Science.gov

Sample records for pulmonary high-risk patient

  1. Comorbidity and Inflammatory Markers May Contribute to Predict Mortality of High-Risk Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Exacerbation

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yu Jin; Lim, Byeongwoo; Kyung, Sun Young; Park, Jeong-woong; Jeong, Sung Hwan

    2016-01-01

    Background Acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) causes not only an accelerated disease progression, but also an increased mortality rate. The purpose of this study was to analyze the factors associated with clinical features, comorbidities and mortality in patients at high risk for acute COPD exacerbation who had been hospitalized at least once in a year. Methods The study enrolled 606 patients who had been diagnosed with and were being treated for COPD at university affiliated hospital. Among them, there were 61 patients at high risk for acute exacerbation of COPD who had been hospitalized at least once in a year. A retrospective analysis was conducted to examine the factors affecting mortality. The analysis divided the patients into non-survivor and survivor groups, and reviewed their medical records for clinical aspects, comorbidities, pulmonary function tests and blood tests. Results In the high-risk group, the number of comorbidities at diagnosis (P = 0.020) and the Charlson comorbidity index value (P = 0.018) were higher in the non-survivor group than in the survivor group. During hospitalization, the non-survivor group had a significantly higher neutrophil (%) and a significantly lower lymphocyte (%) in complete blood count. Under stable conditions, the high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) concentration in blood plasma and neutrophil (%) were significantly higher (P = 0.025 and P = 0.036), while the lymphocyte (%) was significantly lower (P = 0.005) in the non-survivor group. A pulmonary function test revealed no statistically significant differences between the two groups. Conclusion The number of comorbidities, neutrophil (%), lymphocyte (%) in complete blood cell (CBC) and hsCRP in blood plasma concentration among the groups at high risk for COPD exacerbation are associated with increased mortality. PMID:27298662

  2. Solitary pulmonary metastases in high-risk melanoma patients: a prospective comparison of conventional and computed tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Heaston, D.K.; Putman, C.E.; Rodan, B.A.; Nicholson, E.; Ravin, C.E.; Korobkin, M.; Chen, J.T.; Seigler, H.F.

    1983-07-01

    A prospective comparison of chest radiography, conventional tomography, and computed tomography (CT) in the detection or confirmation of solitary pulmonary nodules was made in 42 patients with high propensity for pulmonary metastases due to advanced local (Clark level IV or V) or regional malignant melanoma. Unequivocal nodules were revealed by chest radiography in 11 patients, conventional tomograhy in 16, and computed tomography in 20 patients. Both plain films and tomography in three of these 20 were normal, but follow-up verified pulmonary metastases. Computed tomography detected more pulmonary nodules than conventional tomography in 11 patients in addition to identifying lesions in extrapulmonary sites. Therefore, chest CT is recommended before institution of immunotherapy or surgical removal of a solitary pulmonary melanoma metastasis. Once chemotherapy had been instituted for bulky regional or cutaneous involvement, however, the findings of either conventional or computed tomography were comparable in this study.

  3. Surgical management of severe scoliosis with high risk pulmonary dysfunction in Duchenne muscular dystrophy: patient function, quality of life and satisfaction

    PubMed Central

    Nakazawa, Toshiyuki; Imura, Takayuki; Okada, Takamitsu; Fukushima, Kensuke; Ueno, Masaki; Takahira, Naonobu; Takahashi, Kazuhisa; Yamazaki, Masashi; Ohtori, Seiji; Okamoto, Hirotsugu; Okutomi, Toshiyuki; Okamoto, Makihito; Masaki, Takashi; Uchinuma, Eijyu; Sakagami, Hiroyuki

    2010-01-01

    In a previous study, the authors reported the clinical and radiological results of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) scoliosis surgery in 14 patients with a low FVC of <30%. The purpose of this study was to determine if surgery improved function and QOL in these patients. Furthermore, the authors assessed the patients’ and parents’ satisfaction. %FVC increased in all patients after preoperative inspiratory muscle training. Scoliosis surgery in this group of patients presented no increased risk of major complications. All-screw constructions and fusion offered the ability to correct spinal deformity in the coronal and pelvic obliquity initially, intermediate and long-term. All patients were encouraged to continue inspiratory muscle training after surgery. The mean rate of %FVC decline after surgery was 3.6% per year. Most patients and parents believed scoliosis surgery improved their function, sitting balance and quality of life even though patients were at high risk for major complications. Their satisfaction was also high. PMID:20155495

  4. Hospital acquired pneumonia with high-risk bacteria is associated with increased pulmonary matrix metalloproteinase activity

    PubMed Central

    Schaaf, Bernhard; Liebau, Cornelia; Kurowski, Volkhard; Droemann, Daniel; Dalhoff, Klaus

    2008-01-01

    Background Neutrophil products like matrix metalloproteinases (MMP), involved in bacterial defence mechanisms, possibly induce lung damage and are elevated locally during hospital- acquired pneumonia (HAP). In HAP the virulence of bacterial species is known to be different. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of high-risk bacteria like S. aureus and pseudomonas species on pulmonary MMPconcentration in human pneumonia. Methods In 37 patients with HAP and 16 controls, MMP-8, MMP-9 and tissue inhibitors of MMP (TIMP) were analysed by ELISA and MMP-9 activity using zymography in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). Results MMP-9 activity in mini-BAL was increased in HAP patients versus controls (149 ± 41 vs. 34 ± 11, p < 0.0001). In subgroup analysis, the highest MMP concentrations and activity were seen in patients with high-risk bacteria: patients with high-risk bacteria MMP-9 1168 ± 266 vs. patients with low-risk bacteria 224 ± 119 ng/ml p < 0.0001, MMP-9 gelatinolytic activity 325 ± 106 vs. 67 ± 14, p < 0.0002. In addition, the MMP-8 and MMP-9 concentration was associated with the state of ventilation and systemic inflammatory marker like CRP. Conclusion Pulmonary MMP concentrations and MMP activity are elevated in patients with HAP. This effect is most pronounced in patients with high-risk bacteria. Artificial ventilation may play an additional role in protease activation. PMID:18700005

  5. Histidine-tryptophan-ketoglutarate solution decreases mortality and morbidity in high-risk patients with severe pulmonary arterial hypertension associated with complex congenital heart disease: an 11-year experience from a single institution

    PubMed Central

    Li, X.W.; Lin, Y.Z.; Lin, H.; Huang, J.B.; Tang, X.M.; Long, X.M.; Lu, W.J.; Wen, Z.K.; Liang, J.; Li, D.Y.; Zhao, X.F.

    2016-01-01

    Cardioplegic reperfusion during a long term ischemic period interrupts cardiac surgery and also increases cellular edema due to repeated solution administration. We reviewed the clinical experiences on myocardial protection of a single perfusion with histidine-tryptophan-ketoglutarate (HTK) for high-risk patients with severe pulmonary arterial hypertension associated with complex congenital heart disease. This retrospective study included 101 high-risk patients undergoing arterial switch operation between March 2001 and July 2012. We divided the cohort into two groups: HTK group, myocardial protection was carried out with one single perfusion with HTK solution; and St group, myocardial protection with conventional St. Thomas' crystalloid cardioplegic solution. The duration of cardiopulmonary bypass did not differ between the two groups. The mortality, morbidity, ICU stay, post-operative hospitalization time, and number of transfusions in HTK group were lower than those in St group (P<0.05). Univariate and multivariate analysis showed that HTK is a statistically significant independent predictor of decreased early mortality and morbidity (P<0.05). In conclusion, HTK solution seems to be an effective and safe alternative to St. Thomas' solution for cardioplegic reperfusion in high-risk patients with complex congenital heart disease. PMID:27191607

  6. Comparison of risk assessment strategies for not-high-risk pulmonary embolism.

    PubMed

    Hobohm, Lukas; Hellenkamp, Kristian; Hasenfuß, Gerd; Münzel, Thomas; Konstantinides, Stavros; Lankeit, Mareike

    2016-04-01

    We compared the prognostic performance of the 2014 European Society of Cardiology (ESC) risk stratification algorithm with the previous 2008 ESC algorithm, the Bova score and the modified FAST score (based on a positive heart-type fatty acid-binding protein (H-FABP) test, syncope and tachycardia, modified using high-sensitivity troponin T instead of H-FABP) in 388 normotensive pulmonary embolism patients included in a single-centre cohort study.Overall, 25 patients (6.4%) had an adverse 30-day outcome. Regardless of the score or algorithm used, the rate of an adverse outcome was highest in the intermediate-high-risk classes, while all patients classified as low-risk had a favourable outcome (no pulmonary embolism-related deaths, 0-1.4% adverse outcome). The area under the curve for predicting an adverse outcome was higher for the 2014 ESC algorithm (0.76, 95% CI 0.68-0.84) compared with the 2008 ESC algorithm (0.65, 95% CI 0.56-0.73) and highest for the modified FAST score (0.82, 95% CI 0.75-0.89). Patients classified as intermediate-high-risk by the 2014 ESC algorithm had a 8.9-fold increased risk for an adverse outcome (3.2-24.2, p<0.001 compared with intermediate-low- and low-risk patients), while the highest OR was observed for a modified FAST score ≥3 points (OR 15.9, 95% CI 5.3-47.6, p<0.001).The 2014 ESC algorithm improves risk stratification of not-high-risk pulmonary embolism compared with the 2008 ESC algorithm. All scores and algorithms accurately identified low-risk patients, while the modified FAST score appears more suitable to identify intermediate-high-risk patients. PMID:26743479

  7. [Medical high-risk patient in the dental practice].

    PubMed

    Esser, E

    1992-01-01

    Cardiovaskular and pulmonary diseases, terminal renal failure, hepatitis B and C as well as the acquired immune deficiency syndrome, hemorrhagic diatheses, diabetes mellitus and hyperthyreosis are the major systemic diseases related to the practice of dentistry and require a modified treatment plan. Dental treatment during pregnancy may involve a risk for the woman and the fetus. The article outlines the most important aspects of interdisciplinary care for medial high-risk patients in the dental practice, refers to further readings and emphasizes the necessity of active continued education in the field of general medicine and specific emergency care. PMID:1535310

  8. Pulsatile roller pump perfusion is safe in high risk patients.

    PubMed

    Kocakulak, M; Küçükaksu, S; Pişkin, E

    2004-05-01

    In this study, controllability, safety, blood cell depletion, and hemolysis of a pulsatile roller pump in high-risk patients was evaluated. Sarns 8000 roller pump (Sams, Terumo CVS, Ann Arbor, MI, USA) with a pulsatile control module was used as arterial pump in a clinical setting. Forty patients undergoing elective open heart surgery with high-risk either having chronically obstructive pulmonary disease or chronic renal failure were randomly included in the study to be operated on using pulsatile perfusion or non-pulsatile perfusion. Blood samples were withdrawn at induction of anesthesia, at the time of aortic clamping and de-clamping and at 1 hour and 24 hours following cessation of the bypass. Hematocrit and plasma free hemoglobin values were measured. We observed that the pulsatile roller pump perfusion and the extracorporeal circuit used in the clinical study is safe in high-risk patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass. We did not face any emboli, hemolysis, or technical problems. Pulsatile roller pump perfusion with Sarns 8000 heart-lung machine is a simple and reliable technique and can be easily applied during open heart surgery. PMID:15202823

  9. Impact of catheter fragmentation followed by local intrapulmonary thrombolysis in acute high risk pulmonary embolism as primary therapy

    PubMed Central

    Mohan, Bishav; Aslam, Naved; Kumar Mehra, Anil; Takkar Chhabra, Shibba; Wander, Praneet; Tandon, Rohit; Singh Wander, Gurpreet

    2014-01-01

    Background Pulmonary embolism (PE) with more than 50% compromise of pulmonary circulation results significant right ventricular (RV) afterload leading to progressive RV failure, systemic hypotension and shock. Prompt restoration of thrombolysis, surgical embolectomy, or percutaneous mechanical thrombectomy (PMT) prevents progressive hemodynamic decline. We report our single center experience in high risk PE patients treated with standard pigtail catheter mechanical fragmentation followed by intrapulmonary thrombolysis as a primary therapy. Methods 50 consecutive patients with diagnosis of high risk PE defined as having shock index >1 with angiographic evidence of >50% pulmonary arterial occlusion are included in the present study. All patients underwent emergent cardiac catheterization. After ensuring flow across pulmonary artery with mechanical breakdown of embolus by rotating 5F pigtail catheter; bolus dose of urokinase (4400 IU/kg) followed by infusion for 24 h was given in the thrombus. Hemodynamic parameters were recorded and follow up pulmonary angiogram was done. Clinical and echo follow up was done for one year. Results Pigtail rotational mechanical thrombectomy restored antegrade flow in all patients. The mean pulmonary artery pressure, Miller score, Shock index decreased significantly from 41 ± 8 mmHg, 20 ± 5, 1.32 ± 0.3 to 24.52 ± 6.89, 5.35 ± 2.16, 0.79 ± 0.21 respectively (p < 0.0001). In-hospital major complications were seen in 4 patients. There was a statistically significant reduction of PA pressures from 62 ± 11 mmHg to 23±6 mmHg on follow up. Conclusions Rapid reperfusion of pulmonary arteries with mechanical fragmentation by pigtail catheter followed by intrapulmonary thrombolysis results in excellent immediate and intermediate term outcomes in patients presenting with high risk pulmonary embolism. PMID:24973834

  10. Preoperative patient assessment: Identifying patients at high risk.

    PubMed

    Boehm, O; Baumgarten, G; Hoeft, A

    2016-06-01

    Postoperative mortality remains alarmingly high with a mortality rate ranging between 0.4% and 4%. A small subgroup of multimorbid and/or elderly patients undergoing different surgical procedures naturally confers the highest risk of complications and perioperative death. Therefore, preoperative assessment should identify these high-risk patients and stratify them to individualized monitoring and treatment throughout all phases of perioperative care. A "tailored" perioperative approach might help further reduce perioperative morbidity and mortality. This article aims to elucidate individual morbidity-specific risks. It further suggests approaches to detect patients at the risk of perioperative complications. PMID:27396802

  11. Treating Patients with High-Risk Smoldering Myeloma

    Cancer.gov

    In this phase III clinical trial, patients with smoldering myeloma classified as high risk for progression will be randomly assigned to undergo standard observation or six 4-week courses of treatment with the drug lenalidomide.

  12. Incisional Reinforcement in High-Risk Patients

    PubMed Central

    Feldmann, Timothy F.; Young, Monica T.; Pigazzi, Alessio

    2014-01-01

    Hernia formation after surgical procedures continues to be an important cause of surgical morbidity. Incisional reinforcement at the time of the initial operation has been used in some patient populations to reduce the risk of subsequent hernia formation. In this article, reinforcement techniques in different surgical wounds are examined to identify situations in which hernia formation may be prevented. Mesh use for midline closure, pelvic floor reconstruction, and stoma site reinforcement is discussed. Additionally, the use of retention sutures, closure of the open abdomen, and reinforcement after component separation are examined using current literature. Although existing studies do not support the routine use of mesh reinforcement for all surgical incisions, certain patient populations appear to benefit from reinforcement with lower rates of subsequent hernia formation. The identification and characterization of these groups will guide the future use of mesh reinforcement in surgical incisions. PMID:25435823

  13. Thromboembolism Prophylaxis in Hip Arthroplasty: Routine and High Risk Patients.

    PubMed

    Nam, Denis; Nunley, Ryan M; Johnson, Staci R; Keeney, James A; Clohisy, John C; Barrack, Robert L

    2015-12-01

    This study's purpose was to present the use of a risk stratification protocol in which "routine" risk patients receive a mobile compression device with aspirin and "high" risk patients receive warfarin for thromboprophylaxis after hip arthroplasty. 1859 hip arthroplasty patients were prospectively enrolled (1402 routine risk--75.4%, 457 high risk--24.6%). The cumulative rate of venous thromboembolism events was 0.5% in the routine versus 0.5% in the high-risk cohort within 6weeks postoperatively (P=1.00). Patients in the routine risk cohort had a lower rate of major bleeding (0.5% versus 2.0%, P=0.006) and wound complications (0.2% versus 1.2%, P=0.01). Use of our risk stratification protocol allowed the avoidance of more aggressive anticoagulation in 75% of patients while achieving a low overall incidence of symptomatic VTE. PMID:26182980

  14. Off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting in elderly and high-risk patients--a review.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Edward A; Edelman, J James B; Wilson, Michael K; Bannon, Paul G; Vallely, Michael P

    2011-11-01

    Elderly and high-risk patients are increasingly being considered for myocardial revascularisation. Most trials comparing the various options for revascularisation exclude elderly and 'high-risk' patients. We have reviewed the options for myocardial revascularisation for elderly patients, and for patients with a number of common 'high-risk' co-morbidities--diabetes mellitus, renal insufficiency, poor left ventricular ejection fraction, peripheral vascular disease, left main coronary artery disease and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease--with a focus on coronary artery bypass grafting without the use of cardiopulmonary bypass and aortic manipulation. PMID:21862405

  15. Management of dyslipidemia in the high-risk patient.

    PubMed

    Stein, Evan A

    2002-12-01

    Lipid-lowering agents have been shown to reduce morbidity and mortality associated with coronary heart disease (CHD), particularly in high-risk patients. The identification and treatment of these patients should therefore be a high priority for clinicians. Guidelines from medical organizations, such as the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel (NCEP ATP) and the American Diabetes Association (ADA), suggest that patients with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels > or =130 mg/dL, and perhaps even those with levels > or =100 mg/dL, should receive drug therapy. Optimal LDL-C levels have been set at <100 mg/dL and <115 mg/dL for high-risk patients by US and European guidelines, respectively. However, a recent survey shows that only about 20% of high-risk patients currently meet these goals. In order to achieve therapeutic targets for LDL-C, the statins are the foundation of treatment, as they are the most effective and best-tolerated form of lipid-lowering therapy. Other therapeutic options include bile acid sequestrants, niacin, and plant stanols, although seldom as monotherapy. Combination therapy with a statin and one of these other lipid-lowering agents can be useful in patients who are unable to achieve target lipid levels through monotherapy. There remains, however, a need for additional agents. Some of the new options for reducing LDL-C levels that may be available in the near future include 2 new statins, pitavastatin and rosuvastatin. In patients with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia, rosuvastatin, which is currently under review by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), has been shown to produce significantly greater reductions in LDL-C than atorvastatin over its full dose range. In comparative clinical trials, it has also enabled more patients with primary hypercholesterolemia to meet lipid goals than atorvastatin, simvastatin, and pravastatin. Inhibitors of bile acid transport or cholesterol absorption may also

  16. Economic effects of aspergillosis management in high-risk patients.

    PubMed

    Leather, Helen

    2005-04-01

    Aspergillosis mortality has risen exponentially over the last 2 decades, related primarily to the availability of medical treatments and procedures that prolong the survival of patients with other disorders who are at high risk because of immunologic compromise. In addition to excess mortality, aspergillosis results in increased costs for hospitalization and treatment, including management of adverse events associated with conventional amphotericin B treatment. Compared with amphotericin B, the triazole antifungal voriconazole has excellent efficacy and a favorable side-effect profile. Reliable oral bioavailability of voriconazole may permit switching to an oral formulation in the inpatient setting and offers the possibility of earlier hospital discharge and potentially substantial cost savings. PMID:15889762

  17. Prevention of Pulmonary Emboli in Hospitalized Patients

    PubMed Central

    Hubbard, J. C.

    1983-01-01

    The risk of pulmonary infarction in any hospitalized population is high. To decrease this dreaded complication, the high risk population must be identified. These are chiefly elderly patients with a history of previous DVTP, cancer, cardiac disease, trauma to a lower limb or a history of recent surgery. All methods of reducing venous stasis should be used, and most of these patients should be treated prophylactically with subcutaneous heparin. PMID:21283325

  18. Germline RECQL mutations in high risk Chinese breast cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Kwong, Ava; Shin, Vivian Y; Cheuk, Isabella W Y; Chen, Jiawei; Au, Chun H; Ho, Dona N; Chan, Tsun L; Ma, Edmond S K; Akbari, Mohammad R; Narod, Steven A

    2016-06-01

    Recently, RECQL was reported as a new breast cancer susceptibility gene. RECQL belongs to the RECQ DNA helicase family which unwinds double strand DNA and involved in the DNA replication stress response, telomere maintenance and DNA repair. RECQL deficient mice cells are prone to spontaneous chromosomal instability and aneuploidy, suggesting a tumor-suppressive role of RECQL in cancer. In this study, RECQL gene mutation screening was performed on 1110 breast cancer patients who were negative for BRCA1, BRCA2, TP53 and PTEN gene mutations and recruited from March 2007 to June 2015 in the Hong Kong Hereditary and High Risk Breast Cancer Program. Four different RECQL pathogenic mutations were identified in six of the 1110 (0.54 %) tested breast cancer patients. The identified mutations include one frame-shift deletion (c.974_977delAAGA), two splicing site mutations (c.394+1G>A, c.867+1G>T) and one nonsense mutation (c.796C>T, p.Gln266Ter). Two of the mutations (c.867+1G>T and p.Gln266Ter) were seen in more than one patients. This study provides the basis for existing of pathogenic RECQL mutations in Southern Chinese breast cancer patients. The significance of rare variants in RECQL gene in the estimation of breast cancer risk warranted further investigation in larger cohort of patients and in other ethnic groups. PMID:27125668

  19. What is High Risk Surgery? Development of a List of High Risk Operations for Patients Age 65 and Older

    PubMed Central

    Schwarze, Margaret L.; Barnato, Amber E.; Rathouz, Paul J.; Zhao, Qianqian; Neuman, Heather B.; Winslow, Emily R.; Kennedy, Gregory D.; Hu, Yue-Yung; Dodgion, Christopher M.; Kwok, Alvin C.; Greenberg, Caprice C.

    2015-01-01

    Importance No consensus exists regarding the definition of “high risk” surgery in older adults. An inclusive and precise definition of high risk surgery may be useful for surgeons, patients, researchers and hospitals. Objectives To develop a list of “high risk” operations. Design 1) Retrospective cohort study; and 2) Modified Delphi procedure. Setting All Pennsylvania acute care hospitals (Pennsylvania Health Care Cost Containment Council [PHC4], 2001–2007) and a nationally-representative sample of U.S. acute care hospitals (Nationwide Inpatient Sample [NIS], HCUP, AHRQ 2001–2006). Patients Admissions 65 and older to PHC4 hospitals and admissions 18 and older to NIS hospitals. Methods We identified ICD-9 CM procedure codes associated with >1% inpatient mortality in PHC4. We used a modified Delphi technique with 5 board certified surgeons to further refine this list by excluding non-operative procedures and operations that were unlikely to be the proximate cause of mortality and were instead a marker of critical illness (e.g., tracheostomy). We then cross-validated this list of ICD-9CM codes in the NIS. Main Outcomes Measures 1) Delphi consensus of at least 4/5 panelists; 2) proportion agreement in the NIS. Results Among 4,739,522 admissions 65 and older in PHC4, 2,569,589 involved a procedure, encompassing 2,853 unique procedures. Of 1,130 procedures associated with a crude inpatient mortality of at least 1%, 264 achieved consensus as high risk operations by Delphi. The observed inpatient mortality in the NIS was ≥ 1% for 227/264 (86%) of the procedures in patients age 65 and older. The pooled inpatient mortality rate for these identified high risk procedures performed on patients age ≥65 was double the inpatient mortality for correspondingly identified high risk operations for patients less than 65 (6% vs. 3%). Conclusions We developed a list of procedure codes that can be used to identify “high risk” surgical procedures in claims data. This

  20. The incidence of deep venous thrombosis in high-risk Indian neurosurgical patients: Need for early chemoprophylaxis?

    PubMed Central

    George, Ajith John; Nair, Shalini; Karthic, Jayanthi Chinnaiya; Joseph, Mathew

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Deep venous thrombosis (DVT) is thought to be less common in Asians than in Caucasian population. The incidence of DVT in high-risk groups, especially the neurosurgical (NS) patients, has not been well studied. This leaves no firm basis for the start of early prophylactic anticoagulation within first 5 postoperative days in Indian NS patients. This is a prospective observational study to determine the early occurrence of DVT in the NS patients. Patients and Methods: We screened 137 consecutive high-risk NS patients based on inclusion and exclusion criteria. The femoral veins were screened using Doppler ultrasound on day 1, 3, and 5 of admission into the NS Intensive Care Unit (ICU) at tertiary center from South India. Results: Among 2887 admissions to NICU 147 patients met inclusion criteria. One hundred thirty seven were screened for DVT. There was a 4.3% (6/137) incidence of DVT with none of the six patients having signs or symptoms of pulmonary embolism. Among the risk factors studied, there was a significant association with femoral catheterization and a probable association with weakness/paraparesis/paraplegia. The mortality in the study group was 10.8% with none attributable to DVT or pulmonary embolism. Conclusion: There is a low incidence of DVT among the high risk neurosurgical population evaluated within the first 5 days of admission to NICU, limiting the need for early chemical thrombo-prophylaxis in these patients. With strict protocols for mechanical prophylaxis with passive leg exercise, early mobilization and serial femoral Doppler screening, heparin anticoagulation can be restricted within the first 5 days of ICU admission in high risk patients. PMID:27555696

  1. Surgical management of severe scoliosis with high-risk pulmonary dysfunction in Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Takaso, Masashi; Nakazawa, Toshiyuki; Imura, Takayuki; Takahira, Naonobu; Itoman, Moritoshi; Takahashi, Kazuhisa; Yamazaki, Masashi; Otori, Seiji; Akazawa, Tsutomu; Minami, Shohei; Kotani, Toshiaki

    2010-03-01

    Between 2005 and 2007, 14 patients who had severe scoliosis in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) and a poor forced vital capacity (FVC) of <30% at admission underwent scoliosis surgery. FVC on admission was 21.6% (range, 16-27%). The patients were given respiratory muscle training using a pulmonary trainer (Threshold IMT, Philips Respironics, Inc.) for six weeks before operation. FVC increased to 26.2% (range, 22-31%) the day before operation. The mean preoperative scoliosis was 98 degrees (range, 81 degrees-130 degrees). All patients underwent posterior fusion and all-screw construction and were extubated on the operative day. No patients developed any respiratory complications. The postoperative scoliosis was 34 degrees (range, 20 degrees-40 degrees) (65%). FVC remained stable at six weeks after operation. FVC decreased to 19.8% (range, 16-25%) and the mean scoliosis was 35 degrees (range, 23 degrees-40 degrees) (64%) at two years after operation. DMD patients with severe scoliosis and FVC considered too low to permit reasonable surgical risk could undergo surgery and could benefit from surgery. PMID:19340426

  2. Surgical management of severe scoliosis with high-risk pulmonary dysfunction in Duchenne muscular dystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Nakazawa, Toshiyuki; Imura, Takayuki; Takahira, Naonobu; Itoman, Moritoshi; Takahashi, Kazuhisa; Yamazaki, Masashi; Otori, Seiji; Akazawa, Tsutomu; Minami, Shohei; Kotani, Toshiaki

    2009-01-01

    Between 2005 and 2007, 14 patients who had severe scoliosis in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) and a poor forced vital capacity (FVC) of <30% at admission underwent scoliosis surgery. FVC on admission was 21.6% (range, 16–27%). The patients were given respiratory muscle training using a pulmonary trainer (Threshold IMT, Philips Respironics, Inc.) for six weeks before operation. FVC increased to 26.2% (range, 22–31%) the day before operation. The mean preoperative scoliosis was 98° (range, 81°–130°). All patients underwent posterior fusion and all-screw construction and were extubated on the operative day. No patients developed any respiratory complications. The postoperative scoliosis was 34° (range, 20°–40°) (65%). FVC remained stable at six weeks after operation. FVC decreased to 19.8% (range, 16–25%) and the mean scoliosis was 35° (range, 23°–40°)(64%) at two years after operation. DMD patients with severe scoliosis and FVC considered too low to permit reasonable surgical risk could undergo surgery and could benefit from surgery. PMID:19340426

  3. Thermal imaging evaluation of paravertebral block for mastectomy in high risk patient: case report.

    PubMed

    Możański, Marcin; Rustecki, Bartosz; Kalicki, Bolesław; Jung, Anna

    2015-04-01

    Thoracic paravertebral block is the technique of injecting local anesthetic adjacent to the thoracic vertebra close to where the spinal nerves emerge from the intervertebral foramina. It is effective in treating acute and chronic pain of unilateral origin from the chest and abdomen. This technique causes pain relief with pulmonary function preservation and great hemodynamic stability. 66 year old woman (156 cm, 80 kg, BMI 32) with chronic right heart failure, hypertension and obesity, on chronic oxygen therapy was presented for elective mastectomy due to breast cancer. She suffered from severe COPD and also bullous emphysema. FVC 1.59 l; FEV1 0.55 l; FEV1%FVC 34.6. The paravertebral block was performed using the multi-shot percutaneous technique with additional light general anesthesia. For confirmation, of proper analgesia range, control of temperature changes, using FLIR i7 infrared camera, was performed. Control photos were made 20 min after the blockade and then 10 min later. Infrared photo showed rise of temperature reading in every marked region. There were no hemodynamic and pulmonary complications postoperatively. Paravertebral block in combination with sedation creates excellent conditions for breast surgery procedures. Additional temperature changes monitoring performed with infrared camera may confirm proper range of analgesia needed to perform surgery. Great cardiovascular stability and very good pulmonary function preservation make this method excellent for high risk patients. Low complication rate is additional advantage. In our opinion this method is recommendable. PMID:25059839

  4. The radionuclide salivagram in children with pulmonary disease and a high risk of aspiration.

    PubMed

    Bar-Sever, Z; Connolly, L P; Treves, S T

    1995-11-01

    Purpose. We wanted to demonstrate the utility of the radionuclide salivagram in assessing children whose underlying medical problems suggest that aspiration of oral contents is a factor contributing to otherwise unexplained lung disease or recurrent pneumonias. Materials and methods. Following sublingual administration of 300 μCi (11.1 MBq) of technetium-99m sulfur colloid in a drop of saline, serial images were obtained for 60 min and evaluated for entrance of tracer into the major airways and lung parenchyma. Thirty-four studies were performed on 31 patients (age: 3 weeks - 16.7 years, mean 5.5 years) with recurrent pneumonias or unexplained lung disease. All had medical conditions, most frequently neurological, predisposing to aspiration. Results. Pulmonary aspiration was detected in eight patients. All positive studies demonstrated aspirated tracer distal to the tracheal bifurcation, either in bronchi or in bronchi and lung parenchyma. Aspiration was bilateral in six cases. Clearance of aspirated tracer was noted in one patient. Conclusion. The salivagram is an effective tool for demonstrating aspiration of oral contents and the level to which aspirated fluid penetrates the tracheobronchial tree. Additionally, by allowing for the evaluation of clearance of aspirated tracer, the salivagram may provide information on the status of airway-protective mechanisms. PMID:8577521

  5. Identifying patients at high risk of breast cancer recurrence: strategies to improve patient outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Martei, Yehoda M; Matro, Jennifer M

    2015-01-01

    Identifying patients at high risk of breast cancer recurrence has important implications not only for enabling the ability to provide accurate information to patients but also the potential to improve patient outcomes. Patients at high recurrence risk can be offered appropriate treatment to improve the overall survival. However, the major challenge is identifying patients with early-stage breast cancer at lower risk who may be spared potentially toxic therapy. The successful integration of molecular assays into clinical practice may address the problem of overtreatment and improve overall patient outcomes. PMID:26504408

  6. A case management approach to immunizing patients at high risk for influenza.

    PubMed

    Kreager, A M; Cicerone, J; Hella, S; Johnson, A N; Matthews, L; Richards, N L; Sinishtaj, L; Tobin, A; Veltigian, S

    2001-01-01

    The influenza season affects not only the people afflicted with influenza, but the healthcare system as a whole. An estimated dollar 12 billion is the annual cost to care for these patients. An existing problem is that although there is an immunization for influenza, many patients at high risk are not immunized. This article will describe an innovative program of a large Midwest suburban hospital to immunize patients at high risk. PMID:16398063

  7. Perforated Duodenal Ulcer in High Risk Patients: Is Percutaneous Drainage Justified?

    PubMed Central

    Saber, Aly; Gad, Mohammad A; Ellabban, Gouda M

    2012-01-01

    Background: Conservative treatment was recommended as the treatment of choice in perforated acute peptic ulcer. Here, we adjunct percutaneous peritoneal drainage with nonoperative conservative treatment in high risk elderly patients with perforated duodenal ulcer. Aim: The work was to study the efficacy of percutaneous peritoneal drainage under local anesthesia supported by conservative measures in high risk elderly patients, according to the American Society of Anesthesiologists grading, with perforated duodenal ulcer. Patients and Methods: Twenty four high risk patients with age >65 years having associated medical illness with evidence of perforated duodenal ulcer. Results: The overall morbidity and mortality were comparable with those treated by conservative measures alone. Conclusion: In high risk patients with perforated peptic ulcer and established peritonitis, percutaneous peritoneal drainage under local anesthesia seems to be effective with least operative trauma and mortality rate. PMID:22393546

  8. Evaluation of a Pharmacist-Specific Intervention on 30-Day Readmission Rates for High-Risk Patients with Pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, Douglas N.; Pinner, Nathan A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Pharmacist interventions have been shown to have an impact on reducing readmission rates, however further research is necessary to target resources to high-risk populations and determine the most effective bundle of interventions. Objective: To evaluate the effect of a pharmacist-bundled intervention on 30-day readmission rates for high-risk patients with pneumonia. Methods: A pilot study with a historical control conducted at a community, teaching-affiliated medical center. Up to 65 selected subjects were included if they had pneumonia and any of the following high-risk criteria: admission within 6 months, at least 5 scheduled home medications, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), or heart failure. A retrospective chart review was conducted to compile the historical control group that received usual care between June and November 2013. Patients admitted from December 2013 through March 2014 were reviewed to receive a bundled intervention. The primary outcome was 30-day readmission rates. Risk factors and reasons for readmission, pharmacist clinical interventions, and the time interval between discharge and readmission were also evaluated. Results: A trend toward a reduced 30-day readmission rate was observed in the intervention group (n = 43) compared to those who received usual care (n = 65) (27.9% vs 40.0%; relative risk [RR], 0.6977; 95% CI, 0.3965–1.2278; P = .2119). The most commonly identified high-risk inclusion criteria were having at least 5 scheduled home medications and COPD. The time interval between discharge and readmission did not considerably differ between groups (10.8 vs 10.6 days). Conclusions: The pharmacist-bundled intervention was associated with a reduced 30-day readmission rate for high-risk patients with pneumonia. PMID:26823619

  9. Kidney transplantation in immunologically high-risk patients.

    PubMed

    Keven, K; Sengul, S; Celebi, Z K; Tuzuner, A; Yalcin, F; Duman, T; Tutkak, H

    2013-04-01

    An increased number of sensitized patients await kidney transplantation (KTx). Sensitization has a major impact on patient mortality and morbidity due to prolonged waiting time and may preclude live donor transplantation. However, recent reports have shown that KTx can be performed successfully using novel immunosuppressive protocols. This study presents our experience with patients displaying donor-specific antibody (DSA) (+). We enrolled 5 lymphocyte cross-match (LCM) negative (complement-dependent cytotoxicity) and panel-reactive antibody (PRA) plus DSA-positive patients mean fluorescein intensity [MFI] > 1000) who underwent living kidney donor procedures. All subjects were females and their mean age was 36.7 years. In our protocol, we started mycophenolate mofetil (2 g/d), tacrolimus (0.01 mg/kg) and prednisolone (0.5 mg/kg) on day -6. We performed 2 sessions of total plasma exchange (TPE) with albumin replacement and administered 2 doses of IVIG (5 g/d). On day -1, we added rituximab (200 mg). On the operation day and on day +4, the patients received doses of basiliximab. Serum samples were taken on days -6, 0, and 30 as well as at 1 year after transplantation. All patients displayed immediate graft function. Mean basal DSA titer was 5624 MFI. After desensitization, the MFI titers decreased at the time of transplantation to 2753 MFI, and were 2564 MFI at the 1st month and 802 MFI at 1st year. Three patients experienced acute rejection episodes (60%). After treatment for rejection, the average follow-up was 17 months and last creatinine levels were 0.6-0.8 mg/dL (minimum-maximum). In conclusion, KTx can be succesfully performed in sensitized patients displaying DSA. However, there seems to be a greater acute rejection risk. There is no consensus regarding adequate doses of IVIG or plasmapheresis treatments; furthermore, more studies are needed to clarify the safe MFI titer of the DSA. PMID:23622587

  10. Survival of high-risk pediatric neuroblastoma patients in a developing country.

    PubMed

    Easton, Joseph C; Gomez, Sergio; Asdahl, Peter H; Conner, J Michael; Fynn, Alcira B; Ruiz, Claudia; Ojha, Rohit P

    2016-09-01

    Little information is available about survival of high-risk pediatric neuroblastoma patients in developing countries. We aimed to assess survival among high-risk pediatric neuroblastoma patients in La Plata, Argentina. Individuals eligible for our cohort were aged <20 yr when diagnosed with high-risk neuroblastoma and received cancer-directed therapy including stem cell transplantation at Hospital de Niños Sor Maria Ludovica between February 1999 and February 2015. We estimated overall survival probabilities using an extended Kaplan-Meier approach. Our study population comprised 39 high-risk neuroblastoma patients, of whom 39% were aged >4 yr at diagnosis, 54% were male, and 62% had adrenal neuroblastoma. We observed 18 deaths, and the median survival time of our study population was 1.7 yr. The five-yr overall survival probability was 24% (95% CL: 10%, 41%). In contrast, five-yr survival of high-risk neuroblastoma patients ranges between 23% and 76% in developed countries. Survival among high-risk neuroblastoma patients is generally poor regardless of geographic location, but our results illustrate dramatically worse survival for patients in a developing country. We speculate that the observed survival differences could be attenuated or eliminated with improvements in treatment and supportive care, but addressing these issues will require creative solutions because of resource limitations. PMID:27235336

  11. [Tele-medicine system for high-risk asthmatic patients].

    PubMed

    Kokubu, F; Suzuki, H; Sano, Y; Kihara, N; Adachi, M

    1999-07-01

    We have developed a tele-medicine system to monitor the airway status at home for patients with poorly controlled asthma, whereby a nurse provides instructions to individuals via the telephone to help them manage exacerbation under the supervision of their physicians. We examined the effectiveness of this system with a randomized control study. Patients with high hospitalization risk were enrolled in the study by screening patients for those with multiple previous emergency room visits and randomly assigned to either the tele-medicine or control group. After six months of participation in the program, the number of emergency room visits decreased significantly and the activities of daily living were improved in the tele-medicine group. Most of the patients in the tele-medicine group were able to continue measuring and transmitting peak expiratory flow (PEF) value successfully, and at six months had noticed an improvement in PEF. We therefore conclude that the system effectively contributes to the management of poorly controlled asthma. In addition, further consideration suggests that the reduction of emergency room visits may lead to reduction in hospitalization since we found a good correlation between number of emergency room visits and hospitalization from the studies published previously. PMID:10481354

  12. Patient Selection and Surgical Management of High-Risk Patients with Morbid Obesity.

    PubMed

    Daniel Guerron, A; Portenier, Dana D

    2016-08-01

    Bariatric surgery is the most effective way to improve comorbidities related to obesity. Since the introduction of minimally invasive laparoscopic surgery in the bariatric surgery techniques, the number of procedures has increased substantially; advances in techniques and the transition from open to minimally invasive procedures have decreased morbidity and mortality. Multidisciplinary teams in charge of the operative planning, surgical act, and postoperative recovery are determinant in the success of the management of high-risk bariatric patients; careful identification and preoperative management of these higher-risk patients is crucial in decreasing complications after weight loss surgery. PMID:27473799

  13. [Secondary prevention of osteoporosis and identification of high risk patients].

    PubMed

    Lehmann, R; Pfeifer, M; Minne, H; Allolio, B

    2000-08-01

    Low bone mass is a major determinant of bone fragility. With respect to hip fracture risk however, there is limited contribution of BMD to the exponential age-related increase in hip fracture incidence. Large prospective studies have identified a number of additional risk factors for hip fractures independent of bone density. These can be classified as skeletal factors and fall-related factors. Body height and hip axis length are positively correlated with fracture risk. Neuromuscular impairment with low gait speed, difficulty in doing a tandem walk, lower limb dysfunction, body sway or inability to rise from a chair without using one's arms predict future fracture risk. According to the concept of evidence-based medicine (EBM) preventive strategies are now available. Supplementation with calcium and vitamin D restores bone quality through suppression of secondary hyperparathyroidism and decreases the risk of falling through improvement of neuromuscular co-ordination and body sway. Treatment with the bisphosphonates alendronate and risedronate increase bone strength and result in a significant reduction of vertebral as well as non-vertebral fractures. Hip protectors absorb energy during a fall and reduce hip fracture risk by 56%. Risk factor based patient selection may improve the cost-effectiveness of therapy. PMID:10996933

  14. Coordinating perioperative care for the 'high risk' general surgical patient using risk prediction scoring.

    PubMed

    Hafiz, Shaziz; Lees, Nicholas Peter

    2016-01-01

    Identifying 'high risk' (> 5% mortality score) emergency general surgical patients early, allows appropriate perioperative care to be allocated by securing critical care beds and ensuring the presence of senior surgeons and senior anesthetists intraoperatively. Scoring systems can be used to predict perioperative risk and coordinate resources perioperatively. Currently it is unclear which estimate of risk correlates with current resource deployment. A retrospective study was undertaken assessing the relationship between deployment of perioperative resources: senior surgeon, senior anesthetist and critical care bed. The study concluded that almost all high risk patients with high POSSUM mortality and morbidity scores had a consultant senior surgeon present intraoperatively. Critically unwell patients with higher operative severity and perioperative morbidity scores received higher care (HDU/ICU) beds postoperatively, ensuring that they received appropriate care if their condition deteriorated. Therefore POSSUM scoring should be used perioperatively in emergency cases to coordinate appropriate perioperative care for high risk general surgical patients. PMID:26901929

  15. Do ultrasound-guided regional blocks signify a new paradigm in high-risk patients?

    PubMed

    Bendtsen, Thomas F; Haskins, Stephen; Kølsen Petersen, Jens Aage; Børglum, Jens

    2016-06-01

    It has been suggested for many years that regional anaesthesia is advantageous in high-risk patients, either as the sole anaesthetic or in combination with general anaesthesia. Regional techniques are safe and even more so when guided by ultrasound. In the high-risk patient population, ultrasound-guided regional anaesthesia (UGRA) can help decrease risk of perioperative morbidity and improve short-term as well as long-term outcomes, particularly in the orthopaedic, vascular, oncologic and chronic pain patient populations. Nevertheless, complications do still occur and benefits of a specific regional nerve blockade need to be weighed against potential risks on an individual basis. The emergence of reasonably priced, easy-to-use ultrasound machines facilitates regional anaesthesia, and this kind of anaesthesia may become the standard of care in high-risk patients. PMID:27396806

  16. Bioengineered Corneas Grafted as Alternatives to Human Donor Corneas in Three High-Risk Patients

    PubMed Central

    Buznyk, Oleksiy; Pasyechnikova, Nataliya; Islam, M Mirazul; Iakymenko, Stanislav; Fagerholm, Per; Griffith, May

    2015-01-01

    Corneas with severe pathologies have a high risk of rejection when conventionally grafted with human donor tissues. In this early observational study, we grafted bioengineered corneal implants made from recombinant human collagen and synthetic phosphorylcholine polymer into three patients for whom donor cornea transplantation carried a high risk of transplant failure. These patients suffered from corneal ulcers and recurrent erosions preoperatively. The implants provided relief from pain and discomfort, restored corneal integrity by promoting endogenous regeneration of corneal tissues, and improved vision in two of three patients. Such implants could in the future be alternatives to donor corneas for high-risk patients, and therefore, merits further testing in a clinical trial. PMID:25996570

  17. Fluid administration, vasopressor use and patient outcomes in a group of high-risk cardiac surgical patients receiving postoperative goal-directed haemodynamic therapy: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Walker, L J C; Young, P J

    2015-09-01

    The role of goal-directed therapy in high-risk cardiac surgical patients has not been determined. This study sought to observe the effect of a postoperative standardised haemodynamic protocol (SHP) on the administration of fluid and vasoactive drugs after high-risk cardiac surgery. This was an interventional pilot study. In 2010 to 2011, the SHP was introduced to the ICU at Wellington Regional Hospital, Wellington, New Zealand, for the perioperative management of patients undergoing high-risk cardiac surgery. A pulmonary artery catheter was inserted in the patients in the study group and fluids and supportive medications were provided in the ICU according to a protocol that targeted a cardiac index ≥ 2 l/min/m², mixed venous oxygen saturation ≥ 60% and a mean arterial pressure of 65 to 75 mmHg. Data from 40 consecutive high-risk cardiac surgical patients assigned to this protocol were compared with a matched cohort of 40 consecutive high-risk cardiac surgical patients receiving 'usual care' in 2009. Baseline characteristics were similar in the two groups. There was no significant difference in the duration of noradrenaline infusion in the SHP cohort compared to historical controls (median [IQR] 18.5 hours [31.63] versus 18 hours [18.3]; P=0.35), despite patients receiving more fluid in their first 12 hours in the ICU (mean 4687 ml [SD ± 2284 ml] versus 1889 ml [SD ± 1344 ml]; P <0.001). The SHP cohort had a higher rate of reintubation (4 in 37 [10.8%] versus 0 in 40 [0%]; P=0.049). The SHP delivered significantly more fluid, but did not reduce the duration of noradrenaline infusion, compared to usual care. PMID:26310413

  18. Prospective study of surveillance testing for metastasis in 100 high-risk uveal melanoma patients.

    PubMed

    Piperno-Neumann, S; Servois, V; Mariani, P; Plancher, C; Lévy-Gabriel, C; Lumbroso-Le Rouic, L; Couturier, J; Asselain, B; Desjardins, L; Cassoux, N

    2015-06-01

    Despite advances in the local treatment of UM, half of patients develop metastases typically to the liver with poor survival. Microscopic complete surgical resection (R0) of liver metastases improves survival in high selected patients. Early identification of high-risk patients might allow detection of asymptomatic metastases, and increase R0 liver surgery rate. From October 2006 to December 2009, we conducted a prospective study to detect early minimal lesions with 6-monthly liver function tests (LFTs) and liver MRI in 100 high-risk patients. High risk was defined by primary tumor clinical or genomic criteria: thickness>8mm or diameter>15 mm, or extra-scleral extension, or monosomy 3 by FISH or aCGH. With a median follow-up of 49 months, the 5-year metastasis-free survival and overall survival were 47 and 33%, respectively. Of the 60 patients who became metastatic, 50 (83%) had exclusive liver metastasis. LFTs screening had no sufficient accurary, but biannual MRI showed high predictive value to detect metastasis and select patients eligible for curative surgery: 25/50 underwent laparotomy and among them, 8/25 (32%) had a R0 surgery. Median survival after metastasis was 14 months, mean survival reached 40 months in the R0 resected population. Six-monthly liver MRI screening is recommended in patients with large tumors or genomic high risk in order to detect early patient candidates to complete resection of liver metastases. PMID:25978872

  19. Substance misuse treatment for high-risk chronic pain patients on opioid therapy: a randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Jamison, Robert N; Ross, Edgar L; Michna, Edward; Chen, Li Q; Holcomb, Caroline; Wasan, Ajay D

    2010-09-01

    Chronic pain patients who show aberrant drug-related behavior often are discontinued from treatment when they are noncompliant with their use of opioids for pain. The purpose of this study was to conduct a randomized trial in patients who were prescribed opioids for noncancer back pain and who showed risk potential for or demonstration of opioid misuse to see if close monitoring and cognitive behavioral substance misuse counseling could increase overall compliance with opioids. Forty-two patients meeting criteria for high-risk for opioid misuse were randomized to either standard control (High-Risk Control; N=21) or experimental compliance treatment consisting of monthly urine screens, compliance checklists, and individual and group motivational counseling (High-Risk Experimental; N=21). Twenty patients who met criteria indicating low potential for misuse were recruited to a low-risk control group (Low-Risk Control). Patients were followed for 6 months and completed pre- and post-study questionnaires and monthly electronic diaries. Outcomes consisted of the percent with a positive Drug Misuse Index (DMI), which was a composite score of self-reported drug misuse (Prescription Drug Use Questionnaire), physician-reported abuse behavior (Addiction Behavior Checklist), and abnormal urine toxicology results. Significant differences were found between groups with 73.7% of the High-Risk Control patients demonstrating positive scores on the DMI compared with 26.3% from the High-Risk Experimental group and 25.0% from the Low-Risk Controls (p<0.05). The results of this study demonstrate support for the benefits of a brief behavioral intervention in the management of opioid compliance among chronic back pain patient at high-risk for prescription opioid misuse. PMID:20334973

  20. Substance Misuse Treatment for High Risk Chronic Pain Patients on Opioid Therapy: A Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Jamison, Robert N.; Ross, Edgar L.; Michna, Edward; Chen, Li Q.; Holcomb, Caroline; Wasan, Ajay D.

    2010-01-01

    Chronic pain patients who show aberrant drug-related behavior often are discontinued from treatment when they are noncompliant with their use of opioids for pain. The purpose of this study was to conduct a randomized trial in patients prescribed opioids for noncancer back pain who showed risk potential for or demonstration of opioid misuse to see if close monitoring and cognitive behavioral substance misuse counseling could increase overall compliance with opioids. Forty two patients meeting criteria for high risk for opioid misuse were randomized to either standard control (High-Risk Control; N=21) or experimental compliance treatment consisting of monthly urine screens, compliance checklists, and individual and group motivational counseling (High-Risk Experimental; N=21). Twenty patients who met criteria indicating low potential for misuse were recruited to a low-risk control group (Low-Risk Control). Patients were followed for 6 months and completed pre- and post-study questionnaires and monthly electronic diaries. Outcomes consisted of the percent with a positive Drug Misuse Index (DMI), which was a composite score of self-reported drug misuse (Prescription Drug Use Questionnaire), physician-reported abuse behavior (Addiction Behavior Checklist), and abnormal urine toxicology results. Significant differences were found between groups with 73.7 % of the High-Risk Control patients demonstrating positive scores on the DMI compared with 26.3% from the High-Risk Experimental group and 25.0% from the Low-Risk Controls (p<0.05). The results of this study demonstrate support for the benefits of a brief behavioral intervention in the management of opioid compliance among chronic back pain patient at high-risk for prescription opioid misuse. PMID:20334973

  1. The assessment of the role of baseline low-dose CT scan in patients at high risk of lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kołaczyk, Katarzyna; Walecka, Anna; Grodzki, Tomasz; Alchimowicz, Jacek; Smereczyński, Andrzej; Kiedrowicz, Radosław

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background Despite the progress in contemporary medicine comprising diagnostic and therapeutic methods, lung cancer is still one of the biggest health concerns in many countries of the world. The main purpose of the study was to evaluate the detection rate of pulmonary nodules and lung cancer in the initial, helical low-dose CT of the chest as well as the analysis of the relationship between the size and the histopathological character of the detected nodules. Material/Methods We retrospectively evaluated 1999 initial, consecutive results of the CT examinations performed within the framework of early lung cancer detection program initiated in Szczecin. The project enrolled persons of both sexes, aged 55–65 years, with at least 20 pack-years of cigarette smoking or current smokers. The analysis included assessment of the number of positive results and the evaluation of the detected nodules in relationship to their size. All of the nodules were classified into I of VI groups and subsequently compared with histopathological type of the neoplastic and nonneoplastic pulmonary lesions. Results Pulmonary nodules were detected in 921 (46%) subjects. What is more, malignant lesions as well as lung cancer were significantly, more frequently discovered in the group of asymptomatic nodules of the largest dimension exceeding 15 mm. Conclusions The initial, low-dose helical CT of the lungs performed in high risk individuals enables detection of appreciable number of indeterminate pulmonary nodules. In most of the asymptomatic patients with histopathologically proven pulmonary nodules greater than 15 mm, the mentioned lesions are malignant, what warrants further, intensified diagnostics. PMID:25057333

  2. [Management of respiratory failure in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis].

    PubMed

    Machida, Kazuko

    2003-02-01

    The prognosis is very poor in patients with acute respiratory failure (ARF) due to active pulmonary tuberculosis, especially in those who necessitate mechanical ventilation. The underlining factors of ARF are low nutrition, old age and severity because of patient's delay and doctor's delay. So, management consists of two parts, one, early patient detection considering of tuberculosis and early treatment, the other, focused control to high risk groups. Patients with chronic respiratory failure due to pulmonary tuberculosis sequelae have long insidious period and mainly restrictive, sometimes mixed pulmonary dysfunction. Hypercapnea, pulmonary hypertension and respiratory disorder during sleep are seen in high percentage in them. In acute on chronic failure the principles of therapy are treatment of precipitating factors such as respiratory infection or congestive heart failure, controlled (low flow) oxygen therapy, bronchial hygiene and maintaining adequate pulmonary and circulatory condition. In chronic stage patient education is very important. Management of chronic stage is constructed of nutrition control, long-term oxygen therapy, pharmacological therapy, pulmonary rehabilitation including controlled breathing technique, physical chest therapy and exercise training. Noninvasive positive pressure ventilation is effective on improvement of prognosis in chronic respiratory failure, and on treatment in acute on chronic failure. PMID:12664448

  3. Old age, high risk medication, polypharmacy: a ‘trilogy’ of risks in older patients with atrial fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background: The safety of pharmacotherapy in atrial fibrillation (AF) is compounded by a trilogy of risks old age, high-risk medications (e.g., antithrombotics, antiarrhythmics), polypharmacy due to multiple patient comorbidities. However, to date, scarce study has investigated the use of polypharmacy (including potentially inappropriate medication (PIM)) in AF patients, and how this may contribute to their overall risk of medication misadventure. Objectives: To review the extent of polypharmacy and PIM use in older patients (65 years or older) with AF. Methods: Information was extracted from a database characterising a cohort of older AF patients treated in general practice in New South Wales, Australia. Patient characteristics, number and types of drugs, the degree of PIM use were recorded. The predictors for the use of polypharmacy in older AF patients were identified. Results: Overall, 367 patients (mean age 77.8 years) were reviewed, among which 94.8% used 5 medications or more and over half used 10 medications or more. Cardiovascular agents were most commonly used (98.9%), followed by antithrombotics (90.7%). Among agents deemed PIMs, digoxin (30.2%) was the most frequently used, followed by benzodiazepines (19.6%), and sotalol (9.8%). AF patients using polypharmacy were more likely to have low bleeding risk (OR=10.97), representing those patients in whom high-risk antithrombotics are mostly indicated. Patients with major-polypharmacy (5-9 medications) are more likely to have obstructive pulmonary diseases (OR=2.32), upper gastrointestinal diseases (OR=2.02) and poor physical function (OR=1.04), but less likely to have cognitive impairment (OR=0.27). Conclusion: Polypharmacy affects oldest AF patients, comprising medications that are indicated for AF, yet regarded as PIMs. Patients with lower risk of bleeding, obstructive pulmonary diseases, upper gastrointestinal diseases and poor physical function are also at higher risk of using higher number of

  4. High-risk patients following hospitalisation for an acute exacerbation of COPD.

    PubMed

    Piquet, Jacques; Chavaillon, Jean-Michel; David, Philippe; Martin, Francis; Blanchon, François; Roche, Nicolas

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to assess long-term mortality and predictive factors of death after hospital admission for acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). 1824 patients (23.2% female; mean age 70.3±11.3 years) consecutively admitted for acute exacerbation of COPD in the respiratory medicine departments of 68 general hospitals between October 2006 and June 2007 were prospectively enrolled in a follow-up cohort. Their vital status was documented between October 2010 and April 2011. Vital status was available for 1750 patients (95.9%), among whom 787 (45%) died during follow-up. Multivariate analysis found that age (60-80 years and ≥80 years versus <60 years, relative risk 2.99, 95% CI 2.31-3.89), lower body mass index (25-30 kg·m(-2) versus ≤20 kg·m(-2), relative risk 0.80, 95% CI 0.66-0.97), lung cancer (relative risk 2.08, 95% CI 1.43-3.01), cardiovascular comorbidity (relative risk 1.35, 95% CI 1.16-1.58), previous hospital admissions for acute exacerbation of COPD (four or more versus none, relative risk 1.91, 95% CI 1.44-2.53), use of accessory respiratory muscles (relative risk 1.19, 95% CI 1.01-1.40) or lower-limb oedema (relative risk 1.74, 95% CI (1.44-2.12)) at admission and treatment by long-term oxygen therapy at discharge (relative risk 2.09, 95% CI 1.79-2.45) were independent risk factors of death. Mortality rate during the 4 years following hospital admission for acute exacerbation of COPD was high (45%). Simple clinical information relating to respiratory and general status can help in identifying high-risk patients and targeting more intensive follow-up and care. Interestingly, cardiovascular comorbidities and past hospitalisations for acute exacerbation of COPD, but not forced expiratory volume in 1 s, independently predicted the risk of death. PMID:23349446

  5. Carfilzomib significantly improves the progression-free survival of high-risk patients in multiple myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Fonseca, Rafael; Siegel, David; Dimopoulos, Meletios A.; Špička, Ivan; Masszi, Tamás; Hájek, Roman; Rosiñol, Laura; Goranova-Marinova, Vesselina; Mihaylov, Georgi; Maisnar, Vladimír; Mateos, Maria-Victoria; Wang, Michael; Niesvizky, Ruben; Oriol, Albert; Jakubowiak, Andrzej; Minarik, Jiri; Palumbo, Antonio; Bensinger, William; Kukreti, Vishal; Ben-Yehuda, Dina; Stewart, A. Keith; Obreja, Mihaela; Moreau, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    The presence of certain high-risk cytogenetic abnormalities, such as translocations (4;14) and (14;16) and deletion (17p), are known to have a negative impact on survival in multiple myeloma (MM). The phase 3 study ASPIRE (N = 792) demonstrated that progression-free survival (PFS) was significantly improved with carfilzomib, lenalidomide, and dexamethasone (KRd), compared with lenalidomide and dexamethasone (Rd) in relapsed MM. This preplanned subgroup analysis of ASPIRE was conducted to evaluate KRd vs Rd by baseline cytogenetics according to fluorescence in situ hybridization. Of 417 patients with known cytogenetic risk status, 100 patients (24%) were categorized with high-risk cytogenetics (KRd, n = 48; Rd, n = 52) and 317 (76%) were categorized with standard-risk cytogenetics (KRd, n = 147; Rd, n = 170). For patients with high-risk cytogenetics, treatment with KRd resulted in a median PFS of 23.1 months, a 9-month improvement relative to treatment with Rd. For patients with standard-risk cytogenetics, treatment with KRd led to a 10-month improvement in median PFS vs Rd. The overall response rates for KRd vs Rd were 79.2% vs 59.6% (high-risk cytogenetics) and 91.2% vs 73.5% (standard-risk cytogenetics); approximately fivefold as many patients with high- or standard-risk cytogenetics achieved a complete response or better with KRd vs Rd (29.2% vs 5.8% and 38.1% vs 6.5%, respectively). KRd improved but did not abrogate the poor prognosis associated with high-risk cytogenetics. This regimen had a favorable benefit-risk profile in patients with relapsed MM, irrespective of cytogenetic risk status, and should be considered a standard of care in these patients. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT01080391. PMID:27439911

  6. Optimal Blood Pressure Goals in Patients With Hypertension at High Risk for Cardiovascular Events.

    PubMed

    Aronow, Wilbert S

    2016-01-01

    Existing epidemiologic and clinical trial data suggest that the blood pressure in patients with hypertension at high risk for cardiovascular events because of coronary artery disease, diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney disease, stroke, or heart failure should be reduced to <140/90 mm Hg in patients younger than 80 years and the systolic blood pressure be reduced to 140-145 mm Hg if tolerated in patients aged 80 years and older. Studies from patients with coronary artery disease, diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney disease, stroke, and heart failure will be discussed that support a blood pressure goal of <140/90 mm Hg in patients younger than 80 years at high risk for cardiovascular events. PMID:23591024

  7. Hemodynamic monitoring and management in patients undergoing high risk surgery: a survey among North American and European anesthesiologists

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Several studies have demonstrated that perioperative hemodynamic optimization has the ability to improve postoperative outcome in high-risk surgical patients. All of these studies aimed at optimizing cardiac output and/or oxygen delivery in the perioperative period. We conducted a survey with the American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) and the European Society of Anaesthesiology (ESA) to assess current hemodynamic management practices in patients undergoing high-risk surgery in Europe and in the United States. Methods A survey including 33 specific questions was emailed to 2,500 randomly selected active members of the ASA and to active ESA members. Results Overall, 368 questionnaires were completed, 57.1% from ASA and 42.9% from ESA members. Cardiac output is monitored by only 34% of ASA and ESA respondents (P = 0.49) while central venous pressure is monitored by 73% of ASA respondents and 84% of ESA respondents (P < 0.01). Specifically, the pulmonary artery catheter is being used much more frequently in the US than in Europe in the setup of high-risk surgery (85.1% vs. 55.3% respectively, P < 0.001). Clinical experience, blood pressure, central venous pressure, and urine output are the most widely indicators of volume expansion. Finally, 86.5% of ASA respondents and 98.1% of ESA respondents believe that their current hemodynamic management could be improved. Conclusions In conclusion, these results point to a considerable gap between the accumulating evidence about the benefits of perioperative hemodynamic optimization and the available technologies that may facilitate its clinical implementation, and clinical practices in both Europe and the United States. PMID:21843353

  8. Nonoperative options for management of residual stones after cholecystostomy in high-risk patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, David M.; Daye, S. S.; Lincer, R. M.

    1993-05-01

    Cholecystostomy is frequently performed to obtain control of sepsis in high risk patients with acute cholecystitis. Retained stones in the gallbladder may cause future clinical problems. We present two patients with cholecystostomy tubes managed non-operatively. A review of other reported methods for stone extraction or destruction is also presented. Knowledge of safe and effective techniques for removal of these stones, using minimally invasive techniques is useful to the general surgeon.

  9. A multidisciplinary QA program for enteral nutrition in high-risk patients.

    PubMed

    D'Addario, V; Danek, M

    1991-01-01

    An increase in elderly patients and severity of illness rates means greater use of nasogastric feeding tubes for both high-risk acutely ill and chronically ill patients. When the QA screening process at Booth Memorial Medical Center revealed a certain percentage of complications with small bore, weight-tipped feeding tubes inserted through the nares, a multidisciplinary peer review committee (MPRC) was formed to review the enteral nutrition program. After a literature review to determine possible complications, the MPRC identified lung perforations due to tube misplacement, tube feeding aspiration into the lungs leading to possible aspiration pneumonia, and an internal tip separation from the tube product failure. Unconscious incubated patients on ventilators were shown as at high risk for feeding tube misplacement in an initial MPRC patient study. A second study evaluated several different feeding tube products in the medical, respiratory and surgical ICU. The MPRC established a credentialing process for physician assistants, interns and residents in feeding tube placement. The MPRC proceedings were presented to the hospital-wide QA committee for review, endorsement and recommendations on all policy and procedure changes. The conclusions were that a more concerted effort must be made to improve medical management and encourage ongoing education in the administration of enteral feedings to high-risk patients. PMID:10113670

  10. Umbilical cord blood (UCB) transplant from unrelated mismatched donor in patients with high risk (HR) leukemia.

    PubMed

    Iori, A P; Screnci, M; Guglielmi, C; Mengarelli, A; Carmini, D; Testi, A M; Moleti, M L; Cimino, G; Perrone, P; Laurenti, L; Elia, L; Boecklin, F; Romano, A; Vulcano, F; De Felice, L; Arcese, W

    1998-07-01

    Ten consecutive children with high risk leukemia have been submitted to UCB transplant from unrelated HLA mismatched donors. All patients received an identical regimen for conditioning and GVHD prophylaxis. The median dose of viable nucleated cells infused was 2.6 x 10(6)/kg b.w. Among the nine patients evaluable for engraftment the hematopoiesis was of full donor origin in six patients and autologous in three. At a median follow-up of 9 months, six of nine (67%) patients are alive in CR. PMID:9715896

  11. Medicaid patients at high risk for frequent hospital admission: real-time identification and remediable risks.

    PubMed

    Raven, Maria C; Billings, John C; Goldfrank, Lewis R; Manheimer, Eric D; Gourevitch, Marc N

    2009-03-01

    Patients with frequent hospitalizations generate a disproportionate share of hospital visits and costs. Accurate determination of patients who might benefit from interventions is challenging: most patients with frequent admissions in 1 year would not continue to have them in the next. Our objective was to employ a validated regression algorithm to case-find Medicaid patients at high-risk for hospitalization in the next 12 months and identify intervention-amenable characteristics to reduce hospitalization risk. We obtained encounter data for 36,457 Medicaid patients with any visit to an urban public hospital from 2001 to 2006 and generated an algorithm-based score for hospitalization risk in the subsequent 12 months for each patient (0 = lowest, 100 = highest). To determine medical and social contributors to the current admission, we conducted in-depth interviews with high-risk hospitalized patients (scores >50) and analyzed associated Medicaid claims data. An algorithm-based risk score >50 was attained in 2,618 (7.2%) patients. The algorithm's positive predictive value was equal to 0.67. During the study period, 139 high-risk patients were admitted: 60 met inclusion criteria and 50 were interviewed. Fifty-six percent cited the Emergency Department as their usual source of care or had none. Sixty-eight percent had >1 chronic medical conditions, and 42% were admitted for conditions related to substance use. Sixty percent were homeless or precariously housed. Mean Medicaid expenditures for the interviewed patients were $39,188 and $84,040 per patient for the years immediately prior to and following study participation, respectively. Findings including high rates of substance use, homelessness, social isolation, and lack of a medical home will inform the design of interventions to improve community-based care and reduce hospitalizations and associated costs. PMID:19082899

  12. Intensified Surveillance for Early Detection of Breast Cancer in High-Risk Patients

    PubMed Central

    Bick, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    Summary Efforts for early detection of breast cancer play an important role in the care of high-risk women. This will include both women with a pathological mutation in one of the known breast cancer susceptibility genes as well as women with a high breast cancer risk based on family history only. Due to the much higher incidence of breast cancer in premenopausal women with a genetic predisposition or a familial background, to be most effective, imaging-based breast surveillance should start at an age as early as 25–30 years. There is now ample evidence that magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is by far the most sensitive imaging modality in young high-risk women. With high-risk multimodality screening at least 30% of breast cancers will be detected primarily by MRI and would have been missed at regular screening without MRI. Therefore, most high-risk breast surveillance programs now offer annual MRI to eligible high-risk women from age 25 to 30, usually supplemented by regular mammography starting at least from age 40. The inclusion of clinical breast exam (CBE) and/or ultrasound in the high-risk surveillance has little impact on the detection of additional cancers, but may improve compliance and reduce unnecessary callbacks for nonspecific findings on MRI. To reduce advanced stage interval cancers, especially in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers, some programs offer additional semiannual CBE and/or ultrasound or alternate MRI and mammography every 6 months. How long regular MRI should be continued in high-risk women is a matter of considerable debate. It appears feasible that MRI can safely be discontinued even in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers between the age of 60 and 70, especially if mammographic breast density is low. Even though several cohort studies have now demonstrated a very favorable stage distribution of breast cancers found in women undergoing high-risk surveillance with MRI, data on long-term survival and mortality in these patients is still rare. PMID:25960720

  13. Changing the patterns of failure for high-risk prostate cancer patients by optimizing local control

    SciTech Connect

    Stock, Richard G. . E-mail: richard.stock@msnyuhealth.org; Ho, Alice; Cesaretti, Jamie A.; Stone, Nelson N.

    2006-10-01

    Purpose: Standard therapies for high-risk prostate cancer have resulted in suboptimal outcomes with both local and distant failures. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and distant metastases rates as well as biopsy outcomes are reported after a regimen of trimodality therapy with hormonal, radioactive seed, and external beam radiation therapy to demonstrate how patterns of failure are changed when local control is optimized. Methods and Materials: From 1994 to 2003, a total of 360 patients with high-risk prostate cancer were treated with trimodality therapy. Patients were defined as being at high risk if they possessed at least one of the following high-risk features: Gleason score 8 to 10, PSA >20, clinical stage t2c to t3, or two or more intermediate risk features: Gleason score 7, PSA >10 to 20, or stage t2b. Patients were followed for a median of 4.25 years (range, 2 to 10 years). Results: The actuarial 7-year freedom from PSA failure and freedom from distant metastases (FFDM) rates were 83% and 89% respectively. Patients (n = 51) developing PSA failure exhibited aggressive disease behavior with short PSA doubling times (median, 5 months) and a 7-year freedom from distant metastases rate of 48%. Local control was high. The last posttreatment biopsy results were negative in 97% of cases (68 of 70 patients). In multivariate analysis, only PSA >20 predicted biochemical failure (p = 0.04), and only seminal vesicle status predicted developing distant failure (p = 0.01). Conclusions: Trimodality therapy results in excellent local control that alters patterns of failure, resulting in similar actuarial biochemical and distant failure rates. Most failures appear to be distant and exhibit biologically aggressive behavior.

  14. Midterm results of endovascular infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm repair in high-risk patients.

    PubMed

    Nagpal, A David; Forbes, Thomas L; Novick, Teresa V; Lovell, Marge B; Kribs, Stewart W; Lawlor, D Kirk; Harris, Kenneth A; DeRose, Guy

    2007-01-01

    Short-term and midterm clinical outcomes after endovascular repair of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) have been well documented. Evaluation of longer term outcomes is now possible. Here we describe our initial 100 high-risk patients treated with endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR), all with a minimum of 5 years of follow-up. A retrospective review of prospectively recorded data in a departmental database was undertaken for the first 100 consecutive EVAR patients with a minimum of 5 years (range, 60-105 months) of follow-up performed between December 1997 and June 2001. Information was obtained from surgical follow-up visits and family doctors' offices. Endovascular repair of AAA in high-risk patients can be achieved with acceptably low postoperative mortality and morbidity. Longer term results in this high-risk cohort suggest that EVAR is effective in preventing aneurysm-related deaths at 5 years and beyond. All late mortalities were due to patients' comorbid diseases. PMID:17704332

  15. Concurrent Androgen Deprivation Therapy During Salvage Prostate Radiotherapy Improves Treatment Outcomes in High-Risk Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Soto, Daniel E.; Passarelli, Michael N.; Daignault, Stephanie; Sandler, Howard M.

    2012-03-01

    Purpose: To determine whether concurrent androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) during salvage radiotherapy (RT) improves prostate cancer treatment outcomes. Methods and Materials: A total of 630 postprostatectomy patients were retrospectively identified who were treated with three-dimensional conformal RT. Of these, 441 were found to be treated for salvage indications. Biochemical failure was defined as prostate-specific antigen (PSA) of 0.2 ng/mL or greater above nadir with another PSA increase or the initiation of salvage ADT. Progression-free survival (PFS) was defined as the absence of biochemical failure, continued PSA rise despite salvage therapy, initiation of systemic therapy, clinical progression, or distant failure. Multivariate-adjusted Cox proportional hazards modeling was performed to determine which factors predict PFS. Results: Low-, intermediate-, and high-risk patients made up 10%, 24%, and 66% of patients, respectively. The mean RT dose was 68 Gy. Twenty-four percent of patients received concurrent ADT (cADT). Regional pelvic nodes were treated in 16% of patients. With a median follow-up of 3 years, the 3-year PFS was 4.0 years for cADT vs. 3.4 years for cADT patients (p = 0.22). Multivariate analysis showed that concurrent ADT (p = 0.05), Gleason score (p < 0.001), and pre-RT PSA (p = 0.03) were independent predictors of PFS. When patients were stratified by risk group, the benefits of cADT (hazard ratio, 0.65; p = 0.046) were significant only for high-risk patients. Conclusions: This retrospective study showed a PFS benefit of concurrent ADT during salvage prostate RT. This benefit was observed only in high-risk patients.

  16. Presurgical Pulmonary Evaluation in Renal Transplant Patients

    PubMed Central

    Sahni, Sonu; Molmenti, Ernesto; Bhaskaran, Madhu C.; Ali, Nicole; Basu, Amit; Talwar, Arunabh

    2014-01-01

    Patients with chronic renal failure (CRF) due to various mechanisms are prone to significant pulmonary comorbidities. With the improvements in renal replacement therapy (RRT), patients with CRF are now expected to live longer, and thus may develop complications in the lung from these processes. The preferred treatment of CRF is kidney transplantation and patients who are selected to undergo transplant must have a thorough preoperative pulmonary evaluation to assess pulmonary status and to determine risk of postoperative pulmonary complications. A MEDLINE®/PubMed® search was performed to identify all articles outlining the course of pre-surgical pulmonary evaluation with an emphasis on patients with CRF who have been selected for renal transplant. Literature review concluded that in addition to generic pre-surgical evaluation, renal transplant patients must also undergo a full cardiopulmonary and sleep evaluation to investigate possible existing pulmonary pathologies. Presence of any risk factor should then be aggressively managed or treated prior to surgery. PMID:25599047

  17. Treatment of a High-Risk Diabetic Patient with Peripheral Vascular Disease and Osteomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Allen, Latricia L; Kalmar, Garrett; Driver, Vickie R

    2016-06-01

    We report a case of calcaneal osteomyelitis that was surgically resected from a patient with diabetes and peripheral vascular disease. A 91-year-old male with history of type 2 diabetes, peripheral vascular disease, balloon angioplasty, and recent (2 months ago) stent of the superficial femoral artery presented to the emergency department with a left heel wound infection probed to bone. The patient reported having been on intravenous Zosyn for several months via an outside infectious disease provider for clinical suspicion of osteomyelitis, but noted no improvement. This report includes information regarding the clinical examination and imaging findings, which were used to assess this high-risk patient. Our patient underwent a partial calcanectomy and completed a 6-week course of intravenous antibiotics. The purpose of this case report is to illustrate limb preservation in a high-risk patient with compromised vascular supply who underwent a partial calcanectomy for treatment of calcaneal osteomyelitis. The patient underwent surgical resection of the calcaneus without complications and healed unremarkably with the ability to ambulate while wearing an ankle foot orthosis with a custom shoe. This report was authorized for publication as an educational report to contribute to generalizable knowledge and does not include any patient health information. PMID:27423990

  18. Intensive combined modality therapy including low-dose TBI in high-risk Ewing's sarcoma patients

    SciTech Connect

    Kinsella, T.J.; Glaubiger, D.; Diesseroth, A.; Makuch, R.; Waller, B.; Pizzo, P.; Glatstein, E.

    1983-12-01

    Twenty-four high-risk Ewing's sarcoma patients were treated on an intensive combined modality protocol including low-dose fractionated total body irradiaiton (TBI) and autologous bone marrow infusion (ABMI). Twenty patients (83%) achieved a complete clinical response to the primary and/or metastatic sites following induction therapy. The median disease-free interval was 18 months, and nine patients remain disease-free with a follow-up of 22 to 72 months. Local failure as a manifestation of initial relapse occurred in only three patients (15%), each having synchronous distant failure. Eight patients failed initially with only distant metastases, usually within 1-2 years following a complete clinical response. Two patterns of granulocyte recovery following consolidative therapy (including TBI and ABMI) were recognized. The time to platelet recovery was different for the groups with early and late granulocyte recovery. Patients with late recovery did not tolerate maintenance chemotherapy. However, there was no difference in disease-free and overall survival, when comparing the groups with early and late granulocyte recovery. It is concluded that these high-risk Ewing's sarcoma patients remain a poor-prognosis group in spite of intensive combined modality therapy including low-dose TBI. The control of microscopic systemic disease remains the major challenge to improving the cure rate. A new combined modality protocol with high-dose 'therapeutic' TBI (800 rad/2 fractions) is being used and the protocol design is outlined.

  19. Hemodynamic monitoring and management of patients undergoing high-risk surgery: a survey among Chinese anesthesiologists.

    PubMed

    Chen, Guo; Zuo, Yunxia; Yang, Lei; Chung, Elena; Cannesson, Maxime

    2014-09-01

    Hemodynamic monitoring and optimization improve postoperative outcome during high-risk surgery. However, hemodynamic management practices among Chinese anesthesiologists are largely unknown. This study sought to evaluate the current intraoperative hemodynamic management practices for high-risk surgery patients in China. From September 2010 to November 2011, we surveyed anesthesiologists working in the operating rooms of 265 hospitals representing 28 Chinese provinces. All questionnaires were distributed to department chairs of anesthesiology or practicing anesthesiologists. Once completed, the 29-item questionnaires were collected and analyzed. Two hundred and 10 questionnaires from 265 hospitals in China were collected. We found that 91.4% of anesthesiologists monitored invasive arterial pressure, 82.9% monitored central venous pressure (CVP), 13.3% monitored cardiac output (CO), 10.5% monitored mixed venous saturation, and less than 2% monitored pulse pressure variation (PPV) or systolic pressure variation (SPV) during high-risk surgery. The majority (88%) of anesthesiologists relied on clinical experience as an indicator for volume expansion and more than 80% relied on blood pressure, CVP and urine output. Anesthesiologists in China do not own enough attention on hemodynamic parameters such as PPV, SPV and CO during fluid management in high-risk surgical patients. The lack of CO monitoring may be attributed largely to the limited access to technologies, the cost of the devices and the lack of education on how to use them. There is a need for improving access to these technologies as well as an opportunity to create guidelines and education for hemodynamic optimization in China. PMID:25332709

  20. Likelihood of Bone Recurrence in Prior Sites of Metastasis in Patients With High-Risk Neuroblastoma

    SciTech Connect

    Polishchuk, Alexei L.; Li, Richard; Little, Anthony; Hawkins, Randall A.; Hamilton, Jeffrey; Lau, Michael; Tran, Hung Chi; Lemons, Richard S.; Matthay, Katherine K.; DuBois, Steven G.; and others

    2014-07-15

    Purpose/Objectives: Despite recent improvements in outcomes, 40% of children with high-risk neuroblastoma will experience relapse, facing a guarded prognosis for long-term cure. Whether recurrences are at new sites or sites of original disease may guide decision making during initial therapy. Methods and Materials: Eligible patients were retrospectively identified from institutional databases at first metastatic relapse of high-risk neuroblastoma. Included patients had disease involving metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG)-avid metastatic sites at diagnosis and first relapse, achieved a complete or partial response with no more than one residual MIBG-avid site before first relapse, and received no total body irradiation or therapy with {sup 131}I-MIBG before first relapse. Anatomically defined metastatic sites were tracked from diagnosis through first relapse to determine tendency of disease to recur at previously involved versus uninvolved sites and to assess whether this pattern was influenced by site irradiation. Results: Of 159 MIBG-avid metastatic sites identified among 43 patients at first relapse, 131 (82.4%) overlapped anatomically with the set of 525 sites present at diagnosis. This distribution was similar for bone sites, but patterns of relapse were more varied for the smaller subset of soft tissue metastases. Among all metastatic sites at diagnosis in our subsequently relapsed patient cohort, only 3 of 19 irradiated sites (15.8%) recurred as compared with 128 of 506 (25.3%) unirradiated sites. Conclusions: Metastatic bone relapse in neuroblastoma usually occurs at anatomic sites of previous disease. Metastatic sites identified at diagnosis that did not receive radiation during frontline therapy appeared to have a higher risk of involvement at first relapse relative to previously irradiated metastatic sites. These observations support the current paradigm of irradiating metastases that persist after induction chemotherapy in high-risk patients. Furthermore

  1. Extramedullary relapse after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation plus buffy-coat in two high risk patients.

    PubMed

    Salutari, P; Sica, S; Micciulli, G; Rutella, S; Di Mario, A; Leone, G

    1996-01-01

    In order to obtain an additional graft versus leukemia effect (GVL) and rapid engraftment, donor leukocyte infusion (DLI) was added to unseparated, sex-mismatched allogeneic bone marrow transplantation in two male patients (age 21, 26) affected by high risk hematological malignancies (refractory T-ALL, refractory B-LBL in leukemic phase). Graft versus host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis consisted of methotrexate (MTX) alone. DLI were obtained after G-CSF 16 ug/kg/day sc. A total of 2.36 and 5.8 x 10(6)/kg MNC, 5.4 and 11 x 10(6)/kg CD34+ cells, 1.3 and 1.3 x 10(6)/kg CD3+ lymphocytes, respectively, were infused. Hemopoietic recovery occurred promptly. Complete chimerism was detected by cytogenetic examination. One patient developed an extramedullary relapse that first involved the cranial nerves, and then the testes, soft tissue and skin; the other patient developed central nervous system disease and then bilateral paravertebral masses with progressive paraplegia. Despite complete medullary remission with normal female karyotype, both patients died from extramedullary progression of their disease. Our observation shows that, at least in high risk patients, no additional GVHD or GVL effect was evident after donor leukocyte infusion. Extramedullary relapse was not prevented despite good control of medullary disease. PMID:8641654

  2. Hemodynamic monitoring and care of the patient of high risk for anesthesia.

    PubMed Central

    Pietak, S P; Teasdale, S J

    1979-01-01

    Hemodynamic monitoring and care of the patient at high risk for anesthesia require a careful and systematic approach. During preoperative evaluation the patient at increased risk must be identified and correctable problems must be solved. The patient's current medications must be reviewed because they may influence the choice of anesthetic approach and may alter the physiologic response to the stresses commonly associated with anesthesia. In addition to conventional clinical and electrocardiographic monitoring, perioperative hemodynamic monitoring may be desirable for patients at special risk, who are likely to have significant associated medical problems or to undergo complicated surgical procedures. No ideal induction agent exists, and hypotension secondary to peripheral vasodilation or myocardial depression, or both, is a potential problem. Patients with an inordinately high risk may benefit from mechanical circulatory assistance prior to induction of anesthesia. Attention to oxygenation, blood volume replacement and the prevention of hypertensive episodes are particularly important during anesthesia so that optimal cardiac performance is ensured and ischemia avoided. The stresses during emergence from anesthesia contribute to lability of the cardiovascular status and hypoxemia. The period of risk does not conclude with immediate recovery from anesthesia but extends through the postoperative phase. Careful monitoring and attention to the control of pain, prevention of hypotension and hypertension, adequate oxygenation, early mobilization and resumption of the administration of cardiac medications are important factors in a successful outcome. PMID:497983

  3. Management of a high risk epileptic patient under conscious sedation: A multidisciplinary approach

    PubMed Central

    Chellathurai, Burnice Nalina Kumari; Thiagarajan, Ramakrishnan; Jayakumaran, SelvaKumar; Devadoss, Pradeep; Elavazhagan

    2016-01-01

    Epilepsy, characterized by the risk of recurrent seizures, is a chronic disease that afflicts about 5% of the world's population. The main dental problems associated with epileptic patients include gingival hyperplasia, minor oral injuries, tooth trauma, and prosthodontic problems, which require the dental treatment. Stress and fear are the most common triggering factors for the epilepsy in dental chair. Therefore, a more appropriate method of treating such epileptic patients may be warranted. Conscious sedation is a technique of providing good anesthesia and analgesia to patients, the main advantage of which is the patient's rapid return to presentation levels. Midazolam used as a sedative agent has anticonvulsant properties. This case report highlights a case requiring multiple dental procedures carried out in a high risk epileptic patient under conscious sedation. PMID:27041847

  4. Synthetic ACTH in High Risk Patients with Idiopathic Membranous Nephropathy: A Prospective, Open Label Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    van de Logt, Anne-Els; Beerenhout, Charles H.; Brink, Hans S.; van de Kerkhof, Jos J.; Wetzels, Jack F.; Hofstra, Julia M.

    2015-01-01

    New therapeutic agents are warranted in idiopathic membranous nephropathy. Synthetic ACTH may be advantageous with reported remission rates up to 85% and few side effects. We conducted a prospective open label cohort study from 2008 till 2010 (NCT00694863). We prospectively selected patients with idiopathic membranous nephropathy and high risk for progression (defined as βeta-2-microglobulin (β2m) excretion of >500 ng/min). For comparison, we selected matched historical controls treated with cyclophosphamide. The prospectively selected patients received intramuscular injections of synthetic ACTH during 9 months (maximal dose 1 mg twice a week). The primary endpoints concerned the feasibility and incidence of remissions as a primary event. Secondary endpoints included side effects of treatment and the incidence of remissions and relapses at long-term follow-up. Twenty patients (15 men) were included (age 54±14 years, serum creatinine 104 μmol/l [IQR 90–113], urine protein:creatinine ratio 8.7 g/10 mmol creatinine [IQR 4.3–11.1]). Seventeen patients (85%) completed treatment. 97% of injections were administered correctly. Cumulative remission rate was 55% (complete remission in 4 patients, partial remission 7 patients). In a group of historical controls treated with cyclophosphamide and steroids, 19 of 20 patients (95%) developed a remission (complete remission in 13 patients, partial remission in 6 patients) (p<0.01). The main limitation of our study is its small size and the use of a historical control group. We show that treatment with intramuscular injections of synthetic ACTH is feasible. Our data suggest that synthetic ACTH is less effective than cyclophosphamide in inducing a remission in high risk patients with idiopathic membranous nephropathy. The use of synthetic ACTH was also associated with many adverse events. Therefore, we advise against synthetic ACTH as standard treatment in membranous nephropathy. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT

  5. Thoracoscopic Lobectomy Has Increasing Benefit in Patients With Poor Pulmonary Function

    PubMed Central

    Ceppa, DuyKhanh P.; Kosinski, Andrzej S.; Berry, Mark F.; Tong, Betty C.; Harpole, David H.; Mitchell, John D.; D'Amico, Thomas A.; Onaitis, Mark W.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Using a national database, we asked whether video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) lobectomy is beneficial in high-risk pulmonary patients. Background Single-institution series demonstrated benefit of VATS lobectomy over lobectomy via thoracotomy in poor pulmonary function patients [FEV1 (forced expiratory volume in 1 second) or DLCO (diffusion capacity of the lung to carbon monoxide) <60% predicted]. Methods The STS General Thoracic Database was queried for patients having undergone lobectomy by either thoracotomy or VATS between 2000 and 2010. Postoperative pulmonary complications included those defined by the STS database. Results In the STS database, 12,970 patients underwent lobectomy (thoracotomy, n = 8439; VATS, n = 4531) and met inclusion criteria. The overall rate of pulmonary complications was 21.7% (1832/8439) and 17.8% (806/4531) in patients undergoing lobectomy with thoracotomy and VATS, respectively (P < 0.0001). In a multivariable model of pulmonary complications, thoracotomy approach (OR = 1.25, P < 0.001), decreasing FEV1% predicted (OR = 1.01 per unit, P < 0.001) and DLCO% predicted (OR = 1.01 per unit, P < 0.001), and increasing age (1.02 per year, P < 0.001) independently predicted pulmonary complications. When examining pulmonary complications in patients with FEV1 less than 60% predicted, thoracotomy patients have markedly increased pulmonary complications when compared with VATS patients (P = 0.023). No significant difference is noted with FEV1 more than 60% predicted. Conclusions Poor pulmonary function predicts respiratory complications regardless of approach. Respiratory complications increase at a significantly greater rate in lobectomy patients with poor pulmonary function after thoracotomy compared with VATS. Planned surgical approach should be considered while determining whether a high-risk patient is an appropriate resection candidate. PMID:22868367

  6. Obligations and frustrations with high-risk patients: ethics of physicians' evaluations.

    PubMed

    Jones, James W; McCullough, Laurence B

    2015-02-01

    A surgeon, Dr A. Droit, has been following a 97-year-old male with a type IV thoracoabdominal aneurysm, which became symptomatic this morning and is leaking. The patient is frail but active with no important comorbidities. The anatomy demands an open procedure. The patient is a former renowned physician who has been a longtime family friend of Dr Droit-like a grandfather. He presented incoherent with sagging blood pressure. A complicating factor is that Dr D. Rag, the chief anesthesiologist, decided that neither he nor any of his staff would provide anesthesia. Dr Droit knows an anesthesiologist who handles high-risk patients at another hospital in the medical center. The patient has worsened over the last hour, is becoming more unstable, and is unable to respond but his wife wishes to consent for surgery. What should Dr Droit do? PMID:25619578

  7. [The care standard of patients at high risk of disuse syndrome].

    PubMed

    Medina Artiles, E; Rodríguez Rodríguez, M; Acosta Suárez, G

    1997-01-01

    The present paper expresses the need to standardize the basic care that should be given to the patients with musculoskeletal inactivity. Starting from the definition of the high risk disuse syndrome category, the body systems' functionality will be determined. It is important to consider the patients' participation in the activities carried out, as well as their feelings regarding their status and the effects it may produce. The nurse should demonstrate her knowledge and abilities to take care of the patients, keeping the integrity of the skin and of the mucous membranes. An exhaustive bibliographic review was made for this paper. The basic care the patients with musculoskeletal inactivity (disuse syndrome) should receive are explained here. PMID:9479176

  8. CLAG-based induction therapy in previously untreated high risk acute myeloid leukemia patients.

    PubMed

    Seiter, Karen; Ahmed, Nasir; Shaikh, Azfar; Baskind, Paul; Liu, Delong

    2016-07-01

    The CLAG regimen is highly active in patients with relapsed and/or refractory acute myeloid leukemia (AML). We administered CLAG-based chemotherapy to 20 previously untreated AML patients who were poor candidates for standard induction therapy. Responding patients received further CLAG as post-remission therapy followed by additional therapy that was tailored to their AML subtype. Patients were considered poor candidates for standard therapy due to either cardiac disease, prior chemotherapy for another malignancy, prior myeloproliferative disease, or myelodysplastic syndrome that had progressed after hypomethylator therapy. Overall, thirteen patients had a complete response (CR) to the first cycle of therapy (65%), one patient had a CR without platelet recovery, and 3 patients had a partial response (PR). Two of the patients with PR converted to CR after further therapy. The median duration of response has not been reached; the mean duration of response is 36.8 months (95% CI 28.8-44.8 months). Median overall survival (including deaths from all causes) is 29.0 months (95% CI 18.0-46.0 months). Patients with de novo AML had a CR rate of 90.9% and a median overall survival of 38.5 months. CLAG-based therapy is a well-tolerated, efficacious induction strategy in previously-untreated patients with high risk AML. CLAG-based regimens should be studied in a broader group of newly diagnosed AML patients. PMID:27151544

  9. [Pulmonary function in patients with disseminated pulmonary tuberculosis].

    PubMed

    Nefedov, V B; Shergina, E A; Popova, L A

    2007-01-01

    Vital capacity (VC), forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), FEV1/VC%, PEF, MEF25%, MEF50%, MEF75%, TLS, TGV, pulmonary residual volume (PRV), Raw, Rin, Rex, DLCO-SB, DLCO-SS, PaO2, and PaCO2 were determined in 29 patients with disseminated pulmonary tuberculosis. Pulmonary dysfunction was detected in 93.1% of the patients. Changes were found in lung volumes and capacities in 65.5%, impaired bronchial patency and pulmonary gas exchange dysfunction were in 79.3 and 37.9%, respectively. The changes in pulmonary volumes and capacities appeared as increased PRV, decreased VC, FVC, and TLS, decreased and increased TGV; impaired bronchial patency presented as decreased PEF, MEF25%, MEF50%, MEF75%, and FEV1/VC% and increased Raw, Rin, and Rex; pulmonary gas exchange dysfunction manifested itself as reduced DLCO-SS and PaO2 and decreased and increased PaCO2. The observed functional changes varied from slight to significant and pronounced with a preponderance of small disorders, a lower detection rate of significant disorders, and rare detection of very pronounced ones. PMID:18041129

  10. [Pulmonary function in patients with infiltrative pulmonary tuberculosis].

    PubMed

    Nefedov, V B; Popova, L A; Shergina, E A

    2007-01-01

    Vital capacity (VC), forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), FEV1/VC%, PEF, MEF25, MEF50, MEF75, TLC, TGV, pulmonary residual volume (PRV), R(aw), R(in),, R(ex), DLCO-SB, DLCO-SS, PaO2, and PaCO2 were determined in 103 patients with infiltrative pulmonary tuberculosis. Pulmonary dysfunction was detected in 83.5% of the patients. Changes were found in lung volumes and capacities in 63.1%, impaired bronchial patency and pulmonary gas exchange dysfunction were in 60.2 and 41.7%, respectively. The changes in pulmonary volumes and capacities appeared as increased PRV, decreased VC and FVC, and decreased and increased TGV and TLC; impaired bronchial patency presented as decreased PEF, MEF25, MEF50, MEF75, FEV1/VC% and increased R(aw) R(in), and R(ex); pulmonary gas exchange dysfunction manifested itself as reduced DLCO-SB, DLCO-SS, and PaO2 and decreased and increased PaCO2. The magnitude of the observed functional changes was generally slight. Significant disorders were observed rarely and very pronounced ones were exceptional. PMID:17915466

  11. Lower blood pressure goals in high-risk cardiovascular patients: are they defensible?

    PubMed

    Hopkins, Keith A; Bakris, George L

    2010-08-01

    This review highlights the paucity of data that support actively decreasing blood pressures (BP) to a level of less than 130/80 mm Hg. Although the data support a lower cardiovascular (CV) event rate with this lower level of pressure in high-risk CV people, early aggressive intervention to prevent levels from going above this mark prevent development of worsening atherosclerosis. Although no trial will ever prove this concept of prevention, common sense and multiple animal experiments support it. Most patients should have their systolic BP reduced to levels well below 140 mm Hg approaching 130 mm Hg, not 140 mm Hg. PMID:20621249

  12. Nursing Strategies to Support Family Members of ICU Patients at High Risk of Dying

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Judith A.; Anderson, Ruth A.; Docherty, Sharron L.; Tulsky, James A.; Steinhauser, Karen E.; Bailey, Donald E.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To explore how family members of ICU patients at high risk of dying respond to nursing communication strategies. Background: Family members of ICU patients may face difficult decisions. Nurses are in a position to provide support. Evidence of specific strategies that nurses use to support decision-making and how family members respond to these strategies is lacking. Methods: This is a prospective, qualitative descriptive study involving the family members of ICU patients identified as being at high risk of dying. Results: Family members described five nursing approaches: Demonstrating concern, building rapport, demonstrating professionalism, providing factual information, and supporting decision-making. This study provides evidence that when using these approaches, nurses helped family members to cope; to have hope, confidence, and trust; to prepare for and accept impending death; and to make decisions. Conclusion: Knowledge lays a foundation for interventions targeting the areas important to family members and most likely to improve their ability to make decisions and their well-being. PMID:24655938

  13. Pragmatic fluid optimization in high-risk surgery patients: when pragmatism dilutes the benefits.

    PubMed

    Reuter, Daniel A

    2012-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that hemodynamic optimization by fluid loading, particularly when performed in the early phase of surgery, is beneficial in high-risk surgery patients: it leads to a reduction in postoperative complications and even to improved long-term outcome. However, it is also true that goal- directed strategies of fluid optimization focusing on cardiac output optimization have not been applied in the clinical routine of many institutions. Reasons are manifold: disbelief in the level of evidence and on the accuracy and practicability of the required monitoring systems, and economics. The FOCCUS trial examined perioperative fluid optimization with a very basic approach: a standardized volume load with 25 ml/kg crystalloids over 6 hours immediately prior to scheduled surgery in high-risk patients. The hypothesis was that this intervention would lead to a compensation of preoperative fluid deficit caused by overnight fasting, and would result in improved perioperative fluid homeostasis with less postoperative complications and earlier hospital discharge. However, the primary study endpoints did not improve significantly. This observation points towards the facts that: firstly, the differentiation between interstitial fluid deficit caused by fasting and intravascular volume loss due to acute blood loss must be recognized in treatment strategies; secondly, the type of fluid replacement may play an important role; and thirdly, protocolized treatment strategies should also always be tailored to suit the patients' individual needs in every individual clinical situation. PMID:22410167

  14. AKI in Low-Risk versus High-Risk Patients in Intensive Care

    PubMed Central

    Sileanu, Florentina E.; Murugan, Raghavan; Lucko, Nicole; Clermont, Gilles; Kane-Gill, Sandra L.; Handler, Steven M.

    2015-01-01

    Background and objectives AKI in critically ill patients is usually part of multiorgan failure. However, nonrenal organ failure may not always precede AKI and patients without evidence of these organ failures may not be at low risk for AKI. This study examined the risk and outcomes associated with AKI in critically ill patients with and without cardiovascular or respiratory organ failures at presentation to the intensive care unit (ICU). Design, setting, participants, & measurements A large, academic medical center database, with records from July 2000 through October 2008, was used and the authors identified a low-risk cohort as patients without cardiovascular and respiratory organ failures defined as not receiving vasopressor support or mechanical ventilation within the first 24 hours of ICU admission. AKI was defined using Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes criteria. The primary end points were moderate to severe AKI (stages 2–3) and risk-adjusted hospital mortality. Results Of 40,152 critically ill patients, 44.9% received neither vasopressors nor mechanical ventilation on ICU day 1. Stages 2–3 AKI occurred less frequently in the low-risk patients versus high-risk patients within 24 hours (14.3% versus 29.1%) and within 1 week (25.7% versus 51.7%) of ICU admission. Patients developing AKI in both risk groups had higher risk of death before hospital discharge. However, the adjusted odds of hospital mortality were greater (odds ratio, 2.99; 95% confidence interval, 2.62 to 3.41) when AKI occurred in low-risk patients compared with those with respiratory or cardiovascular failures (odds ratio, 1.19; 95% confidence interval, 1.09 to 1.3); interaction P<0.001. Conclusions Patients admitted to ICU without respiratory or cardiovascular failure have a substantial likelihood of developing AKI. Although survival for low-risk patients is better than for high-risk patients, the relative increase in mortality associated with AKI is actually greater for low

  15. The perinatal: special care unit: expert care for high-risk patients.

    PubMed

    MacMullen, Nancy J; Meagher, Barbara

    2005-01-01

    Labor and delivery units are often used to provide care for nonlaboring patients requiring intensive medical and nursing care. The utilization of labor beds in this manner, however, can result in a shortage of beds for those patients who are truly in labor. Unfortunately, patient dissatisfaction, use of supplemental staffing, and ill-prepared, overworked nurses can then become the result of this practice. Clearly, an improved, innovative model of providing care for high-risk perinatal patients is needed. The purpose of this article is to describe how one hospital and its interdisciplinary team met the challenge of providing expert care for complex perinatal patients by creating a unique model of patient care delivery, the perinatal special care unit (PSCU). An advanced practice nursing role, the perinatal nurse practitioner (PNNP) was implemented to provide collaborative care for these patients. This article includes a discussion of positive and negative outcomes that occurred after the PSCU became a reality. Overall, housing patients on the PSCU has eliminated inappropriate use of labor and delivery beds and has led to a more satisfying childbearing experience for all involved. PMID:15867684

  16. Clinical and psychological telemonitoring and telecare of high risk heart failure patients.

    PubMed

    Villani, Alessandra; Malfatto, Gabriella; Compare, Angelo; Della Rosa, Francesco; Bellardita, Lara; Branzi, Giovanna; Molinari, Enrico; Parati, Gianfranco

    2014-12-01

    We conducted a trial of telemonitoring and telecare for patients with chronic heart failure leaving hospital after being treated for clinical instability. Eighty patients were randomized before hospital discharge to a usual care group (n=40: follow-up at the outpatient clinic) or to an integrated management group (n=40: patients learned to use a handheld PDA and kept in touch daily with the monitoring centre). At enrolment, the groups were similar for all clinical variables. At one-year follow-up, integrated management patients showed better adherence, reduced anxiety and depression, and lower NYHA class and plasma levels of BNP with respect to the usual care patients (e.g. NYHA class 2.1 vs 2.4, P<0.02). Mortality and hospital re-admissions for congestive heart failure were also reduced in integrated management patients (P<0.05). Integrated management was more expensive than usual care, although the cost of adverse events was 42% lower. In heart failure patients at high risk of relapse, the regular acquisition of simple clinical information and the possibility for the patient to contact the clinical staff improved drug titration, produced better psychological status and quality of life, and reduced hospitalizations for heart failure. PMID:25339632

  17. Next-generation personalised medicine for high-risk paediatric cancer patients - The INFORM pilot study.

    PubMed

    Worst, Barbara C; van Tilburg, Cornelis M; Balasubramanian, Gnana Prakash; Fiesel, Petra; Witt, Ruth; Freitag, Angelika; Boudalil, Miream; Previti, Christopher; Wolf, Stephan; Schmidt, Sabine; Chotewutmontri, Sasithorn; Bewerunge-Hudler, Melanie; Schick, Matthias; Schlesner, Matthias; Hutter, Barbara; Taylor, Lenka; Borst, Tobias; Sutter, Christian; Bartram, Claus R; Milde, Till; Pfaff, Elke; Kulozik, Andreas E; von Stackelberg, Arend; Meisel, Roland; Borkhardt, Arndt; Reinhardt, Dirk; Klusmann, Jan-Henning; Fleischhack, Gudrun; Tippelt, Stephan; Dirksen, Uta; Jürgens, Heribert; Kramm, Christof M; von Bueren, Andre O; Westermann, Frank; Fischer, Matthias; Burkhardt, Birgit; Wößmann, Wilhelm; Nathrath, Michaela; Bielack, Stefan S; Frühwald, Michael C; Fulda, Simone; Klingebiel, Thomas; Koscielniak, Ewa; Schwab, Matthias; Tremmel, Roman; Driever, Pablo Hernáiz; Schulte, Johannes H; Brors, Benedikt; von Deimling, Andreas; Lichter, Peter; Eggert, Angelika; Capper, David; Pfister, Stefan M; Jones, David T W; Witt, Olaf

    2016-09-01

    The 'Individualized Therapy for Relapsed Malignancies in Childhood' (INFORM) precision medicine study is a nationwide German program for children with high-risk relapsed/refractory malignancies, which aims to identify therapeutic targets on an individualised basis. In a pilot phase, reported here, we developed the logistical and analytical pipelines necessary for rapid and comprehensive molecular profiling in a clinical setting. Fifty-seven patients from 20 centers were prospectively recruited. Malignancies investigated included sarcomas (n = 25), brain tumours (n = 23), and others (n = 9). Whole-exome, low-coverage whole-genome, and RNA sequencing were complemented with methylation and expression microarray analyses. Alterations were assessed for potential targetability according to a customised prioritisation algorithm and subsequently discussed in an interdisciplinary molecular tumour board. Next-generation sequencing data were generated for 52 patients, with the full analysis possible in 46 of 52. Turnaround time from sample receipt until first report averaged 28 d. Twenty-six patients (50%) harbored a potentially druggable alteration with a prioritisation score of 'intermediate' or higher (level 4 of 7). Common targets included receptor tyrosine kinases, phosphoinositide 3-kinase-mammalian target of rapamycin pathway, mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway, and cell cycle control. Ten patients received a targeted therapy based on these findings, with responses observed in some previously treatment-refractory tumours. Comparative primary relapse analysis revealed substantial tumour evolution as well as one case of unsuspected secondary malignancy, highlighting the importance of re-biopsy at relapse. This study demonstrates the feasibility of comprehensive, real-time molecular profiling for high-risk paediatric cancer patients. This extended proof-of-concept, with examples of treatment consequences, expands upon previous personalised oncology endeavors

  18. Combination Immunotherapy for High-Risk Resected and Metastatic Melanoma Patients

    PubMed Central

    Riker, Adam I.; Rossi, Gabriela R.; Masih, Prerna; Alsfeld, L. C.; Denham, Fiona; Tennant, Lucinda; Ramsey, W. Jay; Vahanian, Nicholas N.; Link, Charles J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Patients with advanced melanoma have a poor outcome. We hypothesize that combination immunotherapy can synergistically activate host immunity to generate an effective treatment for patients with high-risk, resected stage 3, recurrent, refractory, or stage 4 melanoma. Methods We conducted a phase 2 clinical trial of HyperAcute Melanoma (HAM) vaccine (NLG-12036, NewLink Genetics) combined with pegylated interferon (Sylatron, Merck). Trial design consisted of a 12-week regimen with the initial 4 weekly treatments consisting of HAM alone (intradermally) followed by 8 additional treatments of HAM plus Sylatron (subcutaneously, 6 μg/kg). Trial endpoint outcomes include clinical response, overall safety, and correlative findings for observed antitumor effect. Results Our cohort consisted of 25 patients with a median age of 60. Twenty-one patients completed the trial and 4 stopped because of progressive disease (PD). According to the Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors, of the 16 stage 4 patients, 2 had a complete response (CR), 1 had stable disease, and 4 had no evidence of disease (NED) after resection. For stage 2/3 patients, 3 of 9 remained NED, and the 1 stage 2C patient had slow PD with a single site resected and is currently NED. The median overall survival time was 29 months, with 60% of the patients surviving for >1 year. Of the 25 patients, 12 (48%) are still alive. All evaluable patients (21/21) seroconverted, developing autoimmune antibodies. Four of 25 patients developed vitiligo, correlating with 2 CR patients and 2 NED patients. Conclusion Combination immunotherapy with HAM plus Sylatron shows clinical efficacy with tumor regression and concomitant immune activation. Optimization of dosing schedules and therapeutic efficacy should be further explored to enhance the benefit of this promising immunotherapeutic approach. PMID:24940124

  19. An emergency department registration kiosk can increase HIV screening in high risk patients.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Yu-Hsiang; Gauvey-Kern, Megan; Peterson, Stephen; Woodfield, Alonzo; Deruggiero, Katherine; Gaydos, Charlotte A; Rothman, Richard E

    2014-12-01

    We evaluated the feasibility and the patient acceptability of integrating a kiosk into routine emergency department (ED) practice for offering HIV testing. The work was conducted in four phases: phase 1 was a baseline, in which external testing staff offered testing at the bedside; phase 2 was a pilot assessment of a prototype kiosk; phase 3 was a pilot implementation and phase 4 was the full implementation with automated login. Feasibility was assessed by the proportion of offering HIV tests, acceptance, completion and result reporting. During the study period, the number of ED patients and eligible patients for screening were similar in the three main phases. However, the number and proportion of patients offered testing of those eligible for screening increased significantly from phase 1 (32%) to phase 3 (37%) and phase 4 (40%). There were slightly higher prevalences of newly diagnosed HIV with kiosk versus bedside testing (phase 1, 0%; phase 3, 0.2%; phase 4, 0.5%). Compared to patients tested at the bedside, patients tested via the kiosk were significantly younger, more likely to be female, to be black, and to report high risk behaviours. ED-based HIV screening via a registration-based kiosk was feasible, yielded similar proportions of testing, and increased the proportion of engagement of higher-risk patients in testing. PMID:25316041

  20. Other important applications for beta-blockers in high-risk patients.

    PubMed

    Egan, Brent M; Chilton, Robert J

    2003-12-01

    Beta-blockers suppress the adverse effects of chronic activation of the sympathetic nervous system-which plays an important role in the progression of cardiovascular disease- and the drugs are also recommended as primary therapy in other diverse medical conditions that present treatment problems. For many patients with atrial fibrillation, a common condition that poses a high risk of stroke, heart rate control with beta-blockers is increasingly seen as a critical therapeutic component. Similarly, perioperative beta-blocker use provides clinical benefits in patients undergoing noncardiac surgery who are at risk of cardiac events. In migraine therapy, beta-blockers are well established as effective agents for prophylaxis, and beta-blockers may reduce levels of C-reactive protein, a sensitive marker of inflammation in cardiovascular disease. Reviewing the role of beta-blockers in several ancillary conditions should help illuminate various aspects of the complex progression of cardiovascular disease and clarify the drugs' various therapeutic benefits. PMID:19667668

  1. Barotrauma-induced pneumocephalus experienced by a high risk patient after commercial air travel.

    PubMed

    Huh, Jisoon

    2013-08-01

    A 49-year-old female with a history of several neurosurgical and otolaryngologic procedures for occipital meningioma and cerebrospinal fluid leaks was diagnosed with pneumocephalus after a one hour flight on a domestic jet airliner. Despite multiple operations, the air appeared to enter the cranium through a weak portion of the skull base due to the low atmospheric pressure in the cabin. The intracranial air was absorbed with conservative management. The patient was recommended not to fly before a definite diagnostic work up and a sealing procedure for the cerebrospinal fluid leak site had been performed. Recent advances in aviation technology have enabled many people to travel by air, including individuals with medical conditions. Low cabin pressure is not dangerous to healthy individuals; however, practicing consultant neurosurgeons should understand the cabin environment and prepare high risk patients for safe air travel. PMID:24175032

  2. Phase I Trial of Sorafenib Following Liver Transplantation in Patients with High-Risk Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Siegel, Abby B.; El-Khoueiry, Anthony B.; Finn, Richard S.; Guthrie, Katherine A.; Goyal, Abhishek; Venook, Alan P.; Blanke, Charles D.; Verna, Elizabeth C.; Dove, Lorna; Emond, Jean; Kato, Tomoaki; Samstein, Benjamin; Busuttil, Ronald; Remotti, Helen; Coffey, Amy; Brown Jr, Robert S.

    2015-01-01

    Liver transplantation offers excellent long-term survival for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients who fall within established criteria. For those outside such criteria, or with high-risk pathologic features in the explant, HCC recurrence rates are higher. We conducted a multicenter phase I trial of sorafenib in liver transplantation patients with high-risk HCC. Subjects had HCC outside the Milan criteria (pre- or post-transplant), poorly differentiated tumors, or vascular invasion. We used a standard 3+3 phase I design with a planned duration of treatment of 24 weeks. Correlative studies included the number of circulating endothelial cells (CECs), plasma biomarkers, and tumor expression of p-Erk, p-Akt, and c-Met in tissue micro-arrays. We enrolled 14 patients with a median age of 63 years. Of these, 93% were men and 71% had underlying hepatitis C virus (HCV) and 21% had HBV. The maximum tolerated dose of sorafenib was 200 mg BID. Grade 3-4 toxicities seen in >10% of subjects included leukopenia (21%), elevated gamma-glutamyl transferase (21%), hypertension (14%), hand-foot syndrome (14%) and diarrhea (14%). Over a median follow-up of 953 days, one patient died and four recurred. The mean CEC number at baseline was 21 cells/4 ml for those who recurred, and 80 cells/4 ml for those who did not (p=0.10). Mean soluble vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 levels decreased after 1 month on sorafenib (p=0.09), but did not correlate with recurrence. There was a trend for tumor c-Met expression to correlate with increased risk of recurrence. Post-transplant sorafenib was found to be feasible and tolerable at 200 mg PO BID. The effect of post-transplant sorafenib on recurrence-free survival is potentially promising but needs further validation in a larger study. PMID:26020033

  3. Thoracic aortic atheroma severity predicts high-risk coronary anatomy in patients undergoing transesophageal echocardiography

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Xuedong; Aronow, Wilbert S.; Nair, Chandra K.; Korlakunta, Hema; Holmberg, Mark J.; Wang, Fenwei; Maciejewski, Stephanie; Esterbrooks, Dennis J.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction We hypothesized a relationship between severity of thoracic aortic atheroma (AA) and prevalence of high-risk coronary anatomy (HRCA). Material and methods We investigated AA diagnosed by transesophageal echocardiography and HRCA diagnosed by coronary angiography in 187 patients. HRCA was defined as ≥ 50% stenosis of the left main coronary artery or significant 3-vessel coronary artery disease (≥ 70% narrowing). Results HRCA was present in 45 of 187 patients (24%). AA severity was grade I in 55 patients (29%), grade II in 71 patients (38%), grade III in 52 patients (28%), grade IV in 5 patients (3%), and grade V in 4 patients (2%). The area under receiver operating characteristic curve for AA grade predicting HRCA was 0.83 (p = 0.0001). The cut-off points of AA to predict HRCA was > II grade. The sensitivity and specificity of AA > grade II to predict HRCA were 76% and 81%, respectively. After adjustment for 10 variables with significant differences by univariate regression, AA > grade II was related to HRCA by multivariate regression (odds ratio = 7.5, p< 0.0001). During 41-month follow-up, 15 of 61 patients (25%) with AA >grade II and 10 of 126 patients (8%) with AA grade ≤ 2 died (p= 0.004). Survival by Kaplan-Meier plot in patients with AA > grade II was significantly decreased compared to patients with AA ≤ grade II (p= 0.002). Conclusions AA > grade II is associated with a 7.5 times increase in HRCA and with a significant reduction in all-cause mortality. PMID:22291734

  4. Transversus abdominis plane block for an emergency laparotomy in a high-risk, elderly patient

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Surekha S; Pawar, Shonali C; Divekar, VM; Bakhshi, Rochana G

    2010-01-01

    A 72-year-old male patient with gall bladder perforation and small intestinal obstruction from impacted gall stone was posted for emergency laparotomy. He had congestive heart failure, severe hypertension at admission and history of multiple other coexisting diseases. On admission, he developed pulmonary oedema from systolic hypertension which was controlled by ventilatory support, nitroglycerine and furosemide. Preoperative international normalized ratio was 2.34 and left ventricular ejection fraction was only 20%. Because of risk of exaggerated fall in blood pressure during induction of anaesthesia (general or neuraxial), a transversus abdominis plane block via combined Petit triangle and subcostal technique was administered and supplemented with Propofol sedation. PMID:20885876

  5. Outcomes for split-thickness skin transplantation in high-risk patients using octenidine.

    PubMed

    Matiasek, J; Djedovic, G; Unger, L; Beck, H; Mattesich, M; Pierer, G; Koller, R; Rieger, U M

    2015-06-01

    Skin transplantation is a commonly used surgical technique; however, the complication rate, including postoperative infection and delayed wound healing due to inefficient perfusion, is significantly higher in patients suffering from comorbidities. Hence, a subsequent repeat procedure is often necessary. In this report, two case studies are presented in which an octenidine-based antiseptic is used with a tie-over dressing (TOD) instead of povidone iodine (PVP-iodine), following a split-thickness skin graft. The two patients selected were deemed to be at high risk of impaired wound healing due to comorbidities. The first patient, a confirmed smoker with diabetes, presented with a nodular melanoma that was resected and covered with a split-thickness skin graft. After 5 days of negative pressure wound therapy as a TOD, in combination with PVP-iodine, the graft became necrotic. A second split-thickness skin graft was performed and an antiseptic regimen with octenidine in combination with the same TOD resulted in a completely healed transplant. The second patient, also a confirmed smoker with diabetes and receiving oral corticosteroid treatment, was diagnosed with a skin necrosis on her leg. Following the split-thickness skin graft, octenidine and TOD were applied. The patient's skin graft completely healed without any adverse events. These two case studies indicate that the combination of octenidine and TOD following split-thickness skin transplantation is safe, well-tolerated and appears to have positive benefits in the reconstruction of defects in patients with impaired wound healing. PMID:26075514

  6. Recombinant activated factor VII in patients at high risk of bleeding.

    PubMed

    Kubisz, Peter; Stasko, Ján

    2004-01-01

    Currently, recombinant activated factor VII (rFVIIa) (NovoSeven) is indicated for the treatment of spontaneous and surgical bleeding in congenital haemophilia A and B patients with inhibitors to factors VIII (FVIII) and IX (FIX) >5 Bethesda units (BU) worldwide, and in patients with acquired haemophilia, congenital FVII deficiency and Glanzmann's thrombasthenia in Europe. Until April 2003, almost three-quarters of a milion doses of rFVIIa have been administered proving its efficacy and excellent safety record. According to results from initial clinical trials and a large number of case reports, the rFVIIa may be effective not only in treating haemophilia patients but also in treatment of bleeding in patients on oral anticoagulation or heparin, patients with liver diseases, von Willebrand disease (vWD), thrombocytopenia, various platelet defects, congenital or acquired deficiency of FVII, and in subjects without any pre-existing coagulopathy with diffuse life-threatening bleeding triggered by surgery or trauma. This review will briefly summarize rFVIIa mode of action in haemostasis, the current clinical experience with rFVIIa and focus on the alternative use of rFVIIa in patients at the high risk of bleeding in both spontaneous cases and clinical trials reports. PMID:15763970

  7. Targeting CD20 in melanoma patients at high risk of disease recurrence.

    PubMed

    Pinc, Alice; Somasundaram, Rajasekharan; Wagner, Christine; Hörmann, Marcus; Karanikas, Georgios; Jalili, Ahmad; Bauer, Wolfgang; Brunner, Patrick; Grabmeier-Pfistershammer, Katharina; Gschaider, Melanie; Lai, Chiou-Yan; Hsu, Mei-Yu; Herlyn, Meenhard; Stingl, Georg; Wagner, Stephan N

    2012-05-01

    Melanomas contain distinct cell subpopulations. Several of these subpopulations, including one expressing CD20, may harbor stem cell-like or tumor-initiating characteristics. We hypothesized that patients at high risk of disease recurrence could benefit from an adjuvant anti-CD20 therapy. Therefore, we initiated a small pilot trial to study the effect of the anti-CD20 antibody rituximab in a group of melanoma patients with stage IV metastatic disease who had been rendered without evident disease by way of surgery, chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy. The major objective was safety, while secondary objectives were description of recurrence-free intervals (RFI) and overall survival (OS). Nine patients received rituximab at 375 mg/m(2) qw for 4 weeks followed by a maintenance therapy every 8 weeks. Treatment was discontinued after 2 years or with disease recurrence. Treatment was well tolerated. After a median observation of 42 months, the median neither of RFI nor of OS has been reached. Despite therapy that ended after 2 years, six out of nine patients are still alive and five of them are recurrence-free. Though the patient number is too small for definitive conclusions, our data may represent a first example of the potential therapeutic value of targeting CD20(+) cell populations-at least for a subset of patients. PMID:22354376

  8. Prospective trial of supranormal values of survivors as therapeutic goals in high-risk surgical patients.

    PubMed

    Shoemaker, W C; Appel, P L; Kram, H B; Waxman, K; Lee, T S

    1988-12-01

    Survivors of high-risk surgical operations were previously observed to have significantly higher mean CI, DO2, and VO2 than nonsurvivors. The hypothesis was proposed that increased CI and DO2 are circulatory compensations for increased postoperative metabolism. We tested this hypothesis in two series. In series 1, prospectively allocated by services, mortality and morbidity of the control group were significantly greater than those of the protocol group. In series 2, patients who fulfilled previously defined high-risk criteria were preoperatively randomized to one of three monitoring/treatment groups: CVP-control group, PA-control group and PA-protocol group. Postoperative mortalities in the CVP-control and PA-control groups were not statistically significantly different, but PA-protocol group mortality was significantly reduced compared with its control group. The PA-protocol group had reduced complications, duration of hospitalization, duration in ICU, and mechanical ventilation, and reduced costs when the PA catheter was placed preoperatively and used to augment circulatory responses. PMID:3191758

  9. Prognostic factors in acute promyelocytic leukemia: strategies to define high-risk patients.

    PubMed

    Testa, Ugo; Lo-Coco, Francesco

    2016-04-01

    All trans retinoic acid (ATRA) has revolutionized the therapy of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). Treatment of this leukemia with ATRA in combination with chemotherapy has resulted in complete remission rates >90 % and long-term remission rates above 80 %. Furthermore, the combination of ATRA and arsenic trioxide (ATO) was shown to be safe and effective in frontline treatment and, for patients with low and intermediate risk disease, possibly superior to the standard ATRA and anthracycline-based regimen. However, in spite of this tremendous progress, APL still remains associated with a high incidence of early death due to the frequent occurrence of an abrupt bleeding diathesis. This hemorrhagic syndrome more frequently develops in high-risk APL patients, currently defined as those exhibiting >10 × 10(9)/L WBC at presentation. In addition to high WBC count, other molecular and immunophenotypic features have been associated with high-risk APL. Among them, the expression in APL blasts of the stem/progenitor cell antigen CD34, the neural adhesion molecule (CD56), and the T cell antigen CD2 help to identify a subset of patients at higher risk of relapse and often the expression of these markers is associated with high WBC count. At the molecular level, the short PML/RARA isoform and FLT3-internal tandem duplication (ITD) mutations have been associated with increased relapse risk. These observations indicate that extended immunophenotypic and molecular characterization of APL at diagnosis including evaluation of CD2, CD56, and CD34 antigens and of FLT3 mutations may help to better design risk-adapted treatment in this disease. PMID:26920716

  10. Outcome of major spinal deformity surgery in high-risk patients: comparison between two departments

    PubMed Central

    Murans, Girts; Gustavsson, Bengt; Saraste, Helena

    2010-01-01

    Study design: Retrospective cohort study Objective: To describe the outcome and resource use in major spine surgery on high-risk patients, and analyze possible differences between two surgical departments. Methods: Data from the deformity register and medical records of 136 patients, median age 12-years, with neuromuscular and congenital spinal deformities with and without intraspinal pathology, surgically treated by one surgeon from 1997 through 2004 at two departments. H1 with a pediatric multidisciplinary team, and H2 with focus on adult spine. Variables at baseline: age, gender, diagnosis, curve size, and type of surgical procedure. Result variables included clinical and radiographic outcome, surgery time, length of intensive care and hospital stay, relative blood loss, and occurrence of complications during 2 or more years follow-up. Results: There was no perioperative or postoperative mortality, no spinal-cord damage, no neurological or ambulatory function deterioration. The overall complication rate was 36%, and the overall major complication rate was 15.4%. The mean loss of correction was 2° during the follow-up. There were statistically significant differences between the H1 and H2 departments. At H1, deformity correction was better and surgery time shorter. Infections were more frequent at H2 (P = .04; 6/65 at H1; 16/71 at H2), tendency (P = .06) of more department-related complications was higher at H2. Conclusions: Major spine surgery in high-risk patients can be performed safely and with good outcoms. Impact of organization and workplace culture on the outcome might be important and worth further study. PMID:22956923

  11. SUPRAPUR®: Safe and convenient percutaneous suprapubic catheterisation in high-risk patients

    PubMed Central

    Mandel, Philipp; Ritter, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Ultrasound-guided percutaneous placement of a suprapubic cystostomy is a common and generally safe procedure in everyday surgery. In case of adverse patient characteristics such as small bladder capacity or high body mass index, however, the procedure carries an increased risk of severe complications, including bowel perforation. The Suprapur® cystostomy set is supposed to enable a safer procedure. The aim of our work was to evaluate the safety and ease of use of the Suprapur® cystostomy set. Material and methods We prospectively evaluated the Suprapur® set in high-risk patients, having either a small bladder capacity below 250 ml or a BMI above 30 kg/m2. Complications and surgical outcome were monitored. In addition, patients’ contentment and pain during the procedure was assessed with a visual analogue scale (VAS). Possible drawbacks and ease of use were evaluated by customized questionnaires for the operating physician. Results In total, 26 cystostomies were performed by 15 different physicians, 40% (n = 6) of whom were inexperienced first or second year residents. No complications occurred. Mild gross haematuria occurred in 11.5% (n = 4) of cases. Average VAS for pain during and two hours after the procedure was 2.1 (±1.2) and 0.3 (±0.5) respectively. In 91%, (n = 20) of the procedures, the physicians claimed to have felt safe using SUPRAPUR® and more comfortable (82%, n = 18) than with a conventional cystostomy set. Conclusions SUPRAPUR® allows a safe and simple placement of a suprapubic cystostomy even in high-risk patients or in inexperienced hands. It might help to reduce the complications of a common and frequent surgical procedure. PMID:26855806

  12. Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) is an infection often occurring in neutropenic patients and has high mortality rates. In recent years, it has been reported that the incidence of IPA has also increased in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The purpose of this study is to investigate the clinical and demographic characteristics and treatment responses of IPA in patients with COPD. Methods Seventy-one patients with a positive culture of Aspergillus from lower respiratory tract samples were examined retrospectively. Eleven (15.4%) of these patients, affected with grade 3 or 4 COPD, had IPA. Results Aspergillus hyphae were detected in lung biopsy in three (27.3%) out of 11 patients and defined as proven IPA; a pathological sample was not taken in the other eight (72.7%) patients, and these were defined as probable IPA. Aspergillus isolates were identified as six cases of Aspergillusfumigatus and three of Aspergillusniger in nine patients, while two isolates were not identified at species level. While five patients required intensive care unit admission, four of them received mechanical ventilation. The most common finding on chest X-ray and computed tomography (CT) (respectively 63.6%, 72.7%) was infiltration. Amphotericin B was the initial drug of choice in all patients and five patients were discharged with oral voriconazole after amphotericin B therapy. Six patients (54.5%) died before treatment was completed. Conclusions IPA should be taken into account in the differential diagnosis particularly in patients with severe and very severe COPD presenting with dyspnea exacerbation, poor clinical status, and a new pulmonary infiltrate under treatment with broad-spectrum antibiotics and steroids. PMID:24135224

  13. Prevention of contrast induced nephropathy: recommendations for the high risk patient undergoing cardiovascular procedures.

    PubMed

    Schweiger, Marc J; Chambers, Charles E; Davidson, Charles J; Zhang, Shaoheng; Blankenship, James; Bhalla, Narinder P; Block, Peter C; Dervan, John P; Gasperetti, Christine; Gerber, Lowell; Kleiman, Neal S; Krone, Ronald J; Phillips, William J; Siegel, Robert M; Uretsky, Barry F; Laskey, Warren K

    2007-01-01

    Contrast induced nephropathy (CIN) is the third leading cause of hospital acquired renal failure and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Chronic kidney disease is the primary predisposing factor for CIN. As estimated glomerular filtration rate<60 ml/1.73 m2 represents significant renal dysfunction and defines patients at high risk. Modifiable risk factors for CIN include hydration status, the type and amount of contrast, use of concomitant nephrotoxic agents and recent contrast administration. The cornerstone of CIN prevention, in both the high and low risk patients, is adequate parenteral volume repletion. In the patient at increased risk for CIN it is often appropriate to withhold potentially nephrotoxic medications, and consider the use of n-acetylcysteine. In patients at increased risk for CIN the use of low or iso-osomolar contrast agents should be utilized and strategies employed to minimize contrast volume. In these patients serum creatinine should be obtained forty-eight hours post procedure and it is often appropriate to continue withholding medications such as metformin or non steroidal anti-inflammatories until renal function returns to normal. PMID:17139671

  14. Long-Term Follow-Up of Patients at High Risk for Nephropathy After Contrast Exposure.

    PubMed

    Abaci, Okay; Harmankaya, Ozlem; Kocas, Betul; Kocas, Cuneyt; Bostan, Cem; Coskun, Ugur; Yildiz, Ahmet; Ersanli, Murat

    2015-07-01

    Contrast medium-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI) is associated with morbidity and mortality, but the long-term outcomes of patients who do not develop CI-AKI remain unknown. We assessed clinical end points during long-term follow-up in patients at high risk for nephropathy who did not develop CI-AKI. Patients (n = 135) with impaired renal function (estimated glomerular filtration rate: 30-60 mL/min/1.73 m(2)) were divided into 2 groups according to contrast media (CM) exposure. The primary end point of this study was a composite outcome measure of death or renal failure requiring dialysis. Multivariate analyses identified CM exposure to be independently associated with major adverse long-term outcomes (hazard ratio: 2.3; 95% confidence interval, 1.34-6.52; P = .018). Even when CM exposure does not cause CI-AKI in patients with impaired renal function, in the long term, primary end points occur more frequently in patients exposed to CM than in those with no CM exposure. PMID:25115554

  15. Vertebral Body Stapling versus Bracing for Patients with High-Risk Moderate Idiopathic Scoliosis

    PubMed Central

    Cuddihy, Laury; Danielsson, Aina J.; Cahill, Patrick J.; Samdani, Amer F.; Grewal, Harsh; Richmond, John M.; Mulcahey, M. J.; Gaughan, John P.; Antonacci, M. Darryl; Betz, Randal R.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. We report a comparison study of vertebral body stapling (VBS) versus a matched bracing cohort for immature patients with moderate (25 to 44°) idiopathic scoliosis (IS). Methods. 42 of 49 consecutive patients (86%) with IS were treated with VBS and followed for a minimum of 2 years. They were compared to 121 braced patients meeting identical inclusion criteria. 52 patients (66 curves) were matched according to age at start of treatment (10.6 years versus 11.1 years, resp. [P = 0.07]) and gender. Results. For thoracic curves 25–34°, VBS had a success rate (defined as curve progression <10°) of 81% versus 61% for bracing (P = 0.16). In thoracic curves 35–44°, VBS and bracing both had a poor success rate. For lumbar curves, success rates were similar in both groups for curves measuring 25–34°. Conclusion. In this comparison of two cohorts of patients with high-risk (Risser 0-1) moderate IS (25–44°), in smaller thoracic curves (25–34°) VBS provided better results as a clinical trend as compared to bracing. VBS was found not to be effective for thoracic curves ≥35°. For lumbar curves measuring 25–34°, results appear to be similar for both VBS and bracing, at 80% success. PMID:26618169

  16. Organ Damage in High Risk Patients with Systemic and Incomplete Lupus Syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Olsen, Nancy J.; Yousif, Maha; Mutwally, Azza; Cory, Melinda; Elmagboul, Nada; Karp, David R.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize organ damage in lupus patients enrolled in the Dallas Regional Autoimmune Disease Registry (DRADR). Retrospective chart review was carried out on 99 patients with 4 or more diagnostic criteria for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and 15 with less than 4 of these criteria, who were designated as having incomplete lupus (ILE). The majority of patients (84%) were African American or Hispanic/Latino; mean disease duration was 9.5 years. The mean damage score was 1.57 (range 0 to 8) and a damage score greater than 0 was present in 64% of the patients. The ILE group had lower mean damage scores (0.67) than the SLE group (1.67; P=0.04), explained in part by the shorter disease duration in the ILE patients (4.33 years vs. 10.24 years; P=0.003). The most prevalent damage category was renal, present in 24% of patients. Malignancies occurred in individuals who were significantly older than those who had renal or peripheral vascular damage (P=0.0007). The findings confirm clinical impressions that the DRADR includes a high-risk lupus population. The ILE patients have less damage but also shorter disease duration, suggesting that this might represent an earlier disease stage. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that ILE patients include a subset that is likely to experience progressive organ damage. Longitudinal study of these patients has significant likelihood of tracking the changes that are correlated with disease progression to SLE. PMID:23715694

  17. [Early detection of anal intraepithelial neoplasia in high-risk patients].

    PubMed

    Sendagorta, E; Herranz, P; Guadalajara, H; Zamora, F X

    2011-12-01

    The incidence of anal squamous cell carcinoma has increased alarmingly, particularly in high-risk groups such as men who have sex with men and immunosuppressed patients. Infection with an oncogenic strain of the human papillomavirus in the anal canal or perianal skin leads to anal intraepithelial neoplasias (AIN), progressive dysplastic intraepithelial lesions that are the precursors of anal squamous cell carcinoma. AIN can be diagnosed through cytological screening and biopsy guided by high-resolution anoscopy and can be treated using a range of procedures in an effort to prevent progression to invasive anal carcinoma. Given the recent advances in the understanding of this disease, and the increasing calls from experts for the establishment of screening programs to identify AIN, we review current knowledge on the condition, its diagnosis, and treatment from the point of view of dermatology. PMID:21764027

  18. Identification of high risk DISC1 protein structural variants in patients with bipolar spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Song, Wenjia; Li, Wenyan; Noltner, Katie; Yan, Jin; Green, Elaine; Grozeva, Detelina; Jones, Ian R; Craddock, Nick; Longmate, Jeff; Feng, Jinong; Sommer, Steve S

    2010-12-17

    In a large Scottish pedigree, a balanced translocation t (1;11)(q42.1;q14.3) disrupting the DISC1 and DISC2 genes segregates with major mental illness, including schizophrenia and depression. A frame-shift carboxyl-terminal deletion was reported in DISC1 in an American family with schizophrenia, but subsequently found in two controls. Herein, we test one hypothesis utilizing a large scale case-control mutation analysis: uncommon DISC1 variants are associated with high risk for bipolar spectrum disorder. We have analyzed the regions of likely functional significance in the DISC1 gene in 504 patients with bipolar spectrum disorder and 576 ethnically similar controls. Five patients were heterozygous for ultra-rare protein structural variants not found in the 576 controls (p=0.02, one-sided Fisher's exact test) and shown to be ultra-rare by their absence in a pool of 10,000 control alleles. In our sample, ultra-rare (private) protein structural variants in DISC1 are associated with an estimated attributable risk of about 0.5% in bipolar spectrum disorder. These data are consistent with: (i) the high frequency of depression in the large Scottish family with a translocation disrupting DISC1; (ii) linkage disequilibrium analysis demonstrating haplotypes associated with relatively small increases in risk for bipolar disorder (<3-fold odds ratio). The data illustrate how low/moderate risk haplotypes that might be found by the HapMap project can be followed up by resequencing to identify protein structural variants with high risk, low frequency and of potential clinical utility. PMID:20850505

  19. Analyzing treatment aggressiveness and identifying high-risk patients in diabetic foot ulcer return to care.

    PubMed

    Remington, Austin C; Hernandez-Boussard, Tina; Warstadt, Nicholus M; Finnegan, Micaela A; Shaffer, Robyn; Kwong, Jereen Z; Curtin, Catherine

    2016-07-01

    Rates of diabetes and its associated comorbidities have been increasing in the United States, with diabetic foot ulcer treatment representing a large cost to the patient and healthcare system. These ulcers often result in multiple hospital admissions. This study examined readmissions following inpatient care for a diabetic foot ulcer and identified modifiable factors associated with all-cause 30-day readmissions to the inpatient or emergency department (ED) setting. We hypothesized that patients undergoing aggressive treatment would have lower 30-day readmission rates. We identified patient discharge records containing International Classification of Disease ninth revision codes for both diabetes mellitus and distal foot ulcer in the State Inpatient and Emergency Department databases from the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project in Florida and New York, 2011-2012. All-cause 30-day return to care visits (ED or inpatient) were analyzed. Patient demographics and treatment characteristics were evaluated using univariate and multivariable regression models. The cohort included 25,911 discharges, having a mean age of 63 and an average of 3.8 comorbidities. The overall rate of return to care was 30%, and 21% of subjects underwent a toe or midfoot amputation during their index stay. The most common diagnosis codes upon readmission were diabetes mellitus (19%) and infection (13%). Patients with a toe or midfoot amputation procedure were less likely to be readmitted within 30 days (odds ratio: 0.78; 95% confidence interval: 0.73, 0.84). Presence of comorbidities, black and Hispanic ethnicities, and Medicare and Medicaid payer status were also associated with higher odds of readmission following initial hospitalization (p < 0.05). The study suggests that there are many factors that affect readmission rates for diabetic foot ulcer patients. Understanding patients at high-risk for readmission can improve counseling and

  20. The Finnish Cardiovascular Study (FINCAVAS): characterising patients with high risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality

    PubMed Central

    Nieminen, Tuomo; Lehtinen, Rami; Viik, Jari; Lehtimäki, Terho; Niemelä, Kari; Nikus, Kjell; Niemi, Mari; Kallio, Janne; Kööbi, Tiit; Turjanmaa, Väinö; Kähönen, Mika

    2006-01-01

    Background The purpose of the Finnish Cardiovascular Study (FINCAVAS) is to construct a risk profile – using genetic, haemodynamic and electrocardiographic (ECG) markers – of individuals at high risk of cardiovascular diseases, events and deaths. Methods and design All patients scheduled for an exercise stress test at Tampere University Hospital and willing to participate have been and will be recruited between October 2001 and December 2007. The final number of participants is estimated to reach 5,000. Technically successful data on exercise tests using a bicycle ergometer have been collected of 2,212 patients (1,400 men and 812 women) by the end of 2004. In addition to repeated measurement of heart rate and blood pressure, digital high-resolution ECG at 500 Hz is recorded continuously during the entire exercise test, including the resting and recovery phases. About 20% of the patients are examined with coronary angiography. Genetic variations known or suspected to alter cardiovascular function or pathophysiology are analysed to elucidate the effects and interactions of these candidate genes, exercise and commonly used cardiovascular medications. Discussion FINCAVAS compiles an extensive set of data on patient history, genetic variation, cardiovascular parameters, ECG markers as well as follow-up data on clinical events, hospitalisations and deaths. The data enables the development of new diagnostic and prognostic tools as well as assessments of the importance of existing markers. PMID:16515696

  1. Factors and Outcomes Associated with MRCP Use prior to ERCP in Patients at High Risk for Choledocholithiasis

    PubMed Central

    Anand, Gobind; Patel, Yuval A.; Yeh, Hsin-Chieh; Khashab, Mouen A.; Lennon, Anne Marie; Shin, Eun Ji; Canto, Marcia I.; Okolo, Patrick I.; Kalloo, Anthony N.; Singh, Vikesh K.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Consensus guidelines recommend that patients at high risk for choledocholithiasis undergo endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) without additional imaging. This study evaluates factors and outcomes associated with performing magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) prior to ERCP among patients at high risk for choledocholithiasis. Methods. An institutional administrative database was searched using diagnosis codes for choledocholithiasis, cholangitis, and acute pancreatitis and procedure codes for MRCP and ERCP. Patients categorized as high risk for choledocholithiasis were evaluated. Results. 224 patients classified as high risk, of whom 176 (79%) underwent ERCP only, while 48 (21%) underwent MRCP prior to ERCP. Patients undergoing MRCP experienced longer time to ERCP (72 hours versus 35 hours, p < 0.0001), longer length of stay (8 days versus 6 days, p = 0.02), higher hospital charges ($23,488 versus $19,260, p = 0.08), and higher radiology charges ($3,385 versus $1,711, p < 0.0001). The presence of common bile duct stone(s) on ultrasound was the only independent factor associated with less use of MRCP (OR 0.09, p < 0.0001). Conclusions. MRCP use prior to ERCP in patients at high risk for choledocholithiasis is common and associated with greater length of hospital stay, higher radiology charges, and a trend towards higher hospital charges. PMID:27446845

  2. Identification of patients at high risk for adverse coronary events while awaiting routine coronary angioplasty.

    PubMed Central

    Chester, M.; Chen, L.; Kaski, J. C.

    1995-01-01

    BACKGROUND--Identification of patients at risk for progression of coronary stenosis and adverse clinical events while awaiting coronary angioplasty is desirable. OBJECTIVE--To determine the standard clinical or angiographic variables, or both, present at initial angiography associated with the development of adverse coronary events (unstable angina, myocardial infarction, and angiographic total coronary occlusion) in patients awaiting routine percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA). PATIENTS AND METHODS--Consecutive male patients on a waiting list for routine PTCA. Routine clinical details were obtained at initial angiography. Stenosis severity was measured using computerised angiography. OUTCOME MEASURES--Development of one or more of myocardial infarction, unstable angina, or angiographic total coronary occlusion while awaiting PTCA were recorded as an adverse event. RESULTS--Some 214 of 219 patients underwent a second angiogram. One had a fatal myocardial infarction and four (2%) were lost to follow up. Fifty patients (23%) developed one or more adverse events (myocardial infarction five, unstable angina 35, total coronary occlusion 23) at a median (range) interval of 8 (3-25) months. Twenty (57%) of the 35 patients with unstable angina developed adverse events compared with 30 (17%) of the 180 with stable angina (P = 0.0001). Plasma triglyceride concentration was 2.6 (1.2) mmol/l in patients with adverse coronary events compared with 2.2 (1.1) mmol/l in those without such events (P < 0.05). Patients with adverse events were younger than those without (54 (9) years v 58 (9) years, P < 0.01). The relative risk of an adverse event in patients with unstable angina and increased plasma triglyceride concentrations was 6.9 compared with those presenting with stable angina and a normal triglyceride concentration (P < 0.02). CONCLUSIONS--The study shows that adverse events are not uncommon in patients awaiting PTCA. Patients at high risk for adverse events

  3. Dinutuximab for the treatment of pediatric patients with high-risk neuroblastoma.

    PubMed

    Mora, Jaume

    2016-01-01

    Neuroblastoma (NB) is the most common extra cranial solid tumor of childhood, with 60% of patients presenting with high risk (HR) NB by means of clinical, pathological and biological features. The 5-year survival rate for HR-NB remains below 40%, with the majority of patients suffering relapse from chemorefractory tumor. Immunotherapy is the main strategy against minimal residual disease and clinical experience has mostly focused on monoclonal antibodies (MoAb) against the glycolipid disialoganglioside GD2. Three anti-GD2 antibodies have been tested in the clinic including murine 14G2a, human-mouse chimeric ch14.18 and 3F8. Anti-GD2 MoAb induces cellular cytoxicity against NB and is most effective when effector cells like natural killer cells, granulocytes and macrophages are amplified by cytokines. The combination of cytokines IL-2 and GM-CSF with the anti-GD2 MoAb ch14.18 (Dinutuximab) has shown a significant improvement in outcome for HR-NB. The FDA and EMA approved dinutuximab (Unituxin(R)) in 2015 for the treatment of patients with HR-NB who achieved at least a partial response after multimodality therapy. PMID:26934530

  4. Management of Cardiovascular Implantable Electronic Devices Infections in High-Risk Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kennergren, Charles

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of infection following implantation of cardiovascular implantable electronic devices (CIEDs) is increasing, as is the number of pulse generator replacements and upgrades. The rate of infections is rising faster than the rate of device implantation, mainly due to the increasing age and number of comorbidities of patients receiving the devices. Patients with a CIED infection usually require hospitalisation, multiple consultations, prolonged intravenous antibiotics and, in the majority of cases, CIED explantation and replacement. A significant proportion die of their infection. CIED infection therefore represents a substantial health and economic burden, and management of infections is critical. Numerous risk factors have been identified including host, procedure and device-related factors. Established strategies for preventing CIED infections include intravenous antibiotics and aseptic techniques. The TYRX™ Absorbable Antibacterial Envelope offers potential as an effective method to reduce CIED infections. Several studies have found a statistically significant association between antibacterial envelope use and reduced incidence of CIED infection in high-risk patients. A prospective, randomised trial to further evaluate this potentially important strategy for CIED infection prophylaxis is underway. PMID:26835101

  5. [Pulmonary function in patients with focal pulmonary tuberculosis].

    PubMed

    Nefedov, V B; Popova, L A; Shergina, E A

    2008-01-01

    Vital capacity (VC), forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), FEV1/VC%, PEF, MEF25, MEF50, MEF75, TLC, TGV, pulmonary residual volume (PRV), Raw, Rin, Rcx, DLCO-SB, DLCO-SS/VA, PaO2, and PaCO2 were determined in 40 patients with focal pulmonary tuberculosis. Changes were found in lung volumes and capacities in 75%, impaired bronchial patency and pulmonary gas exchange dysfunction were in 57.5 and 25%, respectively. The lung volume and capacity changes appeared mainly as increased TGV and PRV; impaired bronchial patency presented as decreased MEF50, MEF75, and FEV1/VC%; pulmonary gas exchange dysfunction manifested itself as reduced DLCO-SB, PaO2, and PaCO2. The magnitude of the observed functional changes was generally slight. TGV and PRL increased up to 148-187 and 142-223% of the normal values, respectively; MEF50, MEF75, FEV1/VC%, and DLCO decreased to 59-24, 58-26, 78-57, and 78-67% of the normal values and PaO2 and PaCO2 did to 79-69 and 34-30 cm Hg. PMID:18450075

  6. Breakthrough invasive fungal diseases during echinocandin treatment in high-risk hospitalized hematologic patients.

    PubMed

    Chan, Thomas S Y; Gill, Harinder; Hwang, Yu-Yan; Sim, Joycelyn; Tse, Alan C T; Loong, Florence; Khong, Pek-Lan; Tse, Eric; Leung, Anskar Y H; Chim, Chor-Sang; Lie, Albert K W; Kwong, Yok-Lam

    2014-03-01

    The frequency of breakthrough invasive fungal diseases (IFDs) during echinocandin therapy is unclear. We retrospectively analyzed 534 hematologic patients treated with echinocandin (caspofungin, N = 55; micafungin, N = 306; anidulafungin, N = 173). Four proven IFDs were found, caused by Candida parapsilosis (N = 2), C. parapsilosis and Candida glabrata (N = 1), and Fusarium species (N = 1). Four cases of possible IFDs were observed, all showing pulmonary infection. One case showed features suggestive of hepatosplenic candidiasis. Six of these eight cases had previously received the purine analog clofarabine. Breakthrough IFD during echinocandin treatment occurred infrequently (1.5 %), caused predominantly by Candida species. Clofarabine usage was an important risk factor. PMID:23949318

  7. Increased Saccadic Rate during Smooth Pursuit Eye Movements in Patients at Ultra High Risk for Developing a Psychosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Tricht, M. J.; Nieman, D. H.; Bour, L. J.; Boeree, T.; Koelman, J. H. T. M.; de Haan, L.; Linszen, D. H.

    2010-01-01

    Abnormalities in eye tracking are consistently observed in schizophrenia patients and their relatives and have been proposed as an endophenotype of the disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the performance of patients at Ultra High Risk (UHR) for developing psychosis on a task of smooth pursuit eye movement (SPEM). Forty-six UHR…

  8. Psychiatric Symptoms and Community Violence among High-Risk Patients: A Test of the Relationship at the Weekly Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skeem, Jennifer L.; Schubert, Carol; Odgers, Candice; Mulvey, Edward P.; Gardner, William; Lidz, Charles

    2006-01-01

    Given the availability of violence risk assessment tools, clinicians are now better able to identify high-risk patients. Once these patients have been identified, clinicians must monitor risk state and intervene when necessary to prevent harm. Clinical practice is dominated by the assumption that increases in psychiatric symptoms elevate risk of…

  9. Mid-Term Results After Endovascular Stent-Grafting of Descending Aortic Aneurysms in High-Risk Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Brandt, Michael Walluscheck, Knut P.; Jahnke, Thomas; Attmann, Tim; Heller, Martin; Cremer, Jochen; Mueller-Huelsbeck, Stefan

    2006-10-15

    Purpose. To analyze our experience with endovascular stent-grafting of descending aortic aneurysms in high-risk patients. Methods. Nineteen patients underwent endovascular stent-graft repair of descending aortic aneurysms using the Talent Stent Graft System (Medtronic). All patients were considered high-risk for open surgical repair due to their age, requirement for emergency surgery, and comorbidities. Computed tomography and/or MR tomography were performed at 3, 6 and 12 months postoperatively and thereafter every 12 months. Results. Secondary technical success was 100%. Thirty-day mortality was 5%. Incidence of postoperative stroke and paraplegia were 5% each. One patient required a second stent-graft due to a type I endoleak during the same hospital stay (primary technical success 95%). All patients have been followed for a median of 20 months. No migration, wire fractures or endoleak appeared during follow-up. Conclusion. Endovascular stent-grafting had a low 30-day mortality and morbidity in high-risk patients. One patient developed an aortoesophageal fistula 40 days after stent implantation. Stent-graft repair is a valuable supplement to surgical therapy in high-risk patients.

  10. Pulmonary aspergilloma in a patient with AIDS.

    PubMed Central

    Höhler, T.; Schnütgen, M.; Mayet, W. J.; Meyer zum Büschenfelde, K. H.

    1995-01-01

    Aspergillus infections are rare in the course of AIDS. They mostly occur as invasive destructive disease in patients with severe CD4 cell depletion. An unusual case of a homosexual AIDS patient who developed a pulmonary aspergilloma is presented. Images PMID:7660348

  11. Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy prior to Radical Prostatectomy for Patients with High-Risk Prostate Cancer: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Kourmpetis, Vasileios; Fokaefs, Eleftherios; Perimenis, Petros

    2013-01-01

    High-risk prostate cancer represents a pretentious clinical problem since a significant number of its patients will relapse and progress after radical prostatectomy. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy may be valuable since its efficacy in hormone-resistant prostate cancer has been established. In this paper, we report studies of neoadjuvant chemotherapies that have been used in high-risk patients prior to radical prostatectomy. Even though the results regarding the prognostic surrogates are not significant, the effects on clinical and pathological outcomes are promising, while toxicity in most of the studies is in the expected field. PMID:23509625

  12. Specificity of Incident Diagnostic Outcomes in Patients at Clinical High Risk for Psychosis

    PubMed Central

    Webb, Jadon R.; Addington, Jean; Perkins, Diana O.; Bearden, Carrie E.; Cadenhead, Kristin S.; Cannon, Tyrone D.; Cornblatt, Barbara A.; Heinssen, Robert K.; Seidman, Larry J.; Tarbox, Sarah I.; Tsuang, Ming T.; Walker, Elaine F.; McGlashan, Thomas H.; Woods, Scott W.

    2015-01-01

    It is not well established whether the incident outcomes of the clinical high-risk (CHR) syndrome for psychosis are diagnostically specific for psychosis or whether CHR patients also are at elevated risk for a variety of nonpsychotic disorders. We collected 2 samples (NAPLS-1, PREDICT) that contained CHR patients and a control group who responded to CHR recruitment efforts but did not meet CHR criteria on interview (help-seeking comparison patients [HSC]). Incident diagnostic outcomes were defined as the occurrence of a SIPS-defined psychosis or a structured interview diagnosis from 1 of 3 nonpsychotic Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) groups (anxiety, bipolar, or nonbipolar mood disorder), when no diagnosis in that group was present at baseline. Logistic regression revealed that the CHR vs HSC effect did not vary significantly across study for any emergent diagnostic outcome; data from the 2 studies were therefore combined. CHR (n = 271) vs HSC (n = 171) emergent outcomes were: psychosis 19.6% vs 1.8%, bipolar disorders 1.1% vs 1.2%, nonbipolar mood disorders 4.4% vs 5.3%, and anxiety disorders 5.2% vs 5.3%. The main effect of CHR vs HSC was statistically significant (OR = 13.8, 95% CI 4.2–45.0, df = 1, P < .001) for emergent psychosis but not for any emergent nonpsychotic disorder. Sensitivity analyses confirmed these findings. Within the CHR group emergent psychosis was significantly more likely than each nonpsychotic DSM-IV emergent disorder, and within the HSC group emergent psychosis was significantly less likely than most emergent nonpsychotic disorders. The CHR syndrome is specific as a marker for research on predictors and mechanisms of developing psychosis. PMID:26272875

  13. Adherence to drug–drug interaction alerts in high-risk patients: a trial of context-enhanced alerting

    PubMed Central

    Duke, Jon D; Li, Xiaochun; Dexter, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Objective Drug–drug interaction (DDI) alerting is an important form of clinical decision support, yet physicians often fail to attend to critical DDI warnings due to alert fatigue. We previously described a model for highlighting patients at high risk of a DDI by enhancing alerts with relevant laboratory data. We sought to evaluate the effect of this model on alert adherence in high-risk patients. Methods A 6-month randomized controlled trial involving 1029 outpatient physicians was performed. The target interactions were all DDIs known to cause hyperkalemia. Alerts in the intervention group were enhanced with the patient's most recent potassium and creatinine levels. The control group received unmodified alerts. High -risk patients were those with baseline potassium >5.0 mEq/l and/or creatinine ≥1.5 mg/dl (132 μmol/l). Results We found no significant difference in alert adherence in high-risk patients between the intervention group (15.3%) and the control group (16.8%) (p=0.71). Adherence in normal risk patients was significantly lower in the intervention group (14.6%) than in the control group (18.6%) (p<0.01). In neither group did physicians increase adherence in patients at high risk. Conclusions Physicians adhere poorly to hyperkalemia-associated DDI alerts even in patients with risk factors for a clinically significant interaction, and the display of relevant laboratory data in these alerts did not improve adherence levels in the outpatient setting. Further research is necessary to determine optimal strategies for conveying patient-specific DDI risk. PMID:23161895

  14. Assessing, Counseling, and Treating Patients at High Risk for Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Clifford, Edward; Hughes, Kevin S; Roberts, Maegan; Pirzadeh-Miller, Sara; McLaughlin, Sarah A

    2016-10-01

    Identifying patients at high risk of carrying pathogenic variants in genes is a crucial part of providing both accurate counseling and evidence-based treatment recommendations. Current risk assessment models have strengths and weaknesses that may limit their applicability to specific clinical circumstances. Clinicians must have knowledge regarding variations in available models, how they should be used, and what data they can expect from specific models. In addition, indications for genetic testing are expanding, and the adoption of next-generation sequencing has allowed the creation of multigene testing panels. Complex consequences of panel testing have included an increase in the incidence of identifying variants of uncertain significance and the identification of pathogenic variants in genes for which treatment guidelines are not available. Women diagnosed with breast cancer who carry pathogenic variants in genes with proven associations with breast cancer (BRCA1/2) or highly likely associations (PTEN, PALB2) require additional risk assessment to facilitate treatment decisions that will limit in-breast tumor recurrence and contralateral breast cancer. PMID:27401444

  15. Pilot Clinical Trial of Indocyanine Green Fluorescence-Augmented Colonoscopy in High Risk Patients.

    PubMed

    Sheth, Rahul A; Heidari, Pedram; Woods, Kevin; Chung, Daniel; Chan, Andrew T; Mahmood, Umar

    2016-01-01

    White light colonoscopy is the current gold standard for early detection and treatment of colorectal cancer, but emerging data suggest that this approach is inherently limited. Even the most experienced colonoscopists, under optimal conditions, miss at least 15-25% of adenomas. There is an unmet clinical need for an adjunctive modality to white light colonoscopy with improved lesion detection and characterization. Optical molecular imaging with exogenously administered organic fluorochromes is a burgeoning imaging modality poised to advance the capabilities of colonoscopy. In this proof-of-principle clinical trial, we investigated the ability of a custom-designed fluorescent colonoscope and indocyanine green, a clinically approved fluorescent blood pool imaging agent, to visualize polyps in high risk patients with polyposis syndromes or known distal colonic masses. We demonstrate (1) the successful performance of real-time, wide-field fluorescence endoscopy using off-the-shelf equipment, (2) the ability of this system to identify polyps as small as 1 mm, and (3) the potential for fluorescence imaging signal intensity to differentiate between neoplastic and benign polyps. PMID:26989406

  16. The MARINER trial of rivaroxaban after hospital discharge for medical patients at high risk of VTE. Design, rationale, and clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Raskob, Gary E; Spyropoulos, Alex C; Zrubek, Julie; Ageno, Walter; Albers, Gregory; Elliott, C Gregory; Halperin, Jonathan; Haskell, Lloyd; Hiatt, William R; Maynard, Gregory A; Peters, Gary; Spiro, Theodore; Steg, Philippe Gabriel; Suh, Eun Young; Weitz, Jeffrey I

    2016-06-01

    Hospital-associated venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a leading cause of premature death and disability worldwide. Evidence-based guidelines recommend that anticoagulant thromboprophylaxis be given to hospitalised medical patients at risk of VTE, but suggest against routine use of thromboprophylaxis beyond the hospital stay. The MARINER study is a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to evaluate the efficacy and safety of thromboprophylaxis using rivaroxaban, begun at hospital discharge and continued for 45 days, for preventing symptomatic VTE in high-risk medical patients. Eligible patients are identified using the International Medical Prevention Registry on Venous Thromboembolism (IMPROVE VTE) risk score, combined with a laboratory test, D-dimer. The rivaroxaban regimen is 10 mg once daily for patients with CrCl ≥ 50 ml/min, or 7.5 mg once daily for patients with CrCl ≥ 30 ml/min and < 50 ml/min. The primary efficacy outcome is the composite of symptomatic VTE (lower extremity deep-vein thrombosis and non-fatal pulmonary embolism) and VTE-related death. The principal safety outcome is major bleeding. A blinded clinical events committee adjudicates all suspected outcome events. The sample size is event-driven with an estimated total of 8,000 patients to acquire 161 primary outcome events. Study design features that distinguish MARINER from previous and ongoing thromboprophylaxis trials in medically ill patients are: (i) use of a validated risk assessment model (IMPROVE VTE) and D-dimer determination for identifying eligible patients at high risk of VTE, (ii) randomisation at the time of hospital discharge, (iii) a 45-day treatment period and (iv) restriction of the primary efficacy outcome to symptomatic VTE events. PMID:26842902

  17. Acetylsalicylic Acid and Eflornithine in Treating Patients at High Risk for Colorectal Cancer | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    This phase II trial is studying how well giving acetylsalicylic acid together with eflornithine works in treating patients at high risk for colorectal cancer. Chemoprevention is the use of certain drugs to keep cancer from forming. The use of acetylsalicylic acid and eflornithine may prevent colorectal cancer. |

  18. The Role of Potentially Retrievable Inferior Vena Cava Filters in High-Risk Patients Undergoing Joint Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Stulberg, S. David; Puri, Lalit; Karp, Jennifer; Ryu, Robert K; Lewandowski, Robert J

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Some patients undergoing total joint arthroplasty are at increased risk for venous thromboembolism (VTE). The aim of the present study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of prIVCF in preventing PE in patients undergoing joint replacement surgery who are at high-risk for VTE. Materials and Methods In this prospective, IRB-approved study, prIVCF were placed in consecutive patients who met specific high-risk criteria (history of VTE or hypercoaguable state) prior to total joint arthroplasty. Patients were followed until the IVC filter was removed. Outcomes and complications were recorded per Society of Interventional Radiology guidelines. Results One hundred and nine potentially retrievable IVC filters were placed in 105 patients, who all subsequently underwent joint arthroplasty. One hundred eight IVC filters (98.9%) were retrieved successfully in a mean time of 44.1 days (range 13-183 days). There was 1 failed IVC filter retrieval attempt (0.9%) at 46 days post implantation. Two patients (1.9%) presented with recurrent PE and were successfully treated with anticoagulation prior to IVC filter retrieval. There were no fatalities from perioperative PE. In 1 patient (0.9%), a fractured filter leg had embolized during retrieval. Conclusion Potentially retrievable IVC filters are safe and effective for prophylaxis against PE in patients at high-risk for VTE undergoing joint arthroplasty. PMID:26816965

  19. Endovascular Stenting of Peripheral Infected Aneurysms: A Temporary Measure or a Definitive Solution in High-Risk Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Riga, Celia; Bicknell, Colin; Jindal, Ravul; Cheshire, Nicholas; Hamady, Mohamad

    2008-11-15

    The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the use of endovascular technology in the management of peripheral infected aneurysms in high-risk patients as a temporary measure or definitive solution. Five cases underwent successful endovascular stenting of infected aneurysms of the subclavian, femoral, and carotid arteries. All these patients were at high risk for open surgery. Covered stents were placed by percutaneous approach under local anesthesia in all patients. Postoperatively, antibiotics were continued for 3 months. A literature review using the Medline database was also undertaken, and all the relevant papers on endovascular management of peripheral infected aneurysms were taken into account. Stent deployment was successful in all patients. One patient died of mediastinal sepsis and another from type A aortic dissection 5 weeks later. Two patients required drainage of the infected hematoma. Three patients did well at a median follow-up of 1 year, with no evidence of sepsis. A review of the literature shows promising early and midterm results. Most early reports were of single cases, reflecting the low incidence of peripheral infected aneurysms. We conclude that further development of endoluminal techniques and long-term follow-up to establish the durability of stenting could potentially lead to a decrease in the high morbidity and mortality rates associated with infected aneurysmal disease in this high-risk group of patients.

  20. Rates of violence in patients classified as high risk by structured risk assessment instruments

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Jay P.; Fazel, Seena; Gueorguieva, Ralitza; Buchanan, Alec

    2014-01-01

    Background Rates of violence in persons identified as high risk by structured risk assessment instruments (SRAIs) are uncertain and frequently unreported by validation studies. Aims To analyse the variation in rates of violence in individuals identified as high risk by SRAIs. Method A systematic search of databases (1995-2011) was conducted for studies on nine widely used assessment tools. Where violence rates in high-risk groups were not published, these were requested from study authors. Rate information was extracted, and binomial logistic regression was used to study heterogeneity. Results Information was collected on 13 045 participants in 57 samples from 47 independent studies. Annualised rates of violence in individuals classified as high risk varied both across and within instruments. Rates were elevated when population rates of violence were higher, when a structured professional judgement instrument was used and when there was a lower proportion of men in a study. Conclusions After controlling for time at risk, the rate of violence in individuals classified as high risk by SRAIs shows substantial variation. In the absence of information on local base rates, assigning predetermined probabilities to future violence risk on the basis of a structured risk assessment is not supported by the current evidence base. This underscores the need for caution when such risk estimates are used to influence decisions related to individual liberty and public safety. PMID:24590974

  1. Rationale for and Review of Neoadjuvant Therapy Prior to Radical Prostatectomy for Patients with High-Risk Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    McKay, Rana R.; Choueiri, Toni K.; Taplin, Mary-Ellen

    2014-01-01

    Despite state of the art local therapy a significant portion of men with high-risk prostate cancer develop progressive disease. Neoadjuvant systemic therapy prior to radical prostatectomy (RP) is an approach which can potentially maximize survival outcomes in patients with localized disease. This approach is under investigation with a wide array of agents and provides an opportunity to assess pathologic and biologic activity of novel treatments. The aim of this review is to explore the past and present role of neoadjuvant therapy prior to definitive therapy with RP in patients with high-risk localized or locally advanced disease. The results of neoadjuvant ADT, including use of newer agents such as abiraterone and enzalutamide, are promising. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy, primarily with docetaxel, with or without ADT has also demonstrated efficacy in men with high-risk disease. Other novel agents targeting the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), platelet derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR), clusterin, and the immune system are currently under investigation and have led to variable results in early clinical trials. Despite optimistic data, approval of neoadjuvant therapy prior to RP in patients with high-risk prostate cancer will depend on positive results from well designed phase III trials. PMID:23943203

  2. Management of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia with a high risk of adverse outcome: the Mayo Clinic approach

    PubMed Central

    ZENT, CLIVE S.; KAY, NEIL E.

    2012-01-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma (CLL) is usually an incidental diagnosis in patients with early–intermediate stage disease. However, most patients with a diagnosis of CLL will subsequently have significant morbidity and die from their disease and its complications. For these patients, CLL is not the ‘good leukemia’ with a predictably ‘benign’ outcome. Indeed, we can now identify a cohort of patients with high-risk CLL at diagnosis who will have rapid disease progression, poor response to treatment, and poor survival based on prognostic methods developed from an improved understanding of the biology of CLL. The concomitant development of improved treatments has led to risk-adjusted management approaches that could improve outcomes. We discuss the clinical and laboratory components of comprehensive risk evaluation of patients with CLL and our approach to the management of patients with a high to very high risk of disease progression and poor outcome. In addition, we review the challenges and prospects for improving prognostic precision and the development of new drugs to improve the treatment of patients with CLL with a high risk of adverse outcome. PMID:21649549

  3. Acetylsalicylic Acid Compared to Placebo in Treating High-Risk Patients With Subsolid Lung Nodules | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    This randomized phase II trial studies acetylsalicylic acid compared to placebo in treating high-risk patients with subsolid lung nodules. A nodule is a growth or lump that may be malignant (cancer) or benign (not cancer). Chemoprevention is the use of drugs to keep cancer from forming or coming back. The use of acetylsalicylic acid may keep cancer from forming in patients with subsolid lung nodules. |

  4. [Intraoperative iliac angioplasty and distal revascularization: is it an efficacious method in the high-risk patient?].

    PubMed

    Adovasio, R; Chiarandini, S; Ziani, B; Pozzi Mucelli, R

    1992-01-01

    The fact that iliac femoro-popliteal areas are both simultaneously interested in some high risk patients, frequently is cause of several problems in the indication of the surgical treatment. So, we have decided to practice an iliac Angioplasty peroperatively as a method of iliac revascularization in association with the surgical repairment of the femoro-popliteal area. Results of 20 patients with 23 surgical procedures during a period of two years is reported. PMID:1285579

  5. Phase II Study of Vinorelbine and Estramustine in Combination With Conformational Radiotherapy for Patients With High-Risk Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Carles, Joan; Nogue, Miguel; Sole, Josep M.; Foro, Palmira; Domenech, Montserrat; Suarez, Marta; Gallardo, Enrique; Garcia, Dario; Ferrer, Ferran; Gelabert-Mas, Antoni; Gayo, Javier; Fabregat, Xavier

    2010-03-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy and safety profile of vinorelbine and estramustine in combination with three-dimensional conformational radiotherapy (3D-CRT) in patients with localized high-risk prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Fifty patients received estramustine, 600 mg/m{sup 2} daily, and vinorelbine, 25 mg/m{sup 2}, on days 1 and 8 of a 21-day cycle for three cycles in combination with 8 weeks of 3D-CRT (total dose of 70.2 gray [Gy] at 1.8-Gy fractions or 70 Gy at 2.0-Gy fractions). Additionally, patients received luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone analogs for 3 years. Results: All patients were evaluated for response and toxicity. Progression-free survival at 5 years was 72% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 52-86). All patients who relapsed had only biochemical relapse. The most frequent severe toxicities were cystitis (16% of patients), leucopenia (10% of patients), diarrhea (10% of patients), neutropenia (8% of patients), and proctitis (8% of patients). Six patients (12%) did not complete study treatment due to the patient's decision (n = 1) and to adverse events such as hepatotoxicity, proctitis, paralytic ileus, and acute myocardial infarction. Conclusions: Vinorelbine and estramustine in combination with 3D-CRT is a safe and effective regimen for patients with localized high-risk prostate cancer. A randomized trial is needed to determine whether the results of this regimen are an improvement over the results obtained with radiotherapy and androgen ablation.

  6. Early detection of tumor relapse/regrowth by consecutive minimal residual disease monitoring in high-risk neuroblastoma patients

    PubMed Central

    Hirase, Satoshi; Saitoh, Atsuro; Hartomo, Tri Budi; Kozaki, Aiko; Yanai, Tomoko; Hasegawa, Daiichiro; Kawasaki, Keiichiro; Kosaka, Yoshiyuki; Matsuo, Masafumi; Yamamoto, Nobuyuki; Mori, Takeshi; Hayakawa, Akira; Iijima, Kazumoto; Nishio, Hisahide; Nishimura, Noriyuki

    2016-01-01

    Neuroblastoma is an aggressive pediatric tumor accounting for ~15% of cancer-associated mortalities in children. Despite the current intensive therapy, >50% of high-risk patients experience tumor relapse or regrowth caused by the activation of minimal residual disease (MRD). Although several MRD detection protocols using various reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) markers have been reported to evaluate the therapeutic response and disease status of neuroblastoma patients, their clinical significance remains elusive. The present study reports two high-risk neuroblastoma patients, whose MRD was consecutively monitored using 11 RT-qPCR markers (CHRNA3, CRMP1, DBH, DCX, DDC, GABRB3, GAP43, ISL1, KIF1A, PHOX2B and TH) during their course of treatment. The two patients initially responded to the induction therapy and reached MRD-negative status. The patients' MRD subsequently became positive with no elevation of their urinary homovanillic acid, urinary vanillylmandelic acid and serum neuron-specific enolase levels at 13 or 19 weeks prior to the clinical diagnosis of tumor relapse or regrowth. The present cases highlight the possibility of consecutive MRD monitoring using 11 markers to enable an early detection of tumor relapse or regrowth in high-risk neuroblastoma patients. PMID:27446404

  7. The HAS-BLED Score Identifies Patients with Acute Venous Thromboembolism at High Risk of Major Bleeding Complications during the First Six Months of Anticoagulant Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Kooiman, Judith; van Hagen, Nadja; Iglesias del Sol, Antonio; Planken, Erwin V.; Lip, Gregory Y. H.; van der Meer, Felix J. M.; Cannegieter, Suzanne C.; Klok, Frederikus A.; Huisman, Menno V.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The HAS-BLED score enables a risk estimate of major bleeds in patients with atrial fibrillation on vitamin K-antagonists (VKA) treatment, but has not been validated for patients with venous thromboembolism (VTE). We analyzed whether the HAS-BLED score accurately identifies patients at high risk of major bleeds during VKA treatment for acute VTE. Methods Medical records of 537 patients with acute VTE (primary diagnosis pulmonary embolism in 223, deep vein thrombosis in 314) starting VKA treatment between 2006-2007 were searched for items on the HAS-BLED score and the occurrence of major bleeds during the first 180 days of follow-up. The hazard ratio (HR) for the occurrence of major bleeds comparing non-high with high-risk patients as defined by a HAS-BLED score ≥ 3 points was calculated using Cox-regression analysis. Results Major bleeds occurred in 11/537 patients (2.0%, 5.2/100 person years, 95% CI 2.8-9.2). Cumulative incidences of major bleeds were 1.3% (95% CI 0.1-2.5) in the non-high (HAS-BLED < 3) and 9.6% (95%CI 2.2-17.0) in the high-risk group (HAS-BLED ≥ 3), (p <0.0001 by Log-Rank test), with a HR of 8.7 (95% CI 2.7-28.4). Of the items in the HAS-BLED score, abnormal renal function (HR 10.8, 95% CI 1.9-61.7) and a history of bleeding events (HR 10.4, 95% CI 2.5-42.5) were independent predictors of major bleeds during follow-up. Conclusion Acute VTE patients with a HAS-BLED score ≥ 3 points are at increased risk of major bleeding. These results warrant for correction of the potentially reversible risk factors for major bleeding and careful International Normalized Ratio monitoring in acute VTE patients with a high HAS-BLED score. PMID:25905638

  8. The influence of number of high risk factors on clinical outcomes in patients with early-stage cervical cancer after radical hysterectomy and adjuvant chemoradiation

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Soyi; Lee, Seok-Ho; Park, Chan-Yong

    2016-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prognosis according to the number of high risk factors in patients with high risk factors after radical hysterectomy and adjuvant chemoradiation therapy for early stage cervical cancer. Methods Clinicopathological variables and clinical outcomes of patients with FIGO (International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics) stage IB1 to IIA cervical cancer who had one or more high risk factors after radical hysterectomy and adjuvant chemoradiation therapy were retrospectively analyzed. Patients were divided into two groups according to the number of high risk factors (group 1, single high risk factor; group 2, two or more high risk factors). Results A total of 93 patients were enrolled in the present study. Forty nine out of 93 (52.7%) patients had a single high risk factor, and 44 (47.3%) had two or more high risk factors. Statistically significant differences in stage and stromal invasion were observed between group 1 and group 2. However, age, histology, tumor size, and lymphovascular space invasion did not differ significantly between the groups. Distant recurrence occurred more frequently in group 2, and the probability of recurrence and death was higher in group 2. Conclusion Patients with two or more high risk factors had worse prognosis in early stage cervical cancer. For these patients, consideration of new strategies to improve survival may be worthwhile. Conduct of further clinical trials is warranted for development of adjuvant treatment strategies individualized to each risk group. PMID:27200308

  9. Care of the patient with an acute pulmonary embolism.

    PubMed

    York, Nancy L; Kane, Christy J; Smith, Carol; Minton, Lori A

    2015-01-01

    There are evidence-based prevention strategies known to reduce the risk of pulmonary embolism formation. However, pulmonary emboli remain a leading cause of death in critically ill patients with a 3-month mortality of 10% to 15%. This article addresses patients' risk factors, pulmonary embolism prevention strategies, clinical manifestations, and treatment modalities the interdisciplinary team should understand. PMID:25470260

  10. Decision making in patients with pulmonary nodules.

    PubMed

    Ost, David E; Gould, Michael K

    2012-02-15

    Integrating current evidence with fundamental concepts from decision analysis suggests that management of patients with pulmonary nodules should begin with estimating the pretest probability of cancer from the patient's clinical risk factors and computed tomography characteristics. Then, the consequences of treatment should be considered, by comparing the benefits of surgery if the patient has lung cancer with the potential harm if the patient does not have cancer. This analysis determines the "treatment threshold," which is the point around which the decision centers. This varies widely among patients depending on their cardiopulmonary reserve, comorbidities, and individual preferences. For patients with a very low probability of cancer, careful observation with serial computed tomography is warranted. For those with a high probability of cancer, surgical diagnosis is warranted. For patients in the intermediate range of probabilities, either computed tomography-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy or positron emission tomography, possibly followed by computed tomography-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy, is best. Patient preferences should be considered because the absolute difference in outcome between strategies may be small. The optimal approach to the management of patients with pulmonary nodules is evolving as technologies develop. Areas of uncertainty include quantifying the hazard of delayed diagnosis; determining the optimal duration of follow-up for ground-glass and semisolid opacities; establishing the roles of volumetric imaging, advanced bronchoscopic technologies, and limited surgical resections; and calculating the cost-effectiveness of different strategies. PMID:21980032

  11. Fluoroscopy-Guided Percutaneous Gallstone Removal Using a 12-Fr Sheath in High-Risk Surgical Patients with Acute Cholecystitis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yong Joo; Shin, Tae Beom

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the technical feasibility and clinical efficacy of percutaneous transhepatic cholecystolithotomy under fluoroscopic guidance in high-risk surgical patients with acute cholecystitis. Materials and Methods Sixty-three consecutive patients of high surgical risk with acute calculous cholecystitis underwent percutaneous transhepatic gallstone removal under conscious sedation. The stones were extracted through the 12-Fr sheath using a Wittich nitinol stone basket under fluoroscopic guidance on three days after performing a percutaneous cholecystostomy. Large or hard stones were fragmented using either the snare guide wire technique or the metallic cannula technique. Results Gallstones were successfully removed from 59 of the 63 patients (94%). Reasons for stone removal failure included the inability to grasp a large stone in two patients, and the loss of tract during the procedure in two patients with a contracted gallbladder. The mean hospitalization duration was 7.3 days for acute cholecystitis patients and 9.4 days for gallbladder empyema patients. Bile peritonitis requiring percutaneous drainage developed in two patients. No symptomatic recurrence occurred during follow-up (mean, 608.3 days). Conclusion Fluoroscopy-guided percutaneous gallstone removal using a 12-Fr sheath is technically feasible and clinically effective in high-risk surgical patients with acute cholecystitis. PMID:21430938

  12. High-risk angina patient. Identification by clinical features, hospital course, electrocardiography and technetium-99m stannous pyrophosphate scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, H.G.; Lyons, K.P.; Aronow, W.S.; Stinson, P.J.; Kuperus, J.; Waters, H.J.

    1981-10-01

    We evaluated 193 consecutive unstable angina patients by clinical features, hospital course and electrocardiography. All patients were managed medically. Of the 193 patients, 150 (78%) had a technetium-99m pyrophosphate (Tc-PYP) myocardial scintigram after hospitalization. Of these, 49 (33%) had positive scintigrams. At a follow-up of 24.9 +/- 10.8 months after hospitalization, 16 of 49 patients (33%) with positive scintigrams died from cardiac causes, compared with six of 101 patients (6%) with negative scintigrams (p less than 0.001). Of 49 patients with positive scintigrams, 11 (22%) had had nonfatal myocardial infarction at follow-up, compared with seven of 101 patients (7%) with negative scintigrams (p less than 0.01). Age, duration of clinical coronary artery disease, continuing angina during hospitalization, ischemic ECG, cardiomegaly and a history of heart failure also correlated with cardiac death at follow-up. Ischemic ECG and a history of angina with a crescendo pattern also correlated with nonfatal infarction at follow-up. Patients with continuing angina, an ischemic ECG and a positive scintigram constituted a high-risk unstable angina subgroup with a survival rate of 58% at 6 months, 47% at 12 months and 42% at 24 and 36 months. We conclude that the assessment of clinical features, hospital course, ECG and Tc-PYP scintigraphy may be useful in identifying high-risk unstable angina patients.

  13. High-risk angina patient: identification by clinical features, hospital course, electrocardiography, and technetium-99m stannous pyrophosphate scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, H.G.; Lyons, K.P.; Aronow, W.S.; Stinson, P.J.; Kuperus, J.; Waters, H.J.

    1981-10-01

    We evaluated 193 consecutive unstable angina patients by clinical features, hospital course and electrocardiography. All patients were managed medically. Of the 193 patients, 150 (78%) had a technetium-99m pyrophosphate (Tc-PYP) myocardial scintigram after hospitalization. Of these, 49 (33%) had positive scintigrams. At a follow-up of 24.9 +- 10.8 months after hospitalization, 16 of 49 patients (33%) with positive scintigrams died from cardiac causes, compared with six of 101 patients (6%) with negative scintigrams (p < 0.001). Of 49 patients with positive scintigrams, 11 (22%) had had nonfatal myocardial infarction at follow-up, compared with seven of 101 patients (7%) with negative scintigrams (p < 0.01). Age, duration of clinical coronary artery disease, continuing angina during hospitalization, ischemic ECG, cardiomegaly and a history of heart failure also correlated with cardiac death at follow-up. Ischemic ECG and a history of angina with a crescendo pattern also correlated with nonfatal infarction at follow-up. Patients with continuing angina, an ischemic ECG and a positive scintigram constituted a high-risk unstable angina subgroup, with a survival rate of 58% at 6 months, 47% at 12 months and 42% at 24 and 36 months. We conclude that the assessment of clinical features, hospital course, ECG and Tc-PYP scintigraphy may be useful in identifying high-risk unstable angina patients.

  14. Stent-graft and multilayer stent for treatment of type II thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm in a high-risk patient.

    PubMed

    Pane, B; Spinella, G; Salcuni, M; Palombo, D

    2013-08-01

    The aim of the present article was to present an alternative endovascular treatment for type II thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm that would have the advantage of limiting the duration of the procedure and the use of contrast. A high-risk patient was admitted to our Vascular Unit for type II thoracoabdominal aneurysm according to Crawford's classification. Two thoracic stent-grafts (Valiant Captivia, Medtronic, Pewaukee, WI, USA), a bifurcated stent-graft (Endurant Medtronic) and two multilayer stents (Cardiatis SA, Isnes, Belgium) were deployed. No postoperative major complications were observed. Operative time and use of contrast material were 45 min and 80 mL, respectively. Computed angiography tomography at 1 and 6 months showed patency of visceral and renal arteries and progressive thrombosis of the aneurysmal sac. This stent-graft treatment in combination with multilayer stent could be an alternative treatment for thoracoabdominal aneurysm in high-risk patients. PMID:24013540

  15. Endothelin receptor antagonists for pulmonary hypertension in adult patients with sickle cell disease.

    PubMed

    Minniti, Caterina P; Machado, Roberto F; Coles, Wynona A; Sachdev, Vandana; Gladwin, Mark T; Kato, Gregory J

    2009-12-01

    Pulmonary Hypertension is a serious complication of sickle cell disease (SCD), with high morbidity and mortality. Endothelin (ET)-1, a potent vasoconstrictor elevated in SCD, acts through the ET receptors (ETR), ETR-A and ETR-B. Bosentan and ambrisentan are ETR blockers used in primary pulmonary hypertension. We report on the use of ETR blocking agents in a cohort of 14 high-risk SCD adult patients with pulmonary hypertension. Patients underwent right heart catheterization, 6-min walk test, echocardiogram, physical examination and blood work-up before starting ETR blockers. Eight patients received ETR blockers as initial therapy; six patients were already taking sildenafil. Over more than 6 months of therapy, sequential measurements of 6-min walk distance increased significantly (baseline 357 +/- 22 to 398 +/- 18 m at 5-6 months, P < 0.05). Downward trends were observed for amino-terminal brain natriuretic peptide and tricuspid regurgitant velocity. Pulmonary artery mean pressures decreased in three patients that had repeat right heart catheterization (44-38 mmHg). Adverse events were: increased serum alanine aminotransferase (2), peripheral oedema (4), rash (1), headache (3), decreased haemoglobin (2). Therapy was stopped in two patients who were switched then to the other ETR blocker agent. These data suggest preliminary evidence for the benefit of bosentan and ambrisentan in pulmonary hypertension in SCD. PMID:19775299

  16. Identification of high-risk patients with acute coronary syndrome using point-of-care echocardiography in the ED.

    PubMed

    Frenkel, Oron; Riguzzi, Christine; Nagdev, Arun

    2014-06-01

    Stratifying risk of patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) in the emergency department (ED) remains a frequent challenge. When ST-elevation criteria are absent, current recommendations rely upon insensitive and time-intensive methods such as the electrocardiogram and cardiac enzyme testing. Here, we report on a series of cases, where emergency physicians used a simplified model for identifying regional wall motion abnormalities by point-of-care echocardiography in patients presenting with chest pain to the ED. With the use of a simplified model described herein, high-risk patients with ACS were identified rapidly in a cohort usually difficult to risk stratify. PMID:24745875

  17. Differential expression of minimal residual disease markers in peripheral blood and bone marrow samples from high-risk neuroblastoma patients

    PubMed Central

    YAMAMOTO, NOBUYUKI; KOZAKI, AIKO; HARTOMO, TRI BUDI; YANAI, TOMOKO; HASEGAWA, DAIICHIRO; KAWASAKI, KEIICHIRO; KOSAKA, YOSHIYUKI; MATSUO, MASAFUMI; HIRASE, SATOSHI; MORI, TAKESHI; HAYAKAWA, AKIRA; IIJIMA, KAZUMOTO; NISHIO, HISAHIDE; NISHIMURA, NORIYUKI

    2015-01-01

    Neuroblastoma is an aggressive solid tumor that leads to tumor relapse in more than half of high-risk patients. Minimal residual disease (MRD) is primarily responsible for tumor relapses and may be detected in peripheral blood (PB) and bone marrow (BM) samples. To evaluate the disease status and treatment response, a number of MRD detection protocols based on either common or distinct markers for PB and BM samples have been reported. However, the correlation between the expression of MRD markers in PB and BM samples remains elusive in the clinical samples. In the present study, the expression of 11 previously validated MRD markers (CHRNA3, CRMP1, DBH, DCX, DDC, GABRB3, GAP43, ISL1, KIF1A, PHOX2B and TH) was determined in 23 pairs of PB and BM samples collected from seven high-risk neuroblastoma patients at the same time point, and the sample was scored as MRD-positive if one of the MRD markers exceeded the normal range. Although the number of MRD-positive samples was not significantly different between PB and BM samples, the two most sensitive markers for PB samples (CRMP1 and KIF1A) were different from those for BM samples (PHOX2B and DBH). There was no statistically significant correlation between the expression of MRD markers in the PB and BM samples. These results suggest that MRD markers were differentially expressed in PB and BM samples from high-risk neuroblastoma patients. PMID:26722317

  18. Detection of lower limb deep venous thrombosis in asymptomatic high risk patients using a new radiolabelled thrombus specific agent

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, S.P.; Rahman, T.; Boyd S.J.

    1995-05-01

    Deep venous thrombosis is a serious consequence of major orthopaedic surgery and non invasive screening with either venous ultrasound or impedance plethysmography is unreliable for detecting or excluding DVT in this group. A new method of thrombus detection has been devised using Tc-99m labelled inhibited recombinant tissue plasminogen activator. The accuracy of scanning with this new radiopharmaceutical in asymptomatic high risk patients was evaluated using venography as the gold standard. 36 consecutive asymptomatic high risk patients (17 total hip, 19 total knee replacements) underwent both a contrast venogram on the operated leg and scintigraphic scan 7 days following operation. Scintigraphic imaging was performed at 4 hours post injection. For the purpose of this analysis, each venogram was divided into a proximal and a distal segment. Venograms were interpreted as being positive, negative or uninterpretable in each segment. Similar analysis of the scintigraphic scans was performed except that all segments were considered to be of diagnostic quality. 57 segments were able to be analysed. Of the 13 thrombosed segments (1 proximal, 12 calf), 12 had positive scans; in the 44 non thrombosed segments, 40 had negative scans. Thus in detecting lower limb thrombosis, scanning had a sensitivity of 92% and a specificity of 91%. Scintigraphic scanning with this new radiopharmaceutical permits accurate detection of thrombus in high risk patients.

  19. Reverse sural artery flap for the reconstruction of chronic lower extremity wounds in high-risk patients.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Kenneth; Brantigan, Charles O; Field, Cameron Joseph; Paden, Matthew

    2006-01-01

    Soft tissue defects in patients with chronic comorbidities place these patients at high risk for amputation, even when their underlying problems are controlled. The reverse sural artery flap is an effective technique for closing these defects and saving the limb. We retrospectively reviewed 15 consecutive high-risk patients who underwent a sural artery flap procedure between 2003 and 2005 as a final attempt to prevent having a below-the-knee amputation. All of our patients presented with at least 1 comorbidity, with a majority having multiple. Comorbidities in our patient population consisted primarily of diabetes mellitus with neuropathy, critical limb ischemia, end-stage renal disease, and various cardiomyopathies. All patients presented before surgical intervention with a longstanding history of chronic ulcerations that had failed multiple healing strategies. Ulcerations were located at various regions of the foot and ankle such as the heel, lateral malleolus, medial malleolus, and the lateral midfoot. Of those 15 procedures, three failed completely and two had complete dermal necrosis with viable adipose tissue that healed secondarily. The remaining ten flaps healed primarily. We used negative pressure therapy preoperatively in seven patients and postoperatively in five patients. We obtained a success rate of 80%. The reverse sural artery flap has many advantages over free flaps, which has made it a viable treatment option in chronic ulcerations that have failed conservative attempts. PMID:17145467

  20. Perioperative lung-protective ventilation strategy reduces postoperative pulmonary complications in patients undergoing thoracic and major abdominal surgery.

    PubMed

    Park, Sang-Heon

    2016-02-01

    The occurrence of postoperative pulmonary complications is strongly associated with increased hospital mortality and prolonged postoperative hospital stays. Although protective lung ventilation is commonly used in the intensive care unit, low tidal volume ventilation in the operating room is not a routine strategy. Low tidal volume ventilation, moderate positive end-expiratory pressure, and repeated recruitment maneuvers, particularly for high-risk patients undergoing major abdominal surgery, can reduce postoperative pulmonary complications. Facilitating perioperative bundle care by combining prophylactic and postoperative positive-pressure ventilation with intraoperative lung-protective ventilation may be helpful to reduce postoperative pulmonary complications. PMID:26885294

  1. Perioperative lung-protective ventilation strategy reduces postoperative pulmonary complications in patients undergoing thoracic and major abdominal surgery

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The occurrence of postoperative pulmonary complications is strongly associated with increased hospital mortality and prolonged postoperative hospital stays. Although protective lung ventilation is commonly used in the intensive care unit, low tidal volume ventilation in the operating room is not a routine strategy. Low tidal volume ventilation, moderate positive end-expiratory pressure, and repeated recruitment maneuvers, particularly for high-risk patients undergoing major abdominal surgery, can reduce postoperative pulmonary complications. Facilitating perioperative bundle care by combining prophylactic and postoperative positive-pressure ventilation with intraoperative lung-protective ventilation may be helpful to reduce postoperative pulmonary complications. PMID:26885294

  2. Clarification of the circulatory patho-physiology of anaesthesia - implications for high-risk surgical patients.

    PubMed

    Wolff, Christopher B; Green, David W

    2014-12-01

    The paper examines the effects of anaesthesia on circulatory physiology and their implications regarding improvement in perioperative anaesthetic management. Changes to current anaesthetic practice, recommended recently, such as the use of flow monitoring in high risk patients, are already beginning to have an impact in reducing complications but not mortality [1]. Better understanding of the patho-physiology should help improve management even further. Analysis of selected individual clinical trials has been used to illustrate particular areas of patho-physiology and how changes in practice have improved outcome. There is physiological support for the importance of achieving an appropriate rate of oxygen delivery (DO2), particularly following induction of anaesthesia. It is suggested that ensuring adequate DO2 during anaesthesia will avoid development of oxygen debt and hence obviate the need to induce a high, compensatory, DO2 in the post-operative period. In contrast to the usual assumptions underlying strategies requiring a global increase in blood flow [1] by a stroke volume near maximization strategy, blood flow control actually resides entirely at the tissues not at the heart. This is important as the starting point for understanding failed circulatory control as indicated by 'volume dependency'. Local adjustments in blood flow at each individual organ - auto-regulation - normally ensure the appropriate local rate of oxygen supply, i.e. local DO2. Inadequate blood volume leads to impairment of the regulation of blood flow, particularly in the individual tissues with least capable auto-regulatory capability. As demonstrated by many studies, inadequate blood flow first occurs in the gut, brain and kidney. The inadequate blood volume which occurs with induction of anaesthesia is not due to blood volume loss, but probably results from redistribution due to veno-dilation. The increase in venous capacity renders the existing blood volume inadequate to maintain

  3. Pulmonary Talcosis in an Immunocompromised Patient

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Thanh-Phuong; Muddaraju, Manjunath; Greene, John N.

    2016-01-01

    The first case of pulmonary talcosis or talc pneumoconiosis related to inhalation of talc during its extraction and processing in mines was described by Thorel in 1896. Pulmonary talcosis is most commonly seen secondary to occupational exposure or intravenous (IV) drug abuse and, occasionally, in excessive use of cosmetic talc. Based on literature review, there has been an increase in reported incidents of pulmonary talcosis due to various forms of exposure to the mineral. We report an 82-year-old man who is diagnosed with Philadelphia chromosome positive pre-B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) treated with palliative imatinib who presented with chronic hemoptysis and dyspnea shortly after his diagnosis. His symptoms were initially thought to be due to an infectious etiology due to his malignancy, immunocompromised state, and radiographic findings until high-resolution computerized tomographic (HRCT) findings showed a diffuse pulmonary fibrosis picture that prompted further questioning and a more thorough history inquiry on his exposure to causative agents of interstitial lung disease. Very often, patients do not recognize their exposure, especially in those whose exposure is unrelated to their occupation. Our case emphasizes the need for thorough and careful history taking of occupational and nonoccupational exposure to known causative agents of interstitial lung disease. PMID:27446215

  4. Usefulness of postoperative hip irradiation in the prevention of heterotopic bone formation in a high risk group of patients

    SciTech Connect

    MacLennan, I.; Keys, H.M.; Evarts, C.M.; Rubin, P.

    1984-01-01

    Heterotopic ossification is a complication of total hip arthroplasty in 14 to 30% of patients. Significant functional impairment will occur in up to 28% of patients with ectopic bone. The high risk group includes those with preexisting heterotopic bone in either hip, those suffering from hypertrophic osteoarthritis or ankylosing spondylitis and patients who have had multiple procedures on the hip. Fifty-eight patients (67 hips) were irradiated after surgical removal of ectopic bone (53 hips) or received radiation prophylaxis of heterotopic ossification (14 hips). Ninety-five percent of patients had either no bone visible or insignificant amounts of ectopic bone visible on postoperative hip X-rays. Only 5% of patients showed significant persistence of ectopic bone. Postoperative hip function was dramatically improved compared to preoperative function in all patients treated. The importance of early commencement of irradiation is emphasized.

  5. Pulmonary disease in patients with hematologic malignancies.

    PubMed

    Poletti, Venerino; Trisolini, Rocco; Tura, Sante

    2002-03-01

    Patients with hematologic neoplasms frequently experience pulmonary disease. The possibility of a malignant involvement of the lung parenchyma is a well recognized and not unusual event, secondary spread due to lymphoproliferative disorders being the most common situation. Furthermore, the development and the advances in treatment options such as hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, radiation therapy and/or combined drug regimen use have significantly widened the spectrum of non-neoplastic pulmonary complications that can crop up in these patients. Infections, drug/radiation-induced toxicity, and graft-versus-host disease (GVHD)-related complications account by now for most pulmonary problems in hematologic patients and represent a difficult challenge both in diagnostic and in therapeutic terms for the clinician. The aim of this review is to highlight the clinicopathologic spectrum of lung diseases which can occur in the setting of hematologic malignancies. A particular emphasis is devoted to the diagnostic approach, high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) assuming a key role since different patterns of CT abnormalities are associated with a different yield of the available diagnostic tools and may help in narrowing the differential diagnosis. PMID:12002382

  6. Diagnostic accuracy of myocardial deformation indices for detecting high risk coronary artery disease in patients without regional wall motion abnormality

    PubMed Central

    Rostamzadeh, Alireza; Shojaeifard, Maryam; Rezaei, Yousef; Dehghan, Kasra

    2015-01-01

    Background: The prediction of coronary artery disease (CAD) by conventional echocardiographic measurements is principally based on the estimation of ejection fraction and regional wall motion abnormality (RWMA). This study aimed to determine whether strain echocardiography of left ventricle measured by velocity vector imaging (VVI) method could detect patients with a high-risk CAD. Methods: In a prospective study, a total of 119 consecutive patients who were assessed for eligibility were categorized into three groups: (1) without CAD as normal (n=59), (2) 1- or 2-vessel disease as low-risk (n=29), and (3) left main and/or 3-vessel disease as high-risk (n=31). The peaks of systolic strain and strain rate from 18 curves of apical views were averaged as global longitudinal strain and strain rate (GLS and GLSR), respectively; the 6 systolic peaks of strain and strain rate at base- and mid-ventricular of short axis views were averaged as mean radial strain rate (MRSR). Results: GLS, GLSR, and basal MRSR of left ventricle were significantly lower in the high-risk group (P=0.047, P=0.004 and P=0.030, respectively). Receiver operating characteristics curve showed that the optimal values of GLS, GLSR, and basal MRSR for detecting the severe CAD were -17%, -1 s-1, and 1.45 s-1 with the sensitivities of 77%, 71%, and 71% and the specificities of 63%, 67%, and 62%, respectively. Conclusion: Decrements in the GLS, GLSR, and basal MRSR of the left ventricle can detect the high-risk CAD cases among patients without RWMA at rest. PMID:26309603

  7. Attitudes toward anticoagulant treatment among nonvalvular atrial fibrillation patients at high risk of stroke and low risk of bleed

    PubMed Central

    Crivera, Concetta; Nelson, Winnie W; Schein, Jeff R; Witt, Edward A

    2016-01-01

    Background Atrial fibrillation (AF) is associated with an increased risk of stroke. Anticoagulant (AC) therapies are effective at treating AF, but carry with them an increased risk of bleed. Research suggests that a large proportion of AF patients who have high risk of stroke and low risk of bleeding are not currently receiving AC treatment. The goal of this study was to understand the reasons why these patients do not engage in this potentially life-saving treatment. Method Through a self-report online survey, using validated instruments, 1,184 US adults who self-reported a diagnosis of AF were screened for the risk of stroke and bleed. Of these patients, 230 (19.4%) were at high risk of stroke, low risk of bleed, and not currently using an AC treatment, and were asked follow-up questions to assess their reasons for nontreatment, attitudes toward treatment, and attitudes toward dosing regimens. Results The most common reasons patients stopped AC treatment were concerns regarding bleeding (27.8%) and other medical concerns (26.6%), whereas the most common reason cited for not being prescribed an AC in the first place was the use of antiplatelet therapy as an alternative (57.1%). In both cases, potentially erroneous decisions regarding perceived stoke and/or bleeding risk were also a factor. Finally, the largest factors regarding attitudes toward treatment and dosing regimen were instructions from an authority figure (eg, physician, pharmacist) and ease of use, respectively. Conclusion Results suggest that many AF patients who are at high risk of stroke but at low risk of bleed may not be receiving AC due to potentially inaccurate beliefs about risk. This study also found that AF patients place trust in physicians above other factors such as cost when making treatment decisions. Increased education of patients by physicians on the risks and benefits may be a simple strategy to improve outcomes. PMID:27274206

  8. [When the conservative treatment in high-risk non-muscle invasive bladder cancer patients should be abandoned].

    PubMed

    Colombo, Renzo; Maccagnano, Carmen; Rocchini, Lorenzo; Pellucchi, Federico

    2013-01-01

    Despite the good quality of treatment expected with optimized transurethral resection (TUR) and adjuvant Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) regimen, many high-risk non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) patients recur and progress. According to the EORTC Tables of risk, cases with a score of 10-17 and those with a score of 7-23 should be considered as being at high risk of recurrence and progression, respectively. AUA and NCCN consider all T1 stage tumors, high grade Ta and CIS at high risk of recurrence and progression. Long-term follow-up shows that T1,G3 patients treated with BCG will suffer from up to 45% and 17% rate of recurrence and progression, respectively. Consequently, EAU, AUA and NCCN Guidelines for bladder cancer recommend radical cystectomy as a first treatment option for those patients who failed after two cycles of adjuvant BCG. However, to date, there is no definitive evidence that in this special subgroup of patients an early radical cystectomy is better than any additional salvage strategy, in terms of oncologic outcome. On the other hand, it is well accepted that radical cystectomy is burdened with consistent reduction of overall post-operative quality of life. The reluctance of patient to accept (and of surgeon to recommend) this major extirpative surgery may explain the reduced disease-free survival rate, well documented when radical cystectomy has been extremely delayed. Defining the criteria for the selection of BCG-failure patients for whom any conservative procedure should be definitively abandoned in favor of a timely radical cystectomy has become of critical importance. Recently, clinical, laboratory and pathologic acquisitions allowed the development of more accurate predictive factors for tumor progression in NMIBC. Among these factors, clinical type of BCG-failure, morphology and tumor growth patterns, pathologic sub-staging and immunohistochemistry will play a paramount role in decision-making with these patients in routine

  9. Long-term outcomes in high-risk patients with non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Marc

    2016-04-01

    Greater use of evidence-based therapies has improved outcomes for patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS) in recent decades. Consequently, more ACS patients are surviving beyond 12 months; however, limited data exist to guide treatment in these patients. Long-term outcomes have not improved in non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) patients at the same rate seen in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction patients, possibly reflecting NSTEMI patients' more complex clinical phenotype, including older age, greater burden of comorbidities and higher likelihood of a previous myocardial infarction (MI). This complexity impacts clinical decision-making, particularly in high-risk NSTEMI patients, in whom risk-benefit assessments are problematical. This review examines the need for more effective long-term management of NSTEMI patients who survive ≥12 months after MI. Ongoing risk assessment using objective measures of risk (for bleeding and ischemia) should be used in all post-MI patients. While 12 months appears to be the optimal duration of dual antiplatelet therapy for most patients, this may not be the case for high-risk patients, and more research is urgently needed in this population. A recent subgroup analysis from the DAPT study in patients with or without MI who had undergone coronary stenting (31 % presented with MI; 53 % had NSTEMI) and the prospective PEGASUS-TIMI 54 trial in patients with a prior MI and at least one other risk factor (40 % had NSTEMI) demonstrated that long-term dual antiplatelet therapy improved cardiovascular outcomes but increased bleeding. Further studies will help clarify the role of dual antiplatelet therapy in stable post-NSTEMI patients. PMID:26001907

  10. Anemia in hospitalized patients with pulmonary tuberculosis*

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Marina Gribel; Delogo, Karina Neves; de Oliveira, Hedi Marinho de Melo Gomes; Ruffino-Netto, Antonio; Kritski, Afranio Lineu; Oliveira, Martha Maria

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the prevalence of anemia and of its types in hospitalized patients with pulmonary tuberculosis. METHODS: This was a descriptive, longitudinal study involving pulmonary tuberculosis inpatients at one of two tuberculosis referral hospitals in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. We evaluated body mass index (BMI), triceps skinfold thickness (TST), arm muscle area (AMA), ESR, mean corpuscular volume, and red blood cell distribution width (RDW), as well as the levels of C-reactive protein, hemoglobin, transferrin, and ferritin. RESULTS: We included 166 patients, 126 (75.9%) of whom were male. The mean age was 39.0 ± 10.7 years. Not all data were available for all patients: 18.7% were HIV positive; 64.7% were alcoholic; the prevalences of anemia of chronic disease and iron deficiency anemia were, respectively, 75.9% and 2.4%; and 68.7% had low body weight (mean BMI = 18.21 kg/m2). On the basis of TST and AMA, 126 (78.7%) of 160 patients and 138 (87.9%) of 157 patients, respectively, were considered malnourished. Anemia was found to be associated with the following: male gender (p = 0.03); low weight (p = 0.0004); low mean corpuscular volume (p = 0.03);high RDW (p = 0; 0003); high ferritin (p = 0.0005); and high ESR (p = 0.004). We also found significant differences between anemic and non-anemic patients in terms of BMI (p = 0.04), DCT (p = 0.003), and ESR (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: In this sample, high proportions of pulmonary tuberculosis patients were classified as underweight and malnourished, and there was a high prevalence of anemia of chronic disease. In addition, anemia was associated with high ESR and malnutrition. PMID:25210963

  11. Prophylactic Subclavian Artery Intraaortic Balloon Counter-Pulsation is Safe in High-Risk Cardiac Surgery Patients.

    PubMed

    Russo, Mark J; Jeevanandam, Valluvan; Hur, Michael J; Johnson, Elizabeth M; Siffring, Travis; Shah, Atman P; Raman, Jaishankar

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the safety of prophylactic subclavian artery intraaortic balloon pumps (SCA-IABP) in high-risk cardiac surgery patients as a bridge to recovery (BTR). From November 2011 to January 2013, 11 consecutive patients at three institutions underwent prophylactic insertion of a SCA-IABP as a BTR. All patients (n = 11) had preoperative ejection fractions of 30% or less. Patients concurrently underwent one or a combination of the following procedures: coronary artery bypass grafting, mitral valve surgery, aortic valve replacement, left ventricular aneurysm resection, and ventricular/atrial septal defect closure. The primary outcome measure was a composite endpoint of device-related complications (including limb ischemia, stroke, device failure, bleeding requiring reoperation, brachial plexus injury, device-related infection, and vascular complications) and in-hospital mortality. Secondary outcome measures included interval to patient ambulation and postoperative length of stay. There were no device-related complications or in-hospital mortalities in this cohort of 11 consecutive patients. Mean time to ambulation, balloon pump support, and postoperative length of stay were 3.70 ± 2.50 days, 8.50 ± 7.00 days, and 15.9 ± 8.25 days, respectively. Prophylactic SCA-IABPs appear to be safe in high-risk cardiac surgery patients as a BTR. PMID:26313557

  12. Reduced systemic toxicity from superselective chemoembolization compared with systemic chemotherapy in patients with high-risk metastatic gestational trophoblastic disease

    SciTech Connect

    Lang, Erich K.

    1997-07-15

    Purpose. The efficacy of chemoembolization of primary and metastatic gestational trophoblastic neoplasms was studied. Methods. Six female patients, 19-33 years old, with high-risk trophoblastic disease were subjected to one to five chemoembolizations in 3-week intervals. Three of the patients had metastases to the liver, 2 had local tumor extension to the pelvic wall, and all 5 had failed initial systemic chemotherapy. The sixth patient was treated for a trophoblastic remnant following surgical expression of a tubal pregnancy. For follow-up, beta hCG levels in urine and serum and dynamic or angiocomputed tomograms were obtained in biweekly to 6-month intervals. Results. Two of 3 patients with liver metastases are alive and free of disease 6 and 7 years after initial chemoembolization. The third is alive at 3 years but with evidence of recurrent disease. Two patients treated for locally invasive trophoblastic disease died 3 months and 4 years, respectively, after initial chemoembolization. One had a 21/2-year remission. The patient treated for a trophoblastic remnant in the tube is alive and free of disease at 6-year follow-up. Hematologic toxicity occurred in only one. Conclusion. Selective chemoembolization in our small series of patients with high-risk trophoblastic disease was equally effective as results reported for multi-drug systemic chemotherapy but had markedly lower renal, liver, and hematologic toxicity.

  13. Prevalence of coronary artery–pulmonary artery collaterals in patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Blanchard, Daniel G.; Knowlton, Kirk U.; McDivit, Anna M.; Pretorius, Victor; Madani, Michael M.; Fedullo, Peter F.; Kerr, Kim M.; Kim, Nick H.; Poch, David S.; Auger, William R.; Daniels, Lori B.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This study sought to determine the prevalence of coronary artery–pulmonary artery collaterals in patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) and to correlate their presence with the degree of clot burden. CTEPH is a treatable cause of severe pulmonary hypertension and right heart failure. Bronchopulmonary collateral vessels have been used as a supplementary diagnostic and prognostic tool for this disease. Coronary artery–pulmonary artery collaterals in this population have not been described. The coronary angiograms of 300 consecutive patients with CTEPH evaluated for pulmonary thromboendarterectomy (PTE) between January 1, 2007, and May 1, 2014, were examined. Of these patients, 259 (50% male; mean age, 58.3 ± 10.6 years) had cineangiographic images deemed adequate to definitively assess for the presence of coronary artery–pulmonary artery collaterals and were included in the final analyses. Pulmonary angiogram reports were reviewed for extent of pulmonary artery obstruction. The coronary angiograms of 259 age- and sex-matched control patients were also examined. Among 259 CTEPH patients with definitive imaging, 34 coronary artery–pulmonary artery collaterals were found in 28 patients (10.8%), versus 1 coronary artery–pulmonary artery collateral among control subjects (0.4%; P < 0.001). Compared with CTEPH patients without collaterals, patients with collaterals had a significantly higher prevalence of total occlusion of their right or left main pulmonary artery (P < 0.001) or lobar arteries (P < 0.001). In conclusion, the prevalence of coronary artery–pulmonary artery collaterals in CTEPH patients undergoing coronary angiography for possible PTE is approximately 11%. These vessels are associated with more severe pulmonary artery occlusion. PMID:26064456

  14. Prevalence of coronary artery-pulmonary artery collaterals in patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension.

    PubMed

    Lee, Noel S; Blanchard, Daniel G; Knowlton, Kirk U; McDivit, Anna M; Pretorius, Victor; Madani, Michael M; Fedullo, Peter F; Kerr, Kim M; Kim, Nick H; Poch, David S; Auger, William R; Daniels, Lori B

    2015-06-01

    This study sought to determine the prevalence of coronary artery-pulmonary artery collaterals in patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) and to correlate their presence with the degree of clot burden. CTEPH is a treatable cause of severe pulmonary hypertension and right heart failure. Bronchopulmonary collateral vessels have been used as a supplementary diagnostic and prognostic tool for this disease. Coronary artery-pulmonary artery collaterals in this population have not been described. The coronary angiograms of 300 consecutive patients with CTEPH evaluated for pulmonary thromboendarterectomy (PTE) between January 1, 2007, and May 1, 2014, were examined. Of these patients, 259 (50% male; mean age, 58.3 ± 10.6 years) had cineangiographic images deemed adequate to definitively assess for the presence of coronary artery-pulmonary artery collaterals and were included in the final analyses. Pulmonary angiogram reports were reviewed for extent of pulmonary artery obstruction. The coronary angiograms of 259 age- and sex-matched control patients were also examined. Among 259 CTEPH patients with definitive imaging, 34 coronary artery-pulmonary artery collaterals were found in 28 patients (10.8%), versus 1 coronary artery-pulmonary artery collateral among control subjects (0.4%; P < 0.001). Compared with CTEPH patients without collaterals, patients with collaterals had a significantly higher prevalence of total occlusion of their right or left main pulmonary artery (P < 0.001) or lobar arteries (P < 0.001). In conclusion, the prevalence of coronary artery-pulmonary artery collaterals in CTEPH patients undergoing coronary angiography for possible PTE is approximately 11%. These vessels are associated with more severe pulmonary artery occlusion. PMID:26064456

  15. Lipoprotein-Associated Phospholipase A2 Activity Predicts Cardiovascular Events in High Risk Coronary Artery Disease Patients

    PubMed Central

    Cesari, Maurizio; Frigo, Anna Chiara; Wolfert, Robert L.; Barisa, Marlena; Pagliani, Leopoldo; Rossitto, Giacomo; Seccia, Teresa Maria; Zanchetta, Mario; Rossi, Gian Paolo

    2012-01-01

    Objective Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) is deemed to play a role in atherosclerosis and plaque destabilization as demonstrated in animal models and in prospective clinical studies. However, most of the literature is either focused on high-risk, apparently healthy patients, or is based on cross sectional studies. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that serum Lp-PLA2 mass and activity are useful for predicting cardiovascular (CV) events over the coronary atherosclerotic burden and conventional risk factors in high-risk coronary artery disease patients. Methods and Results In a prospective cohort study of 712 Caucasian patients, who underwent coronary angiography and measurement of both Lp-PLA2 mass and activity at baseline, we determined incident CV events at follow-up after splitting the patients into a high and a low Lp-PLA2 mass and activity groups based on ROC analysis and Youden index. Kaplan-Meier and propensity score matching analysis were used to compare CV event-free survival between groups. Follow-up data were obtained in 75% of the cohort after a median of 7.2 years (range 1–12.7 years) during which 129 (25.5%) CV events were observed. The high Lp-PLA2 activity patients showed worse CV event-free survival (66.7% vs. 79.5%, p = 0.023) and acute coronary syndrome-free survival (75.4% vs. 85.6%, p = 0.04) than those in low Lp-PLA2 group. Conclusions A high Lp-PLA2 activity implies a worse CV prognosis at long term follow up in high-risk Caucasian patients referred for coronary angiography. PMID:23118945

  16. Assessing Safety Attitudes among Healthcare Providers after a Hospital-Wide High-Risk Patient Care Program

    PubMed Central

    Je, Sang Mo; Kim, Hyun Jong; You, Je Sung; Chung, Sung Phil; Cho, Junho; Lee, Jin Hee; Lee, Hahn Shick

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is commonly performed in high-risk, high intensity situations and is therefore a good procedure around which to develop and implement safety culture strategies in the hospital. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of a hospital-wide quality improvement program on the management of sudden cardiac arrests by assessing healthcare providers' attitudes towards patient safety. Materials and Methods This study was designed as a prospective cohort study at a single academic medical center. The comprehensive hospital-based safety program included steps to identify areas of hazard, partner units with the Resuscitation Committee, and to conduct a Safety Attitudes Questionnaire (SAQ). The SAQ evaluated 35 questions in seven domains to assess changes in patient safety culture by comparing the results before and after the hospital-wide high risk patient care improvement program. Results The response rates of the pre- and post-SAQ survey were 489 out of 1121 (43.6%) and 575 out of 1270 (45.3%), respectively. SAQ survey responses revealed significant improvement in all seven domains of the questionnaire (p-values of 0.006 and lower). In a subgroup analysis, doctors and nurses showed improvement in five domains. Both doctors and nurses did not show improvement in the "sharing information" domain. Conclusion A hospital-wide quality improvement program for high-risk, high reliability patient care involving CPR care was shown to be associated with a change in healthcare providers' attitudes towards patient safety. Through an immersive and active program on CPR care, change in healthcare providers' attitudes towards patient safety was initiated. PMID:24532527

  17. Podiatrists' perspectives on their role in promoting self-care in high-risk patients with diabetes.

    PubMed

    Gabbay, Robert; Tinloy, Jennifer; Kaul, Shailja; Ulbrecht, Jan; Schaefer, Eric

    2014-06-25

    Abstract Self-foot care is key in preventing morbidity in high-risk diabetic patients. Motivational interviewing (MI) is an approach to encouraging behavioral change by patients that can be utilized in medical settings. Our goal was to explore how podiatrists promote self-care in such patients and if they use MI techniques. A 19 question online survey of US-based practicing podiatrists. Most answers were on a 5 point scale. MI index was the sum of answers to 5 relevant questions. Of 843 podiatrists, 86% considered foot self-care to be very important for high-risk diabetic patients and 90% felt it was their role to discuss self-foot care with them; 49% felt that they had training and were successful in promoting behavioral change, but the majority were definitely (38%) or possibly (46%) interested in learning more. Only 24% scored >15 / 20 on the MI index. Higher MI scores were associated with more face time and more time discussing foot self-care, but were not related to the podiatrist's age, gender, geographic location, % time in surgery, or years in practice. Reported barriers to counseling were lack of reimbursed time and poor patient engagement. Most podiatrists view self-care behavior among high-risk diabetic patients and their role in promoting it as very important; most feel already proficient but only a minority demonstrate MI skills; fortunately the majority are willing to learn more. Success in behavioral counseling, such as MI, is likely to require more time and may be encouraged by a move from fee-for-service to outcome based reimbursement. PMID:24964268

  18. Implantable electrical bone stimulation for arthrodeses of the foot and ankle in high-risk patients: a multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Saxena, Amol; DiDomenico, Lawrence A; Widtfeldt, Arthur; Adams, Todd; Kim, Will

    2005-01-01

    This study assessed arthrodesis procedures performed in the foot and ankle of high-risk patients following implantation of an internal electrical bone stimulator. Criteria defining patients as "high risk" included diabetes, obesity, habitual tobacco and/or alcohol use, immunosuppressive therapy, and previous history of nonunion. Standard arthrodesis protocol of bone graft and internal fixation was supplemented with the implantable electrical bone stimulator. A retrospective, multicenter review was conducted of 26 patients (28 cases) who underwent 28 forefoot and hindfoot arthrodeses from 1998 to 2002. Complete fusion was defined as bony trabeculation across the joint, lack of motion across the joint, maintenance of hardware/fixation, and absence of radiographic signs of nonunion or pseudoarthrosis. Radiographic consolidation was achieved in 24 of the 28 cases at an average 10.3+/-4.0 weeks. Followup averaged 27.2 months. Complications included 2 patients who sustained breakage of the cables to the bone stimulator. Five patients underwent additional surgery. Four of the 5 patients had additional surgery in order to achieve arthrodesis. All 4 went on to subsequent arthrodesis. This study demonstrates how arthrodesis of the foot and ankle may be enhanced by the use of implantable electrical bone stimulation. PMID:16257674

  19. Pulmonary rehabilitation programs for patients with COPD.

    PubMed

    Wehrmeister, Fernando César; Knorst, Marli; Jardim, José Roberto; Macedo, Elaine Cardozo; Noal, Ricardo Bica; Martínez-Mesa, Jeovany; González, David Alejandro; Dumith, Samuel Carvalho; Maia, Maria de Fátima; Hallal, Pedro Curi; Menezes, Ana Maria Baptista

    2011-01-01

    Pulmonary rehabilitation programs are aimed at providing benefits to COPD patients, in various aspects. Our objective was to review the literature on COPD patient rehabilitation. This systematic review involved articles written in English, Spanish, or Portuguese; published between 2005 and 2009; and indexed in national and international databases. Articles were classified in accordance with the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease criteria for the determination of the level of scientific evidence (grade of recommendation A, B, or C). The outcome measures were exercise, quality of life, symptoms, exacerbations, mortality, and pulmonary function. Treatments were classified as standard rehabilitation, partial rehabilitation, strength exercises, and resistance exercises. Of the 40 articles selected, 4, 18, and 18 were classified as grades A, B, and C, respectively. Of the 181 analyses made in these articles, 61, 50, 23, 23, 20, and 4, respectively, were related to the outcome measures quality of life, exercise, symptoms, exacerbations, pulmonary function, and mortality. The standard rehabilitation programs showed positive effects on all of the outcomes evaluated, except for mortality (because of the small number of analyses). However, we found no differences among the various rehabilitation programs regarding their effects on the outcomes studied. Rehabilitation programs can be considered important tools for the treatment of COPD. Therefore, health administrators should implement public policies including such programs in the routine of health care facilities. PMID:21881745

  20. An unexpected pulmonary arterial aneurysm in a COPD patient.

    PubMed

    Karkoulias, K; Lykouras, D; Nanopoulou, M; Tsiamita, M; Iliopoulos, P; Spiropoulos, K

    2011-01-01

    We present a case of an idiopathic pulmonary artery aneurysm in an asymptomatic patient who was treated for an irrelevant medical condition. Pulmonary artery aneurysms (PAA) are quite rare and can either be congenital or acquired. Congenital aneurysms are usually associated with cardiac malformations leading to pulmonary hypertension. Acquired aneurysms can be idiopathic or associated with infections (tuberculosis, syphilis), trauma, pulmonary valvular stenosis, or collagen diseases. Pulmonary artery aneurysms are not common and an idiopathic pulmonary artery aneurysm is a rare finding that could be diagnosed incidentally. PMID:22145274

  1. [Pulmonary embolism: an analysis of 25 patients].

    PubMed

    Li, L Y; Lu, G; Zhu, Y J

    1993-09-01

    We reported 25 cases of patients with pulmonary embolism (PE) definitely diagnosed in our hospital from 1983 to 1990. Twenty-one cases of them were found in the last 5 years. This indicated that the discovery rate had increased obviously. Five of these patients were confirmed by autopsy, the other twenty cases were diagnosed by clinical manifestations combined with perfusion-inspiration lung scans and chest roentgenogram. Due to the prompt diagnosis and the appropriate use of anticoagulants, 72% of the patients survived after treatment. We suggest that all the patients with suspected PE should take perfusion-inspiration lung scans, because this is a noninvasive and reliable method. Digital subtraction angiography is necessary for some patients. Routine chest radiography, arterial blood gas analysis, intrapulmonary shunt test, deep venography or nuclide scan of lower extremities are also useful methods for the diagnosis of PE. PMID:8112138

  2. Development of a primary care-based complex care management intervention for chronically ill patients at high risk for hospitalization: a study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Complex care management is seen as an approach to face the challenges of an ageing society with increasing numbers of patients with complex care needs. The Medical Research Council in the United Kingdom has proposed a framework for the development and evaluation of complex interventions that will be used to develop and evaluate a primary care-based complex care management program for chronically ill patients at high risk for future hospitalization in Germany. Methods and design We present a multi-method procedure to develop a complex care management program to implement interventions aimed at reducing potentially avoidable hospitalizations for primary care patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, or chronic heart failure and a high likelihood of hospitalization. The procedure will start with reflection about underlying precipitating factors of hospitalizations and how they may be targeted by the planned intervention (pre-clinical phase). An intervention model will then be developed (phase I) based on theory, literature, and exploratory studies (phase II). Exploratory studies are planned that entail the recruitment of 200 patients from 10 general practices. Eligible patients will be identified using two ways of 'case finding': software based predictive modelling and physicians' proposal of patients based on clinical experience. The resulting subpopulations will be compared regarding healthcare utilization, care needs and resources using insurance claims data, a patient survey, and chart review. Qualitative studies with healthcare professionals and patients will be undertaken to identify potential barriers and enablers for optimal performance of the complex care management program. Discussion This multi-method procedure will support the development of a primary care-based care management program enabling the implementation of interventions that will potentially reduce avoidable hospitalizations. PMID:20858242

  3. Mapping Patterns of Ipsilateral Supraclavicular Nodal Metastases in Breast Cancer: Rethinking the Clinical Target Volume for High-risk Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Jing, Hao; Wang, Shu-Lian; Li, Jing; Xue, Mei; Xiong, Zu-Kun; Jin, Jing; Wang, Wei-Hu; Song, Yong-Wen; Liu, Yue-Ping; Ren, Hua; Fang, Hui; Yu, Zi-Hao; Liu, Xin-Fan; Li, Ye-Xiong

    2015-10-01

    Purpose: To map the location of metastatic supraclavicular (SCV) lymph nodes (LNMs) in breast cancer patients with SCV node involvement and determine whether and where the radiation therapy clinical target volume (CTV) of this region could be modified in high-risk subsets. Methods and Materials: Fifty-five patients with metastatic SCV LNMs were eligible for geographic mapping and atlas coverage analysis. All LNMs and their epicenters were registered proportionally by referencing the surrounding landmarks onto simulation computed tomography images of a standard patient. CTVs based on selected SCV atlases, including the one by the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) were contoured. A modified SCV CTV was tried and shown to have better involved-node coverage and thus theoretically improved prophylaxis in this setting. Results: A total of 50 (91%) and 45 (81.8%) patients had LNMs in the medial and lateral SCV subregions, respectively. Also, 36 patients (65.5%) had LNMs located at the junction of the jugular-subclavian veins. All nodes were covered in only 25.5% to 41.8% of patients by different atlases. The RTOG atlas covered all nodes in 25.5% of patients. Stratified by the nodes in all the patients as a whole, 49.2% to 81.3% were covered, and the RTOG atlas covered 62.6%. The lateral and posterior borders were the most overlooked locations. Modification by extending the borders to natural anatomic barriers allowed the new CTV to cover all the nodes in 81.8% of patients and encompass 96.1% of all the nodes. Conclusions: According to the distribution of SCV LNMs, the extent of existing atlases might not be adequate for potential metastatic sites in certain groups of patients. The extension of the lateral and posterior CTV borders in high-risk or recurrent patients might be a reasonable approach for increasing coverage. However, additional data in more homogeneous populations with localized disease are needed before routine application.

  4. Increased pulmonary alveolar-capillary permeability in patients at risk for adult respiratory distress syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Tennenberg, S.D.; Jacobs, M.P.; Solomkin, J.S.; Ehlers, N.A.; Hurst, J.M.

    1987-04-01

    Two methods for predicting adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) were evaluated prospectively in a group of 81 multitrauma and sepsis patients considered at clinical high risk. A popular ARDS risk-scoring method, employing discriminant analysis equations (weighted risk criteria and oxygenation characteristics), yielded a predictive accuracy of 59% and a false-negative rate of 22%. Pulmonary alveolar-capillary permeability (PACP) was determined with a radioaerosol lung-scan technique in 23 of these 81 patients, representing a statistically similar subgroup. Lung scanning achieved a predictive accuracy of 71% (after excluding patients with unilateral pulmonary contusion) and gave no false-negatives. We propose a combination of clinical risk identification and functional determination of PACP to assess a patient's risk of developing ARDS.

  5. Pulmonary embolism and acute cytomegalovirus infection in an immunocompetent patient.

    PubMed

    Del Borgo, Cosmo; Gianfreda, Romina; Belvisi, Valeria; Citton, Rita; Soscia, Fabrizio; Notarianni, Ermanno; Tieghi, Tiziana; Mastroianni, Claudio Maria

    2010-12-01

    A case of an immunocompetent man with acute CMV infection associated with a pulmonary embolism is described. Acute CMV infection could be a risk factor for developing thromboembolism. Pulmonary embolism should be included in differential diagnosis in patients with acute CMV infections and pulmonary opacities. PMID:21196823

  6. Improved Survival Endpoints With Adjuvant Radiation Treatment in Patients With High-Risk Early-Stage Endometrial Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Elshaikh, Mohamed A.; Vance, Sean; Suri, Jaipreet S.; Mahan, Meredith; Munkarah, Adnan

    2014-02-01

    Purpose/Objective(s): To determine the impact of adjuvant radiation treatment (RT) on recurrence-free survival (RFS), disease-specific survival (DSS), and overall survival (OS) in patients with high-risk 2009 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage I-II endometrial carcinoma. Methods and Materials: We identified 382 patients with high-risk EC who underwent hysterectomy. RFS, DSS, and OS were calculated from the date of hysterectomy by use of the Kaplan-Meier method. Cox regression modeling was used to explore the risks associated with various factors on survival endpoints. Results: The median follow-up time for the study cohort was 5.4 years. The median age was 71 years. All patients underwent hysterectomy and salpingo-oophorectomy, 93% had peritoneal cytology, and 85% underwent lymphadenectomy. Patients with endometrioid histology constituted 72% of the study cohort, serous in 16%, clear cell in 7%, and mixed histology in 4%. Twenty-three percent of patients had stage II disease. Adjuvant management included RT alone in 220 patients (57%), chemotherapy alone in 25 patients (7%), and chemoradiation therapy in 27 patients (7%); 110 patients (29%) were treated with close surveillance. The 5-year RFS, DSS, and OS were 76%, 88%, and 73%, respectively. On multivariate analysis, adjuvant RT was a significant predictor of RFS (P<.001) DSS (P<.001), and OS (P=.017). Lymphovascular space involvement was a significant predictor of RFS and DSS (P<.001). High tumor grade was a significant predictor for RFS (P=.038) and DSS (P=.025). Involvement of the lower uterine segment was also a predictor of RFS (P=.049). Age at diagnosis and lymphovascular space involvement were significant predictors of OS: P<.001 and P=.002, respectively. Conclusion: In the treatment of patients with high-risk features, our study suggests that adjuvant RT significantly improves recurrence-free, disease-specific, and overall survival in patients with early-stage endometrial carcinoma

  7. Promising Urinary Protein Biomarkers for the Early Detection of Hepatocellular Carcinoma among High-Risk Hepatitis C Virus Egyptian Patients.

    PubMed

    Abdalla, Moemen Ak; Haj-Ahmad, Yousef

    2012-01-01

    Hepatocellular Carcinoma is a major healthcare problem, representing the third most common cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. There are 130 million Hepatitis C virus infected patients worldwide who are at a high-risk for developing Hepatocellular Carcinoma. Due to the fact that reliable parameters and/or tools for the early detection of Hepatocellular Carcinoma among high-risk individuals are severely lacking, Hepatocellular Carcinoma patients are always diagnosed at a late stage where surgical solutions or effective treatment are not possible. Urine was collected from 106 Hepatitis C infected patients patients, 32 of whom had already developed Hepatocellular Carcinoma and 74 patients who were diagnosed as Hepatocellular Carcinoma -free at the time of initial sample collection. In addition to these patients, urine samples were also collected from 12 healthy control individuals. Total urinary proteins were isolated from the urine samples and LC-MS/MS was used to identify potential protein HCC biomarker candidates. This was followed by validating relative expression levels of proteins present in urine among all the patients using quantitative real time-PCR. This approach revealed that significant over-expression of three proteins: DJ-1, Chromatin Assembly Factor-1 (CAF-1) and Heat Shock Protein 60 (HSP60), was a characteristic event among Hepatocellular Carcinoma - post Hepatitis C virus infected patients. As a single-based Hepatocellular Carcinoma biomarker, CAF-1 over-expression identified Hepatocellular Carcinoma among Hepatitis C virus infected patients with a specificity of 90%, sensitivity of 66% and with an overall diagnostic accuracy of 78%. Moreover, the CAF-1/HSP60 tandem identified Hepatocellular Carcinoma among Hepatitis C virus infected patients with a specificity of 92%, sensitivity of 61% and with an overall diagnostic accuracy of 77%. PMID:23074380

  8. Comparison of ramosetron with ondansetron for the prevention of post-operative nausea and vomiting in high-risk patients

    PubMed Central

    Agarkar, Sandip; Chatterjee, Aparna S

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims: Post-operative nausea and vomiting (PONV) has an 80% incidence in high-risk patients. This is despite the availability of several antiemetic drugs. Selective 5-hydroxytryptamine type 3 (5-HT3) receptor antagonists are considered first-line for prophylaxis, ondansetron being the most commonly used agent. Ramosetron, another selective 5-HT3 receptor antagonist, is more potent and longer acting than ondansetron. This study was conducted to evaluate the antiemetic efficacy of ramosetron in comparison with ondansetron in patients at a high risk of PONV. Methods: This was a prospective randomised double-blind study carried out over a 6-month period in which 206 patients with at least two risk factors for PONV were randomised to receive ramosetron 0.3 mg or ondansetron 8 mg, 30 min before the end of surgery. The incidence of PONV, severity of nausea and need for rescue antiemetic were recorded over the next 24 h. Primary outcome was the incidence of PONV. Secondary outcomes included severity of nausea and need for rescue. The data were analysed using the Predictive Analytics Software (PASW, version 18: Chicago, IL, USA). Results: The incidence of PONV was found to be 35% in the ramosetron group as opposed to 43.7% in the ondansetron group (P = 0.199). Need for rescue antiemetic was 23.3% in the ramosetron group and 32% in the ondansetron group (P = 0.156) in the 24 h following surgery. Conclusion: Ramosetron 0.3 mg and ondansetron 8 mg were equally effective in reducing the incidence of PONV in high risk patients. PMID:25937648

  9. High-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy Alone for Localized Prostate Cancer in Patients at Moderate or High Risk of Biochemical Recurrence

    SciTech Connect

    Hoskin, Peter; Rojas, Ana; Lowe, Gerry; Bryant, Linda; Ostler, Peter; Hughes, Rob; Milner, Jessica; Cladd, Helen

    2012-03-15

    Purpose: To evaluate genitourinary (GU) and gastrointestinal (GI) morbidity and biochemical control of disease in patients with localized prostate adenocarcinoma treated with escalating doses per fraction of high-dose rate brachytherapy alone. Methods and Materials: A total of 197 patients were treated with 34 Gy in four fractions, 36 Gy in four fractions, 31.5 Gy in three fractions, or 26 Gy in two fractions. Median follow-up times were 60, 54, 36, and 6 months, respectively. Results: Incidence of early Grade {>=} 3 GU morbidity was 3% to 7%, and Grade 4 was 0% to 4%. During the first 12 weeks, the highest mean International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) value was 14, and between 6 months and 5 years it was 8. Grade 3 or 4 early GI morbidity was not observed. The 3-year actuarial rate of Grade 3 GU was 3% to 16%, and was 3% to 7% for strictures requiring surgery (4-year rate). An incidence of 1% Grade 3 GI events was seen at 3 years. Late Grade 4 GU or GI events were not observed. At 3 years, 99% of patients with intermediate-risk and 91% with high-risk disease were free of biochemical relapse (log-rank p = 0.02). Conclusions: There was no significant difference in urinary and rectal morbidity between schedules. Biochemical control of disease in patients with intermediate and high risk of relapse was good.

  10. Pancreatic Stenting Reduces Post-ERCP Pancreatitis and Biliary Sepsis in High-Risk Patients: A Randomized, Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Hai-En; Li, Qi-Xiang; Wang, Wei; Ou, Wei-Lin; Xia, Harry Hua-Xiang

    2016-01-01

    Background. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is an established treatment modality for bile duct disorders, but patients have a risk of post-ERCP pancreatitis (PEP) and biliary sepsis. Aim. To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of pancreatic stent for prophylaxis of PEP and biliary sepsis in high-risk patients with complicating common bile duct (CBD) disorders. Methods. Two hundred and six patients with complicating confirmed or suspected CBD disorders were randomly assigned to receive ERCP with pancreatic stenting (experimental group) or without stenting (control group). Primary outcome measure was frequency of PEP, and secondary outcome measures included operative time, blood loss, postoperative recovery times, and other ERCP-associated morbidities. Results. Baseline age, sex, CBD etiology, concomitant medical/surgical conditions, cannulation difficulty, and ERCP success were comparable between the two groups (all P > 0.05). Compared to the control group, the experimental group had a significantly lower frequency of PEP (7.7% versus 17.7%, P < 0.05) and positive bile microbial culture (40.4% versus 62.7%, P < 0.05). However, the two groups were similar in operative time, blood loss, postoperative recovery times, and other ERCP-associated morbidities (all P > 0.05). Conclusions. Pancreatic stenting can reduce the occurrence of PEP and biliary sepsis in high-risk patients with complicating CBD disorders but does not increase other ERCP-associated morbidities. This trial is registered with the Chinese Clinical Trial Registry (registration identifier ChiCTR-OCH-14005134). PMID:27057161

  11. Prognostic Value of Coronary Computed Tomography Imaging in Patients at High Risk Without Symptoms of Coronary Artery Disease.

    PubMed

    Dedic, Admir; Ten Kate, Gert-Jan R; Roos, Cornelis J; Neefjes, Lisan A; de Graaf, Michiel A; Spronk, Angela; Delgado, Victoria; van Lennep, Jeanine E Roeters; Moelker, Adriaan; Ouhlous, Mohamed; Scholte, Arthur J H A; Boersma, Eric; Sijbrands, Eric J G; Nieman, Koen; Bax, Jeroen J; de Feijter, Pim J

    2016-03-01

    At present, traditional risk factors are used to guide cardiovascular management of asymptomatic subjects. Intensified surveillance may be warranted in those identified as high risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD). This study aims to determine the prognostic value of coronary computed tomography (CT) angiography (CCTA) next to the coronary artery calcium score (CACS) in patients at high CVD risk without symptoms suspect for coronary artery disease (CAD). A total of 665 patients at high risk (mean age 56 ± 9 years, 417 men), having at least one important CVD risk factor (diabetes mellitus, familial hypercholesterolemia, peripheral artery disease, or severe hypertension) or a calculated European systematic coronary risk evaluation of >10% were included from outpatient clinics at 2 academic centers. Follow-up was performed for the occurrence of adverse events including all-cause mortality, nonfatal myocardial infarction, unstable angina, or coronary revascularization. During a median follow-up of 3.0 (interquartile range 1.3 to 4.1) years, adverse events occurred in 40 subjects (6.0%). By multivariate analysis, adjusted for age, gender, and CACS, obstructive CAD on CCTA (≥50% luminal stenosis) was a significant predictor of adverse events (hazard ratio 5.9 [CI 1.3 to 26.1]). Addition of CCTA to age, gender, plus CACS, increased the C statistic from 0.81 to 0.84 and resulted in a total net reclassification index of 0.19 (p <0.01). In conclusion, CCTA has incremental prognostic value and risk reclassification benefit beyond CACS in patients without CAD symptoms but with high risk of developing CVD. PMID:26754124

  12. NSAID-Avoidance Education in Community Pharmacies for Patients at High Risk for Acute Kidney Injury, Upstate New York, 2011

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Soo Min; Cerulli, Jennifer; Grabe, Darren W.; Fox, Chester; Vassalotti, Joseph A.; Prokopienko, Alexander J.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are frequently associated with community-acquired acute kidney injury (AKI), a strong risk factor for development and progression of chronic kidney disease. Using access to prescription medication profiles, pharmacists can identify patients at high risk for NSAID-induced AKI. The primary objective of this analysis was to evaluate the effectiveness of a community pharmacy–based patient education program on patient knowledge of NSAID-associated renal safety concerns. Methods Patients receiving prescription medications for hypertension or diabetes mellitus were invited to participate in an educational program on the risks of NSAID use. A patient knowledge questionnaire (PKQ) consisting of 5 questions scored from 1 to 5 was completed before and after the intervention. Information was collected on age, race, sex, and frequency of NSAID use. Results A total of 152 participants (60% women) completed both the pre- and post-intervention questionnaire; average age was 54.6 (standard deviation [SD], 17.5). Mean pre-intervention PKQ score was 3.3 (SD, 1.4), and post-intervention score was 4.6 (SD, 0.9) (P = .002). Participants rated program usefulness (1 = not useful to 5 = extremely useful) as 4.2 (SD, 1.0). In addition, 48% reported current NSAID use and 67% reported that the program encouraged them to limit their use. Conclusion NSAID use was common among patients at high risk for AKI. A brief educational intervention in a community pharmacy improved patient knowledge on NSAID-associated risks. Pharmacists practicing in the community can partner with primary care providers in the medical home model to educate patients at risk for AKI. PMID:25523351

  13. Acute Toxicity in High-Risk Prostate Cancer Patients Treated With Androgen Suppression and Hypofractionated Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Pervez, Nadeem; Small, Cormac; MacKenzie, Marc; Yee, Don; Parliament, Matthew; Ghosh, Sunita; Mihai, Alina; Amanie, John; Murtha, Albert; Field, Colin; Murray, David; Fallone, Gino; Pearcey, Robert

    2010-01-15

    Purpose: To report acute toxicity resulting from radiotherapy (RT) dose escalation and hypofractionation using intensity-modulated RT (IMRT) treatment combined with androgen suppression in high-risk prostate cancer patients. Methods and Materials: Sixty patients with a histological diagnosis of high-risk prostatic adenocarcinoma (having either a clinical Stage of >=T3a or an initial prostate-specific antigen [PSA] level of >=20 ng/ml or a Gleason score of 8 to 10 or a combination of a PSA concentration of >15 ng/ml and a Gleason score of 7) were enrolled. RT prescription was 68 Gy in 25 fractions (2.72 Gy/fraction) over 5 weeks to the prostate and proximal seminal vesicles. The pelvic lymph nodes and distal seminal vesicles concurrently received 45 Gy in 25 fractions. The patients were treated with helical TomoTherapy-based IMRT and underwent daily megavoltage CT image-guided verification prior to each treatment. Acute toxicity scores were recorded weekly during RT and at 3 months post-RT, using Radiation Therapy Oncology Group acute toxicity scales. Results: All patients completed RT and follow up for 3 months. The maximum acute toxicity scores were as follows: 21 (35%) patients had Grade 2 gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity; 4 (6.67%) patients had Grade 3 genitourinary (GU) toxicity; and 30 (33.33%) patients had Grade 2 GU toxicity. These toxicity scores were reduced after RT; there were only 8 (13.6%) patients with Grade 1 GI toxicity, 11 (18.97%) with Grade 1 GU toxicity, and 5 (8.62%) with Grade 2 GU toxicity at 3 months follow up. Only the V60 to the rectum correlated with the GI toxicity. Conclusion: Dose escalation using a hypofractionated schedule to the prostate with concurrent pelvic lymph node RT and long-term androgen suppression therapy is well tolerated acutely. Longer follow up for outcome and late toxicity is required.

  14. Breakthrough Scedosporium apiospermum (Pseudallescheria boydii) brain abscess during therapy for invasive pulmonary aspergillosis following high-risk allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Scedosporiasis and recent advances in antifungal therapy.

    PubMed

    Safdar, A; Papadopoulos, E B; Young, J W

    2002-12-01

    Systemic scedosporiasis due to the anamorph or asexual form Scedosporium apiospermum (Pseudallescheria boydii) has become an important cause of opportunistic mycosis, especially in patients undergoing high-risk hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. We report a case of rapidly progressive cerebellar hyalohyphomycosis due to Scedosporium apiospermum in an allogeneic marrow graft recipient receiving treatment for severe graft-versus-host disease. This fatal breakthrough intracranial abscess, due to amphotericin B-resistant (minimum inhibitory concentration > 16 micro g/ml) mold, developed during the course of systemic antifungal therapy given for multicentric pulmonary aspergillosis. Despite treatment with high-dose Abelcet (10 mg/kg daily), free amphotericin B was not detected in postmortem cerebellar tissue. A broad-spectrum triazole-based agent (voriconazole/UK-109, 496--Vfend), and a novel fungal cell wall inhibitor, an echinocandin/pneumocandin analog (caspofungin/MK-0991--Cancidas), which exhibit excellent in vitro activity against most clinical Pseudallescheria boydii-Scedosporium apiospermum isolates, have recently become available in the United States and may provide much needed treatment options for patients at risk. PMID:12535265

  15. Feasibility and Clinical Outcomes of Peripheral Drug-Coated Balloon in High-Risk Patients with Femoropopliteal Disease

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Hsuan-Li; Juang, Jyh-Ming Jimmy; Chou, Hsin-Hua; Tsao, Chueh-Yung; Wu, Tien-Yu; Ko, Yu-Lin

    2015-01-01

    Background Clinical outcomes of the drug-coated balloon (DCB) procedure in high-risk patients with femoropopliteal (FP) disease have not been investigated sufficiently. Methods This retrospective, single-center study analyzed 87 patients (39% dialysis) and 97 affected legs (64% critical limb ischemia [CLI]) that underwent DCB for symptomatic FP disease from March 2013 to September 2014. Risk stratification was based on FeDCLIP (female, diabetes, dialysis, CLI, lesion length >150 mm and poor runoff) score. The DCB outcomes among the different risk groups were compared and factors predicting restenosis were analyzed during follow-up. Results Most of study participants (84%) were moderate to high-risk patients. The procedural success rate was 100% and the 30-day major adverse vascular event rate was 2.1%. The mean lesion length was 178 ± 106 mm and the mean follow-up time was 428 ± 145 (range 50–782) days. The binary restenosis-free and clinically driven target lesion revascularization (CD-TLR)-free rates at 12 months were 77.5% and 84.3%, respectively, for all participants. No significant differences were observed in 1-year binary restenosis and CD-TLR rates in the low-, moderate-, and high-risk groups (60%, 84%, and 73%: p = 0.396; 78%, 89%, and 80%: p = 0.635, respectively). In multivariate analysis, lesion length >150 mm (Hazard ratio [HR]: 8.00, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.12 to 55.6, p = 0.038) and Rutherford class 6 (HR: 7.09, 95% CI, 1.15 to 43.5, p = 0.034) were identified as independent predictors of binary restenosis. Conclusions Despite general comorbidities and advanced limb ischemia, 1-year outcomes of DCB in high-risk patients with FP disease were effective. The DCB procedure holds promise to improve vessel patency; however, lesion length >150 mm and major tissue loss were independent predictors for binary restenosis after the treatment. PMID:26599128

  16. Analysis of serum immune markers in seropositive and seronegative rheumatoid arthritis and in high-risk seropositive arthralgia patients

    PubMed Central

    Chalan, Paulina; Bijzet, Johan; van den Berg, Anke; Kluiver, Joost; Kroesen, Bart-Jan; Boots, Annemieke M. H.; Brouwer, Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    Presence of autoantibodies precedes development of seropositive rheumatoid arthritis (SP RA) and seropositive arthralgia patients (SAP) are at risk of developing RA. The aims of the study are to identify additional serum immune markers discriminating between SP and seronegative (SN) RA, and markers identifying high-risk SAP. Sera from SAP (n = 27), SP RA (n = 22), SN RA (n = 11) and healthy controls (n = 20) were analyzed using the Human Cytokine 25-Plex Panel. Selected markers were validated in independent cohorts of SP RA (n = 35) and SN RA (n = 12) patients. Eleven of 27 SAP developed RA within 8 months (median follow-up time, range 1–32 months), and their baseline serum markers were compared to 16 non-progressing SAP. SAP and SP RA patients showed a marked overlap in their systemic immune profiles, while SN RA showed a distinct immune profile. Three of 4 markers discriminating between SP and SN RA (IL-1β, IL-15 and Eotaxin, but not CCL5) were similarly modulated in independent cohorts. SAP progressing to RA showed trends for increases in IL-5, MIP-1β, IL-1RA and IL-12 compared to non-progressing SAP. ROC analysis showed that serum IL-5 most accurately discriminated between the two SAP groups (AUC > 0.8), suggesting that baseline IL-5 levels may aid the identification of high-risk SAP. PMID:27189045

  17. Analysis of serum immune markers in seropositive and seronegative rheumatoid arthritis and in high-risk seropositive arthralgia patients.

    PubMed

    Chalan, Paulina; Bijzet, Johan; van den Berg, Anke; Kluiver, Joost; Kroesen, Bart-Jan; Boots, Annemieke M H; Brouwer, Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    Presence of autoantibodies precedes development of seropositive rheumatoid arthritis (SP RA) and seropositive arthralgia patients (SAP) are at risk of developing RA. The aims of the study are to identify additional serum immune markers discriminating between SP and seronegative (SN) RA, and markers identifying high-risk SAP. Sera from SAP (n = 27), SP RA (n = 22), SN RA (n = 11) and healthy controls (n = 20) were analyzed using the Human Cytokine 25-Plex Panel. Selected markers were validated in independent cohorts of SP RA (n = 35) and SN RA (n = 12) patients. Eleven of 27 SAP developed RA within 8 months (median follow-up time, range 1-32 months), and their baseline serum markers were compared to 16 non-progressing SAP. SAP and SP RA patients showed a marked overlap in their systemic immune profiles, while SN RA showed a distinct immune profile. Three of 4 markers discriminating between SP and SN RA (IL-1β, IL-15 and Eotaxin, but not CCL5) were similarly modulated in independent cohorts. SAP progressing to RA showed trends for increases in IL-5, MIP-1β, IL-1RA and IL-12 compared to non-progressing SAP. ROC analysis showed that serum IL-5 most accurately discriminated between the two SAP groups (AUC > 0.8), suggesting that baseline IL-5 levels may aid the identification of high-risk SAP. PMID:27189045

  18. Efficacy and adverse events of azacitidine in the treatment of hemodialysis patients with high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Yoshihiro, Tomoyasu; Muta, Tsuyoshi; Aoki, Kenichi; Shimamoto, Syo; Tamura, Yasuhisa; Ogawa, Ryosuke

    2016-08-01

    We describe two hemodialysis patients with high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) treated with azacitidine. A 65-year-old woman (case 1) received azacitidine at 75 mg/m(2) for 7 days, and a 52-year-old man (case 2) with liver cirrhosis received a 70% dose of azacitidine. Both cases developed grade 4 cytopenia, but they achieved transfusion independence after 3 and 2 courses, and the durations of remission were 10 and 11 months, respectively. Case 1 had the complication of febrile neutropenia (FN) twice during the 1(st) and 2(nd) courses, but continued to receive azacitidine treatment thereafter. Case 2 developed infectious peritonitis during the sixth course, and azacitidine treatment was thus discontinued. After a 4-month treatment interruption, he became transfusion-dependent, and re-induction of azacitidine was successful. Of note, the course of case 1 was complicated by erythema nodosum on admission, which then disappeared after one course of azacitidine treatment. The mean durations of hospitalization were 17.5 and 23 days per course of azacitidine treatment, respectively. Though there are few reports of azacitidine treatment for hemodialysis patients with high-risk MDS, we advocate administering azacitidine to such patients, while paying close attention to the dose intensity of azacitidine and taking prompt action to manage infectious complications. PMID:27599416

  19. Lung cancer screening in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Jessica; Marín, Marta; Sánchez-Salcedo, Pablo; Zulueta, Javier J

    2016-04-01

    Lung cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are two intimately related diseases, with great impact on public health. Annual screening using low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) of the chest significantly reduces mortality due to lung cancer, and several scientific societies now recommend this technique. COPD, defined by the presence of airflow obstruction [forced expiratory volume and forced vital capacity (FVC) ratio less than 0.70], and their clinical phenotypes, namely emphysema and chronic bronchitis, have been associated with increased lung cancer risk. Several epidemiological studies, including lung cancer screening trials, have found a 2- to 4-fold increase in lung cancer risk in patients with COPD when compared to individuals without airflow obstruction. Part of the risk attributed to airflow obstruction appears to be derived from the presence of radiographic emphysema. The latter has proven to be an important lung cancer risk factor in smokers without airflow obstruction and even in never smokers. This evidence supports the idea of including patients with COPD and/or emphysema in lung cancer screening programs. There is evidence that lung cancer screening in this population is effective and can potentially reduce mortality. Specific lung cancer risk scores have been developed for patients with COPD [COPD lung cancer screening score (LUCSS) and COPD-LUCSS-diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO)] to identify those at high risk. A multidisciplinary approach for an adequate patient selection, especially of patients with severe disease, is key to maximize benefits and reduce harms from lung cancer screening in this population. Patients with COPD included in lung cancer screening programs could also benefit from other interventions, such as smoking cessation and adequate treatment. PMID:27195278

  20. Lung cancer screening in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Jessica; Marín, Marta; Sánchez-Salcedo, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are two intimately related diseases, with great impact on public health. Annual screening using low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) of the chest significantly reduces mortality due to lung cancer, and several scientific societies now recommend this technique. COPD, defined by the presence of airflow obstruction [forced expiratory volume and forced vital capacity (FVC) ratio less than 0.70], and their clinical phenotypes, namely emphysema and chronic bronchitis, have been associated with increased lung cancer risk. Several epidemiological studies, including lung cancer screening trials, have found a 2- to 4-fold increase in lung cancer risk in patients with COPD when compared to individuals without airflow obstruction. Part of the risk attributed to airflow obstruction appears to be derived from the presence of radiographic emphysema. The latter has proven to be an important lung cancer risk factor in smokers without airflow obstruction and even in never smokers. This evidence supports the idea of including patients with COPD and/or emphysema in lung cancer screening programs. There is evidence that lung cancer screening in this population is effective and can potentially reduce mortality. Specific lung cancer risk scores have been developed for patients with COPD [COPD lung cancer screening score (LUCSS) and COPD-LUCSS-diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO)] to identify those at high risk. A multidisciplinary approach for an adequate patient selection, especially of patients with severe disease, is key to maximize benefits and reduce harms from lung cancer screening in this population. Patients with COPD included in lung cancer screening programs could also benefit from other interventions, such as smoking cessation and adequate treatment. PMID:27195278

  1. Cardiac operations in patients with severe pulmonary impairment.

    PubMed

    Yamashiro, S; Sakata, R; Nakayama, Y; Ura, M; Arai, Y; Morishima, Y

    2000-04-01

    Many reviews concerning pulmonary complications after cardiac surgical procedures in patients with serious pulmonary disease have been published. However, no strict pulmonary function guidelines were proposed to help the clinician identify the patients at greater risk. We considered whether a low pulmonary function became a risk factor of cardiac operations. We conducted a retrospective analysis of records of 32 patients with severely impaired preoperative pulmonary function who had undergone cardiac operations between July 1988 and March 1999. There was 1 hospital death. The over-all mortality rate was 3.1% (1 of 32). However, this death could not be directly attributed to postoperative pulmonary complications. Postoperative pulmonary complications were seen in 2 patients (6.3%) who required tracheostomy due to atelectasis and pneumonia. No late deaths due to pulmonary complications were observed during the follow-up period. The actual survival rate is 68% at 7 years. A low pulmonary function did not, by itself, become a risk factor of cardiac operations, although a pulmonary function test can be used to alert the clinician to possible postoperative complications, including the requirement of tracheostomy. Especially strict control of postoperative respiration is necessary in patients with forced expiratory volume (FEV) of 1.0 <= 800 ml and/or FEV1.0/BSA <= 600 ml/m2. PMID:10870003

  2. The challenge of individualised risk assessment and therapy planning in elderly high-risk myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) patients.

    PubMed

    Stauder, Reinhard

    2012-09-01

    Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) represent one of the most frequent and serious haematologic diseases of the elderly. Effective therapies exist ranging from best supportive care to haematologic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Decision making, however, is rather complex in this group of patients because ageing is a multidimensional process involving not only physiological changes but also changes in functional, social, emotional and cognitive capacities. All these factors can have a significant impact on the efficacy and tolerability of a potential therapy and therefore have to be thoroughly assessed before deciding on individual treatment regimens. Risk assessment tools are available both to classify the stage and prognosis of MDS and to meet the needs of elderly patients. A tool explicitly focussing on elderly MDS patients, however, is still missing. The current report approached this issue by combining the well established MDS-risk score 'International Prognostic Scoring System' (IPSS) with the 'Multidimensional Geriatric Assessment' (MGA). As decision making is most complex in high-risk MDS patients, the new algorithm is presented exemplarily for this group of patients. In a first step, MDS-related risk is identified using IPSS, in a second step, patients are assigned to one of three risk categories of the MGA (go-go/fit, slow-go/vulnerable, no-go/frail). While go-go patients might be subjected to therapies comparable to those given to younger patients, in no-go patients, a palliative therapy combined with best supportive care will probably be most appropriate. In slow-go patients, age-related life expectancy taken from public age statistics should be compared to the MDS-related life expectancy. Based on this combined assessment procedure and also on treatment tolerance in terms of the expectations/wishes of the patient and his/her family, an individualised therapeutic approach should be developed. Specific treatment recommendations for these three groups of

  3. [Pulmonary embolism].

    PubMed

    Söffker, Gerold; Kluge, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Acute pulmonary embolism is an important differential diagnosis of acute chest pain. The clinical signs are often non-specific. However, diagnosis and therapy must be done quickly in order to reduce morbidity and mortality. The new (2014) European guidelines for acute pulmonary embolism (PE) focus on risk-adapted diagnostic algorithms and prognosis adapted therapy concepts. According to the hemodynamic presentation the division in a high-risk group (unstable patient with persistent hypotension or shock) or in non-high-risk groups (hemodynamically stable) was proposed. In the high-risk group the immediate diagnosis is usually done by multidetector spiral computed tomography (MDCT) and primarily the medical therapy of right ventricular dysfunction and thrombolysis is recommended.In the non-high-risk group, this is subdivided into an intermediate-risk group and low-risk group, the diagnosis algorithm based on the PE-pretest probability--determined by validated scores. Moreover, the diagnosis is usually secured by MDCT--the new gold standard in the PE-diagnosis, scores, or it can be primarily ruled out due to the high negative predictive value of D-dimer determination. To improve the prognostic risk stratification in non-high-risk group patients the additional detection of right ventricular dysfunction (MDCT, echocardiography), cardiac biomarkers (troponin, NT proBNP) and validated scores (e.g. Pulmonary Embolism Severity Index) is recommended. Therefore, the intermediate-risk group can be further subdivided. For treatment of non-high-risk group patients, the initial anticoagulation (except those with severe renal insufficiency) using low molecular weight heparin/fondaparinux and conversion to vitamin-K antagonists or alternatively with direct oral anticoagulants (DOAK) is recommended. Hemodynamically stable patients with right ventricular dysfunction and myocardial ischemia (Intermediate-high-risk group patients) but with clinically progressive hemodynamic

  4. Improved Biochemical Outcomes With Statin Use in Patients With High-Risk Localized Prostate Cancer Treated With Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Kollmeier, Marisa A.; Katz, Matthew S.; Mak, Kimberley; Yamada, Yoshiya; Feder, David J.; Zhang Zhigang; Jia Xiaoyu; Shi Weiji; Zelefsky, Michael J.

    2011-03-01

    Purpose: To investigate the association between 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors (statins) and biochemical and survival outcomes after high-dose radiotherapy (RT) for prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: A total of 1711 men with clinical stage T1-T3 prostate cancer were treated with conformal RT to a median dose of 81 Gy during 1995-2007. Preradiotherapy medication data were available for 1681 patients. Three hundred eighty-two patients (23%) were taking a statin medication at diagnosis and throughout RT. Nine hundred forty-seven patients received a short-course of neoadjuvant and concurrent androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) with RT. The median follow-up was 5.9 years. Results: The 5- and 8-year PSA relapse-free survival (PRFS) rates for statin patients were 89% and 80%, compared with 83% and 74% for those not taking statins (p = 0.002). In a multivariate analysis, statin use (hazard ratio [HR]0.69, p = 0.03), National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) low-risk group, and ADT use were associated with improved PRFS. Only high-risk patients in the statin group demonstrated improvement in PRFS (HR 0.52, p = 0.02). Across all groups, statin use was not associated with improved distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS) (p = 0.51). On multivariate analysis, lower NCCN risk group (p = 0.01) and ADT use (p = 0.005) predicted improved DMFS. Conclusions: Statin use during high-dose RT for clinically localized prostate cancer was associated with a significant improvement in PRFS in high-risk patients. These data suggest that statins have anticancer activity and possibly provide radiosensitization when used in conjunction with RT in the treatment of prostate cancer.

  5. Experience With the Wearable Cardioverter-Defibrillator in Patients at High Risk for Sudden Cardiac Death

    PubMed Central

    Günther, Michael; Quick, Silvio; Pfluecke, Christian; Rottstädt, Fabian; Szymkiewicz, Steven J.; Ringquist, Steven; Strasser, Ruth H.; Speiser, Uwe

    2016-01-01

    Background: This study evaluated the wearable cardioverter-defibrillator (WCD) for use and effectiveness in preventing sudden death caused by ventricular tachyarrhythmia or fibrillation. Methods: From April 2010 through October 2013, 6043 German WCD patients (median age, 57 years; male, 78.5%) were recruited from 404 German centers. Deidentified German patient data were used for a retrospective, nonrandomized analysis. Results: Ninety-four patients (1.6%) were treated by the WCD in response to ventricular tachyarrhythmia/fibrillation. The incidence rate was 8.4 (95% confidence interval, 6.8–10.2) per 100 patient-years. Patients with implantable cardioverter-defibrillator explantation had an incidence rate of 19.3 (95% confidence interval, 12.2–29.0) per 100 patient-years. In contrast, an incidence rate of 8.2 (95% confidence interval, 6.4–10.3) was observed in the remaining cardiac diagnosis groups, including dilated cardiomyopathy, myocarditis, and ischemic and nonischemic cardiomyopathies. Among 120 shocked patients, 112 (93%) survived 24 hours after treatment, whereas asystole was observed in 2 patients (0.03%) with 1 resulting death. ConclusionS: This large cohort represents the first nationwide evaluation of WCD use in patients outside the US healthcare system and confirms the overall value of the WCD in German treatment pathways. PMID:27458236

  6. Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension: treat the patient not the haemodynamics.

    PubMed

    Dunne, Ben; van den Broek, Annika; Williams, Vaughan; Smith, Gregory; Revesz, Tamas; Edwards, Mark; Gabbay, Eli

    2012-01-01

    Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) is a disabling condition that is being increasingly recognised. It is unique as a cause of pulmonary hypertension in that it is surgically curable. We wish to highlight the importance of recognition and early referral of any patient who may have CTEPH even in the absence of resting pulmonary hypertension as excellent results can be achieved by restoring pulmonary vascular anatomy, reducing exercise-induced pulmonary hypertension, and reducing dead-space ventilation. We present a case that illustrates these points and discuss our experience as a referral centre for CTEPH. PMID:23133777

  7. Chronic Thromboembolic Pulmonary Hypertension: Treat the Patient Not the Haemodynamics

    PubMed Central

    Dunne, Ben; van den Broek, Annika; Williams, Vaughan; Smith, Gregory; Revesz, Tamas; Edwards, Mark; Gabbay, Eli

    2012-01-01

    Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) is a disabling condition that is being increasingly recognised. It is unique as a cause of pulmonary hypertension in that it is surgically curable. We wish to highlight the importance of recognition and early referral of any patient who may have CTEPH even in the absence of resting pulmonary hypertension as excellent results can be achieved by restoring pulmonary vascular anatomy, reducing exercise-induced pulmonary hypertension, and reducing dead-space ventilation. We present a case that illustrates these points and discuss our experience as a referral centre for CTEPH. PMID:23133777

  8. CEUS: An essential component in a multimodality approach to small nodules in patients at high-risk for hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Jang, Hyun-Jung; Kim, Tae Kyoung; Burns, Peter N; Wilson, Stephanie R

    2015-09-01

    Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) plays an essential role in the evaluation of small nodules in livers at high-risk for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and offers unique advantages over CT/MRI. These include the sensitive depiction of arterial hypervascularity of HCC, better demonstration of rapid washout for non-HCC malignancy as well as of very late washout of HCC. Visualization of early vascular filling patterns for benign hypervascular lesions is of indisputable value. A frequently uncounted benefit of CEUS includes the value of its performance following nodule detection at ultrasound surveillance, including one-stop exclusion of typical benignancy, preclusion of arterial pseudolesions shown on CT/MR, and the avoidance of miscorrelation of a nodule on surveillance and subsequent diagnostic imaging. Therefore, CEUS can effectively be used in the diagnostic algorithm for new liver nodules detected during HCC surveillance. Despite the fact that CEUS is actively used as a major diagnostic test for HCC in Asia, Europe, and Canada with increasing demands in clinical practice, CEUS is not included in the diagnostic tests for HCC in some major practice guidelines. In this manuscript, we focus on small nodules in patients at high-risk for HCC, and review some of the unique advantages of CEUS that contribute to lesion characterization and subsequent patient management, showing why CEUS should be an essential component of the diagnostic algorithm for HCC. PMID:26092406

  9. Increased IL6 plasma levels in indolent systemic mastocytosis patients are associated with high risk of disease progression.

    PubMed

    Mayado, A; Teodosio, C; Garcia-Montero, A C; Matito, A; Rodriguez-Caballero, A; Morgado, J M; Muñiz, C; Jara-Acevedo, M; Álvarez-Twose, I; Sanchez-Muñoz, L; Matarraz, S; Caldas, C; Muñoz-González, J I; Escribano, L; Orfao, A

    2016-01-01

    Systemic mastocytosis (SM) is a heterogeneous disease with altered interleukin (IL)-6 and IL13 plasma levels. However, no study has simultaneously investigated the plasma levels of IL1β, IL6, IL13, CCL23 and clusterin in SM at diagnosis and correlated them with disease outcome. Here we investigated IL1β, IL6, IL13, CCL23 and clusterin plasma levels in 75 SM patients--66 indolent SM (ISM) and 9 aggressive SM--and analyzed their prognostic impact among ISM cases grouped according to the extent of hematopoietic involvement of the bone marrow cells by the KIT D816V mutation. Although increased IL1β, IL6 and CCL23 levels were detected in SM patients versus healthy controls, only IL6 and CCL23 levels gradually increased with disease severity. Moreover, increased IL6 plasma levels were associated with ISM progression to more aggressive disease, in particular among ISM patients with multilineal KIT mutation (ISM-ML), these patients also showing a higher frequency of organomegalies, versus other ISM-ML patients. Of note, all ISM patients who progressed had increased IL6 plasma levels already at diagnosis. Our results indicate that SM patients display an altered plasma cytokine profile already at diagnosis, increased IL6 plasma levels emerging as an early marker for disease progression among ISM cases, in particular among high-risk ISM patients who carry multilineage KIT mutation. PMID:26153655

  10. NOTCH1 mutations identify a genetic subgroup of chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients with high risk of transformation and poor outcome.

    PubMed

    Villamor, N; Conde, L; Martínez-Trillos, A; Cazorla, M; Navarro, A; Beà, S; López, C; Colomer, D; Pinyol, M; Aymerich, M; Rozman, M; Abrisqueta, P; Baumann, T; Delgado, J; Giné, E; González-Díaz, M; Hernández, J M; Colado, E; Payer, A R; Rayon, C; Navarro, B; José Terol, M; Bosch, F; Quesada, V; Puente, X S; López-Otín, C; Jares, P; Pereira, A; Campo, E; López-Guillermo, A

    2013-04-01

    NOTCH1 has been found recurrently mutated in a subset of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). To analyze biological features and clinical impact of NOTCH1 mutations in CLL, we sequenced this gene in 565 patients. NOTCH1 mutations, found in 63 patients (11%), were associated with unmutated IGHV, high expression of CD38 and ZAP-70, trisomy 12, advanced stage and elevated lactate dehydrogenase. Sequential analysis in 200 patients demonstrated acquisition of mutation in one case (0.5%) and disappearance after treatment in two. Binet A and B patients with NOTCH1-mutated had a shorter time to treatment. NOTCH1-mutated patients were more frequently refractory to therapy and showed shorter progression-free and overall survival after complete remission. Overall survival was shorter in NOTCH1-mutated patients, although not independently from IGHV. NOTCH1 mutation increased the risk of transformation to diffuse large B-cell lymphoma independently from IGHV, with this being validated in resampling tests of replicability. In summary, NOTCH1 mutational status, that was rarely acquired during the course of the disease, identify a genetic subgroup with high risk of transformation and poor outcome. This recently identified genetic subgroup of CLL patients deserves prospective studies to define their best management. PMID:23295735

  11. Innovations at Miami practice show promise for treating high-risk Medicare patients.

    PubMed

    Tanio, Craig; Chen, Christopher

    2013-06-01

    Patients with five or more chronic conditions drive most Medicare costs. Our organization, ChenMed, developed a scalable primary care-led delivery model that focuses on this population while getting reimbursed through full-risk capitation by Medicare Advantage plans. ChenMed is a primary care-led group practice based in Florida that serves low-to-moderate-income elderly patients, largely through the Medicare Advantage program. Our model includes a number of innovations: a one-stop-shop approach for delivering multispecialty services in the community, smaller physician panel sizes of 350-450 patients that allow for intensive health coaching and preventive care, on-site physician pharmacy dispensing, a collaborative physician culture with peer review, and customized information technology. These innovations have improved patient medication adherence, increased the time doctors and patients spend together, and led to high rates of patient satisfaction. Additionally, our Medicare patients have substantially lower rates of hospital use than their peers in the Miami Medicare market. Creating chronic disease centers focused on seniors with multiple chronic conditions is a promising delivery system innovation with major potential to improve the cost and quality of care. PMID:23733982

  12. Pre–radiation Therapy Fluorine 18 Fluorodeoxyglucose PeT helps identify Patients with esophageal cancer at high risk for radiation Pneumonitis1

    PubMed Central

    Castillo, Richard; Pham, Ngoc; Castillo, Edward; Aso-Gonzalez, Samantha; Ansari, Sobiya; Hobbs, Brian; Palacio, Diana; Skinner, Heath; Guerrero, Thomas M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To examine the association between pre–radiation therapy (RT) fluorine 18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake and post-RT symptomatic radiation pneumonitis (RP). Materials and Methods In accordance with the retrospective study protocol approved by the institutional review board, 228 esophageal cancer patients who underwent FDG PET/CT before chemotherapy and RT were examined. RP symptoms were evaluated by using the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 4.0, from the consensus of five clinicians. By using the cumulative distribution of standardized uptake values (SUVs) within the lungs, those values greater than 80%–95% of the total lung voxels were determined for each patient. The effect of pre-chemotherapy and RT FDG uptake, dose, and patient or treatment characteristics on RP toxicity was studied by using logistic regression. Results The study subjects were treated with three-dimensional conformal RT (n = 36), intensity-modulated RT (n = 135), or proton therapy (n = 57). Logistic regression analysis demonstrated elevated FDG uptake at pre-chemotherapy and RT was related to expression of RP symptoms. Study subjects with elevated 95% percentile of the SUV (SUV95) were more likely to develop symptomatic RP (P .000012); each 0.1 unit increase in SUV95 was associated with a 1.36-fold increase in the odds of symptomatic RP. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis resulted in area under the ROC curve of 0.676 (95% confidence interval: 0.58, 0.77), sensitivity of 60%, and specificity of 71% at the 1.17 SUV95 threshold. CT imaging and dosimetric parameters were found to be poor predictors of RP symptoms. Conclusion The SUV95, a biomarker of pretreatment pulmonary metabolic activity, was shown to be prognostic of symptomatic RP. Elevation in this pretreatment biomarker identifies patients at high risk for posttreatment symptomatic RP. PMID:25584706

  13. [APOPTOSIS AND NECROSIS OF CIRCULATING NEUTROPHILS IN PATIENTS WHILE HIGH RISK OF POSTOPERAIVE PERITONITIS OCCURRENCE].

    PubMed

    Sheyko, V D; Sytnik, D A; Shkurupiy, O O

    2015-11-01

    Processes of apoptosis and necrosis of peripheral neutrophils were investigated in 43 patients, operated on for an acute abdominal organs diseases on the first and fourth postoperative days. Changes of apoptosis and necrosis processes in peripheral neutrophils in dynamics were established. Unfavorable course of early postoperative period in patients with initial high and average risk of postoperative peritonitis occurrence was accompanied by shift in necrosis/apoptosis ratio towards necrosis of peripheral neutrophils. PMID:26939426

  14. Peripheral blood lymphocyte to monocyte ratio identifies high-risk adult patients with sporadic Burkitt lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liang; Wang, Hua; Xia, Zhong-Jun; Huang, Hui-Qiang; Jiang, Wen-Qi; Lin, Tong-Yu; Lu, Yue

    2015-10-01

    Adult sporadic Burkitt lymphoma (BL) is a rare subtype of lymphoma. In this retrospective study, we investigated the prognostic value of pretreatment lymphocyte to monocyte ratio (LMR) in a cohort of 62 patients. Using LMR <2.6 as the optimal cutoff point, 24 patients (38.7 %) had LMR <2.6. The complete response rates in high-LMR group and low-LMR group were 90.9 and 65.0 %, respectively (P = 0.019). At a median follow-up time of 41 months, the 3-year progression-free survival (PFS) rate and overall survival (OS) rates were 76 and 80 %, respectively. In a multivariate Cox regression model, it was found that the presence of bone marrow infiltration and low LMR were independently adverse prognostic factors for both PFS and OS. In the whole group, the addition of rituximab to treatment did not benefit patients significantly in PFS and OS. In subgroup analysis, in patients with high LMR, addition of rituximab can significantly improve survival outcomes (P = 0.046). In conclusion, we firstly found that low LMR (<2.60) was an independently adverse prognostic factor in adult patients with sporadic BL. Intensive chemotherapy could cure the majority of patients in our study, and the pretreatment LMR might predict the value of rituximab in this age population. PMID:26082333

  15. Seroepidemiologic study of giardiasis patients and high-risk groups in a midwestern city in the United States.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, R; Linneman, C C; Clark, C S; Walzer, P D

    1987-08-01

    Serum antibodies to Giardia lamblia were measured in giardiasis patients, in groups at high risk for intestinal parasite infection, and in controls by an indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA) technique. Symptomatic patients had the highest antibody titers, and antibodies remained present for up to 18 months in persons with chronic infection. Indochinese refugees and male homosexuals with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and pre-AIDS had higher mean antibody levels than did healthy controls, whereas sewer and highway maintenance workers had levels similar to those of controls. Serum antibodies to Entamoeba histolytica measured by an indirect hemagglutination antibody technique were detected in only a few Indochinese refugees. We conclude that serology is a promising tool in G. lamblia epidemiology and that further population studies would be of interest. PMID:2886069

  16. Hyperfractionated Low-Dose (21 Gy) Radiotherapy for Cranial Skeletal Metastases in Patients With High-Risk Neuroblastoma

    SciTech Connect

    Kushner, Brian H.; Cheung, Nai-Kong V.; Barker, Christopher A.; Kramer, Kim; Modak, Shakeel; Yataghene, Karima; Wolden, Suzanne L.

    2009-11-15

    Purpose: To present a large experience (73 patients) using a standard radiotherapy (RT) protocol to prevent relapse in cranial sites where measurable metastatic neuroblastoma (NB), an adverse prognostic marker, is common. Methods and Materials: High-risk NB patients with measurable cranial disease at diagnosis or residual cranial disease after induction therapy had those sites irradiated with hyperfractionated 21 Gy; a brain-sparing technique was used for an extensive field. The patients were grouped according to the response to systemic therapy. Thus, when irradiated, Group 1 patients were in complete remission and Group 2 patients had primary refractory disease. Follow-up was from the start of cranial RT. Results: At 3 years, the 39 Group 1 patients had a progression-free survival rate of 51%; control of cranial disease was 79%. Two relapses involved irradiated cranial sites. Two other patients relapsed in the irradiated cranial sites 6 and 12 months after a systemic relapse. At 3 years, the 34 Group 2 patients had a progression-free survival rate of 33%; control of cranial disease was 52%. Group 2 included 19 patients who had residual cranial (with or without extracranial) disease. The cranial sites showed major (n = 13), minor (n = 2), or no response (n = 4) to RT. Five patients had progression in the cranial RT field at 10-27 months. Group 2 also included 15 patients who had persistent NB in extracranial, but not cranial, sites. Of these 15 patients, 2 relapsed in the irradiated cranial sites and elsewhere at 8 and 14 months. Cranial RT was well tolerated, with no Grade 2 or greater toxicity. Conclusion: Hyperfractionated 21-Gy cranial RT might help control NB and is feasible without significant toxicity in children.

  17. A Prospective Phase III Randomized Trial of Hypofractionation Versus Conventional Fractionation in Patients With High-Risk Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Arcangeli, Giorgio; Saracino, Biancamaria; Gomellini, Sara; Petrongari, Maria Grazia; Arcangeli, Stefano

    2010-09-01

    Purpose: To compare the toxicity and efficacy of hypofractionated (62 Gy/20 fractions/5 weeks, 4 fractions per week) vs. conventional fractionation radiotherapy (80 Gy/40 fractions/8 weeks) in patients with high-risk prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: From January 2003 to December 2007, 168 patients were randomized to receive either hypofractionated or conventional fractionated schedules of three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy to the prostate and seminal vesicles. All patients received a 9-month course of total androgen deprivation (TAD), and radiotherapy started 2 months thereafter. Results: The median (range) follow-up was 32 (8-66) and 35 (7-64) months in the hypofractionation and conventional fractionation arms, respectively. No difference was found for late toxicity between the two treatment groups, with 3-year Grade 2 rates of 17% and 16% for gastrointestinal and 14% and 11% for genitourinary in the hypofractionation and conventional fractionation groups, respectively. The 3-year freedom from biochemical failure (FFBF) rates were 87% and 79% in the hypofractionation and conventional fractionation groups, respectively (p = 0.035). The 3-year FFBF rates in patients at a very high risk (i.e., pretreatment prostate-specific antigen (iPSA) >20 ng/mL, Gleason score {>=}8, or T {>=}2c), were 88% and 76% (p = 0.014) in the former and latter arm, respectively. The multivariate Cox analysis confirmed fractionation, iPSA, and Gleason score as significant prognostic factors. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that late toxicity is equivalent between the two treatment groups and that the hypofractionated schedule used in this trial is superior to the conventional fractionation in terms of FFBF.

  18. First experience with a new negative pressure incision management system on surgical incisions after cardiac surgery in high risk patients

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Sternal wound infection remains a serious potential complication after cardiac surgery. A recent development for preventing wound complications after surgery is the adjunctive treatment of closed incisions with negative pressure wound therapy. Suggested mechanisms of preventive action are improving the local blood flow, removing fluids and components in these fluids, helping keep the incision edges together, protecting the wound from external contamination and promoting incision healing. This work reports on our initial evaluation and clinical experience with the Prevena™Incision Management System, a recently introduced new negative pressure wound therapy system specifically developed for treating closed surgical incisions and helping prevent potential complications. We evaluated the new treatment on sternal surgical incisions in patients with multiple co-morbidities and consequently a high risk for wound complications. Methods The Prevena™incision management system was used in 10 patients with a mean Fowler risk score of 15.1 [Range 8-30]. The negative pressure dressing was applied immediately after surgery and left in place for 5 days with a continuous application of -125 mmHg negative pressure. Wounds and surrounding skin were inspected immediately after removal of the Prevena™ incision management system and at day 30 after surgery. Results Wounds and surrounding skin showed complete wound healing with the absence of skin lesions due to the negative pressure after removal of the Prevena™ dressing. No device-related complications were observed. No wound complications occurred in this high risk group of patients until at least 30 days after surgery. Conclusions The Prevena™system appears to be safe, easy to use and may help achieve uncomplicated wound healing in patients at risk of developing wound complications after cardiothoracic surgery. PMID:22145641

  19. Dipeptidyl Peptidase-4 Inhibitor Use Is Not Associated With Acute Pancreatitis in High-Risk Type 2 Diabetic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Chia-Hsuin; Lin, Jou-Wei; Chen, Shu-Ting; Lai, Mei-Shu; Chuang, Lee-Ming; Chang, Yi-Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Abstract To analyze the association between use of DPP-4 inhibitors and acute pancreatitis in high-risk type 2 diabetic patients. A retrospective nationwide cohort study was conducted using the Taiwan National Health Insurance claim database. The risk associated with sitagliptin was compared to that with acarbose, a second-line antidiabetic drug prescribed for patients with similar diabetes severity and with a known neutral effect on pancreatitis. Between January 1, 2009 and December 31, 2010, a total of 8526 sitagliptin initiators and 8055 acarbose initiators who had hypertriglyceridemia or prior hospitalization history for acute pancreatitis were analyzed for the risk of hospitalization due to acute pancreatitis stratified for baseline propensity score. In the crude analysis, sitagliptin was associated with a decreased risk of acute pancreatitis (hazard ratio [HR] 0.74; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.62–0.88) compared to acarbose in diabetic patients with prior history of hospitalization for pancreatitis or hypertriglyceridemia. The association was abolished after stratification for propensity score quintiles (adjusted HR 0.95; 95% CI: 0.79–1.16). Similar results were found separately in both patients’ histories of prior hospitalization of acute pancreatitis (adjusted HR 0.97; 95% CI: 0.76–1.24) and those with hypertriglyceridemia (adjusted HR 0.86; 95% CI: 0.65–1.13). No significant association was found for different durations or accumulative doses of sitagliptin. In the stratified analysis, no significant effect modification was found in relation to patients’ characteristics. Use of sitagliptin was not associated with an increased risk of acute pancreatitis in high-risk diabetic patients with hypertriglyceridemia or with history of acute pancreatitis. PMID:26886601

  20. Life-saving systemic thrombolysis in a patient with massive pulmonary embolism and a recent hemorrhagic cerebrovascular accident.

    PubMed

    Bottinor, Wendy; Turlington, Jeremy; Raza, Syed; Roberts, Charlotte S; Malhotra, Rajiv; Jovin, Ion S; Abbate, Antonio

    2014-04-01

    Massive pulmonary embolism is associated with mortality rates exceeding 50%. Current practice guidelines include the immediate administration of thrombolytic therapy in the absence of contraindications. However, thrombolysis for pulmonary embolism is said to be absolutely contraindicated in the presence of recent hemorrhagic stroke and other conditions. The current contraindications to thrombolytic therapy have been extrapolated from data on acute coronary syndrome and are not specific for venous thromboembolic disease. Some investigators have proposed that the current contraindications be viewed as relative, rather than absolute, in cases of high-risk pulmonary embolism. We present the case of a 60-year-old woman in whom massive pulmonary embolism led to cardiac arrest with pulseless electrical activity. Eight weeks earlier, she had sustained a hemorrhagic cerebrovascular accident-a classic absolute contraindication to thrombolytic therapy. Despite this practice guideline, we administered tissue plasminogen activator systemically in order to save the patient's life. This therapy did not evoke intracranial bleeding, and the patient was eventually discharged from the hospital. Until guidelines specific to venous thromboembolic disease are developed, we think that the current contraindications to thrombolysis should be considered on an individual basis in patients who are at high risk of death from massive pulmonary embolism. PMID:24808778

  1. Life-Saving Systemic Thrombolysis in a Patient with Massive Pulmonary Embolism and a Recent Hemorrhagic Cerebrovascular Accident

    PubMed Central

    Bottinor, Wendy; Turlington, Jeremy; Raza, Syed; Roberts, Charlotte S.; Malhotra, Rajiv; Jovin, Ion S.; Abbate, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Massive pulmonary embolism is associated with mortality rates exceeding 50%. Current practice guidelines include the immediate administration of thrombolytic therapy in the absence of contraindications. However, thrombolysis for pulmonary embolism is said to be absolutely contraindicated in the presence of recent hemorrhagic stroke and other conditions. The current contraindications to thrombolytic therapy have been extrapolated from data on acute coronary syndrome and are not specific for venous thromboembolic disease. Some investigators have proposed that the current contraindications be viewed as relative, rather than absolute, in cases of high-risk pulmonary embolism. We present the case of a 60-year-old woman in whom massive pulmonary embolism led to cardiac arrest with pulseless electrical activity. Eight weeks earlier, she had sustained a hemorrhagic cerebrovascular accident—a classic absolute contraindication to thrombolytic therapy. Despite this practice guideline, we administered tissue plasminogen activator systemically in order to save the patient's life. This therapy did not evoke intracranial bleeding, and the patient was eventually discharged from the hospital. Until guidelines specific to venous thromboembolic disease are developed, we think that the current contraindications to thrombolysis should be considered on an individual basis in patients who are at high risk of death from massive pulmonary embolism. PMID:24808778

  2. Patients with primary membranous nephropathy are at high risk of cardiovascular events.

    PubMed

    Lee, Taewoo; Derebail, Vimal K; Kshirsagar, Abhijit V; Chung, Yunro; Fine, Jason P; Mahoney, Shannon; Poulton, Caroline J; Lionaki, Sophia; Hogan, Susan L; Falk, Ronald J; Cattran, Daniel C; Hladunewich, Michelle; Reich, Heather N; Nachman, Patrick H

    2016-05-01

    Here we conducted a retrospective study to examine the risk of cardiovascular events (CVEs) relative to that of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in patients with primary membranous nephropathy, in a discovery cohort of 404 patients. The cumulative incidence of CVEs was estimated in the setting of the competing risk of ESRD with risk factors for CVEs assessed by multivariable survival analysis. The observed cumulative incidences of CVEs were 4.4%, 5.4%, 8.2%, and 8.8% at 1, 2, 3, and 5 years respectively in the primary membranous nephropathy cohort. In the first 2 years after diagnosis, the risk for CVEs was similar to that of ESRD in the entire cohort, but exceeded it among patients with preserved renal function. Accounting for traditional risk factors and renal function, the severity of nephrosis at the time of the event (hazard ratio 2.1, 95% confidence interval 1.1 to 4.3) was a significant independent risk factor of CVEs. The incidence and risk factors of CVEs were affirmed in an external validation cohort of 557 patients with primary membranous nephropathy. Thus early in the course of disease, patients with primary membranous nephropathy have an increased risk of CVEs commensurate to, or exceeding that of ESRD. Hence, reduction of CVEs should be considered as a therapeutic outcome measure and focus of intervention in primary membranous nephropathy. PMID:26924046

  3. Anticoagulation dilemma in a high-risk patient with On-X valves

    PubMed Central

    Karkar, Ami M.; Castresana, Manuel R.; Odo, Nadine; Agarwal, Shvetank

    2015-01-01

    Thromboembolism continues to be a major concern in patients with mechanical heart valves, especially in those with unsatisfactory anticoagulation levels. The new On-X valve (On-X Life Technologies, Austin, TX, USA) has been reported as having unique structural characteristics that offer lower thrombogenicity to the valve. We report a case where the patient received no or minimal systemic anticoagulation after placement of On-X mitral and aortic valves due to development of severe mucosal arterio-venous malformations yet did not show any evidence of thromboembolism. This case report reinforces the findings of recent studies that lower anticoagulation levels may be acceptable in patients with On-X valves and suggests this valve may be particularly useful in those in whom therapeutic levels of anticoagulation cannot be achieved due to increased risk of bleeding. PMID:25849704

  4. Telehealth for patients at high risk of cardiovascular disease: pragmatic randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    O’Cathain, Alicia; Thomas, Clare; Edwards, Louisa; Gaunt, Daisy; Dixon, Padraig; Hollinghurst, Sandra; Nicholl, Jon; Large, Shirley; Yardley, Lucy; Fahey, Tom; Foster, Alexis; Garner, Katy; Horspool, Kimberley; Man, Mei-See; Rogers, Anne; Pope, Catherine; Montgomery, Alan A

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess whether non-clinical staff can effectively manage people at high risk of cardiovascular disease using digital health technologies. Design Pragmatic, multicentre, randomised controlled trial. Setting 42 general practices in three areas of England. Participants Between 3 December 2012 and 23 July 2013 we recruited 641 adults aged 40 to 74 years with a 10 year cardiovascular disease risk of 20% or more, no previous cardiovascular event, at least one modifiable risk factor (systolic blood pressure ≥140 mm Hg, body mass index ≥30, current smoker), and access to a telephone, the internet, and email. Participants were individually allocated to intervention (n=325) or control (n=316) groups using automated randomisation stratified by site, minimised by practice and baseline risk score. Interventions Intervention was the Healthlines service (alongside usual care), comprising regular telephone calls from trained lay health advisors following scripts generated by interactive software. Advisors facilitated self management by supporting participants to use online resources to reduce risk factors, and sought to optimise drug use, improve treatment adherence, and encourage healthier lifestyles. The control group comprised usual care alone. Main outcome measures The primary outcome was the proportion of participants responding to treatment, defined as maintaining or reducing their cardiovascular risk after 12 months. Outcomes were collected six and 12 months after randomisation and analysed masked. Participants were not masked. Results 50% (148/295) of participants in the intervention group responded to treatment compared with 43% (124/291) in the control group (adjusted odds ratio 1.3, 95% confidence interval 1.0 to 1.9; number needed to treat=13); a difference possibly due to chance (P=0.08). The intervention was associated with reductions in blood pressure (difference in mean systolic −2.7 mm Hg (95% confidence interval −4.7 to −0.6 mm Hg

  5. [Pulmonary fungal infection in patients with AIDS].

    PubMed

    Denis, B; Lortholary, O

    2013-10-01

    Fungal infections are the most common opportunistic infections (OI) occurring during the course of HIV infection, though their incidence has decreased dramatically with the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (cART). Most cases occur in untreated patients, noncompliant patients or patients whose multiple antiretroviral regimens have failed and they are a good marker of the severity of cellular immunodepression. Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia is the second most frequent OI in France and cryptococcosis remains a major problem in the Southern Hemisphere. With the increase in travel, imported endemic fungal infection can occur and may mimic other infections, notably tuberculosis. Fungal infections often have a pulmonary presentation but an exhaustive search for dissemination should be made in patients infected with HIV, at least those at an advanced stage of immune deficiency. Introduction of cART in combination with anti-fungal treatment depends on the risk of AIDS progression and on the risk of cumulative toxicity and the immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) if introduced too early. Fungal infections in HIV infected patients remain a problem in the cART era. IRIS can complicate the management and requires an optimised treatment regime. PMID:24182654

  6. High Risk of Depressive Disorders in Patients With Gout: A Nationwide Population-Based Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Changchien, Te-Chang; Yen, Yung-Chieh; Lin, Cheng-Li; Lin, Ming-Chia; Liang, Ji-An; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2015-12-01

    Metabolic abnormalities are common in patients with depressive disorders. However, the relationship between gout and depression is unclear. We explored the causal relationship among gout, antigout medication, and the associated risk of incidental depressive disorders.In this nationwide cohort study, we sampled data from the National Health Insurance Research Database to recruit 34,050 patients with gout as the gout cohort and 68,100 controls (without gout) as the nongout cohort. Our primary endpoint was the diagnosis of depressive disorders during follow-up. The overall study population was followed up until depression diagnosis, withdrawal from the NHI program, or the end of the study. The differences in demographic and clinical characteristics between both cohorts were determined using the Chi-square test for categorical variables and the t-test for continuous variables. Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to examine the effect of gout on the risk of depression, represented using the hazard ratio with the 95% confidence interval.Patients with gout exhibited a higher risk of depressive disorders than controls did. The risk of depressive disorders increased with age and was higher in female patients and those with hypertension, stroke, and coronary artery disease. Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug and prednisolone use was associated with a reduced risk of depression. Patients with gout who had received antigout medication exhibited a reduced risk of depressive disorders compared with nongout patients.Our findings support that gout increases the risk of depressive disorders, and that antigout medication use reduces the risk. PMID:26717394

  7. Patients with Active Acromegaly are at High Risk of 25(OH)D Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Halupczok-Żyła, Jowita; Jawiarczyk-Przybyłowska, Aleksandra; Bolanowski, Marek

    2015-01-01

    Acromegaly is a chronic disease characterized by hypersecretion of growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1). Electrolyte disturbances such as hypercalcemia and hyperphosphatemia are reported in patients with this disorder. There is limited data on vitamin D status in subjects with acromegaly. The aim of the study was to determine calcium, inorganic phosphate, magnesium, alkaline phosphatase, and 25(OH)D levels with regard to the activity of the disease. We also studied correlations of 25(OH)D and IGF-1, GH, body mass, body mass index, and age. A study group consisted of 55 acromegalic patients, and was divided into three subgroups: active acromegaly (AA), well-controlled acromegaly (WCA), cured acromegaly (CA). We enrolled 29 healthy subjects to a control group (CG). Vitamin D deficiency was recorded in all AA patients, 13 WCA patients (92.86%), 10 CA patients (62.5%), and 13 controls (54.17%). The highest 25(OH)D levels were found in the CG group and the lowest in the AA group (p = 0.012). The dose of octreotide did not influence serum 25(OH)D levels. A significant positive correlation between IGF-1 and 25(OH)D levels was observed in the AA group (r = 0.58, p = 0.024). Inorganic phosphate levels were the highest in the AA group. In conclusion, active acromegalic patients have lower 25(OH)D levels in comparison with the CG and are at higher risk of vitamin D deficiency. PMID:26082755

  8. High Risk of Under-Grading and -Staging in Prostate Cancer Patients Eligible for Active Surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Heidegger, Isabel; Skradski, Viktor; Steiner, Eberhard; Klocker, Helmut; Pichler, Renate; Pircher, Andreas; Horninger, Wolfgang; Bektic, Jasmin

    2015-01-01

    Background Active surveillance (AS) is increasingly offered to patients with low risk prostate cancer. The present study was conducted to evaluate the risk of tumor under-grading and -staging for AS eligibility. Moreover, we analyzed possible biomarkers for predicting more unfavorable final tumor histology. Methods 197 patients who underwent radical prostatectomy (RPE) but would have met the EAU (European Association of Urology) criteria for AS (PSA<10 ng/ml, biopsy GS ≤6, ≤2 cancer-positive biopsy cores with ≤50% of tumor in any core and clinical stage ≤T2a) were included in the study. These AS inclusion parameters were correlated to the final histology of the RPE specimens. The impact of preoperative PSA level (low PSA ≤4 ng/ml vs. intermediate PSA of >4–10 ng/ml), PSA density (<15 vs. ≥ 15 ng/ml) and the number of positive biopsy cores (1 vs. 2 positive cores) on predicting upgrading and final adverse histology of the RPE specimens was analyzed in uni- and multivariate analyses. Moreover, clinical courses of undergraded patients were assessed. Results In our patient cohort 41.1% were found under-graded in the biopsy (final histology 40.1% GS7, 1% GS8). Preoperative PSA levels, PSA density or the number of positive cores were not predictive for worse final pathological findings including GS >6, extraprostatic extension and positive resection margin (R1) or correlated significantly with up-grading and/or extraprostatic extension in a multivariate model. Only R1 resections were predictable by combining intermediate PSA levels with two positive biopsy cores (p = 0.004). Sub-analyses showed that the number of biopsy cores (10 vs. 15 biopsy cores) had no influence on above mentioned results on predicting biopsy undergrading. Clinical courses of patients showed that 19.9% of patients had a biochemical relapse after RPE, among all of them were undergraded in the initial biopsy. Conclusion In summary, this study shows that a multitude of patients fulfilling

  9. Prospective screening increases the detection of potentially curable hepatocellular carcinoma: results in 8900 high-risk patients

    PubMed Central

    Izzo, Francesco; Piccirillo, Mauro; Albino, Vittorio; Palaia, Raffaele; Belli, Andrea; Granata, Vincenza; Setola, Sergio; Fusco, Roberta; Petrillo, Antonella; Orlando, Raffaele; Tosone, Grazia; Scordino, Fabrizio; Curley, Steven A

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Historically, only 10% of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are diagnosed with early-stage, potentially curable disease. In this study, chronic hepatitis virus-infected patients were prospectively screened to determine: (i) the proportion of patients diagnosed with potentially curable HCC, and (ii) survival following curative therapy. Methods The study included 8900 chronic hepatitis virus-infected patients enrolled in a prospective screening programme, of whom 1335 (15.0%) were infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV), 7120 (80.0%) with hepatitis C virus (HCV), and 445 (5.0%) with both HBV and HCV. Screening was conducted every 6 months and included serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) measurement and ultrasonography. Curative treatments included liver transplantation, resection, radiofrequency ablation and/or ethanol injection. Results Hepatocellular carcinoma was diagnosed in 765 (8.6%) patients. Of 1602 patients with cirrhosis, 758 (47.3%) developed HCC. Curative treatment was possible in 523 (68.4%) of the 765 HCC patients. Two- and 5-year rates of overall survival in the curative treatment group were 65% and 28%, respectively, compared with 10% and 0% in the advanced disease group (P < 0.001). Conclusions Prospective screening of patients at high risk for the development of HCC increases the proportion of patients diagnosed with potentially curable disease. This may result in an increase in the number of longterm survivors. Screening strategies should focus on patients with chronic HBV or HCV infection who have progressed to cirrhosis because more than 40% of these patients will develop HCC. PMID:23607636

  10. Pretransplantation Supportive and Palliative Care Consultation for High-Risk Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation Patients.

    PubMed

    Loggers, Elizabeth T; LeBlanc, Thomas W; El-Jawahri, Areej; Fihn, Judy; Bumpus, Molly; David, Jodie; Horak, Petr; Lee, Stephanie J

    2016-07-01

    Early palliative care (EPC) for patients with metastatic solid tumors is now standard of care, but the effect of EPC in hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) is less well understood. We studied the acceptability of pre-HCT EPC as measured by trial participation, changes in patient-reported outcomes, and follow-up with palliative care providers. English-speaking adults (age >17 years) with an HCT comorbidity index of ≥ 3, relapse risk > 25%, or planned HLA-mismatched allogeneic or myeloablative HCT received EPC before HCT admission with monthly or more frequent visits. Twenty-two (69%) of 32 subjects provided consent; 2 were later excluded (HCT cancelled, consent retracted) for a 63% participation rate. Comfort with EPC was high (82% very comfortable). Subjects reported stable or improved mood and sense of hope, without apparent negative effects with a median of 3 visits. Follow-up surveys were returned by 75% of participants at 60 days and by 65% at 90 days. Four (20%) were admitted to the intensive care unit before day 100 and 3 (15%) received life-support measures. Five (25%) died with median follow-up of 14 months. EPC is feasible, acceptable, and has the potential to improve the HCT experience, whether or not the patient survives. EPC for HCT patients should be tested in a randomized trial. PMID:26976242

  11. Identification of the high risk emergency surgical patient: Which risk prediction model should be used?

    PubMed Central

    Stonelake, Stephen; Thomson, Peter; Suggett, Nigel

    2015-01-01

    Introduction National guidance states that all patients having emergency surgery should have a mortality risk assessment calculated on admission so that the ‘high risk’ patient can receive the appropriate seniority and level of care. We aimed to assess if peri-operative risk scoring tools could accurately calculate mortality and morbidity risk. Methods Mortality risk scores for 86 consecutive emergency laparotomies, were calculated using pre-operative (ASA, Lee index) and post-operative (POSSUM, P-POSSUM and CR-POSSUM) risk calculation tools. Morbidity risk scores were calculated using the POSSUM predicted morbidity and compared against actual morbidity according to the Clavien–Dindo classification. Results The actual mortality was 10.5%. The average predicted risk scores for all laparotomies were: ASA 26.5%, Lee Index 2.5%, POSSUM 29.5%, P-POSSUM 18.5%, CR-POSSUM 10.5%. Complications occurred following 67 laparotomies (78%). The majority (51%) of complications were classified as Clavien–Dindo grade 2–3 (non-life-threatening). Patients having a POSSUM morbidity risk of greater than 50% developed significantly more life-threatening complications (CD 4–5) compared with those who predicted less than or equal to 50% morbidity risk (P = 0.01). Discussion Pre-operative risk stratification remains a challenge because the Lee Index under-predicts and ASA over-predicts mortality risk. Post-operative risk scoring using the CR-POSSUM is more accurate and we suggest can be used to identify patients who require intensive care post-operatively. Conclusions In the absence of accurate risk scoring tools that can be used on admission to hospital it is not possible to reliably audit the achievement of national standards of care for the ‘high-risk’ patient. PMID:26468369

  12. Managing hypertension in high-risk patients: lessons and promises from the STRATHE and ADVANCE trials.

    PubMed

    Waeber, Bernard

    2006-05-01

    Pharmacological treatment of hypertension represents a cost-effective way of preventing cardiovascular and renal complications. To benefit maximally from antihypertensive treatment, blood pressure should be brought to below 140/90 mmHg in every hypertensive patient, and even lower (< 130/80 mmHg) if diabetes or renal disease co-exists. Such targets cannot usually be reached using monotherapies. This is especially true in patients who present with a high cardiovascular risk. The co-administration of two agents acting by different mechanisms considerably increases the blood pressure control rate. Such combinations are not only efficacious, but are also well tolerated, and some fixed low-dose combinations even have a placebo-like tolerability. This is the case for the preparation containing the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor perindopril (2 mg) and the diuretic indapamide (0.625 mg), a fixed low-dose combination that has been shown in controlled trials to be more effective than monotherapies in reducing albuminuria, regressing cardiac hypertrophy and improving the stiffness of large arteries. Using this combination to initiate antihypertensive therapy has been shown in a double-blind trial (Strategies of Treatment in Hypertension: Evaluation; STRATHE) to normalize blood pressure (< 140/90 mmHg) in significantly more patients (62%) than a sequential monotherapy approach based on atenolol, losartan and amlodipine (49%) and a stepped-care strategy based on valsartan and hydrochlorothiazide (47%), with no difference between the three arm groups in terms of tolerability. An ongoing randomized trial (Action in Diabetes and Vascular Disease: Preterax and Diamicron Modified Release Controlled Evaluation; ADVANCE) is a study with a 2 x 2 factorial design assessing the effects of the fixed-dose perindopril-indapamide combination and of the intensive gliclazide modified release-based glucose control regimen in type 2 diabetic patients, with or without hypertension. A

  13. Markov model for selection of aortic valve replacement versus transcatheter aortic valve implantation (without replacement) in high-risk patients.

    PubMed

    Gada, Hemal; Kapadia, Samir R; Tuzcu, E Murat; Svensson, Lars G; Marwick, Thomas H

    2012-05-01

    Comparisons between transcatheter aortic valve implantation without replacement (TAVI) and tissue aortic valve replacement (AVR) in clinical trials might not reflect the outcomes in standard clinical practice. This could have important implications for the relative cost-effectiveness of these alternatives for management of severe aortic stenosis in high-risk patients for whom surgery is an option. The mean and variance of risks, transition probabilities, utilities, and cost of TAVI, AVR, and medical management derived from observational studies were entered into a Markov model that examined the progression of patients between relevant health states. The outcomes and cost were derived from 10,000 simulations. Sensitivity analyses were based on variations in the likelihood of mortality, stroke, and other commonly observed outcomes. Both TAVI and AVR were cost-effective compared to medical management. In the reference case (age 80 years, the perioperative TAVI and AVR mortality was 6.9% vs 9.8%, and annual mortality was 21% vs 24%), the utility of TAVI was greater than that of AVR (1.78 vs 1.72 quality-adjusted life years) and the lifetime cost of TAVI exceeded that of AVR ($59,503 vs $56,339). The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was $52,773/quality-adjusted life years. Threshold analyses showed that variation in the probabilities of perioperative and annual mortality after AVR and after TAVI and annual stroke after TAVI were important determinants of the favored strategy. Sensitivity analyses defined the thresholds at which TAVI or AVR was the preferred strategy with regard to health outcomes and cost. In conclusion, TAVI satisfies current metrics of cost-effectiveness relative to AVR and might provide net health benefits at acceptable cost for selected high-risk patients among whom AVR is the current procedure of choice. PMID:22335853

  14. Haptoglobin phenotype is not a predictor of recurrence free survival in high-risk primary breast cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Gast, Marie-Christine W; van Tinteren, Harm; Bontenbal, Marijke; van Hoesel, René QGCM; Nooij, Marianne A; Rodenhuis, Sjoerd; Span, Paul N; Tjan-Heijnen, Vivianne CG; de Vries, Elisabeth GE; Harris, Nathan; Twisk, Jos WR; Schellens, Jan HM; Beijnen, Jos H

    2008-01-01

    Background Better breast cancer prognostication may improve selection of patients for adjuvant therapy. We conducted a retrospective follow-up study in which we investigated sera of high-risk primary breast cancer patients, to search for proteins predictive of recurrence free survival. Methods Two sample sets of high-risk primary breast cancer patients participating in a randomised national trial investigating the effectiveness of high-dose chemotherapy were analysed. Sera in set I (n = 63) were analysed by surface enhanced laser desorption ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (SELDI-TOF MS) for biomarker finding. Initial results were validated by analysis of sample set II (n = 371), using one-dimensional gel-electrophoresis. Results In sample set I, the expression of a peak at mass-to-charge ratio 9198 (relative intensity ≤ 20 or > 20), identified as haptoglobin (Hp) alpha-1 chain, was strongly associated with recurrence free survival (global Log-rank test; p = 0.0014). Haptoglobin is present in three distinct phenotypes (Hp 1-1, Hp 2-1, and Hp 2-2), of which only individuals with phenotype Hp 1-1 or Hp 2-1 express the haptoglobin alpha-1 chain. As the expression of the haptoglobin alpha-1 chain, determined by SELDI-TOF MS, corresponds to the phenotype, initial results were validated by haptoglobin phenotyping of the independent sample set II by native one-dimensional gel-electrophoresis. With the Hp 1-1 phenotype as the reference category, the univariate hazard ratio for recurrence was 0.87 (95% CI: 0.56 – 1.34, p = 0.5221) and 1.03 (95% CI: 0.65 – 1.64, p = 0.8966) for the Hp 2-1 and Hp 2-2 phenotypes, respectively, in sample set II. Conclusion In contrast to our initial results, the haptoglobin phenotype was not identified as a predictor of recurrence free survival in high-risk primary breast cancer in our validation set. Our initial observation in the discovery set was probably the result of a type I error (i.e. false positive). This study

  15. BRCA1 and BRCA2 genetic test in high risk patients and families: counselling and management.

    PubMed

    Marchina, Eleonora; Fontana, Maria Grazia; Speziani, Michela; Salvi, Alessandro; Ricca, Giuseppe; Di Lorenzo, Diego; Gervasi, Maria; Caimi, Luigi; Barlati, Sergio

    2010-12-01

    Hereditary breast cancer accounts for 5-10% of all cases of breast cancer and 10-15% of ovarian cancer and is characterised by dominant inheritance, early onset, the severity of the disease and bilaterality. About 30% of cases with hereditary breast and ovarian cancer have mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes. Women with a mutation in the BRCA1 gene have a 80-90% lifetime risk of developing breast cancer, and 40-65% chance of developing ovarian cancer. Most studies carried out throughout the world indicate that the prevalence of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation is lower than originally suggested by early studies on large families with several affected members. Studies performed in Italy have reported different prevalence of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations, probably due to different selection criteria and to the variability of the techniques used. In this study, we performed a screening of BRCA1 and BRCA2 in families from northern Italy with familial recurrence of breast cancer or ovarian cancer in which the individual risk of patients of being carriers of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation was evaluated using BRCAPRO (CAGene) software. We enrolled 27 patients of 101 unrelated families selected when they fulfilled the inclusion criteria of the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO). Specific risk evaluation, genetic test administration if needed, and discussion of the results were offered during multi-disciplinary genetic, surgical and psychological counselling. Seven probands (35%) found BRCA1/2 sequence variation carriers; no BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations were detected in the remaining 13 probands. Two (15%) patients had BRCA1 mutations and 5 (25%) patients had BRCA2 mutations. In the latter case, BRCA2 delA 9158fs+29stop mutation in exon 22, never previously described and a new sequence variation (T703N) in exon 11 were identified. PMID:21042765

  16. Blood transfusion after total shoulder arthroplasty: Which patients are at high risk?

    PubMed Central

    Kandil, Abdurrahman; Griffin, Justin W.; Novicoff, Wendy M.; Brockmeier, Stephen F.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: There are multiple reported risk factors and a wide range of reported blood transfusion rates for total shoulder arthroplasty (TSA). There are no evidence-based guidelines for blood transfusions in TSA patients. Materials and Methods: We utilized the Nationwide Inpatient Sample to analyze 51,191 patients undergoing TSA between 1998 and 2011. The purpose was to describe the incidence and identify the preoperative factors that are independently associated with blood transfusion after TSA. In addition, we studied the association of blood transfusions with certain variables such as length of stay (LOS), total charges, and payer status. Results: The blood transfusion rate in our study was 6.1%. There was no difference in the rate of blood transfusions over the study period (P < 0.001). In our logistic regression model, significant associations were found with increased age (odds ratio [OR] =1.03), white race (OR = 1.05), higher Charlson-Deyo score (OR = 1.12), presence of ischemic heart disease (OR = 1.24), blood loss anemia (OR = 1.65), female gender (OR = 1.94), presence of coagulation disorders (OR = 2.25), and presence of deficiency anemia (OR = 3.5). Patients receiving a blood transfusion had higher total charges, a longer hospital LOS, and were more likely to be Medicare payers (P < 0.001). Conclusions: Our study found five clinically significant risk factors for blood transfusions for TSA: female gender, ischemic heart disease, deficiency anemia, coagulation disorder, and blood loss anemia. Patients with these risk factors should be considered higher risk for requiring a blood transfusion after TSA and counseled appropriately. Level of Evidence: Level II, retrospective cohort study, prognostic study. PMID:27186059

  17. [The satisfaction of personal needs in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis].

    PubMed

    Sukhova, E V

    2005-01-01

    The founder of humanistic psychology A. Maslow divided the needs of a personality into several levels--from the lowest to the highest ones. Higher-leveled needs rise when the lower-leveled needs are satisfied. A great deal of factors affect the origination and satisfaction of needs, but they are always interrelated with social values. The extent to which personality needs are satisfied in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis has not been studied. A special questionnaire has been drawn up to study the extent to which personality needs are met. Its suitability has been determined, by using a group of patients with bronchial asthma. The extent to which personality needs are satisfied in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis was studied in 178 patients with infiltrative pulmonary tuberculosis and 253 patients with fibrocavernous pulmonary tuberculosis. The results have shown that the extent to which personality needs are satisfied in patients with tuberculosis is lower than that in apparently healthy individuals of the same social status. In females with infiltrative pulmonary tuberculosis, the needs for safety are satisfied to a lesser extent. In those with fibrocavernous pulmonary tuberculosis, the extent to which the physiological, safety, and self-realization needs is decreased. In males with infiltrative pulmonary tuberculosis, the physiological, noetic, and self-realization needs are satisfied to a lesser extent. In those with fibrocavernous pulmonary tuberculosis, the extent to which the physiological, safety, group decision-making, noetic and self-realization needs is decreased. PMID:15801639

  18. Next-generation-sequencing of recurrent childhood high hyperdiploid acute lymphoblastic leukemia reveals mutations typically associated with high risk patients.

    PubMed

    Chen, Cai; Bartenhagen, Christoph; Gombert, Michael; Okpanyi, Vera; Binder, Vera; Röttgers, Silja; Bradtke, Jutta; Teigler-Schlegel, Andrea; Harbott, Jochen; Ginzel, Sebastian; Thiele, Ralf; Husemann, Peter; Krell, Pina F I; Borkhardt, Arndt; Dugas, Martin; Hu, Jianda; Fischer, Ute

    2015-09-01

    20% of children suffering from high hyperdiploid acute lymphoblastic leukemia develop recurrent disease. The molecular mechanisms are largely unknown. Here, we analyzed the genetic landscape of five patients at relapse, who developed recurrent disease without prior high-risk indication using whole-exome- and whole-genome-sequencing. Oncogenic mutations of RAS pathway genes (NRAS, KRAS, FLT3, n=4) and deactivating mutations of major epigenetic regulators (CREBBP, EP300, each n=2 and ARID4B, EZH2, MACROD2, MLL2, each n=1) were prominent in these cases and virtually absent in non-recurrent cases (n=6) or other pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia cases (n=18). In relapse nucleotide variations were detected in cell fate determining transcription factors (GLIS1, AKNA). Structural genomic alterations affected genes regulating B-cell development (IKZF1, PBX1, RUNX1). Eleven novel translocations involved the genes ART4, C12orf60, MACROD2, TBL1XR1, LRRN4, KIAA1467, and ELMO1/MIR1200. Typically, patients harbored only single structural variations, except for one patient who displayed massive rearrangements in the context of a germline tumor suppressor TP53 mutation and a Li-Fraumeni syndrome-like family history. Another patient harbored a germline mutation in the DNA repair factor ATM. In summary, the relapse patients of our cohort were characterized by somatic mutations affecting the RAS pathway, epigenetic and developmental programs and germline mutations in DNA repair pathways. PMID:26189108

  19. Identification of high-risk patients by human epididymis protein 4 levels during follow-up of ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    STEFFENSEN, KARINA DAHL; WALDSTRØM, MARIANNE; BRANDSLUND, IVAN; LUND, BENTE; SØRENSEN, SARAH MEJER; PETZOLD, MAX; JAKOBSEN, ANDERS

    2016-01-01

    The majority of ovarian cancer patients with advanced disease at diagnosis will relapse following primary treatment, with a dismal prognosis. Monitoring the levels of serum markers in patients under follow-up may be essential for the early detection of relapse, and for distinguishing high-risk patients from those with less aggressive disease. The aim of the present study was to investigate the possible predictive value of human epididymis protein 4 (HE4) and carbohydrate antigen 125 (CA125) in relation to recurrence of epithelial ovarian cancer by measuring the two markers during follow-up subsequent to surgery and adjuvant first-line carboplatin/paclitaxel chemotherapy. Serum HE4 and CA125 were analyzed in 88 epithelial ovarian cancer patients at the end of treatment and consecutively during follow-up. The patients were divided into a high-risk and a low-risk group based on having an increase in HE4 and CA125 levels above or below 50% during follow-up, relative to the baseline (end-of-treatment) level. Disease recurrence was detected in 55 patients during follow-up. Patients with an increase in HE4 of >50% at 3- and 6-month follow-up compared to the end-of-treatment sample had significantly poorer progression-free survival (PFS) [hazard ratio (HR), 2.82 (95% CI, 0.91–8.79; P=0.0052) and HR, 7.71 (95% CI, 3.03–19.58; P<0.0001), respectively]. The corresponding 3- and 6-month biomarker assessments for increased CA125 levels (>50%) showed HRs of 1.86 (95% CI, 0.90–3.80; P=0.0512) and 2.55 (95% CI, 1.39–4.68; P=0.0011), respectively. Multivariate analysis confirmed HE4 as a predictor of short PFS, with an HR of 8.23 (95% CI, 3.28–20.9; P<0.0001) at 6-month follow-up. The increase of CA125 was not a significant prognostic factor in multivariate analysis for PFS. In conclusion, HE4 appears to be a sensitive marker of recurrence and instrumental in risk assessment during the first 6 months of follow-up. PMID:27313725

  20. Evaluation of the Potential Role of Alirocumab in the Management of Hypercholesterolemia in Patients with High-Risk Cardiovascular Disease.

    PubMed

    Okere, Arinze Nkemdirim; Serra, Courtney

    2015-08-01

    A high level of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) has proved to have a positive correlation with mortality from cardiovascular disease, and it is the key modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Lowering levels of LDL-C with statins reduces both vascular morbidity and mortality; however, myalgias occur in 10% to 15% of patients, and many patients managed with statins achieve suboptimal levels of LDL-C. The injectable drug alirocumab-the first of a new class of drugs called proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) inhibitors-is a monoclonal antibody to the PCSK9 gene, which regulates LDL receptor expression and circulating levels of LDL-C. In this review, we evaluated the efficacy and safety of alirocumab and its potential role in the management of patients with high-risk cardiovascular disease. Data were gathered from articles indexed in the PubMed database (2006-April 2015). All English-language, prospective, randomized, double-blinded trials evaluating the efficacy of alirocumab, as a monotherapy or in combination with statins, for treatment of hypercholesterolemia were identified. Five clinical trials were evaluated, and the results from these studies revealed that the use of alirocumab, both as monotherapy or in combination with statins, significantly reduced LDL-C levels. Patients treated with alirocumab, with or without statins, were more likely to achieve LDL-C goals of less than 100 or 70 mg/dl compared with placebo. Despite its ability to lower LDL-C level, one study did not show any antiinflammatory activity (i.e., reduced C-reactive protein level) among patients who received alirocumab; however, more clinical trials will be needed to further assess this effect. Alirocumab also appears to cause regression of plaque. The most commonly reported adverse effect was mild injection-site reaction. With increased odds of statin discontinuation among patients taking high-intensity statins, alirocumab will contribute to

  1. Coaching patients during pulmonary function testing: A practical guide.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Heidi J; Cheung, Lawrence

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary function tests are an important tool to assist in the diagnosis and management of patients with respiratory disease. Ensuring that the tests are of acceptable quality is vital. Acceptable pulmonary function test quality requires, among others, optimal patient performance. Optimal patient performance, in turn, requires adequate coaching from registered respiratory therapists (RRTs) and other pulmonary function laboratory personnel. The present article provides techniques and tips to help RRTs coach patients during testing. The authors briefly review the components of pulmonary function testing, then describe factors that may hinder a patient's performance, list common mistakes that patients make during testing, and provide tips that RRTs can use to help patients optimize their performance. PMID:26283871

  2. Lineage distribution and E2 sequence variation of high-risk human papillomavirus types isolated from patients with cervical cancer in Sichuan province, China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Haijing; Wu, Enqi; Ma, Lin; Zhang, Guonan; Shi, Yu; Huang, Jianming; Zha, Xiao

    2015-11-01

    To explore the nucleotide sequence variability of the E2 gene in high-risk HPV types in cervical cancer patients from Sichuan province, China, the E2 genes of eight high-risk HPV types were amplified and sequenced. Several novel nucleotide substitutions and deletions were observed. The lineages to which the isolates belonged were determined by phylogenetic analysis, employing the sequence of the representative lineages/sublineages in the coherent classification and nomenclature system as references. This study updates the lineage distribution data on high-risk HPV types in Southwest China and helps broaden understanding of the polymorphism of the E2 gene. PMID:26303138

  3. Impact of Continuous Positive Airway Pressure on Cardiovascular Risk Factors in High-Risk Patients.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ying Y; Redline, Susan

    2015-11-01

    Cardiovascular disease remains the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in developed countries. Obstructive sleep apnea is a highly prevalent condition characterized by repetitive upper airway collapse during sleep. A large body of evidence suggests that obstructive sleep apnea is associated with the development of cardiovascular disease and increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is the current gold standard for the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea. CPAP devices maintain upper airway patency using a pneumatic splint, thereby ameliorating the repetitive deoxygenation and reoxygenation characteristic of sleep in obstructive sleep apnea patients. Accumulating evidence suggests that CPAP treatment may lead to a reduction in blood pressure. Limited evidence also suggests that CPAP therapy may modulate glucose metabolism, serum cholesterol levels, and inflammatory biomarkers. Thus, CPAP treatment may be associated with cardiovascular risk factor modification in patients with obstructive sleep apnea, who are often obese and at an increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease. This review updates the knowledge on the effects of CPAP on cardiovascular risk factors from recently published randomized trials. PMID:26370408

  4. Defensive Projection, Superimposed on Simplistic Object Relations, Erodes Patient-Provider Relationships in High-Risk Pregnancy: An Empirical Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Shahar, Golan; Porcerelli, John H.; Kamoo, Ray; Epperson, C. Neill; Czarkowski, Kathryn A.; Magriples, Urania; Mayes, Linda C.

    2014-01-01

    In an attempt to illustrate the relevance of psychoanalytic theory and research to behavior medicine, an empirical investigation was conducted of females treated at a high-risk pregnancy specialty clinic (N = 58). Drawing from psychoanalytic object relations theory, it was hypothesized and confirmed that use of projection as a defense mechanism during pregnancy, superimposed on simplistic object relations, predicted an erosion of patient-provider relationships during the pregnancy/postdelivery period. Findings are interpreted through the perspective of mentalization, pertaining to individuals' ability to understand the mental states of self and others, specifically under significant stress. Implications for psychoanalytically oriented assessment and treatment, and for the rift between psychoanalysis and research, are discussed. PMID:21156840

  5. Pulmonary hypertension in patients with hematological disorders following splenectomy.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Kanjaksha; Meera, V; Jijina, Farah

    2009-06-01

    Prevalence of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) was studied by echocardiography and Doppler in 43 splenectomized patients with various disorders 1-20 years after splenectomy. Pulmonary arterial hypertension was detected only in thalassemia major, intermedia, hereditary sphereocytosis and myelofibrosis groups comprising a total of 21 patients. Six patients out of 21 was found to have PAH with mean pulmonary arterial pressure of 46.28 ± 28.17 mm of Hg. Twenty-one controls having similar duration and type of disease also were assessed for PAH in this case control study 3/21 had pulmonary arterial hypertension in this control group. The difference in number of patients showing pulmonary hypertension between case and control was not statistically significant (Chi square test P=0.29) though the difference in pulmonary arterial pressure between case and control were significantly different (t test P<0.0029) with control group showing a mean pulmonary arterial pressure of 25 ± 19 mm Hg.Platelet count in the splenectomized group was significantly higher (P=0.0029) than the controls. Pulmonary thromboembolism was equally high in the PAH patients with and without splenectomy. Patients undergoing splenectomy due to trauma, immune thrombocytopenia, sideroblastic anemia, extrahepatic portal hypertension, autoimmune hemolytic anemia did not show PAH after splenectomy even years after the procedure PAH following splenectomy is common after certain disorders and control patients in these diseases have tendency to develop PAH even without splenectomy. Pulmonary thromboembolism may be an important pathophysiological mechanism leading to this condition. Patients having hemolytic anemia and myelofibrosis should have regular evaluation of pulmonary arterial pressure whether he/she has been splenectomized or not.This is particularly important as availability of phosphodiesterase inhibitors such as sildenafil allows one to manage these cases. PMID:23100974

  6. Pulmonary Hypertension in Hemodialysis Patients Following Repeated Endovascular Thrombectomy

    PubMed Central

    Hsieh, Mu-Yang; Lin, Lin; Chen, Tsung-Yan; Wang, Ren-Huei; Huang, Su-Chin; Liu, HsiuChiao; Lai, Chao-Lun; Pu, Shih-Yen; Tsai, Kuei-Chin; Wu, Chih-Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Background The prevalence of pulmonary hypertension is unusually high in Taiwanese patients with end-stage renal disease. Thrombosis of hemodialysis grafts is common and pulmonary embolism has been reported after endovascular thrombectomy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between pulmonary hypertension and endovascular thrombectomy of hemodialysis grafts. Methods One hundred and ten patients on hemodialysis via arteriovenous grafts were enrolled in our study. The mean pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) was measured by right heart catheterization. Clinical information was collected by review of medical records. Comorbid cardiopulmonary disease was evaluated by echocardiography and chest X-ray. The history of patient vascular access thrombosis was reviewed from database, hemodialysis records, and interviews with staff at hemodialysis centers. Results Fifty-two participants (47%) had pulmonary hypertension diagnosed by right heart catheterization. There was no difference in the number of thrombectomy procedures between patients with and without pulmonary hypertension. Based on multivariate analysis, the number of prior endovascular thrombectomy procedures did not correlate with mean PAP (F-value = 1.10, p = 0.30) nor was it associated with pulmonary hypertension (odds ratio = 0.92, p = 0.17). Conclusions Prior endovascular arteriovenous graft thrombectomies were not associated with pulmonary hypertension or increased mean PAP in end-stage renal disease patients on maintenance hemodialysis. PMID:27274170

  7. Comparison between loop-tip guidewire-assisted and conventional endoscopic cannulation in high risk patients

    PubMed Central

    Masci, Enzo; Mangiavillano, Benedetto; Luigiano, Carmelo; Bizzotto, Alessandra; Limido, Eugenio; Cantù, Paolo; Manes, Gianpiero; Viaggi, Paolo; Spinzi, Giancarlo; Radaelli, Franco; Mariani, Alberto; Virgilio, Clara; Alibrandi, Angela; Testoni, Pier Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Background: The guidewire biliary cannulation (GWC) technique may increase the cannulation rate and decrease the risk for post-endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) pancreatitis. The aim of our multicenter prospective randomized controlled trial was to determine if the use of an atraumatic loop-tip guidewire reduces the rate of post-ERCP pancreatitis (PEP) compared with the standard contrast-assisted cannulation (CC) technique. Methods: From June 2012 to December 2013, a total of 320 patients who had a naïve papilla and were referred for ERCP were randomly assigned to the GWC group (n = 160) or the CC group (n = 160). GWC or CC was randomly used. In cases of failed cannulation in both arms after crossover, biliary access was attempted with alternative techniques (e. g., dual-wire technique, pancreatic duct stenting, precut). Results: The biliary cannulation rates were 81 % in the GWC group and 73 % in the CC group (P = n. s.). Following crossover, cannulation was successful in 8 % and 11 % of patients in the GWC and CC groups, respectively. With use of an alternative technique, the cannulation rates were 98 % in the GWC group and 96 % in the CC group, respectively. The rates of PEP were 5 % in the GWC group and 12 % in the CC group (P = 0.027). The post-interventional complication rates did not differ between the two groups. Conclusion: GWC with the new wire guide is associated with a lower rate of PEP in comparison with the CC technique. Clinical trial reference number: NCT01771419 PMID:26528503

  8. Managing high-risk patients: the Mass General care management programme

    PubMed Central

    Kodner, Dennis L.

    2015-01-01

    The Massachusetts General Care Management Program (Mass General CMP or CMP) was designed as a federally supported demonstration to test the impact of intensive, practice-based care management on high-cost Medicare fee-for-service (FFS) beneficiaries—primarily older persons—with multiple hospitalisations and multiple chronic conditions. The Massachusetts General Care Management Program operated over a 6-year period in two phases (3 years each). It started during the first phase at Massachusetts General Hospital, a major academic medical centre in Boston, Massachusetts in collaboration with Massachusetts General Physicians Organisation. During the second phase, the programme expanded to two more affiliated sites in and around the Boston area, including a community hospital, as well as incorporated several modifications primarily focused on the management of transitions to post-acute care in skilled nursing facilities. At the close of the demonstration in July 2012, Mass General Massachusetts General Care Management Program became a component of a new Pioneer accountable care organisation (ACO). The Massachusetts General Care Management Program is focused on individuals meeting defined eligibility criteria who are offered care that is integrated by a case manager embedded in a primary care practice. The demonstration project showed substantial cost savings compared to fee-for-service patients served in the traditional Medicare system but no impact on hospital readmissions. The Massachusetts General Care Management Program does not rest upon a “whole systems” approach to integrated care. It is an excellent example of how an innovative care co-ordination programme can be implemented in an existing health-care organisation without making fundamental changes in its underlying structure or the way in which direct patient care services are paid for. The accountable care organisation version of the Massachusetts General Care Management Program includes the staffing

  9. Managing high-risk patients: the Mass General care management programme.

    PubMed

    Kodner, Dennis L

    2015-01-01

    The Massachusetts General Care Management Program (Mass General CMP or CMP) was designed as a federally supported demonstration to test the impact of intensive, practice-based care management on high-cost Medicare fee-for-service (FFS) beneficiaries-primarily older persons-with multiple hospitalisations and multiple chronic conditions. The Massachusetts General Care Management Program operated over a 6-year period in two phases (3 years each). It started during the first phase at Massachusetts General Hospital, a major academic medical centre in Boston, Massachusetts in collaboration with Massachusetts General Physicians Organisation. During the second phase, the programme expanded to two more affiliated sites in and around the Boston area, including a community hospital, as well as incorporated several modifications primarily focused on the management of transitions to post-acute care in skilled nursing facilities. At the close of the demonstration in July 2012, Mass General Massachusetts General Care Management Program became a component of a new Pioneer accountable care organisation (ACO). The Massachusetts General Care Management Program is focused on individuals meeting defined eligibility criteria who are offered care that is integrated by a case manager embedded in a primary care practice. The demonstration project showed substantial cost savings compared to fee-for-service patients served in the traditional Medicare system but no impact on hospital readmissions. The Massachusetts General Care Management Program does not rest upon a "whole systems" approach to integrated care. It is an excellent example of how an innovative care co-ordination programme can be implemented in an existing health-care organisation without making fundamental changes in its underlying structure or the way in which direct patient care services are paid for. The accountable care organisation version of the Massachusetts General Care Management Program includes the staffing structure

  10. Taking charge of high-risk and high-cost patients in the public healthcare system.

    PubMed

    Denis, Jean-Louis; Cambourieu, Caroline; Roy, Denis A

    2014-01-01

    Many healthcare systems are struggling with the issue of providing high-quality care to high-needs patients at lower costs. Our comments in this paper draw on insights that we have gained from the development and implementation of integrated models of care in Québec. This experience highlights the importance of developing a clear clinical approach to the delivery and coordination of care and to support providers in new roles. Our second insight is that system-level policy guidelines may help to focus the attention of organizations and providers on key priorities, but they need to take into account differing needs in various contexts. Third, a crucial factor for success over the longer term is the ability of local networks to reshape the allocation and use of resources to bring about change in day-to-day operations. We conclude by highlighting key characteristics of high-performing health systems and with the final observation that politicians and policymakers need to allow enough time to harness the full benefit of change initiatives. PMID:25880863

  11. Pulmonary endarterectomy: the potentially curative treatment for patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, David

    2015-06-01

    Pulmonary endarterectomy (PEA) is the treatment of choice to relieve pulmonary artery obstruction in patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH). It is a complex surgical procedure with a simple principle: removal of obstructive thromboembolic material from the pulmonary arteries in order to reduce pulmonary vascular resistance, relieve pulmonary hypertension (PH) and alleviate right ventricular dysfunction. In the majority of patients there is symptomatic and prognostic benefit. However, not all patients with CTEPH are suitable for treatment with PEA. Operability assessment is not always easy, being largely subjective and based on experience. It is therefore important that all patients are referred to an experienced CTEPH centre for careful evaluation of suitability for surgery. The most common reason for inoperability is distal vasculopathy accounting for a high proportion of the vascular resistance. Surgery requires cardiopulmonary bypass and periods of deep hypothermic circulatory arrest. Complications include reperfusion lung injury and persistent PH. However, with careful patient selection, surgical technique and post-operative management, PEA is a highly effective treatment with mortality rates <5% at experienced centres. Patients who are unsuitable for surgery may be candidates for medical therapy. PMID:26028638

  12. Successful implementation of a telemedicine-based counseling program for high-risk patients with breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Pruthi, Sandhya; Stange, Kevin J; Malagrino, Gerald D; Chawla, Kashmira S; LaRusso, Nicholas F; Kaur, Judith S

    2013-01-01

    An interactive audio and video telemedicine feasibility program was established to provide counseling on breast cancer risk-reducing strategies for underserved, high-risk Alaskan native women through a collaboration among the Alaska Native Medical Center, the Mayo Clinic Breast Clinic, Mayo's Center for Innovation, and the Alaska Federal Health Care Access Network. The telemedicine model included a navigator to facilitate patient encounters (referrals, electronic records, and scheduling) and a subscription billing contract. Between January 1 and December 31, 2011, 60 consultations were provided to the Alaska Native Medical Center. A survey of a sample of 15 women demonstrated overall patient satisfaction of 98% pertaining to the experience, technology, and medical consultation. The referring physician satisfaction, from 11 visit surveys and 8 referring physicians, revealed 99% satisfaction with the service. In this telemedicine pilot study, we demonstrated the feasibility of a telemedicine program to provide integrated specialty care that resulted in a positive effect on patient satisfaction. This program has a sustainable business model, thus creating a new modality for health care delivery. PMID:23274020

  13. Toxoplasma gondii Seropositivity and Co-Infection with TORCH Pathogens in High-Risk Patients from Qatar

    PubMed Central

    Abu-Madi, Marawan A.; Behnke, Jerzy M.; Dabritz, Haydee A.

    2010-01-01

    Testing of patients who are deemed to be at high risk for TORCH pathogens, e.g., pregnant women, their fetuses, neonates, and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients, is important so that specific treatment can be initiated. This study included 1,857 such patients between 2005 and 2008. Logistic regression was used to evaluate factors associated with Toxoplasma gondii seropositivity. Among 823 women of childbearing age, 35.1% and 5.2% tested positive for T. gondii IgG and IgM, respectively. Three infants ≤ 6 months of age (0.8% of 353) were congenitally infected. Factors associated with T. gondii IgG seropositivity included older age, East Mediterranean or African nationality, positive cytomegalovirus (CMV) and herpes simplex virus (HSV)-1 serostatus, and negative rubella IgG results. The decreasing prevalence of IgM antibodies between 2005 and 2008 suggested that exposure to T. gondii from food or environmental sources declined over this period in Qatar. Population-based studies of newborns would be helpful to accurately estimate incidence of congenital toxoplasmosis. PMID:20348511

  14. Less invasive surgery using external fixator for the treatment of subtrochanteric femur fracture in a high-risk geriatric patient.

    PubMed

    Atik, O Şahap; Can, Fatih I; Şenol, M Selçuk; Eren, Toygun K

    2016-08-01

    A 90-year-old female patient was admitted to our clinic complaining of pain in her left hip which occurred due to fall from a chair. Her medical history included memory loss and mental changes associated with Alzheimer's disease and depression. Patient's cooperation and orientation were weak. Range of motion of the left hip was restricted and painful. Radiographs of the left hip demonstrated subtrochanteric comminuted fracture of femur. Laboratory tests revealed anemia and liver insufficiency. Departments of internal medicine and anesthesiology reported high risk for surgery. Surgery was performed under spinal anesthesia on radiolucent table and in supine position. Using fluoroscopy, subtrochanteric comminuted fracture of femur was reduced. Proximally, two Schanz screws were placed through femoral neck and head in axial plane, and distally, three Schanz screws were placed through femoral shaft in coronal plane. Finally, fixation of the screws was achieved with an external fixator which was made of carbon fiber rods. Patient was allowed to sit in the bed and move around with a wheelchair as of the day of surgery. No infection or loosening of fixator occurred. PMID:27499322

  15. Six features of Medicare coordinated care demonstration programs that cut hospital admissions of high-risk patients.

    PubMed

    Brown, Randall S; Peikes, Deborah; Peterson, Greg; Schore, Jennifer; Razafindrakoto, Carol M

    2012-06-01

    As policy makers seek to slow the growth in Medicare spending, they have appropriately focused attention on beneficiaries with multiple chronic conditions. Many care coordination and disease management programs designed to improve beneficiaries' care and reduce their need for hospitalizations have been tested, but few have been successful. This study, however, found that four of eleven programs that were part of the Medicare Coordinated Care Demonstration reduced hospitalizations by 8-33 percent among enrollees who had a high risk of near-term hospitalization. The six approaches practiced by care coordinators in at least three of the four programs were as follows: supplementing telephone calls to patients with frequent in-person meetings; occasionally meeting in person with providers; acting as a communications hub for providers; delivering evidence-based education to patients; providing strong medication management; and providing timely and comprehensive transitional care after hospitalizations. When care management fees were included, the programs were essentially cost-neutral, but none of these programs generated net savings to Medicare. Our results suggest that incorporating these approaches into medical homes, accountable care organizations, and other policy initiatives could reduce hospitalizations and improve patients' lives. However, the approaches would save money only if care coordination fees were modest and organizations found cost-effective ways to deliver the interventions. PMID:22665827

  16. Adherence to Wearing Prescription Custom-Made Footwear in Patients With Diabetes at High Risk for Plantar Foot Ulceration

    PubMed Central

    Waaijman, Roelof; Keukenkamp, Renske; de Haart, Mirjam; Polomski, Wojtek P.; Nollet, Frans; Bus, Sicco A.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Prescription custom-made footwear can only be effective in preventing diabetic foot ulcers if worn by the patient. Particularly, the high prevalence of recurrent foot ulcers focuses the attention on adherence, for which objective data are nonexisting. We objectively assessed adherence in patients with high risk of ulcer recurrence and evaluated what determines adherence. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS In 107 patients with diabetes, neuropathy, a recently healed plantar foot ulcer, and custom-made footwear, footwear use was measured during 7 consecutive days using a shoe-worn, temperature-based monitor. Daily step count was measured simultaneously using an ankle-worn activity monitor. Patients logged time away from home. Adherence was calculated as the percentage of steps that prescription footwear was worn. Determinants of adherence were evaluated in multivariate linear regression analysis. RESULTS Mean ± SD adherence was 71 ± 25%. Adherence at home was 61 ± 32%, over 3,959 ± 2,594 steps, and away from home 87 ± 26%, over 2,604 ± 2,507 steps. In 35 patients with low adherence (<60%), adherence at home was 28 ± 24%. Lower BMI, more severe foot deformity, and more appealing footwear were significantly associated with higher adherence. CONCLUSIONS The results show that adherence to wearing custom-made footwear is insufficient, particularly at home where patients exhibit their largest walking activity. This low adherence is a major threat for reulceration. These objective findings provide directions for improvement in adherence, which could include prescribing specific off-loading footwear for indoors, and they set a reference for future comparative research on footwear adherence in diabetes. PMID:23321218

  17. Molecular markers to complement sentinel node status in predicting survival in patients with high-risk locally invasive melanoma.

    PubMed

    Rowe, Casey J; Tang, Fiona; Hughes, Maria Celia B; Rodero, Mathieu P; Malt, Maryrose; Lambie, Duncan; Barbour, Andrew; Hayward, Nicholas K; Smithers, B Mark; Green, Adele C; Khosrotehrani, Kiarash

    2016-08-01

    Sentinel lymph node status is a major prognostic marker in locally invasive cutaneous melanoma. However, this procedure is not always feasible, requires advanced logistics and carries rare but significant morbidity. Previous studies have linked markers of tumour biology to patient survival. In this study, we aimed to combine the predictive value of established biomarkers in addition to clinical parameters as indicators of survival in addition to or instead of sentinel node biopsy in a cohort of high-risk melanoma patients. Patients with locally invasive melanomas undergoing sentinel lymph node biopsy were ascertained and prospectively followed. Information on mortality was validated through the National Death Index. Immunohistochemistry was used to analyse proteins previously reported to be associated with melanoma survival, namely Ki67, p16 and CD163. Evaluation and multivariate analyses according to REMARK criteria were used to generate models to predict disease-free and melanoma-specific survival. A total of 189 patients with available archival material of their primary tumour were analysed. Our study sample was representative of the entire cohort (N = 559). Average Breslow thickness was 2.5 mm. Thirty-two (17%) patients in the study sample died from melanoma during the follow-up period. A prognostic score was developed and was strongly predictive of survival, independent of sentinel node status. The score allowed classification of risk of melanoma death in sentinel node-negative patients. Combining clinicopathological factors and established biomarkers allows prediction of outcome in locally invasive melanoma and might be implemented in addition to or in cases when sentinel node biopsy cannot be performed. PMID:26990817

  18. Transcatheter, valve-in-valve transapical aortic and mitral valve implantation, in a high risk patient with aortic and mitral prosthetic valve stenoses

    PubMed Central

    Ramakrishna, Harish; DeValeria, Patrick A.; Sweeney, John P.; Mookaram, Farouk

    2015-01-01

    Transcatheter valve implantation continues to grow worldwide and has been used principally for the nonsurgical management of native aortic valvular disease-as a potentially less invasive method of valve replacement in high-risk and inoperable patients with severe aortic valve stenosis. Given the burden of valvular heart disease in the general population and the increasing numbers of patients who have had previous valve operations, we are now seeing a growing number of high-risk patients presenting with prosthetic valve stenosis, who are not potential surgical candidates. For this high-risk subset transcatheter valve delivery may be the only option. Here, we present an inoperable patient with severe, prosthetic valve aortic and mitral stenosis who was successfully treated with a trans catheter based approach, with a valve-in-valve implantation procedure of both aortic and mitral valves. PMID:25849702

  19. Localised pulmonary resection for bronchiectasis in hypogammaglobulinaemic patients.

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, A. J.; Roifman, C.; Brendan, J.; Mullen, M.; Reid, B.; Weisbrod, G.; Downey, G. P.

    1994-01-01

    BACKGROUND--Bronchiectasis and pulmonary infections are common in patients with hypogammaglobulinaemia. Despite intravenous gammaglobulin treatment and appropriate antibiotics, a subgroup of patients remains with persistent localised pulmonary infection in segments where bronchiectasis had developed before appropriate treatment. As such localised pulmonary suppuration (segmental or lobar) may serve as a focus for progression of bronchiectasis, surgical resection of the involved segments may be considered. The outcome of pulmonary resection in four such patients is reported. RESULTS--Surgery was well tolerated except for one postoperative empyema. Information on follow up is available from 3.5 to 5 years. All patients experienced considerable reduction of symptoms including cough, sputum production, antibiotic use, and hospital admissions. CONCLUSIONS--Surgical resection of localised bronchiectatic segments should be considered in patients with hypogammaglobulinaemia with persistent localised suppuration and symptoms refractory to medical treatment. PMID:8016776

  20. Analysis of outcome following robotic assisted radical prostatectomy for patients with high risk prostate cancer as per D’Amico classification

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Narmada Prasad; Murugesan, Anandan; Kumar, Anand; Yadav, Rajiv

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Prognosis of prostate cancer depends on the risk stratification. D’Amico classification, the most commonly used risk stratification method is based on three factors, i.e., prostate specific antigen (PSA), Gleason grade and clinical stage. The impact of presence of multiple risk factors on prognosis after radical prostatectomy has not been studied in Indian patients. We analyzed the outcome of patients with high-risk disease undergoing robotic-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP), as per D’Amico classification. Materials and Methods: Our study is a review of the data of all patients with high-risk prostate cancer who underwent RARP between July 2010 and January 2015. Preoperative, perioperative and outcome data were analyzed for patients with high-risk disease as per D’Amico classification. Results: Of 227 patients who underwent RARP, 90 (39.6%) were in the high-risk group. PSA > 20 ng/ml was the most common risk factor, present in 50 (55.6%) patients. All three risk factors were present in 3 patients, and single risk factor was present in 65 patients. Nine (10%) patients had lymphnode involvement, 18 (20%) had positive margin, and 38 (41.1%) had extraprostatic extension (EPE). Among these adverse outcomes, only EPE showed significant association with multiplicity of risk factors. At 12 months, 27.8% had biochemical recurrence (BCR). 92% of patients were continent at 12 months. Conclusion: About 92% of patients with high-risk disease were continent at 12 months, whereas less than one-third of the patients had BCR. EPE was the only outcome associated with multiplicity of risk factors. Adjuvant treatment is not required in two-thirds of patients. PMID:27127353

  1. Role of random biopsies in surveillance of dysplasia in ulcerative colitis patients with high risk of colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bopanna, Sawan; Roy, Maitreyee; Das, Prasenjit; Dattagupta, S; Sreenivas, V; Mouli, V Pratap; Kedia, Saurabh; Dhingra, Rajan; Pradhan, Rajesh; Kumar, N Suraj; Yadav, Dawesh P; Makharia, Govind

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims Recent data suggest that the incidence of ulcerative colitis (UC) related colorectal cancer (CRC) in India is similar to that of West. The optimum method for surveillance is still a debate. Surveillance with random biopsies has been the standard of care, but is a tedious process. We therefore undertook this study to assess the yield of random biopsy in dysplasia surveillance. Methods Between March 2014 and July 2015, patients of UC attending the Inflammatory Bowel Disease clinic at the All India Institute of Medical Sciences with high risk factors for CRC like duration of disease >15 years and pancolitis, family history of CRC, primary sclerosing cholangitis underwent surveillance colonoscopy for dysplasia. Four quadrant random biopsies at 10 cm intervals were taken (33 biopsies). Two pathologists examined specimens for dysplasia, and the yield of dysplasia was calculated. Results Twenty-eight patients were included. Twenty-six of these had pancolitis with a duration of disease greater than 15 years, and two patients had associated primary sclerosing cholangis. No patient had a family history of CRC. The mean age at onset of disease was 28.89±8.73 years and the duration of disease was 19.00±8.78 years. Eighteen patients (64.28%) were males. A total of 924 biopsies were taken. None of the biopsies revealed any evidence of dysplasia, and 7/924 (0.7%) were indefinite for dysplasia. Conclusions Random biopsy for surveillance in longstanding extensive colitis has a low yield for dysplasia and does not suffice for screening. Newer techniques such as chromoendoscopy-guided biopsies need greater adoption. PMID:27433149

  2. Maternal autoantibody profiles at risk for autoimmune congenital heart block: a prospective study in high-risk patients

    PubMed Central

    Tonello, Marta; Ruffatti, Amelia; Favaro, Maria; Tison, Tiziana; del Ross, Teresa; Calligaro, Antonia; Hoxha, Ariela; Mattia, Elena; Punzi, Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    Objective This prospective study aimed to identify antibody profiles characterising mothers with fetuses developing congenital heart block (CHB) by comparing their antibody frequencies and levels with those in unaffected mothers. Methods Eighty-one consecutive pregnant patients positive to anti-Ro±anti-La antibodies, at high risk of developing fetal CHB were prospectively studied. The 16 patients with fetal CHB outcome were considered the study population and the 65 patients with normal pregnancy outcomes were considered the control cohort. Anti-Ro52, anti-Ro60, anti-p200 and anti-La antibodies were assayed using home-made ELISA assays. Results The prevalence of anti-p200 antibodies was significantly higher in the fetal CHB affected patients than in the controls (p=0.03). Combinations of anti-p200 with anti-Ro52 and anti-Ro60 antibodies were significantly more frequent in the women with fetuses developing CHB than in the controls (p=0.03 for all combinations). The women with fetal CHB had significantly higher mean anti-Ro52, anti-Ro60 and anti-p200 levels than the controls (p=0.003, p=0.0001 and p=0.04, respectively); mean anti-La/SSB level was not significantly different in the two cohorts (p=0.25). Conclusions Since anti-p200, anti-Ro52 and anti-Ro60 antibodies, especially at high level, seem to identify patients at increased risk of developing fetal CHB, their detection could recognise anti-Ro/La positive women at risk for having an infant with this rare, potentially dangerous disorder. PMID:27026811

  3. Pulmonary function after transverse or midline incision in patients with obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Becquemin, J P; Piquet, J; Becquemin, M H; Melliere, D; Harf, A

    1985-01-01

    Atelectasis and bronchopneumonia occur frequently in patients undergoing aorto-iliac reconstructive surgery. Transverse (T) incisions in upper abdominal surgery are thought to be followed by fewer pulmonary complications than midline incisions (M) but reports remain controversial. We studied the incidence of postoperative pulmonary complications and lung dysfunction after T and M incisions for aorto-iliac surgery in 13 patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and 13 control patients with normal lungs (C). For all subjects, we evaluated (1) postoperative clinical or radiological pulmonary events; (2) preoperatively and on postoperative days 2 (D2), 5 (D5), 9 (D9) and 12 (D12) - the forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), vital capacity (VC), alveolar-arterial oxygen difference (AaPO2), and (3) convenience for the surgeon. Operatively, aortic exposure was excellent with both incisions. Bronchopneumonia occurred only after M in five patients (1 C, 4 COPD). In contrast with the control patients in whom no difference was found between T and M incisions, the FEV1 of COPD patients was significantly less impaired with T than with M incisions (p less than 0.005 on D2 and p less than 0.05 on D5). VC decreased similarly with both incisions on D2 but on D5 the improvement was less with M (p less than 0.005). Changes in AaPO2 were more marked on D2 and D5 for the COPD patients with M incisions. We conclude that (1) in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, laparotomy with a transverse incision was associated with better postoperative lung function and fewer pulmonary complications; (2) in patients without pulmonary disease, midline and transverse incisions were equivalent. PMID:2933436

  4. Added value of hepatobiliary phase gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI for diagnosing hepatocellular carcinoma in high-risk patients

    PubMed Central

    Phongkitkarun, Sith; Limsamutpetch, Kuruwin; Tannaphai, Penampai; Jatchavala, Janjira

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To determine the added value of hepatobiliary phase (HBP) gadoxetic acid-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in evaluating hepatic nodules in high-risk patients. METHODS: The institutional review board approved this retrospective study and waived the requirement for informed consent. This study included 100 patients at high risk for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and 105 hepatic nodules that were larger than 1 cm. A blind review of two MR image sets was performed in a random order: set 1, unenhanced (T1- and T2-weighted) and dynamic images; and set 2, unenhanced, dynamic 20-min and HBP images. The diagnostic accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) were compared for the two image sets. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed on the MR characteristics utilized to diagnose HCC. RESULTS: A total of 105 hepatic nodules were identified in 100 patients. Fifty-nine nodules were confirmed to be HCC. The diameter of the 59 HCCs ranged from 1 to 12 cm (mean: 1.9 cm). The remaining 46 nodules were benign (28 were of hepatocyte origin, nine were hepatic cysts, seven were hemangiomas, one was chronic inflammation, and one was focal fat infiltration). The diagnostic accuracy significantly increased with the addition of HBP images, from 88.7% in set 1 to 95.5% in set 2 (P = 0.002). In set 1 vs set 2, the sensitivity and NPV increased from 79.7% to 93.2% and from 78.9% to 91.8%, respectively, whereas the specificity and PPV were not significantly different. The hypointensity on the HBP images was the most sensitive (93.2%), and typical arterial enhancement followed by washout was the most specific (97.8%). The multivariate analysis revealed that typical arterial enhancement followed by washout, hyperintensity on T2-weighted images, and hypointensity on HBP images were statistically significant MRI findings that could diagnose HCC (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: The addition of HBP gadoxetic acid

  5. Can Saliva Proteins Be Used to Predict the Onset of Acute Myocardial Infarction among High-Risk Patients?

    PubMed Central

    Rahim, Mohd Aizat Abdul; Rahim, Zubaidah Haji Abdul; Ahmad, Wan Azman Wan; Hashim, Onn Haji

    2015-01-01

    Human saliva plays a pivotal role in digesting food and maintaining oral hygiene. The presence of electrolytes, mucus, glycoproteins, enzymes, antibacterial compounds, and gingival crevicular fluid in saliva ensures the optimum condition of oral cavity and general health condition. Saliva collection has been proven non-invasive, convenient, and inexpensive compared to conventional venipuncture procedure. These distinctive advantages provide a promising potential of saliva as a diagnostic fluid. Through comprehensive analysis, an array of salivary proteins and peptides may be beneficial as biomarkers in oral and systemic diseases. In this review, we discuss the utility of human salivary proteomes and tabulate the recent salivary biomarkers found in subjects with acute myocardial infarction as well as respective methods employed. In a clinical setting, since acute myocardial infarction contributes to large cases of mortality worldwide, an early intervention using these biomarkers will provide an effective solution to reduce global heart attack incidence particularly among its high-risk group of type-2 diabetes mellitus patients. The utility of salivary biomarkers will make the prediction of this cardiac event possible due to its reliability hence improve the quality of life of the patients. Current challenges in saliva collection are also addressed to improve the quality of saliva samples and produce robust biomarkers for future use in clinical applications. PMID:25897294

  6. Clinical evaluation of Krimidanta Pratishedha (anti-caries) activity of Triphaladi Gandusha in high risk dental caries patients

    PubMed Central

    Atara, Achyuta G.; Manjusha, R.; Shukla, Vinay J.; Vaghela, Dharmendra B.; Rooparalia, Brijesh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Dental caries is the most common complaint encountered in clinical practice. Virtually every adult in the world has experience of dental caries. It affects almost 80% of the population. It is now being viewed in dual perspective- “caries as a disease” and “caries as a lesion”. Aims: To evaluate the efficacy of Triphaladi Gandusha for its anti-caries activity and improvement in Oral Hygiene Index in high risk patients of dental caries and to compare the efficacy of prevalent method of mouth rinsing and classical method of Gandusha. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in 40 patients, 20 in each Group-1 and 2. Group -1 was given prepared Triphaladi mouthwash (mouth rinse) while Group-2 was given Triphaladi Kwath for Gandusha (retention). Results: The effect of treatment was assessed by subjective and objective parameters (like salivary pH, buffering capacity and microbial count). Triphaladi Gandusha (retention) in Group - 2 provided better results in the improvement of Ruja (toothache), Dantaharsha (tooth sensitivity), Sarambha (inflammation), pH of saliva, microbial count in salivary sample. And Triphaladi Mouthwash in Group - 1 provided better results in Srava (discharge), bad breath, pH of saliva and buffering capacity of salivary sample. There was no improvement in Chidrata (cavity formation), Krishnata (discoloration) and Chaladanta (mobility) with Triphaladi Gandusha and mouthwash. Conclusion: Study concluded that although both groups were effective, but Gandusha group patients’ got better relief in subjective symptoms compared to mouthwash group. PMID:25364198

  7. Clinical impact of the NKp30/B7-H6 axis in high-risk neuroblastoma patients.

    PubMed

    Semeraro, Michaela; Rusakiewicz, Sylvie; Minard-Colin, Véronique; Delahaye, Nicolas F; Enot, David; Vély, Frédéric; Marabelle, Aurélien; Papoular, Benjamin; Piperoglou, Christelle; Ponzoni, Mirco; Perri, Patrizia; Tchirkov, Andrei; Matta, Jessica; Lapierre, Valérie; Shekarian, Tala; Valsesia-Wittmann, Sandrine; Commo, Frédéric; Prada, Nicole; Poirier-Colame, Vichnou; Bressac, Brigitte; Cotteret, Sophie; Brugieres, Laurence; Farace, Françoise; Chaput, Nathalie; Kroemer, Guido; Valteau-Couanet, Dominique; Zitvogel, Laurence

    2015-04-15

    The immunosurveillance mechanisms governing high-risk neuroblastoma (HR-NB), a major pediatric malignancy, have been elusive. We identify a potential role for natural killer (NK) cells, in particular the interaction between the NK receptor NKp30 and its ligand, B7-H6, in the metastatic progression and survival of HR-NB after myeloablative multimodal chemotherapy and stem cell transplantation. NB cells expressing the NKp30 ligand B7-H6 stimulated NK cells in an NKp30-dependent manner. Serum concentration of soluble B7-H6 correlated with the down-regulation of NKp30, bone marrow metastases, and chemoresistance, and soluble B7-H6 contained in the serum of HR-NB patients inhibited NK cell functions in vitro. The expression of distinct NKp30 isoforms affecting the polarization of NK cell functions correlated with 10-year event-free survival in three independent cohorts of HR-NB in remission from metastases after induction chemotherapy (n = 196, P < 0.001), adding prognostic value to known risk factors such as N-Myc amplification and age >18 months. We conclude that the interaction between NKp30 and B7-H6 may contribute to the fate of NB patients and that both the expression of NKp30 isoforms on circulating NK cells and the concentration of soluble B7-H6 in the serum may be clinically useful as biomarkers for risk stratification. PMID:25877893

  8. Pulmonary vascular effects of pulsed inhaled nitric oxide in COPD patients with pulmonary hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Hajian, Bita; De Backer, Jan; Vos, Wim; Van Holsbeke, Cedric; Ferreira, Francisca; Quinn, Deborah A; Hufkens, Annemie; Claes, Rita; De Backer, Wilfried

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is often associated with secondary pulmonary hypertension (PH), which worsens prognosis. PH can be lowered by oxygen, but also by inhaled nitric oxide (NO), which has the potential to improve the health status of these patients. NO is an important mediator in vascular reactions in the pulmonary circulation. Oral compounds can act through NO-mediated pathways, but delivering pulsed inhaled NO (iNO) directly to the airways and pulmonary vasculature could equally benefit patients. Therefore, a proof-of-concept study was performed to quantify pulmonary blood vessel caliber changes after iNO administration using computed tomography (CT)-based functional respiratory imaging (FRI). Methods Six patients with secondary PH due to COPD received “pulsed” iNO in combination with oxygen for 20 minutes via a nasal cannula. Patients underwent a high-resolution CT scan with contrast before and after iNO. Using FRI, changes in volumes of blood vessels and associated lobes were quantified. Oxygen saturation and blood pressure were monitored and patients were asked about their subjective feelings. Results Pulmonary blood vessel volume increased by 7.06%±5.37% after iNO. A strong correlation (Ω20=0.32, P=0.002) was obtained between ventilation and observed vasodilation, suggesting that using the pulsed system, iNO is directed toward the ventilated zones, which consequently experience more vasodilation. Patients did not develop oxygen desaturation, remained normotensive, and perceived an improvement in their dyspnea sensation. Conclusion Inhalation of pulsed NO with oxygen causes vasodilation in the pulmonary circulation of COPD patients, mainly in the well-ventilated areas. A high degree of heterogeneity was found in the level of vasodilation. Patients tend to feel better after the treatment. Chronic use trials are warranted. PMID:27462149

  9. Regression of Some High-risk Features of Age-related Macular Degeneration (AMD) in Patients Receiving Intensive Statin Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Vavvas, Demetrios G.; Daniels, Anthony B.; Kapsala, Zoi G.; Goldfarb, Jeremy W.; Ganotakis, Emmanuel; Loewenstein, John I.; Young, Lucy H.; Gragoudas, Evangelos S.; Eliott, Dean; Kim, Ivana K.; Tsilimbaris, Miltiadis K.; Miller, Joan W.

    2016-01-01

    Importance Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) remains the leading cause of blindness in developed countries, and affects more than 150 million worldwide. Despite effective anti-angiogenic therapies for the less prevalent neovascular form of AMD, treatments are lacking for the more prevalent dry form. Similarities in risk factors and pathogenesis between AMD and atherosclerosis have led investigators to study the effects of statins on AMD incidence and progression with mixed results. A limitation of these studies has been the heterogeneity of AMD disease and the lack of standardization in statin dosage. Objective We were interested in studying the effects of high-dose statins, similar to those showing regression of atherosclerotic plaques, in AMD. Design Pilot multicenter open-label prospective clinical study of 26 patients with diagnosis of AMD and the presence of many large, soft drusenoid deposits. Patients received 80 mg of atorvastatin daily and were monitored at baseline and every 3 months with complete ophthalmologic exam, best corrected visual acuity (VA), fundus photographs, optical coherence tomography (OCT), and blood work (AST, ALT, CPK, total cholesterol, TSH, creatinine, as well as a pregnancy test for premenopausal women). Results Twenty-three subjects completed a minimum follow-up of 12 months. High-dose atorvastatin resulted in regression of drusen deposits associated with vision gain (+ 3.3 letters, p = 0.06) in 10 patients. No subjects progressed to advanced neovascular AMD. Conclusions High-dose statins may result in resolution of drusenoid pigment epithelial detachments (PEDs) and improvement in VA, without atrophy or neovascularization in a high-risk subgroup of AMD patients. Confirmation from larger studies is warranted. PMID:27077128

  10. The Diastolic Pulmonary Gradient (DPG) does not Predict Survival in Patients with Pulmonary Hypertension due to Left Heart Disease (PH-LHD)

    PubMed Central

    Tampakakis, Emmanouil; Leary, Peter J; Selby, Van N; De Marco, Teresa A; Cappola, Thomas P; Felker, Michael G; Russell, Stuart D.; Kasper, Edward K.; Tedford, Ryan J

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate if diastolic pulmonary gradient (DPG) can predict survival in patients with pulmonary hypertension due to left heart disease (PH-LHD). Background Patients with combined post- and pre-capillary PH-LHD have worse prognosis than those with passive pulmonary hypertension. The transpulmonary gradient (TPG) and pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) have commonly been used to identify high-risk patients. However, these parameters have significant shortcomings and do not always correlate with pulmonary vasculature remodeling. Recently, it has been suggested that DPG may be better marker, yet its prognostic ability in patients with cardiomyopathy has not been fully assessed. Methods A retrospective cohort of 1236 patients evaluated for unexplained cardiomyopathy at Johns Hopkins Hospital was studied. All patients underwent right heart catheterization and were followed until death, cardiac transplantation or the end of the study period (mean time 4.4 years). The relationships between DPG, TPG or PVR and survival in subjects with PH-LHD (n=469) were evaluated with Cox Proportional Hazards Regression and Kaplan Meier analyses. Results DPG was not significantly associated with mortality (HR 1.02; p=0.10) in PH-LHD whereas elevated TPG and PVR predicted death (HR 1.02, p=0.046 and HR 1.11, p=0.002, respectively). Similarly, DPG did not differentiate survivors from non-survivors at any selected cutpoints including a DPG of 7mmHg. Conclusions In this retrospective study of patients with cardiomyopathy and PH-LHD, an elevated DPG was not associated with worse survival. PMID:25453535