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1

[Fatal poisoning caused by puffer fish (Tetrodontidae): report of a case involving a child].  

PubMed

A case of poisoning resulting from ingestion of viscera from a spotted puffer fish (Sphoeroides testudineus) by a two-year-old child is described. The child presented cold sweating, progressive muscle weakness, cardiorespiratory arrest and death. The risks of consuming the meat and viscera of puffer fish, which is a common occurrence in certain regions of Brazil, are discussed. PMID:20305977

Santana Neto, Pedro de Lima; Aquino, Elisabeth Cristina Moreira de; Silva, José Afrânio da; Amorim, Maria Lucineide Porto; Oliveira Júnior, Américo Ernesto de; Haddad Júnior, Vidal

2010-01-01

2

Puffer fish  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Puffer fish can move easily through the water, but they are normally very slow. They can inflate themselves to a spherical shape to appear larger and more threatening to a potential predator. The spikes of the fish also help in allowing it to escape a predatory attack.

Ibrahim Iujaz (None;)

2007-06-08

3

Saxitoxin Puffer Fish Poisoning in the United States, with the First Report of Pyrodinium bahamense as the Putative Toxin Source  

PubMed Central

Background From January 2002 to May 2004, 28 puffer fish poisoning (PFP) cases in Florida, New Jersey, Virginia, and New York were linked to the Indian River Lagoon (IRL) in Florida. Saxitoxins (STXs) of unknown source were first identified in fillet remnants from a New Jersey PFP case in 2002. Methods We used the standard mouse bioassay (MBA), receptor binding assay (RBA), mouse neuroblastoma cytotoxicity assay (MNCA), Ridascreen ELISA, MIST Alert assay, HPLC, and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) to determine the presence of STX, decarbamoyl STX (dc-STX), and N-sulfocarbamoyl (B1) toxin in puffer fish tissues, clonal cultures, and natural bloom samples of Pyrodinium bahamense from the IRL. Results We found STXs in 516 IRL southern (Sphoeroides nephelus), checkered (Sphoeroides testudineus), and bandtail (Sphoeroides spengleri) puffer fish. During 36 months of monitoring, we detected STXs in skin, muscle, and viscera, with concentrations up to 22,104 ?g STX equivalents (eq)/100 g tissue (action level, 80 ?g STX eq/100 g tissue) in ovaries. Puffer fish tissues, clonal cultures, and natural bloom samples of P. bahamense from the IRL tested toxic in the MBA, RBA, MNCA, Ridascreen ELISA, and MIST Alert assay and positive for STX, dc-STX, and B1 toxin by HPLC and LC-MS. Skin mucus of IRL southern puffer fish captive for 1-year was highly toxic compared to Florida Gulf coast puffer fish. Therefore, we confirm puffer fish to be a hazardous reservoir of STXs in Florida’s marine waters and implicate the dinoflagellate P. bahamense as the putative toxin source. Conclusions Associated with fatal paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) in the Pacific but not known to be toxic in the western Atlantic, P. bahamense is an emerging public health threat. We propose characterizing this food poisoning syndrome as saxitoxin puffer fish poisoning (SPFP) to distinguish it from PFP, which is traditionally associated with tetrodotoxin, and from PSP caused by STXs in shellfish.

Landsberg, Jan H.; Hall, Sherwood; Johannessen, Jan N.; White, Kevin D.; Conrad, Stephen M.; Abbott, Jay P.; Flewelling, Leanne J.; Richardson, R. William; Dickey, Robert W.; Jester, Edward L.E.; Etheridge, Stacey M.; Deeds, Jonathan R.; Van Dolah, Frances M.; Leighfield, Tod A.; Zou, Yinglin; Beaudry, Clarke G.; Benner, Ronald A.; Rogers, Patricia L.; Scott, Paula S.; Kawabata, Kenji; Wolny, Jennifer L.; Steidinger, Karen A.

2006-01-01

4

Clinical and epidemiological study of 27 poisonings caused by ingesting puffer fish (Tetrodontidae) in the states of Santa Catarina and Bahia, Brazil.  

PubMed

Puffer fish can be poisonous due to the presence of the potent neurotoxins such as Tetrodotoxin (TTX) and Saxitoxin (STX) found in its tissues. The authors report 27 human poisonings from ingestion of puffer fish in patients treated at Toxicology Centers in the states of Santa Catarina and Bahia, Brazil, between 1984 and January 2009. Poisonings were classified as moderate (52%) and severe (33%), two deaths were observed. Early diagnosis is very important to ensure respiratory support. PMID:20305956

Silva, Claudia Carvalho Pestana; Zannin, Marlene; Rodrigues, Daisy Schwab; Santos, Claudia Regina dos; Correa, Ieda Ana; Haddad Junior, Vidal

2010-01-01

5

Poisoning - fish and shellfish  

MedlinePLUS

Fish poisoning; Dinoflagellate poisoning; Seafood contamination; Paralytic shellfish poisoning; Ciguatera poisoning ... algae and algae-like organisms called dinoflagellates. Small fish that eat the algae become contaminated. If larger ...

6

Toxicity of Cultured Bullseye Puffer Fish Sphoeroides annulatus  

PubMed Central

The toxin content in various life cycle stages of tank-cultivated bullseye puffer (Sphoeroides annulatus) were analyzed by mouse bioassay and ESI-MS spectrometry analysis. The presence of toxin content was determined in extracts of sperm, eggs, embryo, larvae, post-larvae, juvenile, pre-adult, and adult fish, as well as in food items used during the cultivation of the species. Our findings show that only the muscle of juveniles, the viscera of pre-adults, and muscle, liver, and gonad of adult specimens were slightly toxic (<1 mouse unit). Thus, cultivated S. annulatus, as occurs with other cultivated puffer fish species, does not represent a food safety risk to consumers. This is the first report of toxin analysis covering the complete life stages of a puffer fish under controlled conditions.

Nunez-Vazquez, Erick J.; Garcia-Ortega, Armando; Campa-Cordova, Angel I.; de la Parra, Isabel Abdo; Ibarra-Martinez, Lilia; Heredia-Tapia, Alejandra; Ochoa, Jose L.

2012-01-01

7

A Tetrodotoxin-Producing Vibrio Strain, LM1, from the Puffer Fish Fugu vermicularis radiatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

identified as members of the genus Vibrio (21). Also, Simidu et al. (29) demonstrated that many species of marine bacteria, including Vibrio spp. (21), Pseudomonas spp. (33), and actino- mycetes (1), produce TTX. Three individual F. vermicularis radiatus puffer fish (male; body weight, 45 g) were collected at Pusan, Korea, in March 1998, transported live to the laboratory, and maintained

MYOUNG-JA LEE; DONG-YOUN JEONG; WOO-SEONG KIM; HYUN-DAE KIM; CHEORL-HO KIM; WON-WHAN PARK; YONG-HA PARK; KYUNG-SAM KIM; HYUNG-MIN KIM; DONG-SOO KIM

2000-01-01

8

Toxic Marine Puffer Fish in Thailand Seas and Tetrodotoxin They Contained  

PubMed Central

A total of 155 puffers caught from two of Thailand’s seas, the Gulf of Siam and the Andaman seas, during April to July 2010 were included in this study. Among 125 puffers from the Gulf of Siam, 18 were Lagocephalus lunaris and 107 were L. spadiceus which were the same two species found previously in 2000-2001. Thirty puffers were collected from the Andaman seas, 28 Tetraodon nigroviridis and two juvenile Arothron reticularis; the two new species totally replaced the nine species found previously in 1992-1993. Conventional mouse bioassay was used to determine the toxicity in all fish tissue extracts, i.e., liver, reproductive tissue, digestive tissue and muscle. One of each of the species L. lunaris and L. spadiceus (5.56 and 0.93%, respectively) were toxic. All 28 T. nigroviridis and 2 A. reticularis (100%) from the Andaman seas were toxic. The toxicity scores in T. nigroviridis tissues were much higher than in the respective tissues of the other three fish species. Liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) revealed that the main toxic principle was tetrodotoxin (TTX). This study is the first to report TTX in L. spadiceus. Our findings raised a concern for people, not only Thais but also inhabitants of other countries situated on the Andaman coast; consuming puffers of the Andaman seas is risky due to potential TTX intoxication.

Chulanetra, Monrat; Sookrung, Nitat; Srimanote, Potjanee; Indrawattana, Nitaya; Thanongsaksrikul, Jeeraphong; Sakolvaree, Yuwaporn; Chongsa-Nguan, Manas; Kurazono, Hisao; Chaicumpa, Wanpen

2011-01-01

9

Characterisation, expression and promoter analysis of an interleukin 10 homologue in the puffer fish, Fugu rubripes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using computer-based tools, an interleukin (IL) 10 homologue has been identified from the puffer fish ( Fugu rubripes) genome database. This is the first report on the existence of an IL-10 homologue in a non-mammalian vertebrate species. The Fugu IL-10 gene is located within a 2790-bp fragment including 549 bp of coding sequence which translates into an 183-amino-acid protein. It is

Jun Zou; Melody S. Clark; Chris J. Secombes

2003-01-01

10

Distribution of tetrodotoxin, saxitoxin, and their analogs among tissues of the puffer fish Fugu pardalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The anatomical distribution of tetrodotoxin (TTX), saxitoxin (STX) and their analogs (TTXs, STXs) in three female and three male specimens of the marine puffer fish Fugu pardalis from Miyagi Prefecture, 2005, Japan, were studied. 5-DeoxyTTX, 11-deoxyTTX, and 5,6,11-trideoxyTTX were quantified by liquid chromatography\\/mass spectrometry (LC\\/MS) for the first time, and other TTXs and STXs were determined by liquid chromatography-fluorescent detection

Junho Jang; Mari Yotsu-Yamashita

2006-01-01

11

Metabolomic investigation of pathogenesis of myxosporean emaciation disease of tiger puffer fish Takifugu rubripes.  

PubMed

Serum biochemical analysis was undertaken to study the pathophysiological details of emaciation disease of the tiger puffer fish Takifugu rubripes (Temminck and Schlegel). Serum parameters were measured by biochemical analysis using automated dry chemistry and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Serum concentrations of albumin, amylase, calcium, creatinine, glucose and total protein were significantly lower in the emaciated fish when compared with those of normal fish. Regression analyses found close correlation between concentrations of total protein, albumin, amylase, glucose and progress of the disease. In contrast, serum alanine aminotransferase increased significantly in emaciated fish indicating liver function disorder. Further, GC/MS metabolic profiling of the puffer serum showed that the profile of the emaciated fish was distinct to that of non-infected control. The serum content of amino acids including glycine, 5-oxo-proline and proline, and ascorbic acid, fumaric acid and glycerol increased significantly in serum in moderately emaciated fish. The serum glucose, linolenic acid and tyrosine level decreased significantly in the late phase of the disease. Our results clearly show that prolonged intestinal damage caused by myxosporean infection impairs absorption of nutrients, resulting in extreme emaciation. PMID:23952965

Kodama, H; Otani, K; Iwasaki, T; Takenaka, S; Horitani, Y; Togase, H

2014-07-01

12

Species Discrimination among Three Kinds of Puffer Fish Using an Electronic Nose Combined with Olfactory Sensory Evaluation  

PubMed Central

Species discrimination among three kinds of puffer fish, Takifugu obscurus, Takifugu flavidus and Takifugu rubripes, was conducted using an electronic nose combined with olfactory sensory evaluation. All data were treated by multivariate data processing based on principal component analysis (PCA) and discriminant factor analysis (DFA). The results showed the discriminant model by PCA method and DFA method. Using PCA and DFA, it was shown that the electronic nose was able to reasonably distinguish between each of the eleven puffer fish groups, with a discrimination index of 85. The olfactory sensory evaluation was undertaken in accordance to Sensory analysis—Methodology—Initiation and training of assessors in the detection and recognition of odors (BS ISO 5496-2006), and the results showed that the evaluation was able to identify puffer fish samples according to their species, geographical origin and age. Results from this analysis demonstrate that the E-nose can be used to complement the discrimination of odors by sensory evaluation from the three species of puffer fish studied here.

Zhang, Meixiu; Wang, Xichang; Liu, Yuan; Xu, Xinglian; Zhou, Guanghong

2012-01-01

13

Naturally Occuring Fish Poisons from Plants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since prehistoric times, cultures throughout the world have used piscicidal (fish poisoning) plants for fishing. In recent times, scientists have identified many of the plant compounds responsible for killing the fish and have found that these compounds possess other important biological properties, such as insecticidal and anti-cancer activities. This article reviews some of the chemical research that has been performed on naturally occurring fish poisons, including plant sources, methods of use, toxicity, and mechanisms of action of piscicides.

Cannon, Jonathan G.; Burton, Robert A.; Wood, Steven G.; Owen, Noel L.

2004-10-01

14

Mosquito larvicidal and ovicidal activity of puffer fish extracts against Anopheles stephensi, Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).  

PubMed

The extracts of liver (LE), ovary (OE), skin (SE) and muscle (ME) tissues of four species of puffer fishes viz., Arothron hispidus, Lagocephalus inermis, Lagocephalus scleratus and Chelonodon patoca were evaluated against larvae and eggs of three mosquito vectors, Anopheles stephensi, Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti. The LC50 values were 1194.26, 1382.73 (LE); 1421.42, 1982.73 (OE); 7116.86, 15038.98 (ME) and 10817.8 ppm (SE) for An. stephensi and Cx. quinquefasciatus respectively for A. hispidus. In the case of L. inermis, the LC50 values were 1163.83, 1556.1 and 2426.38 (LE); 1653.53, 2734.74 (OE); 6067.47 (ME) and 10283.04 ppm (SE) for An. stephensi, Cx. quinquefasciatus and Ae. aegypti respectively. The LC50 values were 1509.98, 1608.69 (LE) and 1414.9, 2278.69 ppm (OE) for An. stephensi and Cx. quinquefasciatus respectively for the extracts of L. scleratus. In the case C. patoca extracts the LC50 values were 1182.29, 1543.00, 2441.03 (LE) and 1076.13, 2582.11 ppm (OE) for An. stephensi, Cx. quinquefasciatus and Ae. aegypti respectively. OE and LE of all puffer fishes exhibited zero percent egg hatchability from 600 to 1000 ppm against eggs of An. stephensi and Cx. quinquefasciatus. This study shows that puffer toxins are effective in killing the larvae and eggs of mosquitoes. PMID:23665705

Samidurai, Kaliyaperumal; Mathew, Nisha

2013-03-01

15

Sodium and Potassium Distribution in Puffer Fish Supramedullary Nerve Cell Bodies  

PubMed Central

The Na and K concentration in single supramedullary neurons of the puffer fish (Spheroides maculatus) was measured using a dual channel integrating ultramicroflame photometer. The cells were frozen in situ, sectioned at low temperatures, and freeze-dried to prevent artefactual movements of cations. The density of the nuclear fragments was 0.15, significantly less than cytoplasm's 0.21. The sucrose-14C "space" was 2.1–4.7% in cytoplasm fragments and 0.9–2.1% in nuclear fragments. The K concentration in cytoplasm averaged 134 mmoles/liter tissue volume and in nuclei, 113. The Na concentration in cytoplasm fragments varied between 56 and 138 mmoles/liter per tissue volume; in nuclei between 40 and 135, and in perineural tissue between 55 and 114. This intracellular Na is several times greater than the Na concentration expected from previous estimates. It is probable, however, that the intracellular Na activity is less than half that of the Na concentration, suggesting that much of the intracellular Na is bound to organic molecules within the cell.

Katzman, Robert; Lehrer, Gerard M.; Wilson, Clarence E.

1969-01-01

16

Genomic structure and nucleotide sequence of the p55 gene of the puffer fish Fugu rubripes  

SciTech Connect

The p55 gene, which codes for a 55-kDa erythrocyte membrane protein, has been cloned and sequenced from the genome of the Japanese puffer fish Fugu rubripes (Fugu). This organism has the smallest recorded vertebrate genome and therefore provides an efficient way to sequence genes at the genomic level. The gene encoding p55 covers 5.5 kb from the beginning to the end of the coding sequence, four to six times smaller than the estimated size of the human gene, and is encoded by 12 exons. The structure of this gene has not been previously elucidated, but from this and other data we would predict a similar or identical structure in mammals. The predicted amino acid sequence of this gene in Fugu, coding for a polypeptide of 467 amino acids, is very similar to that of the human gene with the exception of the first two exons, which differ considerably. The predicted Fugu protein has a molecular weight (52.6 kDa compared with 52.3 kDa) and an isoelectric point very similar to those of human p55. In human, the p55 gene lies in the gene-dense Xq28 region, just 30 kb 3{prime} to the Factor VIII gene, and is estimated to cover 20-30 kb. Its 5{prime} end is associated with a CpG island, although there is no evidence that this is the case in Fugu. The small size of genes in Fugu and the high coding homology that they share with their mammalian equivalents, both in structure and sequence, make this compact vertebrate genome an ideal model for genomic studies. 23 refs., 3 figs.

Elgar, G.; Rattray, F.; Greystrong, J.; Brenner, S. [Univ. of Cambridge (United Kingdom)] [Univ. of Cambridge (United Kingdom)

1995-06-10

17

Gill transcriptome response to changes in environmental calcium in the green spotted puffer fish  

PubMed Central

Background Calcium ion is tightly regulated in body fluids and for euryhaline fish, which are exposed to rapid changes in environmental [Ca2+], homeostasis is especially challenging. The gill is the main organ of active calcium uptake and therefore plays a crucial role in the maintenance of calcium ion homeostasis. To study the molecular basis of the short-term responses to changing calcium availability, the whole gill transcriptome obtained by Super Serial Analysis of Gene Expression (SuperSAGE) of the euryhaline teleost green spotted puffer fish, Tetraodon nigroviridis, exposed to water with altered [Ca2+] was analysed. Results Transfer of T. nigroviridis from 10 ppt water salinity containing 2.9 mM Ca2+ to high (10 mM Ca2+ ) and low (0.01 mM Ca2+) calcium water of similar salinity for 2-12 h resulted in 1,339 differentially expressed SuperSAGE tags (26-bp transcript identifiers) in gills. Of these 869 tags (65%) were mapped to T. nigroviridis cDNAs or genomic DNA and 497 (57%) were assigned to known proteins. Thirteen percent of the genes matched multiple tags indicating alternative RNA transcripts. The main enriched gene ontology groups belong to Ca2+ signaling/homeostasis but also muscle contraction, cytoskeleton, energy production/homeostasis and tissue remodeling. K-means clustering identified co-expressed transcripts with distinct patterns in response to water [Ca2+] and exposure time. Conclusions The generated transcript expression patterns provide a framework of novel water calcium-responsive genes in the gill during the initial response after transfer to different [Ca2+]. This molecular response entails initial perception of alterations, activation of signaling networks and effectors and suggests active remodeling of cytoskeletal proteins during the initial acclimation process. Genes related to energy production and energy homeostasis are also up-regulated, probably reflecting the increased energetic needs of the acclimation response. This study is the first genome-wide transcriptome analysis of fish gills and is an important resource for future research on the short-term mechanisms involved in the gill acclimation responses to environmental Ca2+ changes and osmoregulation.

2010-01-01

18

The evolution of vertebrate blood coagulation as viewed from a comparison of puffer fish and sea squirt genomes  

PubMed Central

The blood coagulation scheme for the puffer fish, Fugu rubripes, has been reconstructed on the basis of orthologs of genes for mammalian blood clotting factors being present in its genome. As expected, clotting follows the same fundamental pattern as has been observed in other vertebrates, even though genes for some clotting factors found in mammals are absent and some others are present in more than one gene copy. All told, 26 different proteins involved in clotting or fibrinolysis were searched against the puffer fish genome. Of these, orthologs were found for 21. Genes for the ``contact system'' factors (factor XI, factor XII, and prekallikrein) could not be identified. On the other hand, two genes were found for factor IX and four for factor VII. It was evident that not all four factor VII genes are functional, essential active-site residues having been replaced in two of them. A search of the genome of a urochordate, the sea squirt, Ciona intestinalis, did not turn up any genuine orthologs for these 26 factors, although paralogs and/or constituent domains were evident for virtually all of them.

Jiang, Yong; Doolittle, Russell F.

2003-01-01

19

Naturally Occurring Fish Poisons from Plants  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The fish poisons derived from plants used throughout the world, not only as piscicides but also for a range of other uses, including insecticident and in folk medicines, is presented. The aim of this review is to provide a useful background for students interested in natural products.

Cannon, Jonathan G.; Burton, Robert A.; Wood, Steven G.; Owen, Noel L.

2004-01-01

20

Food poisonings by ingestion of cyprinid fish.  

PubMed

Raw or dried gallbladders of cyprinid fish have long been ingested as a traditional medicine in the Asian countries, particularly in China, for ameliorating visual acuity, rheumatism, and general health; however, sporadic poisoning incidences have occurred after their ingestion. The poisoning causes complex symptoms in patients, including acute renal failure, liver dysfunction, paralysis, and convulsions of limbs. The causative substance for the poisoning was isolated, and its basic properties were examined. The purified toxin revealed a minimum lethal dose of 2.6 mg/20 g in mouse, when injected intraperitoneally. The main symptoms were paralysis and convulsions of the hind legs, along with other neurological signs. Liver biopsy of the euthanized mice clearly exhibited hepatocytes necrosis and infiltration of neutrophils and lymphocytes, suggesting the acute dysfunction of the liver. Blood tests disclosed the characteristics of acute renal failure and liver injury. Infrared (IR) spectrometry, fast atom bombardment (FAB) mass spectrometry, and 1H- and 13C-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis indicated, a molecular formula of C27H48O8S, containing a sulfate ester group for the toxin. Thus, we concluded that the structure of carp toxin to be 5?-cyprinol sulfate (5?-cholestane-3?, 7?, 12?, 26, 27-pentol 26-sulfate). This indicated that carp toxin is a nephro- and hepato- toxin, which could be the responsible toxin for carp bile poisoning in humans. PMID:24476713

Asakawa, Manabu; Noguchi, Tamao

2014-02-01

21

Saxitoxin as a toxic principle of a freshwater puffer, Tetraodon fangi, in Thailand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Saxitoxin was identified in a freshwater puffer, Tetraodon fangi, which caused food poisoning in Thailand. Tetrodotoxin, a puffer toxin, was not detected in the species by the HPLC-fluorometric analysis, showing that tetrodotoxin is absent or under any detectable level. The result of this study shows that saxitoxin can be a major toxin in puffer.

Shigeru Sato; Masaaki Kodama; Takehiko Ogata; Kriengsag Saitanu; Mami Furuya; Kazuo Hirayama; Katsumi Kakinuma

1997-01-01

22

Isolation of a Lysinibacillus fusiformis strain with tetrodotoxin-producing ability from puffer fish Fugu obscurus and the characterization of this strain.  

PubMed

Six dominant strains were isolated from the livers of the puffer fish Fugu obscurus and were screened for their TTX production-ability. Electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) analyses revealed that strain B-1 produced TTX and related substances; mouse bioassay revealed that 23.9 mouse units (MU) of toxins were present in 200ml of broth medium. On the basis of the physiological and biochemical characteristics of this strain and the results of 16S rRNA analysis, strain B-1 was identified as Lysinibacillus fusiformis. PMID:20576513

Wang, Jun; Fan, Yanhui; Yao, Zhigang

2010-09-15

23

Gill transcriptome response to changes in environmental calcium in the green spotted puffer fish  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Calcium ion is tightly regulated in body fluids and for euryhaline fish, which are exposed to rapid changes in environmental [Ca2+], homeostasis is especially challenging. The gill is the main organ of active calcium uptake and therefore plays a crucial role in the maintenance of calcium ion homeostasis. To study the molecular basis of the short-term responses to changing

Hideo Matsumura; Michael AS Thorne; Deborah M Power; Ryohei Terauchi; Richard Reinhardt; Adelino VM Canário

2010-01-01

24

A case of ciguatera fish poisoning in a French traveler.  

PubMed

Ciguatera is a toxic poisoning due to ingestion of fish and is rarely reported in France. Little is known about this imported tropical disease. We present a case observed in Paris in a traveller returning from the Dominican Republic. PMID:19000571

Develoux, M; Le Loup, G; Pialoux, G

2008-11-01

25

Synchronized diurnal and circadian expressions of four subtypes of melatonin receptor genes in the diencephalon of a puffer fish with lunar-related spawning cycles.  

PubMed

Multiple subtypes of melatonin receptors are expressed in neural and peripheral tissues to mediate melatonin actions on the regulation of circadian rhythms in vertebrates. To elucidate molecular basis of "circa" rhythms in the grass puffer Takifugu niphobles, which spawns synchronously with semilunar cycles, tissue distribution of four melatonin receptor subtype mRNAs (Mel(1a) 1.4, Mel(1a) 1.7, Mel(1b), and Mel(1c)) were examined, and diurnal and circadian changes in their absolute amounts were examined in the retina, diencephalon, and optic tectum. Mel(1a) 1.4, Mel(1a) 1.7, and Mel(1b) mRNAs were widely distributed in various brain regions, retina, pituitary, and peripheral tissues, whereas Mel(1c) mRNA was mainly detected in the nervous tissues and pituitary. All subtype genes showed diurnal expressions with one or two peaks during nighttime. When the fish were reared under constant darkness, the retinal expressions of Mel(1a) 1.7, Mel(1b), and Mel(1c) genes were markedly diminished but still showed circadian variations. In contrast, increased and synchronized expressions of the four subtype genes were noticeable with one peak at circadian time 18 in the diencephalon. The circadian expression profiles in the optic tectum were different among the subtypes. The present results suggest that melatonin receptor gene expression is regulated by circadian clock and light, but the effects of light are different among the tissues. The synchronized expressions of the four subtype genes in the diencephalon may be related to the exertion of reproductive rhythmicity in this puffer species. PMID:19560515

Ikegami, Taro; Motohashi, Eiji; Doi, Hiroyuki; Hattori, Atsuhiko; Ando, Hironori

2009-10-01

26

Induced ovulation using LHRHa in anadromous obscure puffer Takifugu obscurus cultured entirely in freshwater  

Microsoft Academic Search

Puffer fishes of the order Tetradontidae exist in both anadromous and non-anadromous seawater resident forms. The obscure puffer akifugu obscurus is an anadromous species whose intensive culture in freshwater has developed rapidly in China. To mass produce larvae for intensive culture, induction of ovulation of 3-year-old obscure puffer cultured entirely in freshwater was attempted by giving the fish multiple injections

Zhou Yang; Ya-Fen Chen

2003-01-01

27

JAMA Patient Page: Ciguatera Fish Poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... prevention is to avoid eating fish from warm-water areas where ciguatera is known to occur. Greater public awareness can help public health officials identify outbreaks and minimize their impact. Sources: US Food and Drug Administration, Centers for ...

28

Occurrence of a methyl derivative of saxitoxin in Bangladeshi freshwater puffers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new component of paralytic shellfish poison was isolated from a Bangladeshi freshwater puffer Tetraodon cutcutia. Its structure was deduced to be carbamoyl-N-methylsaxitoxin based on electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, [1H] NMR, and conversion experiments.

Lubna Zaman; Osamu Arakawa; Ako Shimosu; Yasuo Shida; Yoshio Onoue

1998-01-01

29

[Poisoning with weever fish venom: a case report].  

PubMed

Poland's access to the EU causes that there is the risk of poisoning from sources outside Poland. This is confirmed by the case reported below. The Weeverfish Trachinus draco lives in the coastal waters of West Africa and Europe (including those of the Mediterranean Sea) and belongs to the most poisonous fish species. The venom of Trachinus draco contains proteins that cause cellular membrane depolarisation, and haemolysis. A 35-yr. man was admitted to the Toxicological Department of the Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine for symptoms, such as: a strong pain, swelling and reddening of the left leg, that had appeared after contact with an unidentified fish when he had been enjoying a bath in the Mediterranean Sea. In the additional examinations, slight abnormalities were detected only in the results of blood agglutination test. The patient was discharged from the hospital 7 days later in good condition. PMID:20043595

?opaci?ski, Bogdan; Bak, Marek; Fiszer, Marta; Czerniak, Pawe?; Krakowiak, Anna

2009-01-01

30

Brief migration of the grass puffer, Takifugu niphobles , to fresh water from salt water  

Microsoft Academic Search

The grass puffer, Takifugu niphobles, is a peripheral freshwater fish often seen in brackish water. In the Sai River, Miyazu, Japan, we found that the grass puffer\\u000a migrate to fresh water from salt water in June and July. Most of the grass puffer stayed in fresh water for 3.6 h on average\\u000a and returned to the sea during the day. A

Akira Kato; Yukio Maeno; Shigehisa Hirose

2010-01-01

31

Delayed haemolytic activity by the freshwater puffer Tetraodon sp. toxin  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to elucidate the toxin composition of the freshwater puffer in Bangladesh, about 230 specimens of Tetraodon sp. were collected from 1997 to 1999 and extracted. After partitioning the toxins between an aqueous layer and a 1-butanol layer, the toxin in the aqueous layer was characterized as paralytic shellfish poison (PSP) (data not shown), while the toxin in the

S Taniyama; Y Mahmud; M. B Tanu; T Takatani; O Arakawa; T Noguchi

2001-01-01

32

Ciguatera fish poisoning - New York City, 2010-2011.  

PubMed

During August 2010-July 2011, the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene (DOHMH) received reports of six outbreaks and one single case of ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP), involving a total of 28 persons. CFP results from consumption of certain large, predatory, tropical reef fish that have bioaccumulated ciguatoxins (CTX). CFP is characterized by various gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, and neurologic symptoms. A prolonged period of acute illness can result, and the neurologic symptoms can last months, with variable asymptomatic and symptomatic periods. The first two outbreaks and the single case, involving 13 persons, were reported during August 6-September 13, 2010. DOHMH distributed a health alert in November 2010 requesting health-care providers be alert for CFP signs and symptoms. The health alert resulted in identification of 11 more cases that month and an additional two outbreaks involving four persons in July 2011. In comparison, only four CFP outbreaks, involving 21 persons total, had been reported in New York City (NYC) during the preceding 10 years (2000-2009). DOHMH's investigation revealed that 13 persons became ill after eating barracuda, and 15 became ill after eating grouper. Although specific and highly sensitive laboratory analyses can detect and confirm CTX in fish, no practical field tests are available for fish monitoring programs. CFP prevention depends on educating the public, seafood suppliers, and distributors about known CFP endemic areas and high-risk fish species. Traceback investigations of fish associated with outbreaks provide valuable information regarding fishing areas associated with CFP. Not all fish from CFP endemic areas are ciguatoxic, but persons who eat fish from endemic regions are at higher risk for CFP. If an illness is suspected to be CFP, public health authorities should be notified and informed of the case history for possible investigation and intervention measures. PMID:23364271

2013-02-01

33

Claudin-6, -10d and -10e contribute to seawater acclimation in the euryhaline puffer fish Tetraodon nigroviridis.  

PubMed

Expression profiles of claudin-6, -10d and -10e in the euryhaline teleost fish Tetraodon nigroviridis revealed claudin-6 in brain, eye, gill and skin tissue, while claudin-10d and -10e were found in brain, gill and skin only. In fishes, the gill and skin are important tissue barriers that interface directly with surrounding water, but these organs generally function differently in osmoregulation. Therefore, roles for gill and skin claudin-6, -10d and -10e in the osmoregulatory strategies of T. nigroviridis were investigated. In the gill epithelium, claudin-6, -10d and -10e co-localized with Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase immunoreactive (NKA-ir) ionocytes, and differences in sub-cellular localization could be observed in hypoosmotic (freshwater, FW) versus hyperosmotic (seawater, SW) environments. Claudin-10d and -10e abundance increased in the gills of fish acclimated to SW versus FW, while claudin-6 abundance decreased in the gills of fish acclimated to SW. Taken together with our knowledge of claudin-6 and -10 function in other vertebrates, data support the idea that in SW-acclimated T. nigroviridis, these claudins are abundant in gill ionocytes, where they contribute to the formation of a Na(+) shunt and 'leaky' epithelium, both of which are characteristic of salt-secreting SW fish gills. Skin claudin-10d and -10e abundance also increased in fish acclimated to SW versus those in FW, but so did claudin-6. In skin, claudin-6 was found to co-localize with NKA-ir cells, but claudin-10d and -10e did not. This study provides direct evidence that the gill epithelium contains salinity-responsive tight junction proteins that are abundant primarily in ionocytes. These same proteins also appear to play a role in the osmoregulatory physiology of the epidermis. PMID:24526724

Bui, Phuong; Kelly, Scott P

2014-05-15

34

Food poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... by common bacteria such as Staphylococcus or E. coli. ... cause food poisoning, including: Campylobacter enteritis Cholera E. coli enteritis Fish poisoning Staphylococcus aureus Salmonella Shigella Infants ...

35

Ciguatera Fish Poisoning in the Pacific Islands (1998 to 2008)  

PubMed Central

Background Ciguatera is a type of fish poisoning that occurs throughout the tropics, particularly in vulnerable island communities such as the developing Pacific Island Countries and Territories (PICTs). After consuming ciguatoxin-contaminated fish, people report a range of acute neurologic, gastrointestinal, and cardiac symptoms, with some experiencing chronic neurologic symptoms lasting weeks to months. Unfortunately, the true extent of illness and its impact on human communities and ecosystem health are still poorly understood. Methods A questionnaire was emailed to the Health and Fisheries Authorities of the PICTs to quantify the extent of ciguatera. The data were analyzed using t-test, incidence rate ratios, ranked correlation, and regression analysis. Results There were 39,677 reported cases from 17 PICTs, with a mean annual incidence of 194 cases per 100,000 people across the region from 1998–2008 compared to the reported annual incidence of 104/100,000 from 1973–1983. There has been a 60% increase in the annual incidence of ciguatera between the two time periods based on PICTs that reported for both time periods. Taking into account under-reporting, in the last 35 years an estimated 500,000 Pacific islanders might have suffered from ciguatera. Conclusions This level of incidence exceeds prior ciguatera estimates locally and globally, and raises the status of ciguatera to an acute and chronic illness with major public health significance. To address this significant public health problem, which is expected to increase in parallel with environmental change, well-funded multidisciplinary research teams are needed to translate research advances into practical management solutions.

Skinner, Mark P.; Brewer, Tom D.; Johnstone, Ron; Fleming, Lora E.; Lewis, Richard J.

2011-01-01

36

Binding Properties of 3H-PbTx-3 and 3H-Saxitoxin to Brain Membranes and to Skeletal Muscle Membranes of Puffer Fish Fugu pardalis and the Primary Structure of a Voltage-Gated Na + Channel ?-Subunit (fMNa1) from Skeletal Muscle of F. pardalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dissociation constants for 3H-saxitoxin to brain membranes and to skeletal muscle membranes of puffer fish Fugu pardalis have been estimated to be 190- and 460-fold, respectively, larger than those to corresponding membranes of rat, by a rapid filtration assay, while these values for 3H-PbTx-3 have been estimated to be one-third and one-half of those to rat, respectively. We have

Mari Yotsu-Yamashita; Katsuhiko Nishimori; Yoko Nitanai; Masako Isemura; Atsuko Sugimoto; Takeshi Yasumoto

2000-01-01

37

Ciguatera Fish Poisoning and Climate Change: Analysis of National Poison Center Data in the United States, 2001-2011  

PubMed Central

Background: Warm sea surface temperatures (SSTs) are positively related to incidence of ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP). Increased severe storm frequency may create more habitat for ciguatoxic organisms. Although climate change could expand the endemic range of CFP, the relationship between CFP incidence and specific environmental conditions is unknown. Objectives: We estimated associations between monthly CFP incidence in the contiguous United States and SST and storm frequency in the Caribbean basin. Methods: We obtained information on 1,102 CFP-related calls to U.S. poison control centers during 2001–2011 from the National Poison Data System. We performed a time-series analysis using Poisson regression to relate monthly CFP call incidence to SST and tropical storms. We investigated associations across a range of plausible lag structures. Results: Results showed associations between monthly CFP calls and both warmer SSTs and increased tropical storm frequency. The SST variable with the strongest association linked current monthly CFP calls to the peak August SST of the previous year. The lag period with the strongest association for storms was 18 months. If climate change increases SST in the Caribbean 2.5–3.5°C over the coming century as projected, this model implies that CFP incidence in the United States is likely to increase 200–400%. Conclusions: Using CFP calls as a marker of CFP incidence, these results clarify associations between climate variability and CFP incidence and suggest that, all other things equal, climate change could increase the burden of CFP. These findings have implications for disease prediction, surveillance, and public health preparedness for climate change. Citation: Gingold DB, Strickland MJ, Hess JJ. 2014. Ciguatera fish poisoning and climate change: analysis of National Poison Center data in the United States, 2001–2011. Environ Health Perspect 122:580–586;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307196

Strickland, Matthew J.; Hess, Jeremy J.

2014-01-01

38

Receptor sites for alanine, proline, and betaine in the palatal taste system of the puffer, Fugu pardalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

To elucidate the relative independence of the receptor sites for amino acids and betaine in the gustatory system of fish, the neural responses from the ramus palatinus facialis innervating the anterior palate of the puffer, Fugu pardalis, were recorded.

Sadao Kiyohara; Iwao Hidaka

1991-01-01

39

Dead bleached coral provides new surfaces for dinoflagellates implicated in ciguatera fish poisonings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synopsis Dead sections of bleached corals in the United States Virgin Islands and British Virgin Islands were found to be colonized by filamentous algae harboring epiphytic dinoflagellates implicated in ciguatera fish poisonings. The dinoflagellates Ostreopsis lenticularis, Prorocentrum concavum, and P. lima were found in association with filamentous algae growing on dead sections of bleached Montastrea annularis and Acropora cervicornis. Several

Susan T. Kohlerl; Christopher C. Kohler

1992-01-01

40

Removal of Toxin (Tetrodotoxin) from Puffer Ovary by Traditional Fermentation  

PubMed Central

The amounts of puffer toxin (tetrodotoxin, TTX) extracted from the fresh and the traditional Japanese salted and fermented “Nukazuke” and “Kasuzuke” ovaries of Takifugu stictonotus (T. stictonotus) were quantitatively analyzed in the voltage-dependent sodium current (INa) recorded from mechanically dissociated single rat hippocampal CA1 neurons. The amount of TTX contained in “Nukazuke” and “Kasuzuke” ovaries decreased to 1/50–1/90 times of that of fresh ovary during a salted and successive fermented period over a few years. The final toxin concentration after fermentation was almost close to the TTX level extracted from T. Rubripes” fresh muscle that is normally eaten. It was concluded that the fermented “Nukazuke” and “Kasuzuke” ovaries of puffer fish T. Stictonotus are safe and harmless as food.

Anraku, Kensaku; Nonaka, Kiku; Yamaga, Toshitaka; Yamamoto, Takatoshi; Shin, Min-Chul; Wakita, Masahito; Hamamoto, Ayaka; Akaike, Norio

2013-01-01

41

Determination of toxins involved in ciguatera fish poisoning in the Pacific by LC/MS.  

PubMed

Ciguatera fish poisoning is the most extensive and difficult to control of the seafood poisonings. To facilitate monitoring of fish toxicity, toxin profiles were investigated by an LC/MS/MS method using 14 reference toxins on eight representative species of fish collected in four different areas of the Pacific. Snappers and groupers from Okinawa contained ciguatoxin-1B (CTX1B) and two deoxy congeners at variable but species-specific ratios, while red snapper, Lutjanus bohar, from Minamitorishima, and amberjack, Seriola dumerili, from Hawaii, contained both CTX1B-type and CTX3C-type toxins. Spotted knifejaw, Oplegnathus punctatus, from Okinawan waters, contained mainly CTX4A and CTX4B, but the same species caught at Miyazaki was contaminated primarily with the CTX3C-type toxins. Otherwise, the toxin profiles were consistently species-specific in fish collected from various locations around Okinawa over 20 years. The LC/MS/MS and mouse bioassay results agreed well, indicating the LC/MS/MS method is a promising alternative to the mouse bioassay. Pure CTX1B and CTX3C were prepared for use in future LC/MS/MS analysis. PMID:24830151

Yogi, Kentaro; Sakugawa, Satsuki; Oshiro, Naomasa; Ikehara, Tsuyoshi; Sugiyama, Kiminori; Yasumoto, Takeshi

2014-01-01

42

Fatal methane and cyanide poisoning as a result of handling industrial fish: a case report and review of the literature  

PubMed Central

The potential health hazards of handling industrial fish are well documented. Wet fish in storage consume oxygen and produce poisonous gases as they spoil. In addition to oxygen depletion, various noxious agents have been demonstrated in association with spoilage including carbon dioxide, sulphur dioxide, and ammonia. A fatal case of methane and cyanide poisoning among a group of deep sea trawler men is described. Subsequent independent investigation as a result of this case led to the discovery of cyanides as a further potential noxious agent. This is thus the first case in which cyanide poisoning has been recognised as a potentially fatal complication of handling spoiled fish. The previous literature is reviewed and the implications of the current case are discussed. Key Words: industrial fish • methane • cyanide

Cherian, M; Richmond, I

2000-01-01

43

Occurrence of saxitoxins as a major toxin in the ovary of a marine puffer Arothron firmamentum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eleven male and 14 female specimens of a marine puffer Arothron firmamentum were collected from Oita and Iwate Prefectures, Japan. The toxicity assay using mouse showed that only ovary and skin of the female specimens were toxic, the toxicity scores being 5–740 as paralytic shellfish poison and <5–30MU\\/g as tetrodotoxin (TTX), respectively. The toxin extracts from the both tissues were

Kazuhito Nakashima; Osamu Arakawa; Shigeto Taniyama; Mamoru Nonaka; Tomohiro Takatani; Kunio Yamamori; Yuichi Fuchi; Tamao Noguchi

2004-01-01

44

The persistent problem of lead poisoning in birds from ammunition and fishing tackle  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Lead (Pb) is a metabolic poison that can negatively influence biological processes, leading to illness and mortality across a large spectrum of North American avifauna (>120 species) and other organisms. Pb poisoning can result from numerous sources, including ingestion of bullet fragments and shot pellets left in animal carcasses, spent ammunition left in the field, lost fishing tackle, Pb-based paints, large-scale mining, and Pb smelting activities. Although Pb shot has been banned for waterfowl hunting in the United States (since 1991) and Canada (since 1999), Pb exposure remains a problem for many avian species. Despite a large body of scientific literature on exposure to Pb and its toxicological effects on birds, controversy still exists regarding its impacts at a population level. We explore these issues and highlight areas in need of investigation: (1) variation in sensitivity to Pb exposure among bird species; (2) spatial extent and sources of Pb contamination in habitats in relation to bird exposure in those same locations; and (3) interactions between avian Pb exposure and other landscape-level stressors that synergistically affect bird demography. We explore multiple paths taken to reduce Pb exposure in birds that (1) recognize common ground among a range of affected interests; (2) have been applied at local to national scales; and (3) engage governmental agencies, interest groups, and professional societies to communicate the impacts of Pb ammunition and fishing tackle, and to describe approaches for reducing their availability to birds. As they have in previous times, users of fish and wildlife will play a key role in resolving the Pb poisoning issue.

Haig, Susan M.; D'Elia, Jesse; Eagles-Smith, Collin; Fair, Jeanne M.; Gervais, Jennifer; Herring, Garth; Rivers, James W.; Schulz, John H.

2014-01-01

45

Ciguatera fish poisoning in la Habana, Cuba: a study of local social-ecological resilience.  

PubMed

Following the collapse of the Cuban economy in the early 1990s, epidemiologists in the Cuban Ministry of Health noticed dramatic increases in reported outbreaks of ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) in some coastal communities. This article summarizes the results of a comparative case study which applied an ecosystem approach to human health to investigate this issue. Situated learning and complexity theories were used to interpret the results of the investigation. CFP outbreaks are influenced by a complex set of interactions between ecological and socioeconomic processes. This study found that the level of organization of the local sports fishing community and the degree of degradation of the local nearshore marine ecosystem appear to be key factors influencing the diverging levels of CFP outbreaks recorded in the 1990s in the communities studied. PMID:18716840

Morrison, Karen; Aguiar Prieto, Pablo; Castro Domínguez, Arnaldo; Waltner-Toews, David; Fitzgibbon, John

2008-09-01

46

Teratogenic effects and monetary cost of selenium poisoning of fish in Lake Sutton, North Carolina.  

PubMed

Selenium pollution from coal ash wastewater was investigated in Lake Sutton, NC. This lake has been continuously used as a cooling pond for a coal-fired power plant since 1972. Historic and recent levels of contamination in fish tissues (14-105µg Se/g dry weight in liver, 24-127 in eggs, 4-23 in muscle, 7-38 in whole-body) exceeded toxic thresholds and teratogenic effects were observed in fish collected in 2013. A high proportion (28.9 percent) of juvenile Lepomis spp. exhibited spinal and craniofacial malformations that were consistent with selenium poisoning. Teratogenic Deformity Index values indicated population-level impacts on the fishery. The partially monetized cost of resultant fishery losses was calculated at over $US 8.6 million annually, and over $US 217 million for the entire period of damage, which dates back to 1987 when chemical and biological monitoring began. PMID:24675445

Lemly, A Dennis

2014-06-01

47

Ciguatera fish poisoning in Hong Kong-A 10-year perspective on the class of ciguatoxins.  

PubMed

The present study used liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) to investigate retrospectively ciguatoxin (CTX)-positive samples as determined by mouse bioassay (MBA) in the past 10 years in Hong Kong. The results showed that Pacific CTXs (P-CTX-1, -2 and -3) were the most commonly observed toxins found in the samples, indicating Pacific Ocean areas as the most important origin of ciguatera fish poisoning. Clinical diagnosis from ciguatera patients also revealed the predominance of neurological illnesses in most cases, supporting intoxication of Pacific origin. This study demonstrated the ability of laboratory analysis to identify and quantify Pacific CTXs in suspected fish samples, so as to support the clinical diagnosis of ciguatera. Comparative analysis (Student's t-test and Spearman's rank correlation analysis) on the two CTX detection methods showed approximate linearity for overall P-CTXs (P-CTX-1, -2 and -3)/P-CTX-1 alone as derived by LC-MS/MS and total toxicity levels (P-CTX-1 equivalent) as determined by MBA. The LC-MS/MS method coupled with the rapid extraction method could allow the detection of trace amount of CTXs at levels below the clinically relevant limit, 0.1 ppb P-CTX-1 in fish flesh. For practical application, the adoption of a two-tiered approach for testing, chemical analysis by LC-MS/MS for toxic fish screening, coupled with biological assay by MBA for final toxicity confirmation, was proposed for first-line screening of CTX in potentially contaminated fish samples in the market, with an aim to minimizing the use of laboratory mice and at the same time providing reasonably effective means for routine analysis. PMID:24878373

Wong, Chun-Kwan; Hung, Patricia; Lo, Janice Y C

2014-08-01

48

The checkered puffer ( Spheroides testudineus) and its helminths as bioindicators of chemical pollution in Yucatan coastal lagoons  

Microsoft Academic Search

The suitability of using helminth communities as bioindicators of environmental quality of the Yucatan coastal lagoons status was tested on the checkered puffer (Spheroides testudineus) in four coastal lagoons along the Yucatan coast. The concentration of chemical pollutants in sediments, water quality parameters, helminth infracommunity characteristics, as well as fish physiological biomarkers, including EROD (7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase) and catalase activities, were measured.

Daniel Pech; Víctor M. Vidal-Martínez; M. Leopoldina Aguirre-Macedo; Gerardo Gold-Bouchot; Jorge Herrera-Silveira; Omar Zapata-Pérez; David J. Marcogliese

2009-01-01

49

Severe Tetrodotoxin Poisoning after Consumption of Lagocephalus sceleratus (Pufferfish, Fugu) Fished in Mediterranean Sea, Treated with Cholinesterase Inhibitor  

PubMed Central

Lagocephalus sceleratus, or better known as the pufferfish, or fugu, is widespread in Asia and Indo-Pacific regions. It is a poisonous fish containing tetrodotoxin (TTX) which is a potent neurotoxin. In the Far East, fugu is considered a delicate dish, especially in Japan where it is prepared by experts. Nevertheless, poisoning from Lagocephalus sceleratus is not a rare event. Recent data from Japan indicate an incidence of 45 patients per year and a mortality rate of 11%. Mediterranean sea is not the natural habitat of Lagocephalus sceleratus. However, by now multiple reports have established a firm presence of Lagocephalus sceleratus in Mediterranean region as well. This phenomenon is explained by migration of pufferfish across the Suez Channel (lessepsian migration) (Eisenman et al., 2008, Bentur et al., 2008). With lessepsian migration came the first reports of TTX poisoning in the Mediterranean region. We report a patient with a particularly severe and life-threatening TTX poisoning caused by consumption of Lagocephalus sceleratus and treated by cholinesterase inhibitor to a complete and uneventful recovery.

Kheifets, Julia; Rozhavsky, Boris; Girsh Solomonovich, Zehava; Marianna, Rodman; Soroksky, Arie

2012-01-01

50

Paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins accumulation in purple clam Hiatula rostrata and toxic effect on milkfish Chanos chanos larval fish.  

PubMed

In an attempt to feed purple clams (Hiatula rostrata) with dinoglagellate Alexandrium minutum, the maximal accumulation toxicity of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins reached 40.6 MU/g on day 5 of feeding. Subsequently, the toxicity increased no further, although purple clams ingested more toxic algae. Furthermore, when milkfish (Chanos chanos) larvae were treated with toxic, nontoxic A. minutum or PSP toxin-containing extract in the water medium, it was found that the mortality of fish increased with the increasing concentrations of toxic algae. PSP toxin-containing extract did not show any toxic effect on milkfish larvae. PMID:11695819

Chen, C Y

2001-11-01

51

ANTICHOLINESTERASE ACTION OF PESTICIDAL CARBAMATES IN THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM OF POISONED FISHES  

EPA Science Inventory

In the report, kinetic enzyme methods and statistical analyses are used to define the relationship between brain acetycholinesterase inhibition and near-median kills in replicate groups of marine fish in the laboratory by five carbamate pesticides....

52

Update on methodologies available for ciguatoxin determination: perspectives to confront the onset of ciguatera fish poisoning in Europe.  

PubMed

Ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) occurs mainly when humans ingest finfish contaminated with ciguatoxins (CTXs). The complexity and variability of such toxins have made it difficult to develop reliable methods to routinely monitor CFP with specificity and sensitivity. This review aims to describe the methodologies available for CTX detection, including those based on the toxicological, biochemical, chemical, and pharmaceutical properties of CTXs. Selecting any of these methodological approaches for routine monitoring of ciguatera may be dependent upon the applicability of the method. However, identifying a reference validation method for CTXs is a critical and urgent issue, and is dependent upon the availability of certified CTX standards and the coordinated action of laboratories. Reports of CFP cases in European hospitals have been described in several countries, and are mostly due to travel to CFP endemic areas. Additionally, the recent detection of the CTX-producing tropical genus Gambierdiscus in the eastern Atlantic Ocean of the northern hemisphere and in the Mediterranean Sea, as well as the confirmation of CFP in the Canary Islands and possibly in Madeira, constitute other reasons to study the onset of CFP in Europe [1]. The question of the possible contribution of climate change to the distribution of toxin-producing microalgae and ciguateric fish is raised. The impact of ciguatera onset on European Union (EU) policies will be discussed with respect to EU regulations on marine toxins in seafood. Critical analysis and availability of methodologies for CTX determination is required for a rapid response to suspected CFP cases and to conduct sound CFP risk analysis. PMID:20631873

Caillaud, Amandine; de la Iglesia, Pablo; Darius, H Taiana; Pauillac, Serge; Aligizaki, Katerina; Fraga, Santiago; Chinain, Mireille; Diogène, Jorge

2010-01-01

53

Puffers and Chuggers: Statistical Curiosities in Volcano World  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several on-going, low level volcanic explosions exhibit background phenomena commonly known as puffing, or in some cases chugging. Recently these events have been scrutinized because of the initiation of infrasonic monitoring, whereas earlier the events may have gone undetected. The activity associated with a puffer at a volcanic vent is generally small in magnitude and is often not observed audibly.

J. M. Lees

2002-01-01

54

Seasonal occurrence and microhabitat of the hyperparasitic monogenean Udonella fugu on the caligid Copepod Pseudocaligus fugu infecting the grass puffer Takifugu niphobles in the Seto Inland Sea, Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The seasonal occurrence and microhabitat of the monogenean Udonella fugu that hyperparasitizes exclusively on adults of the caligid copepod Pseudocaligus fugu that infects the skin of the grass puffer Takifugu niphobles were investigated in the Seto Inland Sea, western Japan from November 2004 to December 2006. The udonellids occurred and bred mostly during the occurrence of P. fugu on the fish host. The average prevalence and intensity of U. fugu on P. fugu during the whole investigation were 29% and 3.6, respectively. The main attachment sites of U. fugu were the posterior side of leg 3 and the dorsal marginal side of the cephalothorax for feeding and copulation, while eggs were predominantly located on the ventral side of the urosome to avoid detachment. More attention should be paid to the ecology of U. fugu, due to recent high prevalence of P. fugu on cultured tiger puffer in western Japan.

Okawachi, Hiroko; Ohtsuka, Susumu; Ismail, Norshida Binti; Venmathi Maran, B. A.; Ogawa, Kazuo

2012-09-01

55

Organ Growth in the Puffer Fish, Sphaeroides Maculatus.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The following organs from male and female specimens of Sphaeroides maculatus were weighed: heart, liver, spleen, gut, brain, eyes. Prediction equations for organ weight in terms of total body weight were derived. Best correlation was found when logarithms...

C. G. Wilber, R. Schneider

1967-01-01

56

Ability of some plant extracts, traditionally used to treat ciguatera fish poisoning, to prevent the in vitro neurotoxicity produced by sodium channel activators.  

PubMed

The effects of 31 plant extracts, which most are traditionally used to treat ciguatera fish poisoning in the Pacific area, were studied on the cytotoxicity of mouse neuroblastoma cells produced by ouabain, veratridine and/or brevetoxin-3 or Pacific ciguatoxin-1. The cell viability was determined using a quantitative colorimetric method. A marked cytotoxicity of seven of the 31 plant extracts studied, was observed. Despite this, these plant extracts were suspected to contain active compound(s) against the cytotoxicity produced by brevetoxin (2 extracts), brevetoxin, ouabain and/or veratridine (3 extracts), or only against that of ouabain and/or veratridine (2 extracts). Among the 24 plant extracts that exhibited by themselves no cytotoxicity, 22 were active against the effect of brevetoxin or against that of both veratridine and brevetoxin. Similar results were obtained when the seven most active plant extracts were reassayed using ciguatoxin instead of brevetoxin. In conclusion, the present work reports the first activity assessment of some plant extracts, achieved in vitro on a quite large scale. The fact that 27 plant extracts were found to exert, in vitro, a protective effect against the action of ciguatoxin and/or brevetoxin, paves the way for finding new active compounds to treat ciguatera fish poisoning, provided these compounds also reverse the effects of sodium channel activators. PMID:16165180

Boydron-Le Garrec, Raphaële; Benoit, Evelyne; Sauviat, Martin-Pierre; Lewis, Richard J; Molgó, Jordi; Laurent, Dominique

2005-11-01

57

Refrigerant poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

Coolant poisoning; Freon poisoning; Fluorinated hydrocarbon poisoning; Sudden sniffing death syndrome ... Fluorinated hydrocarbons ... Wax PM, Beuhler MB. Hydrocarbons and volatile substances. In: ... Ma OJ, Cline DM, eds. Emergency Medicine: A Comprehensive Study ...

58

Formation of histamine and biogenic amines in cold-smoked tuna: an investigation of psychrotolerant bacteria from samples implicated in cases of histamine fish poisoning.  

PubMed

Two outbreaks and a single case of histamine fish poisoning associated with cold-smoked tuna (CST) were reported in Denmark during 2004. The bacteria most likely responsible for histamine formation in CST implicated in histamine fish poisoning was identified for the first time in this study. Product characteristics and profiles of biogenic amines in the implicated products were also recorded. In the single poisoning case, psychrotolerant Morganella morganii-like bacteria most likely was responsible for the histamine production in CST with 2.2% +/- 0.6% NaCl in the water phase (WPS). In outbreak 1, Photobacterium phosphoreum most likely formed the histamine in CST with 1.3% +/- 0.1% WPS. In outbreak 2, which involved 10 persons, the bacteria responsible for histamine formation could not be determined. The measured concentrations of WPS were very low compared with those of randomly collected commercial samples of CST and cold-smoked blue marlin (4.1 to 12.7% WPS). Challenge tests at 5 degrees C with psychrotolerant M. morganii and P. phosphoreum in CST with 4.4% WPS revealed growth and toxic histamine formation by the psychrotolerant M. morganii-like bacteria but not by P. phosphoreum. In a storage trial with naturally contaminated CST containing 6.9% WPS, lactic acid bacteria dominated the microbiota, and no significant histamine formation was observed during the shelf life of about 40 days at 5 degrees C and of about 16 days at 10 degrees C. To prevent toxic histamine formation, CST should be produced with >5% WPS and distributed with a declared 5 degrees C shelf life of 3 to 4 weeks or less. PMID:16629036

Emborg, Jette; Dalgaard, Paw

2006-04-01

59

[Mercury poisoning].  

PubMed

Mercury is a widespread heavy metal with potential severe impacts on human health. Exposure conditions to mercury and profile of toxicity among humans depend on the chemical forms of the mercury: elemental or metallic mercury, inorganic or organic mercury compounds. This article aims to reviewing and synthesizing the main knowledge of the mercury toxicity and its organic compounds that clinicians should know. Acute inhalation of metallic or inorganic mercury vapours mainly induces pulmonary diseases, whereas chronic inhalation rather induces neurological or renal disorders (encephalopathy and interstitial or glomerular nephritis). Methylmercury poisonings from intoxicated food occurred among some populations resulting in neurological disorders and developmental troubles for children exposed in utero. Treatment using chelating agents is recommended in case of symptomatic acute mercury intoxication; sometimes it improves the clinical effects of chronic mercury poisoning. Although it is currently rare to encounter situations of severe intoxication, efforts remain necessary to decrease the mercury concentration in the environment and to reduce risk on human health due to low level exposure (dental amalgam, fish contamination by organic mercury compounds…). In case of occupational exposure to mercury and its compounds, some disorders could be compensated in France. Clinicians should work with toxicologists for the diagnosis and treatment of mercury intoxication. PMID:20579784

Bensefa-Colas, L; Andujar, P; Descatha, A

2011-07-01

60

Genomics and Mapping of Teleostei (Bony Fish)  

PubMed Central

Until recently, the Human Genome Project held centre stage in the press releases concerning sequencing programmes. However, in October 2001, it was announced that the Japanese puffer fish (Takifugu rubripes, Fugu) was the second vertebrate organism to be sequenced to draft quality. Briefly, the spotlight was on fish genomes. There are currently two other fish species undergoing intensive sequencing, the green spotted puffer fish (Tetraodon nigroviridis) and the zebrafish (Danio rerio). But this trio are, in many ways, atypical representations of the current state of fish genomic research. The aim of this brief review is to demonstrate the complexity of fish as a group of vertebrates and to publicize the ‘lesser-known’ species, all of which have something to offer.

2003-01-01

61

Poisonous Plants  

MedlinePLUS

... Ewing, Jr., (poison ivy) and U.S. Department of Agriculture (poison oak) NIOSH Fast Facts Protecting Yourself from ... in this section courtesy of U.S. Department of Agriculture Plant Identification The old saying " Leaves of three, ...

62

Poison Ivy  

MedlinePLUS

... You can get poison ivy by touching the plant's oils or something else that "urushiol" has touched. ... the sap oil that's made by poison ivy plants that's responsible for irritant reactions. It is the ...

63

Poison Ivy  

MedlinePLUS

... leaves of the plants. Look Out for Poison Plants These plants can be anywhere — from the woods ... pill or liquid form. Preventing Rashes From Poison Plants The best approach is to avoid getting the ...

64

Kerosene poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

Lamp oil poisoning; Coal oil poisoning ... The health care provider will measure and monitor the patient's vital signs, including temperature, pulse, breathing rate, and blood pressure. Symptoms will be treated ...

65

Lacquer poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

Poisoning from lacquers is due to hydrocarbons, which are substances that contain only hydrogen and carbon. ... Mirkin DB. Benzene and related aromatic hydrocarbons. In: Shannon MW, ... of Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: ...

66

Glaze poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... In: Shannon MW, Borron SW, Burns MJ, eds. Haddad and Winchester's Clinical Management of Poisoning and Drug ... In: Shannon MW, Borron SW, Burns MJ, eds. Haddad and Winchester's Clinical Management of Poisoning and Drug ...

67

Insecticide poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... In: Shannon MW, Borron SW, Burns MJ, eds. Haddad and Winchester's Clinical Management of Poisoning and Drug ... In: Shannon MW, Borron SW, Burns MJ, eds. Haddad and Winchester's Clinical Management of Poisoning and Drug ...

68

Copper poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... In: Shannon MW, Borron SW, Burns MJ, eds. Haddad and Winchester's Clinical Management of Poisoning and Drug ... In: Shannon MW, Borron SW, Burns MJ, eds. Haddad and Winchester's Clinical Management of Poisoning and Drug ...

69

Chlorine poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... In: Shannon MW, Borron SW, Burns MJ, eds. Haddad and Winchester's Clinical Management of Poisoning and Drug ... In: Shannon MW, Borron SW, Burns MJ, eds. Haddad and Winchester's Clinical Management of Poisoning and Drug ...

70

Gasoline poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... In: Shannon MW, Borron SW, Burns MJ, eds. Haddad and Winchester's Clinical Management of Poisoning and Drug ... In: Shannon MW, Borron SW, Burns MJ, eds. Haddad and Winchester's Clinical Management of Poisoning and Drug ...

71

Identification of Caribbean ciguatoxins as the cause of an outbreak of fish poisoning among U.S. soldiers in Haiti  

Microsoft Academic Search

On 24 February 1995, six U.S. soldiers serving with the Multinational Force in Haiti became ill after eating a locally caught fish identified as the greater amberjack Seriola dumerili. The victims presented with nausea, vomiting, watery diarrhea and abdominal cramps 5–8 hr after consumption. Also present in some victims were numbness in the extremities or perioral region, bradycardia and scalp

Mark A. Poli; Richard J. Lewis; Robert W. Dickey; Steven M. Musser; Carole A. Buckner; Larry G. Carpenter

1997-01-01

72

fish  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this project you will learn about different types of fish. In your science journal write what you know about fish. Draw a picture of a common fish you might see where you live. On the handout record the information you learn during this unit. Click here to see the Angel Fish. Record information on Handout #1. Now go to the Clown Fish. ...

Jones, Cory

2009-09-28

73

Fish  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this project you will learn about different types of fish. In your science journal write what you know about fish. Draw a picture of a common fish you might see where you live. On the handout record the information you learn during this unit. Click here to see the Angel Fish. Record information on Handout #1. Now go to the Clown Fish. ...

Hunter, Ms.

2009-07-07

74

Nutrition and feeding research in the spotted rose snapper (Lutjanus guttatus) and bullseye puffer (Sphoeroides annulatus), new species for marine aquaculture.  

PubMed

The spotted rose snapper (Lutjanus guttatus) and bullseye puffer (Sphoeroides annulatus) are fish species from the tropical Eastern Pacific for which controlled production of larvae and juveniles has been accomplished in recent years. Diverse topics relating to their biology and aquaculture production are currently under study, in particular the nutrition and feeding aspects required to formulate practical feeds and rearing protocols. Improvements in larval growth and survival are possible by feeding live food organisms with natural or enhanced essential fatty acids content and highly digestible artificial microdiets. The ontogeny of the digestive tract and the expression and activity of digestive enzymes have been described for S. annulatus larvae. The effect of various protein and lipid levels on growth and feed utilization has been studied in juvenile and on-growing fish. Both species have carnivorous feeding habits and require high levels of protein in their diets, from 40% to 45% (dry weight) in spotted rose snapper and above 50% in bullseye puffer, with the younger stages requiring the highest protein levels. Encouraging results have been obtained in feeding experiments with different sources of dietary protein from animal and plant origin to evaluate their suitability as feed ingredients in practical diets. Optimization of fish culture practices through feeding management has also been investigated. Trials with various fish densities and feeding frequencies in intensive culture systems are providing information to improve feed utilization and growth in on-growing fish. Further research is underway to evaluate factors in broodstock nutrition which have an impact on egg and larval quality, and into the use of various commercially available oil sources in on-growing diets. In this paper, the results on nutrition and feeding research with both species are reviewed and research needs to support their commercial production in the region are discussed. PMID:19189236

García-Ortega, Armando

2009-03-01

75

Tetrahydrozoline poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... 222-1222 to speak with a local poison control center number . This hotline number will let you talk to ... a free and confidential service. All local poison control centers in the United States use this national number. You should call if you have any questions ...

76

Zinc poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... treatment was received. The faster a patient gets medical help, the better the chance for recovery. If symptoms are mild, the person will usually make a full recovery . If the poisoning is severe, death may occur up to a week after swallowing the poison.

77

PATTERNS OF GENOME SIZE EVOLUTION IN TETRAODONTIFORM FISHES  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used flow cytometry to measure genome size in 15 species from seven families and subfamilies of tetraodontiform fishes. Previous studies have found that smooth pufferfishes (Tetraodontidae) have the smallest genome of any vertebrate measured to date (0.7-1.0 picograms diploid). We found that spiny pufferfishes (Diodontidae, sister group to the smooth puffers) possess a genome that is about two times

Elizabeth L. Brainerd; Sandra S. Slutz; Edward K. Hall; Randall W. Phillis

2001-01-01

78

Fish  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Fish are vertebrates, meaning they have a skeletal system to support their bodies. All fish live underwater. Fish have gills to help them breathe underwater and fins to help them swim. Most fish are cold-blooded, meaning their body temperature is regulated by the surrounding water temperature.

Olivia Worland (Purdue University;Biological Sciences)

2008-06-12

79

Venomous bites, stings, and poisoning.  

PubMed

This article discusses the epidemiology, prevention, clinical features, first aid and medical treatment of venomous bites by snakes, lizards, and spiders; stings by fish, jellyfish, echinoderms, and insects; and poisoning by fish and molluscs, in all parts of the world. Of these envenoming and poisonings, snake bite causes the greatest burden of human suffering, killing 46,000 people each year in India alone and more than 100,000 worldwide and resulting in physical handicap in many survivors. Specific antidotes (antivenoms/antivenins) are available to treat envenoming by many of these taxa but supply and distribution is inadequate in many tropical developing countries. PMID:22632635

Warrell, David A

2012-06-01

80

Lead poisoning: The invisible disease. Waterfowl Management handbook  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lead poisoning is an intoxication resulting from absorption of hazardous levels of lead into body tissues. Lead pellets from shot shells, when ingested, are the most common source of lead poisoning in migratory birds. Other far less common sources include lead fishing sinkers, mine wastes, paint pigments, bullets, and other lead objects that are swallowed. Lead poisoning has affected every

Friend

1989-01-01

81

Revisiting the association between sea surface temperature and the epidemiology of fish poisoning in the South Pacific: reassessing the link between ciguatera and climate change.  

PubMed

The most detailed dataset of ciguatera intensity is that produced by the South Pacific Epidemiological and Health Information Service (SPEHIS) of the Secretariat of the Pacific Community. The SPEHIS fish poisoning database has been previously analysed yielding statistically significant correlations between the Southern Oscillation Index (SOI) and ciguatera case numbers in several countries raising concerns this affliction will increase as oceans warm. Mapping of the SPEHIS records and other data hints at ciguatera not only being restricted to warm waters but that the Indo-Pacific Warm Pool, a body of water that remains hot throughout much of the year, may inhibit ciguatera prevalence. A qualitative assessment of ciguatera intensity and sea surface temperature (SST) behaviour within the EEZ of selected South Pacific nations supported the notion that ciguatera intensity was highest when SST was between an upper and lower limit. Many more climate and SST indices beyond the SOI are now available, including some that measure the abovementioned phenomenon of oceanic warm pools. Statistically significant, positive and negative cross-correlations were obtained between time series of annual ciguatera case rates from the SPEHIS dataset and the Pacific Warm Pool Index and several ENSO related indices which had been lagged for up to 2 years before the ciguatera time series. This further supports the possibility that when considering the impact of climate change on ciguatera, one has to consider two thresholds, namely waters that remain warm enough for a long enough period can lead to ciguatera and that extended periods where the water remains too hot may depress ciguatera case rates. Such a model would complicate projections of the effects of climate change upon ciguatera beyond that of a simple relationship where increased SST may cause more ciguatera. PMID:19706300

Llewellyn, Lyndon E

2010-10-01

82

Cologne poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

Ethyl alcohol (ethanol) Isopropyl alcohol (isopropanol) Note: This list may not include all poisonous ingredients in cologne. ... problems, seizures, and coma. A product with more isopropyl alcohol may potentially cause a more serious illness.

83

Varnish poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

Mirkin DB. Benzene and related aromatic hydrocarbons. In: Shannon MW, Borron SW, Burns MJ, eds. Haddad and Winchester's Clinical Management of Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: ...

84

Ink poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

Mirkin DB. Benzene and related aromatic hydrocarbons. In: Shannon MW, Borron SW, Burns MJ, eds. Haddad and Winchester's Clinical Management of Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: ...

85

Benzene poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

Mirkin DB. Benzene and related aromatic hydrocarbons. In: Shannon MW, Borron SW, Burns MJ, eds. Haddad and Winchester's Clinical Management of Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: ...

86

Everyday Poisons  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This reading and writing activity (on pages 2-9) teaches what plant parts should be avoided, how a person can get rid of toxins, symptoms of plant poisoning, and how plants create poisons to repel predators. Excerpts from a video and biography of Fatima Johnson, an anthropologist who studies plants and people in Africa, are available online, and the full versions can be purchased on DVD. An interactive version of the activity, and tips for using this resource, are also online.

Museum, University O.; Nebraska Cooperative Extension 4-H Youth Development

2001-01-01

87

Photographic fixative poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

Photographic developer poisoning; Hydroquinone poisoning; Quinone poisoning; Sulfite poisoning ... Hydroquinones Quinones Sodium thiosulfate Sodium sulfite/bisulfite Boric acid Photographic fixative can also break down (decompose) to form sulfur dioxide gas.

88

Lead Poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lead has been mined and worked by men for millenniums. Its ductility, high resistance to erosion and other properties make it one of the most useful of metals. The inappropriate use of lead has, however, resulted in outbreaks of lead poisoning in humans from time to time since antiquity. The disease, which is sometimes called plumbism (from the Latin word

J. Julian Chisolm; J. J. Jr

1971-01-01

89

Isopropanol poisoning.  

PubMed

Abstract Introduction. Isopropanol is a clear, colorless liquid with a fruity odor and a mild bitter taste. Most commonly found domestically as rubbing alcohol, isopropanol is also found in numerous household and commercial products including cleaners, disinfectants, antifreezes, cosmetics, solvents, inks, and pharmaceuticals. Aim. The aim of this review is to critically review the epidemiology, toxicokinetics, mechanisms of toxicity, clinical features, diagnosis, and management of isopropanol poisoning. Methods. OVID MEDLINE and ISI Web of Science were searched to November 2013 using the words "isopropanol", "isopropyl alcohol", "2-propanol", "propan-2-ol", and "rubbing alcohol" combined with the keywords "poisoning", "poison", "toxicity", "ingestion", "adverse effects", "overdose", or "intoxication". These searches identified 232 citations, which were then screened via their abstract to identify relevant articles referring specifically to the epidemiology, toxicokinetics, mechanisms of toxicity, clinical features, diagnosis, and management of isopropanol poisoning; 102 were relevant. Further information was obtained from book chapters, relevant news reports, and internet resources. These additional searches produced eight non-duplicate relevant citations. Epidemiology. The majority of isopropanol exposures are unintentional and occur in children less than 6 years of age. Although isopropanol poisoning appears to be a reasonably common occurrence, deaths are rare. Toxicokinetics. Isopropanol is rapidly absorbed following ingestion with peak plasma concentrations occurring within 30 min. It can also be absorbed following inhalation or dermal exposure. Isopropanol is widely distributed with a volume of distribution of 0.45-0.55 L/kg. Isopropanol is metabolized by alcohol dehydrogenase to acetone, acetol and methylglyoxal, propylene glycol, acetate, and formate with conversion of these metabolites to glucose and other products of intermediary metabolism. The elimination of isopropanol is predominantly renal, though some pulmonary excretion of isopropanol and acetone occurs. In one case 20% of the absorbed dose was eliminated unchanged in urine, with the remainder excreted as acetone and metabolites of acetone. The elimination half-life of isopropanol is between 2.5 and 8.0 h, whereas elimination of acetone is slower with a half-life following isopropanol ingestion of between 7.7 and 27 h. Mechanisms of toxicity. While the exact mechanism of action of isopropanol has not been fully elucidated, brain stem depression is thought to be the predominant mechanism. While the clinical effects are thought to be mostly due to isopropanol, acetone may also contribute. Clinical features. The major features of severe poisoning are due to CNS and respiratory depression, shock, and circulatory collapse. The most common metabolic effects are an increased osmol (osmolal) gap, ketonemia, and ketonuria. Diagnosis. Poisoning can be diagnosed using the measurement of isopropanol serum concentrations, though these may not be readily available. Diagnosis is therefore more typically made on the basis of the patient's history and clinical presentation. An osmol gap, ketonemia, and/or ketonuria without metabolic acidosis, along with a fruity or sweet odor on the breath and CNS depression support the diagnosis. Management. Supportive care is the mainstay of management with primary emphasis on respiratory and cardiovascular support. Hemodialysis enhances elimination of isopropanol and acetone and should be considered in very severe poisoning. Conclusions. Severe isopropanol poisoning results in CNS and respiratory depression and circulatory collapse. Treatment primarily consists of symptom-directed supportive care. Although hemodialysis increases the elimination of isopropanol and acetone substantially, it should only be considered in severe life-threatening poisonings. Patients usually make a full recovery provided they receive prom

Slaughter, R J; Mason, R W; Beasley, D M G; Vale, J A; Schep, L J

2014-06-01

90

Paraphenylenediamine poisoning.  

PubMed

Hair dye containing paraphenylenediamine (PPD) is widely used in India because of its free availability and low cost. PPD produces local as well as systemic toxic effects when applied topically and/or ingested. It is highly toxic when taken by mouth and the outcome depends mainly on the dose taken. Important clinical manifestations are angioedema leading to dysphasia and respiratory distress, rhabdomyolysis, intravascular hemolysis, acute renal failure and hepatic necrosis. Myocarditis or fatal arrhythmia may also occur in PPD poisoning. Mainstay of management is early recognition and supportive measures as there is no specific antidote. We hereby report a young female who presented to us with features of angioedema, cardiac manifestation and hepatic dysfunction after ingesting PPD, which was treated successfully. In the absence of laboratory facilities, clinical features like angioedema and chocolate brown-colored urine could be suggestive of PPD poisoning. PMID:23563473

Chaudhary, S C; Sawlani, K K; Singh, K

2013-01-01

91

Numerical Simulation of Gas Flow During Arcing Process for 252 kV Puffer Circuit Breakers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A numerical simulation model for 252 kV puffer circuit breaker is constructed, by using a proven commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) package, PHOENICS. The model takes into account the moving parts in the circuit breaker, turbulence enhanced momentum and energy transport, radiation transport. The arcing process in a SF6 puffer circuit breaker with two hollow contacts is simulated under different conditions, and the simulation results are verified with experimental results. Through simulation, the pressure, temperature and velocity in the arc quenching chamber can be obtained. The simulation model is also capable of predicting the influence of design parameters variations on breaker performance, and can thus help to reduce the number of short-circuit tests during the design stage.

Wu, Junhui; Wang, Xiaohua; Ma, Zhiying; Rong, Mingzhe; Yan, Jing

2011-12-01

92

Poison Help Line  

MedlinePLUS

... section: The Poison Help Line Partners Contact Us The Poison Help Line The toll-free Poison Help line, 1- ... is available in 161 languages. People usually get the help they need over the phone . Most people do ...

93

Ink remover poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... poisonous if swallowed in large doses) Wood alcohol (methanol, which is very poisonous) ... Brain damage Decreased breathing Stupor Unconsciousness Symptoms of methanol and isopropyl alcohol poisoning may include: Eyes, ears, ...

94

Mercuric chloride poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

Mercuric chloride is a very poisonous form of mercury. It is a type of mercury salt. There are different ... poisonings . This article discusses poisoning from swallowing mercuric chloride. This is for information only and not for ...

95

Imprudent fishing harvests and consequent trophic cascades on the West Florida shelf over the last half century: A harbinger of increased human deaths from paralytic shellfish poisoning along the southeastern United States, in response to oligotrophication?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Within the context of ubiquitous overfishing of piscivores, recent consequent increments of jellyfish and clupeids have occurred at the zooplanktivore trophic level in the eastern Gulf of Mexico (GOM), after overfishing of one of their predators, i.e. red snapper. Initiation of a local trophic cascade thence led to declines of herbivore stocks, documented here on the West Florida shelf. These exacerbating world-wide trophic cascades have resulted in larger harmful algal blooms (HABs), already present at the base of most coastal food webs. Impacts on human health have thus far been minimal within nutrient-rich coastal regions. To provide a setting for past morbidities, consideration is given to chronologies of other trophic cascades within eutrophic, cold water marine ecosystems of the Scotian Sea, in the Gulf of Alaska, off Southwest Africa, within the Barents, White, and Black Seas, in the Gulf of Maine, and finally in the North Sea. Next, comparison is now made here of recent ten-fold increments within Florida waters of both relatively benign and saxitoxic HABs, some of which are fatal to humans. These events are placed in a perspective of other warm shelf systems of the South China and Caribbean Seas to assess prior and possible future poison toxicities of oligotrophic coastal habitats. Past wide-spread kills of fishes and sea urchins over the Caribbean Sea and the downstream GOM are examined in relation to the potential transmission of dinoflagellate saxitoxin and other epizootic poison vectors by western boundary currents over larger "commons" than local embayments. Furthermore, since some HABs produce more potent saxitoxins upon nutrient depletion, recent decisions to ban seasonal fertilizer applications to Florida lawns may have unintended consequences. In the future, human-killing phytoplankton, rather than relatively benign fish-killing HABs of the past, may be dispersed along the southeastern United States seaboard.

Walsh, J. J.; Tomas, C. R.; Steidinger, K. A.; Lenes, J. M.; Chen, F. R.; Weisberg, R. H.; Zheng, L.; Landsberg, J. H.; Vargo, G. A.; Heil, C. A.

2011-06-01

96

Prevention of Food Poisoning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The programed text provides a single lesson, four-hour, correspondence subcourse on the prevention of food poisoning. It covers the following areas: a definition of food poisoning; chemical food poisoning; biological food poisoning; causes and prevention of trichinosis; six factors controlling bacteria growth; bacterial infection; prevention of…

Army Quartermaster School, Ft. Lee, VA.

97

Redescription and genetic characterization of Cucullanus dodsworthi (Nematoda: Cucullanidae) from the checkered puffer Sphoeroides testudineus (Pisces: Tetraodontiformes).  

PubMed

Cucullanus dodsworthi Barreto, 1922 was originally described from the checkered puffer fish, Sphoeroides testudineus (Linnaeus), from Brazilian waters. New material of this nematode species was recovered from the same type host species from Mexican waters off the Yucatán Peninsula. This material was compared with Brazilian specimens. Although Mexican material closely resembles the original description of C. dodsworthi in general appearance, previously undescribed characters, as observed by light and scanning electron microscopy, are described for the first time in this species from both Brazilian and Mexican specimens. These characters include lateral body alae or conspicuous lateral fields that begin in the cervical region and end anterior to first pair of adcloacal papillae in males and at the anus level in females, cephalic and caudal alae absent; presence of pseudobuccal capsule with simple buccal frame well sclerotized with dorsal arrow structures, lateral structures, and lateral reniform structures; deirids, excretory pore, and postdeirids; slight anal protuberance in both sexes, unpaired precloacal papilla in males, phasmids near pair 10 in males and near tail tip in females; female with protruding vulvar lips and smooth eggs. In the absence of better descriptions of this genus, it can be concluded that C. dodsworthi is the only species of marine Cucullanus from the Americas that possesses lateral body alae. Molecular characterization of C. dodsworthi with SSU (18S) and ITS2 rDNA genes is included. A preliminary genetic comparison between SSU rDNA of C. dodsworthi , Truttaedacnitis truttae (Fabricius, 1794), and Dichelyne mexicanus Caspeta-Mandujano, Moravec and Salgado-Maldonado, 1999 places C. dodsworthi as a putative sister taxon to T. truttae . The finding of C. dodsworthi in Mexican marine waters also represents a new geographical record. PMID:21506838

Mejía-Madrid, Hugo H; Aguirre-Macedo, María Leopoldina

2011-08-01

98

Pesticide poisoning.  

PubMed

Acute poisoning with pesticides is a global public health problem and accounts for as many as 300,000 deaths worldwide every year. The majority of deaths occur due to exposure to organophosphates, organochlorines and aluminium phosphide. Organophosphate compounds inhibit acetylcholinesterase resulting in acute toxicity. Intermediate syndrome can develop in a number of patients and may lead to respiratory paralysis and death. Management consists of proper oxygenation, atropine in escalating doses and pralidoxime in high doses. It is Important to decontaminate the skin while taking precautions to avoid secondary contamination of health personnel. Organochlorine pesticides are toxic to the central nervous system and sensitize the myocardium to catecholamines. Treatment involves supportive care and avoiding exogenous sympathomimetic agents. Ingestion of paraquat causes severe inflammation of the throat, corrosive injury to the gastrointestinal tract, renal tubular necrosis, hepatic necrosis and pulmonary fibrosis. Administration of oxygen should be avoided as it produces more fibrosis. Use of immunosuppressive agents have improved outcome in patients with paraquat poisoning. Rodenticides include thallium, superwarfarins, barium carbonate and phosphides (aluminium and zinc phosphide). Alopecia is an atypical feature of thallium toxicity. Most exposures to superwarfarins are harmless but prolonged bleeding may occur. Barium carbonate Ingestion can cause severe hypokalaemia and respiratory muscle paralysis. Aluminium phosphide is a highly toxic agent with mortality ranging from 37% to 100%. It inhibits mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase and leads to pulmonary and cardiac toxicity. Treatment is supportive with some studies suggesting a beneficial effect of magnesium sulphate. Pyrethroids and insect repellants (e.g. diethyltoluamide) are relatively harmless but can cause toxic effects to pulmonary and central nervous systems. Ethylene dibromide-a highly toxic, fumigant pesticide-produces oral ulcerations, followed by liver and renal toxicity, and is almost uniformly fatal. Physicians working in remote and rural areas need to be educated about early diagnosis and proper management using supportive care and antidotes, wherever available. PMID:18085124

Goel, Ashish; Aggarwal, Praveen

2007-01-01

99

[Poisonous animals registration in Poland].  

PubMed

The Act on Nature Conservation of 16.04.2004 (Official Journal, 2004, No 92, item 880) imposes on private individuals the duty to register some animals. The data collected by Kraków municipal authorities and delivered to the Poison Information Centre (Colleglum Medicum, Jagiellonian University) indicate that there are following species in private hands in the city and its surroundings: 11 individuals of Naja naja, 2--Hydrodynates gigas and 55-- Dendrobates spp. According to these information the employees of the PIC elaborated the advice on the treatment of specific animals' poisoning. In the period May 2003 - May 2004 (before the above Act came into force) there were 143 individuals from Brachypelma genus and 3 scorpions (Pandinus imperator) registered in Krakow. These species produce venoms which take local effect. According to art. 64 (1) of the above Act it is compulsory to register amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals. However, it would be desirable to introduce the duty to register also dangerous species of invertebrates and fishes. It would provide the complete list of poisonous animals kept in private hands. Thus, it would be possible to estimate any possible threats and to elaborate adequate treatment in case of specific animals' poisoning. PMID:16225138

Mitrus, Ma?gorzata; Szkolnicka, Beata; Satora, Leszek; Morawska, Jowanka

2005-01-01

100

Recovery of fish stocks in the Seto Inland Sea.  

PubMed

The total amount of fisheries' yield in the Seto Inland Sea in 1999 was 571,000 MT, consisting of 256,000 MT by fishing and 315,000 MT from aquaculture. About 40,000 people engaged in the fishing and aquaculture industries, earned 129 billion yen (1100 million US$) by fishing and 89 billion yen (770 million $US) by aquaculture. The averaged annual catch for the Seto Inland Sea by fishing was 13 MT/km(2). Division into time periods in terms of eutrophication levels can be made: before 1960 when red sea bream were abundant with ecological divergence (before eutrophication), from 1960 to 1990 when the biomass of anchovy was large (during eutrophication), and after 1990 when the jellyfishes were abundant (excessive eutrophication or high N:P ratio). The fish production will decrease in the sea of jellyfishes. Actually, the amount of catch was 462,000 MT in 1982 which decreased 265,000 MT in 1993, corresponding to 43% in twelve years, then keeping the same level. A big reduction was seen in the catches of the spotlined sardine, anchovy, Spanish mackerel, tiger puffer, short-necked clam, sea cucumber and others. The tiger puffer and Spanish mackerel were abundant as predators in the sea of anchovy. The biomass of anchovy was at its maximum in 1986 and decreased to less than one third in 1996. The stocks of tiger puffer and Spanish mackerel greatly decreased because of the higher fishing pressure compared to the anchovy stock. The fishing power of individual fisheries targeting on the tiger puffer and Spanish mackerel increased substantially when fishing vessel and fishing gear improved, resulting in an excessive fishing effort. A large quantity of small immature fishes is usually caught in the Seto Inland Sea, resulting in growth and/or recruitment overfishing for many species. Hence, it is necessary to promote management of the fisheries so as not to reduce the fish stocks, and to allow the Seto Inland Sea to return from being a sea of jellyfishes to a sea of anchovy, with decreased eutrophication levels. PMID:12787608

Nagai, T

2003-01-01

101

[Venomous and poisonous animals. IV. Envenomations by venomous aquatic vertebrates].  

PubMed

Epidemiological information on marine envenomation is generally less extensive in Europe than in tropical regions where these injuries are more severe and the need for medical advice is more frequent. For these reasons use of regional Poison Control Centers in the area where the injury occurs must be encouraged. The purpose of this review is to describe envenomation by bony fish (lion fish, stone fish, and catfish), cartilaginous fish (stingrays and poisonous sharks), or other venomous aquatic vertebrates (moray-eels and marine snakes). Understanding of these envenomation syndromes is important not only in tropical areas but also in Europe where importation of dangerous species has increased in recent years. PMID:17691425

Bédry, R; De Haro, L

2007-04-01

102

A review of lead poisoning in swans  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Nearly 10,000 swans of six species or subspecies from 14 countries have died from poisoning caused by lead that originated from ingestion of fishing weights, shotgun pellets (shot), or contaminated vegetation or sediments associated with mining and smelting wastes. Lead contamination in mute swans in England caused local population declines during the late 1970s and 1980s. More tundra swans died from lead poisoning than any other species. The extreme record involved an estimated 7200 tundra swans that died over five winters at one locality in North Carolina. The recent legislation to ban lead fishing weights in most of England and Wales and recent replacement of lead shot with steel shot for waterfowl hunting in the United States and a few areas of Europe, including Denmark, are expected to reduce the incidence of lead poisoning in swans.

Blus, L. J.

1994-01-01

103

Powered control mechanisms contributing to dynamically stable swimming in porcupine puffers (Teleostei: Diodon holocanthus)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Balances of multiple varying forces must be the basis for the unusually great dynamic stability of swimming pufferfishes. We used high-speed digital video recordings to study biomechanics and kinematics of rectilinear swimming at different speeds of five porcupine puffers in a water tunnel. We measured critical swimming speeds (Ucrit); fin biomechanics, kinematics, and coordination; recoil movements; and gait changes. Major propulsors were pectoral fins at lower speeds; dorsal, anal, and caudal fins at higher speeds. Precise coordination of fin movements produced small recoil movements at speeds below Ucrit. The unusual body shape probably contributes to unconscious stability control.

Wiktorowicz, Alexis M.; Lauritzen, Dean V.; Gordon, Malcolm S.

104

Detecting Conserved Regulatory Elements with the Model Genome of the Japanese Puffer Fish, Fugu rubripes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Comparative vertebrate genome sequencing offers a powerful method for detecting conserved regulatory sequences. We propose that the compact genome of the teleost Fugu rubripes is well suited for this purpose. The evolutionary distance of teleosts from other vertebrates offers the maximum stringency for such evolutionary comparisons. To illustrate the comparative genome approach for F. rubripes, we use sequence comparisons between

Samuel Aparicio; Alastair Morrison; Alex Gould; Jonathan Gilthorpe; Chitrita Chaudhuri; Peter Rigby; Robb Krumlauf; Sydney Brenner

1995-01-01

105

Okadaic acid, a causative toxin of diarrhetic shellfish poisoning, in green-lipped mussels Perna viridis from Hong Kong fish culture zones: Method development and monitoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

Green-lipped mussels (Perna viridis) were collected from seven fish culture zones (FCZs) in Hong Kong and analyzed for okadaic acid (OA). A conventional HPLC method was modified by incorporating a proteinase K digestion step. Results suggest that a higher recovery (2.5 times higher) of OA was obtained from spiked samples after the addition of 1.08mg proteinase K in comparison with

Kylie C. Y. Mak; H. Yu; M. C. Choi; Xiaoyun Shen; Michael H. W. Lam; M. Martin; Rudolf S. S. Wu; Patsy S. Wong; Bruce J. Richardson; Paul K. S. Lam

2005-01-01

106

Poison Control Centers  

MedlinePLUS

... Email not for emergency use. Virginia California Poison Control System Central Office Address University of California San Francisco ... Email not for emergency use. California California Poison Control System - Fresno/Madera Division Address Children's Hospital Central California ...

107

Blue nightshade poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

Blue nightshade poisoning occurs when someone eats parts of the blue nightshade plant. This is for information only and ... The poison is found in the blue nightshade (Solanum dulcamara) plant, especially in the fruit and leaves.

108

Developing Regional Poison Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The national Emergency Medical Services program has identified poisoning as a significant national emergency medical problem, for which a patient care system must be developed. Since the development of the first poison control center in Illinois in 1953, ...

S. Micik

1979-01-01

109

Mercuric oxide poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

Mercuric oxide is a form of mercury. It is a type of mercury salt. There are different types of ... poisonings . This article discusses poisoning from swallowing mercuric oxide. This is for information only and not for ...

110

Hydrochloric acid poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

Hydrocholoric acid is a clear, poisonous liquid. It is highly corrosive, which means it immediately causes severe damage, such ... poisoning due to swallowing or breathing in hydrochloric acid. This is for information only and not for ...

111

Chlorinated lime poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... In: Shannon MW, Borron SW, Burns MJ, eds. Haddad and Winchester's Clinical Management of Poisoning and Drug ... In: Shannon MW, Borron SW, Burns MJ, eds. Haddad and Winchester's Clinical Management of Poisoning and Drug ...

112

Furniture polish poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... In: Shannon MW, Borron SW, Burns MJ, eds. Haddad and Winchester's Clinical Management of Poisoning and Drug ... In: Shannon MW, Borron SW, Burns MJ, eds. Haddad and Winchester's Clinical Management of Poisoning and Drug ...

113

Acid soldering flux poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... In: Shannon MW, Borron SW, Burns MJ, eds. Haddad and Winchester's Clinical Management of Poisoning and Drug ... In: Shannon MW, Borron SW, Burns MJ, eds. Haddad and Winchester's Clinical Management of Poisoning and Drug ...

114

Lead poisoning: An overview  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A problem that should be of great concern to all of us is the lead poisoning of children. First, I would like to present a short overview concerning the reasons everyone should care about lead poisoning, then discuss the history of lead poisoning, what is happening today across the country, and the future.

Gendel, Neil

1993-01-01

115

Lead Poisoning: An Overview.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A problem that should be of great concern to all of us is the lead poisoning of children. First, I would like to present a short overview concerning the reasons everyone should care about lead poisoning, then discuss the history of lead poisoning, what is...

N. Gendel

1993-01-01

116

Hydrogen sulfide poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Poisoning by hydrogen sulfide has been recognized as an occupational hazard for at least two centuries. The development of alternative sources of energy in North America may increase the incidence of this medical emergency in the future. Until recently, no specific antidote to sulfide was recognized. We have compared sulfide poisoning to cyanide poisoning and documented recent findings that indicate

Roger P. Smith; Robert E. Gosselin

1979-01-01

117

Lead Poisoning in Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Early symptoms of lead poisoning in children are often overlooked. Lead poisoning has its greatest effects on the brain and nervous system. The obvious long-term solution to the lead poisoning problem is removal of harmful forms of the metal from the environment. (JN)

Drummond, A. H., Jr.

1981-01-01

118

Lead Poisoning in Childhood.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The magnitude of childhood lead poisoning has been inexplicably neglected by modern medicine and by legislators. However, since the 1970s, increased attention has been focused on lead poisoning, and advances have been made in several areas, including understanding of the neurodevelopmental and behavioral ramifications of lead poisoning, and…

Pueschel, Siegfried M., Ed.; Linakis, James G., Ed.; Anderson, Angela C., Ed.

119

Ultrastructural studies on crystal growth of enameloid minerals in elasmobranch and teleost fish  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The composition and morphology of crystals formed in fish enameloid were investigated at various developmental stages. Species\\u000a studied were shark, skate, red seabream, puffer, and carp. For comparative purposes, mammalian enamel samples were obtained\\u000a from developing porcine teeth and erupted human teeth. Chemical and physical analyses (FTIR, X-ray diffraction, and electron\\u000a microprobe) indicated that the mineral phase of enameloid in

Y. Miake; T. Aoba; E. C. Moreno; S. Shimoda; K. Prostak; S. Suga

1991-01-01

120

Okadaic acid, a causative toxin of diarrhetic shellfish poisoning, in green-lipped mussels Perna viridis from Hong Kong fish culture zones: method development and monitoring.  

PubMed

Green-lipped mussels (Perna viridis) were collected from seven fish culture zones (FCZs) in Hong Kong and analyzed for okadaic acid (OA). A conventional HPLC method was modified by incorporating a proteinase K digestion step. Results suggest that a higher recovery (2.5 times higher) of OA was obtained from spiked samples after the addition of 1.08 mg proteinase K in comparison with samples incubated without the proteolytic enzyme. For the hepatopancreas (HP) of individual field-collected mussels, the additional digestion step can enhance OA extraction by 3.1 times. Spatial and temporal variations in OA concentrations in the mussels from various FCZs were investigated. The highest concentration of OA in mussel HP samples was 1164.9 ng/g HP wet wt. With respect to OA concentrations in whole mussel tissues from seven sites and four seasonal samplings, the concentrations were between 70.0 and 131.0 ng/g wet wt., which did not exceed the generally recognized international regulatory criteria (>200 ng/g) for OA. PMID:16040057

Mak, Kylie C Y; Yu, H; Choi, M C; Shen, Xiaoyun; Lam, Michael H W; Martin, M; Wu, Rudolf S S; Wong, Patsy S; Richardson, Bruce J; Lam, Paul K S

2005-01-01

121

The gas bladder of puffers and porcupinefishes (Acanthomorpha: Tetraodontiformes): Phylogenetic interpretations.  

PubMed

The anatomy of the gas bladder of Diodontidae (porcupinefishes) and Tetraodontidae (pufferfishes) was studied on the basis of dissections and magnetic resonance imaging. Among the examined taxa of Tetraodontiformes, only puffers and porcupinefishes possess a thick walled and dorsally U-shaped or crescent-moon-shaped gas bladder. In the tetraodontid genus Lagocephalus the gas bladder is reduced to a rudiment. The species belonging to the genera Canthigaster, Arothron, and some species of Tetraodon differ in the positioning of their crescent-moon-shaped gas bladder. These observations confirm the close relationship of: (i) Diodontidae and Tetraodontidae and (ii) Canthigaster, Arothron, and some species of Tetraodon. The heterogeneity of the genus Tetraodon is supported by the gas bladder morphology, as previously suggested by molecular studies. J. Morphol. 275:894-901, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24634057

Chanet, Bruno; Guintard, Claude; Lecointre, Guillaume

2014-08-01

122

Phosphorus poisoning in waterfowl  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Black ducks and mallards were found to be highly susceptible to phosphorus poisoning. 3 mg. of white phosphorus per kg. of body weight given in a single dose resulted in death of a black duck in 6 hours. Pathologic changes in both acute and chronic poisoning were studied. Data are presented showing that diagnosis can be made accurately by chemical analysis of stored tissues in cases of phosphorus poisoning.

Coburn, D.R.; DeWitt, J.B.; Derby, J.V., Jr.; Ediger, E.

1950-01-01

123

Lighter fluid poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

Hydrocarbons, including: Benzene Butane Hexamine Lacolene Naptha Propane ... Mirkin DB. Benzene and related aromatic hydrocarbons. In: Shannon MW, ... of Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: ...

124

A new cutaneous sign of mercury poisoning?  

PubMed

Chronic mercury poisoning is becoming a health concern because of extensive pollution of water and fish, and the increasing consumption of fish in the human diet. Mercury is extremely toxic to the body, especially the central nervous system, but diagnosis is difficult because of the lack of specific signs. A total of 11 patients were observed to have a nonpruritic or mildly pruritic discreet papular and papulovesicular eruption that correlated with high blood mercury levels. The mercury evidently came from increased seafood consumption. All of the patients improved when they were placed on either a seafood-free diet or chelation therapy. Physicians should suspect mercury poisoning in patients who eat a high-seafood diet who present with an asymptomatic or mildly pruritic papular or papulovesicular eruption. PMID:14639393

Dantzig, Paul I

2003-12-01

125

Red Tide and Shellfish Poisoning  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This EnviroFacts informational page discusses how red tide develops and how people might be affected by this phenomenon. It covers physical damage, oxygen depletion, direct poisoning, and indirect poisoning including paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP), diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP), neurotoxic shellfish poisoning (NSP), amnesiac shellfish poisoning (ASP), and aerosol toxins. The page concludes with a discussion of red tide and the role of the sea fisheries research institute.

Maneveldt, Gavin W.; Matthews, Sue; Pitcher, Grant; Van Der Vyver, Irma

2010-01-29

126

Cloning and expression of cDNA encoding lysyl hydroxylase 1, 2 and 3 in tiger puffer Takifugu rubripes.  

PubMed

Lysyl hydroxylase (LH) catalyzes the hydroxylation of lysine residues in collagens, and contributes to the formation of more stable collagen cross-links. However, in teleost, there is little information about collagen modification enzymes including lysyl oxidase (LOX) family members. Here, we cloned cDNAs encoding LH1, 2 and 3 from tiger puffer Takifugu rubripes. To determine the mRNA expressions of LH family members in a tiger puffer, we performed a northern blot analysis. Results showed that both fgLH1 and fgLH3 mRNAs were almost constitutively expressed in tissues, but highly expressed in muscle and ovary, respectively. However, fgLH2 mRNA was detected only in RT-PCR, indicating that expression level of fgLH2 is very low in tissues. It may be that low expression level of fgLH2 contributes to the fewer contents of stable collagen cross-links in tiger puffer tissues. To further investigate expression profiles of fgLHs, we examined gene expressions in embryos during development. In embryos, expression profiles differ among three fgLHs, indicating that there are functional differences among the three fgLHs. This is the first report that examined gene expression patterns of three LHs in emrbyos and adult tissues in teleost. PMID:23954882

Tsukamoto, Hiroshi; Yokoyama, Yoshihiro; Suzuki, Tohru; Mizuta, Shoshi; Yoshinaka, Reiji; Akahane, Yoshiaki

2013-10-01

127

Human Pentachlorophenol Poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pentachlorophenol (PCP) was, and still is, one of the most frequently used fungicides and pesticides, Its toxicity is due to interference with oxidative phosphorylation. Acute and chronic poisoning may occur by dermal absorption, inhalation or ingestion. Chronic poisoning occurs mainly in sawmill workers or people living in log homes treated with PCPcontaining wood protecting formulations. Quantitative determination of PCP in

Philippe G. Jorens; Paul J. C. Schepens

1993-01-01

128

Neuropsychology of thallium poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cases of thallium poisoning are rare and neuropsychological assessment has only been reported in detail in one other case. In the case reported here, neuropsychological assessments were carried out three, 12, and 54 months after diagnosis of thallium poisoning in a man who had acutely shown a number of neurological signs including confusion and disorientation and generalised slowing of EEG

T M McMillan; R R Jacobson; M Gross

1997-01-01

129

Oximes in organophosphorus poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acute organic insecticide poisoning is a major health problem all over the world, particularly in the develop­ ing countries, where organophosphates (OPs) are the most common suicidal poisons with high morbidity and mortality and account for a large proportion of patients admitted to intensive care units. Other insecti­ cides less commonly used are organocarbamates, organochlorides, and pyrethroids, which are less

M. A. Cherian; Roshini C; J. V. Peter; A. M. Cherian

2005-01-01

130

Lead Poisoning in Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication is a guide to help social and health workers plan a preventive campaign against lead poisoning, a cause of mental retardation other neurological handicaps, and death among children. The main victims are 1- to 6-year-olds living in areas where deteriorating housing prevails. Among the causes of lead poisoning are: ingestion of…

Lin-Fu, Jane S.

131

Fatal oleander poisoning.  

PubMed

A case of fatal poisoning due to the presumed ingestion of leaves and/or fruit of the yellow oleander (Thevetia peruviana) is described. The diagnosis was confirmed by radioimmunoassay using antibodies of differential specificity towards cardiac glycosides. Attention is drawn to the potential usefulness of digoxin assay in suspected cases of oleander poisoning. PMID:7195456

Ansford, A J; Morris, H

1981-04-01

132

Aluminium phosphide poisoning  

PubMed Central

We describe a lethal poisoning in a healthy woman caused by deliberate ingestion of aluminium phosphide (AlP), a pesticide used to kill rodents and insects. Toxicity of AlP and review of cases reported to the National Poisons Information Service (London) 1997–2003 are discussed.

Bogle, R G; Theron, P; Brooks, P; Dargan, P I; Redhead, J

2006-01-01

133

Mass carbon monoxide poisoning  

PubMed Central

The largest occurrence of carbon monoxide poisoning in Britain demonstrates the potential for mass accidental poisoning. It emphasises the need for strict public health controls and the importance of good liaison between emergency services to ensure that such events are quickly recognised and that the necessary resources are organised.

McGuffie, C; Wyatt, J; Kerr, G; Hislop, W

2000-01-01

134

[Poisoning by Atractylis gummifera L. Morocco poison control center data].  

PubMed

To assess the extent and severity of poisoning by Atractylis gummifera L. in Morocco, a descriptive retrospective study was conducted on all the poisoning cases listed between 1981 and 2004 to the Morocco Poison Control Center. During this period, 240 people were hospitalized for glue thistle poisoning, 72% of which are children under 16 years. The severity of the poisoning has been affirmed by significant intrahospital lethality. Indeed, among the 182 patients for whom the outcomes were known, 98 died (54%). PMID:21243460

Hami, H; Soulaymani, A; Skalli, S; Mokhtari, A; Sefiani, H; Soulaymani, R

2011-02-01

135

Kudoa dianae sp. n. (Myxosporea: Multivalvulida), a new parasite of bullseye puffer, Sphoeroides annulatus (Tetraodontiformes: Tetraodontidae).  

PubMed

A new multivalvulid myxosporean species, Kudoa dianae sp. n., is described from bullseye puffer, Sphoeroides annulatus (Jenyns) (Tetraodontiformes: Tetraodontidae). Plasmodia develop in extramuscular sites, in the wall of oesophagus and less frequently on mesenteries. Mature spores can reach lumen of the digestive tract directly by disruption of plasmodial wall or via macrophage transport to the oesophageal epithelium. New species is characterised by morphology of spores and by the complete sequence of SSU rRNA gene that differs from all hitherto known sequences of Kudoa species. Spore morphology (moderate-sized, simple non-ornate spores, quadrate in apical view) clusters with that of Kudoa scienae, K. cerebralis, K. chilkaensis, K. leiostomi, K. finduli, K. cascasia and K. ovivora. Analysis of phylogenetic relationships (using SSU rRNA gene sequences) among five Kudoa species, the molecular data of which are available thus far, revealed that K. dianae is distinguishable from these five species and that its closest relation is with K. miniauiriculata. PMID:11993546

Dyková, Iva; Fajer Avila, Emma Josefina; Fiala, Ivan

2002-01-01

136

Sodium hypochlorite poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... poisoning, especially if the product is mixed with ammonia. This is for information only and not for ... amounts can cause more serious symptoms. NEVER mix ammonia with sodium hypochlorite (bleach or bleach-containing products). ...

137

Drain cleaner poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

Drain cleaners contain very dangerous chemicals that can be harmful to your health if swallowed, breathed in ( ... article discusses poisoning from swallowing or breathing in drain cleaner. This is for information only and not ...

138

Plant fertilizer poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

Seek immediate medical help. Do NOT make a person throw up unless told to do so by poison control or a health care professional. If the chemical is on the skin or in the eyes, flush with lots of water ...

139

Homicide by poisoning.  

PubMed

By studying the number and method of homicidal poisoning in Miami-Dade County, Florida; New York City, NY; Oakland County, Michigan; and Sweden, we have confirmed that this is an infrequently established crime.Several difficulties come with the detection of homicidal poisonings. Presenting symptoms and signs are often misdiagnosed as natural disease, especially if the crime is committed in a hospital environment, suggesting that an unknown number of homicides go undetected.In the reported cases analyzed, the lethal agent of choice has changed over the years. In earlier years, traditional poisons such as arsenic, cyanide, and parathion were frequently used. Such poisonings are nowadays rare, and instead, narcotics are more commonly detected in victims of this crime. PMID:23361068

Finnberg, Amanda; Junuzovic, Mensura; Dragovic, Ljubisa; Ortiz-Reyes, Ruben; Hamel, Marianne; Davis, Joseph; Eriksson, Anders

2013-03-01

140

Potassium carbonate poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

Potassium carbonate is a white powder used to make soap, glass, and other items. This article discusses poisoning from swallowing or breathing in potassium carbonate. This is for information only and not ...

141

Occupational cyanide poisoning  

PubMed Central

Cyanide poisoning has existed for centuries. In most cases, cyanide is combined with other toxic substances; for example with carbon monoxide in fire smoke. Cases of pure cyanide poisoning are rare, and usually due to accidental exposure. Their treatment is based on oxygenation and the infusion of hydroxocobalamin. The seriousness of this type of poisoning calls for a rapid and specific response, which demonstrates the usefulness of non-hospital based medical treatment. The authors report here the case of a man who was the victim of occupational poisoning with sodium cyanide and who was treated at the workplace by fire-fighters and the Service Mobile d’Urgence et Reanimation emergency ambulance service.

Amizet, Loic; Pruvot, Gauthier; Remy, Sophie; Kfoury, Michel

2011-01-01

142

Hair dye poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... Arsenic Bismuth Denatured alcohol Lead (see lead poisoning ) Mercury Pyrogallol Silver Note: This list may not include ... product is swallowed. Continued exposure to lead or mercury can lead to permanent brain and nervous system ( ...

143

Carbon monoxide poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... Portable propane heaters Stoves (indoor and camp stoves) Water heater that use natural gas Note: This list may ... gas-burning appliances (such as a furnace or water heater). Many carbon monoxide poisonings occur in the winter ...

144

Wart remover poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

Wart removers are medicines used to eliminate warts , which are small, usually painless growths on the skin caused by a virus. Wart remover poisoning occurs when someone accidentally or intentionally swallows ...

145

Overview of Poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... as iron and lead). Sometimes a solution containing sodium bicarbonate (the chemical in baking soda) is given by ... ACETADOTE ), aspirin Some Trade Names BAYER (antidote is sodium bicarbonate), and heroin (antidote is naloxone). Some poisonous bites ...

146

Rubber cement poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

Mirkin DB. Benzene and related aromatic hydrocarbons. In: Shannon MW, Borron SW, Burns MJ, eds. Haddad and Winchester's Clinical Management of Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: ...

147

Fuel oil poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

Hydrocarbons (alkanes, cycloalkanes, aromatics) ... Mirkin DB. Benzene and related aromatic hydrocarbons. In: Shannon MW, Borron SW, Burns MJ, eds. Haddad and Winchester's Clinical Management of Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: ...

148

Stoddard solvent poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

Mirkin DB. Benzene and related aromatic hydrocarbons. In: Shannon MW, Borron SW, Burns MJ, eds. Haddad and Winchester's Clinical Management of Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: ...

149

Metal polish poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... ingredients found in metal polishes are ammonia and hydrocarbons, which are substances that contain only hydrogen and ... Mirkin DB. Benzene and related aromatic hydrocarbons. In: Shannon MW, ... of Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: ...

150

Toluene and xylene poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

Mirkin DB. Benzene and related aromatic hydrocarbons. In: Shannon MW, Borron SW, Burns MJ, eds. Haddad and Winchester's Clinical Management of Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: ...

151

Sulfuric acid poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

Sulfuric acid is a very strong chemical that is corrosive. Corrosive means it can cause severe burns and ... or mucous membranes. This article discusses poisoning from sulfuric acid. This is for information only and not for ...

152

Household glue poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

Glue poisoning ... Glue Note: This list may not include all sources of household glue. ... Symptoms of breathing in ("sniffing") glue fumes may include: ... appearance Excitability Headache Irritability Loss of appetite ...

153

[Neurological symptoms in poisoning].  

PubMed

Acute and chronic intoxications become manifest in primary neurological symptoms. After a definition of poisoning the autonomic, neurological and psychological disturbances are briefly discussed and the therapeutic measures presented in a table. Later, the neurological symptoms are described with reference to oberservations of cases of lead, thallium, E 605 (parathion), carbon monoxide, mercury, amphetamine and botulin poisoning. Four table and 9 figures supplement the text. PMID:6775212

Neu, I

1980-10-01

154

Pyopneumothorax Following Kerosene Poisoning  

PubMed Central

Kerosene poisoning is a common poisoning in India especially in childhood, and clinical spectrum can range from meager chemical pneumonitis to grave complications such as hypoxia, pneumothorax, pneumomediastinum, and emphysema. Pyopneumothorax that may require aggressive management in the form of thoracotomy has not been reported in literature. We hereby report a 22-year young female who had developed series of respiratory complications including pyopneumothorax following ingestion of kerosene with suicidal intent and was treated successfully.

Chaudhary, Shyam Chand; Sawlani, Kamal Kumar; Yathish, B. E.; Singh, Ambukeshwar; Kumar, Suresh; Parihar, Anit

2014-01-01

155

A review of lead poisoning in swans (Cygnus spp.)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Nearly 10,000 swans of six species or subspecies from 14 countries have died from poisoning caused by lead that originated from ingestion of fishing weights, shotgun pellets (shot), or contaminated vegetation or sediments associated with mining and smelting wastes. Lead contamination in mute swans in England caused local population declines during the late 1970s and 1980s. More tundra swans died from lead poisoning than any other species. The extreme record involved an estimated 7200 tundra swans that died over five winters at one locality in North Carolina. The recent legislation to ban lead fishing weights in most of England and Wales and recent replacement of lead shot with steel shot for waterfowl hunting in the United States and a few areas of Europe, including Denmark, are expected to reduce the incidence of lead poisoning in swans.

Blus, L. J.

1994-01-01

156

Prepare and Purify Urushiol from Poison Ivy and Poison Oak.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The active ingredients (urushiols) of poison ivy and poison oak were isolated in purified form by various chemical and physical procedures. Various properties were measured, including molecular weight, double bond value, refractive index and infrared spec...

M. D. Corbett

1973-01-01

157

Preparation of Urushiol from Poison Ivy or Poison Oak.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A method for the preparation of urushiol from poison ivy or poison oak is disclosed. The method includes extraction with alcohol at low temperature and a second extraction with benzene, followed by chromatographic separation on a solid adsorbent. The meth...

1972-01-01

158

Using Poison Center Exposure Calls to Predict Methadone Poisoning Deaths  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeThere are more drug overdose deaths in the Untied States than motor vehicle fatalities. Yet the US vital statistics reporting system is of limited value because the data are delayed by four years. Poison centers report data within an hour of the event, but previous studies suggested a small proportion of poisoning deaths are reported to poison centers (PC). In

Nabarun Dasgupta; Jonathan Davis; Michele Jonsson Funk; Richard Dart

2012-01-01

159

Poison control center - emergency number  

MedlinePLUS

... ANYWHERE IN THE UNITED STATES This national hotline number will let you talk to experts in poisoning. This is a free and confidential service. All local poison control centers in the United States use this national ...

160

Poisonous Snakes of North America.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Topics include: Some facts about poisonous snakes; Kinds and characteristics of dangerous snakes; Distribution of poisonous snakes of North America; Precautions against snakebite; First-aid measures for snakebite; Identification and habits of the poisonou...

1969-01-01

161

Poisonous Snakes of Southeastern Asia.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Topics include: Some facts about poisonous snakes; Kinds and characteristics of dangerous snakes; Distribution of poisonous snakes of Southeastern Asia; Precautions against snakebite; First-aid measures for snakebite; Identification and habits of the pois...

1969-01-01

162

Anti-rust product poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... In: Shannon MW, Borron SW, Burns MJ, eds. Haddad and Winchester's Clinical Management of Poisoning and Drug ... In: Shannon MW, Borron SW, Burns MJ, eds. Haddad and Winchester's Clinical Management of Poisoning and Drug ...

163

Isolation and characterization of bacteria from the copepod Pseudocaligus fugu ectoparasitic on the panther puffer Takifugu pardalis with the emphasis on TTX  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 50 bacterial isolates was obtained from the copepod Pseudocaligus fugu, which is a common parasite, collected from the body surface of the panther puffer Takifugu pardalis. On the basis of colony characteristics, these bacterial isolates were grouped into six types, of which only two (Types-I and -II) showed a high affinity for adhesion to the carapace of

B. A. Venmathi Maran; Emi Iwamoto; Jun Okuda; Shuhei Matsuda; Shigeto Taniyama; Yasuo Shida; Manabu Asakawa; Susumu Ohtsuka; Toshihiro Nakai; Geoffrey A. Boxshall

2007-01-01

164

Recurrent neonatal organophoshorus poisoning.  

PubMed

Organophosphorus poisoning in neonates is extremely rare and needs high index of suspicion to diagnose it. The clinical presentation is often confused with the features of sepsis like apnea, copious oral secretions, diarrhea, letharginess, seizures. There may be recurrence of manifestations due to chronic exposure. We report a classic case admitted in the intensive care unit of our hospital. PMID:23024082

Parvez, Yusuf; Mathew, Aji; Kutti, Satheesh Kalantra

2012-09-01

165

Poisoning (For Parents)  

MedlinePLUS

... of reach. Discard (or recycle) used button cell batteries (like those in watches) safely and store unused ones far from children's reach. Never tell a child that medicine tastes like candy. Never put cleaning products in containers that were once used for food or drink. Never put rodent poison on the ...

166

Lead Poisoning in Children  

PubMed Central

In this study of the phenomenon of lead poisoning in children, the various approaches that several cities have employed to combat the problem are discussed. Several suggestions for dealing with the situation are proposed. These include educational programs, followup reports, legislation, and research.

Alli, Billiamin A.

1977-01-01

167

Treatment of snakebite poisoning.  

PubMed

The epidemiology, mechanics, prevention, pharmacology, clinical manifestations, and treatment of snakebites are reviewed. Poisonous snakes bite approximately 8000 persons annually in the United States, causing approximately 12-15 deaths per year. Pit vipers (rattlesnakes, copperheads, cottonmouths, and massasaugas) are responsible for 99% of all snakebite poisonings; coral snakes and other foreign exotic species are responsible for the additional 1%. Envenomation is characterized by pain, edema, and ecchymoses at or near the site of venom injection, followed by cardiac, hematologic, neurologic, renal, and pulmonary toxicity. The major clinical finding in most snakebite poisonings is local tissue necrosis. Immediate treatment for snakebite includes limiting movement and placing a constriction band proximal to the site of venom injection. If medical care is more than 30 minutes away, the wound may be incised and suctioned. Antivenin therapy is the mainstay of medical treatment of snakebite, along with administration of plasma expanders, pain medication, diazepam, tetanus toxoid, antiseptics, and antibiotics. Patients who have pain, swelling, ecchymoses, systemic symptoms, or abnormal laboratory findings within 30 minutes to one hour of a bite are probable candidates to receive antivenin therapy. Before receiving antivenin therapy, the patient must be tested for hypersensitivity to the antivenin. Antivenin therapy is most effective when given within four hours of the snakebite. Pharmacists--especially those serving rural areas--should be familiar with current snakebite treatments, both local and systemic, and should be prepared to provide important information and dispel any myths about snakebite poisoning. PMID:1781479

Smith, T A; Figge, H L

1991-10-01

168

Amnesic Shellfish Poisoning  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web page discusses Amnesic Shellfish Poisoning, a newly identified marine toxin disease associated with blooms of the diatom Pseudonitschia pungens. The page describes clinical presentation (symptoms), diagnosis, management and treatment, chemical structure of domoic acid, molecular mechanism of action, and references.

2010-03-22

169

Diarrheic Shellfish Poisoning  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web page discusses Diarrheic Shellfish Poisoning (DSP), a gastrointestinal illness caused by the consumption of contaminated shellfish. The associated toxins are okadaic acid and its derivatives, which are produced by the marine dinoflagellate Dinophysis. This page describes clinical presentation (symptoms) of DSP, diagnosis, management and treatment, chemical structure of okadaic acid, molecular mechanism of action, and references.

2010-05-28

170

Methyl Bromide Poisoning  

PubMed Central

Seven cases of methyl bromide poisoning which occurred amongst workers engaged on a fumigation project are described. The methods adopted for investigation of the environmental situation are discussed and the measurement of blood bromide levels on random samples of workers is suggested as an index of the effectiveness of equipment and working methods.

Rathus, E. M.; Landy, P. J.

1961-01-01

171

Lead Poisoning in Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Urban children are exposed to lead through the air they breathe, the water they drink, and the food and nonfood substances they ingest. The history, diagnosis, and treatment of lead poisoning in these children are discussed. Includes information on the toxicology of lead and the various risk classes. (JN)

Boeckx, Roger L.

1986-01-01

172

Lead Poisoning in Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed as a public information pamphlet, the text discusses the problem of lead poisoning in children. The preventable nature of the problem is stressed as well as needed action on the part of the public, physicians and other health workers, and the legislators. The pamphlet emphasizes that each of these areas is essential in preventing death or…

Lin-Fu, Jane S.

173

[Plant poisoning cases in Turkey].  

PubMed

In Turkey, the majority of the population live in rural areas where they use wild plants as food and medicine. The confusion of an edible plant with a poisonous one give rise to serious poisoning which may even result in death. The incidence of plant poisoning in Turkey is about 6% and especially high among children between ages of 2 and 11 living in rural areas. The number of species that cause poisoning is around twenty and Hyoscyamus niger (Solanaceae), Colchicum species (Liliaceae), Conium maculatum (Umbelliferae) and Prunus species (Rosaceae) are the most important. Mushroom poisoning is more frequent in spring and fall. The main reasons are their widespread usage as food and the inexperience of the gatherers in distinguishing the edibles from the poisonous. Amanita phalloides, A. verna, A. muscaria, A. pantherina are responsible for severe cases of poisoning. PMID:7857034

Oztekin-Mat, A

1994-01-01

174

Four new records of fish species (Cypriniformes: Nemacheilidae, Balitoridae; Characiformes: Prochilodontidae) and corrections of two misidentified fish species (Tetraodontiformes: Tetraodontidae; Beloniformes: Belonidae) in Yunnan, China.  

PubMed

In this study, six fish species of five families are reported for the first time from Yunnan Province, China. The nemacheilid Schistura amplizona Kottelat, 2000 is reported from the Luosuojiang River and Nanlahe River subbasins, Mekong basin; the prochilodontid Prochilodus lineatus (Valenciennes, 1837), the balitorid Vanmanenia serrilineata Kottelat, 2000, and the tetraodontid Monotrete turgidus Kottelat, 2000, from Nanlahe River subbasin, Mekong basin; the balitorid Beaufortia daon (Mai, 1978), and the belonid Xenentodon canciloides (Bleeker, 1854), both, from Black River subbasin, Red River basin. The freshwater puffer M. turgidus and the needlefish X. canciloides have been previously misidentified as Tetraodon leiurus (Bleeker, 1950) and Tylosurus strongylurus (van Hasselt, 1823), respectively. PMID:24470454

Endruweit, Marco

2014-01-01

175

Underwater Census of Stream Fish Populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Variability and reliability of counts of fish made by divers in sections of two British Columbia rivers are examined. Repeated counts of several species of fish by a team of divers in a stream section are reasonably homogeneous, and not markedly different from total numbers subsequently recovered by poisoning. Diver counts of large spawning rainbow trout also agree closely with

T. G. Northcote; D. W. Wilkie

1963-01-01

176

[Accidents with venomous and poisonous animals in Central Europe].  

PubMed

Central Europe is largely safe from accidents with venomous and poisonous animals. The regions where European vipers are regularly found are shrinking. Today accidents with jellyfish and stings of venomous fish afflicted during leisure activities at the sea side play the dominant role. Life threatening accidents in Europe are mainly due to exotic snakes held in captivity. A system useful in daily medical practice is explained to classify and stage accidents due to poisonous and venomous animals. The important poisonous and venomous animals of Central Europe and the specific therapeutics, the antivenoms, are covered. The antivenom depot "Antivenin-CH" of the Swiss Toxicology Information Centre in Zurich and the MRITox in Munich with the antivenom registry Munich AntiVenom INdex (MAVIN) are presented. PMID:19401985

Bodio, Mauro; Junghanss, Thomas

2009-05-01

177

Can poison control data be used for pharmaceutical poisoning surveillance?  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveTo determine the association between the frequencies of pharmaceutical exposures reported to a poison control center (PCC) and those seen in the emergency department (ED).DesignA statewide population-based retrospective comparison of frequencies of ED pharmaceutical poisonings with frequencies of pharmaceutical exposures reported to a regional PCC. ED poisonings, identified by International Classification of Diseases, Version 9 (ICD-9) codes, were grouped into

Christopher A Naun; Cody S Olsen; J Michael Dean; Lenora M Olson; Lawrence J Cook; Heather T Keenan

2011-01-01

178

Neuropsychology of thallium poisoning  

PubMed Central

Cases of thallium poisoning are rare and neuropsychological assessment has only been reported in detail in one other case. In the case reported here, neuropsychological assessments were carried out three, 12, and 54 months after diagnosis of thallium poisoning in a man who had acutely shown a number of neurological signs including confusion and disorientation and generalised slowing of EEG which was more prominent on the left. Evidence suggested that he had been exposed to thallium over a period of weeks. Neuropsychological assessment indicated an unexpected weakness in verbal abilities which persisted. This finding is consistent with the only other published case report which details neuropsychological effects after a single large dose of thallium and which also found a lateralised impairment.??

McMillan, T; Jacobson, R; Gross, M

1997-01-01

179

[Accidental methyl alcohol poisoning].  

PubMed

An accidental poisoning due to drinking methyl alcohol in Chaoyang county is reported, analysing the accident. The poison came from the "retail white spirit" which was contaminated with methyl alcohol. Twenty-nine persons drank the wine, fourteen of them died, two of them became blind. After drinking this "retail white spirit" the drinkers showed symptoms of vertigo, headache, weakness, vomiting, night sweat, dyspnea and blurring of vision etc. within 6-120 hours. On examining the remaining spirit, we found the content of methyl alcohol to be between 16.6 and 40.69 g/100 ml. Some of the patients' urine and blood also contained methyl alcohol. We reckoned that each one of the twenty patients had taken more than 27 g of methyl alcohol and each of the ten dead drank more than 40 ml of the alcohol. PMID:2253526

Xiao, J H

1990-05-01

180

Poisonings in reptiles.  

PubMed

Reptiles are increasingly being kept as pets in American households. The basic principles of emergency medicine are the same for all species, but reptilian species present special diagnostic challenges to veterinary clinicians when they become ill. Reptiles in captivity can become accidentally poisoned in a variety of ways. Veterinarians treating small animal emergencies must make an effort to familiarize themselves with the large body of literature and resources that are developing regarding both nontraditional exotic companion species and advances in toxicology. PMID:18406391

Fitzgerald, Kevin T; Newquist, Kristin L

2008-05-01

181

Lead Poison Detection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

With NASA contracts, Whittaker Corporations Space Science division has developed an electro-optical instrument to mass screen for lead poisoning. Device is portable and detects protoporphyrin in whole blood. Free corpuscular porphyrins occur as an early effect of lead ingestion. Also detects lead in urine used to confirm blood tests. Test is inexpensive and can be applied by relatively unskilled personnel. Similar Whittaker fluorometry device called "drug screen" can measure morphine and quinine in urine much faster and cheaper than other methods.

1976-01-01

182

Endrin-food-poisoning  

PubMed Central

Between 3 June and 15 July 1967 four explosive outbreaks of acute poisoning with the insecticide endrin occurred in Doha in Qatar and Hofuf in Saudi Arabia. Altogether 874 persons were hospitalized and 26 died. It is estimated that many others were poisoned whose symptoms were not so severe as to cause them to seek medical care or to enter hospital. The author describes the course of the outbreaks and the measures taken to ascertain their cause and prevent their extension and recurrence. It was found that the victims had eaten bread made from flour contaminated with endrin. In two different ships, both of them loaded and off-loaded at different ports, flour and endrin had been stowed in the same hold, with the endrin above the flour. In both ships the endrin containers had leaked and penetrated the sacks of flour which was later used to make bread. These two unconnected but nearly simultaneous mass poisonings emphasize the importance of regulating the carriage of insecticides and other toxic chemicals in such a way as to prevent the contamination of foodstuffs and similar substances during transport; both the World Health Organization and the Inter-Governmental Maritime Consultative Organization are working towards the establishment of regulations and practices to that end.

Weeks, D. E.

1967-01-01

183

Chemical and Biological Summer Poisons  

PubMed Central

Summer has its own special poisoning hazards for the vacationer, gardener or outdoorsman. Because of the comparative variety of accidental human poisonings from contact with these seasonal toxic substances, either artificial or natural, many family physicians are unfamiliar with their effects. Some of us, unfortunately, will be called upon to deal with them over the next few months. This article highlights some of the hazards, outlines their toxicology and summarizes the treatment of the poisoned patient.

Lees, Ronald E. M.

1972-01-01

184

Prallethrin poisoning: A diagnostic dilemma  

PubMed Central

Pyrethroid insecticides are very widely used in agriculture and household due to their high effectiveness and low toxicity in humans. Despite their extensive worldwide use, there are a few reports of human pyrethroid poisoning. The poisoning has a varied presentation and its symptoms overlap with those of other compounds, which can lead to misdiagnosis. We present a case of poisoning with prallethrin, a pyrethroid compound, commonly available as All-Out.

Chandra, Alka; Dixit, Madhu B.; Banavaliker, Jayant N.

2013-01-01

185

Effect of hydraulic loading rate on the efficiency of effluent treatment in a recirculating puffer aquaculture system coupled with constructed wetlands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Constructed wetlands (CWs) were integrated into an indoor recirculating aquaculture system of obscure puffer (Takifugu obscurus) for effluent treatment. The effect of hydraulic loading rate (HLR) on the efficiency of effluent treatment by CWs was examined for over a month. The CWs were operated under brackish conditions (salinity 7.4-7.6) at 3 different HLRs (0.762, 0.633, and 0.458 m d-1) 3 times, 10 days each. Overall, the CWs exhibited high efficiency in removal of total ammonium nitrogen (by 81.03-92.81%) and nitrite nitrogen (by 99.40%-99.68%). The efficiency of CWs in removal of total ammonium nitrogen, nitrate nitrogen, total Kjeldahl nitrogen, total phosphorous, and total suspended solids (TSS) increased with the decrease of HLR. The CWs operated at the 3 HLRs in a decreasing trend proves to be effective, providing a useful method for effluent treatment in commercial puffer aquaculture systems.

Xu, Jiabo; Shi, Yonghai; Zhang, Genyu; Liu, Jianzhong; Zhu, Yazhu

2013-11-01

186

Food poisoning prevention  

MedlinePLUS

... solid, not runny DO NOT eat raw ground beef, chicken, eggs, or fish Heat all casseroles to ... dishes and utensils Use a thermometer when cooking beef (to at least 160 degrees Fahrenheit), poultry (to ...

187

[Hypericum poisoning in sheep].  

PubMed

A report about a case of St. John's wort poisoning in German Blackface sheep is given. After the ingestion of St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum) all slightly pigmented parts of the skin, that were rarely covered with hair, were photosensitized. In summer many sheep suffered from inflammatory skin alterations at the ears, the bridge of the nose and at the surroundings of the eyes. A literature review informs about etiology and treatment of photosensitivity disease and the St. John's wort is exactly described to facilitate recognition. PMID:2815063

Kümper, H

1989-01-01

188

Lead poisoning in wild waterfowl  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contrary to popular belief, lead shot in the flesh of waterfowl does not cause lead poisoning. Shot pellets in the flesh undergo slight, if any, change and are of little harm to waterfowl unless they have damaged vital tissues. Lead poisoning is likely to occur in waterfowl that have swallowed lead shot pellets while feeding on the bottoms of lakes

J. S. Jordan; F. C. Bellrose

1951-01-01

189

Oil-based paint poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... and not for use in the treatment or management of an actual poison exposure. If you have an exposure, you should call your local emergency number (such as 911) or the National Poison Control Center at 1-800-222-1222.

190

TRPV1 as a key determinant in ciguatera and neurotoxic shellfish poisoning.  

PubMed

Ciguatera fish poisoning and neurotoxic shellfish poisoning are distinct clinical entities characterized by gastrointestinal and neurological disturbances, following the consumption of certain reef fish and shellfish containing toxic polyether compounds sporadically present in certain toxic marine dinoflagellates. The biotransformation and bioaccumulation of gambierol and brevetoxin, and their congeners, are believed to be involved in the pathogenesis of these "food-chain diseases", for which no effective treatments are available. Here, we describe for the first time the potent effect of gambierol and brevetoxin on TRPV1 channels, a key player in thermal and pain sensation. Our findings may lead to promising new therapeutic interventions. PMID:17659256

Cuypers, Eva; Yanagihara, Angel; Rainier, Jon D; Tytgat, Jan

2007-09-14

191

Cleistanthus collinus poisoning  

PubMed Central

Cleistanthus collinus, a toxic shrub, is used for deliberate self-harm in rural South India. MEDLINE (PUBMED) and Google were searched for published papers using the search/ MeSH terms “Cleistanthus collinus,” “Euphorbiaceae,” “Diphyllin,” “Cleistanthin A,” Cleistanthin B” and “Oduvanthalai.” Non-indexed journals and abstracts were searched by tracing citations in published papers. The toxic principles in the leaf include arylnaphthalene lignan lactones — Diphyllin and its glycoside derivatives Cleistanthin A and B. Toxin effect in animal models demonstrate neuromuscular blockade with muscle weakness, distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA) and type 2 respiratory failure with conflicting evidence of cardiac involvement. Studies suggest a likely inhibition of thiol/thiol enzymes by the lignan-lactones, depletion of glutathione and ATPases in tissues. V-type H+ ATPase inhibition in the renal tubule has been demonstrated. Mortality occurs in up to 40% of C. collinus poisonings. Human toxicity results in renal tubular dysfunction, commonly dRTA, with resultant hypokalemia and normal anion gap metabolic acidosis. Aggressive management of these metabolic derangements is crucial. Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is seen in severe cases. Cardiac rhythm abnormalities have been demonstrated in a number of clinical studies, though the role of temporary cardiac pacemakers in reducing mortality is uncertain. Consumption of decoctions of C. collinus leaves, hypokalemia, renal failure, severe metabolic acidosis, ARDS and cardiac arrhythmias occur in severe poisonings and predict mortality. Further study is essential to delineate mechanisms of organ injury and interventions, including antidotes, which will reduce mortality.

Chrispal, Anugrah

2012-01-01

192

Nodularins in poisoning.  

PubMed

Nodularins are an important class of hepatotoxic cyclic pentapeptides that are produced by the cyanobacteria Nodularia spumigena. These peptides have been found worldwide and have been implicated in the deaths of animals as well as a potent cyanotoxin in humans. To date, approximately 10 variants have been discovered, among which nodularin-R is the most abundant. Though the mechanisms of their potential hepatotoxicity and carcinogenicity are not well understood, the most frequently proposed mechanisms are described here. Most importantly, a comprehensive review of nodularins in poisoning is presented, including their bioaccumulation in water, cyanobacterial blooms and aquatic animals, the IC50, LC50 and LD50 values determined in laboratories, and wild, domestic and laboratory animal cases. However, the hazard of these toxins to humans has not been fully elucidated, predominantly due to the lack of exposure data. One of reasons underlying is that most current methods are ill suited for clinical monitoring. Thus, the available assays for the detection and quantification of nodularins are described with an emphasis on the problems encountered with each assay. Our ultimate aim is to demonstrate the urgency of better understanding the toxicity of nodularins, especially in humans, and thus effectively protecting ourselves from their poisoning. PMID:23872223

Chen, Yun; Shen, Danfeng; Fang, Danjun

2013-10-21

193

Poisoning hospitalization correlates with poison center call frequency  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction  Poison Control Centers (PCCs) have been shown to reduce health expenditures by reducing emergency department and clinic visits.\\u000a The effect or association of PCC call frequency on acute hospitalization rates for poisonings has not been studied extensively.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  All nonfederal hospital discharges for acute poisoning principal diagnosis codes (960–979, 980–989, 9956X, 3030, and 005)\\u000a in California between October 1999 and June

Timothy E. Albertson; R. Steven Tharratt; Kathy Marquardt; Judith Alsop; John K. Ninomiya; Garrett E. Foulke

2008-01-01

194

Emergency Department Poison Advice Telephone Calls  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study objective: Requests for medical advice regarding treatment of poisonings are common in emergency departments. Although there are designated poison centers (PCs), most EDs are recognized by the community and medical staff as a poison information resource. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the accuracy and consistency of poison information given by ED personnel.Design: A prospective, stratified-sample, telephone

Herbert N Wigder; Timothy Erickson; Thomas Morse; Victoria Saporta

1995-01-01

195

Occupational poison ivy and oak dermatitis.  

PubMed

Among the growing and diverse groups of outdoor and environmental workers, poison ivy and poison oak continue to be the major cause of occupational contact dermatitis. This article reviews the practical and theoretic means to prevent poison ivy and poison oak dermatitis in workers occupationally exposed to these weeds. PMID:7923948

Epstein, W L

1994-07-01

196

Pathogenesis of phosgene poisoning.  

PubMed

Phosgene inhalation in concentrations greater than 1 ppm may produce a transient bioprotective vagus reflex with rapid shallow breathing in some individuals. Phosgene concentrations greater than 3 ppm are moderately irritating to eyes and upper airways. Toxic phosgene doses (greater than or equal to 30 ppm X min) inhaled into the terminal respiratory passages render the blood-air-barrier more permeable to blood plasma, which gradually collects in the lung. Some time passes, however, until the collection of fluid provokes signs and symptoms. This period in which the patient experiences relative well-being is known as the clinical latent phase. The clinical symptoms which follow and the pathological changes underlying them are discussed in detail; dose-effect relationships are demonstrated. The regression phase after poisoning has been overcome is briefly sketched. PMID:3842189

Diller, W F

1985-10-01

197

Fish Allergy  

MedlinePLUS

About Fish Allergy A fish allergy is not exactly the same as a seafood allergy. Seafood includes both fish ( ... medical alert bracelet. Continue What Happens in a Fish Allergy When someone is allergic to fish, the ...

198

Antineoplastic Components of Marine Animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

REFERENCES to the biological properties of marine organisms date back to antiquity1. For example, hieroglyphics on the tomb of the Egyptian Pharaoh Ti (approximately 2700 BC) described the poisonous puffer fish Tetraodon stellatus. Perhaps the earliest recorded use of a marine organism in primitive medical practice occurred when the Roman, Plinius Secundus (AD 29-79), recommended that the sting unit of

George R. Pettit; John F. Day

1970-01-01

199

Antidotes for acute cyanide poisoning.  

PubMed

Cyanide poisoning can present in multiple ways, given its widespread industrial use, presence in combustion products, multiple physical forms, and chemical structures. The primary target of toxicity is mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase. The onset and severity of poisoning depend on the route, dose, physicochemical structure and other variables. Common poisoning features include dyspnea, altered respiratory patterns, abnormal vital signs, altered mental status, seizures, and lactic acidosis. Our present knowledge supports cyanide poisoning treatment based on excellent supportive care with adjunctive antidotal therapy. Multiple antidotes exist and vary in regional availability. All currently marketed antidotes appear to be effective. Antidotal mechanisms include chelation, formation of stable, less toxic complexes, methemoglobin induction, and sulfane sulfur supplementation for detoxification by endogenous rhodanese. Each antidote has advantages and disadvantages. For example, hydroxocobalamin is safer than the methemoglobin inducers in patients with smoke inhalation. Research for new, safer and more effective cyanide antidotes continues. PMID:22352728

Borron, Stephen W; Baud, Frederic J

2012-08-01

200

Protecting Children from Poison Emergencies  

MedlinePLUS

... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Protecting Children From Poison Emergencies Safety, treatment advice for ... to RSS Follow us on Twitter Disclaimers Copyright Privacy Accessibility Quality Guidelines Viewers Players U.S. National Library ...

201

Pipazethate--acute childhood poisoning.  

PubMed

A previously healthy child who who had accidentally ingested an unknown quantity of 20-mg tablets of pipazethate developed severe acute poisoning with neurologic, metabolic, and cardiovascular disturbances. She recovered with symptomatic and supportive therapy. PMID:589958

da Silva, O A; Lopez, M

1977-01-01

202

Methemoglobinemia associated with metaflumizone poisoning.  

PubMed

Abstract Context. Metaflumizone is a voltage-dependent sodium channel blocker insecticide, which is chemically similar to indoxacarb. Although indoxacarb poisoning is known as a cause of methemoglobinemia, the effect of metaflumizone poisoning in humans is still unknown. Case details. A 57-year-old man presented with a decreased mentality following ingestion of 100 ml of metaflumizone, 150 ml of glyphosate and alcohol. Although initial methemoglobin (MetHb) level was slightly higher than the normal limit, it gradually rose to reach a maximum level of 27.8%, on the 19 h after ingestion. After hemodialysis, MetHb level was reduced to 15.8%, which decreased further to the level of 6%, following methylene blue administration. Discussion. Metaflumizone shares a similar chemical structure to indoxacarb, which is known to be a cause of methemoglobinemia. Physicians should be alert for the development of methemoglobinemia in symptomatic patients when facing potential pesticide poisoning such as metaflumizone poisoning. PMID:24649894

Oh, J S; Choi, K H

2014-04-01

203

In Case of Pesticide Poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... handlers become ill from working with organophosphate or carbamate insecticides in warm and hot environments, it is ... symptoms. Symptoms of Heat Exhaustion Symptoms of Organophosphate/ Carbamate Poisoning Sweating Sweating Headache Headache Fatigue Fatigue Dry ...

204

Nonaccidental poisoning: the elusive diagnosis.  

PubMed Central

Although nonaccidental poisoning in childhood is now more often recognised, it is still difficult to establish a diagnosis despite correct investigative procedures. In 1978 we were unable, initially, to establish the cause of intermittent episodes of loss of consciousness in a boy admitted to Sheffield Children's Hospital. Subsequently it was conclusively shown that his mother systematically poisoned him with Tuinal (amylobarbitone and quinalbarbitone) both before admission and while he was being treated in the hospital.

Lorber, J; Reckless, J P; Watson, J B

1980-01-01

205

Triaryl phosphate poisoning in cattle.  

PubMed

Clinical signs, pathologic changes and biochemical changes occurred in cattle with natural and experimental triaryl phosphate poisoning. Natural poisoning was caused by triaryl phosphates escaping from a gas pipeline compressor station. The clinical signs were posterior motor paralysis, dyspnea, diarrhea and agalactia. Experimental doses of 1/2-1 gm/kg body weight of these organophosphate compounds caused depression of cholinesterase and axonal degeneration in the spinal cord. PMID:857397

Beck, B E; Wood, C D; Whenham, G R

1977-03-01

206

Amitraz poisoning treatment: still supportive?  

PubMed

Amitraz is a triazapentadiene, an ?2 adrenergic agonist and a member of the amidine chemical family. A limited number of human intoxication cases have been published in the literature. Lack of a clear and specific protocol for the therapy of amitraz intoxication may make its successfully managed case reports useful and valuable for other clinical practitioners in poisoning departments. The case is about a 22 years old female, single, university student, ingested a glass of amitraz poison (about 100 mL of a 20% solution) as a suicidal attempt on 11:30 am which was about 3.5 h before her hospital admission. She found nausea, vomiting, and dizziness. Immediately, her family took her to a clinic near their house. At that clinic (13:30 pm) she had miosis and they did gastric lavage , one adult dose of activated charcoal (50 g) and referred her to our Poisoning Emergency Department, where she was managed supportively and successfully. Amitraz is a poisonous chemical which may cause central nervous system depression and also respiratory/cardiovascular symptoms as well. Several studies reported that using atropine for those amitraz poisoned patients with both miosis and bradycardia resolved the problem and recommend it as the first line of drug therapy when bradycardia occurs from vagal stimulation and atrioventricular block. Management of amitraz poisoning is still considered to be supportive and symptomatic. Although the effects of activated charcoal and cathartics have not been studied, they may still be considered for treatment. PMID:24363695

Eizadi-Mood, Nastaran; Sabzghabaee, Ali Mohammad; Gheshlaghi, Farzad; Yaraghi, Ahmad

2011-01-01

207

Cholinergic crisis after rodenticide poisoning.  

PubMed

Rodenticides have historically been common agents in attempted suicides. As most rodenticides in the United States (U.S.) are superwarfarins, these ingestions are generally managed conservatively with close monitoring for coagulopathy, and if necessary, correction of any resulting coagulopathy. However, alternate forms of rodenticides are imported illegally into the U.S. and may be ingested either accidentally or in suicide attempts. We present an unusual case of poisoning by the illegally imported rodenticide, "Tres Pasitos." The main ingredient of this rat poison is aldicarb, a potent carbamate pesticide that causes fulminant cholinergic crisis. This case is relevant and timely because carbamates and organophosphates are still used as insecticides and emergency physicians (EP) working in rural areas may have to evaluate and manage patients with these poisonings. As international travel and immigration have increased, so has the possibility of encountering patients who have ingested toxic substances from other countries. In addition, there has been increased concern about the possibility of acts of terrorism using chemical substances that cause cholinergic toxidromes.1,2 EPs must be able to recognize and manage these poisonings. This report describes the mechanism of action, clinical manifestations, laboratory evaluation and management of this type of poisoning. The pertinent medical literature on poisoning with aldicarb and similar substances is reviewed. PMID:21293782

Waseem, Muhammad; Perry, Christopher; Bomann, Scott; Pai, Meena; Gernsheimer, Joel

2010-12-01

208

Clinical Marine Toxicology: A European Perspective for Clinical Toxicologists and Poison Centers  

PubMed Central

Clinical marine toxicology is a rapidly changing area. Many of the new discoveries reported every year in Europe involve ecological disturbances—including global warming—that have induced modifications in the chorology, behavior, and toxicity of many species of venomous or poisonous aquatic life including algae, ascidians, fish and shellfish. These changes have raised a number of public issues associated, e.g., poisoning after ingestion of contaminated seafood, envenomation by fish stings, and exposure to harmful microorganism blooms. The purpose of this review of medical and scientific literature in marine toxicology is to highlight the growing challenges induced by ecological disturbances that confront clinical toxicologists during the everyday job in the European Poison Centers.

Schmitt, Corinne; de Haro, Luc

2013-01-01

209

AID from bony fish catalyzes class switch recombination  

PubMed Central

Class switch recombination was the last of the lymphocyte-specific DNA modification reactions to appear in the evolution of the adaptive immune system. It is absent in cartilaginous and bony fish, and it is common to all tetrapods. Class switching is initiated by activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID), an enzyme expressed in cartilaginous and bony fish that is also required for somatic hypermutation. Fish AID differs from orthologs found in tetrapods in several respects, including its catalytic domain and carboxy-terminal region, both of which are essential for the switching reaction. To determine whether evolution of class switch recombination required alterations in AID, we assayed AID from Japanese puffer and zebra fish for class-switching activity in mouse B cells. We find that fish AID catalyzes class switch recombination in mammalian B cells. Thus, AID had the potential to catalyze this reaction before the teleost and tetrapod lineages diverged, suggesting that the later appearance of a class-switching reaction was dependent on the evolution of switch regions and multiple constant regions in the IgH locus.

Barreto, Vasco M.; Pan-Hammarstrom, Qiang; Zhao, Yaofeng; Hammarstrom, Lennart; Misulovin, Ziva; Nussenzweig, Michel C.

2005-01-01

210

Diurnal and circadian oscillations in expression of kisspeptin, kisspeptin receptor and gonadotrophin-releasing hormone 2 genes in the grass puffer, a semilunar-synchronised spawner.  

PubMed

In seasonally breeding animals, the circadian and photoperiodic regulation of neuroendocrine system is important for precisely-timed reproduction. Kisspeptin, encoded by the Kiss1 gene, acts as a principal positive regulator of the reproductive axis by stimulating gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurone activity in vertebrates. However, the precise mechanisms underlying the cyclic regulation of the kisspeptin neuroendocrine system remain largely unknown. The grass puffer, Takifugu niphobles, exhibits a unique spawning rhythm: spawning occurs 1.5-2 h before high tide on the day of spring tide every 2 weeks, and the spawning rhythm is connected to circadian and lunar-/tide-related clock mechanisms. The grass puffer has only one kisspeptin gene (kiss2), which is expressed in a single neural population in the preoptic area (POA), and has one kisspeptin receptor gene (kiss2r), which is expressed in the POA and the nucleus dorsomedialis thalami. Both kiss2 and kiss2r show diurnal variations in expression levels, with a peak at Zeitgeber time (ZT) 6 (middle of day time) under the light/dark conditions. They also show circadian expression with a peak at circadian time 15 (beginning of subjective night-time) under constant darkness. The synchronous and diurnal oscillations of kiss2 and kiss2r expression suggest that the action of Kiss2 in the diencephalon is highly dependent on time. Moreover, midbrain GnRH2 gene (gnrh2) but not GnRH1 or GnRH3 genes show a unique semidiurnal oscillation with two peaks at ZT6 and ZT18 within a day. The cyclic expression of kiss2, kiss2r and gnrh2 may be important in the control of the precisely-timed diurnal and semilunar spawning rhythm of the grass puffer, possibly through the circadian clock and melatonin, which may transmit the photoperiodic information of daylight and moonlight to the reproductive neuroendocrine centre in the hypothalamus. PMID:24824153

Ando, H; Ogawa, S; Shahjahan, Md; Ikegami, T; Doi, H; Hattori, A; Parhar, I

2014-07-01

211

[Chronic ethylene glycol poisoning].  

PubMed

Over a six-week period a 60-year-old patient had several unexplained intoxication-like episodes. He finally had severe abdominal cramps with changes in the level of consciousness and oligoanuric renal failure (creatinine 4.7 mg/dl). The history, marked metabolic acidosis (pH 7.15, HCO3- 2.2 mmol/l, pCO2 6.6 mmHg) as well as raised anion residue (43 mmol/l) and the presence of oxalates in urine suggested poisoning by ethylene glycol contained in antifreeze liquid. Intensive haemodialysis adequately eliminated ethylene glycol and its toxic metabolites (glycol aldehyde, glycolic acid). Renal function returned within 10 days, although the concentrating power of the kidney remained impaired for several weeks because of interstitial nephritis. The intoxication had been caused by a defective heating-pipe system from which the antifreeze had leaked into the hot-water boiler (the patient had habitually prepared hot drinks by using water from the hot-water tap). Gas chromatography demonstrated an ethylene glycol concentration of 21 g per litre of water. PMID:8482240

Kaiser, W; Steinmauer, H G; Biesenbach, G; Janko, O; Zazgornik, J

1993-04-30

212

Sabatier Catalyst Poisoning Investigation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Carbon Dioxide Reduction Assembly (CRA) on the International Space Station (ISS) has been operational since 2010. The CRA uses a Sabatier reactor to produce water and methane by reaction of the metabolic CO2 scrubbed from the cabin air and the hydrogen byproduct from the water electrolysis system used for metabolic oxygen generation. Incorporating the CRA into the overall air revitalization system has facilitated life support system loop closure on the ISS reducing resupply logistics and thereby enhancing longer term missions. The CRA utilizes CO2 which has been adsorbed in a 5A molecular sieve within the Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly, CDRA. There is a potential of compounds with molecular dimensions similar to, or less than CO2 to also be adsorbed. In this fashion trace contaminants may be concentrated within the CDRA and subsequently desorbed with the CO2 to the CRA. Currently, there is no provision to remove contaminants prior to entering the Sabatier catalyst bed. The risk associated with this is potential catalyst degradation due to trace organic contaminants in the CRA carbon dioxide feed acting as catalyst poisons. To better understand this risk, United Technologies Aerospace System (UTAS) has teamed with MSFC to investigate the impact of various trace contaminants on the CRA catalyst performance at relative ISS cabin air concentrations and at about 200/400 times of ISS concentrations, representative of the potential concentrating effect of the CDRA molecular sieve. This paper summarizes our initial assessment results.

Nallette, Tim; Perry, Jay; Abney, Morgan; Knox, Jim; Goldblatt, Loel

2013-01-01

213

Neurotoxic Shellfish Poisoning  

PubMed Central

Neurotoxic shellfish poisoning (NSP) is caused by consumption of molluscan shellfish contaminated with brevetoxins primarily produced by the dinoflagellate, Karenia brevis. Blooms of K. brevis, called Florida red tide, occur frequently along the Gulf of Mexico. Many shellfish beds in the US (and other nations) are routinely monitored for presence of K. brevis and other brevetoxin-producing organisms. As a result, few NSP cases are reported annually from the US. However, infrequent larger outbreaks do occur. Cases are usually associated with recreationally-harvested shellfish collected during or post red tide blooms. Brevetoxins are neurotoxins which activate voltage-sensitive sodium channels causing sodium influx and nerve membrane depolarization. No fatalities have been reported, but hospitalizations occur. NSP involves a cluster of gastrointestinal and neurological symptoms: nausea and vomiting, paresthesias of the mouth, lips and tongue as well as distal paresthesias, ataxia, slurred speech and dizziness. Neurological symptoms can progress to partial paralysis; respiratory distress has been recorded. Recent research has implicated new species of harmful algal bloom organisms which produce brevetoxins, identified additional marine species which accumulate brevetoxins, and has provided additional information on the toxicity and analysis of brevetoxins. A review of the known epidemiology and recommendations for improved NSP prevention are presented.

Watkins, Sharon M.; Reich, Andrew; Fleming, Lora E.; Hammond, Roberta

2008-01-01

214

Poisoning with Organophosphorus Insecticides  

PubMed Central

Because of an increasing incidence of poisoning with the newer organophosphorus anticholinesterase insecticides, these compounds have been reviewed in terms of their history and pharmacology, relationship with other drugs, factors affecting toxicity, mechanism of action, toxic signs and treatment. The modern organophosphorus pesticide requires metabolic conversion before toxicity develops. Insects have a greater propensity for this conversion than humans. Nevertheless, this conversion does occur in humans and can be potentiated by other drugs. Toxicity also varies with age, sex, route and frequency of administration, and previous exposure. The mechanism of toxicity is inhibition of acetylcholinesterase, causing an intoxicating build-up of acetylcholine. Signs and symptoms consist of the clinical manifestations of unopposed parasympathetic and central activity. Treatment must be initiated early. Respiration must be maintained and the effects of acetylcholine must be counteracted by massive doses of atropine. Metaraminol enhances the antagonistic action of atropine against acetylcholine and may also be given. Once acetylcholinesterase is inactivated, restoration is slow. Recovery can be accelerated by enzyme reactivators like the oxime compounds. Pyridine aldoxime (Pralidoxime, Protopam, P2S and 2-PAM) can be given in combination with atropine and metaraminol (AMP therapy) and may be the treatment of choice.

Taylor, W. J. Russell; Kalow, Werner; Sellers, Edward A.

1965-01-01

215

Management of carbon monoxide poisoning.  

PubMed

Carbon monoxide poisoning is a major cause of illness and death in the United States. Most cases result from exposure to the internal combustion engine and to stoves burning fossil fuels. Most cases of accidental exposure are preventable if proper precautions are taken; however, when cases arise, their presenting signs and symptoms are nonspecific and often lead to a misdiagnosis resembling a flu-like viral illness. As a result, the incidence of acute CO poisoning is underestimated. The effects of CO poisoning are due to tissue hypoxia, with the CNS and the heart being the most susceptible target organs due to their high oxygen needs. Prolonged hypoxia due to high CO levels may lead to cardiac arrhythmias or arrest (or both) and a variety of neurologic sequelae. Treatment is directed toward the relief of tissue hypoxia and the removal of CO from the body. Severity of poisoning can be divided into three levels based on CO levels in the blood. Administration of normobaric 100 percent oxygen is the therapy of choice for most cases, while hyperbaric oxygen therapy is reserved for severe poisonings. PMID:2403894

Ilano, A L; Raffin, T A

1990-01-01

216

Alsike clover poisoning: A review  

PubMed Central

Trifolium hybridum (alsike clover) has been implicated as the cause of two diseases of the horse. One of these is photosensitivity, of which alsike clover is only one of a number of presumed causal agents. The other is a fatal syndrome which is known as “alsike clover poisoning” and which is manifest by progressive loss of condition, signs of hepatic failure, and varying degrees of neurological impairment. The underlying lesion of alsike clover poisoning is fibrosis and proliferation of the biliary tree. The experimental evidence implicating alsike clover as the cause of this syndrome comes entirely from a series of feeding trials performed by Dr. Frank Schofield between 1928 and 1933. This review surveys the literature on the association of alsike clover with both photosensitivity and biliary fibrosis in horses, and summarizes the clinical and pathological features of “alsike clover poisoning”. The experimental evidence that has been used to implicate Trifolium hybridum as the cause of alsike clover poisoning is critically examined. It is concluded that the existing experimental evidence is insufficient to prove that Trifolium hybridum is the cause of alsike clover poisoning.

Nation, P. Nicholas

1989-01-01

217

Fatal 'Bhang' poisoning.  

PubMed

A young adult male of about 25 years of age consumed a glass (about 300 ml) of Bhang on the holy occasion of ShivRatri. The deceased died within 24 hours of consuming the Bhang. The deceased had suffered from rheumatic heart disease with multiple valvular involvements. He had also undergone open-heart surgery in the past. Fatality due to Bhang is extremely rare and therefore the case is presented. An attempt is made to review the literature. Bhang is one of the Indian preparations of Indian hemp (Cannabis sativa). It is prepared by the wet grinding of the leaves of the plant. The bolus is then consumed in various ways. Water is used as a vehicle. In the present case a bolus of about 1 to 2 gm was mixed in a glass of water. ShivRatri is a Hindu festival. On this day prayers are offered to Lord Shiva, who is the god of all evils and poisons. Bhang is a special article, which is offered to Lord Shiva on this auspicious day. Then, the devotees consume it as the God. Gujrat is a dry state (possession, consumption, sale, etc. of alcohol, Bhang, opium and other psychotropic substance, etc. is governed by particular laws), but on the holy occasion of ShivRati, for a day, the law is relaxed for the use of Bhang. In most other parts of the country, particularly, in northern India, it is a common practice to consume various preparations of Indian hemp like Bhang, Charas, Ganja, sweetmeat, etc. The bolus mentioned above is probably the minimum single dose. PMID:11693232

Gupta, B D; Jani, C B; Shah, P H

2001-10-01

218

Poisonous Snakes of Central and South America.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Topics include: Some facts about poisonous snakes; Kinds and characteristics of dangerous snakes; Distribution of poisonous snakes of Central and South America; Precautions against snakebite; First-aid measures for snakebite; Identification and habits of ...

1970-01-01

219

Lead Poisoning - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

MedlinePLUS

... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Lead Poisoning - Multiple Languages Arabic (???????) Hmong (Hmoob) Russian (???????) Somali (af Soomaali) Spanish (español) Arabic (???????) Preventing Lead Poisoning English (Arabic) ?????? ??????? - ??????? Multimedia Patient Education ...

220

Domoic Acid and Amnesiac Shellfish Poisoning  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This National SeaGrant (PDF) publication discusses Red Tide, Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning (PSP), Domoic Acid, and Amnesiac Shellfish Poisoning (ASP). It includes a description of symptoms as well as a contact number for the shellfish harvest hotline.

SeaGrant; Oregon State University; NOAA

221

"Suicide" as Seen in Poison Control Centers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Data on age and sex characteristics, intent and diagnosis of suicide, and toxicology are presented for 1,103 cases of poisoning (children ages 6-18 years) admitted to 50 poison control centers during 1 year. (KW)

McIntire, Matilda S.; Angle, Carol R.

1971-01-01

222

Preserving the United States's poison control system.  

PubMed

The funding of United States's poison control centers is threatened. The following Commentary argues for support of the current outstanding poison control system by presenting the evidence for its cost-effectiveness. PMID:21563903

Woolf, Alan D; Karnes, David K; Kirrane, Barbara M

2011-04-01

223

Blister beetle poisoning in horses.  

PubMed

Case records of 21 horses with acute illness following ingestion of hay containing dead striped blister beetles (Epicauta spp) were selected for review. Abdominal pain, fever, depression, frequent urination, shock, and, occasionally, synchronous diaphragmatic flutter characterized clinical illness. Hematologic findings included hemoconcentration, neutrophilic leukocytosis, and hypocalcemia. Hematuria and low urine specific gravity were abnormal urinalysis results. Sloughing of the epithelium of the esophageal part of the stomach, hemorrhagic and ulcerative cystitis, enterocolitis, and myocardial necrosis were important post-mortem findings. Signs and lesions in 5 horses experimentally poisoned were similar to those of the natural disease. The findings were regarded as sufficiently characteristic of blister beetle poisoning to be useful in differential diagnosis but were not constant in all cases. Therefore, when blister beetle poisoning is suspected, access of affected horses to hay containing striped blister beetles should be demonstrated. PMID:670055

Schoeb, T R; Panciera, R J

1978-07-01

224

[KAP study (knowledge-attitude-practice) on seafood poisoning on the southwest coast of Madagascar].  

PubMed

In June and July 1996, a knowledge, attitude and practice survey concerning seafood poisonings was conducted in Tuléar Province, 41 villages spread along 300 km of cost, with some 34,000 inhabitants, were included in the survey. 84 seafood poisonings after fish, shark and turtle meals occurred during the period 1931 to 1995; 14 of them were responsible of deaths. The family of toxic fishes are Clupeidae, Tetraodontidae, Scaridae and Siganidae. Sphyrna lewini is the shark species the most often responsible for poisonings. Three turtle species are involved in poisonings: Eretmochelys imbricata, Chelonia mydas and Dermochelys coriacea. Clinical patterns were related to marine toxins. Although the communities were aware of the risks, there was no change in seafood meal practice. Preventive measures are not very often used. Practical techniques to detect toxins, although very simple, are not systematically carried out. For a better understanding of the seafood poisoning risk in Madagascar, a retrospective survey in the villages located in coastal areas all around Madagascar was to be carried out in 1997. An eco-toxicological survey will likewise probably be organised in an Indian Ocean regional approach. PMID:10214522

Robinson, R; Champetier de Ribes, G; Ranaivoson, G; Rejely, M; Rabeson, D

1999-02-01

225

Parathion Poisoning from Flannelette Sheets  

PubMed Central

Two small boys were admitted to the Lions Gate Hospital in coma and acute respiratory distress. They improved and the first boy was sent home; after two nights he was back in hospital in a worsened state. Poisoning with organic phosphate was suspected, and after investigation some flannelette sheets were taken from his home for testing. They proved to have been contaminated with parathion (“nerve gas”) in the hold of a ship sailing from Antwerp to Vancouver; the parathion had been offloaded in California. The remainder of the sheets were traced. The symptomatology and treatment of organic phosphate ester poisoning and the chemical testing of parathion are discussed.

Anderson, L. S.; Warner, D. L.; Parker, J. E.; Bluman, N.; Page, B. D.

1965-01-01

226

Lead Poisoning in Blind Children  

PubMed Central

Many partially sighted children use the mouth, lips, and tongue as an aid in identifying objects—this has been termed discriminatory pica. Investigation of a case of lead poisoning in a pupil at a residential school for the blind led to the discovery of others with asymptomatic lead poisoning, all of whom had the same habit. All the children recovered without treatment when they abandoned their habit of discrimination by use of the mouth. Authorities responsible for schools for the blind should be aware of this risk.

Ames, A. C.; Swift, P. N.

1968-01-01

227

Management of the critically poisoned patient  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Clinicians are often challenged to manage critically ill poison patients. The clinical effects encountered in poisoned patients are dependent on numerous variables, such as the dose, the length of exposure time, and the pre-existing health of the patient. The goal of this article is to introduce the basic concepts for evaluation of poisoned patients and review the appropriate management

Jennifer S Boyle; Laura K Bechtel; Christopher P Holstege

2009-01-01

228

Lead Poisoning: A Need for Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Each year approximately 200 children die of lead poisoning. Especially vulnerable to the toxic effects of lead poisoning are the nervous system, kidneys, and the bones. Physiological effects of lead on the school-age child, screening processes, and roles of school personnel in dealing with suspected victims of lead poisoning are discussed. (JN)

Lipnickey, Susan Cross

1981-01-01

229

Handbook of Common Poisonings in Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This handbook for physicians, emergency room personnel and pharmacists lists the manufacturer, description, toxicity, symptoms and findings, treatment, and references for 73 poison substances considered by the Subcommittee on Accidental Poisoning of the American Academy of Pediatrics to be most significant in terms of accidental poisoning of…

Food and Drug Administration (DHEW), Washington, DC.

230

[Dimenhydrinate poisoning in childhood (author's transl)].  

PubMed

Treatment of a Dimenhydrinate poisoning (Vertirosan B6) with Physostigmine salicylate (Antrilirium) is reported. The symptoms of this anticholinergic poisoning (hyperactivity, ataxia, tremor, rubeosis faciei, hallucinations) disappeared rapidly after a single intravenous injection of Physostigmine salicylate. A table of some of the most common drugs capable of producing anticholinergic poisoning is added. PMID:643296

Borkenstein, M; Haidvogl, M

1978-01-01

231

Animal poisoning in Europe. Part 3: Wildlife  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review article is the third in a series on animal poisoning in Europe and represents a collation of published and non-published wildlife poisoning data from Belgium, France, Greece, Italy and Spain over the last 10years. Birds, particularly waterfowl and raptors, were more commonly reported as victims of poisoning than wild mammals. In addition to specific but important toxicological disasters,

Raimon Guitart; Magda Sachana; Francesca Caloni; Siska Croubels; Virginie Vandenbroucke; Philippe Berny

2010-01-01

232

Helping Parents Prevent Lead Poisoning. ERIC Digest.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children are at greater risk than adults for lead poisoning because children absorb lead more readily than adults, and a small amount of lead in children's bodies can do a great deal of harm. Some of the causes and effects of childhood lead poisoning and suggests some lead poisoning prevention strategies that parent educators can share with…

Binns, Helen J.; Ricks, Omar Benton

233

Metal Poisons in Waste Tanks (U)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many of the storage tanks with waste from processing fissile materials contain, along with the fissile material, metals which may serve as nuclear criticality poisons. It would be advantageous to the criticality evaluation of these wastes if it can be demonstrated that the poisons remain with the fissile materials and if an always safe poison-to-fissile ratio can be established. The

1996-01-01

234

SEASONAL VARIATION OF CHILDHOOD ACUTE POISONING  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Acute poisoning is a common medical emergency in paediatric unit. This was a retrospective study to see the seasonal variation of acute poisoning in children in a tertiary hospital. Conclusion: Poisoning was common during the summer season and kerosene was found to be most common ingredient. It was possibly due to easy availability of kerosene and during the summer

AKM Mamunur Rashid; Razia Sultana; HAM Nazmul Ahasan; CH Rasul

235

Neutralization of Shellfish Poison by Chemical Disinfectants.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The resistance of shellfish poison was evaluated in the presence of 7 chemical disinfectants. Sodium hypochlorite was effective in neutralizing the toxicity of the poison at concentration of 3 parts NaOCl per million (ppm) per microgram of poison at room ...

C. D. Chin

1969-01-01

236

Childhood Lead Poisoning: Blueprint for Prevention.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Current programs to deal with childhood lead poisoning, the primary environmental disease of U.S. children, screen individual children, treat those with serious cases of lead poisoning, and subsequently return children to hazardous environments. This approach has led to repeated diagnoses of lead poisoning. This handbook is designed to convince…

Rochow, K. W. James; Rapuano, Maria

237

Pesticide poisoning surveillance through regional poison control centers.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study is to describe pesticide exposure in the population of callers to Minnesota Regional Poison Centers. Case files from 1988 reporting pesticide exposure to humans were identified in cooperation with the Minnesota Center for Health Statistics. Data analysis was conducted by computer using SAS statistical package. Of the 1,428 case files indicating pesticide as the primary substance of exposure to Minnesota residents, a mean age of 5 years (range, one month to 85 years) was identified; 50 percent of all cases were below age 3 years. Males accounted for 1.3 times as many cases as females. Insecticide was identified in the largest percentage of case files (74 percent) followed by herbicide (12 percent), rodenticide (11 percent) and fungicide-nonmedicinal (3 percent). Ingestion was the most common route of exposure; 85 percent of all calls originated from a residence. While insecticides are still the most common types of pesticide call, herbicide has surpassed insecticide in production and sales in the US. In this study, herbicide type exposure calls present a much different picture than other pesticide types. The usefulness of poison control centers for examination of pesticide poisoning is explored. Since reporting occurs coincidental with the exposure and its associated symptoms, each pesticide poisoning report could potentially serve as a true sentinel health event. PMID:2029045

Olson, D K; Sax, L; Gunderson, P; Sioris, L

1991-06-01

238

One Fish Two Fish.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This activity explains fisheries resource management to seven-year olds. First-grade students learn concepts such as offspring viability, life expectancy, and distribution of species, which help to determine when, where, and how people fish and the importance of fishing responsibly. Lists materials, procedures, and extensions. (SJR)

Hoffman, Michele

1998-01-01

239

Fish FAQ  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Northeast Fisheries Science Center answers your question regarding all things fish. Hundreds of fish and other marine fauna questions are answered in the FAQ section. Site also links to several external fish FAQs, as well as other internal and external resources, including kids sites, fish images, species synopses, how to age a fish. The site also features a glossary of fish terms and insight into the different ways fish are caught.

240

Lithium: poisonings and suicide prevention  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study concerns 81 cases of lithium poisoning and shows that deliberate intoxications are prevalent during the first 3 years of lithium treatment as well as in cases with a previous history of suicide attempt. Therapeutic intoxications could generally be avoided by education concerning hygiene and diet and careful monitoring in cases of intercurrent diseases.

F Montagnon; S Saïd; J. P Lepine

2002-01-01

241

The Dose Makes the Poison.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A Toxicologist discusses common misconception that all chemicals are poisonous to people and the environment and how these misconceptions are perpetuated. Describes what makes a chemical toxic. Defines related concepts including dose, acute and chronic toxicity, and natural verses synthetic chemicals. (MCO)

Ottoboni, Alice

1992-01-01

242

Staphylococcal food poisoning and botulism  

PubMed Central

Staphylococcal food poisoning and botulism are caused by the ingestion of food containing exotoxins. Outbreaks of both are still a problem in many countries. This paper attempts to summarize information relating to these illnesses, together with advice on how their incidence may be reduced, or better still prevented.

Gilbert, R. J.

1974-01-01

243

Unusual Manifestations after Malathion Poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report a case of organophosphate poisoning with a commercial preparation of malathion (deliberate ingestion of Malathane Garden Spray: malathion 15% in isopropyl alcohol) in which the initial cholinergic crisis was followed by cardiac, pulmonary, neurological and renal manifestations. They occurred when erythrocyte and plasma cholinesterases were reactivating. A chemical analysis of the pesticide preparation revealed, apart from malathion itself,

A. Dive; P. Mahieu; R. Van Binst; A. Hassoun; D. Lison; H. De Bisschop; B. Nemery; R. Lauwerys

1994-01-01

244

Poisoning of Catalytic Methane Sensors.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Methane sensors using the principle of catalytic oxidation of methane are employed for the determination of methane content in ambient air of coal mines. Certain foreign gases or vapors in the air poison the catalyst of the sensors affecting the sensor re...

M. Kawahata R. Lazzaro

1981-01-01

245

Fish production  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

This invention is directed to the use of spinosyn or a physiologically acceptable derivative or salt thereof for improved production of fish; controlling ectoparasite infestations in aquaculture raised fish; and fish feed formulations.

2011-02-01

246

Fish Allergy  

MedlinePLUS

Fish Allergy Finned fish can cause severe allergic reactions (such as anaphylaxis ). Therefore it is advised that ... necessarily mean that you must avoid both. Avoiding Fish The federal Food Allergen Labeling and Consumer Protection ...

247

Fish Hearing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides related information about hearing in fish, including the sensory stimulus of sound in the underwater environment, mechanoreceptors in fish, pressure perception and the swimbladder, specializations in sound conduction peculiar to certain fish families. Includes numerous figures. (CS)

Blaxter, J. H. S.

1980-01-01

248

Poisonings at Nepal Medical College Teaching Hospital.  

PubMed

Poisoning is an increasingly common social problem in Nepal. Studies on poisoning in semi urban areas of Nepal are minimal. Here we, present a prospective study of poisoning in semi urban area of capital, Kathmandu lasting for six years duration. Altogether there were 354 cases of various poisoning, admitted in Nepal Medical College Teaching Hospital from Baisakh 2062 (April 16, 2005) to Chaitra 2067 (April 15, 2011). Male: Female ratio was 135:219 (1:1.6) and Age +/- SD was age 29.3 +/- 13.8 years. Age group (20-29 years) comprised of 138 patients (38.9% followed by < 20 years age group (92, 25.9%). Brahman/ chhetri (150, 42.4%) and Mongolian (146, 41.2%) ethnic groups were the main sufferers of poisoning, followed by newars (41, 11.6%) patients. Deliberate self harm was the cause for poisoning in maximum number of patients (156, 44.1%), followed by depression (64, 18.1%) and accidental poisoning (42, 11.9%). Organophosphorus (152, 42.9%), medicines (71, 20.1%), and rodenticide poisoning (38, 10.7%) were common poisons. Metacid (Methyl parathion) (46, 15.5%) was the most popular brand of poisoning agent used in Nepal for suicidal purpose. The over all mortality rate of poisoning in general was 7.1% with organophosphorus poisoning topping the list (19, 12.5%). We also present mad honey poisonings in a small group of 9 (3.2%) patients with M:F 8:1, age 26.5 +/- 8.8 years. Due precaution should be undertaken during their management as some of them may go into cardiopulmonary arrest and should not be considered benign when more than 5 tablespoonful wild honey is consumed. PMID:22808816

Shrestha, B; Singh, P M; Bharati, U; Dhungel, S

2011-09-01

249

Datura stramonium poisoning in children.  

PubMed

Although substance abuse is fairly common among adolescents, poisoning from Datura stramonium (a broadleaf annual erect herb with spine-covered seed capsule) is uncommon in children and has not been reported in our locality. We present the case of two children admitted at the Children Emergency Room of a teaching hospital following ingestion of extract of Datura stramonium. They developed neurotoxicity (confusion, agitation, mydriasis, and hallucination) and were managed symptomatically with good outcome. A high index of suspicion and early management of poison in children is imperative if a favorable outcome is expected. Early presentation and the presence of an eyewitness contributed to the very good outcome in these index cases. In this report, we discussed the symptomatology and management of Datura toxicity in children. PMID:23377485

Adegoke, S A; Alo, L A

2013-01-01

250

Paraquat Poisoning—Lung Transplantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 15-year-old boy ingested a mouthful of paraquat and developed severe respiratory distress. Treatment included the transplantation of one lung, but subsequently changes developed in the graft which are thought to have been due to paraquat, and the patient died two weeks after the operationThe dangers of keeping poisonous substances in incorrectly labelled bottles has once again been demonstrated, while

Henry Matthew; Andrew Logan; M. F. A. Woodruff; Brian Heard

1968-01-01

251

The treatment of acetaminophen poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acetaminophen has become a very popular over-the-counter analgesic in some countries and as a result it is used increasingly as an agent for self-poisoning. Without treatment only a minority of patients develop severe liver damage and 1 to 2% die in hepatic failure. Until Mitchell and his colleagues discovered the biochemical mechanisms of toxicity in 1973 there was no effective

L. F. Prescott; J A J H Critchley

1983-01-01

252

Poison hemlock (Conium maculatum L.).  

PubMed

One of the most poisonous species amongst higher plants is Conium maculatum. It is a very common nitrophile weed species, belonging to the Apiaceae (formerly Umbelliferae) family. It contains some piperidine alkaloids (coniine, N-methyl-coniine, conhydrine, pseudoconhydrine, gamma-coniceine), which are formed by the cyclisation of an eight-carbon chain derived from four acetate units. gamma-Coniceine is the precursor of the other hemlock alkaloids. All vegetative organs, flowers and fruits contain alkaloids. The concentrations (both absolute and relative) of the different alkaloids depend on plant varieties, on ecological conditions and on the age of the plant. The characteristic biological effects of the plants are summarised on cattle, sheep, goat, swine, rabbit, elk, birds and insects and the symptoms of the human toxicosis (some cases of poisonings) are discussed according to the literature data. The general symptoms of hemlock poisoning are effects on nervous system (stimulation followed by paralysis of motor nerve endings and CNS stimulation and later depression), vomiting, trembling, problems in movement, slow and weak later rapid pulse, rapid respiration, salivation, urination, nausea, convulsions, coma and death. PMID:15234067

Vetter, J

2004-09-01

253

Acute fatal poisoning with Tolfenpyrad.  

PubMed

The authors present a fatal case of poisoning with Tolfenpyrad (TFP), a pesticide first approved in Japan in 2002. A man in his fifties was found dead in the supine position at his son's home and the small towel with a smell of naphthalene was found nearby. Forensic autopsy was unremarkable, except for a very small amount of light pink fluid in the stomach, with naphthalene odour. The toxicological analyses revealed the presence of TFP and its major metabolite PTCA (4-[4-[(4-chloro-3-ethyl-1-methylpyrazol-5-yl)carbonylaminomethyl]phenoxy]benzoic acid), together with naphthalene and methyl naphthalenes in the post-mortem sample, with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) respectively. The plasma concentrations of each substance were quantified as 1.97 ?g/ml (TFP), 2.88 ?g/ml (PTCA), 1.70 ?g/ml (naphthalene), 0.67 ?g/ml (1-methyl naphthalene) and 1.44 ?g/ml (2-methyl naphthalene). According to these results together with autopsy findings, the cause of his death was determined to be acute Tolfenpyrad poisoning. This is the first case report of fatal poisoning attributable to an intake of TFP product. PMID:24237799

Hikiji, Wakako; Yamaguchi, Koji; Saka, Kanju; Hayashida, Makiko; Ohno, Youkichi; Fukunaga, Tatsushige

2013-11-01

254

Poisoning deaths in married women.  

PubMed

Unnatural deaths of married women amongst the total female deaths have been an increasing trend in Indian society during the recent past years. These unnatural deaths may be suicide, homicide or even accidents. But these suicides and homicides are currently more commonly associated with the dowry disputes. In India, dowries are a continuing series of gifts endowed before and after the marriage. When dowry expectations are not met, the young bride may be killed or compelled to commit suicide, either by burning, poisoning or by some other means. Here, in the study, the main objective is to present the different epidemiological and medicolegal aspects of poisoning deaths in the married women. In a cohort of 200 married female deaths, 35 (18%) were poisoning deaths and these were analyzed from both epidemiological and medicolegal aspects. In this series, most of the women consumed organophosphorus compound and died within 10 days. The majority of the affected wives due to dowry problems were below 35 years of age. Most incidents occurred either during morning hour or during daytime. PMID:15261005

Kumar, Virendra

2004-02-01

255

Isolation and characterization of bacteria from the copepod Pseudocaligus fugu ectoparasitic on the panther puffer Takifugu pardalis with the emphasis on TTX.  

PubMed

A total of 50 bacterial isolates was obtained from the copepod Pseudocaligus fugu, which is a common parasite, collected from the body surface of the panther puffer Takifugu pardalis. On the basis of colony characteristics, these bacterial isolates were grouped into six types, of which only two (Types-I and -II) showed a high affinity for adhesion to the carapace of the banana shrimp Penaeus merguiensis. These two types of adhesive bacteria were identified through 16S rRNA sequence analysis as Shewanella woodyi (Type-I) and Roseobacter sp. (Type-II). Representative isolates of these two adhesive bacteria were examined for tetrodotoxin (TTX) production by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-fluorometric system, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). It was rather unexpectedly revealed that TTX and anhydroTTX were present in the supernatant of culture of the Type-II isolate Roseobacter sp. PMID:17698158

Maran, B A Venmathi; Iwamoto, Emi; Okuda, Jun; Matsuda, Shuhei; Taniyama, Shigeto; Shida, Yasuo; Asakawa, Manabu; Ohtsuka, Susumu; Nakai, Toshihiro; Boxshall, Geoffrey A

2007-11-01

256

Dermoscopy of black-spot poison ivy.  

PubMed

Black-spot poison ivy is an uncommon presentation of poison ivy (Toxicodendron) allergic contact dermatitis. A 78-year-old sought evaluation of a black spot present on her right hand amid pruritic vesicles. The presentation of a black spot on the skin in a clinical context suggesting poison ivy is indicative of black-spot poison ivy. Dermoscopy revealed a jagged, centrally homogeneous, dark brown lesion with a red rim. A skin sample was obtained and compared against a poison ivy standard using ultra-fast liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UFLC-MS/MS). This finding confirmed the presence of multiple urushiol congeners in the skin sample. Black-spot poison ivy may be added to the list of diagnoses that show a specific dermoscopic pattern. PMID:23122015

Rader, Ryan K; Mu, Ruipu; Shi, Honglan; Stoecker, William V; Hinton, Kristen A

2012-10-01

257

Clinical and epidemiological aspects of methylmercury poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

An opportunity to study the effects of methylmercury poisoning in humans was provided by the large outbreak in Iraq in 1971-2. In adults, poisoning resulted from the ingestion of home-made bread prepared from methylmercury-treated seed grain and there was a highly significant correlation between the amount of bread ingested and blood mercury levels. Poisoning in infants resulted either from prior

F. Bakir; H. Rustam; S. Tikriti; S. F. Al-Damluji; H. Shihristani

1980-01-01

258

Poisoning severity score, Glasgow coma scale, corrected QT interval in acute organophosphate poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to investigate effectiveness of the poisoning severity score (PSS), Glasgow coma scale (GCS), and corrected QT (QTc) interval in predicting outcomes in acute organophosphates (OP) poisoning. Over a period of 2 years, 62 patients with OP poisoning were admitted to emergency department (ED) of Erciyes University Medical School Hospital. The age, sex, cause of

Okhan Akdur; Polat Durukan; Seda Ozkan; Levent Avsarogullari; Alper Vardar; Cemil Kavalci; Ibrahim Ikizceli

2010-01-01

259

[Lead poisoning--a case report].  

PubMed

Lead poisoning may cause irreversible health defects, including anaemia, central nervous system problems and various organ defects. We describe a patient with lead poisoning. A 54-year-old woman was admitted to hospital with anaemia and unspecific gastrointestinal symptoms. Peripheral blood smear and bone marrow aspirate showed basophilic stippling of erythrocytes suggestive of lead poisoning, which was confirmed by high concentrations of lead in her blood. The lead source was the glazing of a ceramic wine jug. Chelating therapy was started. Haemoglobin was normalised; the patient returned to work after nine months. Correct diagnosis and treatment can prevent serious health problems caused by lead poisoning. PMID:12185736

Amundsen, Tore; Naess, Inger Anne; Hammerstrøm, Jens; Brudevold, Robert; Bjerve, Kristian S

2002-06-10

260

Monogeneans (Platyhelminthes) from marine fishes of Tongyeong, Korea.  

PubMed

Monogeneans (Platyhelminthes) mostly parasitize on fins, skin and gills of fishes. In Korea, the study on monogeneans is limited, although, fishes are frequently encountered with severe infection of monogeneans. Hence, some of ranched and wild fishes were collected from Tongyeong marine living resources research and conservation center, southern part of Korea to screen and understand the infection of monogeneans. All three fish hosts were found with the infection of monogeneans including five species from four different families. They are: (1) Anoplodiscus spari Yamaguti (Publ Seto Mar Biol Lab Kyoto Univ 7:53-88, 1958) (Anoplodiscidae) from the fins and body surface of blackhead seabream Acanthopagrus schlegelii schlegelii (Bleeker); (2) A. tai Ogawa (Fish Pathol 29:5-10, 1994) from the fins of red seabream Pagrus major (Temminck and Schlegel); (3) Benedenia sekii Yamaguti (Studies on the helminth fauna of Japan. Part 19. Fourteen new ectoparasitic trematodes of fishes. Published by the author, Kyoto, 1937), Meserve (Rep Allan Hancock Paci Exped (1932-1937) 2:31-89, 1938) (Capsalidae) from the body surface of P. major; (4) Choricotyle elongata Goto (J Coll Sci Imp Univ Tokyo 8:1-273, 1894) (Diclidophoridae) from the gills of P. major; (5) Udonella fugu Freeman and Ogawa (Int J Parasitol 40:255-264, 2010) (Udonellidae) hyperparasitized on the body of parasitic copepod Pseudocaligus fugu (Yamaguti 1936) (Caligidae) infecting the wild grass puffer Takifugu niphobles (Jordan and Snyder). Capsalids are commonly reported in Korea, except B. sekii, however, other reported genera are uncommon. Hence, all reported monogeneans are considered as a first record from Korea. PMID:25035585

Venmathi Maran, B A; Oh, Sung-Yong; Moon, Seong Yong; Soh, Ho Young; Kim, Chong-Kwan; Myoung, Jung-Goo

2014-09-01

261

Tetrodotoxin Poisoning Due to Pufferfish and Gastropods, and Their Intoxication Mechanism  

PubMed Central

Marine pufferfish generally contain a large amount of tetrodotoxin (TTX) in their skin and viscera, and have caused many incidences of food poisoning, especially in Japan. Edible species and body tissues of pufferfish, as well as their allowable fishing areas, are therefore clearly stipulated in Japan, but still 2 to 3 people die every year due to pufferfish poisoning. TTX is originally produced by marine bacteria, and pufferfish are intoxicated through the food chain that starts with the bacteria. Pufferfish become nontoxic when fed TTX-free diets in a closed environment in which there is no possible invasion of TTX-bearing organisms. On the other hand, TTX poisoning due to marine snails has recently spread through Japan, China, Taiwan, and Europe. In addition, TTX poisoning of dogs due to the ingestion of sea slugs was recently reported in New Zealand. TTX in these gastropods also seems to be exogenous; carnivorous large snails are intoxicated by eating toxic starfish, and necrophagous small-to-medium snails, the viscera of dead pufferfish after spawning. Close attention must be paid to the geographic expansion and/or diversification of TTX-bearing organisms, and to the sudden occurrence of other forms of TTX poisoning due to their ingestion.

Noguchi, Tamao; Onuki, Kazue; Arakawa, Osamu

2011-01-01

262

Is Nai Habarala (Alocasia cucullata) a poisonous plant?  

PubMed

Nai Habarala is not documented as a poisonous plant. However, we report two cases of fatal poisoning following ingestion of its fruit. The clinical manifestations have a similarity to cyanogenic glycoside poisoning. PMID:8342179

Goonasekera, C D; Vasanthathilake, V W; Ratnatunga, N; Seneviratne, C A

1993-06-01

263

Spotted Fish  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Spotted Fish model attempts to track the trait change [spot size] of a population of spotted fish in a pond with ample food supply with a constant number of predators. The predators in the pond are attracted to the fishes spots, and the chance of a fish being spotted and eaten by a predator is proportional to it`s spot size squared.

Joiner, David; The Shodor Education Foundation, Inc.

264

The Chemical Nature of Mercury in Human Brain Following Poisoning or Environmental Exposure  

PubMed Central

Methylmercury is among the most potentially toxic species to which human populations are exposed, both at high levels through poisonings and at lower levels through consumption of fish and other seafood. However, the molecular mechanisms of methylmercury toxicity in humans remain poorly understood. We used synchrotron X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) to study mercury chemical forms in human brain tissue. Individuals poisoned with high levels of methylmercury species showed elevated cortical selenium with significant proportions of nanoparticulate mercuric selenide plus some inorganic mercury and methylmercury bound to organic sulfur. Individuals with a lifetime of high fish consumption showed much lower levels of mercuric selenide and methylmercury cysteineate. Mercury exposure did not perturb organic selenium levels. These results elucidate a key detoxification pathway in the central nervous system and provide new insights into the appropriate methods for biological monitoring.

2010-01-01

265

Lead Poisoning of Waterfowl by Contaminated Sediment in the Coeur d'Alene River  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Coeur d'Alene River basin in Idaho has been contaminated by mine tailings that have impaired the health of wildlife since\\u000a the early 1900s. In other parts of the world, virtually all lead poisoning of waterfowl is caused by the ingestion of manmade\\u000a lead artifacts, primarily spent lead shotshell pellets or, occasionally, fishing sinkers. However, in the Coeur d'Alene River

L. Sileo; L. H. Creekmore; D. J. Audet; M. R. Snyder; C. U. Meteyer; J. C. Franson; L. N. Locke; M. R. Smith; D. L. Finley

2001-01-01

266

Ricin poisoning and forensic toxicology.  

PubMed

Ricin is one of the most fascinating poisons due to its high toxicity: as little as 500 microg can kill an adult. It gained fame by its use in the so-called 'umbrella murder' to kill the Bulgarian dissident Georgi Markov in 1978. Ricin also became known as a potential bio-terror agent to which people could be exposed through the air, food, or water. The origin, biochemistry, toxicity, and analytical procedures for the determination of ricin are summarized. The homicide of Markov is described as well as recent cases of criminal ricin use. PMID:20355196

Musshoff, Frank; Madea, Burkhard

2009-04-01

267

Unusual manifestations after malathion poisoning.  

PubMed

We report a case of organophosphate poisoning with a commercial preparation of malathion (deliberate ingestion of Malathane Garden Spray: malathion 15% in isopropyl alcohol) in which the initial cholinergic crisis was followed by cardiac, pulmonary, neurological and renal manifestations. They occurred when erythrocyte and plasma cholinesterases were reactivating. A chemical analysis of the pesticide preparation revealed, apart from malathion itself, the presence of isopropylmalathion and O,O,S-trimethylphosphorothioate. Although pure malathion is regarded as one of the safest organophosphate insecticides, this observation underlines the possibility of severe complications after exposure to a preparation which has been stored for a long period of time. PMID:8204314

Dive, A; Mahieu, P; Van Binst, R; Hassoun, A; Lison, D; De Bisschop, H; Nemery, B; Lauwerys, R

1994-04-01

268

Poison Awareness: A Discussion Leader's Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Because over 40,000 children are annually poisoned by household products, this guide for group leaders emphasizes hazards and preventive actions. Major objectives are defined: (1) to raise the audience's knowledge/awareness level concerning major hazards associated with potentially poisonous household products, (2) to point out primary hazard…

National Evaluation Systems, Inc., Amherst, MA.

269

The Epidemiology and Prevention of Paraquat Poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

1 In the UK there was an increase in the annual number of deaths associated with paraquat poisoning between 1966 and 1975. Since that time there has been little change in numbers.2 High mortality is associated commonly with suicidal intent. Serious accidental poisoning from paraquat has never been frequent in the UK and there have been no deaths reported in

Lesley J. Onyon; Glyn N. Volans

1987-01-01

270

Carbon monoxide poisoning from disposable charcoal barbeques.  

PubMed

Carbon monoxide poisoning is a common cause of accidental death and suicide. This article reports 4 cases of carbon monoxide poisoning following the inhalation of fumes from disposable charcoal barbeques in a confined space. All of the cases occurred within a 2-year period in Northern Ireland. PMID:20139755

Lyness, James R; Crane, Jack

2011-09-01

271

Hepatotoxic mushroom poisoning: diagnosis and management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hepatotoxic mushroom poisoning (due to Amanita, Lepiota and Galerina species) may be considered as a real medical emergency, since an early diagnosis and immediate treatment are required for a successful outcome. In this review the physio-pathological features and the clinical picture of amatoxin poisonings are described, as the basis for diagnosis and therapeutic decisions. The treatment schedule proposed is analyzed

Josep Piqueras

1989-01-01

272

Harmful Algal Blooms: Amnesic Shellfish Poisoning  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This University of Maryland SeaGrant web page discusses amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP), also known as domoic acid poisoning (DAP). The page discusses the production of domoic acid by the diatom Pseudo-nitzschia, geographic locations of detection, and economic impacts.

Kane, Andrew; Jacobs, Dan; Seagrant, University O.

273

An Outbreak of Foxglove Leaf Poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Comfrey (Symphytum officinale) leaves resemble those of foxglove (Digitalis purpurea) when the plant is not in bloom and, therefore, cardiac glycoside poisoning may occur when people confuse foxglove with comfrey. We report an outbreak of foxglove leaf poisoning following the use of alleged \\

Chun-Chi Lin; Chen-Chang Yang; Dong-Haur Phua; Jou-Fang Deng; Li-Hua Lu

2010-01-01

274

The prevalence of pancreatitis in organophosphate poisonings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of pancreatitis in cases of organophosphate (OP) poisonings admitted to Yüzüncü Yõl University Teaching Hospital over an 18-month period. Materials and Methods: A total of 47 patients of acute poisoning with OP insecticides attended the Emergency Department of the Yüzüncü Yõl Medical School Hospital, from May 1999 to December

IÇ Sahin; K Onbasi; H Sahin; C Karakaya; Y Ustun; T Noyan

2002-01-01

275

Intensive care management of organophosphate insecticide poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

INTRODUCTION: Organophosphate (OP) insecticides inhibit both cholinesterase and pseudo-cholinesterase activities. The inhibition of acetylcholinesterase causes accumulation of acetylcholine at synapses, and overstimulation of neurotransmission occurs as a result of this accumulation. The mortality rate of OP poisoning is high. Early diagnosis and appropriate treatment is often life saving. Treatment of OP poisoning consists of intravenous atropine and oximes. The clinical

Murat Sungur; Muhammed Güven

2001-01-01

276

Network security attacks. ARP Poisoning case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arp poisoning is one of the most common attacks in a switched network. A switch is a network device that limits the ability of attackers that use a packet sniffer to gain access to information from internal network traffic. However, using ARP poisoning the traffic between two computers can be intercepted even in a network that uses switches. This method

Lumini?a DEFTA

2010-01-01

277

Identification of pesticide poisoning in wildlife  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Wildlife Incident Investigation Scheme investigates incidents of suspected poisoning of wildlife (also honey bees and companion animals) by pesticides in the United Kingdom. The approach to these investigations has evolved over the past 30 years. Field investigations, post-mortem examinations, toxicological data and experience of previous poisoning incidents assist in the selection and interpretation of appropriate chemical analyses. Several ‘multi-residue’

Peter Brown; Andrew Charlton; Mary Cuthbert; Libby Barnett; Leigh Ross; Margaret Green; Liz Gillies; Kathryn Shaw; Mark Fletcher

1996-01-01

278

Diagnosis & Treatment of Poisoning by Pesticides.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report succinctly discusses the steps necessary to diagnose and treat poisoning from pesticides, especially organophosphates, carbamates and chlorinated hydrocarbons. Immediate and continuing steps in the care of poisoning victims are outlined with supportive information on where to locate emergency assistance. (CS)

Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Pesticide Programs.

279

Pediatric poisonings: recognition, assessment, and management.  

PubMed

Poisoning represents one of the most common medical emergencies encountered in young children in the United States, and accounts for a significant proportion of emergency room visits for the adolescent population. Poisoning is a significant and persistent cause of morbidity and mortality in children and adolescents. The scope of toxic substances involved in poisoning is broad, and requires health care providers to have an extensive knowledge of signs and symptoms of poisoning and specific therapeutic interventions and antidotes. Most children who ingest poisons suffer no harm; however, health care providers must recognize, assess, and manage those exposures that are most likely to cause serious injury, illness, or death and initiate appropriate management to minimize the physical injury that may occur. PMID:16344209

Madden, Maureen A

2005-12-01

280

Mad honey poisoning mimicking acute myocardial infarction.  

PubMed

We report a case of acute poisoning in a 48-year-old man who presented with chest pain, abdominal pain, dizziness, sweatiness, blurred vision, and severe hypotension after ingestion of honey. His electrocardiogram showed sinus bradycardia and transient ST elevation. He made a good recovery after treatment with atropine and close monitoring. Grayanotoxin was detected in his urine and the honey he ingested, which confirmed a diagnosis of mad honey poisoning. This is a condition prevalent in the Black Sea region around Turkey but rarely seen locally. Although mad honey poisoning is life-threatening, early use of atropine is life-saving. Such poisoning may present with ST elevation in the electrocardiogram and symptoms mimicking acute myocardial infarction. It is therefore essential for clinicians to recognise this unusual form of poisoning and avoid the disastrous use of thrombolytic therapy. PMID:23918513

Chen, Sammy P L; Lam, Y H; Ng, Vember C H; Lau, F L; Sze, Y C; Chan, W T; Mak, Tony W L

2013-08-01

281

Morphological abnormalities and sensorimotor deficits in larval fish exposed to dissolved saxitoxin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dietary uptake of one suite of dinoflagellate-produced neurotoxins, that are commonly called paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins, is known to cause acute fish kills. However, little is known about the effects of dissolved phase exposure and the potential sublethal effects of this route of exposure on early developmental stages of fish. Toxin exposure during early development is of particular

Kathi A. Lefebvre; Vera L. Trainer; Nathaniel L. Scholz

2004-01-01

282

Fish Mouths  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity (page 2 of the PDF) is a full inquiry investigation into environmental adaptation. Groups of learners will observe fish at a zoo, aquarium, or fish store and categorize which way the mouth of each identified fish faces. Based on observations made while the fish are fed and additional research, conclusions should be developed about how the fish fits into its environment. This activity can be used to teach learners about the importance of writing good notes while making observations. Relates to linked video, DragonflyTV GPS: California Fish.

Twin Cities Public Television, Inc.

2006-01-01

283

Lead poisoning in six captive avian species  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus), brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater), common grackles (Quiscalus quiscula), mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), northern bobwhites (Colinus virginianus), and eastern screech-owls (Otus asio) were poisoned with a concentration of lead (Pb) acetate in the diet which was increased by 60% each week until half of the birds in each treatment group died; surviving birds and all control birds except screech-owls were then killed by euthanasia. An additional group of mallards was poisoned with Pb shot. The gizzards of mallards poisoned either way usually were stained with bile; some of these birds also had proventricular impaction. Most poisoned birds of the other species were emaciated but lacked other gross lesions caused by Pb poisoning. In birds other than mallards, Pb poisoning could not be diagnosed without histological or hematological examinations or analysis of tissues. Poisoned birds of all six species could be reliably separated from control birds by an increase in the protoporphyrin concentrations in the blood and by a decrease in the activity of delta-aminoievulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) in red blood cells. Hepatic iron (Fe) concentrations varied so much among individual birds that even though median hepatic Fe concentrations increased in poisoned birds, hepatic Fe concentrations were not useful in identifying poisoned birds. Renal intranuclear inclusion bodies occurred in 83% of all birds dying from Pb poisoning. Nephrosis, myocardial necrosis, and arterial fibrinoid necrosis were occasionally present. Median hepatic Pb concentrations varied from 20 ppm (wet wt) in male red-winged blackbirds to III ppm in female northern bobwhites. Median renal Pb concentrations varied from 22 ppm in red-winged blackbirds to 190 ppm in female northern bobwhites. Hepatic and renal Pb concentrations varied substantially among birds within each species. Median hepatic and renal Pb concentrations of birds that died were not statistically different (p > 0.05) from those of birds that were killed. Lead shot and Pb acetate affected mallards similarly.

Beyer, W.N.; Spann, J.W.; Sileo, L.; Franson, J.C.

1988-01-01

284

Lead poisoning in six captive avian species  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus), brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater), common grackles (Quiscalus quiscula), mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), northern bobwhites (Colinus virginianus), and eastern screech-owls (Otus asio) were poisoned with a concentration of lead (Pb) acetate in the diet which was increased by 60% each week until half of the birds in each treatment group died; surviving birds and all control birds except screech-owis were then killed by euthanasia. An additional group of mallards was poisoned with Pb shot. The gizzards of mallards poisoned either way usually were stained with bile; some of these birds also had proventricular impaction. Most poisoned birds of the other species were emaciated but lacked other gross lesions caused by Pb poisoning. In birds other than mallards, Pb poisoning could not be diagnosed without histological or hematological examinations or analysis of tissues. Poisoned birds of all six species could be reliably separated from control birds by an increase in the protoporphyrin concentrations in the blood and by a decrease in the activity of delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) in red blood cells. Hepatic iron (Fe) concentrations varied so much among individual birds that even though median hepatic Fe concentrations increased in poisoned birds, hepatic Fe concentrations were not useful in identifying poisoned birds. Renal intranuclear inclusion bodies occurred in 83% of all birds dying from Pb poisoning. Nephrosis, myocardial necrosis, and arterial fibrinoid necrosis were occasionally present. Median hepatic Pb concentrations varied from 20 ppm (wet wt) in male red-winged blackbirds to 111 ppm in female northern bobwhites. Median renal Pb concentrations varied from 22 ppm in redwinged blackbirds to 190 ppm in female northern bobwhites. Hepatic and renal Pb concentrations varied substantially among birds within each species. Median hepatic and renal Pb concentrations of birds that died were not statistically different (p > 0.05) from those of birds that were killed. Lead shot and Pb acetate affected mallards similarly.

Beyer, W. N.; Spann, J. W.; Sileo, L.; Franson, J. C.

1988-01-01

285

Unexpected double lethal oleander poisoning.  

PubMed

Nerium oleander is a very popular urban ornamental plant in Europe, but it is also extremely dangerous because it contains several types of glycosides, accidental ingestion of which can cause cardiac arrhythmias and even deaths. The rarity of such cases makes it difficult to think of oleander poisoning without evidences that suggest this possibility as the cause of the unexpected death. This report concerns the discovery of the bodies of 2 young people, a man and a woman, in a forest in conditions of extreme malnutrition. Medicolegal investigations showed neither pathologic nor traumatic causes of death, but the presence of vegetal remains in the stomach was noticed. A common toxicological analysis resulted negative, but the implementation of more detailed investigations showed the presence of digoxin in the blood of both cadavers, excluding the possibility of a pharmaceutical provenience of digoxin, this laboratory result was interpreted as evidence of ingestion of oleander, which contains oleandrine, the cross reaction of which with digoxin is widely described in the literature. Identification of the 2 subjects, which occurred after 4 years, strengthened the hypothesis of accidental poisoning by oleander because it was ascertained that the 2 young people were vegans--extreme vegetarians who reject the ingestion of foods of animal origin and live by eating only what they find in nature. PMID:21926903

Papi, Luigi; Luciani, Alessandro Bassi; Forni, David; Giusiani, Mario

2012-03-01

286

Family tetrodotoxin poisoning in Reunion Island (Southwest Indian Ocean) following the consumption of Lagocephalus sceleratus (Pufferfish).  

PubMed

Pufferfish poisoning has rarely been reported in the southwestern Indian Ocean and in the French overseas territories. In Reunion Island, the last notified documented case occurred in 1989 and people are no longer aware of the potential toxicity of pufferfish. We report a family hospitalized for a tetrodotoxin poisoning following the consumption of Lagocephalus sceleratus caught on the coast of Reunion Island in September 2013. Two patients presenting acute vital functions failures were admitted in an ICU. Ten people were admitted simultaneously to the emergency department after consuming L. sceleratus with signs of toxicity appearing within 2 hours. Treatment was supportive, but included the need for mechanical ventilation for two patients. All those affected had complete and uneventful recoveries within a few days. The fish consumed was identified as L. sceleratus, a species known to contain tetrodotoxin. The diagnosis of tetrodotoxin poisoning was suggested by typical clinical manifestations together with the history of very recent consumption of tetrodotoxin-containing fish. Tetrodotoxin was later detected at high levels in food remnants. To the best of our knowledge, there has been no documented case series of tetrodotoxin poisoning reported from Reunion Island for the last 25 years and from the entire Indian Ocean area since 1998. Pufferfish intoxication is one of the most common causes of poisoning among people in coastal regions of Asia but it has also recently been reported in areas where it was previously unknown, particularly along the Mediterranean shores and in Spain. Public health education in French overseas territories and along the Mediterranean shores should be adapted to include increased awareness of the danger of consuming pufferfish. Health teams must be aware of such clinical presentations. PMID:24570117

Puech, B; Batsalle, B; Roget, P; Turquet, J; Quod, J-P; Allyn, J; Idoumbin, J-P; Chane-Ming, J; Villefranque, J; Mougin-Damour, K; Vandroux, D; Gaüzère, B-A

2014-05-01

287

Fish Facts  

MedlinePLUS

... 1 serving) per week. • Do not eat these fish, which are high in mercury: • Swordfish • Tilefish • King mackerel • Shark • Check before eating fish caught in local waters. State health departments have ...

288

Antarctic Fishes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains the adaptations to Antarctic waters that Notothenioidei, a group of advanced bony fishes, have exhibited. Discusses the fishes' mechanisms of production of antifreeze properties and their capacities for neutral buoyancy in water. (ML)

Eastman, Joseph T.; DeVries, Arthur L.

1986-01-01

289

Fish tapeworm  

MedlinePLUS

... where humans eat uncooked or undercooked fish from rivers or lakes, including: African countries in which freshwater fish are eaten Eastern Europe North and South America Scandinavia Some Asian countries After a person ...

290

Poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... that are too high Overdoses of illegal drugs Carbon monoxide from gas appliances Household products, such as laundry powder or furniture polish Pesticides Indoor or outdoor plants Metals such as lead ...

291

Non-Traditional Vectors for Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning  

PubMed Central

Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP), due to saxitoxin and related compounds, typically results from the consumption of filter-feeding molluscan shellfish that concentrate toxins from marine dinoflagellates. In addition to these microalgal sources, saxitoxin and related compounds, referred to in this review as STXs, are also produced in freshwater cyanobacteria and have been associated with calcareous red macroalgae. STXs are transferred and bioaccumulate throughout aquatic food webs, and can be vectored to terrestrial biota, including humans. Fisheries closures and human intoxications due to STXs have been documented in several non-traditional (i.e. non-filter-feeding) vectors. These include, but are not limited to, marine gastropods, both carnivorous and grazing, crustacea, and fish that acquire STXs through toxin transfer. Often due to spatial, temporal, or a species disconnection from the primary source of STXs (bloom forming dinoflagellates), monitoring and management of such non-traditional PSP vectors has been challenging. A brief literature review is provided for filter feeding (traditional) and non-filter feeding (non-traditional) vectors of STXs with specific reference to human effects. We include several case studies pertaining to management actions to prevent PSP, as well as food poisoning incidents from STX(s) accumulation in non-traditional PSP vectors.

Deeds, Jonathan R.; Landsberg, Jan H.; Etheridge, Stacey M.; Pitcher, Grant C.; Longan, Sara Watt

2008-01-01

292

Reactions of fishes to gradients of dissolved atmospheric gases  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the experimental control of gases, several and not one factor are commonly varied when gas is bubbled through water. Fishes are clearly affected by lack of oxygen; species usually die in the order of their relation to these factors in nature. Carbon dioxide, in concentrations probably used to produce reversals of reaction in some of the invertebrates, is poisonous

Victor E. Shelford; W. C. Allee

1913-01-01

293

High ethylmercury in river fish by man-made pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unusually high levels of mercury around 1 ppM were found in fish from the Shokotsu and the Muka Rivers (in Hokkaido), the Jinzu and the Oyabe Rivers (in Toyama Pref.), the Hono River (in Nara Pref.), in addition to the notorious Minamata Bay and the Agano River, where human poisoning incidents have been reported. In the Jinzu River, the extraordinary

Sumie Yamanaka; Kiichi Ueda

1975-01-01

294

Fatherly Fish  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In the hit movie Finding Nemo, Marlin the clown fish searches the ocean for his missing son. While it's unlikely that a real clown fish could make this long journey, some male fish do show a fatherly attitude toward their offspring. You'll hear about one in this Science Update.

Science Update;

2003-10-13

295

Fish Dishes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an art project that was inspired by Greek pottery, specifically dishes shaped as fish. Explains that fourth-grade students drew a fish shape that was later used to create their clay version of the fish. Discusses how the students examined the pottery to make decisions about color and design. (CMK)

Derby, Marie

2003-01-01

296

Fish forms  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners create a three-dimensional sculpture while examining the characteristics of fish. Learners use clay and other craft supplies to model a fish's body, fins, scales, eyes, gills, and mouth. Then learners will discuss the function of each part and how fish differ amongst each other.

Sciences, California A.

2008-01-01

297

Paraquat poisoning: clinical features and immediate general management  

Microsoft Academic Search

1 In contrast to 10-15 years ago most cases of paraquat poisoning are now due to deliberate self-poisoning with parasuicidal or suicidal intent rather than to accidental ingestion. Less commonly, poisoning may follow careless handling of paraquat during occupational use. Although paraquat can be absorbed through the skin if improperly handled, poisoning usually follows ingestion and has rarely been reported

J. A. Vale; T. J. Meredith; B. M. Buckley

1987-01-01

298

Carbon monoxide poisoning of proton exchange membrane fuel cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) performance degrades when carbon monoxide (CO) is present in the fuel gas; this is referred to as CO poisoning. This paper investigates CO poisoning of PEMFCs by reviewing work on the electrochemistry of CO and hydrogen, the experimental performance of PEMFCs exhibiting CO poisoning, methods to mitigate CO poisoning and theoretical models of

J. J. Baschuk; Xianguo Li

2001-01-01

299

Poisoning by organophosphorus insecticides and sensory neuropathy  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES—Poisoning by organophosphate insecticides causes cholinergic toxicity. Organophosphate induced delayed polyneuropathy (OPIDP) is a sensory-motor distal axonopathy which usually occurs after ingestion of large doses of certain organophosphate insecticides and has so far only been reported in patients with preceding cholinergic toxicity. Surprisingly, it was recently reported by other authors that an exclusively sensory neuropathy developed in eight patients after repeated unquantified exposures to chlorpyrifos, which did not cause clear-cut cholinergic toxicity. The objective was to assess whether an exclusively sensory neuropathy develops in patients severely poisoned by various OPs.?METHODS—Toxicological studies and electrophysiological measurements were performed in peripheral motor and sensory nerves in 11 patients after acute organophosphate poisoning among which two subjects were poisoned with chlorpyrifos.?RESULTS—Three patients developed OPIDP, including one poisoned by chlorpyrifos. Exclusively sensory neuropathy was never seen after either single or repeated acute organophosphate poisoning. A mild sensory component was associated with a severe motor component in two of the three cases of OPIDP, the other was an exclusively motor polyneuropathy.?CONCLUSION—A sensory-motor polyneuropathy caused by organophosphate insecticides might occur after a severe poisoning and the sensory component, if present, is milder than the motor one. Bearing in mind the toxicological characteristics of these organophosphate insecticides, other causes should be sought for sensory peripheral neuropathies in patients who did not display severe cholinergic toxicity a few weeks before the onset of symptoms and signs.??

Moretto, A.; Lotti, M.

1998-01-01

300

Methadone toxicity in a poisoning referral center  

PubMed Central

Objective: Methadone poisoning can occur accidentally or intentionally for suicide or homicide purposes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the epidemiological and clinical manifestations of Methadone poisoning. Methods: A descriptive analytical study was performed from 2010 to 2012 in the poisoning emergency and clinical toxicology departments of Noor hospital affiliated with Isfahan University of Medical Sciences (Isfahan, Iran). All patients with Methadone poisoning within this period of time were investigated. Different variables were recorded in a checklist. Findings: A total of 385 patients were studied. About 85.7% had ingested only Methadone and 14.3% had ingested other medications with Methadone. Mean ± standard deviation of the age was 32.1 ± 15 years (range: 1-90). Most of the patients were male (76.4%). Nearly 40% of the patients were narcotic addicts, 25.5% were addicts under surveillance of Methadone maintenance therapy centers and 34.5% were non-addicts. Intentional poisoning was observed in most of the patients (57.7%). Most of the patients had a low level of consciousness on admission (58.2%). Respiratory depression and hypotension was observed in 35.6% and 12.7% of the cases as the most common symptoms. Regarding vital signs, there was a significant difference in respiratory rate on admission among different evaluated groups (P = 0.02). Length of hospital stay was 18.79 ± 0.72 h (range: 4-240 h, median: 15 h). About 57 patients (25.8%) from the intentionally poisoned patients and 19 patients (12.3%) from the unintentionally poisoned patients had a history of psychiatric disorder (P = 0.001). Most of the patients survived without complications. Conclusion: Addiction, age, gender, attempt to suicide and a history of psychiatric disorder were of the most important factors effective in Methadone poisoning, which should be considered in the public training and prevention of poisoning.

Taheri, Fatemeh; Yaraghi, Ahmad; Sabzghabaee, Ali Mohammad; Moudi, Maryam; Eizadi-Mood, Nastaran; Gheshlaghi, Farzad; Farajzadegan, Ziba

2013-01-01

301

Carbon monoxide: an old poison with a new way of poisoning.  

PubMed

We present two events of carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning, which spread out through ventilation pipes to kill or injure neighbors. This is a previously undocumented poisoning process. In the first event, three people died and eight others suffered CO poisoning from a gas-powered water heater in an apartment building. Similar to the first event, three people expired and three others were injured by CO poisoning in the second event. We subsequently determined the cause of these tragedies were due to obstructions at the openings of ventilation pipes. CO is one of the most common causes of poisoning worldwide and these cases often result in tragedy. Early recognition of CO poisoning resulting from obstructed ventilation pipes will facilitate proper management and prevent possible lethal disasters. Additionally, all clinicians and other paramedical personnel ought to raise the suspicion of chemical-related casualties when encountering clusters of patients from a single locale. PMID:22939664

Chou, Cheng-Hsiu; Lai, Ching-Huang; Liou, Saou-Hsing; Loh, Ching-Hui

2012-08-01

302

Radiographic findings in congenital lead poisoning  

SciTech Connect

Because lead crosses the placenta throughout pregnancy, the fetus is at risk for lead poisoning. A full term, asymptomatic child was born with congenital lead poisoning secondary to maternal pica. Radiographic findings of a dense cranial vault, lead lines, and delayed skeletal and deciduous dental development were noted at birth. After chelation therapy, when the patient was seven months old, radiographs revealed normal skeletal maturation. Tooth eruption did not occur until 15 months of age. Newborn infants with these radiographic findings should be screened for subclinical, congenital lead poisoning.

Pearl, M.; Boxt, L.M.

1980-07-01

303

Metal Poisons in Waste Tanks (U)  

SciTech Connect

Many of the storage tanks with waste from processing fissile materials contain, along with the fissile material, metals which may serve as nuclear criticality poisons. It would be advantageous to the criticality evaluation of these wastes if it can be demonstrated that the poisons remain with the fissile materials and if an always safe poison-to-fissile ratio can be established. The first task, demonstrating that the materials stay together, is the job of the chemist, the second, demonstrating an always safe ratio, is the job of the physicist. The latter task is the object of this paper

Williamson, T.G. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States)

1996-10-14

304

Fish Prints  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this hands-on art activity, learners will study and identify features of the external anatomy of a fish. They will have the opportunity to learn the different functions of fish anatomy along with new vocabulary terms while handling a real fish in their art project. Also, a discussion may take place about the different kinds of fish and how different shapes are more beneficial for certain environments. As a wrap up, learners can become familiar about issues related to the conservation of fish, such as overfishing, habitat destruction, and invasive species. This activity is standards-based.

Sciences, California A.

2008-01-01

305

49 CFR 176.605 - Care following leakage or sifting of Division 2.3 (poisonous gas) and Division 6.1 (poisonous...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2.3 (poisonous gas) and Division 6.1 (poisonous) materials. 176.605...2.3 (Poisonous Gas) and Division 6.1 (Poisonous) Materials § 176.605...2.3 (poisonous gas) and Division 6.1 (poisonous) materials. A...

2013-10-01

306

Monitoring of photo-resist poisoning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Resist poisoning is one of the key issues linked to low-k dielectric and copper integration. This phenomenon tends to be amplified in dual damascene architecture, where both processes and materials are incriminated, especially when porous low-k dielectrics are integrated. In this paper we present and implement the dose to clear compensation method, easily undertaken with standard lithography and metrology tools, to evaluate quantitatively 248 and 193nm photo-resist poisoning on both MSQ and porous MSQ substrates. We show the amplification of resist poisoning due to the reservoir effect in porous MSQ, and address the role of the porosity in the phenomenon. We demonstrate the efficiency of the method in evaluating hard masks compatibility, wet and dry stripping processes, and its ability in screening photo-resist in term of poisoning sensitivity.

Simon, Julia; Weisbuch, Francois; Quere, Yves; Louveau, Olivier; Bourlot, Christine

2003-06-01

307

Red Tide and Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the nature and cause of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP). Includes toxic dinoflagellate ecology, taxonomy and life history, and chemistry of the toxins. Recent work with trace metals and directions of future research are also given. (MA)

Dale, Barrie; Yentsch, Clarice M.

1978-01-01

308

Serious complications associated with Dettol poisoning.  

PubMed

Dettol is involved in 10% of self-poisoning-related hospital admissions in Hong Kong. Although serious poisonings and even deaths after ingesting this common household disinfectant have been reported, the frequency with which these complications may occur is not known. In a retrospective study of 67 cases of Dettol poisoning, we found that serious complications were relatively common (8%) and these included aspiration of Dettol with gastric contents resulting in pneumonia, cardiopulmonary arrest, bronchospasm, adult respiratory distress syndrome, and severe laryngeal oedema with upper airways obstruction. It is particularly important that the airways are adequately protected before the patient is lavaged following Dettol poisoning, and the immediate recognition of any upper airway obstruction requiring intubation will then be life-saving. PMID:8265774

Chan, T Y; Lau, M S; Critchley, J A

1993-11-01

309

Prophylactic and Treatment Drugs for Organophosphorus Poisoning.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The program is directed at the design and synthesis of candidate treatment or prophylactic drugs as potential defense against organophosphorus poisoning. During the past year, 17 compounds were submitted: 7 organophosphates, 4 organophosphates, one carbam...

C. L. Stevens P. Blumbergs P. L. Knutson C. L. Parks

1987-01-01

310

Congenital lead poisoning: an unusual presentation.  

PubMed

Lead poisoning presents a common acquired as well as congenital environmental threat to children's health today. An unusual case of severe lead poisoning in breast fed male infant is presented here. The objective of the study is to describe a patient who developed clinical lead intoxication with an uncommon source of poisoning. A 6 months old male baby presented with gradual loss of weight, not feeding well and persistent vomiting. Laboratory investigation revealed that he was having anemia (Hb level 5.4 gm/dl), abnormal liver enzymes (including elevated transaminase activity) and high blood lead value (83 ?g/dl). RBC morphology showed basophilic stippling with cabot ring, suggestive of a case of lead poisoning. A course of chelation treatment using calcium versenate (EDTACaNa2) was prescribed following which a radical solution for mobilization of lead from his systems was observed. PMID:24757314

Mazumdar, Ipsita; Goswami, K

2014-04-01

311

Amanita phalloides-Type Mushroom Poisoning  

PubMed Central

In the fall of 1981 the San Francisco Bay Area Regional Poison Control Center received more than 100 calls regarding wild mushroom ingestion. Ten cases, including three fatalities, had all the features of Amanita phalloides poisoning. Encephalopathy, coma and renal insufficiency occurred in all three patients who died, but did not occur in those who survived. Two of the three patients who died arrived at the hospital late in the course of their illness, and severe gastroenteritis with accompanying dehydration probably contributed to their deaths. The poison control center promoted public awareness of the mushroom hazard through newspaper and television stories and by notifying local health departments. It also has devised a simple form to improve the quality of data collection and to assist in later verification of suspected A phalloides poisoning.

Healey, Kathy; Woo, Olga F.; Olson, Kent R.; Pond, Susan M.; Seward, James; Becker, Charles E.

1982-01-01

312

Cornell University Poisonous Plants Informational Database  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This database provides information on plants and other natural flora such as fungi that grow in the United States and may be poisonous to livestock or other animals. The information includes images of plants, pictures of affected animals and presentations on botany, chemistry, toxicology, diagnosis, and prevention of poisoning. The data are searchable by scientific or common name, primary poison, and species of animal most often affected. There are also alphabetical listings of plants by genus and species and by common names, a list of toxic agents found in plants, and a list of commonly affected animals (including humans). Other materials include a discussion of the possible benefits or toxic effects of medicinal plants on livestock, a frequently-asked-questions feature, and links to other websites with information on poisonous plants.

Brown, Dan L.

313

Paint, lacquer, and varnish remover poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

Mirkin DB. Benzene and related aromatic hydrocarbons. In: Shannon MW, Borron SW, Burns MJ, eds. Haddad and Winchester's Clinical Management of Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: ...

314

Lead Poisoning in Remodeling of Old Homes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An article based on Dr. Muriel D. Wolf's study of elevated blood lead levels in children and adults present during the remodeling of old homes. Lead poisoning examples, symptoms, and precautions are given. (ST)

Barnes, Bart

1973-01-01

315

Lead Poisoning and the Suburban Child  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports on recent findings which suggest that lead poisoning stems not only from paint ingestion, is not limited to ghetto children, and may be linked to some learning and behavioral difficulties in children. (Author/SF)

Graham, Ada; Graham, Frank

1974-01-01

316

Prophylactic and Treatment Drugs for Organophosphorus Poisoning.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The program is directed at the design and synthesis of candidate treatment of prophylactic drugs as potential defenses against organophosphorus poisoning. During the past year, nine compounds were submitted: four organophosphinates, one organophosphonate,...

C. C. Tseng C. L. Parks C. L. Stevens J. R. Donaubauer P. Blumbergs

1988-01-01

317

Poison control center - Emergency number (image)  

MedlinePLUS

... anywhere in the United States. This national hotline number will let you talk to experts in poisoning. ... control centers in the U.S. use this national number. You should call if you have any questions ...

318

Hyperbaric Oxygen for Acute Carbon Monoxide Poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background Patients with acute carbon monoxide poisoning commonly have cognitive sequelae. We conducted a double-blind, randomized trial to evaluate the effect of hyperbaric-oxygen treatment on such cognitive sequelae. Methods We randomly assigned patients with symptomatic acute carbon monoxide poisoning in equal proportions to three chamber sessions within a 24-hour period, consisting of either three hyperbaric-oxygen treatments or one normobaric-oxygen treatment

Lindell K. Weaver; Ramona O. Hopkins; Karen J. Chan; Susan Churchill; C. Gregory Elliott; Terry P. Clemmer; James F. Orme; Frank O. Thomas; Alan H. Morris

2002-01-01

319

The Poisoning of Thoriated Tungsten Cathodes†  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental study has been made of the poisoning of the thermionic omission from thoriated tungsten cathodes by oxidizing gases. It is shown that rapid poisoning takes place when a critical partial pressure is exceeded. For a fully carburized cathode this critical pressure measured, using an omega-tron mass spectrometer, is as follows: O2 10torr, CO2 2·0 × 10 torr, and

R. O. JENKINS; W. G. TRODDEN

1962-01-01

320

Hair dye poisoning and the developing world  

PubMed Central

Hair dye poisoning has been emerging as one of the important causes of intentional self harm in the developing world. Hair dyes contain paraphenylene-diamine and a host of other chemicals that can cause rhabdomyolysis, laryngeal edema, severe metabolic acidosis and acute renal failure. Intervention at the right time has been shown to improve the outcome. In this article, we review the various manifestations, clinical features and treatment modalities for hair dye poisoning.

Sampathkumar, Krishnaswamy; Yesudas, Sooraj

2009-01-01

321

Hearts and flowers: Bryophyllum poisoning of cattle.  

PubMed

Findings from natural cases and experiments with cattle emphasise that flowering plants are the most important form of Bryophyllum (Kalanchoe) spp in poisonings in Australia. The main life-threatening lesion is myocardial. The effects on the alimentary tract are less important than was believed previously. B. tubiflorum, B. daigremontianum x B. tubiflorum, B. pinnatum and B. proliferum caused 41 recorded poisoning incidents affecting 379 cattle in Queensland between 1960 and 1984. Poisoning occurred between May and October--the flowering season of these plants. Experimental B. tubiflorum poisoning and natural poisonings produced anorexia, depression, ruminal atony, diarrhoea, heart rate and rhythm abnormalities, dyspnoea and death. Increased plasma concentrations of urea, creatinine and glucose and decreased chloride were measured experimentally. Both natural and experimental cases had myocardial degeneration and necrosis with haemorrhages of the heart and alimentary tract. Cattle with severe dyspnoea had atelectasis and emphysema of the lungs. Some cattle had mild nephrosis. The median lethal doses of B. tubiflorum flowers, roots and leaf plus stem were 0.7, 2.3 and 5.0 g dry matter/kg liveweight respectively (7, 7 and 40 g wet weight/kg). Bufadienolides have been isolated recently from B. tubiflorum flowers and the syndrome is consistent with cardiac glycoside poisoning. PMID:3778371

McKenzie, R A; Dunster, P J

1986-07-01

322

Chronic neurological sequelae to organophosphate pesticide poisoning.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES. This work was undertaken to determine whether there are any chronic neurological sequelae to acute organophosphate pesticide poisoning. METHODS. California surveillance data were used in a study of neurological function among 128 men poisoned by organophosphate pesticides in California from 1982 to 1990 and 90 referents. Tests included a neurological physical examination, 5 nerve conduction tests, 2 vibrotactile sensitivity tests, 10 neurobehavioral tests, and 1 postural sway test. RESULTS. After correcting for confounding, the poisoned group performed significantly worse than the referent group on two neurobehavioral tests (sustained visual attention and mood scales). When the data were restricted to men with documented cholinesterase inhibition (n = 83) or to men who had been hospitalized (n = 36), the poisoned subjects also showed significantly worse vibrotactile sensitivity of finger and toe. Significant trends of increased impairment were found with increased days of disability on a wide spectrum of tests of both central and peripheral nerve function. CONCLUSIONS. While these findings are limited by low response rates and by small sample sizes for specific pesticides, this study was based on a large surveillance database and is the largest study to date of the chronic effects of organophosphate pesticide poisoning. The evidence of some long-term effects of poisoning is consistent with two prior studies.

Steenland, K; Jenkins, B; Ames, R G; O'Malley, M; Chrislip, D; Russo, J

1994-01-01

323

Reliability of routine hospital data on poisoning as measures of deliberate self poisoning in adolescents.  

PubMed Central

STUDY OBJECTIVE--The aim was to assess the extent to which routinely collected data on poisoning in adolescents reflected deliberate self poisoning and, in doing, so to assess the accuracy of the diagnostic information on poisoning in the routine hospital abstracts which form the joint data base of Hospital Activity Analysis and the Oxford Record Linkage Study (ORLS). DESIGN--A comparison was made (a) of all eligible ORLS records during the study period with an independent source of records; and (b) of a random sample of records from an independent source with ORLS. SETTING--Records of patients admitted to the John Radcliffe Hospital in Oxford were used. SUBJECTS--These were (a) patients aged 10-20 years between 1980 and 1985 with a diagnosis of poisoning by drugs and medicaments in ORLS; (b) a random sample of 500 patients selected from the self harm monitoring files at the hospital (12 patients were not eligible for inclusion in ORLS and were therefore excluded from the rest of the study). MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS--The recorded diagnosis was compared on the records selected from the two files. Of the 1123 events of poisoning identified in ORLS, 1081 (96.3%) were correctly coded as poisoning and 1065 (95%) of these were deliberate self poisoning. Of the 488 cases from the monitoring files, 467 (95.7%) of all cases had a correct diagnosis of injury or poisoning on the ORLS file. Of the 453 poisoning cases 436 (96.2%) were correctly recorded in ORLS. CONCLUSIONS--Deliberate self poisoning in adolescents can be identified through routinely collected hospital statistics. A very high percentage of the diagnostic information on poisoning in ORLS files is correctly recorded.

Sellar, C; Goldacre, M J; Hawton, K

1990-01-01

324

One Fish, Two Fish, Redfish, You Fish!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The recreational fishing activity presented in this article provides a hands-on, problem-based experience for students; it unites biology, math, economics, environmental policy, and population dynamics concepts. In addition, the activity allows students t

White, Katherine; Timmons, Maryellen; Medders, Paul

2011-02-01

325

Fish FAQ  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Northeast Fisheries Science Center of the National Marine Fisheries Service provides this wonderful site offering a myriad of answers to frequently asked fish questions. If your questions include "Do fish sleep?" or "How does a scallop move?" or "What is 'tomalley'?", you are sure to find the answers here--as well as many other fascinating fish facts. Answers are thorough, and many are accompanied by color graphics, tables, and photographs to illustrate principles and provide examples.

1999-01-01

326

The Dolastatins  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Certain marine animals were known to the ancients for their potent biological constituents and presumed use in primitive medicine.\\u000a The early periods of recorded history contain references to support these assumptions (1). Illustrative are hieroglyphics on the Egyptian Pharaoh Ti’s tomb (approximately 2700 BC) that describe the poisonous puffer\\u000a fish Tetraodon stellatus. One of the earliest recorded uses of a

G. R. Pettit

327

Pattern of pediatric poisoning in the east Karadeniz region between 2002 and 2006: increased suicide poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, 386 patients with the diagnosis of poisoning admitted to the Pediatric Emergency Unit of Farabi Hospital of Medical Faculty of Karadeniz Technical University between January 2002 and December 2006 were retrospectively evaluated with respect to gender, age, cause of poisoning, type of substance used, route of exposure, reason for the intake, signs and symptoms, time of

M. Mutlu; A. Cansu; T. Karakas; M. Kalyoncu; E. Erduran

2010-01-01

328

Toxicology of Poison Oak (Rhus toxicodendron) and Poison Ivy (Rhus radicans) Extracts in the Rat.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of the study was to determine the toxicity of extracts of poison ivy, poison oak, and a polyethylene glycol vehicle (Carbowax R) when given orally to rats. Throughout a seven-month study four groups of rats (N=15) were administered the follo...

C. W. Waller I. W. Waters

1974-01-01

329

Lead poisoning of spectacled eiders (Somateria fischeri) and of a common eider (Somateria mollissima) in Alaska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Lead poisoning was diagnosed in four spectacled eiders (Somateria fischeri) and one common eider (Somateria mollissima) found dead or moribund at the Yukon Delta National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska (USA) in 1992, 1993, and 1994. Ingested lead shot was found in the lower esophagus of one spectacled eider and in the gizzard of the common eider. Lead concentrations in the livers of the spectacled eiders were 26 to 38 ppm wet weight, and 52 ppm wet weight in the liver of the common eider. A blood sample collected from one of the spectacled eiders before it was euthanized had a lead concentration of 8.5 ppm wet weight. This is the first known report of lead poisoning in the spectacled eider, recently listed as a threatened species by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

Franson, J. C.; Petersen, M. R.; Meteyer, C. U.; Smith, M. R.

1995-01-01

330

Fish Face  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

The Pacific sand lance is an important forage fish found in Puget Sound.  They employ a unique strategy of burrowing into sand to rest and conserve energy, and to avoid predation.  The USGS is currently studying forage fish spawning, and how human development may be affecting their habitat....

2010-08-16

331

Venomous Fish  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

While most fish are completely harmless to people, there are some species that are mildly to extremely venomous and can actually kill humans. In this video, Jonathan travels the world to meet some of the most venomous fish in the sea. Please see the accompanying study guide for educational objectives and discussion points.

Productions, Jonathan B.

2010-08-10

332

Texture Fish  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In an effort to provide an opportunity for her first graders to explore texture through an engaging subject, the author developed a three-part lesson that features fish in a mixed-media artwork: (1) Exploring Textured Paint; (2) Creating the Fish; and (3) Role Playing. In this lesson, students effectively explore texture through painting, drawing,…

Stone, Julie

2007-01-01

333

Fish Tank  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive Flash applet is a number matching activity for up to ten objects. Students develop mouse skills as they click on a given number of moving fish, which land in their fish bowl. When children decide they have caught the right number, they can check their accuracy. Users may also listen to a counting song.

Bunker, Dan

2010-01-01

334

Isolation of Prorocentrum lima (Syn. Exuviaella lima) and diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) risk assessment in the Gulf of California, Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

A benthic toxic dinoflagellate identified as Prorocentrum lima (Syn. Exuviaella lima), and designated as strain PRL-1, was isolated from the coast of El Pardito (Coyote) Island in Baja California Sur, Mexico, after a fisherman poisoning incident involving consumption of liver from Lutjanus colorado, and Mycteroperca prionura fish. Purification and culturing was done in ES-Si medium, under 12:12 light\\/dark cycle (4×20W

A. Heredia-Tapia; B. O. Arredondo-Vega; E. J. Nuñez-Vázquez; T. Yasumoto; M. Yasuda; J. L. Ochoa

2002-01-01

335

Factors affecting use of mirex?poisoned protein baits for control of European wasp (Paravespula germanica) in New Zealand  

Microsoft Academic Search

A bait of canned fish poisoned with 0.5 % or 1 % mirex substantially reduced populations of the European wasp, Paravespula germanica (Fab.), in a part?cleared, part?forested resort area in the Marlborough Sounds. In separate baiting regimes, bait was taken for as long as 9 weeks when 0.5% formulation was offered from 5 stations, but when 1 % formulation was

D. C. F. Perrott

1975-01-01

336

[Problems introducing a pediatric poisoning treatment set].  

PubMed

Between 1995 and 1998 the Berlin poison center conducted a case-control study supported by the Ministry of Science and Technology, the Berlin Medical Association, a health insurance company, and the Berlin Pediatric Society to test the efficacy of a pediatric poisoning treatment set. The aim of the study was to induce parents of small children to call the poison center immediately in cases of unintentional poisonings at home and to administer activated charcoal if advised to do so by the poison center specialist. This was achieved by handling over a so-called "emergency kit" to 24,000 parents during the regular pediatric office check-up when the children were 10-12 months of age. When an accident occurred, parents with an emergency kit at hand were able to give activated charcoal within 14 min compared to 51 min without this aid. Problems arose when attempts were undertaken to introduce the emergency kit into the routine counseling sessions throughout the country: restrictions imposed by the pharmaceutical law, lack of interest shown by pharmaceutical companies, and diverging responsibilities at county and federal political levels and between different health insurance companies have hitherto prevented the realization of this evidence-based method. PMID:15205817

Brockstedt, M

2004-01-01

337

An outbreak of foxglove leaf poisoning.  

PubMed

Comfrey (Symphytum officinale) leaves resemble those of foxglove (Digitalis purpurea) when the plant is not in bloom and, therefore, cardiac glycoside poisoning may occur when people confuse foxglove with comfrey. We report an outbreak of foxglove leaf poisoning following the use of alleged "comfrey" herbal tea. Nine patients were involved and initially presented with nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and dizziness. Significant cardiotoxicity developed later among the 3 patients who also had mild hyperkalemia. Peak serum digoxin concentration measured by immunoassay was elevated in all patients and ranged from 4.4 ng/mL to 139.5 ng/mL. Patients with severe cardiotoxicity were treated with temporary cardiac pacing. Moreover, 40-80 mg of digoxin-specific antibody therapy was given without any effect. All patients recovered uneventfully. Our report highlights the potential risk of misidentification of herbs; in this case, D. purpurea was mistaken for S. officinale. Physicians should be aware that cardiac glycoside poisoning could arise from such misidentification. Public education about the toxicity of D. purpurea poisoning may reduce the risk of misidentification and subsequent poisoning. PMID:20171590

Lin, Chun-Chi; Yang, Chen-Chang; Phua, Dong-Haur; Deng, Jou-Fang; Lu, Li-Hua

2010-02-01

338

Ecological conversion efficiency and its influencers in twelve species of fish in the Yellow Sea Ecosystem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ecological conversion efficiencies in twelve species of fish in the Yellow Sea Ecosystem, i.e., anchovy ( Engraulis japonicus), rednose anchovy ( Thrissa kammalensis), chub mackerel ( Scomber japonicus), halfbeak ( Hyporhamphus sajori), gizzard shad ( Konosirus punctatus), sand lance ( Ammodytes personatus), red seabream ( Pagrus major), black porgy ( Acanthopagrus schlegeli), black rockfish ( Sebastes schlegeli), finespot goby ( Chaeturichthys stigmatias), tiger puffer ( Takifugu rubripes), and fat greenling ( Hexagrammos otakii), were estimated through experiments conducted either in situ or in a laboratory. The ecological conversion efficiencies were significantly different among these species. As indicated, the food conversion efficiencies and the energy conversion efficiencies varied from 12.9% to 42.1% and from 12.7% to 43.0%, respectively. Water temperature and ration level are the main factors influencing the ecological conversion efficiencies of marine fish. The higher conversion efficiency of a given species in a natural ecosystem is acquired only under the moderate environment conditions. A negative relationship between ecological conversion efficiency and trophic level among ten species was observed. Such a relationship indicates that the ecological efficiency in the upper trophic levels would increase after fishing down marine food web in the Yellow Sea ecosystem.

Tang, Qisheng; Guo, Xuewu; Sun, Yao; Zhang, Bo

2007-09-01

339

Determination and frying loss of histamine in striped marlin fillets implicated in a foodborne poisoning.  

PubMed

An incident of foodborne poisoning causing illness in 67 victims due to ingestion of fried fish fillets occurred in June 2011, in southern Taiwan. Of the five suspected fish fillets, one fried sample contained 62.0 mg/100 g and one raw sample contained 89.6 mg/100 g histamine, levels which are greater than the potential hazard action level (50 mg/100 g) in most illness cases. Given the allergy-like symptoms of the victims and the high histamine content in the suspected fish samples, this foodborne poisoning was strongly suspected to be caused by histamine intoxication. Five histamine-producing bacterial strains capable of producing 59 to 562 ppm of histamine in Trypticase soy broth supplemented with 1.0% L-histidine were identified as Enterobacter aerogenes (two strains), Raoultella ornithinolytica (two strains), and Morganella morganii (one strain). The degradation loss of histamine in suspected raw fillets was 28% after they were fried at 170°C for 5 min. PMID:23643129

Lee, Yi-Chen; Lin, Chia-Min; Huang, Chun-Yung; Huang, Ya-Ling; Chen, Hwi-Chang; Huang, Tzou-Chi; Tsai, Yung-Hsiang

2013-05-01

340

[Ergotamine poisoning: a case study].  

PubMed

Ergotamine is a well known pharmacological remedy applied in neurology (treatment of vascular headache) and in obstetrics (abortive remedy, uterus atony). But today it is rarely used, because of new safer anti-migraine medicine (triptanes) which cause fewer side effects. According to obstetrical indications ergotamine is applied only in hospital treatment. For that reason, cases of intoxication by this class of drugs are rarely observed. Ergotamine causes constriction of the blood vessels through the blockade of alpha-receptors and stimulation of the serotonin-receptors on the walls of blood vessels both in the central nervous system and in peripheral circulation. Intoxication/overdose symptoms may appear on application of therapeutic dose by sensitive patients, mostly by patients with migraine headache using ergotamine preparation for relief of migraine attacks. In the Regional Centre of Clinical Toxicology, a 21-year-old patient was hospitalized. She took about 20 tablets of Cafergot (complex preparation containing 1mg ergotamine tartare and 100mg caffeine). During her stay on the ward, typical symptoms of severe poisoning were observed: nausea, severe vomiting, dizziness, decreased blood pressure without perceptible pulse, narrowing of the blood vessels in the extremities of the body (peripheral vasoconstriction) - paresthesia, digital cyanosis, refrigeration of legs, angina. Due to taking once of a great dose of the drug by the patient, violent process of intoxication, possibility of dangerous complication and also the unavailability of specific antidotes and lack of efficient methods of extracorporeal elimination of the drug, the patient was intensively controlled and symptomatic treatments according to the law of intensive therapy was applied. PMID:23243949

Zapalska-Pozarowska, Karolina; Szponar, Jaros?aw; Górska, Agnieszka; Niewiedzio?, Marek

2012-01-01

341

Poisonous Snakes of Australia, New Guinea and the Pacific Islands.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Topics include: Some facts about poisonous snakes; Kinds and characteristics of dangerous snakes; Distribution of poisonous snakes of Australia, New Guinea and the Pacific Islands; Precautions against snakebite; First-aid measures for snakebite; Identific...

1969-01-01

342

Poisonous Snakes of Europe, Africa and Near East.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Topics include: Some facts about poisonous snakes; Kinds and characteristics of dangerous snakes; Precautions against snakebites; First-aid measures for snakebite; Distribution of poisonous snakes in Europe, Africa, and the Near East; Identification and h...

1969-01-01

343

Massachusetts Strategic Plan to End Lead Poisoning by 2010.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

For the past year, the Massachusetts Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention Program (MACLPPP) has been building a foundation for the creation of a strategic elimination plan to end lead poisoning by 2010. MACLPPP hired a consultant, gathered data, developed ...

2004-01-01

344

Snake venom poisoning in Greece. Experiences with 147 cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundSnake venom poisoning is a medical emergency requiring immediate attention. Bites from poisonous European snakes can lead to local tissue damage and systemic symptoms. Vipera ammodytes accounts for the most envenomation in Greece.

Christos Y. Frangides; Vasilios Koulouras; Sophia N. Kouni; Gerasimos V. Tzortzatos; Athanasios Nikolaou; John Pneumaticos; Christos Pierrakeas; Constantinos Niarchos; Nicholas G. Kounis; Constantinos M. Koutsojannis

2006-01-01

345

Poisonous Plants, Medical Toxicology of Plants of the Far East.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The book presents, in popular form basic information on poisonous plants and mushrooms distributed throughout the Far East. In addition to a botanical description of the examined plants, basic medical information is cited: the initial signs of poisoning, ...

N. K. Fruyentov T. N. Kadayev

1975-01-01

346

Fishing and the fishing industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

World fish resources, fishing methods, and processing operations in the seafood industry are described. The fishery situation in developing countries (LDCs) is discussed, with particular reference to artisanal and other local fisheries, and examples are cited to illustrate the structure of the industry. Technology transfer from developed countries to LDCs is discussed and recommendations are presented for future technology transfer

John Liston; Lynwood Smith

1974-01-01

347

Lead poisoning: more than a medical problem.  

PubMed Central

Medical records of 236 Newark, New Jersey children hospitalized and chelated for lead poisoning in 1977 through 1980 were reviewed to determine whether or not any discernible progress had been made in eradicating the disease since 1972. Results show that the number of treated asymptomatic children, ages 1-6, began to rise after 1976 and was higher in 1980 than in 1972 when the Newark Lead Poisoning Prevention and Control Program first began. Although mean and peak blood lead levels have decreased over the nine-year period since 1972, signaling a lessening of disease severity, the increase in numbers and rates indicates that childhood lead poisoning still exists as an environmental and social problem.

Schneider, D J; Lavenhar, M A

1986-01-01

348

Electrophysiological studies in acute organophosphate poisoning.  

PubMed Central

Electrophysiological studies in suicidal patients with organophosphate poisoning are reported. Patients often developed muscular weakness of variable severity owing to diplorisation block at nicotinic receptors. During such paralysis nerve conduction velocity and distal latencies were normal even in severely paralysed patients. The amplitude of the compound action potential was smaller than in controls and often showed a repetitive response. The amplitude tended to be lower in those more severely affected. On repetitive stimulation there was usually no decrement with three stimuli per second and only occasional decrement at 10 per second. At 30 Hz several cases showed a decrement even in the absence of paralysis. This response to repetitive stimuli is thus quite distinct from that seen in either myasthenia or Eaton Lambert syndrome. On three occasions after poisoning with dichlorovos there was first anticholinesterase insecticide poisoning and later delayed neurotoxicity as seen with triorthocresylphosphate. These cases showed all the features of a severe pure motor axonal degeneration neuropathy.

Wadia, R S; Chitra, S; Amin, R B; Kiwalkar, R S; Sardesai, H V

1987-01-01

349

Abdominal imaging in zinc phosphide poisoning.  

PubMed

Radiography has been proved to be a good diagnostic tool in visualization of many radiopaque xenobiotics in clinical toxicology. Zinc is a potentially radiopaque material which is a constituent of the zinc phosphide (ZN2P3) rodenticide. We report two cases of zinc phosphide poisoning with positive abdominal X-rays in whom the diagnosis was confirmed by abdominal imaging. Positive abdominal imaging was an indication for aggressive management; however, aggressive treatment was not lifesaving in one of them. We aim to emphasize the diagnostic value of abdominal X-rays in zinc phosphide-poisoned patients. We also would like to suggest that zinc phosphide (ZP)-poisoned patients with positive X-rays have more chance to become unstable even if they are symptom free on presentation and should be more aggressively managed. PMID:24477450

Hassanian-Moghaddam, Hossein; Shahnazi, Makhtoom; Zamani, Nasim; Bahrami-Motlagh, Hooman

2014-06-01

350

Arrow poisons in China. Part I.  

PubMed

Arrow poisons have been used for at least 2500 years in various parts of China by the Han and other peoples. The preparation and use of these poisons is discussed on the basis of accounts in Chinese and Western sources. Mostly, the principal ingredient has been an extract derived from the tubers of Aconitum species, especially A. carmichaelii Debx. (wu t'ou, fu tzu, ts'ao wu). Certain peoples of the south-west and south, besides using Aconitum, have also obtained an essential ingredient from the juice (latex) of Antiaris toxicaria Lesch. (tu mu, hu, chien hsüeh feng hou, nu chien tzu, ka tuk). The chemistry and pharmacology of the active principles found in certain of the plants incorporated into the poisons are dealt with briefly (but this does not include Aconitum, which will be treated in some detail in Part II). PMID:397373

Bisset, N G

1979-12-01

351

The evaluation and management of acute poisoning emergencies.  

PubMed

Emergency physicians will regularly be called upon to care for poisoned patients. The purpose of this article is to review the general approach to the poisoned patient. Specific signs and symptoms will be identified that may clue the clinician into a specific toxin class as a diagnosis. Necessary testing in poisonings will be highlighted. This article will also introduce the basics of gastrointestinal decontamination and antidotes against select poisons. PMID:18043563

Lawrence, D T; Bechtel, L; Walsh, J P; Holstege, C D

2007-10-01

352

Evaluation of poison information services provided by a new poison information center  

PubMed Central

Aim: The aim of this study is to assess the nature and quality of services provided by poison information center established at a tertiary-care teaching hospital, Mysore. Settings and Design: This was a prospective observational study. Materials and Methods: The poison information center was officially established in September 2010 and began its functioning thereafter. The center is equipped with required resources and facility (e.g., text books, Poisindex, Drugdex, toll free telephone service, internet and online services) to provide poison information services. The poison information services provided by the center were recorded in documentation forms. The documentation form consists of numerous sections to collect information on: (a) Type of population (children, adult, elderly or pregnant) (b) poisoning agents (c) route of exposure (d) type of poisoning (intentional, accidental or environmental) (e) demographic details of patient (age, gender and bodyweight) (f) enquirer details (background, place of call and mode of request) (g) category and purpose of query and (h) details of provided service (information provided, mode of provision, time taken to provide information and references consulted). The nature and quality of poison information services provided was assessed using a quality assessment checklist developed in accordance with DSE/World Health Organization guidelines. Statistical Analysis: Chi-Square test (?2). Results: A total of 419 queries were received by the center. A majority (n = 333; 79.5%) of the queries were asked by the doctors to provide optimal care (n = 400; 95.5%). Most of the queries were received during ward rounds (n = 201; 48.0%), followed by direct access (n = 147; 35.1%). The poison information services were predominantly provided through verbal communication (n = 352; 84.0%). Upon receipt of queries, the required service was provided immediately (n = 103; 24.6%) or within 10-20 min (n = 296; 70.6%). The queries were mainly related to intentional poisoning (n = 258; 64.5%), followed by accidental poisoning (n = 142; 35.5%). The most common poisoning agents were medicines (n = 124; 31.0%). The service provided was graded as “Excellent” for the majority of queries (n = 360; 86%; P < 0.001), followed by “Very Good” (n = 50; 12%) and “Good” (n = 9; 2%). Conclusion: The poison information center provided requested services in a skillful, efficient and evidence-based manner to meet the needs of the requestor. The enquiries and information provided is documented in a clear and systematic manner.

Churi, Shobha; Abraham, Lovin; Ramesh, M.; Narahari, M. G.

2013-01-01

353

[The viper--Finland's only poisonous snake].  

PubMed

The viper (Vipera berus) is the most common poisonous snake in Europe, and the only one in Finland. In viper bites, highly varying amounts of venom end up into the victim, whereby prediction of the progression of symptoms of poisoning is very difficult. A severe clinical picture must always be anticipated. The size of the victim has also an effect on the outcome. Adequate monitoring and when necessary, massive fluid therapy are essential in the treatment. Due to possible kidney damage, anti-inflammatory drugs are not recommended. Severe or rapidly progressing symptoms require the use of an antidote. PMID:21834338

Vuori, Arno

2011-01-01

354

Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning: A Case Series  

PubMed Central

We describe a case series of seven patients presenting to an emergency department with symptoms of paralytic shellfish poisoning. They developed varying degrees of nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, weakness, ataxia and paresthesias after eating mussels harvested from a beach near their resort. Four patients were admitted to the hospital, one due to increasing respiratory failure requiring endotracheal intubation and the remainder for respiratory monitoring. All patients made a full recovery, most within 24 hours. The ability to recognize and identify paralytic shellfish poisoning and manage its complications are important to providers of emergency medicine.

Hurley, William; Wolterstorff, Cameron; MacDonald, Ryan; Schultz, Debora

2014-01-01

355

Carbon monoxide poisoning secondary to hookah smoking.  

PubMed

Hookah smoking, at one time confined to North Africa, the eastern Mediterranean region, the Arabian peninsula, and Southeast Asia, has begun to spread throughout the world. As some practices of eastern and Arab cultures reach the United States, the number of people using hookah on an experimental or regular basis has increased. Carbon monoxide poisoning can be a common adverse effect, possibly undetected by physicians, in hookah smokers. The authors report a case of carbon monoxide poisoning secondary to smoking tobacco through a hookah. PMID:23055468

Ashurst, John V; Urquhart, Megan; Cook, Matthew D

2012-10-01

356

["Junk-food"-intervention in poisoning delusion].  

PubMed

Case report about a 29-year old US-American patient who suddenly flew to Germany due to a schizoaffektive disorder. During a stay in our psychiatric hospital she refused food, liquid and medication because of fear of being poisoned. After four days her general condition had worsened rapidly so that parenteral nutrition was discussed. Surprisingly her poisoning delusion could be overcome by offering American "Junk-Food". From this moment on compliance in taking of medication improved too, so that renormalisation of her condition was achieved. PMID:17160755

Schwerthöffer, Dirk; Bäuml, Josef

2007-11-01

357

Potential plant poisonings in dogs and cats in southern Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant poisoning occurs less commonly in dogs and cats than in herbivorous livestock, but numerous cases have been documented worldwide, most of them caused by common and internationally widely cultivated ornamental garden and house plants. Few cases of poisoning of cats and dogs have been reported in southern Africa, but many of the plants that have caused poisoning in these

C J Botha

358

Warnings unheeded: A history of child lead poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Child lead poisoning has been a major public health issue only for the last 20-25 years. However, awareness that lead-based paint is a source of lead poisoning in children dates back to the first few years of the twentieth century. Articles in medical journals and textbooks appeared in the United States and elsewhere, recounting cases of children poisoned by the

R Rabin

1989-01-01

359

Statistics and Epidemiology of Lead Poisoning (FY 72-L1).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report is the first in a quarterly series which will contain statistics and epidemiologic notes on lead poisoning at both the national and local levels. This report contains (a) statistics on childhood lead poisoning; (b) a status report on the Community Lead Poisoning Data System, which was designed to assist local lead control programs and…

Morrison, John H., Jr.; And Others

360

Childhood Lead Poisoning: Developing Prevention Programs and Mobilizing Resources.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current approach to dealing with childhood lead poisoning has led to repeated diagnoses of poisoning because such children are treated and then returned to their hazardous environments. This handbook describes in detail the program requirements for effective childhood lead poisoning prevention programs at the local level based on the…

Rochow, K. W. James

361

Childhood Lead Poisoning: A Disease for the History Texts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the mounting evidence for the neurological damage of childhood lead poisoning. Argues that ignoring lead poisoning is more expensive than preventing it. Reviews a recent plan to eradicate lead poisoning and the sociological factors that may impede its implementation. (CJS)

Needleman, Herbert L.

1991-01-01

362

Childhood Lead Poisoning. Rhode Island KIDS COUNT Issue Brief.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of the most common pediatric health problems is childhood lead poisoning. This report examines the preventable problem of lead poisoning. The report describes childhood lead poisoning as both a health problem to which infants and young children are most susceptible, and as a housing problem. More than half the housing units in Rhode Island…

Harrington, Ann-Marie, Ed.; Walsh, Catherine Boisvert, Ed.; Bryant, Elizabeth Burke, Ed.

1997-01-01

363

Two instances of chinese herbal medicine poisoning in Singapore  

Microsoft Academic Search

Datura metel L. (Yangjinghua, ???) is a toxic herb that contains anticholinergic compounds. Inappropriate consumption of this herb could result in anticholinergic poisoning. Clinical features of such poisoning have not been previously described. We report two such cases. Both patients had taken brews of Datura metel L; and developed poisoning soon afterwards. Prominent clinical features included confusion, dilated pupils, absence

Phua D H; Seow E

2008-01-01

364

One Fish, Two Fish, Redfish, You Fish!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The recreational fishing activity presented in this article provides a hands-on, problem-based experience for students; it unites biology, math, economics, environmental policy, and population dynamics concepts. In addition, the activity allows students to shape environmental policy in a realistic setting and evaluate their peers' work. By…

White, Katherine; Timmons, Maryellen; Medders, Paul

2011-01-01

365

Presentations of patients of poisoning and predictors of poisoning-related fatality: Findings from a hospital-based prospective study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Poisoning is a significant public health problem worldwide and is one of the most common reasons for visiting emergency departments (EDs), but factors that help to predict overall poisoning-related fatality have rarely been elucidated. Using 1512 subjects from a hospital-based study, we sought to describe the demographic and clinical characteristics of poisoning patients and to identify predictors for poisoning-related

Hsin-Ling Lee; Hung-Jung Lin; Steve Ting-Yuan Yeh; Chih-Hsien Chi; How-Ran Guo

2008-01-01

366

Fish oil  

MedlinePLUS

... and lower the need for medications in some children with asthma. However, fish oil treatment doesn’t seem to provide the same benefit for adults.Chest pain (angina). Gum infection (gingivitis). Liver disease. Leg pain ...

367

Costs of Poisoning in the United States and Savings From Poison Control Centers: A Benefit-Cost Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

See related editorial, p 246.Data on incidence, medical spending, and payment sources for poisoning were taken from the 1987 National Medical Expenditure Survey, 1991 US Vital Statistics, the 1992 National Hospital Discharge Survey, and 1992 poison control center surveillance data. Benefits, measured as percentage reductions in medical spending attributable to use of poison control centers, were calculated from analyses of

Ted R Miller; Diane C Lestina

1997-01-01

368

Acute cardiac toxicity of nerium oleander/indicum poisoning (kaner) poisoning.  

PubMed

We present a case of oleander leaf extract poisoning manifested by vomiting, lightheadedness, and heart block. Practicing physicians should understand the potential lethal properties of oleander and its availability throughout the world. PMID:21577379

Khan, Ibraheem; Kant, Chandra; Sanwaria, Anil; Meena, Lokesh

2010-10-01

369

Black Coloured Urine following Organophosphorus Poisoning: Report of Two Cases  

PubMed Central

Organophosphorus poisoning is common in rural Asia. Clinical features result from overactivity of acetylcholine receptors. Blackish discoloration of urine is not a feature of organophosphorus poisoning. Only one case of black colored urine following quinalphos poisoning has been reported in literature. We report two cases of organophosphorus poisoning from two different compounds, following which patients passed black colored urine, in the absence of haemolysis or rhabdomyolysis. These cases indicate that blackish discoloration of urine in organophosphorus poisoning might not be as uncommon as it was believed to be. Besides, urinary excretion of metabolites might be an underlying mechanism, rather than hemolysis.

Mookkappan, Sudhagar; Shanmugham, Vijay; Kulirankal, Kiran

2014-01-01

370

Automatic dishwasher detergent poisoning: opportunities for prevention.  

PubMed

We investigated the antecedents of ingestion of dishwashing machine detergent to enable the development of effective countermeasures. Parents who had sought advice from the Victorian Poisons Information Centre about dishwasher detergent poisoning exposures of their children were interviewed by telephone. Almost all the children (94 per cent) were aged between 6 and 29 months. Of the 61 children included in the survey, 53 (87 per cent) gained access to the detergent from the dishwasher. Of these, 50 (94 per cent) took the detergent from the dispenser on the internal surface of the door of the machine, and 38 (76 per cent) of these ingested detergent remaining in the dispenser after operation of the machine. Parents were present in the room on 78 per cent of occasions at the time of ingestion. Most parents (72 per cent) were aware of the toxicity of the detergents. Relocation of the dispenser or redesigning it to prevent access both before and after operation would have prevented most of the exposures to detergent. Altering the detergent to prevent caking or sludging might prevent many of the exposures to detergent remaining in the dispenser after operation of the machine. The level of prior knowledge about toxicity suggests that education or additional warnings are unlikely to contribute substantially to prevention of poisoning. Telephone call-back to identified cases is a useful method of investigating complex poisoning problems and developing effective countermeasures. PMID:8768418

Cornish, L S; Parsons, B J; Dobbin, M D

1996-06-01

371

Parathion poisoning of Mississippi kites in Oklahoma  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Parathion(phosphorothioic acid O, O-diethyl O-[4-nitrophenyl] ester) is a broad spectrum organophosphorus insecticide, used on a variety of crops and occasionally for mosquito control, and is highly toxic to birds (Smith 1987). Intentional poisoning with parathion is reported to have killed more than 8000 red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus), common grackles (Quiscalus quiscula), brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater) and European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) in two separate instances (Stone et al. 1984). Use of parathion on wheat fields has resulted in the mortality of about 1600 Canada geese (Branta canadensis) and other waterfowl in one instance (White et al. 1982) and about 200 Canada geese in another (Flickinger et al. 1991). More than 200 laughing gulls (Larus atricilla) died near cotton fields treated with parathion (White et al. 1979). Secondary poisoning of raptors resulting from the consumption of prey exposed to parathion, has been reported experimentally and in the field. Stone et al. (1984) found two dead red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis), a Cooper's hawk (Accipiter cooperii) and an American kestrel (Falco sparverius) that had fed on blackbirds killed by parathion. One of four American kestrels died after being fed cricket frogs (Acris crepitans) that had been exposed to 10ppm parathion for 96 hr (Fleming et al. 1982). The Mississippi kite (Ictinia mississippensis) is highly insectivorous (Brown and Amadon 1968) and is thus subject to secondary poisoning resulting from consumption of insects exposed to pesticides. I report here an instance of secondary parathion poisoning in wild Mississippi kites.

Franson, J. C.

1994-01-01

372

Castor Seed Poisoning in Humans: A Review.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This work reviews 314 cases of poisoning, including 15 deaths which occurred in humans as a result of castor seed ingestion between 1738 and 1988. Castor seed toxicity is due to ricin, a powerful phytotoxin present in the plant and concentrated in the see...

G. J. Klain J. J. Jaeger

1990-01-01

373

Where to now with carbon monoxide poisoning?  

PubMed

The controversy regarding the role of hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) in the treatment of carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning has been re-ignited following the publication of a further randomized controlled trial by Weaver et al., the results of which appear to conflict with our findings. Comparative analysis suggests that the apparent outcome differences may be secondary to the design, analysis and interpretation of the results of the two studies. Following careful analysis of these two papers and further results from a study by Raphael et al on 385 CO-poisoned patients, we can still find no convincing evidence favouring HBO therapy. Pending further research to determine optimal oxygen therapy for CO-poisoning, current therapy should involve stratifying patients for risk of a poor outcome. This stratification may be aided by the evolving availability of biochemical markers of brain injury and the finding that patients with transient loss of consciousness and poor performance on neuropsychological tests of the supervisory attention system are at higher risk of neuropsychological sequelae. We propose that those patients most at risk be admitted and receive more prolonged normobaric oxygen therapy whilst those with more minor CO-poisoning should be provided with normobaric oxygen of no less than 6 h duration and certainly until sign and symptom free. PMID:15239731

Scheinkestel, Carlos D; Jones, Kerry; Myles, Paul S; Cooper, D Jamie; Millar, Ian L; Tuxen, David V

2004-04-01

374

Harmful Algal Blooms: Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This University of Maryland SeaGrant web page explores outbreaks of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP), a problem on both the East and West coasts of the US that is caused by several closely related species in the genus Alexandrium. The page explores the underlying physical mechanisms and localization of PSP outbreaks, as well as economic impact.

Kane, Andrew; Jacobs, Dan; The Aquatic Pathobiology Center, University of Maryland; Maryland SeaGrant

375

Experimental lead poisoning of Canada geese  

Microsoft Academic Search

Canada geese (Branta canadensis) were experimentally exposed to known amounts of lead. The course of the lead and of the disease in geese was followed, utilizing established laboratory procedures. Gross signs of lead poisoning first appeared 5-7 days following ingestion. The length of time until signs of disease or death occurred was related to the amount of lead ingested. Twenty-five

R. S. Cook

1966-01-01

376

Lead poisoning: Report of a case  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lead is found widely around the world's surface and is a material used in many products. Chronic exposure to lead is causing\\u000a significant health problems around the world. Many ocular manifestations of lead poisoning have been reported so far. In this\\u000a report, we present a case with ocular symptoms and signs of chronic exposure to lead.

Mehmet Citirik; Golge Acaroglu; Ayse H. Mutluay; Orhan Zilelioglu

2004-01-01

377

Optimization of Burnable Poison Application Strategy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study is designed to derive the optimum strategy of burnable poison application through a comparative evaluation of two types of burnable absorbers that have been used for Korean PWR plants; and integral type of variable enrichment Gd(sub 2)O(sub 3)/...

W. P. Choi S. H. Lee J. K. Kim W. S. Ko S. M. Bae

1993-01-01

378

Selected Bibliography on Lead Poisoning in Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This comprehensive bibliography was prepared in response to the growing interest in the problem of childhood lead poisoning. Most of the papers noted are from the pediatric literature and include only those published in English. A limited number of papers on experiments in laboratory animals are cited. Documents are grouped under several general…

Lin-Fu, Jane S., Comp.

379

Management of poisoning due to organophosphorus compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acute poisonings due to organophosphorus (OP) compounds often present as medical emergencies, which require management in intensive care. There is urgent need for resuscitation, support or correction of function of vital organs (correction of arrhythmias, provision of ventilatory care), decontamination and antidotes. The muscarinic effects of excess acetylcholine consequent to the inactivation of the acetylcholinesterase are countered by atropine and\\/or

P. T. Haywood; L. Karalliedde

2000-01-01

380

Harmful Algal Blooms: Neurotoxic Shellfish Poisoning  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This University of Maryland SeaGrant web page discusses the toxic dinoflagellate Gymnodinium breve and its role in red tide blooms and Neurotoxic Shellfish Poisoning (NSP). The page explores the economic, ecological, and health-related effects of red tide blooms, and the causative accumulation of G. breve into blooms that produce the powerful neurotoxins known as brevetoxins.

Kane, Andrew; Jacobs, Dan; The Aquatic Pathobiology Center, University of Maryland; Maryland SeaGrant

381

Lead poisoning in a bird of prey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lead poisoning has long been recognized as a serious disease of waterfowl. Birds feeding in areas of heavy waterfowl shooting ingest spent lead shot which is mistaken for seeds or grit. The shot is then ground up in the gizzard which makes the lead more absorbable from the intestinal tract. Although most of the lead is excreted in the feces,

W. W. Benson; Barry Pharaoh; Pamela Miller

1974-01-01

382

Organophosphorous poisoning at a chemical packaging company  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Six men packaging demeton-S-methyl concentrate developed organophosphorous poisoning. An account of the circumstances of the occurrence is given, together with the results of an investigation into the incidents. The clinical cases are described in outline and individual response to absorption of the pesticide considered. Some relevant issues on the use of protective clothing when working with organophosphorous compounds are discussed.

Jones, R D

1982-01-01

383

Treatment of Burnable Poison Pins in LWRWIMS.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes an investigation into the modelling approximations normally made when the LWR lattice code LWRWIMS is used for design calculations on assemblies containing burnable poison pins. An estimate is made of the effect of using pin-cell sme...

M. J. Halsall

1982-01-01

384

Gastrointestinal decontamination in the acutely poisoned patient  

PubMed Central

Objective To define the role of gastrointestinal (GI) decontamination of the poisoned patient. Data Sources A computer-based PubMed/MEDLINE search of the literature on GI decontamination in the poisoned patient with cross referencing of sources. Study Selection and Data Extraction Clinical, animal and in vitro studies were reviewed for clinical relevance to GI decontamination of the poisoned patient. Data Synthesis The literature suggests that previously, widely used, aggressive approaches including the use of ipecac syrup, gastric lavage, and cathartics are now rarely recommended. Whole bowel irrigation is still often recommended for slow-release drugs, metals, and patients who "pack" or "stuff" foreign bodies filled with drugs of abuse, but with little quality data to support it. Activated charcoal (AC), single or multiple doses, was also a previous mainstay of GI decontamination, but the utility of AC is now recognized to be limited and more time dependent than previously practiced. These recommendations have resulted in several treatment guidelines that are mostly based on retrospective analysis, animal studies or small case series, and rarely based on randomized clinical trials. Conclusions The current literature supports limited use of GI decontamination of the poisoned patient.

2011-01-01

385

Diarrhetic shellfish poisoning, Washington, USA, 2011.  

PubMed

Diarrhetic shellfish poisoning is a gastrointestinal illness caused by consumption of bivalves contaminated with dinophysistoxins. We report an illness cluster in the United States in which toxins were confirmed in shellfish from a commercial harvest area, leading to product recall. Ongoing surveillance is needed to prevent similar illness outbreaks. PMID:23876232

Lloyd, Jennifer K; Duchin, Jeffrey S; Borchert, Jerry; Quintana, Harold Flores; Robertson, Alison

2013-08-01

386

Amisulpride poisoning: a report on two cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first two observations of human poisoning involving the recently developed neuroleptic amisulpride are described. In both cases drug determination was per formed using reversed-phase HPLC coupled with diode- array detection. Case 1 was a nonfatal overdosage in which the ingestion of 3.0 g amisulpride induced an attack of seizures, then light coma with agitation, hyperthermia, mydriasis, minimal extrapyramidal features,

A. Tracqui; C. Mutter-Schmidt; P. Kintz; C. Berton; P. Mangin

1995-01-01

387

Severe chlorate poisoning: Report of a case  

Microsoft Academic Search

A case of severe sodium chlorate poisoning was observed within 5 h after suicidal ingestion of 150–200 g of the herbicide. Methaemoglobinaemia was the early symptom of the intoxication. Treatment with methylene blue and ascorbic acid could not prevent a massive haemolysis with disseminated intravascular coagulation. Hypercoagulation and hyperfibrinolysis could be treated successfully with exchange transfusions, heparin and fresh plasma.

Christian Steffen; Rainer Seitz

1981-01-01

388

Adverse haematological outcome and environmental lead poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

The South-eastern Area (SA) of the Municipality of La Spezia (Liguria Region, Italy) is characterised by a heavy environmental lead (Pb) contamination, chiefly due to the emissions of a Pb-processing plant in operation since 1930. In order to assess the risk of Pb poisoning of residents of SA, and to estimate the degree of association between the blood Pb level

Vincenzo Fontana; Roberta Baldi; Michela Franchini; Paola Gridelli; Roberto Neri; Franco Palmieri; Riccardo Puntoni; Umberto Ricco; Stefano Parodi

2004-01-01

389

Cyanide Poisoning and Cardiac Disorders: 161 Cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Inhalation of hydrogen cyanide from smoke in structural fires is common, but cardiovascular function in these patients is poorly documented. Objective: The objective was to study the cardiac complications of cyanide poisoning in patients who received early administration of a cyanide antidote, hydroxocobalamin (Cyanokit®; Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, Germany [in the United States, marketed by Meridian Medical Technologies, Bristol, TN]).

Jean-Luc Fortin; Thibault Desmettre; Cyril Manzon; Virginie Judic-Peureux; Caroline Peugeot-Mortier; Jean-Pascal Giocanti; Mohamed Hachelaf; Marie Grangeon; Ulrike Hostalek; Julien Crouzet; Gilles Capellier

2010-01-01

390

Neurological manifestation of carbon monoxide poisoning.  

PubMed Central

The clinical signs and post-mortem findings in a case of carbon monoxide poisoning are described, and correlated with the computer tomographic (CT) scan appearances. The value of serial CT scanning as a diagnostic tool is highlighted. Images Figure 1 Figure 2

Hart, I. K.; Kennedy, P. G.; Adams, J. H.; Cunningham, N. E.

1988-01-01

391

Utilizing diagnostic investigations in the poisoned patient.  

PubMed

Numerous diagnostic tests may be useful to clinicians caring for poisoned patients. Clinicians should not order a broad range of tests indiscriminately,but rather thoughtfully consider appropriate tests. The results'of the tests should be reviewed in the context of the clinical scenario. PMID:16227055

Eldridge, David L; Dobson, Trey; Brady, William; Holstege, Christopher P

2005-11-01

392

Renal Failure Prevalence in Poisoned Patients  

PubMed Central

Background: Renal failure is an important adverse effect of drug poisoning. Determining the prevalence and etiology of this serious side effect could help us find appropriate strategies for the prevention of renal failure in most affected patients. Objectives: The present study is aimed to identify drugs that induce renal failure and also to find the prevalence of renal failure in patients referred to emergency departments with the chief complaint of drug poisoning, in order to plan better therapeutic strategies to minimize the mortality associated with drug poisoning induced renal failure. Patients and Methods: This cross-sectional study surveyed 1500 poisoned patients referred to the Emergency Department of Baharloo Hospital in Tehran during 2010. Demographic data including age and gender as well as clinical data including type of medication, duration of hospital stay, and presence of renal failure were recorded. Mann-Whitney U test and chi-squared statistics were used to analyze the results. Results: A total number of 435 patients were poisoned with several drugs, 118 patients were intoxicated with sedative-hypnotic drugs, 279 patients were exposed to opium, and 478 patients were administered to other drugs. The method of intoxication included oral 84.3%, injective 9%, inhalation 4.3% and finally a combination of methods 2.3%. Laboratory results revealed that 134 cases had renal failure and 242 had rhabdomyolysis. The incidence of rhabdomyolysis and renal failure increased significantly with age, and also with time of admission to the hospital. Renal failure was reported in 25.1% of patients exposed to opium, vs. 18.2% of patients poisoned with aluminum phosphide, 16.7% of those with organophosphate, 8% with multiple drugs, 6.7% with alcohol, heavy metals and acids, and 1.7% with sedative hypnotics. Conclusions: Based on the findings of this study, there is a high probability of renal failure for patients poisoned with drugs such as opium, aluminum phosphide, and multiple drugs as well as the patients with delayed admission to the hospital, and it is necessary to seek appropriate treatment to prevent this significant side effect.

Arefi, Mohammad; Taghaddosinejad, Fakhroddin; Salamaty, Peyman; Soroosh, Davood; Ashraf, Hami; Ebrahimi, Mohsen

2014-01-01

393

[A relational database to store Poison Centers calls].  

PubMed

Italian Poison Centers answer to approximately 100,000 calls per year. Potentially, this activity is a huge source of data for toxicovigilance and for syndromic surveillance. During the last decade, surveillance systems for early detection of outbreaks have drawn the attention of public health institutions due to the threat of terrorism and high-profile disease outbreaks. Poisoning surveillance needs the ongoing, systematic collection, analysis, interpretation, and dissemination of harmonised data about poisonings from all Poison Centers for use in public health action to reduce morbidity and mortality and to improve health. The entity-relationship model for a Poison Center relational database is extremely complex and not studied in detail. For this reason, not harmonised data collection happens among Italian Poison Centers. Entities are recognizable concepts, either concrete or abstract, such as patients and poisons, or events which have relevance to the database, such as calls. Connectivity and cardinality of relationships are complex as well. A one-to-many relationship exist between calls and patients: for one instance of entity calls, there are zero, one, or many instances of entity patients. At the same time, a one-to-many relationship exist between patients and poisons: for one instance of entity patients, there are zero, one, or many instances of entity poisons. This paper shows a relational model for a poison center database which allows the harmonised data collection of poison centers calls. PMID:17124355

Barelli, Alessandro; Biondi, Immacolata; Tafani, Chiara; Pellegrini, Aristide; Soave, Maurizio; Gaspari, Rita; Annetta, Maria Giuseppina

2006-01-01

394

Fish stings and other marine envenomations.  

PubMed

West Virginia, it would seem, is an unlikely place for physicians to encounter patients with poisonous marine envenomations. To the contrary, West Virginias who vacation at the beach may be envenomated and require further evaluation and treatment when they return home. Likewise, certain aquarium pets or even freshwater fish may envenomate those who have contact with them. Such underwater sea creatures can cause local and systemic toxic or allergic reactions which potentially can be serious. This article describes these possible toxic encounters as well as first aid and medical management. PMID:1926838

Bee, M

1991-07-01

395

Staphylococcal food poisoning in the United Kingdom, 1969-90.  

PubMed Central

Between 1969 and 1990 strains of Staphylococcus aureus from 359 outbreaks and sporadic cases of staphylococcal food poisoning in the United Kingdom were examined in the PHLS Food Hygiene Laboratory for the production of enterotoxin. In a number of instances the incriminated foods were also examined for the presence of enterotoxin. Strains from 79% of incidents produced enterotoxin A alone or together with another enterotoxin. The level of S. aureus present in the foods ranged from no viable S. aureus detected to 1.5 x 10(10) c.f.u./g with a median of 3.0 x 10(7) c.f.u./g. Enterotoxin was detected in foods in the absence of viable S. aureus in only two outbreaks and in both cheese was the implicated food. Meat, poultry or their products were the vehicle in 75% of incidents with ham and chicken most frequently implicated. Other foods included fish and shellfish (7%) and milk and milk products (8%). Most contamination took place in the home followed by restaurants and shops. Seventy-one percent of the incident strains were lysed by phages of group III or I/III.

Wieneke, A. A.; Roberts, D.; Gilbert, R. J.

1993-01-01

396

Five new species of philometrid nematodes (Philometridae) from marine fishes off Java, Indonesia.  

PubMed

Based on light and scanning electron microscopical studies, the following five species of the Philometridae (Nematoda: Dracunculoidea) are described from female specimens collected from marine fishes off the southwestern coast of Java, Indonesia: Philometra lobotidis sp. n. from the abdominal cavity of the Atlantic tripletail Lobotes surinamensis (Bloch) (Lobotidae, Perciformes); Philometra javaensis sp. n. from the abdominal cavity of the immaculate puffer Arothron immaculatus (Bloch et Schneider) (Tetraodontidae, Tetraodontiformes); Philometra psettoditis sp. n. from the musculature of the Indian spiny turbot Psettodes erumei (Bloch et Schneider) (Psettodidae, Pleuronectiformes); Philometroides indonesiensis sp. n. from the musculature of the hound needlefish Tylosurus crocodilus crocodilus (Péron et Lesueur) (Belonidae, Beloniformes); and Philometroides trichiuri sp. n. from the dorsal fin of the largehead hairtail Trichiurus lepturus Linnaeus (type host) and the savalai hairtail Lepturacanthus savala (Cuvier) (both Trichiuridae, Perciformes). All these new species are distinguished from their congeners parasitizing marine fishes by morphological (mainly the shape and structure of the cephalic and caudal ends and of the oesophagus) and biometrical features. Besides previously known Philometra pellucida (Jägerskiöld, 1893) and Philometra ocularis Moravec, Ogawa, Suzuki, Miyazaki et Donai, 2002, they are the only nominal philometrid species recorded from Indonesian waters. PMID:22779112

Moravec, Frantisek; Walter, Thorsten; Yuniar, Asri Trisnani

2012-06-01

397

TOXICITY OF POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS (PCB'S) TO FISH AND OTHER AQUATIC LIFE  

EPA Science Inventory

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) have been shown to be widespread in the environment. Their significance in the aquatic environment as a poison is now being revealed. They are being detected in fish and other aquatic life at levels much higher than concentrations found in the wa...

398

Toxicity to medaka fish embryo development of okadaic acid and crude extracts of Prorocentrum dinoflagellates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic and subchronic toxicity following exposure to the DSP (Diarrhetic shellfish poisoning) toxin okadaic acid (OA) is receiving increasing attention as a public human health biohazard. However information on ecological impacts induced by proliferation of the OA producing dinoflagellate Prorocentrum is scarce. In order to analyse the toxicity of these substances, in vivo experiments were conducted on medaka fish (Oryzias

Nicolas Escoffier; Julien Gaudin; Karim Mezhoud; Hélène Huet; Sophie Chateau-Joubert; Jean Turquet; François Crespeau; Marc Edery

2007-01-01

399

Fish Tales  

Microsoft Academic Search

This talk is about fishing and the friendships that have resulted in its pursuit. It is also about theoretical physics, and the relationship of imagination and fantasy to the establishment of ideas about nature. Fishermen, like theoretical physicists, are well known for their inventive imaginations. Perhaps neither are as clever as sailors, who conceived of the mermaid. If one doubts

McLerran

2010-01-01

400

Gone Fishing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a hands-on activity in which students create a model of an ocean ecosystem to gain an understanding of how humans can alter biodiversity through their actions. Uses differing levels of fishing technology to explore the concepts of sustainability and overfishing. (Author/SOE)

Olson-Demme, Hillary; Kisiel, Jim

2003-01-01

401

[What is a "poison"? Proposal of definition].  

PubMed

We discuss different interpretations of the term poison as well as the need of bringing up to date the changes in this matter according to the science progress. A clear and exact definition is proposed after analysing the factors that affect the relativity of the concept and its boundaries. The proposal for a definition is presented taking into account the most broadly extended concepts concerning its significance. That is to say: "a poison is, for human beings and their non-pathogenic and non-harmful biological environment, an electromagnetic or corpuscular radiation, or a non-infectious chemical agent, structured no larger in size than a small particle or fibre that, after being generated internally or after contact, penetration and/or absorption by a live organism, in sufficiently high dose, can produce or produces a direct or indirect adverse effect unrelated to its temperature or measurable electrical potential difference". The scientific knowledge needs accurate definitions to avoid ambiguities. PMID:21453940

Guitart, Raimon; Giménez, Nuria

2012-02-18

402

Accidental poisoning in children in Jaipur (Rajasthan)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 1. \\u000a \\u000a The study includes data of 80 cases of chemical poisoning in children under 12 years of age.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 2. \\u000a \\u000a 78.7% of all the poisonings occurred between 0–3 years, of which the maximum incidence (59.7%) was encountered between 1–3\\u000a years.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 3. \\u000a \\u000a Males were predominantly affected.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 4. \\u000a \\u000a Household substances were responsible for the maximum number of cases (73.7%) in which kerosene

Usha Sharma; S. Saxena Jaipur

1974-01-01

403

Brain MRI Findings of Carbon Disulfide Poisoning  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate the findings of brain MRI in patients with carbon disulfide poisoning. Materials and Methods Ninety-one patients who had suffered carbon disulfide poisoning [male:female=87:4; age, 32-74 (mean 53.3) years] were included in this study. To determine the extent of white matter hyperintensity (Grade 0-V) and lacunar infarction, T2-weighted MR imaging of the brain was performed. Results T2-weighted images depicted white matter hyperintensity in 70 patients (76.9%) and lacunar infarcts in 27 (29.7%). Conclusion In these patients, the prevalent findings at T2-weighted MR imaging of the brain were white matter hyperintensity and lacunar infarcts. Disturbance of the cardiovascular system by carbon disulfide might account for these results.

Cha, Joo Hee; Han, Heon; Kim, Rok Ho; Yim, Sang Hyuk; Kim, Mi Jung

2002-01-01

404

Different approaches to acute organophosphorus poison treatment.  

PubMed

Organophosphorus compounds (OPCs) have a wide variety of applications and are a serious threat for self-poisoning, unintentional misuse, terrorist attack, occupational hazard and warfare attack. The present standard treatment has been reported to be unsatisfactory. Many novel approaches are being used and tested for acute organophosphorus (OP) poison treatment. The bioscavenger concept captured high attention among the scientific community during the last few decades. Other approaches like alkalinisation of blood plasma/serum and use of weak inhibitors against strong inhibitors, though it showed promising results, did not get such wide attention. The introduction of a novel broad-spectrum oxime has also been in focus. In this mini-review, an update of the overview of four different approaches has been discussed. The standard therapy that is atropine+oxime+benzodiazepine along with supportive measures will continue to be the best option with only the replacement of a single oxime to improve its broad-spectrum efficacy. PMID:23866522

Nurulain, Syed Muhammad

2012-07-01

405

Oxalate (Rumex venosus) poisoning in cattle.  

PubMed

Fifteen range cows died of oxalate poisoning caused by ingestion of Rumex venosus. Ecchymotic and petechial hemorrhages were prominent on the abdominal serosal surfaces. Approximately 2 L of thin, yellowish fluid was in the abdominal cavity, and mesenteric lymph nodes were enlarged and edematous. Other findings included catarrhal abomasitis; enteritis; pale, edematous kidneys; congested lungs; fatty infiltration of the liver; and nephrosis. In the kidneys, birefringent crystals resembling oxalate crystals were demonstrable only when frozen sections were examined. PMID:670054

Dickie, C W; Hamann, M H; Carroll, W D; Chow, F H

1978-07-01

406

Neonatal paracetamol poisoning: treatment by exchange transfusion.  

PubMed Central

The metabolism and excretion of paracetamol was studied in an infant of 29 weeks' gestation who was exposed to the drug when his mother ingested 32.5 g 16 hours before delivery. We have confirmed that sulphation is the major pathway and that the mixed function oxidase system is sufficiently active at this gestational age to produce hepatotoxic metabolic products. As most of the recognised drug treatments for paracetamol poisoning seemed unsuitable in this case, the infant was treated with exchange transfusions.

Lederman, S; Fysh, W J; Tredger, M; Gamsu, H R

1983-01-01

407

Iatrogenic salt poisoning in captive sandhill cranes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Salt poisoning developed in captive sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis) when sea salt was added to normal drinking water to produce a sodium chloride concentration of 1%. Two of 18 cranes died and 2 were euthanatized when moribund. Muscle weakness, paresis, dyspnea, and depression were observed. Brain and serum sodium, serum uric acid,:and plasma osmolality values were abnormally high. Lesions were those of visceral gout, renal tubular necrosis, nephrosis, and skeletal muscle.necrosis.

Franson, J.C.; Sileo, L.; Fleming, W.J.

1981-01-01

408

POISON SPIDER FIELD CHEMICAL FLOOD PROJECT, WYOMING  

Microsoft Academic Search

A reservoir engineering and geologic study concluded that approximate 7,852,000 bbls of target oil exits in Poison Spider. Field pore volume, OOIP, and initial oil saturation are defined. Potential injection water has a total dissolved solids content of 1,275 mg\\/L with no measurable divalent cations. If the Lakota water consistently has no measurable cations, the injection water does not require

Douglas Arnell; Malcolm Pitts; Jie Qi

2004-01-01

409

Loading pattern sensitivity to burnable poison availability  

Microsoft Academic Search

An in-core fuel management study was performed utilizing the FORMOSA optimization code. Specifically, the authors studied the effectiveness of burnable poisons independent of core reactivity hold-down needs for three different objective functions: assembly quadrant power peaking P{sub max}{sup quad} minimization, end-of-cycle reactivity k{sub eff}{sup EOC} maximization, and discharge burnup BU{sup dis} maximization. The study consisted of determining near-optimum loading patterns

S. Sun; G. I. Maldonado; P. J. Turnisky

1992-01-01

410

White phosphorus poisoning--explosive encounter.  

PubMed

Poisoning by white or yellow phosphorus is reported in various forms and also in ages varying from infants to adults, but spontaneous combustion and explosion during its management has never been described. This incidence occurred while attempting to pass a Ryle's tube. Its free end first exhibited a yellow flame and this later on led to an explosive encounter. Role of static electricity generated while handling plastic materials leading to ignition and explosion cannot be overlooked. PMID:15636320

Pande, T K; Pandey, S

2004-03-01

411

Sensorineural Hearing Loss following Carbon Monoxide Poisoning  

PubMed Central

A case study is presented of a 17-year-old male who sustained an anoxic brain injury and sensorineural hearing loss secondary to carbon monoxide poisoning. Audiological data is presented showing a slightly asymmetrical hearing loss of sensorineural origin and mild-to-severe degree for both ears. Word recognition performance was fair to poor bilaterally for speech presented at normal conversational levels in quiet. Management considerations of the hearing loss are discussed.

Pillion, Joseph P.

2012-01-01

412

Anticholinergic poisoning due to Chinese herbal medicines.  

PubMed

Serious poisoning may occur following the consumption of Chinese herbal medicines (CHM) containing anticholinergics. The great majority of cases are probably related to the use of yangjinhua, the dried flower of Datura metel L, for treating bronchial asthma, chronic bronchitis, pains and flu symptoms. In some cases the use of CHM contaminated by atropine-like substances or fake herbs were suspected. Some ginseng (Panax ginseng) preparations might have been adulterated with Mandragora officinarum (scopolamine) and other herbs. PMID:7631497

Chan, T Y

1995-04-01

413

Hemlock alkaloids from Socrates to poison aloes.  

PubMed

Hemlock (Conium maculatum L. Umbelliferae) has long been known as a poisonous plant. Toxicity is due to a group of piperidine alkaloids of which the representative members are coniine and gamma-coniceine. The latter is the more toxic and is the first formed biosynthetically. Its levels in relation to coniine vary widely according to environmental conditions and to provenance of the plants. Surprisingly, these piperidine alkaloids have turned up in quite unrelated species in the monocotyledons as well as the dicotyledons. Aloes, for instance, important medicinal plants, are not regarded as poisonous although some species are very bitter. Nevertheless a small number of mostly local species contain the alkaloids, especially gamma-coniceine and there have been records of human poisoning. The compounds are recognized by their characteristic mousy smell. Both acute and chronic symptoms have been described. The compounds are neurotoxins and death results from respiratory failure, recalling the effects of curare. Chronic non-lethal ingestion by pregnant livestock leads to foetal malformation. Both acute and chronic toxicity are seen with stock in damp meadows and have been recorded as problems especially in North America. The alkaloids derive biosynthetically from acetate units via the polyketide pathway in contrast to other piperidine alkaloids which derive from lysine. PMID:15955542

Reynolds, Tom

2005-06-01

414

Review article: management of cyanide poisoning.  

PubMed

Cyanide poisoning is uncommon, but generates interest because of the presumed utility of an antidote immediately available in those areas with a high risk of cyanide exposure. As part of its regular review of guidelines, the Australian Resuscitation Council conducted a systematic review of the human evidence for the use of various proposed cyanide antidotes, and a narrative review of the relevant pharmacological and animal studies. There have been no relevant comparative or placebo-controlled human trials. Nine case series were identified. Treatment with hydroxocobalamin was reported in a total of 361 cases. No serious adverse effects of hydroxocobalamin were reported, and many patients with otherwise presumably fatal poisoning survived. Sodium thiosulphate use was reported in two case series, similarly with no adverse effects. Treatment with a combination of sodium nitrite, amyl nitrite and sodium thiosulphate was reported in 74 patients, with results indistinguishable from those of hydroxocobalamin and sodium thiosulphate. No case series using dicobalt edetate or 4-dimethylaminophenol were identified, but successful use in single cases has been reported. Hydroxocobalamin and sodium thiosulphate differ from alternatives in having negligible adverse effects, and on the basis of current evidence are the antidotes of choice. The indications for the use of an antidote, the requirements for supportive care and a recommended approach for workplaces where there is a risk of cyanide poisoning are presented. PMID:22672162

Reade, Michael C; Davies, Suzanne R; Morley, Peter T; Dennett, Jennifer; Jacobs, Ian C

2012-06-01

415

Acute Lead Poisoning In an Infant  

PubMed Central

A case of acute lead poisoning in an infant without overt clinical manifestations of encephalopathy is reported for the first time in Oman. The case was diagnosed at Rustaq Hospital on the basis of (i) history by the mother of giving the child a traditional remedy for treating constipation (ii) X-ray of abdomen showing radio-opaque speckles and (iii) detection of high blood lead levels (83.3 µg/dL) at the toxicology laboratory of the poison control centre. The source of lead was confirmed by high content of inorganic lead (20.2%) found in the sample of the traditional remedy (bint al dahab). The blood lead levels significantly decreased, after the intravenous calcium edetate (EDTA) therapy was given to the baby. The case highlights that early detection and treatment of acute lead poisoning in children can prevent morbidity and sequelae associated with encephalopathy. It also indicated the need for awareness and prevention programme for parents on this issue.

Madhusudhanan, M.; Lall, S.B.

2007-01-01

416

Food poisoning in hospitals in Scotland.  

PubMed

A review of 50 hospital-based outbreaks of food poisoning which were reported in Scotland during 1973--7, is described. At least 1530 persons consuming hospital-prepared food were involved. Thirty-one episodes were associated with Clostridium perfringens (C. welchii), 11 were due to food-borne salmonella infection, three to enterotoxigenic Staphylococcus aureus, and five incidents were of undetermined aetiology. This differs noticeably from the experience in England and Wales where salmonellas appear to predominate as the main cause of hospital outbreaks. Twenty-two incidents occurred in hospitals for psychiatric or mentally subnormal patients, and ten others were located in geriatric units. Only 33 hospitals were involved in the 50 outbreaks as nine hospitals experienced two or more episodes. The role of the hospital in the occurrence of food poisoning may be over-emphasized in comparison with other catering establishments, as outbreaks are more readily recognized and laboratory facilities are usually available for investigation, but it is also believed that many episodes may not be reported. The peculiar problems of the hospital-catering service and particularly those of the older long-stay hospitals, are discussed in relation to preventive measures which would minimize the hazards of food poisoning. PMID:489961

Sharp, J C; Collier, P W; Gilbert, R J

1979-10-01

417

Anticholinergic poisoning from a large dose of Scopolia extract.  

PubMed

Scopolia extract (SE) contains hyoscyamine and scopolamine, which are both anticholinergic. It is usually used as a patent medicine to treat gastrointestinal disorders, to relieve spasmotic discomfort, or to decrease the secretion of gastric acid. Poisoning by SE presents similar symptoms and signs as other types of anticholinergic poisoning. We report a case of severe anticholinergic poisoning after accidentally drinking 8 ml of SE. The patient presented with acute delirium and was successfully treated with physostigmine. PMID:12136971

Cheng, Sheng-Wen; Hu, Wei-Hsiung; Hung, Dong-Zong; Yang, Dar-Yu

2002-08-01

418

Betanodavirus of marine and freshwater fish: distribution, genomic organization, diagnosis and control measures.  

PubMed

The family Nodaviridae include the genera Alphanodavirus and the Betanodavirus which are non-enveloped, single stranded RNA viruses. Alphanodavirus include the insect viruses while betanodavirus include species that are responsible for causing disease outbreaks in hatchery-reared larvae and juveniles of a wide variety of marine and freshwater fish throughout the world and has impacted fish culture over the last decade. According to International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses, the genus Betanodavirus comprises four recognized species viz barfin flounder nervous necrosis virus, red-spotted grouper nervous necrosis virus (RGNNV), striped jack nervous necrosis virus and tiger puffer nervous necrosis virus with the RGNNV being the most common. The viruses are distributed worldwide having been recorded in Southeast Asia, Mediterranean countries, United Kingdom, North America and Australia. The disease has been reported by different names such as viral nervous necrosis, fish encephalitis, viral encephalopathy and retinopathy by various investigators. The virus is composed of two segments designated RNA1 and RNA2 and sometimes possesses an additional segment designated RNA3. However, genome arrangement of the virus can vary from strain to strain. The virus is diagnosed by microscopy and other rapid and sensitive molecular methods as well as immunological assays. Several cell lines have been developed for the virus propagation and study of infection mechanism. Control of nodavirus infection is a serious issue in aquaculture industry since it is responsible for huge economic losses. In combination with other management practices, vaccination of fish would be a useful strategy to control the disease. PMID:23997435

Shetty, Mahesh; Maiti, Biswajit; Shivakumar Santhosh, Kogaluru; Venugopal, Moleyur Nagarajappa; Karunasagar, Indrani

2012-09-01

419

Lead poisoning in cattle and its implications for food safety.  

PubMed

The lead poisoning incidents in cattle investigated by the Veterinary Laboratories Agency between 1990 and 2003 are reviewed. Lead poisoning was most commonly encountered in young calves, but cattle of all ages were affected. The lead was derived mainly from lead paint, lead accumulator batteries and lead in soil from old mine workings. Paint was responsible for the majority of cases of poisoning in young calves; yearling animals were most at risk from discarded batteries, and adult cows were most commonly poisoned by geochemical sources of lead. There was a marked seasonal incidence, with most cases occurring after turnout in the spring and early summer. PMID:16844817

Sharpe, R T; Livesey, C T

2006-07-15

420

49 CFR 172.429 - POISON INHALATION HAZARD label.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

HAZARDOUS MATERIALS TABLE, SPECIAL PROVISIONS, HAZARDOUS MATERIALS COMMUNICATIONS, EMERGENCY RESPONSE INFORMATION, TRAINING REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.429 POISON INHALATION HAZARD...

2013-10-01

421

49 CFR 172.555 - POISON INHALATION HAZARD placard.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

HAZARDOUS MATERIALS TABLE, SPECIAL PROVISIONS, HAZARDOUS MATERIALS COMMUNICATIONS, EMERGENCY RESPONSE INFORMATION, TRAINING REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.555 POISON INHALATION HAZARD...

2013-10-01

422

Herbal poisoning caused by adulterants or erroneous substitutes.  

PubMed

Six cases of herbal poisoning involving six patients in Hong Kong, Taipei and Kuala Lumpur are reported. The sources of poisoning were identified as adulterants (Podophyllum emodi) or erroneous substitutes (Datura metel). In cases of suspected herbal poisoning, it is recommended that the prescriptions, herbal residues and herb samples should be collected for pharmacognostical and chemical analysis to substantiate the cause of poisoning. Insofar as it is possible, an estimate of the amount of herbs consumed should also be obtained, to establish whether the amount of toxin present is sufficient to account for the symptoms. PMID:7966541

But, P P

1994-12-01

423

21 CFR 2.110 - Definition of ammonia under Federal Caustic Poison Act.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Definition of ammonia under Federal Caustic Poison Act. 2...Caustic Poisons § 2.110 Definition of ammonia under Federal Caustic Poison Act. ...determining whether an article containing ammonia is subject to the Federal Caustic...

2013-04-01

424

46 CFR 194.05-17 - Poisonous articles as chemical stores-Detail requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Poisonous articles as chemical stores-Detail...CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS HANDLING, USE...194.05-17 Poisonous articles as chemical storesâDetail requirements. (a) Poisonous articles as chemical stores and...

2010-10-01

425

46 CFR 194.05-17 - Poisonous articles as chemical stores-Detail requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-10-01 false Poisonous articles as chemical stores-Detail...CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS HANDLING, USE...194.05-17 Poisonous articles as chemical storesâDetail requirements. (a) Poisonous articles as chemical stores and...

2009-10-01

426

Eliminating Childhood Lead Poisoning: A Federal Strategy Targeting Lead Paint Hazards.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report, for the first time, presents a coordinated federal program to eliminate childhood lead poisoning in the United States. It describes how lead poisoning harms children, how pervasive lead poisoning is, and how lead paint hazards in housing can ...

2000-01-01

427

24 CFR 965.701 - Lead-based paint poisoning prevention.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Lead-based paint poisoning prevention. 965.701 Section...PROJECTS-GENERAL PROVISIONS Lead-Based Paint Poisoning Prevention § 965.701 Lead-based paint poisoning prevention. The...

2009-04-01

428

24 CFR 965.701 - Lead-based paint poisoning prevention.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lead-based paint poisoning prevention. 965.701 Section...PROJECTS-GENERAL PROVISIONS Lead-Based Paint Poisoning Prevention § 965.701 Lead-based paint poisoning prevention. The...

2010-04-01

429

Gastric Lavage in Acute Organophosphorus Pesticide poisoning (GLAOP) – a randomised controlled trial of multiple vs. single gastric lavage in unselected acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Organophosphorus (OP) pesticide poisoning is the most common form of pesticide poisoning in many Asian countries. Guidelines in western countries for management of poisoning indicate that gastric lavage should be performed only if two criteria are met: within one hour of poison ingestion and substantial ingested amount. But the evidence on which these guidelines are based is from medicine

Yi Li; XueZhong Yu; Zhong Wang; HouLi Wang; XiangHuai Zhao; YuPing Cao; WeiZhan Wang; Michael Eddleston

2006-01-01

430

Fish Trade  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson plan presents the global economic, political and social aspects of fisheries, aquaculture and fish collecting, and demonstrates how the practices of all the world's nations affect one another. Students read a number of short articles and use on-line resources to gather information on fisheries and aquaculture, then participate in discussion and essay assignments. Discussion questions, standards alignment, assessment, extensions and additional reference links are provided.

431

Fish gelatin.  

PubMed

Gelatin is a multifunctional ingredient used in foods, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, and photographic films as a gelling agent, stabilizer, thickener, emulsifier, and film former. As a thermoreversible hydrocolloid with a narrower gap between its melting and gelling temperatures, both of which are below human body temperature, gelatin provides unique advantages over carbohydrate-based gelling agents. Gelatin is mostly produced from pig skin, and cattle hides and bones. Some alternative raw materials have recently gained attention from both researchers and the industry not just because they overcome religious concerns shared by Jews and Muslims but also because they provide, in some cases, technological advantages over mammalian gelatins. Fish skins from a number of fish species are among the other sources that have been comprehensively studied as sources for gelatin production. Fish skins have a significant potential for the production of high-quality gelatin with different melting and gelling temperatures over a much wider range than mammalian gelatins, yet still have a sufficiently high gel strength and viscosity. Gelatin quality is industrially determined by gel strength, viscosity, melting or gelling temperatures, the water content, and microbiological safety. For gelatin manufacturers, yield from a particular raw material is also important. Recent experimental studies have shown that these quality parameters vary greatly depending on the biochemical characteristics of the raw materials, the manufacturing processes applied, and the experimental settings used for quality control tests. In this review, the gelatin quality achieved from different fish species is reviewed along with the experimental procedures used to determine gelatin quality. In addition, the chemical structure of collagen and gelatin, the collagen-gelatin conversion, the gelation process, and the gelatin market are discussed. PMID:20691955

Boran, Gokhan; Regenstein, Joe M

2010-01-01

432

Immunologic Studies of Poisonous Anacardiaceae: Oral Desensitization to Poison Ivy and Oak urushiols in Guinea Pigs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Poison ivy and oak urushiols or their components were compared with the respective esterified derivatives for efficacy in oral desensitization of Hartley guinea pigs sensitized to urushiols. The esterified derivatives produced a significantly greater degree of hyposensitization than did free urushiol counterparts. Suppression produced by esterified urushiols was of longer duration than that produced by free urushiols. Groups of sensitized

Edna S. Watson; James C. Murphy; Mahmoud A. ElSohly

1983-01-01

433

Find far fish fast  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Science author Nicholas Makris from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology helped to create the new fish finding tool. He says that the fish finder will help scientists better understand how fish behave. It will also let scientists calculate the number of fish in different parts of the ocean â a task that is incredibly difficult using current methods for fish counting.

American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS;)

2006-02-02

434

Great Lakes fish consumption and reproductive outcomes  

SciTech Connect

This epidemiological investigation determined prenatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), through contaminated fish consumption, and ascertained reproductive outcomes. Green Bay, Wisconsin was chosen as the study site because it was known for its environmental contamination of PCBs. These chemicals are environmentally stable and persistent, and tend to bioaccumulate up the food chain, with highest levels found in predatory sport fish from Lake Michigan. The Green Bay area provided a population with potential PCB exposure from sport fish consumption. Accidental poisoning incidents showed detrimental reproductive effects of high dose PCB exposures. A Michigan study found significant effects on birth weight and gestational age when mothers consumed two sport fish meals per month. This study population was drawn from women during their first prenatal visit at two Green Bay clinics during a one year period. 1,112 participants completed a self-administered questionnaire. Maternal and cord blood samples were obtained for selected PCB serum analyses. Reproductive outcome measures were abstracted from hospital labor reports. Study results indicated that maternal consumption was correlated to maternal PCB serum levels. Regression techniques estimated significant exposure coefficients for subsets of two birth size parameters. Birth length was positively associated with PCB exposure in shorter mothers. Significant associations of PCB exposure and birth weight percentiles were estimated for two income groups in the urban residence/weight gain less than 34 pounds subset.

Dar, E.

1989-01-01

435

Humans and Lead Fishing Sinkers  

MedlinePLUS

... you and your family against the potential for lead poisoning by: Getting your blood tested and your family's ... before they are born) are especially sensitive to lead poisoning because their bodies are still growing rapidly. Others ...

436

Poisoning due to Savlon (cetrimide) liquid.  

PubMed

1. Seven adult cases of deliberate oral exposure to 'Savlon' liquid (chlorhexidine gluconate 0.3%, cetrimide 3%) are presented. 2. In six patients, the symptoms were relatively mild including nausea, vomiting, sore throat and abdominal pain. 3. One patient who had concomitantly taken 'Dettol' liquid was comatose and hypotensive at presentation and was complicated by aspiration pneumonia and adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). She was ventilated for a total of 10 days and was hospitalised for 5 weeks. 4. The data from this study suggest that symptoms associated with Savlon poisoning are usually mild. When aspirated, Savlon together with 'Dettol' liquid can cause ARDS. PMID:7826685

Chan, T Y

1994-10-01

437

Nitroethane poisoning from an artificial fingernail remover.  

PubMed

Confusion between acetone fingernail polish removers and artificial fingernail products containing acetonitrile and N,N-dimethyl-p-toluidine has resulted in pediatric morbidity and mortality. In the present case, a 20-month-old boy drank less than one ounce of Remove Artificial Nail Remover containing 100% nitroethane. In the emergency department he displayed cyanosis and 39% methemoglobinemia. Following intravenous methylene blue, the child's methemoglobin level dropped to 5.7% and he recovered uneventfully. Toxicity from nitroethane has not previously been reported in humans. Poison centers and emergency department personnel should be alert to another nail product which may be easily confused with acetone-containing nail polish removers. PMID:8007041

Hornfeldt, C S; Rabe, W H

1994-01-01

438

A nonfatal case of intentional scopolamine poisoning.  

PubMed

Scopolamine, a drug not usually found in poisoning, was found to be the cause of toxicity in three persons. This paper stresses the need to confirm any unusual iodoplatinate spots that may occur in emergency drug screening. Gastric lavages appear to be the most useful source for recovering belladonna compounds as no scopolamine was found in the urine, either at admission or the day after. Atropine and scopolamine are easily separated from each other by TLC and GLC but homatropine separates poorly from atropine. PMID:4442247

Kaplan, M; Register, D C; Bierman, A H; Risacher, R L

1974-01-01

439

Mild carbon monoxide poisoning impairs left ventricular diastolic function  

PubMed Central

Rationale: Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is associated with direct cardiovascular toxicity. In mild CO poisoning in which cardiovascular life support is not required, the effects of CO on left and right ventricular functions are unknown in patients without cardiac failure. Objectives: Echocardiography was used to determine whether or not mild CO poisoning impairs ventricular function. Twenty otherwise healthy patients with CO poisoning and 20 age- and gender-matched controls were studied. Echocardiographic examinations were performed at the time of admission and 1 week after poisoning. Results: The impairment observed in the left and right ventricular diastolic function at the time of admission was greater than the impairment 1 week after poisoning. Mild CO poisoning did not have a significant effect on systolic function. Carboxyhemoglobin levels were positively correlated with left ventricular diastolic dysfunction, whereas the levels were not correlated with right ventricular diastolic function. Conclusions: In CO intoxication, the development of left and right ventricular diastolic dysfunction precedes systolic abnormality. Patients with mild CO poisoning do not manifest cardiovascular symptoms; however, it should be borne in mind that most of these patients have myocardial involvement.

Ciftci, Ozgur; Gunday, Murat; Cal?skan, Mustafa; Gullu, Hakan; Dogan, Rafi; Guven, Aytekin; Muderrisoglu, Haldun

2013-01-01

440

Animal poisoning in Europe. Part 1: Farm livestock and poultry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lack of a reference Veterinary Poison Control Centre for the European Union (EU) means that clinicians find it difficult to obtain information on poisoning episodes. This three-part review collates published and unpublished data obtained from Belgium, France, Greece, Italy and Spain over the last decade in order to provide a broader toxicoepidemiological perspective. The first article critically evaluates the

Raimon Guitart; Siska Croubels; Francesca Caloni; Magda Sachana; Franca Davanzo; Virginie Vandenbroucke; Philippe Berny

2010-01-01

441

LEAD POISONING IN CAPTIVE ANDEAN CONDORS (VULTUR GRYPHUS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Elevated lead in the tissues of raptors, especially those that scavenge, is a common occurrence, and lead poisoning appears to be a significant problem in the ongoing recovery effort for California condors (Gymnogyps californianus). Elevated blood lead levels have been found in released birds, and a number of birds have died of lead poisoning. In earlier work, we dosed turkey

Oliver H. Pattee; James W. Carpenter; Steven H. Fritts; Barnett A. Rattner; Stanley N. Wiemeyer; J. Andrew Royle; Milton R. Smith

442

Place makes the poison: Wesolowski Award Lecture — 1999  

Microsoft Academic Search

Paracelsus, the Renaissance figure often called the father of toxicology, is given that credit partly for being the first to note that “the dose makes the poison.” Modern understanding of the importance of personal exposure in determining dose, however, indicates that to a large extent as well, “place makes the poison.” The relative proximity of a pollution source to people

KIRK R SMITH

2002-01-01

443

Gloriosa superba L. (family Colchicaceae): Remedy or poison?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article gives an overview of medicinal uses and poisonous properties of Gloriosa superba L., and the available literature related to these aspects drawn from studies done in areas where the species is utilized as traditional medicine or reported as poisonous. A list of 45 ethnobotanical applications practiced in 31 tropical African and Asian countries was drawn. A considerable convergence

A. Maroyi; Maesen van der L. J. G

2011-01-01

444

Poisonous plants: effects on embryo and fetal development.  

PubMed

Poisonous plant research in the United States began over 100 years ago as a result of livestock losses from toxic plants as settlers migrated westward with their flocks, herds, and families. Major losses were soon associated with poisonous plants, such as locoweeds, selenium accumulating plants, poison-hemlock, larkspurs, Veratrum, lupines, death camas, water hemlock, and others. Identification of plants associated with poisoning, chemistry of the plants, physiological effects, pathology, diagnosis, and prognosis, why animals eat the plants, and grazing management to mitigate losses became the overarching mission of the current Poisonous Plant Research Laboratory. Additionally, spin-off benefits resulting from the animal research have provided novel compounds, new techniques, and animal models to study human health conditions (biomedical research). The Poisonous Plant Research Laboratory has become an international leader of poisonous plant research as evidenced by the recent completion of the ninth International Symposium on Poisonous Plant Research held July 2013 in Hohhot, Inner Mongolia, China. In this article, we review plants that negatively impact embryo/fetal and neonatal growth and development, with emphasis on those plants that cause birth defects. Although this article focuses on the general aspects of selected groups of plants and their effects on the developing offspring, a companion paper in this volume reviews current understanding of the physiological, biochemical, and molecular mechanisms of toxicoses and teratogenesis. PMID:24339034

Panter, Kip E; Welch, Kevin D; Gardner, Dale R; Green, Benedict T

2013-12-01

445

ACCIDENTAL POISONING : SELECTED ASPECTS OF ITS EPIDEMIOLOGY AND PREVENTION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unintentional or accidental poisoning continues to be an important health threat throughout the world including Malaysia. It is particularly a problem among children under the age of 5 years, primarily due to developmental incompetencies and their dependence on adults for their care and well being. In the United States for every poisoning death among children under the age of 5,

John T Arokiasamy

1994-01-01

446

Poisoning and toxicological emergencies - current trends and practice.  

PubMed

Poisoning is a common presentation to hospital acute medical units, and can produce a variety of clinical scenarios. This review discusses the epidemiology of poisoning, a framework for managing patients with drug toxicity and considerations in the diagnosis of toxicity with unknown substances. The commonest substances seen in toxicity in the UK - paracetamol, antidepressants, sedatives and opioids are discussed in more detail. PMID:21607204

Banham-Hall, Edward; Mallinson, Robert; Trepte, Nicola

2009-01-01

447

Ethylene Glycol Poisoning: Quintessential clinical toxicology; analytical conundrum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethylene glycol poisoning is a medical emergency that presents challenges both for clinicians and clinical laboratories. Untreated, it may cause morbidly or death, but effective therapy is available, if administered timely. However, the diagnosis of ethylene glycol poisoning is not always straightforward. Thus, measurement of serum ethylene glycol, and ideally glycolic acid, its major toxic metabolite in serum, is definitive.

William H. Porter

448

Clinical Investigation of Hyposensitization in Poison Oak Sensitive Individuals.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this contract was to determine whether individuals in California who were sensitive to poison oak could be desensitized by the use of the purified active principle of poison oak, urushiol. Many adult males were skin-tested to determine sens...

W. L. Epstein

1972-01-01

449

Effectiveness of interventions in reducing pesticide overexposure and poisonings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The objective of this paper was to review the effectiveness of interventions to reduce pesticide overexposure and poisonings in worker populations.Methods: We used the Cochrane Collaboration search strategy to search the following databases for articles that tested the effectiveness of interventions in reducing human pesticide exposure or poisonings: MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSHTC). Interventions considered included

Matthew C Keifer

2000-01-01

450

Occurrence of lead poisoning in a wild pheasant (Phasianus colchicus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors believe this is the first report of lead poisoning of a wild pheasant in America, although two cases of lead poisoning on English game preserves have been reported (Calvert, 1876; Holland, 1882). These two reports gave no record of lead levels in tissue from the affected birds. A dead male pheasant, found at the Grizzly Island Waterfowl Management

B. F. Hunter; M. N. Rosen

1965-01-01

451

Childhood Lead Poisoning: Rhode Island Kids Count Issue Brief.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Noting that childhood lead poisoning is one of the most common preventable pediatric health problems, this report examines lead poisoning as a health problem to which infants and young children are most susceptible and as a housing problem directly related to a shortage of safe, affordable housing. The report details screening rates in Rhode…

Rhode Island KIDS COUNT, Providence.

452

Compatibility of Refractory Materials for Nuclear Reactor Poison Control Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Metal-clad poison rods have been considered for the control system of an advanced space power reactor concept studied at the NASA Lewis Research Center. Such control rods may be required to operate at temperatures of about 140O C. Selected poison material...

J. H. Sinclair

1974-01-01

453

Recognition and Management of Pesticide Poisonings. Third Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual aids health professionals in recognizing and treating pesticide poisonings. Suggested treatments are appropriate for implementation in the small hospitals and clinics which usually receive the victims of pesticide poisoning. Classes of compounds covered include: (1) organophosphate cholinesterase-inhibiting pesticides; (2) carbamate…

Morgan, Donald P.

454

GROWER REPORTED PESTICIDE POISONINGS AMONG FLORIDA CITRUS FIELDWORKERS  

EPA Science Inventory

In a 1981 survey of 436 Florida citrus growers, 27 pesticide related poisoning incidents were reported that were to have taken place within one year of the interview date. From these reports it is possible to estimate that there are 376 citrus fieldworker poisonings per year in F...

455

Get the Lead Out: Facts about Childhood Lead Poisoning [and] Housekeeping Tips To Reduce Lead Exposure [and] Nutrition and Lead Poisoning [and] The Medical Consequences of Lead Poisoning [and] Lead Poisoning for Health Care Providers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document is comprised of five fact sheets from the Illinois Department of Public Health regarding childhood lead poisoning. Recent studies claim that childhood lead poisoning can contribute to problems later in life, such as academic failure, juvenile delinquency, and high blood pressure. Directed to parents, caregivers, and health care…

Illinois State Dept. of Public Health, Springfield.

456

Strategic Plan for Preventing Childhood Lead Poisoning in Illinois.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The severity of the silent epidemic of lead poisoning and its long range effects on young children in impairment of intellectual ability, short-term memory, concentration, and reaction time have been recognized. A 3-year strategic plan for preventing childhood lead poisoning in Illinois was developed by a planning committee working through four…

Illinois State Dept. of Public Health, Springfield.

457

An Action-Research Project: Community Lead Poisoning Prevention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This action-research project focused on gathering data on awareness of lead poisoning, as well as disseminating information on lead poisoning prevention in a metropolitan midwestern city. This project reflects an action-research approach to service learning and was in collaboration with a grass-roots organization. This paper outlines the daunting…

Rajaram, Shireen S.

2007-01-01

458

Recent developments in the field of arrow and dart poisons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arrow and dart poisons, considered as conventional natural sources for future drug discovery, have already provided numerous biologically active molecules used as drugs in therapeutic applications or in pharmacological research. Plants containing alkaloids or cardiotonic glycosides have generally been the main ingredients responsible for the efficacy of these poisons, although some animals, such as frogs, have also been employed. This

Geneviève Philippe; Luc Angenot

2005-01-01

459

Fish Tales  

SciTech Connect

This talk is about fishing and the friendships that have resulted in its pursuit. It is also about theoretical physics, and the relationship of imagination and fantasy to the establishment of ideas about nature. Fishermen, like theoretical physicists, are well known for their inventive imaginations. Perhaps neither are as clever as sailors, who conceived of the mermaid. If one doubts the power of this fantasy, one should remember the ghosts of the many sailors who drowned pursuing these young nymphs. An extraordinary painting by J. Waterhouse is shown as Fig. 1. The enchantment of a mermaid must reflect an extraordinary excess of imagination on the part of the sailor, perhaps together with an impractical turn of mind. A consummated relationship with a mermaid is after all, by its very nature a fantasy incapable of realization. To a theoretical physicist, she is symbolic of many ideas we develop. There are many truths known to fisherman in which one might also find parallels to the goals of scientists: (1) A fish is the only animal that keeps growing after its death; (2) Nothing makes a fish bigger than almost being caught; (3) ''...of all the liars among mankind, the fisherman is the most trustworthy.'' (William Sherwood Fox, in Silken Lines and Silver Hooks); and (4) Men and fish are alike. They both get into trouble when they open their mouths. These quotes may be interpreted as reflecting skepticism regarding the honesty of fisherman, and probably do not reflect adequate admiration for a creative imagination. Is it fair to criticize a person for believing a falsehood that he or she sincerely believes to be true? The fisherman simultaneously invents the lie, and believes in it himself. The parallel with theoretical physics is perhaps only approximate, although we physicists may invent stories that we come to believe, on some rare occasions our ideas actually correspond to a more or less true descriptions of nature. These minor philosophical differences are not really the central issue, however. It is more to the point that both fishermen and scientists enjoy creating a good story, and we also enjoy a story well told. The correct mixture of truth, lie, fantasy and excitement is a witches brew.

McLerran, L.

2010-07-06

460

Theory of microbe motion in a poisoned environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The motility of a microorganism which tries to avoid a poisoned environment by chemotaxis is studied within a simple model which couples its velocity to the concentration field of the poison. The latter is time independent but inhomogeneous in space. The presence of the poison is assumed to irreversibly reduce the propulsion speed. The model is solved analytically for different couplings of the total poison dose experienced by the microbe to the propulsion mechanism. In a stationary poison field resulting from a constant emission of a fixed point source, we find a power law for the distance traveled by the microbe as a function of time with a nonuniversal exponent which depends on the coupling in the model. With an inverted sign in the couplings, the acceleration of microbe motion induced by a food field can also be described.

Hoell, Christian; Löwen, Hartmut

2011-10-01

461

The spectrum of poisonings in Hong Kong: an overview.  

PubMed

Poisoning is an important health problem in Hong Kong. In 1990 alone, 6500 patients were treated in Hong Kong hospitals and there were 245 deaths. Two hospital-based studies indicated that exposures to poisons were intentional in the majority (96%) of adult cases, with hypnotics/sedatives (34%), household products (16%) and analgesics (14%) being most often used. Apart from drugs and chemicals, accidental poisoning may occur after the ingestion of Chinese medicines or vegetables contaminated with methamidophos. The former may contain highly toxic aconitine or podophyllin, declared and undeclared western drugs such as phenylbutazone and aminopyrine, and heavy metals. It is important that there be a continuing effort to collect information on the factors leading to and the pattern of poisonings in Hong Kong and other Southeast Asian countries. This is particularly valuable for childhood poisoning so that appropriate preventive measures can be taken. PMID:8197714

Chan, T Y; Critchley, J A

1994-04-01

462

Clinical and toxicological data in fenthion and omethoate acute poisoning.  

PubMed

This study paper reports on two cases of poisoning with the organophosphorus insecticides, fenthion and omethoate. The two victims were admitted in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) a few hours after ingestion of the two insecticides. They received appropriate treatment for organophosphorous poisoning (gastric lavage, activated charcoal, atropine and pralidoxime) and supportive care. Both patients survived. Organophosphate blood levels were determined on admission (fenthion 2.9 micrograms/ml, omethoate 1.6 micrograms/ml) and during the hospitalisation and proved to be considerably high. Slow elimination rate of the poison already distributed in the body was indicated for both pesticides. The patient with omethoate poisoning remained clinically well (Glasgow Coma Scale: 15) and was discharged three days later. The patient with fenthion poisoning, who had also ingested 30 mg of bromazepam and 720 mg of oxetoron, developed cholinergic crisis six hours after admission and was intubated for 24 days, with concomitant complications. PMID:9830131

Tsatsakis, A M; Manousakis, A; Anastasaki, M; Tzatzarakis, M; Katsanoulas, K; Delaki, C; Agouridakis, P

1998-11-01

463

Diagnosis and Treatment of Amanita Phalloides-Type Mushroom Poisoning  

PubMed Central

The number of cases of mushroom poisoning is increasing as a result of the increasing popularity of “wild” mushroom consumption. Amanitin and phalloidin cytotoxins found in some Amanita and Galerina species produce the most severe and frequent life-threatening symptoms of Amanita phalloidestype poisoning. Delay in onset of symptoms, individual susceptibility variation and lack of rapid and reliable identification have contributed to the significant morbidity and mortality of this type of poisoning. A rapid chromatographic assay for identifying the potent cytotoxins and apparently successful management using thioctic acid of two cases of A. phalloides-type mushroom poisoning are reported. All known cases of A. phalloides-type mushroom poisoning treated with thioctic acid in the United States are summarized.

Becker, Charles E.; Tong, Theodore G.; Roe, Robert L.; Scott, Robert A. T.; MacQuarrie, Michael B.; Boerner, Udo; Bartter, Frederic

1976-01-01

464

Two instances of Chinese herbal medicine poisoning in Singapore.  

PubMed

Datura metel L. (Yangjinghua) is a toxic herb that contains anticholinergic compounds. Inappropriate consumption of this herb could result in anticholinergic poisoning. Clinical features of such poisoning have not been previously described. We report two such cases. Both patients had taken brews of Datura metel L., and developed poisoning soon afterwards. Prominent clinical features included confusion, dilated pupils, absence of sweating, and the absence of sluggish bowel sounds. No flushing of the face or skin was detected in either case. Both patients recovered fully within 12 hours with supportive measures, and no gastric elimination or antidote was used. The different names ascribed to Datura metel L. in chinese medicine can be confusing; this confusion resulted in the poisoning of one of our patients. The clinical features of Datura metel L. poisoning and concerns over inappropriate uses of herbal medicine are discussed. PMID:18465037

Phua, D H; Cham, G; Seow, E

2008-05-01

465

Morphological and genetical description of Loma psittaca sp. n. isolated from the Amazonian fish species Colomesus psittacus.  

PubMed

A previously unrecognised fish-infecting microsporidia (Loma psittaca n. sp.), found adherent to the intestinal mucosa of the freshwater puffer fish Colomesus psittacus (Teleostei, Tetraodontidae) from lower Amazon River, was described based on light and transmission electron microscope and phylogenetic analysis. The whitish xenoma was completely filled by numerous spores, including several developmental stages of the parasite. In all of these stages, the nuclei were monokaryotic. The merogonial plasmodium divided by binary fission and the sporont gave rise to disporoblastic ovoid spores measuring 4.2 +/- 0.4 x 2.8 +/- 0.4 microm. In mature spores, the polar filament was arranged in 10-11 (rarely 12) coils in one row in turn of posterior vacuole. The polaroplast had two distinct regions around the manubrium. The polyribosomes were organised in coiled tapes. The small subunit rRNA gene was sequenced and maximum parsimony analysis placed the microsporidian described here in the clade that includes the genera Ichthyosporidium, Loma and Pseudoloma. Based on differences from previously described microsporidians, such as ultrastructural characteristics of the xenoma, developmental stages including the spore and phylogenetic analysis supported the recognition of a new species, herein named L. psittaca n. sp. PMID:19593585

Casal, Graça; Matos, Edilson; Teles-Grilo, M Leonor; Azevedo, Carlos

2009-10-01

466

Zinc deficiency in molybdenum poisoned cattle  

SciTech Connect

Clinical signs ascribable to zinc deficiency were noted in a group of Friesian cows industrially poisoned with molybdenum. Zinc, copper, and molybdenum were determined in blood serum and black hair, and in the contaminated alfalfa pasture the group grazed on. Hematological parameters, and serum calcium and alkaline phosphatase activity, were also determined. Pooled samples of alfalfa from 2 uncontaminated pastures, and of blood, serum and black hair of clinically normal Friesian cattle grazing on these were used as controls. A mixed contamination of the polluted pasture with molybdenum and copper was found, both metals being inversely correlated with he distance to the polluting chimney. Zinc concentrations were normal and not significantly correlated with the distance to the chimney very high molybdenum was found in serum and hair of the poisoned animals; copper was normal in serum and hair. Low calcium and Alkaline phosphatase activity were found in serum, both variables being significantly correlated with serum zinc. Reduced red blood cell number, packed cell volumes and hemoglobin concentrations were also found, but no significant correlation of these parameters with any of the trace metals in serum or hair was found. Signs ascribed to zinc deficiency were consistent with the reduction of zinc in serum and hair and decreased alkaline phosphatase activity in serum. A zinc deficiency conditioned by a simultaneous increased intake of molybdenum and copper is proposed.

Parada, R.

1981-02-01

467

Lead poisoning and brain cell function  

SciTech Connect

Exposure to excessive amounts of inorganic lead during the toddler years may produce lasting adverse effects upon brain function. Maximal ingestion of lead occurs at an age when major changes are occurring in the density of brain synaptic connections. The developmental reorganization of synapses is, in part, mediated by protein kinases, and these enzymes are particularly sensitive to stimulation by lead. By inappropriately activating specific protein kinases, lead poisoning may disrupt the development of neural networks without producing overt pathological alterations. The blood-brain barrier is another potential vulnerable site for the neurotoxic action of lead. protein kinases appear to regulate the development of brain capillaries and the expression of the blood-brain barrier properties. Stimulation of protein kinase by lead may disrupt barrier development and alter the precise regulation of the neuronal environment that is required for normal brain function. Together, these findings suggest that the sensitivity of protein kinases to lead may in part underlie the brain dysfunction observed in children poisoned by this toxicant.

Goldstein, G.W. (Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (USA) Kennedy Institute, Baltimore, MD (USA))

1990-11-01

468

Subacute poisoning with phosalone, an organophosphate insecticide.  

PubMed Central

An illness characterized by weakness, dizziness, and gastrointestinal symtoms was identified among a crew of 30 migrant field-workers employed by a grape grower in Madera County, California, during August 1987. The onset of symptoms occurred between August 24 and August 30 and a median of 9 days from the date of first employment. The first crew member sought medical treatment on August 26, and 10 crew members were admitted to hospital between August 27 and August 30. For most workers, gastrointestinal and constitutional symptoms resolved shortly after admission, but 4 patients had episodes of severe sinus bradycardia persisting for several days. On the day of admission, transient atrioventricular dissociation developed in 2 persons. Interviews with 16 crew members not admitted to the hospital identified only 1 additional worker ill with gastrointestinal symptoms, but all 16 had moderate to severe inhibition of both plasma and red blood cell cholinesterase. Four other workers who were tested but not interviewed also had cholinesterase depression. The crew had had exposure since August 19 to the organophosphate insecticide phosalone, which was last applied to the vineyard on July 21, or 29 days earlier. Although this is the first report unequivocally linking phosalone to field-worker poisoning, the delayed onset and nonspecific nature of the symptoms associated with subacute poisoning may have hindered the recognition of previous similar episodes. Images

O'Malley, M. A.; McCurdy, S. A.

1990-01-01

469

Gallium poisoning: a rare case report.  

PubMed

The authors present a case of a college student who suffered acute gallium poisoning as a result of accidental exposure to gallium halide complexes. This is extremely rare and has never been reported in the literature. Acute symptoms after the incident, which initially presented as dermatitis and appeared relatively not life-threatening, rapidly progressed to dangerous episodes of tachycardia, tremors, dyspnea, vertigo, and unexpected black-outs. Had there been effective emergency medical care protocols, diagnostic testing, treatment and antidotes, the latent manifestations of irreversible cardiomyopathy may have been prevented. Given how quickly exposure led to morbidity, this article aims to raise an awareness of the toxic potential of gallium. This has particular relevance for workers involved in the production of semiconductors where there is a potential for accidental exposure to gallium by-products during device processing. It may also have implications for dentists who use gallium alloys to replace mercury containing amalgam. In the absence of threshold limit values and exposure limits for humans, as well as emergency medical guidelines for treatment of poisoning, the case calls on the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health and the Occupational Safety and Health Administration to establish guidelines and medical management protocols specific for gallium. PMID:22024274

Ivanoff, Chris S; Ivanoff, Athena E; Hottel, Timothy L

2012-02-01

470

Microbiological spoilage of fish and fish products  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spoilage of fresh and lightly preserved fish products is caused by microbial action. This paper reviews the current knowledge in terms of the microbiology of fish and fish products with particular emphasis on identification of specific spoilage bacteria and the qualitative and quantitative biochemical indicators of spoilage. Shewanella putrefaciens and Pseudomonas spp. are the specific spoilage bacteria of iced fresh

Lone Gram; Hans Henrik Huss

1996-01-01

471

Histamine Levels in Fish from Markets in Lima, Per?†  

PubMed Central

Illnesses associated with seafood are an important public health concern worldwide, particularly considering the steady increase in seafood consumption. However, research about the risks associated with seafood products is scarce in developing countries. Histamine fish poisoning is the most common form of fish intoxication caused by seafood and usually presents as an allergic reaction. This condition occurs when fish are not kept appropriately refrigerated and histamine is formed in the tissues. Histamine levels of >500 ppm usually are associated with clinical illness. We assessed histamine levels in fish from markets in Lima, Peru, with a quantitative competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Thirty-eight specimens were purchased from wholesale and retail markets: 17 bonito (Sarda sarda), 16 mackerel (Scomber japonicus peruanus), and 5 mahi-mahi (Coryphaena hippurus). Seven fish (18%) had histamine levels of 1 to 10 ppm (three mackerel and four bonito) and three (8%) had >10 ppm (three mackerel, 35 to 86 ppm). Fish from retail markets had detectable histamine levels (>1 ppm) more frequently than did fish bought at wholesale fish markets: 9 (36%) of 25 fish versus 1 (8%) of 13 fish, respectively (P = 0.063). Higher histamine levels were correlated with later time of purchase during the day (Spearman’s rho = 0.37, P = 0.024). Mackerel purchased at retail markets after 2 p.m. had a 75% prevalence of histamine levels of >10 ppm. Mackerel purchased late in the day in retail markets frequently contained high histamine levels, although the overall prevalence of elevated histamine levels was low. Despite the small sample, our findings highlight the need to reinforce seafood safety regulations and quality control in developing countries such as Peru.

Gonzaga, Victor E.; Lescano, Andres G.; Huaman, Alfredo A.; Salmon-Mulanovich, Gabriela; Blazes, David L.

2014-01-01

472

Assessing Parental Utilization of the Poison Center: An Emergency Center-Based Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to identify and characterize caretakers who fail to utilize the poison center for unintentional poisonings involving children. We interviewed 210 caretakers of children evaluated for unintentional poisoning in the emergency center of an urban, universitybased teaching hospital to determine (1) whether demographic differences exist between those caretakers who contacted a poison center prior to

Nancy R. Kelly; Rebecca T. Kirkland; Susan E. Holmes; Michael D. Ellis; George Delclos; Claudia A. Kozinetz

1997-01-01

473

[Dermal and inhalation poisoning. Rare guests in our intensive care units?].  

PubMed

Patients with dermal and inhalation poisoning are uncommon in intensive care treatment. We describe the diagnostics and specific toxicological treatment of patients with hydrofluoric acid burns. For inhalation poisoning, we focus on smoke inhalation, especially the management of cyanide and carbon monoxide poisoning. Special attention is given to the use of hyperbaric oxygenation for the treatment of carbon monoxide poisoning. PMID:23925447

Sagoschen, I

2013-09-01

474

Guidelines for the Detection and Management of Lead Poisoning for Physicians and Health Care Providers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These Illinois guidelines provide information on the medical management and treatment of children with lead poisoning, based on Federal guidelines (revised in 1991) for determining lead poisoning at lower levels. The guidelines outline the effects of lead poisoning, sources of lead, estimated incidence of lead poisoning in Illinois, screening…

Illinois State Dept. of Public Health, Springfield.

475

Eliminating Childhood Lead Poisoning: A Federal Strategy Targeting Lead Paint Hazards.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Noting that lead poisoning is a preventable disease, this report details a coordinated federal program to eliminate childhood lead poisoning in the United States. The report describes how lead poisoning harms children, how pervasive lead poisoning is, and how lead paint hazards in housing could be eliminated in 10 years. Following information on…

2000

476

Emergency department visits for carbon monoxide poisoning in LA.  

PubMed

Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is preventable, yet it remains one of the most common causes of poisoning in the United States. This analysis was performed to estimate the number of emergency department (ED) visits in 2010 in Louisiana for all-cause (fire-related, non-fire, and unknown) unintentional CO poisoning. Results demonstrate approximately 1,696,746 total ED visits occurred in 2010. Among these, an estimated 116 individuals were diagnosed with CO poisoning (68 CO cases per million ED visits; 26.2 CO cases per million population). Emergency Department visits for CO poisoning occurred most frequently in the winter months. Caddo, Jefferson, and Orleans parishes had the highest numbers of CO poisonings in 2010. The most common symptoms included headache, hypertension, nausea, and dizziness. The ED database presented more cases of the most common CO poisoning cases (non-fatal) than previously used surveillance databases. This study demonstrated the utility and importance of ED data as a surveillance tool. PMID:23431671

Katner, Adrienne; Peak, Kate; Sun, Mei-Hung; Badakhsh, Roshan; Woods, Adrienne; Soileau, Shannon; Dugas, Dianne

2012-01-01

477

Effects of packaging and appearance on childhood poisoning. Vacor rat poison  

SciTech Connect

Over a 13-month period, 14 patients were hospitalized at Milwaukee Children's Hospital for rodenticide ingestions. Ten of the 14 patients ingested Vacor Rat Poison (N-3-pyridylmethyl N'-p-nitrophenyl urea). Small children could easily mistake Vacor, which resembles corn meal, for breakfast cereal. To intervene for safer packaging of toxic substances, pediatricians need to be aware of the health hazard posed to children by attractive packaging.

Schum, T.R.; Lachman, B.S.

1982-05-01

478

Emergency management and treatment of the poisoned small animal patient.  

PubMed

This article reviews management of the acutely poisoned veterinary patient, including initial telephone triage, appropriate communication and history gathering from the pet owner, decontamination methods (including the use of appropriate emetic agents and dosing of activated charcoal), and general treatment of the poisoned patient. Symptomatic and supportive care of the poisoned patient includes the use of fluid therapy, gastrointestinal support (eg, antacids), central nervous system support (eg, muscle relaxants, anticonvulsants), sedatives/reversal agents (eg, phenothiazines, naloxone, flumazenil), hepatoprotectants, and miscellaneous antidotal therapy. PMID:23747259

Lee, Justine A

2013-07-01

479

Poison control centers decrease emergency healthcare utilization costs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction  Patient home management by a regional poison control center has potential to save public healthcare dollars by preventing\\u000a unnecessary utilization of emergency department services. We wished to conservatively quantify such savings at a large regional\\u000a poison center and compare savings to funds received in state support.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Banner Poison Control Center (BPCC) serves a population of about four million in central

Frank LoVecchio; Steven C. Curry; Kathleen Waszolek; Jane Klemens; Kimberly Hovseth; Diane Glogan

2008-01-01

480

Standardized treatment of severe methanol poisoning with ethanol and hemodialysis  

SciTech Connect

Seven patients with methanol poisoning were treated with ethanol, hemodialysis and supportive measures. The interval between ingestion and initiation of ethanol therapy varied from 3 to 67 hours and from ingestion to dialysis from 9 to 93 hours. All patients survived, but one had permanent visual impairment. A 10% ethanol solution administered intravenously is a safe and effective antidote for severe methanol poisoning. Ethanol therapy is recommended when plasma methanol concentrations are higher than 20 mg per dl, when ingested doses are greater than 30 ml and when there is evidence of acidosis or visual abnormalities in cases of suspected methanol poisoning. 13 references, 1 figure, 2 table.

Ekins, B.R.; Rollins, D.E.; Duffy, D.P.; Gregory, M.C.

1985-03-01

481

A case of non-fatal oleander poisoning  

PubMed Central

We present a case of non-fatal poisoning with oleander blooms in a 42-year-old woman. After repeated vomiting and gastrointestinal distress, the patient was admitted to the hospital with cardiac symptoms 4 h after the ingestion. Urine and blood samples were assayed for drugs of abuse and for general toxicological screen. Blood was analysed for alcohol and volatiles. Oleandrin was detected in the blood sample at a concentration of 14.7 ng/ml. Following a review of the literature, this is the first case of oleander poisoning in which the patient recovered with only conservative treatment. Oleander poisonings occur rarely, and generally result in death.

Al, Behcet; Yarbil, P?nar; Dogan, Mehmet; Kabul, Sinem; Y?ld?r?m, Cuma

2010-01-01

482

Got a Sick Fish?  

MedlinePLUS

... of diseases found in fish. Below are some common diseases found in pet fish: Physical injury Parasites such ... in gray, pink or white wart-like growths (common in Koi fish) Velvet or coral fish disease: a parasitic disease that results in dusty and ...

483

Rare Trophy Fish.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an art lesson in which third-grade students create mounted trophy fish. Explains how the students created the three-dimensional fish, the board on which to mount the fish, and the small paper plaque with information about the trophy fish. (CMK)

Schroeder, Denice

2000-01-01

484

Ooey, Gooey, FISH GUTS!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Hook your students onto inquiry-based science by implementing this ooey, gooey fish guts activity into your science curriculum. The author developed this fish dissection lesson as an inexpensive, safe, and clean alternative to the traditional and costly fish dissections on the "market." Students use inquiry, prediction, and teamwork to determine what fish eat and where they fit in the food web.

Timmons, Maryellen

2004-04-01

485

Experimental selenium poisoning in Nubian goats.  

PubMed

The toxicity of sodium selenite was studied in 28 Nubian goats, 20 of which died or were killed in extremis 2 h to 21 d after dosing. Single or repeated daily oral doses of 160, 80, 40, 20 and 5 mg sodium selenite/kg were toxic to goats while daily doses of selenite ranging from 0.25 to 1 mg/kg/d for 225 d were not toxic to this species of animals. The main signs of poisoning were uneasiness, inappetence, dyspnea, salivation, diarhea, paresis of the hind limbs, arching of the back, and recumbency. The main lesions were hemorrhages in the rumen, reticulum, osmasum and abomasum, hemorrhagic or catarrhal abomasitis and enteritis, fatty change and necrosis of the centrilobular hepatocytes and of the cells of the renal convoluted tubules, splenic hemosiderosis, pulmonary congestion, haemorrhage, edema and emphysema, accumulation of lymphocytes in the vital organs, and straw-colored fluid in the serous cavities. PMID:2353437

Ahmed, K E; Adam, S E; Idrill, O F; Wahbi, A A

1990-06-01

486

Collective poisoning with hallucinogenous herbal tea.  

PubMed

An incident wherein more than 30 people were poisoned with a herbal infusion during a meditation session is described. The clinical features observed were hallucinations, aggression, agitation, amnesia, mydriasis, dry skin, tachycardia, hyperthermia, hypotension, collapse, coma and respiratory depression. All patients recovered, although mechanical ventilation was required in some instances. A portion of the herbal infusion was found to contain atropine (hyoscyamine), scopolamine (hyoscine), harmine, and other alkaloids. The estimated ingested doses (free bases) were atropine 4 mg, harmine 27 mg, and scopolamine 78 mg. The mean concentrations in 21 serum samples obtained approximately 6h after ingestion of the infusion were atropine 5 ng/ml, harmine 8 ng/ml, and scopolamine 13 ng/ml. PMID:12208022

Balíková, Marie

2002-08-14

487

Late treatment of paracetamol poisoning with mercaptamine.  

PubMed Central

Forty patients who had taken overdoses of paracetamol were treated with mercaptamine. Twenty-three patients given mercaptamine within 10 hours of poisoning had normal liver function tests at follow-up, and one could not be traced. In 16 patients mecraptamine was begun more than 10 hours after ingestion of paracetamol ("late" mercaptamine). Eight of these patients developed severe liver damage, which in six was moderate or severe before mercaptamine administration. Acute renal failure occurred in two patients; in one other renal function was temporarily severely impaired. At follow-up two patients were not available, and one admitted moribund had died soon after admission. The remaining 13 all had normal liver function tests. It is concluded that late mercaptamine is not dangerous and may prevent further liver damage.

Smith, J M; Roberts, W O; Hall, S M; White, T A; Gilbertson, A A

1978-01-01

488

Glyphosate surfactant herbicide poisoning and management.  

PubMed

Glyphosate is a widely used herbicide in agriculture, forestry, industrial weed control and aquatic environments. Glyphosate potential as herbicide was first reported in 1971. It is a non-selective herbicide. It can cause a wide range of clinical manifestations in human beings like skin and throat irritation to hypotension, oliguria and death. We are reporting a case of a 35-year-old male patient who was admitted to our tertiary care hospital following intentional ingestion of around 200 ml of herbicide containing glyphosate. Initially, gastric lavage done and the patient was managed with intubation and mechanical ventilation, noradrenaline and vasopressin infusion, continuous veno-venous hemodiafiltration and intravenous (IV) lipid emulsion (20% intralipid 100 ml), patient was successfully treated and discharged home. This case report emphasizes on timely systemic supportive measure as a sole method of treatment since this poison has no known specific antidote and the use of IV lipid emulsion for a successful outcome. PMID:24914265

Mahendrakar, Kranthi; Venkategowda, Pradeep M; Rao, S Manimala; Mutkule, Dnyaneshwar P

2014-05-01

489

Glyphosate surfactant herbicide poisoning and management  

PubMed Central

Glyphosate is a widely used herbicide in agriculture, forestry, industrial weed control and aquatic environments. Glyphosate potential as herbicide was first reported in 1971. It is a non-selective herbicide. It can cause a wide range of clinical manifestations in human beings like skin and throat irritation to hypotension, oliguria and death. We are reporting a case of a 35-year-old male patient who was admitted to our tertiary care hospital following intentional ingestion of around 200 ml of herbicide containing glyphosate. Initially, gastric lavage done and the patient was managed with intubation and mechanical ventilation, noradrenaline and vasopressin infusion, continuous veno-venous hemodiafiltration and intravenous (IV) lipid emulsion (20% intralipid 100 ml), patient was successfully treated and discharged home. This case report emphasizes on timely systemic supportive measure as a sole method of treatment since this poison has no known specific antidote and the use of IV lipid emulsion for a successful outcome.

Mahendrakar, Kranthi; Venkategowda, Pradeep M.; Rao, S. Manimala; Mutkule, Dnyaneshwar P.

2014-01-01

490

Monensin poisoning in horses -- an international incident  

PubMed Central

Several hundred Michigan horses were accidentally exposed to varying levels of monensin. Severity of effects was proportional to the level of feed contamination; sudden death resulted on at least two premises. Acute signs of cardiovascular impairment occurred on one premises having received feed containing over 200 grams of monensin per tonne. Gross and histological postmortem lesions consisted of acute myocardial necrosis. Although only circumstantially confirmed, investigations led to the suspicion that the source of poisoning was a ration formulation error in a feedmill in southwestern Ontario. Concern over possible undetected heart damage in exposed horses led to clinical monitoring on one farm over a period of several months. Electrocardiographic and serum enzyme monitoring were used soon after the incident to implicate exposure in some horses; they were poor prognostic indicators. Applicable legislation, the cooperative role of government departments, and legal implications relative to potential prosecution and lawsuits arising from sale of contaminated feed between Canada and the USA are summarized.

Doonan, Gordon R.; Brown, Christopher M.; Mullaney, Thomas P.; Brooks, David B.; Ulmanis, Eugene G.; Slanker, Michael R.

1989-01-01

491

Is it a Fish?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is on page 8 of the pdf, part of the Sea Life Discovery Box. This is an activity exploring the characteristics of fish. Learners are asked if they have seen a fish and what elements they saw that let them know it was a fish. A song about fish may be sung, engaging young learners. Pictures and a book about fish are viewed and important elements that fish have are noted: "tail fin," "dorsal fin," "pectoral fins," "pelvic fins." A clownfish puppet is shown and learners identify its fish characteristics.

Omsi

2004-01-01

492

Outpatient treatment of acute poisonings in Oslo: poisoning pattern, factors associated with hospitalization, and mortality  

PubMed Central

Background Most patients with acute poisoning are treated as outpatients worldwide. In Oslo, these patients are treated in a physician-led outpatient clinic with limited diagnostic and treatment resources, which reduces both the costs and emergency department overcrowding. We describe the poisoning patterns, treatment, mortality, factors associated with hospitalization and follow-up at this Emergency Medical Agency (EMA, "Oslo Legevakt"), and we evaluate the safety of this current practice. Methods All acute poisonings in adults (> or = 16 years) treated at the EMA during one year (April 2008 to April 2009) were included consecutively in an observational study design. The treating physicians completed a standardized form comprising information needed to address the study's aims. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify the factors associated with hospitalization. Results There were 2348 contacts for 1856 individuals; 1157 (62%) were male, and the median age was 34 years. The most frequent main toxic agents were ethanol (43%), opioids (22%) and CO or fire smoke (10%). The physicians classified 73% as accidental overdoses with substances of abuse taken for recreational purposes, 15% as other accidents (self-inflicted or other) and 11% as suicide attempts. Most (91%) patients were treated with observation only. The median observation time until discharge was 3.8 hours. No patient developed sequelae or died at the EMA. Seventeen per cent were hospitalized. Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid, respiratory depression, paracetamol, reduced consciousness and suicidal intention were factors associated with hospitalization. Forty-eight per cent were discharged without referral to follow-up. The one-month mortality was 0.6%. Of the nine deaths, five were by new accidental overdose with substances of abuse. Conclusions More than twice as many patients were treated at the EMA compared with all hospitals in Oslo. Despite more than a doubling of the annual number of poisoned patients treated at the EMA since 2003, there was no mortality or sequelae, indicating that the current practice is safe. Thus, most low- to intermediate-acuity poisonings can be treated safely without the need to access hospital resources. Although the short-term mortality was low, more follow-up of patients with substance abuse should be encouraged.

2012-01-01

493

Allergic reactions to fish  

Microsoft Academic Search

A wide variety of fish are known to induce allergic reactions following ingestion or inhalation of vapors by sensitized individuals.\\u000a Although the exact prevalence of fish sensitivity is not known, fish are among the most important food allergens; and as consumption\\u000a of fish increases, rates of sensitization are expected to increase. Diagnosis of fish allergy is aided by clinical history,

Carol O’Neil; Arthur A. Helbling; Samuel B. Lehrer

1993-01-01

494

Establishing a public health analytical service based on chemical methods for detecting and quantifying Pacific ciguatoxin in fish samples.  

PubMed

A referee analysis method for the detection and quantification of Pacific ciguatoxins in fish flesh has recently been established by the public health analytical laboratory for the State of Queensland, Australia. Fifty-six fish samples were analysed, which included 10 fillets purchased as negative controls. P-CTX-1 was identified in 27 samples, and P-CTX-2 and P-CTX-3 were found in 26 of those samples. The range of P-CTX-1 concentrations was 0.04-11.4 microg/kg fish flesh; coefficient of variation from 90 replicate analyses was 7.4%. A liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) method utilising a rapid methanol extraction and clean-up is reliable and reproducible, with the detection limit at 0.03 microg/kg fish flesh. Some matrix effects are evident, with fish oil content a likely signal suppression factor. Species identification of samples by DNA sequence analysis revealed some evidence of fish substitution or inadvertent misidentification, which may have implications for the management and prevention of ciguatera poisoning. Blinded inspection of case notes from suspect ciguatera poisoning cases showed that reporting of ciguatera-related paraesthesias was highly predictable for the presence of ciguatoxins in analysed fish, with 13 of 14 expected cases having consumed fish that contained P-CTX-1 (p<0.001, Fishers Exact Test). PMID:19647011

Stewart, Ian; Eaglesham, Geoffrey K; Poole, Sue; Graham, Glenn; Paulo, Carl; Wickramasinghe, Wasantha; Sadler, Ross; Shaw, Glen R

2010-10-01

495

INCREASED SUSCEPTIBILITY TO PARATHION POISONING FOLLOWING MURINE CYTOMEGALOVIRUS INFECTION  

EPA Science Inventory

Increased Susceptibility to Parathion Poisoning Following Murine Cytomegalovirus Infection. Fifty to 100 percent mortality occurred in mice treated with ordinarily sublethal doses of parathion 2 to 5 days post infection with murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV). These mortalities appear...

496

Reassessment of the microcytic anemia of lead poisoning  

SciTech Connect

Hematologic abnormalities in childhood lead poisoning may be due, in part, to the presence of other disorders, such as iron deficiency or thalassemia minor. In order to reassess increased lead burden as a cause of microcytic anemia, we studied 58 children with class III or IV lead poisoning, normal iron stores, and no inherited hemoglobinopathy. Anemia occurred in 12% and microcytosis in 21% of these children. The combination of anemia and microcytosis was found in only one of 58 patients (2%). When only children with class IV lead poisoning were studied, the occurrence of microcytosis increased to 46%. However, the combination of microcytosis and anemia was found in only one of these 13 more severely affected patients. Microcytic anemia was similarly uncommon in children with either blood lead concentration greater than or equal to 50 microgram/100 ml. These data indicate that microcytosis and anemia occur much less commonly than previously reported in childhood lead poisoning uncomplicated by other hematologic disorders.

Cohen, A.R.; Trotzky, M.S.; Pincus, D.

1981-06-01

497

Carbon Monoxide Poisoning - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

MedlinePLUS

... Hmoob) Khmer (Khmer) Kurdish (?????) Laotian (Lao) Portuguese (português) Somali (af Soomaali) Spanish (español) Swahili (Kiswahili) Tagalog ( ... Disease Control and Prevention Return to top Portuguese (português) Carbon Monoxide Poisoning English Envenenamento por monóxido de ...

498

Survival after severe self poisoning with sodium valproate.  

PubMed Central

A 48 year old patient deliberately poisoned herself with 25 g of sodium valproate and survived with supportive measures only. This case contradicts the experience of those who advocate aggressive management of such severe overdoses.

Lakhani, M.; McMurdo, M. E.

1986-01-01

499

Pilot study on agricultural pesticide poisoning in Burkina Faso  

PubMed Central

Epidemiologic data related to agricultural pesticide poisoning cases in Burkina Faso were collected. The study was carried out using retrospective (from January 2002 to June 2010) surveys conducted among farmers and healthcare centers. One hundred and fifty-three (153) pest control products were recorded during the survey and 56 active ingredients were identified. Out of the 153 pest control products, 49 (i.e. 32%) were authorized for sale in Burkina Faso. The main risk factors are socio-demographic characteristics of farmers, their low education level, and some attitudes and practices on using agricultural pesticides. Pesticide poisonings are relatively frequent and their management was not always efficacious. Actions are needed to reduce pesticide poisoning as a global public health problem and to improve management of pesticide poisoning. To this purpose, advanced investigations should be carried out over a longer period of time to complement the present pilot study.

Ouedraogo, Mustapha; Ouedraogo, Richard; Ilboudo, Sylvain; Guissou, Pierre I.

2013-01-01

500

Be Food Safe: Protect Yourself from Food Poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... diseases. With the recent high-profile outbreaks of Salmonella in raw ground tuna and Listeria in cantaloupes , ... Symptoms The most common foodborne illnesses are norovirus , Salmonella , Clostridium perfringens , and Campylobacter . Symptoms of food poisoning ...