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Sample records for pulmonary biphasic synovial

  1. Primary pulmonary monophasic synovial sarcoma: Evading diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Marcus; Srinivasan, Lakshmi; Abid, Qamar

    2016-02-01

    Primary pulmonary synovial sarcoma is a very rare tumor, thus there is no consensus as to the most appropriate management. A 78-year-old man presented with nonspecific symptoms of weight loss and shortness of breath. Imaging confirmed a large right-sided mass and accompanying pleural effusion. Strong 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose uptake was found on positron-emission tomography. The preoperative work-up and intraoperative frozen section were inconclusive. Immunohistochemistry and molecular analysis confirmed the diagnosis of primary pulmonary monophasic synovial sarcoma. PMID:26612959

  2. Primary pulmonary synovial sarcoma: a rare neoplasm

    PubMed Central

    Ramos, Montserrat Blanco; Fontán, Eva María García; Carretero, Miguel Ángel Cańizares; Pińeiro, Ana González

    2016-01-01

    Primary pulmonary synovial sarcoma is an extremely rare tumor with an unknown cause. The diagnosis is established after other primary lung malignancies or metastatic extrathoracic sarcoma have been excluded. We report the case of a 69-year-old man who presented with a well-defined mass in the right upper lobe on a chest X-ray. A video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) right upper lobectomy was performed. Immunohistochemically, neoplastic cells were positive for vimentin, CD56 and Bcl-2, and focally positive for CD99, epithelial membrane antigen and cytokeratin 7 and 19. The cytogenetic study revealed a SYT genetic reassortment. So, the final pathological diagnosis was primary pulmonary synovial sarcoma. PMID:27516790

  3. Intravascular Biphasic Synovial Sarcoma: The Beneficial Role of Adjuvant Treatment Approach in the Pre-metastatic Stage.

    PubMed

    Chicas-Sett, Rodolfo; Farga-Albiol, Dolores; Collado, Erica; Pacheco, Ariel; Zac, Carlos; Diaz, Roberto; Celada, Francisco; Burgos, Javier; Perez, Maria Jose; Tormo, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    Synovial sarcoma (SS) is a high-grade, rare variant of soft tissue sarcoma (STS). The biphasic subtype is less common than the monophasic subtype. SS is very common around joint cavities in the extremities, but can be present elsewhere in the body. Tumor staging and therapeutic management are usually clear for a localized disease, but the proper management at the metastatic stage can be unclear. According to the literature, the histologic presence of an SS tumor thrombus affects tumor staging, making it unclear whether the tumor stage corresponds to localized or metastatic disease. An intravascular SS tumor exhibiting high metastatic potential is a rare finding that warrants thorough investigation. A 49-year-old woman presented with a biphasic SS intravascular tumor of the left inguinal area with femoral vessels involvement. Ten cases of intravascular SS have been reported in the literature and contain little information regarding the proper management of a local metastatic disease. Ours is a rare case of SS with an intravascular tumor occupying the femoral-iliac vein (as seen in metastatic disease) that has been treated as a local disease with a multidisciplinary therapeutic approach. As a result, our patient has been disease-free for two years and, during that time, has achieved an acceptable quality of life. We discuss the pertinent clinical findings of this rare tumor and review the literature of tumor thrombus by SS. We also present the multidisciplinary therapeutic approach realized and the history of this disease. PMID:27190730

  4. Intravascular Biphasic Synovial Sarcoma: The Beneficial Role of Adjuvant Treatment Approach in the Pre-metastatic Stage

    PubMed Central

    Farga-Albiol, Dolores; Collado, Erica; Pacheco, Ariel; Zac, Carlos; Diaz, Roberto; Celada, Francisco; Burgos, Javier; Perez, Maria Jose; Tormo, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    Synovial sarcoma (SS) is a high-grade, rare variant of soft tissue sarcoma (STS). The biphasic subtype is less common than the monophasic subtype. SS is very common around joint cavities in the extremities, but can be present elsewhere in the body. Tumor staging and therapeutic management are usually clear for a localized disease, but the proper management at the metastatic stage can be unclear. According to the literature, the histologic presence of an SS tumor thrombus affects tumor staging, making it unclear whether the tumor stage corresponds to localized or metastatic disease. An intravascular SS tumor exhibiting high metastatic potential is a rare finding that warrants thorough investigation. A 49-year-old woman presented with a biphasic SS intravascular tumor of the left inguinal area with femoral vessels involvement. Ten cases of intravascular SS have been reported in the literature and contain little information regarding the proper management of a local metastatic disease. Ours is a rare case of SS with an intravascular tumor occupying the femoral-iliac vein (as seen in metastatic disease) that has been treated as a local disease with a multidisciplinary therapeutic approach. As a result, our patient has been disease-free for two years and, during that time, has achieved an acceptable quality of life. We discuss the pertinent clinical findings of this rare tumor and review the literature of tumor thrombus by SS. We also present the multidisciplinary therapeutic approach realized and the history of this disease. PMID:27190730

  5. Primary pulmonary synovial sarcoma: A case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Debasis; Datta, Samadarshi; Das, Anirban; Halder, Khokan Chand; Chattopadhyay, Sarbani

    2016-01-01

    Primary pulmonary synovial sarcoma is a very rare, but highly aggressive tumor. Metastatic pulmonary sarcoma due to hematogenous dissemination is much more common. Hence why in any case of pulmonary sarcoma, whole body survey is necessary to exclude a primary tumor elsewhere. No clinical or radiological presentations are specific for pulmonary sarcoma hence; it is often confused with bronchogenic carcinoma. On the other hand, image-guided fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) is very much helpful in diagnosis of bronchogenic carcinoma, whereas, it may be inclusive in cases pulmonary sarcomas including primary synovial sarcoma, especially in cases of huge pulmonary masses. So why image-guided tru-cut core biopsy or open lung biopsy and their histopathological examination, supplemented by immunohistochemistry are preferable for the tissue diagnosis of pulmonary synovial sarcoma, although FNAC and immunocytochemistry may be used for the diagnosis. Surgical resection is treatment of choice, if it is not possible, palliative chemotherapy may be an option. Here, we report a rare case of primary synovial sarcoma which occupied almost whole of the right hemithorax in a 60-year-old male farmer. PMID:26958527

  6. Extensive Surgical Treatment of Primary Pulmonary Synovial Sarcoma After Recurrent Pneumothorax.

    PubMed

    Petrosyan, Andranik; Bergeron, Patrice

    2015-11-01

    A 26-year-old woman with a history of right-sided recurrent pneumothorax and resection of pulmonary bullae, pleural abrasion, and talc pleurodesis underwent right-sided extensive pleural pneumonectomy for a monophasic primary pleural-pulmonary synovial sarcoma (PPSS). The pathologic diagnosis was predominantly fusiform PPSS with R0 resection. Sixteen months after the operation, she is alive, without signs of new lesions. The extensive tumor resection can achieve a good result for controlling local disease. PMID:26522536

  7. Primary Pulmonary Synovial Sarcoma Showing a Prolonged Survival with Multimodality Therapy.

    PubMed

    Ogino, Hirokazu; Hanibuchi, Masaki; Takizawa, Hiromitsu; Sakiyama, Shoji; Sumitomo, Hiroyuki; Iwamoto, Seiji; Ikushima, Hitoshi; Nakajima, Kohei; Nagahiro, Shinji; Yamago, Taito; Toyoda, Yuko; Bando, Yoshimi; Nishioka, Yasuhiko

    2016-01-01

    A 54-year-old man was referred to our hospital due to a mass shadow noted on a chest X-ray. Thoracoscopic lobectomy yielded a diagnosis of primary pulmonary synovial sarcoma according to the histology and SYT-SSX1 gene analyses. Five months after the thoracic surgery, he developed brain metastasis; therefore, we performed resection of the brain metastatic focus followed by radiotherapy. As a local recurrence in the thoracic cavity concurrently emerged, systemic chemotherapy was also administered. These observations indicated that a multidisciplinary approach may be useful against primary pulmonary synovial sarcoma, although there is presently no established therapeutic strategy due to its rarity and highly aggressive nature. PMID:26875964

  8. Biphasic release of gentamicin from chitosan/fucoidan nanoparticles for pulmonary delivery.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yi-Cheng; Li, Rou-Ying; Chen, Jiun-Yu; Chen, Jen-Kun

    2016-03-15

    Gentamicin (GM), one of the most commonly used aminoglycoside antibiotics, has been used for treating pneumonia; however, the applicability of GM is limited by its bioavailability and toxic side effects. This study used chitosan (CS)/fucoidan (F) nanoparticles (NPs) to develop a nanoformulation for pulmonary delivery of GM, presenting a biphasic release feature. The NPs exhibited a zero-order release of GM for the first 10h, followed by a sustained release of up to 72h, attaining a value of 99%. The GM-loaded CS/F NPs provide multiple antimicrobial capabilities against Klebsiella pneumoniae, including the CS and biphasic release of GM. Compared with the intravenous administration of free GM (0.5mg/kg), the intratracheal administration of GM-loaded CS/F NP (0.27mg/kg) presented a superior area under the concentration-time curve/minimum inhibitory concentration ratio, indicating the simultaneous improvement of antimicrobial efficacy and elimination of systemic toxicity. These results suggested that CS/F NPs are potential carriers in pulmonary delivery of GM for pneumonia treatment. PMID:26794744

  9. Primary pulmonary synovial sarcoma presenting with a large lump mass in the left upper mediastinum: A case report

    PubMed Central

    JIANG, AI-GUI; YU, HONG; GAO, XIAO-YAN; LU, HUI-YU

    2016-01-01

    Primary pulmonary synovial sarcoma is a rare lesion that occurs in 0.5% cases of lung malignancies. Chest computed tomography (CT) reveals a heterogeneously enhancing mass in the lobe or hilum of the lungs, frequently calcified and with pleural invasion. Involvement of the mediastinum in the course of primary pulmonary synovial sarcoma, in particular detection of a large mass in the mediastinum as the sole initial imaging manifestation, is extremely rare, which may contribute to a delayed diagnosis or misdiagnosis. The present case report describes an extremely rare case of a patient with primary pulmonary synovial sarcoma presenting with a large mass in the left upper mediastinum. A 59-year-old patient was admitted to the Department of Respiratory Medicine of Taizhou People's Hospital in May 2014, complaining of a persistent cough and blood sputum for 2 weeks. Following admission, a chest CT showed a large mass in the left upper mediastinum. Thoracoscopy was performed and revealed that the left pulmonary artery was engulfed by the mass, and thus surgical resection of the tumor was abandoned. The patient was definitively diagnosed with primary pulmonary synovial sarcoma following the histopathological and immunohistochemical analysis of biopsy specimens obtained via thoracoscopy. Following the final diagnosis, the patient was transferred to the Department of Oncology for chemotherapy treatments with ifosfamide and doxorubicin. Unfortunately, no partial regression was achieved after two rounds of chemotherapy, and the patient was lost to follow-up 3 months after the diagnosis was confirmed. The present case may promote the consideration of primary pulmonary synovial sarcoma in the differential diagnosis of patients who present with a large mass in the mediastinum. PMID:27284326

  10. Synovial biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    El-Gabalawy HS. Synovial fluid analysis, synovial biopsy, and synovial pathology. In: Firestein GS, Budd RC, Harris ED Jr., et al, eds. Kelley's Textbook of Rheumatology . 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders Elsevier; 2008:chap 48.

  11. Monosomy 22 and partial loss of INI1 expression in a biphasic synovial sarcoma with an Ewing sarcoma-like poorly differentiated component: Report of a case.

    PubMed

    Bruyneel, Jasper; Van Dorpe, Jo; Praet, Marleen; Matthys, Bart; Van Roy, Nadine; Ferdinande, Liesbeth; Creytens, David

    2016-07-01

    Poorly differentiated synovial sarcoma (PDSS) is a less common subtype of synovial sarcoma (SS) associated with a poor prognosis. We present a case of a SS with a poorly differentiated component that resembles Ewing sarcoma (ES). Initial immunohistochemical staining revealed a characteristic and strong expression of transducin-like enhancer of split 1 (TLE1) and weak to absent expression of integrase integrator 1 (INI1) staining. Stainings for keratin and epithelial membrane antigen (EMA) were negative in the tumoral lesion. Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH) analysis showed a rearrangement of the synaptotagmin (SYT) gene, confirming the diagnosis of SS. FISH analysis for the EWS RNA-binding protein 1 (EWSR1) gene revealed monoallelic loss of EWSR1. This finding was confirmed by an array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH), showing complete loss of chromosome 22. Based on literature review, showing only a handful of cases of cytogenetically studied SS with loss of chromosome 22, this is probably a rare event in SS. Therefore, we assume that monoallelic loss of chromosome 22 cannot fully elaborate the underlying mechanism of the INI1 staining pattern in all SS, but it could account for the weak to absent INI1 staining in at least some cases. PMID:27118264

  12. Surgery and radiation therapy for brain metastases from classic biphasic pulmonary blastoma

    PubMed Central

    Kawasaki, Kenta; Yamamoto, Kuniatsu; Suzuki, Yoshio; Saito, Hirohisa

    2014-01-01

    Pulmonary blastoma, a rare malignant lung tumour, can metastasise to the brain. However, there is no evidence for any effective treatment. The aim of this report is to discuss the treatment options for pulmonary blastoma and confirm the necessity for a pathological diagnosis. A 75-year-old man was admitted with progressive right-sided hemiplegia and aphasia. MRI showed multiple brain tumours. A left frontal lobe lesion was surgically resected, after which he underwent whole brain radiation (30 Gy/10 fractions). He died of an acute exacerbation of interstitial pneumonia. On performing autopsy, partial responses in the brain metastases that had been irradiated were confirmed pathologically. Thus, we present pathological confirmation that surgery and radiation therapy have therapeutic effects on brain metastases from pulmonary blastoma. PMID:24895392

  13. Synovial biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... the Test is Performed Synovial biopsy helps diagnose gout and bacterial infections, or rule out other infections. ... Chronic synovitis Coccidioidomycosis (a fungal infection) Fungal arthritis Gout Hemochromatosis (abnormal buildup of iron deposits) Tuberculosis Synovial ...

  14. Synovial sarcoma specific translocation associated with both epithelial and spindle cell components.

    PubMed

    Birdsall, S; Osin, P; Lu, Y J; Fisher, C; Shipley, J

    1999-08-12

    The biphasic subtype of synovial sarcoma consists of both epithelial and spindle cell components. To address the relationship between the different cellular components found in synovial sarcoma, we deduced the presence of the synovial sarcoma-specific der(X)t(X;18)(p11.2;q11.2), and involvement of the SSX1 gene in both the epithelial/glandular and spindle cell components of 3 biphasic synovial sarcomas with wide ranging proportions of each of the 2 elements. This has been achieved using a 2-color fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) methodology that we had developed recently for analysis paraffin-embedded material. The presence of the rearrangement could be deduced in histologically defined regions and the results showed clearly that the rearrangement was present in both cellular components. This finding provides direct genetic evidence for biphasic synovial sarcomas being clonal and truly biphasic. PMID:10404078

  15. Synovial fluid analysis

    MedlinePlus

    Joint fluid analysis; Joint fluid aspiration ... El-Gabalawy HS. Synovial fluid analysis, synovial biopsy, and synovial pathology. In: Firestein GS, Budd RC, Gabriel SE, McInnes IB, O'Dell JR, eds. Kelly's Textbook of ...

  16. SYNOVIAL CHONDROMATOSIS

    PubMed Central

    Lasmar, Neylor Pace; Vieira, Rodrigo Barreiros; Rosa, Juraci de Oliveira; Lasmar, Rodrigo Campos Pace; Scarpa, André Campos

    2015-01-01

    A 34-year-old male patient presented severe pain in his left knee in association with functional incapacitation, with no apparent triggering factor. He sought medical attention in December 2006, at which time he was prescribed NSAIDs. After a year, he reported increased swelling and pain at the site. He was referred to a knee specialist with a suspected meniscal injury. Upon examination, severe swelling of the joint, with movement limitation, severe pain and negative joint aspiration, was found. Since the simple radiographic results were normal, an MRI of the knee was requested. The MRI revealed a large accumulation of fluid inside the joint, together with marked synovial proliferation, especially focal thickening in clumps with an intermediate signal in T1 and T2, and a discrete hyposignal in T2 that was suggestive of pigmented villonodular synovitis with intact meniscus and ligaments. The patient underwent arthroscopy on the left knee, which revealed whitish irregular fragments, and then underwent arthrotomy with removal of the lesion and extensive synovectomy. The material was sent for anatomopathological examination, which showed the presence of synovial chondromatosis. Eight months after the surgery, the patient does not have any complaints, with a range of motion of 130° in the left knee without joint effusion or signs of inflammation. Synovial chondromatosis is a rare benign type of metaplasia of the synovial membrane that leads to the formation of cartilaginous free bodies in the joint space. It is difficult to diagnose because 95% of the nodules, when not calcified, can be overlooked radiologically. PMID:27047814

  17. Synovial chondrosarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Confalonieri, Norberto

    2016-01-01

    Background Synovial chondrosarcoma (SCH) is a very rare tumor arising in the intra-articular cavity. In the majority of literature reports it is described as a malignant transformation of a pre-existing synovial chondromatosis (SC). We reported a systematic review of primary and secondary SCH described in the literature with the aim to recollect data from different case-reports and case-series, trying to summarize general aspects of this very rare disease. Methods We collected 42 abstracts in the form of case series and case reports, which reported 67 cases of SCH. Studies were taken into account only if they proved a histological diagnosis of SCH, either primary or secondary, with or without evidence of pre-existing SC. Results The average age of SCH was 56.9 years, with prevalence for male sex. The average time of malignant transformation was 11.2 years. The most affected joint was the knee (47.7%), followed by hip (34.3%) and ankle (5.9%). SCH was described as de novo sarcoma only in 13 cases (19%). Surgery ended up with amputation in 59.7% of cases. Local recurrence rate was 28.3%. Conclusions We concluded that prognosis of SCH is worse than conventional one and we speculated this is due to the difficult site of the tumor (intraarticular), diagnostic delay and inappropriate previous treatments. We consider that a rapid deterioration of a SC or rapid recurrence after synoviectomy should be considered suspicious of malignant transformation and should be treated in a reference center.

  18. Utility of synovial biopsy

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Synovial biopsies, gained either by blind needle biopsy or minimally invasive arthroscopy, offer additional information in certain clinical situations where routine assessment has not permitted a certain diagnosis. In research settings, synovial histology and modern applications of molecular biology increase our insight into pathogenesis and enable responses to treatment with new therapeutic agents to be assessed directly at the pathophysiological level. This review focuses on the diagnostic usefulness of synovial biopsies in the light of actual developments. PMID:19951395

  19. Pediatric primitive intraneural synovial sarcoma of L-5 nerve root.

    PubMed

    Peia, Francesco; Gessi, Marco; Collini, Paola; Ferrari, Andrea; Erbetta, Alessandra; Valentini, Laura G

    2013-04-01

    Primitive intraneural synovial sarcomas are rare in children. The authors report the case of a 7-year-old girl affected by intraneural synovial sarcoma of a lumbar nerve root, the first such lesion in this location described in a child. The lesion mimicked a schwannoma clinically and radiologically. There was long-lasting leg pain in a radicular distribution, and a well-demarcated intraneural tumor was seen on MRI. On this basis, the first resection was conservative. However, histological examination documented a classic biphasic synovial sarcoma, which was confirmed by immunohistochemistry. After radical resection and adjuvant treatment, complete disease control was achieved and verified at 5-year follow-up. This case strongly suggests that early diagnosis and a multidisciplinary approach to this unusual spinal lesion are essential to achieving a better prognosis. PMID:23414131

  20. Melorheostosis mimicking synovial osteochondromatosis.

    PubMed

    Wadhwa, Vibhor; Chhabra, Avneesh; Samet, Jonathan D

    2014-01-01

    Melorheostosis is an uncommon, sporadic, sclerosing bone lesion that may affect the adjacent soft tissues. It has been associated with many entities such as osteopoikilosis, soft tissue vascular malformations, bone and soft tissue tumors, nephrotic syndrome, segmental limb contractures, osteosarcoma, desmoid tumor, and mesenteric fibromatosis. Synovial osteochondromatosis is a benign neoplasia of the hyaline cartilage presenting as nodules in the subsynovial tissue of a joint or tendon sheath. The intra-articular extension of melorheostosis mimicking synovial osteochondromatosis has not been reported before. In this article, the authors describe an unusual case mimicking synovial chondromatosis arising as a result of melorheostosis and their characteristic imaging findings. PMID:25971832

  1. [Synovial lipoma arborescens].

    PubMed

    Semenova, L A; Radenska-Lopovok, S G; Khaplinin, A P; Malakhova, S O

    2014-01-01

    The paper describes a case of synovial lipoma arborescens (tree-forming lipoma) of the knee joint. This tumor is a variety of lipomas--a benign tumor composed of mature adipose tissue without signs of atypia. Most investigators regard lipoma as a reactive rather than neoplastic process. X-ray and histological studies should be performed for its differential diagnosis with pigmented villonodular synovitis, synovial chondromatosis, synovial hemangioma, xanthoma, a group of chronic synovitis in rheumatic diseases (rheumatoid arthritis, amyloid arthropathy, psoriatic arthritis). Its final diagnosis is possible only after morphological study. PMID:25306627

  2. [Diagnosis: synovial fluid analysis].

    PubMed

    Gallo Vallejo, Francisco Javier; Giner Ruiz, Vicente

    2014-01-01

    Synovial fluid analysis in rheumatological diseases allows a more accurate diagnosis in some entities, mainly infectious and microcrystalline arthritis. Examination of synovial fluid in patients with osteoarthritis is useful if a differential diagnosis will be performed with other processes and to distinguish between inflammatory and non-inflammatory forms. Joint aspiration is a diagnostic and sometimes therapeutic procedure that is available to primary care physicians. PMID:24467958

  3. Juxtafacet Spinal Synovial Cysts

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Study Design This was a retrospective study. Purpose To study the surgical outcome of synovial cysts of the lumbar spine through posterior laminectomy in combination with transpedicular screw fixation. Overview of Literature Synovial cysts of the lumbar spine contribute significantly to narrowing of the spinal canal and lateral thecal sac and nerve root compression. Cysts form as a result of arthrotic disruption of the facet joint, leading to degenerative spondylolisthesis in up to 40% of patients. Methods Retrospective data from 6 patients, treated during the period of March 2007 to February 2011, were analyzed. All preoperative and postoperative manifestations, extension/flexion radiographs, magnetic resonance imaging, and computed tomography records were reviewed. All underwent surgery for synovial cysts with excision and decompression combined with posterior fixation. The result of surgery was evaluated with Macnab's classification. An excellent or good outcome was considered as satisfactory. Japanese Orthopedic Association Scale was used for evaluation of back pain. Results All patients included in this study had excellent outcomes as regarding to improvement of all preoperative manifestations and returning to normal daily activities. Only 2 cases developed postoperative transient cerebro-spinal fluid leak and were treated conservatively and improved during the follow up period. Conclusions Although this study included a small number of cases and we could not have statistically significant results, the good outcome of decompression of synovial cysts combined with posterior fixation and fusion encouraged us to recommend this approach for patients with juxtafacet synovial cysts. PMID:26949457

  4. Synovial sarcoma: laryngopharynx a challenge.

    PubMed

    Verma, Ravinder; Verma, Ravneet Ravinder; Verma, Rohan Ravinder; Sardana, N K

    2014-06-01

    Synovial sarcoma is a rare malignant tumor. It derives from a mesenchymal precursor stem cell that is unrelated to mature synovial tissue. Synovial sarcoma classically affects lower limbs between the ages of 15 and 40 years and the proportion of male-to-female patients is 3:2. It is very rare in the head and neck region especially in laryngopharynx. Till date, only six cases of synovial sarcoma involving laryngopharynx have been reported in the English literature. Painless mass, hoarseness, upper respiratory distress, and dysphagia characterize the original complaints in laryngopharyngeal synovial sarcoma. Because head and neck synovial sarcoma in clinical practice is so uncommon, early diagnosis is difficult and the treatment protocol is unclear. Therefore, every case report should include complete information on presentation and management. Also, long-term prognostic indices need to be evaluated. We hereby report a case of large laryngopharyngeal synovial sarcoma confirmed by histopathology and immunohistochemistry with review of literature. PMID:24822167

  5. Primary Intracranial Synovial Sarcoma.

    PubMed

    Patel, Mohit; Li, Luyuan; Nguyen, Ha Son; Doan, Ninh; Sinson, Grant; Mueller, Wade

    2016-01-01

    Background. Synovial sarcoma is an aggressive soft tissue sarcoma with uncertain histological origin. The pathology frequently presents as a localized disease, especially near large joints around the knee and thigh. Intracranial disease, which is rare, has been reported as metastasis from synovial sarcoma. We report a case with no obvious primary extracranial pathology, suggesting primary intracranial disease; this has not been reported in the literature. Case Description. A 21-year-old male, with a prior right skull lesion resection for atypical spindle cell neoplasm, presented with headaches, gait instability, left arm weakness, and left homonymous hemianopsia. CT of head demonstrated a right parietal hemorrhagic lesion with mass effect, requiring surgical decompression. Histopathology revealed synovial sarcoma. FISH analysis noted the existence of the t(X;18)(p11.2;q11.2) chromosomal translocation. PET scan did not show other metastatic disease. He underwent stereotactic radiotherapy and adjuvant chemotherapy. At 2-year follow-up, he remained nonfocal without recurrence. Conclusion. We report the first known case of primary intracranial synovial sarcoma. Moreover, we stress that intracranial lesions may have a tendency for hemorrhage, requiring urgent lifesaving decompression. PMID:27247811

  6. Primary Intracranial Synovial Sarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Li, Luyuan; Sinson, Grant; Mueller, Wade

    2016-01-01

    Background. Synovial sarcoma is an aggressive soft tissue sarcoma with uncertain histological origin. The pathology frequently presents as a localized disease, especially near large joints around the knee and thigh. Intracranial disease, which is rare, has been reported as metastasis from synovial sarcoma. We report a case with no obvious primary extracranial pathology, suggesting primary intracranial disease; this has not been reported in the literature. Case Description. A 21-year-old male, with a prior right skull lesion resection for atypical spindle cell neoplasm, presented with headaches, gait instability, left arm weakness, and left homonymous hemianopsia. CT of head demonstrated a right parietal hemorrhagic lesion with mass effect, requiring surgical decompression. Histopathology revealed synovial sarcoma. FISH analysis noted the existence of the t(X;18)(p11.2;q11.2) chromosomal translocation. PET scan did not show other metastatic disease. He underwent stereotactic radiotherapy and adjuvant chemotherapy. At 2-year follow-up, he remained nonfocal without recurrence. Conclusion. We report the first known case of primary intracranial synovial sarcoma. Moreover, we stress that intracranial lesions may have a tendency for hemorrhage, requiring urgent lifesaving decompression. PMID:27247811

  7. Synovial chondromatosis in raptors.

    PubMed

    Stone, E G; Walser, M M; Redig, P T; Rings, B; Howard, D J

    1999-01-01

    Fourteen raptors, consisting of 13 great horned owls (Bubo virginianus) and one red-tailed hawk (Buteo jamaicensis), from central and north central Minnesota, western Wisconsin, and eastern South Dakota (USA) were admitted to a raptor rehabilitation center between June 1992 and June 1995, with perisynovial and synovial chondromatosis affecting multiple joints. Birds were severely debilitated primarily due to loss of shoulder motion. The etiology of these lesions in raptors is unknown. PMID:10073365

  8. Glenohumeral Synovial Chondromatosis.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Robert

    2016-09-01

    A 20-year-old, right hand-dominant man reported to physical therapy with a history of deep anterior left shoulder pain. Radiographs, which were obtained after physical therapy was initiated, and subsequent magnetic resonance imaging showed the presence of numerous radio-opaque loose bodies that followed bone signal characteristics dispersed throughout the glenohumeral joint, leading to a diagnosis of synovial chondromatosis. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2016;46(9):809. doi:10.2519/jospt.2016.0414. PMID:27581180

  9. [Synovial sarcoma. Case report].

    PubMed

    Deme, Dániel; Abdulfatah, Bishr; Telekes, András

    2016-02-01

    In 2013 there were 94,770 new cancer patients reported in Hungary. Synovial sarcoma accounts for 0.05-0.1% of all cancers and, therefore its incidence is predicted to be 47-94 patients/year in Hungary. The authors report the history of a 18-year-old man who was operated on a right upper abdominal wall tumor with R1 resection. During the next 5 months the tumor grew up to 8 cm in largest diameter. Histology revealed monophasic synovial sarcoma. Immunohistochemistry showed bcl2, focal CD99 and high molecular weight cytokeratin positivity, while smooth muscle actin, S100 and CD34 immunostainings were negative. Becose of this reoperation was not possible, curative six cycles of doxorubicine and ifosfamide with granulocyte colony stimulating factor support and 60 Gy radiotherapy was given to the tumor bed. After these treatments computed tomography scan was negative and the patient attended regular imaging every 3 months. At the age of 20 years the patient developed two neoplastic lesions in the surgical scar measuring 10 mm and 45 × 10 mm in size. R0 resection, partial rib resection and abdominal wall reconstruction were performed. Histology confirmed residual monophasic synovial sarcoma. Radiotherapy was not given because of a risk of intestinal wall perforation. Staging positron emission tomography-computed tomography proved to be negative. At the age of 22 years magnetic resonance imaging scans indicated no tumor recurrence, but after one month a rapidly growing tumorous lesion was found on ultrasound in the surgical scar measuring 20 × 20 × 12 mm in size. Cytology confirmed local recurrence and fluorescence in situ hibridization indicated t(x;18). R0 exstirpation and partial mesh resection were performed and histology showed the same monophasic synovial sarcoma. Because of the presence of vascular invasion and a close resection margin (1 mm) the patient underwent 3 cycles of adjuvant chemotherapy (doxorubicine and ifosfamide) with granulocyte colony stimulating

  10. Asymmetry In Biphase Data Signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Tien M.

    1992-01-01

    Report presents analysis of some effects of asymmetry in Manchester (biphase) binary data signal transmitted by phase modulation of sinusoidal carrier signal. Report extends analysis described in article, "Effects of Asymmetry of NRZ Data Signals on Performance" (NPO-18261), to include case where data biphase-modulated directly on residual carrier.

  11. Synovial sarcoma in childhood

    SciTech Connect

    Israels, S.J.; Chan, H.S.L.; Daneman, A.; Weitzman, S.S.

    1984-04-01

    The clinical and radiologic findings in seven children with synovial sarcoma are described. The five boys and two girls had a mean age at presentation of 4.4 years. All seven had the lesion situated in an extremity. Plain radiographs in four revealed the presence of a soft-tissue mass with no calcification or bone and joint involvement. In two patients studied with computed tomography (CT), the primary lesions had peripheral irregular areas of enhancement with central areas of poor enhancement, reflecting the necrotic, cystic, and hemorrhagic changes found in the centers of these tumors. Although the exact margins of these lesions were difficult to define accurately even with intravenous contrast enhancement, CT is still recommended as the best imaging method for assessing the local extent of the primary tumor and is a useful tool in the planning of appropriate therapy as well as the gauging of the tumor response to ongoing treatment.

  12. Pericardial Synovial Sarcoma: A Rare Clinical Entity.

    PubMed

    Goldblatt, Joshua; Saxena, Pankaj; McGiffin, David C; Zimmet, Adam

    2015-11-01

    Synovial sarcoma is an extremely rare form of primary malignancy of the pericardium. We present a case of primary synovial sarcoma of the pericardium followed by a review of the literature. PMID:26347295

  13. Secondary synovial chondromatosis of the shoulder.

    PubMed

    Ji, Jong-Hun; Shafi, Mohamed; Jeong, Dong-Seok

    2015-09-01

    Synovial chondromatosis is classified as either primary or secondary. Primary synovial chondromatosis results from a proliferation of chondrocytes in the synovial membrane leading to the formation of cartilaginous loose bodies. Secondary synovial chondromatosis is a rare condition characterized by the growth of separated particles from the articular cartilage or osteophytes in joint diseases. The present article aims to report the secondary chondromatosis of the shoulder and to discuss the clinical manifestations, pathogenesis, diagnosis, histological findings and management of this condition. PMID:24803015

  14. Synovial Sarcoma With Myoid Differentiation.

    PubMed

    Qassid, Omar; Ali, Ahmed; Thway, Khin

    2016-09-01

    Synovial sarcoma is a malignant mesenchymal tumor with variable epithelial differentiation, which is defined by the presence of a specific t(X;18)(p11.2;q11.2) chromosomal translocation that generates SS18-SSX fusion oncogenes. Synovial sarcoma typically arises within extremity deep soft tissue (particularly around large joints) of young adults, but has been shown to occur at almost any location. When it arises in more unusual sites, such as the abdomen, it can present a significant diagnostic challenge. We describe a case of intraabdominal monophasic synovial sarcoma that immunohistochemically showed strong expression of smooth muscle actin and calponin but only very scanty cytokeratin, and which showed morphologic and immunohistochemical overlap with other spindle cell neoplasms that can arise at this site, such as gastrointestinal stromal tumor and myofibrosarcoma. As correct diagnosis is of clinical and prognostic importance, surgical pathologists should be aware of the potential for synovial sarcoma to occur at a variety of anatomic sites and of its spectrum of immunoreactivity. Synovial sarcoma should be in the differential diagnosis of spindle cell neoplasms with myoid differentiation that do not fall into any definite tumor category, for which there should be a relatively low threshold for performing fluorescence in situ hybridization or reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction to assess for the specific SS18 gene rearrangement or SS18-SSX fusion transcripts, which remain the diagnostic gold standard. PMID:27106779

  15. Synovial plicae of the knee

    SciTech Connect

    Apple, J.S.; Martinez, S.; Daffner, R.H.; Gehweiler, J.A.; Hardaker, W.T.

    1982-01-01

    This report describes the anatomy, patho-physiology, clinical, and radiographic findings, and treatment of the synovial plicae of the knee joint. The suprapatellar plica is a synovial fold present in the suprapatellar pouch of the knee joint in approximately 20% of the population. This fold may become symptomatic after injury and cause symptoms similar to other common internal derangements of the knee. Double contrast arthrography of the knee can be used to identify the presence of plicae. Although arthrography can identify the presence of a plica, its clinical significance requires close correlation with symptoms and an accurate clinical examination.

  16. Extra and Intra-articular Synovial Chondromatosis.

    PubMed

    Chaudhary, R K; Banskota, B; Rijal, S; Banskota, A K

    2015-01-01

    Synovial chondromatosis is not so rare intra-articular condition secondary to synovial metaplasia, that affects the knee joint. Extra-articular synovial chondromatosis however is an extremely rare condition that usually involves the synovial sheath or bursa of the foot or hand. We present two cases of synovial chondromatosis, one intra and one extra-articular. The first case was a 25 year old lady who presented with pain, swelling and restricted range of motion of left knee and was found to have an intra-articular synovial chondromatosis which was treated successfully by joint debridement. The second case was that of a 22 year old man who presented with right knee pain and was diagnosed to have an extra-articular synovial chondromatosis of his right medial hamstring tendon sheath, excision of which resulted in complete relief of symptoms. PMID:27549506

  17. Synovial Sarcoma Associated With Indwelling Intramedullary Pin in a Peach-Faced Lovebird (Agapornis roseicollis).

    PubMed

    Nakano, Yumiko; Une, Yumi

    2016-03-01

    Sarcoma developing in association with a metallic orthopedic procedure is an uncommon but well-recognized complication in mammals. We report on a synovial sarcoma that developed at the site of an intramedullary pin after surgery to treat a bone fracture. A 17-year-old female peach-faced lovebird (Agapornis roseicollis) developed a spherical mass on the distal right dorsal wing at a site that was previously fractured and surgically repaired with an indwelling intramedullary pin. The right wing was amputated at the scapulohumeral joint. One year later, the bird died. Postmortem examination revealed metastases in the right lung, left thoracic wall, and proventricular serosa. Histologically, the tumor had a characteristic biphasic pattern. The tumor was immunohistologically and ultrastructurally identified as a synovial sarcoma. This is the first report of a suspected fracture-associated sarcoma in a bird. PMID:27088741

  18. Giant primary synovial sarcoma of the anterior mediastinum: A case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Ukekwe, F I; Ezemba, N; Olusina, D B; Igbokwe, U; Ngene, C

    2016-01-01

    Primary synovial sarcoma is a very rare tumor of the mediastinum, which is unreported in the entire subcontinent of West Africa, and presents daunting challenges from diagnosis to management with lack of standard management strategies. We present a case of primary monophasic synovial sarcoma of the anterior mediastinum, in a 22-year-old Nigerian lady who presented with cough, chest pain, and pleural effusion. Chest X-ray (CXR) and computed tomography on admission showed a left-sided huge mass in the left anterior mediastinum with no metastasis to the contralateral pleural cavity. Complete resection of the mediastinal tumor was done and histologic and immunohistochemical analyses confirmed a diagnosis of monophasic synovial sarcoma. However, 10 months postoperation she represented with chest pain, productive cough and a repeat CXR showed multiple left pulmonary nodules. She received two cycles of docetaxel and gemcitabine chemotherapy, but declined further treatment until her demise 8 months later. PMID:26856298

  19. Synovial fluid analysis by ferrography.

    PubMed

    Evans, C H; Bowen, E R; Bowen, J; Tew, W P; Westcott, V C

    1980-01-01

    Ferrography is a technique for magnetically harvesting and separating metallic particles from aqueous and non-aqueous suspensions. We have adapted this method of analysis to the study of cartilaginous and osseous wear particles, as well as fragments of soft tissue, found in the synovial fluid of human joints. As ferrography employes magnetism to harvest particles and arrange them in an orderly fashion, it is first necessary to impart a positive magnetic susceptibility to the biological materials. The trivalent paramagnetic cation of the rare earth element erbium is used for this purpose. Based on this principle, a method for the ferrographic analysis of synovial fluid has been devised, which is presently being employed in the study of human joint disease. Using this technique, improved diagnosis of arthritis may be possible. In addition, it may lead to a deeper understanding of the aetiology and pathogenesis of degenerative arthritis and other destructive joint diseases. PMID:7419857

  20. [Therapeutic options for synovial sarcoma].

    PubMed

    Deme, Dániel; Telekes, András

    2015-05-31

    Synovial sarcomas account for approximately 5 to 10% of soft tissue sarcomas and 0.05 to 0.1% of all malignant neoplasms. They predominantly affect the extremities but can occur in any part of the body. More than 50% of the patients are expected to develop metastatic disease within 3-5 years. In some patients disease recurrence may develop after 20 years. The 5-year overall survival rate is 10% for patients with metastatic disease and 76% for patients with localized one. Age, tumour size, histological subtype, and adjuvant radiotherapy influence prognosis. The role of adjuvant chemotherapy has not been proven yet. There are several ongoing clinical trials to determine the efficacy of active agents used for therapy of locally advanced, relapsed/refractory or metastatic disease. Better understanding of the biological behaviour of synovial sarcomas would provide the future way for the targeted therapy in combination with conventional treatments. PMID:26004546

  1. Synovial sarcoma of the foot.

    PubMed

    Bekarev, Mikhail; Elsinger, Elisabeth C; Villanueva-Siles, Esperanza; Borzykowski, Ross M; Geller, David S

    2013-01-01

    We report the case of a 75-year-old male who underwent lung lobectomy for presumed lung cancer. Thereafter, he presented with a painful mass between the third and fourth metatarsal heads in the foot that was assumed to be Morton's neuroma. After extensive oncologic evaluation, the foot mass was diagnosed as a synovial sarcoma. In retrospect, his lung lesion was understood to be metastatic disease. PMID:23632071

  2. Biphasic flow-volume loop in granulomatosis with polyangiitis related unilateral bronchus obstruction.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Abhinav; Sahni, Sonu; Marder, Galina; Shah, Rakesh; Talwar, Arunabh

    2016-07-01

    Spirometry flow-volume measurement is used routinely in the outpatient setting to rule out obstructive lung diseases. Biphasic flow-volume loop is a classic presentation of unilateral bronchial stenosis due to multiple etiologies and it should raise clinical suspicion. Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) is a systemic inflammatory condition with pulmonary manifestations that may be infiltrative (e.g., pneumonia), hemorrhagic, and may rarely cause bronchial stenosis. Herein, we present a case of GPA-related, bronchial obstruction that caused biphasic flow-volume loop along with a literature review. PMID:27424828

  3. [Synovial tumors and tumor-like lesions].

    PubMed

    Doepfer, A-K; Meurer, A

    2015-10-01

    Synovial tumors comprise a variety of lesions, including those with benign and aggressive neoplastic changes as well as inflammatory causes. In this article we focus on neoplastic tumors. Synovial tumors with other etiologies, such as sarcoidosis, granuloma, synovitis, or gouty arthritis, are not dealt with here. Through a precise differentiation between these disease entities can an optimization of treatment be achieved. PMID:26370407

  4. Synovial Sarcoma Mimicking Myositis Ossificans.

    PubMed

    Balik, Mehmet Sabri; Erkut, Adem; Guvercin, Yılmaz; Bedir, Recep

    2016-09-01

    A calcification mass was incidentally found in the soft tissue of a patient who had a history of trauma to the extremity during examination. The patient had no symptom. The pathological analysis of the mass revealed it was an early-phase synovial sarcoma (SS). The diagnosis was made before the onset of symptoms and proper surgical intervention was performed. Therefore, in case of a <1 cm lesion clinically suspicious of myositis ossificans, SS should be taken into consideration as a possible diagnosis. PMID:27595081

  5. Synovial Sarcoma Mimicking Myositis Ossificans

    PubMed Central

    Erkut, Adem; Guvercin, Yılmaz; Bedir, Recep

    2016-01-01

    A calcification mass was incidentally found in the soft tissue of a patient who had a history of trauma to the extremity during examination. The patient had no symptom. The pathological analysis of the mass revealed it was an early-phase synovial sarcoma (SS). The diagnosis was made before the onset of symptoms and proper surgical intervention was performed. Therefore, in case of a <1 cm lesion clinically suspicious of myositis ossificans, SS should be taken into consideration as a possible diagnosis. PMID:27595081

  6. Pulmonary hypertension

    MedlinePlus

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension; Sporadic primary pulmonary hypertension; Familial primary pulmonary hypertension; Idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension; Primary pulmonary hypertension; PPH; Secondary pulmonary ...

  7. SYNOVIAL GIANT CELL TUMOR OF THE KNEE

    PubMed Central

    Abdalla, Rene Jorge; Cohen, Moisés; Nóbrega, Jezimar; Forgas, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Synovial giant cell tumor is a benign neoplasm, rarely reported in the form of malignant metastasis. Synovial giant cell tumor most frequently occurs on the hand, and, most uncommon, on the ankle and knee. In the present study, the authors describe a rare case of synovial giant cell tumor on the knee as well as the treatment approach. Arthroscopy has been shown, in this case, to be the optimal method for treating this kind of lesion, once it allowed a less aggressive approach, while providing good visualization of all compartments of knee joint and full tumor resection. PMID:27004193

  8. Bursal synovial chondromatosis formation following osteochondroma resection.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yu-Ching; Goldsmith, Jeffrey D; Gebhardt, Mark G; Wu, Jim S

    2014-07-01

    Osteochondroma is a common tumor of the bone and can be complicated by adventitial bursa formation and malignant transformation of the cartilaginous cap. Synovial chondromatosis formation within these bursae is extremely rare and can be confused with malignant transformation of the osteochondroma cap to a chondrosarcoma. We describe a case of extra-articular synovial chondromatosis formation several years following osteochondroma resection. Cartilage nodule formation within the bursal synovial lining and proliferation of cartilage debris shed from the cartilaginous cap during surgery or biopsy are potential etiologies of this rare complication of osteochondromas. PMID:24453028

  9. Bone scintigraphic demonstration of synovial chondromatosis

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, R.; Hulsey, J.M.

    1987-02-01

    Markedly increased periarticular Tc-99m diphosphonate uptake around the knee is described in a patient found to have synovial chondromatosis. The pathophysiology and possible causes of bone tracer uptake in this cartilaginous disorder are discussed.

  10. Uncalcified Synovial Chondromatosis in the Pisotriquetral Joint.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyo-Kon; Ha, Sung-Han; Lee, Gi-Jun; Yu, Sun-O; Kim, Jung-Rae

    2015-09-01

    Synovial chondromatosis is a rare lesion in the wrist, but some cases in the distal radioulnar joint have been reported and previous case reports emphasize joint calcifications, shown on preoperative plain radiographs. We report an extremely uncommon case of synovial chondromatosis in the pisotriquetral joint, in which radiographs and magnetic resonance imaging did not demonstrate apparent calcified bodies. In our case, for the accurate diagnosis and treatment, surgical exploration of the joint and synovectomy with removal of loose bodies was performed. PMID:26330969

  11. Odyssey of an elbow synovial chondromatosis.

    PubMed

    Sachinis, Nikolaos P; Sinopidis, Chris; Baliaka, Aggeliki; Givissis, Panagiotis

    2015-01-01

    Synovial chondromatosis of the elbow is an uncommon condition. However, a chondrosarcoma arising from the former is remarkably rare. The authors report a case of an elbow chondrosarcoma secondary to synovial chondromatosis in a 38-year-old woman. Before the development of chondrosarcoma, the patient underwent 3 operations and 3 sessions of radiosynovectomy because of continuous recurrence of synovial chondromatosis on the left elbow. After the last radiosynovectomy, magnetic resonance imaging and biopsy showed a grade II chondrosarcoma secondary to synovial chondromatosis. The patient underwent further surgery and custom-made arthroplasty because of aseptic loosening of the prosthesis. Four months after the last intervention, 3 subcutaneous nodes appeared on the patient's elbow and were histologically found to be a recurrence of chondrosarcoma (grade III). Amputation by disarticulation of the shoulder was performed in addition to biopsy of another subcutaneous node on the abdomen. The biopsy showed metastasis of chondrosarcoma. At final follow-up, the patient had lung metastasis 7 years after the initial diagnosis. A reason for the manifestation of primary synovial chondromatosis and its progression to chondrosarcoma has not been found. Synovial chondromatosis progressing to chondrosarcoma in the elbow was reported in only 1 case, with no clear initial diagnosis. The role of radiosynovectomy in the development of chondrosarcoma is unknown, and no reports have described the treatment of elbow synovial chondromatosis. Although synovial chondromatosis is benign, its metaplastic nature is a marker of possible malignancy, especially with signs of recurrence and aggression. The role of radiosynovectomy in malignant changes should be examined in future studies. PMID:25611422

  12. Articular synovial chondromatosis of the finger.

    PubMed

    Sano, Kazufumi; Hashimoto, Tomohisa; Kimura, Kazumasa; Ozeki, Satoru

    2014-10-01

    A 40-year-old woman presented with a six-month history of synovial chondromatosis of the metacarpophalangeal joint of the right ring finger, which was resected through both dorsal and volar incisions. To our knowledge there have been only 17 reported cases of articular synovial chondromatosis of the digital joint so far. We present a case affecting the metacarpophalangeal joint with a review of scattered information found in other 17 reports. PMID:23596991

  13. Uncalcified Synovial Chondromatosis in the Pisotriquetral Joint

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyo-Kon; Lee, Gi-Jun; Yu, Sun-O; Kim, Jung-Rae

    2015-01-01

    Synovial chondromatosis is a rare lesion in the wrist, but some cases in the distal radioulnar joint have been reported and previous case reports emphasize joint calcifications, shown on preoperative plain radiographs. We report an extremely uncommon case of synovial chondromatosis in the pisotriquetral joint, in which radiographs and magnetic resonance imaging did not demonstrate apparent calcified bodies. In our case, for the accurate diagnosis and treatment, surgical exploration of the joint and synovectomy with removal of loose bodies was performed. PMID:26330969

  14. Cubital Tunnel Syndrome, Associated With Synovial Chondromatosis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Chang-Hwan; Kim, Min-Soo; Chang, Chul-Hoon

    2008-01-01

    A 62-year-old female patient suffered from numbness and resting pain in the right ring and little fingers for 3 years. We confirmed cubital tunnel syndrome with electrodiagnostic study and performed the operation. We found seven firm consistent nodules, compressing the overlying the ulnar nerve, proximal to the medial epicondyle in the operation field. Histological finding showed synovial chondromatosis. We report a rare case of a patient with cubital tunnel syndrome caused by synovial chondromatosis. PMID:19096614

  15. Biphasic nature of gastric emptying.

    PubMed

    Siegel, J A; Urbain, J L; Adler, L P; Charkes, N D; Maurer, A H; Krevsky, B; Knight, L C; Fisher, R S; Malmud, L S

    1988-01-01

    The existence of a lag phase during the gastric emptying of solid foods is controversial. It has been hypothesised that among other early events, the stomach requires a period of time to process solid food to particles small enough to be handled as a liquid. At present no standardised curve fitting techniques exist for the characterisation and quantification of the lag phase or the emptying rate of solids and liquids. We have evaluated the ability of a modified power exponential function to define the emptying parameters of two different solid meals. Dual labelled meals were administered to 24 normal volunteers. The subjects received meals consisting of either Tc-99m in vivo labelled chicken liver or Tc-99m-egg, which have different densities, and In-111-DTPA in water. The emptying curves were biphasic in nature. For solids, this represented an initial delay in emptying or lag phase followed by an equilibrium emptying phase characterised by a constant rate of emptying. The curves were analysed using a modified power exponential function of the form y(t) = 1-(1-e-kt)beta, where y(t) is the fractional meal retention at time t, k is the gastric emptying rate in min-1, and beta is the extrapolated y-intercept from the terminal portion of the curve. The length of the lag phase and half-emptying time increased with solid food density (31 +/- 8 min and 77.6 +/- 11.2 min for egg and 62 +/- 16 min and 94.1 +/- 14.2 min for chicken liver, respectively). After the lag phase, both solids had similar emptying rates, and these rates were identical to those of the liquids. In vitro experiments indicated that the egg meal disintegrated much more rapidly than the chicken liver under mechanical agitation in gastric juice, lending further support to the hypothesis that the initial lag in emptying of solid food is due to the processing of food into particles small enough to pass the pylorus. We conclude that the modified power exponential model permits characterisation of the biphasic

  16. Biphasic cardiovascular and respiratory effects induced by β-citronellol.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro-Filho, Helder Veras; de Souza Silva, Camila Meirelles; de Siqueira, Rodrigo JoséBezerra; Lahlou, Saad; dos Santos, Armênio Aguiar; Magalhães, Pedro Jorge Caldas

    2016-03-15

    β-Citronellol is a monoterpene found in the essential oil of various plants with antihypertensive properties. In fact, β-citronellol possesses hypotensive actions due to its vasodilator abilities. Here we aimed to show that β-citronellol recruits airway sensory neural circuitry to evoke cardiorespiratory effects. In anesthetized rats, intravenous injection of β-citronellol caused biphasic hypotension, bradycardia and apnea. Bilateral vagotomy, perivagal capsaicin treatment or injection into the left ventricle abolished first rapid phase (named P1) but not delayed phase P2 of the β-citronellol effects. P1 persisted after pretreatment with capsazepine, ondansetron, HC-030031 or suramin. Suramin abolished P2 of apnea. In awake rats, β-citronellol induced biphasic hypotension and bradycardia being P1 abolished by methylatropine. In vitro, β-citronellol inhibited spontaneous or electrically-evoked contractions of rat isolated right or left atrium, respectively, and fully relaxed sustained contractions of phenylephrine in mesenteric artery rings. In conclusion, chemosensitive pulmonary vagal afferent fibers appear to mediate the cardiovascular and respiratory effects of β-citronellol. The transduction mechanism in P1 seems not to involve the activation of transient receptor potential vanilloid subtype 1 (TRPV1), transient receptor potential ankyrin subtype 1 (TRPA1), purinergic (P2X) or 5-HT3 receptors located on airways sensory nerves. P2 of hypotension and bradycardia seems resulting from a cardioinhibitory and vasodilatory effect of β-citronellol and the apnea from a purinergic signaling. PMID:26872991

  17. Biphasic calcium phosphate in periapical surgery

    PubMed Central

    Suneelkumar, Chinni; Datta, Krithika; Srinivasan, Manali R; Kumar, Sampath T

    2008-01-01

    Calcium phosphate ceramics like hydroxyapatite and β -tricalcium phosphate (β -TCP) possess mineral composition that closely resembles that of the bone. They can be good bone substitutes due to their excellent biocompatibility. Biphasic calcium phosphate is a bone substitute which is a mixture of hydroxyapatite and β -tricalcium phosphate in fixed ratios. Studies have demonstrated the osteoconductive potential of this composition. This paper highlights the clinical use of biphasic calcium phosphate as a bone substitute in periapical surgery. PMID:20142892

  18. Cytolytic activity in T cell clones derived from human synovial rheumatoid membrane: inhibition by synovial fluid.

    PubMed Central

    Miltenburg, A M; Van Laar, J M; De Kuiper, P; Daha, M R; Breedveld, F C

    1990-01-01

    A panel of T cell clones was derived from the synovial membrane of a patient with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We investigated whether T cell clones with cytolytic properties were present and whether T cell cytotoxicity was influenced by the presence of synovial fluid. These issues were studied using anti-CD3 and lectin-induced cytotoxicity assays. The majority of the T cell clones derived from the synovial membrane showed cytotoxic properties although non-cytotoxic clones were also found. Three clones (N11, N6 and N15) showed strong cytotoxicity (more than 40% lysis at an effector-to-target cell ratio of 10:1) whereas three clones (N16, N4 and N14) were non-cytotoxic (less than 20% lysis at an effector-to-target cell ratio of 10:1). The induction of cytotoxicity in the anti-CD3-driven system was shown to be dependent on the dose of anti-CD3 present. When synovial fluid was added to these assays a strong inhibition of cytotoxicity was found. This inhibition of cytotoxicity was found with synovial fluid samples of RA patients, as well as with non-RA synovial fluids. Both anti-CD3 and lectin-dependent cytotoxicity assays were strongly inhibited. In conclusion, T cell clones with cytotoxic activity can be isolated from rheumatoid synovial membrane. In the presence of synovial fluid these cytotoxic cells are inhibited to exert their cytotoxic function. PMID:2148285

  19. Acute Biphasic Effects of Ayahuasca

    PubMed Central

    Schenberg, Eduardo Ekman; Alexandre, João Felipe Morel; Filev, Renato; Cravo, Andre Mascioli; Sato, João Ricardo; Muthukumaraswamy, Suresh D.; Yonamine, Maurício; Waguespack, Marian; Lomnicka, Izabela; Barker, Steven A.; da Silveira, Dartiu Xavier

    2015-01-01

    Ritual use of ayahuasca, an amazonian Amerindian medicine turned sacrament in syncretic religions in Brazil, is rapidly growing around the world. Because of this internationalization, a comprehensive understanding of the pharmacological mechanisms of action of the brew and the neural correlates of the modified states of consciousness it induces is important. Employing a combination of electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings and quantification of ayahuasca's compounds and their metabolites in the systemic circulation we found ayahuasca to induce a biphasic effect in the brain. This effect was composed of reduced power in the alpha band (8–13 Hz) after 50 minutes from ingestion of the brew and increased slow- and fast-gamma power (30–50 and 50–100 Hz, respectively) between 75 and 125 minutes. Alpha power reductions were mostly located at left parieto-occipital cortex, slow-gamma power increase was observed at left centro-parieto-occipital, left fronto-temporal and right frontal cortices while fast-gamma increases were significant at left centro-parieto-occipital, left fronto-temporal, right frontal and right parieto-occipital cortices. These effects were significantly associated with circulating levels of ayahuasca’s chemical compounds, mostly N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT), harmine, harmaline and tetrahydroharmine and some of their metabolites. An interpretation based on a cognitive and emotional framework relevant to the ritual use of ayahuasca, as well as it's potential therapeutic effects is offered. PMID:26421727

  20. Acute Biphasic Effects of Ayahuasca.

    PubMed

    Schenberg, Eduardo Ekman; Alexandre, João Felipe Morel; Filev, Renato; Cravo, Andre Mascioli; Sato, João Ricardo; Muthukumaraswamy, Suresh D; Yonamine, Maurício; Waguespack, Marian; Lomnicka, Izabela; Barker, Steven A; da Silveira, Dartiu Xavier

    2015-01-01

    Ritual use of ayahuasca, an amazonian Amerindian medicine turned sacrament in syncretic religions in Brazil, is rapidly growing around the world. Because of this internationalization, a comprehensive understanding of the pharmacological mechanisms of action of the brew and the neural correlates of the modified states of consciousness it induces is important. Employing a combination of electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings and quantification of ayahuasca's compounds and their metabolites in the systemic circulation we found ayahuasca to induce a biphasic effect in the brain. This effect was composed of reduced power in the alpha band (8-13 Hz) after 50 minutes from ingestion of the brew and increased slow- and fast-gamma power (30-50 and 50-100 Hz, respectively) between 75 and 125 minutes. Alpha power reductions were mostly located at left parieto-occipital cortex, slow-gamma power increase was observed at left centro-parieto-occipital, left fronto-temporal and right frontal cortices while fast-gamma increases were significant at left centro-parieto-occipital, left fronto-temporal, right frontal and right parieto-occipital cortices. These effects were significantly associated with circulating levels of ayahuasca's chemical compounds, mostly N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT), harmine, harmaline and tetrahydroharmine and some of their metabolites. An interpretation based on a cognitive and emotional framework relevant to the ritual use of ayahuasca, as well as it's potential therapeutic effects is offered. PMID:26421727

  1. A chemotactic inhibitor in synovial fluid.

    PubMed Central

    Matzner, Y; Partridge, R E; Babior, B M

    1983-01-01

    Synovial fluid was found to contain an inhibitor of neutrophil chemotaxis. The activity of this inhibitor was masked in native synovial fluid, but could be detected in fluid in which complement had been deactivated by mild heating. The inhibitor was most effective against the chemotactic activity of zymosan-activated serum (C5ades arg). It had little effect when N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine served as chemoattractant. Inhibition was not the result of a direct effect on the neutrophils, since incubation of cells with synovial fluid did not alter their chemotactic response. The inhibitory activity was destroyed by boiling the synovial fluid or treating it with trypsin, suggesting that it is a protein (or proteins); it was not affected by hyaluronidase treatment. Gel filtration revealed that the inhibitor was present in native as well as decomplemented synovial fluid, and that its molecular weight was in the vicinity of 25,000. It is proposed that this inhibitory activity plays a role in the regulation of the inflammatory response in joints. PMID:6840801

  2. Primary Synovial Sarcoma of Lung: A Rare Tumor

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Parveen; Sarin, Yogesh Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Synovial sarcoma of lung is a rare tumor with few case reports in literature. Though named synovial sarcoma due to its resemblance to synovium on light microscopy, it arises from mesenchymal tissue. Here, we present a case of synovial sarcoma of lung in a 7-year old boy, with main emphasis on difficulty faced in the management. PMID:27170917

  3. Primary Synovial Sarcoma of Lung: A Rare Tumor.

    PubMed

    Raj, Prince; Kumar, Parveen; Sarin, Yogesh Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Synovial sarcoma of lung is a rare tumor with few case reports in literature. Though named synovial sarcoma due to its resemblance to synovium on light microscopy, it arises from mesenchymal tissue. Here, we present a case of synovial sarcoma of lung in a 7-year old boy, with main emphasis on difficulty faced in the management. PMID:27170917

  4. Synovial chondromatosis caused mechanical snapping elbow: a case report.

    PubMed

    Karaman, Ibrahim; Guney, Ahmet; Dogar, Fatih; Oner, Mithat; Bılal, Okkes

    2015-01-01

    Synovial chondromatosis is a rare and benign proliferative disorder of the synovial membrane in joints and bursae. Herein, we present the case of a 34-year-old male with synovial chondromatosis that caused limitation in the elbow joint in terms of mechanical function. PMID:26185473

  5. Synovial chondromatosis caused mechanical snapping elbow: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Karaman, Ibrahim; Guney, Ahmet; Dogar, Fatih; Oner, Mithat; Bılal, Okkes

    2015-01-01

    Synovial chondromatosis is a rare and benign proliferative disorder of the synovial membrane in joints and bursae. Herein, we present the case of a 34-year-old male with synovial chondromatosis that caused limitation in the elbow joint in terms of mechanical function. PMID:26185473

  6. Extradural spinal synovial cysts in nine dogs.

    PubMed

    Dickinson, P J; Sturges, B K; Berry, W L; Vernau, K M; Koblik, P D; Lecouteur, R A

    2001-10-01

    Nine dogs presenting for investigation of cervical or thoracolumbar myelopathies were diagnosed with extradural spinal synovial cysts. Degenerative disease affecting the articular facets or intervertebral discs was present on plain spinal radiographs in all cases. Myelography was consistent with dorsolateral, extradural spinal cord compression. Two groups of dogs were identified: (1) young, giant breed dogs with multiple cysts involving one or more levels of the cervical spinal cord; and (2) older, large breed dogs with solitary cysts involving the thoracolumbar spinal cord. The synovial cysts constituted the major compressive lesions in four of the dogs. Analysis of lumbar cerebrospinal fluid demonstrated albuminocytological dissociation, consistent with chronic compressive myelopathy, in six dogs. All dogs underwent decompressive surgery and the diagnosis of synovial cysts was confirmed histologically. The mean follow-up period was 17 months (range four to 36 months). At the time of follow-up, all dogs were fully ambulatory with improved neurological function compared with that at initial presentation. PMID:11688527

  7. Synovial Lipomatosis of the Glenohumeral Joint

    PubMed Central

    Safran, Ori

    2016-01-01

    Synovial lipomatosis (also known as lipoma arborescens) is a rare and benign lesion affecting synovium-lined cavities. It is characterized by hyperplasia of mature fat tissue in the subsynovial layer. Although the most commonly affected site is the knee joint, rarely additional locations such as tendon sheath and other joints are involved. We present a case of synovial lipomatosis of the glenohumeral joint in a 44-year-old man. The clinical data radiological studies and histopathologic results are described, as well as a review of the current literature. PMID:27563476

  8. Stimulation of human rheumatoid synovial cells by non-lethal complement membrane attack.

    PubMed Central

    Daniels, R H; Houston, W A; Petersen, M M; Williams, J D; Williams, B D; Morgan, B P

    1990-01-01

    The effects of non-lethal complement attack on cultured human rheumatoid synovial cells have been investigated by measuring a variety of parameters. Within 3-4 min of initiating non-lethal complement membrane attack there was a rise in reactive oxygen metabolite release from cultured synovial cells, which slowly returned to basal levels over a period of 45 min. The response was dependent on the formation of the complete C5b-9 complex. Prostaglandin E2 was also released during non-lethal attack in a biphasic manner, an early phase of release occurring within the first hour and a second, larger phase commencing at 4 hr and rising to levels of over 1000 ng/10(6) cells at 24 hr, compared to control levels at this time of less than 100 ng/10(6) cells. This response was dependent on the formation of the C5b-8 complex but did not require C9. Removal of extracellular calcium reduced release of prostaglandin E2 to background levels, and inclusion of an inhibitor of protein synthesis abolished the second phase of release but not the first phase. Non-lethal attack caused release of small amounts of leukotriene B4 but no detectable release of tumour necrosis factor. PMID:2155179

  9. Hyaluronan and synovial joint: function, distribution and healing

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Synovial fluid is a viscous solution found in the cavities of synovial joints. The principal role of synovial fluid is to reduce friction between the articular cartilages of synovial joints during movement. The presence of high molar mass hyaluronan (HA) in this fluid gives it the required viscosity for its function as lubricant solution. Inflammation oxidation stress enhances normal degradation of hyaluronan causing several diseases related to joints. This review describes hyaluronan properties and distribution, applications and its function in synovial joints, with short review for using thiol compounds as antioxidants preventing HA degradations under inflammation conditions. PMID:24678248

  10. A neglected case of giant synovial chondromatosis in knee joint.

    PubMed

    Serbest, Sancar; Tiftikçi, Ugur; Karaaslan, Fatih; Tosun, Haci Bayram; Sevinç, Hüseyin Fatih; Balci, Mahi

    2015-01-01

    Synovial chondromatosis is a rare benign condition arising from the synovial membrane of the joints, synovial sheaths or bursae around the joints. Primary synovial chondromatosis typically affects the large joints in the third to fifth decade of life. The purpose of this case report is to document this rare synovial pathology, which required open synovectomy and debridement to eradicate it. In our case, the biggest sized SOC was 20x19x6 cm, although there were many joint mice. Our case had the biggest SOC ever extracted, which to the best of my knowledge has not been reported earlier. PMID:26600905

  11. A neglected case of giant synovial chondromatosis in knee joint

    PubMed Central

    Serbest, Sancar; Tiftikçi, Ugur; Karaaslan, Fatih; Tosun, Haci Bayram; Sevinç, Hüseyin Fatih; Balci, Mahi

    2015-01-01

    Synovial chondromatosis is a rare benign condition arising from the synovial membrane of the joints, synovial sheaths or bursae around the joints. Primary synovial chondromatosis typically affects the large joints in the third to fifth decade of life. The purpose of this case report is to document this rare synovial pathology, which required open synovectomy and debridement to eradicate it. In our case, the biggest sized SOC was 20x19x6 cm, although there were many joint mice. Our case had the biggest SOC ever extracted, which to the best of my knowledge has not been reported earlier. PMID:26600905

  12. Molecular Characterization of Synovial Sarcoma in Children and Adolescents: Evidence of Akt Activation1

    PubMed Central

    Bozzi, Fabio; Ferrari, Andrea; Negri, Tiziana; Conca, Elena; Luca, Da Riva; Losa, Marco; Casieri, Paola; Orsenigo, Marta; Lampis, Andrea; Meazza, Cristina; Casanova, Michela; Pierotti, Marco A; Tamborini, Elena; Pilotti, Silvana

    2008-01-01

    Synovial sarcoma (SS) is the most frequent nonrhabdomyosarcomatous soft tissue sarcoma encountered in adolescents and young adults, and despite advances in the treatment of local disease, metastases remain the main cause of death. The aim of this study was to characterize a single-center series of pediatric SS molecularly to seek any biomarkers or pathways that might make suitable targets for new agents. Seventeen cases of pediatric SS showing the SYT-SSX fusion transcript were screened immunohistochemically, biochemically, molecularly, and cytogenetically (depending on the available material) to investigate any expression/activation of epidermal growth factor receptor, platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha (PDGFRα), PDGFRβ, Akt, and deregulated Wnt pathway. The most relevant outcome was the finding of activated epidermal growth factor receptor, PDGFRα, and PDGFRβ, which activated Akt in both the monophasic and biphasic histologic subtypes. Consistently, Akt activation was completely abolished in an SS cell line assay when stimulated by PDGF-AA and treated with the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor LY294002. Our results also showed the nuclear localization of β-catenin and cyclin D1 gene products in monophasic SS and the movement of β-catenin into the cytoplasm in the glandular component of the biphasic subtype. Although they need to be confirmed in larger series, these preliminary data suggest that therapeutic strategies including specific inhibitors of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt pathway might be exploited in SS. PMID:18633459

  13. Proteomic analysis of human osteoarthritis synovial fluid

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Osteoarthritis is a chronic musculoskeletal disorder characterized mainly by progressive degradation of the hyaline cartilage. Patients with osteoarthritis often postpone seeking medical help, which results in the diagnosis being made at an advanced stage of cartilage destruction. Sustained efforts are needed to identify specific markers that might help in early diagnosis, monitoring disease progression and in improving therapeutic outcomes. We employed a multipronged proteomic approach, which included multiple fractionation strategies followed by high resolution mass spectrometry analysis to explore the proteome of synovial fluid obtained from osteoarthritis patients. In addition to the total proteome, we also enriched glycoproteins from synovial fluid using lectin affinity chromatography. Results We identified 677 proteins from synovial fluid of patients with osteoarthritis of which 545 proteins have not been previously reported. These novel proteins included ADAM-like decysin 1 (ADAMDEC1), alanyl (membrane) aminopeptidase (ANPEP), CD84, fibulin 1 (FBLN1), matrix remodelling associated 5 (MXRA5), secreted phosphoprotein 2 (SPP2) and spondin 2 (SPON2). We identified 300 proteins using lectin affinity chromatography, including the glycoproteins afamin (AFM), attractin (ATRN), fibrillin 1 (FBN1), transferrin (TF), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP1) and vasorin (VSN). Gene ontology analysis confirmed that a majority of the identified proteins were extracellular and are mostly involved in cell communication and signaling. We also confirmed the expression of ANPEP, dickkopf WNT signaling pathway inhibitor 3 (DKK3) and osteoglycin (OGN) by multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) analysis of osteoarthritis synovial fluid samples. Conclusions We present an in-depth analysis of the synovial fluid proteome from patients with osteoarthritis. We believe that the catalog of proteins generated in this study will further enhance our knowledge regarding the

  14. Synovial sarcoma presenting as a lung mass and diagnosed by cytology.

    PubMed

    Pyden, Alexander D; Lin, Xiaoqi

    2016-05-01

    Synovial sarcoma is a common soft tissue sarcoma with variable fibrous and epithelial differentiation that rarely arises from other body sites, such as within the lung. A case of a 68-year-old male with an extensive smoking history who presented with chest pain and a primary, central, metabolically active lung mass was reported. The mass was biopsied by bronchial brushing, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), and transbronchial fine-needle aspiration (FNA). Cytologic analysis of bronchial brushing, BAL, and FNA revealed single and clusters of atypical spindle cells, oval, or spindle-shaped nuclei with smooth nuclear membranes, hyperchromatic and granular chromatin, scant to moderate and delicate cytoplasm, a high degree of mitotic figures, and a lack of necrosis. Immunohistochemical studies showed that the tumor cells were positive for CD99, BCL2, and CK7. A diagnosis of synovial sarcoma was rendered. The differential diagnosis of primary pulmonary synovial sarcoma is discussed, including neuroendocrine tumors, squamous cell carcinoma, and various sarcomatous tumors. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2016;44:434-437. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26875702

  15. Attempts to identify viruses in rheumatoid synovial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Norval, M; Marmion, B P

    1976-01-01

    Synovial fibroblast cell strains derived from the synovial membranes of 7 patients with rheumatoid arthritis were examined for the presence of viruses, in particular leucoviruses. Seven similar synovial strains derived from patients with other arthritic conditions were used as a control group. Evidence of the presence of a virus or a viral genome was looked for by several methods of induction followed by 3H-uridine labelling of the cultures. In addition, the culture supernatant, after induction and after the synovial strains had been co-cultivated with a variety of cell lines from several species, was assayed for the presence of viral RNA-dependent DNA polymerase activity. The DNA-polymerase activity of the synovial cells themselves was also determined. No evidence was found by any of these techniques to indicate the presence of virus or viral information within the synovial fibroblasts. Images PMID:60087

  16. Cartilage extracellular matrix metabolism differs in serum and synovial fluid.

    PubMed

    Martin, James A; Wilkey, Andrew L; Brand, Richard A

    2002-01-01

    Most cartilage explant culture studies assume conventional serum-supplemented growth media are biologically equivalent to the natural synovial fluid which baths cartilage in vivo. Few studies have systematically compared the effects of serum versus synovial fluid in culture. To address this assumption we conducted a series of studies to determine if cartilage matrix synthesis is significantly different in serum-based versus synovial fluid-based media. Normal bovine cartilage explants were cultured in DMEM either alone or supplemented with bovine serum or bovine synovial fluid. Matrix synthesis was measured with radiolabeling techniques. We then compared responses to insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I, a stimulator of matrix synthesis), and interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta, an inhibitor of matrix synthesis). We observed significantly lower matrix synthesis activity in synovial fluid versus serum. Caution shoud be used in extrapolating studies of cartilage grown in media supplemented with serum rather than synovial fluid. PMID:12843702

  17. Femoral neck erosions: sign of hip joint synovial disease

    SciTech Connect

    Goldberg, R.P.; Weissman, B.N.; Naimark, A.

    1983-07-01

    Pathologic synovial processes in the hip joint can cause characteristic extrinsic erosions of the femoral neck, which in extreme cases produce an ''apple core'' appearance. Nine such cases of synovial diseases, including synovial osteochondromatosis, pigmented villonodular synovitis, rheumatoid arthritis, and amyloidosis, that demonstrate this radiographic finding are presented. The anatomic relations of the hip joint that result in theis appearance, differential diagnosis, and radiographic techniques useful in diagnosis are discussed.

  18. Recurrent synovial chondromatosis of the distal interphalangeal joint: case report.

    PubMed

    Craft, Randall O; Smith, Anthony A; Duncan, Scott F M

    2009-02-01

    A 59-year-old woman presented with recurrent synovial chondromatosis of the distal interphalangeal joint at the site of removal of what was thought to be a ganglion cyst in 2003 and the subsequent excision of a recurrent synovial chondromatosis in 2005. Although synovial chondromatosis is typically described as a benign, self-limiting process, recurrent disease and local erosion of the joint of this patient required wide excision with bone grafting and arthrodesis for definitive treatment. PMID:19181231

  19. Metal separations using aqueous biphasic partitioning systems

    SciTech Connect

    Chaiko, D.J.; Zaslavsky, B.; Rollins, A.N.; Vojta, Y.; Gartelmann, J.; Mego, W.

    1996-05-01

    Aqueous biphasic extraction (ABE) processes offer the potential for low-cost, highly selective separations. This countercurrent extraction technique involves selective partitioning of either dissolved solutes or ultrafine particulates between two immiscible aqueous phases. The extraction systems that the authors have studied are generated by combining an aqueous salt solution with an aqueous polymer solution. They have examined a wide range of applications for ABE, including the treatment of solid and liquid nuclear wastes, decontamination of soils, and processing of mineral ores. They have also conducted fundamental studies of solution microstructure using small angle neutron scattering (SANS). In this report they review the physicochemical fundamentals of aqueous biphase formation and discuss the development and scaleup of ABE processes for environmental remediation.

  20. Biomimetic biphasic scaffolds for osteochondral defect repair

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xuezhou; Ding, Jianxun; Wang, Jincheng; Zhuang, Xiuli; Chen, Xuesi

    2015-01-01

    The osteochondral defects caused by vigorous trauma or physical disease are difficult to be managed. Tissue engineering provides a possible option to regenerate the damaged osteochondral tissues. For osteochondral reconstruction, one intact scaffold should be considered to support the regeneration of both cartilage and subchondral bone. Therefore, the biphasic scaffolds with the mimic structures of osteochondral tissues have been developed to close this chasm. A variety of biomimetic bilayer scaffolds fabricated from natural or synthetic polymers, or the ones loading with growth factors, cells, or both of them make great progresses in osteochondral defect repair. In this review, the preparation and in vitro and/or in vivo verification of bioinspired biphasic scaffolds are summarized and discussed, as well as the prospect is predicted. PMID:26816644

  1. Synovial sarcoma involving the head: analysis of 36 cases with predilection to the parotid and temporal regions.

    PubMed

    Al-Daraji, Wael; Lasota, Jerzy; Foss, Robert; Miettinen, Markku

    2009-10-01

    Synovial sarcoma involving the head is rare, and data on the clinicopathologic characteristics of such tumors are scant. In this study, we examined 36 synovial sarcomas of the head excluding tumors in the oral cavity, sinonasal tract, submandibular area, neck, and intracranial space. There were 19 men and 17 women with a mean age of 35 years (range: 4 to 85 y). There was a marked predilection for the parotid (n=14) and temporal regions (n=9), and cheek (n=4). Other locations included mastoid area (n=2), infratemporal fossa (n=2), and one each from the supra-auricular scalp, maxillary, submaxillary, mandibular, and nasolabial regions. Histologically, 25 examples were of monophasic type, 10 were biphasic. Five of these cases contained a poorly differentiated Ewing sarcoma-like component and 1 was purely poorly differentiated. Histologically, 9 tumors involved skeletal muscle, 4 parotid gland (focally or in the interlobular septa), and 1 intertrabecular spaces of bone; the others involved subcutis or fascia and rarely skin. The tumor size ranged from 0.6 to 7.0 cm (median: 3.5 cm) and mitotic activity varied from <1 to 85 per 10 high-power fields (HPFs) (median, 6/10 HPFs). Keratin-positive tumor cells were detected in 19 of 19 monophasic and 1 of 1 of poorly differentiated tumors that were examined. SS18 gene rearrangement was confirmed in all 14 cases examined (3 biphasic and 11 monophasic tumors). Follow-up on 29 patients revealed that 11 were alive without disease from 2 to 31 years (median, 14 y). Ten patients died of disease 1 to 18 years after the diagnosis (median, 3 y); most of these patients had a tumor >5 cm and 6 of 10 had mitotic counts >10/10 HPFs. One patient died of an unrelated cause (metastatic melanoma) and 7 died of unknown causes. Four other patients had subsequent malignancies, including carcinomas of the breast, esophagus, rectum, and parotid gland. The latter was possibly radiation-induced, diagnosed 30 years after the synovial sarcoma

  2. Structure and dynamics of biphasic colloidal mixtures.

    PubMed

    Mohraz, Ali; Weeks, Eric R; Lewis, Jennifer A

    2008-06-01

    We investigate the structure and dynamics of biphasic colloidal mixtures composed of coexisting attractive and repulsive microspheres by confocal microscopy. Attractive gels formed in the presence of repulsive microspheres are more spatially homogeneous and, on average, are both more locally tenuous and have fewer large voids than their unary counterparts. The repulsive microspheres within these mixtures display heterogeneous dynamics, with some species exhibiting freely diffusive Brownian motion while others are trapped within the gel network during aggregation. PMID:18643205

  3. Identification of hydroxyapatite crystals in synovial fluid.

    PubMed

    Halverson, P B; McCarty, D J

    1979-04-01

    A semiquantitative technique employing (14C) ethane-1-hydroxy 1, -1-diphosphonate (EHDP) binding has been used to detect crystals, presumably hydroxyapatite, in human synovial fluid samples which were handled to prevent the formation of artifactual mineral phase. Binding material was found in 29% of non-inflammatory and in none of inflammatory joint fluids. Nuclide binding material was strongly correlated with the presence of CPPD crystals and with radiographic evidence of cartilaginous degeneration. PMID:106859

  4. Synovial sarcoma of kidney in a child: A rare presentation.

    PubMed

    Radhakrishnan, Venkatraman; Dhanushkodi, Manikandan; Narayanswamy, Kathiresan; Raja, Anand; Sundersingh, Shirley; Sagar, Tenali

    2016-01-01

    There are no reported cases in the literature of primary renal synovial sarcoma in pediatric patients. The management of renal synovial sarcoma has been extrapolated from the management of soft tissue sarcomas at other sites. We present a 4-year-old female who was suspected to have Wilms' tumor. The patient underwent guided biopsy as she did not respond to neoadjuvant chemotherapy for Wilms' tumor. The biopsy was consistent with primary renal synovial sarcoma. The child was treated with change in her neoadjuvant chemotherapy regimen and surgery. The diagnosis of synovial sarcoma was confirmed by demonstrating the t (X, 18) translocation using polymerase chain reaction. PMID:27046979

  5. A popliteal giant synovial osteochondroma mimicking a parosteal osteosarcoma

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Both giant synovial osteochondroma and parosteal osteosarcoma are rare musculo-skeletal tumors, often localized in the vicinity of the knee. Misdiagnosis of a malignant bone tumor can entail fatal consequences. Etiology of giant synovial osteochondroma is widely unsolved but is believed to originate from synovial chondromatosis, a mostly benign metaplasia of the synovial membrane. Parosteal osteosarcoma is a low-grade surface osteosarcoma with a propensity of local recurrence and the potential of distant metastasis and therefore requiring a different therapeutical approach. We report the case of a popliteal giant osteochondroma mimicking a parosteal osteosarcoma. Relevant facts of this rare entity regarding pathogenesis, treatment, and differential diagnoses will be discussed. PMID:24066980

  6. Atlantoaxial Joint Synovial Cyst: Diagnosis and Percutaneous Treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Velan, Osvaldo; Rabadan, Alejandra; Paganini, Lisandro; Langhi, Luciano

    2008-11-15

    Synovial cysts at the atlantoaxial level are found uncommonly. Lumbar symptomatic cases are treated by percutaneous cyst aspiration with or without corticoid injection or by surgical resection, but synovial cysts at the C1-C2 level are usually treated by surgery. We report here a 92-year-old woman with a retro-odontoid synovial cyst producing spinal cord compression that was treated by percutaneous aspiration of the cyst under CT guidance. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of an atlantoaxial synovial cyst successfully treated with a minimally invasive procedure.

  7. [Synovial sarcoma of the nasal cavity. A case report].

    PubMed

    Acosta Díaz, Hander; Trinidad Ruiz, Gabriel; Rejas, Eladio; Pando, Jesús; Cabrera, J J

    2011-01-01

    Synovial sarcoma is a rare tumour found in soft tissue; it is a mesenchymal spindle cell tumour that is not related to the synovial membrane. This tumour has a low incidence, the most frequent place of occurrence being the lower extremities in young adults. Synovial sarcoma of the head and neck accounts for 3-5% of sarcomas in this anatomical region. The treatment of choice for synovial sarcoma of the head and neck is complete surgical excision of the tumour mass followed by adjuvant radiotherapy. PMID:20466354

  8. Synovial sarcoma of kidney in a child: A rare presentation

    PubMed Central

    Radhakrishnan, Venkatraman; Dhanushkodi, Manikandan; Narayanswamy, Kathiresan; Raja, Anand; Sundersingh, Shirley; Sagar, Tenali

    2016-01-01

    There are no reported cases in the literature of primary renal synovial sarcoma in pediatric patients. The management of renal synovial sarcoma has been extrapolated from the management of soft tissue sarcomas at other sites. We present a 4-year-old female who was suspected to have Wilms’ tumor. The patient underwent guided biopsy as she did not respond to neoadjuvant chemotherapy for Wilms’ tumor. The biopsy was consistent with primary renal synovial sarcoma. The child was treated with change in her neoadjuvant chemotherapy regimen and surgery. The diagnosis of synovial sarcoma was confirmed by demonstrating the t (X, 18) translocation using polymerase chain reaction. PMID:27046979

  9. Synovial chondromatosis presenting as an epidural mass

    PubMed Central

    Mehra, Ratnesh Nandan; Grigorov, Marat; Pieper, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Background: Synovial chondromatosis is an uncommon disorder characterized by the formation of multiple cartilaginous nodules in the synovium of the facet joint. It most commonly affects large joints such as hip or shoulder. Commonly seen features are bony erosion and calcifications. Synovial chondromatosis is rare in the spine and there are few previous reports of extension into the spinal canal. Case Description: A 58-year-old man presented with a 2 year history of progressive numbness in the right upper extremity without objective weakness. A several month course of conservative management, including physical therapy, failed to alleviate symptoms. Magnetic resonance imaging of the cervical spine demonstrated the erosion of the right facet C5–C6 joint with listhesis and foraminal enlargement secondary to a lesion. Treatment was offered to the patient in the form of surgical resection. The lesion was removed in piecemeal fashion using curettes and Cavitron ultrasonic surgical aspirator. Histological examination demonstrated atypical well-differentiated cartilaginous proliferation. Conclusion: This patient had an uncomplicated postoperative course and experienced complete resolution of right upper extremity sensory symptoms. Synovial chondromatosis may compromise cervical spinal cord and nerve roots if it extends into the spinal canal. Although it remains rare, it should be included in the differential diagnosis for upper extremity radiculopathy and myelopathy. Surgical resection is a viable treatment option for symptomatic patients with this pathology. In some cases, adequate resection may necessitate stabilization with instrumentation. PMID:26425399

  10. Intraspinal synovial cyst at the craniocervical junction.

    PubMed

    Eustacchio, S; Trummer, M; Unger, F; Flaschka, G

    2003-01-01

    A cystic lesion adjacent to the dens with compression of the lower portion of the medulla oblongata was found on MRI in a 75-year-old male patient with a 2-month history of occipital pain and gait disturbance. Clinically, the patient showed mild tetraparesis, signs of spinal ataxia and symmetrical hyperreflexia. Following subtotal removal of the cyst via left-sided suboccipital craniotomy and left-sided hemilaminectomy of C1 the lesion was classified as synovial cyst on histopathological examination. Postoperatively, the quadriparesis almost completely subsided and the patient is currently doing well, 33 months after surgery. Synovial or ganglion cysts adjacent to the atlantoaxial articulation with ventral compression of the cervicomedullar cord represent rare surgical or radiological entities. Atlantoaxial synovial cysts have no typical radiographic appearance or specific neurological symptoms so that they are frequently misdiagnosed as intraspinal- or skull base tumour, rheumatoid lesion or ectatic vertebral artery. Since no ensuing complications or recurrences have been encountered in cases of incompletely removed cysts the less invasive operative approaches should be used to avoid destabilisation and subsequent additional surgical procedures. PMID:12838478

  11. Biphasic Effect of Rifampicin on Bilirubin- A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Seshadri, Mandalam Subramanian

    2016-01-01

    Drug induced hepatitis is a major problem which a physician encounters in his clinical practice. In view of increasing incidence of tuberculosis in our country a large number of infected individuals are started on Antituberculous (ATT) drugs and rifampicin is invariably part of the regimen. One of the major adverse effects of ATT drugs is drug- induced hepatitis which is characterized by elevation of liver enzymes and bilirubin. Hepatotoxicity is usually idiosyncratic or dose-dependent. Rifampicin causes transient elevation of transaminases in 10-20 percent of individuals and this does not warrant dose adjustments of the drug. Rarely rifampicin can lead to severe hepatitis with hyperbilirubinaemia and marked elevations of SGOT and SGPT and in some patients this can be fatal. The exact mechanism of Rifampicin induced hepatotoxicity is not known but it is postulated to be due to idiosyncratic reaction to rifampicin metabolites which may be directly toxic or induce an immunologically mediated liver injury. Rarely rifampicin may cause hyperbilirubinaemia without enzyme elevation. Here we report a patient with bilateral pulmonary tuberculosis who developed transient severe indirect hyperbilirubinaemia on rifampicin. On review of relevant literature we find that rifampicin can have a biphasic effect on bilirubin, an initial increase in indirect bilirubin and later normalization of bilirubin. We have reported this case because of its rarity in clinical practice. PMID:27190870

  12. Biphasic Effect of Rifampicin on Bilirubin- A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Gopi, Manigandan; Seshadri, Mandalam Subramanian

    2016-04-01

    Drug induced hepatitis is a major problem which a physician encounters in his clinical practice. In view of increasing incidence of tuberculosis in our country a large number of infected individuals are started on Antituberculous (ATT) drugs and rifampicin is invariably part of the regimen. One of the major adverse effects of ATT drugs is drug- induced hepatitis which is characterized by elevation of liver enzymes and bilirubin. Hepatotoxicity is usually idiosyncratic or dose-dependent. Rifampicin causes transient elevation of transaminases in 10-20 percent of individuals and this does not warrant dose adjustments of the drug. Rarely rifampicin can lead to severe hepatitis with hyperbilirubinaemia and marked elevations of SGOT and SGPT and in some patients this can be fatal. The exact mechanism of Rifampicin induced hepatotoxicity is not known but it is postulated to be due to idiosyncratic reaction to rifampicin metabolites which may be directly toxic or induce an immunologically mediated liver injury. Rarely rifampicin may cause hyperbilirubinaemia without enzyme elevation. Here we report a patient with bilateral pulmonary tuberculosis who developed transient severe indirect hyperbilirubinaemia on rifampicin. On review of relevant literature we find that rifampicin can have a biphasic effect on bilirubin, an initial increase in indirect bilirubin and later normalization of bilirubin. We have reported this case because of its rarity in clinical practice. PMID:27190870

  13. Monophasic synovial sarcoma of the pharynx: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Betal, Dibendu; Babu, Ramesh; Mehmet, Veysi

    2009-01-01

    Synovial sarcomas are a rare form of soft tissue sarcomas. We present a case of a 62 year-old male presenting with a left thyroid lump initially though to be a thyroid adenoma but subsequently diagnosed as a monophasic synovial sarcoma of the pharynx. We discuss the diagnosis and treatment of this case. PMID:19335917

  14. Arthroscopic Management of Synovial Osteochondromatosis of the Hip.

    PubMed

    Blitzer, Charles M; Scarano, Kyle A

    2015-06-01

    Synovial osteochondromatosis is a benign metaplasia of the synovium resulting in the formation of osteocartilaginous nodules within the synovial lining. At presentation, radiographs typically reveal these nodules to have broken free from the synovial lining, becoming loose bodies residing in the free space of the affected joint. These fragments readily receive the necessary nutrients for continued growth from the synovial fluid in which they reside. Controversy exists over the management of the disease. Some physicians call for arthrotomy with a complete synovectomy, whereas others vouch for a minimally invasive arthroscopic approach. In the case described here, the surgeon decided on hip arthroscopy to treat synovial osteochondromatosis in a 61-year-old woman. All but one loose body that was adherent in the anterior hip capsule was successfully removed and the patient recovered promptly. This case highlights the importance of hip arthroscopy and its usefulness not only in treating conditions such as synovial osteochondromatosis, but also in accurately diagnosing them. Recognition and management of hip conditions such as synovial osteochondromatosis through arthroscopy result in minimally invasive treatment and decreased morbidity and may markedly accelerate patient rehabilitation. It is the authors' belief that this unique case further suggests the practicality of using hip arthroscopy to successfully treat synovial osteochondromatosis. PMID:26091229

  15. [Meniscal transplantation with a synovial pedicle--an animal experiment].

    PubMed

    Fukushima, K

    1993-12-01

    The effect of a meniscal transplantation with a synovial pedicle in the avascular portion of the meniscus was investigated in an animal model. An inner (free edge side) half of the middle segment of the medial meniscus, about 6 mm in length, of an adult dog was resected, and a half thickness of the remaining outer (peripheral) meniscus was advanced with a synovial pedicle to fill in the resected portion and sutured with 6-0 interrupted Nylon sutures. As a control, the same procedure without the synovial pedicle was performed for comparison. Twenty-four dogs were treated with synovial pedicle and 13 without. The treated meniscus was excised every four weeks postoperatively up to 32 weeks for gross observation and histological examination. The histological findings at the junction between the advanced meniscus and the remaining meniscus in the group with the synovial pedicle were as follows: 1) At eight to 20 weeks, vascular proliferation and fibroblasts formation were present. 2) At 24 weeks, the vascularity decreased and the junction was filled with collagen fibers. 3) At 32 weeks, the junction was almost completely repaired with chondrocytes. In contrast, in the group without the synovial pedicle, the junction was connected with fibrous tissue, but with no chondrocytes even at 32 weeks. This enhancement of the meniscus repair with the synovial pedicle was considered to be due to reparative ability of the synovial cells, neovascularization through the synovium and viability of the advanced meniscus.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7508485

  16. Rare Thoracolumbar Facet Synovial Cyst Presenting as Paraparesis

    PubMed Central

    Dahuja, Gitanshu; Kaur, Rashmeet

    2015-01-01

    Spinal cord compressing syndrome due to synovial cyst (SC) of the thoracolumbar spine is a rare clinical condition. In this report we aim to heighten awareness of the thoracolumbar facet synovial cyst as a possible cause of thoracic myelopathy. The SC was removed thoroughly by laminectomy. The patient had an excellent recovery. The etiological and therapeutic aspects are discussed. PMID:26512282

  17. Single-molecule imaging of hyaluronan in human synovial fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kappler, Joachim; Kaminski, Tim P.; Gieselmann, Volkmar; Kubitscheck, Ulrich; Jerosch, Jörg

    2010-11-01

    Human synovial fluid contains a high concentration of hyaluronan, a high molecular weight glycosaminoglycan that provides viscoelasticity and contributes to joint lubrication. In osteoarthritis synovial fluid, the concentration and molecular weight of hyaluronan decrease, thus impairing shock absorption and lubrication. Consistently, substitution of hyaluronan (viscosupplementation) is a widely used treatment for osteoarthritis. So far, the organization and dynamics of hyaluronan in native human synovial fluid and its action mechanism in viscosupplementation are poorly characterized at the molecular level. Here, we introduce highly sensitive single molecule microscopy to analyze the conformation and interactions of fluorescently labeled hyaluronan molecules in native human synovial fluid. Our findings are consistent with a random coil conformation of hyaluronan in human synovial fluid, and point to specific interactions of hyaluronan molecules with the synovial fluid matrix. Furthermore, single molecule microscopy is capable of detecting the breakdown of the synovial fluid matrix in osteoarthritis. Thus, single molecule microscopy is a useful new method to probe the structure of human synovial fluid and its changes in disease states like osteoarthritis.

  18. [Synovial hemangioma of the knee joint. A case report].

    PubMed

    Lassoued, S; Billey, T; Ould-Henia, A; Aziz-Alaoui, M; Fardou, H; Jacobzone, D

    2002-11-01

    Synovial hemangioma of the knee joint was diagnosed in a young woman 15 years after the first signs. The principal clinical manifestation involved repeated episodes of hemorrhagic joint effusion. MRI is the exploration of choice for this vascular tumor of the synovial membrane, although a pathology study is needed to confirm the diagnosis. Cure is achieved with surgical resection. PMID:12457119

  19. Pulmonary edema

    MedlinePlus

    ... congestion; Lung water; Pulmonary congestion; Heart failure - pulmonary edema ... Pulmonary edema is often caused by congestive heart failure . When the heart is not able to pump efficiently, blood ...

  20. Cells of the synovium in rheumatoid arthritis. Synovial fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Müller-Ladner, Ulf; Ospelt, Caroline; Gay, Steffen; Distler, Oliver; Pap, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    For some time synovial fibroblasts have been regarded simply as innocent synovial cells, mainly responsible for synovial homeostasis. During the past decade, however, a body of evidence has accumulated illustrating that rheumatoid arthritis synovial fibroblasts (RASFs) are active drivers of joint destruction in rheumatoid arthritis. Details regarding the intracellular signalling cascades that result in long-term activation and synthesis of proinflammatory molecules and matrix-degrading enzymes by RASFs have been analyzed. Molecular, cellular and animal studies have identified various interactions with other synovial and inflammatory cells. This expanded knowledge of the distinct role played by RASFs in the pathophysiology of rheumatoid arthritis has moved these fascinating cells to the fore, and work to identify targeted therapies to inhibit their joint destructive potential is underway. PMID:18177509

  1. The Rheological Properties of the Biopolymers in Synovial Fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krause, Wendy E.; Klossner, Rebecca R.; Wetsch, Julie; Oates, Katherine M. N.; Colby, Ralph H.

    2005-03-01

    The polyelectrolyte hyaluronic acid (HA, hyaluronan), its interactions with anti-inflammatory drugs and other biopolymers, and its role in synovial fluid are being studied. We are investigating the rheological properties of sodium hyaluronate (NaHA) solutions and an experimental model of synovial fluid (comprised of NaHA, and the plasma proteins albumin and γ-globulins). Steady shear measurements on bovine synovial fluid and the synovial fluid model indicate that the fluids are highly viscoeleastic and rheopectic (stress increases with time under steady shear). In addition, the influence of anti-inflammatory agents on these solutions is being explored. Initial results indicate that D-penicillamine and hydroxychloroquine affect the rheology of the synovial fluid model and its components. The potential implications of these results will be discussed.

  2. Soil decontamination using aqueous biphasic separation

    SciTech Connect

    Chaiko, D.J.; Mensah-Biney, R.; Gupta, D.

    1994-02-01

    This paper summarizes efforts to develop a biphasic extraction process for separating ultrafine particulate contaminants from soils having high amounts of silt and clay. This work has thus far dealt with the removal of refractory uranium particles from the soils at Fernald, Ohio. The separation process involves the selective partitioning of ultra-fine particles between two immiscible aqueous phases. The authors have conducted batch extraction studies and are now beginning to scaleup the process for pilot-plant testing at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). The results of these extraction studies are discussed.

  3. Pulmonary embolus

    MedlinePlus

    ... blood clot; Blood clot - lung; Embolus; Tumor embolus; Embolism - pulmonary; DVT-pulmonary embolism; Thrombosis - pulmonary embolism ... x-ray CT angiogram of the chest Pulmonary ventilation/perfusion scan, also called a V/Q scan ...

  4. AQUEOUS BIPHASE EXTRACTION FOR PROCESSING OF FINE COAL

    SciTech Connect

    K. Osseo-Asare; X. Zeng

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this research project is to develop an aqueous biphase extraction process for the treatment of fine coals. Aqueous biphase extraction is an advanced separation technology that relies on the ability of an aqueous system consisting of a water-soluble polymer and another component, e.g., another polymer, an inorganic salt, or a nonionic surfactant, to separate into two immiscible aqueous phases. The principle behind the partition of solid particles in aqueous biphase systems is the physicochemical interaction between the solid surface and the surrounding liquid solution. In order to remove sulfur and mineral matter from fine coal with aqueous biphasic extraction, it is necessary to know the partitioning behavior of coal, as well as the inorganic mineral components. Therefore, in this research emphasis was placed on the partitioning behavior of fine coal particles as well as model fine inorganic particles in aqueous biphase systems.

  5. Synovial Sarcoma in Head and Neck: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Fonseca, Adriano Santana; Azevedo, Amanda Canário Andrade; Magalhães, Fabíola Moreira; Andrade, Nilvano Alves de

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Synovial sarcoma is a malignant tumor of mesenchymal pluripotent cells. Objectives We present a case of synovial sarcoma in the posterolateral wall of the oropharynx. Resumed report The patient, a 23-year-old woman, was admitted with a history of dysphagia and difficulty in breathing for 8 months, resulting in progressive deterioration and onset of snoring, muffled voice, and local pain. An oropharyngeal tumor in the left posterolateral wall touched the base of the ipsilateral tongue. The patient underwent endoscopic pharyngectomy to remove the lesion. Pathologic examination revealed synovial sarcoma with positive margins, and Mohs technique was proposed for margin control. The margins were disease-free, without the need for total laryngectomy. The pharynx was reconstructed with a microvascular forearm flap. The patient developed postoperative stability. Conclusion Despite its name, synovial sarcoma is rarely sourced directly from synovial membranes. It is most commonly found in the vicinity of large joints. The location at the head and neck, a location poor in synovial tissue, is unusual. Synovial sarcoma in the head and neck has an aggressive nature and poor prognosis. Resection with negative margins remains the foundation of therapy, which is not so easily achieved in the head and neck. It is important for the otorhinolaryngologist and head and neck surgeon to be familiar with this aggressive tumor, which carries high mortality and morbidity. The appropriate diagnosis and treatment can improve prognosis and patient survival. PMID:25992071

  6. Extra-articular Synovial Chondromatosis Eroding and Penetrating the Acromion

    PubMed Central

    El Rassi, George; Matta, Jihad; Hijjawi, Ayman; Khair, Ousama Abou; Fahs, Sara

    2015-01-01

    Synovial chondromatosis of the shoulder is an uncommon disorder. It usually affects the glenohumeral joint and is characterized by metaplasia of the synovium leading to the formation of osteochondral loose bodies. Few cases of extra-articular subacromial synovial chondromatosis involving the rotator cuff tendon have been reported in the literature. The treatment of previously reported cases consisted of open bursectomy and removal of loose bodies. We report a case of subacromial synovial chondromatosis without rotator cuff involvement but with severe erosion and fracture of the acromion. Treatment consisted of shoulder arthroscopy to remove all loose bodies, total bursectomy, and debridement of the acromion. Potential benefits of arthroscopy were also evaluated. PMID:26697302

  7. Extra-articular Synovial Chondromatosis Eroding and Penetrating the Acromion.

    PubMed

    El Rassi, George; Matta, Jihad; Hijjawi, Ayman; Khair, Ousama Abou; Fahs, Sara

    2015-10-01

    Synovial chondromatosis of the shoulder is an uncommon disorder. It usually affects the glenohumeral joint and is characterized by metaplasia of the synovium leading to the formation of osteochondral loose bodies. Few cases of extra-articular subacromial synovial chondromatosis involving the rotator cuff tendon have been reported in the literature. The treatment of previously reported cases consisted of open bursectomy and removal of loose bodies. We report a case of subacromial synovial chondromatosis without rotator cuff involvement but with severe erosion and fracture of the acromion. Treatment consisted of shoulder arthroscopy to remove all loose bodies, total bursectomy, and debridement of the acromion. Potential benefits of arthroscopy were also evaluated. PMID:26697302

  8. Contribution of synovial lining cells to synovial vascularization of the rat temporomandibular joint.

    PubMed

    Nozawa-Inoue, Kayoko; Harada, Fumiko; Magara, Jin; Ohazama, Atsushi; Maeda, Takeyasu

    2016-03-01

    The lining layer of the synovial membrane in the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) contains two types of lining cells: macrophage-like type A and fibroblast-like type B cells. The type B cells are particularly heterogeneous in their morphology and immunoreactivity, so that details of their functions remain unclear. Some of the type B cells exhibit certain resemblances in their ultrastructure to those of an activated capillary pericyte at the initial stage of the angiogenesis. The articular surface, composed of cartilage and the disc in the TMJ, has few vasculatures, whereas the synovial lining layer is richly equipped with blood capillaries to produce the constituent of synovial fluid. The present study investigated at both the light and electron microscopic levels the immunocytochemical characteristics of the synovial lining cells in the adult rat TMJ, focusing on their contribution to the synovial vascularization. It also employed an intravascular perfusion with Lycopersicon esculentum (tomato) lectin to identify functional vessels in vivo. Results showed that several type B cells expressed desmin, a muscle-specific intermediate filament which is known as the earliest protein to appear during myogenesis as well as being a marker for the immature capillary pericyte. These desmin-positive type B cells showed immunoreactions for vimentin and pericyte markers (neuron-glial 2; NG2 and PDGFRβ) but not for the other markers of myogenic cells (MyoD and myogenin) or a contractile apparatus (αSMA and caldesmon). Immunoreactivity for RECA-1, an endothelial marker, was observed in the macrophage-like type A cells. The arterioles and venules inside the synovial folds extended numerous capillaries with RECA-1-positive endothelial cells and desmin-positive pericytes to distribute densely in the lining layer. The distal portion of these capillaries showing RECA-1-immunoreactivity lacked lectin-staining, indicating a loss of blood-circulation due to sprouting or termination in the

  9. Rheological characterization of an artificial synovial fluid.

    PubMed

    Casentini, G; Di Paola, L; Marrelli, L; Palma, F

    2005-07-01

    Rheological measurements on two classes of artificial synovial fluids have been carried out in the attempt to get a suitable but cheap lubricant for wear tests of prosthetic materials. Fluids of both classes are solutions of hyaluronic acid (HA) that, for one class, is dissolved into a simple Ringer solution whereas, for the other class, into a mixture of human serum and Ringer solution. Similar rheological properties have been observed for both classes of fluids. Experimental results have been interpreted by two classical models that are commonly used in the literature to describe the rheological behavior of colloidal systems and of polymer solutions with high entanglement density, respectively. The quality of correlations shows that, at high HA concentrations, entangled structures are largely present and cannot be neglected. PMID:16049905

  10. Synovial Joints: from Development to Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Tieshi; Tagliafierro, Lidia; Temple, Joseph D.; Willcockson, Helen H.; Ye, Ping; Esposito, Alessandra; Xu, Fuhua; Spagnoli, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Synovial joint morphogenesis occurs through the condensation of mesenchymal cells into a non-cartilaginous region known as interzone, and the specification of progenitor cells that commit to the articular fate. Although several signaling molecules are expressed by the interzone, the mechanism is poorly understood. For treatments of cartilage injuries, it is critical to discover the presence of joint progenitor cells in adult tissues and their expression gene pattern. Potential stem cells niches have been found in different joint regions, such as the surface zone of articular cartilage, synovium and groove of Ranvier. Inherited joint malformation as well as joint degenerating conditions are often associated with other skeletal defects, and may be seen as the failure of morphogenic factors to establish the correct microenvironment in cartilage and bone. Therefore, exploring how joints form can help us understand how cartilage and bone are damaged and to develop drugs to reactivate this developing mechanism. PMID:25431159

  11. Osteochondroma with secondary synovial chondromatosis in the temporomandibular joint.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yiwen; Li, Lingzhi; Chen, Minjie; Yang, Chi

    2016-05-01

    Osteochondroma with secondary synovial chondromatosis is rare in the temporomandibular joint (TMJ), so we retrospectively reviewed 210 such patients who presented to our hospital from 2001-2013. The final sample included 3 patients with secondary synovial chondromatosis (mean (SD) age 40 (??) years), all of whom had symptoms of disorders of the TMJ. Condylar neoplasms and loose bodies were found during operation. Histopathological examination showed a bony growth capped with hyaline cartilage and clustering chondrocytes, with partial calcification and ossification of the loose bodies, and primary osteochondroma with secondary synovial chondromatosis was diagnosed. There were no recurrences during a follow-up that ranged from 3 months to 5 years. The presence of loose calcified bodies in osteochondroma is a possible sign of secondary synovial chondromatosis. PMID:26320566

  12. Hyaluronate synthesis by synovial villi in organ culture. [Dogs

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, S.L.; Christine, T.A.

    1983-06-01

    Individual canine synovial villi were used to establish short-term synovial organ cultures. These villi incorporated /sup 3/H-glucosamine into highly-polymerized /sup 3/H-hyaluronic acid (/sup 3/H-HA), which was the only /sup 3/H-glycosaminoglycan identified in the culture medium. Some /sup 3/H-HA, and larger amounts of other /sup 3/H-glycosaminoglycans, were recovered from cultured tissues. Culture medium /sup 3/H-HA content was proportional to the surface area of cultured villi. Organ cultures of nonvillous synovium were compared with villi; nonvillous cultures synthesized less /sup 3/H-HA per mm2 of their synovial intimal surface than villi. These cultures complement cell culture techniques for in vitro studies of synovial lining cell function.

  13. Inhibition of myeloperoxidase by synovial fluid and serum.

    PubMed Central

    Dularay, B; Yea, C M; Elson, C J

    1991-01-01

    An inhibitor of myeloperoxidase has been identified in the synovial fluids and sera from patients with rheumatoid arthritis and sera from normal subjects. Initially, these fluids were found to inhibit stimulus induced degranulation of polymorphonuclear leucocytes independently of the stimulating agent. Subsequently, the fluids were shown to inhibit the released enzyme rather than the degranulation response of polymorphonuclear leucocytes. Both rheumatoid and normal serum samples contained high concentrations of the inhibitor but the concentrations were lower in rheumatoid synovial fluids. The inhibitory activity seemed to be specific for peroxidase as the fluids did not inhibit beta-glucuronidase activity. A protein of relative molecular mass (Mr) 150 kd was purified from synovial fluid by affinity chromatography on myeloperoxidase-Sepharose. It is concluded that serum and synovial fluid contain a novel myeloperoxidase inhibitor, which acts by binding to myeloperoxidase and thereby prevents myeloperoxidase releasing oxidative products in serum. Images PMID:1647755

  14. Specific biological responses of the synovial membrane to carbon nanotubes

    PubMed Central

    Nomura, Hiroki; Takanashi, Seiji; Tanaka, Manabu; Haniu, Hisao; Aoki, Kaoru; Okamoto, Masanori; Kobayashi, Shinsuke; Takizawa, Takashi; Usui, Yuki; Oishi, Ayumu; Kato, Hiroyuki; Saito, Naoto

    2015-01-01

    Biological evaluation of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) is typically performed in the lung or abdominal cavity; however, biological reactions to CNTs are predicted to be markedly different in other tissues. In applications of CNTs as reinforcement for artificial joints and drug delivery systems, including their use in bone regeneration, the intra-articular synovial membrane makes contact with the CNTs. Herein, we analyzed the reaction of the synovial membrane with multiwalled CNTs (MWCNTs). Injection of MWCNTs into rat knee joints revealed their dose-dependent incorporation into deep synovial membranes and the formation of granulation tissue, without long-term inflammation. MWCNTs were incorporated into human fibroblast-like synoviocytes (HFLSs), with less cytotoxicity than that observed in macrophages (RAW264 cells). Moreover, MWCNTs inhibited the release of cytokines and chemokines from HFLSs. The reaction of the synovial membrane with MWCNTs differed from that observed in other tissues; thus, detailed biological evaluation at each target site is necessary for clinical applications. PMID:26388047

  15. Modulation of TNF-induced macrophage polarization by synovial fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Donlin, Laura T; Jayatilleke, Arundathi; Giannopoulou, Eugenia G; Kalliolias, George D; Ivashkiv, Lionel B

    2014-09-01

    Mesenchymal stromal cells have emerged as powerful modulators of the immune system. In this study, we explored how the human macrophage response to TNF is regulated by human synovial fibroblasts, the representative stromal cell type in the synovial lining of joints that become activated during inflammatory arthritis. We found that synovial fibroblasts strongly suppressed TNF-mediated induction of an IFN-β autocrine loop and downstream expression of IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs), including chemokines CXCL9 and CXCL10 that are characteristic of classical macrophage activation. TNF induced the production of soluble synovial fibroblast factors that suppressed the macrophage production of IFN-β, and cooperated with TNF to limit the responsiveness of macrophages to IFN-β by suppressing activation of Jak-STAT signaling. Genome-wide transcriptome analysis showed that cocultured synovial fibroblasts modulate the expression of approximately one third of TNF-regulated genes in macrophages, including genes in pathways important for macrophage survival and polarization toward an alternatively activated phenotype. Pathway analysis revealed that gene expression programs regulated by synovial fibroblasts in our coculture system were also regulated in rheumatoid arthritis synovial macrophages, suggesting that these fibroblast-mediated changes may contribute to rheumatoid arthritis pathogenesis. This work furthers our understanding of the interplay between innate immune and stromal cells during an inflammatory response, one that is particularly relevant to inflammatory arthritis. Our findings also identify modulation of macrophage phenotype as a new function for synovial fibroblasts that may prove to be a contributing factor in arthritis pathogenesis. PMID:25057003

  16. Giant Solitary Synovial Osteochondroma of the Subtalar Joint.

    PubMed

    Lui, Tun Hing

    2016-01-01

    A rapidly progressing calcified mass was found in the left sinus tarsi in a 12-year-old female after a trivial ankle sprain. The lesion mimicked an aggressive lesion clinically and radiographically. Ultrasound-guided biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of a synovial chondroma. Excision of the tumor and partial synovectomy were performed. The histologic diagnosis was a solitary synovial osteochondroma. The condition had not recurred after a follow-up period of 12 months. PMID:26024557

  17. [Azlocillin--synovial fluid levels after intravenous doses].

    PubMed

    Härle, A; Ritzerfeld, W; Wiynck, G; Knoche, U

    1983-01-01

    The corresponding levels of azlocillin in serum and in synovial fluid in the knee-joint were investigated in patients who had undergone aseptic surgery of the lower limbs. The mean synovial fluid concentrations for azlocillin were determined on the basis of 30 samples. Clinically relevant azlocillin levels of approximately 40 mu g/ml were recorded in synovial fluid 10 minutes after start of a short infusion of 5 gm. These increased until about 90 minutes after commencement of antibiotic administration when the maximum level was attained. Subsequently synovial fluid levels decreased slowly and approximately 170 minutes after commencement of the short infusion the mean for serum and synovial concentrations corresponded. The results confirm that with an i.v. infusion of 5 g azlocillin levels can be attained for 3 hours in the synovial fluid that are above the break-point for this antibiotic of 64 mu g/ml. However, despite these good pharmacokinetic data it should be remembered that experience has shown that surgical reintervention is often necessary in addition in joint infections to achieve ultimate cure. PMID:6405553

  18. Synovial chondromatosis of pes anserine bursa secondary to osteochondroma.

    PubMed

    Shallop, Brandon; Abraham, John A

    2014-08-01

    Osteochondromas are common benign bone tumors. Synovial chondromatosis is a benign cartilaginous metaplasia that occurs in the synovium. The authors describe a unique case of synovial chondromatosis developing in the pes anserine bursa secondary to an underlying osteochondroma of the proximal medial tibia. It is unusual to see both of these processes occurring simultaneously in 1 location. After appropriate consent was obtained, the patient's case was reviewed. A 17-year-old boy presented with a painless mass in the medial aspect of the right leg. Initial imaging of the right leg showed a cartilaginous-appearing lesion arising from the tibia and several distinct additional cartilaginous masses in the adjacent soft tissue. After 16 months of observation, the patient began to have increasing pain in the region of the lesion. The patient underwent surgery for excision of suspected synovial chondromatosis of the right pes anserine bursa and osteochondroma of the proximal right tibia. Postoperatively, the patient had complete resolution of symptoms and regained full range of motion of the knee. He returned to full activities, including walking and running. Osteochondromas are common benign bone tumors. Synovial chondromatosis is a benign synovial metaplastic cartilaginous proliferation that occurs primarily in joints, but can occur in any synovial-lined space. In this case report, the authors describe a unique occurrence of both of these lesions simultaneously. The treatment was excision of the osteochondroma and resection of the chondromatosis lesions, which resulted in an excellent outcome. PMID:25102510

  19. Pulmonary embolus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Blood clot - lung; Embolus; Tumor embolus; Embolism - pulmonary; DVT-pulmonary embolism; Thrombosis - pulmonary embolism ... area). This type of clot is called a deep vein thrombosis (DVT) . The blood clot breaks off and travels ...

  20. Pulmonary Rehabilitation

    MedlinePlus

    ... Topics Bronchitis COPD Cystic Fibrosis Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis Sarcoidosis Send a link to NHLBI to someone by ... people who have COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease), sarcoidosis (sar-koy-DOE-sis), idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis , or ...

  1. Biphasic Janus particles with nanoscale anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roh, Kyung-Ho; Martin, David C.; Lahann, Joerg

    2005-10-01

    Advances in the field of nanotechnology have fuelled the vision of future devices spawned from tiny functional components that are able to assemble according to a master blueprint. In this concept, the controlled distribution of matter or `patchiness' is important for creating anisotropic building blocks and introduces an extra design parameter - beyond size and shape. Although the reliable and efficient fabrication of building blocks with controllable material distributions will be of interest for many applications in research and technology, their synthesis has been addressed only in a few specialized cases. Here we show the design and synthesis of polymer-based particles with two distinct phases. The biphasic geometry of these Janus particles is induced by the simultaneous electrohydrodynamic jetting of parallel polymer solutions under the influence of an electrical field. The individual phases can be independently loaded with biomolecules or selectively modified with model ligands, as confirmed by confocal microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The fact that the spatial distribution of matter can be controlled at such small length scales will provide access to unknown anisotropic materials. This type of nanocolloid may enable the design of multicomponent carriers for drug delivery, molecular imaging or guided self-assembly.

  2. Functional analysis of an arthritogenic synovial fibroblast

    PubMed Central

    Aidinis, Vassilis; Plows, David; Haralambous, Sylva; Armaka, Maria; Papadopoulos, Petros; Kanaki, Maria Zambia; Koczan, Dirk; Thiesen, Hans Juergen; Kollias, George

    2003-01-01

    Increasing attention has been directed towards identifying non-T-cell mechanisms as potential therapeutic targets in rheumatoid arthritis. Synovial fibroblast (SF) activation, a hallmark of rheumatoid arthritis, results in inappropriate production of chemokines and matrix components, which in turn lead to bone and cartilage destruction. We have demonstrated that SFs have an autonomous pathogenic role in the development of the disease, by showing that they have the capacity to migrate throughout the body and cause pathology specifically to the joints. In order to decipher the pathogenic mechanisms that govern SF activation and pathogenic potential, we used the two most prominent methods of differential gene expression analysis, differential display and DNA microarrays, in a search for deregulated cellular pathways in the arthritogenic SF. Functional clustering of differentially expressed genes, validated by dedicated in vitro functional assays, implicated a number of cellular pathways in SF activation. Among them, diminished adhesion to the extracellullar matrix was shown to correlate with increased proliferation and migration to this matrix. Our findings support an aggressive role for the SF in the development of the disease and reinforce the perspective of a transformed-like character of the SF. PMID:12723986

  3. Pulmonary valve stenosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... valve pulmonary stenosis; Pulmonary stenosis; Stenosis - pulmonary valve; Balloon valvuloplasty - pulmonary ... water pills) Treat abnormal heartbeats and rhythms Percutaneous balloon pulmonary dilation (valvuloplasty) may be performed when no ...

  4. Primary Synovial Sarcoma of the Pharynx: A Series of Five Cases and Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Fatima, Syeda Samia; Din, Nasir Ud; Ahmad, Zubair

    2015-12-01

    Synovial sarcoma comprises approximately 10 % of all soft tissue sarcomas. Although synovial sarcoma has been reported in practically every organ, the extremities are the commonest site of occurrence followed by the head and neck. Primary synovial sarcoma of the pharynx is rare and only case reports have been published. We report a series of five cases of primary synovial sarcoma involving the pharynx. PMID:26022274

  5. Synovial osteochondromatosis of the wrist joint: A case report

    PubMed Central

    GU, HOUYUN; LI, WEI; DAI, MIN; ZHANG, BIN; LIU, HUCHENG; DING, YI

    2016-01-01

    Synovial osteochondromatosis is a rare condition in which multiple cartilaginous nodules proliferate within the synovial membranes of joints, tendon sheaths or bursae. In general, a complete synovectomy is an effective method to treat this disease. Commonly involved joints are the knee, glenohumeral joint, elbow, hip and ankle, although any articulation may be affected. However, synovial osteochondromatosis occurs rarely in the wrist, and there have been a lack of reports of this occurrence in the literature. The current study presents a case of synovial osteochondromatosis in a 33-year-old man, who was admitted in 2014 with the symptom of swelling of the left wrist joint for 2 years. The swelling had become increasingly painful over the previous 2 months. Physical examination revealed local tenderness and a soft pliable mass, with no involvement of the skin and with moderate pain. X-ray, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging of the left wrist revealed a lump at the volar radial side of the left wrist joint without any bone erosion. The lesion was subsequently excised. Histological examination resulted in a diagnosis of osteochondromatosis, which was not considered prior to the surgery. The present case was reported with the aim of analyzing the clinical, imaging characteristic and therapeutic modalities of synovial osteochondromatosis of the wrist. While there was no evidence of recurrence for the subsequent 4 months of post-operative follow-up in the present case, the long-term efficacy of surgical excision requires extended observation. PMID:26998083

  6. Persisting High Levels of Synovial Fluid Markers after Cartilage Repair

    PubMed Central

    Konttinen, Yrjö T.; Peterson, Lars; Lindahl, Anders; Kiviranta, Ilkka

    2008-01-01

    Local attempts to repair a cartilage lesion could cause increased levels of anabolic and catabolic factors in the synovial fluid. After repair with regenerated cartilage, the homeostasis of the cartilage ideally would return to normal. In this pilot study, we first hypothesized levels of synovial fluid markers would be higher in patients with cartilage lesions than in patients with no cartilage lesions, and then we hypothesized the levels of synovial fluid markers would decrease after cartilage repair. We collected synovial fluid samples from 10 patients before autologous chondrocyte transplantation of the knee. One year later, a second set of samples was collected and arthroscopic evaluation of the repair site was performed. Fifteen patients undergoing knee arthroscopy for various symptoms but with no apparent cartilage lesions served as control subjects. We measured synovial fluid matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3) and insulinlike growth factor-I (IGF-I) concentrations with specific activity and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, respectively. The levels of MMP-3 and IGF-I were higher in patients having cartilage lesions than in control subjects with no cartilage lesions. One year after cartilage repair, the lesions were filled with repair tissue, but the levels of MMP-3 and IGF-I remained elevated, indicating either graft remodeling or early degeneration. Level of Evidence: Level III, prognostic study. See the Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence. PMID:18709427

  7. Microsurgical approach to lumbar synovial cysts. Technical notes.

    PubMed

    Cipri, S; Cafarelli, F; Ielo, A; Gambardella, G

    2004-03-01

    Intraspinal extradural synovial cysts are quite common in the lumbar spine. With respect to clinical presentation and surgical treatment, juxta-facet cysts (ganglion and synovial cysts) share identical characteristics and results. Nowadays, current treatment strategies of intraspinal juxta-facet cysts continue to inspire controversy regarding appropriate surgical approaches, and include many technical options. The purpose of this report is to illustrate the advantage of minimally invasive approaches in 3 cases of lumbar synovial cysts. We performed a small flavectomy in the 1st case, a transarticular partial facectomy, followed by etherologous bone graft fusion in the 2nd case, and a flavectomy and partial facectomy in the 3rd case. In our cases, a microsurgical approach to lumbar synovial cysts yielded to complete excision of the lesions and excellent pain relief, with early mobilization and hospital discharge of the patients. In our opinion, minimally invasive approaches and microsurgical excision of lumbar juxta-facet cysts are advantageous over conventional lumbar laminectomy because they reduce later development of segmental instability at the operative level, and therefore a less invasive strategy for intraspinal synovial cysts removal should be recommended. PMID:15257263

  8. Stoichiometric implications of a biphasic life cycle.

    PubMed

    Tiegs, Scott D; Berven, Keith A; Carmack, Douglas J; Capps, Krista A

    2016-03-01

    Animals mediate flows of elements and energy in ecosystems through processes such as nutrient sequestration in body tissues, and mineralization through excretion. For taxa with biphasic life cycles, the dramatic shifts in anatomy and physiology that occur during ontogeny are expected to be accompanied by changes in body and excreta stoichiometry, but remain little-explored, especially in vertebrates. Here we tested stoichiometric hypotheses related to the bodies and excreta of the wood frog (Lithobates sylvaticus) across life stages and during larval development. Per-capita rates of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) excretion varied widely during larval ontogeny, followed unimodal patterns, and peaked midway through development (Taylor-Kollros stages XV and XII, respectively). Larval mass did not increase steadily during development but peaked at stage XVII and declined until the termination of the experiment at stage XXII. Mass-specific N and P excretion rates of the larvae decreased exponentially during development. When coupled with population-biomass estimates, population-level excretion rates were greatest at stages VIII-X. Percent carbon (C), N, and C:N of body tissue showed weak trends across major life stages; body P and C:P, however, increased sixfold during development from egg to adult. Our results demonstrate that intraspecific ontogenic changes in nutrient contents of excretion and body tissues can be significant, and that N and P are not always excreted proportionally throughout life cycles. These results highlight the dynamic roles that species play in ecosystems, and how the morphological and physiological changes that accompany ontogeny can influence ecosystem-level processes. PMID:26589522

  9. Cell culture-derived HCV cannot infect synovial fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Nadeem, Abd-Elshafy D.; Thomas, Pietschmann; Ulf, Müller-Ladner; Elena, Neumann; Anggakusuma, A; Mohamed, Bahgat M.; Frank, Pessler; Patrick, Behrendt

    2015-01-01

    Worldwide 170 million individuals are infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV), up to 45 million of whom are affected by arthropathy. It is unclear whether this is due to viral infection of synovial cells or immune-mediated mechanisms. We tested the capacity of primary synovial fibroblasts to support HCV propagation. Out of the four critical HCV receptors, only CD81 was expressed to any significant extent in OASF and RASF. Consistent with this, pseudotyped HCV particles were unable to infect these cells. Permissiveness for HCV replication was investigated by transfecting cells with a subgenomic replicon of HCV encoding a luciferase reporter. OASF and RASF did not support replication of HCV, possibly due to low expression levels of miR-122. In conclusion, primary human synovial fibroblasts are unable to support propagation of HCV in vitro. HCV-related arthropathy is unlikely due to direct infection of these cells. PMID:26643193

  10. Intraarticular volume and clearance in human synovial effusions

    SciTech Connect

    Wallis, W.J.; Simkin, P.A.; Nelp, W.B.; Foster, D.M.

    1985-04-01

    Intraarticular volumes were measured by radiolabeled albumin (RISA) distribution in chronic knee effusions from 11 rheumatoid arthritis patients and 9 osteoarthritis patients. Volumes of synovial fluid obtained at joint aspiration were substantially less than those found by RISA dilution. Up to 24 hours was needed for full distribution of RISA throughout the intraarticular compartment. Measured 123I and RISA radioactivity over the knee described monoexponential rate constants, lambda (minute-1). The clearance of 123I and RISA from synovial effusions was derived by the formulation volume (ml) X lambda (minute-1) = clearance (ml/minute). RISA clearance in rheumatoid effusions was significantly greater than that found in osteoarthritis effusions. Intraarticular volume and isotope clearance were easily quantified and provide measures for further evaluating the microvascular physiology of synovial effusions.

  11. Synovial lipomatosis of the metatarsophalangeal joint: A case report

    PubMed Central

    SHANG, JIANGYINZI; ZOU, FAN; DAI, MIN; ZHANG, BIN; NIE, TAO

    2016-01-01

    Synovial lipomatosis, also termed lipoma arborescens, is an extremely rare disorder of the synovium that causes joint pain, swelling and effusion. To date, only a small number of cases have been reported in the literature. The current study presents the case of a 44-year-old male with repeated swelling of the metatarsophalangeal joints of the left hallux, which had persisted for ~3 years. The main clinical manifestations on presentation included multiple osseous lumps and limited activity of the left hallux without pain. Magnetic resonance imaging of the left hallux revealed a mass surrounding the left metatarsophalangeal joints. Subsequently, the lesion was resected. Pathological examination revealed well-defined lobules of mature adipocytes separated by thin fibrous septa, which indicated a diagnosis of synovial lipomatosis of the metatarsophalangeal joint of the left foot. The aim of this study was to evaluate synovial lipomatosis of the metatarsophalangeal joint, with an analysis of the clinical parameters and pathological features of the disorder. PMID:26998135

  12. [Immunomorphological characteristics of the synovial membrane in rheumatic diseases].

    PubMed

    Radenska-Lopovok, S G

    2016-01-01

    The synovial membrane is frequently a target in rheumatic diseases. A search for diagnostic criteria and determination of changes in the pathological process necessitate standardized biopsy diagnostic techniques and quantification of morphological changes using digital imaging methods. The paper considers main methods for obtaining synovial membrane samples. It presents major morphological and immunohistochemical variations in synovitis in the presence of rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, and osteoarthrosis. It shows different immunological and autoinflammatory mechanisms of these diseases. Synovial membrane inflammation in rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, and osteoarthrosis is characterized by different components of morphogenesis, which is proven by the expression of different cell markers. Rheumatoid synovitis is an autoinflammatory process; synovitis in ankylosing spondylitis is characterized by autoinflammatory processes; biomechanical factors as joint inflammation triggers are leading in osteoarthrosis. PMID:27600785

  13. Growth factors with heparin binding affinity in human synovial fluid

    SciTech Connect

    Hamerman, D.; Taylor, S.; Kirschenbaum, I.; Klagsbrun, M.; Raines, E.W.; Ross, R.; Thomas, K.A.

    1987-12-01

    Synovial effusions were obtained from the knees of 15 subjects with joint trauma, menisceal or ligamentous injury, or osteoarthritis. Heparin-Sepharose affinity chromatography of these synovial fluids revealed, in general, three major peaks of mitogenic activity as measured by incorporation of /sup 3/H-thymidine into 3T3 cells. Gradient elution patterns showed activities at 0.5M NaCl, which is characteristic of platelet derived growth factor, and at 1.1 M NaCl and 1.6M NaCl, indicative of acidic and basic fibroblast growth factors, respectively. The identities of these mitogenic fractions were confirmed by specific immunologic and receptor-binding assays. The presence of platelet derived, acidic and basic fibroblast growth factors in the synovial fluid may contribute to wound healing in the arthritic joint.

  14. Synovial Sarcoma of the Tongue: Report of a Case.

    PubMed

    Basile, Lauren E; Hoch, Benjamin; Dillon, Jasjit K

    2016-01-01

    This report outlines the workup and management of a 55-year-old woman with a synovial sarcoma of the lateral border of the tongue that was initially diagnosed as a glomus tumor. A review was performed of the literature on synovial sarcomas of the oral cavity and current National Comprehensive Cancer Network guidelines. Synovial sarcomas of the tongue are rare neoplasms, with variable morphologic microscopic types and immunohistochemical profiles. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis of the known gene translocation also can be used in diagnosis. According to the literature, resection of the tumor is the current treatment of choice; however, owing to the rarity of this entity, diagnosis and management prove challenging for the oral and maxillofacial surgeon. PMID:26212094

  15. Biphasic catalysis in water/carbon dioxide micellar systems

    DOEpatents

    Jacobson, Gunilla B.; Tumas, William; Johnston, Keith P.

    2002-01-01

    A process is provided for catalyzing an organic reaction to form a reaction product by placing reactants and a catalyst for the organic reaction, the catalyst of a metal complex and at least one ligand soluble within one of the phases of said aqueous biphasic system, within an aqueous biphasic system including a water phase, a dense phase fluid, and a surfactant adapted for forming an emulsion or microemulsion within the aqueous biphasic system, the reactants soluble within one of the phases of the aqueous biphasic system and convertible in the presence of the catalyst to a product having low solubility in the phase in which the catalyst is soluble; and, maintaining the aqueous biphasic system under pressures, at temperatures, and for a period of time sufficient for the organic reaction to occur and form the reaction product and to maintain sufficient density on the dense phase fluid, the reaction product characterized as having low solubility in the phase in which the catalyst is soluble.

  16. Hemorrhagic lumbar synovial cyst: case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Cannarsa, Gregory; Clark, Shannon W.; Chalouhi, Norah; Zanaty, Mario; Heller, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Intraspinal synovial cysts are infrequent causes of back and radicular leg pain. Commonly associated with degenerative spinal disease, the majority of synovial cysts appear in the lumbar spine. Rarely, intracystic hemorrhage can occur through an unclear mechanism. Similarly rare, cysts may also become migratory. The pathogenesis of hemorrhagic synovial cysts remains uncertain and their potential for migration also remains unclear. A 36 year-old male presented to the clinic with 5 months of back pain and leg pain that began after a work-related injury. An initial MRI obtained by another surgeon 3 month prior demonstrated an epidural cystic mass with T1 hypointensity and T2 hyperintensity at L2-L3. With worsening pain, the patient came to our clinic for a second opinion. A second MRI demonstrated resolution of the L2-L3 epidural cystic mass and formation of a new epidural cystic mass at L3-L4 causing compression of the thecal sac. The patient subsequently underwent decompressive hemilaminectomy with cyst removal. We present a case of two lumbar synovial cysts, separated over time and a vertebral level and giving the appearance of a single, migratory cyst. This is the first case of an "occult migratory" synovial cyst with repeat MR imaging capturing spontaneous resolution of the initial cyst and formation of a hemorrhagic cyst one level below. We also present a summary of the 44 cases of hemorrhagic synovial cysts reported in the literature and propose a mechanism that may account for the hemorrhagic and migratory progression in some patients. PMID:26412895

  17. [Synovial sarcoma in children and adolescents].

    PubMed

    Mansuy, Ludovic; Bernier, Valérie; Ranchère-Vince, Dominique; Mainard, Laurence; Orbach, Daniel; Corradini, Nadège

    2016-02-01

    Synovial sarcoma (SS) is a rare high-grade malignant mesenchymal tumor affecting children, adolescents, and young adults. Cytogenetically, more than 90% of SS is characterized by the t(X;18)(p11.2;q11.2), translocation resulting in two chimeric fusion genes SYT-SSX1 and SYT-SSX2, confirming histological diagnosis. Pediatric SS arises most often in soft tissues of the extremities (66% of cases), and is a localized tumor without spreading to regional lymph nodes (96% of cases) nor to metastatic sites (94% of cases). Although clinical and radiologic presentation, histologic analysis and tumor biology appear similar in pediatric and adolescent SS, outcome seems better in children than in adolescents, respectively 84% vs 60% of 5years overall survival (OS). If complete resection is the gold standard in SS, other therapeutic modalities differ between pediatric and adult populations, considering SS as an intermediate chemosensitive tumor more frequently by pediatric oncologists. Prognostic factors evaluation (tumor size, site of primary and IRS group) is necessary to establish optimal treatment strategies, with multimodal therapeutic approach in children and adolescents. Thus, recent results about the European prospective EpSSG NRSTS 05 study for children and adolescent patients with localized SS showed a 5years OS >90%. Moreover, recent somatic genetic data about SS open the debate on an appropriate strategy based and stratified on tumor genomic. Multinational prospective pediatric, adolescent and young adult study is necessary to improve optimal and appropriate approach in this rare tumor. PMID:26774699

  18. Pericardial synovial sarcoma presenting with large recurrent pericardial effusion

    PubMed Central

    Youn, Hyo Chul; Lee, Yangyoun

    2016-01-01

    Primary pericardial synovial sarcoma is an extremely rare disease with a dismal prognosis. Its main presenting symptoms are a large pericardial effusion, signs of cardiac tamponade, and visualization of a pericardial mass on echocardiography. However, the systemic symptoms of fever, cough, and night sweats may present a clinical picture without any apparent pericardial mass on diagnostic imaging, potentially impeding the diagnosis. We report the case of a 34-year-old patient with fever and recurrent pericardial effusion for 2 years, who was diagnosed with primary pericardial synovial sarcoma after 2-year follow-up echocardiography. PMID:27293869

  19. Biphasic nanoparticles made by electrified jetting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lahann, Joerg

    2005-03-01

    Nano-colloids have recently attracted intense attention due to unique properties that are distinctly different from bulk solid-state materials; including unique magnetic, electronic, optical, chemical, and biological characteristics. The vision that these nano-objects could essentially act as functional components in novel device generations, which ``magically'' assemble following a master blueprint void any human manipulation, has resulted in a new ``gold rush'' in materials science. These concepts have results in the synthesis of a multitude of nano-objects, such as nano-wires, nano-rods, nano-disks, or nano-prisms.^ Recently, nano-particles with anisotropic materials distributions (biphasic nano-particles) moved in the focus of research. Our approach differs fundamentally from the above-mentioned methods in that it takes advantage of electrified polymer jets to create anisotropic materials distributions in nano-objects. jetting is a process to generate liquid jets by use of electrostatic forces. It is well-known that high electrical potentials (typically several thousand volts) applied between the jetting liquids that are fed through a capillary and a collecting substrate will induce jetting of a charged liquid. The differences in the final morphologies from similar processes are mainly determined by the properties of the jetting liquids and the process parameters. transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and scanning laser confocal microscopy, we demonstrate the applicability of the process to control size, shape, and materials distribution at the nanoscale. The resulting anisotropic nanoparticles may have potential applications for targeted drug delivery or as electro-rehological fluids. a) F. M. Van der Kooij, K. Kassapidou and H. N. W. Lekkerkerker, Liquid crystal phase transitions in suspensions of polydisperse plate-like particles, Nature 406, 868 (2000); b) C. A. Mirkin, R. L. Letsinger, R. C. Mucic and J. J. Storhoff, A DNA

  20. Progress on the biphase turbine at Cerro Prieto

    SciTech Connect

    Cerini, D.; Hays, L.; Studhalter, W.

    1997-12-31

    The status of a Biphase turbine power plant being installed at the Cerro Prieto geothermal field is presented. The major modules for the power plant are completed except for a back pressure steam turbine. The power plant will be started in April 1997 with the Biphase turbine alone followed by the addition of the steam turbine module two months later. The current power plant performance level is 2780 kWe due to a decline in the well. An increase in power output to 4060 kWe by adding the flow from another well is planned. The addition of five Biphase power plants with a total power output of 21.2 megawatts is described.

  1. Uncommon Primary Synovial Chondromatosis Involving Only the Infrapatellar Fat Pad in an Elderly Patient

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Tae-Wan

    2016-01-01

    Primary synovial chondromatosis is a rare condition of idiopathic synovial chondrometaplasia and usually occurs during the third to fifth decades of life. Conversely, secondary synovial chondromatosis results from the growth of separated particles from articular cartilage or osteophytes in patients with joint diseases, such as degenerative osteoarthritis, and occurs mostly in elderly people. We describe here a 76-year-old male histopathologically confirmed as having primary synovial chondromatosis with no calcification of the infrapatellar fat pad (IFP) of the knee joint. To our knowledge, this is the first description of primary synovial chondromatosis of the knee joint confined to the IFP in a patient >60 years old. PMID:26955617

  2. Uncommon Primary Synovial Chondromatosis Involving Only the Infrapatellar Fat Pad in an Elderly Patient.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dae-Hee; Jeong, Tae-Wan

    2016-03-01

    Primary synovial chondromatosis is a rare condition of idiopathic synovial chondrometaplasia and usually occurs during the third to fifth decades of life. Conversely, secondary synovial chondromatosis results from the growth of separated particles from articular cartilage or osteophytes in patients with joint diseases, such as degenerative osteoarthritis, and occurs mostly in elderly people. We describe here a 76-year-old male histopathologically confirmed as having primary synovial chondromatosis with no calcification of the infrapatellar fat pad (IFP) of the knee joint. To our knowledge, this is the first description of primary synovial chondromatosis of the knee joint confined to the IFP in a patient >60 years old. PMID:26955617

  3. Case Report: Multifocal biphasic squamoid alveolar renal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Lopez, Jose Ignacio

    2016-01-01

    A multifocal biphasic squamoid alveolar renal cell carcinoma in a 68-year-old man is reported. Four different peripheral tumor nodules were identified on gross examination. A fifth central tumor corresponded to a conventional clear cell renal cell carcinoma. Biphasic squamoid alveolar renal cell carcinoma is a rare tumor that has been very recently characterized as a distinct histotype within the spectrum of papillary renal cell carcinoma. Immunostaining with cyclin D1 seems to be specific of this tumor subtype. This is the first reported case with multifocal presentation. PMID:27158455

  4. A Normative Study of the Synovial Fluid Proteome from Healthy Porcine Knee Joints

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Synovial fluid in an articulating joint contains proteins derived from the blood plasma and proteins that are produced by cells within the joint tissues, such as synovium, cartilage, ligament, and meniscus. The proteome composition of healthy synovial fluid and the cellular origins of many synovial fluid components are not fully understood. Here, we present a normative proteomics study using porcine synovial fluid. Using our optimized method, we identified 267 proteins with high confidence in healthy synovial fluid. We also evaluated mRNA expression data from tissues that can contribute to the synovial fluid proteome, including synovium, cartilage, blood, and liver, to better estimate the relative contributions from these sources to specific synovial fluid components. We identified 113 proteins in healthy synovial fluid that appear to be primarily derived from plasma transudates, 37 proteins primarily derived from synovium, and 11 proteins primarily derived from cartilage. Finally, we compared the identified synovial fluid proteome to the proteome of human plasma, and we found that the two body fluids share many similarities, underlining the detected plasma derived nature of many synovial fluid components. Knowing the synovial fluid proteome of a healthy joint will help to identify mechanisms that cause joint disease and pathways involved in disease progression. PMID:25160569

  5. Osteoarthritis screening using Raman spectroscopy of dried human synovial fluid drops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esmonde-White, Karen A.; Mandair, Gurjit S.; Esmonde-White, Francis W. L.; Raaii, Farhang; Roessler, Blake J.; Morris, Michael D.

    2009-02-01

    We describe the use of Raman spectroscopy to investigate synovial fluid drops deposited onto fused silica microscope slides. This spectral information can be used to identify chemical changes in synovial fluid associated with osteoarthritis (OA) damage to knee joints. The chemical composition of synovial fluid is predominately proteins (enzymes, cytokines, or collagen fragments), glycosaminoglycans, and a mixture of minor components such as inorganic phosphate crystals. During osteoarthritis, the chemical, viscoelastic and biological properties of synovial fluid are altered. A pilot study was conducted to determine if Raman spectra of synovial fluid correlated with radiological scoring of knee joint damage. After informed consent, synovial fluid was drawn and x-rays were collected from the knee joints of 40 patients. Raman spectra and microscope images were obtained from the dried synovial fluid drops using a Raman microprobe and indicate a coarse separation of synovial fluid components. Individual protein signatures could not be identified; Raman spectra were useful as a general marker of overall protein content and secondary structure. Band intensity ratios used to describe protein and glycosaminoglycan structure were used in synovial fluid spectra. Band intensity ratios of Raman spectra indicate that there is less ordered protein secondary structure in synovial fluid from the damage group. Combination of drop deposition with Raman spectroscopy is a powerful approach to examining synovial fluid for the purposes of assessing osteoarthritis damage.

  6. Bakers Cyst with Synovial Chondromatosis of Knee - A Rare Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Daivesh P; Diwakar, Manish; Dargar, Nitin

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Synovial chondromatosis is a rare intraarticular benign condition arising from the synovial membrane of the joints, synovial sheaths or bursae around the joints. Primary synovial chondromatosis typically affects the large joints in the third to fifth decade of life, although involvement of smaller joints and presentation in younger age group is also documented. The purpose of this case report is to document this rare extra articular synovial pathology present inside the baker’s cyst which required open synovectomy and debridement to eradicate it. Case Report: A 43 yearold male presented with a two year history of pain, swelling and restriction of right knee joint. After the clinical and radiological assessment, open synovectomy, removal of cyst and thorough joint debridement procedure was performed. Histopathological study confirmed the findings of synovial chondromatosis. Conclusion: Synovial chondromatosis is a rare benign condition. Complete synovectomy offers reliable cure rate. PMID:27299117

  7. Synovial Cysts of the Temporomandibular Joint: An Immunohistochemical Characterization and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Vera-Sirera, B.; Tomás-Amerigo, J. A.; Baquero, C.; Vera-Sempere, F. J.

    2013-01-01

    Synovial cysts of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) are very rare, and to date, only 12 cases of a synovial cyst in the TMJ region have been reported in the literature. In this paper, we present the clinicopathological and immunohistochemical characteristics of one such lesion affecting a 48-year-old woman, presented with a mass in the left preauricular region. We describe the usefulness of immunohistochemical analysis for recognizing the synovial lining, which allowed for clear differentiation between ganglion and synovial cysts. Immunohistochemical analyses can be used to diagnose synovial cysts with certainty; however, using at least two markers is advisable to distinguish the two existing synovial cell subtypes. Our findings indicate that synovial cysts of TMJ possess an internal lining dominated by type B (fibroblast-like) synoviocytes. PMID:23573446

  8. Synovial sarcoma cell lines showed reduced DNA repair activity and sensitivity to a PARP inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Yamasaki, Hiroyuki; Miyamoto, Mamiko; Yamamoto, Yuki; Kondo, Tadashi; Watanabe, Toshiki; Ohta, Tsutomu

    2016-08-01

    Synovial sarcoma is a soft-tissue sarcoma and a rare type of cancer. Unfortunately, effective chemotherapies for synovial sarcomas have not been established. In this report, we show that synovial sarcoma cell lines have reduced repair activity for DNA damage induced by ionizing radiation (IR) and a topoisomerase II inhibitor (etoposide). We also observed reduced recruitment of RAD51 homologue (S. cerevisiae; RAD51) at sites of double-strand breaks (DSBs) in synovial sarcoma cell lines that had been exposed to IR. These findings showed that synovial sarcoma cell lines are defective in homologous recombination (HR) repair. Furthermore, we found that a poly-(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitor (AZD2281; olaparib) effectively reduced the growth of synovial sarcoma cell lines in the presence of an alkylating agent (temozolomide). Our findings offer evidence that treatment combining a PARP inhibitor and an alkylating agent could have therapeutic benefits in the treatment of synovial sarcoma. PMID:27353471

  9. Cervical myelopathy associated with extradural synovial cysts in 4 dogs.

    PubMed

    Levitski, R E; Chauvet, A E; Lipsitz, D

    1999-01-01

    Three Mastiffs and 1 Great Dane were presented to the University of Wisconsin Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital for cervical myelopathy based on history and neurologic examination. All dogs were males and had progressive ataxia and tetraparesis. Degenerative arthritis of the articular facet joints was noted on survey spinal radiographs. Myelography disclosed lateral axial compression of the cervical spinal cord medial to the articular facets. Extradural compressive cystic structures adjacent to articular facets were identified on magnetic resonance imaging (1 dog). High protein concentration was the most important finding on cerebrospinal fluid analysis. Dorsal laminectomies were performed in all dogs for spinal cord decompression and cyst removal. Findings on cytologic examination of the cystic fluid were consistent with synovial fluid, and histopathologic results supported the diagnosis of synovial cysts. All dogs are ambulatory and 3 are asymptomatic after surgery with a follow-up time ranging from 1 to 8 months. This is the 1st report of extradural synovial cysts in dogs, and synovial cysts should be a differential diagnosis for young giant breed dogs with cervical myelopathy. PMID:10357105

  10. Rapid malignant transformation of primary synovial chondromatosis into chondrosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Jonckheere, J; Shahabpour, M; Willekens, I; Pouliart, N; Dezillie, M; Vanhoenacker, F; De Mey, J

    2014-01-01

    Chondrosarcoma of the synovium is rare. It may arise de novo from the synovium or pre-existing synovial chondro- matosis may undergo malignant transformation into chondrosarcoma. Diagnosing a malignant transformation of the synovium remains a big challenge. It is based on the correlation of clinical findings, imaging and histology, as illustrated in this case report. PMID:25597214

  11. Hypoxia, mitochondrial dysfunction and synovial invasiveness in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Fearon, Ursula; Canavan, Mary; Biniecka, Monika; Veale, Douglas J

    2016-07-01

    Synovial proliferation, neovascularization and leukocyte extravasation transform the normally acellular synovium into an invasive tumour-like 'pannus'. The highly dysregulated architecture of the microvasculature creates a poor oxygen supply to the synovium, which, along with the increased metabolic turnover of the expanding synovial pannus, creates a hypoxic microenvironment. Abnormal cellular metabolism and mitochondrial dysfunction thus ensue and, in turn, through the increased production of reactive oxygen species, actively induce inflammation. When exposed to hypoxia in the inflamed joint, immune-inflammatory cells show adaptive survival reactions by activating key proinflammatory signalling pathways, including those mediated by hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α), nuclear factor κB (NF-κB), Janus kinase-signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK-STAT) and Notch, which contribute to synovial invasiveness. The reprogramming of hypoxia-mediated pathways in synovial cells, such as fibroblasts, dendritic cells, macrophages and T cells, is implicated in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis and other inflammatory conditions, and might therefore provide an opportunity for therapeutic intervention. PMID:27225300

  12. Tendon synovial cells secrete fibronectin in vivo and in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Banes, A.J.; Link, G.W.; Bevin, A.G.; Peterson, H.D.; Gillespie, Y.; Bynum, D.; Watts, S.; Dahners, L.

    1988-01-01

    The chemistry and cell biology of the tendon have been largely overlooked due to the emphasis on collagen, the principle structural component of the tendon. The tendon must not only transmit the force of muscle contraction to bone to effect movement, but it must also glide simultaneously over extratendonous tissues. Fibronectin is classified as a cell attachment molecule that induces cell spreading and adhesion to substratum. The external surface of intact avian flexor tendon stained positively with antibody to cellular fibronectin. However, if the surface synovial cells were first removed with collagenase, no positive reaction with antifibronectin antibody was detected. Analysis of immunologically stained frozen sections of tendon also revealed fibronectin at the tendon synovium, but little was associated with cells internal in tendon. The staining pattern with isolated, cultured synovial cells and fibroblasts from the tendon interior substantiated the histological observations. Analysis of polyacrylamide gel profiles of /sup 35/S-methionine-labeled proteins synthesized by synovial cells and internal fibroblasts indicated that fibronectin was synthesized principally by synovial cells. Fibronectin at the tendon surface may play a role in cell attachment to prevent cell removal by the friction of gliding. Alternatively, fibronectin, with its binding sites for hyaluronic acid and collagen, may act as a complex for boundary lubrication.

  13. Pulmonary Rehabilitation

    MedlinePlus

    Pulmonary Rehabilitation If you have shortness of breath because of lung problems, you may have asked yourself: • Can I ... medications do I really need to take? Pulmonary rehabilitation can help answer these and other questions. Enrolling ...

  14. Pulmonary Fibrosis

    MedlinePlus

    Pulmonary fibrosis is a condition in which the tissue deep in your lungs becomes scarred over time. This tissue ... may not get enough oxygen. Causes of pulmonary fibrosis include environmental pollutants, some medicines, some connective tissue ...

  15. Pulmonary Embolism

    MedlinePlus

    ... pulmonary embolism is a sudden blockage in a lung artery. The cause is usually a blood clot ... loose and travels through the bloodstream to the lung. Pulmonary embolism is a serious condition that can ...

  16. Pulmonary Embolism.

    PubMed

    Rali, Parth; Gandhi, Viral; Malik, Khalid

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary embolism covers a wide spectrum of presentation from an asymptomatic individual to a life-threatening medical emergency. It is of paramount importance to appropriately risk stratify patients with pulmonary embolism, particularly with those who present without hypotension. Right ventricular dysfunction can evolve after a patient has received a diagnosis of pulmonary embolism, necessitating aggressive measures rather than simple anticoagulation. In this review, we discuss definition, risk stratification, pathogenesis, diagnostic approach, and management, with particular focus on massive pulmonary embolism. PMID:26919674

  17. Bi-phase transition diagrams of metallic thin multilayers

    SciTech Connect

    Li, J.C.; Liu, W.; Jiang, Q. . E-mail: jiangq@jlu.edu.cn

    2005-02-01

    Phase transitions of metallic multilayers induced by differences in interface energy are considered thermodynamically, based on a thermodynamic model for interface energy and the Goldschmidt premise for lattice contraction. Bi-phase transition diagrams of Co/Cr, Zr/Nb, Ti/Nb and Ti/Al multilayers are constructed, which are in agreement with experimental results.

  18. Intrinsically Stretchable Biphasic (Solid-Liquid) Thin Metal Films.

    PubMed

    Hirsch, Arthur; Michaud, Hadrien O; Gerratt, Aaron P; de Mulatier, Séverine; Lacour, Stéphanie P

    2016-06-01

    Stretchable biphasic conductors are formed by physical vapor deposition of gallium onto an alloying metal film. The properties of the photolithography-compatible thin metal films are highlighted by low sheet resistance (0.5 Ω sq(-1) ) and large stretchability (400%). This novel approach to deposit and pattern liquid metals enables extremely robust, multilayer and soft circuits, sensors, and actuators. PMID:26923313

  19. Biphasic survival analysis of trypanotolerance QTL in mice.

    PubMed

    Koudandé, O D; Thomson, P C; Bovenhuis, H; Iraqi, F; Gibson, J P; van Arendonk, J A M

    2008-04-01

    A marker-assisted introgression (MAI) experiment was conducted to transfer trypanotolerance quantitative trait loci (QTL) from a donor mouse strain, C57BL/6, into a recipient mouse strain, A/J. The objective was to assess the effect of three previously identified chromosomal regions on mouse chromosomes 1 (MMU1), 5 (MMU5) and 17 (MMU17) in different genetic backgrounds on the survival pattern following infection with Trypanosoma congolense. An exploratory data analysis revealed a biphasic pattern of time to death, with highly distinct early and late mortality phases. In this paper, we present survival analysis methods that account for the biphasic mortality pattern and results of reanalyzing the data from the MAI experiment. The analysis with a Weibull mixture model confirmed the biphasic pattern of time to death. Mortality phase, an unobserved variable, appears to be an important factor influencing survival time and is modeled as a binary outcome variable using logistic regression analysis. Accounting for this biphasic pattern in the analysis reveals that a previously observed sex effect on average survival is rather an effect on proportion of mice in the two mortality phases. The C57BL/6 (donor) QTL alleles on MMU1 and MMU17 act dominantly in the late mortality phase while the A/J (recipient) QTL allele on MMU17 acts dominantly in the early mortality phase. From this study, we found clear evidence for a biphasic survival pattern and provided models for its analysis. These models can also be used when studying defense mechanisms against other pathogens. Finally, these approaches provide further information on the nature of gene actions. PMID:18253157

  20. Characterization of the porcine synovial fluid proteome and a comparison to the plasma proteome

    PubMed Central

    Bennike, Tue Bjerg; Barnaby, Omar; Steen, Hanno; Stensballe, Allan

    2015-01-01

    Synovial fluid is present in all joint cavities, and protects the articular cartilage surfaces in large by lubricating the joint, thus reducing friction. Several studies have described changes in the protein composition of synovial fluid in patients with joint disease. However, the protein concentration, content, and synovial fluid volume change dramatically during active joint diseases and inflammation, and the proteome composition of healthy synovial fluid is incompletely characterized. We performed a normative proteomics analysis of porcine synovial fluid, and report data from optimizing proteomic methods to investigate the proteome of healthy porcine synovial fluid (Bennike et al., 2014 [1]). We included an evaluation of different proteolytic sample preparation techniques, and an analysis of posttranslational modifications with a focus on glycosylation. We used pig (Sus Scrofa) as a model organism, as the porcine immune system is highly similar to human and the pig genome is sequenced. Furthermore, porcine model systems are commonly used large animal models to study several human diseases. In addition, we analyzed the proteome of human plasma, and compared the proteomes to the obtained porcine synovial fluid proteome. The proteome of the two body fluids were found highly similar, underlining the detected plasma derived nature of many synovial fluid components. The healthy porcine synovial fluid proteomics data, human rheumatoid arthritis synovial fluid proteomics data used in the method optimization, human plasma proteomics data, and search results, have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange Consortium via the PRIDE partner repository with the dataset identifier PXD000935. PMID:26543887

  1. Characterization of the porcine synovial fluid proteome and a comparison to the plasma proteome.

    PubMed

    Bennike, Tue Bjerg; Barnaby, Omar; Steen, Hanno; Stensballe, Allan

    2015-12-01

    Synovial fluid is present in all joint cavities, and protects the articular cartilage surfaces in large by lubricating the joint, thus reducing friction. Several studies have described changes in the protein composition of synovial fluid in patients with joint disease. However, the protein concentration, content, and synovial fluid volume change dramatically during active joint diseases and inflammation, and the proteome composition of healthy synovial fluid is incompletely characterized. We performed a normative proteomics analysis of porcine synovial fluid, and report data from optimizing proteomic methods to investigate the proteome of healthy porcine synovial fluid (Bennike et al., 2014 [1]). We included an evaluation of different proteolytic sample preparation techniques, and an analysis of posttranslational modifications with a focus on glycosylation. We used pig (Sus Scrofa) as a model organism, as the porcine immune system is highly similar to human and the pig genome is sequenced. Furthermore, porcine model systems are commonly used large animal models to study several human diseases. In addition, we analyzed the proteome of human plasma, and compared the proteomes to the obtained porcine synovial fluid proteome. The proteome of the two body fluids were found highly similar, underlining the detected plasma derived nature of many synovial fluid components. The healthy porcine synovial fluid proteomics data, human rheumatoid arthritis synovial fluid proteomics data used in the method optimization, human plasma proteomics data, and search results, have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange Consortium via the PRIDE partner repository with the dataset identifier PXD000935. PMID:26543887

  2. Pulmonary Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Newman, John H.

    2005-01-01

    The modern era in cardiopulmonary medicine began in the 1940s, when Cournand and Richards pioneered right-heart catheterization. Until that time, no direct measurement of central vascular pressure had been performed in humans. Right-heart catheterization ignited an explosion of insights into function and dysfunction of the pulmonary circulation, cardiac performance, ventilation–perfusion relationships, lung–heart interactions, valvular function, and congenital heart disease. It marked the beginnings of angiocardiography with its diagnostic implications for diseases of the left heart and peripheral circulation. Pulmonary hypertension was discovered to be the consequence of a large variety of diseases that either raised pressure downstream of the pulmonary capillaries, induced vasoconstriction, increased blood flow to the lung, or obstructed the pulmonary vessels, either by embolism or in situ fibrosis. Hypoxic vasoconstriction was found to be a major cause of acute and chronic pulmonary hypertension, and surprising vasoreactivity of the pulmonary vascular bed was discovered to be present in many cases of severe pulmonary hypertension, initially in mitral stenosis. Diseases as disparate as scleroderma, cystic fibrosis, kyphoscoliosis, sleep apnea, and sickle cell disease were found to have shared consequences in the pulmonary circulation. Some of the achievements of Cournand and Richards and their scientific descendents are discussed in this article, including success in the diagnosis and treatment of idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension, chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension, and management of hypoxic pulmonary hypertension. PMID:15994464

  3. Postlaminectomy synovial cyst formation: a possible consequence of ligamentum flavum excision.

    PubMed

    Walcott, Brian P; Coumans, Jean-Valery

    2012-02-01

    Ligamentum flavum is generally resected with impunity when a laminectomy is performed; it is a strong ligament and its removal may not be inconsequential. We sought to examine the consequence of resection of ligamentum flavum as it pertains to the formation of synovial cysts. Following IRB approval, we retrospectively reviewed the charts of consecutive patients who underwent a laminectomy for any diagnosis during the years 2009-2010. Exclusions were made for patients undergoing resection of a synovial cyst, laminectomy done as part of a fusion, and microdiscectomy. A total of 201 laminectomies were performed. 10 instances of post-laminectomy synovial cyst occurred in only the lumbar spine. Synovial cysts occurred exclusively after surgery for stenosis (n=10). Laminectomy and resection of the ligament flavum is a risk factor for the subsequent formation of a synovial cyst. Secondary synovial cyst formation should be suspected in individuals who develop radiculopathy after laminectomy for stenosis. PMID:22051031

  4. Imatinib mesylate inhibits platelet derived growth factor stimulated proliferation of rheumatoid synovial fibroblasts

    SciTech Connect

    Sandler, Charlotta; Joutsiniemi, Saima; Lindstedt, Ken A.; Juutilainen, Timo; Kovanen, Petri T.; Eklund, Kari K. . E-mail: kari.eklund@hus.fi

    2006-08-18

    Synovial fibroblast is the key cell type in the growth of the pathological synovial tissue in arthritis. Here, we show that platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) is a potent mitogen for synovial fibroblasts isolated from patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Inhibition of PDGF-receptor signalling by imatinib mesylate (1 {mu}M) completely abrogated the PDGF-stimulated proliferation and inhibited approximately 70% of serum-stimulated proliferation of synovial fibroblasts. Similar extent of inhibition was observed when PDGF was neutralized with anti-PDGF antibodies, suggesting that imatinib mesylate does not inhibit pathways other than those mediated by PDGF-receptors. No signs of apoptosis were detected in synovial fibroblasts cultured in the presence of imatinib. These results suggest that imatinib mesylate specifically inhibits PDGF-stimulated proliferation of synovial fibroblasts, and that inhibition of PDGF-receptors could represent a feasible target for novel antirheumatic therapies.

  5. Synovial excrescences and cysts of the spine: clinicopathological features and contributions to spinal stenosis.

    PubMed

    Sze, C I; Kindt, G; Huffer, W B; Chang, M; Wang, M; Kleinschmidt-DeMasters, B K

    2004-01-01

    Synovial cysts occur throughout the body and are generally benign lesions with limited clinical consequences. Juxtafacet cysts of the spine, in contrast, often press on a nerve root as it exits in the foramen, causing radiculopathy. Synovial tissue that emanates from the facet joint but extends medially, is an additional important cause of spinal stenosis. Over the past 5 years, neurosurgeons at our institution have operated on a large number of patients with back pain, with removal of abnormal synovial tissues. Histological examination of these tissues distinguishes the different types of pathologic processes responsible for producing symptoms. Juxtafacet cysts may be either mucin-filled ganglion cysts devoid of cyst lining or true synovial cysts with watery content and lined by synovial cells. Ganglion cysts arise in degenerated ligament at the facet joint, and occasionally within synovial stroma. Synovial cysts arise within synovium and, unlike synovial cysts in the extremities, have a thick wall containing granulation tissue, numerous histiocytes and giant cells. This hyperplastic, irritated synovium of the spine, which we term "synovial excrescences", is voluminous and this reactive part overshadows the cystic portion of the lesion in most instances. Iron pigment deposition and inflammation are mild to absent, making synovial excrescences different from pigmented villonodular synovitis. Synovial excrescences of the spine are an important cause of spinal stenosis, predominantly in elderly patients. Surgical removal of excrescences protruding into the spinal canal provides prompt and durable relief of symptoms, usually without the need for extensive bony laminectomy or spinal fusion. Several patients in our study had both spinal ganglion cysts and synovial excrescences, suggesting common risk factors for both lesions. PMID:15074582

  6. Supramolecular synergy in the boundary lubrication of synovial joints

    PubMed Central

    Seror, Jasmine; Zhu, Linyi; Goldberg, Ronit; Day, Anthony J.; Klein, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    Hyaluronan, lubricin and phospholipids, molecules ubiquitous in synovial joints, such as hips and knees, have separately been invoked as the lubricants responsible for the remarkable lubrication of articular cartilage; but alone, these molecules cannot explain the extremely low friction at the high pressures of such joints. We find that surface-anchored hyaluronan molecules complex synergistically with phosphatidylcholine lipids present in joints to form a boundary lubricating layer, which, with coefficient of friction μ≈0.001 at pressures to over 100 atm, has a frictional behaviour resembling that of articular cartilage in the major joints. Our findings point to a scenario where each of the molecules has a different role but must act together with the others: hyaluronan, anchored at the outer surface of articular cartilage by lubricin molecules, complexes with joint phosphatidylcholines to provide the extreme lubrication of synovial joints via the hydration–lubrication mechanism. PMID:25754223

  7. Intraneural Extension of Synovial Sarcoma: Exceptional, or Simply Underrecognized?

    PubMed

    Ng, Wen; Thway, Khin

    2015-12-01

    Intraneural extension of soft tissue sarcomas is uncommon; it is most frequently seen in malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor, but its occurrence is exceptional in synovial sarcoma. We describe a case arising extraneurally within the deep soft tissues of the forearm, which recurred and resulted in above-elbow amputation, revealing an unexpected finding of diffuse intraneural extension of tumor within a macroscopically normal major nerve. Despite macroscopic and microscopically clear soft tissue margins, the neoplasm had "traveled" a significant distance intraneurally to involve the neural resection margin. This feature does not appear to have been described before; it highlights the issue of whether intraneural spread of synovial sarcoma might have been previously underrecognized, and we discuss briefly some practical implications. PMID:26215219

  8. Synovial Chondromatosis of the Temporomandibular Joint Successfully Treated by Surgery.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Aécio Abner Campos; Ferreira e Costa, Rafael; de Sousa, Sílvia Ferreira; Chagas, Marcelo Roncalli Pinheiro; do Carmo, Maria Auxiliadora Vieira; de Lacerda, Júlio César Tanos

    2015-12-01

    Synovial chondromatosis (SC) is a chronic process, defined as a reactive cartilaginous proliferation, characterized by formation of cartilaginous nodules, usually loose in the joint space of the synovial membrane. It mainly affects large joints such as knee, hip, shoulder, and elbow, commonly in male patients. However, its manifestation in the Temporomandibular joint (TMJ), is a rare finding, occurring predominantly in females. This paper reports a case of a woman who presented to the service of Stomatology complaining of mouth opening limitations and pain in her left pre-auricular region. After clinical and radiographic analyses, the condition was diagnosed as SC of the TMJ. The loose bodies within the TMJ were removed under general anesthesia. Histological and follow-up features of this lesion are also discussed. To our knowledge, this is the second report of SC of the TMJ in Brazil. PMID:25912648

  9. Synovial cutaneous fistula complicating a reverse total shoulder arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Letter, Haley P; Limback, Joseph; Wasyliw, Christopher; Bancroft, Laura; Scherer, Kurt

    2016-06-01

    Reverse total shoulder arthroplasty is becoming a common form of shoulder arthroplasty that is often performed in the setting of rotator cuff pathology. Infection is a rare complication but is more common in reverse total shoulder arthroplasty than in hemiarthroplasty or anatomic total shoulder arthroplasty. We present the case of a 69-year-old patient with a reverse total shoulder arthroplasty who presented with purulent drainage from the skin of his anterior shoulder. Computed tomography arthrogram confirmed the presence of a synovial cutaneous fistula. Synovial cutaneous fistula is a rare variant of periprosthetic infection that, to our knowledge, has not been described previously in the setting of a reverse total shoulder arthroplasty. Computed tomography arthrogram proved to be a reliable method for confirming the diagnosis and was used for operative planning to remove the hardware. PMID:27257460

  10. Supramolecular synergy in the boundary lubrication of synovial joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seror, Jasmine; Zhu, Linyi; Goldberg, Ronit; Day, Anthony J.; Klein, Jacob

    2015-03-01

    Hyaluronan, lubricin and phospholipids, molecules ubiquitous in synovial joints, such as hips and knees, have separately been invoked as the lubricants responsible for the remarkable lubrication of articular cartilage; but alone, these molecules cannot explain the extremely low friction at the high pressures of such joints. We find that surface-anchored hyaluronan molecules complex synergistically with phosphatidylcholine lipids present in joints to form a boundary lubricating layer, which, with coefficient of friction μ≈0.001 at pressures to over 100 atm, has a frictional behaviour resembling that of articular cartilage in the major joints. Our findings point to a scenario where each of the molecules has a different role but must act together with the others: hyaluronan, anchored at the outer surface of articular cartilage by lubricin molecules, complexes with joint phosphatidylcholines to provide the extreme lubrication of synovial joints via the hydration-lubrication mechanism.

  11. A rapid screen for four corticosteroids in equine synovial fluid.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Karan; Ebel, Joseph G; Bischoff, Karyn

    2014-06-01

    Most antidoping method development in the equine industry has been for plasma and urine, though there has been recent interest in the analysis of synovial fluid for evidence of doping by intra-articular corticosteroid injection. Published methods for corticosteroid analysis in synovial fluid are primarily singleplex methods, do not screen for all corticosteroids of interest and are not adequately sensitive. The purpose of this study is to develop a rapid and sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) screening method for the detection of four of the most common intra-articularly administered corticosteroids--betamethasone, methylprednisolone, methylprednisolone acetate and triamcinolone acetonide. Sample preparation consisted of protein precipitation followed by a basified liquid-liquid extraction. LC-MS-MS experiments consisted of a six-min isocratic separation using a Phenomenex Polar-RP stationary phase and a mobile phase consisting of 35% acetonitrile, 5 mM ammonium acetate and 0.1% formic acid in nanopure water. The detection system used was a triple quadrupole mass analyzer with thermospray ionization, and compounds were identified using selective reaction monitoring. The method was validated to the ISO/IEC 17025 standard, and real synovial fluid samples were analyzed to demonstrate the application of the method in an antidoping context. The method was highly selective for the four corticosteroids with limits of detection of 1-3 ng/mL. The extraction efficiency was 50-101%, and the matrix effects were 14-31%. These results indicate that the method is a rapid and sensitive screen for the four corticosteroids in equine synovial fluid, fit for purpose for equine antidoping assays. PMID:24713534

  12. Sports-related changes of the synovial membrane

    PubMed Central

    MANUNTA, ANDREA F.; ZEDDE, PIETRO; PISANU, FRANCESCO; MARRAS, FRANCESCO

    2014-01-01

    Purpose the aim of this study is to differentiate the behavior of the synovial membrane in the presence of various stimuli in patients who practice sports. Methods fifty one patients (30 males and 21 females, mean age 48 years, range 31–59 years) who actively practiced non-competitive sports underwent a biopsy of the synovial membrane during arthroscopic surgery performed for joint effusion secondary to meniscal lesion (24 cases), anterior cruciate ligament injury (ACL) (17 cases), postoperative knee joint stiffness (2 cases), aseptic loosening or dislocation of the polyethylene component of uni-compartmental knee arthroplasty (5 cases), and anterior fibrous impingement of the ankle (3 cases). Synovial tissue samples were obtained during surgery from all the patients and processed for light microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy observation. Results circulatory phenomena were observed in acute inflammatory processes, characterized by hyperemia and vasodilation. Exudative and infiltrative phenomena were observed in the presence of foreign bodies and were characterized by leukocytic exudation (presence of polynuclear neutrophils), accompanied by lymphomonocytic infiltration. Proliferative phenomena were observed in post-traumatic forms of synovitis (ACL and meniscal injuries), characterized by hypertrophy and proliferation of villous formations. Degenerative and regressive phenomena were observed in cases of fibrous reaction (ankle impingement and joint stiffness) and were characterized by formation of dense fibrous connective tissue with hyaline patches, evolving towards sclerosis. Conclusions the activation of inflammatory processes in patients who expose their joints to excessive stress may lead to the formation of hyperplastic tissue. Ultramicroscopic debris is usually capable of transforming the structural organization of the synovial tissue. Level of evidence Level IV, observational case series. PMID:25750907

  13. Identification and analysis of CXCR4-positive synovial sarcoma-initiating cells.

    PubMed

    Kimura, T; Wang, L; Tabu, K; Tsuda, M; Tanino, M; Maekawa, A; Nishihara, H; Hiraga, H; Taga, T; Oda, Y; Tanaka, S

    2016-07-28

    Synovial sarcoma accounts for almost 10% of all soft tissue sarcomas, and its prognosis is poor with 5-year survival rates at 36%. Thus, new treatments and therapeutic targets for synovial sarcoma are required. Tumor-initiating cells have been defined by the ability for self-renewal and multipotent differentiation, and they exhibit higher tumorigenic capacity, chemoresistance and radiation resistance, expecting to be a new therapeutic target. In synovial sarcoma, the presence of such stemness remains largely unclear; thus, we analyzed whether synovial sarcoma possessed tumor-initiating cells and explored specific markers, and we discovered that synovial sarcoma cell lines possessed heterogeneity by way of containing a sphere-forming subpopulation highly expressing NANOG, OCT4 and SOX2. By expression microarray analysis, CXCR4 was identified to be highly expressed in the sphere subpopulation and correlated with stem-cell-associated markers. Inhibition of CXCR4 suppressed the cell proliferation of synovial sarcoma cell lines in vitro. The tumor-initiating ability of CXCR4-positive cells was demonstrated by xenograft propagation assay. CXCR4-positive cells showed higher tumorigenicity than negative ones and possessed both self-renewal and multipotent differentiation ability. Immunohistochemical analysis of 39 specimens of synovial sarcoma patients revealed that CXCR4 strongly correlated with poor prognosis of synovial sarcoma. Thus, we conclude that CXCR4 is the marker of synovial sarcoma-initiating cells, a new biomarker for prognosis and a new potential therapeutic target. PMID:26640147

  14. The diagnostic utility of reduced immunohistochemical expression of SMARCB1 in synovial sarcomas: a validation study.

    PubMed

    Ito, Junko; Asano, Naofumi; Kawai, Akira; Yoshida, Akihiko

    2016-01-01

    Synovial sarcoma is a malignant mesenchymal neoplasm of uncertain histogenesis, characterized by a specific SS18-SSX fusion. The diagnosis of synovial sarcoma can be challenging based on morphology and conventional immunohistochemistry alone, and identification of the fusion gene by molecular genetics may be necessary for diagnosis. Several recent studies have demonstrated the diagnostic utility of the reduced expression of SMARCB1 in synovial sarcomas as measured using immunohistochemistry. Therefore, we undertook a validation study using synovial sarcomas and other spindle or round cell tumors that could enter differential diagnosis of monophasic or poorly differentiated synovial sarcomas. Among 36 synovial sarcomas that were successfully evaluated, the expression of SMARCB1 was diffusely reduced in 33 cases (92%) at variable degrees. In contrast, the expression of SMARCB1 was not reduced in any of the 93 evaluable non-synovial sarcoma tumors (5 thymomas, 5 sarcomatoid mesotheliomas, 10 schwannomas, 9 mesenchymal chondrosarcomas, 20 solitary fibrous tumors, 19 Ewing sarcomas, and 25 malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors). A few schwannomas and malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors showed mosaic or complete loss of SMARCB1 expression. Reduced expression of SMARCB1 immunoreactivity was therefore found to be highly sensitive and specific for synovial sarcoma, and can be useful for rapidly and accurately confirming the diagnosis of synovial sarcoma. This reduction in SMARCB1 expression likely reflects the BAF47 ejection mechanism of the SS18-SSX fusion product and can therefore be viewed as an indirect visualization of this fusion product. PMID:26520417

  15. The role of lubricin in the mechanical behavior of synovial fluid

    PubMed Central

    Jay, G. D.; Torres, J. R.; Warman, M. L.; Laderer, M. C.; Breuer, K. S.

    2007-01-01

    Synovial fluid is a semidilute hyaluronate (HA) polymer solution, the rheology of which depends on HA–protein interactions, and lubricin is a HA-binding protein found in synovial fluid and at cartilage surfaces, where it contributes to boundary lubrication under load. Individuals with genetic deficiency of lubricin develop precocious joint failure. The role of lubricin in synovial fluid rheology is not known. We used a multiple-particle-tracking microrheology technique to study the molecular interactions between lubricin and HA in synovial fluid. Particles (200 nm mean diameter) embedded in normal and lubricin-deficient synovial fluid samples were tracked separately by using multiple-particle-tracking microrheology. The time-dependent ensemble-averaged mean-squared displacements of all of the particles were measured over a range of physiologically relevant frequencies. The mean-squared displacement correlation with time lag had slopes with values of unity for simple HA solutions and for synovial fluid from an individual who genetically lacked lubricin, in contrast to slopes with values less than unity (α ≈ 0.6) for normal synovial fluid. These data correlated with bulk rheology studies of the same samples. We found that the subdiffusive and elastic behavior of synovial fluid, at physiological shear rates, was absent in fluid from a patient who lacks lubricin. We conclude that lubricin provides synovial fluid with an ability to dissipate strain energy induced by mammalian locomotion, which is a chondroprotective feature that is distinct from boundary lubrication. PMID:17404241

  16. Thermoreversible (Ionic-Liquid-Based) Aqueous Biphasic Systems

    PubMed Central

    Passos, Helena; Luís, Andreia; Coutinho, João A. P.; Freire, Mara G.

    2016-01-01

    The ability to induce reversible phase transitions between homogeneous solutions and biphasic liquid-liquid systems, at pre-defined and suitable operating temperatures, is of crucial relevance in the design of separation processes. Ionic-liquid-based aqueous biphasic systems (IL-based ABS) have demonstrated superior performance as alternative extraction platforms, and their thermoreversible behaviour is here disclosed by the use of protic ILs. The applicability of the temperature-induced phase switching is further demonstrated with the complete extraction of two value-added proteins, achieved in a single-step. It is shown that these temperature-induced mono(bi)phasic systems are significantly more versatile than classical liquid-liquid systems which are constrained by their critical temperatures. IL-based ABS allow to work in a wide range of temperatures and compositions which can be tailored to fit the requirements of a given separation process. PMID:26843320

  17. Thermoreversible (Ionic-Liquid-Based) Aqueous Biphasic Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Passos, Helena; Luís, Andreia; Coutinho, João A. P.; Freire, Mara G.

    2016-02-01

    The ability to induce reversible phase transitions between homogeneous solutions and biphasic liquid-liquid systems, at pre-defined and suitable operating temperatures, is of crucial relevance in the design of separation processes. Ionic-liquid-based aqueous biphasic systems (IL-based ABS) have demonstrated superior performance as alternative extraction platforms, and their thermoreversible behaviour is here disclosed by the use of protic ILs. The applicability of the temperature-induced phase switching is further demonstrated with the complete extraction of two value-added proteins, achieved in a single-step. It is shown that these temperature-induced mono(bi)phasic systems are significantly more versatile than classical liquid-liquid systems which are constrained by their critical temperatures. IL-based ABS allow to work in a wide range of temperatures and compositions which can be tailored to fit the requirements of a given separation process.

  18. Tribological and Rheological Properties of a Synovial Fluid Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klossner, Rebecca; Liang, Jing; Krause, Wendy

    2010-03-01

    Hyaluronic acid (HA) and the plasma proteins, albumin and globulins, are the most abundant macromolecules in synovial fluid, the fluid that lubricates freely moving joints. In previous studies, bovine synovial fluid, a synovial fluid model (SFM) and albumin in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) were observed to be rheopectic---viscosity increases over time under constant shear. Additionally, steady shear experiments have a strong shear history dependence in protein-containing solutions, whereas samples of HA in PBS behaved as a ``typical'' polyelectrolyte. The observed rheopexy and shear history dependence are indicative of structure building in solution, which is most likely caused by protein aggregation. The tribology of the SFM was also investigated using nanoindenter-based scratch tests. The coefficient of frictions (μ) between the diamond nanoindenter tip and a polyethylene surface was measured in the presence of the SFM and solutions with varied protein and HA concentrations. The lowest μ is observed in the SFM, which most closely mimics a healthy joint. Finally, an anti-inflammatory drug, hydroxychloroquine, was shown to inhibit protein interactions in the SFM in rheological studies, and thus the tribological response was examined. We hypothesize that the rheopectic behavior is important in lubrication regimes and therefore, the rheological and tribological properties of these solutions will be correlated.

  19. Etofenamate levels in human serum and synovial fluid following iontophoresis.

    PubMed

    Bender, T; Bariska, J; Rojkovich, B; Bálint, G

    2001-01-01

    The absorption of etofenamate (CAS 30544-47-9, Rheumon gel) by iontophoresis in 11 patients with low back pain and in 13 patients with synovitis of the knee was evaluated. During the 5-day treatment period, the test gel in a quantity corresponding to 100 mg etofenamate was applied to affected body regions every day by 20-min iontophoresis sessions. Two hours after the fifth application, the concentration of etofenamate in serum and synovial fluid (in patients who had knee joint iontophoresis) were measured by HPLC. Iontophoresis of etofenamate into the lumbar region as well as to the knee joint resulted in consistent serum levels: 219 +/- 136.3 micrograms/l and 191 +/- 84.6 micrograms/l, respectively. In patients with synovitis of the knee, the synovial level of etofenamate (368 +/- 109.2 micrograms/l) was almost twice as high than the serum concentration. The authors conclude that with topical application of etofenamate by iontophoresis the drug appears not only in the serum but also--with higher levels--in the synovial fluid. PMID:11455681

  20. Biphasic Response of Ciprofloxacin in Human Fibroblast Cell Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Hincal, Filiz; Gürbay, Aylin; Favier, Alain

    2003-01-01

    To investigate the possibility of the involvement of an oxidative stress induction in the mechanism of the cytotoxic effect of quinolone antibiotics, we examined the viability of human fibroblast cells exposed to ciprofloxacin (CPFX), and measured the levels of lipid peroxidation (LP), glutathione (GSH), and the activities of the antioxidant enzymes catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione peroxidase (GPX). The data showed that the effect of CPFX on the viability of cells, as determined by neutral red uptake assay, was time-dependent, and the dose-response relation was biphasic. Cytotoxicity was not observed in the concentration range 5–150 mg/l CPFX when the cells were incubated for 24 h. In contrast, lower concentrations (5 and 12.5 mg/l) of CPFX increased the cell growth in all incubation periods tested. Marked decreases in the viability of fibroblasts were observed at concentrations 50 and 75 mg/l, and ≥50 mg/l, following 48 and 72 h exposure, respectively (p < 0.05). However, when the cells were exposed to > 75 mg/l CPFX for 48 h, no cytotoxicity was observed. By exposing fibroblast cultures to 75 mg/l CPFX for 48 h, an induction of LP enhancement and a marked decrease in intracellular GSH were observed. Vitamin E pretreatment of the cells lowered the level of LP, increased the total GSH content, and provided significant protection against CPFX-induced cytotoxicity. The biphasic effect of CPFX possibly resulted from the complex dose-dependent relationships between reactive oxygen species (ROS), cell proliferation, and cell viability. It was previously reported, in fact, for several cell models that ROS exert a biphasic effect on cell growth. Furthermore, cultured fibroblasts release their own free radicals, and the inhibition of endogenous ROS inhibits the fibroblast cell proliferation, whereas the effect of exogenous ROS is biphasic. PMID:19330132

  1. Improved internal defibrillation efficacy with a biphasic waveform.

    PubMed

    Fain, E S; Sweeney, M B; Franz, M R

    1989-02-01

    Clinically available automatic implantable defibrillators use a monophasic truncated exponential waveform shock; after delivery the charge remaining on the device's capacitors is "dumped" internally and wasted. The efficacy of a monophasic and biphasic truncated exponential defibrillation waveform produced by a single capacitor discharge was compared in seven closed-chest, pentobarbital-anesthetized dogs. Defibrillation leads consisted of a new deployable intrapericardial electrode system. The monophasic waveform was positive and 6 msec in duration. The biphasic waveform had a positive phase identical to that of the monophasic waveform and a negative phase of equal duration with its initial voltage equal to 50% of the final voltage of the positive phase. Defibrillation shocks of varying initial voltage were delivered to construct curves of the percentage of successful defibrillation versus initial voltage and delivered energy, and the voltage and energy required for 50% (V50 and E50, respectively) and 80% (V80 and E80, respectively) success were compared. The biphasic waveform had significantly lower initial voltage (V50: 194 +/- 48 volts vs 227 +/- 48 volts, p less than 0.001; V80: 217 +/- 55 volts vs 256 +/- 66 volts, p less than 0.02) and energy (E50: 2.7 +/- 1.3 joules vs 3.4 +/- 1.5 joules, p less than 0.01; E80: 3.4 +/- 1.6 joules vs 4.3 +/- 2.2 joules, p less than 0.05) requirements than the monophasic waveform. It is concluded that a biphasic waveform produced by a single discharge that uses the "free" energy remaining on the capacitors significantly reduces the initial voltage and energy requirements for successful defibrillation and may improve the efficacy of future automatic implantable defibrillators. PMID:2916410

  2. Pulmonary rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Troosters, Thierry; Demeyer, Heleen; Hornikx, Miek; Camillo, Carlos Augusto; Janssens, Wim

    2014-03-01

    Pulmonary rehabilitation is a therapy that offers benefits to patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease that are complementary to those obtained by pharmacotherapy. The main objective of pulmonary rehabilitation is to restore muscle function and exercise tolerance, reverse other nonrespiratory consequences of the disease, and help patients to self-manage chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and its exacerbations and symptoms. To do so, a multidisciplinary program tailored to the patient in terms of program content, exercise prescription, and setting must be offered. Several settings and programs have shown to spin off in significant immediate results. The challenge lies in maintaining the benefits outside the program. PMID:24507849

  3. Actinide recovery using aqueous biphasic extraction: Initial developmental studies

    SciTech Connect

    Chaiko, D.J.; Mensah-Biney, R.; Mertz, C.J.; Rollins, A.N.

    1992-08-01

    Aqueous biphasic extraction systems are being developed to treat radioactive wastes. The separation technique involves the selective partitioning of either solutes or colloid-size particles between two scible aqueous phases. Wet grinding of plutonium residues to an average particle size of one micron will be used to liberate the plutonium from the bulk of the particle matrix. The goal is to produce a plutonium concentrate that will integrate with existing and developing chemical recovery processes. Ideally, the process would produce a nonTRU waste stream. Coupling physical beneficiation with chemical processing will result in a substantial reduction in the volume of mixed wastes generated from dissolution recovery processes. As part of this program, we will also explore applications of aqueous biphasic extraction that include the separation and recovery of dissolved species such as metal ions and water-soluble organics. The expertise and data generated in this work will form the basis for developing more cost-effective processes for handling waste streams from environmental restoration and waste management activities within the DOE community. This report summarizes the experimental results obtained during the first year of this effort. Experimental efforts were focused on elucidating the surface and solution chemistry variables which govern partitioning behavior of plutonium and silica in aqueous biphasic extraction systems. Additional efforts were directed toward the development of wet grinding methods for producing ultrafine particles with diameters of one micron or less.

  4. Biphasic Dose Response in Low Level Light Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ying-Ying; Chen, Aaron C.-H.; Carroll, James D.; Hamblin, Michael R.

    2009-01-01

    The use of low levels of visible or near infrared light for reducing pain, inflammation and edema, promoting healing of wounds, deeper tissues and nerves, and preventing cell death and tissue damage has been known for over forty years since the invention of lasers. Despite many reports of positive findings from experiments conducted in vitro, in animal models and in randomized controlled clinical trials, LLLT remains controversial in mainstream medicine. The biochemical mechanisms underlying the positive effects are incompletely understood, and the complexity of rationally choosing amongst a large number of illumination parameters such as wavelength, fluence, power density, pulse structure and treatment timing has led to the publication of a number of negative studies as well as many positive ones. A biphasic dose response has been frequently observed where low levels of light have a much better effect on stimulating and repairing tissues than higher levels of light. The so-called Arndt-Schulz curve is frequently used to describe this biphasic dose response. This review will cover the molecular and cellular mechanisms in LLLT, and describe some of our recent results in vitro and in vivo that provide scientific explanations for this biphasic dose response. PMID:20011653

  5. The Impact of Compact Layer in Biphasic Scaffold on Osteochondral Tissue Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Jian-Hua; Zhou, Wei; Xiong, Zhuo; Mu, Yun-Jing; Liu, Jian

    2013-01-01

    The structure of an osteochondral biphasic scaffold is required to mimic native tissue, which owns a calcified layer associated with mechanical and separation function. The two phases of biphasic scaffold should possess efficient integration to provide chondrocytes and osteocytes with an independent living environment. In this study, a novel biphasic scaffold composed of a bony phase, chondral phase and compact layer was developed. The compact layer-free biphasic scaffold taken as control group was also fabricated. The purpose of current study was to evaluate the impact of the compact layer in the biphasic scaffold. Bony and chondral phases were seeded with autogeneic osteoblast- or chondrocyte-induced bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs), respectively. The biphasic scaffolds-cells constructs were then implanted into osteochondral defects of rabbits’ knees, and the regenerated osteochondral tissue was evaluated at 3 and 6 months after surgery. Anti-tensile and anti-shear properties of the compact layer-containing biphasic scaffold were significantly higher than those of the compact layer-free biphasic scaffold in vitro. Furthermore, in vivo studies revealed superior macroscopic scores, glycosaminoglycan (GAG) and collagen content, micro tomograph imaging results, and histological properties of regenerated tissue in the compact layer-containing biphasic scaffold compared to the control group. These results indicated that the compact layer could significantly enhance the biomechanical properties of biphasic scaffold in vitro and regeneration of osteochondral tissue in vivo, and thus represented a promising approach to osteochondral tissue engineering. PMID:23382984

  6. Partition of fine particles in aqueous biphase systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Xi

    The objective of this research project is to develop an aqueous biphase extraction process for the treatment of fine coals. Aqueous biphase extraction is an advanced separation technology that relies on the ability of an aqueous system consisting of a water-soluble polymer and another component, e.g., another polymer, an inorganic salt, or a nonionic surfactant, to separate into two immiscible aqueous phases. The principle behind the partition of solid particles in aqueous biphase systems is the physicochemical interaction between the solid surface and the surrounding liquid solution. In order to remove sulfur and mineral matter from fine coal with aqueous biphasic extraction, it is necessary to know the partitioning behavior of coal, as well as the inorganic mineral components. Therefore, in this research emphasis was placed on the partitioning behavior of fine coal particles as well as model fine inorganic particles in aqueous biphase systems. In the polyethylene glycol (PEG)/salt/H2O system, it was found that pyrite partition was highly dependent upon pH conditions: at high pH the particles preferred the salt-rich (bottom) phase, while they moved to the polymer-rich (top) phase at low pH. This behavior is attributable to the different surface oxidation products associated with the pH variations: formation of FeOOH in alkaline solution, and a hydrophobic iron-deficient product (Fe 1-xS2) in acidic environment. The partitioning behavior of oxide particles (e.g., Al2O3, Fe2O 3, SiO2, TiO2) in the PEG/Na2SO 4/H2O system indicated that, in the absence of polymer-solid interaction, the surface hydrophilic/hydrophobic properties determined solid partition; otherwise, the specific polymer-solid interaction dominated the distribution of the solid particles. Aside from the polymer/salt aqueous biphase systems, the partitioning behavior of hematite and silica was also investigated in polymer/polymer (PEG/dextran) and polymer/nonionic surfactant (Triton X-100 (TX100

  7. Primary synovial sarcoma of the abdominal wall: a case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Kritsaneepaiboon, Supika; Sangkhathat, Surasak; Mitarnun, Winyou

    2015-01-01

    Synovial sarcoma (SS) is the fourth most common type of soft tissue sarcoma, following malignant fibrous histiocytoma, liposarcoma, and rhabdomyosarcoma. It usually occurs in the extremities near the large joints of middle-aged patients. We describe a case of synovial sarcoma of the anterior abdominal wall (SSAW) in an adolescent girl and undertake a review of the literature. PMID:26629297

  8. A Systems Biology Approach to Synovial Joint Lubrication in Health, Injury, and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Hui, Alexander Y.; McCarty, William J.; Masuda, Koichi; Firestein, Gary S.; Sah, Robert L.

    2013-01-01

    The synovial joint contains synovial fluid (SF) within a cavity bounded by articular cartilage and synovium. SF is a viscous fluid that has lubrication, metabolic, and regulatory functions within synovial joints. SF contains lubricant molecules, including proteoglycan-4 and hyaluronan. SF is an ultrafiltrate of plasma with secreted contributions from cell populations lining and within the synovial joint space, including chondrocytes and synoviocytes. Maintenance of normal SF lubricant composition and function are important for joint homeostasis. In osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, and joint injury, changes in lubricant composition and function accompany alterations in the cytokine and growth factor environment and increased fluid and molecular transport through joint tissues. Thus, understanding the synovial joint lubrication system requires a multi-faceted study of the various parts of the synovial joint and their interactions. Systems biology approaches at multiple scales are being used to describe the molecular, cellular, and tissue components and their interactions that comprise the functioning synovial joint. Analyses of the transcriptome and proteome of SF, cartilage, and synovium suggest that particular molecules and pathways play important roles in joint homeostasis and disease. Such information may be integrated with physicochemical tissue descriptions to construct integrative models of the synovial joint that ultimately may explain maintenance of health, recovery from injury, or development and progression of arthritis. PMID:21826801

  9. [Synovial chondromatosis of the right temporomandibular joint: report of one case].

    PubMed

    Fan, Rui-xian; Zhang, Kui-hong; Ding, Wei; Wang, Yan-ling

    2016-04-01

    Synovial chondromatosis of the temporomandibular joint(TMJ) is an extremely rare condition. A case of synovial chondromatosis with postoperative recurrence and involvement of base of skull was reported. The clinic pathological features, diagnosis and treatment were discussed with literature review. PMID:27329898

  10. Giant Solitary Synovial Chondromatosis Mimicking Chondrosarcoma: Report of a Rare Histologic Presentation and Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Jamshidi, Khodamorad; Barbuto, Richard; Shirazi, Mehdi Ramezan; Abolghasemian, Mansour

    2015-08-01

    Synovial chondromatosis is a benign lesion of the synovium, and giant solitary synovial chondromatosis (GSSCM) is a rare presentation of it. In this article, we describe clinical, imaging, and pathologic features of a hip GSSCM with an unusual histologic presentation. PMID:26251946

  11. Midline lumbar ganglion/synovial cyst mimicking an epidural tumor: case report and review of pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Azzam, C J

    1988-08-01

    A case of a midline lumbar extradural ganglion/synovial cyst causing lumbar canal stenosis and mimicking an epidural tumor is presented. The lesion was demonstrated by a magnetic resonance imaging study, and relief of symptoms was achieved with decompressive laminectomy and total removal of the mass. The pathogenesis of lumbar ganglion/synovial cyst is reviewed. PMID:2972941

  12. Solitary synovial chondromatosis arising in the gluteus maximus bursa: computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging findings.

    PubMed

    Sumida, Kaoru; Kobayashi, Noriko; Nambu, Atsushi; Tago, Masao; Shibuya, Isao; Kawamoto, Masashi

    2016-03-01

    Chondral tumors in soft tissue are referred to as soft-tissue chondromas or extraskeletal chondromas, or as synovial chondromatosis if they arise in synovial tissue. We report the case of a 29-year-old man with synovial chondromatosis, also called synovial osteochondromatosis, which appeared in a solitary and extra-articular form. On magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography, the central portion of the tumor showed similar characteristics to bone marrow, despite the absence of any connection to adjacent bone. T2-weighted imaging displayed marked peripheral hyperintensity consistent with a cartilaginous area. These findings suggested the presence of enchondral ossification and were similar to those of skeletal osteochondroma, with the exception of the absence of attachment to bone. MRI is useful for distinguishing solitary synovial chondromatosis from other lesions, such as myositis ossificans, extraskeletal chondrosarcoma, and parosteal osteosarcoma. PMID:26998347

  13. Synovial lipomatosis: A rare cause of knee pain in an adolescent female

    PubMed Central

    Miladore, Nicholas; Childs, Mary A; Sabesan, Vani J

    2015-01-01

    Synovial lipomatosis is a benign proliferative disease of the subsynovial adipose which can lead to a variety of presentations. Cases of synovial lipomatosis in children or adolescents are rare. This case report describes an adolescent patient with a rare bilateral presentation of synovial lipomatosis. She had been treated for years prior to her presentation for juvenile idiopathic arthritis. She presented with chronic bilateral knee pain, swelling, and mechanical symptoms. Bilateral MR imaging demonstrated effusions, hypertrophy of the synovium, and polyp-like projections of tissue with the same signal intensity as fat which is pathognomonic for synovial lipomatosis. Arthroscopic synovectomy and extensive debridement of polyp like fat projections of the right knee was performed. Histopathology was consistent with the synovial lipomatosis diagnosis. Postoperatively, the patient was satisfied with her outcome with improved pain relief and function in her right knee. PMID:25893181

  14. Solitary synovial chondromatosis arising in the gluteus maximus bursa: computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging findings

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Noriko; Nambu, Atsushi; Tago, Masao; Shibuya, Isao; Kawamoto, Masashi

    2016-01-01

    Chondral tumors in soft tissue are referred to as soft-tissue chondromas or extraskeletal chondromas, or as synovial chondromatosis if they arise in synovial tissue. We report the case of a 29-year-old man with synovial chondromatosis, also called synovial osteochondromatosis, which appeared in a solitary and extra-articular form. On magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography, the central portion of the tumor showed similar characteristics to bone marrow, despite the absence of any connection to adjacent bone. T2-weighted imaging displayed marked peripheral hyperintensity consistent with a cartilaginous area. These findings suggested the presence of enchondral ossification and were similar to those of skeletal osteochondroma, with the exception of the absence of attachment to bone. MRI is useful for distinguishing solitary synovial chondromatosis from other lesions, such as myositis ossificans, extraskeletal chondrosarcoma, and parosteal osteosarcoma. PMID:26998347

  15. MR evaluation of synovial injury in shoulder trauma.

    PubMed

    Chalian, Majid; Soldatos, Theodoros; Faridian-Aragh, Neda; Andreisek, Gustav; McFarland, Edward G; Carrino, John A; Chhabra, Avneesh

    2011-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings relevant to synovial injury of the shoulder in patients with and without acute shoulder trauma. Three hundred and nine consecutive shoulder MRI studies (185-male, 124-female, 50 ± 15 years old) were retrospectively evaluated for findings suggestive of synovial injury including rupture and/or diverticulum of the joint capsule, bursa, and biceps tendon sheath (BTS), ganglion/synovial cyst, geyser phenomenon, and sequel of previous shoulder dislocation (Hill-Sachs deformity). Patients with one or more of these findings were included in the MR-positive group, whereas the remaining subjects were used as MR negatives. Based on their medical records, patients were also divided into trauma and non-trauma groups, and statistical analysis was performed to evaluate the association between the aforementioned MRI findings and history of shoulder trauma. Fifty-six patients were included in the MR-positive group and 253 in the MR-negative group. In MR-positive group, the incidence of capsular rupture (CR) and subacromial/subdeltoid (SASD) bursal rupture was higher in trauma patients, whereas the incidence of BTS diverticulum and ganglion cyst was higher in subjects without trauma. Significant association was found between the history of acute trauma and CR, SASD bursal rupture, BTS rupture, and Hill-Sachs deformity. In shoulder MR examination, presence of CR and/or SASD bursal rupture is strongly suggestive of acute shoulder trauma. In addition, BTS rupture and Hill-Sachs deformity are more prevalent in patients with acute shoulder trauma. The presence of these features should alert MRI readers to assess for additional trauma-related internal derangements, if a respective history has not been provided. PMID:21735271

  16. Biphasic Investigation of Tissue Mechanical Response During Freezing Front Propagation

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Jamie; Han, Bumsoo; Chuong, Cheng-Jen

    2012-01-01

    Cryopreservation of engineered tissue (ET) has achieved limited success due to limited understanding of freezing-induced biophysical phenomena in ETs, especially fluid-matrix interaction within ETs. To further our understanding of the freezing-induced fluid-matrix interaction, we have developed a biphasic model formulation that simulates the transient heat transfer and volumetric expansion during freezing, its resulting fluid movement in the ET, elastic deformation of the solid matrix and the corresponding pressure redistribution within. Treated as a biphasic material, the ET consists of a porous solid matrix fully saturated with interstitial fluid. Temperature-dependent material properties were employed and phase change was included by incorporating the latent heat of phase change into an effective specific heat term. Model-predicted temperature distribution, the location of the moving freezing front, and the ET deformation rates through the time course compare reasonably well with experiments reported previously. Results from our theoretical model show that behind the marching freezing front, the ET undergoes expansion due to phase change of its fluid contents. It compresses the region preceding the freezing front leading to its fluid expulsion and reduced regional fluid volume fractions. The expelled fluid is forced forward and upward into the region further ahead of the compression zone causing a secondary expansion zone; which then compresses the region further downstream with much reduced intensity. Overall, it forms an alternating expansion-compression pattern which moves with the marching freezing front. The present biphasic model helps us to gain insights into some facets of the freezing process and cryopreservation treatment that could not be gleaned experimentally. Its resulting understanding will ultimately be useful to design and improve cryopreservation protocols for ETs. PMID:22757502

  17. Biphasic Effects of Alcohol as a Function of Circadian Phase

    PubMed Central

    Van Reen, Eliza; Rupp, Tracy L.; Acebo, Christine; Seifer, Ronald; Carskadon, Mary A.

    2013-01-01

    Study Objectives: To assess how alcohol affects multiple sleep latency tests (MSLT) and subjective measures of stimulation/sedation when alcohol is given at different circadian phases. Participants: Twenty-seven healthy young adults (age 21-26 yr) were studied. Design: Double-blind placebo and alcohol (vodka tonic targeting 0.05 g% concentration) beverages were each administered three times during the 20-h forced desynchrony protocol. Sleep latency tests and Biphasic Effects of Alcohol Scale (BAES) were administered on each forced desynchrony day. The outcome variables for this study include sleep onset latency (SOL) and stimulation and sedation value (from the BAES). Each outcome variable was associated with the ascending or descending limb of the breath alcohol concentration (BrAC) curve and assigned a circadian phase within a 90° bin. Measurements and Results: BrAC confirmed targeted maximal levels. Only outcome variables associated with the ascending and descending limb of the alcohol curve were analyzed for this article. Alcohol administered at a circadian time associated with greatest sleepiness showed longer SOL compared with placebo when measured on the ascending limb of the BrAC curve. We also found longer SOL with alcohol on the ascending limb of the BrAC curve in a circadian bin that favors greatest alertness. We observed shorter SOLs on the descending limb of the BrAC curve, but with no circadian phase interaction. The subjective data were partially consistent with the objective data. Conclusions: The physiologic findings in this study support the biphasic stimulating and sedating properties of alcohol, but limit the effect to specific circadian times. Citation: Van Reen E; Rupp TL; Acebo C; Seifer R; Carskadon MA. Biphasic effects of alcohol as a function of circadian phase. SLEEP 2013;36(1):137-145. PMID:23288980

  18. Upregulation of fibroblast growth factor 1 in the synovial membranes of patients with late stage osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Li, R; Wang, B; He, C Q; Yang, Y Q; Guo, H; Chen, Y; Du, T H

    2015-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative disease of the systemic joint that involves multiple cytokines and growth factors. Fibroblast growth factor 1 (FGF-1) is increased in patients with rheumatic arthritis. The aim of this study was to determine whether the expression and secretion of FGF-1 differed in synovial tissue from patients with late stage OA from that in normal tissues. We selected eight patients with late stage OA and eight healthy donors for this study. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to determine the amount of FGF-1 in the synovial fluid and in the culture medium of synovial fibroblasts. Real time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) analysis was performed to examine the expression levels of FGF-1 and FGF receptor 2 (FGFR2) in synovial and cartilage tissues. We detected FGF-1 in the synovial fluid from all eight donors, as well as in the culture medium of synovial fibroblasts. Synovial fluid from patients with OA and culture medium of OA synovial fibroblasts contained significantly more FGF-1 than those from controls. FGF-1 expression was also lower in the synovial membranes of normal donors than in those of OA patients. FGFR2 expression was also higher in OA cartilage than in normal cartilage. Overall, these results demonstrated that FGF-1 synthesis and secretion by synovial fibroblasts were significantly increased in OA. FGFR2 expression was also shown to be upregulated in patients with OA. These findings suggest that increased FGF-1 signaling correlates with an OA pathological condition. PMID:26400350

  19. The synovial fold of the distal tibiofibular joint: A morphometric study.

    PubMed

    O'Sullivan, E; Bowyer, G; Webb, A L

    2013-07-01

    Impingement of the synovial fold of the distal tibiofibular joint (DTFJ) may contribute to the development of chronic ankle pain and disability after ankle inversion sprain. The morphology of the synovial fold of the DTFJ and recess is poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to describe and quantify the synovial fold and recess of the DTFJ. Thirty-three pairs of adult embalmed ankle joints were dissected and the presence, disposition, morphology, and dimensions of the synovial fold were determined in relation to the DTFJ and its recess. A synovial fold was present in all specimens examined and extended from the deep posterior tibiofibular ligament along the DTFJ line an average of 15.31 mm [standard deviation (SD), 4.42 mm]. The majority of synovial folds were elongated in shape with smooth borders and occupied more than two thirds of the DTFJ line. In 70% of ankles examined, the synovial folds were found to extend a mean of 20.05 mm (SD, 7.01 mm) from the DTFJ line into the recess where they were loosely attached to the fibular wall. In the remaining ankles, the synovial fold was limited to the DTFJ line leaving the recess devoid of a synovial fold. Intra-observer and inter-observer reliability of measurements was good to excellent (intra-class correlation coefficient, 0.61-0.99). An understanding of the morphology of the DTFJ synovial fold might help to explain ongoing ankle pain after injury, and why arthroscopic removal of the tissue might be therapeutic. PMID:22887077

  20. Fucosyltransferase 1 mediates angiogenesis, cell adhesion and rheumatoid arthritis synovial tissue fibroblast proliferation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction We previously reported that sialyl Lewisy, synthesized by fucosyltransferases, is involved in angiogenesis. Fucosyltransferase 1 (fut1) is an α(1,2)-fucosyltransferase responsible for synthesis of the H blood group and Lewisy antigens. However, the angiogenic involvement of fut 1 in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis synovial tissue (RA ST) has not been clearly defined. Methods Assay of α(1,2)-linked fucosylated proteins in RA was performed by enzyme-linked lectin assay. Fut1 expression was determined in RA ST samples by immunohistological staining. We performed angiogenic Matrigel assays using a co-culture system of human dermal microvascular endothelial cells (HMVECs) and fut1 small interfering RNA (siRNA) transfected RA synovial fibroblasts. To determine if fut1 played a role in leukocyte retention and cell proliferation in the RA synovium, myeloid THP-1 cell adhesion assays and fut1 siRNA transfected RA synovial fibroblast proliferation assays were performed. Results Total α(1,2)-linked fucosylated proteins in RA ST were significantly higher compared to normal (NL) ST. Fut1 expression on RA ST lining cells positively correlated with ST inflammation. HMVECs from a co-culture system with fut1 siRNA transfected RA synovial fibroblasts exhibited decreased endothelial cell tube formation compared to control siRNA transfected RA synovial fibroblasts. Fut1 siRNA also inhibited myeloid THP-1 adhesion to RA synovial fibroblasts and RA synovial fibroblast proliferation. Conclusions These data show that α(1,2)-linked fucosylated proteins are upregulated in RA ST compared to NL ST. We also show that fut1 in RA synovial fibroblasts is important in angiogenesis, leukocyte-synovial fibroblast adhesion, and synovial fibroblast proliferation, all key processes in the pathogenesis of RA. PMID:24467809

  1. Subcutaneous Phaeohyphomycosis Due to Pyrenochaeta romeroi Mimicking a Synovial Cyst

    PubMed Central

    Dinh, Aurélien; Levy, Bruno; Bouchand, Frédérique; Davido, Benjamin; Duran, Clara; Cristi, Marin; Felter, Adrien; Salomon, Jérôme; Ait Ammar, Nawel

    2016-01-01

    Opportunistic subcutaneous fungal infections are increasing nowadays due to the growing number of medical conditions causing immunosuppression, especially organ transplant. The incidence rate of subcutaneous phaeohyphomycosis is very low. Most studies found are case reports. They showed a wide variation of clinical presentations. Pyrenochaeta romeroi, a fungus from the Dematiaceae group is a saprophyte found in soil and plants and a possible causative agent of phaeohyphomycosis. We present a rare case of subcutaneous phaeohyphomycosis caused by P. romeroi mimicking a synovial cyst in a diabetic patient.

  2. GUYON'S CANAL SYNDROME DUE TO A SYNOVIAL CYST

    PubMed Central

    Ruas, Evandro Silva; Castilho, Rodrigo Simões; Maia, Philipe Eduardo Carvalho; Melo, Gustavus Lemos Ribeiro

    2015-01-01

    We present a case of Guyon's canal syndrome caused by a synovial cyst within the left wrist of a 48-year-old female patient. The patient presented pain and paresthesia in the region of the ulnar nerve, with loss of muscle strength and left-hand deformity. Electroneuromyography showed a compression of the ulnar nerve at the wrist level. Surgical decompression of the nerve at Guyon's canal with resection of the cyst was performed. After the surgery, the patient presented an improvement in the pain and paresthesia, as well as an increase in muscle trophism and correction of the deformity. PMID:27026975

  3. Adiponectin stimulates IL-8 production by rheumatoid synovial fibroblasts

    SciTech Connect

    Kitahara, Kanako; Kusunoki, Natsuko; Kakiuchi, Terutaka; Suguro, Toru; Kawai, Shinichi

    2009-01-09

    The adipokines are linked not only to metabolic regulation, but also to immune responses. Adiponectin, but not leptin or resistin induced interleukin-8 production from rheumatoid synovial fibroblasts (RSF). The culture supernatant of RSF treated with adiponectin induced chemotaxis, although adiponectin itself had no such effect. Addition of antibody against adiponectin, and inhibition of adiponectin receptor gene decreased adiponectin-induced IL-8 production. Nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-kappa B was increased by adiponectin. The induction of interleukin-8 was inhibited by mitogen-activated protein kinase inhibitors. These findings suggest that adiponectin contributes to the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis.

  4. Cultured human synovial fibroblasts rapidly metabolize kinins and neuropeptides.

    PubMed Central

    Bathon, J M; Proud, D; Mizutani, S; Ward, P E

    1992-01-01

    Kinins and substance P have been implicated in the pathogenesis of inflammatory arthritis by virtue of their abilities to induce vasodilation, edema, and pain. The relative biological potencies of these peptides in vivo would depend at least in part upon their rates of catabolism in the joint. We hypothesized that human synovial lining cells may regulate intraarticular levels of kinins and neuropeptides via degradation by cell surface-associated peptidases. We exposed intact human synovial fibroblasts to kinins and substance P, in the presence or absence of specific peptidase inhibitors, and measured the amount of intact substrate remaining and degradation product(s) generated over time. Aminopeptidase M (AmM; EC 3.4.11.2), neutral endopeptidase-24.11 (NEP-24.11; EC 3.4.24.11), and dipeptidyl(amino)peptidase IV (DAP IV; EC 3.4.14.5) were identified on the cell surface of synovial cells. Bradykinin degradation was due entirely to NEP-24.11 (1.39 +/- 0.29 nmol/min per well). Lysylbradykinin was also degraded by NEP-24.11 (0.80 +/- 0.19 nmol/min per well); however, in the presence of phosphoramidon, AmM-mediated conversion to bradykinin (3.74 +/- 0.46 nmol/min per well) could be demonstrated. The combined actions of NEP-24.11 (0.93 +/- 0.15 nmol/min per well) and DAP IV (0.84 +/- 0.18 nmol/min per well) were responsible for the degradation of substance P. AmM (2.44 +/- 0.33 nmol/min per well) and NEP-24.11 (1.30 +/- 0.45 nmol/min per well) were responsible for the degradation of the opioid peptide, [Leu5]enkephalin. The identity of each of the three peptidases was confirmed via synthetic substrate hydrolysis, inhibition profile, and immunological identification. The profiles of peptidase enzymes identified in cells derived from rheumatoid and osteoarthritic joints were identical. These data demonstrate the human synovial fibroblast to be a rich source of three specific peptidases and suggest that it may play a prominent role in regulating peptide levels in the joint

  5. [The test of the synovial fluid in microcrystalline joint diseases].

    PubMed

    Ortiz-Bravo, E

    1994-01-15

    The search for crystals in the synovial fluid must be carried out promptly and is very helpful in the diagnosis of microcrystalline arthropathy. If at light microscopy the fluid is negative for crystals and negative or weakly positive for alizarin red, and if the diagnosis is nevertheless suspected, analysis of the centrifuged fluid sediment facilitates the identification of crystals and increases the specificity of alizarin red (the specific stain for crystals) in the identification of apatite crystal deposits. Electronmicroscopy can the be used to confirm the presence or absence of crystals. PMID:8178070

  6. Pulmonary Atresia

    MedlinePlus

    ... to repair the defect. Return to main topic: Congenital Heart Disease See on other sites: MedlinePlus https://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001091.htm Pulmonary atresia American Heart Association www. ...

  7. Pulmonary Hypertension

    MedlinePlus

    Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is high blood pressure in the arteries to your lungs. It is a serious condition. If you have ... and you can develop heart failure. Symptoms of PH include Shortness of breath during routine activity, such ...

  8. Pulmonary aspergilloma

    MedlinePlus

    ... Coccidioidomycosis Cystic fibrosis Histoplasmosis Lung abscess Lung cancer Sarcoidosis See also: Aspergillosis Symptoms You may not have ... fibrosis Histoplasmosis Lung cancer - small cell Pulmonary tuberculosis Sarcoidosis Update Date 8/31/2014 Updated by: Jatin ...

  9. [Pulmonary rehabilitation].

    PubMed

    Senjyu, Hideaki

    2016-05-01

    Pulmonary rehabilitation commenced in Japan in 1957. However, the development of pulmonary rehabilitation took a long time due to the lack of the necessary health and medical services. Pulmonary rehabilitation is a comprehensive intervention based on a thorough patient assessment followed by patient-tailored therapies that include, but are not limited to, exercise training, education, and behavior change, designed to improve the physical and psychological condition of people with chronic respiratory disease and to promote the long-term adherence to health-enhancing behaviors. The benefits of pulmonary rehabilitation include a decrease in breathlessness and an improvement in exercise tolerance. It is important that the gains in exercise tolerance lead to an increase in daily physical activity. PMID:27254948

  10. Pulmonary Embolism

    MedlinePlus

    ... is a sudden blockage in a lung artery. The cause is usually a blood clot in the leg called a deep vein thrombosis that breaks loose and travels through the bloodstream to the lung. Pulmonary embolism is a ...

  11. Pulmonary atresia

    MedlinePlus

    ... blood flow from the right ventricle (right side pumping chamber) to the lungs. In pulmonary atresia, a ... Reconstructing the heart as a single ventricle (1 pumping chamber instead of 2) Heart transplant

  12. Pulmonary atresia

    MedlinePlus

    ... form of heart disease that occurs from birth (congenital heart disease), in which the pulmonary valve does not form ... As with most congenital heart diseases, there is no known cause of ... is associated with another type of congenital heart defect ...

  13. Pulmonary Edema

    PubMed Central

    Tanser, Paul H.

    1980-01-01

    The physician who deals with pulmonary edema from a pathophysiologic basis will seldom make a diagnostic or therapeutic error. Recent additions to preload and afterload therapy have greatly helped in the emergency and ambulatory treatment of pulmonary edema due to left heart failure. Careful follow-up and patient self-monitoring are the most effective means of reducing hospitalization of chronic heart failure patients. PMID:21293700

  14. Transducer-like enhancer of split 1 (TLE1) expression as a diagnostic immunohistochemical marker for synovial sarcoma and its association with morphological features.

    PubMed

    Bakrin, I H; Hussain, F A; Tuan Sharif, S E

    2016-08-01

    Synovial sarcoma (SS) is a malignant soft tissue tumour of uncertain histogenesis which is defined by the translocation t(X;18) that produces the fusion oncogenes SYT-SSX. The emergence of transducer-like enhancer of split 1 (TLE1) as a new immunohistochemical (IHC) marker for SS has offered an alternative to pathologists in differentiating SS from other histological mimics, especially in the setting of limited molecular facilities. We investigated the utility of IHC TLE1 expression against histomorphological features and other IHC markers in SS and non-SS tumours. Twenty-six cases of histologically diagnosed SS and 7 non-SS (for which SS was in the differential diagnosis) were subjected to TLE1 IHC staining, which was graded from 0 to 3+. Of the 26 SS cases, 12 each were biphasic and monophasic types and 2 were poorly-differentiated. TLE1 was expressed in 22/26 (84.6%) SS cases, of which 11/12 (91.7%) were biphasic, 10/12 (83.3%) monophasic and 1/2 (50%) poorly-differentiated tumours. Two of 7 (28.6%) non-SS cases were positive for TLE1. Immunopositivity of SS and non-SS cases for EMA were 20/26 (76.9%) and 2/7 (28.6%) respectively and for CK7 were 7/26 (26.9%) and 0/7 (0%) respectively. All cases were negative for CD34. Consistent histomorphological features for SS included mild nuclear pleomorphism, alternating tumour cellularity, fascicular growth pattern and thick ropy stromal collagen. In conclusion, TLE1 is not a stand-alone diagnostic IHC marker for SS. However, in the absence of molecular studies, it can contribute added diagnostic value in combination with morphological evaluation and other IHC markers such as EMA and CD34. PMID:27568668

  15. Glycosaminoglycan concentration in synovium and other tissues of rabbit knee in relation to synovial hydraulic resistance.

    PubMed

    Price, F M; Levick, J R; Mason, R M

    1996-09-15

    1. The hydraulic resistance of the synovial lining of a joint, a key coupling coefficient in synovial fluid turnover, is thought to depend on the concentration of biopolymers (glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) and collagen) in the synovial intercellular spaces, because these polymers create hydraulic drag. The primary aim of this study was to obtain microscopically separated, milligram samples of the very thin synovium from eight rabbit knees, and to analyse these quantitatively for GAGs (chondroitin sulphate, heparan sulphate and hyaluronan) and collagen to allow comparison with published hydraulic resistance data. Synovial fluid and femoral cartilage were also studied. 2. Synovium comprised 73 +/- 3% water by weight (mean +/- S.E.M.). Of the 270 mg solid per gram of wet tissue, protein formed 136 mg (by automated amino acid analysis), and of this 94 mg was collagen by hydroxyproline analysis. From the collagen mass and fibril volume fraction (0.153 of tissue by morphometry), fibrillar specific volume was calculated to be 1.43 ml per gram of molecular collagen, and fibril water content 47% by volume. 3. The concentration of chondroitin 4-sulphate (C4S) plus chondroitin 6-sulphate (C6S), measured by capillary zone electrophoresis was 0.55 mg per gram of synovium--much greater than in synovial fluid (0.04 mg g-1) and much less than in cartilage (27.8 mg g-1). The C4S/C6S ratio in synovium (7.3) differed from that in cartilage (0.7), indicating that different proteoglycans predominated in synovium. The heparan sulphate concentration, assayed by radioactive Ruthenium Red binding, was 0.92 mg per gram of synovium (synovial fluid, 0.08 mg g-1; cartilage, 0.72 mg g-1). 4. In contrast to sulphated GAGs, the hyaluronan concentration was highest in synovial fluid (3.53 mg g-1; biotinylated G1 domain binding assay). The concentration in synovial interstitium was only 0.56 mg g-1 (corrected for interstitial volume fraction, 0.66), even though there is open contact between synovial

  16. The SYT-SSX fusion protein and histological epithelial differentiation in synovial sarcoma: relationship with extracellular matrix remodeling.

    PubMed

    Saito, Tsuyoshi

    2013-01-01

    Synovial sarcoma (SS) tumor cells, which have the chromosomal translocation t(X;18)(p11.2;q11.2), have an inherently greater propensity for epithelial differentiation than other mesenchymal tumors, especially spindle cell sarcomas. This is caused by de-repression of the transcription of E-cadherin by SYT-SSX1 and SYT-SSX2, which dissociate Snail or Slug, respectively, from the E-cadherin promoter. However, a subset of SS with SYT-SSX1 loses E-cadherin expression despite adequate de-repression because of mutations in E-cadherin, resulting in monophasic histology. The ratio of the expression levels of SYT-SSX1 and Snail is also associated with E-cadherin expression: the lower the SYT-SSX1/Snail ratio, the lower the level of E-cadherin expression, and vice versa, thus affecting tumor histology. In addition, Wnt signal activation caused by mutation of β-catenin, APC, or Axin 1 and 2 is associated with monophasic histology. Remodeling of the extracellular matrix is also important. Only cells that survive all of these steps can finally exhibit biphasic histology. On the other hand, the SYT-SSX2 fusion has a weaker de-repression effect on the E-cadherin promoter than does SYT-SSX1, so it is difficult for SYT-SSX2-expressing tumors to achieve sufficient capacity for epithelial differentiation to form glandular structures. This review provides an interesting model for this epithelial differentiation that shows a possible mechanism for the aberrant mesenchymal to epithelial transition of SS and suggests that it might better be considered an epithelial to mesenchymal transition. PMID:24228088

  17. Identification of α1-Antitrypsin as a Potential Candidate for Internal Control for Human Synovial Fluid in Western Blot

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shaowei; Zhou, Jingming; Wei, Xiaochun; Li, Pengcui; Li, Kai; Wang, Dongming; Wei, Fangyuan; Zhang, Jianzhong; Wei, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Western blot of synovial fluid has been widely used for osteoarthritis (OA) research and diagnosis, but there is no ideal loading control for this purpose. Although β-actin is extensively used as loading control in western blot, it is not suitable for synovial fluid because it is not required in synovial fluid as a cytoskeletal protein. A good loading control for synovial fluid in OA studies should have unchanged content in synovial fluids from normal and OA groups, because synovial fluid protein content can vary with changes in synovial vascular permeability with OA onset. In this study, we explore the potential of using α1-antitripsin (A1AT) as loading control for OA synovial fluid in western blot. A1AT level is elevated in inflammatory conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Unlike RA, OA is a non-inflammation disease, which does not induce A1AT. In this study, we identified A1AT as an abundant component of synovial fluid by Mass Spectrometry and confirmed that the level of A1AT is relative constant between human OA and normal synovial fluid by western blot and ELISA. Hence, we proposed that A1AT may be a good loading control for western blot in human OA synovial fluid studies provided that pathological conditions such as RA or A1AT deficiency associated liver or lung diseases are excluded. PMID:26594594

  18. Biphasic patterns of diversification and the emergence of modules

    PubMed Central

    Mittenthal, Jay; Caetano-Anollés, Derek; Caetano-Anollés, Gustavo

    2012-01-01

    The intricate molecular and cellular structure of organisms converts energy to work, which builds and maintains structure. Evolving structure implements modules, in which parts are tightly linked. Each module performs characteristic functions. In this work we propose that a module can emerge through two phases of diversification of parts. Early in the first phase of this biphasic pattern, the parts have weak linkage—they interact weakly and associate variously. The parts diversify and compete. Under selection for performance, interactions among the parts increasingly constrain their structure and associations. As many variants are eliminated, parts self-organize into modules with tight linkage. Linkage may increase in response to exogenous stresses as well as endogenous processes. In the second phase of diversification, variants of the module and its functions evolve and become new parts for a new cycle of generation of higher-level modules. This linkage hypothesis can interpret biphasic patterns in the diversification of protein domain structure, RNA and protein shapes, and networks in metabolism, codes, and embryos, and can explain hierarchical levels of structural organization that are widespread in biology. PMID:22891076

  19. Biphasic Analysis of Cartilage Stresses in the Patellofemoral Joint.

    PubMed

    Jones, Brian; Hung, Clark T; Ateshian, Gerard

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the state of stress within the solid matrix of articular cartilage in the patellofemoral joint, using anatomically faithful biphasic models of the articular layers, with the joint subjected to physiologic muscle force magnitudes. Finite element models of five joints were created from human cadaver knees. Biphasic sliding contact analyses were performed using FEBio software to analyze the response of the joint from 30 to 60 degrees of knee flexion. Results demonstrated that the collagen matrix always sustains tensile stresses, despite the fact that the articular layers are loaded in compression. The principal direction of maximum solid stresses was consistent with the known orientation of collagen fibrils in cartilage. The magnitudes of these tensile stresses under muscle forces representative of activities of daily living were well below tensile failure stresses reported in the prior literature. Results also hinted that solid matrix stresses were higher in the patellar versus femoral superficial zone. These anatomically correct finite element models predicted outcomes consistent with our understanding of structure-function relationships in articular cartilage, while also producing solid matrix stress estimates not observable from experiments alone, yet highly relevant to our understanding of tissue degeneration. PMID:26641078

  20. Cell–material interactions on biphasic polyurethane matrix

    PubMed Central

    Dicesare, Patrick; Fox, Wade M.; Hill, Michael J.; Krishnan, G. Rajesh; Yang, Shuying; Sarkar, Debanjan

    2013-01-01

    Cell–matrix interaction is a key regulator for controlling stem cell fate in regenerative tissue engineering. These interactions are induced and controlled by the nanoscale features of extracellular matrix and are mimicked on synthetic matrices to control cell structure and functions. Recent studies have shown that nanostructured matrices can modulate stem cell behavior and exert specific role in tissue regeneration. In this study, we have demonstrated that nanostructured phase morphology of synthetic matrix can control adhesion, proliferation, organization and migration of human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Nanostructured biodegradable polyurethanes (PU) with segmental composition exhibit biphasic morphology at nanoscale dimensions and can control cellular features of MSCs. Biodegradable PU with polyester soft segment and hard segment composed of aliphatic diisocyanates and dipeptide chain extender were designed to examine the effect polyurethane phase morphology. By altering the polyurethane composition, morphological architecture of PU was modulated and its effect was examined on MSC. Results show that MSCs can sense the nanoscale morphology of biphasic polyurethane matrix to exhibit distinct cellular features and, thus, signifies the relevance of matrix phase morphology. The role of nanostructured phases of a synthetic matrix in controlling cell–matrix interaction provides important insights for regulation of cell behavior on synthetic matrix and, therefore, is an important tool for engineering tissue regeneration. PMID:23255285

  1. Development and Characterization of Biphasic Hydroxyapatite/β-TCP Cements

    PubMed Central

    Gallinetti, Sara; Canal, Cristina; Ginebra, Maria-Pau; Ferreira, J

    2014-01-01

    Biphasic calcium phosphate bioceramics composed of hydroxyapatite (HA) and β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) have relevant properties as synthetic bone grafts, such as tunable resorption, bioactivity, and intrinsic osteoinduction. However, they have some limitations associated to their condition of high-temperature ceramics. In this work self-setting Biphasic Calcium Phosphate Cements (BCPCs) with different HA/β-TCP ratios were obtained from self-setting α-TCP/β-TCP pastes. The strategy used allowed synthesizing BCPCs with modulated composition, compressive strength, and specific surface area. Due to its higher solubility, α-TCP was fully hydrolyzed to a calcium-deficient HA (CDHA), whereas β-TCP remained unreacted and completely embedded in the CDHA matrix. Increasing amounts of the non-reacting β-TCP phase resulted in a linear decrease of the compressive strength, in association to the decreasing amount of precipitated HA crystals, which are responsible for the mechanical consolidation of apatitic cements. Ca2+ release and degradation in acidic medium was similar in all the BCPCs within the timeframe studied, although differences might be expected in longer term studies once β-TCP, the more soluble phase was exposed to the surrounding media. PMID:25866411

  2. Biphasic Ferrogels for Triggered Drug and Cell Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Cezar, Christine A.; Kennedy, Stephen M.; Mehta, Manav; Weaver, James C.; Gu, Luo; Vandenburgh, Herman

    2014-01-01

    Ferrogels are an attractive material for many biomedical applications due to their ability to deliver a wide variety of therapeutic drugs on-demand. However, typical ferrogels have yet to be optimized for use in cell-based therapies, as they possess limited ability to harbor and release viable cells. Previously, we have demonstrated an active porous scaffold that exhibits large deformations under moderate magnetic fields, resulting in enhanced biological agent release. However, at small device sizes optimal for implantation (e.g., 2 mm thickness), these monophasic ferrogels no longer achieve significant deformation due to a reduced body force. In this study, we present a new biphasic ferrogel containing an iron oxide gradient capable of large deformations and triggered release even at small gel dimensions. Biphasic ferrogels demonstrate increased porosity, enhanced mechanical properties, and potentially increased biocompatibility due to their reduced iron oxide content. With their ability to deliver drugs and cells on-demand, it is expected that these ferrogels will have wide utility in the fields of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. PMID:24862232

  3. Cell-material interactions on biphasic polyurethane matrix.

    PubMed

    Dicesare, Patrick; Fox, Wade M; Hill, Michael J; Krishnan, G Rajesh; Yang, Shuying; Sarkar, Debanjan

    2013-08-01

    Cell-matrix interaction is a key regulator for controlling stem cell fate in regenerative tissue engineering. These interactions are induced and controlled by the nanoscale features of extracellular matrix and are mimicked on synthetic matrices to control cell structure and functions. Recent studies have shown that nanostructured matrices can modulate stem cell behavior and exert specific role in tissue regeneration. In this study, we have demonstrated that nanostructured phase morphology of synthetic matrix can control adhesion, proliferation, organization and migration of human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Nanostructured biodegradable polyurethanes (PU) with segmental composition exhibit biphasic morphology at nanoscale dimensions and can control cellular features of MSCs. Biodegradable PU with polyester soft segment and hard segment composed of aliphatic diisocyanates and dipeptide chain extender were designed to examine the effect polyurethane phase morphology. By altering the polyurethane composition, morphological architecture of PU was modulated and its effect was examined on MSC. Results show that MSCs can sense the nanoscale morphology of biphasic polyurethane matrix to exhibit distinct cellular features and, thus, signifies the relevance of matrix phase morphology. The role of nanostructured phases of a synthetic matrix in controlling cell-matrix interaction provides important insights for regulation of cell behavior on synthetic matrix and, therefore, is an important tool for engineering tissue regeneration. PMID:23255285

  4. Biphasic behavior of energy in a stepped chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ping-Jian, Wang; Ai-Xiang, He; Zhong-Hai, Lin; Guang-Fen, Wei; Yan-Li, Liu

    2016-06-01

    The impact energy decay in a step-up chain containing two sections is numerically studied. There is a marked biphasic behavior of energy decay in the first section. Two sections close to the interface are in compression state. The degree of compression of the first section first decreases and becomes weakest at “crossing” time of biphasic behavior of energy, then increases. The further calculations provide the dependence of the character time on mass ratio (m 1/m 2), where m 1 and m 2 are the particle mass in the first and second section respectively. The bigger the α (α = [(Ωm 1 – m 2)/(Ωm 1 + m 2)]2 with Ω = 1.345), the bigger the energy ratio is. The multipulse structure restricts the transport of energy. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61174007 and 61307041) and the Natural Science Foundation of Shandong Province, China (Grant No. ZR2013AL014).

  5. Inducible nitric oxide synthase is expressed in synovial fluid granulocytes

    PubMed Central

    CEDERGREN, J; FORSLUND 2, T; SUNDQVIST 2, T; SKOGH 1, T

    2002-01-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the NO-producing potential of synovial fluid (SF) cells. SF from 15 patients with arthritis was compared with blood from the same individuals and with blood from 10 healthy controls. Cellular expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) was analysed by flow cytometry. High-performance liquid chromatography was used to measure l-arginine and l-citrulline. Nitrite and nitrate were measured colourimetrically utilizing the Griess’ reaction. Compared to whole blood granulocytes in patients with chronic arthritis, a prominent iNOS expression was observed in SF granulocytes (P < 0·001). A slight, but statistically significant, increase in iNOS expression was also recorded in lymphocytes and monocytes from SF. l-arginine was elevated in SF compared to serum (257 ± 78 versus 176 ± 65 µmol/l, P = 0·008), whereas a slight increase in l-citrulline (33 ± 11 versus 26 ± 9 µmol/l), did not reach statistical significance. Great variations but no significant differences were observed comparing serum and SF levels of nitrite and nitrate, respectively, although the sum of nitrite and nitrate tended to be elevated in SF (19·2 ± 20·7 versus 8·6 ± 6·5 µmol/l, P = 0·054). Synovial fluid leucocytes, in particular granulocytes, express iNOS and may thus contribute to intra-articular NO production in arthritis. PMID:12296866

  6. Sphingolipids in Human Synovial Fluid - A Lipidomic Study

    PubMed Central

    Kosinska, Marta Krystyna; Liebisch, Gerhard; Lochnit, Guenter; Wilhelm, Jochen; Klein, Heiko; Kaesser, Ulrich; Lasczkowski, Gabriele; Rickert, Markus; Schmitz, Gerd; Steinmeyer, Juergen

    2014-01-01

    Articular synovial fluid (SF) is a complex mixture of components that regulate nutrition, communication, shock absorption, and lubrication. Alterations in its composition can be pathogenic. This lipidomic investigation aims to quantify the composition of sphingolipids (sphingomyelins, ceramides, and hexosyl- and dihexosylceramides) and minor glycerophospholipid species, including (lyso)phosphatidic acid, (lyso)phosphatidylglycerol, and bis(monoacylglycero)phosphate species, in the SF of knee joints from unaffected controls and from patients with early (eOA) and late (lOA) stages of osteoarthritis (OA), and rheumatoid arthritis (RA). SF without cells and cellular debris from 9 postmortem donors (control), 18 RA, 17 eOA, and 13 lOA patients were extracted to measure lipid species using electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry - directly or coupled with hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography. We provide a novel, detailed overview of sphingolipid and minor glycerophospholipid species in human SF. A total of 41, 48, and 50 lipid species were significantly increased in eOA, lOA, and RA SF, respectively when compared with normal SF. The level of 21 lipid species differed in eOA SF versus SF from lOA, an observation that can be used to develop biomarkers. Sphingolipids can alter synovial inflammation and the repair responses of damaged joints. Thus, our lipidomic study provides the foundation for studying the biosynthesis and function of lipid species in health and most prevalent joint diseases. PMID:24646942

  7. An augmented Lagrangian finite element formulation for 3D contact of biphasic tissues.

    PubMed

    Guo, Hongqiang; Spilker, Robert L

    2014-01-01

    Biphasic contact analysis is essential to obtain a complete understanding of soft tissue biomechanics, and the importance of physiological structure on the joint biomechanics has long been recognised; however, up to date, there are no successful developments of biphasic finite element contact analysis for three-dimensional (3D) geometries of physiological joints. The aim of this study was to develop a finite element formulation for biphasic contact of 3D physiological joints. The augmented Lagrangian method was used to enforce the continuity of contact traction and fluid pressure across the contact interface. The biphasic contact method was implemented in the commercial software COMSOL Multiphysics 4.2(®) (COMSOL, Inc., Burlington, MA). The accuracy of the implementation was verified using 3D biphasic contact problems, including indentation with a flat-ended indenter and contact of glenohumeral cartilage layers. The ability of the method to model multibody biphasic contact of physiological joints was proved by a 3D knee model. The 3D biphasic finite element contact method developed in this study can be used to study the biphasic behaviours of the physiological joints. PMID:23181617

  8. Types of Pulmonary Hypertension

    MedlinePlus

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. Types of Pulmonary Hypertension The World Health Organization divides pulmonary hypertension (PH) ... are called pulmonary hypertension.) Group 1 Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension Group 1 PAH includes: PAH that has no ...

  9. Synovial tissue analysis for the discovery of diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers in patients with early arthritis.

    PubMed

    de Hair, Maria J H; Harty, Leonard C; Gerlag, Danielle M; Pitzalis, Costantino; Veale, Douglas J; Tak, Paul P

    2011-09-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic disease of unspecified etiology that is manifest by persistent inflammation of the synovium. Considerable efforts have been undertaken globally to study the microenvironment of the inflamed synovium, with many encouraging and enlightening results that bring us closer to unmasking the precise etiologies of RA. Subsequent to these efforts, it has been discovered that CD68-positive macrophages present in abundance in the synovial sublining of the inflamed synovium rescind with treatments that induce clinical improvement in RA. Examination of serial synovial biopsies is now commonly used for screening purposes during early drug development, and the number of centers able to perform synovial tissue biopsy sampling according to standardized methods is increasing. Having implemented the use of serial synovial tissue biopsies to evaluate the effects of new treatments on the group level in early proof of principle studies, it is the ambition of the OMERACT Synovial Tissue Group to identify synovial diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers that could be used in individual patients. Therefore, we started a prospective study termed the Synoviomics Project aimed at the identification of novel diagnostic and prognostic synovial biomarkers. We will use straightforward and powerful technologies to analyze patient material and assess clinical parameters to identify such biomarkers. These markers may be used in the future to identify patients who are at risk of having persistent and destructive disease and to start tailor-made targeted therapies in an early phase to prevent autonomous disease progression and irreversible joint damage. PMID:21885519

  10. Gene Expression Profiling of IL-17A-Treated Synovial Fibroblasts from the Human Temporomandibular Joint

    PubMed Central

    Hattori, Toshio; Ogura, Naomi; Akutsu, Miwa; Kawashima, Mutsumi; Watanabe, Suguru; Ito, Ko; Kondoh, Toshirou

    2015-01-01

    Synovial fibroblasts contribute to the inflammatory temporomandibular joint under pathogenic stimuli. Synovial fibroblasts and T cells participate in the perpetuation of joint inflammation in a mutual activation feedback, via secretion of cytokines and chemokines that stimulate each other. IL-17 is an inflammatory cytokine produced primarily by Th17 cells which plays critical role in the pathogenesis of numerous autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. Here, we investigated the roles of IL-17A in temporomandibular joint disorders (TMD) using genome-wide analysis of synovial fibroblasts isolated from patients with TMD. IL-17 receptors were expressed in synovial fibroblasts as assessed using real-time PCR. Microarray analysis indicated that IL-17A treatment of synovial fibroblasts upregulated the expression of IL-6 and chemokines. Real-time PCR analysis showed that the gene expression of IL-6, CXCL1, IL-8, and CCL20 was significantly higher in IL-17A-treated synovial fibroblasts compared to nontreated controls. IL-6 protein production was increased by IL-17A in a time- and a dose-dependent manner. Additionally, IL-17A simulated IL-6 protein production in synovial fibroblasts samples isolated from three patients. Furthermore, signal inhibitor experiments indicated that IL-17-mediated induction of IL-6 was transduced via activation of NFκB and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt. These results suggest that IL-17A is associated with the inflammatory progression of TMD. PMID:26839464

  11. An altered repertoire of T cell receptor V gene expression by rheumatoid synovial fluid T lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Lunardi, C; Marguerie, C; So, A K

    1992-12-01

    The pattern of T cell receptor V gene expression by lymphocytes from rheumatoid synovial fluid and paired peripheral blood samples was compared using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based assay. Eight rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients who had varying durations of disease (from 2 to 20 years) were studied. In all patients there was evidence of a different pattern of V gene expression between the two compartments. Significantly increased expression of at least one V alpha or V beta gene family by synovial fluid T cells was observed in all the patients studied. Three different V alpha (V alpha 10, 15 and 18) and three V beta (V beta 4, 5 and 13) families were commonly elevated. Sequencing of synovial V beta transcripts demonstrated that the basis of increased expression of selected V gene families in the synovial fluid was due to the presence of dominant clonotypes within those families, which constituted up to 53% of the sequences isolated from one particular synovial V gene family. There were considerable differences in the NDJ sequences found in synovial and peripheral blood T cell receptor (TCR) transcripts of the same V beta gene family. These data suggest that the TCR repertoire in the two compartments differs, and that antigen-driven expansion of particular synovial T cell populations is a component of rheumatoid synovitis, and is present in all stages of the disease. PMID:1458680

  12. A Case Report of Synovial Chondromatosis of the Knee Joint arising from the Marginal Synovium

    PubMed Central

    Kukreja, Sunil

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Synovial chondromatosis is a rare benign condition arising from the synovial membrane of the joints, synovial sheaths or bursae around the joints. Primary synovial chondromatosis typically affects the large joints in the third to fifth decade of life, although involvement of smaller joints and presentation in younger age group is also documented. The purpose of this case report is to document this rare synovial pathology especially in an adolescent age group, which required open synovectomy and debridement to eradicate it. Metaplastic growth from the marginal synovium fixed to the adjacent cartilage was atypical feature in this case, which to the best of my knowledge has not been reported earlier. Case Report: A sixteen year old boy presented with one year history of pain, swelling and restriction of left knee joint. After the clinical and radiological assessment open synovectomy, removal of loose bodies and thorough joint debridement procedure was performed. Histopathological study confirmed the findings of synovial chondromatosis. Conclusion: Synovial chondromatosis is a rare benign condition very rarely seen in adolescent age group. Metaplastic growth arising from marginal synovium was an atypical feature which is occasionally seen. Complete synovectomy offers reliable cure rate. PMID:27298888

  13. Pulmonary embolism

    SciTech Connect

    Dunnick, N.R.; Newman, G.E.; Perlmutt, L.M.; Braun, S.D.

    1988-11-01

    Pulmonary embolism is a common medical problem whose incidence is likely to increase in our aging population. Although it is life-threatening, effective therapy exists. The treatment is not, however, without significant complications. Thus, accurate diagnosis is important. Unfortunately, the clinical manifestations of pulmonary embolism are nonspecific. Furthermore, in many patients the symptoms of an acute embolism are superimposed on underlying chronic heart or lung disease. Thus, a high index of suspicion is needed to identify pulmonary emboli. Laboratory parameters, including arterial oxygen tensions and electrocardiography, are as nonspecific as the clinical signs. They may be more useful in excluding another process than in diagnosing pulmonary embolism. The first radiologic examination is the chest radiograph, but the clinical symptoms are frequently out of proportion to the findings on the chest films. Classic manifestations of pulmonary embolism on the chest radiograph include a wedge-shaped peripheral opacity and a segmental or lobar diminution in vascularity with prominent central arteries. However, these findings are not commonly seen and, even when present, are not specific. Even less specific findings include cardiomegaly, pulmonary infiltrate, elevation of a hemidiaphragm, and pleural effusion. Many patients with pulmonary embolism may have a normal chest radiograph. The chest radiograph is essential, however, for two purposes. First, it may identify another cause of the patient's symptoms, such as a rib fracture, dissecting aortic aneurysm, or pneumothorax. Second, a chest radiograph is essential to interpretation of the radionuclide V/Q scan. The perfusion scan accurately reflects the perfusion of the lung. However, a perfusion defect may result from a variety of etiologies. Any process such as vascular stenosis or compression by tumor may restrict blood flow. 84 references.

  14. Oscillatory Motion of a Bi-Phasic Slug in a Teflon Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abolhasani, Milad; Jensen, Klavs

    2015-11-01

    Bi-phasic physical/chemical processes require transfer of solute/reagent molecules across the interface. Continuous multi-phase flow approaches (using gas as the continuous phase), usually fail in providing sufficient interfacial area for transfer of molecules between the aqueous and organic phases. In continuous segmented flow platforms (with a fluorinated polymer-based reactor), the higher surface tension of the aqueous phase compared to the organic phase of a bi-phasic slug, in combination with the low surface energy of the reactor wall result in a more facile motion of the aqueous phase. Thus, upon applying a pressure gradient across the bi-phasic slug, the aqueous phase of the slug moves through the organic phase and leads the bi-phasic slug, thereby limiting the available interfacial area for the bi-phasic mass transfer only to the semi-spherical interface between the two phases. Disrupting the quasi-equilibrium state of the bi-phasic slug through reversing the pressure gradient across the bi-phasic slug causes the aqueous phase to move back through the organic phase. In this work, we experimentally investigate the dynamics of periodic alteration of the pressure gradient across a bi-phasic slug, and characterize the resulting enhanced interfacial area on the bi-phasic mass transfer rate. We demonstrate the enhanced mass transfer rate of the oscillatory flow strategy compared to the continuous multi-phase approach using bi-phasic Pd catalyzed carbon-carbon and carbon-nitrogen cross coupling reactions. NSERC Postdoctoral Fellowship, Novartis Center for Continuous Manufacturing.

  15. Development of Synovial Membrane in the Temporomandibular Joint of the Human Fetus

    PubMed Central

    Tedesco, R.C.; Arraéz-Aybar, L.A.; Klein, O.; Mérida-Velasco, J.R.; Alonso, L.G.

    2015-01-01

    The development of the synovial membrane was analyzed in serial sections of 21 temporomandibular joints of human fetuses at 9 to 13 weeks of gestation. Sections of two fetuses at 12 weeks of development were used to perform immunohistochemical expression of the markers CD68 and Hsp27 on the synovial lining. Macrophage-like type A and fibroblast-like type B cells, which express CD68 and Hsp27, respectively, were observed at the twelfth week of development. Our results suggest that the development of the synovial membrane is related to the vascularization of the joint and the formation of the articular cavities. PMID:26708184

  16. Synovial Chondromatosis of the Ankle Joint: Clinical, Radiological, and Intraoperative Findings

    PubMed Central

    Sedeek, Sedeek Mohamed; Choudry, Q.; Garg, S.

    2015-01-01

    Synovial chondromatosis, also termed synovial osteochondromatosis, is a rare benign disorder characterized by the presence of cartilaginous nodules in the synovium of the joints, tendon sheaths, and bursae. It most commonly involves large joints, such as the knee, hip, and shoulder, but its presence in smaller joints has also been reported. Nevertheless, ankle involvement is unusual. The diagnosis is commonly made following a thorough history, clinical, physical, and radiographic examination. We report a case of a young patient with primary synovial chondromatosis of the ankle joint and present the clinical, radiographic, and intraoperative findings. PMID:26177002

  17. Synovial Chondromatosis of the Ankle Joint: Clinical, Radiological, and Intraoperative Findings.

    PubMed

    Sedeek, Sedeek Mohamed; Choudry, Q; Garg, S

    2015-01-01

    Synovial chondromatosis, also termed synovial osteochondromatosis, is a rare benign disorder characterized by the presence of cartilaginous nodules in the synovium of the joints, tendon sheaths, and bursae. It most commonly involves large joints, such as the knee, hip, and shoulder, but its presence in smaller joints has also been reported. Nevertheless, ankle involvement is unusual. The diagnosis is commonly made following a thorough history, clinical, physical, and radiographic examination. We report a case of a young patient with primary synovial chondromatosis of the ankle joint and present the clinical, radiographic, and intraoperative findings. PMID:26177002

  18. Giant Solitary Synovial Chondromatosis of the Temporomandibular Joint with Intracranial Extension

    PubMed Central

    Gil-Salú, José L.; Lázaro, Rafael; Aldasoro, José; Gonzalez-Darder, José M.

    1998-01-01

    Synovial chondromatosis are rare entities but are well-described lesions in the literature that can affect many joint areas of the body. A case of tumoral synovial chondromatosis involving the temporomandibular joint with intracranial extension through mandibular fossa is reported. As long as there was significant infratemporal and extradural invasion of the middle and posterior fossa, a transtemporal and infratemporal approach was performed and total removal of the lesions was achieved. A brief review of skull base synovial chondromatosis is presented. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7Figure 8Figure 9Figure 10Figure 11 PMID:17171059

  19. Bioplastique: a new biphasic polymer for minimally invasive injection implantation.

    PubMed

    Ersek, R A; Beisang, A A

    1992-01-01

    The search for prosthetic materials that are biocompatible, nontoxic, and permanent led the authors to develop a micronized, inert, biphasic polymer particle for permanent soft tissue augmentation which neither migrates nor is absorbed by the body. Placed in a bioexcretable gel carrier, these textured microparticles are easily implanted using a specially designed blunt-tipped cannula with local anesthesia on an outpatient basis. Research using this implant material, Bioplastique (Bioplasty, St. Paul, MN), in rabbits has shown that when the textured particle size is maintained within a critical range, neither particle migration nor storage disease occurs. The gel carrier is rapidly phagocytized and replaced by fibrin matrix within a few days. Host collagen then gradually forms a fibrotic capsule around each textured particle, making use of the naturally occurring foreign body reaction to create a stable inplant. After being followed for over two years, Bioplastique has proven to be useful in many clinical applications with few complications. PMID:1734632

  20. On optimization of integration properties of biphase coded signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Wanzhi; Xiang, Jingcheng

    Within the context of the requirements for agile waveforms with a large compression ratio in biphase coded radars and on the basis of the characteristics of interpulse integration processing of radar signals, the study proposes two sequence optimization criteria which are suitable for radar processing patterns: interpulse waveform agility - pulse compression - FFT, and MTI - pulse compression - noncoherent integration. Applications of these criteria to optimizing sequences of length 127 are carried out. The output peak ratio of mainlobe to sidelobe (RMS) is improved considerably without a weighting network, while the autocorrelation and cross correlation profles of the sequences are very satisfactory. The RMS of coherent integration and noncoherent integration of eight sequences are 34.12 and 28.1 dB, respectively, when the return signals have zero Doppler shift. These values are about 12 and 6 dB higher than the RMS of single signals before integration.

  1. Surface modification of biphasic calcium phosphate bioceramic powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, W. Z.; Zhou, D. L.; Yin, G. F.; Li, G. D.

    2008-11-01

    Biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP)/poly L-lactide (PLLA) biocomposite is proven to be a promising bone graft material or scaffold for bone tissue engineering. To improve the interfacial compatibility of BCP bioceramic with biopolymer-PLLA, BCP powders were surface-modified in different condition to graft polymer groups onto the surface of the BCP powders. L-lactide and L-lactic acid (LA) oligomer were used to modify the BCP surface with stannous octanoate (Sn(Oct) 2) and stannous chloride (SnCl 2) as catalyst, respectively. Results show that the surface modification effect is obvious and the amount of grafted organic group is above 6.5 wt.%. Sn(Oct) 2 and SnCl 2 are the optimal catalysts for the surface grafting reaction of L-lactide and L-LA oligomer, respectively. The surface grafting slightly increase the particle size of BCP powders and reduce the tendency for their agglomeration.

  2. AQUEOUS BIPHASE EXTRACTION FOR PROCESSING OF FINE COAL

    SciTech Connect

    K. Osseo-Asare; X. Zeng

    2001-06-30

    Ever-stringent environmental constraints dictate that future coal cleaning technologies be compatible with micron-size particles. This research program seeks to develop an advanced coal cleaning technology uniquely suited to micron-size particles, i.e., aqueous biphase extraction. The partitioning behaviors of hematite in the dextran (Dex)/Triton X-100 (TX100) and polyethylene glycol (PEG)/dextran systems were investigated and the effects of some ionic surfactants on solid partition were studied. In both biphase systems, the particles stayed in the bottom dextran-rich phase under all pH conditions. This behavior is attributable to the fact that the hydrophilic oxide particles prefer the more hydrophilic bottom phase. Also, the strong favorable interaction between dextran and ferric oxide facilitates the dispersion of the solids in the polysaccharide-rich phase. In the Dex/TX100 system, addition of sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS) or potassium oleate had no effect on the solid partition; on the other hand, addition of dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide (DTAB) transferred the particles to the top phase or interface at high pH values. In the PEG/Dex system, the preferred location of hematite remained the bottom phase in the presence of either SDS or DTAB. The effects of anionic surfactants on the partition behavior are attributable to the fact that they are not able to replace the strongly adsorbed polysaccharide layer on the ferric oxide surface. The results with the cationic surfactant are due to electrostatic interaction between the cationic surfactant and the charged surface of the solid particles. The difference in solids partitioning in the two systems is the result of the different distribution of DTAB in these systems. In the Dex/TX100 system, DTAB prefers the top surfactant-rich phase, while it concentrates in the bottom phase in the PEG/dextran system.

  3. Intervertebral Disk Tissue Engineering Using Biphasic Silk Composite Scaffolds

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sang-Hyug; Gil, Eun Seok; Cho, Hongsik; Mandal, Biman B.; Tien, Lee W.; Min, Byoung-Hyun

    2012-01-01

    Scaffolds composed of synthetic, natural, and hybrid materials have been investigated as options to restore intervertebral disk (IVD) tissue function. These systems fall short of the lamellar features of the native annulus fibrosus (AF) tissue or focus only on the nucleus pulposus (NP) tissue. However, successful regeneration of the entire IVD requires a combination approach to restore functions of both the AF and NP. To address this need, a biphasic biomaterial structure was generated by using silk protein for the AF and fibrin/hyaluronic acid (HA) gels for the NP. Two cell types, porcine AF cells and chondrocytes, were utilized. For the AF tissue, two types of scaffold morphologies, lamellar and porous, were studied with the porous system serving as a control. Toroidal scaffolds formed out of the lamellar, and porous silk materials were used to generate structures with an outer diameter of 8 mm, inner diameter of 3.5 mm, and a height of 3 mm (the interlamellar distance in the lamellar scaffold was 150–250 μm, and the average pore sizes in the porous scaffolds were 100–250 μm). The scaffolds were seeded with porcine AF cells to form AF tissue, whereas porcine chondrocytes were encapsulated in fibrin/HA hydrogels for the NP tissue and embedded in the center of the toroidal disk. Histology, biochemical assays, and gene expression indicated that the lamellar scaffolds supported AF-like tissue over 2 weeks. Porcine chondrocytes formed the NP phenotype within the hydrogel after 4 weeks of culture with the AF tissue that had been previously cultured for 2 weeks, for a total of 6 weeks of cultivation. This biphasic scaffold simulating in combination of both AF and NP tissues was effective in the formation of the total IVD in vitro. PMID:21919790

  4. Biphasic Role of Calcium in Mouse Sperm Capacitation Signaling Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Alvau, Antonio; Escoffier, Jessica; Krapf, Dario; Sánchez-Cárdenas, Claudia; Salicioni, Ana M.; Darszon, Alberto; Visconti, Pablo E.

    2016-01-01

    Mammalian sperm acquire fertilizing ability in the female tract in a process known as capacitation. At the molecular level, capacitation is associated with up-regulation of a cAMP-dependent pathway, changes in intracellular pH, intracellular Ca2+ and an increase in tyrosine phosphorylation. How these signaling systems interact during capacitation is not well understood. Results presented in this study indicate that Ca2+ ions have a biphasic role in the regulation of cAMP-dependent signaling. Media without added Ca2+ salts (nominal zero Ca2+) still contain micromolar concentrations of this ion. Sperm incubated in this medium did not undergo PKA activation or the increase in tyrosine phosphorylation suggesting that these phosphorylation pathways require Ca2+. However, chelation of the extracellular Ca2+ traces by EGTA induced both cAMP-dependent phosphorylation and the increase in tyrosine phosphorylation. The EGTA effect in nominal zero Ca2+ media was mimicked by two calmodulin antagonists, W7 and calmidazolium, and by the calcineurin inhibitor cyclosporine A. These results suggest that Ca2+ ions regulate sperm cAMP and tyrosine phosphorylation pathways in a biphasic manner and that some of its effects are mediated by calmodulin. Interestingly, contrary to wild type mouse sperm, sperm from CatSper1 KO mice underwent PKA activation and an increase in tyrosine phosphorylation upon incubation in nominal zero Ca2+ media. Therefore, sperm lacking Catsper Ca2+ channels behave as wild-type sperm incubated in the presence of EGTA. This latter result suggests that Catsper transports the Ca2+ involved in the regulation of cAMP-dependent and tyrosine phosphorylation pathways required for sperm capacitation. PMID:25597298

  5. Biphasic Presence of Fibrocytes in a Porcine Hypertrophic Scar Model

    PubMed Central

    Travis, Taryn E.; Mino, Matthew J.; Moffatt, Lauren T.; Mauskar, Neil A.; Prindeze, Nicholas J.; Ghassemi, Pejhman; Ramella-Roman, Jessica C.; Jordan, Marion H.; Shupp, Jeffrey W.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The duroc pig has been described as a promising animal model for use in the study of human wound healing and scar formation. However little is known about the presence and chronology of the fibrocyte cell population in the healing process of these animals. Methods Wounds known to form scar were created on red duroc swine (3“ × 3”) with a dermatome to a total depth of either 0.06“ or 0.09”. These wounds were allowed to heal completely and were biopsied at scheduled time points during the healing process. Biopsies were formalin-fixed and paraffin embedded for immunohistochemical analysis. Porcine-reactive antibodies to CD-45 and procollagen-1 and a human-reactive antibody to LSP-1 were used to detect the presence of fibrocytes in immunohistochemistry an immunocytochemistry. Results Initial immunohistochemical studies showed evidence of a biphasic presence of fibrocytes. Pigs with 0.06“ deep wounds showed positive staining for CD-45 and LSP-1 within highly cellular areas at days 2 and 4 after wounding. Additional animals with 0.09” deep wounds showed positive staining within similar areas at days 56, 70, and 113 after wounding. There was no immunohistochemical evidence of fibrocytes in skin biopsies taken at days 14, 28, or 42. Procollagen-1 staining was diffuse in all samples. Cultured cells stained for CD-45, LSP-1, and procollagen-1 by immunocytochemistry. Conclusions These data confirm that fibrocytes are indeed present in this porcine model. We conclude that these cells are present after initial wounding and later during scar formation and remodeling. We believe that this is evidence of a biphasic presence of fibrocytes, first as an acute response to skin wounding followed by later involvement in the remodeling process, prompted by continued inflammation in a deep partial thickness wound. PMID:25051518

  6. [Synovial cyst of chest wall; report of a case].

    PubMed

    Chujo, Masao; Anami, Kentaro; Miura, Takashi

    2014-12-01

    A 55-year-old male taxi driver visited our hospital because of a left dorsal tumor. The tumor was palpated at the inferior angle of the left scapula with tenderness. Computed tomography (CT) revealed a homogeneous 5-cm mass with capsule between the latissimus dorsi muscle and rib. T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging( MRI) demonstrated the tumor with high intensity. The latissimus dorsi muscle was divided and separated off from the tumor and the lower layer;then, an applied wound retractor (Alexis) was placed under the lower layer of the latissimus dorsi muscle and the operative field was developed. Next, the anterior serratus and greater rhomboid muscles were separated off from the tumor and the lower layer, the Alexis was placed under the lower layer of those muscles. All muscles were preserved and the tumor was removed. The tumor was 56×32 mm in size. The histological diagnosis was synovial cyst. PMID:25434552

  7. Exomic Analysis of Myxoid Liposarcomas, Synovial Sarcomas, and Osteosarcomas

    PubMed Central

    Jiao, Yuchen; Wood, Laura D.; Kinde, Isaac; Wu, Jian; Mandahl, Nils; Luo, Jinyong; Hruban, Ralph H.; Diaz, Luis A.; He, Tong-Chuan; Vogelstein, Bert; Kinzler, Kenneth W.; Mertens, Fredrik; Papadopoulos, Nickolas

    2014-01-01

    Bone and soft tissue sarcomas are a group of histologically heterogeneous and relatively uncommon tumors. To explore their genetic origins, we sequenced the exomes of 13 osteosarcomas, eight myxoid liposarcomas (MLPS), and seven synovial sarcomas (SYN). These tumors had few genetic alterations (median of 10.8). Nevertheless, clear examples of driver gene mutations were observed, including canonical mutations in TP53, PIK3CA, SETD2, AKT1, and subclonal mutation in FBXW7. Of particular interest were mutations in H3F3A, encoding the variant histone H3.3. Mutations in this gene have only been previously observed in gliomas. Loss of heterozygosity of exomic regions was extensive in osteosarcomas but rare in SYN and MLPS. These results provide intriguing nucleotide-level information on these relatively uncommon neoplasms and highlight pathways that help explain their pathogenesis. PMID:24190505

  8. Fluorescence and UV-vis Spectroscopy of Synovial Fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinti, Marie J.; Stojilovic, Nenad; Kovacik, Mark W.

    2009-10-01

    Total joint arthroplasty involves replacing the worn cartilaginous surfaces of the joint with man-made materials that are designed to be biocompatible and to withstand mechanical stresses. Commonly these bearing materials consist of metallic alloys (TiAlV or CoCrMo) and UHMWPE. Following joint arthroplasty, the normal generation of micro-metallic wear debris particles that dislodge from the prosthesis has been shown to cause inflammatory aseptic osteolysis (bone loss) that ultimately results in the failure of the implant. Here we report our results on the novel use of Fluorescence and UV-vis spectroscopy to investigate the metallic content of synovial fluid specimens taken from postoperative total knee arthroplasties. Preliminary finding showed presence of alumina and chromium is some specimens. The ability to detect and monitor the wear rate of these implants could have far reaching implications in the prevention of metallic wear-debris induced osteolysis and impending implant failure.

  9. Hemorrhagic Synovial Cyst Associated with Rheumatoid Atlantoaxial Subluxation

    PubMed Central

    Sheen, Jae Jon; Seo, Dong Kwang; Choi, Seung Ho

    2013-01-01

    Synovial cyst on prevertebral space of C1-2 joint is rare but may be associated hemorrhagic event. We describe a case of a 72-year-old woman who presented with sudden severe headache in her left occipital area with dyspnea. She had rheumatoid arthritis for 14-years. Large hemorrhagic cystic mass was seen around prevertebral space of the atlantoaxial joint on the left side on cervical MRI (magnetic resonance image) and it obstructed the nasopharyngeal cavity. Aspiration of the cystic lesion was performed via transoral approach, followed by posterior occipito-cervical fusion. The specimen was xanthochromic, suggesting old hemorrhage. The patient was tolerable on her postoperative course and showed good respiration and relieved headache. We suggest that repeated microtrauma due to atalantoaxial subluxation associated with rheumatoid arthritis as a main cause of hemorrhagic event on the cyst. PMID:24757465

  10. Hip Arthroscopy for Synovial Chondromatosis: Tips and Tricks.

    PubMed

    Rath, Ehud; Amar, Eyal; Doron, Ran; Matsuda, Dean K

    2014-12-01

    Hip arthroscopy is an important diagnostic and therapeutic tool in the management of synovial chondromatosis. Removal of osteochondral fragments (OCFs) from the central and peripheral compartments is crucial for the relief of mechanical symptoms and subsequent joint destruction. Direct access to the central compartment is often limited because of the ball-and-socket morphology and limitation of traction. We present our surgical technique for removing OCFs and a new method for the removal of a large loose body using a nitinol stone retrieval basket. The technique facilitates removal of difficult-to-access fragments from the central compartment. Moreover, this technique allows removal of far-medial OCFs from the peripheral compartment. PMID:25685679