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Sample records for pulmonary cavities colonized

  1. Helicobacter pylori colonization of the oral cavity: A milestone discovery

    PubMed Central

    Yee, John KC

    2016-01-01

    Over the past several years, the severity of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infections has not significantly diminished. After successful eradication, the annual H. pylori recurrence rate is approximately 13% due to oral H. pylori infection. Established clinical diagnostic techniques do not identify an oral etiologic basis of H. pylori prior to gastric infection. There has been disagreement as to whether oral infection of H. pylori exists or not, with no definite conclusion. In medical practice, negative results with the urea breath test suggest that the stomach infection of H. pylori is cured in these patients. In fact, patients can present negative urea breath test results and yet exhibit H. pylori infection due to oral infection. The present paper provides evidence that H. pylori oral infection is nonetheless present, and the oral cavity represents a secondary site for H. pylori colonization. PMID:26811613

  2. An African woman with pulmonary cavities: TB or not TB?

    PubMed

    Delsing, C E; Ruesen, C; Boeree, M J; van Damme, P A; Kuipers, S; van Crevel, R

    2014-10-01

    Cavitary lung lesions in patients from developing countries are mostly caused by tuberculosis (TB). However, when TB cannot be confirmed, a primary lung abscess caused by anaerobic bacteria from the mouth should be considered, especially in patients with poor dentition. We present a case of a Sudanese woman with a cavitary lung lesion and severe gingivitis. Bulleidia extructa was isolated as a single pathogen from the pulmonary cavity. PMID:25387555

  3. Pneumocystis jirovecii in the air surrounding patients with Pneumocystis pulmonary colonization.

    PubMed

    Le Gal, Solène; Pougnet, Laurence; Damiani, Céline; Fréalle, Emilie; Guéguen, Paul; Virmaux, Michèle; Ansart, Séverine; Jaffuel, Sylvain; Couturaud, Francis; Delluc, Aurélien; Tonnelier, Jean-Marie; Castellant, Philippe; Le Meur, Yann; Le Floch, Gaétan; Totet, Anne; Menotti, Jean; Nevez, Gilles

    2015-06-01

    In this study, Pneumocystis jirovecii was detected and characterized in the air surrounding patients with Pneumocystis pulmonary colonization. Air samples were collected in the rooms of 10 colonized patients using Coriolis® μ air sampler at 1m and 5m from the patient's head. P. jirovecii DNA was amplified and genotyped in pulmonary and air samples at the mitochondrial large subunit ribosomal RNA gene. P. jirovecii DNA was detected in 5 of the 10 air samples collected at 1m and in 5 of the 10 other air samples collected at 5m. P. jirovecii genotyping was successful in 4 pairs or triplets of air and pulmonary samples. Full genotype matches were observed in 3 of the 4 pairs or triplets of air and pulmonary samples. These results provide original data supporting P. jirovecii exhalation from colonized patients and emphasize the risk of P. jirovecii nosocomial transmission from this patient population. PMID:25801779

  4. A rare case of pulmonary cysticercosis manifesting as lung cavity with pleural effusion

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Neeraj; Meena, Manoj; Harish, Sabarigirivasan; Patil, Chetan B; Kewlani, Jai Prakash

    2015-01-01

    Isolated pulmonary cysticercosis is extremely rare manifestation of a rather common disease which is distributed worldwide. Most common sites which provide perfect nourishment for the growth of cysticercosis are muscle and brain followed by eye. Pulmonary involvement in cysticercosis is very rare and if at all present, then ill-defined nodular shadows distributed throughout the lung is the usual radiological presentation. No case of cysticercosis presenting as lung cavity with pleural effusion has been reported so far in literature. We came across a rarest presentation of cysticercosis as cavity in the lung with effusion. After nullifying all the differential diagnosis of cavitary lung lesions, a diagnosis of pulmonary cysticercosis was made by histopathological examination of the lung cavity aspirate and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for cysticercosis. Case was successfully treated with albendazole (15mg/kg) with steroid cover. PMID:26628774

  5. Systemic inflammation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease who are colonized with Pneumocystis jiroveci.

    PubMed

    Calderón, Enrique J; Rivero, Laura; Respaldiza, Nieves; Morilla, Rubén; Montes-Cano, Marco A; Friaza, Vicente; Muñoz-Lobato, Fernando; Varela, José M; Medrano, Francisco J; Horra, Carmen de la

    2007-07-15

    In chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, high levels of airway and systemic inflammatory markers are associated with a faster decrease in lung function. Our study shows that patients colonized by Pneumocystis jiroveci have higher proinflammatory cytokine levels than do noncolonized patients. This suggests that Pneumocystis may play a role in disease progression. PMID:17578770

  6. Transformation of a Ruptured Giant Pulmonary Artery Aneurysm into an Air Cavity After Transcatheter Embolization in a Behcet's Patient

    SciTech Connect

    Cil, Barbaros E. Turkbey, Baris; Canyigit, Murat; Kumbasar, Ozlem O.; Celik, Gokhan; Demirkazik, Figen B.

    2006-02-15

    Pulmonary artery aneurysms due to Behcet's disease are mainly seen in young males and very rarely in females. To our knowledge there are only 10 cases reported in the related literature. Emergent transcatheter embolization was performed in a female patient with a known history of Behcet's disease in whom massive hemoptysis developed because of rupture of a giant pulmonary artery aneurysm. At 6-month follow-up, transformation of the aneurysm sac into an air cavity was detected. To our knowledge, such a transformation has never been reported in the literature before. Embolization of the pulmonary artery aneurysm and the mechanism of cavity transformation are reviewed and discussed.

  7. Consumption of sweetened beverages as a risk factor of colonization of oral cavity by fungi - eating habits of university students.

    PubMed

    Lll, Katarzyna Góralska; Klimczak, Alina; Rachubiński, Paweł; Jagłowska, Aleksandra; Kwapiszewska, Aleksandra

    2015-01-01

    Foods rich in sugar are an excellent substrate for the microorganisms that inhabit the initial sections of the gastrointestinal tract, and one of the most commonly available sources of sugar is the sweetened drink. Students represent an interesting sub-population; the large number of classes and associated stress levels promote fixing of unhealthy behaviors, e.g. tendency to consume a lot of sweetened drinks, for example cola-type or energetic drinks. Aim of this study was to determine the relationship between the amount of sugar consumed in beverages and the prevalence of fungi in the oral cavity. The investigated material consisted of oral washings. Participants completed original questionnaire regarding beverages consumed. The relationship between the consumption of sweetened beverages and risk of the presence of fungi in the oral cavity was determined. Fungi were isolated from 68.1% of examined subjects. Seven species of the genus Candida were observed. Higher prevalence of fungi was seen in the oral cavity of subjects who declared consumption of beverages containing sugar. 37.8% of respondents were found to consume with beverages doses of sugar exceeding the recommended daily requirement. Significantly greater prevalence of oral cavity fungi was noted in those exceeding the recommended GDA (76.3%), compared to of those who were not (68.7%). There were positive correlations between occurrence of fungi and consumption of sweetened carbonated drinks or adding sugar to coffee and tea. The addition of sugar to coffee/tea and sugar consumption above the recommended daily amount significantly increases the risk of colonization of the oral cavity by fungi. Students, due to invalid nutritional habits especially excessive consumption of beverages containing large amounts of sugar, belong to a group with a predisposition to the occurrence of fungi in the oral cavity. PMID:26568990

  8. Investigation of Pneumocystis jirovecii colonization in patients with chronic pulmonary diseases in the People’s Republic of China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Dong-Dong; Zheng, Ming-Quan; Zhang, Nan; An, Chun-Li

    2015-01-01

    Background The detection of Pneumocystis jirovecii DNA in respiratory specimen from individuals who do not have signs or symptoms of pneumonia has been defined as colonization. The role of P. jirovecii colonization in the development or progression of various lung diseases has been reported, but little information about P. jirovecii colonization in patients is available in the People’s Republic of China. Objective To determine the prevalence of P. jirovecii colonization in patients with various pulmonary diseases, including the acute and stable stage of COPD, interstitial lung diseases, cystic fibrosis, and chronic bronchiectasis. Materials and methods A loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) and a conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method for detecting P. jirovecii were developed. Ninety-eight HIV-negative patients who were followed-up and who had undergone bronchoscopy for diagnosis of various underlying respiratory diseases were included in the study. Sputa of these patients were analyzed with LAMP amplification of P. jirovecii gene. In addition, conventional PCR, Giemsa and Gomori’s methenamine silver nitrate staining assays were applied to all specimens. Results The sensitivity and specificity test showed that there was no cross-reaction with other fungi or bacteria in detecting the specific gene of P. jirovecii by LAMP, and the minimum detection limits by LAMP was 50 copies/mL. P. jirovecii DNA was detected in 62 of 98 (63.3%) sputa specimens by LAMP assay and 22.45% (22/98) by conventional PCR. However, no P. jirovecii cysts were found by Giemsa and Gomori’s methenamine silver nitrate in all of gene-positive specimens. Conclusion The results of our study showed that prevalence of P. jirovecii colonization is particularly high in patients with chronic pulmonary diseases in the People’s Republic of China, and the LAMP method is better for evaluation of the colonization of P. jirovecii in sputum specimen than conventional PCR. PMID

  9. Cavities

    MedlinePlus

    ... The tooth may hurt even without stimulation (spontaneous toothache). If irreversible damage to the pulp occurs and ... To detect cavities early, a dentist inquires about pain, examines the teeth, probes the teeth with dental instruments, and may take x-rays. People should ...

  10. [Transcatheter Arterial Chemoembolization with Super absorbent Polymer Microspheres for a Large Lung Cystic Adenocarcinoma in the Left Pulmonary Cavity].

    PubMed

    Kennoki, Norifumi; Hori, Shinichi; Yuki, Takeo; Sueyoshi, Satoshi; Hori, Atsushi

    2015-11-01

    A 57-year-old woman presented with lung adenocarcinoma and carcinomatous pleurisy in January 2013. The primary lesion had been treated with 60-Gy radiation therapy. She, however, showed a recurrence of the tumor in her pulmonary cavity. She received systemic chemotherapy for 1 year but did not show any improvement. She visited our clinic in March 2014. Her performance level was 3. Her hemoglobin level was 8.5 g/dL. The CT scan showed that the size of the cystic tumor was 200 × 144 × 143 mm. The tumor severely compressed her heart. We performed TACE using a spherical embolic agent. The microcatheter was guided through the left bronchial artery; left intercostal artery 9, 10, and 11; and the left inferior phrenic artery. The anticancer drugs selected were CDDP and 5-FU. The embolic material used was SAP-MS. After 3 therapy sessions, the CT scan showed shrinkage of the target lesion to 100 × 93 × 54 mm. Her hemoglobin level increased to 13.8 g/dL; furthermore, the severity of dyspnea decreased, and she showed a performance status of 0. TACE with SAP-MS was successfully performed for the large cystic tumor in the pulmonary cavity that metastasized from the lung cancer and was refractory to standard treatments. After the treatment, the tumor size decreased and the patient's symptoms alleviated. PMID:26602400

  11. Systemic cytokine signaling via IL-17 in smokers with obstructive pulmonary disease: a link to bacterial colonization?

    PubMed Central

    Andelid, Kristina; Tengvall, Sara; Andersson, Anders; Levänen, Bettina; Christenson, Karin; Jirholt, Pernilla; Åhrén, Christina; Qvarfordt, Ingemar; Ekberg-Jansson, Ann; Lindén, Anders

    2015-01-01

    We examined whether systemic cytokine signaling via interleukin (IL)-17 and growth-related oncogene-α (GRO-α) is impaired in smokers with obstructive pulmonary disease including chronic bronchitis (OPD-CB). We also examined how this systemic cytokine signaling relates to bacterial colonization in the airways of the smokers with OPD-CB. Currently smoking OPD-CB patients (n=60, corresponding to Global initiative for chronic Obstructive Lung Disease [GOLD] stage I–IV) underwent recurrent blood and sputum sampling over 60 weeks, during stable conditions and at exacerbations. We characterized cytokine protein concentrations in blood and bacterial growth in sputum. Asymptomatic smokers (n=10) and never-smokers (n=10) were included as control groups. During stable clinical conditions, the protein concentrations of IL-17 and GRO-α were markedly lower among OPD-CB patients compared with never-smoker controls, whereas the asymptomatic smoker controls displayed intermediate concentrations. Notably, among OPD-CB patients, colonization by opportunistic pathogens was associated with markedly lower IL-17 and GRO-α, compared with colonization by common respiratory pathogens or oropharyngeal flora. During exacerbations in the OPD-CB patients, GRO-α and neutrophil concentrations were increased, whereas protein concentrations and messenger RNA for IL-17 were not detectable in a reproducible manner. In smokers with OPD-CB, systemic cytokine signaling via IL-17 and GRO-α is impaired and this alteration may be linked to colonization by opportunistic pathogens in the airways. Given the potential pathogenic and therapeutic implications, these findings deserve to be validated in new and larger patient cohorts. PMID:25848245

  12. Role of interbacterial adherence in colonization of the oral cavities of gnotobiotic rats infected with Streptococcus mutans and Veillonella alcalescens.

    PubMed Central

    McBride, B C; Van der Hoeven, J S

    1981-01-01

    The role of interbacterial adherence in the colonization of the rate oral cavity was investigated with aggregating and nonaggregating strains of Veillonella alcalescens and Streptococcus mutans. V. alcalescens V-1 and S. mutans M-7 rapidly formed large stable aggregates when mixed in vitro. Aggregates could be reduced in size by sonication, but they could not be completely dispersed, indicating that bonding between the organisms was strong. V. alcalescens V-1 did not coaggregate with S. mutans C67-1, and V. alcalescens OMZ193 did not coaggregate with either S. mutans strain C67-1 or M-7. Osborne-Mendel rats monoassociated with either S. mutans C67-1 or M-7 were inoculated with veillonellae, molar teeth were removed at 2 h and at 14 days, and the number of veillonellae was determined. At 2 h post-inoculation there were 600 times as many colony-forming units of V. alcalescens V-1 adherent to the teeth of animals monoassociated with S. mutans M-7 when compared with animals monoassociated with the nonaggregating S. mutans C67-1. The number of colony-forming units of V. alcalescens V-1 was 1,000 times greater than the number of nonaggregating V. alcalescens OMZ193 in S. mutans M-7-infected animals. Similar results were obtained when teeth were samples 14 days after inoculation. Veillonellae inoculated into the mouths of germfree animals rapidly disappeared from tooth surfaces. PMID:7275312

  13. Early colonization of the oral cavity in 6- and 12-month-old infants by cariogenic and periodontal pathogens: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Merglova, Vlasta; Polenik, Pavel

    2016-09-01

    The colonization of the oral cavity by cariogenic and periodontal pathogens occurs earlier than previously thought. This study aimed to identify the presence and quantity of representative cariogenic and periodontal pathogens in the oral cavities of 6- and 12-month olds and to evaluate the influence of C-section delivery on early Streptococcus mutans (Sm) colonization of the oral cavity. The research cohort was composed of 59 infants (35 infants were delivered vaginally and 24 via C-section) and their mothers. At 6 months of age, the infants were examined, and unstimulated saliva samples were collected. Variables concerning mothers were DMF index and salivary levels of Sm. Repeated saliva samples were taken 6 months later. The representative cariogenic and periodontal microorganisms were identified, and their quantities were measured using a polymerase chain reaction-based method. The relationships between the presence of detected microbes, the mode of delivery, and maternal variables were evaluated using paired t tests, chi-squared test, and ANOVAs. High rates of cariogenic bacteria, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (Aa) and Fusobacterium nucleatum (Fn), were found in both infant cohorts. An analysis of the differences between delivery methods revealed that the group of 6-month-old vaginally delivered infants had a significantly higher amount of Sm. We conclude that the cariogenic bacteria, Aa and Fn, are present in edentulous infants. This presence increases in the months following the eruption of the deciduous teeth. Results did not confirm the influence of C-section delivery on the early Sm colonization of the oral cavity. PMID:26914065

  14. Fatal pulmonary embolization after reaming of the femoral medullary cavity in sclerosing osteomyelitis: a case report.

    PubMed

    Pape, H C; Krettek, C; Maschek, H; Regel, G; Tscherne, H

    1996-01-01

    Reaming of the medullary may be used in cases of sclerosing osteomyelitis (type Garré), refractory to other methods. We report a case of fatal intraoperative complication related to this procedure. An otherwise healthy young patient died during reaming using a machine-driven reamer of the femoral medullary canal due to pulmonary bone embolism. The technique and the indication for this procedure as well as the intraoperative monitoring options are discussed. PMID:8854322

  15. Surgical treatment of empyema after pulmonary resection using pedicle skeletal muscle plombage, thoracoplasty, and continuous cavity ablution procedures: a report on three cases

    PubMed Central

    Mizuno, Tetsuya; Kuroda, Hiroaki; Sakao, Yukinori; Uchida, Tatsuo

    2016-01-01

    We present three cases of postoperative empyema after pulmonary resection: case 1, acute empyema without fistula after lobectomy and chest wall resection; case 2, continuing empyema with fistula and total left residual lung abscess after upper divisionectomy; and case 3, chronic empyema with middle lobe bronchopleural fistula after lower lobectomy. Pedicle skeletal muscle plombage into the cavity, thoracoplasty, and continuous cavity ablution with 24-h instillation of minocycline and saline solution through drains were used for treatment. In case 2, a completion extrapleural left pneumonectomy was concurrently performed. In all three cases, the surgery was successful; however, case 2 developed a massive gastrointestinal hemorrhage, which led to blood aspiration pneumonitis, renal failure, and death. Muscle plombage effectively achieves the closure of empyema cavity and thoracoplasty complements this. When a residual space remains, cavity ablution is considered to be effective. However, concurrent completion lung parenchyma resection might be excessively aggressive. PMID:27293855

  16. Antifungal Effects of Common Mouthwashes on Candida Strains Colonized in the Oral Cavities of Liver Transplant Recipients in South Iran in 2014

    PubMed Central

    Dehghani Nazhvani, Ali; Haddadi, Pardis; Badiee, Parisa; Malekhoseini, Seyed Ali; Jafarian, Hadis

    2016-01-01

    Background: Among the opportunistic microorganisms, fungi, particularly Candida, play an important role in the mortality of transplant recipients. Thus, controlling and preventing fungal colonizations in various parts of the body, including the oral cavity, can reduce the possibility of post-transplant invasive fungal infections. This can be done simply by using mouthwashes. Objectives: The current study aimed to determine the prevalence of fungal species of Candida within the oral cavities of liver transplant recipients, and to evaluate the effects on Candida colonization of different exposure times to common mouthwashes. Patients and Methods: Specimens were taken from the oral cavities of 101 liver transplant recipients who were referred to our clinic for their first monthly examination. After cultivation and DNA extraction, yeast strains were identified with the RFLP technique. Each strain’s susceptibility to 0.2% chlorhexidine, Vi-One, Oral-B, Nanosil D1, and Nystatin mouthwashes was determined based on the CLSI M27-A2 standard method. Results: The obtained data were analyzed using SPSS. Out of 101 samples from liver transplant recipients, 68 cases showed fungi growing within the culture media (67.4%). C. albicans and C. glabrata, respectively, were the first and second most frequent types. Mouthwash susceptibility tests revealed that their antifungal effects over 60 seconds were significantly higher than with an exposure time of 30 seconds. At both 30 and 60 seconds, chlorhexidine was significantly the most efficient. Conclusions: Chlorhexidine mouthwash with an exposure time of 60 seconds or more is suggested as an effective antifungal agent to be included in the medication regimen of liver transplant patients pre- and postoperatively, in order to prevent fungal colonization and subsequent systemic infections. PMID:27110254

  17. Pharmacokinetics, microbial response, and pulmonary outcomes of multidose intravenous azithromycin in preterm infants at risk for Ureaplasma respiratory colonization.

    PubMed

    Merchan, L Marcela; Hassan, Hazem E; Terrin, Michael L; Waites, Ken B; Kaufman, David A; Ambalavanan, Namasivayam; Donohue, Pamela; Dulkerian, Susan J; Schelonka, Robert; Magder, Laurence S; Shukla, Sagar; Eddington, Natalie D; Viscardi, Rose M

    2015-01-01

    The study objectives were to refine the population pharmacokinetics (PK) model, determine microbial clearance, and assess short-term pulmonary outcomes of multiple-dose azithromycin treatment in preterm infants at risk for Ureaplasma respiratory colonization. Fifteen subjects (7 of whom were Ureaplasma positive) received intravenous azithromycin at 20 mg/kg of body weight every 24 h for 3 doses. Azithromycin concentrations were determined in plasma samples obtained up to 168 h post-first dose by using a validated liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method. Respiratory samples were obtained predose and at three time points post-last dose for Ureaplasma culture, PCR, antibiotic susceptibility testing, and cytokine concentration determinations. Pharmacokinetic data from these 15 subjects as well as 25 additional subjects (who received either a single 10-mg/kg dose [n = 12] or a single 20-mg/kg dose [n = 13]) were analyzed by using a nonlinear mixed-effect population modeling (NONMEM) approach. Pulmonary outcomes were assessed at 36 weeks post-menstrual age and 6 months adjusted age. A 2-compartment model with all PK parameters allometrically scaled on body weight best described the azithromycin pharmacokinetics in preterm neonates. The population pharmacokinetics parameter estimates for clearance, central volume of distribution, intercompartmental clearance, and peripheral volume of distribution were 0.15 liters/h · kg(0.75), 1.88 liters · kg, 1.79 liters/h · kg(0.75), and 13 liters · kg, respectively. The estimated area under the concentration-time curve over 24 h (AUC24)/MIC90 value was ∼ 4 h. All posttreatment cultures were negative, and there were no drug-related adverse events. One Ureaplasma-positive infant died at 4 months of age, but no survivors were hospitalized for respiratory etiologies during the first 6 months (adjusted age). Thus, a 3-day course of 20 mg/kg/day intravenous azithromycin shows preliminary efficacy in eradicating

  18. Pharmacokinetics, Microbial Response, and Pulmonary Outcomes of Multidose Intravenous Azithromycin in Preterm Infants at Risk for Ureaplasma Respiratory Colonization

    PubMed Central

    Merchan, L. Marcela; Hassan, Hazem E.; Terrin, Michael L.; Waites, Ken B.; Kaufman, David A.; Ambalavanan, Namasivayam; Donohue, Pamela; Dulkerian, Susan J.; Schelonka, Robert; Magder, Laurence S.; Shukla, Sagar; Eddington, Natalie D.

    2014-01-01

    The study objectives were to refine the population pharmacokinetics (PK) model, determine microbial clearance, and assess short-term pulmonary outcomes of multiple-dose azithromycin treatment in preterm infants at risk for Ureaplasma respiratory colonization. Fifteen subjects (7 of whom were Ureaplasma positive) received intravenous azithromycin at 20 mg/kg of body weight every 24 h for 3 doses. Azithromycin concentrations were determined in plasma samples obtained up to 168 h post-first dose by using a validated liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method. Respiratory samples were obtained predose and at three time points post-last dose for Ureaplasma culture, PCR, antibiotic susceptibility testing, and cytokine concentration determinations. Pharmacokinetic data from these 15 subjects as well as 25 additional subjects (who received either a single 10-mg/kg dose [n = 12] or a single 20-mg/kg dose [n = 13]) were analyzed by using a nonlinear mixed-effect population modeling (NONMEM) approach. Pulmonary outcomes were assessed at 36 weeks post-menstrual age and 6 months adjusted age. A 2-compartment model with all PK parameters allometrically scaled on body weight best described the azithromycin pharmacokinetics in preterm neonates. The population pharmacokinetics parameter estimates for clearance, central volume of distribution, intercompartmental clearance, and peripheral volume of distribution were 0.15 liters/h · kg0.75, 1.88 liters · kg, 1.79 liters/h · kg0.75, and 13 liters · kg, respectively. The estimated area under the concentration-time curve over 24 h (AUC24)/MIC90 value was ∼4 h. All posttreatment cultures were negative, and there were no drug-related adverse events. One Ureaplasma-positive infant died at 4 months of age, but no survivors were hospitalized for respiratory etiologies during the first 6 months (adjusted age). Thus, a 3-day course of 20 mg/kg/day intravenous azithromycin shows preliminary efficacy in eradicating Ureaplasma spp

  19. Combined Quantification of Pulmonary Pneumocystis jirovecii DNA and Serum (1→3)-β-d-Glucan for Differential Diagnosis of Pneumocystis Pneumonia and Pneumocystis Colonization

    PubMed Central

    Le Gal, Solène; Da Costa, Cécilia; Virmaux, Michèle; Nevez, Gilles; Totet, Anne

    2013-01-01

    This study assessed a quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay for Pneumocystis jirovecii quantification in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid samples combined with serum (1→3)-β-d-glucan (BG) level detection to distinguish Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) from pulmonary colonization with P. jirovecii. Forty-six patients for whom P. jirovecii was initially detected in BAL fluid samples were retrospectively enrolled. Based on clinical data and results of P. jirovecii detection, 17 and 29 patients were diagnosed with PCP and colonization, respectively. BAL fluid samples were reassayed using a qPCR assay targeting the mitochondrial large subunit rRNA gene. qPCR results and serum BG levels (from a Fungitell kit) were analyzed conjointly. P. jirovecii DNA copy numbers were significantly higher in the PCP group than in the colonization group (1.3 × 107 versus 3.4 × 103 copies/μl, P < 0.05). A lower cutoff value (1.6 × 103 copies/μl) achieving 100% sensitivity for PCP diagnosis and an upper cutoff value (2 × 104 copies/μl) achieving 100% specificity were determined. Applying these two values, 13/17 PCP patients and 19/29 colonized patients were correctly assigned to their patient groups. For the remaining 14 patients with P. jirovecii DNA copy numbers between the cutoff values, PCP and colonization could not be distinguished on the basis of qPCR results. Four of these patients who were initially assigned to the PCP group presented BG levels of ≥100 pg/ml. The other 10 patients, who were initially assigned to the colonization group, presented BG levels of <100 pg/ml. These results suggest that the combination of the qPCR assay, applying cutoff values of 1.6 × 103 and 2 × 104 copies/μl, and serum BG detection, applying a 100 pg/ml threshold, can differentiate PCP and colonization diagnoses. PMID:23903553

  20. 5-Fluorouracil causes leukocytes attraction in the peritoneal cavity by activating autophagy and HMGB1 release in colon carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Cottone, Lucia; Capobianco, Annalisa; Gualteroni, Chiara; Perrotta, Cristiana; Bianchi, Marco E; Rovere-Querini, Patrizia; Manfredi, Angelo A

    2015-03-15

    Signals released by leukocytes contribute to tumor growth and influence the efficacy of antineoplastic treatments. The outcome of peritoneal carcinomatosis treatments is unsatisfactory, possibly because chemotherapy activates events that have in the long-term deleterious effects. In this study we offer evidence that 5-fluorouracile (5-FU), besides provoking apoptosis of MC38 colon carcinoma cells, induces a striking attraction of leukocytes both in an orthotopic model of colon carcinomatosis in vivo and in monocyte-migration assays in vitro. Leukocyte attraction depends on the presence of High Mobility Group Box 1 (HMGB1), an endogenous immune adjuvant and chemoattractant released by dying cells. Leukocyte recruitment is prevented in vivo and in vitro using blocking antibodies against HMGB1 and its competitive antagonist BoxA or by interfering with HMGB1 expression. Autophagy is required for leukocyte chemoattraction, since the latter abates upon pharmacological blockade of the autophagic flux while activation of autophagy per se, in the absence of death of colon carcinoma cells, is not sufficient to attract leukocytes. Our results identify autophagy induction and HMGB1 release in colon carcinoma cells as key events responsible for 5-FU elicited leukocyte attraction and define a novel rate-limiting target for combinatorial therapies. PMID:25098891

  1. Combined quantification of pulmonary Pneumocystis jirovecii DNA and serum (1->3)-β-D-glucan for differential diagnosis of pneumocystis pneumonia and Pneumocystis colonization.

    PubMed

    Damiani, Céline; Le Gal, Solène; Da Costa, Cécilia; Virmaux, Michèle; Nevez, Gilles; Totet, Anne

    2013-10-01

    This study assessed a quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay for Pneumocystis jirovecii quantification in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid samples combined with serum (1→3)-β-d-glucan (BG) level detection to distinguish Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) from pulmonary colonization with P. jirovecii. Forty-six patients for whom P. jirovecii was initially detected in BAL fluid samples were retrospectively enrolled. Based on clinical data and results of P. jirovecii detection, 17 and 29 patients were diagnosed with PCP and colonization, respectively. BAL fluid samples were reassayed using a qPCR assay targeting the mitochondrial large subunit rRNA gene. qPCR results and serum BG levels (from a Fungitell kit) were analyzed conjointly. P. jirovecii DNA copy numbers were significantly higher in the PCP group than in the colonization group (1.3 × 10(7) versus 3.4 × 10(3) copies/μl, P < 0.05). A lower cutoff value (1.6 × 10(3) copies/μl) achieving 100% sensitivity for PCP diagnosis and an upper cutoff value (2 × 10(4) copies/μl) achieving 100% specificity were determined. Applying these two values, 13/17 PCP patients and 19/29 colonized patients were correctly assigned to their patient groups. For the remaining 14 patients with P. jirovecii DNA copy numbers between the cutoff values, PCP and colonization could not be distinguished on the basis of qPCR results. Four of these patients who were initially assigned to the PCP group presented BG levels of ≥100 pg/ml. The other 10 patients, who were initially assigned to the colonization group, presented BG levels of <100 pg/ml. These results suggest that the combination of the qPCR assay, applying cutoff values of 1.6 × 10(3) and 2 × 10(4) copies/μl, and serum BG detection, applying a 100 pg/ml threshold, can differentiate PCP and colonization diagnoses. PMID:23903553

  2. Pulmonary hypertension

    MedlinePlus

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension; Sporadic primary pulmonary hypertension; Familial primary pulmonary hypertension; Idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension; Primary pulmonary hypertension; PPH; Secondary pulmonary ...

  3. Colonic Polyps

    MedlinePlus

    ... Colonic polyps grow in the large intestine, or colon. Most polyps are not dangerous. However, some polyps ... member with polyps Have a family history of colon cancer Most colon polyps do not cause symptoms. ...

  4. Cavitary Pulmonary Disease

    PubMed Central

    Gadkowski, L. Beth; Stout, Jason E.

    2008-01-01

    Summary: A pulmonary cavity is a gas-filled area of the lung in the center of a nodule or area of consolidation and may be clinically observed by use of plain chest radiography or computed tomography. Cavities are present in a wide variety of infectious and noninfectious processes. This review discusses the differential diagnosis of pathological processes associated with lung cavities, focusing on infections associated with lung cavities. The goal is to provide the clinician and clinical microbiologist with an overview of the diseases most commonly associated with lung cavities, with attention to the epidemiology and clinical characteristics of the host. PMID:18400799

  5. Colon cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Colorectal cancer; Cancer - colon; Rectal cancer; Cancer - rectum; Adenocarcinoma - colon; Colon - adenocarcinoma ... In the United States, colorectal cancer is one of the leading causes of deaths due to cancer. Early diagnosis can often lead to a complete cure. Almost ...

  6. Pulmonary Hypertension and Pulmonary Aspergilloma-Coexistence of Two Rare Sequelae of Pulmonary Embolism.

    PubMed

    Bhartiya, Manish; Saxena, Puneet; Singh, Dharmender; Sashindran, V K

    2016-06-01

    We report a 42 year old non-smoker male who presented with progressive exertional dyspnoea, productive cough with streaky hemoptysis and progressive pedal edema. His physical examination, ECG, chest X-ray and 2D-ECHO revealed features suggestive of right heart failure and pulmonary hypertension. On further evaluation for the cause of pulmonary hypertension, his CT pulmonary angiography revealed features of chronic pulmonary thromboembolism with calcified thrombus in the main pulmonary artery along with pulmonary hypertension. Incidentally the CT also revealed a cavity in the right lung with soft tissue within it. A, trans-thoracic needle aspiration of this tissue was suggestive of an aspergilloma. This is a rare case report of co-existence of two uncommon complications of pulmonary embolism-chronic thrombo-embolic pulmonary hypertension and pulmonary Aspergilloma in the same patient. PMID:27408402

  7. Pulmonary edema

    MedlinePlus

    ... congestion; Lung water; Pulmonary congestion; Heart failure - pulmonary edema ... Pulmonary edema is often caused by congestive heart failure . When the heart is not able to pump efficiently, blood ...

  8. Pulmonary embolus

    MedlinePlus

    ... blood clot; Blood clot - lung; Embolus; Tumor embolus; Embolism - pulmonary; DVT-pulmonary embolism; Thrombosis - pulmonary embolism ... x-ray CT angiogram of the chest Pulmonary ventilation/perfusion scan, also called a V/Q scan ...

  9. Surgical treatment of pulmonary aspergillosis: A single center experience

    PubMed Central

    Mohapatra, Biswajeet; Sivakumar, Poornima; Bhattacharya, Subhankar; Dutta, Santanu

    2016-01-01

    Background: Aspergillus fumigatus is a saprophytic fungus which colonizes in the cavitary lesions in the lungs. In our part of the world, where tuberculosis is endemic, the healed tubercular cavities form a good nidus for this fungus. The fungus forms a fungal ball or aspergilloma within the cavity, which erodes the walls of the cavity and causes hemoptysis by erosion of the bronchial vessels. Hemoptysis is the main symptom. Antifungal agents are not useful against the fungal ball. Surgery in the form of lobectomy is the primary treatment. Surgery for aspergilloma is known to be risky because of intra-pleural adhesions, obliteration of the interlobar fissures, massive hemorrhage during dissection and poor pulmonary reserve of the patient due to the underlying disease. Materials and Methods: Clinical presentation, radiological investigations, operative techniques, postoperative outcome, and follow-up of 24 cases of pulmonary aspergilloma treated surgically were studied prospectively between August 2010 and July 2013 at IPGMER and SSKM Hospital, Kolkata. Results: There were 15 male (62.5%) and 9 female (37.5%) patients. Mean age of the study population was 34.54 years. All the patients had complex aspergilloma. Tuberculosis was the underlying disease in 22 patients (91%). Hemoptysis was the main symptom in 79.16% cases. Chest X-ray was the first investigation, which gave a clue to the diagnosis. Computed tomography scan was diagnostic in all cases. Lobectomy was done in 16 patients (66.67%). There was one mortality and the overall complication was 33.33%. The average follow-up period was 21.65 months, during which there was no mortality and no recurrence of hemoptysis in these patients. Conclusions: Though surgery for aspergilloma is considered to be risky, excision of the cavity along with the involved lobe can be done with acceptable morbidity and mortality to provide the patient complete cure and symptom-free survival. PMID:26933300

  10. Colon cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... red or processed meats Have colorectal polyps Have inflammatory bowel disease ( Crohn disease or ulcerative colitis ) Have a family history of colon cancer Have a personal history of breast cancer Some inherited diseases also increase the risk ...

  11. Pulmonary embolus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Blood clot - lung; Embolus; Tumor embolus; Embolism - pulmonary; DVT-pulmonary embolism; Thrombosis - pulmonary embolism ... area). This type of clot is called a deep vein thrombosis (DVT) . The blood clot breaks off and travels ...

  12. Pulmonary Rehabilitation

    MedlinePlus

    ... Topics Bronchitis COPD Cystic Fibrosis Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis Sarcoidosis Send a link to NHLBI to someone by ... people who have COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease), sarcoidosis (sar-koy-DOE-sis), idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis , or ...

  13. Cavity magnomechanics

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xufeng; Zou, Chang-Ling; Jiang, Liang; Tang, Hong X.

    2016-01-01

    A dielectric body couples with electromagnetic fields through radiation pressure and electrostrictive forces, which mediate phonon-photon coupling in cavity optomechanics. In a magnetic medium, according to the Korteweg-Helmholtz formula, which describes the electromagnetic force density acting on a medium, magneostrictive forces should arise and lead to phonon-magnon interaction. We report such a coupled phonon-magnon system based on ferrimagnetic spheres, which we term as cavity magnomechanics, by analogy to cavity optomechanics. Coherent phonon-magnon interactions, including electromagnetically induced transparency and absorption, are demonstrated. Because of the strong hybridization of magnon and microwave photon modes and their high tunability, our platform exhibits new features including parametric amplification of magnons and phonons, triple-resonant photon-magnon-phonon coupling, and phonon lasing. Our work demonstrates the fundamental principle of cavity magnomechanics and its application as a new information transduction platform based on coherent coupling between photons, phonons, and magnons. PMID:27034983

  14. Cavity magnomechanics.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xufeng; Zou, Chang-Ling; Jiang, Liang; Tang, Hong X

    2016-03-01

    A dielectric body couples with electromagnetic fields through radiation pressure and electrostrictive forces, which mediate phonon-photon coupling in cavity optomechanics. In a magnetic medium, according to the Korteweg-Helmholtz formula, which describes the electromagnetic force density acting on a medium, magneostrictive forces should arise and lead to phonon-magnon interaction. We report such a coupled phonon-magnon system based on ferrimagnetic spheres, which we term as cavity magnomechanics, by analogy to cavity optomechanics. Coherent phonon-magnon interactions, including electromagnetically induced transparency and absorption, are demonstrated. Because of the strong hybridization of magnon and microwave photon modes and their high tunability, our platform exhibits new features including parametric amplification of magnons and phonons, triple-resonant photon-magnon-phonon coupling, and phonon lasing. Our work demonstrates the fundamental principle of cavity magnomechanics and its application as a new information transduction platform based on coherent coupling between photons, phonons, and magnons. PMID:27034983

  15. Space colonization.

    PubMed

    2002-12-01

    NASA interest in colonization encompasses space tourism; space exploration; space bases in orbit, at L1, on the Moon, or on Mars; in-situ resource utilization; and planetary terraforming. Activities progressed during 2002 in areas such as Mars colonies, hoppers, and biomass; space elevators and construction; and in-situ consumables. PMID:12506926

  16. Botryomycosis in a lung cavity

    PubMed Central

    Vinay, D; Ramasubramanian, V; Gopalakrishnan, Ram; Jessani, Laxman G

    2016-01-01

    Botryomycosis is a rare pyogranulomatous disease characterized by suppurative and often granulomatous bacterial infection of the skin, soft tissues and viscera. Only about 90 cases have been reported in world literature till date: 75% of them are cases of cutaneous botryomycosis. Of the 18 reported cases of primary pulmonary botryomycosis, only one had histologically proven botryomycosis in a lung cavity. We report here a case of primary pulmonary botryomycosis occurring in a lung cavity, which is to the best of our knowledge first such case from India. The index case was a 62 year old female who presented to us with recurrent episodes of non-massive streaky hemoptysis with CT chest revealing ‘Air Crescent’ sign with a probable fungal ball in a left upper lobe cavity. Left upper pulmonary lobectomy was done and histopathology of the cavitary tissue revealed Splendore-Hoeppli phenomenon and features suggestive of Botryomycosis. Tissue culture from the cavitary specimen grew Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Botryomycosis can mimic Aspergilloma radiologically as was seen in our case, but therapy is often a combination of both medical and surgical measures unlike Aspergilloma. PMID:27625451

  17. Botryomycosis in a lung cavity.

    PubMed

    Vinay, D; Ramasubramanian, V; Gopalakrishnan, Ram; Jessani, Laxman G

    2016-01-01

    Botryomycosis is a rare pyogranulomatous disease characterized by suppurative and often granulomatous bacterial infection of the skin, soft tissues and viscera. Only about 90 cases have been reported in world literature till date: 75% of them are cases of cutaneous botryomycosis. Of the 18 reported cases of primary pulmonary botryomycosis, only one had histologically proven botryomycosis in a lung cavity. We report here a case of primary pulmonary botryomycosis occurring in a lung cavity, which is to the best of our knowledge first such case from India. The index case was a 62 year old female who presented to us with recurrent episodes of non-massive streaky hemoptysis with CT chest revealing 'Air Crescent' sign with a probable fungal ball in a left upper lobe cavity. Left upper pulmonary lobectomy was done and histopathology of the cavitary tissue revealed Splendore-Hoeppli phenomenon and features suggestive of Botryomycosis. Tissue culture from the cavitary specimen grew Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Botryomycosis can mimic Aspergilloma radiologically as was seen in our case, but therapy is often a combination of both medical and surgical measures unlike Aspergilloma. PMID:27625451

  18. Pulmonary valve stenosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... valve pulmonary stenosis; Pulmonary stenosis; Stenosis - pulmonary valve; Balloon valvuloplasty - pulmonary ... water pills) Treat abnormal heartbeats and rhythms Percutaneous balloon pulmonary dilation (valvuloplasty) may be performed when no ...

  19. Pulmonary Rehabilitation

    MedlinePlus

    Pulmonary Rehabilitation If you have shortness of breath because of lung problems, you may have asked yourself: • Can I ... medications do I really need to take? Pulmonary rehabilitation can help answer these and other questions. Enrolling ...

  20. Pulmonary Fibrosis

    MedlinePlus

    Pulmonary fibrosis is a condition in which the tissue deep in your lungs becomes scarred over time. This tissue ... may not get enough oxygen. Causes of pulmonary fibrosis include environmental pollutants, some medicines, some connective tissue ...

  1. Pulmonary Embolism

    MedlinePlus

    ... pulmonary embolism is a sudden blockage in a lung artery. The cause is usually a blood clot ... loose and travels through the bloodstream to the lung. Pulmonary embolism is a serious condition that can ...

  2. Pulmonary Embolism.

    PubMed

    Rali, Parth; Gandhi, Viral; Malik, Khalid

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary embolism covers a wide spectrum of presentation from an asymptomatic individual to a life-threatening medical emergency. It is of paramount importance to appropriately risk stratify patients with pulmonary embolism, particularly with those who present without hypotension. Right ventricular dysfunction can evolve after a patient has received a diagnosis of pulmonary embolism, necessitating aggressive measures rather than simple anticoagulation. In this review, we discuss definition, risk stratification, pathogenesis, diagnostic approach, and management, with particular focus on massive pulmonary embolism. PMID:26919674

  3. [Lung cavities, mycetomas and hemoptysis].

    PubMed

    Domej, Wolfgang; Hermann, Josef; Krause, Robert; Wehrschütz, Martin; Maier, Alfred; Flögel, Erich

    2007-01-01

    Pulmonary mycetomas, or fungus balls, consist of spherical masses of mycelia and hyphae, fibrin and granulocytes that grow and partly fill cavitary lesions without invading tissue. They are usually caused by molds of the Aspergillus species, rarely by Mucor or yeast fungi such as Candida species, that colonize damaged lung tissue. Hemoptysis is the most frequent symptom. Since systemic and local administration of antifungal agents is of uncertain efficacy, resectional surgery should be the treatment of choice in cases of severe hemoptysis, if lung function is not severely compromised. As pulmonary resection in the form of lobectomy or pneumonectomy is associated with raised mortality, cavernostomy and cavernoplasty may be options for high-risk patients. PMID:18030549

  4. Colon cancer - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - colon cancer ... The following organizations are good resources for information on colon cancer : American Cancer Society -- www.cancer.org/cancer/colonandrectumcancer/index Colon Cancer Alliance -- www.ccalliance.org National ...

  5. Pulmonary disease caused by Mycobacterium malmoense.

    PubMed

    Alberts, W M; Chandler, K W; Solomon, D A; Goldman, A L

    1987-06-01

    Mycobacterium malmoense was isolated from pulmonary material from 4 patients. Two patients had repeatedly positive smears and cultures along with roentgenographic progression of pulmonary disease in the absence of another pathogen. These 2 patients therefore meet the criteria for diagnosis of pulmonary mycobacteriosis. Isolation of the organism may represent colonization in a third patient, and M. malmoense has been isolated from a fourth patient on 2 occasions. It is not yet definite, however, that the pulmonary process is due to mycobacterial disease. Although uncommon, pulmonary disease caused by this organism has been reported from Europe. Only 1 prior case of pulmonary disease caused by M. malmoense, however, has been reported in the United States. PMID:3592410

  6. Multidetector CT of pulmonary cavitation: filling in the holes.

    PubMed

    Mortensen, K H; Babar, J L; Balan, A

    2015-04-01

    Pulmonary cavitation causes significant morbidity and mortality. Early diagnosis of the presence and aetiology of a cavity is therefore crucial in order to avoid further demise in both the localized pulmonary and systemic disorders that may manifest with pulmonary cavity formation. Multidetector CT has become the principal diagnostic technique for detecting pulmonary cavitation and its complications. This review provides an overview of the aetiologies and their imaging findings using this technique. Combining a literature review with case illustration, a synopsis of the different imaging features and constellations is provided, which may suggest a particular cause and aid the differentiation from diseases with similar findings. PMID:25623513

  7. Pulmonary Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Newman, John H.

    2005-01-01

    The modern era in cardiopulmonary medicine began in the 1940s, when Cournand and Richards pioneered right-heart catheterization. Until that time, no direct measurement of central vascular pressure had been performed in humans. Right-heart catheterization ignited an explosion of insights into function and dysfunction of the pulmonary circulation, cardiac performance, ventilation–perfusion relationships, lung–heart interactions, valvular function, and congenital heart disease. It marked the beginnings of angiocardiography with its diagnostic implications for diseases of the left heart and peripheral circulation. Pulmonary hypertension was discovered to be the consequence of a large variety of diseases that either raised pressure downstream of the pulmonary capillaries, induced vasoconstriction, increased blood flow to the lung, or obstructed the pulmonary vessels, either by embolism or in situ fibrosis. Hypoxic vasoconstriction was found to be a major cause of acute and chronic pulmonary hypertension, and surprising vasoreactivity of the pulmonary vascular bed was discovered to be present in many cases of severe pulmonary hypertension, initially in mitral stenosis. Diseases as disparate as scleroderma, cystic fibrosis, kyphoscoliosis, sleep apnea, and sickle cell disease were found to have shared consequences in the pulmonary circulation. Some of the achievements of Cournand and Richards and their scientific descendents are discussed in this article, including success in the diagnosis and treatment of idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension, chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension, and management of hypoxic pulmonary hypertension. PMID:15994464

  8. Cavity magnomechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Chang-Ling; Zhang, Xufeng; Jiang, Liang; Tang, Hong

    2016-05-01

    Recently, cavity magnonics has attracted much attention for potential applications of coherent information transduction and hybrid quantum devices. The magnon is a collective spin wave excitation in ferromagnetic material. It is magnetically tunability, with long coherence time and non-reciprocical interaction with electro-magnetic fields. We report the coherent coupling between magnon, microwave photon and phonon. First, we demonstrate strong coupling and ultrastrong coupling between the magnon in YIG sphere and microwave photon in three-dimensional cavity. Then, based on the hybridized magnon-photon modes, we observe the triply resonant magnon-mcirowave photon-phonon coupling, where the ultrahigh-Q mechanical vibration of YIG sphere is dispersively coupled with the magnon via magnetostrictive interaction. We observe interesting phenomena, including electromagnetically induced transparency/absorption and parametric amplification. In particular, benefit from the large tunability of the magnon, we demonstrate a tunable microwave amplifier with gain as high as 30 dB. The single crystal YIG also has excellent optical properties, and thus provide a unique platform bridging MHz, GHz and THz information carriers. Finally, we present the latest progress towards coherent magnon to optical photon conversion.

  9. Coinfection of Pulmonary Hydatid Cyst and Aspergilloma: Case Report and Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Aliyali, Masoud; Badali, Hamid; Shokohi, Tahereh; Moazeni, Maryam; Nosrati, Anahita; Godazandeh, Gholamali; Dolatabadi, Somayeh; Nabili, Mojtaba

    2016-04-01

    Aspergilloma infection consists of a mass of fungal hyphae, inflammatory cells, fibrin, mucus, and tissue debris and can colonize lung cavities due to underlying diseases such as tuberculosis, sarcoidosis, bronchiectasis, cavitary lung cancer, neoplasms, ankylosing spondylitis, bronchial cysts, and pulmonary infarction. Here we report coinfection of pulmonary hydatid cyst and aspergilloma in a 34-year-old female who had had history of minor thalassemia and suffered from chest pain, dyspnea, non-productive cough for at least five months, and hemoptysis for 20 days. Radiographic sign showed a large cavitary lesion (5 × 6 × 6 cm) involving left lower lobe (LLL). Dichotomous septate hyphae were observed in bronchoalveolar lavage and biopsy specimens from LLL. The patient subsequently improved after combined anti-helminth therapies with albendazole (400 mg/bd) and lobectomy. According to morphological and molecular characterization, Aspergillus niger was confirmed. In vitro antifungal susceptibility tests revealed that the MIC values for the antifungals used in this case in increasing order were posaconazole (0.125 µg/ml), itraconazole and voriconazole (0.5 µg/ml), and amphotericin B (1 µg/ml). The minimum effective concentration for caspofungin was 0.125 µg/ml. Subsequently, we systematically reviewed 22 confirmed cases of pulmonary hydatid cyst and aspergilloma during a period of 19 years (1995-2014) and discussed the epidemiology, clinical features, and treatment of this disease. PMID:26666549

  10. Penetrating trauma of colon, cava, and cord.

    PubMed

    Wilson, T H

    1976-05-01

    A case is presented of a young police officer shot in the abdomen, sustaining injuries to colon, cava, and cord. Each injury was surgically managed in what was felt to be an appropriate manner, with early antibiotic therapy. As complications developed, aggressive measures were taken to correct them, with some success as far as pulmonary and renal failure were concerned, but with complete inability to reverse the meningitis and cerebritis caused by E. coli, and leading to a fatal outcome. PMID:775116

  11. Maxillary sinusitis with pulmonary tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Upadhyay, Rashmi; Prakash, Ved; Singh, Abhishek Bahadur; Saheer, S

    2014-01-01

    Tubercular infection of the nasal cavity is an infrequently encountered condition. More so, after the discovery of relevant antibiotics, nasal sinus tuberculosis is not commonly seen. Few cases have reported tuberculosis of the paranasal sinuses, nasopharynx and larynx. With the increasing incidence of HIV, these rare forms of infection have started re-emerging. We present a case of a middle aged man presenting with nasal cavity lesion along with pulmonary tuberculosis, which came to light only after the diagnosis of maxillary sinus tuberculosis. PMID:25085948

  12. Pulmonary rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Troosters, Thierry; Demeyer, Heleen; Hornikx, Miek; Camillo, Carlos Augusto; Janssens, Wim

    2014-03-01

    Pulmonary rehabilitation is a therapy that offers benefits to patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease that are complementary to those obtained by pharmacotherapy. The main objective of pulmonary rehabilitation is to restore muscle function and exercise tolerance, reverse other nonrespiratory consequences of the disease, and help patients to self-manage chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and its exacerbations and symptoms. To do so, a multidisciplinary program tailored to the patient in terms of program content, exercise prescription, and setting must be offered. Several settings and programs have shown to spin off in significant immediate results. The challenge lies in maintaining the benefits outside the program. PMID:24507849

  13. Oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma--an overview.

    PubMed

    Kimple, Adam J; Welch, Chris M; Zevallos, Jose P; Patel, Samip N

    2014-09-01

    Inhaled or chewed tobacco is equally addictive and harmful and used daily by over 1 billion people. In addition to increased rates of coronary artery disease, stroke, peripheral vascular disease, congestive heart failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and lung cancers, tobacco is the leading preventable cause of oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma. In addition to tobacco, consumption and abuse of alcohol, and betel nut quid significantly contribute to the burden of oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma. Dental visits are excellent opportunities to identify primary lesions in the oral cavity. This review highlights relevant anatomy, epidemiology, pathogenesis, evaluation and treatment options for oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:25284574

  14. Pulmonary gangrene as a complication of mucormycosis

    SciTech Connect

    Zagoria, R.J.; Choplin, R.H.; Karstaedt, N.

    1985-06-01

    Pulmonary gangrene, a rare complication of pneumonia occurs when vascular thrombosis leads to necrosis of a large portion of lung. The devitalized lung is then sloughed into a cavity, resulting in a characteristic radiographic appearance. The previously reported cases of pulmonary gangrene have been associated with either bacterial or tuberculous pneumonia; the authors describe a case resulting from mucormycosis. In addition to the plain-film findings, the computed tomographic (CT) appearance is described.

  15. Animal models of cavitation in pulmonary tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Helke, Kris L; Mankowski, Joseph L; Manabe, Yukari C

    2006-09-01

    Transmission of tuberculosis occurs with the highest frequency from patients with extensive, cavitary, pulmonary disease and positive sputum smear microscopy. In animal models of tuberculosis, the development of caseous necrosis is an important prerequisite for the formation of cavities although the immunological triggers for liquefaction are unknown. We review the relative merits and the information gleaned from the available animal models of pulmonary cavitation. Understanding the host-pathogen interaction important to the formation of cavities may lead to new strategies to prevent cavitation and thereby, block transmission. PMID:16359922

  16. Cavity magnomechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xufeng; Zou, Changling; Jiang, Liang; Tang, Hong X.

    Mechanical oscillators have been recently widely utilized to couple with optical and microwave photons in a variety of hybrid quantum systems, but they all lack the tunability. The magnetostrictive force provides an alternative mechanism to allow phonon to couple with a different type of information carrier-magnon, the collective excitation of magnetization whose frequency can be tuned by a bias magnetic field. Here, we demonstrate an intriguing hybrid system that consists of a magnonic, a mechanical, and a microwave resonator. The magnon-phonon interaction results in hallmark coherent phenomena such as magnomechanically induced transparency/absorption and magnomechanical parametric amplification. The magnetic field dependence of magnon provides our system with unprecedented tunability. Moreover, the great flexibility of our system allows us to achieve triple resonance among magnon, phonon and photon, which drastically enhances the magnomechanical interaction. Our work demonstrates the fundamental principle of cavity magnetomechanics, opening up great opportunities in various applications, such as tunable microwave filter and amplifier, long-lifetime quantum memories, microwave-to-optics conversion.

  17. [Treatment methods in multiple hepatic, pulmonary and pleural hydatidosis].

    PubMed

    Galie, N; Stoica, R; Cadar, G; Posea, R; Brânzea, R

    2001-01-01

    The modern treatment of hepato-pleural-pulmonary hydatidosis is based on surgical excision and medical treatment with drugs like: Mebendazol, Albendazol or Praziquantel. There are presented 23 patients with multiple hepato-pleuro-pulmonary hydatidosis, operated in the last 4 years. Surgical excision in pleuro-pulmonary hydatidosis is adapted to cysts topography, aiming to eliminate the intact cysts and to close the remaining cavities. PMID:11374380

  18. Unusual presentation of pulmonary lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Oi, Ryoko; Saji, Hisashi; Marushima, Hideki; Maeda, Ichiro; Takagi, Masayuki; Nakamura, Haruhiko

    2016-09-01

    Primary pulmonary lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma (LELC) is a rare malignant tumour with histological features similar to undifferentiated nasopharyngeal carcinoma. A close association is known to exist between pulmonary LELC and Epstein-Barr virus infection in Southeast Asian countries. We report a 69-year-old man with pulmonary LELC arising from a thin-walled cavity with a smooth inner surface and characterized by an unexpectedly rapid progression. PMID:27516893

  19. Liver Colonization Competence Governs Colon Cancer Metastasis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, Tsong-Hong; Kubota, Tetsuro; Watanabe, Masahiko; Furukawa, Toshiharu; Teramoto, Tatuso; Ishibiki, Kyuya; Kitajima, Masaki; Rahim Moosa, A.; Penman, Sheldon; Hoffman, Robert M.

    1995-12-01

    Tumors that metastasize do so to preferred target organs. To explain this apparent specificity, Paget, >100 years ago, formulated his seed and soil hypothesis; i.e., the cells from a given tumor would "seed" only favorable "soil" offered by certain organs. The hypothesis implies that cancer cells must find a suitable "soil" in a target organ-i.e., one that supports colonization-for metastasis to occur. We demonstrate in this report that ability of human colon cancer cells to colonize liver tissue governs whether a particular colon cancer is metastatic. In the model used in this study, human colon tumors are transplanted into the nude mouse colon as intact tissue blocks by surgical orthotopic implantation. These implanted tumors closely simulate the metastatic behavior of the original human patient tumor and are clearly metastatic or nonmetastatic to the liver. Both classes of tumors were equally invasive locally into tissues and blood vessels. However, the cells from each class of tumor behave very differently when directly injected into nude mouse livers. Only cells from metastasizing tumors are competent to colonize after direct intrahepatic injection. Also, tissue blocks from metastatic tumors affixed directly to the liver resulted in colonization, whereas no colonization resulted from nonmetastatic tumor tissue blocks even though some growth occurred within the tissue block itself. Thus, local invasion (injection) and even adhesion to the metastatic target organ (blocks) are not sufficient for metastasis. The results suggest that the ability to colonize the liver is the governing step in the metastasis of human colon cancer.

  20. Dual frequency optical cavity

    DOEpatents

    George, E.V.; Schipper, J.F.

    Method and apparatus for generating two distinct laser frequencies in an optical cavity, using a T configuration laser cavity and means for intermittently increasing or decreasing the index of refraction n of an associated transmission medium in one arm of the optical cavity to enhance laser action in one arm or the second arm of the cavity.

  1. Dual frequency optical cavity

    DOEpatents

    George, E. Victor; Schipper, John F.

    1985-01-01

    Method and apparatus for generating two distinct laser frequencies in an optical cavity, using a "T" configuration laser cavity and means for intermittently increasing or decreasing the index of refraction n of an associated transmission medium in one arm of the optical cavity to enhance laser action in one arm or the second arm of the cavity.

  2. RESONANT CAVITY EXCITATION SYSTEM

    DOEpatents

    Baker, W.R.

    1959-08-01

    A cavity excitation circuit is described for rapidly building up and maintaining high-level oscillations in a resonant cavity. The circuit overcomes oscillation buildup slowing effects such as ion locking in the cavity by providing for the selective application of an amplified accelerating drive signal to the main cavity exciting oscillator during oscillation buildup and a direct drive signal to the oscillator thereafter.

  3. Colon diverticula - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100158.htm Colon diverticula - series To use the sharing features on ... 6 out of 6 Normal anatomy Overview The colon, or large intestine, is a muscular tube that ...

  4. Colon cancer - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100157.htm Colon cancer - Series To use the sharing features on ... 5 out of 5 Normal anatomy Overview The colon, or large intestine, is a muscular tube that ...

  5. Photon storage cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, K.J.; Sessler, A.M.

    1991-08-01

    A general analysis is presented of a photon storage cavity, coupled to free-electron laser (FEL) cavity. It is shown that if the coupling between the FEL cavity and the storage cavity is unidirectional (for example, a ring resonator storage cavity) then storage is possible, but that if the coupling is bi-directional then storage is not possible. Parameters are presented for an infra-red FEL storage cavity giving an order of magnitude increase in the instantaneous photon power within the storage cavity. 4 refs., 3 figs.

  6. Segmented trapped vortex cavity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grammel, Jr., Leonard Paul (Inventor); Pennekamp, David Lance (Inventor); Winslow, Jr., Ralph Henry (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    An annular trapped vortex cavity assembly segment comprising includes a cavity forward wall, a cavity aft wall, and a cavity radially outer wall there between defining a cavity segment therein. A cavity opening extends between the forward and aft walls at a radially inner end of the assembly segment. Radially spaced apart pluralities of air injection first and second holes extend through the forward and aft walls respectively. The segment may include first and second expansion joint features at distal first and second ends respectively of the segment. The segment may include a forward subcomponent including the cavity forward wall attached to an aft subcomponent including the cavity aft wall. The forward and aft subcomponents include forward and aft portions of the cavity radially outer wall respectively. A ring of the segments may be circumferentially disposed about an axis to form an annular segmented vortex cavity assembly.

  7. Colon cancer - Series (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Colon cancer is the third most common cancer in the United States. Risk factors include a diet low ... The treatment of colon cancer depends on the stage of the disease. Stage I cancer is limited to the inner lining of the colon; ...

  8. Pulmonary Atresia

    MedlinePlus

    ... to repair the defect. Return to main topic: Congenital Heart Disease See on other sites: MedlinePlus https://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001091.htm Pulmonary atresia American Heart Association www. ...

  9. Pulmonary Hypertension

    MedlinePlus

    Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is high blood pressure in the arteries to your lungs. It is a serious condition. If you have ... and you can develop heart failure. Symptoms of PH include Shortness of breath during routine activity, such ...

  10. Pulmonary aspergilloma

    MedlinePlus

    ... Coccidioidomycosis Cystic fibrosis Histoplasmosis Lung abscess Lung cancer Sarcoidosis See also: Aspergillosis Symptoms You may not have ... fibrosis Histoplasmosis Lung cancer - small cell Pulmonary tuberculosis Sarcoidosis Update Date 8/31/2014 Updated by: Jatin ...

  11. [Pulmonary rehabilitation].

    PubMed

    Senjyu, Hideaki

    2016-05-01

    Pulmonary rehabilitation commenced in Japan in 1957. However, the development of pulmonary rehabilitation took a long time due to the lack of the necessary health and medical services. Pulmonary rehabilitation is a comprehensive intervention based on a thorough patient assessment followed by patient-tailored therapies that include, but are not limited to, exercise training, education, and behavior change, designed to improve the physical and psychological condition of people with chronic respiratory disease and to promote the long-term adherence to health-enhancing behaviors. The benefits of pulmonary rehabilitation include a decrease in breathlessness and an improvement in exercise tolerance. It is important that the gains in exercise tolerance lead to an increase in daily physical activity. PMID:27254948

  12. Pulmonary Embolism

    MedlinePlus

    ... is a sudden blockage in a lung artery. The cause is usually a blood clot in the leg called a deep vein thrombosis that breaks loose and travels through the bloodstream to the lung. Pulmonary embolism is a ...

  13. Pulmonary atresia

    MedlinePlus

    ... blood flow from the right ventricle (right side pumping chamber) to the lungs. In pulmonary atresia, a ... Reconstructing the heart as a single ventricle (1 pumping chamber instead of 2) Heart transplant

  14. Pulmonary atresia

    MedlinePlus

    ... form of heart disease that occurs from birth (congenital heart disease), in which the pulmonary valve does not form ... As with most congenital heart diseases, there is no known cause of ... is associated with another type of congenital heart defect ...

  15. Pulmonary Edema

    PubMed Central

    Tanser, Paul H.

    1980-01-01

    The physician who deals with pulmonary edema from a pathophysiologic basis will seldom make a diagnostic or therapeutic error. Recent additions to preload and afterload therapy have greatly helped in the emergency and ambulatory treatment of pulmonary edema due to left heart failure. Careful follow-up and patient self-monitoring are the most effective means of reducing hospitalization of chronic heart failure patients. PMID:21293700

  16. [Spontaneous pneumothorax due to pulmonary coccidioidomycosis].

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Lamadrid, Jorge; Iñiguez-Rodríguez, María Del Rocío; Criales-Vera, Sergio Andrés

    2011-01-01

    Coccidioidomycosis is a systemic infection caused by the soil fungus Coccidioides immitis. It is endemic in northern Mexico and the southwest part of the United States. Radiologic manifestations are varied. Rupture of a coccidioidal pulmonary cavity with subsequent pneumothorax is a rare clinical event, even in endemic areas. We present a case with a brief review of this rare condition. PMID:21527974

  17. Concordance of nasal and diabetic foot ulcer staphylococcal colonization

    PubMed Central

    Haleem, Ambar; Schultz, Jonathan S.; Heilmann, Kristopher P.; Dohrn, Cassie L.; Diekema, Daniel J.; Gardner, Sue E.

    2014-01-01

    Background Nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus (SA) is an important risk factor for surgical site infections. The goal of this study was to investigate the concordance between nasal and diabetic foot ulcer (DFU) SA carriage. Methods 79 subjects with DFUs were assessed for nasal and DFU colonization with SA, including Methicillin-resistant-SA (MRSA). Results Twenty-five (31.6%) subjects had nares colonization with SA; 29 (36.7%) had DFU colonization with SA. Seven (8.8%) subjects had nares colonization with MRSA and 7 (8.8%) had DFU colonization with MRSA. Ulcer duration was associated with MRSA presence (p=0.01). Sensitivity and specificity of positive nasal SA colonization with positive DFU colonization were 41 and 74%. Conclusions We found substantial discordance between SA strains colonizing DFU and the nasal cavity. The poor positive predictive values for SA isolation in a DFU based on nasal carriage suggests SA colonization of a DFU by endogenous SA strains cannot be assumed. PMID:24560808

  18. Types of Pulmonary Hypertension

    MedlinePlus

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. Types of Pulmonary Hypertension The World Health Organization divides pulmonary hypertension (PH) ... are called pulmonary hypertension.) Group 1 Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension Group 1 PAH includes: PAH that has no ...

  19. Pulmonary embolism

    SciTech Connect

    Dunnick, N.R.; Newman, G.E.; Perlmutt, L.M.; Braun, S.D.

    1988-11-01

    Pulmonary embolism is a common medical problem whose incidence is likely to increase in our aging population. Although it is life-threatening, effective therapy exists. The treatment is not, however, without significant complications. Thus, accurate diagnosis is important. Unfortunately, the clinical manifestations of pulmonary embolism are nonspecific. Furthermore, in many patients the symptoms of an acute embolism are superimposed on underlying chronic heart or lung disease. Thus, a high index of suspicion is needed to identify pulmonary emboli. Laboratory parameters, including arterial oxygen tensions and electrocardiography, are as nonspecific as the clinical signs. They may be more useful in excluding another process than in diagnosing pulmonary embolism. The first radiologic examination is the chest radiograph, but the clinical symptoms are frequently out of proportion to the findings on the chest films. Classic manifestations of pulmonary embolism on the chest radiograph include a wedge-shaped peripheral opacity and a segmental or lobar diminution in vascularity with prominent central arteries. However, these findings are not commonly seen and, even when present, are not specific. Even less specific findings include cardiomegaly, pulmonary infiltrate, elevation of a hemidiaphragm, and pleural effusion. Many patients with pulmonary embolism may have a normal chest radiograph. The chest radiograph is essential, however, for two purposes. First, it may identify another cause of the patient's symptoms, such as a rib fracture, dissecting aortic aneurysm, or pneumothorax. Second, a chest radiograph is essential to interpretation of the radionuclide V/Q scan. The perfusion scan accurately reflects the perfusion of the lung. However, a perfusion defect may result from a variety of etiologies. Any process such as vascular stenosis or compression by tumor may restrict blood flow. 84 references.

  20. Pulmonary artery segmentation and quantification in sickle cell associated pulmonary hypertension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linguraru, Marius George; Mukherjee, Nisha; Van Uitert, Robert L.; Summers, Ronald M.; Gladwin, Mark T.; Machado, Roberto F.; Wood, Bradford J.

    2008-03-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension is a known complication associated with sickle-cell disease; roughly 75% of sickle cell disease-afflicted patients have pulmonary arterial hypertension at the time of death. This prospective study investigates the potential of image analysis to act as a surrogate for presence and extent of disease, and whether the size change of the pulmonary arteries of sickle cell patients could be linked to sickle-cell associated pulmonary hypertension. Pulmonary CT-Angiography scans from sickle-cell patients were obtained and retrospectively analyzed. Randomly selected pulmonary CT-Angiography studies from patients without sickle-cell anemia were used as negative controls. First, images were smoothed using anisotropic diffusion. Then, a combination of fast marching and geodesic active contours level sets were employed to segment the pulmonary artery. An algorithm based on fast marching methods was used to compute the centerline of the segmented arteries. From the centerline, the diameters at the pulmonary trunk and first branch of the pulmonary arteries were measured automatically. Arterial diameters were normalized to the width of the thoracic cavity, patient weight and body surface. Results show that the pulmonary trunk and first right and left pulmonary arterial branches at the pulmonary trunk junction are significantly larger in diameter with increased blood flow in sickle-cell anemia patients as compared to controls (p values of 0.0278 for trunk and 0.0007 for branches). CT with image processing shows great potential as a surrogate indicator of pulmonary hemodynamics or response to therapy, which could be an important tool for drug discovery and noninvasive clinical surveillance.

  1. Pulmonary Hypertension

    MedlinePlus

    ... Anticoagulants (blood-thinning medicine) Calcium channel blockers Diuretics (water pills) Digoxin Your doctor will decide what type of medicine is right for you. In some cases, people who have pulmonary hypertension need surgical treatment. Surgical treatment options include a lung transplant and ...

  2. Pulmonary Hypertension

    MedlinePlus

    Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is high blood pressure in the arteries to your lungs. It is a serious condition. If you have it, the blood ... heart has to work harder to pump the blood through. Over time, your heart weakens and ... of PH include Shortness of breath during routine activity, such ...

  3. PULMONARY TOXICOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pulmonary disease and dysfunction exact a tremendous health burden on society. In a recent survey of lung disease published by the American Lung Association in 2012, upwards of 10 million Americans were diagnosed with chronic bronchitis while over 4 million Americans had emphysem...

  4. Pulmonary nocardiosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... infection from returning. Alternative Names Nocardiosis - pulmonary Images Respiratory system References Limper AH. Overview of pneumonia. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 24th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ... of Respiratory Medicine . 5th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2010: ...

  5. Pulmonary ascariasis.

    PubMed

    Mukerjee, C M; Thompson, J E

    1979-07-28

    A case of pulmonary ascariasis is reported for the first time in Australia. Because of increasing immigration from countries which have a high incidence of ascariasis (especially those of South-East Asia), and increasing travel to Asian countries, the awareness of this infestation as a cause of respiratory disease may be of great importance. PMID:40103

  6. Cavity turnover and equilibrium cavity densities in a cottonwood bottomland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sedgwick, James A.; Knopf, Fritz L.

    1992-01-01

    A fundamental factor regulating the numbers of secondary cavity nesting (SCN) birds is the number of extant cavities available for nesting. The number of available cavities may be thought of as being in an approximate equilibrium maintained by a very rough balance between recruitment and loss of cavities. Based on estimates of cavity recruitment and loss, we ascertained equilibrium cavity densities in a mature plains cottonwood (Populus sargentii) bottomland along the South Platte River in northeastern Colorado. Annual cavity recruitment, derived from density estimates of primary cavity nesting (PCN) birds and cavity excavation rates, was estimated to be 71-86 new cavities excavated/100 ha. Of 180 active cavities of 11 species of cavity-nesting birds found in 1985 and 1986, 83 were no longer usable by 1990, giving an average instantaneous rate of cavity loss of r = -0.230. From these values of cavity recruitment and cavity loss, equilibrium cavity density along the South Platte is 238-289 cavities/100 ha. This range of equilibrium cavity density is only slightly above the minimum of 205 cavities/100 ha required by SCN's and suggests that cavity availability may be limiting SCN densities along the South Platte River. We submit that snag management alone does not adequately address SCN habitat needs, and that cavity management, expressed in terms of cavity turnover and cavity densities, may be more useful.

  7. A Case of Sigmoid Colon Tuberculosis Mimicking Colon Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Seong-Min; Kim, Min-Dae; Lee, Hee-Ryong; Jung, Peel; Ryu, Tae-Hyun; Choi, Seung-Ho; Lee, Il-Seon

    2012-01-01

    Tuberculosis of the sigmoid colon is a rare disorder. An 80-year-old man visited Bongseng Memorial Hospital for medical examination. A colonoscopy was performed, and a lesion in the sigmoid colon that was suspected to be colon cancer was found. A biopsy was performed, and tuberculous enteritis with chronic granulomatous inflammation was diagnosed. Intestinal tuberculosis is most frequent in the ileocecal area, followed by the ascending colon, transverse colon, duodenum, stomach, and sigmoid colon, in descending order. Hence, we report a case of intestinal tuberculosis in the sigmoid colon, which is rare and almost indistinguishable from colon cancer. PMID:23185709

  8. DIAGNOSIS OF PULMONARY COCCIDIOIDAL INFECTIONS

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Charles E.

    1951-01-01

    A wide variety of pulmonary lesions may be caused by coccidioidomycosis. Suspicion of coccidioidomycosis may be substantiated by careful clinical-epidemiological histories. The first laboratory procedure should be a coccidioidin skin test. If the reaction to the test is positive, serological tests are next. Also, if there is no reaction to coccidioidin, serological tests are still indicated if dissemination is suspected. The more severe the infection, the greater the probability of establishing a diagnosis serologically. In only three-fifths of patients with coccidioidal cavities can the diagnosis be fixed serologically. In such patients if differential skin tests are not conclusive, attempt should be made to recover the fungus. However, this is accompanied by great risk of laboratory infection. Eosinophilia and accelerated erythrocyte sedimentation are only circumstantial items of evidence, as is the appearance of the pulmonary roentgenogram. ImagesFigure 1. PMID:14886741

  9. Electromagnetic SCRF Cavity Tuner

    SciTech Connect

    Kashikhin, V.; Borissov, E.; Foster, G.W.; Makulski, A.; Pischalnikov, Y.; Khabiboulline, T.; /Fermilab

    2009-05-01

    A novel prototype of SCRF cavity tuner is being designed and tested at Fermilab. This is a superconducting C-type iron dominated magnet having a 10 mm gap, axial symmetry, and a 1 Tesla field. Inside the gap is mounted a superconducting coil capable of moving {+-} 1 mm and producing a longitudinal force up to {+-} 1.5 kN. The static force applied to the RF cavity flanges provides a long-term cavity geometry tuning to a nominal frequency. The same coil powered by fast AC current pulse delivers mechanical perturbation for fast cavity tuning. This fast mechanical perturbation could be used to compensate a dynamic RF cavity detuning caused by cavity Lorentz forces and microphonics. A special configuration of magnet system was designed and tested.

  10. Degenerate astigmatic cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Courtois, Jérémie; Mohamed, Ajmal; Romanini, Daniele

    2013-10-01

    At the output of a high-finesse cavity a succession of Lissajous patterns may be observed as the cavity length is finely tuned inside a “degenerate region” around a reentrant spherical configuration. This behavior is ascribed to a small parasitic astigmatism of the cavity mirrors. Simple geometrical optics modeling confirms this hypothesis, and then a more realistic analysis using transverse Gaussian modes reveals that the Lissajous patterns correspond to an organization of the astigmatism-split modes into a finer substructure of degenerate modes relative to that of a reentrant spherical cavity. This provides a thorough understanding of the field patterns observed in the degenerate region, including an intriguing spatial symmetry of the patterns corresponding to opposite displacements with respect to a specific central cavity length. This investigation represents a generalization of the theory of reentrant spherical cavities to the astigmatic case.

  11. Cavity enhanced terahertz modulation

    SciTech Connect

    Born, N.; Scheller, M.; Moloney, J. V.; Koch, M.

    2014-03-10

    We present a versatile concept for all optical terahertz (THz) amplitude modulators based on a Fabry-Pérot semiconductor cavity design. Employing the high reflectivity of two parallel meta-surfaces allows for trapping selected THz photons within the cavity and thus only a weak optical modulation of the semiconductor absorbance is required to significantly damp the field within the cavity. The optical switching yields to modulation depths of more than 90% with insertion efficiencies of 80%.

  12. [Pulmonary melioidosis].

    PubMed

    Perret, J L; Vidal, D; Thibault, F

    1998-12-01

    Melioidosis is most frequently encountered in pulmonary localization. Melioidosis is an infectious disease caused by Burkholderia pseudomallei first described by Whitmore in 1912 in Burma. B. pseudomallei is a Gram negative rod belonging to the Pseudomonadaceae family. Soil and water are the natural reservoirs for the germ which is a specific pathogen for several mammal species. Long endemic in Southeast Asia and several tropical zones, B. pseudomallei has recently been found in temperate zones, including France. Human contamination occurs via the transcutaneous route and often leads to dormant inapparent infection. Many conditions, such as diabetes, renal lithiasis, various circumstances of immunodepression or stress, facilitate clinical manifestations which vary greatly. Pulmonary manifestations may be acute and extensive, producing a torpid pseudo-tuberculous condition or a variety of clinical and radiological features mimicking other diseases. Bacteriological and serological tests may be negative. Exposure in an endemic zone, the notion of a favorable context, weight loss, cavitary images on successive chest x-rays and the presence of extra-pulmonary localizations may be suggestive. Ceftazidime or the amoxicillin-clavulanic acid combination are indicated, but mortality in acute forms still reaches 40%. Relapse can be expected if the treatment duration is too short. PMID:10100350

  13. Characterization of cavity wakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kidd, James A.

    Scope and Method of Study. This research focused on flow over deep cavities at subsonic speeds with emphasis on the wake downstream of the cavity. Cavity wake behaviors have not been studied in detail and are a major concern for air vehicles with cavities and in particular for optical sensor systems installed in cavities. Other key behaviors for sensor survival and performance are cavity resonance and turbulence scales in the shear layer. A wind tunnel test apparatus was developed to explore cavity and wake characteristics. It consisted of a test section insert for the OSU Indraft Wind Tunnel with an additional contraction cone for significantly increased speed. The test section included a variable depth cavity in a boundary layer splitter plate/fairing assembly, a Y-Z traverse and pitot rake with in-situ pressure transducers for high frequency response. Flows were measured over clean cavities with length to depth (L/D) ratios of 4 to 1/2 and on cavities with a porous fence for resonance suppression. Measurements were taken in streamwise and cross-stream sections to three cavity lengths downstream of the cavity trailing edge. Flow visualization using laser sheet and smoke injection was also used. Findings and Conclusions. The high speed insert demonstrated a significant new capability for the OSU wind tunnel, reaching speeds of 0.35 Mach (390 feet/second) in a 14"x14" test section. Inlet room flow was found to be quite unsteady and recommendations are made for improved flow and quantitative visualization. Key findings for cavity wake flow include its highly three dimensional nature with asymmetric peaks in cross section with boundary layer thicknesses and integral length scales several times that of a normal flat plate turbulent boundary layer (TBL). Turbulent intensities (TI) of 35% to 55% of freestream speeds were measured for the clean configuration. Fence configuration TI's were 20% to 35% of free stream and, in both configurations, TI's decayed to

  14. Optically measuring interior cavities

    DOEpatents

    Stone, Gary Franklin

    2009-11-03

    A method of measuring the three-dimensional volume or perimeter shape of an interior cavity includes the steps of collecting a first optical slice of data that represents a partial volume or perimeter shape of the interior cavity, collecting additional optical slices of data that represents a partial volume or perimeter shape of the interior cavity, and combining the first optical slice of data and the additional optical slices of data to calculate of the three-dimensional volume or perimeter shape of the interior cavity.

  15. Optically measuring interior cavities

    DOEpatents

    Stone, Gary Franklin

    2008-12-21

    A method of measuring the three-dimensional volume or perimeter shape of an interior cavity includes the steps of collecting a first optical slice of data that represents a partial volume or perimeter shape of the interior cavity, collecting additional optical slices of data that represents a partial volume or perimeter shape of the interior cavity, and combining the first optical slice of data and the additional optical slices of data to calculate of the three-dimensional volume or perimeter shape of the interior cavity.

  16. What Causes Pulmonary Hypertension?

    MedlinePlus

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Causes Pulmonary Hypertension? Pulmonary hypertension (PH) begins with inflammation and changes in the ... different types of PH. Group 1 pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) may have no known cause, or the ...

  17. Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension

    MedlinePlus

    ... What Is Pulmonary Hypertension? To understand pulmonary hypertension (PH) it helps to understand how blood ows throughout ... is too high, it is called pulmonary hypertension (PH). How the pressure in the right side of ...

  18. Cetuximab and Everolimus in Treating Patients With Metastatic or Recurrent Colon Cancer or Head and Neck Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2012-07-06

    Recurrent Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Recurrent Basal Cell Carcinoma of the Lip; Recurrent Colon Cancer; Recurrent Esthesioneuroblastoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Recurrent Inverted Papilloma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Recurrent Lymphoepithelioma of the Nasopharynx; Recurrent Lymphoepithelioma of the Oropharynx; Recurrent Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary; Recurrent Midline Lethal Granuloma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Recurrent Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IV Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IV Basal Cell Carcinoma of the Lip; Stage IV Lymphoepithelioma of the Nasopharynx; Stage IV Lymphoepithelioma of the Oropharynx; Stage IV Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IV Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IV Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVA Colon Cancer; Stage IVA Esthesioneuroblastoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IVA Inverted Papilloma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IVA Midline Lethal Granuloma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IVA Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IVB Colon

  19. Simple pulmonary eosinophilia

    MedlinePlus

    Pulmonary infiltrates with eosinophilia; Loffler syndrome; Eosinophilic pneumonia; Pneumonia - eosinophilic ... simple pulmonary eosinophilia is a severe type of pneumonia called acute idiopathic eosinophilic pneumonia.

  20. Laparoscopic Colon Resection

    MedlinePlus

    ... inches to complete the procedure. What are the Advantages of Laparoscopic Colon Resection? Results may vary depending ... type of procedure and patient’s overall condition. Common advantages are: Less postoperative pain May shorten hospital stay ...

  1. Colon cancer screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... screening; Sigmoidoscopy - screening; Virtual colonoscopy - screening; Fecal immunochemical test; Stool DNA test; sDNA test ... death and complications caused by colorectal cancer. SCREENING TESTS There are several ways to screen for colon ...

  2. Culture - colonic tissue

    MedlinePlus

    ... from the large intestine. The cause may be bacteria, fungi, or viruses. ... bacteria Cytomegalovirus Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacteria Salmonella bacteria Shigella bacteria These organisms may lead to diarrhea or infections involving the colon.

  3. Transverse colon conduit diversion

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, J.D.; Buchsbaum, H.J.

    1986-05-01

    The versatility and other advantages of the transverse colon conduit for urinary diversion have been described and implemented in 50 patients. Because most patients considered for this procedure will be at high risk because of a history of significant pelvic irradiation, underlying malignancy, poor renal function, fistula, and so forth, the technical details of surgery and patient selection cannot be minimized. The transverse colon segment is indicated for primary supravesical diversion as well as for salvage of problems related to ileal conduits. Adenocarcinoma of the colon is an unlikely long-term complication of this form of diversion because the fecal stream is absent. Now that the transverse colon conduit has been used for more than 10 years, meaningful comparisons with ileal segments should soon be available.

  4. [Angiodysplasia of the colon].

    PubMed

    Bruni, R; Rossodivita, I; Santoro, M; La Banca, G; Rollo, R; Putti, R

    1990-01-01

    The Authors report their experience with a case of angiodysplasia of the colon. It is outlined how these lesions can be demonstrated by angiography and colonoscopy. The pathophysiology, diagnosis and management are discussed as well. PMID:2223469

  5. Liquid laser cavities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bjorklund, S.; Filipescu, N.; Kellermeyer, G. L.; Mc Avoy, N.

    1969-01-01

    Liquid laser cavities have plenum chambers at the ends of the capillary cell which are terminated in transparent optical flats. By use of these cavities, several new europium chelates and a terbium chelate can provide laser action in solution at room temperature.

  6. Intestinal colonization resistance

    PubMed Central

    Lawley, Trevor D; Walker, Alan W

    2013-01-01

    Dense, complex microbial communities, collectively termed the microbiota, occupy a diverse array of niches along the length of the mammalian intestinal tract. During health and in the absence of antibiotic exposure the microbiota can effectively inhibit colonization and overgrowth by invading microbes such as pathogens. This phenomenon is called ‘colonization resistance’ and is associated with a stable and diverse microbiota in tandem with a controlled lack of inflammation, and involves specific interactions between the mucosal immune system and the microbiota. Here we overview the microbial ecology of the healthy mammalian intestinal tract and highlight the microbe–microbe and microbe–host interactions that promote colonization resistance. Emerging themes highlight immunological (T helper type 17/regulatory T-cell balance), microbiota (diverse and abundant) and metabolic (short-chain fatty acid) signatures of intestinal health and colonization resistance. Intestinal pathogens use specific virulence factors or exploit antibiotic use to subvert colonization resistance for their own benefit by triggering inflammation to disrupt the harmony of the intestinal ecosystem. A holistic view that incorporates immunological and microbiological facets of the intestinal ecosystem should facilitate the development of immunomodulatory and microbe-modulatory therapies that promote intestinal homeostasis and colonization resistance. PMID:23240815

  7. Congenital pulmonary sling, aorto-pulmonary window and pulmonary vein obstruction as a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge in an infant with VACTERL association.

    PubMed

    Trowitzsch, Eckardt; Schneider, Martin; Urban, Andreas; Asfour, Boulos

    2006-06-01

    In a newborn with anal atresia and urethral valves an incomplete VACTERL association, was diagnosed and a colon anus praeter was placed. Sweating and heart murmur led to cardiac diagnostics. By 2D colour Doppler echocardiography a huge atrial septal defect and pulmonary venous stenoses were diagnosed. Additionally, a pulmonary sling combined with an aortopulmonary window (AoPAw) was suspected and later confirmed by angiography. Heart failure developed and closure of the AoPAw, transplantation of the left pulmonary artery and closure of the atrial septal defect was performed at the age of 4 weeks. But the patient did not improve. Pulmonary hypertension with suprasystemic pressure in the right ventricle originating from a stenosis of the new orifice of the left pulmonary artery and obstruction of the right pulmonary veins was diagnosed by echocardiography and confirmed by angiography. At the age of 8 months the orifice of the left pulmonary artery was enlarged by a patch, the obstruction of left sided pulmonary veins was opened, and the rightsided pulmonary veins were newly implanted into the left atrium. Finally the inter-atrial communication was closed by a patch plastic. Again, postoperatively the patient improved only slightly. At the age of 10 months trans-septal catheterisation was performed. Angiography revealed a successful balloon dilatation of the long obstruction of the right pulmonary veins. Later on, an absorbable magnesium stent was implanted into the right upper pulmonary vein and medication with an endothelin antagonist was started. Temporarily the patient improved significantly. Within 6 weeks, right ventricular systolic pressure was again suprasystemic due to extreme inflow obstruction of the right pulmonary vein diagnosed by echocardiography. Severe heart failure developed and at the age of 1 year the patient died. PMID:16598388

  8. Passivated niobium cavities

    DOEpatents

    Myneni, Ganapati Rao; Hjorvarsson, Bjorgvin; Ciovati, Gianluigi

    2006-12-19

    A niobium cavity exhibiting high quality factors at high gradients is provided by treating a niobium cavity through a process comprising: 1) removing surface oxides by plasma etching or a similar process; 2) removing hydrogen or other gases absorbed in the bulk niobium by high temperature treatment of the cavity under ultra high vacuum to achieve hydrogen outgassing; and 3) assuring the long term chemical stability of the niobium cavity by applying a passivating layer of a superconducting material having a superconducting transition temperature higher than niobium thereby reducing losses from electron (cooper pair) scattering in the near surface region of the interior of the niobium cavity. According to a preferred embodiment, the passivating layer comprises niobium nitride (NbN) applied by reactive sputtering.

  9. CAVITY EXCITATION CIRCUIT

    DOEpatents

    Franck, J.V.

    1959-10-20

    An electronic oscillator is described for energizing a resonant cavity and to a system for stabilizing the operatin g frequency of the oscillator at the particular frequency necessary to establish a particular preferred field configuration or mode in the cavity, in this instance a linear accelerator. A freely rnnning oscillator has an output coupled to a resonant cavity wherein a field may be built up at any one of several adjacent frequencies. A pickup loop in the cavity is suitably shielded and positioned in the cavity so that only energy at the panticular desired frequency is fed back to stabilize the oscillator. A phase and gain control is in cluded in the feedback line.

  10. [Pulmonary embolism].

    PubMed

    Söffker, Gerold; Kluge, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Acute pulmonary embolism is an important differential diagnosis of acute chest pain. The clinical signs are often non-specific. However, diagnosis and therapy must be done quickly in order to reduce morbidity and mortality. The new (2014) European guidelines for acute pulmonary embolism (PE) focus on risk-adapted diagnostic algorithms and prognosis adapted therapy concepts. According to the hemodynamic presentation the division in a high-risk group (unstable patient with persistent hypotension or shock) or in non-high-risk groups (hemodynamically stable) was proposed. In the high-risk group the immediate diagnosis is usually done by multidetector spiral computed tomography (MDCT) and primarily the medical therapy of right ventricular dysfunction and thrombolysis is recommended.In the non-high-risk group, this is subdivided into an intermediate-risk group and low-risk group, the diagnosis algorithm based on the PE-pretest probability--determined by validated scores. Moreover, the diagnosis is usually secured by MDCT--the new gold standard in the PE-diagnosis, scores, or it can be primarily ruled out due to the high negative predictive value of D-dimer determination. To improve the prognostic risk stratification in non-high-risk group patients the additional detection of right ventricular dysfunction (MDCT, echocardiography), cardiac biomarkers (troponin, NT proBNP) and validated scores (e.g. Pulmonary Embolism Severity Index) is recommended. Therefore, the intermediate-risk group can be further subdivided. For treatment of non-high-risk group patients, the initial anticoagulation (except those with severe renal insufficiency) using low molecular weight heparin/fondaparinux and conversion to vitamin-K antagonists or alternatively with direct oral anticoagulants (DOAK) is recommended. Hemodynamically stable patients with right ventricular dysfunction and myocardial ischemia (Intermediate-high-risk group patients) but with clinically progressive hemodynamic

  11. Hydroforming of elliptical cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Singer, W.; Singer, X.; Jelezov, I.; Kneisel, Peter

    2015-02-27

    Activities of the past several years in developing the technique of forming seamless (weldless) cavity cells by hydroforming are summarized. An overview of the technique developed at DESY for the fabrication of single cells and multicells of the TESLA cavity shape is given and the major rf results are presented. The forming is performed by expanding a seamless tube with internal water pressure while simultaneously swaging it axially. Prior to the expansion the tube is necked at the iris area and at the ends. Tube radii and axial displacements are computer controlled during the forming process in accordance with results of finite element method simulations for necking and expansion using the experimentally obtained strain-stress relationship of tube material. In cooperation with industry different methods of niobium seamless tube production have been explored. The most appropriate and successful method is a combination of spinning or deep drawing with flow forming. Several single-cell niobium cavities of the 1.3 GHz TESLA shape were produced by hydroforming. They reached accelerating gradients Eacc up to 35 MV/m after buffered chemical polishing (BCP) and up to 42 MV/m after electropolishing (EP). More recent work concentrated on fabrication and testing of multicell and nine-cell cavities. Several seamless two- and three-cell units were explored. Accelerating gradients Eacc of 30–35 MV/m were measured after BCP and Eacc up to 40 MV/m were reached after EP. Nine-cell niobium cavities combining three three-cell units were completed at the company E. Zanon. These cavities reached accelerating gradients of Eacc = 30–35 MV/m. One cavity is successfully integrated in an XFEL cryomodule and is used in the operation of the FLASH linear accelerator at DESY. Additionally the fabrication of bimetallic single-cell and multicell NbCu cavities by hydroforming was successfully developed. Several NbCu clad single-cell and double

  12. Tuned optical cavity magnetometer

    DOEpatents

    Okandan, Murat; Schwindt, Peter

    2010-11-02

    An atomic magnetometer is disclosed which utilizes an optical cavity formed from a grating and a mirror, with a vapor cell containing an alkali metal vapor located inside the optical cavity. Lasers are used to magnetically polarize the alkali metal vapor and to probe the vapor and generate a diffracted laser beam which can be used to sense a magnetic field. Electrostatic actuators can be used in the magnetometer for positioning of the mirror, or for modulation thereof. Another optical cavity can also be formed from the mirror and a second grating for sensing, adjusting, or stabilizing the position of the mirror.

  13. Hydroforming of elliptical cavities

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Singer, W.; Singer, X.; Jelezov, I.; Kneisel, Peter

    2015-02-27

    Activities of the past several years in developing the technique of forming seamless (weldless) cavity cells by hydroforming are summarized. An overview of the technique developed at DESY for the fabrication of single cells and multicells of the TESLA cavity shape is given and the major rf results are presented. The forming is performed by expanding a seamless tube with internal water pressure while simultaneously swaging it axially. Prior to the expansion the tube is necked at the iris area and at the ends. Tube radii and axial displacements are computer controlled during the forming process in accordance with resultsmore » of finite element method simulations for necking and expansion using the experimentally obtained strain-stress relationship of tube material. In cooperation with industry different methods of niobium seamless tube production have been explored. The most appropriate and successful method is a combination of spinning or deep drawing with flow forming. Several single-cell niobium cavities of the 1.3 GHz TESLA shape were produced by hydroforming. They reached accelerating gradients Eacc up to 35 MV/m after buffered chemical polishing (BCP) and up to 42 MV/m after electropolishing (EP). More recent work concentrated on fabrication and testing of multicell and nine-cell cavities. Several seamless two- and three-cell units were explored. Accelerating gradients Eacc of 30–35 MV/m were measured after BCP and Eacc up to 40 MV/m were reached after EP. Nine-cell niobium cavities combining three three-cell units were completed at the company E. Zanon. These cavities reached accelerating gradients of Eacc = 30–35 MV/m. One cavity is successfully integrated in an XFEL cryomodule and is used in the operation of the FLASH linear accelerator at DESY. Additionally the fabrication of bimetallic single-cell and multicell NbCu cavities by hydroforming was successfully developed. Several NbCu clad single-cell and double-cell cavities of the TESLA shape have

  14. Hydroforming of elliptical cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singer, W.; Singer, X.; Jelezov, I.; Kneisel, P.

    2015-02-01

    Activities of the past several years in developing the technique of forming seamless (weldless) cavity cells by hydroforming are summarized. An overview of the technique developed at DESY for the fabrication of single cells and multicells of the TESLA cavity shape is given and the major rf results are presented. The forming is performed by expanding a seamless tube with internal water pressure while simultaneously swaging it axially. Prior to the expansion the tube is necked at the iris area and at the ends. Tube radii and axial displacements are computer controlled during the forming process in accordance with results of finite element method simulations for necking and expansion using the experimentally obtained strain-stress relationship of tube material. In cooperation with industry different methods of niobium seamless tube production have been explored. The most appropriate and successful method is a combination of spinning or deep drawing with flow forming. Several single-cell niobium cavities of the 1.3 GHz TESLA shape were produced by hydroforming. They reached accelerating gradients Eacc up to 35 MV /m after buffered chemical polishing (BCP) and up to 42 MV /m after electropolishing (EP). More recent work concentrated on fabrication and testing of multicell and nine-cell cavities. Several seamless two- and three-cell units were explored. Accelerating gradients Eacc of 30 - 35 MV /m were measured after BCP and Eacc up to 40 MV /m were reached after EP. Nine-cell niobium cavities combining three three-cell units were completed at the company E. Zanon. These cavities reached accelerating gradients of Eacc=30 - 35 MV /m . One cavity is successfully integrated in an XFEL cryomodule and is used in the operation of the FLASH linear accelerator at DESY. Additionally the fabrication of bimetallic single-cell and multicell NbCu cavities by hydroforming was successfully developed. Several NbCu clad single-cell and double-cell cavities of the TESLA shape have been

  15. Advances in understanding colonic function.

    PubMed

    Milla, Peter J

    2009-04-01

    The colon is an organ of conservation that salvages water, electrolytes, and energy. The organization of colonic function is determined by the roles played by the luminal flora, the function of the different mucosal epithelial cell types, immunocompetent cells, and the neuromusculature. These different components of the colon interact with one another and with the colonic flora, and different areas of the colon serve different functions. In the normal adult during the course of a day the colon absorbs approximately 1.5 L of fluid, but under the influence of aldosterone increases up to 5 to 6 L. Diarrhoea occurs when secretion exceeds absorptive processes by either small intestinal secretion overwhelming colonic salvage or salvage being impaired by reduced colonic absorption or increased colonic secretion. PMID:19300122

  16. [Pulmonary circulation in embolic pulmonary edema].

    PubMed

    Sanotskaia, N V; Polikarpov, V V; Matsievskiĭ, D D

    1989-02-01

    The ultrasonic method was used in acute experiments on cats with open chest under artificial lung ventilation to obtain blood flow in low-lobar pulmonary artery and vein, the blood pressure in pulmonary artery, as well as the left atrial pressure in fat (olive oil) and mechanical (Lycopodium spores) pulmonary embolism. It is shown that pulmonary embolism produces the decrease in the blood flow in pulmonary artery and vein, the increase of the pressure in pulmonary artery and left atria, the increase of lung vessels resistance. The decrease is observed of systemic arterial pressure, bradycardia, and extrasystole. After 5-10 min the restoration of arterial pressure and heart rhythm occur and partial restoration of blood flow in pulmonary artery and vein. In many experiments the blood flow in vein outdoes that in the artery--it allows to suppose the increase of the blood flow in bronchial artery. After 60-90 min there occur sudden decrease of systemic arterial pressure, the decrease of the blood flow in pulmonary artery and vein. The pressure in pulmonary artery and resistance of pulmonary vessels remain high. Pulmonary edema developed in all animals. The death occurs in 60-100 min after the beginning of embolism. PMID:2923969

  17. Pulmonary actinomycosis.

    PubMed

    Celebi, Solmaz; Sevinir, Betul; Saraydaroglu, Ozlem; Gurpinar, Arif; Hacimustafaoglu, Mustafa

    2009-02-01

    Pulmonary actinomycosis is rarely reported in pediatric age. An 11-year-old girl with history of two-month back pain was admitted to our hospital. On physical examination respiratory sounds were diminished on the left upper lung. Chest radiograph revealed a mass in the left upper lobe. Computed tomography showed solitary lesion (5.6 x 4.5 cm in size) in the left upper lobe. We could not rule out the possibility of malignant thoracic tumor. The patient underwent surgery. Histological examination of the resected tissue revealed, numerous sulfur granules, characteristic of Actinomyces, surrounded by purulent exudates, which are consistent with actinomycosis. She was treated with penicillin G. The patient responded well to penicillin therapy and the lesions regressed completely. She remained well throughout the three-year follow-up. PMID:19129990

  18. Pulmonary embolism

    PubMed Central

    Tarbox, Abigail K.; Swaroop, Mamta

    2013-01-01

    Pulmonary embolism (PE) is responsible for approximately 100,000 to 200,000 deaths in the United States each year. With a diverse range of clinical presentations from asymptomatic to death, diagnosing PE can be challenging. Various resources are available, such as clinical scoring systems, laboratory data, and imaging studies which help guide clinicians in their work-up of PE. Prompt recognition and treatment are essential for minimizing the mortality and morbidity associated with PE. Advances in recognition and treatment have also enabled treatment of some patients in the home setting and limited the amount of time spent in the hospital. This article will review the risk factors, pathophysiology, clinical presentation, evaluation, and treatment of PE. PMID:23724389

  19. CIRCULAR CAVITY SLOT ANTENNA

    DOEpatents

    Kerley, P.L.

    1959-01-01

    A small-size antenna having a doughnut-shaped field pattern and which can act both as an antenna and a resonant circuit is described. The antenna is of the slotted type and comprises a resonant cavity with a center hole. A circular slot is provided in one wall of the cavity concentric with the hole and a radio frequency source is connected across the slot. The pattern and loading of the antenna are adjusted by varying the position and shape of a center element slidably disposed within the hole and projecting from the slotted side of the resonant cavity. The disclosed structure may also be used to propagate the oscillator signal down a transniission line by replacing the center element with one leg of the transmission line in a spaced relation from the walls of the cavity.

  20. Respiratory infections: pulmonary tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Choby, Beth A; Hunter, Paul

    2015-02-01

    Family physicians can prevent mortality and disability due to pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) by identifying high-risk patients. Recognition of symptoms (eg, cough for 3 weeks or longer) helps prevent overlooked diagnoses because results of tuberculin skin tests and interferon-gamma release assays are negative in up to 25% and 21%, respectively, of severe acute cases. The typical x-ray findings of cavities, infiltrates, and lymphadenopathy are minimal among immunosuppressed patients. Cases of active TB must be reported to local or state health departments within 24 hours of diagnosis. Sputum acid-fast bacillus tests provide results within hours and help quantify bacterial load but are not highly sensitive, and infection with nontuberculous mycobacteria can cause positive test results. Sputum cultures are adequately sensitive, identify mycobacterial species, and provide organisms for antibiotic susceptibility testing but require weeks for results. Molecular detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and of antibiotic-resistant mutations can expedite diagnosis and management of drug-resistant TB. Management of active TB should include directly observed therapy. Standard 6-month therapy with rifampin, isoniazid, pyrazinamide, and ethambutol resolves infection in nearly all immunocompetent adults with pansensitive TB. Multidrug-resistant TB requires second-line antibiotics (eg, fluoroquinolones, linezolid) in individualized regimens lasting 2 years. Management of latent TB infection prevents progression to active TB disease, particularly if management is completed within 2 years of infection. PMID:25685923

  1. [A case of pulmonary alveolar proteinosis which initially deteriorated rapidly with exacerbation of pulmonary nocardiosis, responded promptly to treatment of the pulmonary nocardiosis].

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Shozaburo; Takayanagi, Noboru; Tokunaga, Daido; Sugita, Yutaka; Kawabata, Yoshinori

    2010-08-01

    A 37-year-old man was admitted with complaints of continuous cough and sputum production for 1 month. Computed tomography (CT) of the chest revealed a solitary mass with a cavity in the apex of the left lung and bilateral ground-glass opacities (GGO). Thereafter, the patient complained of fever, and an increase in the mass shadow size and expansion of the ground-glass opacities were observed on serial CT. The patient was given diagnoses of pulmonary nocardiosis and pulmonary alveolar proteinosis by bronchoscopic examination. Serum anti-GM-CSF antibody tests were positive. On the basis of these findings, we diagnosed autoimmune pulmonary alveolar proteinosis. After beginning antituberculosis drugs and antibiotics, the tumor shadow and GGO reduced. The pulmonary alveolar proteinosis rapidly worsened on exacerbation of the pulmonary nocardiosis, but prompt overall improvement was obtained after treating the latter. We believe this to be a valuable case for examining the time progression of autoimmune pulmonary alveolar protein syndrome, because of the clinical course of the exacerbation, and the improvement in the pulmonary alveolar proteinosis after treatment of pulmonary nocardiosis. PMID:20803974

  2. Pulmonary rehabilitation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Saey, D; Bernard, S; Gagnon, P; Laviolette, L; Soicher, J; Maltais, F; Esgagne, P; Coats, V; Devost, A-A

    2009-06-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide and an important worldwide cause of disability and handicap. Centered around exercise training, pulmonary rehabilitation is a global, multidisciplinary, individualized and comprehensive approach acting on the patient as a whole and not only on the pulmonary component of the disease. Pulmonary rehabilitation is now well recognized as an effective and key intervention in the management of several respiratory diseases particularly in COPD. Modern and effective pulmonary rehabilitation programs are global, multidisciplinary, individualized and use comprehensive approach acting on the patient as a whole and not only on the pulmonary component of the disease. In the last two decades interest for pulmonary rehabilitation is on the rise and a growing literature including several guidelines is now available. This review addresses the recent developments in the broad area of pulmonary rehabilitation as well as new methods to consider in the development of future and better programs. Modern literature for rationale, physiopathological basis, structure, exercise training as well challenges for pulmonary rehabilitation programs are addressed. Among the main challenges of pulmonary rehabilitation, efforts have to be devoted to improve accessibility to early rehabilitation strategies, not only to patients with COPD but to those with other chronic respiratory diseases. PMID:19776711

  3. Helicobacter pylori in human oral cavity and stomach.

    PubMed

    Bürgers, Ralf; Schneider-Brachert, Wulf; Reischl, Udo; Behr, Anke; Hiller, Karl-Anton; Lehn, Norbert; Schmalz, Gottfried; Ruhl, Stefan

    2008-08-01

    The oral cavity has been suspected as an extra-gastroduodenal reservoir for Helicobacter pylori infection and transmission, but conflicting evidence exists regarding the occurrence of H. pylori in the mouth, independently of stomach colonization. Ninety-four gastric biopsy patients were analysed for the concurrent presence of H. pylori in the mouth and stomach. Samples were collected from different areas within the mouth and H. pylori DNA was amplified by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and verified by sequencing. Helicobacter pylori-specific serology was performed, and stomach colonization was determined by culture. In addition, relevant dental and periodontal parameters, as well as general health parameters, were recorded. Helicobacter pylori was found in the stomach of 29 patients and in the oral cavity of 16 patients. In only six patients was the bacterium detected simultaneously in the stomach and mouth. Notably, the 10 patients in whom the bacterium was found solely in the mouth did not have serum antibodies to H. pylori. The occurrence of H. pylori in the mouth was found to be correlated neither to any general or oral health parameters, nor to any particular site of collection. This study shows that H. pylori can occur in the oral cavity independently of stomach colonization. PMID:18705796

  4. Pulmonary hypertension complicating pulmonary sarcoidosis.

    PubMed

    Huitema, M P; Grutters, J C; Rensing, B J W M; Reesink, H J; Post, M C

    2016-06-01

    Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a severe complication of sarcoidosis, with an unknown prevalence. The aetiology is multifactorial, and the exact mechanism of PH in the individual patient is often difficult to establish. The diagnostic work-up and treatment of PH in sarcoidosis is complex, and should therefore be determined by a multidisciplinary expert team in a specialised centre. It is still a major challenge to identify sarcoidosis patients at risk for developing PH. There is no validated algorithm when to refer a patient suspected for PH, and PH analysis itself is difficult. Until present, there is no established therapy for PH in sarcoidosis. Besides optimal treatment for sarcoidosis, case series evaluating new therapeutic options involving PH-targeted therapy are arising for a subgroup of patients. This review summarises the current knowledge regarding the aetiology, diagnosis and possible treatment options for PH in sarcoidosis. PMID:27194118

  5. Colonization, mouse-style

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Several recent papers, including one in BMC Evolutionary Biology, examine the colonization history of house mice. As well as background for the analysis of mouse adaptation, such studies offer a perspective on the history of movements of the humans that accidentally transported the mice. See research article: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/10/325 PMID:20977781

  6. Serotonin and colonic motility.

    PubMed

    Kendig, D M; Grider, J R

    2015-07-01

    The role of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine [5-HT]) in gastrointestinal motility has been studied for over 50 years. Most of the 5-HT in the body resides in the gut wall, where it is located in subsets of mucosal cells (enterochromaffin cells) and neurons (descending interneurons). Many studies suggest that 5-HT is important to normal and dysfunctional gut motility and drugs affecting 5-HT receptors, especially 5-HT3 and 5-HT4 receptors, have been used clinically to treat motility disorders; however, cardiovascular side effects have limited the use of these drugs. Recently studies have questioned the importance and necessity of 5-HT in general and mucosal 5-HT in particular for colonic motility. Recent evidence suggests the importance of 5-HT3 and 5-HT4 receptors for initiation and generation of one of the key colonic motility patterns, the colonic migrating motor complex (CMMC), in rat. The findings suggest that 5-HT3 and 5-HT4 receptors are differentially involved in two different types of rat CMMCs: the long distance contraction (LDC) and the rhythmic propulsive motor complex (RPMC). The understanding of the role of serotonin in colonic motility has been influenced by the specific motility pattern(s) studied, the stimulus used to initiate the motility (spontaneous vs induced), and the route of administration of drugs. All of these considerations contribute to the understanding and the controversy that continues to surround the role of serotonin in the gut. PMID:26095115

  7. Colonic interposition: radiographic evaluation.

    PubMed

    Agha, F P; Orringer, M B

    1984-04-01

    This report reviews the clinical and radiographic features of 40 patients who underwent visceral esophageal substitution with colon for benign or malignant lesions of the esophagus. The incidence and radiographic identification of complications are discussed. All patients were routinely examined with barium esophagrams on postoperative day 10. If an anastomotic leak was suspected clinically before this time, studies were performed using water-soluble iodinated contrast material. Follow-up barium esophagrams were obtained 1-96 months after operation (average, 60 months) in 24 patients. Eight patients (21%) demonstrated asymptomatic "jejunization" of the colonic mucosa with no attributable clinical manifestations; this finding resolved in 1-3 months, without sequelae, and has not been reported before. The spectrum of ischemic changes in the colonic segment included mucosal edema, spasm, ulceration, loss of haustration, and frank necrosis. Radiographically detectable early postoperative complications included anastomotic leak in six (three pharyngocolic, three cervical esophagocolic) and aspiration of barium into the tracheobronchial tree due to incoordinated swallowing in eight. Late postoperative complications included anastomotic narrowing (12) malfunctioning of the colon due to impaired emptying (five), recurrent aspiration pneumonia (three), small bowel obstruction (three), transhiatal herniation of small bowel through the diaphragmatic hiatus (one), and reflux into the retained bypassed esophagus (one). PMID:6608225

  8. Ring resonant cavities for spectroscopy

    DOEpatents

    Zare, Richard N.; Martin, Juergen; Paldus, Barbara A.; Xie, Jinchun

    1999-01-01

    Ring-shaped resonant cavities for spectroscopy allow a reduction in optical feedback to the light source, and provide information on the interaction of both s- and p-polarized light with samples. A laser light source is locked to a single cavity mode. An intracavity acousto-optic modulator may be used to couple light into the cavity. The cavity geometry is particularly useful for Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy (CRDS).

  9. Ring resonant cavities for spectroscopy

    DOEpatents

    Zare, R.N.; Martin, J.; Paldus, B.A.; Xie, J.

    1999-06-15

    Ring-shaped resonant cavities for spectroscopy allow a reduction in optical feedback to the light source, and provide information on the interaction of both s- and p-polarized light with samples. A laser light source is locked to a single cavity mode. An intracavity acousto-optic modulator may be used to couple light into the cavity. The cavity geometry is particularly useful for Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy (CRDS). 6 figs.

  10. [Idiopathic pulmonary trunk aneurysm].

    PubMed

    Uehara, Mayuko; Kuroda, Yosuke; Ohori, Syunsuke; Mawatari, Toru; Morishita, Kiyofumi

    2010-07-01

    Pulmonary trunk aneurysm is generally associated with congenital cardiac defects, pulmonary hypertension, or infection. Idiopathic pulmonary trunk aneurysm without any associated diseases is a rare lesion and has seldom been reported. Here, we report a case of a 68-year-old woman with idiopathic pulmonary trunk aneurysm. The maximum diameter of the aneurysm was 53 mm while she was 142 cm in height. We successfully performed aneurysmorrhaphy and her postoperative course was uneventful. Aneurysmorrhaphy was an effective technique for idiopathic pulmonary trunk aneurysm without pulmonary hypertention. PMID:20662238

  11. Streptococcus Adherence and Colonization

    PubMed Central

    Nobbs, Angela H.; Lamont, Richard J.; Jenkinson, Howard F.

    2009-01-01

    Summary: Streptococci readily colonize mucosal tissues in the nasopharynx; the respiratory, gastrointestinal, and genitourinary tracts; and the skin. Each ecological niche presents a series of challenges to successful colonization with which streptococci have to contend. Some species exist in equilibrium with their host, neither stimulating nor submitting to immune defenses mounted against them. Most are either opportunistic or true pathogens responsible for diseases such as pharyngitis, tooth decay, necrotizing fasciitis, infective endocarditis, and meningitis. Part of the success of streptococci as colonizers is attributable to the spectrum of proteins expressed on their surfaces. Adhesins enable interactions with salivary, serum, and extracellular matrix components; host cells; and other microbes. This is the essential first step to colonization, the development of complex communities, and possible invasion of host tissues. The majority of streptococcal adhesins are anchored to the cell wall via a C-terminal LPxTz motif. Other proteins may be surface anchored through N-terminal lipid modifications, while the mechanism of cell wall associations for others remains unclear. Collectively, these surface-bound proteins provide Streptococcus species with a “coat of many colors,” enabling multiple intimate contacts and interplays between the bacterial cell and the host. In vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated direct roles for many streptococcal adhesins as colonization or virulence factors, making them attractive targets for therapeutic and preventive strategies against streptococcal infections. There is, therefore, much focus on applying increasingly advanced molecular techniques to determine the precise structures and functions of these proteins, and their regulatory pathways, so that more targeted approaches can be developed. PMID:19721085

  12. Pulmonary endarterectomy after pulmonary infectious embolisms

    PubMed Central

    Heiberg, Johan; Ilkjær, Lars B.

    2013-01-01

    Pulmonary endarterectomy (PEA) is a well-established procedure in the treatment of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTPH). The procedure is known to increase functional outcome and to raise the 5-year survival rate. We report 2 cases of pulmonary valve endocarditis and secondary embolisms causing sustained pulmonary hypertension. Both were treated with PEA. In none of the cases, a cleavage between the thrombotic masses and the vessel wall was obtainable, and both attempts were therefore inadequate. Based on our reports, we recommend not attempting PEA in cases of CTPH after infectious embolisms. PMID:23248168

  13. Pulmonary cachexia.

    PubMed

    Schols, Annemie M W J

    2002-09-01

    Weight loss is a frequent complication in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and is a determining factor of functional capacity, health status, and mortality. Weight loss in COPD is a consequence of increased energy requirements unbalanced by dietary intake. Both metabolic and mechanical inefficiency contribute to the elevated energy expenditure during physical activity, while systemic inflammation is a determinant of hypermetabolism at rest. A disbalance between protein synthesis and protein breakdown may cause a disproportionate depletion of fat-free mass in some patients. Nutritional support is indicated for depleted patients with COPD because it provides not only supportive care, but direct intervention through improvement in respiratory and peripheral skeletal muscle function and in exercise performance. A combination of oral nutritional supplements and exercise or anabolic stimulus appears to be the best treatment approach to obtaining significant functional improvement. Patients responding to this treatment even demonstrated a decreased mortality. Poor response was related to the effects of systemic inflammation on dietary intake and catabolism. The effectiveness of anticatabolic modulation requires further investigation. PMID:12163214

  14. Does airway colonization cause systemic inflammation in bronchiectasis?

    PubMed

    Ergan Arsava, Begüm; Cöplü, Lütfi

    2011-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests the presence of accompanying systemic inflammation in chronic inflammatory airway diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma; however little is known regarding the presence of systemic inflammation in bronchiectasis. Although bronchiectasis was initially considered a stationary process, chronic bacterial colonization causes airway inflammation and progressive airway damage. The aim of this study was to determine the level of systemic inflammation in bronchiectasis patients and identify its relationship with colonization. White blood cell (WBC) count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, serum C-reactive protein (CRP), plasma fibrinogen, interleukin-8, tumor necrosis factor-α and leptin levels were determined in clinically stable bronchiectasis patients (n= 50), and age- and sex-matched controls. Bronchiectasis patients were also analyzed according to colonization in sputum samples. There was no significant difference between bronchiectasis and control groups with respect to inflammatory markers but median (interquartile range-IQR) WBC count, CRP and fibrinogen levels were significantly higher in colonized patients (n= 14) when compared to non-colonized patients [8.2 (6.4-9.5) vs. 6.4 (5.8-7.7) x 103/mm3, 0.91 (0.45-1.29) vs. 0.42 (0.30-0.77) mg/dL, 433.5 (390.3-490.3) vs. 392.0 (327.0-416.0) mg/dL, respectively; p< 0.05]. There was no evidence supporting the presence of systemic inflammation in the overall bronchiectasis group when compared to controls. However, elevated WBC count, CRP and fibrinogen levels in patients with colonization suggest the presence of a systemic inflammatory response in clinically stable bronchiectasis patients with colonization. PMID:22233303

  15. Video Toroid Cavity Imager

    SciTech Connect

    Gerald, Rex E. II; Sanchez, Jairo; Rathke, Jerome W.

    2004-08-10

    A video toroid cavity imager for in situ measurement of electrochemical properties of an electrolytic material sample includes a cylindrical toroid cavity resonator containing the sample and employs NMR and video imaging for providing high-resolution spectral and visual information of molecular characteristics of the sample on a real-time basis. A large magnetic field is applied to the sample under controlled temperature and pressure conditions to simultaneously provide NMR spectroscopy and video imaging capabilities for investigating electrochemical transformations of materials or the evolution of long-range molecular aggregation during cooling of hydrocarbon melts. The video toroid cavity imager includes a miniature commercial video camera with an adjustable lens, a modified compression coin cell imager with a fiat circular principal detector element, and a sample mounted on a transparent circular glass disk, and provides NMR information as well as a video image of a sample, such as a polymer film, with micrometer resolution.

  16. Multicolor cavity soliton.

    PubMed

    Luo, Rui; Liang, Hanxiao; Lin, Qiang

    2016-07-25

    We show a new class of complex solitary wave that exists in a nonlinear optical cavity with appropriate dispersion characteristics. The cavity soliton consists of multiple soliton-like spectro-temporal components that exhibit distinctive colors but coincide in time and share a common phase, formed together via strong inter-soliton four-wave mixing and Cherenkov radiation. The multicolor cavity soliton shows intriguing spectral locking characteristics and remarkable capability of spectrum management to tailor soliton frequencies, which would be very useful for versatile generation and manipulation of multi-octave spanning phase-locked Kerr frequency combs, with great potential for applications in frequency metrology, optical frequency synthesis, and spectroscopy. PMID:27464131

  17. Metasurface external cavity laser

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Luyao Curwen, Christopher A.; Williams, Benjamin S.; Hon, Philip W. C.; Itoh, Tatsuo; Chen, Qi-Sheng

    2015-11-30

    A vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting-laser is demonstrated in the terahertz range, which is based upon an amplifying metasurface reflector composed of a sub-wavelength array of antenna-coupled quantum-cascade sub-cavities. Lasing is possible when the metasurface reflector is placed into a low-loss external cavity such that the external cavity—not the sub-cavities—determines the beam properties. A near-Gaussian beam of 4.3° × 5.1° divergence is observed and an output power level >5 mW is achieved. The polarized response of the metasurface allows the use of a wire-grid polarizer as an output coupler that is continuously tunable.

  18. Metasurface external cavity laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Luyao; Curwen, Christopher A.; Hon, Philip W. C.; Chen, Qi-Sheng; Itoh, Tatsuo; Williams, Benjamin S.

    2015-11-01

    A vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting-laser is demonstrated in the terahertz range, which is based upon an amplifying metasurface reflector composed of a sub-wavelength array of antenna-coupled quantum-cascade sub-cavities. Lasing is possible when the metasurface reflector is placed into a low-loss external cavity such that the external cavity—not the sub-cavities—determines the beam properties. A near-Gaussian beam of 4.3° × 5.1° divergence is observed and an output power level >5 mW is achieved. The polarized response of the metasurface allows the use of a wire-grid polarizer as an output coupler that is continuously tunable.

  19. Absent pulmonary valve

    MedlinePlus

    ... absent pulmonary valve syndrome associated with bronchial obstruction. Ann Thoracic Surg. 2006;82:2221-2226. PMID: 17126138 ... of airway compression in absent pulmonary valve syndrome. Ann Thorac Surg . 2006;81:1802-1807. PMID: 16631676 ...

  20. Familial Pulmonary Fibrosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... are here: Health Information > Condition Information Familial Pulmonary Fibrosis: Overview When two or more members within the ... Associate Professor View full profile More Familial Pulmonary Fibrosis Information Forms Causes Genetic Counseling Print Page Email ...

  1. Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis? Pulmonary fibrosis (PULL-mun-ary fi-BRO-sis) is a ... time. The formation of scar tissue is called fibrosis. As the lung tissue thickens, your lungs can' ...

  2. Absent pulmonary valve

    MedlinePlus

    ... can occur with absent pulmonary valve include: Abnormal tricuspid valve Atrial septal defect Double outlet right ventricle Ductus arteriosis Endocardial cushion defect Marfan syndrome Tricuspid atresia Heart problems that occur with absent pulmonary ...

  3. Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS)

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: About CDC.gov . Hantavirus Share Compartir Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS) Severe HPS. Image courtesy D. ... the workers showed evidence of infection or illness. Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS) Topics Transmission Where HPS is ...

  4. Pulmonary arteriovenous fistula

    MedlinePlus

    Pulmonary arteriovenous fistula is an abnormal connection between an artery and vein in the lungs. As a result, blood passes ... Pulmonary arteriovenous fistulas are usually the result of abnormal development of the blood vessels of the lung. Most occur in ...

  5. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000091.htm Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a common lung disease. Having COPD ...

  6. Who Needs Pulmonary Rehabilitation?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Topics Bronchitis COPD Cystic Fibrosis Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis Sarcoidosis Send a link to NHLBI to someone by ... other symptoms. Examples of interstitial lung diseases include sarcoidosis and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis . Cystic fibrosis (CF). CF ...

  7. Pulmonary arteriovenous fistula

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001090.htm Pulmonary arteriovenous fistula To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Pulmonary arteriovenous fistula is an abnormal connection between an artery and ...

  8. The auroral plasma cavity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calvert, W.

    1981-01-01

    A region of diminished plasma density has been found to occur at the source of auroral kilometric radiation (AKR). The density within this auroral plasma cavity, determined from limited Hawkeye wave data, was less than 1/cu cm from 1.8 to 3 earth radii geocentric, at 70 deg + or - 3 deg invariant magnetic latitude. The altitude variation of the magnetic field produces a minimum in the ratio of plasma frequency to cyclotron frequency within the cavity which accounts for the observed spectrum of AKR.

  9. Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension.

    PubMed

    O'Connell, Caroline; Montani, David; Savale, Laurent; Sitbon, Olivier; Parent, Florence; Seferian, Andrei; Bulifon, Sophie; Fadel, Elie; Mercier, Olaf; Mussot, Sacha; Fabre, Dominique; Dartevelle, Philippe; Humbert, Marc; Simonneau, Gérald; Jaïs, Xavier

    2015-12-01

    Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) is a form of pulmonary hypertension (PH) characterized by the persistence of thromboembolic obstructing the pulmonary arteries as an organized tissue and the presence of a variable small vessel arteriopathy. The consequence is an increase in pulmonary vascular resistance resulting in progressive right heart failure. CTEPH is classified as group IV pulmonary hypertension according to the WHO classification of pulmonary hypertension. CTEPH is defined as precapillary pulmonary hypertension (mean pulmonary artery pressure ≥ 25 mmHg with a pulmonary capillary wedge pressure ≤ 15 mmHg) associated with mismatched perfusion defects on ventilation-perfusion lung scan and signs of chronic thromboembolic disease on computed tomography pulmonary angiogram and/or conventional pulmonary angiography, in a patient who received at least 3 months of therapeutic anticoagulation. CTEPH as a direct consequence of symptomatic pulmonary embolism (PE) is rare, and a significant number of CTEPH cases develop in the absence of history of PE. Thus, CTEPH should be considered in any patient with unexplained PH. Splenectomy, chronic inflammatory conditions such as inflammatory bowel disease, indwelling catheters and cardiac pacemakers have been identified as associated conditions increasing the risk of CTEPH. Ventilation-perfusion scan (V/Q) is the best test available for establishing the thromboembolic nature of PH. When CTEPH is suspected, patients should be referred to expert centres where pulmonary angiography, right heart catheterization and high-resolution CT scan will be performed to confirm the diagnosis and to assess the operability. Pulmonary endarterectomy (PEA) remains the gold standard treatment for CTEPH when organized thrombi involve the main, lobar or segmental arteries. This operation should only be performed by experienced surgeons in specialized centres. For inoperable patients, current ESC/ERS guidelines for the

  10. Tension pneumothorax due to perforated colon.

    PubMed

    Abdullah, Muhammad; Stonelake, Paul

    2016-01-01

    A very rare case of traumatic diaphragmatic hernia is reported in a 65-year-old woman who presented 46 years after her initial thoracoabdominal injury with tension faecopneumothorax caused by a perforated colon in the chest cavity. She presented in a critical condition with severe respiratory distress, sepsis and acute kidney injury. She had a long-standing history of bronchial asthma with respiratory complications and had experienced progressive shortness of breath for the past year. A recent CT scan had excluded the presence of a diaphragmatic hernia but showed a significantly raised left hemidiaphragm. On admission, chest X-rays showed a significantly raised left hemidiaphragm and mediastinal shift, but the possibility of a diaphragmatic hernia with strangulated bowel in the chest was not suspected until the patient was reviewed by the surgical and intensive care unit consultants the next morning and a repeat CT performed. She had a successful outcome after her emergency operation. PMID:27247208

  11. Sphingolipids in colon cancer

    PubMed Central

    García-Barros, Mónica; Coant, Nicolas; Truman, Jean-Philip; Snider, Ashley J.

    2013-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is one of the major causes of death in the western world. Despite increasing knowledge of the molecular signaling pathways implicated in colon cancer, therapeutic outcomes are still only moderately successful. Sphingolipids, a family of N-acyl linked lipids, have not only structural functions but are also implicated in important biological functions. Ceramide, sphingosine and sphingosine-1-phosphate are the most important bioactive lipids, and they regulate several key cellular functions. Accumulating evidence suggests that many cancers present alterations in sphingolipids and their metabolizing enzymes. The aim of this review is to discuss the emerging roles of sphingolipids, both endogenous and dietary, in colon cancer and the interaction of sphingolipids with WNT/β-catenin pathway, one of the most important signaling cascades that regulate development and homeostasis in intestine PMID:24060581

  12. Giant colon lipoma

    PubMed Central

    Yaman, İsmail; Derici, Hayrullah; Demirpolat, Gülen

    2015-01-01

    Colon lipomas are rare, non-epithelial tumors. They are generally smaller than two centimeters and asymptomatic, they are incidentally diagnosed and do not require treatment. Large and symptomatic colon lipomas are rather rare. Its differential diagnosis is generally made by histopathological examination of the resected specimen. A fifty-year-old female patient presented with the symptoms of abdominal pain, swelling in the abdomen and loss of weight. During colonoscopy, there was a submucosal mass of 8×6 cm, which almost completely obstructed the lumen in the hepatic flexure and was covered by a mucosa that was sporadically ulcerated and necrotic in nature. In magnetic resonance imaging, an ovoid mass with a diameter of 8.5 cm at its widest dimension was detected, which had signal intensity similar to that of adipose tissue. Since the patient was symptomatic and differential diagnosis could not be made, she underwent laparoscopic right hemicolectomy. A submucosal lipoma was detected on histopathological examination of the specimen. The patient was discharged without any problems on post-operative day 7. Definite diagnosis of lipomas before surgery is challenging; they may be mistaken for malignancy, especially if the lesion is large and ulcerated. For large and symptomatic colon lipomas, surgery is required to both prevent complications and rule out malignancy. PMID:26170744

  13. Melatonin and Oral Cavity

    PubMed Central

    Cengiz, Murat İnanç; Cengiz, Seda; Wang, Hom-Lay

    2012-01-01

    While initially the oral cavity was considered to be mainly a source of various bacteria, their toxins and antigens, recent studies showed that it may also be a location of oxidative stress and periodontal inflammation. Accordingly, this paper focuses on the involvement of melatonin in oxidative stress diseases of oral cavity as well as on potential therapeutic implications of melatonin in dental disorders. Melatonin has immunomodulatory and antioxidant activities, stimulates the proliferation of collagen and osseous tissue, and acts as a protector against cellular degeneration associated with aging and toxin exposure. Arising out of its antioxidant actions, melatonin protects against inflammatory processes and cellular damage caused by the toxic derivates of oxygen. As a result of these actions, melatonin may be useful as a coadjuvant in the treatment of certain conditions of the oral cavity. However, the most important effect of melatonin seems to result from its potent antioxidant, immunomodulatory, protective, and anticancer properties. Thus, melatonin could be used therapeutically for instance, locally, in the oral cavity damage of mechanical, bacterial, fungal, or viral origin, in postsurgical wounds caused by tooth extractions and other oral surgeries. Additionally, it can help bone formation in various autoimmunological disorders such as Sjorgen syndrome, in periodontal diseases, in toxic effects of dental materials, in dental implants, and in oral cancers. PMID:22792106

  14. Percutaneous Pulmonary Valve Placement

    PubMed Central

    Prieto, Lourdes R.

    2015-01-01

    Patients with congenital heart disease and pulmonary valve disease need multiple procedures over their lifetimes to replace their pulmonary valves. Chronic pulmonary stenosis, regurgitation, or both have untoward effects on ventricular function and on the clinical status of these patients. To date, all right ventricle–pulmonary artery conduits have had relatively short lifespans. Percutaneous pulmonary valve implantation, although relatively new, will probably reduce the number of operative procedures that these patients will have to undergo over a lifetime. Refinement and further development of this procedure holds promise for the extension of this technology to other patient populations. PMID:26175629

  15. Pulmonary nocardiosis in an immunocompetent patient with cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Schoen, Lucy; Santoro, Jonathan D; Milla, Carlos; Bhargava, Sumit

    2015-01-01

    Nocardia spp. are bacteria of low virulence that cause infection classically in immunocompromised hosts with the lungs as the primary site of infection in the majority of cases. Patients with cystic fibrosis have pulmonary disease characterized by frequent and progressive bacterial infections. Reports of Nocardia spp. isolation in CF are rare in the literature and may represent colonization or active infection, the significance and optimal treatment of which are unknown. We report the second case to date of Nocardia transvalensis pulmonary infection in an immunocompetent patient with CF and the first in a child under the age of eighteen. PMID:25960909

  16. Diffuse lymphoid follicles of the colon associated with colonic carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Bronen, R A; Glick, S N; Teplick, S K

    1984-01-01

    In four patients aged 59-75 years, colonic carcinoma was associated with diffuse lymphoid follicles in the colon. In one case, the prominence and distribution of the lymphoid follicles corresponded to the progression and regression of the tumor bulk. It is extremely unusual to demonstrate lymphoid follicles, particularly diffuse, on barium enema in patients in this age range. The colonic carcinomas and lymphoid follicles are directly related, possibly representing an immune response. PMID:6606941

  17. Different colonization patterns of Aspergillus terreus in patients with cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Rougeron, A; Giraud, S; Razafimandimby, B; Meis, J F; Bouchara, J-P; Klaassen, C H W

    2014-04-01

    Aspergillus terreus is a common soil saprophyte. After Aspergillus fumigatus and Scedosporium apiospermum it ranks third amongst the filamentous fungi colonizing the airways of patients with cystic fibrosis. In this context, the clinical presentation of A. terreus infection mainly corresponds to allergic broncho-pulmonary aspergillosis. In the work presented here, we studied colonization patterns of A. terreus in CF patients by genotyping using nine short tandem repeat markers. A total of 115 clinical isolates from respiratory secretions collected from five French CF patients were studied. The number of isolates varied from 15 to 39 per patient, and the duration of the follow-up period ranged from 2 months to 7.5 years. Seventeen genotypes were identified, corresponding to three distinct colonization patterns. The first colonization pattern consisted of a chronic colonization by one dominant genotype associated with few other genotypes found only incidentally. The second colonization pattern consisted of a prolonged colonization by two distinct genotypes detected simultaneously. The last pattern was characterized by multiple different genotypes that were present only transiently. These results demonstrate the importance of genotyping clinical isolates before making conclusions about chronic colonization of the airways in CF patients in the case of repeated isolation of the fungus. PMID:23927682

  18. Broadband cavity electromagnetically induced transparency

    SciTech Connect

    Wei Xiaogang; Wang Yanhua; Zhang Jiepeng; Zhu Yifu

    2011-10-15

    Cavity electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) is created in a three-level atomic system confined in a cavity and coupled to a free-space control laser and is manifested as a narrow transmission peak of a probe laser coupled into the cavity mode and tuned to the two-photon Raman resonance with the control laser. Cavity EIT can be observed with a control laser detuned from the atomic transition frequency in a range limited by the vacuum Rabi splitting of two cavity-atom normal modes. This leads to the broadband cavity EIT obtained in the coupled-cavity-atom system with a free-space, broadband control laser. We report an experimental observation of broadband cavity EIT in cold Rb atoms with a frequency-modulated control laser and discuss its application in multichannel and multifrequency light memory.

  19. Effective Cavity Length of Gyrotrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thumm, Manfred

    2014-12-01

    Megawatt-class gyrotron oscillators for electron cyclotron heating and non-inductive current drive (ECH&CD) in magnetically confined thermonuclear fusion plasmas have relatively low cavity quality factors in the range of 1000 to 2000. The effective length of their cavities cannot be simply deduced from the cavity electric field profile, since this has by far not a Gaussian shape. The present paper presents a novel method to estimate the effective length of a gyrotron cavity just from the eigenvalue of the operating TEm,n mode, the cavity radius and the exact oscillation frequency which may be numerically computed or precisely measured. This effective cavity length then can be taken to calculate the Fresnel parameter in order to confirm that the cavity is not too short so that the transverse structure of any mode in the cavity is the same as that of the corresponding mode in a long circular waveguide with the same diameter.

  20. Seamless/bonded niobium cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singer, W.

    2006-07-01

    Technological aspects and performance of seamless cavities produced by hydroforming are presented. Problems related to the fabrication of seamless cavities from bulk niobium are mainly solved thanks to the progress of the last years. The highest achieved accelerating gradients are comparable for both seamless and welded versions (ca. 40 MV/m) Nevertheless further development of seamless cavities is desirable in order to avoid the careful preparation of parts for welding and get reliable statistic. Fabrication of NbCu clad cavities from bimetallic tubes is an interesting option that gives new opportunity to the seamless technique. On the one hand it allows reducing the niobium costs contribution; on the other hand it increases the thermal stability of the cavity. The highest accelerating gradient achieved on seamless NbCu clad single cell cavities (ca. 40 MV/m) is comparable to the one reached on bulk Nb cavities. Fabrication of multi-cell NbCu cavities by hydroforming was recently proven.

  1. Pulmonary vascular diseases.

    PubMed

    Mélot, C; Naeije, R

    2011-04-01

    Diseases of the pulmonary vasculature are a cause of increased pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) in pulmonary embolism, chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH), and pulmonary arterial hypertension or decreased PVR in pulmonary arteriovenous malformations on hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia, portal hypertension, or cavopulmonary anastomosis. All these conditions are associated with a decrease in both arterial PO2 and PCO2. Gas exchange in pulmonary vascular diseases with increased PVR is characterized by a shift of ventilation and perfusion to high ventilation-perfusion ratios, a mild to moderate increase in perfusion to low ventilation-perfusion ratios, and an increased physiologic dead space. Hypoxemia in these patients is essentially explained by altered ventilation-perfusion matching amplified by a decreased mixed venous PO2 caused by a low cardiac output. Hypocapnia is accounted for by hyperventilation, which is essentially related to an increased chemosensitivity. A cardiac shunt on a patent foramen ovale may be a cause of severe hypoxemia in a proportion of patients with pulmonary hypertension and an increase in right atrial pressure. Gas exchange in pulmonary arteriovenous malformations is characterized by variable degree of pulmonary shunting and/or diffusion-perfusion imbalance. Hypocapnia is caused by an increased ventilation in relation to an increased pulmonary blood flow with direct peripheral chemoreceptor stimulation by shunted mixed venous blood flow. PMID:23737196

  2. [Multiple cavitary pulmonary metastases from ovarian cancer: a case report].

    PubMed

    Hatakeyama, S; Takechi, A; Kashiyama, T

    2001-06-01

    Cavitation in pulmonary metastases is thought to be uncommon. To date, few cases of pulmonary metastases originating from ovarian cancer and showing cavitation have been reported. We report a patient with multiple cavitation in pulmonary metastases from ovarian mucinous cystadenocarcinoma. A 28-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital presenting with cough and fever. The patient had undergone right ovariectomy for ovarian mucinous cystadenocarcinoma at the age of 23 years. Her chest radiograph on admission showed multiple cavities associated with infiltration in both lungs. Histological sections obtained by transbronchial lung biopsy revealed mucus-secreting adenocarcinoma, and a diagnosis of metastatic lung cancer from the ovary was made. Computed tomographic (CT) scans of the chest demonstrated various findings, including multiple thick-walled cavities, thin-walled cavities, air-space consolidations, ground glass opacities, and centrilobular nodular shadows formed by aspiration of the mucinous secretions. It is important to recognize that cavitation can occur in pulmonary metastases from ovarian cancer. PMID:11530393

  3. Pulmonary Physiology of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, Cystic Fibrosis, and Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency.

    PubMed

    Stockley, James A; Stockley, Robert A

    2016-04-01

    Cystic fibrosis is predominantly an airway disease with marked bronchiectatic changes associated with inflammation, chronic colonization, and progressive airflow obstruction. The condition can be identified in childhood and monitored with detectable airway changes early in life while conventional spirometry remains in the normal range. Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency can also be detected early in life through blood spot and genetic testing and leads (in some) to the development of airflow obstruction and a predominant emphysema phenotype with bronchiectatic changes in about 30%. Early detection also allows the natural history of the pulmonary physiological changes to be determined. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is usually detected late in the disease process when significant damage has occurred. The condition consists of varying combinations of airway disease, bronchiectasis, colonization, and emphysema. Lessons learned from the physiological evolution of airway disease in cystic fibrosis and the emphysema of alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency provide strategies to enable early detection of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in general and its phenotypes. PMID:27115945

  4. Hollow waveguide cavity ringdown spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dreyer, Chris (Inventor); Mungas, Greg S. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    Laser light is confined in a hollow waveguide between two highly reflective mirrors. This waveguide cavity is used to conduct Cavity Ringdown Absorption Spectroscopy of loss mechanisms in the cavity including absorption or scattering by gases, liquid, solids, and/or optical elements.

  5. Rupture of sigmoid colon caused by compressed air.

    PubMed

    Yin, Wan-Bin; Hu, Ji-Lin; Gao, Yuan; Zhang, Xian-Xiang; Zhang, Mao-Shen; Liu, Guang-Wei; Zheng, Xue-Feng; Lu, Yun

    2016-03-14

    Compressed air has been generally used since the beginning of the 20(th) century for various applications. However, rupture of the colon caused by compressed air is uncommon. We report a case of pneumatic rupture of the sigmoid colon. The patient was admitted to the emergency room complaining of abdominal pain and distention. His colleague triggered a compressed air nozzle against his anus as a practical joke 2 h previously. On arrival, his pulse rate was 126 beats/min, respiratory rate was 42 breaths/min and blood pressure was 86/54 mmHg. Physical examination revealed peritoneal irritation and the abdomen was markedly distended. Computed tomography of the abdomen showed a large volume of air in the abdominal cavity. Peritoneocentesis was performed to relieve the tension pneumoperitoneum. Emergency laparotomy was done after controlling shock. Laparotomy revealed a 2-cm perforation in the sigmoid colon. The perforation was sutured and temporary ileostomy was performed as well as thorough drainage and irrigation of the abdominopelvic cavity. Reversal of ileostomy was performed successfully after 3 mo. Follow-up was uneventful. We also present a brief literature review. PMID:26973403

  6. Fungal infection of the colon

    PubMed Central

    Praneenararat, Surat

    2014-01-01

    Fungi are pathogens that commonly infect immunocompromised patients and can affect any organs of the body, including the colon. However, the literature provides limited details on colonic infections caused by fungi. This article is an intensive review of information available on the fungi that can cause colon infections. It uses a comparative style so that its conclusions may be accessible for clinical application. PMID:25364269

  7. Colonic lymphangiomatosis associated with anemia

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Woo Chul; Kim, Hye-Kang; Yoo, Jin Young; Lee, Jeong Rok; Lee, Kang-Moon; Paik, Chang Nyol; Jang, U-Im; Yang, Jin Mo

    2008-01-01

    Lymphangioma is an uncommon malformation of lymphatic system. Multiple colonic lymphangioma named as lymphangiomatosis is considered an extremely rare disease. Although lymphangioma is a benign tumor and most colonic lymphangiomas do not cause symptoms and do not require treatment, resection of lymphangioma is necessary in the presence of symptoms such as abdominal pain, bleeding, intussusceptions. We report a case of colonic lymphangiomatosis in a man who presented with abdominal discomfort and anemia, which was diagnosed and treated with endoscopic snare polypectomy. PMID:18837097

  8. Digital Cavity Resonance Monitor, alternative method of measuring cavity microphonics

    SciTech Connect

    Tomasz Plawski; G. Davis; Hai Dong; J. Hovater; John Musson; Thomas Powers

    2005-09-20

    As is well known, mechanical vibration or microphonics in a cryomodule causes the cavity resonance frequency to change at the vibration frequency. One way to measure the cavity microphonics is to drive the cavity with a Phase Locked Loop. Measurement of the instantaneous frequency or PLL error signal provides information about the cavity microphonic frequencies. Although the PLL error signal is available directly, precision frequency measurements require additional instrumentation, a Cavity Resonance Monitor (CRM). The analog version of such a device has been successfully used for several cavity tests [1]. In this paper we present a prototype of a Digital Cavity Resonance Monitor designed and built in the last year. The hardware of this instrument consists of an RF downconverter, digital quadrature demodulator and digital processor motherboard (Altera FPGA). The motherboard processes received data and computes frequency changes with a resolution of 0.2 Hz, with a 3 kHz output bandwidth.

  9. Metastatic pulmonary calcification misdiagnosed as a fungal infection: A case report

    PubMed Central

    LIANG, ZHIXIN; QIU, TIAN; ZHAO, ZHIGANG; CHEN, LIANG'AN; SHE, DANYANG

    2016-01-01

    Metastatic pulmonary calcification is a rare lesion, characterized by calcium salt depositing in normal lung tissue. The clinical profile of a case of metastatic pulmonary calcification following renal transplantation was described. A computed tomography scan of the chest revealed ground-glass opacities in bilateral lungs and a node exhibiting a halo in the right upper lobe, which were suspected aspergillus infection. Following examination and therapy, the results of lung biopsy revealed metastatic pulmonary calcification. Although metastatic pulmonary calcification was reported in renal failure patients previously, metastatic pulmonary calcification with cavity lesions has never, to the best of our knowledge, been previously reported. The aim of the present report was to improve the understanding of metastatic pulmonary calcification. PMID:26998293

  10. Cavity enhanced atomic magnetometry.

    PubMed

    Crepaz, Herbert; Ley, Li Yuan; Dumke, Rainer

    2015-01-01

    Atom sensing based on Faraday rotation is an indispensable method for precision measurements, universally suitable for both hot and cold atomic systems. Here we demonstrate an all-optical magnetometer where the optical cell for Faraday rotation spectroscopy is augmented with a low finesse cavity. Unlike in previous experiments, where specifically designed multipass cells had been employed, our scheme allows to use conventional, spherical vapour cells. Spherical shaped cells have the advantage that they can be effectively coated inside with a spin relaxation suppressing layer providing long spin coherence times without addition of a buffer gas. Cavity enhancement shows in an increase in optical polarization rotation and sensitivity compared to single-pass configurations. PMID:26481853

  11. Cavity enhanced atomic magnetometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crepaz, Herbert; Ley, Li Yuan; Dumke, Rainer

    2015-10-01

    Atom sensing based on Faraday rotation is an indispensable method for precision measurements, universally suitable for both hot and cold atomic systems. Here we demonstrate an all-optical magnetometer where the optical cell for Faraday rotation spectroscopy is augmented with a low finesse cavity. Unlike in previous experiments, where specifically designed multipass cells had been employed, our scheme allows to use conventional, spherical vapour cells. Spherical shaped cells have the advantage that they can be effectively coated inside with a spin relaxation suppressing layer providing long spin coherence times without addition of a buffer gas. Cavity enhancement shows in an increase in optical polarization rotation and sensitivity compared to single-pass configurations.

  12. Cavity enhanced atomic magnetometry

    PubMed Central

    Crepaz, Herbert; Ley, Li Yuan; Dumke, Rainer

    2015-01-01

    Atom sensing based on Faraday rotation is an indispensable method for precision measurements, universally suitable for both hot and cold atomic systems. Here we demonstrate an all-optical magnetometer where the optical cell for Faraday rotation spectroscopy is augmented with a low finesse cavity. Unlike in previous experiments, where specifically designed multipass cells had been employed, our scheme allows to use conventional, spherical vapour cells. Spherical shaped cells have the advantage that they can be effectively coated inside with a spin relaxation suppressing layer providing long spin coherence times without addition of a buffer gas. Cavity enhancement shows in an increase in optical polarization rotation and sensitivity compared to single-pass configurations. PMID:26481853

  13. CAVITY CONTROL ALGORITHM

    SciTech Connect

    Tomasz Plawski, J. Hovater

    2010-09-01

    A digital low level radio frequency (RF) system typically incorporates either a heterodyne or direct sampling technique, followed by fast ADCs, then an FPGA, and finally a transmitting DAC. This universal platform opens up the possibilities for a variety of control algorithm implementations. The foremost concern for an RF control system is cavity field stability, and to meet the required quality of regulation, the chosen control system needs to have sufficient feedback gain. In this paper we will investigate the effectiveness of the regulation for three basic control system algorithms: I&Q (In-phase and Quadrature), Amplitude & Phase and digital SEL (Self Exciting Loop) along with the example of the Jefferson Lab 12 GeV cavity field control system.

  14. What Are Oral Cavity and Oropharyngeal Cancers?

    MedlinePlus

    ... about oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancers? What are oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancers? Cancer starts when cells in ... the parts of the mouth and throat. The oral cavity (mouth) and oropharynx (throat) The oral cavity includes ...

  15. Single mode cavity laser

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, D.W.; Levy, J.L.

    1984-01-17

    This external cavity laser utilizes an unstable resonator in conjuction with a high reflectivity stripe end mirror which is oriented substantially parallel to the plane of the maximum divergence of the laser diode output beam and whose axis is substantially parallel to the plane of the junction of the laser diode. This configuration operates with high efficiency to select only the fundamental mode of the laser diode with a minimal divergence in the output beam.

  16. Gyromultiplier with sectioned cavity

    SciTech Connect

    Bandurkin, I. V.; Mishakin, S. V.

    2010-11-15

    A novel scheme of a self-exciting single-cavity terahertz gyromultiplier is proposed and theoretically investigated. Simulations predict a possibility to obtain a power of 75 W at the frequency of 1.3 THz from the 80 kV/0.7 A electron beam when operating at the fourth cyclotron harmonic at the relatively low magnetic field of 14 T.

  17. [Two cases of Mycobacterium szulgai pulmonary disease in the elderly].

    PubMed

    Hamada, Minako; Kajiki, Akira; Nagata, Nobuhiko; Wakamatsu, Kentaro; Komori, Masashi; Matsunaga, Kazuko; Iwata, Yasuhiro; Ishimatsu, Akiko; Kitahara, Yoshinari

    2005-05-01

    The rate of pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacteriosis (NTM) in the total pulmonary mycobacteriosis has been continuously increasing. While M. avium complex is the most common cause of NTM, there are a few case reports of pulmonary infection due to M. szulgai. We described two cases of pulmonary NTM caused by M. szulgai. A 75-year-old male was admitted to our hospital because of dyspnea on effort, and productive cough. A chest X-ray showed an infiltrative shadow with cavity in the right upper lobe. A sputum smear for mycobacteria was positive, and a culture grew M. szulgai which was identified by DNA-DNA hybridization. He was treated with isoniazid, rifampicin, and ethambutol. His symptoms and CT and X-ray findings improved, and his sputum smear and culture converted to negative for mycobacteria. Second case was a 73-year-old male who had previously been diagnosed as MAC and pulmonary aspergillosis, and had been treated with antituberculous and antifungal drugs. He was readmitted to our hospital, because of general fatigue and hemoptysis. A chest X-ray revealed a consolidation with bronchiectasis and cavity in the both upper lung fields. A sptum smear for mycobacteria was positive, and a grown culture was identified as M. szulgai. He was treated with rifampicin, ethambutol and kanamycin based on the results of susceptibility testing. After 3 months of this treatment his sputum smear and culture converted to negative for mycobacteria, and his symptoms, and CT and X-ray findings improved. PMID:16083051

  18. RF Cavity Characterization with VORPAL

    SciTech Connect

    C. Nieter, C. Roark, P. Stoltz, C.D. Zhou, F. Marhauser

    2011-03-01

    When designing a radio frequency (RF) accelerating cavity structure various figures of merit are considered before coming to a final cavity design. These figures of merit include specific field and geometry based quantities such as the ratio of the shunt impedance to the quality factor (R/Q) or the normalized peak fields in the cavity. Other important measures of cavity performance include the peak surface fields as well as possible multipacting resonances in the cavity. High fidelity simulations of these structures can provide a good estimate of these important quantities before any cavity prototypes are built. We will present VORPAL simulations of a simple pillbox structure where these quantities can be calculated analytically and compare them to the results from the VORPAL simulations. We will then use VORPAL to calculate these figures of merit and potential multipacting resonances for two cavity designs under development at Jefferson National Lab for Project X.

  19. Crab Cavities for Linear Colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Burt, G.; Ambattu, P.; Carter, R.; Dexter, A.; Tahir, I.; Beard, C.; Dykes, M.; Goudket, P.; Kalinin, A.; Ma, L.; McIntosh, P.; Shulte, D.; Jones, Roger M.; Bellantoni, L.; Chase, B.; Church, M.; Khabouline, T.; Latina, A.; Adolphsen, C.; Li, Z.; Seryi, Andrei; /SLAC

    2011-11-08

    Crab cavities have been proposed for a wide number of accelerators and interest in crab cavities has recently increased after the successful operation of a pair of crab cavities in KEK-B. In particular crab cavities are required for both the ILC and CLIC linear colliders for bunch alignment. Consideration of bunch structure and size constraints favour a 3.9 GHz superconducting, multi-cell cavity as the solution for ILC, whilst bunch structure and beam-loading considerations suggest an X-band copper travelling wave structure for CLIC. These two cavity solutions are very different in design but share complex design issues. Phase stabilisation, beam loading, wakefields and mode damping are fundamental issues for these crab cavities. Requirements and potential design solutions will be discussed for both colliders.

  20. Pathways to Colonization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smitherman, David V., Jr.

    2003-01-01

    The steps required for space colonization are many to grow from our current 3-person International Space Station, now under construction, to an infrastructure that can support hundreds and eventually thousands of people in space. This paper will summarize the author's findings from numerous studies and workshops on related subjects and identify some of the critical next steps toward space colonization. Findings will be drawn from the author s previous work on space colony design, space infrastructure workshops, and various studies that addressed space policy. In conclusion, this paper will note that significant progress has been made on space facility construction through the International Space Station program, and that significant efforts are needed in the development of new reusable Earth to Orbit transportation systems. The next key steps will include reusable in space transportation systems supported by in space propellant depots, the continued development of inflatable habitat and space elevator technologies, and the resolution of policy issues that will establish a future vision for space development.

  1. Colonization of congenitally athymic, gnotobiotic mice by Candida albicans.

    PubMed Central

    Balish, E; Balish, M J; Salkowski, C A; Lee, K W; Bartizal, K F

    1984-01-01

    Colony counts, scanning electron microscopy, and light microscopy were used to assess the capacity of Candida albicans to colonize (naturally) and infect the alimentary tract of adult and neonatal (athymic [nu/nu] or heterozygous [+/nu] littermates) germfree BALB/c mice. When exposed to yeast-phase C. albicans, the alimentary tract of adult germfree mice (nu/nu or +/nu) is quickly (within 24 to 48 h) colonized with yeast cells. Neither morbidity nor mortality was evident in any mice that were colonized with a pure culture of C. albicans for 6 months. Yeast cells of C. albicans predominated on mucosal surfaces in the oral cavities and vaginas of adult athymic and heterozygous mice. In both genotypes, C. albicans hyphae were observed in keratinized tissue on the dorsal posterior tongue surface and in the cardial-atrium section of the stomach. Conversely, neonatal athymic or heterozygous mice, born to germfree or C. albicans-colonized mothers, do not become heavily colonized or infected with C. albicans until 11 to 15 days after birth. Although yeast cells adhered to some mucosal surfaces in vivo, neither widespread mucocutaneous candidiasis, i.e., invasion of mucosal surfaces with C. albicans hyphae, nor overwhelming systemic candidiasis was evident in neonatal (nu/nu or +/nu) mice. Thus, even in the absence of functional T-cells and a viable bacterial flora, athymic and heterozygous littermate mice (adult or neonatal BALB/c) that are colonized with a pure culture of C. albicans manifest resistance to extensive mucocutaneous and systemic candidiasis. Images PMID:6372689

  2. Pulmonary hypertension caused by pulmonary venous hypertension

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The effect of pulmonary venous hypertension (PVH) on the pulmonary circulation is extraordinarily variable, ranging from no impact on pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) to a marked increase. The reasons for this are unknown. Both acutely reversible pulmonary vasoconstriction and pathological remodeling (especially medial hypertrophy and intimal hyperplasia) account for increased PVR when present. The mechanisms involved in vasoconstriction and remodeling are not clearly defined, but increased wall stress, especially in small pulmonary arteries, presumably plays an important role. Myogenic contraction may account for increased vascular tone and also indirectly stimulate remodeling of the vessel wall. Increased wall stress may also directly cause smooth muscle growth, migration, and intimal hyperplasia. Even long-standing and severe pulmonary hypertension (PH) usually abates with elimination of PVH, but PVH-PH is an important clinical problem, especially because PVH due to left ventricular noncompliance lacks definitive therapy. The role of targeted PH therapy in patients with PVH-PH is unclear at this time. Most prospective studies indicate that these medications are not helpful or worse, but there is ample reason to think that a subset of patients with PVH-PH may benefit from phosphodiesterase inhibitors or other agents. A different approach to evaluating possible pharmacologic therapy for PVH-PH may be required to better define its possible utility. PMID:25610595

  3. Maternal influences on fetal microbial colonization and immune development

    PubMed Central

    Romano-Keeler, Joann; Weitkamp, Jörn-Hendrik

    2014-01-01

    While critical for normal development, the exact timing of establishment of the intestinal microbiome is unknown. For example, although preterm labor and birth have been associated with bacterial colonization of the amniotic cavity and fetal membranes for many years, the prevailing dogma of a sterile intrauterine environment during normal term pregnancies has been challenged more recently. While found to be a key contributor of evolution in the animal kingdom, maternal transmission of commensal bacteria may also constitute a critical process during healthy pregnancies in humans with yet unclear developmental importance. Metagenomic sequencing has elucidated a rich placental microbiome in normal term pregnancies likely providing important metabolic and immune contributions to the growing fetus. Conversely, an altered microbial composition during pregnancy may produce aberrant metabolites impairing fetal brain development and life-long neurological outcomes. Here we review the current understanding of microbial colonization at the feto-maternal interface and explain how normal gut colonization drives a balanced neonatal mucosal immune system, while dysbiosis contributes to aberrant immune function early in life and beyond. We discuss how maternal genetics, diet, medications, and probiotics inform the fetal microbiome in preparation for perinatal and postnatal bacterial colonization. PMID:25310759

  4. Cystic pulmonary hydatidosis

    PubMed Central

    Sarkar, Malay; Pathania, Rajnish; Jhobta, Anupam; Thakur, Babu Ram; Chopra, Rajesh

    2016-01-01

    Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is a zoonotic parasitic disease caused by the larval stages of the cestode Echinococcus granulosus. Worldwide, pulmonary hydatid cyst is a significant problem medically, socially, and economically. Surgery is the definitive therapy of pulmonary hydatidosis. Benzimidazoles may be considered in patients with a surgical contraindication. This review will focus on pathogenesis, lifecycle, clinical features, and management of pulmonary hydatid disease. PMID:27051107

  5. Fungal colonization of an Ordovician impact-induced hydrothermal system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivarsson, Magnus; Broman, Curt; Sturkell, Erik; Ormö, Jens; Siljeström, Sandra; van Zuilen, Mark; Bengtson, Stefan

    2013-12-01

    Impacts are common geologic features on the terrestrial planets throughout the solar system, and on at least Earth and Mars impacts have induced hydrothermal convection. Impact-generated hydrothermal systems have been suggested to possess the same life supporting capability as hydrothermal systems associated with volcanic activity. However, evidence of fossil microbial colonization in impact-generated hydrothermal systems is scarce in the literature. Here we report of fossilized microorganisms in association with cavity-grown hydrothermal minerals from the 458 Ma Lockne impact structure, Sweden. Based on morphological characteristics the fossilized microorganisms are interpreted as fungi. We further infer the kerogenization of the microfossils, and thus the life span of the fungi, to be contemporaneous with the hydrothermal activity and migration of hydrocarbons in the system. Our results from the Lockne impact structure show that hydrothermal systems associated with impact structures can support colonization by microbial life.

  6. Fungal colonization of an Ordovician impact-induced hydrothermal system.

    PubMed

    Ivarsson, Magnus; Broman, Curt; Sturkell, Erik; Ormö, Jens; Siljeström, Sandra; van Zuilen, Mark; Bengtson, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Impacts are common geologic features on the terrestrial planets throughout the solar system, and on at least Earth and Mars impacts have induced hydrothermal convection. Impact-generated hydrothermal systems have been suggested to possess the same life supporting capability as hydrothermal systems associated with volcanic activity. However, evidence of fossil microbial colonization in impact-generated hydrothermal systems is scarce in the literature. Here we report of fossilized microorganisms in association with cavity-grown hydrothermal minerals from the 458 Ma Lockne impact structure, Sweden. Based on morphological characteristics the fossilized microorganisms are interpreted as fungi. We further infer the kerogenization of the microfossils, and thus the life span of the fungi, to be contemporaneous with the hydrothermal activity and migration of hydrocarbons in the system. Our results from the Lockne impact structure show that hydrothermal systems associated with impact structures can support colonization by microbial life. PMID:24336641

  7. Fungal colonization of an Ordovician impact-induced hydrothermal system

    PubMed Central

    Ivarsson, Magnus; Broman, Curt; Sturkell, Erik; Ormö, Jens; Siljeström, Sandra; van Zuilen, Mark; Bengtson, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Impacts are common geologic features on the terrestrial planets throughout the solar system, and on at least Earth and Mars impacts have induced hydrothermal convection. Impact-generated hydrothermal systems have been suggested to possess the same life supporting capability as hydrothermal systems associated with volcanic activity. However, evidence of fossil microbial colonization in impact-generated hydrothermal systems is scarce in the literature. Here we report of fossilized microorganisms in association with cavity-grown hydrothermal minerals from the 458 Ma Lockne impact structure, Sweden. Based on morphological characteristics the fossilized microorganisms are interpreted as fungi. We further infer the kerogenization of the microfossils, and thus the life span of the fungi, to be contemporaneous with the hydrothermal activity and migration of hydrocarbons in the system. Our results from the Lockne impact structure show that hydrothermal systems associated with impact structures can support colonization by microbial life. PMID:24336641

  8. How Is Pulmonary Hypertension Diagnosed?

    MedlinePlus

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. How Is Pulmonary Hypertension Diagnosed? Your doctor will diagnose pulmonary hypertension (PH) ... To Look for the Underlying Cause of Pulmonary Hypertension PH has many causes, so many tests may ...

  9. Neostigmine and pulmonary oedema

    PubMed Central

    Nagella, Amrutha Bindu; Bijapur, Mubina Begum; Shreyavathi, Shreyavathi; R S, Raghavendra Rao

    2014-01-01

    A 1-year-old child with no pre-existing cardiac or respiratory disease developed frank pulmonary oedema after administration of a neostigmine–glycopyrrolate mixture to reverse neuromuscular blockade during general anaesthesia. Possible cardiac and extra-cardiac factors that could cause pulmonary oedema in this child were ruled out by appropriate investigations. As the pulmonary oedema manifested shortly after administration of the neostigmine–glycopyrrolate mixture, we concluded that neostigmine was the most probable cause. This article briefly reports the occurrence of events and successful management of perioperative pulmonary oedema. PMID:25199191

  10. Hereditary and Familial Colon Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Jasperson, Kory W.; Tuohy, Thérèse M.; Neklason, Deborah W.; Burt, Randall W.

    2011-01-01

    Between 2% to 5% of all colon cancers arise in the setting of well defined inherited syndromes, including Lynch syndrome, familial adenomatous polyposis, MUTYH-associated polyposis, and certain hamartomatous polyposis conditions. Each is associated with a high risk of colon cancer. In addition to the syndromes, up to one-third of colon cancers exhibit increased familial risk, likely related to inheritance. A number of less penetrant, but possibly more frequent susceptibility genes have been identified for this level of inheritance. Clarification of predisposing genes allows for accurate risk assessment and more precise screening approaches. This review examines the colon cancer syndromes, their genetics and management, and also the common familial colon cancers with current genetic advances and screening guidelines. PMID:20420945

  11. Schwannoma of the sigmoid colon.

    PubMed

    Çakır, Tuğrul; Aslaner, Arif; Yaz, Müjgan; Gündüz, Umut rıza

    2015-01-01

    Colonic schwannomas are very rare gastrointestinal tumours originating from Schwann cells, which form the neural sheath. Primary schwannomas of the lower gastrointestinal tract are very rare and usually benign in nature. However, if they are not surgically removed, malign degeneration can occur. We report a case of a 79-year-old woman who presented to our clinic with rectal bleeding and constipation. She underwent a lower gastrointestinal tract endoscopy. A mass subtotally obstructing the lumen of the sigmoid colon was seen and biopsies were taken. Histopathological examination indicated a suspicion of gastrointestinal tumour and the patient underwent sigmoid colon resection after preoperative evaluation by laboratory analysis, abdominal ultrasonography and CT. Her postoperative course was uneventful and she was discharged on the fifth day for outpatient control. The histopathology report revealed schwannoma of the sigmoid colon. This was a case of schwannoma of the sigmoid colon that was successfully treated with total resection. PMID:25976197

  12. Superconducting cavities and modulated RF

    SciTech Connect

    Farkas, Z.D.

    1981-02-01

    If a cavity has an infinite Q/sub o/, 81.5% of the energy contained in a pulse incident upon the cavity is transferred into the cavity by the end of the pulse if the cavity Q/sub e/ is chosen so that the cavity time constant is 0.796 pulse width (T/sub a/). As Q/sug o/ decreases, the energy in the cavity at the end of the pulse decreases very slowly as long as T/sub a/ is much less than the unloaded cavity time constant, T/sub co/. SC cavities with very high Q/sub o/ enable one to obtain very high gradients with a low power cw source. At high gradients, however, one often does not attain the high Q/sub o/ predicted by theory. Therefore, if one is inteerested in attaining maximum energy in the cavity, as is the case for RF processing and diagnostics, for a given available source energy there is no point in keeping the power on for longer than 0.1 T/sub co/ because the energy expended after 0.1 T/sub co/ is wasted. Therefore, to attain high fields at moderate Q/sub o/, pulsed operation is indicated. This note derives the fields and energy stored and dissipated in the cavity when Q/sub e/ is optimized for a given T/sub a/. It shows how to use this data to measure Q/sub o/ of an SC cavity as a function of field level, how to process the cavity with high RF fields, how to operate SC cavities in the pulsed mode to obtain higher efficiencies and gradients. Experimental results are also reported.

  13. Colonize, evade, flourish

    PubMed Central

    Rubin, Erica J; Trent, M Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori is an adapted gastric pathogen that colonizes the human stomach, causing severe gastritis and gastric cancer. A hallmark of infection is the ability of this organism to evade detection by the human immune system. H. pylori has evolved a number of features to achieve this, many of which involve glyco-conjugates including the lipopolysaccharide, peptidoglycan layer, glycoproteins, and glucosylated cholesterol. These major bacterial components possess unique features from those of other gram-negative organisms, including differences in structure, assembly, and modification. These defining characteristics of H. pylori glycobiology help the pathogen establish a long-lived infection by providing camouflage, modulating the host immune response, and promoting virulence mechanisms. In this way, glyco-conjugates are essential for H. pylori pathogenicity and survival, allowing it to carve out a niche in the formidable environment of the human stomach. PMID:23859890

  14. [Irritable colon and constipation].

    PubMed

    Meyenberger, C

    1993-04-20

    Irritable bowel syndrome is a very common clinical problem with a broad spectrum of severity. The management includes a combination of positive diagnosis of typical symptoms with limited investigations to exclude underlying structural or biochemical disorders. Therapeutic trials focus on the relief of predominant symptoms. Identification and modification of factors exacerbating symptoms, behavioural techniques and pharmacologic agents directed to the presumed gastrointestinal motor dysfunction are required. Psychological support by the physician is the most important part of treatment. Chronic constipation may be the predominant symptom of irritable bowel syndrome. Underlying organic disorders must be excluded by clinical examination and endoscopy. Severe chronic constipation requires further investigation of colonic motility and defecation. High fibre diet, osmotic laxatives and procinetic agents may lead to an improvement. In rare cases surgery may be indicated. PMID:8488351

  15. Pulmonary embolism in an immunocompetent patient with acute cytomegalovirus colitis

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Jen-Wei

    2016-01-01

    Acute cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection occurs commonly in immunocompromised and immunocompetent patients, but is usually asymptomatic in the latter. Vascular events associated with acute CMV infection have been described, but are rare. Hence, such events are rarely reported in the literature. We report a case of pulmonary embolism secondary to acute CMV colitis in an immunocompetent 78-year-old man. The patient presented with fever and diarrhea. Colonic ulcers were diagnosed based on colonoscopy findings, and CMV was the proven etiology on pathological examination. The patient subsequently experienced acute respiratory failure. Pulmonary embolism was diagnosed based on the chest radiography and computed tomography findings. A diagnosis of acute CMV colitis complicated by pulmonary embolism was made. The patient was successfully treated with intravenous administration of unfractionated heparin and intravenous ganciclovir. PMID:27175121

  16. The effect of fetal breathing movements on pulmonary blood flow in fetal sheep.

    PubMed

    Savich, R D; Guerra, F A; Lee, C C; Kitterman, J A

    1994-04-01

    In the fetus, normal lung growth requires both fetal breathing movements (FBM) and adequate pulmonary blood flow. We postulated that FBM intermittently increase pulmonary blood flow and may stimulate lung growth through that effect. To test the hypothesis that normal intermittent FBM cause associated intermittent increases in pulmonary blood flow, we studied eight chronically instrumented fetal sheep (gestational ages 125-143 d) on 34 occasions (total study time = 65.7 h). Each fetus had a cuff electromagnetic flow transducer around the left pulmonary artery, electrocortical electrodes, and catheters in the trachea, main pulmonary artery, carotid artery, and amniotic cavity. Mean blood flow though the left pulmonary artery averaged 59 +/- 8 mL/min (mean +/- SEM; per kg: 25 +/- 4 mL/kg/min) and was similar in both the presence (61 +/- 9 mL/min) and absence (57 +/- 7 mL/min) of FBM and during both high and low voltage electrocortical activity. In contrast, in utero phasic pulmonary blood flow varied with FBM, increasing during the inspiratory phase and decreasing during the expiratory phase. Both pulmonary and systemic vascular pressures showed changes in the opposite directions. Arterial pH and blood gas tensions were normal and did not change with FBM or electrocortical activity. We conclude that FBM do not increase mean blood flow through the left pulmonary artery; thus, it is unlikely that FBM stimulate lung growth through changes in pulmonary blood flow. PMID:8047386

  17. PULMONARY CIRCULATION AT EXERCISE

    PubMed Central

    NAEIJE, R; CHESLER, N

    2012-01-01

    The pulmonary circulation is a high flow and low pressure circuit, with an average resistance of 1 mmHg.min.L−1 in young adults, increasing to 2.5 mmHg.min.L−1 over 4–6 decades of life. Pulmonary vascular mechanics at exercise are best described by distensible models. Exercise does not appear to affect the time constant of the pulmonary circulation or the longitudinal distribution of resistances. Very high flows are associated with high capillary pressures, up to a 20–25 mmHg threshold associated with interstitial lung edema and altered ventilation/perfusion relationships. Pulmonary artery pressures of 40–50 mmHg, which can be achieved at maximal exercise, may correspond to the extreme of tolerable right ventricular afterload. Distension of capillaries that decrease resistance may be of adaptative value during exercise, but this is limited by hypoxemia from altered diffusion/perfusion relationships. Exercise in hypoxia is associated with higher pulmonary vascular pressures and lower maximal cardiac output, with increased likelihood of right ventricular function limitation and altered gas exchange by interstitial lung edema. Pharmacological interventions aimed at the reduction of pulmonary vascular tone have little effect on pulmonary vascular pressure-flow relationships in normoxia, but may decrease resistance in hypoxia, unloading the right ventricle and thereby improving exercise capacity. Exercise in patients with pulmonary hypertension is associated with sharp increases in pulmonary artery pressure and a right ventricular limitation of aerobic capacity. Exercise stress testing to determine multipoint pulmonary vascular pressures-flow relationships may uncover early stage pulmonary vascular disease. PMID:23105961

  18. Colon interposition for oesophageal replacement.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Pascal A; Gilardoni, Adrian; Trousse, Delphine; D'Journo, Xavier B; Avaro, Jean-Philippe; Doddoli, Christophe; Giudicelli, Roger; Fuentes, Pierre

    2009-01-01

    The choice of the colon as an oesophageal substitute results primarily from the unavailability of the stomach. However, given its durability and function, colon interposition keeps elective indications in patients with benign or malignant oesophageal disease who are potential candidates for long survival. The choice of the colonic portion used for oesophageal reconstruction depends on the required length of the graft, and the encountered colonic vascular anatomy, the last being characterised by the near-invariability of the left colonic vessels, in contrast to the vascular pattern of the right side of the colon. Accordingly, the transverse colon with all or part of the ascending colon is the substitute of choice, positioned in the isoperistaltic direction, and supplied either from the left colic vessels for long grafts or middle colic vessels for shorter grafts. Technical key points are: full mobilisation of the entire colon, identification of the main colonic vessels and collaterals, and a prolonged clamping test to ensure the permeability of the chosen nourishing pedicle. Transposition through the posterior mediastinum in the oesophageal bed is the shortest one and thereby offers the best functional results. When the oesophageal bed is not available, the retrosternal route is the preferred alternative option. The food bolus travelling mainly by gravity makes straightness of the conduit of paramount importance. The proximal anastomosis is a single-layer hand-fashioned end-to-end anastomosis to prevent narrowing. When the stomach is available, the distal anastomosis is best performed at the posterior part of the antrum for the reasons of pedicle positioning and reflux prevention, and a gastric drainage procedure is added when the oesophagus and vagus nerves have been removed. In the other cases, a Roux-en-Y jejunal loop is preferable to prevent bile reflux into the colon. Additional procedures include re-establishment of the colonic continuity, a careful closure of

  19. Applications of cavity optomechanics

    SciTech Connect

    Metcalfe, Michael

    2014-09-15

    Cavity-optomechanics” aims to study the quantum properties of mechanical systems. A common strategy implemented in order to achieve this goal couples a high finesse photonic cavity to a high quality factor mechanical resonator. Then, using feedback forces such as radiation pressure, one can cool the mechanical mode of interest into the quantum ground state and create non-classical states of mechanical motion. On the path towards achieving these goals, many near-term applications of this field have emerged. After briefly introducing optomechanical systems and describing the current state-of-the-art experimental results, this article summarizes some of the more exciting practical applications such as ultra-sensitive, high bandwidth accelerometers and force sensors, low phase noise x-band integrated microwave oscillators and optical signal processing such as optical delay-lines, wavelength converters, and tunable optical filters. In this rapidly evolving field, new applications are emerging at a fast pace, but this article concentrates on the aforementioned lab-based applications as these are the most promising avenues for near-term real-world applications. New basic science applications are also becoming apparent such as the generation of squeezed light, testing gravitational theories and for providing a link between disparate quantum systems.

  20. Multicolor cavity metrology.

    PubMed

    Izumi, Kiwamu; Arai, Koji; Barr, Bryan; Betzwieser, Joseph; Brooks, Aidan; Dahl, Katrin; Doravari, Suresh; Driggers, Jennifer C; Korth, W Zach; Miao, Haixing; Rollins, Jameson; Vass, Stephen; Yeaton-Massey, David; Adhikari, Rana X

    2012-10-01

    Long-baseline laser interferometers used for gravitational-wave detection have proven to be very complicated to control. In order to have sufficient sensitivity to astrophysical gravitational waves, a set of multiple coupled optical cavities comprising the interferometer must be brought into resonance with the laser field. A set of multi-input, multi-output servos then lock these cavities into place via feedback control. This procedure, known as lock acquisition, has proven to be a vexing problem and has reduced greatly the reliability and duty factor of the past generation of laser interferometers. In this article, we describe a technique for bringing the interferometer from an uncontrolled state into resonance by using harmonically related external fields to provide a deterministic hierarchical control. This technique reduces the effect of the external seismic disturbances by 4 orders of magnitude and promises to greatly enhance the stability and reliability of the current generation of gravitational-wave detectors. The possibility for using multicolor techniques to overcome current quantum and thermal noise limits is also discussed. PMID:23201656

  1. Observation of Cavity Rydberg Polaritons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgakopoulos, Alexandros; Jia, Ningyuan; Ryou, Albert; Schine, Nathan; Sommer, Ariel; Simon, Jonathan

    2016-05-01

    We demonstrate hybridization of optical cavity photons with atomic Rydberg excitations using electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT). The resulting dark state Rydberg polaritons exhibit a compressed frequency spectrum and enhanced lifetime indicating strong light-matter mixing. We study the coherence properties of cavity Rydberg polaritons and identify the generalized EIT linewidth for optical cavities. Strong collective coupling suppresses polariton losses due to inhomogeneous broadening, which we demonstrate by using different Rydberg levels with a range of polarizabilities. Our results point the way towards using cavity Rydberg polaritons as a platform for creating photonic quantum materials.

  2. Extremely Large Cusp Diamagnetic Cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, J.; Fritz, T. A.

    2002-05-01

    Extremely large diamagnetic cavities with a size of as large as 6 Re have been observed in the dayside high-altitude cusp regions. Some of the diamagnetic cavities were independent of the IMF directions, which is unexpected by the current MHD (or ISM) models, suggesting that the cusp diamagnetic cavities are different from the magnetospheric sash, which provides a challenge to the existing MHD (or ISM) models. Associated with these cavities are ions with energies from 40 keV up to 8 MeV. The charge state distribution of these cusp cavity ions was indicative of their seed populations being a mixture of the ionospheric and the solar wind particles. The intensities of the cusp cavity energetic ions were observed to increase by as large as four orders of the magnitudes. During high solar wind pressure period on April 21, 1999, the POLAR spacecraft observed lower ion flux in the dayside high-latitude magnetosheath than that in the neighbouring cusp cavities. These observations indicate that the dayside high-altitude cusp diamagnetic cavity is a key region for transferring the solar wind energy, mass, and momentum into the Earth's magnetosphere. These energetic particles in the cusp diamagnetic cavity together with the cusp's connectivity have significant global impacts on the geospace environment research and will be shedding light on the long-standing unsolved fundamental issue about the origins of the energetic particles in the ring current and in upstream ion events.

  3. Extremely large cusp diamagnetic cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, J.; Fritz, T.; Siscoe, G.

    Extremely large diamagnetic cavities with a size of as large as 6 Re have been observed in the dayside high-altitude cusp regions. These diamagnetic cavities are always there day by day. Some of the diamagnetic cavities have been observed in the morningside during intervals when the IMF By component was positive (duskward), suggesting that the cusp diamagnetic cavities are different from the magnetospheric sash predicted by MHD simulations. Associated with these cavities are ions with energies from 40 keV up to 8 MeV. The charge state distribution of these cusp cavity ions was indicative of their seed populations being a mixture of the ionospheric and the solar wind particles. The intensities of the cusp cavity energetic ions were observed to increase by as large as four orders of the magnitudes. These observations indicate that the dayside high-altitude cusp diamagnetic cavity is a key region for transferring the solar wind energy, mass, and momentum into the Earth's magnetosphere. These energetic particles in the cusp diamagnetic cavity together with the cusp's connectivity to the entire magnetopause may have significant global impacts on the geospace environment. They will possibly be shedding light on the long-standing unsolved fundamental issue about the origins of the energetic particles in the ring current and in the regions upstream of the subsolar magnetopause where energetic ion events frequently are observed.

  4. Nanofriction in Cavity Quantum Electrodynamics.

    PubMed

    Fogarty, T; Cormick, C; Landa, H; Stojanović, Vladimir M; Demler, E; Morigi, Giovanna

    2015-12-01

    The dynamics of cold trapped ions in a high-finesse resonator results from the interplay between the long-range Coulomb repulsion and the cavity-induced interactions. The latter are due to multiple scatterings of laser photons inside the cavity and become relevant when the laser pump is sufficiently strong to overcome photon decay. We study the stationary states of ions coupled with a mode of a standing-wave cavity as a function of the cavity and laser parameters, when the typical length scales of the two self-organizing processes, Coulomb crystallization and photon-mediated interactions, are incommensurate. The dynamics are frustrated and in specific limiting cases can be cast in terms of the Frenkel-Kontorova model, which reproduces features of friction in one dimension. We numerically recover the sliding and pinned phases. For strong cavity nonlinearities, they are in general separated by bistable regions where superlubric and stick-slip dynamics coexist. The cavity, moreover, acts as a thermal reservoir and can cool the chain vibrations to temperatures controlled by the cavity parameters and by the ions' phase. These features are imprinted in the radiation emitted by the cavity, which is readily measurable in state-of-the-art setups of cavity quantum electrodynamics. PMID:26684118

  5. Cavity coalescence in superplastic deformation

    SciTech Connect

    Stowell, M.J.; Livesey, D.W.; Ridley, N.

    1984-01-01

    An analysis of the probability distribution function of particles randomly dispersed in a solid has been applied to cavitation during superplastic deformation and a method of predicting cavity coalescence developed. Cavity size distribution data were obtained from two microduplex nickel-silver alloys deformed superplastically to various extents at elevated temperature, and compared to theoretical predictions. Excellent agreement occurred for small void sizes but the model underestimated the number of voids in the largest size groups. It is argued that the discrepancy results from a combination of effects due to non-random cavity distributions and to enhanced growth rates and incomplete spheroidization of the largest cavities.

  6. Nanofriction in Cavity Quantum Electrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fogarty, T.; Cormick, C.; Landa, H.; Stojanović, Vladimir M.; Demler, E.; Morigi, Giovanna

    2015-12-01

    The dynamics of cold trapped ions in a high-finesse resonator results from the interplay between the long-range Coulomb repulsion and the cavity-induced interactions. The latter are due to multiple scatterings of laser photons inside the cavity and become relevant when the laser pump is sufficiently strong to overcome photon decay. We study the stationary states of ions coupled with a mode of a standing-wave cavity as a function of the cavity and laser parameters, when the typical length scales of the two self-organizing processes, Coulomb crystallization and photon-mediated interactions, are incommensurate. The dynamics are frustrated and in specific limiting cases can be cast in terms of the Frenkel-Kontorova model, which reproduces features of friction in one dimension. We numerically recover the sliding and pinned phases. For strong cavity nonlinearities, they are in general separated by bistable regions where superlubric and stick-slip dynamics coexist. The cavity, moreover, acts as a thermal reservoir and can cool the chain vibrations to temperatures controlled by the cavity parameters and by the ions' phase. These features are imprinted in the radiation emitted by the cavity, which is readily measurable in state-of-the-art setups of cavity quantum electrodynamics.

  7. Pulmonary Function Tests

    PubMed Central

    Ranu, Harpreet; Wilde, Michael; Madden, Brendan

    2011-01-01

    Pulmonary function tests are valuable investigations in the management of patients with suspected or previously diagnosed respiratory disease. They aid diagnosis, help monitor response to treatment and can guide decisions regarding further treatment and intervention. The interpretation of pulmonary functions tests requires knowledge of respiratory physiology. In this review we describe investigations routinely used and discuss their clinical implications. PMID:22347750

  8. What Is Pulmonary Hypertension?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More What is Pulmonary Hypertension? Updated:Aug 12,2014 Is pulmonary hypertension different ... content was last reviewed on 08/04/2014. High Blood Pressure • Home • About High Blood Pressure (HBP) Introduction What ...

  9. Primary pulmonary leiomyoma

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Peng; Venkatachalam, Jonathen; Lee, Victor Kwan Min

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Leiomyoma is a smooth muscle neoplasm that commonly occurs in the genitourinary system and the gastrointestinal tract of the body. Primary pulmonary leiomyoma is rarely reported in literature. We report a rare case of primary pulmonary leiomyoma of a 55‐year‐old male patient presenting with symptoms of cough for six months. PMID:27516882

  10. Pulmonary Paragonimiasis Mimicking Tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Kj; Basu, Arup; Khana, Shilpi; Wattal, Chand

    2015-08-01

    Paragonimiasis is a disease which is frequently misdiagnosed as pulmonary tuberculosis. In the areas where people eat crab/crayfish this disease should be considered in the differential diagnosis to avoid antituberculosis treatment for a non-tubercular condition. We are reporting a case of pulmonary paragonimiasis who had been treated for tuberculosis. PMID:27604443

  11. [Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension].

    PubMed

    Zonzin, Pietro; Vizza, Carmine Dario; Favretto, Giuseppe

    2003-10-01

    Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension is due to unresolved or recurrent pulmonary embolism. In the United States the estimated prevalence is 0.1-0.5% among survived patients with pulmonary embolism. The survival rate at 5 years was 30% among patients with a mean pulmonary artery pressure > 40 mmHg at the time of diagnosis and only 10% among those with a value > 50 mmHg. The interval between the onset of disturbances and the diagnosis may be as long as 3 years. Doppler echocardiography permits to establish the diagnosis of pulmonary hypertension. Radionuclide scanning determines whether pulmonary hypertension has a thromboembolic basis. Right heart catheterization and pulmonary angiography are performed in order to establish the extension and the accessibility to surgery of thrombi and to rule out other causes. The surgical treatment is thromboendarterectomy. A dramatic reduction in the pulmonary vascular resistance can be achieved; corresponding improvements in the NYHA class--from class III or IV before surgery to class I-II after surgery--are usually observed. Patients who are not considered candidates for thromboendarterectomy may be considered candidates for lung transplantation. PMID:14664293

  12. Primary pulmonary leiomyoma.

    PubMed

    Wu, Peng; Venkatachalam, Jonathen; Lee, Victor Kwan Min; Tan, Sze Khen

    2016-05-01

    Leiomyoma is a smooth muscle neoplasm that commonly occurs in the genitourinary system and the gastrointestinal tract of the body. Primary pulmonary leiomyoma is rarely reported in literature. We report a rare case of primary pulmonary leiomyoma of a 55-year-old male patient presenting with symptoms of cough for six months. PMID:27516882

  13. Nosocomial Outbreak of Corynebacterium striatum Infection in Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease▿

    PubMed Central

    Renom, Feliu; Garau, Margarita; Rubí, Mateu; Ramis, Ferran; Galmés, Antònia; Soriano, Joan B.

    2007-01-01

    We describe an unusual cluster of Corynebacterium striatum infections in 21 patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) admitted to a medium-size respiratory unit. Eleven isolates from eight patients occurred simultaneously within a month. C. striatum is a potentially pathogenic microorganism with the ability to produce nosocomial infectious outbreaks and respiratory colonization in patients with advanced COPD. PMID:17409213

  14. Pulmonary artery involvement in Takayasu's arteritis with lung infarction and pulmonary aspergillosis.

    PubMed

    Narita, Jun-Ichi; Ito, Satoshi; Terada, Masaki; Saitoh, Yasuharu; Igarashi, Ken-Ichi; Nakano, Masaaki; Suzuki, Eiichi; Arakawa, Masaaki; Gejyo, Fumitake

    2002-10-01

    We describe a patient with a chronic case of pulmonary involvement of Takayasu's arteritis in the resected lung. A 49-year-old woman was first diagnosed with Takayasu's arteritis at age 30 years. On her first admission, she presented with Takayasu's arteritis and pneumonia with cavitation in the left lung. After recovering from pneumonia, she was treated initially with prednisolone, 30 mg/day, and remained well until she developed hemoptysis at age 34 years. Findings suggesting aspergilloma were found in the same lobe on chest x-ray film when she was 46 years of age. By age 49 years, the hemoptysis became massive, and she was admitted for surgery. Left upper lobectomy and partial resection of S6 and S8 pulmonary segments were performed. Histologic analysis of the resected lung revealed typical pathologic findings of pulmonary artery involvement in Takayasu's arteritis, such as stenosis recanalization and a vessel-in-vessel feature, but not active vasculitis. Infection probably occurred in the cavity of the infarcted tissue. Pulmonary artery involvement is common in Takayasu's arteritis, but the aspergilloma in this corticosteroid-treated patient is an uncommon complication. PMID:17041382

  15. A scanning cavity microscope

    PubMed Central

    Mader, Matthias; Reichel, Jakob; Hänsch, Theodor W.; Hunger, David

    2015-01-01

    Imaging the optical properties of individual nanosystems beyond fluorescence can provide a wealth of information. However, the minute signals for absorption and dispersion are challenging to observe, and only specialized techniques requiring sophisticated noise rejection are available. Here we use signal enhancement in a high-finesse scanning optical microcavity to demonstrate ultra-sensitive imaging. Harnessing multiple interactions of probe light with a sample within an optical resonator, we achieve a 1,700-fold signal enhancement compared with diffraction-limited microscopy. We demonstrate quantitative imaging of the extinction cross-section of gold nanoparticles with a sensitivity less than 1 nm2; we show a method to improve the spatial resolution potentially below the diffraction limit by using higher order cavity modes, and we present measurements of the birefringence and extinction contrast of gold nanorods. The demonstrated simultaneous enhancement of absorptive and dispersive signals promises intriguing potential for optical studies of nanomaterials, molecules and biological nanosystems. PMID:26105690

  16. A scanning cavity microscope.

    PubMed

    Mader, Matthias; Reichel, Jakob; Hänsch, Theodor W; Hunger, David

    2015-01-01

    Imaging the optical properties of individual nanosystems beyond fluorescence can provide a wealth of information. However, the minute signals for absorption and dispersion are challenging to observe, and only specialized techniques requiring sophisticated noise rejection are available. Here we use signal enhancement in a high-finesse scanning optical microcavity to demonstrate ultra-sensitive imaging. Harnessing multiple interactions of probe light with a sample within an optical resonator, we achieve a 1,700-fold signal enhancement compared with diffraction-limited microscopy. We demonstrate quantitative imaging of the extinction cross-section of gold nanoparticles with a sensitivity less than 1 nm(2); we show a method to improve the spatial resolution potentially below the diffraction limit by using higher order cavity modes, and we present measurements of the birefringence and extinction contrast of gold nanorods. The demonstrated simultaneous enhancement of absorptive and dispersive signals promises intriguing potential for optical studies of nanomaterials, molecules and biological nanosystems. PMID:26105690

  17. Accessory oral cavity

    PubMed Central

    Gnaneswaran, Manica Ramamoorthy; Varadarajan, Usha; Srinivasan, Ramesh; Kamatchi, Sangeetha

    2012-01-01

    This is a rare case report of a patient around 11 years with the complaint of extra mouth who reported to the hospital for removal of that extra mouth. On examination there was accessory oral cavity with small upper and lower lips, seven teeth and saliva was drooling out. Under general anesthesia crevicular incision from 32 to 43 was put and labial gingiva with alveolar mucosa was reflected completely and bone exposed to lower border of mandible. There were seven teeth resembling lower permanent anterior teeth in the accessory mouth, which was excised with the accessory lips. 41 extracted and osteotomy carried out extending the incision from the extracted site and osteotomy carried out. Dermoid cyst both below and above the mylohyoid muscle and rudimentary tongue found and excised and the specimen sent for histopathological examination. The wound was closed and uneventful healing noted to the satisfaction of the patient. This is a rare and interesting case which has been documented. PMID:23833508

  18. Pulmonary arteriovenous malformation in chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Arun; Gulati, Gurpreet S; Parakh, Neeraj; Aggarwal, Abhinav

    2016-01-01

    Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension is a morbid condition associated with complications such as hemoptysis, right heart failure, paradoxical embolism, and even death. There is no known association of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension with pulmonary arteriovenous malformation. Possible hypothesis for this association is an increased pulmonary vascular resistance leading to the compensatory formation of pulmonary arteriovenous malformation. We present one such case presenting with hemoptysis that was managed with endovascular treatment. PMID:27413264

  19. Colon polyps and cancer.

    PubMed

    Kronborg, O

    2004-01-01

    Screening for colorectal neoplasia still is the best method of reducing the mortality due to colorectal cancer, and it is to be hoped that fecal occult blood test programs will expand in the near future and be combined with appropriate endoscopy. There are substantial problems with compliance in large programs with occult blood tests as well as endoscopy. Colonography and DNA testing in feces are not yet suitable for population screening. Diagnostic strategies in symptomatic patients are becoming more selective, in the hope of avoiding many superfluous examinations without increasing the risk of missing cancers. New results have confirmed the preventive effect of long-term aspirin use on adenoma recurrence, but the most cost-effective dosage is not clear; the mechanism of action is also uncertain, but seems to involve cyclooxygenase-2. The risk of adenomas does not appear to be associated with low consumption of folate, but with low intake of fiber. A number of biomarkers have been evaluated in polyp patients, but so far surveillance is still based on endoscopic experience, which is less than optimal. Attempts have been made to restrict the number of surveillance endoscopies and reduce the pathologist's workload. The place of argon plasma coagulation has been clearly defined in connection with piecemeal removal of large sessile adenomas. Advances have been achieved in surgery and radiotherapy for rectal cancer, and acute surgery for colonic cancer with severe obstruction will be less common after the introduction of the metal stent. PMID:14722849

  20. Quench studies of ILC cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Eremeev, Grigory; Geng, Rongli; Palczewski, Ari; Dai, Jin

    2011-07-01

    Quench limits accelerating gradient in SRF cavities to a gradient lower than theoretically expected for superconducting niobium. Identification of the quenching site with thermometry and OST, optical inspection, and replica of the culprit is an ongoing effort at Jefferson Lab aimed at better understanding of this limiting phenomenon. In this contribution we present our finding with several SRF cavities that were limited by quench.

  1. Trislot-cavity microstrip antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, H., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Flush-mountable assembly composed of disk radiator sandwiched between planes of metal-clad dielectric board has greater bandwidths and beamwidths than simple disk antenna. Conducting planes connect so that disk is enclosed in cavity with Y-shaped slot in top plane. Cavity is excited by microwave energy from disk and radiates from trislot aperature.

  2. Characterization of pig colonic mucins.

    PubMed Central

    Fogg, F J; Hutton, D A; Jumel, K; Pearson, J P; Harding, S E; Allen, A

    1996-01-01

    Pig colonic mucins isolated from the adherent mucus gel in the presence of proteinase inhibitors were solubilized by homogenization and the component mucins fractionated by CsC1 density-gradient centrifugation. Polymeric and reduced pig colonic mucin were both largely excluded on Sepharose CL-2B, papain-digested colonic mucin was included. The M(r) values of polymeric, reduced and digested mucins were 5.5 x 10(6), 2.1 x 10(6) and 0.6 x 10(6) respectively. This suggests that pig colonic mucin is comprised of 2-3 subunits, each subunit containing 3-4 glycosylated regions. The intrinsic viscosities of polymeric, reduced and digested mucin were 240 ml.g-1, 100 ml.g-1 and 20 ml.g-1 respectively. Polymeric pig colonic mucin comprised 16% protein per mg of glycoprotein and was rich in serine, threonine and proline (43% of total amino acids). There were approx. 150 disulphide bridges and 53 free thiol groups per mucin polymer. A seventh of the protein content was lost on reduction. This protein was particularly rich in proline and the hydrophobic amino acids. Papain-digested pig colonic mucin contained 11% protein per mg of glycoprotein and was rich in serine, threonine, glutamate and aspartate. All types of amino acids with the exception of aspartate were lost on digestion. The amino acid analysis of the proteolytically digested regions of pig colonic mucin are markedly different to the tandem repeat regions of the human mucin genes shown to be expressed in the colon. PMID:8670173

  3. Mechanical Properties of Niobium Cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Ciovati, Gianluigi; Dhakal, Pashupati; Matalevich, Joseph R.; Myneni, Ganapati Rao

    2015-09-01

    The mechanical stability of bulk Nb cavity is an important aspect to be considered in relation to cavity material, geometry and treatments. Mechanical properties of Nb are typically obtained from uniaxial tensile tests of small samples. In this contribution we report the results of measurements of the resonant frequency and local strain along the contour of single-cell cavities made of ingot and fine-grain Nb of different purity subjected to increasing uniform differential pressure, up to 6 atm. Measurements have been done on cavities subjected to different heat treatments. Good agreement between finite element analysis simulations and experimental data in the elastic regime was obtained with a single set of values of Young’s modulus and Poisson’s ratio. The experimental results indicate that the yield strength of medium-purity ingot Nb cavities is higher than that of fine-grain, high-purity Nb.

  4. Superconducting Storage Cavity for RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Ben-Zvi,I.

    2009-01-02

    This document provides a top-level description of a superconducting cavity designed to store hadron beams in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven National Laboratory. It refers to more detailed documents covering the various issues in designing, constructing and operating this cavity. The superconducting storage cavity is designed to operate at a harmonic of the bunch frequency of RHIC at a relatively low frequency of 56 MHz. The current storage cavities of RHIC operate at 197 MHz and are normal-conducting. The use of a superconducting cavity allows for a high gap voltage, over 2 MV. The combination of a high voltage and low frequency provides various advantages stemming from the resulting large longitudinal acceptance bucket.

  5. Monochromatic radio frequency accelerating cavity

    DOEpatents

    Giordano, Salvatore

    1985-01-01

    A radio frequency resonant cavity having a fundamental resonant frequency and characterized by being free of spurious modes. A plurality of spaced electrically conductive bars are arranged in a generally cylindrical array within the cavity to define a chamber between the bars and an outer solid cylindrically shaped wall of the cavity. A first and second plurality of mode perturbing rods are mounted in two groups at determined random locations to extend radially and axially into the cavity thereby to perturb spurious modes and cause their fields to extend through passageways between the bars and into the chamber. At least one body of lossy material is disposed within the chamber to damp all spurious modes that do extend into the chamber thereby enabling the cavity to operate free of undesired spurious modes.

  6. Monochromatic radio frequency accelerating cavity

    DOEpatents

    Giordano, S.

    1984-02-09

    A radio frequency resonant cavity having a fundamental resonant frequency and characterized by being free of spurious modes. A plurality of spaced electrically conductive bars are arranged in a generally cylindrical array within the cavity to define a chamber between the bars and an outer solid cylindrically shaped wall of the cavity. A first and second plurality of mode perturbing rods are mounted in two groups at determined random locations to extend radially and axially into the cavity thereby to perturb spurious modes and cause their fields to extend through passageways between the bars and into the chamber. At least one body of lossy material is disposed within the chamber to damp all spurious modes that do extend into the chamber thereby enabling the cavity to operate free of undesired spurious modes.

  7. [Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis].

    PubMed

    Hutyrová, B

    2007-10-01

    Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis is a rare disease characterised by excessive accumulation of surfactant components in the alveoli and the distal airways with minimum inflammatory reaction and fibrosis of pulmonary interstitium. Three clinical forms of pulmonary alveolar proteinosis are distinguished - congenital, primary and secondary. Results of ultrastructural, biochemical and functional analyses and studies performed on genetically modified mice support the presumption that accumulation of surfactant in pulmonary alveolar proteinosis is a result of a degradation disorder and of diminished clearance of the surfactant from the alveolar space rather than of excessive synthesis of surfactant components. Over the last 15 years, significant discoveries have been made which have helped to clarify the etiology and pathogenesis of the disease. A number of gene mutations have been discovered which lead to the development of congenital pulmonary proteinosis. Apart from impaired surfactant protein function, a key role in the development of pulmonary alveolar proteinosis is played by the signal pathway of granulocyte and macrophage colonies stimulating growth factor (GM-CSF) which is necessary for the functioning of alveolar macrophages and for surfactant homeostasis. The role of GM-CSF has been proven especially in primary pulmonary alveolar proteinosis which is currently considered an auto-immune disease involving the development of GM-CSF neutralising autoantibodies. In most cases, the prognosis for the disease in adult patients is good, even though there is a 10 to 15% rate of patients who develop respiratory failure. Total pulmonary lavage is considered to be the standard method of treatment. In recent years, recombinant human GM-CSF has been studied as a prospective therapy for the treatment of pulmonary alveolar proteinosis. PMID:18072433

  8. Changeability of Oral Cavity Environment

    PubMed Central

    Surdacka, Anna; Strzyka³a, Krystyna; Rydzewska, Anna

    2007-01-01

    Objectives In dentistry, the results of in vivo studies on drugs, dental fillings or prostheses are routinely evaluated based on selected oral cavity environment parameters at specific time points. Such evaluation may be confounded by ongoing changes in the oral cavity environment induced by diet, drug use, stress and other factors. The study aimed to confirm oral cavity environment changeability. Methods 24 healthy individuals aged 20–30 had their oral cavity environment prepared by having professional hygiene procedures performed and caries lesions filled. Baseline examination and the examination two years afterwards, evaluated clinical and laboratory parameters of oral cavity environment. Caries incidence was determined based on DMFT and DMFS values, oral cavity hygiene on Plaque Index (acc. Silness & Loe) and Hygiene Index (acc. O’Leary), and the gingival status on Gingival Index (acc. Loe & Silness) and Gingival Bleeding Index (acc. Ainamo & Bay). Saliva osmolarity, pH and concentrations of Ca2+, Pi, Na+, Cl−, total protein, albumins, F− and Sr2+ were determined. Results The results confirmed ongoing changeability of the oral cavity environment. After 2 years of the study reduction in oral cavity hygiene parameters PLI and HI (P<0.1), and gingival indices as well as lower saliva concentration of Ca2+ (P<.001), Pi (P<.06), K+ (P<.04), Sr2+ (P<.03), Na+ (P<.1), against the baseline values, were observed. Total protein and albumin saliva concentrations were also significantly lower. Conclusion Physiological oral cavity environment is subject to constant, individually different, changes which should be considered when analysing studies that employ oral cavity environment parameters. PMID:19212491

  9. [Pulmonary vasoconstrictor responses].

    PubMed

    Onodera, S

    1992-12-01

    Alterations in the physiological balance to maintain the pulmonary circulation at a normal low pressure level result in an elevation in pulmonary vascular tone. Pulmonary vasoconstrictor responses were analyzed under some experimental conditions, which included microembolism, administration of vasoactive agents, hypoxia, and monocrotaline-induced pulmonary hypertension. It is widely accepted that these responses are highly localized and complex. In the present study, excised canine lung lobes, rat lungs, and pulmonary arterial rings from the rat were employed according to the particular experimental design. The mechanism of the initial rapid elevation followed by a gradual decline in perfusion pressure in microembolism was considered to be related not only to the size of the emboli, but to the degree of mechanical injury of the endothelium. The main sites of constriction of the pulmonary vasculature by several drugs were determined in the pulsatile perfused canine lung lobes, according to the degree of decrease in inflow wave amplitude during antegrade or retrograde perfusion. Further, by applying the same method it was confirmed that the site of hypoxic vasoconstriction is located in the peripheral pulmonary vascular bed between the muscular arteries and veins, which are constricted mainly by serotonin and histamine, respectively. A cross perfusion system was set up, employing two lobes from the same dog, in which normoxic blood was perfused into the hypoxic ventilated lobe and vice versa. As a result, the pulmonary vessels showed a response to ventilation hypoxia that was far more sensitive than that to perfusion hypoxia. The effects of a beta-agonist (isoproterenol) and beta-antagonists (propranolol, pindolol) on hypoxic vasoconstriction were observed. Although pindolol (a vasodilatory beta-blocker) abolished hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction, which was similar to the effect of isoproterenol, the mechanism of action of pindolol was suggested to be different

  10. Transcatheter Embolization of Splenic Artery Pseudo-Aneurysm Rupturing into Colon After Post-Operative Pancreatitis

    SciTech Connect

    Iwama, Yuki; Sugimoto, Koji Zamora, Carlos A.; Yamaguchi, Masato; Tsurusaki, Masakatsu; Taniguchi, Takanori; Mori, Takeki; Sugimura, Kazuro

    2006-02-15

    Splenic pseudoaneurysms following chronic pancreatitis can rarely become a source of life-threatening bleeding by rupturing into various regions or components, including pseudocysts, the abdominal cavity, the gastrointestinal tract, and the pancreatic duct. In such cases, prompt diagnosis and therapy are warranted. We report herein the case of a 52-year-old man in whom a splenic pseudoaneurysm ruptured into the colon via a fistula with an abscess cavity, causing massive bleeding, which was successfully managed by trans-catheter arterial embolization (TAE)

  11. Stages of Lip and Oral Cavity Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cavity and Oropharyngeal Cancer Screening Research Lip and Oral Cavity Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Lip and Oral Cavity Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points ...

  12. Frequency-feedback cavity enhanced spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Hovde, David Christian; Gomez, Anthony

    2015-08-18

    A spectrometer comprising an optical cavity, a light source capable of producing light at one or more wavelengths transmitted by the cavity and with the light directed at the cavity, a detector and optics positioned to collect light transmitted by the cavity, feedback electronics causing oscillation of amplitude of the optical signal on the detector at a frequency that depends on cavity losses, and a sensor measuring the oscillation frequency to determine the cavity losses.

  13. Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Medicine, Pulmonary, Allergy, and Critical Care, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA. Also ... M. is also a founding member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health ...

  14. Facts about Pulmonary Atresia

    MedlinePlus

    ... Research Articles & Key Findings Free Materials Multimedia and Tools Links to Other Websites Information For... Media Policy Makers Facts about Pulmonary Atresia Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Click here to view a ...

  15. Pulmonary rehabilitation in adults.

    PubMed

    2016-06-01

    Pulmonary rehabilitation can help people with long-term lung conditions whose symptoms, such as breathlessness and being easily tired out by daily activities, seriously impact their lives. PMID:27408642

  16. Percutaneous Pulmonary Valve Implantation

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyoung-Doo

    2012-01-01

    Pulmonary regurgitation (PR) is a frequent sequelae after repair of tetralogy of Fallot, pulmonary atresia, truncus arteriosus, Rastelli and Ross operation. Due to patient growth and conduit degeneration, these conduits have to be changed frequently due to regurgitation or stenosis. However, morbidity is significant in these repeated operations. To prolong conduit longevity, bare-metal stenting in the right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) obstruction has been performed. Stenting the RVOT can reduce the right ventricular pressure and symptomatic improvement, but it causes PR with detrimental effects on the right ventricle function and risks of arrhythmia. Percutaneous pulmonary valve implantation has been shown to be a safe and effective treatment for patients with pulmonary valve insufficiency, or stenotic RVOTs. PMID:23170091

  17. Diagnosis of pulmonary embolism.

    PubMed

    Iber, C; Sirr, S

    1988-09-01

    Pulmonary embolism (PE) is often unrecognized or misdiagnosed because of the lack of specificity of clinical signs and symptoms. PE shares many of the clinical features of pneumonia and is therefore often unrecognized in elderly patients who present with low-grade fever, modest leukocytosis, and pulmonary infiltrates. Assessment of clinical risk factors increases the usefulness of diagnostic tests. The accuracy of diagnosis is improved if specific tests are performed. Ventilation-perfusion lung scans, noninvasive or contrast venography, and pulmonary angiography increase the likelihood of correct diagnosis. Since pulmonary angiography is a relatively low-risk procedure, it should be performed in most patients suspected of having PE who have nondiagnostic lung scans and negative lower extremity venous studies. PMID:3055112

  18. Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (IPF)

    MedlinePlus

    ... cough, shortness of breath, fatigue and low blood oxygen levels. Pulmonary fibrosis can be caused by an ... breath. Your health care provider may notice the oxygen levels in your blood drop when you walk. ...

  19. Pulmonary function tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... fibrosis (scarring or thickening of the lung tissue) Sarcoidosis and scleroderma Muscular weakness can also cause abnormal ... Emphysema Interstitial Lung Diseases Lung Diseases Pulmonary Fibrosis Sarcoidosis Browse the Encyclopedia A.D.A.M., Inc. ...

  20. Composite resonator vertical cavity laser diode

    SciTech Connect

    Choquette, K.D.; Hou, H.Q.; Chow, W.W.; Geib, K.M.; Hammons, B.E.

    1998-05-01

    The use of two coupled laser cavities has been employed in edge emitting semiconductor lasers for mode suppression and frequency stabilization. The incorporation of coupled resonators within a vertical cavity laser opens up new possibilities due to the unique ability to tailor the interaction between the cavities. Composite resonators can be utilized to control spectral and temporal properties within the laser; previous studies of coupled cavity vertical cavity lasers have employed photopumped structures. The authors report the first composite resonator vertical cavity laser diode consisting of two optical cavities and three monolithic distributed Bragg reflectors. Cavity coupling effects and two techniques for external modulation of the laser are described.

  1. Progressive cavity pump

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, J.W.

    1989-04-04

    A progressive cavity pump is described, comprising: a first housing portion defining an inlet; a second housing portion attachable to the first housing portion and defining an outlet; a substantially elastomeric stator comprising an outer portion removably attached to the first and second housing portions, having a first end and a second end spaced from the first end, an inner portion defining a pumping chamber and spaced an annular end portion interconnecting the first ends of the outer and inner portions; a rotor disposed in the inner portion of the stator and extending through the pumping chamber for pumping fluid from the inlet to the outlet in response to rotation of the rotor; and an elongated member disposed in the housing portions and generally annularly between the inner and outer portions of the stator and longitudinally between the annular end portion of the stator and a portion of the second housing portion, the member being removable from the housing portions and separable from the stator.

  2. Nonlocal Intracranial Cavity Extraction

    PubMed Central

    Manjón, José V.; Eskildsen, Simon F.; Coupé, Pierrick; Romero, José E.; Collins, D. Louis; Robles, Montserrat

    2014-01-01

    Automatic and accurate methods to estimate normalized regional brain volumes from MRI data are valuable tools which may help to obtain an objective diagnosis and followup of many neurological diseases. To estimate such regional brain volumes, the intracranial cavity volume (ICV) is often used for normalization. However, the high variability of brain shape and size due to normal intersubject variability, normal changes occurring over the lifespan, and abnormal changes due to disease makes the ICV estimation problem challenging. In this paper, we present a new approach to perform ICV extraction based on the use of a library of prelabeled brain images to capture the large variability of brain shapes. To this end, an improved nonlocal label fusion scheme based on BEaST technique is proposed to increase the accuracy of the ICV estimation. The proposed method is compared with recent state-of-the-art methods and the results demonstrate an improved performance both in terms of accuracy and reproducibility while maintaining a reduced computational burden. PMID:25328511

  3. Call for Papers: Cavity QED

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lange, W.; Gerard, J.-M.

    2003-06-01

    Cavity QED interactions of light and matter have been investigated in a wide range of systems covering the spectrum from microwaves to optical frequencies, using media as diverse as single atoms and semiconductors. Impressive progress has been achieved technologically as well as conceptually. This topical issue of Journal of Optics B: Quantum and Semiclassical Optics is intended to provide a comprehensive account of the current state of the art of cavity QED by uniting contributions from researchers active across this field. As Guest Editors of this topical issue, we invite manuscripts on current theoretical and experimental work on any aspects of cavity QED. The topics to be covered will include, but are not limited to: bulletCavity QED in optical microcavities bulletSemiconductor cavity QED bulletQuantum dot cavity QED bulletRydberg atoms in microwave cavities bulletPhotonic crystal cavity QED bulletMicrosphere resonators bulletMicrolasers and micromasers bulletMicrodroplets bulletDielectric cavity QED bulletCavity QED-based quantum information processing bulletQuantum state engineering in cavities The DEADLINE for submission of contributions is 31 July 2003 to allow the topical issue to appear in about February 2004. All papers will be peer-reviewed in accordance with the normal refereeing procedures and standards of Journal of Optics B: Quantum and Semiclassical Optics. Advice on publishing your work in the journal may be found at www.iop.org/journals/authors/jopb. Submissions should ideally be in either standard LaTeX form or Microsoft Word. There are no page charges for publication. In addition to the usual 50 free reprints, the corresponding author of each paper published will receive a complimentary copy of the topical issue. Contributions to the topical issue should if possible be submitted electronically at www.iop.org/journals/jopb. or by e-mail to jopb@iop.org. Authors unable to submit online or by e-mail may send hard copy contributions (enclosing the

  4. Novel Crab Cavity RF Design

    SciTech Connect

    Dudas, A.; Neubauer, M. L.; Sah, R.; Rimmer, B.; Wang, H.

    2011-03-01

    A 20-50 MV integrated transverse voltage is required for the Electron-Ion Collider. The most promising of the crab cavity designs that have been proposed in the last five years are the TEM type crab cavities because of the higher transverse impedance. The TEM design approach is extended here to a hybrid crab cavity that includes the input power coupler as an integral part of the design. A prototype was built with Phase I monies and tested at JLAB. The results reported on, and a system for achieving 20-50 MV is proposed.

  5. Familial pulmonary fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Borie, R; Kannengiesser, C; Nathan, N; Tabèze, L; Pradère, P; Crestani, B

    2015-04-01

    The occurrence of pulmonary fibrosis in numerous individuals from the same family suggests a genetic cause for the disease. During the last 10 years, mutations involving proteins from the telomerase complex and from the surfactant system have been identified in association with pulmonary fibrosis. Mutations of TERT, the coding gene for the telomerase reverse transcriptase, are the most frequently identified mutations and are present in 15% of cases of familial pulmonary fibrosis. Other mutations (TERC, surfactant proteins genes) are only rarely evidenced in adults. Patients with mutations involving the telomerase complex may present with pulmonary fibrosis, hematologic, cutaneous or liver diseases. Other genetic variations associated with pulmonary fibrosis such as a polymorphism in the promoter of MUC5B or a polymorphism in TERT have been recently described, and could be considered to be part of a polygenic transmission. Evidence for mutations associated with the development of pulmonary fibrosis raises numerous clinical questions from establishing a diagnosis, providing counselling to deciding on therapy, and requires specific studies. From a pathophysiological point of view, the function of the genes highlights the central role of alveolar epithelium and aging in fibrogenesis. PMID:25596800

  6. Adult colonic intussusception: a case report.

    PubMed

    Sasatomi, T; Oriishi, T; Nakano, R; Nozoe, Y; Tanaka, T; Horiuchi, H; Noake, T; Takeuchi, K; Tsuji, Y; Shirouzu, K

    2001-01-01

    Intussusception accounts for almost all cases of intestinal obstruction in children. In contrast, intussusception in adults is relatively rare. An 86-year-old Japanese female with rectal bleeding came to our hospital via ambulance. At first, colonoscopy findings revealed the sigmoid colon cancer. Ultrasonography showed a hypoechoic mass with a multiple concentric ring sign. Computed tomography showed a round fluid-filled cystic structure. Colon contrast studies demonstrated stenosis in the rectosigmoid colon. A laparotomy was performed. The sigmoid colon was intussuscepted to the rectosigmoid colon. We employed both rectosigmoid and sigmoid colon resection. The resected specimen showed that the disease was advanced sigmoid colon cancer with ulcer formation due to an ischemic change. Tumor was 4.5 cm x 2.0 cm in size. The disease was histopathologically diagnosed as advanced sigmoid colon cancer, well-differentiated adenocarcinoma. We report here a case of adult intussusception due to the sigmoid colon cancer. PMID:11501502

  7. Case Report on the Demonstration of Minute Colonic Perforations Caused by Birdshot Injury.

    PubMed

    Emeklioglu, Ismet; Kayaalp, Cuneyt; Aydin, Cemalettin

    2010-06-01

    Penetrating trauma of the colon is usually diagnosed intraoperatively and missed injuries cause considerable morbidity and mortality. Herein, we described an intraoperative diagnostic method for invisible openings on the colon due to a birdshot injury. A 30-yearold man was admitted to the hospital after sustaining gunshot pellet injuries to his abdomen, back, and extremities. Emergency laparotomy relieved splenic injury and free pellet fragments in the abdomen. A pellet fragment was also palpated in the descending colon. Despite meticulous inspection of the colon, it failed to show the entrance of the pellet. An 18F catheter was passed through the anus and was connected to a CO2 insufflator of the laparoscopy unit. The abdominal cavity was filled with normal saline and 1.5 l of CO2 was inflated into the rectum. Five tiny (2-mm) openings on the retroperitoneal part of the descending colon were demonstrated with the help of the air bubbles. All of the openings were sutureligated and his postoperative course was uneventful. We believe that inflating the colon in cases of abdominal birdshot injuries may allow the demonstration of tiny perforations and provide immediate repairs of missed injuries. PMID:26815872

  8. Complete colonic duplication in children

    PubMed Central

    Khaleghnejad Tabari, Ahmad; Mirshemirani, Alireza; Khaleghnejad Tabari, Nasibeh

    2012-01-01

    Background: Complete colonic duplication is a very rare congenital anomaly that may have different presentations according to its location and size. Complete colonic duplication can occur in 15% of gastrointestinal duplication. We report two cases of complete colonic duplications, and their characteristics. Case Presentation: We present two patients with complete colonic duplication with different types and presentations. Case 1: A 2- year old boy presented to the clinic with abdominal protrusion, difficulty to defecate, chronic constipation and mucosal prolaps covered bulging (rectocele) since he was 6 months old. The patient had palpable pelvic mass with doughy consistency. Rectal exam confirmed perirectal mass with soft consistency. The patient underwent a surgical operation that had total tubular colorectal duplication with one blind end and was treated with simple fenestration of distal end, and was discharged without complication. After two years follow up, he had normal defecation and good weight gain. Case 2: A 2 –day old infant was referred with imperforate anus and complete duplication of recto-sigmoid colon, diphallus, double bladder, and hypospadiasis. After clinical and paraclinical investigations, he underwent operations in several stages in different periods, and was discharged without complications. After four years follow up, he led a normal life. Conclusion: The patients with complete duplication have to be examined carefully because of the high incidence of other systemic anomalies. Treatment includes simple resection of distal common wall, fenestration, and repair other associated anomalies. PMID:24358440

  9. [Pathophysiology and Therapeutic Approach of Pulmonary Aspiration].

    PubMed

    Uchida, Kanji

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary aspiration is one of the serious adverse events in general anesthesia. Aspiration induced lung injury varies according to the nature of the contents of aspirates (acid or small particles in gastrointestinal tract, bile acid), amount of aspirates, and host-defense status. Early inflammatory responses to acid and small particles from gastrointestinal contents are categorized as aspiration pneumonitis causing rapid respiratory deterioration with early restoration of lung injury within a couple of days. Late phase lung injury is usually "aspiration pneumonia" caused by bacteria colonized in the aspirates. Treatment mainstream is to support respiratory function until the lung resolves from injury. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation is another promising therapeutic option for cases with severe lung damage to keep the "lung rest" during fulminant lung injury, avoiding further lung damage by injurious ventilation. Empirical administration of antibiotics covering wide spectrum followed by meticulous bacteriological studies to either de-escalate or discontinue antibiotics is crucial. PMID:27004380

  10. [Radiotherapy for oral cavity cancers].

    PubMed

    Lapeyre, M; Biau, J; Racadot, S; Moreira, J F; Berger, L; Peiffert, D

    2016-09-01

    Intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and brachytherapy are standard techniques for the irradiation of oral cavity cancers. These techniques are detailed in terms of indication, preparation, delineation and selection of the volumes, dosimetry and patient positioning control. PMID:27521039