selenium levels. These results elucidate a key detoxification pathway in the central nervous system and provide new insights into the appropriate methods for biological monitoring. PMID:22826746

  17. Suicidal poisoning with barium chloride.

    PubMed

    Jourdan, S; Bertoni, M; Sergio, P; Michele, P; Rossi, M

    2001-06-15

    A 49-year-old male pharmacist suffering from depression phoned the emergency services telling of how he had ingested barium chloride. He was found semicomatose in bed and resuscitation attempts were to no avail and he died at the scene. A white plastic container labelled "Barium chloride... Poison", and a book with a writing on a blank page... "give sulphate... SO(4)" were found. At autopsy, 1l of whitish-yellow fluid was found in the stomach. Autopsy barium levels were: blood 9.9mg/l; bile 8.8mg/l; urine 6.3mg/l; gastric 10.0g/l. Cause of death was given as cardiorespiratory arrest due to barium chloride poisoning. The issue of barium toxicity in a variety of itatrogenic and non itatrogenic situation is discussed together with the two only other cases of suicidal barium ingestion, and the feasibility of early intervention at the scene by an emergency team. PMID:11376995

  18. [Acute and chronic cadmium poisoning].

    PubMed

    Andujar, P; Bensefa-Colas, L; Descatha, A

    2010-02-01

    Cadmium is a metallic impurity in various minerals. The two main cadmium exposure sources in general population are food and tobacco smoking. Its industrial exploitation has grown in the early twentieth century. Cadmium is used in accumulators or alkaline batteries (80%) and in pigments for paints or plastics (10%), in electrolytic process by deposit or by cadmium plating on metals or to reduce melting points (welding rods...). Cadmium is a cumulative toxic substance whose half-time for elimination is about 20 to 40 years and it is mainly stored in the liver and kidneys. Inhalation of cadmium oxide fumes may cause inhalation fevers or chemical pneumonitis. Cadmium chronic poisoning causes mainly renal tubulopathy and could be the cause of osteomalacia and diffuse osteoporosis. Cadmium is classified as certain carcinogen agent for humans by International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). The most relevant biological index exposure is the urinary cadmium. According to literature, no chelating agent can be still used in human cadmium poisonings. In France, some diseases caused by occupational exposure to cadmium may be compensated. PMID:19709784

  19. Prevention of childhood lead poisoning.

    PubMed

    Campbell, C; Osterhoudt, K C

    2000-10-01

    Although past national public health efforts have reduced lead exposure significantly, lead poisoning remains the most common environmental health problem affecting American children. Currently, lead exposure occurs predominantly through ingestion of lead-contaminated household dust and soil in older housing containing lead-based paint; exposure can be increased with housing deterioration or renovation. Environmental prevention efforts focus on improvement in risk assessment, development of housing-based standards for lead-based paint hazards, and safe and cost-effective lead hazard remediation techniques. Educational efforts address parental awareness of lead exposure pathways, hygiene, and housekeeping measures to prevent ingestion of dust and soil. Blood lead screening is recommended either universally at ages 1 and 2 years or in a targeted manner where local health departments can document a low prevalence of elevated blood lead levels. Nutritional interventions involve provision of regular meals containing adequate amounts of calcium and iron and supplementation for iron deficiency. Lead chelation should complement environmental, nutritional, and educational interventions, when indicated. Collaboration of multiple federal agencies in a new strategy to eliminate childhood lead poisoning should further prevention efforts. PMID:11021406

  20. 16 CFR 1700.15 - Poison prevention packaging standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Poison prevention packaging standards. 1700.15 Section 1700.15 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION POISON PREVENTION PACKAGING ACT OF 1970 REGULATIONS POISON PREVENTION PACKAGING § 1700.15 Poison prevention...

  1. 49 CFR 172.416 - POISON GAS label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false POISON GAS label. 172.416 Section 172.416... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.416 POISON GAS label. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON GAS label... POISON GAS label and the symbol must be white. The background of the upper diamond must be black and...

  2. 49 CFR 172.540 - POISON GAS placard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false POISON GAS placard. 172.540 Section 172.540... SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.540 POISON GAS placard. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON GAS... the POISON GAS placard and the symbol must be white. The background of the upper diamond must be...

  3. 49 CFR 172.416 - POISON GAS label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false POISON GAS label. 172.416 Section 172.416... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.416 POISON GAS label. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON GAS label... POISON GAS label and the symbol must be white. The background of the upper diamond must be black and...

  4. 16 CFR 1700.15 - Poison prevention packaging standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Poison prevention packaging standards. 1700.15 Section 1700.15 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION POISON PREVENTION PACKAGING ACT OF 1970 REGULATIONS POISON PREVENTION PACKAGING § 1700.15 Poison prevention...

  5. 49 CFR 172.540 - POISON GAS placard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false POISON GAS placard. 172.540 Section 172.540... SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.540 POISON GAS placard. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON GAS... the POISON GAS placard and the symbol must be white. The background of the upper diamond must be...

  6. Suspected poisoning of domestic animals by pesticides.

    PubMed

    Caloni, Francesca; Cortinovis, Cristina; Rivolta, Marina; Davanzo, Franca

    2016-01-01

    A retrospective study was carried out by reviewing all suspected cases of domestic animal poisoning attributed to pesticides, reported to the Milan Poison Control Centre (MPCC) between January 2011 and December 2013. During this period, pesticides were found to be responsible for 37.3% of all suspected poisoning enquiries received (815). The most commonly species involved was the dog (71.1% of calls) followed by the cat (15.8%), while a limited number of cases involved horses, goats and sheep. Most cases of exposure (47.1%) resulted in mild to moderate clinical signs. The outcome was reported in 59.9% of these cases, with death occurring in 10.4% of them. Insecticides (40.8%) proved to be the most common group of pesticides involved and exposure to pyrethrins-pyrethroids accounted for the majority of calls. According to the MPCC data, there has been a decrease in the number of suspected poisonings cases attributed to pesticides that have been banned by the EU, including aldicarb, carbofuran, endosulfan and paraquat. In contrast, there has been an increase of suspected poisoning cases attributed to the neonicotinoids, imidacloprid and acetamiprid, probably due to their widespread use in recent years. Cases of suspected poisoning that involved exposure to rodenticides accounted for 27.6% of calls received by the MPCC and anticoagulant rodenticides were the primary cause of calls, with many cases involving brodifacoum and bromadiolone. Herbicides were involved in 14.2% of calls related to pesticides and glyphosate was the main culprit in cases involving dogs, cats, horses, goats and sheep. As far as exposure to molluscicides (11.5%) and fungicides (5.9%), most of the cases involved dogs and the suspected poisoning agents were metaldehyde and copper compounds respectively. The data collected are useful in determining trends in poisoning episodes and identifying newly emerging toxicants, thus demonstrating the prevalence of pesticides as causative agents in animal poisonings. PMID:26367188

  7. One Fish Two Fish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Michele

    1998-01-01

    This activity explains fisheries resource management to seven-year olds. First-grade students learn concepts such as offspring viability, life expectancy, and distribution of species, which help to determine when, where, and how people fish and the importance of fishing responsibly. Lists materials, procedures, and extensions. (SJR)

  8. [Management of poisoning with Amanita phalloides.

    PubMed

    Rudbæk, Torsten R; Kofoed, Pernille; Bove, Jeppe; Haastrup, Peter; Ebbehøj, Niels

    2014-03-31

    Death cap (Amanita phalloides) is commonly found and is one of the five most toxic fungi in Denmark. Toxicity is due to amatoxin, and poisoning is a serious medical condition, causing organ failure with potential fatal outcome. Acknowledgement and clarification of exposure, symptomatic and focused treatment is of primary importance. No data from randomised, controlled trials on management exists, and there is not international consensus on treatment regime. We present amatoxin-case contacts to the Danish Poison Centre from 2006-2012 and summarize current knowledge and Danish recommendations in amatoxin poisoning management. PMID:25096353

  9. Potential edible lupine poisonings in humans.

    PubMed

    Smith, R A

    1987-12-01

    Edible lupine seeds are being marketed in Edmonton. The cooking instructions are very elaborate and are intended to remove toxic alkaloids. No warning is given on the packing to indicate that the seeds are potentially poisonous if the cooking instructions are not followed. A complaint to Alberta's Poison Control Centre indicated that problems may arise if the cooking instructions are dismissed as rigmarole. The purpose of this report is to alert poison control centres and other toxicologists of the potential toxicity of "edible lupines" when cooking instructions are not followed. PMID:3424650

  10. Radiographic findings in congenital lead poisoning

    SciTech Connect

    Pearl, M.; Boxt, L.M.

    1980-07-01

    Because lead crosses the placenta throughout pregnancy, the fetus is at risk for lead poisoning. A full term, asymptomatic child was born with congenital lead poisoning secondary to maternal pica. Radiographic findings of a dense cranial vault, lead lines, and delayed skeletal and deciduous dental development were noted at birth. After chelation therapy, when the patient was seven months old, radiographs revealed normal skeletal maturation. Tooth eruption did not occur until 15 months of age. Newborn infants with these radiographic findings should be screened for subclinical, congenital lead poisoning.

  11. Non-Traditional Vectors for Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Deeds, Jonathan R.; Landsberg, Jan H.; Etheridge, Stacey M.; Pitcher, Grant C.; Longan, Sara Watt

    2008-01-01

    Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP), due to saxitoxin and related compounds, typically results from the consumption of filter-feeding molluscan shellfish that concentrate toxins from marine dinoflagellates. In addition to these microalgal sources, saxitoxin and related compounds, referred to in this review as STXs, are also produced in freshwater cyanobacteria and have been associated with calcareous red macroalgae. STXs are transferred and bioaccumulate throughout aquatic food webs, and can be vectored to terrestrial biota, including humans. Fisheries closures and human intoxications due to STXs have been documented in several non-traditional (i.e. non-filter-feeding) vectors. These include, but are not limited to, marine gastropods, both carnivorous and grazing, crustacea, and fish that acquire STXs through toxin transfer. Often due to spatial, temporal, or a species disconnection from the primary source of STXs (bloom forming dinoflagellates), monitoring and management of such non-traditional PSP vectors has been challenging. A brief literature review is provided for filter feeding (traditional) and non-filter feeding (non-traditional) vectors of STXs with specific reference to human effects. We include several case studies pertaining to management actions to prevent PSP, as well as food poisoning incidents from STX(s) accumulation in non-traditional PSP vectors. PMID:18728730

  12. Poisoning of resin supported catalyst

    SciTech Connect

    Hunter, D.L.; Moore, S.E.

    1987-02-10

    A method is described of enhancing performance of a combined hydroformylation/reduction reaction of an olefin liquid feed in the presence of a resin-supported transition metal complex catalyst. The method comprises: (a) preparing a resin-supported transition metal complex catalyst for use in a combined hydroformylation/reduction reaction substantially free of halides and halide salts in the metal complex catalyst; and (b) introducing an olefin liquid feed to the resin-supported catalyst for conducting a combined hydroformylation/reduction reaction, in the presence of CO and H/sub 2/. The olefin feed has a specified maximum limit of halide concentration sufficiently low to enable continued indefinite operation of the combined hydroformylation/reduction reaction process without halide poisoning.

  13. Poisoned Pacific: The legacy of French nuclear testing

    SciTech Connect

    Danielsson, B.

    1990-03-01

    The author points out that France hosted a summit meeting of the seven wealthiest nations on earth in the summer of 1989, celebrating the bicentenary of the French Revolution. Although introducing a new subject to the economic summit - present environmental concerns - nothing was said about the poisoning of the islands and islanders from 159 nuclear tests (44 atmospheric, 115 underground) since 1966 on two tiny atolls (Moruroa and Fangataufa) in French Polynesia. The first test rained dead fish from a lagoon; others spread radiation throughout the region. De Gaulle's promise of independence to the Polynesians during World War II, as soon as the war was over, was forgotten once nuclear testing began. The atolls and the patience of the Polynesians have been used up; and a colony that once was nearly self-sufficient now imports 80% of its food.

  14. DDT poisoning in a Cooper's hawk collected in 1980

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Prouty, R.M.; Pattee, O.H.; Schmeling, S.K.

    1982-01-01

    In April 1980, a Cooper's hawk (Accipiter cooperii) was found on the ground in Lakewood, Colorado, unable to fly and in convulsion. The bird died shortly thereafter. The hawk was packed in dry ice and shipped air express to the Fish and Wildlife Service, U. S. Department of the Interior, National Wildlife Health Laboratory, Madison, Wisconsin, for necropsy. Following necropsy, the brain, gastrointestinal tract, and remaining carcass except skin, feet, wings, liver, and kidney were packed in dry ice and shipped air express to the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, Laurel, Maryland, for chemical residue analysis. Because the bird's behavior before death suggested some form of poisoning, the kidney was assayed for thallium, the liver for lead, and the gastrointestinal tract for strychnine, sodium fluoroacetate, and arsenic. When these assays proved negative, the bird was analyzed for organochlorine pesticides. Necropsy findings and pesticide residue analyses are reported here.

  15. Amanita phalloides-Type Mushroom Poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Healey, Kathy; Woo, Olga F.; Olson, Kent R.; Pond, Susan M.; Seward, James; Becker, Charles E.

    1982-01-01

    In the fall of 1981 the San Francisco Bay Area Regional Poison Control Center received more than 100 calls regarding wild mushroom ingestion. Ten cases, including three fatalities, had all the features of Amanita phalloides poisoning. Encephalopathy, coma and renal insufficiency occurred in all three patients who died, but did not occur in those who survived. Two of the three patients who died arrived at the hospital late in the course of their illness, and severe gastroenteritis with accompanying dehydration probably contributed to their deaths. The poison control center promoted public awareness of the mushroom hazard through newspaper and television stories and by notifying local health departments. It also has devised a simple form to improve the quality of data collection and to assist in later verification of suspected A phalloides poisoning. PMID:7179945

  16. Acute poisoning by lupine seed debittering water.

    PubMed

    Luque Marquez, R; Gutierrez-Rave, M; Infante Miranda, F

    1991-06-01

    A case of acute poisoning by ingestion of water used to debitter lupineseeds, an exceptional occurrence in human clinics, is reported. The patient showed the anticholinergic syndrome for 48 h, which then subsided spontaneously. PMID:1858307

  17. Lead Poisoning and the Suburban Child

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Ada; Graham, Frank

    1974-01-01

    Reports on recent findings which suggest that lead poisoning stems not only from paint ingestion, is not limited to ghetto children, and may be linked to some learning and behavioral difficulties in children. (Author/SF)

  18. Red Tide and Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dale, Barrie; Yentsch, Clarice M.

    1978-01-01

    Discusses the nature and cause of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP). Includes toxic dinoflagellate ecology, taxonomy and life history, and chemistry of the toxins. Recent work with trace metals and directions of future research are also given. (MA)

  19. [Mushroom poisoning by brunneoincarnata: about two cases].

    PubMed

    Roux, X; Labadie, P; Morand, C; Fontaine, B; Coutant, G

    2008-05-01

    Amatoxin poisoning constitutes the main cause of death due to mushroom intoxication in Europe. This one was initially reported for the ingestion of Amanita phalloides with frequently fatal outcome. Prognosis of amatoxin poisoning initialy depends on the acute deshydratation and secondarily of the liver failure. Emergency liver transplantation is sometimes necessary. With the knowledge of mushroom, most of them involved other species which can often be linked to edible mushroom. We report a collective intoxication by Lepiota brunneoincarnata. PMID:18440193

  20. Texas Range Plants Poisonous to Livestock. 

    E-print Network

    Sperry, Omer Edison

    1955-01-01

    than manual or me- chanical control. Experimental and practical applications of herbicides, especially 2,4-D, M.C.P. and 2,4,5-T, justify recommendations for the control of several species. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Information on poisonous plants... poisoning. No experimental research $as been done on the control of guajillo on the - , *ange. . AESCULUS SPP. BUCKEYE DESCRIPTION. Trees or shrubs with opposite palmately-compound leaves with 5 serrate leaflets. The flowers are polygamous in large...

  1. Cholestatic presentation of yellow phosphorus poisoning.

    PubMed

    Lakshmi, C P; Goel, Amit; Basu, Debdatta

    2014-01-01

    Yellow phosphorus, a component of certain pesticide pastes and fireworks, is well known to cause hepatotoxicity. Poisoning with yellow phosphorus classically manifests with acute hepatitis leading to acute liver failure which may need liver transplantation. We present a case of yellow phosphorus poisoning in which a patient presented with florid clinical features of cholestasis highlighting the fact that cholestasis can rarely be a presenting feature of yellow phosphorus hepatotoxicity. PMID:24554916

  2. Lead poisoning of waterfowl by contaminated sediment in the Coeur D'Alene River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sileo, L.; Creekmore, L.H.; Audet, D.J.; Snyder, M.R.; Meteyer, C.U.; Franson, J.C.; Locke, L.N.; Smith, M.R.; Finley, D.L.

    2001-01-01

    The Coeur d'Alene River basin in Idaho has been contaminated by mine tailings that have impaired the health of wildlife since the early 1900s. In other parts of the world, virtually all lead poisoning of waterfowl is caused by the ingestion of manmade lead artifacts, primarily spent lead shotshell pellets or, occasionally, fishing sinkers. However, in the Coeur d'Alene River basin in Idaho, nonartifactual lead poisoning was the ultimate cause of death of most of 219 (77%) of 285 waterfowl carcasses that had been found sick or dead from 1992 through 1997. The majority of these 219 waterfowl (172 tundra swans [Cygnus columbianus], 33 Canada geese [Branta canadensis], and 14 other species) were poisoned by ingesting river sediment that was contaminated with lead. The next most common cause of death (20 instances, 7%) was lead poisoning accompanied by ingested shotshell pellets. The remaining 46 waterfowl succumbed to trauma, infectious diseases (aspergillosis, avian cholera, tuberculosis), or miscellaneous problems, or the cause of death was not determined.

  3. [Reproduction of the spiny puffer, Diodon holocanthus (Pisces: Diodontidae) in the continental shelf of Mexican Central Pacific].

    PubMed

    Lucano-Ramírez, Gabriela; Peña-Pérez, Edith; Ruiz-Ramírez, Salvador; Rojo-Vázquez, Jorge; González-Sansón, Gaspar

    2011-03-01

    Diodon holocanthus is an important economic and ecological species of the demersal fish community, caught as bycatch from local shrimp fishery. The reproductive biology of this long-spine porcupinefish has not yet been described, and reproductive season, the sex ratio, length distribution, length at first gonad maturity, and the gonad macro and microscopic features are described. A total of 400 organisms, ranging from 5.0 to 40.3 cm (average 18.4 cm) total length, were caught from the continental shelf of the Central Mexican Pacific, from December 1995 and December 1998. Sex ratio was 1:0.86 females to males (n = 253). The length at which 50% of the individuals showed maturing gonads was 19.7 cm for females and 20.1 cm for males. Length of the smallest organism with ripe gonads was 12.2 cm for females and 13 cm for males. Four gonadal maturation stages were found in both sexes, and five oocyte development phases were identified. The oocyte development pattern is of asynchronous type, which means the species can reproduce several times a year. Testicle development is lobular type, as in most teleost fishes. Monthly mean values of the gonad-somatic index suggest the reproduction activity peaks in June, and September-December. PMID:21516647

  4. Fish Hearing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blaxter, J. H. S.

    1980-01-01

    Provides related information about hearing in fish, including the sensory stimulus of sound in the underwater environment, mechanoreceptors in fish, pressure perception and the swimbladder, specializations in sound conduction peculiar to certain fish families. Includes numerous figures. (CS)

  5. Fish Allergy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... can react to touching fish or breathing in vapors from cooking fish. A fish allergy can cause ... hives red spots swelling a drop in blood pressure , causing lightheadedness or loss of consciousness Your child ...

  6. City Fishing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lange, Robert E.

    1979-01-01

    A program of supplying opportunities for fishing at locations within and near urban areas was developed. This effort included stocking, management of bodies of water for fishing, and presentation of fishing clinics for urban fishermen. (RE)

  7. Fish tapeworm

    MedlinePLUS

    Fish tapeworm is an infection with a parasite found in fish. ... The fish tapeworm ( Diphyllobothrium latum ), is the largest parasite that infects humans. Humans become infected when they eat raw ...

  8. Secondary poisoning hazards in stone martens (Martes foina) fed bromadiolone-poisoned mice.

    PubMed

    Lund, M; Rasmussen, A M

    1986-01-01

    Stone martens (Martes foina) are particularly exposed to secondary poisoning by feeding on anti-coagulant-loaded rats and mice in premises. This study indicates that the risk can be considered relatively small as up to 31 bromadiolone-loaded mice were consumed during four days by a single stone marten without symptoms of poisoning. PMID:3774526

  9. 75 FR 66771 - Advisory Committee on Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention (ACCLPP)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-29

    ... SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Advisory Committee on Childhood Lead Poisoning... lead poisoning prevention efforts. The committee also reviews and reports regularly on childhood lead poisoning prevention practices and recommends improvements in national childhood lead poisoning...

  10. 76 FR 8942 - Poison Prevention Packaging Requirements; Proposed Exemption of Powder Formulations of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-16

    ... COMMISSION 16 CFR Part 1700 Poison Prevention Packaging Requirements; Proposed Exemption of Powder... 1. The Poison Prevention Packaging Act of 1970 and Implementing Regulations The Poison Prevention... children, Packaging and containers, Poison prevention, Toxic substances. For the reasons given above,...

  11. A mechanism for diversity in warning signals: Conspicuousness versus toxicity in poison frogs

    E-print Network

    Cummings, Molly E.

    A mechanism for diversity in warning signals: Conspicuousness versus toxicity in poison frogs natural variation among poison frog species measured with spectral reflectance and toxicity assays, we components using natural variation among poison frog species. Poison frogs (Dendrobatidae) display some

  12. Pancreatitis in wild zinc-poisoned waterfowl

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sileo, L.; Beyer, W.N.; Mateo, R.

    2003-01-01

    Four waterfowl were collected in the Tri-State Mining District (Oklahoma, Kansas and Missouri, USA), an area known to be contaminated with lead, cadmium and zinc (Zn). They were part of a larger group of 20 waterfowl collected to determine the exposure of birds to metal contamination at the site. The four waterfowl (three Branta canadensis, one Anas platyrhynchos) had mild to severe degenerative abnormalities of the exocrine pancreas, as well as tissue (pancreas, liver) concentrations of Zn that were considered toxic. The mildest condition was characterized by generalized atrophy of exocrine cells that exhibited cytoplasmic vacuoles and a relative lack of zymogen. The most severe condition was characterized by acini with distended lumens and hyperplastic exocrine tissue that completely lacked zymogen; these acini were widely separated by immature fibrous tissue. Because the lesions were nearly identical to the lesions reported in chickens and captive waterfowl that had been poisoned with ingested Zn, and because the concentrations of Zn in the pancreas and liver of the four birds were consistent with the concentrations measured in Zn-poisoned birds, we concluded that these waterfowl were poisoned by Zn. This may be the first reported case of zinc poisoning in free-ranging wild birds poisoned by environmental Zn.

  13. Pancreatitis in wild zinc-poisoned waterfowl

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sileo, L.; Beyer, W.N.; Mateo, R.

    2003-01-01

    Four waterfowl were collected in the TriState Mining District (Oklahoma, Kansas and Missouri, USA), an area known to be contaminated with lead, cadmium and zinc (Zn). They were part of a larger group of 20 waterfowl collected to determine the exposure of birds to metal contamination at the site. The four waterfowl (three Branta canadensis, one Anas platyrhynchos) had mild to severe degenerative abnormalities of the exocrine pancreas, as well as tissue (pancreas, liver) concentrations of Zn that were considered toxic. The mildest condition was characterized by generalized atrophy of exocrine cells that exhibited cytoplasmic vacuoles and a relative lack of zymogen. The most severe condition was characterized by acini with distended lumens and hyperplastic exocrine tissue that completely lacked zymogen; these acini were widely separated by immature fibrous tissue. Because the lesions were nearly identical to the lesions reported in chickens and captive waterfowl that had been poisoned with ingested Zn, and because the concentrations of Zn in the pancreas and liver of the four birds were consistent with the concentrations measured in Zn-poisoned birds, we concluded that these waterfowl were poisoned by Zn. This may be the first reported case of zinc poisoning in free-ranging wild birds poisoned by environmental Zn.

  14. Acetaminophen Poisoning and Risk of Acute Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Sy-Jou; Lin, Chin-Sheng; Hsu, Chin-Wang; Lin, Cheng-Li; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to assess whether acetaminophen poisoning is associated with a higher risk of acute pancreatitis. We conducted a retrospective cohort study by using the longitudinal population-based database of Taiwan's National Health Insurance (NHI) program between 2000 and 2011. The acetaminophen cohort comprised patients aged ?20 years with newly identified acetaminophen poisoning (N?=?2958). The comparison cohort comprised randomly selected patients with no history of acetaminophen poisoning. The acetaminophen and comparison cohorts were frequency matched by age, sex, and index year (N?=?11,832) at a 1:4 ratio. Each patient was followed up from the index date until the date an acute pancreatitis diagnosis was made, withdrawal from the NHI program, or December 31, 2011. Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to determine the effects of acetaminophen on the risk of acute pancreatitis. The risk of acute pancreatitis was 3.11-fold higher in the acetaminophen cohort than in the comparison cohort (11.2 vs 3.61 per 10,000 person-years), with an adjusted hazard ratio of 2.40 (95% confidence interval, 1.29–4.47). The incidence rate was considerably high in patients who were aged 35 to 49 years, men, those who had comorbidities, and within the first year of follow-up. Acetaminophen poisoning is associated with an increased risk of acute pancreatitis. Additional prospective studies are necessary to verify how acetaminophen poisoning affects the risk of acute pancreatitis. PMID:26200631

  15. Lead poisoning of spectacled eiders (Somateria fischeri) and of a common eider (Somateria mollissima) in Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Franson, J.C.; Petersen, M.R.; Meteyer, C.U.; Smith, M.R.

    1995-01-01

    Lead poisoning was diagnosed in four spectacled eiders (Somateria fischeri) and one common eider (Somateria mollissima) found dead or moribund at the Yukon Delta National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska (USA) in 1992, 1993, and 1994. Ingested lead shot was found in the lower esophagus of one spectacled eider and in the gizzard of the common eider. Lead concentrations in the livers of the spectacled eiders were 26 to 38 ppm wet weight, and 52 ppm wet weight in the liver of the common eider. A blood sample collected from one of the spectacled eiders before it was euthanized had a lead concentration of 8.5 ppm wet weight. This is the first known report of lead poisoning in the spectacled eider, recently listed as a threatened species by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

  16. Fatal paralytic shellfish poisoning in Kittlitz's Murrelet (Brachyramphus brevirostris) nestlings, Alaska, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shearn-Bochsler, Valerie I.; Lance, Ellen W.; Corcoran, Robin; Piatt, John; Bodenstein, Barbara; Frame, Elizabeth; Lawonn, James

    2014-01-01

    Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) is an acute toxic illness in humans resulting from ingestion of shellfish contaminated with a suite of neurotoxins (saxitoxins) produced by marine dinoflagellates, most commonly in the genus Alexandrium. Poisoning also has been sporadically suspected and, less often, documented in marine wildlife, often in association with an outbreak in humans. Kittlitz's Murrelet (Brachyramphus brevirostris) is a small, rare seabird of the Northern Pacific with a declining population. From 2008 to 2012, as part of a breeding ecology study, multiple Kittlitz's Murrelet nests on Kodiak Island, Alaska, were monitored by remote cameras. During the 2011 and 2012 breeding seasons, nestlings from several sites died during mild weather conditions. Remote camera observations revealed that the nestlings died shortly after consuming sand lance (Ammodytes hexapterus), a fish species known to biomagnify saxitoxin. High levels of saxitoxin were subsequently documented in crop content in 87% of nestling carcasses. Marine bird deaths from PSP may be underreported.

  17. 77 FR 64997 - Advisory Committee on Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-24

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Advisory Committee on Childhood Lead Poisoning... scientific knowledge and technological developments and their practical implications for childhood lead poisoning prevention efforts. The committee also reviews and reports regularly on childhood lead...

  18. 49 CFR 172.313 - Poisonous hazardous materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...313 Poisonous hazardous materials. In addition to any other...by this subpart: (a) A material poisonous by inhalation (see...packaging used as a single or composite packaging for materials meeting the...

  19. 49 CFR 172.313 - Poisonous hazardous materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...313 Poisonous hazardous materials. In addition to any other...by this subpart: (a) A material poisonous by inhalation (see...packaging used as a single or composite packaging for materials meeting the...

  20. 49 CFR 172.313 - Poisonous hazardous materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...313 Poisonous hazardous materials. In addition to any other...by this subpart: (a) A material poisonous by inhalation (see...packaging used as a single or composite packaging for materials meeting the...

  1. 49 CFR 172.313 - Poisonous hazardous materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...313 Poisonous hazardous materials. In addition to any other...by this subpart: (a) A material poisonous by inhalation (see...packaging used as a single or composite packaging for materials meeting the...

  2. 49 CFR 172.313 - Poisonous hazardous materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...313 Poisonous hazardous materials. In addition to any other...by this subpart: (a) A material poisonous by inhalation (see...packaging used as a single or composite packaging for materials meeting the...

  3. Acute fish liver intoxication: report of three cases.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Y K; Lai, M S; Ho, J C; Chen, J B

    1999-09-01

    The livers of some larger fish such as shark, tuna and seabass have been reported to be responsible for a peculiar poisoning causing headaches and desquamation. This type of poisoning can also be induced by ingestion of the livers of the sea whale, the polar bear and the seal. Since these animals contain an extremely large quantity of vitamin A in their livers and the symptoms of poisoning in the patients resembled those of patients with acute hypervitaminosis A, the poisoning was believed to have been caused by excessive vitamin A intake. We observed an episode of acute fish liver intoxication in which 3 man experienced dizziness, headache, blurred vision, nausea, vomiting, fever, and desquamation after ingesting the liver of the grouper fish Cephalopholis boenak (C. boenak). One of the patients had full-blown symptoms and presented with a high fever, headache, dizziness, generalized aching pain, and superficial vesicles and bullae of the skin. The treatment was mainly supportive. In the follow-up period, he subsequently developed hair loss and diffuse peeling of the skin on his palms and soles. Acute fish liver intoxication is rare, especially in subtropical regions. Symptomatologically, the clinical pictures of these patients were comparable to acute hypervitaminosis A or retinoid intoxication. The average vitamin A content in the grouper (C. boenak) is high enough to cause acute vitamin A intoxication. Moreover, ethanol may play a potentiating role in this type of event. PMID:10584420

  4. BORIC ACID POISONING: REPORT OF 11 CASES.

    PubMed

    WONG, L C; HEIMBACH, M D; TRUSCOTT, D R; DUNCAN, B D

    1964-04-25

    Boric acid poisoning in 11 infants, occurring in the newborn nursery as a result of the accidental and inadvertent use of 2.5% boric acid in the preparation of the formulae, is reported. Five of the infants died. All except two exhibited the classical symptomatology of acute boric acid poisoning, namely, diarrhea, vomiting, erythema, exfoliation, desquamation of the skin, and marked central nervous system irritation. Early manifestations of poisoning were nonspecific, and one patient died before skin manifestations were noted. Peritoneal dialysis, instituted in nine cases, was found to be the most effective method of treatment. It is recommended that boric acid, which is of doubtful therapeutic value, should be completely removed from hospitals, dispensaries and pharmacopoeias. PMID:14166459

  5. Zebrafish Models for Human Acute Organophosphorus Poisoning.

    PubMed

    Faria, Melissa; Garcia-Reyero, Natàlia; Padrós, Francesc; Babin, Patrick J; Sebastián, David; Cachot, Jérôme; Prats, Eva; Arick Ii, Mark; Rial, Eduardo; Knoll-Gellida, Anja; Mathieu, Guilaine; Le Bihanic, Florane; Escalon, B Lynn; Zorzano, Antonio; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Raldúa, Demetrio

    2015-01-01

    Terrorist use of organophosphorus-based nerve agents and toxic industrial chemicals against civilian populations constitutes a real threat, as demonstrated by the terrorist attacks in Japan in the 1990?s or, even more recently, in the Syrian civil war. Thus, development of more effective countermeasures against acute organophosphorus poisoning is urgently needed. Here, we have generated and validated zebrafish models for mild, moderate and severe acute organophosphorus poisoning by exposing zebrafish larvae to different concentrations of the prototypic organophosphorus compound chlorpyrifos-oxon. Our results show that zebrafish models mimic most of the pathophysiological mechanisms behind this toxidrome in humans, including acetylcholinesterase inhibition, N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor activation, and calcium dysregulation as well as inflammatory and immune responses. The suitability of the zebrafish larvae to in vivo high-throughput screenings of small molecule libraries makes these models a valuable tool for identifying new drugs for multifunctional drug therapy against acute organophosphorus poisoning. PMID:26489395

  6. Zebrafish Models for Human Acute Organophosphorus Poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Faria, Melissa; Garcia-Reyero, Natàlia; Padrós, Francesc; Babin, Patrick J.; Sebastián, David; Cachot, Jérôme; Prats, Eva; Arick II, Mark; Rial, Eduardo; Knoll-Gellida, Anja; Mathieu, Guilaine; Le Bihanic, Florane; Escalon, B. Lynn; Zorzano, Antonio; Soares, Amadeu M.V.M; Raldúa, Demetrio

    2015-01-01

    Terrorist use of organophosphorus-based nerve agents and toxic industrial chemicals against civilian populations constitutes a real threat, as demonstrated by the terrorist attacks in Japan in the 1990?s or, even more recently, in the Syrian civil war. Thus, development of more effective countermeasures against acute organophosphorus poisoning is urgently needed. Here, we have generated and validated zebrafish models for mild, moderate and severe acute organophosphorus poisoning by exposing zebrafish larvae to different concentrations of the prototypic organophosphorus compound chlorpyrifos-oxon. Our results show that zebrafish models mimic most of the pathophysiological mechanisms behind this toxidrome in humans, including acetylcholinesterase inhibition, N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor activation, and calcium dysregulation as well as inflammatory and immune responses. The suitability of the zebrafish larvae to in vivo high-throughput screenings of small molecule libraries makes these models a valuable tool for identifying new drugs for multifunctional drug therapy against acute organophosphorus poisoning. PMID:26489395

  7. Prognostic Factors in Cholinesterase Inhibitor Poisoning.

    PubMed

    Sun, In O; Yoon, Hyun Ju; Lee, Kwang Young

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Organophosphates and carbamates are insecticides that are associated with high human mortality. The purpose of this study is to investigate the prognostic factors affecting survival in patients with cholinesterase inhibitor (CI) poisoning. MATERIAL AND METHODS This study included 92 patients with CI poisoning in the period from January 2005 to August 2013. We divided these patients into 2 groups (survivors vs. non-survivors), compared their clinical characteristics, and analyzed the predictors of survival. RESULTS The mean age of the included patients was 56 years (range, 16-88). The patients included 57 (62%) men and 35 (38%) women. When we compared clinical characteristics between the survivor group (n=81, 88%) and non-survivor group (n=11, 12%), there were no differences in renal function, pancreatic enzymes, or serum cholinesterase level, except for serum bicarbonate level and APACHE II score. The serum bicarbonate level was lower in non-survivors than in survivors (12.45±2.84 vs. 18.36±4.73, P<0.01). The serum APACHE II score was higher in non-survivors than in survivors (24.36±5.22 vs. 12.07±6.67, P<0.01). The development of pneumonia during hospitalization was higher in non-survivors than in survivors (n=9, 82% vs. n=31, 38%, P<0.01). In multiple logistic regression analysis, serum bicarbonate concentration, APACHE II score, and pneumonia during hospitalization were the important prognostic factors in patients with CI poisoning. CONCLUSIONS Serum bicarbonate and APACHE II score are useful prognostic factors in patients with CI poisoning. Furthermore, pneumonia during hospitalization was also important in predicting prognosis in patients with CI poisoning. Therefore, prevention and active treatment of pneumonia is important in the management of patients with CI poisoning. PMID:26411989

  8. Using Poison Center Data for Postdisaster Surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Wolkin, Amy; Schnall, Amy H.; Law, Royal; Schier, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    The role of public health surveillance in disaster response continues to expand as timely, accurate information is needed to mitigate the impact of disasters. Health surveillance after a disaster involves the rapid assessment of the distribution and determinants of disaster-related deaths, illnesses, and injuries in the affected population. Public health disaster surveillance is one mechanism that can provide information to identify health problems faced by the affected population, establish priorities for decision makers, and target interventions to meet specific needs. Public health surveillance traditionally relies on a wide variety of data sources and methods. Poison center (PC) data can serve as data sources of chemical exposures and poisonings during a disaster. In the US, a system of 57 regional PCs serves the entire population. Poison centers respond to poison-related questions from the public, health care professionals, and public health agencies. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) uses PC data during disasters for surveillance of disaster-related toxic exposures and associated illnesses to enhance situational awareness during disaster response and recovery. Poison center data can also be leveraged during a disaster by local and state public health to supplement existing surveillance systems. Augmenting traditional surveillance data (ie, emergency room visits and death records) with other data sources, such as PCs, allows for better characterization of disaster-related morbidity and mortality. Poison center data can be used during a disaster to detect outbreaks, monitor trends, track particular exposures, and characterize the epidemiology of the event. This timely and accurate information can be used to inform public health decision making during a disaster and mitigate future disaster-related morbidity and mortality. PMID:25205009

  9. Prognostic Factors in Cholinesterase Inhibitor Poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Sun, In O; Yoon, Hyun Ju; Lee, Kwang Young

    2015-01-01

    Background Organophosphates and carbamates are insecticides that are associated with high human mortality. The purpose of this study is to investigate the prognostic factors affecting survival in patients with cholinesterase inhibitor (CI) poisoning. Material/Methods This study included 92 patients with CI poisoning in the period from January 2005 to August 2013. We divided these patients into 2 groups (survivors vs. non-survivors), compared their clinical characteristics, and analyzed the predictors of survival. Results The mean age of the included patients was 56 years (range, 16–88). The patients included 57 (62%) men and 35 (38%) women. When we compared clinical characteristics between the survivor group (n=81, 88%) and non-survivor group (n=11, 12%), there were no differences in renal function, pancreatic enzymes, or serum cholinesterase level, except for serum bicarbonate level and APACHE II score. The serum bicarbonate level was lower in non-survivors than in survivors (12.45±2.84 vs. 18.36±4.73, P<0.01). The serum APACHE II score was higher in non-survivors than in survivors (24.36±5.22 vs. 12.07±6.67, P<0.01). The development of pneumonia during hospitalization was higher in non-survivors than in survivors (n=9, 82% vs. n=31, 38%, P<0.01). In multiple logistic regression analysis, serum bicarbonate concentration, APACHE II score, and pneumonia during hospitalization were the important prognostic factors in patients with CI poisoning. Conclusions Serum bicarbonate and APACHE II score are useful prognostic factors in patients with CI poisoning. Furthermore, pneumonia during hospitalization was also important in predicting prognosis in patients with CI poisoning. Therefore, prevention and active treatment of pneumonia is important in the management of patients with CI poisoning. PMID:26411989

  10. [Poisoning with deadly agaric (Amanita virosa). Symptoms, diagnosis and treatment].

    PubMed

    Madsen, S; Jenssen, K M

    1990-05-30

    Amatoxin poisonings are uncommon in Norway. We describe a case where a young couple was poisoned after accidental ingestion of Amanita virosa (deadly agaric). After hospital treatment they recovered without serious damage to the liver. We briefly review the biological actions of amatoxins, discuss the symptoms and signs of amatoxin poisoning in detail, and outline current recommendations on therapy. PMID:2363148

  11. Know the Facts Lead poisoning is caused by swallowing or

    E-print Network

    Know the Facts Lead poisoning is caused by swallowing or breathing lead. Children under 6 years old are most at risk. If you are pregnant, lead can harm your baby. Lead can cause learning and behavior problems.FACT Lead poisoning hurts the brain and nervous system. Some of the effects of lead poisoning may

  12. Childhood Lead Poisoning. Rhode Island KIDS COUNT Issue Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrington, Ann-Marie, Ed.; Walsh, Catherine Boisvert, Ed.; Bryant, Elizabeth Burke, Ed.

    1997-01-01

    One of the most common pediatric health problems is childhood lead poisoning. This report examines the preventable problem of lead poisoning. The report describes childhood lead poisoning as both a health problem to which infants and young children are most susceptible, and as a housing problem. More than half the housing units in Rhode Island…

  13. 78 FR 17069 - National Poison Prevention Week, 2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-20

    ...March 15, 2013 National Poison Prevention Week, 2013 By the President of the United States...have marked National Poison Prevention Week by highlighting the steps we can take to...loved ones from accidental poisoning. This week, we carry that tradition forward by...

  14. Fight Homemade Poisons: Home Food Care and Preservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Rosanne

    One of a series of instructional materials produced by the Literacy Council of Alaska, this booklet provides information about food poisoning. Using a simplified vocabulary and shorter sentences, it explains the various kinds of food poisoning, how people get food poisoning, and how to prevent it. (FL)

  15. 14 CFR 137.39 - Economic poison dispensing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Economic poison dispensing. 137.39 Section... AIRCRAFT OPERATIONS Operating Rules § 137.39 Economic poison dispensing. (a) Except as provided in... economic poison that is registered with the U.S. Department of Agriculture under the Federal...

  16. 49 CFR 172.555 - POISON INHALATION HAZARD placard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false POISON INHALATION HAZARD placard. 172.555 Section... REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.555 POISON INHALATION HAZARD placard. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON INHALATION HAZARD placard must be as follows: ER22JY97.025 (b) In addition...

  17. 49 CFR 172.429 - POISON INHALATION HAZARD label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false POISON INHALATION HAZARD label. 172.429 Section... REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.429 POISON INHALATION HAZARD label. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON INHALATION HAZARD label must be as follows: ER22JY97.023 (b) In addition to...

  18. 49 CFR 172.555 - POISON INHALATION HAZARD placard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false POISON INHALATION HAZARD placard. 172.555 Section... REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.555 POISON INHALATION HAZARD placard. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON INHALATION HAZARD placard must be as follows: ER22JY97.025 (b) In addition...

  19. 49 CFR 172.429 - POISON INHALATION HAZARD label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false POISON INHALATION HAZARD label. 172.429 Section... REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.429 POISON INHALATION HAZARD label. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON INHALATION HAZARD label must be as follows: ER22JY97.023 (b) In addition to...

  20. 14 CFR 137.39 - Economic poison dispensing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Economic poison dispensing. 137.39 Section... AIRCRAFT OPERATIONS Operating Rules § 137.39 Economic poison dispensing. (a) Except as provided in... economic poison that is registered with the U.S. Department of Agriculture under the Federal...

  1. Evidence for selection on coloration in a Panamanian poison frog

    E-print Network

    University, Durham, NC 27705, USA. ABSTRACT Aim The strawberry poison frog, Oophaga pumilio, has undergone in the strawberry poison frog. Keywords Aposematism, Bocas del Toro, coalescence, coloration, Dendrobates, Dendro in vertebrates occurs in the Bocas del Toro archipelago in western Panama, where the strawberry poison frog

  2. Hepatotoxic mushroom poisoning: diagnosis and management.

    PubMed

    Piqueras, J

    1989-02-01

    Hepatotoxic mushroom poisoning (due to Amanita, Lepiota and Galerina species) may be considered as a real medical emergency, since an early diagnosis and immediate treatment are required for a successful outcome. In this review the physio-pathological features and the clinical picture of amatoxin poisonings are described as the basis for diagnosis and therapeutic decisions. The treatment schedule proposed is analyzed in some points: Symptomatic and supportive measures, toxin removal and extraction procedures, and the possibility of using antidotes. Some parameters with prognostic significance are commented on. Finally, the mortality rate and its evolution throughout the present century is also considered. PMID:2664527

  3. [Recommendations for the prevention of poisoning].

    PubMed

    Mintegi, S; Esparza, M J; González, J C; Rubio, B; Sánchez, F; Vila, J J; Yagüe, F; Benítez, M T

    2015-12-01

    Poisoning is the fifth leading cause of death from unintentional injury in the WHO European region, while Spain is in the group with a lower rate. Most involuntary poisonings occur in young children while they are at the home, due to unintentional ingestion of therapeutic drugs or household products. Of these, a large percentage is stored in non-original containers and/or within reach of children. In this article, the Committee on Safety and Non-Intentional Injury Prevention in Childhood of the Spanish Association of Pediatrics provides a series of recommendations, educational as well as legal, to prevent such cases. PMID:25702816

  4. Important poisonous plants in tibetan ethnomedicine.

    PubMed

    Ma, Lijuan; Gu, Ronghui; Tang, Li; Chen, Ze-E; Di, Rong; Long, Chunlin

    2015-01-01

    Tibetan ethnomedicine is famous worldwide, both for its high effectiveness and unique cultural background. Many poisonous plants have been widely used to treat disorders in the Tibetan medicinal system. In the present review article, some representative poisonous plant species are introduced in terms of their significance in traditional Tibetan medicinal practices. They are Aconitum pendulum, Strychnos nux-vomica, Datura stramonium and Anisodus tanguticus, for which the toxic chemical constituents, bioactivities and pharmacological functions are reviewed herein. The most important toxins include aconitine, strychnine, scopolamine, and anisodamine. These toxic plants are still currently in use for pain-reduction and other purposes by Tibetan healers after processing. PMID:25594733

  5. Important Poisonous Plants in Tibetan Ethnomedicine

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Lijuan; Gu, Ronghui; Tang, Li; Chen, Ze-E; Di, Rong; Long, Chunlin

    2015-01-01

    Tibetan ethnomedicine is famous worldwide, both for its high effectiveness and unique cultural background. Many poisonous plants have been widely used to treat disorders in the Tibetan medicinal system. In the present review article, some representative poisonous plant species are introduced in terms of their significance in traditional Tibetan medicinal practices. They are Aconitum pendulum, Strychnos nux-vomica, Datura stramonium and Anisodus tanguticus, for which the toxic chemical constituents, bioactivities and pharmacological functions are reviewed herein. The most important toxins include aconitine, strychnine, scopolamine, and anisodamine. These toxic plants are still currently in use for pain-reduction and other purposes by Tibetan healers after processing. PMID:25594733

  6. Kerosene poisoning in children in Iraq.

    PubMed Central

    Nagi, N. A.; Abdulallah, Z. A.

    1995-01-01

    One hundred and three children with kerosene poisoning were studied. The majority of the patients were under five years of age and included a newborn baby. More patients were seen in spring and fewer in winter months. Most of the patients were children of poor families living in overcrowded conditions. Negligence and ignorance were the main causes of poisoning. Respiratory and central nervous systems were mainly involved. Chest X-ray abnormalities were frequently seen. The patients were treated symptomatically. Only one patient died, he had been in a coma on admission to the hospital. All other patients had rapid and complete recoveries. PMID:7567734

  7. Determination and frying loss of histamine in striped marlin fillets implicated in a foodborne poisoning.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yi-Chen; Lin, Chia-Min; Huang, Chun-Yung; Huang, Ya-Ling; Chen, Hwi-Chang; Huang, Tzou-Chi; Tsai, Yung-Hsiang

    2013-05-01

    An incident of foodborne poisoning causing illness in 67 victims due to ingestion of fried fish fillets occurred in June 2011, in southern Taiwan. Of the five suspected fish fillets, one fried sample contained 62.0 mg/100 g and one raw sample contained 89.6 mg/100 g histamine, levels which are greater than the potential hazard action level (50 mg/100 g) in most illness cases. Given the allergy-like symptoms of the victims and the high histamine content in the suspected fish samples, this foodborne poisoning was strongly suspected to be caused by histamine intoxication. Five histamine-producing bacterial strains capable of producing 59 to 562 ppm of histamine in Trypticase soy broth supplemented with 1.0% L-histidine were identified as Enterobacter aerogenes (two strains), Raoultella ornithinolytica (two strains), and Morganella morganii (one strain). The degradation loss of histamine in suspected raw fillets was 28% after they were fried at 170°C for 5 min. PMID:23643129

  8. Black Coloured Urine following Organophosphorus Poisoning: Report of Two Cases

    PubMed Central

    Mookkappan, Sudhagar; Shanmugham, Vijay; Kulirankal, Kiran

    2014-01-01

    Organophosphorus poisoning is common in rural Asia. Clinical features result from overactivity of acetylcholine receptors. Blackish discoloration of urine is not a feature of organophosphorus poisoning. Only one case of black colored urine following quinalphos poisoning has been reported in literature. We report two cases of organophosphorus poisoning from two different compounds, following which patients passed black colored urine, in the absence of haemolysis or rhabdomyolysis. These cases indicate that blackish discoloration of urine in organophosphorus poisoning might not be as uncommon as it was believed to be. Besides, urinary excretion of metabolites might be an underlying mechanism, rather than hemolysis. PMID:24826348

  9. First records of parasitic copepods (Crustacea, Siphonostomatoida) from marine fishes in Korea.

    PubMed

    Venmathi Maran, B A; Soh, H Y; Hwang, U W; Chang, C Y; Myoung, J G

    2015-06-01

    The knowledge of the biodiversity of parasitic copepods in South Korea is increasing. Interestingly we report here, some parasitic copepods considered as the first record of findings from Korea. Nine species of parasitic copepods (Siphonostomatoida) including six genera of three different families [Caligidae (7), Lernaeopodidae (1), Lernanthropidae (1)] were recovered from eight species of wild fishes in Korea: 1) Caligus hoplognathi Yamaguti & Yamasu, 1959 (?, ?) from the body surface of barred knifejaw Oplegnathus fasciatus (Temminck & Schlegel); 2) Caligus lagocephali Pillai, 1961 (?) from the gills of panther puffer Takifugu pardalis (Temminck & Schlegel); 3) Euryphorus brachypterus (Gerstaecker, 1853) (?, ?) from the opercular cavity of Atlantic bluefin tuna Thunnus thynnus (Linnaeus); 4) Euryphorus nordmanni Milne Edwards, 1840 (?, ?) from the opercular cavity of common dolphin fish Coryphaena hippurus Linnaeus; 5) Gloiopotes huttoni (Thomson) (?, ?) from the body surface of black marlin Istiompax indica (Cuvier); 6) Lepeophtheirus hapalogenyos Yamaguti & Yamasu, 1959 (?) from the gill filaments of O. fasciatus; 7) Lepeophtheirus sekii Yamaguti, 1936 (?, ?) from the body surface of red seabream Pagrus major (Temminck & Schlegel); 8) Brachiella thynni Cuvier, 1830 (?) from the body surface of longfin tuna or albacore Thunnus alalunga (Bonnaterre); 9) Lernanthropinus sphyraenae (Yamaguti & Yamasu, 1959) (?) from the gill filaments of moon fish Mene maculata (Bloch & Schneider). Since the female was already reported in Korea, it is a new record for the male of C. hoplognathi. A checklist for the parasitic copepods of the family Caligidae, Lernaeopodidae and Lernanthropidae of Korea is provided. PMID:26691264

  10. Ecological conversion efficiency and its influencers in twelve species of fish in the Yellow Sea Ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Qisheng; Guo, Xuewu; Sun, Yao; Zhang, Bo

    2007-09-01

    The ecological conversion efficiencies in twelve species of fish in the Yellow Sea Ecosystem, i.e., anchovy ( Engraulis japonicus), rednose anchovy ( Thrissa kammalensis), chub mackerel ( Scomber japonicus), halfbeak ( Hyporhamphus sajori), gizzard shad ( Konosirus punctatus), sand lance ( Ammodytes personatus), red seabream ( Pagrus major), black porgy ( Acanthopagrus schlegeli), black rockfish ( Sebastes schlegeli), finespot goby ( Chaeturichthys stigmatias), tiger puffer ( Takifugu rubripes), and fat greenling ( Hexagrammos otakii), were estimated through experiments conducted either in situ or in a laboratory. The ecological conversion efficiencies were significantly different among these species. As indicated, the food conversion efficiencies and the energy conversion efficiencies varied from 12.9% to 42.1% and from 12.7% to 43.0%, respectively. Water temperature and ration level are the main factors influencing the ecological conversion efficiencies of marine fish. The higher conversion efficiency of a given species in a natural ecosystem is acquired only under the moderate environment conditions. A negative relationship between ecological conversion efficiency and trophic level among ten species was observed. Such a relationship indicates that the ecological efficiency in the upper trophic levels would increase after fishing down marine food web in the Yellow Sea ecosystem.

  11. Ulcerating Ileocolitis in Severe Amatoxin Poisoning.

    PubMed

    Hilty, Matthias Peter; Halama, Marcel; Zimmermann, Anne-Katrin; Maggiorini, Marco; Geier, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Amatoxin poisoning is still associated with a great potential for complications and a high mortality. While the occurrence of acute gastroenteritis within the first 24 hours after amatoxin ingestion is well described, only very few descriptions of late gastrointestinal complications of amatoxin poisoning exist worldwide. We present the case of a 57-year-old female patient with severe amatoxin poisoning causing fulminant but reversible hepatic failure that on day 8 after mushroom ingestion developed severe abdominal pain and watery diarrhea. Ulcerating ileocolitis was identified by computed tomography identifying a thickening of the bowel wall of the entire ileum and biopsies taken from the ileum and large bowel revealing distinct ileitis and proximally accentuated colitis. The absence of discernible alternative etiologies such as infectious agents makes a causal relationship between the ulcerating ileocolitis and the amatoxin poisoning likely. Diarrhea and varying abdominal pain persisted over several weeks and clinical follow-up after six months showed a completely symptom-free patient. The case presented highlights the importance to consider the possibility of rare complications of Amanita intoxication in order to be able to respond to them early and adequately. PMID:26357578

  12. Poisonous Plants of the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Poisonous plants cause significant economic losses to the livestock industry throughout the world from death losses, abortions, birth defects, increased veterinary care, and other related factors. This chapter is not intended to be all-inclusive, but provides current research information on importan...

  13. Poisonous Plants. LC Science Tracer Bullet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Constance, Comp.

    There are a number of sources of information on the more than 700 species of plants, ferns, horsetails, and fungi that can cause toxic, though rarely fatal, reactions in humans and animals. This guide is intended for those who wish to review published materials on poisonous plants in the collections of the Library of Congress. It is not intended…

  14. "The Most Poisonous Force in Technology"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carnevale, Dan

    2007-01-01

    Walt Mossberg, personal-technology columnist for "The Wall Street Journal," highlighted technology trends in his speech to a group of college presidents and other administrators. Mr. Mossberg touched a nerve when he called information-technology departments of large organizations, including colleges, "the most regressive and poisonous force in…

  15. Important poisonous plants of the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Poisonous plants and the secondary compounds they produce cause large economic losses to the livestock industry throughout the world. Catastrophic losses have occurred in certain regions of the U.S. when changing conditions alter the typical forage availability and create unusual management challen...

  16. Psychiatric Hospitalization after Deliberate Self-Poisoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Gregory L.; Safranko, Ivan; Lewin, Terry J.; Whyte, Ian M.; Bryant, Jennifer L.

    2006-01-01

    The decision for psychiatric hospitalization after deliberate self-poisoning (DSP) is not well understood. This study, a longitudinal cohort study of 3,148 consecutive DSP patients found 920 (29.2%) subjects were referred for psychiatric hospitalization, 576 (18.3%) on involuntary basis. A logistic regression analysis showed increased risk for:…

  17. Ulcerating Ileocolitis in Severe Amatoxin Poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Hilty, Matthias Peter; Halama, Marcel; Zimmermann, Anne-Katrin; Maggiorini, Marco; Geier, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Amatoxin poisoning is still associated with a great potential for complications and a high mortality. While the occurrence of acute gastroenteritis within the first 24 hours after amatoxin ingestion is well described, only very few descriptions of late gastrointestinal complications of amatoxin poisoning exist worldwide. We present the case of a 57-year-old female patient with severe amatoxin poisoning causing fulminant but reversible hepatic failure that on day 8 after mushroom ingestion developed severe abdominal pain and watery diarrhea. Ulcerating ileocolitis was identified by computed tomography identifying a thickening of the bowel wall of the entire ileum and biopsies taken from the ileum and large bowel revealing distinct ileitis and proximally accentuated colitis. The absence of discernible alternative etiologies such as infectious agents makes a causal relationship between the ulcerating ileocolitis and the amatoxin poisoning likely. Diarrhea and varying abdominal pain persisted over several weeks and clinical follow-up after six months showed a completely symptom-free patient. The case presented highlights the importance to consider the possibility of rare complications of Amanita intoxication in order to be able to respond to them early and adequately. PMID:26357578

  18. Poisoning by Indigofera lespedezioides in horses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Poisoning by Indigofera lespedezioides is reported in horses in the state of Roraima, northern Brazil. The main clinical signs are anorexia, sleepiness, unsteady gait, severe ataxia, weakness, stumbling, and progressive weight loss. To induce the disease experimentally, a 7-year-old horse was introd...

  19. Cyanide poisoning from metal cleaning solutions.

    PubMed

    Krieg, A; Saxena, K

    1987-05-01

    We report two cases of cyanide poisoning from accidental ingestion of an imported metal cleaning solution used by some Southeast Asians for shining coins. Both patients received specific therapy and recovered completely after a dramatic sequence of sudden collapse and severe cardiovascular compromise. PMID:2882711

  20. Gastrointestinal decontamination in the acutely poisoned patient

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Objective To define the role of gastrointestinal (GI) decontamination of the poisoned patient. Data Sources A computer-based PubMed/MEDLINE search of the literature on GI decontamination in the poisoned patient with cross referencing of sources. Study Selection and Data Extraction Clinical, animal and in vitro studies were reviewed for clinical relevance to GI decontamination of the poisoned patient. Data Synthesis The literature suggests that previously, widely used, aggressive approaches including the use of ipecac syrup, gastric lavage, and cathartics are now rarely recommended. Whole bowel irrigation is still often recommended for slow-release drugs, metals, and patients who "pack" or "stuff" foreign bodies filled with drugs of abuse, but with little quality data to support it. Activated charcoal (AC), single or multiple doses, was also a previous mainstay of GI decontamination, but the utility of AC is now recognized to be limited and more time dependent than previously practiced. These recommendations have resulted in several treatment guidelines that are mostly based on retrospective analysis, animal studies or small case series, and rarely based on randomized clinical trials. Conclusions The current literature supports limited use of GI decontamination of the poisoned patient. PMID:21992527

  1. PARALYTIC SHELLFISH POISONING IN TENAKEE, SOUTHEASTERN ALASKA

    E-print Network

    of shellfish poisoning in humans occurred, very high bioluminescence was seen in Tenakee Harbor (lat. 57°48'N- ronmental Conservation, was in the area at the time, and curiosity about the bioluminescence prompted enough numbers to cause intense bioluminescence. We learned that on 25 September 1973, several families

  2. Diarrhetic Shellfish Poisoning, Washington, USA, 2011

    PubMed Central

    Duchin, Jeffrey S.; Borchert, Jerry; Quintana, Harold Flores; Robertson, Alison

    2013-01-01

    Diarrhetic shellfish poisoning is a gastrointestinal illness caused by consumption of bivalves contaminated with dinophysistoxins. We report an illness cluster in the United States in which toxins were confirmed in shellfish from a commercial harvest area, leading to product recall. Ongoing surveillance is needed to prevent similar illness outbreaks. PMID:23876232

  3. Lead poisoning of a marbled godwit

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Locke, L.N.; Smith, M.R.; Windingstad, R.M.; Martin, S.J.

    1991-01-01

    A thin adult female marbled godwit (Limosa fedoa) found dead at Benton Lake National Wildlife Refuge, Montana, was found to have 17 ingested lead shot in its gizzard. Its liver contained 51.7 ppm lead (wet weight). Based on these necropsy findings a diagnosis of lead poisoning was made.

  4. Three cases of metaldehyde poisoning in cattle.

    PubMed

    Stubbings, D P

    1976-05-01

    Poisoning of dairy cows and of calves by metaldehyde is reported. The clinical signs, post mortem and toxicological findings are described. Confirmations of the diagnoses was obtained by biochemical estimations. It would appear that a dose as low as 0.2 g/kg in adult cattle, and even less in calves, can be lethal. PMID:936434

  5. Fatal diphenhydramine poisoning in a dog

    PubMed Central

    Buchweitz, John P.; Raverty, Stephen A.; Johnson, Margaret B.; Lehner, Andreas F.

    2014-01-01

    We report a fatal diphenhydramine poisoning of a 10-year-old, male poodle-cross dog with pre-existing conditions and suspected co-ingestion of ethanol. This case illustrates that diphenhydramine overdose can be fatal in certain circumstances and that analytical toxicology may play an important role in animal death investigations. PMID:25392554

  6. Status epilepticus: An association with pyrethroid poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Panwar, Mamta; Usha, Ganapathy; Kumath, Manish

    2013-01-01

    This report describes a 35 year old male who presented with seizures after consuming 4-5 bottles of “ALL-OUT” a commercial composition of pyrethroid used as insecticides. Our case report supports authors reporting an association of pyrethroid poisoning with status epilepticus. PMID:23983421

  7. Modification of the peripheral nerve disturbance in ciguatera poisoning in rats with lidocaine.

    PubMed

    Cameron, J; Flowers, A E; Capra, M F

    1993-07-01

    Electrophysiological studies were performed on the ventral tail nerve of adult rats following intraperitoneal injection of a crude extract of ciguatoxin from known toxic fish flesh. Ciguatoxin induced significant slowing of both mixed and motor nerve conduction velocities and also significant reductions in both motor and mixed nerve amplitudes. Both absolute and supernormal periods were significantly prolonged together with an increase in the magnitude of the supernormal response. These electrophysiological disturbances were modified or blocked by intraperitoneal lidocaine. These findings suggest that lidocaine may have a potential therapeutic application in the treatment of the neurological disturbance in acute ciguatera poisoning in humans. PMID:8389420

  8. Recent Advances in the Clinical Management of Lead Poisoning.

    PubMed

    Kianoush, Sina; Sadeghi, Mahmood; Balali-Mood, Mahdi

    2015-01-01

    Lead poisoning is a historic universal disease. Acute or chronic lead exposure may cause reversible or even permanent damages in human beings. Environmental lead exposure is a global health concern in children. Occupational lead poisoning is still a health issue, particularly in developing countries. During the last decades, new methods and medications have been advocated for the prevention and treatment of lead poisoning. This review deals mainly with recent developments in the management of lead poisoning. Sources of lead exposure are introduced, and methods for the primary prevention of lead poisoning are discussed. Details for the screening of adults and children are also explained to serve as a practical guideline for the secondary prevention. Standard chelation therapy in different groups and up-to-date less toxic new medications for the treatment of lead poisoning are finally discussed. Our published clinical research on the therapeutic effects of garlic tablets in mild to moderate occupational lead poisoning will also be discussed. PMID:26069169

  9. Internet Fish

    E-print Network

    LaMacchia, Brian A.

    1996-08-01

    I have invented "Internet Fish," a novel class of resource-discovery tools designed to help users extract useful information from the Internet. Internet Fish (IFish) are semi-autonomous, persistent information brokers; ...

  10. Fish Dishes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Derby, Marie

    2003-01-01

    Describes an art project that was inspired by Greek pottery, specifically dishes shaped as fish. Explains that fourth-grade students drew a fish shape that was later used to create their clay version of the fish. Discusses how the students examined the pottery to make decisions about color and design. (CMK)

  11. Summary of Commercial and Recreational Fishing Regulations in the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) off the United States Virgin Islands

    E-print Network

    Summary of Commercial and Recreational Fishing Regulations in the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) off or possessed in a coral area. Reef Fish, including aquarium trade species No use of poisons, drugs, or other - Last day of February June 1 - October 31 Recreational Bag Limits Queen Conch Harvest Limits

  12. 78 FR 69992 - Guidance for Industry on Purchasing Reef Fish Species Associated With the Hazard of Ciguatera...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-22

    ..., 2013 (78 FR 18273), FDA made available a draft guidance entitled ``Guidance for Industry: Purchasing... Fish Species Associated With the Hazard of Ciguatera Fish Poisoning; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug... announcing the availability of a guidance for industry entitled ``Guidance for Industry: Purchasing Reef...

  13. Lionfish string experiences of an inland poison center: a retrospective study of 23 cases.

    PubMed

    Trestrail, J H; al-Mahasneh, Q M

    1989-04-01

    From January 1979 through March 1988, our regional poison center, located many hundreds of miles from the nearest coastal salt water, documented 23 cases of envenomation by "Lionfish" (members of genus Pterois). All cases involved specimens which were maintained in the homes of amateur aquarists. A study of patient epidemiology showed the following: patient's sex 91.3% male, 8.7% female; patients ages ranged from 17 to 50 years with an average age for males of 29.8 years and 35 years for females; the site of the envenomation accident was always in the home; the only part of the body envenomated was the hand or finger; and all of the patients were symptomatic. Symptoms noted included sharp pain, swelling, redness, bleeding, nausea, numbness, joint pain, anxiety, headache, disorientation, and dizziness. One patient had a complication of cellulitis. Treatment provided included immersion of the effected area in hot water at 40 C for 60 to 90 min, analgesics, tetanus toxoid, and antibiotics. There were no deaths noted and treatment proved effective in all cases. This paper also discusses the natural history, clinical effects, and current treatment for envenomations from these beautiful but dangerous venomous fish, which can cause poisoning exposures that are likely to be encountered by poison centers anywhere in the world. PMID:2929130

  14. Poison frogs rely on experience to find the way home in the rainforest.

    PubMed

    Pašukonis, Andrius; Warrington, Ian; Ringler, Max; Hödl, Walter

    2014-11-01

    Among vertebrates, comparable spatial learning abilities have been found in birds, mammals, turtles and fishes, but virtually nothing is known about such abilities in amphibians. Overall, amphibians are the most sedentary vertebrates, but poison frogs (Dendrobatidae) routinely shuttle tadpoles from terrestrial territories to dispersed aquatic deposition sites. We hypothesize that dendrobatid frogs rely on learning for flexible navigation. We tested the role of experience with the local cues for poison frog way-finding by (i) experimentally displacing territorial males of Allobates femoralis over several hundred metres, (ii) using a harmonic direction finder with miniature transponders to track these small frogs, and (iii) using a natural river barrier to separate the translocated frogs from any familiar landmarks. We found that homeward orientation was disrupted by the translocation to the unfamiliar area but frogs translocated over similar distances in their local area showed significant homeward orientation and returned to their territories via a direct path. We suggest that poison frogs rely on spatial learning for way-finding in their local area. PMID:25411379

  15. Childhood self-poisoning: a one-year review.

    PubMed

    Neilson, Z E; Morrison, W

    2012-11-01

    Self-poisoning in children is a serious health concern accounting for 2% and 5% of childhood deaths in the developed and developing world, respectively. Type of poison and intent varies between age groups, with alcohol poisoning becoming increasingly common in teenagers. The aim of the study was to identify the characteristics of paediatric self-poisoning at Ninewells Hospital, Dundee, as a function of age, sex, intent and type of poison. Data from patients under the age of 17 presenting to Ninewells Hospital's Emergency Department with self-poisoning from 1 December 2008 to 30 November 2009 inclusive were identified, classified and analysed using chi-square testing. Overall there was no significant difference in gender. However, females significantly dominated in the ?12<17 years age group, with older females also significantly more likely to deliberately self-poison. Alcohol was the sole cause of accidental self-poisoning in this age group while paracetamol was used in the majority of cases of deliberate self-poisoning. In the <6 years age group, household chemical ingestion and over-the-counter medications were the most common poisons. The findings reflect previous published data and national trends. The prevalence of alcohol abuse in the ?12<17 years age group is a major public health issue that must be addressed. PMID:23138578

  16. Saturnine curse: a history of lead poisoning

    SciTech Connect

    Green, D.W.

    1985-01-01

    Over the past ten years there has been increasing recognition of subacute and chronic lead poisoning and a growing awareness of its pathophysiology and clinical effects. Besides the classic manifestations of abdominal colic, seizures, and anemia progressing to gout, renal disease, and neuropathy, more subtle manifestations are now being increasingly recognized, such as the development of hypertension, neurobehavioral changes, reproductive and endocrine abnormalities, a possible role in carcinogenesis, and an overall increase in morbidity and mortality. Lead was one of the seven metals of antiquity, and it has accompanied the Eurasian and American civilizations since their beginnings. Lead is an extremely pernicious metal with a multitude of adverse effects. The recurring nature of lead poisoning throughout the development of civilization can truly be referred to as the saturnine curse. 16 references.

  17. Poisoning of thiophene hydrodesulfurization by nitrogen compounds

    SciTech Connect

    LaVopa, V.; Satterfield, C.N.

    1988-04-01

    The poisoning effect of nonsterically hindered nitrogen compounds, expressed as inhibition adsorption constants derived from Langmuir-Hinshelwood kinetics for thiophene hydrodesulfurization (HDS), correlated well with gas-phase basicity (proton affinity). The order of adsorption strength agrees generally with that reported for poisoning of hydroprocessing catalysts and of acidic cracking catalysts. Inhibitor adsorption constants from thiophene HDS studies correlated well with measurements of inhibition of the hydrodeoxygenation of dibenzofuran, even when the N-compound underwent considerable reaction and it was necessary to account for the inhibiting effects of reaction intermediates. Studies were on a NiMo/Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ catalyst at 7.0 MPa and 300 to 400/sup 0/C. 33 references.

  18. Elevated cardiac enzymes due to mushroom poisoning.

    PubMed

    Avc?, Sema; Usul, Eren; Kavak, Nezih; Büyükcam, Fatih; Arslan, Engin Deniz; Genç, Selim; Özkan, Seda

    2014-01-01

    Mushroom poisoning is an important reason of plant toxicity. Wild mushrooms that gathered from pastures and forests can be dangerous for human health. The clinical outcomes and symptoms of mushroom toxicity vary from mild gastrointestinal symptoms to acute multiple organ failure. Toxic effects to kidney and liver of amatoxin are common but cardiotoxic effects are unusual. In this case, we reported the cardiotoxic effect of amatoxin with the elevated troponin-I without any additional finding in electrocardiography, echocardiography and angiography. PMID:25567466

  19. Iatrogenic salt poisoning in captive sandhill cranes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Franson, J.C.; Sileo, L.; Fleming, W.J.

    1981-01-01

    Salt poisoning developed in captive sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis) when sea salt was added to normal drinking water to produce a sodium chloride concentration of 1%. Two of 18 cranes died and 2 were euthanatized when moribund. Muscle weakness, paresis, dyspnea, and depression were observed. Brain and serum sodium, serum uric acid,:and plasma osmolality values were abnormally high. Lesions were those of visceral gout, renal tubular necrosis, nephrosis, and skeletal muscle.necrosis.

  20. Experimental lead poisoning in bald eagles

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pattee, H.; Wiemeyer, S.; Hoffman, P.; Carpenter, J.; Sileo, L.

    1979-01-01

    Captive, crippled bald eagles unsuitable for release were fed lead shot to determine diagnostic criteria for lead poisoning. The eagles were fluoroscoped and bled periodically to determine shot retention and blood delta--aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activity. Microscopic examination revealed renal tubular degeneration, arterial fibrinoid necrosis and myocardial necrosis. Acid-fast intra-nuclear inclusion bodies were not found in proximal convoluted tubule cells. Analyses of blood and toxicological data are not yet complete.

  1. Diethylene glycol poisoning from transcutaneous absorption.

    PubMed

    Devoti, Elisabetta; Marta, Elisabetta; Belotti, Elena; Bregoli, Laura; Liut, Francesca; Maiorca, Paolo; Mazzucotelli, Valentina; Cancarini, Giovanni

    2015-04-01

    A case of transcutaneous diethylene glycol poisoning with severe acute kidney injury, but a positive outcome, is described. A man without significant medical history was admitted to our hospital due to anuria, gastrointestinal symptoms, and hypertension. Ultrasonography excluded vascular damage and postrenal obstruction. Laboratory tests showed acute kidney injury and metabolic acidosis with increased anion gap; hemodialysis therapy was started. The brother of the patient reported that the patient had been smearing his skin with brake fluid containing diethylene glycol to treat a "dermatitis." Only supportive therapy was given due to the lack of a specific antidote. Continuous venovenous hemofiltration was performed. The kidney biopsy showed acute toxic proximal tubulonecrosis, without deposition of oxalate crystals. His neurologic condition worsened dramatically; supportive care was continued. Over time, acute kidney injury and neurologic damage gradually improved; 33 days after admission, he went to a rehabilitation unit for 5 months, with complete clinical recovery. Historically, diethylene glycol has been the cause of large-scale poisonings from ingestion of contaminated drugs. The clinical evolution is unpredictable. Treatment is not well defined; early hemodialysis treatment reduces levels of toxic metabolites, and fomepizole could be useful in cases with an early diagnosis. A comparison of the characteristics of diethylene glycol versus ethylene glycol poisoning is given. PMID:25445099

  2. Poisoning due to Chinese proprietary medicines.

    PubMed

    Chan, T Y; Lee, K K; Chan, A Y; Critchley, J A

    1995-05-01

    1. To determine the toxic potentials of those Chinese proprietary medicines (CPM) which are commonly used for self-poisoning by adults in Hong Kong, all patients admitted to four of the eight general medical wards at the Prince of Wales Hospital between January 1988 and December 1993 were retrospectively studied. 2. There were 54 women and 17 men with their age ranging from 15 to 86 years. Twenty-three subjects (32%) also took alcohol, chemicals or drugs. Of the 51 subjects (72%) who had taken topical medicaments, 22 had no symptoms while 28 had minor features of gastrointestinal irritation (n = 26), mild (n = 2) or severe (n = 1) salicylate poisoning. Of the 17 subjects (24%) who had taken CPM tablets/capsules, nine had mild symptoms including nausea/vomiting and drowsiness. The three remaining patients (4%) who had ingested liquid CPM preparations were asymptomatic. Elevated plasma salicylate or paracetamol concentrations (> 0.1 mmol l-1) were found in some patients who had taken topical medicaments and CPM tablets/capsules, respectively. All the 71 patients completely recovered. 3. Most of the CPM used for self-poisoning in Hong Kong were of low to moderate toxicity except for those containing wintergreen oil (methyl salicylate). PMID:7612306

  3. A Case Study: Rare Lepiota brunneoincarnata Poisoning.

    PubMed

    Kose, Murat; Yilmaz, Ismail; Akata, Ilgaz; Kaya, Ertugrul; Guler, Kerim

    2015-09-01

    Amatoxin poisoning from the genus Lepiota may have a deadly outcome, although this is not seen as often as it is from the genus Amanita. In this report, we present a patient who was poisoned by a sublethal dose of Lepiota brunneoincarnata mushrooms. The patient was hospitalized 12 hours after eating the mushrooms. The patient's transaminase levels increased dramatically starting on day 4. Aspartate transaminase peaked at 78 hours. Starting at 1265 IU/L, alanine transaminase peaked at 90 hours at 5124 IU/L. The patient was discharged on day 8 to outpatient care, and his transaminase levels returned to normal ranges in the subsequent days. A toxin analysis was carried out on the mushrooms that the patient claimed to have eaten. Using reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography analysis, an uptake of approximately 19.9 mg of amatoxin from nearly 30 g of mushrooms was calculated. This consisted of 10.59 mg of ?-amanitin, 9.18 mg of ?-amanitin, and 0.16 mg of ?-amanitin. In conclusion, we present a patient from Turkey who was poisoned by L. brunneoincarnata mushrooms. PMID:25771029

  4. A Spur to Atavism: Placing Platypus Poison.

    PubMed

    Hobbins, Peter

    2015-11-01

    For over two centuries, the platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus) has been constructed and categorized in multiple ways. An unprecedented mélange of anatomical features and physiological functions, it long remained a systematic quandary. Nevertheless, since 1797, naturalists and biologists have pursued two recurring obsessions. Investigations into platypus reproduction and lactation have focused attention largely upon females of the species. Despite its apparent admixture of avian, reptilian and mammalian characters, the platypus was soon placed as a rudimentary mammal - primitive, naïve and harmless. This article pursues a different taxonomic trajectory, concentrating on a specifically male anatomical development: the crural spur and venom gland on the hind legs. Once the defining characteristic of both the platypus and echidna (Tachyglossus aculeatus), by 1830 this sexed spur had been largely dismissed as inactive and irrelevant. For a creature regularly depicted as a biological outlier, the systematic and evolutionary implications of platypus poison have remained largely overlooked. In Australia, however, sporadic cases of 'spiking' led to consistent homologies being remarked between the platypus crural system and the venom glands of snakes. As with its reproductive reliance upon eggs, possession of an endogenous poison suggested significant reptilian affinities, yet the platypus has rarely been classed as an advanced reptile. Indeed, ongoing uncertainty regarding the biological purpose of the male's spur has ostensibly posed a directional puzzle. As with so many of its traits, however, platypus poison has been consistently described as a redundant remnant, rather than an emergent feature indicating evolutionary advance. PMID:25964144

  5. Amanita muscaria and Amanita pantherina poisoning: two syndromes.

    PubMed

    Vendramin, Andreja; Brvar, Miran

    2014-11-01

    Amanita muscaria contains more excitatory ibotenic acid and less depressant muscimol compared to Amanita pantherina. In this study A. muscaria poisoned patients were more often confused (26/32, p = 0.01) and agitated (20/32, p = 0.03) compared to those poisoned with A. pantherina (8/17 and 5/17). Patients poisoned with A. pantherina were more commonly comatose (5/17) compared to those poisoned with A. muscaria (2/32) (p = 0.03). In conclusion, the so-called ibotenic or pantherina-muscaria syndrome might be divided into two subtypes. PMID:25173077

  6. Russula subnigricans Poisoning: From Gastrointestinal Symptoms to Rhabdomyolysis.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shide; Mu, Maoyuan; Yang, Fangwan; Yang, Chunfei

    2015-09-01

    Wild mushroom poisoning is often reported to cause acute liver or renal failure. However, acute rhabdomyolysis caused by wild mushroom poisoning has rarely been reported. We describe 7 patients of 1 family with Russula subnigricans Hongo poisoning. Their clinical manifestations varied from gastrointestinal symptoms to rhabdomyolysis, with 1 fatality. Our report provides supporting evidence that rhabdomyolysis may result from ingestion of R subnigricans mushrooms. A key to survival for patients with rhabdomyolysis caused by R subnigricans poisoning may be early recognition and intensive supportive care. PMID:26228492

  7. Lead poisoning in cattle and its implications for food safety.

    PubMed

    Sharpe, R T; Livesey, C T

    2006-07-15

    The lead poisoning incidents in cattle investigated by the Veterinary Laboratories Agency between 1990 and 2003 are reviewed. Lead poisoning was most commonly encountered in young calves, but cattle of all ages were affected. The lead was derived mainly from lead paint, lead accumulator batteries and lead in soil from old mine workings. Paint was responsible for the majority of cases of poisoning in young calves; yearling animals were most at risk from discarded batteries, and adult cows were most commonly poisoned by geochemical sources of lead. There was a marked seasonal incidence, with most cases occurring after turnout in the spring and early summer. PMID:16844817

  8. [Studies on poisonings and incidents caused by chemicals in Japan].

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, M; Kaminuma, T

    2000-01-01

    The criminal cases of poisonings caused by poisonous, deleterious or other hazardous chemicals in Japan were studied. The data (111 cases) were collected mainly from the newspaper database (Aug. 1984-Feb. 1999). More than half cases were caused by chemicals which are regulated by the "Poisonous and Deleterious Substance Control Law". Copy-cat poisonings occurred in succession in 1984-1985 and 1998. Many cases occurred at the laboratories of institutes and universities, and hospitals where there are various kinds of chemical reagents. The cases of chemical incidents such as those which occurred while transportation were also discussed. PMID:11534125

  9. A novel rod-like opsin isolated from the extra-retinal photoreceptors of teleost fish.

    PubMed

    Philp, A R; Bellingham, J; Garcia-Fernandez, J; Foster, R G

    2000-02-25

    We have isolated a novel opsin from the pineal complex of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and from the brain of the puffer fish (Fugu rubripes). These extra-retinal opsins share approximately 74% identity at the nucleotide and amino acid level with rod-opsins from the retina of these species. By PCR, we have determined that the novel rod-like opsin is not expressed in the salmon retina, and the retinal rod-opsin is not expressed in the salmon pineal. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that the rod-like opsins arose from a gene duplication event approximately 205 million years ago, a time of considerable adaptive radiation of the bony fish. In view of the large differences in the coding sequences of the pineal/brain rod-like opsins, their extra-retinal sites of expression, and phylogenetic position we have termed these novel opsins 'extra-retinal rod-like opsins' (ERrod-like opsins). We speculate that the differences between retinal rod-opsins and ERrod-like opsins have arisen from their differing photosensory roles and/or genetic drift after the gene duplication event in the Triassic. PMID:10692583

  10. 76 FR 62071 - Advisory Committee on Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention(ACCLPP)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-06

    ... SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Advisory Committee on Childhood Lead Poisoning... developments and their practical implications for childhood lead poisoning prevention efforts. The committee also reviews and reports regularly on childhood lead poisoning prevention practices and...

  11. 24 CFR 965.701 - Lead-based paint poisoning prevention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Lead-based paint poisoning prevention. 965...PHA-OWNED OR LEASED PROJECTS-GENERAL PROVISIONS Lead-Based Paint Poisoning Prevention § 965.701 Lead-based paint poisoning prevention....

  12. 24 CFR 965.701 - Lead-based paint poisoning prevention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Lead-based paint poisoning prevention. 965...PHA-OWNED OR LEASED PROJECTS-GENERAL PROVISIONS Lead-Based Paint Poisoning Prevention § 965.701 Lead-based paint poisoning prevention....

  13. 24 CFR 965.701 - Lead-based paint poisoning prevention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Lead-based paint poisoning prevention. 965...PHA-OWNED OR LEASED PROJECTS-GENERAL PROVISIONS Lead-Based Paint Poisoning Prevention § 965.701 Lead-based paint poisoning prevention....

  14. 24 CFR 965.701 - Lead-based paint poisoning prevention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lead-based paint poisoning prevention. 965...PHA-OWNED OR LEASED PROJECTS-GENERAL PROVISIONS Lead-Based Paint Poisoning Prevention § 965.701 Lead-based paint poisoning prevention....

  15. 24 CFR 965.701 - Lead-based paint poisoning prevention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Lead-based paint poisoning prevention. 965...PHA-OWNED OR LEASED PROJECTS-GENERAL PROVISIONS Lead-Based Paint Poisoning Prevention § 965.701 Lead-based paint poisoning prevention....

  16. 76 FR 62071 - Advisory Committee on Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention(ACCLPP)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-06

    ...Advisory Committee on Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention(ACCLPP) In accordance with...practical implications for childhood lead poisoning prevention efforts. The committee also...and reports regularly on childhood lead poisoning prevention practices and recommends...

  17. 75 FR 66771 - Advisory Committee on Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention (ACCLPP)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-29

    ...Advisory Committee on Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention (ACCLPP) In accordance with...practical implications for childhood lead poisoning prevention efforts. The committee also...and reports regularly on childhood lead poisoning prevention practices and recommends...

  18. 76 FR 78263 - Advisory Committee on Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention (ACCLPP)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-16

    ...Advisory Committee on Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention (ACCLPP) In accordance with...practical implications for childhood lead poisoning prevention efforts. The committee also...and reports regularly on childhood lead poisoning prevention practices and recommends...

  19. 78 FR 40743 - Advisory Committee on Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention (ACCLPP)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-08

    ...Advisory Committee on Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention (ACCLPP) In accordance with...practical implications for childhood lead poisoning prevention efforts. The committee also...and reports regularly on childhood lead poisoning prevention practices and recommends...

  20. 21 CFR 2.110 - Definition of ammonia under Federal Caustic Poison Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false Definition of ammonia under Federal Caustic Poison Act. 2...Caustic Poisons § 2.110 Definition of ammonia under Federal Caustic Poison Act. ...determining whether an article containing ammonia is subject to the Federal Caustic...

  1. 21 CFR 2.110 - Definition of ammonia under Federal Caustic Poison Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 false Definition of ammonia under Federal Caustic Poison Act. 2...Caustic Poisons § 2.110 Definition of ammonia under Federal Caustic Poison Act. ...determining whether an article containing ammonia is subject to the Federal Caustic...

  2. 21 CFR 2.110 - Definition of ammonia under Federal Caustic Poison Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 false Definition of ammonia under Federal Caustic Poison Act. 2...Caustic Poisons § 2.110 Definition of ammonia under Federal Caustic Poison Act. ...determining whether an article containing ammonia is subject to the Federal Caustic...

  3. 21 CFR 2.110 - Definition of ammonia under Federal Caustic Poison Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 false Definition of ammonia under Federal Caustic Poison Act. 2...Caustic Poisons § 2.110 Definition of ammonia under Federal Caustic Poison Act. ...determining whether an article containing ammonia is subject to the Federal Caustic...

  4. 21 CFR 2.110 - Definition of ammonia under Federal Caustic Poison Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 false Definition of ammonia under Federal Caustic Poison Act. 2...Caustic Poisons § 2.110 Definition of ammonia under Federal Caustic Poison Act. ...determining whether an article containing ammonia is subject to the Federal Caustic...

  5. Recognizing and Preventing Overexposure to Methylmercury from Fish and Seafood Consumption: Information for Physicians

    PubMed Central

    Silbernagel, Susan M.; Carpenter, David O.; Gilbert, Steven G.; Gochfeld, Michael; Groth, Edward; Hightower, Jane M.; Schiavone, Frederick M.

    2011-01-01

    Fish is a valuable source of nutrition, and many people would benefit from eating fish regularly. But some people eat a lot of fish, every day or several meals per week, and thus can run a significant risk of overexposure to methylmercury. Current advice regarding methylmercury from fish consumption is targeted to protect the developing brain and nervous system but adverse health effects are increasingly associated with adult chronic low-level methylmercury exposure. Manifestations of methylmercury poisoning are variable and may be difficult to detect unless one considers this specific diagnosis and does an appropriate test (blood or hair analysis). We provide information to physicians to recognize and prevent overexposure to methylmercury from fish and seafood consumption. Physicians are urged to ask patients if they eat fish: how often, how much, and what kinds. People who eat fish frequently (once a week or more often) and pregnant women are advised to choose low mercury fish. PMID:21785592

  6. Fish Face

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    The Pacific sand lance is an important forage fish found in Puget Sound.  They employ a unique strategy of burrowing into sand to rest and conserve energy, and to avoid predation.  The USGS is currently studying forage fish spawning, and how human development may be affecting their habitat....

  7. Robot Fish

    E-print Network

    Hacker, Randi

    2009-12-30

    Broadcast transcript: Usually you expect this kind of news from Japan but this time it's South Korea where scientists have just created a robotic fish. Yes, folks, this is an electronic fish that can live underwater. At depths of up to 100 meters...

  8. Texture Fish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Julie

    2007-01-01

    In an effort to provide an opportunity for her first graders to explore texture through an engaging subject, the author developed a three-part lesson that features fish in a mixed-media artwork: (1) Exploring Textured Paint; (2) Creating the Fish; and (3) Role Playing. In this lesson, students effectively explore texture through painting, drawing,…

  9. [Poisoning with Jatropha curcas: 24 cases reported to Paris and Marseille Poisons Centers].

    PubMed

    Langrand, J; Médernach, C; Schmitt, C; Blanc-Brisset, I; Villa, A F; de Haro, L; Garnier, R

    2015-03-01

    Jatropha curcas L. is an inedible plant belonging to the Euphorbiaceae family that is growing in subtropical zones of all continents. We report a series of 24 cases of poisoning with J. curcas seeds or fruits reported to poison centers in Paris and Marseille between December 2000 and June 2014. Fifteen adults and 9 children ingested J. curcas seeds or fruits. All patients experienced gastrointestinal disorders, within the first hours following ingestion: nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and abdominal pain. Laboratory investigations performed in 10 patients revealed minor abnormalities: CK elevation (8 cases), dehydration (5 cases) with moderate elevation of serum creatinine levels (3 cases), and mildly increased serum bilirubin (8 cases). Complete remission of all clinical signs was observed within 48 hours in the 20 cases for which the outcome was known. Previously published cases of J. curcas poisoning were very similar to ours: As in our series, gastrointestinal disorders were always present. They were sometimes associated with neurological or cardiovascular signs, and hepatic or renal disorders; these were generally interpreted as complications of severe gastroenteritis, although direct toxic effects could not be formally excluded. In most cases, simple supportive measures were sufficient to ensure complete recovery within 24-48 hours. J Curcas poisoning incidence is certainly increasing because the plant is cultivated to produce biodiesel and is now largely present in most subtropical countries. As a consequence, local health professionals should be informed of the toxic properties of this plant. PMID:25925815

  10. Global perspectives on poisonous plants: The 9th International Symposium on Poisonous Plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The 9th International Symposium on Poisonous Plants (ISOPP9) was held from 15th-21st July, 2013, at the Inner Mongolia Agricultural University in Hohhot, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region of China. The Symposium consisted of three days of oral and poster presentations, followed by a tour of the Xilin...

  11. Lead poisoning in woodpeckers in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Mörner, T; Petersson, L

    1999-10-01

    Lead poisoning was demonstrated in two gray-headed woodpeckers (Picus canus) and one white-backed woodpecker (Dendrocopus leucotos) in Sweden; they had liver lead levels between 9.4 and 26.2 mg(-1) wet weight. At necropsy one gray-headed woodpecker showed signs of emaciation and the other one had severe traumatic injuries, caused by a cat. The white-backed woodpecker died in the transportation box during a translocation program. The source of the lead could not be determined, but it was suspected that it may have originated from lead pellets shot into trees and picked out by the woodpeckers during food search. PMID:10574536

  12. Self-poisoning of the mind

    PubMed Central

    Elster, Jon

    2010-01-01

    Rational-choice theory tries to explain behaviour on the assumption that individuals optimize. Some forms of irrational behaviour can be explained by assuming that the individual is subject to hedonic, pleasure-seeking mechanisms, such as wishful thinking or adaptive preference formation. In this paper, I draw attention to psychic mechanisms, originating in the individual, which make her worse off. I first consider the ideas of counterwishful thinking and of counteradaptive preference formation and then, drawing heavily on Proust, the self-poisoning of the mind that occurs through the operation of amour-propre. PMID:20026460

  13. DDE poisoning in an adult bald eagle

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garcelon, D.K.; Thomas, N.J.

    1997-01-01

    A 12-year-old female bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) was found in May 1993 on Santa Catalina Island, California (USA), in a debilitated condition, exhibiting ataxia and tremors; it died within hours. On necropsy, the bird was emaciated but had no evidence of disease or physical injury. Chemical analyses were negative for organophosphorus pesticides and lead poisoning. High concentrations of DDE (wet weight basis) were found in the brain (212 ppm), liver (838 ppm), and serum (53 ppm). Mobilization of DDE, from depleted fat deposits, probably resulted in the lethal concentration in the eagle's brain.

  14. Accidental poisoning with biodiesel preservative biocide

    PubMed Central

    Aslanidis, T; Ourailoglou, V; Boultoukas, E; Giannakou-Peftoulidou, M

    2014-01-01

    Although biodiesel fuels’ use is getting more and more popular, there are only few reports in the literature of poisoning with such agents, and none referring to their preservatives: biocides. We present the management of a 49-year-old Caucasian male who was admitted, after accidental ingestion of biocide solution, in the intensive care unit of a tertiary hospital. In spite of his devastating condition upon arrival to the hospital, he had a remarkable recovery with no local or systemic sequel due to multidisciplinary and early supportive approach of his care. PMID:25336882

  15. The Diagnosis of Industrial Lead Poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, Sheila L. M.; Mackenzie, J. C.; Goldberg, A.

    1968-01-01

    A series of 100 lead workers from different industries, 91 at work and nine admitted to hospital with lead poisoning, was studied in order to define more clearly the clinical and biochemical criteria of lead poisoning in three stages—(A) a presymptomatic state of lead exposure (37 men), (B) a state of mild symptoms or mild anaemia (45 men), and (C) frank lead poisoning with severe symptoms and signs (18 men). The tests used were haemoglobin, reticulocyte count, and blood lead, and urinary lead, coproporphyrin, ?-aminolaevulinic acid (ALA), and porphobilinogen (PBG) estimations. Of these, the urinary lead was similar for all three groups and the blood lead estimation was of less value for determining the clinical group of the men than the haemoglobin and urinary coproporphyrin or ALA estimations, which correlated well with the clinical assessment and with each other but showed no correlation with the urinary and blood lead levels. PBG levels became raised only with the onset of symptoms of lead poisoning. A haemoglobin of 13 g./100 ml. (90%) or less is a cautionary sign. Urinary coproporphyrin above 80 ?g./100 mg. creatinine (800 ?g./litre), ALA above 2·0 mg./100 mg. creatinine (2·0 mg.%), and PBG above 0·15 mg./100 mg. creatinine (0·15 mg.%) were almost always associated with symptoms or signs and were therefore considered to be the upper safety limits. Although the blood lead level does not differentiate between lead toxicity and lead exposure, values above 60 ?g. lead/100 g. blood should alert the physician to carry out other tests. In addition to the above tests, blood pressure, blood urea, and serum uric acid estimations were performed on all the men in order to elucidate the possible role of lead in the production of renal damage. Blood pressure and serum uric acid levels were similar for all three groups but the blood urea level was raised in group C. The reason for this finding was not established. It was found that scrap metal burning, battery manufacturing, and ship-breaking constituted the gravest lead hazards encountered in this survey whereas wire manufacture constituted the least. Workers in the most modern factory, a car-body pressing plant, gave average values just below the danger levels for the urinary coproporphyrin and ALA estimations despite apparently efficient protective measures. This finding underlines the importance of the medical supervision of lead workers. PMID:5642647

  16. The resolution of rayless goldenrod (Isocoma pluriflora) poisoning in goats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rayless goldenrod (Isocoma pluriflora) occasionally poisons livestock causing myocardial and skeletal muscle degeneration and necrosis. The objectives of this study were to describe the resolution of the clinical and pathologic changes of rayless goldenrod poisoning in goats. Eight goats were gava...

  17. Amatoxin-containing mushroom (Lepiota brunneoincarnata) familial poisoning.

    PubMed

    Varvenne, David; Retornaz, Karine; Metge, Prune; De Haro, Luc; Minodier, Philippe

    2015-04-01

    Serious to fatal toxicity may occur with amanitin-containing mushrooms ingestions. A Lepiota brunneoincarnata familial poisoning with hepatic toxicity is reported. In such poisonings, acute gastroenteritis may be firstly misdiagnosed leading to delay in preventing liver dysfunction by silibinin or penicillin G. Mushroom picking finally requires experience and caution. PMID:25831030

  18. Get the Lead Out: Facts about Childhood Lead Poisoning [and] Housekeeping Tips To Reduce Lead Exposure [and] Nutrition and Lead Poisoning [and] The Medical Consequences of Lead Poisoning [and] Lead Poisoning for Health Care Providers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois State Dept. of Public Health, Springfield.

    This document is comprised of five fact sheets from the Illinois Department of Public Health regarding childhood lead poisoning. Recent studies claim that childhood lead poisoning can contribute to problems later in life, such as academic failure, juvenile delinquency, and high blood pressure. Directed to parents, caregivers, and health care…

  19. Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention Program Community Awareness Pilot

    E-print Network

    Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention Program Community Awareness Pilot #12;1 THE GOOD NEWS- Exposure to Lead is Preventable Lead Poisoning Is a REAL Problem; Did You Know? Lead is a highly toxic substance, and exposure to lead can cause a range of adverse health effects. Children as well as adults can be sick from

  20. GROWER REPORTED PESTICIDE POISONINGS AMONG FLORIDA CITRUS FIELDWORKERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In a 1981 survey of 436 Florida citrus growers, 27 pesticide related poisoning incidents were reported that were to have taken place within one year of the interview date. From these reports it is possible to estimate that there are 376 citrus fieldworker poisonings per year in F...

  1. Commercial Fertilizers and Poisonous Insecticides in 1906-7. 

    E-print Network

    Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach)

    1907-01-01

    Fertilizers and Poisonous Insecticides in 1906-7. BY G. S. FRAPS, Chemist. YOSTOFFICE COLLEGE STATION, BRAZOS COUNTY, TEXAS. TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS OFFICERS. GOVERNING BOARD. ............................ K. I(. LEGGETT, President... ............................................ Fertilizer Recipes 12 ........................................ 0"s Iklsecticides 1.5 .......................... ;es .of Fertilizers, Season 1906-07 16 r COMMERCIAL FERTILIZERS AND POISONOUS . INSECT[CIDES IN 1906-7. The amount of commercial fertilizers...

  2. Childhood Lead Poisoning: Rhode Island Kids Count Issue Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhode Island KIDS COUNT, Providence.

    Noting that childhood lead poisoning is one of the most common preventable pediatric health problems, this report examines lead poisoning as a health problem to which infants and young children are most susceptible and as a housing problem directly related to a shortage of safe, affordable housing. The report details screening rates in Rhode…

  3. Milia after allergic contact dermatitis from poison ivy: two cases.

    PubMed

    Berk, David R; Hurt, Mark A; Reese, Lester T; Wagner, Laura; Bayliss, Susan J

    2010-01-01

    Milia have rarely been reported as a complication of severe allergic contact dermatitis. To our knowledge, milia have not previously been associated with poison ivy dermatitis. We present two cases of milia after allergic contact dermatitis to poison ivy. PMID:20487653

  4. Diquat poisoning of dairy cattle by topical application.

    PubMed Central

    Whiting, T L; Smyrl, T; Spearman, J G; Kernatz, S

    2001-01-01

    This case report describes poisoning of dairy cattle from a dermal challenge of 50 to 100 mg/kg body weight diquat. Five of 36 cattle exposed, demonstrated clinical signs of intoxication, dehydration, and death over 5 days. Diquat poisoning of cattle by the dermal route has not previously been reported. PMID:11665429

  5. Selected Common Poisonous Plants of the United States' Rangelands

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Poisonous plants cause large economic losses throughout the rangelands of the world. In the 17 western states of the United States alone, it has been estimated that losses related to the ingestion of poisonous plants exceed $340 million annually. There are many plants that contribute to these large...

  6. 77 FR 16645 - National Poison Prevention Week, 2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-21

    ... hundred and thirty-sixth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2012-6990 Filed 3-20-12; 11:15 am] Billing code... March 21, 2012 Part III The President Proclamation 8784--National Poison Prevention Week, 2012... Poison Prevention Week, 2012 By the President of the United States of America A...

  7. 76 FR 16521 - National Poison Prevention Week, 2011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-23

    ... the United States of America the two hundred and thirty-fifth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2011-7057... March 23, 2011 Part III The President Proclamation 8638--National Poison Prevention Week, 2011 #0; #0..., 2011 National Poison Prevention Week, 2011 By the President of the United States of America...

  8. 75 FR 13215 - National Poison Prevention Week, 2010

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-19

    ... States of America the two hundred and thirty-fourth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2010-6222 Filed 3-18-10... Prevention Week, 2010 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation Since 1962, during National Poison Prevention Week we alert American families about the dangers of accidental poisonings...

  9. Recognition and Management of Pesticide Poisonings. Third Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Donald P.

    This manual aids health professionals in recognizing and treating pesticide poisonings. Suggested treatments are appropriate for implementation in the small hospitals and clinics which usually receive the victims of pesticide poisoning. Classes of compounds covered include: (1) organophosphate cholinesterase-inhibiting pesticides; (2) carbamate…

  10. Knowledge is key to safety; Plants that poison horses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Horses are relatively selective grazers and generally they are poisoned less frequently than other livestock. However, there are exceptions. Some poisonous plants are palatable to horses and exposed horses readily eat them. Other plants may be eaten by some horses even though they are unpalatable...

  11. An Action-Research Project: Community Lead Poisoning Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rajaram, Shireen S.

    2007-01-01

    This action-research project focused on gathering data on awareness of lead poisoning, as well as disseminating information on lead poisoning prevention in a metropolitan midwestern city. This project reflects an action-research approach to service learning and was in collaboration with a grass-roots organization. This paper outlines the daunting…

  12. Fishing Forecasts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    ROFFS stands for Roffer's Ocean Fishing Forecasting Service, Inc. Roffer combines satellite and computer technology with oceanographic information from several sources to produce frequently updated charts sometimes as often as 30 times a day showing clues to the location of marlin, sailfish, tuna, swordfish and a variety of other types. Also provides customized forecasts for racing boats and the shipping industry along with seasonal forecasts that allow the marine industry to formulate fishing strategies based on foreknowledge of the arrival and departure times of different fish. Roffs service exemplifies the potential for benefits to marine industries from satellite observations. Most notable results are reduced search time and substantial fuel savings.

  13. Carbon Monoxide Poisoning and Subsequent Cardiovascular Disease Risk

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Feng-You; Chen, Wei-Kung; Lin, Cheng-Li; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is considered one of the most crucial health concerns. Few studies have investigated the correlation between CO poisoning and the risk of developing cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Therefore, we conducted a population-based, longitudinal cohort study in Taiwan to determine whether patients with CO poisoning are associated with higher risk of developing subsequent CVDs, including arrhythmia, coronary artery disease (CAD) and congestive heart failure (CHF). This retrospective study used the National Health Insurance Research Database. The study cohort comprised all patients aged ?20 years with a diagnosis of CO poisoning and hospitalized during 2000 to 2011 (N?=?8381), and the comparison cohort comprised randomly selected non-CO-poisoned patients (N?=?33,524) frequency-matched with the study cohort by age, sex, and the year of index date. Each patient was individually tracked to identify those who develop CVD events during the follow-up period. Cox proportional hazards regression model was performed to calculate the hazard ratios of CVDs after adjusting for possible confounders. The overall incidences of arrhythmia, CAD, and CHF were higher in the patients with CO poisoning than in the controls (2.57 vs 1.25/1000 person-years, 3.28 vs 2.25/1000 person-years, and 1.32 vs 1.05/1000 person-years, respectively). After adjusting for age, sex, and comorbidities, the patients with CO poisoning were associated with a 1.83-fold higher risk of arrhythmia compared with the comparison cohort, and nonsignificantly associated with risk of CAD and CHF. CO-poisoned patients with coexisting comorbidity or in high severity were associated with significantly and substantially increased risk of all 3 CVDs. CO poisoning is associated with increased risk of subsequent development of arrhythmia. Future studies are required to explore the long-term effects of CO poisoning on the cardiovascular system. PMID:25761191

  14. One Fish, Two Fish, Redfish, You Fish!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Katherine; Timmons, Maryellen; Medders, Paul

    2011-01-01

    The recreational fishing activity presented in this article provides a hands-on, problem-based experience for students; it unites biology, math, economics, environmental policy, and population dynamics concepts. In addition, the activity allows students to shape environmental policy in a realistic setting and evaluate their peers' work. By…

  15. The good and the bad of poisonous plants: An introduction to the USDA-ARS Poisonous Plant Research Laboratory

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction: This article provides an overview of the Poisonous Plant Research Laboratory (PPRL), about the unique services and activities of the PPRL, and the potential assistance we can provide to plant poisoning incidences. Discussion: The PPRL is a federal research laboratory. It is part of th...

  16. Mushroom poisoning: retrospective analysis of 294 cases

    PubMed Central

    Eren, Sevki Hakan; Demirel, Yeltekin; Ugurlu, Serdal; Korkmaz, Ilhan; Aktas, Can; Güven, Fatma Mutlu Kukul

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The objective of this study was to present special clinical and laboratory features of 294 cases of mushroom poisoning. MATERIALS AND METHODS In this retrospective study, 294 patients admitted to the Pediatric and Adult Emergency, Internal Medicine and ICU Departments of Cumhuriyet University Hospital were investigated. RESULTS Of 294 patients between the ages of 3 and 72 (28.97 ± 19.32), 173 were female, 121 were male and 90 were under the age of 16 years. One hundred seventy-three patients (58.8%) had consumed the mushrooms in the early summer. The onset of mushroom toxicity symptoms was divided into early (within 6 h after ingestion) and delayed (6 h to 20 d). Two hundred eighty-eight patients (97.9%) and six (2.1%) patients had early and delayed toxicity symptoms, respectively. The onset of symptoms was within two hours for 101 patients (34.3%). The most common first-noticed symptoms were in the gastrointestinal system. The patients were discharged within one to ten days. Three patients suffering from poisoning caused by wild mushrooms died from fulminant hepatic failure. CONCLUSION Education of the public about the consumption of mushrooms and education of health personnel working in health centers regarding early treatment and transfer to hospitals with appropriate facilities are important for decreasing the mortality. PMID:20535367

  17. Methylene chloride poisoning in a cabinet worker.

    PubMed Central

    Mahmud, M; Kales, S N

    1999-01-01

    More than a million workers are at risk for methylene chloride exposure. Aerosol sprays and paint stripping may also cause significant nonoccupational exposures. After methylene chloride inhalation, significant amounts of carbon monoxide are formed in vivo as a metabolic by-product. Poisoning predominantly affects the central nervous system and results from both carboxyhemoglobin formation and direct solvent-related narcosis. In this report, we describe a case of methylene chloride intoxication probably complicated by exogenous carbon monoxide exposure. The worker's presentation of intermittent headaches was consistent with both methylene chloride intoxication and carbon monoxide poisoning. The exposures and symptoms were corroborated by elevated carboxyhemoglobin saturations and a workplace inspection that documented significant exposures to both methylene chloride and carbon monoxide. When both carbon monoxide and methylene chloride are inhaled, additional carboxyhemoglobin formation is expected. Preventive efforts should include education, air monitoring, and periodic carboxyhemoglobin determinations. Methylene chloride should never be used in enclosed or poorly ventilated areas because of the well-documented dangers of loss of consciousness and death. Images Figure 1 PMID:10464079

  18. Designer Fish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, William R., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Described is an activity in which students are asked to design a fish that would survive in a natural system. A project to computerize the activity is discussed. The development of this artificial intelligence software is detailed. (CW)

  19. Fish Kids

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Facebook Twitter Google+ Pinterest Contact Us Learn about Water When the water in our rivers, lakes, and ... we swim and fish. See all water resources . Water Bodies Oceans, Coasts, Estuaries and Beaches Rivers and ...

  20. Fish Facts

    MedlinePLUS

    ... not eat any fish because they worry about mercury in seafood. Mercury is a metal that, at high levels, can ... many types of seafood have little or no mercury at all. So your risk of mercury exposure ...

  1. TOXICITY OF POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS (PCB'S) TO FISH AND OTHER AQUATIC LIFE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) have been shown to be widespread in the environment. Their significance in the aquatic environment as a poison is now being revealed. They are being detected in fish and other aquatic life at levels much higher than concentrations found in the wa...

  2. Eliminating Childhood Lead Poisoning: A Federal Strategy Targeting Lead Paint Hazards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2000

    Noting that lead poisoning is a preventable disease, this report details a coordinated federal program to eliminate childhood lead poisoning in the United States. The report describes how lead poisoning harms children, how pervasive lead poisoning is, and how lead paint hazards in housing could be eliminated in 10 years. Following information on…

  3. 49 CFR 174.680 - Division 6.1 (poisonous) materials with foodstuffs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... not transport any package bearing a POISON or POISON INHALATION HAZARD label in the same car with any... by humans or animals. (b) A carrier must separate any package bearing a POISON label displaying the text “PG III,” or bearing a “PG III” mark adjacent to the POISON label, from materials marked as...

  4. 49 CFR 174.680 - Division 6.1 (poisonous) materials with foodstuffs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... not transport any package bearing a POISON or POISON INHALATION HAZARD label in the same car with any... by humans or animals. (b) A carrier must separate any package bearing a POISON label displaying the text “PG III,” or bearing a “PG III” mark adjacent to the POISON label, from materials marked as...

  5. Subsumed under the vernacular name "poison frogs", the superfamily Dendrobatoidea contains the "non-

    E-print Network

    Ringler, Eva

    Subsumed under the vernacular name "poison frogs", the superfamily Dendrobatoidea contains the "non- poisonous poison frogs" in the family Aromobatidae and the "true poison frogs" in the family Dendrobatidae and Comeault, 2009). Allobates femoralis is a semi-cryptic pan-Amazonian aromobatid frog (Amézquita et al

  6. Fatal drug poisonings in a Swedish general population

    PubMed Central

    Jönsson, Anna K; Spigset, Olav; Tjäderborn, Micaela; Druid, Henrik; Hägg, Staffan

    2009-01-01

    Background Pharmaceutical drug poisonings have previously been reported using single sources of information, either hospital data or forensic data, which might not reveal the true incidence. We therefore aimed to estimate the incidence of suspected fatal drug poisonings, defined as poisonings by pharmaceutical agents, by using all relevant case records from various sources in a Swedish population. Methods Every seventh randomly selected deceased in three counties in southeastern Sweden during a one-year period was identified in the Cause of Death Register. Relevant case records (death certificates, files from hospitals and/or primary care centres and medico-legal files) were reviewed for all study subjects. Results Of 1574 deceased study subjects, 12 cases were classified as pharmaceutical drug poisonings according to the death certificates and 10 according to the medico-legal files. When reviewing all available data sources, 9 subjects (0.57%; 95% confidence interval: 0.20–0.94%) were classified as drug poisonings, corresponding to an incidence of 6.5 (95% confidence interval: 2.3–10.7) per 100 000 person-years in the general population. The drug groups most often implicated were benzodiazepines (33%), antihistamines (33%) and analgesics (22%). Conclusion Fatal drug poisonings is a relatively common cause of death in Sweden. By using multiple sources of information when investigating the proportion of fatal poisonings in a population, more accurate estimates may be obtained. PMID:19397805

  7. Lead shot poisoning of a Pacific loon in Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, H.M.; Oyen, J.L.; Sileo, L.

    2004-01-01

    Lead poisoning, associated with ingestion of spent lead shot, was diagnosed in an adult female Pacific loon (Gavia pacifica) observed with partial paralysis on 13 June 2002 and found dead on 16 June 2002 on Kigigak Island, Yukon Delta National Wildlife Refuge, western Alaska, USA. A necropsy revealed three pellets of ingested lead shot in the loona??s gizzard and a lead liver concentration of 31 ppm wet weight, which was consistent with metallic lead poisoning. This is the first report of lead poisoning in a Pacific loon and is the only account of lead toxicosis associated with ingestion of lead shot in any loon species breeding in Alaska.

  8. Multiple, recurring origins of aposematism and diet specialization in poison frogs

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Juan Carlos; Coloma, Luis A.; Cannatella, David C.

    2003-01-01

    Aposematism is the association, in a prey organism, of the presence of a warning signal with unprofitability to predators. The origin of aposematism is puzzling, because of its predicted low probability of establishment in a population due to the prey's increased conspicuousness. Aposematism is a widespread trait in invertebrate taxa, but, in vertebrates, it is mostly evident in amphibians, reptiles, and fishes. Poison frogs (Dendrobatidae) are one of the most well known examples of the co-occurrence of warning coloration and toxicity. This monophyletic group of mostly diurnal leaf-litter Neotropical anurans has both toxic/colorful and palatable/cryptic species. Previous studies suggested a single origin of toxicity and warning coloration, dividing the family in two discrete groups of primitively cryptic and more derived aposematic frogs. Recent molecular phylogenetic analyses using mostly aposematic taxa supported this conclusion and proposed a single tandem origin of toxicity and conspicuous warning coloration. By using expanded taxon and character sampling, we reexamined the phylogenetic correlation between the origins of toxicity and warning coloration. At least four or five independent origins of aposematism have occurred within poison frogs; by using simulations, we rejected hypotheses of one, two, or three origins of aposematism (P < 0.002). We also found that diet specialization is linked with the evolution of aposematism. Specialization on prey, such as ants and termites, may have evolved independently at least two times. PMID:14555763

  9. Four patients with Amanita Phalloides poisoning.

    PubMed

    Vanooteghem, S; Arts, J; Decock, S; Pieraerts, P; Meersseman, W; Verslype, C; Van Hootegem, Ph

    2014-09-01

    Mushroom poisoning by Amanita phalloides is a rare but potentially fatal disease. The initial symptoms of nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain and diarrhea, which are typical for the intoxication, can be interpreted as a common gastro-enteritis. The intoxication can progress to acute liver and renal failure and eventually death. Recognizing the clinical syndrome is extremely important. In this case report, 4 patients with amatoxin intoxication who showed the typical clinical syndrome are described. The current therapy of amatoxin intoxication is based on small case series, and no ran- domised controlled trials are available. The therapy of amatoxin intoxication consists of supportive care and medical therapy with silibinin and N-acetylcysteine. Patients who develop acute liver failure should be considered for liver transplantation. PMID:25509208

  10. Cestrum diurnum poisoning in Florida cattle.

    PubMed

    Krook, L; Wasserman, R H; McEntee, K; Brokken, T D; Teigland, M B

    1975-10-01

    Cestrum diurnum poisoning was described in a Florida bull. Clinical signs included chronic wasting and progressive lameness. Plasma calcium was elevated for long periods of time but decreased toward low normal values. There was pronounced C-cell hyperplasia. Osteopetrosis was very severe and reflected retarded osteocytic osteolysis and chondrolysis. Further negative effects on the osteocytes eventually lead to osteonecrosis. Soft tissue calcinosis involved tendons and ligaments, major arteries and veins but kidneys and lungs were spared. Whereas the osteopetrosis could be explained by hypercalcitoninism, the osteonecrosis was believed to result from direct action by the Cestrum diurnum factor, previously shown to have an action similar to that of 1,25-dihydroxy-cholecalciferol, which is the biologically active metabolite of vitamin D3. PMID:1192749

  11. Glyphosate surfactant herbicide poisoning and management

    PubMed Central

    Mahendrakar, Kranthi; Venkategowda, Pradeep M.; Rao, S. Manimala; Mutkule, Dnyaneshwar P.

    2014-01-01

    Glyphosate is a widely used herbicide in agriculture, forestry, industrial weed control and aquatic environments. Glyphosate potential as herbicide was first reported in 1971. It is a non-selective herbicide. It can cause a wide range of clinical manifestations in human beings like skin and throat irritation to hypotension, oliguria and death. We are reporting a case of a 35-year-old male patient who was admitted to our tertiary care hospital following intentional ingestion of around 200 ml of herbicide containing glyphosate. Initially, gastric lavage done and the patient was managed with intubation and mechanical ventilation, noradrenaline and vasopressin infusion, continuous veno-venous hemodiafiltration and intravenous (IV) lipid emulsion (20% intralipid 100 ml), patient was successfully treated and discharged home. This case report emphasizes on timely systemic supportive measure as a sole method of treatment since this poison has no known specific antidote and the use of IV lipid emulsion for a successful outcome. PMID:24914265

  12. Pesticidal suicide: adult fatal rotenone poisoning.

    PubMed

    Patel, Freddy

    2011-10-01

    Rotenone is a pesticide and a piscicide derived from the derris root. The mechanism for the cytotoxicity is at mitochondrial level affecting cellular respiration. A suicide by rotenone poisoning in an adult is described. An innovative laboratory methodology was developed for the principal requirement of the Coroner to determine a positive or negative result to assist in the investigation of the death. The antemortem concentrations detected were 4.05 ng/ml [0.00405 ppm] in the blood and 0.55 ng/ml [0.00055 ppm] in the serum. Toxicity in human is rare and therefore the interpretation of the toxicology results is complicated by the unavailability of a data bank. The cause of death was attributed to rotenone toxicity based on the circumstantial evidence and expert pathological opinion on a balance of probability acceptable under the Coroners Act 1988 and Coroners Rules 1984 in England and Wales. The forensic clinicopathology of rotenone toxicity is discussed. PMID:21907942

  13. Datura stramonium poisoning in a child.

    PubMed

    Özkaya, Ahmet Ka?an; Güler, Ekrem; Karabel, Nihal; Naml?, Ali R?za; Göksügür, Yalç?n

    2015-01-01

    Hallucinogenic plant poisoning in children is a significant problem for the emergency physician. We describe the case of a boy who had slurred speech, fever, hallucinations, tachycardia, dilated pupils, confusion and disorientation. He had no history of drug use or toxin intake. All signs and symptoms were improved by supportive therapy within 48 hours. It turned out that the patient had ingested seeds of Datura stramonium in a neighbor's garden two days previously. The medical history should be taken repeatedly in cases of unknown etiology, and physicians should keep in mind the possibility that unexplained anticholinergic toxidromes could be the result of exposure to toxic plants, in particular those containing atropine and atropine derivates. PMID:26613226

  14. Potassium Permanganate Poisoning: A Nonfatal Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Eteiwi, Suzan M.; Al-Eyadah, Abdallah A.; Al-Sarihin, Khaldon K.; Al-Omari, Ahmad A.; Al-Asaad, Rania A.; Haddad, Fares H.

    2015-01-01

    Acute poisoning by potassium permanganate is a rare condition with high morbidity and mortality. Diagnosis of the condition relies on a history of exposure or ingestion and a high degree of clinical suspicion. Oxygen desaturation and the presence of methemoglobin are also helpful indicators. Since no specific antidote is available, treatment is mainly supportive. Few cases have been reported in the literature following potassium permanganate ingestion, whether intentional or accidental, and most of the patients in these cases had unfavorable outcomes, which was not the case in our patient. Our patient, a 73-year-old male, purchased potassium permanganate over the counter mistaking it for magnesium salt, which he frequently used as a laxative. Several hours after he ingested it, he was admitted to the endocrine department at King Hussein Medical Center, Jordan, with acute rapidly evolving shortness of breath. During hospitalization, his liver function tests deteriorated. Since he was diagnosed early and managed promptly he had a favorable outcome. PMID:26366264

  15. Grayanotoxin poisoning: 'mad honey disease' and beyond.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Suze A; Kleerekooper, Iris; Hofman, Zonne L M; Kappen, Isabelle F P M; Stary-Weinzinger, Anna; van der Heyden, Marcel A G

    2012-09-01

    Many plants of the Ericaceae family, Rhododendron, Pieris, Agarista and Kalmia, contain diterpene grayanotoxins. Consumption of grayanotoxin containing leaves, flowers or secondary products as honey may result in intoxication specifically characterized by dizziness, hypotension and atrial-ventricular block. Symptoms are caused by an inability to inactivate neural sodium ion channels resulting in continuous increased vagal tone. Grayanotoxin containing products are currently sold online, which may pose an increasing risk. In humans, intoxication is rarely lethal, in contrast to cattle and pet poisoning cases. Scientific evidence for the medicinal properties of grayanotoxin containing preparations, such as honey or herbal preparation in use in folk medicine, is scarce, and such use may even be harmful. PMID:22528814

  16. N-acetylcysteine overdose after acetaminophen poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Mahmoudi, Ghafar Ali; Astaraki, Peyman; Mohtashami, Azita Zafar; Ahadi, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    N-acetylcysteine (NAC) is used widely and effectively in oral and intravenous forms as a specific antidote for acetaminophen poisoning. Here we report a rare case of iatrogenic NAC overdose following an error in preparation of the solution, and describe its clinical symptoms. Laboratory results and are presented and examined. A 23-year-old alert female patient weighing 65 kg presented to the emergency ward with weakness, lethargy, extreme fatigue, nausea, and dizziness. She had normal arterial blood gas and vital signs. An excessive dosage of NAC over a short period of time can lead to hemolysis, thrombocytopenia, and acute renal failure in patients with normal glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, and finally to death. Considering the similarity between some of the clinical symptoms of acetaminophen overdose and NAC overdose, it is vitally important for the administration phases and checking of the patient’s symptoms to be carried out attentively and cautiously. PMID:25767408

  17. Outpatient treatment of acute poisonings in Oslo: poisoning pattern, factors associated with hospitalization, and mortality

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Most patients with acute poisoning are treated as outpatients worldwide. In Oslo, these patients are treated in a physician-led outpatient clinic with limited diagnostic and treatment resources, which reduces both the costs and emergency department overcrowding. We describe the poisoning patterns, treatment, mortality, factors associated with hospitalization and follow-up at this Emergency Medical Agency (EMA, "Oslo Legevakt"), and we evaluate the safety of this current practice. Methods All acute poisonings in adults (> or = 16 years) treated at the EMA during one year (April 2008 to April 2009) were included consecutively in an observational study design. The treating physicians completed a standardized form comprising information needed to address the study's aims. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify the factors associated with hospitalization. Results There were 2348 contacts for 1856 individuals; 1157 (62%) were male, and the median age was 34 years. The most frequent main toxic agents were ethanol (43%), opioids (22%) and CO or fire smoke (10%). The physicians classified 73% as accidental overdoses with substances of abuse taken for recreational purposes, 15% as other accidents (self-inflicted or other) and 11% as suicide attempts. Most (91%) patients were treated with observation only. The median observation time until discharge was 3.8 hours. No patient developed sequelae or died at the EMA. Seventeen per cent were hospitalized. Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid, respiratory depression, paracetamol, reduced consciousness and suicidal intention were factors associated with hospitalization. Forty-eight per cent were discharged without referral to follow-up. The one-month mortality was 0.6%. Of the nine deaths, five were by new accidental overdose with substances of abuse. Conclusions More than twice as many patients were treated at the EMA compared with all hospitals in Oslo. Despite more than a doubling of the annual number of poisoned patients treated at the EMA since 2003, there was no mortality or sequelae, indicating that the current practice is safe. Thus, most low- to intermediate-acuity poisonings can be treated safely without the need to access hospital resources. Although the short-term mortality was low, more follow-up of patients with substance abuse should be encouraged. PMID:22217253

  18. Seasonal Changes of Fish Assemblages in a Subtropical Lagoon in the SE Gulf of California

    PubMed Central

    Amezcua, F.; Amezcua-Linares, F.

    2014-01-01

    The composition and seasonal changes of the fish assemblage in a coastal lagoon system in southeastern Gulf of California were assessed from December 2001 to July 2005. A total of 20,877 organisms belonging to 191 species and 47 families were analyzed. We determined that almost all the species inhabiting the system were found; however some rare species were not captured in our study. The majority of the species found were demersal but in every season at least one pelagic or benthopelagic species showed high abundances. The moonfish, Selene peruviana, was the most abundant species, whilst the puffer, Sphoeroides annulatus, was the main species in terms of biomass. The species composition changed seasonally; results from the Simpson diversity index and the cumulative species curve show that seasonally almost all the species in the system for a given season were found. These changes were also reflected in the multivariate results. The seasonal variations could be attributed to the migration of species out of the system as they grow and the arrival of new ones, which could also be related to temperature patterns since this environmental factor changes considerably through the year. PMID:24672403

  19. Antibody to prevent the effects of brevetoxin poisoning in conscious rats. Interim report

    SciTech Connect

    Templeton, C.B.; Poli, M.A.; LeClaire, R.D.

    1988-03-09

    The marine dinoflagellate, Ptychodiscus brevis, primarily responsible for Florida red tides, produces toxins that cause massive fish kills in the Gulf of Mexico and along the Florida coast. In humans, these toxins (brevetoxins) also cause a respiratory tract irritation from contact with seaspray and an intoxication known as neurotoxic shellfish poisoning. These toxins may be considered as potential biological warfare threat agents; therefore, finding a method of prophylaxis and therapy is imperative. The purpose of this study was to determine if an anti-brevetoxin (PbTx-2) antibody could prevent the effects seen in rats in previous brevetoxin studies, namely, reduced respiratory rates, reduced core and peripheral body temperatures, and ECG abnormalities.

  20. 49 CFR 172.540 - POISON GAS placard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... the POISON GAS placard and the symbol must be white. The background of the upper diamond must be black and the lower point of the upper diamond must be 65 mm (25/8 inches) above the horizontal center...

  1. 49 CFR 172.416 - POISON GAS label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... POISON GAS label and the symbol must be white. The background of the upper diamond must be black and the lower point of the upper diamond must be 14 mm (0.54 inches) above the horizontal center line....

  2. 49 CFR 172.416 - POISON GAS label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... POISON GAS label and the symbol must be white. The background of the upper diamond must be black and the lower point of the upper diamond must be 14 mm (0.54 inches) above the horizontal center line....

  3. 49 CFR 172.540 - POISON GAS placard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... the POISON GAS placard and the symbol must be white. The background of the upper diamond must be black and the lower point of the upper diamond must be 65 mm (25/8 inches) above the horizontal center...

  4. 49 CFR 172.416 - POISON GAS label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... POISON GAS label and the symbol must be white. The background of the upper diamond must be black and the lower point of the upper diamond must be 14 mm (0.54 inches) above the horizontal center line....

  5. 49 CFR 172.540 - POISON GAS placard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... the POISON GAS placard and the symbol must be white. The background of the upper diamond must be black and the lower point of the upper diamond must be 65 mm (25/8 inches) above the horizontal center...

  6. Pilot study on agricultural pesticide poisoning in Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Ouedraogo, Mustapha; Ouedraogo, Richard; Ilboudo, Sylvain; Guissou, Pierre I.

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiologic data related to agricultural pesticide poisoning cases in Burkina Faso were collected. The study was carried out using retrospective (from January 2002 to June 2010) surveys conducted among farmers and healthcare centers. One hundred and fifty-three (153) pest control products were recorded during the survey and 56 active ingredients were identified. Out of the 153 pest control products, 49 (i.e. 32%) were authorized for sale in Burkina Faso. The main risk factors are socio-demographic characteristics of farmers, their low education level, and some attitudes and practices on using agricultural pesticides. Pesticide poisonings are relatively frequent and their management was not always efficacious. Actions are needed to reduce pesticide poisoning as a global public health problem and to improve management of pesticide poisoning. To this purpose, advanced investigations should be carried out over a longer period of time to complement the present pilot study. PMID:24678256

  7. Nek4 Status Differentially Alters Sensitivity to Microtubule Poisons

    E-print Network

    Doles, Jason D.

    Microtubule poisons are widely used in cancer treatment, but the factors determining the relative efficacy of different drugs in this class remain obscure. In this study, we identified the NIMA kinase Nek4 in a genetic ...

  8. Carbon Monoxide Poisoning - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Carbon Monoxide Poisoning English Envenenamento por monóxido de carbono - português (Portuguese) PDF Centers for Disease Control and ... Você pode evitar a exposição ao monóxido de carbono - português (Portuguese) PDF Centers for Disease Control and ...

  9. 'Mud Bogging' Motor Sport Tied to Carbon Monoxide Poisonings, Deaths

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Poisonings, Deaths Experts recommend getting out of stuck vehicles, and having portable CO detectors To use the ... its name implies, mud bogging involves navigating a vehicle through muddy pits or tracks. The problem is, ...

  10. Be Food Safe: Protect Yourself from Food Poisoning

    MedlinePLUS

    ... this? Submit Button Past Emails CDC Features Be Food Safe: Protect Yourself from Food Poisoning Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Most ... had diarrhea for more than 3 days. Be Food-Safe Savvy: Know the Risks and Rules Everyone ...

  11. Reassessment of the microcytic anemia of lead poisoning

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, A.R.; Trotzky, M.S.; Pincus, D.

    1981-06-01

    Hematologic abnormalities in childhood lead poisoning may be due, in part, to the presence of other disorders, such as iron deficiency or thalassemia minor. In order to reassess increased lead burden as a cause of microcytic anemia, we studied 58 children with class III or IV lead poisoning, normal iron stores, and no inherited hemoglobinopathy. Anemia occurred in 12% and microcytosis in 21% of these children. The combination of anemia and microcytosis was found in only one of 58 patients (2%). When only children with class IV lead poisoning were studied, the occurrence of microcytosis increased to 46%. However, the combination of microcytosis and anemia was found in only one of these 13 more severely affected patients. Microcytic anemia was similarly uncommon in children with either blood lead concentration greater than or equal to 50 microgram/100 ml. These data indicate that microcytosis and anemia occur much less commonly than previously reported in childhood lead poisoning uncomplicated by other hematologic disorders.

  12. Minimal physical requirements for crystal growth self-poisoning

    E-print Network

    Stephen Whitelam; Yuba Raj Dahal; Jeremy D. Schmit

    2015-10-19

    Self-poisoning is a kinetic trap that can impair or prevent crystal growth in a wide variety of physical settings. Here we use dynamic mean-field theory and computer simulation to argue that poisoning is ubiquitous because its emergence requires only the notion that a molecule can bind in two (or more) ways to a crystal; that those ways are not energetically equivalent; and that the associated binding events occur with sufficiently unequal probability. If these conditions are met then the steady-state growth rate is in general a non-monotonic function of the thermodynamic driving force for crystal growth, which is the characteristic of poisoning. Our results also indicate that relatively small changes of system parameters could be used to induce recovery from poisoning.

  13. An interesting cause of pulmonary emboli: Acute carbon monoxide poisoning

    SciTech Connect

    Sevinc, A.; Savli, H.; Atmaca, H.

    2005-07-01

    Carbon monoxide poisoning, a public health problem of considerable significance, is a relatively frequent event today, resulting in thousands of hospitalizations annually. A 70-year-old lady was seen in the emergency department with a provisional diagnosis of carbon monoxide poisoning. The previous night, she slept in a tightly closed room heated with coal ember. She was found unconscious in the morning with poor ventilation. She had a rare presentation of popliteal vein thrombosis, pulmonary emboli, and possible tissue necrosis with carbon monoxide poisoning. Oxygen treatment with low-molecular-weight heparin (nadroparine) and warfarin therapy resulted in an improvement in both popliteal and pulmonary circulations. In conclusion, the presence of pulmonary emboli should be sought in patients with carbon monoxide poisoning.

  14. Secondary gastric impaction associated with ragwort poisoning in three ponies.

    PubMed

    Milne, E M; Pogson, D M; Doxey, D L

    1990-05-19

    Poisoning with Senecio jacobaea (ragwort) is a common cause of chronic liver disease in horses in Britain. The major clinical signs are the result of hepatic failure but gastric impaction has recently been associated with the disease. The present paper describes three cases of secondary gastric impaction associated with ragwort poisoning. In each case the impaction was the cause of death or necessitated euthanasia. PMID:2368275

  15. Recent Advances in the Treatment of Organophosphorous Poisonings

    PubMed Central

    Balali-Mood, Mahdi; Saber, Hamidreza

    2012-01-01

    Organophosphorous compounds have been employed as pesticides and chemical warfare nerve agents. Toxicity of organophosphorous compounds is a result of excessive cholinergic stimulation through inhibition of acetyl cholinesterase. Clinical manifestations include cholinergic syndromes, central nervous system and cardiovascular disorders. Organophosphorous pesticide poisonings are common in developing worlds including Iran and Sri Lanka. Nerve agents were used during the Iraq-Iran war in 1983-1988 and in a terrorist attack in Japan in 1994-1995. Following decontamination, depending on the severity of intoxication the administration of atropine to counteract muscarinic over-stimulation, and an oxime to reactivate acetyl cholinesterase are indicated. Supportive and intensive care therapy including diazepam to control convulsions and mechanical respiration may be required. Recent investigations have revealed that intravenous infusion of sodium bicarbonate to produce mild to moderate alkalinization is effective. Gacyclidine; an antiglutamatergic compound, was also proved to be beneficial in conjunction with atropine, pralidoxime, and diazepam in nerve agent poisoning. Intravenous magnesium sulfate decreased hospitalization duration and improved outcomes in patients with organophosphorous poisoning. Bio-scavengers including fresh frozen plasma or albumin have recently been suggested as a useful therapy through clearing of free organophosphates. Hemofiltration and antioxidants are also suggested for organophosphorous poisoning. Recombinant bacterial phosphotriesterases and hydrolases that are able to transfer organophosphorous-degrading enzymes are very promising in delayed treatment of organophosphorous poisoning. Recently, encapsulation of drugs or enzymes in nanocarriers has also been proposed. Given the signs and symptoms of organophosphorous poisoning, health professionals should remain updated about the recent advances in treatment of organophosphorous poisoning poisonings. PMID:23115436

  16. Arsenic poisoning in central Kentucky: a case report.

    PubMed

    Kelafant, G A; Kasarskis, E J; Horstman, S W; Cohen, C; Frank, A L

    1993-12-01

    A recent case of chronic arsenic intoxication due to prolonged accidental ingestion of a commercially available crabgrass killer illustrates one of the more common etiologies of present day arsenic poisoning. A review of 20 years of arsenic poisoning at the University of Kentucky (21 cases) revealed no cases attributable to an industrial source. A tabulation of the 21 most recent cases is included. PMID:7508681

  17. Potential plant poisonings in dogs and cats in southern Africa.

    PubMed

    Botha, C J; Penrith, M L

    2009-06-01

    Plant poisoning occurs less commonly in dogs and cats than in herbivorous livestock, but numerous cases have been documented worldwide, most of them caused by common and internationally widely cultivated ornamental garden and house plants. Few cases of poisoning of cats and dogs have been reported in southern Africa, but many of the plants that have caused poisoning in these species elsewhere are widely available in the subregion and are briefly reviewed in terms of toxic principles, toxicity, species affected, clinical signs, and prognosis. The list includes Melia azedarach (syringa), Brunfelsia spp. (yesterday, today and tomorrow), Datura stramonium (jimsonweed, stinkblaar), a wide variety of lilies and lily-like plants, cycads, plants that contain soluble oxalates, plants containing cardiac glycosides and other cardiotoxins and euphorbias (Euphorbia pulcherrima, E. tirucalli). Poisoning by plant products such as macadamia nuts, onions and garlic, grapes and raisins, cannabis (marijuana, dagga) or hashish and castor oil seed or seedcake is also discussed. Many of the poisonings are not usually fatal, but others frequently result in death unless rapid action is taken by the owner and the veterinarian, underlining the importance of awareness of the poisonous potential of a number of familiar plants. PMID:19831265

  18. Nodal Diffusion Burnable Poison Treatment for Prismatic Reactor Cores

    SciTech Connect

    A. M. Ougouag; R. M. Ferrer

    2010-10-01

    The prismatic block version of the High Temperature Reactor (HTR) considered as a candidate Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR)design may use burnable poison pins in locations at some corners of the fuel blocks (i.e., assembly equivalent structures). The presence of any highly absorbing materials, such as these burnable poisons, within fuel blocks for hexagonal geometry, graphite-moderated High Temperature Reactors (HTRs) causes a local inter-block flux depression that most nodal diffusion-based method have failed to properly model or otherwise represent. The location of these burnable poisons near vertices results in an asymmetry in the morphology of the assemblies (or blocks). Hence the resulting inadequacy of traditional homogenization methods, as these “spread” the actually local effect of the burnable poisons throughout the assembly. Furthermore, the actual effect of the burnable poison is primarily local with influence in its immediate vicinity, which happens to include a small region within the same assembly as well as similar regions in the adjacent assemblies. Traditional homogenization methods miss this artifact entirely. This paper presents a novel method for treating the local effect of the burnable poison explicitly in the context of a modern nodal method.

  19. Moldy Sweet Clover (Dicoumarol) Poisoning in Saskatchewan Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Blakley, B. R.

    1985-01-01

    Information pertaining to 286 animals from 56 herds affected by moldy sweet clover poisoning in Saskatchewan during 1983 was tabulated from the toxicology laboratory records. The morbidity in the affected herds was 12.1%, with a case fatality of 65.5%. Aborted fetuses and calves less than two weeks of age were affected with sweet clover poisoning most often. Sweet clover poisoning was more common during the period from January to April, 91.6% of the morbid animals were seen at this time. The rates of poisoning in beef and dairy cattle were estimated to be 0.156 and 0.095 cases per 1000 cattle respectively. Sweet clover poisoning was observed with the use of large of small bales of sweet clover in 78.9% of the affected herds. The geographical distribution of sweet clover poisoning in Saskatchewan followed the northern regions of the dark brown soil zone and the southern regions of the black soil zone which extend from the mid northwest portion of the province to the extreme southeast region. Dicoumarol concentrations were determined on a variety of tissues including liver, plasma, serum, kidney and muscle. Significant differences in the liver dicoumarol concentrations were found between animals of different ages (P = 0.045). Livers from younger animals, in particular, the fetus, contained lower concentrations of dicoumarol. ImagesFigure 1. PMID:17422592

  20. Household chemicals poisoning admissions in Zimbabwe's main urban centres.

    PubMed

    Nhachi, C F; Kasilo, O M

    1994-02-01

    1. A retrospective analysis to evaluate the epidemiology of poisoning by household chemicals based on admissions at Zimbabwe's six main urban hospitals over a 10-year period (1980-1989) was performed. 2. A total of 1192 household chemicals poisoning cases were recorded, and this constituted 20% of all poisoning cases (6018) recorded during the study period. 3. The 0-5 year age group constituted the majority of cases (61.3%), then the 16-25 and 26-30 year age groups accounting for 11% and 5.2% respectively. 4. The sex distribution showed that 43.7% were females. 5. Most incidences were accidental (66.8%). Suicides and/or parasuicides accounted for 19%. 6. Mortality was recorded at 13% and most of the deaths were suicides. 7. Paraffin (Kerosene) was the most common poisoning agent accounting for 68% of the cases. This was followed by rat poisons (5.8%), bleaches (5.1%) and caustic soda (3.3%). 8. The incidence of poisoning with household chemicals could be reduced by health education directed to parents emphasising the importance of safe storage of paraffin and other household chemicals, and by legislation to stop retailers selling paraffin for domestic use in second-hand containers. PMID:7908812