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1

Pulsar wind nebulae in supernova remnants  

E-print Network

A spherically symmetric model is presented for the interaction of a pulsar wind with the associated supernova remnant. This results in a pulsar wind nebula whose evolution is coupled to the evolution of the surrounding supernova remnant. This evolution can be divided in three stages. The first stage is characterised by a supersonic expansion of the pulsar wind nebula into the freely expanding ejecta of the progenitor star. In the next stage the pulsar wind nebula is not steady; the pulsar wind nebula oscillates between contraction and expansion due to interaction with the reverse shock of the supernova remnant: reverberations which propagate forward and backward in the remnant. After the reverberations of the reverse shock have almost completely vanished and the supernova remnant has relaxed to a Sedov solution, the expansion of the pulsar wind nebula proceeds subsonically. In this paper we present results from hydrodynamical simulations of a pulsar wind nebula through all these stages in its evolution. The simulations were carried out with the Versatile Advection Code.

E. van der Swaluw; A. Achterberg; Y. A. Gallant; G. Tóth

2000-12-20

2

Pulsar reenergization of old supernova remnant shells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The morphology of several unusual composite remnants are suggested to be affected by previously unrecognized interactions between high-velocity pulsars and old SNR shells, and the case of CTB 80 is pointed out as a likely example of such interactions. The interactions generate a new class of 'composite remnants' and furnish a novel method for the derivation of kinematic distances and SNR ages; this technique is noted to be especially useful when the pulsar has a measured spindown age or proper motion. It is predicted that a number of pulsars may interact with 80-100 pc radius 'superbubbles' produced by the combined action of winds and supernovae in OB associations.

Shull, J. Michael; Fesen, Robert A.; Saken, Jon M.

1989-01-01

3

Rotating Neutron Stars, Pulsars and Supernova Remnants  

Microsoft Academic Search

I SHALL discuss here some problems connected with theories linking the pulsars to the rotation of neutron stars (ref. 1 and a preprint by L. Woltjer). Because neutron stars can be formed during a supernova explosion, their rotation could be coupled with the surrounding gaseous remnant2,3: the following considerations will therefore also refer to the problem of the activity observed

F. Pacini

1968-01-01

4

Confinement of the Crab pulsar's wind by its supernova remnant  

Microsoft Academic Search

A steady state, spherically symmetric, magnetohydrodynamic model of the Crab nebula is constructed. A highly relativistic positronic pulsar wind is terminated by a strong MHD shock that decelerates the flow and increases its pressure to match boundary conditions imposed by the recently discovered supernova remnant that surrounds the nebula. If the magnetic luminosity of the pulsar wind upstream of the

C. F. Kennel; F. V. Coroniti

1984-01-01

5

Pulsar Wind Nebulae in Evolved Supernova Remnants  

Microsoft Academic Search

For pulsars similar to the one in the Crab Nebula, most of the energy input\\u000ato the surrounding wind nebula occurs on a timescale of less than 1000 years;\\u000aduring this time, the nebula expands into freely expanding supernova ejecta. On\\u000aa timescale 10,000 years, the interaction of the supernova with the surrounding\\u000amedium drives a reverse shock front toward

John M. Blondin; Roger A. Chevalier; Dargan M. Frierson

2001-01-01

6

Pulsar Wind Nebulae, Space Velocities and Supernova Remnant  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The original proposal for this LTSA grant was for X-ray studies of pulsars, and especially pulsar wind nebulae and what they could tell us about pulsar properties, especially their space velocities. By any metric, this program has been very successful. No fewer than 14 papers on directly related topics (and several dozen more on related topics) have been published in refereed journals with the PI as lead or co-author, all observational results that have had significant impact on the field. These include the first X-ray detection of the "Duck" pulsar, a clear demonstration that estimated pulsar ages can be off by over an order of magnitude (via observations of the young supernova remnant G11.2-0.3) and the detection of the first pulsar wind nebula around a millisecond pulsar. These publications have also resulted in 4 press releases. Moreover, they also represent the thesis work of two PhD students at MIT (Froney Crawford and Mike Pivovaroff) and one postdoctoral fellow, Bryan Gaensler, now Assistant Professor at Harvard.

2005-01-01

7

Comparing supernova remnants around strongly magnetized and canonical pulsars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The origin of the strong magnetic fields measured in magnetars is one of the main uncertainties in the neutron star field. On the other hand, the recent discovery of a large number of such strongly magnetized neutron stars is calling for more investigation on their formation. The first proposed model for the formation of such strong magnetic fields in magnetars was through alpha-dynamo effects on the rapidly rotating core of a massive star. Other scenarios involve highly magnetic massive progenitors that conserve their strong magnetic moment into the core after the explosion, or a common envelope phase of a massive binary system. In this work, we do a complete re-analysis of the archival X-ray emission of the supernova remnants (SNRs) surrounding magnetars, and compare our results with all other bright X-ray emitting SNRs, which are associated with compact central objects (which are proposed to have magnetar-like B-fields buried in the crust by strong accretion soon after their formation), high-B pulsars and normal pulsars. We find that emission lines in SNRs hosting highly magnetic neutron stars do not differ significantly in elements or ionization state from those observed in other SNRs, neither averaging on the whole remnants, nor studying different parts of their total spatial extent. Furthermore, we find no significant evidence that the total X-ray luminosities of SNRs hosting magnetars, are on average larger than that of typical young X-ray SNRs. Although biased by a small number of objects, we found that for a similar age, there is the same percentage of magnetars showing a detectable SNR than for the normal pulsar population.

Martin, J.; Rea, N.; Torres, D. F.; Papitto, A.

2014-11-01

8

The Fast and the Furious: Energetic Phenomena in Isolated Neutron Stars, Pulsar Wind Nebulae and Supernova Remnants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Online Presentations of 'The Fast and the Furious: Energetic Phenomena in Isolated Neutron Stars, Pulsar Wind Nebulae and Supernova Remnants', a workshop organized by the XMM-Newton Science Operations Centre of the European Space Agency (ESA)

Ness, J.-U.

2013-07-01

9

BeppoSAX Observations of the Young Pulsar in the Kes 75 Supernova Remnant  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the results of BeppoSAX observations of the young X-ray pulsar PSR J1846-0258, recently discovered at the center of the composite supernova remnant Kes 75. The pulsar (plus nebula) spectrum can be fitted by an absorbed power law with photon index alphaph=2.16+\\/-0.15, NH=(4.7+\\/-0.8)×1022 cm-2, and unabsorbed flux ~3.9×10-11 ergs cm-2 s-1 (2-10 keV). By joining two observations taken at

S. Mereghetti; R. Bandiera; F. Bocchino; G. L. Israel

2002-01-01

10

Chandra Detection of a Pulsar Wind Nebula Associated With Supernova Remnant 3C 396  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We present a 100 ks observation of the Galactic supernova remnant 3C396 (G39.2-0.3) with the Chandra X-Ray Observatory that we compare to a 20cm map of the remnant from the Very Large Array. In the Chandra images, a nonthermal nebula containing an embedded pointlike source is apparent near the center of the remnant which we interpret as a synchrotron pulsar wind nebula surrounding a yet undetected pulsar. From the 2-10 keV spectrum for the nebula (N(sub H) = 5.3 plus or minus 0.9 x 10(exp 22) per square centimeter, GAMMA =1.5 plus or minus 0.3) we derive an unabsorbed x-ray flux of S(sub z)=1.62 x 10(exp -12) erg per square centimeter per second, and from this we estimate the spin-down power of the neutron star to be E(sup dot) = 7.2 x 10(exp 36) ergs per second. The central nebula is morphologically complex, showing bent, extended structure. The radio and X-ray shells of the remnant correlate poorly on large scales, particularly on the eastern half of the remnant, which appears very faint in X-ray images. At both radio and X-ray wavelengths the western half of the remnant is substantially brighter than the east.

Olbert, C. M.; Keohane, J. W.; Arnaud, K. A.; Dyer, K. K.; Reynolds, S. P.; Safi-Harb, S.

2003-01-01

11

Magnetic Rayleigh-Taylor instability for Pulsar Wind Nebulae in expanding Supernova Remnants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a numerical investigation of the development of Rayleigh-Taylor instability at the interface between an expanding Pulsar Wind Nebula and its surrounding Supernova Remnant. These systems have long been thought to be naturally subject to this kind of instability, given their expansion behavior and the density jump at the contact discontinuity. High resolution images of the Crab Nebula at optical frequencies show the presence of a complex network of line-emitting filaments protruding inside the synchrotron nebula. These structures are interpreted as the observational evidence that Rayleigh-Taylor instability is in fact at work. The development of this instability in the regime appropriate to describe Supernova Remnant-Pulsar Wind Nebula systems is non-trivial. The conditions at the interface are likely close to the stability threshold, and the inclusion of the nebular magnetic field, which might play an important role in stabilizing the system, is essential to the modeling. If Rayleigh-Taylor features can grow efficiently a mixing layer in the outer portion of the nebula might form where most of the supernova material is confined. When a magnetic field close to equipartition is included we find that the interface is stable, and that even a weaker magnetic field affects substantially the growth and shape of the fingers.

Bucciantini, N.; Amato, E.; Bandiera, R.; Blondin, J. M.; Del Zanna, L.

2004-08-01

12

The Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope discovers the pulsar in the young galactic supernova remnant CTA 1.  

PubMed

Energetic young pulsars and expanding blast waves [supernova remnants (SNRs)] are the most visible remains after massive stars, ending their lives, explode in core-collapse supernovae. The Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope has unveiled a radio quiet pulsar located near the center of the compact synchrotron nebula inside the supernova remnant CTA 1. The pulsar, discovered through its gamma-ray pulsations, has a period of 316.86 milliseconds and a period derivative of 3.614 x 10(-13) seconds per second. Its characteristic age of 10(4) years is comparable to that estimated for the SNR. We speculate that most unidentified Galactic gamma-ray sources associated with star-forming regions and SNRs are such young pulsars. PMID:18927355

Abdo, A A; Ackermann, M; Atwood, W B; Baldini, L; Ballet, J; Barbiellini, G; Baring, M G; Bastieri, D; Baughman, B M; Bechtol, K; Bellazzini, R; Berenji, B; Blandford, R D; Bloom, E D; Bogaert, G; Bonamente, E; Borgland, A W; Bregeon, J; Brez, A; Brigida, M; Bruel, P; Burnett, T H; Caliandro, G A; Cameron, R A; Caraveo, P A; Carlson, P; Casandjian, J M; Cecchi, C; Charles, E; Chekhtman, A; Cheung, C C; Chiang, J; Ciprini, S; Claus, R; Cohen-Tanugi, J; Cominsky, L R; Conrad, J; Cutini, S; Davis, D S; Dermer, C D; de Angelis, A; de Palma, F; Digel, S W; Dormody, M; do Couto E Silva, E; Drell, P S; Dubois, R; Dumora, D; Edmonds, Y; Farnier, C; Focke, W B; Fukazawa, Y; Funk, S; Fusco, P; Gargano, F; Gasparrini, D; Gehrels, N; Germani, S; Giebels, B; Giglietto, N; Giordano, F; Glanzman, T; Godfrey, G; Grenier, I A; Grondin, M-H; Grove, J E; Guillemot, L; Guiriec, S; Harding, A K; Hartman, R C; Hays, E; Hughes, R E; Jóhannesson, G; Johnson, A S; Johnson, R P; Johnson, T J; Johnson, W N; Kamae, T; Kanai, Y; Kanbach, G; Katagiri, H; Kawai, N; Kerr, M; Kishishita, T; Kiziltan, B; Knödlseder, J; Kocian, M L; Komin, N; Kuehn, F; Kuss, M; Latronico, L; Lemoine-Goumard, M; Longo, F; Lonjou, V; Loparco, F; Lott, B; Lovellette, M N; Lubrano, P; Makeev, A; Marelli, M; Mazziotta, M N; McEnery, J E; McGlynn, S; Meurer, C; Michelson, P F; Mineo, T; Mitthumsiri, W; Mizuno, T; Moiseev, A A; Monte, C; Monzani, M E; Morselli, A; Moskalenko, I V; Murgia, S; Nakamori, T; Nolan, P L; Nuss, E; Ohno, M; Ohsugi, T; Okumura, A; Omodei, N; Orlando, E; Ormes, J F; Ozaki, M; Paneque, D; Panetta, J H; Parent, D; Pelassa, V; Pepe, M; Pesce-Rollins, M; Piano, G; Pieri, L; Piron, F; Porter, T A; Rainò, S; Rando, R; Ray, P S; Razzano, M; Reimer, A; Reimer, O; Reposeur, T; Ritz, S; Rochester, L S; Rodriguez, A Y; Romani, R W; Roth, M; Ryde, F; Sadrozinski, H F-W; Sanchez, D; Sander, A; Parkinson, P M Saz; Schalk, T L; Sellerholm, A; Sgrò, C; Siskind, E J; Smith, D A; Smith, P D; Spandre, G; Spinelli, P; Starck, J-L; Strickman, M S; Suson, D J; Tajima, H; Takahashi, H; Takahashi, T; Tanaka, T; Thayer, J B; Thayer, J G; Thompson, D J; Thorsett, S E; Tibaldo, L; Torres, D F; Tosti, G; Tramacere, A; Usher, T L; Van Etten, A; Vilchez, N; Vitale, V; Wang, P; Watters, K; Winer, B L; Wood, K S; Yasuda, H; Ylinen, T; Ziegler, M

2008-11-21

13

AN EXTREME PULSAR TAIL PROTRUDING FROM THE FRYING PAN SUPERNOVA REMNANT  

SciTech Connect

The Frying Pan (G315.9-0.0) is a radio supernova remnant with a peculiar linear feature (G315.78-0.23) extending 10' radially outward from the rim of the shell. We present radio imaging and polarization observations obtained from the Molonglo Observatory Synthesis Telescope and the Australia Telescope Compact Array, confirming G315.78-0.23 as a bow-shock pulsar wind nebula (PWN) powered by the young pulsar J1437-5959. This is one of the longest pulsar tails observed in radio and it has a physical extent over 20 pc. We found a bow-shock standoff distance of 0.002 pc, smallest among similar systems, suggesting a large pulsar velocity over 1000 km s{sup -1} and a high Mach number {approx}200. The magnetic field geometry inferred from radio polarimetry shows a good alignment with the tail orientation, which could be a result of high flow speed. There are also hints that the postshock wind has a low magnetization and is dominated by electrons and positrons in energy. This study shows that PWNe can offer a powerful probe of their local environment, particularly for the case of a bow shock where the parent supernova shell is also detected.

Ng, C.-Y.; Bouchard, A. [Department of Physics, McGill University, Montreal, QC H3A 2T8 (Canada); Bucciantini, N. [NORDITA, Albanova Research Center, 106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Gaensler, B. M. [Sydney Institute for Astronomy, School of Physics, The University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Camilo, F. [Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Chatterjee, S., E-mail: ncy@physics.mcgill.ca [Astronomy Department, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States)

2012-02-10

14

Chandra View of DA 530: A Sub-Energetic Supernova Remnant with a Pulsar Wind Nebula?  

E-print Network

Based on a Chandra ACIS observation, we report the detection of an extended X-ray feature close to the center of the remnant DA 530 with 5.3 sigma above the background within a circle of 20'' radius. This feature, characterized by a power-law with the photon index gamma=1.6+-0.8 and spatially coinciding with a nonthermal radiosource, most likely represents a pulsar wind nebula. We have further examined the spectrum of the diffuse X-ray emission from the remnant interior with a background-subtracted count rate of ~0.06 counts s^-1 in 0.3-3.5 keV. The spectrum of the emission can be described by a thermal plasma with a temperature of ~0.3-0.6 keV and a Si over-abundance of >~7 solar. These spectral characteristics, together with the extremely low X-ray luminosity, suggest that the remnant arises from a supernova with an anomalously low mechanical energy (<10^50 ergs). The centrally-filled thermal X-ray emission of the remnant may indicate an early thermalization of the SN ejecta by the circum-stellar medium. Our results suggest that the remnant is likely the product of a core-collapsed SN with a progenitor mass of 8-12 Msun. Similar remnants are probably common in the Galaxy, but have rarely been studied.

Bing Jiang; Yang Chen; Q. Daniel Wang

2007-08-07

15

ASTRO-H White Paper - Older Supernova Remnants and Pulsar Wind Nebulae  

E-print Network

Most supernova remnants (SNRs) are old, in the sense that their structure has been profoundly modified by their interaction with the surrounding interstellar medium (ISM). Old SNRs are very heterogenous in terms of their appearance, reflecting differences in their evolutionary state, the environments in which SNe explode and in the explosion products. Some old SNRs are seen primarily as a result of a strong shock wave interacting with the ISM. Others, the so-called mixed-morphology SNRs, show central concentrations of emission, which may still show evidence of emission from the ejecta. Yet others, the pulsar wind nebulae (PWNe), are seen primarily as a result of emission powered by a pulsar; these SNRs often lack the detectable thermal emission from the primary shock. The underlying goal in all studies of old SNRs is to understand these differences, in terms of the SNe that created them, the nature of the ISM into which they are expanding, and the fundamental physical processes that govern their evolution. He...

Long, K S; Aharonian, F; Foster, A; Funk, S; Hiraga, J; Hughes, J; Ishida, M; Katsuda, S; Matsumoto, H; Mori, K; Nakajima, H; Nakamori, T; Ozaki, M; Safi-Harb, S; Sawada, M; Tamagawa, T; Tamura, K; Tanaka, T; Tsunemi, H; Uchida, H; Uchiyama, Y; Yamauchi, S

2014-01-01

16

A high-energy catalogue of Galactic supernova remnants and pulsar wind nebulae  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Motivated by the wealth of past, existing, and upcoming X-ray and gamma-ray missions, we have developed the first public database of high-energy observations of all known Galactic Supernova Remnants (SNRs): http://www.physics.umanitoba.ca/snr/SNRcat The catalogue links to, and complements, other existing related catalogues, including Dave Green's radio SNRs catalogue. We here highlight the features of the high-energy catalogue, including allowing users to filter or sort data for various purposes. The catalogue is currently targeted to Galactic SNR observations with X-ray and gamma-ray missions, and is timely with the upcoming launch of X-ray missions (including Astro-H in 2014). We are currently developing the existing database to include an up-to-date Pulsar Wind Nebulae (PWNe)-dedicated webpage, with the goal to provide a global view of PWNe and their associated neutron stars/pulsars. This extensive database will be useful to both theorists to apply their models or design numerical simulations, and to observers to plan future observations or design new instruments. We welcome input and feedback from the SNR/PWN/neutron stars community.

Safi-Harb, Samar; Ferrand, Gilles; Matheson, Heather

2013-03-01

17

Supernova Remnants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The FUSE Team Project on supernova remnants includes an absorption study of the young Type 1a SN remnant SN1006 and studies of selected filamentary emission regions in evolved galactic SNRs. Observations of the "Schweizer-Middleditch" star behind SN1006 will be used to search for a broad absorption from Fe III 1123, using FUSE's high dispersion to resolve contaminating stellar photospheric lines from the broad line. The presence of this line would indicate iron in the cool ejecta of the supernova. Observations of key, well-studied SNR emission filaments will be used to study different kinds of shock wave-ISM interactions, including nonradiative and radiative shocks, and thermally unstable regions. FUSE coverage of a range of ions and ionization stages at high spectral resolution will provide a unique capability to diagnose the thermal, chemical, and kinematic properties of these interactions. Observations of an X-ray bright region will be used to search for faint, high-ionization lines never observed previously in spectra of SNRs.

Blair, William P.

18

Progress on multi-waveband observations of supernova remnants  

E-print Network

The development of observational techniques has inriched our knowledge of supernova remnants. In this paper, we review the main progresses in the last decade, including new discoveries of supernova remnants and the associated (rare type of) pulsars, nucleosynthesis, the interaction between supernova remnants and molecular clouds, dust in the supernova remnants, shock physics, and cosmic ray accelerations.

Xuejuan Yang; Fangjun Lu; Wenwu Tian

2008-10-23

19

Deep Chandra Observation of the Pulsar Wind Nebula Powered by the Pulsar J1846-0258 in the Supernova Remnant Kes 75  

E-print Network

We present the results of detailed spatial and spectral analysis of the pulsar wind nebula (PWN) in supernova remnant Kes 75 (G29.7-0.3) using a deep exposure with Chandra X-ray observatory. The PWN shows a complex morphology with clear axisymmetric structure. We identified a one-sided jet and two bright clumps aligned with the overall nebular elongation, and an arc-like feature perpendicular to the jet direction. Further spatial modeling with a torus and jet model indicates a position angle $207\\arcdeg\\pm8 \\arcdeg$ for the PWN symmetry axis. We interpret the arc as an equatorial torus or wisp and the clumps could be shock interaction between the jets and the surrounding medium. The lack of any observable counter jet implies a flow velocity larger than 0.4c. Comparing to an archival observation 6 years earlier, some small-scale features in the PWN demonstrate strong variability: the flux of the inner jet doubles and the peak of the northern clump broadens and shifts 2" outward. In addition, the pulsar flux increases by 6 times, showing substantial spectral softening from $\\Gamma$=1.1 to 1.9 and an emerging thermal component which was not observed in the first epoch. The changes in the pulsar spectrum are likely related to the magnetar-like bursts of the pulsar that occurred 7 days before the Chandra observation, as recently reported from RXTE observations.

C. -Y. Ng; P. O. Slane; B. M. Gaensler; J. P. Hughes

2008-09-16

20

Timing Behavior of the Magnetically Active Rotation-Powered Pulsar in the Supernova Remnant Kesteven 75  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We report a large spin-up glitch in PSR J1846-0258 which coincided with the onset of magnetar-like behavior on 2006 May 31. We show that the pulsar experienced an unusually large glitch recovery, with a recovery fraction of Q = 5.9+/-0.3, resulting in a net decrease of the pulse frequency. Such a glitch recovery has never before been observed in a rotation-powered pulsar, however, similar but smaller glitch over-recovery has been recently reported in the magnetar AXP 4U 0142+61 and may have occurred in the SGR 1900+14. We discuss the implications of the unusual timing behavior in PSR J1846-0258 on its status as the first identified magnetically active rotation-powered pulsar.

Livingstone, Margaret A.; Gavriil, Fotis P.; Kaspi, Victoria M.

2009-01-01

21

Timing Behavior of the Magnetically Active Rotation-Powered Pulsar in the Supernova Remnant Kesteven 75  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report a large spin-up glitch in PSR J1846-0258 which coincided with the onset of magnetar-like behavior on 2006 May 31. We show that the pulsar experienced an unusually large glitch recovery, with a recovery fraction of Q = 8.7 ± 2.5, resulting in a net decrease of the pulse frequency. Such a glitch recovery has never before been observed in a rotation-powered pulsar (RPP); however, similar but smaller glitch over-recovery has been recently reported in the magnetar AXP 4U 0142+61 and may have occurred in SGR 1900+14. We also report a large increase in the timing noise of the source. We discuss the implications of the unusual timing behavior in PSR J1846-0258 on its status as the first identified magnetically active RPP.

Livingstone, Margaret A.; Kaspi, Victoria M.; Gavriil, Fotis. P.

2010-02-01

22

Progenitors of Recombining Supernova Remnants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Usual supernova remnants have either ionizing plasma or plasma in collisional ionization equilibrium, i.e., the ionization temperature is lower than or equal to the electron temperature. However, the existence of recombining supernova remnants, i.e., supernova remnants with ionization temperature higher than the electron temperature, has been recently confirmed. One suggested way to have recombining plasma in a supernova remnant is to have a dense circumstellar medium at the time of the supernova explosion. If the circumstellar medium is dense enough, collisional ionization equilibrium can be established in the early stage of the evolution of the supernova remnant and subsequent adiabatic cooling, which occurs after the shock wave gets out of the dense circumstellar medium, makes the electron temperature lower than the ionization temperature. We study the circumstellar medium around several supernova progenitors and show which supernova progenitors can have a circumstellar medium dense enough to establish collisional ionization equilibrium soon after the explosion. We find that the circumstellar medium around red supergiants (especially massive ones) and the circumstellar medium dense enough to make Type IIn supernovae can establish collisional ionization equilibrium soon after the explosion and can evolve to become recombining supernova remnants. Wolf-Rayet stars and white dwarfs have the possibility to be recombining supernova remnants but the fraction is expected to be very small. As the occurrence rate of the explosions of red supergiants is much higher than that of Type IIn supernovae, the major progenitors of recombining supernova remnants are likely to be red supergiants.

Moriya, Takashi J.

2012-05-01

23

PROGENITORS OF RECOMBINING SUPERNOVA REMNANTS  

SciTech Connect

Usual supernova remnants have either ionizing plasma or plasma in collisional ionization equilibrium, i.e., the ionization temperature is lower than or equal to the electron temperature. However, the existence of recombining supernova remnants, i.e., supernova remnants with ionization temperature higher than the electron temperature, has been recently confirmed. One suggested way to have recombining plasma in a supernova remnant is to have a dense circumstellar medium at the time of the supernova explosion. If the circumstellar medium is dense enough, collisional ionization equilibrium can be established in the early stage of the evolution of the supernova remnant and subsequent adiabatic cooling, which occurs after the shock wave gets out of the dense circumstellar medium, makes the electron temperature lower than the ionization temperature. We study the circumstellar medium around several supernova progenitors and show which supernova progenitors can have a circumstellar medium dense enough to establish collisional ionization equilibrium soon after the explosion. We find that the circumstellar medium around red supergiants (especially massive ones) and the circumstellar medium dense enough to make Type IIn supernovae can establish collisional ionization equilibrium soon after the explosion and can evolve to become recombining supernova remnants. Wolf-Rayet stars and white dwarfs have the possibility to be recombining supernova remnants but the fraction is expected to be very small. As the occurrence rate of the explosions of red supergiants is much higher than that of Type IIn supernovae, the major progenitors of recombining supernova remnants are likely to be red supergiants.

Moriya, Takashi J., E-mail: takashi.moriya@ipmu.jp [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, Todai Institutes for Advanced Study, University of Tokyo, Kashiwanoha 5-1-5, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8583 (Japan)

2012-05-01

24

DEEP X-RAY OBSERVATIONS OF THE YOUNG HIGH-MAGNETIC-FIELD RADIO PULSAR J1119-6127 AND SUPERNOVA REMNANT G292.2-0.5  

SciTech Connect

High-magnetic-field radio pulsars are important transition objects for understanding the connection between magnetars and conventional radio pulsars. We present a detailed study of the young radio pulsar J1119-6127, which has a characteristic age of 1900 yr and a spin-down-inferred magnetic field of 4.1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 13} G, and its associated supernova remnant G292.2-0.5, using deep XMM-Newton and Chandra X-ray Observatory exposures of over 120 ks from each telescope. The pulsar emission shows strong modulation below 2.5 keV with a single-peaked profile and a large pulsed fraction of 0.48 {+-} 0.12. Employing a magnetic, partially ionized hydrogen atmosphere model, we find that the observed pulse profile can be produced by a single hot spot of temperature 0.13 keV covering about one-third of the stellar surface, and we place an upper limit of 0.08 keV for an antipodal hot spot with the same area. The non-uniform surface temperature distribution could be the result of anisotropic heat conduction under a strong magnetic field, and a single-peaked profile seems common among high-B radio pulsars. For the associated remnant G292.2-0.5, its large diameter could be attributed to fast expansion in a low-density wind cavity, likely formed by a Wolf-Rayet progenitor, similar to two other high-B radio pulsars.

Ng, C.-Y.; Kaspi, V. M. [Department of Physics, McGill University, Montreal, QC H3A 2T8 (Canada); Ho, W. C. G. [School of Mathematics, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Weltevrede, P. [Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics, University of Manchester, Alan Turing Building, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Bogdanov, S. [Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, Columbia University, 550 West 120th Street, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Shannon, R. [CSIRO Astronomy and Space Sciences, Australia Telescope National Facility, Marsfield, NSW 2210 (Australia); Gonzalez, M. E., E-mail: ncy@physics.mcgill.ca [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z1 (Canada)

2012-12-10

25

What Shapes Supernova Remnants?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Evidence has mounted that Type Ia and core-collapse (CC) supernovae (SNe) can have substantial deviations from spherical symmetry; one such piece of evidence is the complex morphologies of supernova remnants (SNRs). However, the relative role of the explosion geometry and the environment in shaping SNRs remains an outstanding question. Recently, we have developed techniques to quantify the morphologies of SNRs, and we have applied these methods to the extensive X-ray and infrared archival images available of Milky Way and Magellanic Cloud SNRs. In this proceeding, we highlight some results from these studies, with particular emphasis on SNR asymmetries and whether they arise from ``nature'' or ``nurture''.

Lopez, Laura A.

2014-01-01

26

Spectral modeling of supernova remnants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on recent efforts to generate high quality, self-consistent atomic physics models for L-shell ion stages for iron and the use of these data in collisional-radiative modeling of X-ray spectra of supernova remnants. As a specific example, we present comparisons between observed and theoretical X-ray spectra produced by Tycho's supernova remnant.

Fontes, C. J.; Eriksen, K. A.; Colgan, J.; Zhang, H. L.; Hughes, J. P.

2014-03-01

27

Pulsars, supernovae, and ultrahigh energy cosmic rays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The acceleration of ultrahigh energy nuclei in fast spinning newborn pulsars can explain the observed spectrum of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays and the trend towards heavier nuclei for energies above 10^{19} eV as indicated by air shower studies reported by the Auger Observatory. By assuming a normal distribution of pulsar birth periods centered at 300 ms, we show that the contribution of extragalactic pulsar births to the ultrahigh energy cosmic ray spectrum naturally gives rise to a contribution to very high energy cosmic rays (VHECRs, between 10^{16} and 10^{18} eV) by Galactic pulsar births. The required injected composition to fit the observed spectrum depends on the absolute energy scale, differing considerably between the energy scale used by Auger and that used by the Telescope Array. Depending on the composition of the cosmic rays that escape the supernova remnant and the diffusion behavior of VHECRs in the Galaxy, the contribution of Galactic pulsar births can also bridge the gap between predictions for cosmic ray acceleration in supernova remnants and the observed spectrum below the ankle. Fast spinning newborn pulsars that could produce UHECRs would be born in supernovae that could present interesting specific radiative features, due to the interaction of the pulsar wind with the surrounding ejecta. The resulting supernova lightcurves could present a high luminosity plateau over a few years, and a bright X-ray and gamma-ray peak around one or two years after the onset of the explosion. If such signatures were observed, they could have important implications both for UHECR astrophysics and for the understanding of core-collapse supernovae.

Kotera, K.; Fang, K.; Olinto, A. V.; Phinney, E. S.

2012-12-01

28

Supernova Remnant SNR 0509 lithograph  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Hubble Space Telescope image shows what appears to be a delicate bubble of gas floating serenely in space. In actuality, the bubble is the visible remnant of a powerful supernova explosion called SNR 0509. The bubble was formed from gas being swept up by the expanding shock wave. In the accompanying educational activity, In Search of ... Supernova Remnants, students investigate supernova explosions and remnants through a level 1 inquiry activity using the images and text from the lithograph and other resources. A level 1 inquiry activity can help prepare students to become independent thinkers.

29

DISCOVERY OF A HIGHLY ENERGETIC PULSAR ASSOCIATED WITH IGR J14003-6326 IN THE YOUNG UNCATALOGED GALACTIC SUPERNOVA REMNANT G310.6-1.6  

SciTech Connect

We report the discovery of 31.18 ms pulsations from the INTEGRAL source IGR J14003-6326 using the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE). This pulsar is most likely associated with the bright Chandra X-ray point source lying at the center of G310.6-1.6, a previously unrecognized Galactic composite supernova remnant (SNR) with a bright central non-thermal radio and X-ray nebula, taken to be the pulsar wind nebula (PWN). PSR J1400-6325 is amongst the most energetic rotation-powered pulsars in the Galaxy, with a spin-down luminosity of E-dot = 5.1x10{sup 37} erg s{sup -1}. In the rotating dipole model, the surface dipole magnetic field strength is B{sub s} = 1.1 x 10{sup 12} G and the characteristic age {tau}{sub c{identical_to}}P/2 P-dot = 12.7 kyr. The high spin-down power is consistent with the hard spectral indices of the pulsar and the nebula of 1.22 {+-} 0.15 and 1.83 {+-} 0.08, respectively, and a 2-10 keV flux ratio F {sub PWN}/F {sub PSR} {approx} 8. Follow-up Parkes observations resulted in the detection of radio emission at 10 and 20 cm from PSR J1400-6325 at a dispersion measure of {approx}560 cm{sup -3} pc, which implies a relatively large distance of 10 {+-} 3 kpc. However, the resulting location off the Galactic plane of {approx}280 pc would be much larger than the typical thickness of the molecular disk, and we argue that G310.6-1.6 lies at a distance of {approx}7 kpc. There is no gamma-ray counterpart to the nebula or pulsar in the Fermi data published so far. A multi-wavelength study of this new composite SNR, from radio to very high-energy gamma rays, suggests a young ({approx}<10{sup 3} yr) system formed by a sub-energetic ({approx}<10{sup 50} erg), low ejecta mass (M {sub ej} {approx} 3 M {sub sun}) supernova explosion that occurred in a low-density environment (n {sub 0{approx}} 0.01 cm{sup -3}).

Renaud, M.; Marandon, V.; Terrier, R.; Mattana, F.; Lebrun, F. [AstroParticule et Cosmologie (APC), CNRS-UMR 7164, Universite Paris 7 Denis Diderot, F-75205 Paris (France); Gotthelf, E. V. [Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, Columbia University, 550 West 120th Street, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Rodriguez, J. [CEA Saclay, Laboratoire AIM, CNRS-UMR 7158, DSM/IRFU/Service d'Astrophysique, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Tomsick, J. A. [Space Sciences Laboratory, 7 Gauss Way, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-7450 (United States); Manchester, R. N., E-mail: mrenaud@lpta.in2p3.f [CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science, Australia Telescope National Facility, P.O. Box 76, Epping NSW 1710 (Australia)

2010-06-10

30

Neutron Stars in Supernova Remnants  

Microsoft Academic Search

I briefly summarize some facts and ideas concerning the presence of neutron\\u000astars in Supernova remnants. While sources similar to the Crab Nebula require\\u000athe presence of a central energetic object, shell-type remnants such as Cas A\\u000aare compatible with the presence of neutron stars releasing a weak relativistic\\u000awind.

Franco Pacini

1999-01-01

31

Discovery of a 105-ms X-ray Pulsar in Kesteven-79: On the Nature of Compact Central Objects in Supernova Remnants  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We report the discovery of 105-ms X-ray pulsations from the compact central object (CCO) in the supernova remnant \\snr\\ using data acquired with the {\\it Newton X-Ray Multi-Mirror Mission). Using two observations of the pulsar taken 6-days apart we derive an upper limit on its spin-down rate of $\\dot P < 9 \\times 10"{-14}$-s-${-l)$,a nd find no evidence for binary orbital motion. The implied energy loss rate is $\\dot E < 3 \\times 10A{36)$-ergs-s$A{-1)$, polar magnetic field strength is $B-{\\rm p) < 3 \\times 10A{12)$-G, and spin-down age is $\\tau > 18.5$-kyr. The latter exceeds the remnant's estimated age, suggesting that the pulsar was born spinning near its current period. The X-ray spectrum of \\psr\\ is best characterized as a blackbody of temperature $kT {BB) =, 0.43\\pm0.02$ keV, radius $R-{BB) \\approx 1.3$-km, and $I{\\rm bol) = 5.2 \\times 10A{33)$ ergs-sSA{-1)$ at $d = 7.1$-kpc. The sinusoidal light curve is modulated with a pulsed fraction of $>45\\%$, suggestive of a small hot spot on the surface of the rotating neutron star. The lack of a discernible pulsar wind nebula is consistent with an interpretation of \\psr\\ as a rotation-powered pulsar whose spin-down luminosity falls below the empirical threshold for generating bright wind nebulae, $\\dot E-{\\rm c) = 4 \\times 10A{36)$-ergs-sSA{-I)$. The age discrepancy suggests that its $\\dot E$ has always been below $\\dot E c$, perhaps a distinguishing property of the CCOs. Alternatively, the X-ray spectrum of \\psr\\ suggests a low-luminosity AXP, but the weak inferred $B-{\\rm p)$ field is incompatible with a magnetar theory of its X-ray luminosity. The ordinary spin parameters discovered from \\psr\\ highlight the inability of existing theories to explain the high luminosities and temperatures of CCO thermal X-ray spectra.

Gotthelf, E. V.; Halpern, J. P.; Seward, F. D.

2005-01-01

32

Chandra Associates Pulsar and Historic Supernova  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SAN DIEGO -- Scientists using NASA’s Chandra X-ray Observatory have found new evidence that a pulsar in the constellation of Sagittarius was created when a massive star exploded, witnessed by Chinese astronomers in the year 386 AD. If confirmed, this will be only the second pulsar to be clearly associated with a historic event. These results were presented today by Victoria Kaspi and Mallory Roberts of McGill University at the American Astronomical Society meeting. Also participating in the research were Gautum Vasisht from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Eric Gotthelf from Columbia University, Michael Pivovaroff from Therma-Wave, Inc., and Nobuyuki Kawai from the Institute of Physical and Chemical Research, Japan. The scientists used Chandra to locate the pulsar exactly at the geometric center of the supernova remnant known as G11.2-0.3. This location provides very strong evidence that the pulsar, a neutron star that is rotating 14 times a second, was formed in the supernova of 386 AD, and therefore has an age of 1615 years. "Determining the true ages of astronomical objects is notoriously difficult, and for this reason, historical records of supernovas are of great importance,"said Kaspi."In roughly the past 2,000 years, fewer than 10 reports of probable supernovae have been archived mostly by Asian astronomers. Of those handful, the remnant of 1054 AD, the Crab Nebula, was until now the only pulsar whose birth could be associated with a historic event - and, hence, the only neutron star that has a firm age." Between mid-April and mid-May in the year 386 AD, a young "guest star", presumably a supernova, was recorded by Chinese observers in the direction of the sky now known as the constellation of Sagittarius. In the 1970s, radio astronomers discovered an expanding nebula of gas and high-energy particles, called G11.2-0.3, that is believed to be the remnant of that explosion. In 1997, a team of X-ray astronomers used Japan’s ASCA satellite to discover a pulsar in the same area of the sky. Past attempts to identify the pulsar with G11.2-0.3, and hence the ancient Chinese observations, have been controversial. The location of the pulsar at the center of the remnant provides new evidence that it is associated with the remnant. Since pulsars are known to move rapidly away from where they are formed, a pulsar near the center of the remnant implies the system must be very young, since not enough time has elapsed for the pulsar to travel far from its birthplace. "We believe that the pulsar and the supernova remnant G11.2-0.3 are both likely to be left over from the explosion seen by the Chinese observers over 1600 years ago," said Roberts. "While this is exciting by itself, it also raises new questions about what we know about pulsars especially during their infancies." These questions follow from a discrepancy that arose when the ASCA team applied the present spin rate to current models to determine the pulsar’s estimated lifetime and compare it to the age of G11.2-0.3. The result was an age of roughly 24,000 years - far predating the birth year of 386 AD. To explain this contradiction, the Chandra team argues that this pulsar may have had approximately the same spin rate today as it did at its birth, as had been suggested by the ASCA data. If this is true, then it could have important implications for the conventional wisdom regarding pulsars, which, may be born spinning more slowly than has been thought. "We now have strong evidence that the standard age estimate for this pulsar is probably wrong, and it is much younger than previously believed," said Kaspi. "This, in turn, suggests that other standard pulsar age estimates may be wrong as well, and this has important implications for the population as a whole." In addition to these results, the Chandra observations of G11.2-0.3 have, for the first time, revealed the bizarre appearance of the pulsar wind nebula (also known as "plerions") at the center of the supernova remnant. Its rough cig

2001-01-01

33

On understanding the lives of dead stars : Supernova Remnant N103B, radio pulsar B1951+32, and the Rabbit  

E-print Network

Using the Chandra High Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer, we observed the young Supernova Remnant N103B in the Large Magellanic Cloud as part of the Guaranteed Time Observation program. N103B has a small overall ...

Migliazzo, Joshua Marc, 1977-

2003-01-01

34

X-RAY OBSERVATIONS OF THE SUPERNOVA REMNANT CTB 87 (G74.9+1.2): AN EVOLVED PULSAR WIND NEBULA  

SciTech Connect

Pulsar wind nebulae (PWNe) studies with the Chandra X-Ray Observatory have opened a new window to address the physics of pulsar winds, zoom on their interaction with their hosting supernova remnant (SNR) and interstellar medium, and identify their powering engines. We here present a new 70 ks, plus an archived 18 ks, Chandra ACIS observation of the SNR CTB 87 (G74.9+1.2), classified as a PWN with unusual radio properties and poorly studied in X-rays. We find that the peak of the X-ray emission is clearly offset from the peak of the radio emission by {approx}100'' and located at the southeastern edge of the radio nebula. We detect a point source-the putative pulsar-at the peak of the X-ray emission and study its spectrum separately from the PWN. This new point source, CXOU J201609.2+371110, is surrounded by a compact nebula displaying a torus-like structure and possibly a jet. A more extended diffuse nebula is offset from the radio nebula, extending from the point source to the northwest for {approx}250''. The spectra of the point source, compact nebula, and extended diffuse nebula are all well described by a power-law model with a photon index of 1.1 (0.7-1.6), 1.2 (0.9-1.4), and 1.7 (1.5-1.8), respectively, for a column density N{sub H} = 1.38 (1.21-1.57) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 22} cm{sup -2} (90% confidence). The total X-ray luminosity of the source is {approx}1.6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 34} erg s{sup -1} at an assumed distance of 6.1 kpc, with {approx}2% and 6% contribution from the point source and compact nebula, respectively. The observed properties suggest that CTB 87 is an evolved ({approx}5-28 kyr) PWN, with the extended radio emission likely a ''relic'' PWN, as in Vela-X and G327.1-1.1. To date, however, there is no evidence for thermal X-ray emission from this SNR, and the SNR shell is still missing, suggesting expansion into a low-density medium (n{sub 0} < 0.2 D{sup -1/2}{sub 6.1} cm{sup -3}), likely caused by a stellar wind bubble blown by the progenitor star.

Matheson, H.; Safi-Harb, S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, R3T 2N2 (Canada); Kothes, R., E-mail: matheson@physics.umanitoba.ca, E-mail: samar@physics.umanitoba.ca, E-mail: roland.kothes@nrc-cnrc.gc.ca [Dominion Radio Astrophysical Observatory, National Research Council Herzberg, P.O. Box 248, Penticton, British Columbia, V2A 6J9 (Canada)

2013-09-01

35

Identifying Elements in Supernova Remnants  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity has students use X-ray line data to identify elements contained in supernova remnants. In groups of 2 or more, they will be given several X-ray spectra from the ASCA X-ray satellite and will be asked to determine what elements are present, using a chart listing elements and the energies of their emission lines. Following a class discussion of their results, they will be given ASTRO-E spectra of the same sources and asked to determine which elements are present. Finally, they will be given spectra from Constellation-X and asked to determine what elements are present. Students will then compare and contrast Supernova Remnant Spectral Data from the three different X-ray observatories as a class. This site contains links to the simulated spectra, chart, student worksheet, and instructions.

36

Observing Supernovae and Supernova Remnants with JWST  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) will enable near- and mid-infrared studies of supernovae (SN) and supernova remnants (SNR) in the Milky Way and galaxies throughout the local universe and to high redshift. JWST's instrumentation provides imaging, coronography, and spectroscopy (R<3000) over the wavelength range 1-29 microns. The unprecedented sensitivity and angular resolution will enable spectroscopic study of new and recent supernovae, including molecule and dust formation, in galaxies at least out to 30 Mpc, and imaging to much greater distances. The Target of Opportunity response time can be as short as 48 hours, enabling quick follow-up observations of important SN events. JWST will be ideal for the study of Galactic and Magellanic Clouds supernova remnants, particularly young remnants with hot dust. Its high angular resolution (0.07" at 2 microns, 0.7" at 20 microns) will allow direct comparison between the IR, optical, and X-ray morphologies, identifying sites of dust emission in both the ejecta and the shocked ISM unresolved by previous IR telescopes. There is a rich spectrum of atomic lines (H, He I, [Si I], [Fe II], [Ni I-III], [Co II-III], [S III-IV], [Ar II-III], [Ne II, III, V], [O IV]) and molecules (CO, SiO, H2) of importance for SN and SNR studies. JWST is a large aperture (6.5m), cryogenic, infrared-optimized space observatory under construction by NASA, ESA, and CSA for launch in 2018. The JWST observatory will be placed in an Earth-Sun L2 orbit by an Ariane 5 launch vehicle provided by ESA. The observatory is designed for a 5-year prime science mission, with consumables for 10 years of science operations. The first call for proposals for JWST observations will be released in 2017.

Sonneborn, George; Temim, Tea; Williams, Brian J.; Blair, William P.

2015-01-01

37

Supernovae, young remnants, and nucleosynthesis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Chemical abundance data from extragalactic supernovae and from supernova remnants (SNR) less than 1000 yrs old are employed to show that nuclear burning beyond helium synthesis actually occurs. Supernova (SN) are classified into types I or II, having no hydrogen lines or featuring hydrogen lines, respectively. The SN I's have been observed as having a preponderance of Fe lines, and emitting from a source at around 12,000 K with a center continuum of approximately 10 AU. Decay chains which could account for detected luminosities and spectra are presented, noting a good fit of Fe II spectrum with observed SN spectra. SNR pass through younger and older stages, going from the outpouring of material to diffusion in the interstellar medium. Expanding flocculi from young SNR show oxygen abundances as well as lines from sulfur, calcium, and argon, with a corresponding necessity of an explosive source of 15 solar masses.

Kirshner, R. P.

1982-01-01

38

Particle acceleration in supernova remnants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Supernova remnants (SNR) are the most likely source of galactic cosmic rays (CRs) up to the 'knee' in the spectrum at a few PeV. The theory of diffusive shock acceleration nicely supplies a power law energy distribution with approximately the desired spectral index and with suitably high efficiency. For a SNR blast wave expanding into a typical interstellar magnetic field the predicted maximum CR energy falls short of 1 PeV, but a non-resonant plasma instability allows the CRs themselves to amplify the magnetic field by orders of magnitude to a level capable of accelerating CRs to the knee.

Bell, A. R.

2009-12-01

39

Einstein Observations of Galactic supernova remnants  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper summarizes the observations of Galactic supernova remnants with the imaging detectors of the Einstein Observatory. X-ray surface brightness contours of 47 remnants are shown together with gray-scale pictures. Count rates for these remnants have been derived and are listed for the HRI, IPC, and MPC detectors.

Seward, Frederick D.

1990-01-01

40

ANTIMATTER PRODUCTION IN SUPERNOVA REMNANTS  

SciTech Connect

We calculate the energy spectra of cosmic rays (CRs) and their secondaries produced in a supernova remnant (SNR) taking into account the time dependence of the SNR shock. We model the trajectories of charged particles as a random walk with a prescribed diffusion coefficient, accelerating the particles at each shock crossing. Secondary production by CRs colliding with gas is included as a Monte Carlo process. We find that SNRs produce less antimatter than suggested previously: the positron/electron ratio F{sub e}{sup +}/F{sub e}{sup +}{sub +e}{sup -} and the antiproton/proton ratio F{sub p-bar/}F{sub p-bar+p} are a few percent and few x 10{sup -5}, respectively. Moreover, the obtained positron/electron ratio decreases with energy, while the antiproton/proton ratio rises at most by a factor of two above 10 GeV.

Kachelriess, M.; Ostapchenko, S. [Institutt for fysikk, NTNU, Trondheim (Norway); Tomas, R. [II. Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Hamburg (Germany)

2011-06-01

41

Stellar masers, circumstellar envelopes, and supernova remnants  

E-print Network

This paper reviews recent advances in the study or circumstellar masers and masers found toward supernova remnants. The review is organized by science focus area, including the astrophysics of extended stellar atmospheres, stellar mass-loss processes and outflows, late-type evolved stellar evolution, stellar maser excitation and chemistry, and the use of stellar masers as independent distance estimators. Masers toward supernova remnants are covered separately. Recent advances and open future questions in this field are explored.

Athol J. Kemball

2007-05-15

42

Supernova remnants: the X-ray perspective  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Supernova remnants are beautiful astronomical objects that are also of high scientific interest, because they provide insights into supernova explosion mechanisms, and because they are the likely sources of Galactic cosmic rays. X-ray observations are an important means to study these objects. And in particular the advances made in X-ray imaging spectroscopy over the last two decades has greatly increased our knowledge about supernova remnants. It has made it possible to map the products of fresh nucleosynthesis, and resulted in the identification of regions near shock fronts that emit X-ray synchrotron radiation. Since X-ray synchrotron radiation requires 10-100 TeV electrons, which lose their energies rapidly, the study of X-ray synchrotron radiation has revealed those regions where active and rapid particle acceleration is taking place. In this text all the relevant aspects of X-ray emission from supernova remnants are reviewed and put into the context of supernova explosion properties and the physics and evolution of supernova remnants. The first half of this review has a more tutorial style and discusses the basics of supernova remnant physics and X-ray spectroscopy of the hot plasmas they contain. This includes hydrodynamics, shock heating, thermal conduction, radiation processes, non-equilibrium ionization, He-like ion triplet lines, and cosmic ray acceleration. The second half offers a review of the advances made in field of X-ray spectroscopy of supernova remnants during the last 15 year. This period coincides with the availability of X-ray imaging spectrometers. In addition, I discuss the results of high resolution X-ray spectroscopy with the Chandra and XMM-Newton gratings. Although these instruments are not ideal for studying extended sources, they nevertheless provided interesting results for a limited number of remnants. These results provide a glimpse of what may be achieved with future microcalorimeters that will be available on board future X-ray observatories. In discussing the results of the last 15 years I have chosen to discuss a few topics that are of particular interest. These include the properties of Type Ia supernova remnants, which appear to be regularly shaped and have stratified ejecta, in contrast to core collapse supernova remnants, which have patchy ejecta distributions. For core collapse supernova remnants I discuss the spatial distribution of fresh nucleosynthesis products, but also their properties in connection to the neutron stars they contain. For the mature supernova remnants I focus on the prototypal supernova remnants Vela and the Cygnus Loop. And I discuss the interesting class of mixed-morphology remnants. Many of these mature supernova remnants contain still plasma with enhanced ejecta abundances. Over the last five years it has also become clear that many mixed-morphology remnants contain plasma that is overionized. This is in contrast to most other supernova remnants, which contain underionized plasmas. This text ends with a review of X-ray synchrotron radiation from shock regions, which has made it clear that some form of magnetic-field amplification is operating near shocks, and is an indication of efficient cosmic-ray acceleration.

Vink, Jacco

2012-12-01

43

The VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey: The fastest rotating O-type star and shortest period LMC pulsar - remnants of a supernova disrupted binary?  

E-print Network

We present a spectroscopic analysis of an extremely rapidly rotating late O-type star, VFTS102, observed during a spectroscopic survey of 30 Doradus. VFTS102 has a projected rotational velocity larger than 500\\kms\\ and probably as large as 600\\kms; as such it would appear to be the most rapidly rotating massive star currently identified. Its radial velocity differs by 40\\kms\\ from the mean for 30 Doradus, suggesting that it is a runaway. VFTS102 lies 12 pcs from the X-ray pulsar PSR J0537-6910 in the tail of its X-ray diffuse emission. We suggest that these objects originated from a binary system with the rotational and radial velocities of VFTS102 resulting from mass transfer from the progenitor of PSR J0537-691 and the supernova explosion respectively.

Dufton, P L; Evans, C J; Brott, I; Cantiello, M; de Koter, A; de Mink, S E; Fraser, M; Hénault-Brunet, V; Howarth, I D; Langer, N; Lennon, D J; Markova, N; Sana, H; Taylor, W D

2011-01-01

44

The VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey: The Fastest Rotating O-type Star and Shortest Period LMC Pulsar—Remnants of a Supernova Disrupted Binary?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a spectroscopic analysis of an extremely rapidly rotating late O-type star, VFTS102, observed during a spectroscopic survey of 30 Doradus. VFTS102 has a projected rotational velocity larger than 500 km s-1 and probably as large as 600 km s-1 as such it would appear to be the most rapidly rotating massive star currently identified. Its radial velocity differs by 40 km s-1 from the mean for 30 Doradus, suggesting that it is a runaway. VFTS102 lies 12 pc from the X-ray pulsar PSR J0537-6910 in the tail of its X-ray diffuse emission. We suggest that these objects originated from a binary system with the rotational and radial velocities of VFTS102 resulting from mass transfer from the progenitor of PSR J0537-691 and the supernova explosion, respectively.

Dufton, P. L.; Dunstall, P. R.; Evans, C. J.; Brott, I.; Cantiello, M.; de Koter, A.; de Mink, S. E.; Fraser, M.; Hénault-Brunet, V.; Howarth, I. D.; Langer, N.; Lennon, D. J.; Markova, N.; Sana, H.; Taylor, W. D.

2011-12-01

45

THE VLT-FLAMES TARANTULA SURVEY: THE FASTEST ROTATING O-TYPE STAR AND SHORTEST PERIOD LMC PULSAR-REMNANTS OF A SUPERNOVA DISRUPTED BINARY?  

SciTech Connect

We present a spectroscopic analysis of an extremely rapidly rotating late O-type star, VFTS102, observed during a spectroscopic survey of 30 Doradus. VFTS102 has a projected rotational velocity larger than 500 km s{sup -1} and probably as large as 600 km s{sup -1}; as such it would appear to be the most rapidly rotating massive star currently identified. Its radial velocity differs by 40 km s{sup -1} from the mean for 30 Doradus, suggesting that it is a runaway. VFTS102 lies 12 pc from the X-ray pulsar PSR J0537-6910 in the tail of its X-ray diffuse emission. We suggest that these objects originated from a binary system with the rotational and radial velocities of VFTS102 resulting from mass transfer from the progenitor of PSR J0537-691 and the supernova explosion, respectively.

Dufton, P. L.; Dunstall, P. R.; Fraser, M. [Astrophysics Research Centre, School of Mathematics and Physics, Queen's University Belfast, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Evans, C. J. [UK Astronomy Technology Centre, Royal Observatory Edinburgh, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Brott, I. [University of Vienna, Department of Astronomy, Tuerkenschanzstr. 17, A-1180 Vienna (Austria); Cantiello, M.; Langer, N. [Argelander Institut fuer Astronomie der Universitaet Bonn, Auf dem Huegel 71, 53121 Bonn (Germany); De Koter, A.; Sana, H. [Astronomical Institute 'Anton Pannekoek', University of Amsterdam, Postbus 94249, 1090 GE Amsterdam (Netherlands); De Mink, S. E. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Henault-Brunet, V.; Taylor, W. D. [Scottish Universities Physics Alliance, Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory Edinburgh, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Howarth, I. D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Lennon, D. J. [ESA, Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Markova, N., E-mail: p.dufton@qub.ac.uk [Institute of Astronomy with NAO, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 136, 4700 Smoljan (Bulgaria)

2011-12-10

46

Supernova Remnant in 3-D  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for the movie

For the first time, a multiwavelength three-dimensional reconstruction of a supernova remnant has been created. This stunning visualization of Cassiopeia A, or Cas A, the result of an explosion approximately 330 years ago, uses data from several telescopes: X-ray data from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory, infrared data from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope and optical data from the National Optical Astronomy Observatory 4-meter telescope at Kitt Peak, Ariz., and the Michigan-Dartmouth-MIT 2.4-meter telescope, also at Kitt Peak. In this visualization, the green region is mostly iron observed in X-rays. The yellow region is a combination of argon and silicon seen in X-rays, optical, and infrared including jets of silicon plus outer debris seen in the optical. The red region is cold debris seen in the infrared. Finally, the blue reveals the outer blast wave, most prominently detected in X-rays.

Most of the material shown in this visualization is debris from the explosion that has been heated by a shock moving inwards. The red material interior to the yellow/orange ring has not yet encountered the inward moving shock and so has not yet been heated. These unshocked debris were known to exist because they absorb background radio light, but they were only recently discovered in infrared emission with Spitzer. The blue region is composed of gas surrounding the explosion that was heated when it was struck by the outgoing blast wave, as clearly seen in Chandra images.

To create this visualization, scientists took advantage of both a previously known phenomenon the Doppler effect and a new technology that bridges astronomy and medicine. When elements created inside a supernova, such as iron, silicon and argon, are heated they emit light at certain wavelengths. Material moving towards the observer will have shorter wavelengths and material moving away will have longer wavelengths. Since the amount of the wavelength shift is related to the speed of motion, one can determine how fast the debris are moving in either direction. Because Cas A is the result of an explosion, the stellar debris is expanding radially outwards from the explosion center. Using simple geometry, the scientists were able to construct a 3-D model using all of this information. A program called 3-D Slicer modified for astronomical use by the Astronomical Medicine Project at Harvard University in Cambridge, Mass. was used to display and manipulate the 3-D model. Commercial software was then used to create the 3-D fly-through.

The blue filaments defining the blast wave were not mapped using the Doppler effect because they emit a different kind of light synchrotron radiation that does not emit light at discrete wavelengths, but rather in a broad continuum. The blue filaments are only a representation of the actual filaments observed at the blast wave.

This visualization shows that there are two main components to this supernova remnant: a spherical component in the outer parts of the remnant and a flattened (disk-like) component in the inner region. The spherical component consists of the outer layer of the star that exploded, probably made of helium and carbon. These layers drove a spherical blast wave into the diffuse gas surrounding the star. The flattened component that astronomers were unable to map into 3-D prior to these Spitzer observations consists of the inner layers of the star. It is made from various heavier elements, not all shown in the visualization, such as oxygen, neon, silicon, sulphur, argon and iron.

High-velocity plumes, or jets, of this material are shooting out from the explosion in the plane of the disk-like component mentioned above. Plumes of silicon appear in the northeast and southwest, while those of iron are seen in the southeast and north. These jets were already known and Doppler velocity measurements have been made for these structures, but their orientation and position with resp

2009-01-01

47

High-energy antiprotons from old supernova remnants.  

PubMed

A recently proposed model explains the rise in energy of the positron fraction measured by the PAMELA satellite in terms of hadronic production of positrons in aged supernova remnants, and acceleration therein. Here we present a preliminary calculation of the antiproton flux produced by the same mechanism. While the model is consistent with present data, a rise of the antiproton to proton ratio is predicted at high energy, which strikingly distinguishes this scenario from other astrophysical explanations of the positron fraction (such as pulsars). We briefly discuss important implications for dark matter searches via antimatter. PMID:19792708

Blasi, Pasquale; Serpico, Pasquale D

2009-08-21

48

X-ray imaging - Supernova remnants  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Consideration is given to imaging observations of supernova remnants (SNRs) obtained during the first year of the Einstein Observatory's operation. Inferences are drawn regarding models for stellar explosions, remnant evolution, neutron star formation and the interstellar medium. Because the X-ray emission traces the expanding shock boundary and dominates the radiative energy losses of an SNR over much of its lifetime, it can provide data on the possible collapsed remnants of the explosion, such as neutron stars and/or black holes. X-ray emission also allows a supernova shock to be used as a probe of interstellar medium structure. The imaging instrument aboard the Einstein satellite has been used to observe over 30 known Galactic remnants, and a similar number of objects in other galaxies, in the 0.15-4.5 keV band.

Helfand, D. J.

1981-01-01

49

Evolution of multiple supernova remnants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Heating of the interstellar medium (ISM) by multiple supernova (SN) explosions is at the heart of producing galaxy-scale outflows in starburst galaxies. Standard models of outflows assume a high efficiency of SNe in heating the gas to X-ray emitting temperatures and filling the central region of starburst with hot gas, in order to launch vigorous outflows. We use hydrodynamical simulations to study the efficiency of multiple SNe in heating the ISM and filling the volume with gas of high temperatures. We argue that it is important for SN remnants to have a large filling factor and a large heating efficiency. For this, they have to be clustered in space and time, and keep exploding until the hot gas percolates through the whole region, in order to compensate for the radiative loss. In the case of a limited number of SNe, we find that although the filling factor can be large, the heating efficiency declines after reaching a large value. In the case of a continuous series of SNe, the hot gas (T ? 3 × 106 K) can percolate through the whole region after the total volume filling factor reaches a threshold of ˜0.3. The efficiency of heating the gas to X-ray temperatures can be ?0.1 after this percolation epoch, which occurs after a period of ?10 Myr for a typical starburst SN rate density of ?SN ? 10-9 pc-3 yr-1 and gas density of n ? 10 cm-3 in starburst nuclei regions. This matches the recent observations of a time delay of similar order between the onset of star formation and galactic outflows. The efficiency to heat gas up to X-ray temperatures (?106.5 K) roughly scales as ? _SN^{0.2} n^{-0.6}. For a typical SN rate density and gas density in starburst nuclei, the heating efficiency is ˜0.15, also consistent with previous interpretations from X-ray observations. We discuss the implications of our results with regard to observational diagnostics of ionic ratios and emission measures in starburst nuclei regions.

Vasiliev, Evgenii O.; Nath, Biman B.; Shchekinov, Yuri

2015-01-01

50

Imagery and spectroscopy of supernova remnants and H-2 regions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Research activities relating to supernova remnants were summarized. The topics reviewed include: progenitor stars of supernova remnants, UV/optical/radio/X-ray imagery of selected regions in the Cygnus Loop, UV/optical spectroscopy of the Cygnus Loop spur, and extragalactic supernova remnant spectra.

Dufour, R. J.

1984-01-01

51

43A Distant Supernova Remnant Discovered These delicate wisps of gas make up an object known as supernova remnant SNR  

E-print Network

43A Distant Supernova Remnant Discovered These delicate wisps of gas make up an object known as supernova remnant SNR 0519. The thin, blood-red shells are actually the remnants from when an unstable star exploded violently as a supernova around 600 years ago. SNR 0519 is located over 150,000 light-years from

Christian, Eric

52

The Cygnus Loop: An Older Supernova Remnant.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the Cygnus Loop, one of brightest and most easily studied of the older "remnant nebulae" of supernova outbursts. Discusses some of the historical events surrounding the discovery and measurement of the Cygnus Loop and makes some projections on its future. (TW)

Straka, William

1987-01-01

53

HI Study of Southern Galactic Supernova Remnants  

E-print Network

We briefly summarize the survey of HI 21 cm emission lines to search for shocked atomic gas associated with Galactic supernova remnants (SNRs) in the southern sky. For G347.3-0.5, we discuss the distance to the SNR and the implications of the HI results.

Bon-Chul Koo; Ji-hyun Kang; Naomi McClure-Griffiths

2003-11-06

54

Statistics of Galactic Supernova Remnants (continued)  

E-print Network

Our statistics on Galactic supernova remnants (SNRs) shows that the electrons temperature ($T$) of hard X-ray and the shock waves traveling velocity ($\\upsilon$) decreases with ages ($t$) for all-sort remnants. However, the shock waves swept-up mass ($M_{su}$) of ISM increases with the age. Second, the remnant radio fluxes ($S$) at 1 GHz increase slightly with ISM electrons density ($n_0$). At last, the number distributions illustrate that the supernovae (SNe) initial kinetic energy ($E_0$), hydrogen column density ($N_H$), electrons temperature (kT) of hard X-ray, magnetic field ($B$) and the shock waves swept-up mass ($M_{su}$) of ISM mainly peaked at $(1 \\sim 10) \\times 10^{50}$ ergs, $(1 \\sim 10)\\times 10^{21}$ cm$^{-2}$, a few KeV, 100 $\\mu$G and 10$\\sim$100 $M_{\\odot}$, respectively.

Xu, Jian-Wen

2009-01-01

55

The Rediscovery of the Antlia Supernova Remnant  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While undertaking a survey of velocity-resolved diffuse optical emission from the [S II] 6716 A line with the Wisconsin H-alpha Mapper, we have rediscovered the Antlia Supernova remnant, a 26 degree diameter remmant near the Gum Nebula that was originally detected in SHASSA (Southern H-alpha Sky Survey Atlas) by P. McCullough in 2002. The original discovery showed this remnant was associated with ¼ keV X-ray emission in the ROSAT All-Sky Survey, and argued that Antlia was potentially the closest remnant to the Sun. We will present an analysis of the H-alpha and [S II] lines in this direction: the ratio of these lines indicate the shell is consistent with being a supernova remnant and the velocities allow us to constrain its age. We discuss this remnant in the context of the evolution of the entire Gum Nebula region, noting that its proximity and age make it possible to search for geochemical evidence of this remnant on Earth. This work was supported by the National Science Foundation's REU program through NSF Award AST-1004881.

Orchard, Alexander; Benjamin, Robert A.; Gostisha, Martin; Haffner, L. Matthew; Hill, Alex S.; Barger, Kathleen

2015-01-01

56

"Suzaku Highlight Results on Supernova Remnants"  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Highlights of the early Suzaku (formerly Astro-E2) observations of supernova remnants are presented. Suzaku offers unique capabilities for the study of supernova remnants. The unprecedented combination of imaging and spectral resolution below 1 keV in the X-ray Imaging Spectrometer (XIS) makes possible mapping of C, N and O abundances in Galactic remnants of all ages. The first detection of carbon lines in the Cygnus Loop and mapping of the O VII to O VIII ratio in SN 1006 demonstrate this capability. The XIS sensitivity to soft, low surface brightness emission is exemplified by spectroscopy in the 0.3-1.0 keV band of the North Polar Spur and other Galactic ISM structures. Such observations make possible inferences about plasma conditions and abundances. The sensitivity above 6 keV via a combination of the XIS (below 10 keV) and the Hard X-ray Detector (above 10 keV) allows broad band (2-40 keV) spectroscopy and mapping of extended remnants with hard emission components. These components are generally associated with sites of particle acceleration, and measuring their spectral shape potentially provides information about the TeV electron population and its acceleration and energy loss mechanisms. Examples of such remnants observed by Suzaku are the non-thermal emission dominated remnants RX J1713.7-3946 and RX J0852.0-4622, for which flux beyond 30 keV has been detected. The status of the mission and prospects for future groundbreaking observations of supernova remnants will be discussed.

Petre, Robert

2006-01-01

57

Separated before birth: pulsars B2020+28 and B2021+51 as the remnants of runaway stars  

E-print Network

Astrometric data on the pulsars B2020+28 and B2021+51 suggest that they originated within several parsecs of each other in the direction of the Cyg OB2 association. It was proposed that the pulsars share their origin in a common massive binary and were separated at the birth of the second pulsar following the asymmetric supernova explosion. We consider a different scenario for the origin of the pulsar pair based on a possibility that the pulsars were separated before their birth and that they are the remnants of runaway stars ejected (with velocities similar to those of the pulsars) from the core of Cyg OB2 due to strong three- or four-body dynamical encounters. Our scenario does not require any asymmetry in supernova explosions.

V. V. Gvaramadze

2007-05-29

58

Resonance Line Scattering in Supernova Remnant Shocks  

E-print Network

We present a three dimensional radiative transfer model to examine the effects of resonance line scattering in the post-shock flow behind a non-radiative supernova remnant shock. For a rippled shock front viewed edge-on, line scattering significantly reduces the observed flux of CIV 1549 and NV 1240, two important diagnostic lines in the ultraviolet spectra of supernova remnants. The correction factor (defined to be the ratio of the line flux that would be observed neglecting scattering, to the actual observed line flux) is a function of position within the filament. For sufficiently large regions that include crisp edges as well as more diffuse regions of the filament structure, the CIV and NV correction factors are between about 1.5 and 3.5 (and the CIV correction factor is invariably larger than the NV correction factor). The correction factors have a larger range when smaller regions are considered. The CIV correction factor is about 6 at the filament edges, while the NV correction factor is about 4. These simulations of resonance line scattering will be useful for the analysis of supernova remnant shock spectra.

Ravi Sankrit; Kenneth Wood

2001-03-08

59

Shocked Clouds in the Vela Supernova Remnant  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Unusually strong high-excitation C I has been detected in eleven lines of sight through the Vela supernova remnant by means of UV absorption-line studies of IUE data. Most of these lines of sight lie near the western edge of the X-ray bright region of the supernova remnant in a spatially distinct band approximately 1deg by 4deg oriented approximately north/south. The high-excitation C I (denoted C I*) is interpreted as evidence of a complex of shocked dense clouds inside the supernova remnant, due to the high pressures indicated in this region. To further analyze the properties of this region of C I*, we present new HIRES-processed IRAS data of the entire Vela SNR. A temperature map calculated from the HIRES IRAS data, based on a two-component dust model, reveals the signature of hot dust at several locations in the SNR. The hot dust is anti-correlated spatially with X-ray emission as revealed by ROSAT, as would be expected for a dusty medium interacting with a shock wave. The regions of hot dust are strongly correlated with optical filaments, supporting a scenario of dense clouds interior to the SNR that have been shocked and are now cooling behind the supernova blast wave. With few exceptions, the lines of sight to the strong C I* pass through regions of hot dust and optical filaments. Possible mechanisms for the production of the anomalously large columns of C I and C I* are discussed. Dense clouds on the back western hemisphere of the remnant may explain the relatively low X-ray emission in the western portion of the Vela supernova remnant due to the slower forward shock velocity in regions where the shock has encountered the dense clouds. An alternate explanation for the presence of neutral, excited state, and ionized species along the same line of sight may be a magnetic precusor that heats and compresses the gas ahead of the shock.

Nichols, Joy S.; Slavin, Jonathan D.

2004-01-01

60

G65.2+5.7: A Thermal Composite Supernova Remnant with a Cool Shell  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents archival ROSAT PSPC observations of the G65.2+5.7 supernova remnant (also known as G65.3+5.7). Little material obscures this remnant and so it was well observed, even at the softest end of ROSATs bandpass (approx. 0.11 to 0.28 keV). These soft X-ray images reveal the remnant s centrally-filled morphology which, in combination with existing radio frequency observations, places G65.2+5.7 in the thermal composite (mixed morphology) class of supernova remnants. Not only might G65.2+5.7 be the oldest known thermal composite supernova remnant, but owing to its optically revealed cool, dense shell, this remnant supports the proposal that thermal composite supernova remnants lack X-ray bright shells because they have evolved beyond the adiabatic phase. These observations also reveal a slightly extended point source centered on RA = l9(sup h) 36(sup m) 46(sup s). dec = 30 deg.40 min.07 sec.and extending 6.5 arc min in radius in the band 67 map. The source of this emission has yet to be discovered, as there is no known pulsar at this location.

Shelton, R. L.; Kuntz, K. D.; Petre, R.

2004-01-01

61

Supernova Remnant SNR 0509 Lithograph and In Search of... Supernova Remnants Classroom Activity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Hubble Space Telescope image shows what appears to be a delicate bubble of gas floating in space. In actuality, the bubble is the visible remnant of a powerful supernova explosion called SNR 0509. The bubble was formed from gas being swept up by the expanding shock wave. The accompanying activity is a curriculum support tool designed for use as an introductory inquiry activity. In the activity, students use the images and text on this lithograph to generate questions about supernova explosions and remnants. They will conduct research to answer their questions, and create a presentation to demonstrate their understanding of the material, providing supporting evidence from their research.

2011-01-01

62

Four extended gamma-ray supernova remnants newly identified by Fermi-LAT Pass 8 data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Identifying gamma-ray emission from supernova remnants is crucial to determine the origin of Galactic cosmic rays. Despite the excellent sensitivity and spatial resolution of the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope, it has proven difficult to clearly identify these sources as they are buried in the bright diffuse Galactic background and may be confused with other gamma-ray sources, such as pulsars. Here we report the detection of extended emission from four supernova remnants - CTB 109, PKS 1209-51/52, CTB 37A, RCW 86 - using 5 years of observations with Fermi and the new Pass 8 event reconstruction developed by the LAT collaboration. The improvements with Pass 8 promise to rapidly grow the population of gamma-ray supernova remnants identified through their spatial extension.

Hewitt, John W.; Fermi-LAT Collaboration

2015-01-01

63

Evolution of Magnetic Fields in Supernova Remnants  

E-print Network

Supernova remnants (SNR) are now widely believed to be a source of cosmic rays (CRs) up to an energy of 1 PeV. The magnetic fields required to accelerate CRs to sufficiently high energies need to be much higher than can result from compression of the circumstellar medium (CSM) by a factor 4, as is the case in strong shocks. Non-thermal synchrotron maps of these regions indicate that indeed the magnetic field is much stronger, and for young SNRs has a dominant radial component while for old SNRs it is mainly toroidal. How these magnetic fields get enhanced, or why the field orientation is mainly radial for young remnants, is not yet fully understood. We use an adaptive mesh refinement MHD code, AMRVAC, to simulate the evolution of supernova remnants and to see if we can reproduce a mainly radial magnetic field in early stages of evolution. We follow the evolution of the SNR with three different configurations of the initial magnetic field in the CSM: an initially mainly toroidal field, a turbulent magnetic field, and a field parallel to the symmetry axis. Although for the latter two topologies a significant radial field component arises at the contact discontinuity due to the Rayleigh-Taylor instability, no radial component can be seen out to the forward shock. Ideal MHD appears not sufficient to explain observations. Possibly a higher compression ratio and additional turbulence due to dominant presence of CRs can help us to better reproduce the observations in future studies.

K. M. Schure; J. Vink; A. Achterberg; R. Keppens

2008-10-28

64

The Hubble Heritage Image of the Crab Nebula Supernova Remnant  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Hubble Heritage Project has the aim of providing the public with pictorially striking images of celestial objects obtained with NASA's Hubble Space Telescope. Here we present a 5-color Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2) image of the Crab Nebula, a ~950 year old supernova remnant located 6500 light-years distant in the constellation Taurus. The images were obtained in 1995 January and April, and the science investigation reporting results was published by Blair, W. P., et al. (1997, ApJS, 109, 473--480). Over 10 hours of exposure time through 5 separate optical continuum band and emission-line filters were used to study size scales and ionization structures of the filaments and newly synthesized dust within the expanding ejecta. The Heritage version of these data shows several important aspects of the Crab Nebula all in one spectacular image. The continuum image shows stars, including the enigmatic pulsar (the collapsed core of the original star) and the ghostly diffuse synchrotron nebula energized by the pulsar. The synchrotron nebula in turn heats and ionizes the surrounding clumpy filaments of gas and dust visible in the emission line images. These filaments are the supernova ejecta that were expelled during the explosion and are now expanding outward from the pulsar at high speed. The different colors in the picture show optical emission lines of hydrogen (orange), nitrogen (red), sulfur (pink) and oxygen (bluish-green). The subtle changes in color from one filament to the next arise because of varying temperatures and densities of the gas, and variable chemical abundances of the ``star stuff," or the doppler shifting of emission into or out of the various narrow filter bandpasses. Support for this work was provided by NASA through grant numbers GO-07632.01-96A and GO-5354.04-93A from the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555.

Blair, W. P.; English, J.; Bond, H. E.; Christian, C. A.; Frattare, L.; Hamilton, F.; Levay, Z.; Noll, K. S.

2000-05-01

65

Instabilities and clumping in supernova remnants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis explores the formation of instabilities and clumping in supernova (SN) ejecta and remnants (SNRs) using two dimensional hydrodynamical (HD) and one- dimensional radiation hydrodynamical (RHD) simulations. In Chapter 1 we first investigate the global evolution of the hydrodynamical instabilities in a Type Ia remnant. We assume that the ejecta has an exponential density profile, as opposed to the power-law density distribution that had been used in the studies for core collapse SNe (Type Ib/II). The expansion of the ejecta into an ambient medium gives rise to an intershock structure that is hydrodynamically unstable. As the exponential density distribution continually flattens with time, the Rayleigh-Taylor instability evolves toward longer wavelength and fades. The result contrasts with the case of the power-law model where the instabilities maintain a quasi-steady state, while the reverse shock remains in the outer power-law component of the ejecta. In the latter part of chapter 1 and chapter 2, we investigate the interaction of dense ejecta clumps with the remnant of Type Ia and core-collapse SNe, respectively. The studies were motivated by the recent X- ray and radio observations of knots/clumps that protrude up to and beyond supernova remnant outlines, since their properties cannot be explained by instabilities. In order to survive crushing and cause protrusions on the remnant, clumps are found to require a high initial density contrast, ?, relative to their surrounding ejecta. For Type Ia SNRs, ? >~ 100, much exceeding the density fluctuation ? <~ 3 indicated by various explosion models. For the Vela remnant, we found that an even larger initial density contrast ? ~ 1000 is needed to account for the large protrusions by its `bullets'. The optimal ejection velocity v ~ 3000 km/s of the bullets is consistent with the observed velocity range of the O core region in several core-collapse SNRs. In Chapter 3 we study the formation of ejecta clumps by the Nickel bubble effect using RHD simulations. In the Nickel bubble scenario, the radioactive energy from the 56Ni-56Co- 56Fe decay inflates Ni, and the Si and O- rich zones surrounding the Ni bubble are shocked into a dense shell. With radiation diffusion included, the preshock gas is accelerated, and the shell becomes broadened and less dense. The ejecta structures freeze out at t ~ 107 sec. A high density contrast ? >~ 100 occurs across the shell, compatible with the indication from our previous clump-remnant simulations. However, the inferred strength of the clump is still insufficient to account for the clumpy structures observed in young supernova remnants. The Nickel bubble expansion is a promising mechanism to produce density inhomogeneities in supernovae. Other dynamical processes, e.g., the preceding neutrino instabilities and cooling, may also be important in contributing to clump development. In Chapter 4 we outline future research directions that can continue to improve our understanding of the ejecta-clump picture.

Wang, Chih-Yueh

66

VHE Gamma-ray Supernova Remnants  

SciTech Connect

Increasing observational evidence gathered especially in X-rays and {gamma}-rays during the course of the last few years support the notion that Supernova remnants (SNRs) are Galactic particle accelerators up to energies close to the ''knee'' in the energy spectrum of Cosmic rays. This review summarizes the current status of {gamma}-ray observations of SNRs. Shell-type as well as plerionic type SNRs are addressed and prospect for observations of these two source classes with the upcoming GLAST satellite in the energy regime above 100 MeV are given.

Funk, Stefan; /KIPAC, Menlo Park

2007-01-22

67

Cosmic ray acceleration search in Supernova Remnants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Galactic Supernova Remnants (SNRs) are among the best candidates as source of cosmic rays due to energetics, observed rate of explosion and as possible sites where the Fermi mechanisms naturally plays a key role. Evidence of hadronic acceleration processes taking place in SNRs are being collected with the Fermi-LAT, whose sensitivity in the range 100MeV-100GeV is crucial for disentangling possible hadronic contribution from inverse Compton or bremsstrahlung leptonic component. A survey of the detected SNRs will be given, focusing the attention on the role of the environment and the evolution stage of the SNR in the interpretation of the observed ?-ray spectra.

Giordano, Francesco; Di Venere, Leonardo

2014-11-01

68

Radioactivity and electron acceleration in supernova remnants  

SciTech Connect

We argue that the decays of radioactive nuclei related to {sup 44}Ti and {sup 56}Ni ejected during supernova explosions can provide a vast pool of mildly relativistic positrons and electrons which are further accelerated to ultrarelativistic energies by reverse and forward shocks. This interesting link between two independent processes - the radioactivity and the particle acceleration - can be a clue for solution of the well known theoretical problem of electron injection in supernova remnants. In the case of the brightest radio source Cas A, we demonstrate that the radioactivity can supply adequate number of energetic electrons and positrons for interpretation of observational data provided that they are stochastically preaccelerated in the upstream regions of the forward and reverse shocks.

Zirakashvili, V. N. [Pushkov Institute of Terrestrial Magnetism, Ionosphere and Radiowave Propagation, 142190 Troitsk, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Aharonian, F. A. [Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies, 31 Fitzwilliam Place, Dublin 2 (Ireland); Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany)

2011-10-15

69

Vivid View of Tycho's Supernova Remnant  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This composite image of the Tycho supernova remnant combines infrared and X-ray observations obtained with NASA's Spitzer and Chandra space observatories, respectively, and the Calar Alto observatory, Spain. It shows the scene more than four centuries after the brilliant star explosion witnessed by Tycho Brahe and other astronomers of that era.

The explosion has left a blazing hot cloud of expanding debris (green and yellow). The location of the blast's outer shock wave can be seen as a blue sphere of ultra-energetic electrons. Newly synthesized dust in the ejected material and heated pre-existing dust from the area around the supernova radiate at infrared wavelengths of 24 microns (red). Foreground and background stars in the image are white.

2008-01-01

70

Multi-Wavelength Observations of Supernova Remnants  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Supernova remnants (SNRs) provide a laboratory for studying various astrophysical processes, including particle acceleration, thermal and non thermal emission processes across the spectrum, distribution of heavy elements, the physics of strong shock waves, and the progenitor systems and environments of supernovae. Long studied in radio and X-rays, the past decade has seen a dramatic increase in the detection and subsequent study of SNRs in the infrared and gamma-ray regimes. Understanding the evolution of SNRs and their interaction with the interstellar medium requires a multi-wavelength approach. I will review the various physical processes observed in SNRs and how these processes are intertwined. In particular, I will focus on X-ray and infrared observations, which probe two very different but intrinsically connected phases of the ISM: gas and dust. I will discuss results from multi-wavelength studies of several SNRs at various stages of evolution, including Kepler, RCW 86, and the Cygnus Loop.

Williams, B.

2012-01-01

71

An optical and near infrared search for a pulsar in Supernova 1987A  

SciTech Connect

We describe a search for an optical pulsar in the remnant of Supernova 1987A. We have performed over one hundred separate observations of the supernova, covering wavelengths from 3500 angstroms to 1.8 microns, with sensitivity to pulsations as faint as magnitude 22.7. As of September 26, 1990, we have not seen evidence for pulsations due to a pulsar in the supernova. We discuss the implications of this result on predictions of pulsar optical luminosity. We have constructed for the search two photodiode detectors and a data system. We describe their design, calibration and performance. These detectors have allowed us to increase our sensitivity as much as a factor of 5 over standard photomultiplier tubes, and extend this search to near infrared wavelengths. 59 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

Sasseen, T.P.

1990-12-01

72

HESS upper limits for Kepler's supernova remnant  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aims: Observations of Kepler's supernova remnant (G4.5+6.8) with the HESS telescope array in 2004 and 2005 with a total live time of 13 h are presented. Methods: Stereoscopic imaging of Cherenkov radiation from extensive air showers is used to reconstruct the energy and direction of the incident gamma rays. Results: No evidence for a very high energy (VHE: >100 GeV) gamma-ray signal from the direction of the remnant is found. An upper limit (99% confidence level) on the energy flux in the range 230 GeV{-}12.8 TeV of 8.6 × 10-13 erg cm-2 s-1 is obtained. Conclusions: In the context of an existing theoretical model for the remnant, the lack of a detectable gamma-ray flux implies a distance of at least 6.4 kpc. A corresponding upper limit for the density of the ambient matter of 0.7 cm-3 is derived. With this distance limit, and assuming a spectral index ? = 2, the total energy in accelerated protons is limited to Ep < 8.6 × 1049 erg. In the synchrotron/inverse Compton framework, extrapolating the power law measured by RXTE between 10 and 20 keV down in energy, the predicted gamma-ray flux from inverse Compton scattering is below the measured upper limit for magnetic field values greater than 52 ? G.

Aharonian, F.; Akhperjanian, A. G.; Barres de Almeida, U.; Bazer-Bachi, A. R.; Behera, B.; Beilicke, M.; Benbow, W.; Berge, D.; Bernlöhr, K.; Boisson, C.; Bolz, O.; Borrel, V.; Braun, I.; Brion, E.; Brucker, J.; Bühler, R.; Bulik, T.; Büsching, I.; Boutelier, T.; Carrigan, S.; Chadwick, P. M.; Chounet, L.-M.; Clapson, A. C.; Coignet, G.; Cornils, R.; Costamante, L.; Dalton, M.; Degrange, B.; Dickinson, H. J.; Djannati-Ataï, A.; Domainko, W.; O'C. Drury, L.; Dubois, F.; Dubus, G.; Dyks, J.; Egberts, K.; Emmanoulopoulos, D.; Espigat, P.; Farnier, C.; Feinstein, F.; Fiasson, A.; Förster, A.; Fontaine, G.; Füßling, M.; Gallant, Y. A.; Giebels, B.; Glicenstein, J. F.; Glück, B.; Goret, P.; Hadjichristidis, C.; Hauser, D.; Hauser, M.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henri, G.; Hermann, G.; Hinton, J. A.; Hoffmann, A.; Hofmann, W.; Holleran, M.; Hoppe, S.; Horns, D.; Jacholkowska, A.; de Jager, O. C.; Jung, I.; Katarzy?ski, K.; Kendziorra, E.; Kerschhaggl, M.; Khélifi, B.; Keogh, D.; Komin, Nu.; Kosack, K.; Lamanna, G.; Latham, I. J.; Lemoine-Goumard, M.; Lenain, J.-P.; Lohse, T.; Martin, J. M.; Martineau-Huynh, O.; Marcowith, A.; Masterson, C.; Maurin, D.; McComb, T. J. L.; Moderski, R.; Moulin, E.; Naumann-Godo, M.; de Naurois, M.; Nedbal, D.; Nekrassov, D.; Nolan, S. J.; Ohm, S.; Olive, J.-P.; de Oña Wilhelmi, E.; Orford, K. J.; Osborne, J. L.; Ostrowski, M.; Panter, M.; Pedaletti, G.; Pelletier, G.; Petrucci, P.-O.; Pita, S.; Pühlhofer, G.; Punch, M.; Quirrenbach, A.; Raubenheimer, B. C.; Raue, M.; Rayner, S. M.; Renaud, M.; Ripken, J.; Rob, L.; Rosier-Lees, S.; Rowell, G.; Rudak, B.; Ruppel, J.; Sahakian, V.; Santangelo, A.; Schlickeiser, R.; Schöck, F. M.; Schröder, R.; Schwanke, U.; Schwarzburg, S.; Schwemmer, S.; Shalchi, A.; Sol, H.; Spangler, D.; Stawarz, ?.; Steenkamp, R.; Stegmann, C.; Superina, G.; Tam, P. H.; Tavernet, J.-P.; Terrier, R.; van Eldik, C.; Vasileiadis, G.; Venter, C.; Vialle, J. P.; Vincent, P.; Vivier, M.; Völk, H. J.; Volpe, F.; Wagner, S. J.; Ward, M.; Zdziarski, A. A.; Zech, A.

2008-09-01

73

Three Great Eyes on Kepler's Supernova Remnant  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site] Composite

[figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Chandra X-Ray Data (blue) Chandra X-Ray Data (green)Hubble Telescope (visible-light)Spitzer Telescope (infrared)

NASA's three Great Observatories -- the Hubble Space Telescope, the Spitzer Space Telescope, and the Chandra X-ray Observatory -- joined forces to probe the expanding remains of a supernova, called Kepler's supernova remnant, first seen 400 years ago by sky watchers, including astronomer Johannes Kepler.

The combined image unveils a bubble-shaped shroud of gas and dust that is 14 light-years wide and is expanding at 4 million miles per hour (2,000 kilometers per second). Observations from each telescope highlight distinct features of the supernova remnant, a fast-moving shell of iron-rich material from the exploded star, surrounded by an expanding shock wave that is sweeping up interstellar gas and dust.

Each color in this image represents a different region of the electromagnetic spectrum, from X-rays to infrared light. These diverse colors are shown in the panel of photographs below the composite image. The X-ray and infrared data cannot be seen with the human eye. By color-coding those data and combining them with Hubble's visible-light view, astronomers are presenting a more complete picture of the supernova remnant.

Visible-light images from the Hubble telescope (colored yellow) reveal where the supernova shock wave is slamming into the densest regions of surrounding gas. The bright glowing knots are dense clumps from instabilities that form behind the shock wave. The Hubble data also show thin filaments of gas that look like rippled sheets seen edge-on. These filaments reveal where the shock wave is encountering lower-density, more uniform interstellar material.

The Spitzer telescope shows microscopic dust particles (colored red) that have been heated by the supernova shock wave. The dust re-radiates the shock wave's energy as infrared light. The Spitzer data are brightest in the regions surrounding those seen in detail by the Hubble telescope.

The Chandra X-ray data show regions of very hot gas, and extremely high-energy particles. The hottest gas (higher-energy X-rays, colored blue) is located primarily in the regions directly behind the shock front. These regions also show up in the Hubble observations, and also align with the faint rim of glowing material seen in the Spitzer data. The X-rays from the region on the lower left (colored blue) may be dominated by extremely high-energy electrons that were produced by the shock wave and are radiating at radio through X-ray wavelengths as they spiral in the intensified magnetic field behind the shock front. Cooler X-ray gas (lower-energy X-rays, colored green) resides in a thick interior shell and marks the location of heated material expelled from the exploded star.

Kepler's supernova, the last such object seen to explode in our Milky Way galaxy, resides about 13,000 light-years away in the constellation Ophiuchus.

The Chandra observations were taken in June 2000, the Hubble in August 2003; and the Spitzer in August 2004.

2004-01-01

74

Searches for continuous gravitational waves from nine young supernova remnants  

E-print Network

We describe directed searches for continuous gravitational waves in data from the sixth LIGO science data run. The targets were nine young supernova remnants not associated with pulsars; eight of the remnants are associated with non-pulsing suspected neutron stars. One target's parameters are uncertain enough to warrant two searches, for a total of ten. Each search covered a broad band of frequencies and first and second frequency derivatives for a fixed sky direction. The searches coherently integrated data from the two LIGO interferometers over time spans from 5.3-25.3 days using the matched-filtering F-statistic. We found no credible gravitational-wave signals. We set 95% confidence upper limits as strong (low) as $4\\times10^{-25}$ on intrinsic strain, $2\\times10^{-7}$ on fiducial ellipticity, and $4\\times10^{-5}$ on r-mode amplitude. These beat the indirect limits from energy conservation and are within the range of theoretical predictions for neutron-star ellipticities and r-mode amplitudes.

Aasi, J; Abbott, R; Abbott, T; Abernathy, M R; Acernese, F; Ackley, K; Adams, C; Adams, T; Adams, T; Addesso, P; Adhikari, R X; Adya, V; Affeldt, C; Agathos, M; Agatsuma, K; Aggarwal, N; Aguiar, O D; Ain, A; Ajith, P; Alemic, A; Allen, B; Allocca, A; Amariutei, D; Anderson, S B; Anderson, W G; Arai, K; Araya, M C; Arceneaux, C; Areeda, J S; Ast, S; Aston, S M; Astone, P; Aufmuth, P; Aulbert, C; Aylott, B E; Babak, S; Baker, P T; Baldaccini, F; Ballardin, G; Ballmer, S W; Barayoga, J C; Barbet, M; Barclay, S; Barish, B C; Barker, D; Barone, F; Barr, B; Barsotti, L; Barsuglia, M; Bartlett, J; Barton, M A; Bartos, I; Bassiri, R; Basti, A; Batch, J C; Bauer, Th S; Baune, C; Bavigadda, V; Behnke, B; Bejger, M; Belczynski, C; Bell, A S; Bell, C; Benacquista, M; Bergman, J; Bergmann, G; Berry, C P L; Bersanetti, D; Bertolini, A; Betzwieser, J; Bhagwat, S; Bhandare, R; Bilenko, I A; Billingsley, G; Birch, J; Biscans, S; Bitossi, M; Biwer, C; Bizouard, M A; Blackburn, J K; Blackburn, L; Blair, C D; Blair, D; Bloemen, S; Bock, O; Bodiya, T P; Boer, M; Bogaert, G; Bojtos, P; Bond, C; Bondu, F; Bonelli, L; Bonnand, R; Bork, R; Born, M; Boschi, V; Bose, Sukanta; Bradaschia, C; Brady, P R; Braginsky, V B; Branchesi, M; Brau, J E; Briant, T; Bridges, D O; Brillet, A; Brinkmann, M; Brisson, V; Brooks, A F; Brown, D A; Brown, D D; Brown, N M; Buchman, S; Buikema, A; Bulik, T; Bulten, H J; Buonanno, A; Buskulic, D; Buy, C; Cadonati, L; Cagnoli, G; Bustillo, J Calderón; Calloni, E; Camp, J B; Cannon, K C; Cao, J; Capano, C D; Carbognani, F; Caride, S; Caudill, S; Cavaglià, M; Cavalier, F; Cavalieri, R; Cella, G; Cepeda, C; Cesarini, E; Chakraborty, R; Chalermsongsak, T; Chamberlin, S J; Chao, S; Charlton, P; Chassande-Mottin, E; Chen, Y; Chincarini, A; Chiummo, A; Cho, H S; Cho, M; Chow, J H; Christensen, N; Chu, Q; Chua, S; Chung, S; Ciani, G; Clara, F; Clark, J A; Cleva, F; Coccia, E; Cohadon, P -F; Colla, A; Collette, C; Colombini, M; Cominsky, L; Constancio,, M; Conte, A; Cook, D; Corbitt, T R; Cornish, N; Corsi, A; Costa, C A; Coughlin, M W; Coulon, J -P; Countryman, S; Couvares, P; Coward, D M; Cowart, M J; Coyne, D C; Coyne, R; Craig, K; Creighton, J D E; Creighton, T D; Cripe, J; Crowder, S G; Cumming, A; Cunningham, L; Cuoco, E; Cutler, C; Dahl, K; Canton, T Dal; Damjanic, M; Danilishin, S L; D'Antonio, S; Danzmann, K; Dartez, L; Dattilo, V; Dave, I; Daveloza, H; Davier, M; Davies, G S; Daw, E J; Day, R; DeBra, D; Debreczeni, G; Degallaix, J; De Laurentis, M; Deléglise, S; Del Pozzo, W; Denker, T; Dent, T; Dereli, H; Dergachev, V; De Rosa, R; DeRosa, R T; DeSalvo, R; Dhurandhar, S; Díaz, M; Di Fiore, L; Di Lieto, A; Di Palma, I; Di Virgilio, A; Dojcinoski, G; Dolique, V; Dominguez, E; Donovan, F; Dooley, K L; Doravari, S; Douglas, R; Downes, T P; Drago, M; Driggers, J C; Du, Z; Ducrot, M; Dwyer, S; Eberle, T; Edo, T; Edwards, M; Edwards, M; Effler, A; Eggenstein, H -B; Ehrens, P; Eichholz, J; Eikenberry, S S; Essick, R; Etzel, T; Evans, M; Evans, T; Factourovich, M; Fafone, V; Fairhurst, S; Fan, X; Fang, Q; Farinon, S; Farr, B; Farr, W M; Favata, M; Fays, M; Fehrmann, H; Fejer, M M; Feldbaum, D; Ferrante, I; Ferreira, E C; Ferrini, F; Fidecaro, F; Fiori, I; Fisher, R P; Flaminio, R; Fournier, J -D; Franco, S; Frasca, S; Frasconi, F; Frei, Z; Freise, A; Frey, R; Fricke, T T; Fritschel, P; Frolov, V V; Fuentes-Tapia, S; Fulda, P; Fyffe, M; Gair, J R; Gammaitoni, L; Gaonkar, S; Garufi, F; Gatto, A; Gehrels, N; Gemme, G; Gendre, B; Genin, E; Gennai, A; Gergely, L Á; Ghosh, S; Giaime, J A; Giardina, K D; Giazotto, A; Gleason, J; Goetz, E; Goetz, R; Gondan, L; González, G; Gordon, N; Gorodetsky, M L; Gossan, S; Goßler, S; Gouaty, R; Gräf, C; Graff, P B; Granata, M; Grant, A; Gras, S; Gray, C; Greenhalgh, R J S; Gretarsson, A M; Groot, P; Grote, H; Grunewald, S; Guidi, G M; Guido, C J; Guo, X; Gushwa, K; Gustafson, E K; Gustafson, R; Hacker, J; Hall, E D; Hammond, G; Hanke, M; Hanks, J; Hanna, C; Hannam, M D; Hanson, J; Hardwick, T; Harms, J; Harry, G M; Harry, I W; Hart, M; Hartman, M T; Haster, C -J; Haughian, K; Hee, S; Heidmann, A; Heintze, M; Heinzel, G; Heitmann, H; Hello, P; Hemming, G; Hendry, M; Heng, I S; Heptonstall, A W; Heurs, M; Hewitson, M; Hild, S; Hoak, D; Hodge, K A; Hofman, D; Hollitt, S E; Holt, K; Hopkins, P; Hosken, D J; Hough, J; Houston, E; Howell, E J; Hu, Y M; Huerta, E; Hughey, B; Husa, S; Huttner, S H; Huynh, M; Huynh-Dinh, T; Idrisy, A; Indik, N; Ingram, D R; Inta, R; Islas, G; Isler, J C; Isogai, T; Iyer, B R; Izumi, K; Jacobson, M; Jang, H; Jaranowski, P; Jawahar, S; Ji, Y; Jiménez-Forteza, F; Johnson, W W; Jones, D I; Jones, R; Jonker, R J G; Ju, L; K, Haris; Kalogera, V; Kandhasamy, S; Kang, G; Kanner, J B; Kasprzack, M; Katsavounidis, E; Katzman, W; Kaufer, H; Kaufer, S; Kaur, T; Kawabe, K; Kawazoe, F; Kéfélian, F; Keiser, G M; Keitel, D; Kelley, D B; Kells, W; Keppel, D G; Key, J S

2014-01-01

75

Searches for continuous gravitational waves from nine young supernova remnants  

E-print Network

We describe directed searches for continuous gravitational waves in data from the sixth LIGO science data run. The targets were nine young supernova remnants not associated with pulsars; eight of the remnants are associated with non-pulsing suspected neutron stars. One target's parameters are uncertain enough to warrant two searches, for a total of ten. Each search covered a broad band of frequencies and first and second frequency derivatives for a fixed sky direction. The searches coherently integrated data from the two LIGO interferometers over time spans from 5.3-25.3 days using the matched-filtering F-statistic. We found no credible gravitational-wave signals. We set 95% confidence upper limits as strong (low) as $4\\times10^{-25}$ on intrinsic strain, $2\\times10^{-7}$ on fiducial ellipticity, and $4\\times10^{-5}$ on r-mode amplitude. These beat the indirect limits from energy conservation and are within the range of theoretical predictions for neutron-star ellipticities and r-mode amplitudes.

J. Aasi; B. P. Abbott; R. Abbott; T. Abbott; M. R. Abernathy; F. Acernese; K. Ackley; C. Adams; T. Adams; T. Adams; P. Addesso; R. X. Adhikari; V. Adya; C. Affeldt; M. Agathos; K. Agatsuma; N. Aggarwal; O. D. Aguiar; A. Ain; P. Ajith; A. Alemic; B. Allen; A. Allocca; D. Amariutei; S. B. Anderson; W. G. Anderson; K. Arai; M. C. Araya; C. Arceneaux; J. S. Areeda; S. Ast; S. M. Aston; P. Astone; P. Aufmuth; C. Aulbert; B. E. Aylott; S. Babak; P. T. Baker; F. Baldaccini; G. Ballardin; S. W. Ballmer; J. C. Barayoga; M. Barbet; S. Barclay; B. C. Barish; D. Barker; F. Barone; B. Barr; L. Barsotti; M. Barsuglia; J. Bartlett; M. A. Barton; I. Bartos; R. Bassiri; A. Basti; J. C. Batch; Th. S. Bauer; C. Baune; V. Bavigadda; B. Behnke; M. Bejger; C. Belczynski; A. S. Bell; C. Bell; M. Benacquista; J. Bergman; G. Bergmann; C. P. L. Berry; D. Bersanetti; A. Bertolini; J. Betzwieser; S. Bhagwat; R. Bhandare; I. A. Bilenko; G. Billingsley; J. Birch; S. Biscans; M. Bitossi; C. Biwer; M. A. Bizouard; J. K. Blackburn; L. Blackburn; C. D. Blair; D. Blair; S. Bloemen; O. Bock; T. P. Bodiya; M. Boer; G. Bogaert; P. Bojtos; C. Bond; F. Bondu; L. Bonelli; R. Bonnand; R. Bork; M. Born; V. Boschi; Sukanta Bose; C. Bradaschia; P. R. Brady; V. B. Braginsky; M. Branchesi; J. E. Brau; T. Briant; D. O. Bridges; A. Brillet; M. Brinkmann; V. Brisson; A. F. Brooks; D. A. Brown; D. D. Brown; N. M. Brown; S. Buchman; A. Buikema; T. Bulik; H. J. Bulten; A. Buonanno; D. Buskulic; C. Buy; L. Cadonati; G. Cagnoli; J. Calderón Bustillo; E. Calloni; J. B. Camp; K. C. Cannon; J. Cao; C. D. Capano; F. Carbognani; S. Caride; S. Caudill; M. Cavaglià; F. Cavalier; R. Cavalieri; G. Cella; C. Cepeda; E. Cesarini; R. Chakraborty; T. Chalermsongsak; S. J. Chamberlin; S. Chao; P. Charlton; E. Chassande-Mottin; Y. Chen; A. Chincarini; A. Chiummo; H. S. Cho; M. Cho; J. H. Chow; N. Christensen; Q. Chu; S. Chua; S. Chung; G. Ciani; F. Clara; J. A. Clark; F. Cleva; E. Coccia; P. -F. Cohadon; A. Colla; C. Collette; M. Colombini; L. Cominsky; M. Constancio, Jr.; A. Conte; D. Cook; T. R. Corbitt; N. Cornish; A. Corsi; C. A. Costa; M. W. Coughlin; J. -P. Coulon; S. Countryman; P. Couvares; D. M. Coward; M. J. Cowart; D. C. Coyne; R. Coyne; K. Craig; J. D. E. Creighton; T. D. Creighton; J. Cripe; S. G. Crowder; A. Cumming; L. Cunningham; E. Cuoco; C. Cutler; K. Dahl; T. Dal Canton; M. Damjanic; S. L. Danilishin; S. D'Antonio; K. Danzmann; L. Dartez; V. Dattilo; I. Dave; H. Daveloza; M. Davier; G. S. Davies; E. J. Daw; R. Day; D. DeBra; G. Debreczeni; J. Degallaix; M. De Laurentis; S. Deléglise; W. Del Pozzo; T. Denker; T. Dent; H. Dereli; V. Dergachev; R. De Rosa; R. T. DeRosa; R. DeSalvo; S. Dhurandhar; M. Díaz; L. Di Fiore; A. Di Lieto; I. Di Palma; A. Di Virgilio; G. Dojcinoski; V. Dolique; E. Dominguez; F. Donovan; K. L. Dooley; S. Doravari; R. Douglas; T. P. Downes; M. Drago; J. C. Driggers; Z. Du; M. Ducrot; S. Dwyer; T. Eberle; T. Edo; M. Edwards; M. Edwards; A. Effler; H. -B. Eggenstein; P. Ehrens; J. Eichholz; S. S. Eikenberry; R. Essick; T. Etzel; M. Evans; T. Evans; M. Factourovich; V. Fafone; S. Fairhurst; X. Fan; Q. Fang; S. Farinon; B. Farr; W. M. Farr; M. Favata; M. Fays; H. Fehrmann; M. M. Fejer; D. Feldbaum; I. Ferrante; E. C. Ferreira; F. Ferrini; F. Fidecaro; I. Fiori; R. P. Fisher; R. Flaminio; J. -D. Fournier; S. Franco; S. Frasca; F. Frasconi; Z. Frei; A. Freise; R. Frey; T. T. Fricke; P. Fritschel; V. V. Frolov; S. Fuentes-Tapia; P. Fulda; M. Fyffe; J. R. Gair; L. Gammaitoni; S. Gaonkar; F. Garufi; A. Gatto; N. Gehrels; G. Gemme; B. Gendre; E. Genin; A. Gennai; L. Á. Gergely; S. Ghosh; J. A. Giaime; K. D. Giardina; A. Giazotto; J. Gleason; E. Goetz; R. Goetz; L. Gondan; G. González; N. Gordon; M. L. Gorodetsky; S. Gossan; S. Goßler; R. Gouaty; C. Gräf; P. B. Graff; M. Granata; A. Grant; S. Gras; C. Gray; R. J. S. Greenhalgh; A. M. Gretarsson; P. Groot; H. Grote; S. Grunewald; G. M. Guidi; C. J. Guido; X. Guo; K. Gushwa; E. K. Gustafson; R. Gustafson; J. Hacker; E. D. Hall; G. Hammond; M. Hanke; J. Hanks; C. Hanna; M. D. Hannam; J. Hanson; T. Hardwick; J. Harms; G. M. Harry; I. W. Harry; M. Hart; M. T. Hartman; C. -J. Haster; K. Haughian; S. Hee; A. Heidmann; M. Heintze; G. Heinzel; H. Heitmann; P. Hello; G. Hemming; M. Hendry; I. S. Heng; A. W. Heptonstall; M. Heurs; M. Hewitson; S. Hild; D. Hoak; K. A. Hodge; D. Hofman; S. E. Hollitt; K. Holt; P. Hopkins; D. J. Hosken; J. Hough; E. Houston; E. J. Howell; Y. M. Hu; E. Huerta; B. Hughey; S. Husa; S. H. Huttner; M. Huynh; T. Huynh-Dinh; A. Idrisy; N. Indik; D. R. Ingram; R. Inta; G. Islas; J. C. Isler; T. Isogai; B. R. Iyer; K. Izumi; M. Jacobson; H. Jang; P. Jaranowski; S. Jawahar; Y. Ji; F. Jiménez-Forteza; W. W. Johnson; D. I. Jones; R. Jones; R. J. G. Jonker; L. Ju; Haris K; V. Kalogera; S. Kandhasamy; G. Kang; J. B. Kanner; M. Kasprzack; E. Katsavounidis; W. Katzman

2014-12-18

76

A Newly Discovered Supernova Remnant and MSH 11-62 and 3C58  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

CTA 1 is a center-filled supernova remnant (SNR) whose morphology and spectrum indicate the presence of a central pulsar, a synchrotron nebula, and a thermal component associated with the expansion of the blast wave into the interstellar medium. The centrally bright emission surrounds the position of a faint point source of X-rays observed with the ROSAT Position Sensitive Proportional Counter (PSPC). Here we report on Advanced Spacecraft for Cosmology Astrophysics (ASCA) observations that confirm the nonthermal nature of the diffuse emission from the central regions of the remnant. We also present evidence for weak thermal emission that appears to increase in strength toward the outer boundary of the SNR. Thus, CTA 1 appears to be an X-ray composite remnant. Both the aftermath of the explosive supernova event and the energetic compact core are observable.

Slane, Patrick O.

2000-01-01

77

Generation of Cosmic rays in Historical Supernova Remnants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the results of observations of two types of Galactic supernova remnants with the SHALON mirror Cherenkov telescope of Tien-Shan high-mountain Observatory: the shell-type supernova remnants Tycho, Cas A and IC 443; plerions Crab Nebula, 3c58(SN1181) and Geminga (probably plerion). The experimental data have confirmed the prediction of the theory about the hadronic generation mechanism of very high energy (800 GeV - 100 TeV) gamma-rays in Tycho's supernova remnant. The data obtainedsuggest that the very high energy gamma-ray emission in the objects being discussedis different in origin.

Sinitsyna, V. G.; Sinitsyna, V. Y.

2013-06-01

78

Infrared Spectroscopy of Molecular Supernova Remnants  

E-print Network

We present Infrared Space Observatory spectroscopy of sites in the supernova remnants W28, W44, and 3C391, where blast waves are impacting molecular clouds. Atomic fine-structure lines were detected from C, N, O, Si, P, and Fe. The S(3) and S(9) lines of H2 were detected for all three remnants. The observations require both shocks into gas with moderate (~ 100 /cm3) and high (~10,000 /cm3) pre-shock densities, with the moderate density shocks producing the ionic lines and the high density shock producing the molecular lines. No single shock model can account for all of the observed lines, even at the order of magnitude level. We find that the principal coolants of radiative supernova shocks in moderate-density gas are the far-infrared continuum from dust grains surviving the shock, followed by collisionally-excited [O I] 63.2 and [Si II] 34.8 micron lines. The principal coolant of the high-density shocks is collisionally-excited H2 rotational and ro-vibrational line emission. We systematically examine the ground-state fine structure of all cosmically abundant elements, to explain the presence or lack of all atomic fine lines in our spectra in terms of the atomic structure, interstellar abundances, and a moderate-density, partially-ionized plasma. The [P II] line at 60.6 microns is the first known astronomical detection. There is one bright unidentified line in our spectra, at 74.26 microns. The presence of bright [Si II] and [Fe II] lines requires partial destruction of the dust. The required gas-phase abundance of Fe suggests 15-30% of the Fe-bearing grains were destroyed. The infrared continuum brightness requires ~1 Msun of dust survives the shock, suggesting about 1/3 of the dust mass was destroyed, in agreement with the depletion estimate and with theoretical models for dust destruction.

William T. Reach; Jeonghee Rho

2000-07-27

79

Supernova remnants and the origin of cosmic rays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Supernova remnants have long been considered to be the dominant sources of Galactic cosmic rays. For a long time the prime evidence consisted of radio synchrotron radiation from supernova remnants, indicating the presence of electrons with energies of several GeV. However, in order to explain the cosmic ray energy density and spectrum in the Galaxy supernova remnant should use 10% of the explosion energy to accelerate particles, and about 99% of the accelerated particles should be protons and other atomic nuclei. Over the last decade a lot of progress has been made in providing evidence that supernova remnant can accelerate protons to very high energies. The evidence consists of, among others, X-ray synchrotron radiation from narrow regions close to supernova remnant shock fronts, indicating the presence of 10-100 TeV electrons, and providing evidence for amplified magnetic fields, gamma-ray emission from both young and mature supernova remnants. The high magnetic fields indicate that the condition for accelerating protons to >1015 eV are there, whereas the gamma-ray emission from some mature remnants indicate that protons have been accelerated.

Vink, Jacco

2014-01-01

80

Study of the extended radio emission of two supernova remnants and four planetary nebulae associated to MIPSGAL bubbles  

E-print Network

We present radio observations of two supernova remnants and four planetary nebulae with the Very Large Array and the Green Bank Telescope. These objects are part of a larger sample of radio sources, discussed in a previous paper, counterpart of the MIPSGAL 24-micron compact bubbles. For the two supernova remnants we combined the interferometric observations with single-dish data to obtain both a high resolution and a good sensitivity to extended structures. We discuss in detail the entire combination procedure adopted and the reliability of the resulting maps. For one supernova remnant we pose a more stringent upper limit for the flux density of its undetected pulsar, and we also show prominent spectral index spatial variations, probably due to inhomogeneities in the magnetic field and in its ejecta or to an interaction between the supernova shock and molecular clouds. We eventually use the 5-GHz maps of the four planetary nebulae to estimate their distance and their ionized mass.

Ingallinera, Adriano; Umana, Grazia; Leto, Paolo; Agliozzo, Claudia; Buemi, Carla

2014-01-01

81

The evolution of supernova remnants in different galactic environments, and its effects on supernova statistics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Examination of the interaction between supernova (SN) ejecta and the various environments in which the explosive event might occur shows that only a small fraction of the many SNs produce observable supernova remnants (SNRs). This fraction, which is found to depend weakly upon the lower mass limit of the SN progenitors, and more strongly on the specfic characteristics of the associated interstellar medium, decreases from approximately 15 percent near the galctic center to 10 percent at Rgal approximately 10 kpc and drops nearly to zero for Rgal 15 kpc. Generally, whether a SNR is detectable is determined by the density of the ambient interstellar medium in which it is embeeede. The presence of large, low density cavities arpund stellar associations due to the combined effects of stellar winds and supernova shells strongly suggests that a large portion of the detectable SNRs have runway stars as their progenitors. These results explain the differences between the substantially larger SN rates in the galaxy derived both from pulsar statistics and from observations of SN events in external galaxies, when compared to the substantially smaller SN rates derived form galactic SNR statistics.

Kafatos, M.; Sofia, S.; Bruhweiler, F.; Gull, T. R.

1980-01-01

82

Locating the Periodic Transient GRO J1849-03; Gamma-Ray Luminous Supernovae Remnants  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We obtained one 50 ks observation of the Monoceros supernova remnant under this proposal. This supernova remnant was selected because it overlaps the error box of a gamma-ray source. Much to our surprise, we discovered a hard x-ray point source instead of the diffuse hard x-ray emission we expected from the supernova remnant. A paper on the discovery of the hard x-ray source and on follow-up optical observations identifying a likely Bestar companion was published in the Astrophysical Journal. Subsequently, a reanalysis of the same data yielded the detection of pulsations from the x-ray source. These results were also published in the Astrophysical Journal. Subsequent x-ray observations, which we performed under later proposals, have shown that the x-ray pulsar has a characteristic spin-down age of less than 1400 years in a binary system. The system is likely the first discovered very young, highly-energetic, rotation-powered pulsar in a binary system and offers an exciting opportunity to study the infancy and early evolution of neutron-star binaries.

Kaaret, P.; White, Nicholas (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

83

Modelling the interaction of thermonuclear supernova remnants with circumstellar structures: the case of Tycho's supernova remnant  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The well-established Type Ia remnant of Tycho's supernova (SN 1572) reveals discrepant ambient medium-density estimates based on either the measured dynamics or the X-ray emission properties. This discrepancy can potentially be solved by assuming that the supernova remnant (SNR) shock initially moved through a stellar wind bubble, but is currently evolving in the uniform interstellar medium with a relatively low density. We investigate this scenario by combining hydrodynamical simulations of the wind-loss phase and the SNR evolution with a coupled X-ray emission model, which includes non-equilibrium ionization. For the explosion models we use the well-known W7 deflagration model and the delayed detonation model that was previously shown to provide good fits to the X-ray emission of Tycho's SNR. Our simulations confirm that a uniform ambient density cannot simultaneously reproduce the dynamical and X-ray emission properties of Tycho. In contrast, models that considered that the remnant was evolving in a dense, but small, wind bubble reproduce reasonably well both the measured X-ray emission spectrum and the expansion parameter of Tycho's SNR. Finally, we discuss possible mass-loss scenarios in the context of single- and double-degenerate models which possibly could form such a small dense wind bubble.

Chiotellis, A.; Kosenko, D.; Schure, K. M.; Vink, J.; Kaastra, J. S.

2013-10-01

84

Reacceleration of electrons in supernova remnants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context. The radio spectra of many shell-type supernova remnants show deviations from those expected on theoretical grounds. Aims: In this paper we determine the effect of stochastic reacceleration on the spectra of electrons in the GeV band and at lower energies, and we investigate whether reacceleration can explain the observed variation in radio spectral indices. Methods: We explicitely calculated the momentum diffusion coefficient for 3 types of turbulence expected downstream of the forward shock: fast-mode waves, small-scale non-resonant modes, and large-scale modes arising from turbulent dynamo activity. After noting that low-energy particles are efficiently coupled to the quasi-thermal plasma, a simplified cosmic-ray transport equation can be formulated and is numerically solved. Results: Only fast-mode waves can provide momentum diffusion fast enough to significantly modify the spectra of particles. Using a synchrotron emissivity that accurately reflects a highly turbulent magnetic field, we calculated the radio spectral index and find that soft spectra with index ? ? - 0.6 can be maintained over more than 2 decades in radio frequency, even if the electrons experience reacceleration for only one acceleration time. A spectral hardening is possible but considerably more frequency-dependent. The spectral modification imposed by stochastic reacceleration downstream of the forward shock depends only weakly on the initial spectrum provided by, e.g., diffusive shock acceleration at the shock itself.

Pohl, M.; Wilhelm, A.; Telezhinsky, I.

2015-01-01

85

Electrostatic Potentials in Supernova Remnant Shocks  

E-print Network

Recent advances in the understanding of the properties of supernova remnant shocks have been precipitated by the Chandra and XMM X-ray Observatories, and the HESS Atmospheric Cerenkov Telescope in the TeV band. A critical problem for this field is the understanding of the relative degree of dissipative heating/energization of electrons and ions in the shock layer. This impacts the interpretation of X-ray observations, and moreover influences the efficiency of injection into the acceleration process, which in turn feeds back into the thermal shock layer energetics and dynamics. This paper outlines the first stages of our exploration of the role of charge separation potentials in non-relativistic electron-ion shocks where the inertial gyro-scales are widely disparate, using results from a Monte Carlo simulation. Charge density spatial profiles were obtained in the linear regime, sampling the inertial scales for both ions and electrons, for different magnetic field obliquities. These were readily integrated to acquire electric field profiles in the absence of self-consistent, spatial readjustments between the electrons and the ions. It was found that while diffusion plays little role in modulating the linear field structure in highly oblique and perpendicular shocks, in quasi-parallel shocks, where charge separations induced by gyrations are small, and shock-layer electric fields are predominantly generated on diffusive scales.

Matthew G. Baring; Errol J. Summerlin

2006-09-14

86

MODIFIED EQUIPARTITION CALCULATION FOR SUPERNOVA REMNANTS  

SciTech Connect

Determination of the magnetic field strength in the interstellar medium is one of the more complex tasks of contemporary astrophysics. We can only estimate the order of magnitude of the magnetic field strength by using a few very limited methods. Besides the Zeeman effect and Faraday rotation, the equipartition or minimum-energy calculation is a widespread method for estimating magnetic field strength and energy contained in the magnetic field and cosmic-ray particles by using only the radio synchrotron emission. Despite its approximate character, it remains a useful tool, especially when there are no other data about the magnetic field in a source. In this paper, we give a modified calculation that we think is more appropriate for estimating magnetic field strengths and energetics in supernova remnants (SNRs). We present calculated estimates of the magnetic field strengths for all Galactic SNRs for which the necessary observational data are available. The Web application for calculation of the magnetic field strengths of SNRs is available at http://poincare.matf.bg.ac.rs/{approx}arbo/eqp/.

Arbutina, B.; Urosevic, D.; Andjelic, M. M.; Pavlovic, M. Z. [Department of Astronomy, Faculty of Mathematics, University of Belgrade, Studentski trg 16, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia); Vukotic, B., E-mail: arbo@math.rs [Astronomical Observatory, Volgina 7, 11060 Belgrade (Serbia)

2012-02-10

87

The prevalence of supernova remnants among unidentified Galactic radio sources  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Nine Galactic radio sources were mapped to identify new Crab-like and composite supernova remnants. The sources were selected on the basis of existing stringent upper limits on their hydrogen recombination line fluxes. One new Cracb-like remnant, one new composite remnant, at least one, and probably two, new shell-like remnants, and a compact H II region were found, along with the expected collection of extragalactic objects. The results suggest that there are several hundred SNRs in the Galaxy which are detectable with current instruments, but which have yet to be identified.

Helfand, David J.; Velusamy, T.; Becker, R. H.; Lockman, Felix J.

1989-01-01

88

Chandra spectroscopy of N157B -- a young composite supernova remnant in a superbubble  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present Chandra ACIS observations of SNR N157B a young supernova remnant located in the 30 Doradus star-formation region of the Large Magellanic Cloud This remnant contains the most energetic pulsar known dot E 4 8 times 10 38 erg s -1 cm -2 which is surrounded by a bright nonthermal nebula that likely represents a toroidal pulsar wind terminal shock observed edge-on We confirm the non-thermal nature of the comet-shaped X-ray emission feature and show that the spectral steepening of this feature away from the pulsar is quantitatively consistent with synchrotron cooling of shocked pulsar particles flowing downstream at a bulk velocity close to the speed of light Around the cometary nebula we unambiguously detect a thermal component which accounts for about 1 3 of the total 0 5 -- 10 keV flux from the remnant This thermal component is distributed among various clumps of metal-enriched plasma embedded in the low surface brightness X-ray-emitting diffuse gas The relative metal enrichment pattern suggests that the mass of the supernova progenitor is sim20M odot A comparison of the X-ray data with a recent sl HST optical image suggests that the explosion site is close to a dense cloud against which a reflection shock is launched The interaction between this reflection shock and the nebula has likely produced both its cometary shape and the surrounding thermal emission enhancement SNR N157B is apparently expanding into the low density and hot interior of a nearby superbubble formed by the young OB association

Chen, Yang; Wang, Q. D.; Gotthelf, E. V.; Jiang, Bing; Chu, Y.-H.; Gruendl, R.

89

A Broadband Study of the Emission from the Composite Supernova Remnant MSH 11-62  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

MSH 11-62 (G29U)-Q.1) is a composite supernova remnant for which radio and X-ray observations have identified the remnant shell as well as its central pulsar wind nebula. The observations suggest a relatively young system expanding into a low-density region. Here, we present a study of MSH ll-62 using observations with the Chandra, XMM-Newton, and Fermi observatories, along with radio observations from the Australia Telescope Compact Array. We identify a compact X-ray source that appears to be the putative pulsar that powers the nebula, and show that the X-ray spectrum of the nebula bears the signature of synchrotron losses as particles diffuse into the outer nebula. Using data from the Fermi Large Area Telescope, we identify gamma-ray emission originating from MSH 11-62. With density constraints from the new X-ray measurements of the remnant, we model the evolution of the composite system in order to constrain the properties of the underlying pulsar and the origin of the gamma-ray emission.

Slane, Patrick; Hughes, John P.; Temim, Tea; Rousseau, Romain; Castro, Daniel; Foight, Dillon; Gaensler, B. M.; Funk, Stefan; Lemoine-Goumard, Marianne; Gelfand, Joseph D.; Moffett, David A.

2012-01-01

90

A BROADBAND STUDY OF THE EMISSION FROM THE COMPOSITE SUPERNOVA REMNANT MSH 11-62  

SciTech Connect

MSH 11-62 (G291.0-0.1) is a composite supernova remnant for which radio and X-ray observations have identified the remnant shell as well as its central pulsar wind nebula. The observations suggest a relatively young system expanding into a low-density region. Here, we present a study of MSH 11-62 using observations with the Chandra, XMM -Newton, and Fermi observatories, along with radio observations from the Australia Telescope Compact Array. We identify a compact X-ray source that appears to be the putative pulsar that powers the nebula, and show that the X-ray spectrum of the nebula bears the signature of synchrotron losses as particles diffuse into the outer nebula. Using data from the Fermi Large Area Telescope, we identify {gamma}-ray emission originating from MSH 11-62. With density constraints from the new X-ray measurements of the remnant, we model the evolution of the composite system in order to constrain the properties of the underlying pulsar and the origin of the {gamma}-ray emission.

Slane, Patrick; Castro, Daniel; Foight, Dillon, E-mail: slane@cfa.harvard.edu [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138-1516 (United States); and others

2012-04-20

91

RXTE Observation of the Tycho Supernova Remnant  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

SN1006 [4] and Cas A [1, 9] supernova remnants have been shown convincingly to have a hard X-ray power-law continuum. This continuum is thought to be the synchrotron radiation from accelerated electrons of approx. 100 TeV at the shock fronts. Our goal of AO2 RXTE observation is to detect the hard X-ray continuum and to determine the nature of the continuum from Tycho SNR. A detection of a power-law continuum from Tycho SNR can strongly argue for SNRs are the source of cosmic rays with the first order Fermi acceleration as the energizing process. We report the results of our AO2 RXTE 1 x 10(exp 5) sec observation of Tycho SNR. We detect two components of the X-ray spectrum from Tycho SNR both at better than 3 omega confidence. The best two component models are: bremsstrahlung (kT=2.67 +/- 0.13 keV) + bremsstrahlung (kT=7.07 +/- 2.21/1.72 keV) or bremsstrahlung (kT=2.36 +/- 0.21/0.57 keV) + power-law (gamma=2.58 +/- 0.12/0.09 ). This result is an improvement compaxed with the previous most sensitive X-ray measurements by Ginga which shows Tycho's observed X-ray continuum requires a two-component model to yield acceptable fits with the hard component parameters being highly uncertain. Our RXTE measurements constrain all parameter within 3o, ranges. However, we cannot yet distinguish between thermal and nonthermal models for the hard component. In the followings, we describe what we accomplished in the period covered by the grant proposal.

The, Lih-Sin

1998-01-01

92

Possible optical counterparts to the X-ray point source in the supernova remnant CTB 80  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A three color CCD image of the central region of the supernova remnant CTB 80 is presented, along with astrometry and photometry of many stars in the field. The color image does not show evidence of heavy or variable dust absorption in the surrounding region. Using an Einstein High Resolution Imager position for the central X-ray point source, two possible optical counterparts have been identified at magnitudes V = 19.9 and V = 20.9. Comparison of the intrinsic colors and magnitudes of these candidates are made to the optical properties of Crab and Vela pulsars, and they are found to be viable candidates.

Blair, W. P.; Schild, R. E.

1985-01-01

93

THE YOUNGEST KNOWN X-RAY BINARY: CIRCINUS X-1 AND ITS NATAL SUPERNOVA REMNANT  

E-print Network

Because supernova remnants are short-lived, studies of neutron star X-ray binaries within supernova remnants probe the earliest stages in the life of accreting neutron stars. However, such objects are exceedingly rare: ...

Heinz, S.

94

Far-Ultraviolet Cooling Features of the Antlia Supernova Remnant  

E-print Network

We present far-ultraviolet observations of the Antlia supernova remnant obtained with Far-ultraviolet IMaging Spectrograph (FIMS, also called SPEAR). The strongest lines observed are C IV 1548,1551 and C III 977. The C IV emission of this mixed-morphology supernova remnant shows a clumpy distribution, and the line intensity is nearly constant with radius. The C III 977 line, though too weak to be mapped over the whole remnant, is shown to vary radially. The line intensity peaks at about half the radius, and drops at the edge of the remnant. Both the clumpy distribution of C IV and the rise in the C IV to C III ratio towards the edge suggest that central emission is from evaporating cloudlets rather than thermal conduction in a more uniform, dense medium.

Jong-Ho Shinn; Kyoung Wook Min; Ravi Sankrit; Kwang-Sun Ryu; Il-Joong Kim; Wonyong Han; Uk-Won Nam; Jang-Hyun Park; Jerry Edelstein; Eric J. Korpela

2007-10-09

95

Six Years of Chandra Observations of Supernova Remnants  

E-print Network

We present a review of the first six years of Chandra X-ray Observatory observations of supernova remnants. From the official "first-light" observation of Cassiopeia A that revealed for the first time the compact remnant of the explosion, to the recent million-second spectrally-resolved observation that revealed new details of the stellar composition and dynamics of the original explosion, Chandra observations have provided new insights into the supernova phenomenon. We present an admittedly biased overview of six years of these observations, highlighting new discoveries made possible by Chandra's unique capabilities.

Martin C. Weisskopf; John P. Hughes

2005-11-10

96

Revealing New Physical Structures in the Supernova Remnant N63A through Chandra Imaging Spectroscopy  

E-print Network

We present Chandra X-ray observations of the supernova remnant (SNR) N63A in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). N63A, one of the brightest LMC remnants, is embedded in an H II region and probably associated with an OB association. The optical remnant consists of three lobes of emission contained within the approximately three times larger X-ray remnant. Our Chandra data reveal a number of new physical structures in N63A. The most striking of these are the several ``crescent''-shaped structures located beyond the main shell that resemble similar features seen in the Vela SNR. In Vela, these have been interpreted as arising from high speed clumps of supernova ejecta interacting with the ambient medium. Another distinct feature of the remnant is a roughly triangular ``hole'' in the X-ray emission near the location of the optical lobes and the brightest radio emission. X-ray spectral analysis shows that this deficit of emission is a result of absorption by an intervening dense cloud with a mass of ~450 M_sun that is currently being engulfed by the remnant's blast wave. We also find that the rim of the remnant, as well as the crescent-shaped features, have considerably softer X-ray spectra than the interior. Limits on hard X-ray emission rule out a young, energetic pulsar in N63A, but the presence of an older or less active one, powering a wind nebula with a luminosity less than ~4e10^34 erg/s, is allowed.

Jessica S. Warren; John P. Hughes; Patrick O. Slane

2002-09-18

97

SUPERNOVA REMNANT PROGENITOR MASSES IN M31  

SciTech Connect

Using Hubble Space Telescope photometry, we age-date 59 supernova remnants (SNRs) in the spiral galaxy M31 and use these ages to estimate zero-age main-sequence masses (M{sub ZAMS}) for their progenitors. To accomplish this, we create color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) and employ CMD fitting to measure the recent star formation history of the regions surrounding cataloged SNR sites. We identify any young coeval population that likely produced the progenitor star, then assign an age and uncertainty to that population. Application of stellar evolution models allows us to infer the M{sub ZAMS} from this age. Because our technique is not contingent on identification or precise location of the progenitor star, it can be applied to the location of any known SNRs. We identify significant young star formation around 53 of the 59 SNRs and assign progenitor masses to these, representing a factor of {approx}2 increase over currently measured progenitor masses. We consider the remaining six SNRs as either probable Type Ia candidates or the result of core-collapse progenitors that have escaped their birth sites. In general, the distribution of recovered progenitor masses is bottom-heavy, showing a paucity of the most massive stars. If we assume a single power-law distribution, dN/dM{proportional_to}M{sup {alpha}}, then we find a distribution that is steeper than a Salpeter initial mass function (IMF) ({alpha} = -2.35). In particular, we find values of {alpha} outside the range -2.7 {>=} {alpha} {>=} -4.4 to be inconsistent with our measured distribution at 95% confidence. If instead we assume a distribution that follows a Salpeter IMF up to some maximum mass, then we find that values of M{sub Max} > 26 are inconsistent with the measured distribution at 95% confidence. In either scenario, the data suggest that some fraction of massive stars may not explode. The result is preliminary and requires more SNRs and further analysis. In addition, we use our distribution to estimate a minimum mass for core collapse between 7.0 and 7.8 M{sub Sun }.

Jennings, Zachary G.; Williams, Benjamin F.; Dalcanton, Julianne J.; Gilbert, Karoline M.; Fouesneau, Morgan; Weisz, Daniel R. [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington Seattle, Box 351580, WA 98195 (United States); Murphy, Jeremiah W. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Dolphin, Andrew E., E-mail: zachjenn@uw.edu, E-mail: adolphin@raytheon.com [Raytheon, 1151 East Hermans Road, Tucson, AZ 85706 (United States)

2012-12-10

98

GSH 90-28-17: a possible old supernova remnant  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

GSH 90-28-17 is a high-latitude Galactic H I supershell, identified in the H I supershell catalogues with a velocity vlsr ˜ -17 km s-1. We used the new Galactic Arecibo L-band Feed Array (GALFA) H I survey data, which have much higher resolution and sensitivity than was previously available, to re-examine the properties of the supershell. We derived a new distance of 400 pc for GSH 90-28-17 and suggested that it is related to the Lac OB1 association. The radius of GSH 90-28-17 is 66.0 ± 3.5 pc. The H I mass of the shell is (3.1 ± 0.1) × 104 M?. It has an age of ˜4.5 Myr and a total kinetic energy of (8.2 ± 0.3) × 1048 erg. We extracted radio continuum data for the GSH 90-28-17 region from the 408-MHz All-Sky Survey and Bonn 1420-MHz survey and filtered the diffuse background Galactic emission. A radio loop-like ridge is found to be associated with the H I shell at both frequencies and shows a non-thermal origin, with a temperature-temperature (TT)-plot index of ? = -1.35 ± 0.69. In addition, the pulsar J2307+2225, with a similar distance, is found in the shell region. We conclude that GSH 90-28-17 is probably an old, type II supernova remnant in the solar neighbourhood.

Xiao, L.; Zhu, M.

2014-02-01

99

Suzaku studies of the supernova remnant CTB 109 hosting the magnetar 1E 2259+586  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ages of the magnetar 1E 2259+586 and the associated supernova remnant CTB 109 were studied. Analyzing the Suzaku data of CTB 109, its age was estimated to be ˜ 14 kyr, which is much younger than the measured characteristic age of 1E 2259+586, 230 kyr. This reconfirms the previously reported age discrepancy of this magnetar/remnant association, and suggests that the characteristic ages of magnetars are generally over-estimated as compared to their true ages. This discrepancy is thought to arise because the former are calculated without considering decay of the magnetic fields. This novel view is supported independently by much stronger Galactic-plane concentration of magnetars than other pulsars. The process of magnetic field decay in magnetars is mathematically modeled. It is implied that magnetars are much younger objects than previously considered, and can dominate new-born neutron stars.

Nakano, Toshio; Murakami, Hiroaki; Makishima, Kazuo; Hiraga, Junoko S.; Uchiyama, Hideki; Kaneda, Hidehiro; Enoto, Teruaki

2015-01-01

100

The Evolution of Relativistic Electron Populations in Shell Supernova Remnants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Observational data regarding the acceleration of relativistic particles in shell-type supernova remnants (SNRs) is presented. As synchrotron spectral indices directly reflect the energy spectra of radiating particle populations, we have mapped the spatial distribution of spectral index in several shell SNRs. In particular, we address the question of whether bright, compact radio features in SNRs should be should be interpreted

Martha Carol Anderson

1993-01-01

101

Carbon Monoxide in the Cassiopeia A Supernova Remnant  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the near-infrared detection of first overtone Carbon Monoxide (CO) emission from the young supernova remnant Cassiopeia A. The presence of CO emission implies conditions are conducive to dust formation long after the typically quoted 200--800 days from the explosion event. The CO in Cas A formed in an earlier stage of SNe explosion and has cooled, is now

Jeonghee Rho; T. H. Jarrett; W. T. Reach; H. Gomez; M. Andersen

2009-01-01

102

HIGH-ENERGY EMISSION FROM THE COMPOSITE SUPERNOVA REMNANT MSH 15-56  

SciTech Connect

MSH 15-56 (G326.3-1.8) is a composite supernova remnant (SNR) that consists of an SNR shell and a displaced pulsar wind nebula (PWN) in the radio. We present XMM-Newton and Chandra X-ray observations of the remnant that reveal a compact source at the tip of the radio PWN and complex structures that provide evidence for mixing of the supernova (SN) ejecta with PWN material following a reverse shock interaction. The X-ray spectra are well fitted by a non-thermal power-law model whose photon index steepens with distance from the presumed pulsar, and a thermal component with an average temperature of 0.55 keV. The enhanced abundances of silicon and sulfur in some regions, and the similar temperature and ionization timescale, suggest that much of the X-ray emission can be attributed to SN ejecta that have either been heated by the reverse shock or swept up by the PWN. We find one region with a lower temperature of 0.3 keV that appears to be in ionization equilibrium. Assuming the Sedov model, we derive a number of SNR properties, including an age of 16,500 yr. Modeling of the {gamma}-ray emission detected by Fermi shows that the emission may originate from the reverse shock-crushed PWN.

Temim, Tea [Observational Cosmology Lab, Code 665, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Slane, Patrick; Plucinsky, Paul P. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Castro, Daniel [MIT-Kavli Center for Astrophysics and Space Research, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Gelfand, Joseph [New York University Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Dickel, John R., E-mail: tea.temim@nasa.gov [Physics and Astronomy Department, University of New Mexico, MSC 07-4220, Alburquerque, NM 87131 (United States)

2013-05-01

103

High-energy Emission from the Composite Supernova Remnant MSH 15-56  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

MSH 1556 (G326.3-1.8) is a composite supernova remnant (SNR) that consists of an SNR shell and a displaced pulsar wind nebula (PWN) in the radio. We present XMM-Newton and Chandra X-ray observations of the remnant that reveal a compact source at the tip of the radio PWN and complex structures that provide evidence for mixing of the supernova (SN) ejecta with PWN material following a reverse shock interaction. The X-ray spectra are well fitted by a non-thermal power-law model whose photon index steepens with distance from the presumed pulsar, and a thermal component with an average temperature of 0.55 keV. The enhanced abundances of silicon and sulfur in some regions, and the similar temperature and ionization timescale, suggest that much of the X-ray emission can be attributed to SN ejecta that have either been heated by the reverse shock or swept up by the PWN. We find one region with a lower temperature of 0.3 keV that appears to be in ionization equilibrium.Assuming the Sedov model, we derive a number of SNR properties, including an age of 16,500 yr. Modeling of the gamma-ray emission detected by Fermi shows that the emission may originate from the reverse shock-crushed PWN.

Temim, Tea; Slane, Patrick; Castro, Daniel; Plucinsky, Paul; Gelfand, Joseph; Dickel, John R.

2013-01-01

104

Simulations of Mixed Morphology Supernova Remnants With Anisotropic Thermal Conduction  

E-print Network

We explore the role of anisotropic thermal conduction on the evolution of supernova remnants through interstellar media with a range of densities via numerical simulations. We find that a remnant expanding in a dense environment can produce centre-bright hard x-ray emission within 20 kyr, and centre-bright soft x-ray emission within 60 kyr of the supernova event. In a more tenuous environment, the appearance of a centre-bright structure in hard x-rays is delayed until about 60 kyr. The soft x-ray emission from such a remnant may not become centre bright during its observable lifetime. This can explain the observations that show that mixed-morphology supernova remnants preferentially occur close to denser, molecular environments. Remnants expanding into denser environments tend to be smaller, making it easier for thermal conduction to make larger changes in the temperatures of their hot gas bubbles. We show that the lower temperatures make it very favorable to use high-stage ions as diagnostics of the hot gas bubbles in SNRs. In particular, the distribution of O VIII transitions from shell-bright at early epochs to centre-bright at later epochs in the evolution of an SNR expanding in a dense ISM when the physics of thermal conduction is included.

David A. Tilley; Dinshaw S. Balsara; J. Christopher Howk

2006-04-21

105

Extended OH(1720 MHz) Maser Emission from Supernova Remnants  

E-print Network

Compact OH(1720 MHz) masers have proven to be excellent signposts for the interaction of supernova remnants with adjacent molecular clouds. Less appreciated has been the weak, extended OH(1720 MHz) emission which accompanies strong compact maser sources. Recent single-dish and interferometric observations reveal the majority of maser-emitting supernova remnants have accompanying regions of extended maser emission. Enhanced OH abundance created by the passing shock is observed both as maser emission and absorption against the strong background of the remnant. Modeling the observed OH profiles gives an estimate of the physical conditions in which weak, extended maser emission arises. I will discuss how we can realize the utility of this extended maser emission, particularly the potential to measure the strength of the post-shock magnetic field via Zeeman splitting over these large-scales.

J. W. Hewitt; F. Yusef-Zadeh; M. Wardle; D. A. Roberts

2007-05-21

106

OH (1720 MHz) Masers and Mixed-Morphology Supernova Remnants  

E-print Network

Radio surveys of supernova remnants (SNRs) in the Galaxy have uncovered 19 SNRs accompanied by OH maser emission at 1720 MHz. This unusual class of maser sources is suggested to be produced behind a shock front from the expansion of a supernova remnant running into a molecular cloud. An important ingredient of this model is that X-ray emission from the remnant enhances the production of OH molecule. The role of X-ray emission from maser emitting (ME) SNRs is investigated by comparing the X-ray induced ionization rate with theory. One aspect of this model is verified: there is a strong association between maser emitting and mixed-morphology (MM) or thermal composite SNRs --center-filled thermal X-ray emission surrounded by shell-like radio morphology. We also present ROSAT and ASCA observations of two maser emitting SNRs: G21.8--0.6 (Kes 69) and G357.7--0.1 (Tornado).

F. Yusef-Zadeh; M. Wardle; J. Rho; M. Sakano

2002-11-10

107

X-ray studies of supernova remnants: A different view of supernova explosions  

PubMed Central

The unprecedented spatial and spectral resolutions of Chandra have revolutionized our view of the X-ray emission from supernova remnants. The excellent datasets accumulated on young, ejecta-dominated objects like Cas A or Tycho present a unique opportunity to study at the same time the chemical and physical structure of the explosion debris and the characteristics of the circumstellar medium sculpted by the progenitor before the explosion. Supernova remnants can thus put strong constraints on fundamental aspects of both supernova explosion physics and stellar evolution scenarios for supernova progenitors. This view of the supernova phenomenon is completely independent of, and complementary to, the study of distant extragalactic supernovae at optical wavelengths. The calibration of these two techniques has recently become possible thanks to the detection and spectroscopic follow-up of supernova light echoes. In this paper, I review the most relevant results on supernova remnants obtained during the first decade of Chandra and the impact that these results have had on open issues in supernova research. PMID:20404206

Badenes, Carles

2010-01-01

108

No cold dust within the supernova remnant Cassiopeia A  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A large amount (about three solar masses) of cold (18K) dust in the prototypical type II supernova remnant Cassiopeia A was recently reported. It was concluded that dust production in type II supernovae can explain how the large quantities (~ 108 solar masses) of dust observed in the most distant quasars could have been produced within only 700 million years after the Big Bang. Foreground clouds of interstellar material, however, complicate the interpretation of the earlier submillimetre observations of Cas A. Here we report far-infrared and molecular line observations that demonstrate that most of the detected submillimetre emission originates from interstellar dust in a molecular cloud complex located in the line of sight between the Earth and Cas A, and is therefore not associated with the remnant. The argument that type II supernovae produce copious amounts of dust is not supported by the case of Cas A, which previously appeared to provide the best evidence for this possibility.

Krause, Oliver; Birkmann, Stephan M.; Rieke, George H.; Lemke, Dietrich; Klaas, Ulrich; Hines, Dean C.; Gordon, Karl D.

2004-12-01

109

Stochastic Electron Acceleration in Shell-Type Supernova Remnants II  

E-print Network

We discuss the generic characteristics of stochastic particle acceleration by a fully developed turbulence spectrum and show that resonant interactions of particles with high speed waves dominate the acceleration process. To produce the relativistic electrons inferred from the broadband spectrum of a few well-observed shell-type supernova remnants in the leptonic scenario for the TeV emission, fast mode waves must be excited effectively in the downstream and dominate the turbulence in the subsonic phase. Strong collisionless non-relativistic astrophysical shocks are studied with the assumption of a constant Aflven speed. The energy density of non-thermal electrons is found to be comparable to that of the magnetic field. With reasonable parameters, the model explains observations of shell-type supernova remnants. More detailed studies are warranted to better understand the nature of supernova shocks.

Siming Liu; Zhong-Hui Fan; Christopher L. Fryer

2008-09-16

110

Supernova Remnants in the Magellanic Clouds. VI. The DEML316 Supernova Remnants  

E-print Network

The DEML316 system contains two shells, both with the characteristic signatures of supernova remnants (SNRs). We analyze Chandra and XMM-Newton data for DEML316, investigating its spatial and spectral X-ray features. Our Chandra observations resolve the structure of the northeastern SNR (Shell A) as a bright inner ring and a set of "arcs" surrounded by fainter diffuse emission. The spectrum is well fit by a thermal plasma model with temperature ~1.4 keV; we do not find significant spectral differences for different regions of this SNR. The southwestern SNR (Shell B) exhibits an irregular X-ray outline, with a brighter interior ring of emission including a bright knot of emission. Overall the emission of the SNR is well described by a thermal plasma of temperature ~0.6 keV. The Bright Knot, however, is spectrally distinct from the rest of the SNR, requiring the addition of a high-energy spectral component consistent with a power-law spectrum of photon index 1.6--1.8. We confirm the findings of Nishiuchi et al. (2001) that the spectra of these shells are notably different, with Shell A requiring a high iron abundance for a good spectral fit, implying a Type Ia origin. We further explicitly compare abundance ratios to model predictions for Type Ia and Type II supernovae. The low ratios for Shell A (O/Fe of 1.5 and Ne/Fe of 0.2) and the high ratios for Shell B (O/Fe of 30--130 and Ne/Fe of 8--16) are consistent with Type Ia and Type II origins, respectively. The difference between the SNR progenitor types casts some doubt on the suggestion that these SNRs are interacting with one another.

R. M. Williams; Y. -H. Chu

2005-09-22

111

3-D modeling of Type Ia supernova remnants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has been suggested that several features of observed Type Ia supernova remnants (SNRs) could not be easily explained by purely hydrodynamical models. Our work addresses that claim, using an exponential density profile to model a generic Type Ia SNR. In addition, we have run several simulations with different degrees of compressible fluid, to emulate efficient acceleration of cosmic rays. We find that many features of both Tycho's SNR and the remnant of SN 1006 can be explained purely by hydrodynamics: the close proximity of the forward and reverse shocks to the contact discontinuity, the appearance of ejecta structures in both remnants, and the protrusion of ejecta knots ahead of the forward shock. We also use these simulations to estimate the dynamical age of both remnants and to comment on key SNR parameters such as the ambient density and the energy of the explosion.

Warren, Donald; Blondin, John

112

Modelling Hard Gamma-Ray Emission from Supernova Remnants  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The observation by the CANGAROO experiment of TeV emission from SN 1006, in conjunction with several instances of non-thermal X-ray emission from supernova remnants, has led to inferences of super-TeV electrons in these extended sources. While this is sufficient to propel the theoretical community in their modelling of particle acceleration and associated radiation, the anticipated emergence in the next decade of a number of new experiments probing the TeV and sub-TeV bands provides further substantial motivation for modellers. In particular, the quest for obtaining unambiguous gamma-ray signatures of cosmic ray ion acceleration defines a "Holy Grail" for observers and theorists alike. This review summarizes theoretical developments in the prediction of MeV-TeV gamma-rays from supernova remnants over the last five years, focusing on how global properties of models can impact, and be impacted by, hard gamma-ray observational programs, thereby probing the supernova remnant environment. Properties of central consideration include the maximum energy of accelerated particles, the density of the unshocked interstellar medium, the ambient magnetic field, and the relativistic electron-to-proton ratio. Criteria for determining good candidate remnants for observability in the TeV band are identified.

Baring, Matthew

2000-01-01

113

Modelling Hard Gamma-Ray Emission from Supernova Remnants  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The observation by the CANGAROO (Collaboration of Australia and Nippon Gamma Ray Observatory at Outback) experiment of TeV emission from SN 1006, in conjunction with several instances of non-thermal X-ray emission from supernova remnants, has led to inferences of super-TeV electrons in these extended sources. While this is sufficient to propel the theoretical community in their modelling of particle acceleration and associated radiation, the anticipated emergence in the next decade of a number of new experiments probing the TeV and sub-TeV bands provides further substantial motivation for modellers. In particular, the quest for obtaining unambiguous gamma-ray signatures of cosmic ray ion acceleration defines a "Holy Grail" for observers and theorists alike. This review summarizes theoretical developments in the prediction of MeV-TeV gamma-rays from supernova remnants over the last five years, focusing on how global properties of models can impact, and be impacted by, hard gamma-ray observational programs, thereby probing the supernova remnant environment. Properties of central consideration include the maximum energy of accelerated particles, the density of the unshocked interstellar medium, the ambient magnetic field, and the relativistic electron-to-proton ratio. Criteria for determining good candidate remnants for observability in the TeV band are identified.

Baring, Matthew G.

1999-01-01

114

Chandra X-Ray Observatory Photo Album: G11.2-0.3 Chandra Associates Pulsar and Historic Supernova  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

NASA's Chandra X-Ray Observatory, designed to observe X-rays from high energy regions of the universe, regularly releases images taken using the Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer (ACIS). This image shows a pulsar located exactly at the geometric center of the supernova remnant known as G11.2-0.3. The image is accompanied by a table giving the scale, category, coordinates, observation date and time, color code, and instrument used.

115

Simulating Anisotropic Thermal Conduction in Supernova Remnants I : Numerics and the Evolution of Remnants  

E-print Network

Anisotropic thermal conduction plays an important role in various astrophysical systems. One of the most stringent tests of thermal conduction can be found in supernova remnants. In this paper we study anisotropic thermal conduction and examine the physical nature of the flux of thermal conduction in the classical and saturated limits. We also present a temporally second-order accurate implicit-explicit scheme for the time-update of thermal conduction terms within a numerical MHD scheme. Several simulations of supernova remnants are presented for a range of ISM parameters. The role of thermal conduction in such remnants has been studied. We find that thermal conduction produces cooler temperatures and higher densities in the hot gas bubbles that form in the remnants. The effect of thermal conduction in changing the thermal characteristics of the hot gas bubble increases as the remnant propagates through denser ISMs. Remnants evolving in denser ISMs are shown to make a faster transition to a centre-bright x-ray morphology, with the trend emerging earlier in hard x-rays than in the soft x-rays.

D. S. Balsara; D. A. Tilley; J. C. Howk

2007-11-14

116

A Newly Recognized Very Young Supernova Remnant in M83  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As part of a spectroscopic survey of supernova remnant candidates in M83 using the Gemini-South telescope and GMOS, we have discovered one object whose spectrum shows very broad lines at Halpha, [O I] 6300, and [O III] 5007, similar to those from other objects classified as `late time supernovae.' Although six historical supernovae have been observed in M83 since 1923, none were seen at the location of this object. Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3 images show a nearly unresolved emission source, while Chandra and ATCA data reveal a bright X-ray source and nonthermal radio source at the position. Objects in other galaxies showing similar spectra are only decades post-supernova, which raises the possibility that the supernova that created this object occurred during the last century but was not observed. Using photometry of nearby stars from the HST data, we suggest the precursor was at least 17 M(sun), and the presence of broad Halpha in the spectrum makes a type II supernova likely. The supernova must predate the 1983 VLA radio detection of the object. We suggest examination of archival images of M83 to search for evidence of the supernova event that gave rise to this object, and thus provide a precise time since the explosion.We acknowledge STScI grants under the umbrella program ID GO-12513 to Johns Hopkins University, STScI, and Middlebury College. PFW acknowledges additional support from the National Science Foundation through grant AST-0908566.

Blair, William P.; Winkler, P. Frank; Long, Knox S.; Whitmore, Bradley C.; Kim, Hwihyun; Soria, Roberto; Kuntz, K. D.; Plucinsky, Paul P.; Dopita, Michael A.; Stockdale, Christopher

2015-01-01

117

A 3D numerical model for Kepler's supernova remnant  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present new 3D numerical simulations for Kepler's supernova remnant. In this work we revisit the possibility that the asymmetric shape of the remnant in X-rays is the product of a Type Ia supernova explosion which occurs inside the wind bubble previously created by an AGB companion star. Due to the large peculiar velocity of the system, the interaction of the strong AGB wind with the interstellar medium results in a bow shock structure. In this new model we propose that the AGB wind is anisotropic, with properties such as mass-loss rate and density having a latitude dependence, and that the orientation of the polar axis of the AGB star is not aligned with the direction of motion. The ejecta from the Type Ia supernova explosion is modelled using a power-law density profile, and we let the remnant evolve for 400 yr. We computed synthetic X-ray maps from the numerical results. We find that the estimated size and peculiar X-ray morphology of Kepler's supernova remnant are well reproduced by considering an AGB mass-loss rate of 10-5 M? yr-1, a wind terminal velocity of 10 km s-1, an ambient medium density of 10-3 cm-3 and an explosion energy of 7 × 1050 erg. The obtained total X-ray luminosity of the remnant in this model reaches 6 × 1050 erg, which is within a factor of 2 of the observed value, and the time evolution of the luminosity shows a rate of decrease in recent decades of ˜2.4 per cent yr-1 that is consistent with the observations.

Toledo-Roy, J. C.; Esquivel, A.; Velázquez, P. F.; Reynoso, E. M.

2014-07-01

118

The Chandra View of the Supernova Remnant 0506-68.0 in the Large Magellanic Cloud  

E-print Network

A new Chandra observation of SNR 0506-68.0 (also called N23) reveals a complex, highly structured morphology in the low energy X-ray band and an isolated compact central object in the high energy band. Spectral analysis indicates that the X-ray emission overall is dominated by thermal gas whose composition is consistent with swept-up ambient material. There is a strong gradient in ambient density across the diameter of the remnant. Toward the southeast, near a prominent star cluster, the emitting density is 10 - 23 cm^{-3} while toward the northwest it has dropped to a value of only 1 cm^{-3}. The total extent of the X-ray remnant is 100" by 120" (24 pc x 29 pc for a distance of 50 kpc), somewhat larger than previously known. The remnant's age is estimated to be ~4600 yr. One part of the remnant shows evidence for enhanced O, Ne, and perhaps Mg abundances, which is interpreted as evidence for ejecta from a massive star core collapse supernova. The compact central object has a luminosity of a few times 10^{33} ergs/s and no obvious radio or optical counterpart. It does not show an extended nebula or pulsed emission as expected from a young energetic pulsar, but resembles the compact central objects seen in other core collapse SNe, such as Cas A.

John P. Hughes; Marc Rafelski; Jessica S. Warren; Cara Rakowski; Patrick Slane; David Burrows; John Nousek

2006-05-31

119

Cosmic-ray diffusion near the Bohm limit in the Cassiopeia A supernova remnant  

E-print Network

ARTICLES Cosmic-ray diffusion near the Bohm limit in the Cassiopeia A supernova remnant M. D. STAGE in supernova remnants (SNRs). Despite considerable theoretical work, the precise details are still unknown. Atmospheric Cerenkov telescopes have observed gamma rays from some supernovae: Cas A with HEGRA16,17 , RX J

Loss, Daniel

120

Galactic Propagation of Cosmic Rays from Individual Supernova Remnants  

E-print Network

It is widely believed that supernova remnants are the best candidate sources for the observed cosmic ray flux up to the knee, i.e. up to ~PeV energies. Indeed, the gamma-ray spectra of some supernova remnants can be well explained by assuming the decay of neutral pions which are created in hadronic interactions. Therefore, fitting the corresponding gamma spectra allows us to derive the spectra of cosmic rays at the source which are locally injected into our Galaxy. Using these spectra as a starting point, we propagate the cosmic rays through the Galaxy using the publicly available GALPROP code. Here, we will present first results on the contribution of those SNRs to the total cosmic ray flux and discuss implications.

Nierstenhoefer, Nils; Schuppan, Florian; Tjus, Julia Becker

2015-01-01

121

Understanding hadronic gamma-ray emission from supernova remnants  

E-print Network

We aim to test the plausibility of a theoretical framework in which the gamma-ray emission detected from supernova remnants may be of hadronic origin, i.e., due to the decay of neutral pions produced in nuclear collisions involving relativistic nuclei. In particular, we investigate the effects induced by magnetic field amplification on the expected particle spectra, outlining a phenomenological scenario consistent with both the underlying Physics and the larger and larger amount of observational data provided by the present generation of gamma experiments, which seem to indicate rather steep spectra for the accelerated particles. In addition, in order to study to study how pre-supernova winds might affect the expected emission in this class of sources, the time-dependent gamma-ray luminosity of a remnant with a massive progenitor is worked out. Solid points and limitations of the proposed scenario are finally discussed in a critical way.

Damiano Caprioli

2011-05-06

122

Stochastic Electron Acceleration in Shell-Type Supernova Remnants  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the stochastic electron acceleration by fast mode waves in the turbulent downstream of weakly magnetized collisionless astrophysical shocks. The acceleration is most efficient in a dissipative layer, and the model characteristics are determined by the shock speed, density, magnetic field, and turbulence decay length. The model explains observations of shell-type supernova remnants RX J1713.7-3946 and J0852.0-4622 and can

Siming Liu; Zhong-Hui Fan; Christopher L. Fryer; Jian-Min Wang; Hui Li

2008-01-01

123

Are the Models for Type Ia Supernova Progenitors Consistent with the Properties of Supernova Remnants?  

E-print Network

We explore the relationship between the models for progenitor systems of Type Ia supernovae and the properties of the supernova remnants that evolve after the explosion. Most models for Type Ia progenitors in the single degenerate scenario predict substantial outflows during the presupernova evolution. Expanding on previous work, we estimate the imprint of these outflows on the structure of the circumstellar medium at the time of the supernova explosion, and the effect that this modified circumstellar medium has on the evolution of the ensuing supernova remnant. We compare our simulations with the observational properties of known Type Ia supernova remnants in the Galaxy (Kepler, Tycho, SN 1006), the Large Magellanic Cloud (0509-67.5, 0519-69.0, N103B), and M31 (SN 1885). We find that optically thick outflows from the white dwarf surface (sometimes known as accretion winds) with velocities above 200 km/s excavate large low-density cavities around the progenitors. Such large cavities are incompatible with the dynamics of the forward shock and the X-ray emission from the shocked ejecta in all the Type Ia remnants that we have examined.

Carles Badenes; John P. Hughes; Eduardo Bravo; Norbert Langer

2007-03-13

124

The Kinematics of Kepler's Supernova Remnant as Revealed by Chandra  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I have determined the expansion of the supernova remnant of SN 1604 (Kepler's supernova) based on archival Chandra ACIS-S observations made in 2000 and 2006. The measurements were done in several distinct energy bands, and were made for the remnant as a whole, and for six individual sectors. The average expansion parameter indicates that the remnant expands on average as r~t0.5, but there are significant differences in different parts of the remnant: the bright northwestern part expands as r~t0.35, whereas the rest of the remnant's expansion shows an expansion r~t0.6. The latter is consistent with an explosion in which the outer part of the ejecta has a negative power law slope for density (?~v-n) of n=7, or with an exponential density profile [?~exp(-v/ve)]. The expansion parameter in the southern region, in conjunction with the shock radius, indicates a rather low value (<5×1050 erg) for the explosion energy of SN 1604 for a distance of 4 kpc. A higher explosion energy is consistent with the results if the distance is larger. The filament in the eastern part of the remnant, which is dominated by X-ray synchrotron radiation, seems to mark a region with a fast shock speed r~t0.7, corresponding to a shock velocity of v=4200 km s-1, for a distance to SN 1604 of 4 kpc. This is consistent with the idea that X-ray synchrotron emission requires shock velocities in excess of ~2000 km s-1. The X-ray-based expansion measurements reported are consistent with results based on optical and radio measurements but disagree with previous X-ray measurements based on ROSAT and Einstein observations.

Vink, Jacco

2008-12-01

125

OXYGEN-RICH SUPERNOVA REMNANT IN THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This is a NASA Hubble Space Telescope image of the tattered debris of a star that exploded 3,000 years ago as a supernova. This supernova remnant, called N132D, lies 169,000 light-years away in the satellite galaxy, the Large Magellanic Cloud. A Hubble Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 image of the inner regions of the supernova remnant shows the complex collisions that take place as fast moving ejecta slam into cool, dense interstellar clouds. This level of detail in the expanding filaments could only be seen previously in much closer supernova remnants. Now, Hubble's capabilities extend the detailed study of supernovae out to the distance of a neighboring galaxy. Material thrown out from the interior of the exploded star at velocities of more than four million miles per hour (2,000 kilometers per second) plows into neighboring clouds to create luminescent shock fronts. The blue-green filaments in the image correspond to oxygen-rich gas ejected from the core of the star. The oxygen-rich filaments glow as they pass through a network of shock fronts reflected off dense interstellar clouds that surrounded the exploded star. These dense clouds, which appear as reddish filaments, also glow as the shock wave from the supernova crushes and heats the clouds. Supernova remnants provide a rare opportunity to observe directly the interiors of stars far more massive than our Sun. The precursor star to this remnant, which was located slightly below and left of center in the image, is estimated to have been 25 times the mass of our Sun. These stars 'cook' heavier elements through nuclear fusion, including oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, iron etc., and the titanic supernova explosions scatter this material back into space where it is used to create new generations of stars. This is the mechanism by which the gas and dust that formed our solar system became enriched with the elements that sustain life on this planet. Hubble spectroscopic observations will be used to determine the exact chemical composition of this nuclear- processed material, and thereby test theories of stellar evolution. The image shows a region of the remnant 50 light-years across. The supernova explosion should have been visible from Earth's southern hemisphere around 1,000 B.C., but there are no known historical records that chronicle what would have appeared as a 'new star' in the heavens. This 'true color' picture was made by superposing images taken on 9-10 August 1994 in three of the strongest optical emission lines: singly ionized sulfur (red), doubly ionized oxygen (green), and singly ionized oxygen (blue). Photo credit: Jon A. Morse (STScI) and NASA Investigating team: William P. Blair (PI; JHU), Michael A. Dopita (MSSSO), Robert P. Kirshner (Harvard), Knox S. Long (STScI), Jon A. Morse (STScI), John C. Raymond (SAO), Ralph S. Sutherland (UC-Boulder), and P. Frank Winkler (Middlebury). Image files in GIF and JPEG format may be accessed via anonymous ftp from oposite.stsci.edu in /pubinfo: GIF: /pubinfo/GIF/N132D.GIF JPEG: /pubinfo/JPEG/N132D.jpg The same images are available via World Wide Web from links in URL http://www.stsci.edu/public.html.

2002-01-01

126

A Newly Recognized Very Young Supernova Remnant in M83  

E-print Network

As part of a spectroscopic survey of supernova remnant candidates in M83 using the Gemini-South telescope and GMOS, we have discovered one object whose spectrum shows very broad lines at H$\\alpha$, [O~I] 6300,6363, and [O~III] 4959,5007, similar to those from other objects classified as `late time supernovae.' Although six historical supernovae have been observed in M83 since 1923, none were seen at the location of this object. Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3 images show a nearly unresolved emission source, while Chandra and ATCA data reveal a bright X-ray source and nonthermal radio source at the position. Objects in other galaxies showing similar spectra are only decades post-supernova, which raises the possibility that the supernova that created this object occurred during the last century but was missed. Using photometry of nearby stars from the HST data, we suggest the precursor was at least 17 $\\rm M_{sun}$, and the presence of broad H$\\alpha$ in the spectrum makes a type II supernova likely....

Blair, William P; Long, Knox S; Whitmore, Bradley C; Kim, Hwihyun; Soria, Roberto; Kuntz, K D; Plucinsky, Paul P; Dopita, Michael A; Stockdale, Christopher

2015-01-01

127

Chandra's View of Tycho's Supernova Remnant  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This Chandra image reveals, in detail, the turbulent debris created by a supernova explosion that was observed by the Danish Astronomer Tycho Brahe in the year 1572. The colors show different x-ray energies, with red, green, and blue representing low, medium, and high energies, respectively. Most likely caused by the destruction of a white dwarf star, a shock wave produced by the expanding debris is outlined by the sharp blue circular arcs of 20 million degree Celsius gas seen on the outer rim. The stellar debris, visible only by x-ray, has a temperature of about 10 million degrees, and shows up as mottled yellow, green, and red fingers of gas.

2000-01-01

128

Observation of Extended Very High Energy Emission from the Supernova Remnant IC 443 with VERITAS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present evidence that the very high energy (VHE, E > 100 GeV) gamma-ray emission coincident with the supernova remnant IC 443 is extended. IC 443 contains one of the best studied sites of supernova remnant/molecular cloud interaction and the pulsar wind nebula CXOU J061705.3+222127, both of which are important targets for VHE observations. VERITAS observed IC 443 for 37.9 hr during 2007 and detected emission above 300 GeV with an excess of 247 events, resulting in a significance of 8.3 standard deviations (?) before trials and 7.5? after trials in a point-source search. The emission is centered at 6h16m51s + 22°30'11'' (J2000) ±0fdg03stat ± 0fdg08sys, with an intrinsic extension of 0fdg16 ± 0fdg03stat ± 0fdg04sys. The VHE spectrum is well fit by a power law (dN/dE = N 0 × (E/TeV)-?) with a photon index of 2.99 ± 0.38stat ± 0.3sys and an integral flux above 300 GeV of (4.63 ± 0.90stat ± 0.93sys) × 10-12 cm-2 s-1. These results are discussed in the context of existing models for gamma-ray production in IC 443.

Acciari, V. A.; Aliu, E.; Arlen, T.; Aune, T.; Bautista, M.; Beilicke, M.; Benbow, W.; Bradbury, S. M.; Buckley, J. H.; Bugaev, V.; Butt, Y.; Byrum, K.; Cannon, A.; Celik, O.; Cesarini, A.; Chow, Y. C.; Ciupik, L.; Cogan, P.; Colin, P.; Cui, W.; Daniel, M. K.; Dickherber, R.; Duke, C.; Dwarkadas, V. V.; Ergin, T.; Fegan, S. J.; Finley, J. P.; Finnegan, G.; Fortin, P.; Fortson, L.; Furniss, A.; Gall, D.; Gibbs, K.; Gillanders, G. H.; Godambe, S.; Grube, J.; Guenette, R.; Gyuk, G.; Hanna, D.; Hays, E.; Holder, J.; Horan, D.; Hui, C. M.; Humensky, T. B.; Imran, A.; Kaaret, P.; Karlsson, N.; Kertzman, M.; Kieda, D.; Kildea, J.; Konopelko, A.; Krawczynski, H.; Krennrich, F.; Lang, M. J.; LeBohec, S.; Maier, G.; McCann, A.; McCutcheon, M.; Millis, J.; Moriarty, P.; Ong, R. A.; Otte, A. N.; Pandel, D.; Perkins, J. S.; Pohl, M.; Quinn, J.; Ragan, K.; Reyes, L. C.; Reynolds, P. T.; Roache, E.; Rose, H. J.; Schroedter, M.; Sembroski, G. H.; Smith, A. W.; Steele, D.; Swordy, S. P.; Theiling, M.; Toner, J. A.; Valcarcel, L.; Varlotta, A.; Vassiliev, V. V.; Vincent, S.; Wagner, R. G.; Wakely, S. P.; Ward, J. E.; Weekes, T. C.; Weinstein, A.; Weisgarber, T.; Williams, D. A.; Wissel, S.; Wood, M.; Zitzer, B.

2009-06-01

129

Study of the extended radio emission of two supernova remnants and four planetary nebulae associated with MIPSGAL bubbles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present radio observations, made using the Very Large Array and the Green Bank Telescope, of two supernova remnants and four planetary nebulae. These objects are part of a larger sample of radio sources, discussed in a previous paper, a counterpart of the MIPSGAL 24-?m compact bubbles. For the two supernova remnants, we have combined the interferometric observations with single-dish data to obtain both a high resolution and a good sensitivity to extended structures. We discuss in detail the entire combination procedure adopted and the reliability of the resulting maps. For one supernova remnant, we pose a more stringent upper limit for the flux density of its undetected pulsar, and we also show prominent spectral index spatial variations, probably resulting either from inhomogeneities in the magnetic field and in its ejecta or from an interaction between the supernova shock and molecular clouds. We eventually use the 5-GHz maps of the four planetary nebulae to estimate their distances and their ionized masses.

Ingallinera, A.; Trigilio, C.; Umana, G.; Leto, P.; Agliozzo, C.; Buemi, C.

2014-12-01

130

Molecular Environment of the Supernova Remnant IC 443: Discovery of the Molecular Shells Surrounding the Remnant  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have carried out 12CO, 13CO, and C18O observations toward the mixed morphology supernova remnant (SNR) IC 443. The observations cover a 1.°5 × 1.°5 area and allow us to investigate the overall molecular environment of the remnant. Some northern and northeastern partial shell structure of CO gas is around the remnant. One of the partial shells, about 5' extending beyond the northeastern border of the remnant's bright radio shell, seems to just confine the faint radio halo. On the other hand, some faint CO clumps can be discerned along the eastern boundary of the faint remnant's radio halo. Connecting the eastern CO clumps, the northeastern partial shell structures, and the northern CO partial shell, we can see that a half molecular ring structure appears to surround the remnant. The LSR velocity of the half-ring structure is in the range of -5 km s-1 to -2 km s-1, which is consistent with that of the -4 km s-1 molecular clouds. We suggest that the half-ring structure of the CO emission at V LSR ~ -4 km s-1 is associated with the SNR. The structures are possibly swept up by the stellar winds of SNR IC 443's massive progenitor. Based on the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer and the Two Micron All Sky Survey near-IR database, 62 young stellar object (YSO) candidates are selected within the radio halo of the remnant. These YSO candidates concentrated along the boundary of the remnant's bright radio shell are likely to be triggered by the stellar winds from the massive progenitor of SNR IC 443.

Su, Yang; Fang, Min; Yang, Ji; Zhou, Ping; Chen, Yang

2014-06-01

131

Observation of Nonthermal Emission from the Supernova Remnant IC443 with RXTE  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this paper we present analysis of X-ray spectra from the supernova remnant IC443 obtained using the PCA on RXTE. The spectra in the 3 - 20 keV band are well fit by a two-component model consisting of thermal and nonthermal components. We compare these results with recent results of other X-ray missions and discuss the need for a cut-off in the nonthermal spectrum. Recent Chandra and XMM-Newton observations suggest that much of the nonthermal emission from IC443 can be attributed to a pulsar wind nebula. We present the results of our search for periodic emission in the RXTE PCA data. We then discuss the origin o f the nonthermal component and its possible association with the unidentified EGRET source.

Sturner, S. J.; Keohane, J. W.; Reimer, O.

2002-01-01

132

A detailed X-ray investigation of PSR J2021+4026 and $\\gamma$-Cygni supernova remnant  

E-print Network

We have investigated the field around the radio-quiet $\\gamma$-ray pulsar, PSR J2021+4026, with a ~140 ks XMM-Newton observation and a ~56 ks archival Chandra data. Through analyzing the pulsed spectrum, we show that the X-ray pulsation is purely thermal in nature which suggests the pulsation is originated from a hot polar cap with $T\\sim3\\times10^{6}$ K on the surface of a rotating neutron star. On the other hand, the power-law component that dominates the pulsar emission in the hard band is originated from off-pulse phases, which possibly comes from a pulsar wind nebula. In re-analyzing the Chandra data, we have confirmed the presence of bow-shock nebula which extends from the pulsar to west by ~10 arcsec. The orientation of this nebular feature suggests that the pulsar is probably moving eastward which is consistent with the speculated proper motion by extrapolating from the nominal geometrical center of the supernova remnant (SNR) G78.2+2.1 to the current pulsar position. For G78.2+2.1, our deep XMM-Newto...

Hui, C Y; Lin, L C C; Huang, R H H; Hu, C P; Wu, J H K; Trepl, L; Takata, J; Wang, Y; Chou, Y; Cheng, K S; Kong, A K H

2014-01-01

133

Distant Supernova Remnant Imaged by Chandra's High Resolution Camera  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The High Resolution Camera (HRC), one of the two X-ray cameras on NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory, was placed into the focus for the first time on Monday, August 30. The first target was LMC X-1, a point-like source of X rays in the Large Magellanic Cloud. The Large Magellanic Cloud, a companion galaxy to the Milky Way, is 160,000 light years from Earth. After checking the focus with LMC X-1, Chandra observed N132D, a remnant of an exploded star in the Large Magellanic Cloud. "These were preliminary test observations," emphasized Dr. Stephen Murray, of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, principal investigator for the High Resolution Camera. "But we are very pleased with the results. All indications are that the HRC will produce X-ray images of unprecedented clarity." The N132D image shows a highly structured remnant, or shell, of 10-million-degree gas that is 80 light years across. Such a shell in the vicinity of the Sun would encompass more than fifty nearby stars. The amount of material in the N132D hot gas remnant is equal to that of 600 suns. The N132D supernova remnant appears to be colliding with a giant molecular cloud, which produces the brightening on the southern rim of the remnant. The molecular cloud, visible with a radio telescope, has the mass of 300,000 suns. The relatively weak x-radiation on the upper left shows that the shock wave is expanding into a less dense region on the edge of the molecular cloud. A number of small circular structures are visible in the central regions and a hint of a large circular loop can be seen in the upper part of the remnant. Whether the peculiar shape of the supernova remnant can be fully explained in terms of these effects, or whether they point to a peculiar cylindrically shaped explosion remains to be seen. -more- "The image is so rich in structure that it will take a while to sort out what is really going on," Murray said. "It could be multiple supernovas, or absorbing clouds in the vicinity of the supernova." The unique capabilities of the HRC stem from the close match of its imaging capability to the focusing power of the mirrors. When used with the Chandra mirrors, the HRC will make images that reveal detail as small as one-half an arc second. This is equivalent to the ability to read a stop sign at a distance of twelve miles. The checkout period for the HRC will continue for the next few weeks, during which time the team expects to acquire images of other supernova remnants, star clusters, and starburst galaxies. To follow Chandra's progress, visit the Chandra News Web site at: http://chandra.harvard.edu AND http://chandra.nasa.gov NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama, manages the Chandra X-ray Observatory for NASA's Office of Space Science, NASA Headquarters, Washington, D.C. The Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory's Chandra X-ray Center in Cambridge, Mass., manages the Chandra science program and controls the observatory for NASA. TRW Space and Electronics Group of Redondo Beach, Calif., leads the contractor team that built Chandra. High resolution digital versions of the X-ray image (300 dpi JPG, TIFF) and other information associated with this release are available on the Internet at: http://chandra.harvard.edu/photo/0050/ or via links in: http://chandra.harvard.edu

1999-09-01

134

12. Blast waves and supernova remnants 12.1 Self-similarity and scales  

E-print Network

12. Blast waves and supernova remnants 12.1 Self-similarity and scales In galaxies one finds a many can arise from strong stellar winds and from stellar explosions, supernova. Supernovae are caused by run-away thermonuclear reactions that occur when stellar cores collapse. A type I supernova involves

Pohl, Martin Karl Wilhelm

135

X-Ray Measured Dynamics of Tycho's Supernova Remnant  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We present X-ray proper-motion measurements of the forward shock and reverse-shocked ejecta in Tycho's supernova remnant, based on three sets of archival Chandra data taken in 2000, 2003, and 2007. We find that the proper motion of the edge of the remnant (i.e., the forward shock and protruding ejecta knots) varies from 0.''20 yr-1 (expansion index m = 0.33, where R = tm ) to 0.''40 yr-1 (m = 0.65) with azimuthal angle in 2000-2007 measurements, and 0.''14 yr-1 (m = 0.26) to 0.''40 yr-1 (m = 0.65) in 2003-2007 measurements. The azimuthal variation of the proper motion and the average expansion index of [approx]0.5 are consistent with those derived from radio observations. We also find proper motion and expansion index of the reverse-shocked ejecta to be 0.''21-0.''31 yr-1 and 0.43-0.64, respectively. From a comparison of the measured m-value with Type Ia supernova evolutionary models, we find a pre-shock ambient density around the remnant of [less, similar]0.2 cm-3.

Katsuda, Satoru; Petre, Robert; Hughes, John; Hwang, Una; Yamaguchi, Hiroya; Hayato, Asami; Mori, Koji; Tsunemi, Hiroshi

2010-01-01

136

Extremely Fast Acceleration of Cosmic Rays in a Supernova Remnant  

SciTech Connect

Galactic cosmic rays (CRs) are widely believed to be accelerated by shock waves associated with the expansion of supernova ejecta into the interstellar medium. A key issue in this long-standing conjecture is a theoretical prediction that the interstellar magnetic field can be substantially amplified at the shock of a young supernova remnant (SNR) through magnetohydrodynamic waves generated by cosmic rays. Here we report a discovery of the brightening and decay of X-ray hot spots in the shell of theSNRRXJ1713.723946 on a one-year timescale. This rapid variability shows that the X-rays are produced by ultrarelativistic electrons through a synchrotron process and that electron acceleration does indeed take place in a strongly magnetized environment, indicating amplification of the magnetic field by a factor of more than 100. The X-ray variability also implies that we have witnessed the ongoing shock-acceleration of electrons in real time. Independently, broadband X-ray spectrometric measurements of RXJ1713.723946 indicate that electron acceleration proceeds in the most effective ('Bohm-diffusion') regime. Taken together, these two results provide a strong argument for acceleration of protons and nuclei to energies of 1 PeV (10{sup 15} eV) and beyond in young supernova remnants.

Uchiyama, Y.; Aharonian, F.A.; Tanaka, T.; Takahashi, T.; Maeda, Y.; /JAERI, Tokai /Dublin Inst. /Heidelberg, Max Planck Inst. /SLAC

2007-10-23

137

No cold dust within the supernova remnant Cassiopeia A.  

PubMed

A large amount (about three solar masses) of cold (18 K) dust in the prototypical type II supernova remnant Cassiopeia A was recently reported. It was concluded that dust production in type II supernovae can explain how the large quantities (approximately 10(8) solar masses) of dust observed in the most distant quasars could have been produced within only 700 million years after the Big Bang. Foreground clouds of interstellar material, however, complicate the interpretation of the earlier submillimetre observations of Cas A. Here we report far-infrared and molecular line observations that demonstrate that most of the detected submillimetre emission originates from interstellar dust in a molecular cloud complex located in the line of sight between the Earth and Cas A, and is therefore not associated with the remnant. The argument that type II supernovae produce copious amounts of dust is not supported by the case of Cas A, which previously appeared to provide the best evidence for this possibility. PMID:15577902

Krause, Oliver; Birkmann, Stephan M; Rieke, George H; Lemke, Dietrich; Klaas, Ulrich; Hines, Dean C; Gordon, Karl D

2004-12-01

138

Soft x-ray spectroscopy of the Vela supernova remnant  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The CODEX sounding rocket payload was designed and flown to significantly improve spectral resolution of the Vela supernova remnant (SNR) in the soft x-ray (0.1--1.0 keV) bandpass. High spectral resolution (E/Delta E > 40) across its 3.25° x 3.25° field of view would disentangle thermal emission from nonthermal or line emission components to constrain the age when SNRs stop emitting nonthermal x-rays. Relatively recent observations have found significant nonthermal emission from remnants up to several kyr old, but CODEX encountered concurrent problems of higher noise and lower signal than expected, leaving the thermal versus nonthermal question unanswered in the 11 kyr-old Vela SNR. This thesis covers the motivation, design, and post-flight analysis of the CODEX instrument and data from its flight.

Zeiger, Benjamin R.

139

Supernova remnant revolution in an inhomogeneous medium. I - Numerical models  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The first numerical simulations of supernova remnant evolution in an inhomogeneous gas are presented. Evolution in the lowest density substrate (the intercloud) is assumed to be spherically symmetric with a large intercloud filling factor and many dense regions (clouds) within the remnant; however, mass momentum and energy transfer between cloud and intercloud are included and the position and morphology of individual clouds tracked. Evolution is considered in several different models of the interstellar medium, both those in which the intercloud gas is diffuse (0.001 to 0.01/cu cm) and those in which it is relatively dense (n approximately 0.3/cu cm) under a variety of assumptions about the efficiency of thermal evaporation from the clouds into the intercloud medium.

Cowie, L. L.; Mckee, C. F.; Ostriker, J. P.

1981-01-01

140

A New Optical Sample of Supernova Remnants in M33  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a new and larger sample of supernova remnants in the nearby spiral galaxy M33. The sample is based upon CCD interference filter observations obtained with the Kitt Peak 4 m telescope and spectroscopic observations obtained with the Multiple Mirror Telescope. Using optical emission-line ratios, supplemented by a radio continuum map of M33 (Duric et al.; Gordon et al.), we have identified 98 supernova remnant (SNR) candidates, of which 53 were previously unknown. We have obtained spectra of 27 SNR candidates, bringing the total number of M33 SNRs for which spectra are available to 72. All the spectra show the characteristic signature of shock-heated gas, which leads us to believe that the rest of the candidates are also supernova remnants. The large sample provides a useful database to investigate the global properties of SNRs. In this paper, we present a new cumulative number-diameter [N(

Gordon, Shawn M.; Kirshner, Robert P.; Long, Knox S.; Blair, William P.; Duric, Nebojsa; Smith, R. Chris

1998-07-01

141

Azimuthal Density Variations around the Rim of Tycho's Supernova Remnant  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spitzer images of Tycho's supernova remnant in the mid-infrared reveal limb-brightened emission from the entire periphery of the shell and faint filamentary structures in the interior. As with other young remnants, this emission is produced by dust grains, warmed to ~100 K in the post-shock environment by collisions with energetic electrons and ions. The ratio of the 70 to 24 ?m fluxes is a diagnostic of the dust temperature, which in turn is a sensitive function of the plasma density. We find significant variations in the 70/24 flux ratio around the periphery of Tycho's forward shock, implying order-of-magnitude variations in density. While some of these are likely localized interactions with dense clumps of the interstellar medium (ISM), we find an overall gradient in the ambient density surrounding Tycho, with densities 3-10 times higher in the northeast than in the southwest. This large density gradient is qualitatively consistent with the variations in the proper motion of the shock observed in radio and X-ray studies. Overall, the mean ISM density around Tycho is quite low (~0.1-0.2 cm-3), consistent with the lack of thermal X-ray emission observed at the forward shock. We perform two-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations of a Type Ia supernova expanding into a density gradient in the ISM, and find that the overall round shape of the remnant is still easily achievable, even for explosions into significant gradients. However, this leads to an offset of the center of the explosion from the geometric center of the remnant of up to 20%, although lower values of 10% are preferred. The best match with hydrodynamical simulations is achieved if Tycho is located at a large (3-4 kpc) distance in a medium with a mean preshock density of ~0.2 cm-3. Such preshock densities are obtained for highly (gsim 50%) porous ISM grains.

Williams, Brian J.; Borkowski, Kazimierz J.; Ghavamian, Parviz; Hewitt, John W.; Mao, S. Alwin; Petre, Robert; Reynolds, Stephen P.; Blondin, John M.

2013-06-01

142

Stochastic Electron Acceleration in Shell-Type Supernova Remnants  

E-print Network

We study the stochastic electron acceleration by fast mode waves in the turbulent downstream of weakly magnetized collisionless astrophysical shocks. The acceleration is most efficient in a dissipative layer, and the model characteristics are determined by the shock speed, density, magnetic field, and turbulence decay length. The model explains observations of shell-type supernova remnants RX J1713.7-3946 and J0852.0-4622 and can be tested by observations in hard X-rays with the HXMT and NuSTAR or gamma-rays with the GLAST.

Siming Liu; Zhong-Hui Fan; Christopher L. Fryer; Jian-Min Wang; Hui Li

2008-07-14

143

Cosmic-ray acceleration and escape from supernova remnants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Galactic cosmic-ray (CR) acceleration to the knee in the spectrum at a few PeV is only possible if the magnetic field ahead of a supernova remnant (SNR) shock is strongly amplified by CRs escaping the SNR. A model formulated in terms of the electric charge carried by escaping CRs predicts the maximum CR energy and the energy spectrum of CRs released into the surrounding medium. We find that historical SNRs such as Cas A, Tycho and Kepler may be expanding too slowly to accelerate CRs to the knee at the present time.

Bell, A. R.; Schure, K. M.; Reville, B.; Giacinti, G.

2013-05-01

144

On the hadronic ?-ray emission from Tycho's Supernova Remnant  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tycho is one of nearly a dozen Galactic supernova remnants which are suggested to emit hadronic ?-ray emission. Among them, however, it is the only one in which the hadronic emission is proposed to arise from the interaction with low-density ambient medium. Based on the multi-band observations, we suggest that Tycho is encountering dense cloud at the northeastern boundary. The ?-ray emissions can be explained by hadronic process with self-consistent parameters, such as a modest energy conversion efficiency. In this SNR-cloud association scenario, the distance can be estimated as ~2.5 kpc.

Zhang, Xiao; Chen, Yang; Li, Hui; Zhou, Xin

2014-01-01

145

Late-time hohlraum pressure dynamics in supernova remnant experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is shown that laser driven hohlraums obtain significant internal pressures which affect the hydrodynamics of high-energy density shock-tube experiments. By incorporating this previously neglected hohlraum pressure effect (in addition to the usual x-ray drive) into computer simulations which model the NOVA laser driven supernova remnant experiment [R. P. Drake, S. G. Glendinning, K. Estabrook, B. A. Remington, R. McCray, R. J. Williams, L. J. Suter, T. B. Smith, J. J. Carroll III, R. A. London, and E. Liang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 2068 (1998)], calculations are able to reproduce the observed structure of hydrodynamic features.

Hurricane, O. A.; Glendinning, S. G.; Remington, B. A.; Drake, R. P.; Dannenberg, K. K.

2001-06-01

146

The Masses of M31 Supernova Remnant Progenitors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose to expand our previous successful archival program to constrain the progenitor masses of supernova remnants {SNRs} in M31. Our previous program has resulted in 2 papers that each significantly improve our knowledge of the mass distribution of stars that produce supernovae. However, a new and significantly improved SNR catalog has been released this year, which is more comprehensive and reliable that anything available at the time of our previous program. The amount of high-quality HST imaging has also increased. This new catalog provides 106 SNRs with HST coverage, 67 of which were not measured by our previous archival program. Furthermore, our technique for measuring uncertainties in our mass estimates has become more reliable. This expanded and updated program will increase the number of measurements SNRs by a factor of 2, while also producing a much cleaner, more homogeneous sample.

Williams, Benjamin

2014-10-01

147

Gamma-Ray Emission From Crushed Clouds in Supernova Remnants  

SciTech Connect

It is shown that the radio and gamma-ray emission observed from newly-found 'GeV-bright' supernova remnants (SNRs) can be explained by a model, in which a shocked cloud and shock-accelerated cosmic rays (CRs) frozen in it are simultaneously compressed by the supernova blastwave as a result of formation of a radiative cloud shock. Simple reacceleration of pre-existing CRs is generally sufficient to power the observed gamma-ray emission through the decays of {pi}{sup 0}-mesons produced in hadronic interactions between high-energy protons (nuclei) and gas in the compressed-cloud layer. This model provides a natural account of the observed synchrotron radiation in SNRs W51C, W44 and IC 443 with flat radio spectral index, which can be ascribed to a combination of secondary and reaccelerated electrons and positrons.

Uchiyama, Yasunobu; Blandford, Roger D.; Funk, Stefan; /SLAC; Tajima, Hiroyasu; /Nagoya U., Solar-Terrestrial Environ. Lab.; Tanaka, Takaaki; /KIPAC, Menlo Park; ,

2010-10-27

148

Near-Infrared Spectroscopy of Young Galactic Supernova Remnants  

E-print Network

Young Galactic supernova remnants (SNRs) are where we can observe closely the supernova (SN) ejecta and its interaction with circumstellar/interstellar medium. Therefore, they provide an opportunity to explore the explosion and the final stage of the evolution of massive stars. Near-infrared (NIR) emission lines in SNRs mostly originate from shocked dense material. In shocked SN ejecta, forbidden lines from heavy ions are prominent, while in shocked circumstellar/interstellar medium, [Fe II] and H2 lines are prominent. [Fe II] lines are strong in both media, and therefore [Fe II] line images provide a good starting point for the NIR study of SNRs. There are about twenty SNRs detected in [Fe II] lines, some of which have been studied in NIR spectroscopy. We will review the NIR [Fe II] observations of SNRs and introduce our recent NIR spectroscopic study of the young core-collapse SNR Cas A where we detected strong [P II] lines.

Koo, Bon-Chul

2015-01-01

149

Evolution of Synchrotron X-rays in Supernova Remnants  

E-print Network

A systematic study of the synchrotron X-ray emission from supernova remnants (SNRs) has been conducted. We selected a total of 12 SNRs whose synchrotron X-ray spectral parameters are available in the literature with reasonable accuracy, and studied how their luminosities change as a function of radius. It is found that the synchrotron X-ray luminosity tends to drop especially when the SNRs become larger than ~5 pc, despite large scatter. This may be explained by the change of spectral shape caused by the decrease of the synchrotron roll-off energy. A simple evolutionary model of the X-ray luminosity is proposed and is found to reproduce the observed data approximately, with reasonable model parameters. According to the model, the total energy of accelerated electrons is estimated to be 10^(47-48) ergs, which is well below the supernova explosion energy. The maximum energies of accelerated electrons and protons are also discussed.

Ryoko Nakamura; Aya Bamba; Tadayasu Dotani; Manabu Ishida; Ryo Yamazaki; Kazunori Kohri

2011-12-05

150

EVOLUTION OF SYNCHROTRON X-RAYS IN SUPERNOVA REMNANTS  

SciTech Connect

A systematic study of the synchrotron X-ray emission from supernova remnants (SNRs) has been conducted. We selected a total of 12 SNRs whose synchrotron X-ray spectral parameters are available in the literature with reasonable accuracy and studied how their luminosities change as a function of radius. It is found that the synchrotron X-ray luminosity tends to drop especially when the SNRs become larger than {approx}5 pc, despite large scatter. This may be explained by the change of spectral shape caused by the decrease of the synchrotron roll-off energy. A simple evolutionary model of the X-ray luminosity is proposed and is found to reproduce the observed data approximately, with reasonable model parameters. According to the model, the total energy of accelerated electrons is estimated to be 10{sup 47-48} erg, which is well below the supernova explosion energy. The maximum energies of accelerated electrons and protons are also discussed.

Nakamura, Ryoko; Bamba, Aya; Dotani, Tadayasu; Ishida, Manabu [ISAS/JAXA Department of High Energy Astrophysics, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); Yamazaki, Ryo [Department of Physics and Mathematics, Aoyama-Gakuin University, 5-10-1 Fuchinobe, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5258 (Japan); Kohri, Kazunori [Theory Center, Institute of Particle and Nuclear Studies, KEK (High Energy Accelerator Research Organization), 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba 305-0801 (Japan)

2012-02-20

151

A compressed cloud in the Vela supernova remnant  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Strong interstellar absorption lines of C I, arising from the two excited fine-structure levels, are found in IUE observations of HD 72350 (type B4 III). An analysis of the excited-level populations of C I gives local temperature and pressure limits, and auxiliary data on the limit of column density for excited O I and the carbon ionization help to establish that (1) the local temperature is within the limits of 25-100 K, and (2) the pressure/Boltzmann's constant ratio is at least 10 to the 4.3/cu cm K, despite its small size. This high-pressure cloud is discussed in terms of shock compression by the Vela supernova blast wave, along with the relationship of this kind of cloud compression to star formation and to the origin of the characteristic filamentary emission arcs seen in Vela and other supernova remnants

Jenkins, E. B.; Silk, J.; Leep, E. M.; Wallerstein, G.

1981-01-01

152

Inferring Initial Spin Periods for Neutron Stars in Composite Remnant  

E-print Network

We propose a method to infer the initial spin period of pulsars residing in composite supernova remnants. Such a remnant consists of both a plerionic and a shell type component, corresponding respectively to the pulsar wind nebula driven by the spindown luminosity of the central pulsar, and the blastwave bounding the supernova remnant. Theoretical investigations including hydrodynamical simulations have shown that at late times (~ 1,000 - 10,000 years), a simple scaling law connects the radius of the supernova shell to the radius of the plerion. The energy content of the plerion and the total mechanical energy of the supernova remnant enter into this scaling law. One can use this scaling law to estimate the initial spin period of pulsars residing in composite remnants. We discuss potential pitfalls of this method, including the effect of a small remnant age and of strong radiative losses in the plerion.

Eric van der Swaluw; Yanqin Wu

2001-06-01

153

Forward Shock Proper Motions of Kepler's Supernova Remnant  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The X-ray structure of Kepler's supernova remnant shows a rounded shape delineated by forward shocks. We measure proper motions of the forward shocks on overall rims of the remnant, by using archival Chandra data taken in two epochs with time difference of 6.09 yr. The proper motions of the forward shocks on the northern rim are measured to be 0.076" (+/-0.032" +/-0.016") to 0.11" (+/-0.014" +/-0.016") yr-1, while those on the rest of the rims are measured to be 0.15" (+/-0.017" +/-0.016") to 0.30" (+/-0.048" +/-0.016") yr-1 here the first-term errors are statistical uncertainties and the second-term errors are systematic uncertainties. Combining the best-estimated shock velocity of 1660+/-120 km s-1 measured for Balmer-dominated filaments in the northern and central portions of the remnant (Sankrit et al. 2005) with the proper motions derived for the forward shocks on the northern rim, we estimate a distance of 3.3+1.6-0.4 kpc to the remnant. We measure the expansion indices, m (defined as R~tm), to be 0.47-0.82 for most of the rims. These values are consistent with those expected in Type Ia SN explosion models, in which the ejecta and the circumstellar medium have power-law density profiles whose indices are 5-7 and 0-2, respectively. In addition, we should note the slower expansion on the northern rim than that on the southern rim. This is likely caused by the inhomogeneous circumstellar medium; the density of the circumstellar medium is higher in the north than that in the south of the remnant. The newly estimated geometric center, around which we believe the explosion point exists, is located at ~5" offset to the north of the radio center.

Katsuda, S.; Tsunemi, H.; Uchida, H.; Kimura, M.

2008-12-01

154

X-ray Measurements of Tycho Supernova Remnant's Dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the following work we present X-ray dynamics measurements of the Tycho supernova remnant G120.1+01.4. We compare observations and spectra from 2005 and 2009 archived in XMM Newton Science Archive in order to determine differences caused by collision with surrounding interstellar medium (ISM) as well as by remnant’s own expansion. We have calculated the azimuthal expansion of remnant’s edges to vary from 0.194 arcsec/yr to 0.438 arcsec/yr, while the highest values are found to have the azimuth of about 60° in the south-east and the lowest expansion overall is estimated on the north. Comparison of fluxes has shown that the highest estimated energy gain of 3.1 times was measured in reverse shock region around the azimuth of 300° in the energy range from 6.1 keV to 8 keV, whereas the highest energy loss was found to be in the same energy range in forward shock region with the azimuth of approximately 70° reaching 2.4 times lower energy compared with the values from 2005. We have also defined the most abundant heavy elements within energy scale from 200 eV to 8 keV, which are identified through spectral lines to be Fe XVIII (0.849 keV), Mg XI and XII (1.34 keV, 1.46 keV), Si XIII (1.83 keV), S XV (2.41 keV, 2.86 keV) and Ca XIX (3.84 keV).

Brchnelova, Michaela

2014-01-01

155

A Detailed X-Ray Investigation of PSR J2021+4026 and the ?-Cygni Supernova Remnant  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have investigated the field around the radio-quiet ?-ray pulsar, PSR J2021+4026, with a ~140 ks XMM-Newton observation and ~56 ks archival Chandra data. Through analyzing the pulsed spectrum, we show that the X-ray pulsation is purely thermal in nature, which suggests that the pulsation originated from a hot polar cap with T ~ 3 × 106 K on the surface of a rotating neutron star. On the other hand, the power-law (PL) component that dominates the pulsar emission in the hard band is originated from off-pulse phases, which possibly comes from a pulsar wind nebula. In re-analyzing the Chandra data, we have confirmed the presence of a bow-shock nebula that extends from the pulsar to the west by ~10 arcsec. The orientation of this nebular feature suggests that the pulsar is probably moving eastward, which is consistent with the speculated proper motion by extrapolating from the nominal geometrical center of the supernova remnant (SNR) G78.2+2.1 to the current pulsar position. For G78.2+2.1, our deep XMM-Newton observation also enables a study of the central region and part of the southeastern region with superior photon statistics. The column absorption derived for the SNR is comparable to that for PSR J2021+4026, which supports their association. The remnant emission in both of the examined regions is in a non-equilibrium ionization state. Also, the elapsed time of both regions after shock-heating is apparently shorter than the Sedov age of G78.2+2.1. This might suggest that the reverse shock has reached the center not long ago. Apart from PSR J2021+4026 and G78.2+2.1, we have also serendipitously detected an X-ray flash-like event, XMM J202154.7+402855, from this XMM-Newton observation.

Hui, C. Y.; Seo, K. A.; Lin, L. C. C.; Huang, R. H. H.; Hu, C. P.; Wu, J. H. K.; Trepl, L.; Takata, J.; Wang, Y.; Chou, Y.; Cheng, K. S.; Kong, A. K. H.

2015-01-01

156

X-Ray Ejecta Kinematics of the Galactic Core-Collapse Supernova Remnant G292.0+1.8  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on the results from the analysis of our 114 ks Chandra High Energy Transmision Grating Spectrometer observation of the Galactic core-collapse supernova remnant G292.0+1.8. To probe the three-dimensional structure of the clumpy X-ray emitting ejecta material in this remnant, we measured Doppler shifts in emission lines from metal-rich ejecta knots projected at different radial distances from the expansion center. We estimate radial velocities of ejecta knots in the range of –2300 lsim vr lsim 1400 km s–1. The distribution of ejecta knots in velocity versus projected-radius space suggests an expanding ejecta shell with a projected angular thickness of ~90'' (corresponding to ~3 pc at d = 6 kpc). Based on this geometrical distribution of the ejecta knots, we estimate the location of the reverse shock approximately at the distance of ~4 pc from the center of the supernova remnant, putting it in close proximity to the outer boundary of the radio pulsar wind nebula. Based on our observed remnant dynamics and the standard explosion energy of 1051 erg, we estimate the total ejecta mass to be lsim8 M ?, and we propose an upper limit of lsim35 M ? on the progenitor's mass.

Bhalerao, Jayant; Park, Sangwook; Dewey, Daniel; Hughes, John P.; Mori, Koji; Lee, Jae-Joon

2015-02-01

157

The fate of supernova remnants near quiescent supermassive black holes  

E-print Network

There is mounting observational evidence that most galactic nuclei host both supermassive black holes (SMBHs) and young populations of stars. With an abundance of massive stars, core-collapse supernovae are expected in SMBH spheres of influence. We develop a novel numerical method, based on the Kompaneets approximation, to trace supernova remnant (SNR) evolution in these hostile environments, where radial gas gradients and SMBH tides are present. We trace the adiabatic evolution of the SNR shock until 50% of the remnant is either in the radiative phase or is slowed down below the SMBH Keplerian velocity and is sheared apart. In this way, we obtain shapes and lifetimes of SNRs as a function of the explosion distance from the SMBH, the gas density profile and the SMBH mass. As an application, we focus here exclusively on quiescent SMBHs, because their light may not hamper detections of SNRs and because we can take advantage of the unsurpassed detailed observations of our Galactic Centre. Assuming that propertie...

Rimoldi, Alex; Piran, Tsvi; Zwart, Simon Portegies

2015-01-01

158

Destruction of Interstellar Dust in Evolving Supernova Remnant Shock Waves  

E-print Network

Supernova generated shock waves are responsible for most of the destruction of dust grains in the interstellar medium (ISM). Calculations of the dust destruction timescale have so far been carried out using plane parallel steady shocks, however that approximation breaks down when the destruction timescale becomes longer than that for the evolution of the supernova remnant (SNR) shock. In this paper we present new calculations of grain destruction in evolving, radiative SNRs. To facilitate comparison with the previous study by Jones et al. (1996), we adopt the same dust properties as in that paper. We find that the efficiencies of grain destruction are most divergent from those for a steady shock when the thermal history of a shocked gas parcel in the SNR differs significantly from that behind a steady shock. This occurs in shocks with velocities >~ 200 km/s for which the remnant is just beginning to go radiative. Assuming SNRs evolve in a warm phase dominated ISM, we find dust destruction timescales are incre...

Slavin, Jonathan D; Jones, Anthony P

2015-01-01

159

Diffusive propagation of cosmic rays from supernova remnants in the Galaxy. I: spectrum and chemical composition  

SciTech Connect

In this paper we investigate the effect of stochasticity in the spatial and temporal distribution of supernova remnants on the spectrum and chemical composition of cosmic rays observed at Earth. The calculations are carried out for different choices of the diffusion coefficient D(E) experienced by cosmic rays during propagation in the Galaxy. In particular, at high energies we assume that D(E)?E{sup ?}, with ? = 1/3 and ? = 0.6 being the reference scenarios. The large scale distribution of supernova remnants in the Galaxy is modeled following the distribution of pulsars, with and without accounting for the spiral structure of the Galaxy. We find that the stochastic fluctuations induced by the spatial and temporal distribution of supernovae, together with the effect of spallation of nuclei, lead to mild but sensible violations of the simple, leaky-box-inspired rule that the spectrum observed at Earth is N(E)?E{sup ??} with ? = ?+?, where ? is the slope of the cosmic ray injection spectrum at the sources. Spallation of nuclei, even with the small rates appropriate for He, may account for small differences in spectral slopes between different nuclei, possibly providing an explanation for the recent CREAM observations. For ? = 1/3 we find that the slope of the proton and helium spectra are ? 2.67 and ? 2.6 respectively (with fluctuations depending on the realization of source distribution) at energies around ? 1 TeV (to be compared with the measured values of 2.66±0.02 and 2.58±0.02). For ? = 0.6 the hardening of the He spectra is not observed. The stochastic effects discussed above cannot be found in ordinary propagation calculations, such as GALPROP, where these effects and the point like nature of the sources are not taken into account. We also comment on the effect of time dependence of the escape of cosmic rays from supernova remnants, and of a possible clustering of the sources in superbubbles. In a second paper we will discuss the implications of these different scenarios for the anisotropy of cosmic rays.

Blasi, Pasquale; Amato, Elena, E-mail: blasi@arcetri.astro.it, E-mail: amato@arcetri.astro.it [INAF/Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo E. Fermi, 5 — 50125 Firenze (Italy)

2012-01-01

160

The Extraordinary Supernova Remnant in NGC 4449 Revisited  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NGC 4449, a Magellanic-type irregular galaxy at a distance of about 4 Mpc, contains the most luminous known supernova remnant (SNR) in both X-ray and optical bands. Its optical spectrum is characterized by broad lines from O, Ne, S, Ar, and Ca, and its size and expansion velocity (6000 km/s) suggest that the unobserved SN exploded about 65 years ago. The remnant¹s extraordinary brightness can be attributed to the interaction of supernova ejecta with unusually dense and extensive circumstellar material. We will present new Chandra imaging, together with UV/Optical spectra of the SNR from HST/STIS and the MMT. The X-ray luminosity of the SNR is less than when it was detected with Einstein in 1980, but the luminosity and X-ray spectral shape have remained relatively constant over the last 10 years. In the FUV, the HST spectra show for the first time broad line emission from C IV 1550 Å, as well as Si IV + O IV at 1400 Å and O III] at 1660 Å. The new NUV and optical spectra are fairly similar to earlier HST/FOS spectra and to ground-based spectra we have obtained over the last decade. Here we describe these new observations, and our attempts to understand the nature of the progenitor of the SNR.We acknowledge support for this effort from NASA through grant GO-12462 from the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc, under NASA contract NAS5-26555, and through Chandra Award Number GO9-0075, issued by the Chandra X-ray Observatory Center, which is operated by the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, under NASA contract NAS8-03060.

Long, Knox S.; Blair, William P.; Fesen, Robert A.; Milisavljevic, Dan; Winkler, P. Frank

2015-01-01

161

Image of the Vela Supernova Remnant Taken by the High Energy Astronomy Observatory (HEAO)-2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Like the Crab Nebula, the Vela Supernova Remnant has a radio pulsar at its center. In this image taken by the High Energy Astronomy Observatory (HEAO)-2/Einstein Observatory, the pulsar appears as a point source surrounded by weak and diffused emissions of x-rays. HEAO-2's computer processing system was able to record and display the total number of x-ray photons (a tiny bundle of radiant energy used as the fundamental unit of electromagnetic radiation) on a scale along the margin of the picture. The HEAO-2, the first imaging and largest x-ray telescope built to date, was capable of producing actual photographs of x-ray objects. Shortly after launch, the HEAO-2 was nicknamed the Einstein Observatory by its scientific experimenters in honor of the centernial of the birth of Albert Einstein, whose concepts of relativity and gravitation have influenced much of modern astrophysics, particularly x-ray astronomy. The HEAO-2, designed and developed by TRW, Inc. under the project management of the Marshall Space Flight Center, was launched aboard an Atlas/Centaur launch vehicle on November 13, 1978.

1980-01-01

162

The fate of supernova remnants near quiescent supermassive black holes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is mounting observational evidence that most galactic nuclei host both supermassive black holes (SMBHs) and young populations of stars. With an abundance of massive stars, core-collapse supernovae are expected in SMBH spheres of influence. We develop a novel numerical method, based on the Kompaneets approximation, to trace supernova remnant (SNR) evolution in these hostile environments, where radial gas gradients and SMBH tides are present. We trace the adiabatic evolution of the SNR shock until 50 per cent of the remnant is either in the radiative phase or is slowed down below the SMBH Keplerian velocity and is sheared apart. In this way, we obtain shapes and lifetimes of SNRs as a function of the explosion distance from the SMBH, the gas density profile and the SMBH mass. As an application, we focus here exclusively on quiescent SMBHs, because their light may not hamper detections of SNRs and because we can take advantage of the unsurpassed detailed observations of our Galactic Centre. Assuming that properties such as gas and stellar content scale appropriately with the SMBH mass, we study SNR evolution around other quiescent SMBHs. We find that, for SMBH masses over ˜107 M?, tidal disruption of SNRs can occur at less than 104 yr, leading to a shortened X-ray emitting adiabatic phase, and to no radiative phase. On the other hand, only modest disruption is expected in our Galactic Centre for SNRs in their X-ray stage. This is in accordance with estimates of the lifetime of the Sgr A East SNR, which leads us to expect one supernova per 104 yr in the sphere of influence of Sgr A*.

Rimoldi, A.; Rossi, E. M.; Piran, T.; Portegies Zwart, S.

2015-03-01

163

Neutron stars, fast pulsars, supernovae and the equation of state of dense matter  

SciTech Connect

We discuss the prospects for obtaining constraints on the equation of state from astrophysical sources. Neutron star masses although few are known at present, provide a very direct constraint in as much as the connection to the equation of state involves only the assumption that Einstein's general theory of relativity is correct at the macroscopic scale. If the millisecond pulses briefly observed in the remnant of SN1987A can be attributed to uniform rotation of a pulsar, then a very severe constraint is placed on the equation of state. The theory again is very secure. The precise nature of the constraint is not yet understood, but it appears that the equation of state must be neither too soft nor stiff, and it may be that there is information not only on the stiffness of the equation of state but on its shape. Supernovae simulations involve such a plethora of physical processes including those involved in the evolution of the precollapse configuration, not all of them known or understood, that they provide no constraint at the present time. Not even the broad category of mechanism for the explosion is agreed upon (prompt shock, delayed shock, or nuclear explosion). In connection with very fast pulsars, we include some speculations on pure quark matter stars, and on possible scenarios for understanding the disappearance of the fast pulsar in SN1987A. 47 refs., 16 figs., 1 tab.

Glendening, N.K.

1989-06-01

164

Supernovae. The bubble-like interior of the core-collapse supernova remnant Cassiopeia A.  

PubMed

The death of massive stars is believed to involve aspheric explosions initiated by the collapse of an iron core. The specifics of these catastrophic explosions remain uncertain, due partly to limited observational constraints on asymmetries deep inside the star. Here we present near-infrared observations of the young supernova remnant Cassiopeia A, descendant of a type IIb core-collapse explosion, and a three-dimensional map of its interior unshocked ejecta. The remnant's interior has a bubble-like morphology that smoothly connects to and helps explain the multiringed structures seen in the remnant's bright reverse-shocked main shell of expanding debris. This internal structure may originate from turbulent mixing processes that encouraged outwardly expanding plumes of radioactive (56)Ni-rich ejecta. If this is true, substantial amounts of its decay product, (56)Fe, may still reside in these interior cavities. PMID:25635094

Milisavljevic, Dan; Fesen, Robert A

2015-01-30

165

Nature Versus Nurture: Do Asymmetries in Supernova Remnant Ejecta Reflect the Explosion or the Environment of the Progenitor?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent work has demonstrated that Type Ia supernova remnants (SNRs) have statistically more spherical and mirror-symmetric X-ray line and continuum emission than core-collapse (CC) SNRs. The ability to type SNRs based on thermal X-ray emission morphology alone could reflect either the distinct explosion mechanisms or the different circumstellar environments of Type Ia and CC SNRs. In this talk, we present new results exploring this "nature" versus "nurture" conundrum. To test if asymmetries arise from explosions, we examine whether pulsar kick velocities are correlated with ejecta (a)symmetries (as measured using Chandra, XMM-Newton, and ROSAT images). We also study Type Ia and CC SNRs in a variety of conditions to search for trends in (a)symmetries with environmental factors (e.g., star-formation activity). Collectively, this work provides new insights into the nature of SN explosions and the dynamical evolution of their remnants.

Lopez, Laura A.; Ramirez-Ruiz, E.

2011-09-01

166

A NEW X-RAY VIEW OF THE SUPERNOVA REMNANT G272.2-3.2 AND ITS ENVIRONMENT  

SciTech Connect

We present an analysis of Chandra X-Ray Observatory data detailing a Galactic supernova remnant, G272.2-3.2. A clear shell of emission is resolved as a series of filaments and knots around the entire rim of the remnant. Spectral analysis of these features show that they are consistent with shock heating of interstellar material in a clumpy medium. We contrast these X-ray images with 22 {mu}m Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) data to verify this interaction. Spatially separated from the shell we see a central diffuse region dominated by harder, hotter emission. Spatial spectroscopy shows a clear enhancement of metals consistent with a Type Ia explosion, namely S, Si, and Fe. We find no clear evidence for a compact object or pulsar wind nebula and argue for a Type Ia origin. Consideration of the ionization timescales suggest an age of 11,000 yr for G272.2-3.2.

McEntaffer, R. L.; Grieves, N.; DeRoo, C.; Brantseg, T., E-mail: randall-mcentaffer@uiowa.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States)

2013-09-10

167

SUPERNOVA REMNANT SNR 1987A IN THE MID-INFRARED AT 18 YEARS  

E-print Network

1 SUPERNOVA REMNANT SNR 1987A IN THE MID-INFRARED AT 18 YEARS Patrice Bouchet (1) -- Eli Dwek (2 be radiatively heated in the dense UV-optical knots that are overrun by the advancing supernova blast wave. In either case the dust-to-gas mass ratio in the circumstellar medium around the supernova is significantly

De Buizer, James Michael

168

Second Epoch Hubble Space Telescope Imaging of Kepler's Supernova Remnant  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have obtained new HST/WFC3 images of Kepler's supernova remnant in H-alpha (F656N) and [N II] (F658N) emission line filters. The bright radiative shocks in dense clumps are detected in both filters, while non-radiative shocks are seen as faint filaments only in the H-alpha image. Most of these Balmer filaments lie around the periphery of the remnant where the blast wave encounters partially neutral interstellar gas. We compare the new images with HST/ACS images taken nearly 10 years previously, and find that these filaments tracing the forward shock have moved 0.6"-0.9" between the two epochs. Assuming a distance of 4 kpc to the remnant, these proper motions correspond to shock velocities of 1160-1740 km/s, which are consistent with the published values, 1550-2000 km/s (e.g. Blair et al. 1991, ApJ 366, 484). We also find a few Balmer filaments with highly non-radial proper motions. In one particularly interesting case in the projected interior of the remnant, SE of the center, the shock appears to have wrapped around a sharp density enhancement and moved about 0.3" in the period between the observations.The images allow us to study the evolution of the shock around an ejecta knot, which is punching through the remnant boundary in the northwest. The forward shock, visible as an arcuate Balmer filament, has moved about 1". At the trailing edges, the system of radiative knots formed by Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities have undergone significant changes - some knots have disappeared, new ones have appeared, and many have changed in brightness. Elsewhere in the remnant we find changes in the relative intensities of many small, bright knots over the 10 year baseline, indicating the short radiative lifetimes of these features.This work has been supported in part by grant HST-GO-12885 to the Universities Space Research Association.

Sankrit, Ravi; Blair, William P.; Borkowski, Kazimierz J.; Long, Knox S.; Patnaude, Daniel; Raymond, John C.; Reynolds, Stephen P.; Williams, Brian J.

2015-01-01

169

Spectral and Morphological Analysis of the Remnant of Supernova 1987A with ALMA and ATCA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a comprehensive spectral and morphological analysis of the remnant of supernova (SN) 1987A with the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) and the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA). The non-thermal and thermal components of the radio emission are investigated in images from 94 to 672 GHz (? 3.2 mm to 450 ?m), with the assistance of a high-resolution 44 GHz synchrotron template from the ATCA, and a dust template from ALMA observations at 672 GHz. An analysis of the emission distribution over the equatorial ring in images from 44 to 345 GHz highlights a gradual decrease of the east-to-west asymmetry ratio with frequency. We attribute this to the shorter synchrotron lifetime at high frequencies. Across the transition from radio to far infrared, both the synchrotron/dust-subtracted images and the spectral energy distribution (SED) suggest additional emission beside the main synchrotron component (S ?vprop?–0.73) and the thermal component originating from dust grains at T ~ 22 K. This excess could be due to free-free flux or emission from grains of colder dust. However, a second flat-spectrum synchrotron component appears to better fit the SED, implying that the emission could be attributed to a pulsar wind nebula (PWN). The residual emission is mainly localized west of the SN site, as the spectral analysis yields –0.4 <~ ? <~ –0.1 across the western regions, with ? ~ 0 around the central region. If there is a PWN in the remnant interior, these data suggest that the pulsar may be offset westward from the SN position.

Zanardo, Giovanna; Staveley-Smith, Lister; Indebetouw, Remy; Chevalier, Roger A.; Matsuura, Mikako; Gaensler, Bryan M.; Barlow, Michael J.; Fransson, Claes; Manchester, Richard N.; Baes, Maarten; Kamenetzky, Julia R.; Laki?evi?, Maša; Lundqvist, Peter; Marcaide, Jon M.; Martí-Vidal, Ivan; Meixner, Margaret; Ng, C.-Y.; Park, Sangwook; Sonneborn, George; Spyromilio, Jason; van Loon, Jacco Th.

2014-12-01

170

The evolution of supernova remnants in different galactic environments and its effects on supernova statistics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is shown that only a small fraction of the many supernovae in the Galaxy produces observable supernova remnants; this fraction, which is found to depend weakly on the lower mass limit of the SN progenitors, and more strongly on the specific characteristics of the associated interstellar medium, decreases from about 15% near the galactic center to 10% at R(gal) of about 10 kpc and drops nearly to zero for R(gal) greater than 15 kpc. Whether an SNR is detectable is determined by the density of the ambient interstellar medium in which it is embedded; it is found that SNRs are detectable only above some critical density (about 0.1 per cu cm). The presence of large low-density superbubble cavities around stellar associations due to the combined effects of stellar winds and supernova shells strongly suggests that a large portion of the detectable SNRs must have runaway stars as their progenitors.

Kafatos, M.; Sofia, S.; Gull, T.; Bruhweiler, F.

1980-01-01

171

NUMERICAL STUDY OF THE VISHNIAC INSTABILITY IN SUPERNOVA REMNANTS  

SciTech Connect

The Vishniac instability is thought to explain the complex structure of radiative supernova remnants in their Pressure-Driven Thin Shell (PDTS) phase after a blast wave (BW) has propagated from a central explosion. In this paper, the propagation of the BW and the evolution of the PDTS stage are studied numerically with the two-dimensional (2D) code HYDRO-MUSCL for a finite-thickness shell expanding in the interstellar medium (ISM). Special attention is paid to the adiabatic index, {gamma}, and three distinct values are taken for the cavity ({gamma}{sub 1}), the shell ({gamma}{sub 2}), and the ISM ({gamma}{sub 3}) with the condition {gamma}{sub 2} < {gamma}{sub 1}, {gamma}{sub 3}. This low value of {gamma}{sub 2} accounts for the high density in the shell achieved by a strong radiative cooling. Once the spherical background flow is obtained, the evolution of a 2D-axisymmetric perturbation is computed from the linear to the nonlinear regime. The overstable mechanism, previously demonstrated theoretically by E. T. Vishniac in 1983, is recovered numerically in the linear stage and is expected to produce and enhance anisotropies and clumps on the shock front, leading to the disruption of the shell in the nonlinear phase. The period of the increasing oscillations and the growth rate of the instability are derived from several points of view (the position of the perturbed shock front, mass fluxes along the shell, and density maps), and the most unstable mode differing from the value given by Vishniac is computed. In addition, the influence of several parameters (the Mach number, amplitude and wavelength of the perturbation, and adiabatic index) is examined and for wavelengths that are large enough compared to the shell thickness, the same conclusion arises: in the late stage of the evolution of the radiative supernova remnant, the instability is dampened and the angular initial deformation of the shock front is smoothed while the mass density becomes uniform with the angle. As a result, our model shows that the supernova remnant returns to a stable evolution and the Vishniac instability does not lead to the fragmentation of the shock as predicted by the theory.

Michaut, C.; Cavet, C.; Bouquet, S. E.; Roy, F.; Nguyen, H. C., E-mail: claire.michaut@obspm.fr [LUTH, Observatoire de Paris, CNRS, Universite Paris-Diderot, F-92190 Meudon (France)

2012-11-10

172

AZIMUTHAL DENSITY VARIATIONS AROUND THE RIM OF TYCHO's SUPERNOVA REMNANT  

SciTech Connect

Spitzer images of Tycho's supernova remnant in the mid-infrared reveal limb-brightened emission from the entire periphery of the shell and faint filamentary structures in the interior. As with other young remnants, this emission is produced by dust grains, warmed to {approx}100 K in the post-shock environment by collisions with energetic electrons and ions. The ratio of the 70 to 24 {mu}m fluxes is a diagnostic of the dust temperature, which in turn is a sensitive function of the plasma density. We find significant variations in the 70/24 flux ratio around the periphery of Tycho's forward shock, implying order-of-magnitude variations in density. While some of these are likely localized interactions with dense clumps of the interstellar medium (ISM), we find an overall gradient in the ambient density surrounding Tycho, with densities 3-10 times higher in the northeast than in the southwest. This large density gradient is qualitatively consistent with the variations in the proper motion of the shock observed in radio and X-ray studies. Overall, the mean ISM density around Tycho is quite low ({approx}0.1-0.2 cm{sup -3}), consistent with the lack of thermal X-ray emission observed at the forward shock. We perform two-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations of a Type Ia supernova expanding into a density gradient in the ISM, and find that the overall round shape of the remnant is still easily achievable, even for explosions into significant gradients. However, this leads to an offset of the center of the explosion from the geometric center of the remnant of up to 20%, although lower values of 10% are preferred. The best match with hydrodynamical simulations is achieved if Tycho is located at a large (3-4 kpc) distance in a medium with a mean preshock density of {approx}0.2 cm{sup -3}. Such preshock densities are obtained for highly ({approx}> 50%) porous ISM grains.

Williams, Brian J.; Hewitt, John W.; Petre, Robert [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Borkowski, Kazimierz J.; Alwin Mao, S.; Reynolds, Stephen P.; Blondin, John M. [Department of Physics, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States); Ghavamian, Parviz, E-mail: brian.j.williams@nasa.gov [Department of Physics, Astronomy, and Geosciences, Towson University, Towson, MD 21252 (United States)

2013-06-20

173

Expansion of the Optical Remnant from Tycho’s Supernova  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tycho's supernova remnant (SNR) is the expanding remnant from SN 1572, the penultimate Galactic supernova to have been recorded by contemporary observers. Its optical light is almost exclusively faint hydrogen Balmer emission around the periphery of the SNR, produced where fast nonradiative shocks encounter partly neutral preshock interstellar material. A variety of filaments, presumably thin sheets oriented tangentially, surround about one-third of the radio/X-ray shell. We have used CCD images, taken from KPNO over seven epochs from 1986 to 2009, to give the first optical expansion measurement of Tycho's SNR of the CCD era. Thirty filaments were identified and measured; the majority of them are at or near the remnant's outer rim and have proper motions from 0.19?? ± 0.01?? yr-1 to 0.26?? ± 0.02?? yr-1. The associated expansion indices, defined as the ratio of the current expansion rate to the historical mean, range from 0.35 ± 0.03 to 0.52 ± 0.05. Our measurements are consistent with those from the classic study by Kamper & van den Bergh (1978, ApJ, 224, 851) for the same filaments, but the CCD measurements have higher precision, and we have measured several additional fainter filaments. For direct comparison with X-ray and radio measurements, we selected the subset of optical filaments lying exactly at the outer rim, as identified in Chandra and VLA images. Considering only these filaments, virtually all have expansion indices greater than 0.40, the Sedov value. In addition to the rim filaments, there are several seen in the interior (in projection) that have smaller proper motions; these may have been decelerated, and/or they could be directed non-tangentially. Our final epoch of images, taken from the 3.5m WIYN telescope in 2009, reveals previously undetected extremely faint optical emission surrounding well over half of the remnant shell. This newly detected faint emission agrees well with the limb as defined in X-ray and radio images.This work has been supported in part by NSF grant AST-098566.

Putko, Joseph; Winkler, P. Frank; Blair, William P.

2015-01-01

174

Phosphorus in the Young Supernova Remnant Cassiopeia A  

E-print Network

Phosphorus ($^{31}$P), which is essential for life, is thought to be synthesized in massive stars and dispersed into interstellar space when these stars explode as supernovae (SNe). Here we report on near-infrared spectroscopic observations of the young SN remnant Cassiopeia A, which show that the abundance ratio of phosphorus to the major nucleosynthetic product iron ($^{56}$Fe) in SN material is up to 100 times the average ratio of the Milky Way, confirming that phosphorus is produced in SNe. The observed range is compatible with predictions from SN nucleosynthetic models but not with the scenario in which the chemical elements in the inner SN layers are completely mixed by hydrodynamic instabilities during the explosion.

Koo, Bon-Chul; Moon, Dae-Sik; Yoon, Sung-Chul; Raymond, John C

2013-01-01

175

Grain Destruction in a Supernova Remnant Shock Wave  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Dust grains are sputtered away in the hot gas behind shock fronts in supernova remnants, gradually enriching the gas phase with refractory elements. We have measured emission in C IV (lambda)1550 from C atoms sputtered from dust in the gas behind a non-radiative shock wave in the northern Cygnus Loop. Overall, the intensity observed behind the shock agrees approximately with predictions from model calculations that match the Spitzer 24 micron and the X-ray intensity profiles. Thus these observations confirm the overall picture of dust destruction in SNR shocks and the sputtering rates used in models. However, there is a discrepancy in that the CIV intensity 10'' behind the shock is too high compared to the intensities at the shock and 25'' behind it. Variations in the density, hydrogen neutral fraction and the dust properties over parsec scales in the pre- shock medium limit our ability to test dust destruction models in detail.

Raymond, John C.; Ghavamian, Parviz; Williams, Brian J.; Blair, William P.; Borkowski, Kazimierz J.; Gaetz, Terrance J.; Sankrit, Ravi

2014-01-01

176

Spitzer Space Telescope Spectroscopy of the Kepler Supernova Remnant  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Infrared Spectrograph on the Spitzer Space Telescope was used for observations of the Kepler supernova remnant, with all four instrument modules targeted on the bright infrared knot located at 17h30m35.80s,-21d28m54.0s (J2000). The low spectral resolution modules data show a dust continuum spectrum consistent with dust grains heated by high-energy electrons, while the high resolution modules data show atomic emission line ratios consistent with excitation by a high velocity shock of greater than 100 kilometers per second and electron densities of approximately 1,000 per centimeter. The abundance ratios for the six detected elements show signs of heavy-element enhancement. This work is based on observations made with the Spitzer Space Telescope, which is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology. Support for this work was provided by NASA's Office of Space Science.

Roellig, T. L.; Onaka, T.

2004-01-01

177

Phosphorus in the young supernova remnant Cassiopeia A.  

PubMed

Phosphorus ((31)P), which is essential for life, is thought to be synthesized in massive stars and dispersed into interstellar space when these stars explode as supernovae (SNe). Here, we report on near-infrared spectroscopic observations of the young SN remnant Cassiopeia A, which show that the abundance ratio of phosphorus to the major nucleosynthetic product iron ((56)Fe) in SN material is up to 100 times the average ratio of the Milky Way, confirming that phosphorus is produced in SNe. The observed range is compatible with predictions from SN nucleosynthetic models but not with the scenario in which the chemical elements in the inner SN layers are completely mixed by hydrodynamic instabilities during the explosion. PMID:24337291

Koo, Bon-Chul; Lee, Yong-Hyun; Moon, Dae-Sik; Yoon, Sung-Chul; Raymond, John C

2013-12-13

178

SN1987A: The Birth of a Supernova Remnant  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This grant was intended to support the development of theoretical models needed to interpret and understand the observations by the Hubble Space Telescope and the Chandra X-ray telescope of the rapidly developing remnant of Supernova 1987A. In addition, we carried out a few investigations of related topics. The project was spectacularly successful. The models that we developed provide the definitive framework for predicting and interpreting this phenomenon. Following is a list of publications based on our work. Some of these papers include results of both theoretical modeling supported by this project and also analysis of data supported by the Space Telescope Science Institute and the Chandra X-ray Observatory. We first list papers published in refereed journals, then conference proceedings and book chapters, and also an educational web site.

McCray, Richard

2003-01-01

179

X-ray images of W28 and 3C400.2 - Two radio-shell supernova remnants with centrally-peaked X-ray emission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

X-ray images of the supernova remnants (SNRs) W28 and 3C400.2 were obtained using the Imaging Proportional Counter (IPC) on the Einstein Observatory. Despite the shell-like radio morphology of these remnants, their X-ray emission is centrally peaked. Two possible X-ray emission mechanisms are explored: synchrotron emission due to an active central pulsar, and thermal emission from a thin hot plasma filling the interior of the remnant. Comparisons of X-ray and radio properties of W28 and 3C400.2 with known Crab-like remnants suggest that synchrotron emission is not a very plausible X-ray emission mechanism. Optical and radio observations suggest that both SNRs exploded in a dense cloud and have evolved rapidly to the radiative stage. The X-ray morphology observed is similar to that predicted for SNRs in such an environment.

Matsui, Y.; Long, K. S.

1985-01-01

180

Gamma-ray emission from young supernova remnants: hadronic or leptonic?  

E-print Network

The debate on the nature of the gamma-ray emission from young supernova remnants is still open. Ascribing such emission to hadronic rather than leptonic processes would provide an evidence for the acceleration of protons and nuclei, and this fact would fit with the very popular (but not proven) paradigm that supernova remnants are the sources of Galactic cosmic rays. Here, we discuss this issue with a particular focus on the best studied gamma-ray-bright supernova remnant: RX~J1713.7-3946.

Gabici, S

2015-01-01

181

The Mipsgal View of Supernova Remnants in the Galactic Plane  

E-print Network

We report the detection of Galactic supernova remnants (SNRs) in the mid-infrared (at 24 and 70 {\\mu}m), in the coordinate ranges 10 < l < 65 deg and 285 < l < 350 deg, |b| < 1 deg, using the Multiband Imaging Photometer (MIPS) aboard the Spitzer Space Telescope. We search for infrared counterparts to SNRs in Green's catalog and identify 39 out of 121, i.e., a detection rate of about 32%. Such a relatively low detection fraction is mainly due to confusion with nearby foreground/background sources and diffuse emission. The SNRs in our sample show a linear trend in [F8/F24] versus [F70/F24]. We compare their infrared fluxes with their corresponding radio flux at 1.4 GHz and find that most remnants have ratios of 70 {\\mu}m to 1.4 GHz characteristic of SNRs (with the exception of a few which have ratios closer to those of H II regions). Furthermore, we retrieve a slope close to unity when correlating infrared (24 and 70 {\\mu}m) with 1.4 GHz emission. Our survey is more successful in detecting remna...

Goncalves, D Pinheiro; Paladini, R; Martin, P G; Carey, S J

2011-01-01

182

Improved optical spectrophotometry of supernova remnants in M33  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Optical spectra of SNRs in M33 have been used to investigate abundance gradients and SNR evolution in this galaxy. Abundances of O, N, and S are derived from the spectra using new shock models by Dopita et al. (1984). The results for N and S show abundance gradients similar to those in NGC 300 and the Galaxy. The O abundances may be affected by possible contamination from H II regions and low-velocity shocks. Electron densities derived from the forbidden S II 6717 A/6731 A line ratio are used with a pressure equilibrium argument to estimate the initial explosion energy for each SNR. Evolutionary models for the remnants are investigated, and the distribution of the number of remnants with diameter is found to be consistent with free expansion of the SNRs to diameters of about 26 pc. The results may also be consistent with Sedov evolution if the ranges of initial supernova energies and surrounding interstellar medium densities are large enough.

Blair, W. P.; Kirshner, R. P.

1985-01-01

183

THE MIPSGAL VIEW OF SUPERNOVA REMNANTS IN THE GALACTIC PLANE  

SciTech Connect

We report the detection of Galactic supernova remnants (SNRs) in the mid-infrared (at 24 and 70 {mu}m), in the coordinate ranges 10{sup 0} < l < 65{sup 0} and 285{sup 0} < l < 350{sup 0}, |b| < 1{sup 0}, using MIPS aboard the Spitzer Space Telescope. We search for infrared counterparts to SNRs in Green's catalog and identify 39 out of 121, i.e., a detection rate of about 32%. Such a relatively low detection fraction is mainly due to confusion with nearby foreground/background sources and diffuse emission. The SNRs in our sample show a linear trend in [F{sub 8}/F{sub 24}] versus [F{sub 70}/F{sub 24}]. We compare their infrared fluxes with their corresponding radio flux at 1.4 GHz and find that most remnants have a ratio of 70 {mu}m to 1.4 GHz which is similar to those found in previous studies of SNRs (with the exception of a few that have ratios closer to those of H II regions). Furthermore, we retrieve a slope close to unity when correlating infrared (24 and 70 {mu}m) with 1.4 GHz emission. Our survey is more successful in detecting remnants with bright X-ray emission, which we find is well correlated with the 24 {mu}m morphology. Moreover, by comparing the power emitted in the X-ray, infrared, and radio, we conclude that the energy released in the infrared is comparable to the cooling in the X-ray range.

Pinheiro Goncalves, D. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 50 St. George Street, Toronto, ON, M5S 3H4 (Canada); Noriega-Crespo, A.; Paladini, R.; Carey, S. J. [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Martin, P. G., E-mail: goncalves@astro.utoronto.ca [CITA, University of Toronto, 60 St. George Street, Toronto, ON, M5S 3H4 (Canada)

2011-08-15

184

The Optical Spectrum of the SN 1006 Supernova Remnant Revisited  

E-print Network

We present the deepest optical spectrum acquired to date of Balmer-dominated shocks in the NW rim of SN 1006. We detect the broad and narrow components of H-alpha, H-beta and H-gamma and report the first detection of the He I 6678 emission line in this supernova remnant. We may have detected, at the 1.5-sigma level, faint He II 4686 emission. We measure a full width half maximum of 2290 +/- 80 km/s in the broad component H-alpha line, with broad-to-narrow flux ratios of 0.84^+(0.03)_(-0.01) and 0.93^(+0.18)_(-0.16) in H-alpha and H-beta, respectively. To match these observations, our nonradiative shock models require a low degree of electron-proton equilibration at the shock front, T_e/T_p ~ 70%) preshock He, respectively. We conclude that the high H ionization fraction cannot be explained by either photoionization from the reverse shock or relic ionization from EUV photons released in the 1006 A.D. supernova. The most plausible explanation appears to be photoionization from the Galactic Lyman continuum.

Parviz Ghavamian; P. Frank Winkler; John C. Raymond; Knox S. Long

2002-02-26

185

IS THERE A HIDDEN HOLE IN TYPE Ia SUPERNOVA REMNANTS?  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, we report on the bulk features of the hole carved by the companion star in the material ejected during a Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) explosion. In particular we are interested in the long-term evolution of the hole as well as in its fingerprint in the geometry of the supernova remnant (SNR) after several centuries of evolution, which is a hot topic in current SN Ia studies. We use an axisymmetric smoothed particle hydrodynamics code to characterize the geometric properties of the SNR resulting from the interaction of this ejected material with the ambient medium. Our aim is to use SNR observations to constrain the single degenerate scenario for SN Ia progenitors. Our simulations show that the hole will remain open during centuries, although its partial or total closure at later times due to hydrodynamic instabilities is not excluded. Close to the edge of the hole, the Rayleigh-Taylor instability grows faster, leading to plumes that approach the edge of the forward shock. We also discuss other geometrical properties of the simulations, like the evolution of the contact discontinuity.

Garcia-Senz, D. [Departament de Fisica i Enginyeria Nuclear, UPC, Compte d'Urgell 187, 08036 Barcelona (Spain); Badenes, C. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv 69978 (Israel); Serichol, N., E-mail: domingo.garcia@upc.edu, E-mail: carles@astro.tau.ac.il, E-mail: nuria.serichol@upc.edu [Departament de Matematica Aplicada III, Sor Eulalia d'Anzizu, 08034 Barcelona (Spain)

2012-01-20

186

Deep optical observations of the central X-ray source in the Puppis A supernova remnant  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context: X-ray observations revealed a group of radio-silent isolated neutron stars (INSs) at the centre of young supernova remnants (SNRs), dubbed central compact objects or CCOs, with properties different from those of classical rotation-powered pulsars. In at least three cases, evidence points towards CCOs being low-magnetized INSs, born with slow rotation periods, and possibly accreting from a debris disc of material formed out of the supernova event. Understanding the origin of the diversity of the CCOs can shed light on supernova explosion and neutron star formation models. Optical/infrared (IR) observations are crucial to test different CCO interpretations. Aims: The aim of our work is to perform a deep optical investigation of the CCO RX J0822.0-4300 in the Puppis A SNR, one of the most poorly understood in the CCO family. Methods: By using as a reference the Chandra X-ray coordinates of RX J0822.0-4300 we performed deep optical observations in the B, V and I bands with the Very Large Telescope (VLT). Results: We found no candidate optical counterpart within 3 ? of the computed Chandra X-ray position down to 5 ? limits of B ~ 27.2, V ~ 26.9, and I ~ 25.6, the deepest obtained in the optical band for this source. Conclusions: These limits confirm the non-detection of a companion brighter than an M 5 dwarf. At the same time, they do not constrain optical emission from the neutron star surface, while emission from the magnetosphere would require a spectral break in the optical/IR. Based on observations collected at ESO, Paranal, under Programme 78.D-0706(A).

Mignani, R. P.; de Luca, A.; Mereghetti, S.; Caraveo, P. A.

2009-06-01

187

Fermi Proves Supernova Remnants Make Cosmic Rays - Duration: 3:40.  

NASA Video Gallery

The husks of exploded stars produce some of the fastest particles in the cosmos. New findings by NASA's Fermi show that two supernova remnants accelerate protons to near the speed of light. The pro...

188

A study of X-ray characteristics of mixed - morphology supernova remnants accompanied by OH maser emission at 1720 MHz  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radio surveys of supernova remnants (SNRs) in the Galaxy have discovered 19 SNRs accompanied by OH maser emission at 1720MHz. These unusual maser sources are suggested to be produced behind a shock front from the expansion of a supernova remnant running into a molecular cloud. An important ingredient of this model is that X-ray emission from the remnant enhances the

Z. Y. Yu

2005-01-01

189

Distribution of novae and supernova remnants in the Large Magellanic Cloud  

SciTech Connect

Novae in the LMC appear to be distributred like an old disk population. The fact that no concentration of novae is seen within the Bar of the Large Cloud suggests that this feature is of relatively recent origin. Supernova remnants are seen to exhibit concentrations in the 30 Dor region, in the Bar of the Large Cloud, and in Constellation III. This distribution supports the idea that most of the supernova remnants in the LMC had young massive progenitors. 11 references.

Van den Bergh, S.

1988-12-01

190

Fermi-LAT Observation of Supernova Remnant S147  

SciTech Connect

We present an analysis of gamma-ray data obtained with the Large Area Telescope (LAT) onboard the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope in the region around SNR S147 (G180.0-1.7). A spatially extended gamma-ray source detected in an energy range of 0.2-10 GeV is found to coincide with SNR S147. We confirm its spatial extension at >5{sigma} confidence level. The gamma-ray flux is (3.8 {+-} 0.6) x 10{sup -8} photons cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}, corresponding to a luminosity of 1.3 x 10{sup 34} (d/1.3 kpc){sup 2} erg s{sup -1} in this energy range. The gamma-ray emission exhibits a possible spatial correlation with prominent H{alpha} filaments of S147. There is no indication that the gamma-ray emission comes from the associated pulsar PSR J0538+2817. The gamma-ray spectrum integrated over the remnant is likely dominated by the decay of neutral {pi} mesons produced through the proton-proton collisions in the filaments. Reacceleration of pre-existing CRs and subsequent adiabatic compression in the filaments is sufficient to provide the required energy density of high-energy protons.

Katsuta, J.; Uchiyama, Y.; Tanaka, T.; /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Tajima, H.; /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Nagoya U., Solar-Terrestrial Environ. Lab.; Bechtol, K.; Funk, S.; Lande, J.; /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Ballet, J.; /AIM, Saclay; Hanabata, Y.; /Hiroshima U.; Lemoine-Goumard, M.; /CENBG, Gradignan; Takahashi, T.; /JAXA, Sagamihara

2012-08-17

191

DUST IN A TYPE Ia SUPERNOVA PROGENITOR: SPITZER SPECTROSCOPY OF KEPLER'S SUPERNOVA REMNANT  

SciTech Connect

Characterization of the relatively poorly understood progenitor systems of Type Ia supernovae is of great importance in astrophysics, particularly given the important cosmological role that these supernovae play. Kepler's supernova remnant, the result of a Type Ia supernova, shows evidence for an interaction with a dense circumstellar medium (CSM), suggesting a single-degenerate progenitor system. We present 7.5-38 {mu}m infrared (IR) spectra of the remnant, obtained with the Spitzer Space Telescope, dominated by emission from warm dust. Broad spectral features at 10 and 18 {mu}m, consistent with various silicate particles, are seen throughout. These silicates were likely formed in the stellar outflow from the progenitor system during the asymptotic giant branch stage of evolution, and imply an oxygen-rich chemistry. In addition to silicate dust, a second component, possibly carbonaceous dust, is necessary to account for the short-wavelength Infrared Spectrograph and Infrared Array Camera data. This could imply a mixed chemistry in the atmosphere of the progenitor system. However, non-spherical metallic iron inclusions within silicate grains provide an alternative solution. Models of collisionally heated dust emission from fast shocks (>1000 km s{sup -1}) propagating into the CSM can reproduce the majority of the emission associated with non-radiative filaments, where dust temperatures are {approx}80-100 K, but fail to account for the highest temperatures detected, in excess of 150 K. We find that slower shocks (a few hundred km s{sup -1}) into moderate density material (n{sub 0} {approx} 50-250 cm{sup -3}) are the only viable source of heating for this hottest dust. We confirm the finding of an overall density gradient, with densities in the north being an order of magnitude greater than those in the south.

Williams, Brian J.; Borkowski, Kazimierz J.; Reynolds, Stephen P. [Physics Department, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695-8202 (United States); Ghavamian, Parviz [Department of Physics, Astronomy, and Geosciences, Towson University, Towson, MD 21252 (United States); Blair, William P. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, 3400 N. Charles St., Baltimore, MD 21218-2686 (United States); Long, Knox S. [STScI, 3700 San Martin Dr., Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Sankrit, Ravi, E-mail: brian.j.williams@nasa.gov [SOFIA/USRA, NASA Ames Research Center, M/S N211-3, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States)

2012-08-10

192

Dust in a Type Ia Supernova Progenitor: Spitzer Spectroscopy of Kepler's Supernova Remnant  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Characterization of the relatively poorly-understood progenitor systems of Type Ia supernovae is of great importance in astrophysics, particularly given the important cosmological role that these supernovae play. Kepler's Supernova Remnant, the result of a Type Ia supernova, shows evidence for an interaction with a dense circumstellar medium (CSM), suggesting a single-degenerate progenitor system. We present 7.5-38 micron IR spectra of the remnant, obtained with the Spitzer Space Telescope, dominated by emission from warm dust. Broad spectral features at 10 and 18 micron, consistent with various silicate particles, are seen throughout. These silicates were likely formed in the stellar outflow from the progenitor system during the AGB stage of evolution, and imply an oxygen-rich chemistry. In addition to silicate dust, a second component, possibly carbonaceous dust, is necessary to account for the short-wavelength IRS and IRAC data. This could imply a mixed chemistry in the atmosphere of the progenitor system. However, non-spherical metallic iron inclusions within silicate grains provide an alternative solution. Models of collisionally-heated dust emission from fast shocks (> 1000 km/s) propagating into the CSM can reproduce the majority of the emission associated with non-radiative filaments, where dust temperatures are approx 80-100 K, but fail to account for the highest temperatures detected, in excess of 150 K. We find that slower shocks (a few hundred km/s) into moderate density material (n(sub o) approx 50-100 / cubic cm) are the only viable source of heating for this hottest dust. We confirm the finding of an overall density gradient, with densities in the north being an order of magnitude greater than those in the south.

Williams, Brian J.; Borkowski, Kazimierz; Reynolds, Stephen P.; Ghavamian, Parviz; Blair, William P.; Long, Knox S.; Sankrit, Ravi

2012-01-01

193

Studying Young and Old Supernova Remnants with the Upcoming ASTRO-H X-ray Mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The upcoming X-ray mission ASTRO-H will open a new discovery window to the high-energy Universe thanks to the unprecedented high-resolution spectroscopy (~7eV) to be achieved with the Soft X-ray Spectrometer (SXS) combined with its broadband coverage (0.5-600 keV) with the Soft X-ray Imager (SXI), Hard X-ray Imager (HXI) and the Soft Gamma-ray Detector (SGD). Supernova remnants (SNRs) are a prime science focus for ASTRO-H, particularly with the SXS providing accurate plasma diagnostics of line-rich spectra expected from the youngest, ejecta-dominated, SNRs to the oldest SNRs impacted by their interaction with the Interstellar Medium (ISM). We here highlight the SNR science topics and program that the ASTRO-H team considers of highest priority and impact. For the younger SNRs, the primary science goals are (1) using abundance measurements to unveil SNR progenitors, (2) using spatial and velocity distribution of the ejecta to understand supernova explosion mechanisms, and (3) revealing the link between the thermal plasma state of SNRs and the efficiency of their particle acceleration. For the older SNRs where thermal emission is dominated or heavily impacted by the ISM, the primary goals are (1) constraining metal abundances and physical processes in the mature limb-brightened SNRs, and (2) understanding the puzzling nature of the `mixed-morphology’ SNRs and the physics of recombining plasma. For the pulsar-powered nebulae, also known as Pulsar Wind Nebulae (PWNe) or plerions with many still lacking thermal X-ray emission from their supernova shells, ASTRO-H will shed light on their progenitors and environment. The hard X-ray coverage on board ASTRO-H will further allow a study of their broadband spectra (for the brightest objects), beyond NuSTAR’s range, filling the gap between the soft X-ray regime (with current X-ray missions) and the gamma-ray regime (with Fermi in the GeV and H.E.S.S. in the TeV), allowing the search for spectral breaks in the hard X-ray band.

Hughes, John P.; Long, Knox; Bamba, Aya; Aharonian, Felix; Faster, Adam; Funk, Stefan; Hiraga, Junko; Ishida, Manabu; Katsuda, Satoru; Katsuji, Koyama; Leutenegger, Maurice; Maeda, Yoshitomo; Matsumoto, Hironori; Mori, Koji; Nakajima, Hiroshi; Nakamori, Takashi; Nobukawa, Masayoshi; Ozaki, Masanobu; Petre, Robert; Sawada, Makoto; Tamagawa, Toru; Tamura, Keisuke; Tanaka, Takaaki; Tomida, Hiroshi; Tsunemi, Hiroshi; Uchida, Hiroyuki; Uno, Shin'ichiro; Uchiyama, Yasunobu; Yamaguchi, Hiroya; Yamauchi, Shigeo; ASTRO-H Science Working Group

2015-01-01

194

Studying Young and Old Supernova Remnants with the Upcoming ASTRO-H X-ray Mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The upcoming X-ray mission ASTRO-H will open a new discovery window to the high-energy Universe thanks to the unprecedented high-resolution spectroscopy (~7eV) to be achieved with the Soft X-ray Spectrometer (SXS) combined with its broadband coverage (0.5-600 keV) with the Soft X-ray Imager (SXI), Hard X-ray Imager (HXI) and the Soft Gamma-ray Detector (SGD). Supernova remnants (SNRs) are a prime science focus for ASTRO-H, particularly with the SXS providing accurate plasma diagnostics of line-rich spectra expected from the youngest, ejecta-dominated, SNRs to the oldest SNRs impacted by their interaction with the Interstellar Medium (ISM). We here highlight the SNR science topics and program that the ASTRO-H team considers of highest priority and impact. For the younger SNRs, the primary science goals are (1) using abundance measurements to unveil SNR progenitors, (2) using spatial and velocity distribution of the ejecta to understand supernova explosion mechanisms, and (3) revealing the link between the thermal plasma state of SNRs and the efficiency of their particle acceleration. For the older SNRs where thermal emission is dominated or heavily impacted by the ISM, the primary goals are (1) constraining metal abundances and physical processes in the mature limb-brightened SNRs, and (2) understanding the puzzling nature of the `mixed-morphology' SNRs and the physics of recombining plasma. For the pulsar-powered nebulae, also known as Pulsar Wind Nebulae (PWNe) or plerions with many still lacking thermal X-ray emission from their supernova shells, ASTRO-H will shed light on their progenitors and environment. The hard X-ray coverage on board ASTRO-H will further allow a study of their broadband spectra (for the brightest objects), beyond NuSTAR's range, filling the gap between the soft X-ray regime (with current X-ray missions) and the gamma-ray regime (with Fermi in the GeV and H.E.S.S. in the TeV), allowing the search for spectral breaks in the hard X-ray band.

Safi-Harb, Samar; Hughes, John P.; Long, Knox; Bamba, Aya; Aharonian, Felix; Foster, Adam; Funk, Stefan; Hiraga, Junko; Ishida, Manabu; Katsuda, Satoru; Koyama, Katsuji; Leutenegger, Maurice; Maeda, Yoshitomo; Matsumoto, Hironori; Mori, Koji; Nakajima, Hiroshi; Nakamori, Takashi; Nobukawa, Masayoshi; Ozaki, Masanobu; Petre, Robert; Sawada, Makoto; Tamagawa, Toru; Tamura, Keisuke; Tanaka, Takaaki; Tomida, Hiroshi; Tsunemi, Hiroshi; Uchida, Hiroyuki; Uno, Shin'ichiro; Uchiyama, Yasunobu; Yamaguchi, Hiroya; Yamauchi, Shigeo; ASTRO-H Science Working Group

2015-01-01

195

SUPERNOVA REMNANT KES 17: AN EFFICIENT COSMIC RAY ACCELERATOR INSIDE A MOLECULAR CLOUD  

E-print Network

The supernova remnant Kes 17 (SNR G304.6+0.1) is one of a few but growing number of remnants detected across the electromagnetic spectrum. In this paper, we analyze recent radio, X-ray, and ?-ray observations of this object, ...

Gelfand, Joseph D.

196

Interstellar and Ejecta Dust in the Cas A Supernova Remnant  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The ejecta of the Cas A supernova remnant has a complex morphology, consisting of dense fast-moving line emitting knots and diffuse X-ray emitting regions that have encountered the reverse shock, as well as more slowly expanding, unshocked regions of the ejecta. Using the Spitzer 5-35 micron IRS data cube, and Herschel 70, 100, and 160 micron PACS data, we decompose the infrared emission from the remnant into distinct spectral components associated with the different regions of the ejecta. Such decomposition allows the association of different dust species with ejecta layers that underwent distinct nuclear burning histories, and determination of the dust heating mechanisms. Our decomposition identified three characteristic dust spectra. The first, most luminous one, exhibits strong emission features at approx. 9 and 21 micron, and a weaker 12 micron feature, and is closely associated with the ejecta knots that have strong [Ar II] 6.99 micron and [Ar III] 8.99 micron emission lines. The dust features can be reproduced by magnesium silicate grains with relatively low MgO-to-SiO2 ratios. A second, very different dust spectrum that has no indication of any silicate features, is best fit by Al2O3 dust and is found in association with ejecta having strong [Ne II] 12.8 micron and [Ne III] 15.6 micron emission lines. A third characteristic dust spectrum shows features that best matched by magnesium silicates with relatively high MgO-to-SiO2 ratio. This dust is primarily associated with the X-ray emitting shocked ejecta and the shocked interstellar/circumstellar material. All three spectral components include an additional featureless cold dust component of unknown composition. Colder dust of indeterminate composition is associated with [Si II] 34.8 micron emission from the interior of the SNR, where the reverse shock has not yet swept up and heated the ejecta. The dust mass giving rise to the warm dust component is about approx. 0.1solar M. However, most of the dust mass is associated with the unidentified cold dust component. Its mass could be anywhere between 0.1 and 1 solar M, and is primarily limited by the mass of refractory elements in the ejecta. Given the large uncertainty in the dust mass, the question of whether supernovae can produce enough dust to account for ISM dust masses in the local and high-z universe remains largely unresolved.

Arendt, Richard G.; Dwek, Eli; Kober, Gladys; Rho, Jonghee; Hwang, Una

2013-01-01

197

Radio and Optical Properties of Supernova Remnants in M33  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although the properties and evolution of supernova remnants (SNRs) are generally understood, there are important questions concerning the interaction of SNRs with the interstellar medium. These include the role of SNRs in regulating the relativistic gas (cosmic rays) in galaxies and the degree to which the ISM affects the evolution of SNRs. Statistically significant samples of SNRs observed at several wavelengths have the potential for yielding valuable insight into these questions. To this end, we are carrying out a search for SNRs in the galaxy M33 at optical, radio and X-ray wavelengths. M33 is ideally suited for a study of this nature. Remnants will all be at essentially the same distance and, because M33 is nearly face on, the effects due to interstellar absorption are reduced. Furthermore, M33 is a spiral galaxy, allowing for comparisons with the Milky Way. We have undertaken new radio, X-ray and optical observations of M33, and, here, we present the sample of radio selected and optically confirmed SNRs and discuss some of the results. We have identified ~ 100 non-thermal radio sources within 20arcmin of the center of M33. Many of these sources are likely to be SNRs, and we have made followup spectroscopic observations of these candidates with the MMT and have found many to be associated with shock-heated gas. This radio-selected sample has the advantage over previous optical samples of M33 in that it can detect remnants in highly optically confused regions. As an example, we have identified a SNR located in the giant HII region NGC-592 in M33 (Gordon et al., 1993 Ap. J., in press). This is a particularly interesting HII region because a soft X-ray source is located in it. We found a knot of non-thermal radio emission at the site of the X-ray source and detected shock-heated gas at optical wavelengths thus showing that the X-ray emission is associated with an embedded SNR.

Gordon, S.; Kirshner, R.; Duric, N.; Long, K.

1993-12-01

198

Fermi LAT observation of supernova remnant HB9  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A 5.5-yr Fermi LAT gamma-ray observation shows significant extended emission at the position of the supernova remnant HB9 (G160.9+2.6). The significance of the detection above the background for photon energies above 0.2 GeV is 16?. The gamma-ray flux above 0.2 GeV is (2.23 ± 0.19stat) × 10-8 photons cm-2 s-1, and the corresponding luminosity above 1 GeV is 1.4 × 1033 erg s-1 (for a source distance of 1 kpc). The spectrum of the source is best described by curved power law (log-parabola, dN/dE=N_0 E^{-(? +? log(E/1 GeV))} with ? = (2.24 ± 0.09stat) and ? = 0.4 ± 0.1stat)). The gamma-ray spectrum of the source is consistent with both leptonic and hadronic models, and the relevant physical parameters in each case are derived. More studies on the ambient density in the region of HB9 should be carried out to rule out or confirm hadronic and non-thermal bremsstrahlung scenarios for the gamma-ray emission.

Araya, Miguel

2014-10-01

199

EFFECTS OF NEUTRAL PARTICLES ON MODIFIED SHOCKS AT SUPERNOVA REMNANTS  

SciTech Connect

H{alpha} emission from supernova remnants (SNRs) implies the existence of neutral hydrogens in the ambient medium. In the precursor of an SNR shock modified by cosmic rays (CRs), upstream plasmas are pushed by the CR pressure, but neutral particles are not, so that the relative velocity appears and some neutral particles become pickup ions by the charge exchange process in the precursor. We investigate how the pickup ions generated in the precursor affect the shock structure and the particle acceleration. If the CR pressure is larger than 20% of the shock ram pressure, the compression of the subshock becomes smaller than that without pickup ions because of the pressure of the pickup ions. Moreover, even if the shock is modified by CRs, the total compression ratio can be smaller than 4. In addition, the pickup ions play an important role for the injection into the particle acceleration. If the shock is a quasi-perpendicular shock and if the multiply reflected ion acceleration occurs, the CR spectrum can be harder than that of the test particle diffusive shock acceleration below GeV.

Ohira, Yutaka [Theory Center, Institute of Particle and Nuclear Studies, KEK (High Energy Accelerator Research Organization), 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba 305-0801 (Japan); Takahara, Fumio, E-mail: ohira@post.kek.j [Department of Earth and Space Science, Graduate School of Science, Osaka University, 1-1 Machikaneyama-cho, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan)

2010-09-20

200

SLOW DIFFUSION OF COSMIC RAYS AROUND A SUPERNOVA REMNANT  

SciTech Connect

We study the escape of cosmic-ray protons accelerated at a supernova remnant (SNR). We are interested in their propagation in the interstellar medium (ISM) after they leave the shock neighborhood where they are accelerated, but when they are still near the SNR with their energy density higher than that in the average ISM. Using Monte Carlo simulations, we found that the cosmic rays with energies of {approx}< TeV excite Alfven waves around the SNR on a scale of the SNR itself if the ISM is highly ionized. Thus, even if the cosmic rays can leave the shock, scattering by the waves prevents them from moving further away from the SNR. The cosmic rays form a slowly expanding cosmic-ray bubble, and they spend a long time around the SNR. This means that the cosmic rays cannot actually escape from the SNR until a fairly late stage of the SNR evolution. This is consistent with some results of Fermi and H.E.S.S. observations.

Fujita, Yutaka; Ohira, Yutaka; Takahara, Fumio [Department of Earth and Space Science, Graduate School of Science, Osaka University, 1-1 Machikaneyama-cho, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan)

2010-04-01

201

SUPERNOVA REMNANTS AND STAR FORMATION IN THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD  

SciTech Connect

It has often been suggested that supernova remnants (SNRs) can trigger star formation. To investigate the relationship between SNRs and star formation, we have examined the known sample of 45 SNRs in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) to search for associated young stellar objects (YSOs) and molecular clouds. We find seven SNRs associated with both YSOs and molecular clouds, three SNRs associated with YSOs but not molecular clouds, and eight SNRs near molecular clouds but not associated with YSOs. Among the 10 SNRs associated with YSOs, the association between the YSOs and SNRs either can be rejected or cannot be convincingly established for eight cases. Only two SNRs have YSOs closely aligned along their rims; however, the time elapsed since the SNR began to interact with the YSOs' natal clouds is much shorter than the contraction timescales of the YSOs, and thus we do not see any evidence of SNR-triggered star formation in the LMC. The 15 SNRs that are near molecular clouds may trigger star formation in the future when the SNR shocks have slowed down to <45 km s{sup -1}. We discuss how SNRs can alter the physical properties and abundances of YSOs.

Desai, Karna M.; Chu, You-Hua; Gruendl, Robert A.; Dluger, William; Katz, Marshall; Wong, Tony; Looney, Leslie W. [Department of Astronomy, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1002 West Green Street, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Chen, C.-H. Rosie [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Hughes, Annie [Centre for Supercomputing and Astrophysics, Swinburne University of Technology, Hawthorn, VIC 3122 (Australia); Muller, Erik [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, Nagoya University, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Ott, Juergen [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box O, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Pineda, Jorge L. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109-8099 (United States)

2010-08-15

202

A XMM Survey for Compact Objects in Supernova Remnants  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The goal of the project is to identify candidate neutron stars in Galactic supernova remnants (SNRs) through their X-ray emission. With XMM we observed the SNRs and typically find 10 - 50 X-ray sources. Almost all are either background galaxies or foreground stars. Therefore we must also pursue detailed optical/infrared follow-up observations to find counterparts for these X-ray sources and classify them. At the depth of the XMM observations, practically all confusing X-ray sources should have identifiable optical/IR counterparts. We have done a preliminary analysis of the XMM data and identified likely counterparts to the X-ray sources from available surveys(DSS, 2MASS). We then obtained wide-field optical/IR data from Palomar to get counterparts for the remaining sources. This analysis is underway: while often a single bright source is in the XMM error circle and can be considered a counterpart, in a number of cases we must do more detailed studies and evaluate several fainter optical/lR sources. We hope to have the final analysis of the XMM + Palomar data done this Fall. It is possible that additional, deeper optical/IR data may be necessary. We expect to publish our results by the end of this year.

Kulkarni, Shrinivas R.

2004-01-01

203

HST/ACS Narrowband Imaging of the Kepler Supernova Remnant  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We present narrowband images of the Kepler supernova remnant obtained with the Advanced Camera for Surveys aboard the Hubble Space Telescope. The images, with an angular resolution of 0.05" reveal the structure of the emitting gas in unprecedented detail. Radiative and nonradiative shocks are found in close proximity, unresolvable in gromd-based spectra, indicating that the pre-shock medium is highly clumped. The ionization structure, traced by differences in the [0 111] to [N 11] flux ratio, varies on subarcsecond scales. The variation is due to 110th differences in shock velocity as well as gradients in the evolutionary stage of the shocks. A prollinent complex of knots protruding beyond the boundary of the rennallt in the northwest is found to consist of bright radiative knots, collected by arcuate nonradiative filaments. Based on the coincidence of the optical emission with a bright isolated knot of X-ray emission, we infer that this feature is due to a Rayleigh-Taylor finger that formed at the contact discontinuity and overtook the primary blast wave.

Sankrit, Ravi; Blair, William P.; Frattare, Lisa M.; Rudnick, Lawrence; DeLaney, Tracey; Harrus, Ilana M.; Ennis, Jessica A.

2007-01-01

204

Using optical lines to study particle acceleration at supernova remnants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The shocks of several young supernova remnants (SNR) are often associated with very thin optical filaments dominated by Balmer emission resulting from charge-exchange and collisional excitation between neutral Hydrogen from the interstellar medium and shocked protons and electrons. Optical lines are a direct probe of the conditions at the shock, in particular the width of the narrow and broad components reflect the temperature upstream and downstream of the shock, respectively. When the shock accelerate efficiently non-thermal particles, the shock structure changes producing anomalous Balmer lines and it is possible to use their line shape and their spatial profile to check the efficiency of SNR shocks in accelerating cosmic rays. Here we illustrate the kinetic theory of shock acceleration in presence of neutrals with some applications to young SNRs. We show that in three cases (RCW 86, SNR 0509-67.5 and Tycho) anomalous Balmer lines can be explained assuming that a fraction of ? 10% of the total shock kinetic energy is converted into not thermal particles, while in one single case, the northwestern part of SN 1006, there is no evidence of efficient acceleration.

Morlino, Giovanni

2014-11-01

205

The Chemical Abundances of Tycho G in Supernova Remnant 1572  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present an analysis of the chemical abundances of the star Tycho G in the direction of the remnant of supernova (SN) 1572, based on Keck high-resolution optical spectra. The stellar parameters of this star are found to be those of a G-type subgiant with T eff = 5900 ± 100 K, log(g/cms2) = 3.85 ± 0.30 dex, and [Fe/H] = -0.05 ± 0.09. This determination agrees with the stellar parameters derived for the star in a previous survey for the possible companion star of SN 1572 (Ruiz-Lapuente et al.). The chemical abundances follow the Galactic trends, except for Ni, which is overabundant relative to Fe, [Ni/Fe] = 0.16 ± 0.04. Co is slightly overabundant (at a low significance level). These enhancements in Fe-peak elements could have originated from pollution by the SN ejecta. We find a surprisingly high Li abundance for a star that has evolved away from the main sequence. We discuss these findings in the context of companion stars of SNe.

González Hernández, Jonay I.; Ruiz-Lapuente, Pilar; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Foley, Ryan J.; Gal-Yam, Avishay; Simon, Joshua D.

2009-01-01

206

SUPERNOVA REMNANT KES 17: AN EFFICIENT COSMIC RAY ACCELERATOR INSIDE A MOLECULAR CLOUD  

SciTech Connect

The supernova remnant Kes 17 (SNR G304.6+0.1) is one of a few but growing number of remnants detected across the electromagnetic spectrum. In this paper, we analyze recent radio, X-ray, and ?-ray observations of this object, determining that efficient cosmic ray acceleration is required to explain its broadband non-thermal spectrum. These observations also suggest that Kes 17 is expanding inside a molecular cloud, though our determination of its age depends on whether thermal conduction or clump evaporation is primarily responsible for its center-filled thermal X-ray morphology. Evidence for efficient cosmic ray acceleration in Kes 17 supports recent theoretical work concluding that the strong magnetic field, turbulence, and clumpy nature of molecular clouds enhance cosmic ray production in supernova remnants. While additional observations are needed to confirm this interpretation, further study of Kes 17 is important for understanding how cosmic rays are accelerated in supernova remnants.

Gelfand, Joseph D. [NYU Abu Dhabi, P.O. Box 903, New York, NY 10276 (United States); Castro, Daniel [MIT Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, 77 Massachusetts Avenue 37-241, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Slane, Patrick O. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Temim, Tea [Observational Cosmology Lab, Code 665, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Hughes, John P. [Department of Physics and Astronomy Rutgers University 136 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Rakowski, Cara, E-mail: jg168@cosmo.nyu.edu, E-mail: cara.rakowski@gmail.com [United States Patent and Trademark Office, 600 Dulany Street, Alexandria, VA (United States)

2013-11-10

207

G354.4+0.0: the youngest Galactic supernova remnant?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although the supernova rate in the Milky Way is thought to be 3 per century, only two supernova remnants younger than 400 yr are known, Cas A and G1.9+0.4. Both these sources are X-ray synchrotron emitters, and in both these sources freshly synthesized, radio-active Ti-44 has been detected. This year a new, small (1.6 arcmin) shell-type supernova remnant was discovered, G354.4+0.0, which is a good candidate to be the youngest supernova remnant in the Galaxy. We propose to observe G354.4+0.0 both with XMM-Newton, for detailed imaging spectroscopy, and with NuStar for characterizing the potential synchrotron emission and search for line emission caused by the decay of Ti-44 at 68 keV and 78 keV.

Vink, Jacco

2013-10-01

208

Supernova Remnants As Laboratories For Determining The Properties Of Ejecta Dust And The Processing Of Dust Grains In Shocks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent infrared satellites, such as the Spitzer, Herschel, and WISE, have obtained a wealth of spectral and broadband data on the infrared (IR) emission from dust in supernova remnants (SNRs). Supernovae (SNe) are important producers of newly condensed dust during the early free-expansion phase of their evolution, and the dominant destroyers of dust during the subsequent remnant phase of their evolution. The infrared observations hold the key for determining their role in the origin and evolution of dust in the universe. We propose to model the composition, abundance, and size distribution of the dust in select Galactic and Magellanic Cloud remnants. As explained in detail below, the remnants were selected for the availability of IR and X-ray observations. All selected remnants have Spitzer IRS spectral data in the 5-35 ?m regions which allow us to determine the effect of grain processing in the shock. Some have spectral maps that allow the distinction between the IR emission from SN-condensed and swept up circumstellar and interstellar dust. All remnants have also been covered by Spitzer, Herschel, and WISE imaging, and have existing X-ray Chandra and/or XMM observations. The dust in some remnants is radiatively-heated by a pulsar wind nebula, and in others collisionally- heated by shocked X-ray or line emitting gas. We will use physical models to calculate the radiative and collisional heating of SNR dust, the equilibrium or fluctuating dust temperatures, and the resulting IR emission for various dust compositions and size distributions. Specific examples of Cas A, SN1987A, the Crab Nebula, and Puppis A, are discussed in detail to illustrate our modeling approach. Our study will be the first comprehensive and physical analysis of a large sample of SNRs in different evolutionary states and different astrophysical environments. They will cover a wide range of interactions between the dust grains and their surroundings, including the radioactively- powered and/or shocked SN ejecta, hard X-rays and EUV radiation fields, and shocked circumstel- lar/interstellar gas. Our study will shed light on the evolution of dust grains from their explosive formation sites, through their violent injection into the ISM, and ultimate demise or survival as they travel through a network of interstellar shock waves. It will constitute a major advance in our understanding of the origin and evolution of dust in the Milky Way, in galaxies in general, and especially in the early universe.

Dwek, Eli

209

Some arguments in support of the association of PSR B1706-44 with the supernova remnant G343.1-2.3  

E-print Network

We present some arguments in support of the association of the pulsar PSR B1706-44 with the supernova remnant G343.1-2.3, based on the idea that these objects could be the result of a supernova explosion within a mushroom-like cavity (created by the supernova progenitor wind breaking out of the parent molecular cloud). We suggest that in addition to the known bright "half" of G343.1-2.3 there should exist a more extended and weaker component, such that the actual shape of G343.1-2.3 is similar to that of the well-known SNR VRO 42.05.01. We have found such a component in archival radio data.

Douglas C. -J. Bock; V. V. Gvaramadze

2001-11-22

210

DISCOVERY OF X-RAY EMISSION FROM SUPERNOVA 1970G WITH CHANDRA: FILLING THE VOID BETWEEN SUPERNOVAE AND SUPERNOVA REMNANTS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We report the discovery of X-ray emission from SN 1970G in M101, 35 yr after its outburst, using deep X-ray imaging with the Chundra X-Ray Observatory. The Chandra ACIS spectrum shows that the emission is soft (52 keV) and characteristic of the reverse-shock region. The X-ray luminosity, Lo,,, = (1.1 3 0.2) x lo3# ergs s-1, is likely caused by the interaction of the supernova shock with dense circumstellar matter. If the material was deposited by the stellar wind from the progenitor, a mass-loss rate of M = (2.6 ? 0.4) x M, yr-I (v,/lO km s-I) is inferred. Utilizing the high-resolution Chandra ACIS data of SN 1970G and its environment, we reconstruct the X-ray lightcurve from previous ROSAT HRI, PSPC, and XMM-Newton EPIC observations, and find a best-fit linear rate of decline of L cc t-# with index s = 2.7 t 0.9 over a period of -20-35 yr after the outburst. As the oldest supernova detected in X-rays, SN 1970G allows, for the first time, direct observation of the transition from a supenova to its supernova remnant phase.

Immler, Stefan; Kuntz, K. D.

2005-01-01

211

18. Supernova remnants and the origin of cosmic rays 18.1 High-energy emission from SNR  

E-print Network

18. Supernova remnants and the origin of cosmic rays 18.1 High-energy emission from SNR We have already mentioned supernova remnants as possible sources of cosmic rays, and indeed synchrotron emission rays, then the cosmic-ray density in and near the SNR should be very high, so one should be able to see

Pohl, Martin Karl Wilhelm

212

Maximum Energies of Shock?accelerated Electrons in Young Shell Supernova Remnants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Young supernova remnants (SNRs) are often assumed to be the source of cosmic rays up to energies approaching the slight steepening in the cosmic-ray spectrum at around 1000 TeV, known as the ìì knee.?? We show that the observed X-ray emission of 14 radio-bright shell remnants, including all —ve historical shells, can be used to put limits on the energy

Stephen P. Reynolds; Jonathan W. Keohane

1999-01-01

213

An astrophysics data program investigation of spatial structure of supernova remnants  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The final report on astrophysics data program investigation of spatial structure of supernova remnants for the period 1 Aug. 1989 to 31 Jul. 1991 is presented. The goal of the project was the study of the spatial structure of supernova remnants (SNR's) as observed in the x-ray band. A number of software tools were developed for the analysis: (1) a program to fit various geometric models to high resolution x-ray data, and (2) programs for Fourier Transform analysis of clumping in SNR's. These programs were applied to high resolution imager (HRI) data on the young galactic SNR's Tycho and Kepler with some success.

Hughes, John P.

1993-01-01

214

The Discovery of a Supernova Remnant Embedded in a Giant H II Region of M33  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have combined radio, optical, and X-ray data to discover a new supernova remnant (SNR) in M33. This remnant is embedded in the giant H II region NGC 592. Our VLA-WSRT radio survey of M33 showed that NGC 592 has a nonthermal component to its radio emission. Optical images of the H II region at the KPNO 4 m allowed us to subtract the thermal source to reveal the nonthermal source. NGC 592 had also been identified in Einstein data as a soft X-ray source. Our ROSAT observation, combined with the radio and optical data, provides evidence that the X-ray source is a supernova remnant. A knot of [S II] emission was isolated in the H II region, and MMT spectra confirm that the knot has the spectrum of a supernova remnant. We use these observations to investigate the properties of the remnant and its environment. We find that this SNR is a typical middle-aged remnant except that it is expanding into dense gas of the H II region NGC 592. We also find that there is a pressure difference between the hot postshock region and the cool recombination zone. This difference may be a sign that nonthermal particles and magnetic fields provide significant pressure support in the recombination zone.

Gordon, Shawn M.; Kirshner, Robert P.; Duric, Nebojsa; Long, Knox S.

1993-12-01

215

MAGNETIC AMPLIFICATION BY MAGNETIZED COSMIC RAYS IN SUPERNOVA REMNANT SHOCKS  

SciTech Connect

X-ray observations of synchrotron rims in supernova remnant (SNR) shocks show evidence of efficient electron acceleration and strong magnetic field amplification (a factor of {approx}100 between the upstream and downstream medium). This amplification may be due to plasma instabilities driven by shock-accelerated particles or cosmic rays (CRs), as they propagate ahead of the shocks. One candidate process is the cosmic ray current-driven (CRCD) instability caused by the electric current of 'unmagnetized' CRs (i.e., CRs whose Larmor radii are much larger than the length scale of the CRCD modes) propagating parallel to the upstream magnetic field. Particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations have shown that the back-reaction of the amplified field on CRs would limit the amplification factor of this instability to less than {approx}10 in galactic SNRs (not including the additional field compression at the shock). In this paper, we study the possibility of further amplification driven near shocks by 'magnetized' CRs, whose Larmor radii are smaller than the length scale of the field that was previously amplified by the CRCD instability. We find that additional amplification can occur due to a new instability, driven by the CR current perpendicular to the field, which we term the perpendicular current-driven instability (PCDI). We derive the growth rate of this instability and, using PIC simulations, study its non-linear evolution. We show that the maximum amplification of PCDI is determined by the disruption of CR current, which happens when CR Larmor radii in the amplified field become comparable to the length scale of the instability. We find that, in regions close to the shock, PCDI grows on scales smaller than the scales of the CRCD instability, and, therefore, it results in larger amplification of the field (amplification factor up to {approx}45). One possible observational signature of PCDI is the characteristic dependence of the amplified field on the shock velocity, B {sup 2} {proportional_to} v {sup 2} {sub sh}, which contrasts with the one corresponding to the CRCD instability acting alone, B {sup 2} {proportional_to} v {sup 3} {sub sh}. Our results strengthen the idea of CRs driving a significant part of the magnetic field amplification observed in SNR shocks.

Riquelme, Mario A.; Spitkovsky, Anatoly, E-mail: marh@astro.princeton.ed, E-mail: anatoly@astro.princeton.ed [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)

2010-07-10

216

FAR-INFRARED LUMINOUS SUPERNOVA REMNANT Kes 17  

SciTech Connect

We present the results of infrared (IR; 2.5-160 {mu}m) observations of the supernova remnant (SNR) Kes 17 based on the data obtained with the AKARI and Spitzer satellites. We first detect bright continuum emission of its western shell in the mid- and far-IR wavebands together with its near-IR molecular line emission. We also detect hidden mid-IR emission of its southern shell after subtraction of the background emission in this region. The far-IR luminosity of the western shell is {approx}8100 L{sub sun}, which makes Kes 17 one of the few SNRs of significant far-IR emission. The fittings of the spectral energy distribution indicate the existence of two dust components: {approx}79 K (hot) and {approx}27 K (cold) corresponding to the dust masses of {approx}6.2 x 10{sup -4} M{sub sun} and {approx}6.7 M{sub sun}, respectively. We suggest that the hot component represents the dust emission of the material swept up by the SNR to its western and southern boundaries, compatible with the distribution of radio continuum emission overlapping the mid-IR emission in the western and southern shells. The existence of hot ({approx}2000 K), shocked dense molecular gas revealed by the near-IR molecular line emission in the western shell, on the other hand, suggests that the cold dust component represents the dust emission related to the interaction between the SNR and nearby molecular gas. The excitation conditions of the molecular gas appear to be consistent with those from shocked, clumpy admixture gas of different temperatures. We discuss three possibilities for the origin of the bright far-IR emission of the cold dust in the western shell: the emission of dust in the inter-clump medium of shocked molecular clouds, the emission of dust in evaporating flows of molecular clouds engulfed by hot gas, and the emission of dust of nearby molecular clouds illuminated by radiative shocks.

Lee, Ho-Gyu; Moon, Dae-Sik [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S 3H4 (Canada); Koo, Bon-Chul [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Onaka, Takashi; Sakon, Itsuki [Department of Astronomy, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Jeong, Woong-Seob; Shinn, Jong-Ho, E-mail: hglee@astro.utoronto.ca, E-mail: moon@astro.utoronto.ca, E-mail: koo@astrohi.snu.ac.kr, E-mail: onaka@astron.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp, E-mail: isakon@astron.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp, E-mail: jeongws@kasi.re.kr, E-mail: jhshinn@kasi.re.kr [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, 776, Daedeok-daero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of)

2011-10-10

217

Supernova remnants and diffuse ionized gas in M31  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Researchers have compiled an initial list of radio/optical supernova remnants (SNRs) in M31, by searching for radio identifications of emission-line sources with a high (SII)/H alpha ratio (greater than 0.60). The (SII) filter included both sulfur lines and the H alpha filter did not include (NII). This search revealed 11 SNRs, of which only two were known. In addition, researchers detected radio emission from 3 SNRs that were identified in previous optical surveys (D'Odorico et al., 1980), but that were outside the charge coupled device (CCD) fields. The 14 objects only include the most obvious candidates, but a full search is in progress and the researchers expect to find several more SNRs. Also not all optical SNRs show detectable radio emission and a pure optical list of SNR candidates based only on the ratio of (SII)/H alpha emission contains many more objects. Two conclusions are apparent. First, the radio properties of the SNRs in M31 are quite similar to those of Galactic SNRs as is illustrated. The brightnesses are not systematically lower as has been suggested in the past (Dickel and D'Odorico, 1984). Second, the slope of the relation is close to -2; this slope is expected from the intrinsic dependence between surface brightness and diameter. The radio luminosity of the SNRs does not seem to depend strongly on diameter, or age, contrary to model predictions. Selection effects, however, play an important role in these plots. The CCD images show widespread diffuse ionized gas with a ratio of (SII)/H alpha that is higher than that of discrete HII regions. Discrete HII regions typically show ratios between 0.2 to 0.3, while the diffuse gas in the arms consistently shows ratios of 0.5. Researchers can trace this gas across the spiral arms to emission measures below 5 pc cm (-6). Its properties seem to be similar to that of the diffuse gas in the solar neighborhood.

Walterbos, Rene; Braun, Robert

1990-01-01

218

The Shock Structure of Supernova Remnant IC443  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We present and discuss ISO observations of IC443, a supernova remnant interacting with a molecular cloud. An SWS spectrum centered on molecular hydrogen clump R10E (RA(2000) = 6 17 7.6, Decl(2000) = 22 25 34.6) is dominated by strong [SiII] (34 microns) emission and the pure rotational transitions of molecular hydrogen ranging from 0-0 S(1) to 0-0 S(13). Fits to these H$-2$ lines imply a large column (approx. 7E19 cm$ {-2)$) of warm (T approx. 700 K) gas and an ortho/para ratio for hydrogen near 3. LWS Fabry-Perot spectra of [OI] (63 microns) and [CII] (158 microns) at positions R10E and C (RA(2000) = 6 17 42.8, Decl(2000) = 22 21 38.1) find broad (approx. 75 km/s), blue-shifted (-40 km/s) line profiles; their similarity strongly suggests a common, shock-generated origin for these two lines. The surprisingly large [CII]/[OI] ratio (approx. 0.1 to 0.2) confirms previous observations with the Kuiper Airborne Observatory. These [CII] and [OI] line intensities, the [SiII] intensity (above), and LWS grating measurements of OH (119 microns) and [OI] (145 microns) are all readily fit by a single, fast J-shock model. Although the [OI] (63) emission can alternatively be produced by a slow C-shock, this ensemble of lines can not be produced by such a shock and provides strong evidence for the existence of a J-shock. A 24-arcmin strip map shows that this far-infrared line emission is spatially correlated with the H$-2$ 1-0 S(1) emission, which most likely arises in an associated C-shock. In addition to this spatially correlated shock emission, the strip map identifies extended [CII] and [OI] emission with a significantly larger line ratio (approx. 0.6); this 'background' component is compared with current J-shock, C-shock, photo-dissociation region (PDR), and X-ray dissociation region (XDR) models in an effort to explain its origin.

Haas, Michael R.; Higdon, S. J. U.; Burton, M. G.; Hollenbach, D. J.; Fonda, Mark (Technical Monitor)

2003-01-01

219

High-Velocity H I Gas in Supernova Remnants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using the Hat Creek 85 foot telescope, we had carried out a survey of H I 21 cm emission lines toward all 103 known northern supernova remnants (SNRs) in order to find rapidly expanding SNR shells (Koo & Heiles 1991). We detected 15 SNRs that have associated high-velocity (HV) H I gas, most of which are quite likely the gas accelerated by the SN blast wave. Although the large beam-size (FWHM~ 30') of the 85 foot telescope prevented us to see the structure of the HV H I gas, the H I mass distribution in line-of-sight velocity suggested clumpy shell structures in several SNRs. In order to resolve the structure of the HV H I gas, we have been carrying out high-resolution H I 21 cm line observations using the Arecibo telescope and the VLA. We report preliminary results on two SNRs, CTB 80 and W51. In CTB 80, the VLA observations revealed fast moving H I clumps, which have a dense (n_H ~ 100 cm(-3) ) core surrounded by a relatively diffuse envelope. The clumps are small, 3 pc to 5 pc, and have velocities between +40 km s(-1) and +80 km s(-1) with respect to the systematic velocity of CTB 80. The clumps have relatively large momentum per unit volume, which implies that they have been swept-up at an early stage of the SNR evolution. By analyzing the Arecibo data, we found that the interstellar medium around CTB 80 is far from being uniform and homogeneous, which explains the peculiar morphology of CTB 80 in infrared and radio continuum. In W51, HV H I gas moving up to v_LSR>+150 km s(-1) has been detected. The H I distribution is elongated along the northwest-southeast direction, and the peak is very close to an X-ray bright region. We discuss the implications of our results in relation to the X-ray and the radio continuum morphology of W51. This work was supported in part by NON DIRECTED RESEARCH FUND, Korea Research Foundation, 1992.

Koo, Bon-Chul

1993-05-01

220

Updated Radio Sigma-D Relation for Galactic Supernova Remnants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the updated empirical radio surface-brightness-to-diameter (Sigma - D) relation for supernova remnants (SNRs) in our Galaxy. Our original calibration sample of Galactic SNRs with independently determined distances (Pavlovic et al. 2013, hereafter Paper I) is reconsidered and updated with data which became available in the past two years. The orthogonal fitting procedure and probability-density-function-based (PDF) method are applied to the calibration sample in the log Sigma - log D plane. Non-standard orthogonal regression keeps the Sigma-D and D-Sigma relations invariant within estimated uncertainties. Our previous Monte Carlo simulations verified that the slopes of the empirical Sigma-D relation should be determined by using the orthogonal regression, because of its good performances for data sets with severe scatter. The updated calibration sample contains 65 shell SNRs. 6 new Galactic SNRs are added to the sample from Paper I, one is omitted and distances are changed for 10 SNRs. The slope derived is here slightly steeper (? ? 5.2) than the Sigma-D slope in Paper I (? ? 4.8). The PDF method relies on data points density maps which can provide more reliable calibrations that preserve more information contained in the calibration sample. We estimate distances to five new faint Galactic SNRs discovered for the first time by Canadian Galactic Plane Survey, and obtained distances of 2.3, 4.0, 1.3, 2.9 and 4.7 kiloparsecs for G108.5+11.0, G128.5+2.6, G149.5+3.2, G150.8+3.8 and G160.1-1.1, respectively. The updated empirical relation is used to estimate distances of 160 shell Galactic SNRs and new results change their distance scales up to 15 per cent, compared to the results from Paper I. The PDF calculation can provide even few times higher or lower values in comparison with the orthogonal fit, as it uses a totally different approach. However, on average, this difference is 32, 24 and 18 per cent for mode, median and mean distances.

Pavlovic, M. Z.; Dobardzic, A.; Vukotic, B.; Urosevic, D.

2014-12-01

221

Simulating Anisotropic Thermal Conduction in Supernova Remnants, Implications for the Interstellar Medium  

E-print Network

We present a large number of two and a half dimensional simulations of supernova remnants expanding into interstellar media having a range of densities, temperatures and magnetic field strengths. The volume of hot gas produced is strongly dependent on the inclusion of thermal conduction and magnetic fields. The four-volumes and three-areas of hot gas have been catalogued and their dependence on interstellar parameters documented. Simulated line widths of radioactive species ejected by supernovae have also been catalogued.

D. S. Balsara; A. J. Bendinelli; D. A. Tilley; A. R. Massari; J. C. Howk

2007-11-14

222

DEM L241, A SUPERNOVA REMNANT CONTAINING A HIGH-MASS X-RAY BINARY  

SciTech Connect

A Chandra observation of the Large Magellanic Cloud supernova remnant DEM L241 reveals an interior unresolved source which is probably an accretion-powered binary. The optical counterpart is an O5III(f) star making this a high-mass X-ray binary with an orbital period likely to be of the order of tens of days. Emission from the remnant interior is thermal and spectral information is used to derive density and mass of the hot material. Elongation of the remnant is unusual and possible causes of this are discussed. The precursor star probably had mass >25 M {sub Sun}.

Seward, F. D. [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Charles, P. A. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, Highfield, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Foster, D. L. [South African Astronomical Observatory, P.O. Box 9, Observatory 7935, Cape Town (South Africa); Dickel, J. R.; Romero, P. S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of New Mexico, 1919 Lomas Boulevard NE, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States); Edwards, Z. I.; Perry, M.; Williams, R. M. [Department of Earth and Space Sciences, Columbus State University, Coca Cola Space Science Center, 701 Front Avenue, Columbus, GA 31901 (United States)

2012-11-10

223

Investigation of Supernova Remnant Shocks in the Vela-Puppis Region  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Overview: We observed supernova remnant (SNR) shocks at four locations in the Vela- Puppis region. The targets were a bright X-ray knot in the center of the remnant, Knot D on the eastern limb of the remnant, a region overlapping the Puppis A SNR and a region within Vela overlapping the edge of the SNR Rx10852.0-4622. The aim of the observations was to characterize the properties of the shocks and identify separate kinematic components of the emission. The first round of analysis of these data produced significant interesting results as outlined below. Further analyses, in conjunction with other datasets, are planned.

Sankrit, Ravi

2005-01-01

224

OBSERVATION OF SUPERNOVA REMNANT IC 443 WITH THE FERMI LARGE AREA TELESCOPE  

SciTech Connect

We report observation of the supernova remnant (SNR) IC 443 (G189.1+3.0) with the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope Large Area Telescope (LAT) in the energy band between 200 MeV and 50 GeV. IC 443 is a shell-type SNR with mixed morphology located off the outer Galactic plane where high-energy emission has been detected in the X-ray, GeV and TeV gamma-ray bands. Past observations suggest IC 443 has been interacting with surrounding interstellar matter. Proximity between dense shocked molecular clouds and GeV-TeV gamma-ray emission regions detected by EGRET, MAGIC, and VERITAS suggests an interpretation that cosmic-ray (CR) particles are accelerated by the SNR. With the high gamma-ray statistics and broad energy coverage provided by the LAT, we accurately characterize the gamma-ray emission produced by the CRs accelerated at IC 443. The emission region is extended in the energy band with theta{sub 68} = 0.{sup 0}27 +- 0.{sup 0}01(stat) +- 0.{sup 0}03(sys) for an assumed two-dimensional Gaussian profile and overlaps almost completely with the extended source region of VERITAS. Its centroid is displaced significantly from the known pulsar wind nebula (PWN) which suggests the PWN is not the major contributor in the present energy band. The observed spectrum changes its power-law slope continuously and continues smoothly to the MAGIC and VERITAS data points. The combined gamma-ray spectrum (200 MeV

Abdo, A. A. [Space Science Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Bechtol, K.; Berenji, B.; Blandford, R. D.; Bloom, E. D.; Borgland, A. W. [W. W. Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory, Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Department of Physics and SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Baldini, L.; Bellazzini, R.; Bregeon, J.; Brez, A. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Ballet, J. [Laboratoire AIM, CEA-IRFU/CNRS/Universite Paris Diderot, Service d'Astrophysique, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); Barbiellini, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Trieste, I-34127 Trieste (Italy); Bastieri, D. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Padova, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Baughman, B. M. [Department of Physics, Center for Cosmology and Astro-Particle Physics, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Bonamente, E. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Perugia, I-06123 Perugia (Italy); Brigida, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica 'M. Merlin' dell'Universita e del Politecnico di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Bruel, P. [Laboratoire Leprince-Ringuet, Ecole polytechnique, CNRS/IN2P3, Palaiseau (France); Burnett, T. H., E-mail: kamae@slac.stanford.ed, E-mail: shia520@stanford.ed, E-mail: francesco.giordano@ba.infn.i, E-mail: dtorres@ieec.uab.e, E-mail: arodrig@ieec.uab.e [Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195-1560 (United States)

2010-03-20

225

Measuring the Magnetic Fields of Central Compact Objects in Supernova Remnants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

X-ray timing studies of two X-ray pulsars in SNRs have detected no braking of their rotation, implying upper limits of 3E11 G on their surface dipole fields, well below those of ordinary young pulsars. We proposed that weak B-fields related to slow natal spin may be the physical basis of the class of Central Compact Objects (CCOs), including the unseen pulsar in SN 1987A. This proposal leverages existing timing data on CCO pulsars to determine if they are spinning down and, if so, to measure their magnetic fields by obtaining coherent timing solutions linking all previous data. Fields as small as 1E10 G can be measured in this way. Alternatively, accretion of supernova debris through a fallback disk may be occurring, which would be detectable as torque noise.

Halpern, Jules

2007-10-01

226

Measuring the Magnetic Fields of Central Compact Objects in Supernova Remnants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

X-ray timing studies of two X-ray pulsars in SNRs have detected no braking of their rotation, implying upper limits of 3E11 G on their surface dipole fields, well below those of ordinary young pulsars. We proposed that weak B-fields related to slow natal spin may be the physical basis of the class of Central Compact Objects (CCOs), including the unseen pulsar in SN 1987A. This proposal leverages existing timing data on CCO pulsars to determine if they are spinning down and, if so, to measure their magnetic fields by obtaining coherent timing solutions linking all previous data. Fields as small as 1E10 G can be measured in this way. Alternatively, accretion of supernova debris through a fallback disk may be occurring, which would be detectable as torque noise.

Halpern, Jules

2008-09-01

227

Supernova Ejecta in the Youngest Galactic Supernova Remnant G1.9+0.3  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

G1.9+0.3 is the youngest known Galactic supernova remnant (SNR), with an estimated supernova (SN) explosion date of ~1900, and most likely located near the Galactic center. Only the outermost ejecta layers with free-expansion velocities gsim18,000 km s-1 have been shocked so far in this dynamically young, likely Type Ia SNR. A long (980 ks) Chandra observation in 2011 allowed spatially resolved spectroscopy of heavy-element ejecta. We denoised Chandra data with the spatio-spectral method of Krishnamurthy et al., and used a wavelet-based technique to spatially localize thermal emission produced by intermediate-mass elements (IMEs; Si and S) and iron. The spatial distribution of both IMEs and Fe is extremely asymmetric, with the strongest ejecta emission in the northern rim. Fe K? emission is particularly prominent there, and fits with thermal models indicate strongly oversolar Fe abundances. In a localized, outlying region in the northern rim, IMEs are less abundant than Fe, indicating that undiluted Fe-group elements (including 56Ni) with velocities >18,000 km s-1 were ejected by this SN. However, in the inner west rim, we find Si- and S-rich ejecta without any traces of Fe, so high-velocity products of O-burning were also ejected. G1.9+0.3 appears similar to energetic Type Ia SNe such as SN 2010jn where iron-group elements at such high free-expansion velocities have been recently detected. The pronounced asymmetry in the ejecta distribution and abundance inhomogeneities are best explained by a strongly asymmetric SN explosion, similar to those produced in some recent three-dimensional delayed-detonation Type Ia models.

Borkowski, Kazimierz J.; Reynolds, Stephen P.; Hwang, Una; Green, David A.; Petre, Robert; Krishnamurthy, Kalyani; Willett, Rebecca

2013-07-01

228

SUPERNOVA EJECTA IN THE YOUNGEST GALACTIC SUPERNOVA REMNANT G1.9+0.3  

SciTech Connect

G1.9+0.3 is the youngest known Galactic supernova remnant (SNR), with an estimated supernova (SN) explosion date of {approx}1900, and most likely located near the Galactic center. Only the outermost ejecta layers with free-expansion velocities {approx}>18,000 km s{sup -1} have been shocked so far in this dynamically young, likely Type Ia SNR. A long (980 ks) Chandra observation in 2011 allowed spatially resolved spectroscopy of heavy-element ejecta. We denoised Chandra data with the spatio-spectral method of Krishnamurthy et al., and used a wavelet-based technique to spatially localize thermal emission produced by intermediate-mass elements (IMEs; Si and S) and iron. The spatial distribution of both IMEs and Fe is extremely asymmetric, with the strongest ejecta emission in the northern rim. Fe K{alpha} emission is particularly prominent there, and fits with thermal models indicate strongly oversolar Fe abundances. In a localized, outlying region in the northern rim, IMEs are less abundant than Fe, indicating that undiluted Fe-group elements (including {sup 56}Ni) with velocities >18,000 km s{sup -1} were ejected by this SN. However, in the inner west rim, we find Si- and S-rich ejecta without any traces of Fe, so high-velocity products of O-burning were also ejected. G1.9+0.3 appears similar to energetic Type Ia SNe such as SN 2010jn where iron-group elements at such high free-expansion velocities have been recently detected. The pronounced asymmetry in the ejecta distribution and abundance inhomogeneities are best explained by a strongly asymmetric SN explosion, similar to those produced in some recent three-dimensional delayed-detonation Type Ia models.

Borkowski, Kazimierz J.; Reynolds, Stephen P. [Department of Physics, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695-8202 (United States); Hwang, Una [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Green, David A. [Cavendish Laboratory, 19 J.J. Thomson Ave., Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Petre, Robert [NASA/GSFC, Code 660, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Krishnamurthy, Kalyani; Willett, Rebecca, E-mail: kborkow@unity.ncsu.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708 (United States)

2013-07-01

229

RADIO DETECTION OF A CANDIDATE NEUTRON STAR ASSOCIATED WITH GALACTIC CENTER SUPERNOVA REMNANT SAGITTARIUS A EAST  

SciTech Connect

We report the Very Large Array (VLA) detection of the radio counterpart of the X-ray object referred to as the 'Cannonball', which has been proposed to be the remnant neutron star resulting from the creation of the Galactic center supernova remnant, Sagittarius A East. The radio object was detected both in our new VLA image from observations in 2012 at 5.5 GHz and in archival VLA images from observations in 1987 at 4.75 GHz and in the period from 1990 to 2002 at 8.31 GHz. The radio morphology of this object is characterized as a compact, partially resolved point source located at the northern tip of a radio 'tongue' similar to the X-ray structure observed by Chandra. Behind the Cannonball, a radio counterpart to the X-ray plume is observed. This object consists of a broad radio plume with a size of 30''×15'', followed by a linear tail having a length of 30''. The compact head and broad plume sources appear to have relatively flat spectra (??{sup ?}) with mean values of ? = –0.44 ± 0.08 and –0.10 ± 0.02, respectively, and the linear tail shows a steep spectrum with the mean value of –1.94 ± 0.05. The total radio luminosity integrated from these components is ?8 × 10{sup 33} erg s{sup –1}, while the emission from the head and tongue amounts for only ?1.5 × 10{sup 31} erg s{sup –1}. Based on the images obtained from the two epochs' observations at 5 GHz, we infer the proper motion of the object: ?{sub ?} = 0.001 ± 0.003 arcsec yr{sup –1} and ?{sub ?} = 0.013 ± 0.003 arcsec yr{sup –1}. With an implied velocity of 500 km s{sup –1}, a plausible model can be constructed in which a runaway neutron star surrounded by a pulsar wind nebula was created in the event that produced Sgr A East. The inferred age of this object, assuming that its origin coincides with the center of Sgr A East, is approximately 9000 yr.

Zhao, Jun-Hui [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, MS 78, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Morris, Mark R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Goss, W. M., E-mail: jzhao@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: morris@astro.ucla.edu, E-mail: mgoss@aoc.nrao.edu [NRAO, P.O. Box O, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States)

2013-11-10

230

A Far Ultraviolet Spectrum of the Puppis A Supernova Remnant Using the Hopkins Ultraviolet Telescope  

E-print Network

A Far Ultraviolet Spectrum of the Puppis A Supernova Remnant Using the Hopkins Ultraviolet Telescope William P. Blair 1 Department of Physics and Astronomy, The Johns Hopkins University, 34th. Kriss Department of Physics and Astronomy, The Johns Hopkins University, 34th & Charles Streets

231

VizieR Online Data Catalog: Supernova remnants in M33 (Gordon+, 1999)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using radio data to identify and optical data to confirm, we have established the largest and most complete sample of extragalactic radio-bright supernova remnants (SNRs) in the nearby spiral galaxy M33. We have identified 53 radio SNRs, doubling the size of the earlier survey by Duric et al. (1993A&AS...99..217D). (2 data files).

Gordon, S. M.; Duric, N.; Kirshner, R. P.; Goss, W. M.; Viallefond, F.

1999-05-01

232

A New Sigma -D Relation and Its Application to the Galactic Supernova Remnant Distribution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Technological advances in radio telescopes and X-ray instruments over the last 20 years have greatly increased the number of known supernova remnants (SNRs) and have led to a better determination of their properties. In particular, more SNRs now have reasonably determined distances. However, many of these distances were determined kinematically using old rotation curves (based on R&sun; = 10 kpc

Gary L. Case; Dipen Bhattacharya

1998-01-01

233

Dan Dewey SNORE talk, Dec.1, 2003 1 Building a Supernova Remnant  

E-print Network

Dan Dewey SNORE talk, Dec.1, 2003 1 SNR E0102: Building a Supernova Remnant A SNORE talk by Dan Abundances and EM to Masses, etc. : · Volume, geometry, filling factor · Blast wave vs Ejecta · Assumptions-ray Images... · Bright thin ring of reverse- shocked ejecta, primarilly O and Ne. · An outer blast wave shell

Dewey, Daniel

234

Discriminating the Progenitor Type of Supernova Remnants with Iron K-shell Emission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Supernova remnants (SNRs) retain crucial information about both their parent explosion and circumstellar material left behind by their progenitor. However, the complexity of the interaction between supernova ejecta and ambient medium often blurs this information, and it is not uncommon for the basic progenitor type (Ia or core-collapse) of well-studied remnants to remain uncertain. Here we present a powerful new observational diagnostic to discriminate between progenitor types and constrain the ambient medium density of SNRs using solely Fe K-shell X-ray emission. We analyze all extant Suzaku observations of SNRs and detect Fe K? emission from 23 young or middle-aged remnants, including five first detections (IC 443, G292.0+1.8, G337.2-0.7, N49, and N63A). The Fe K? centroids clearly separate progenitor types, with the Fe-rich ejecta in Type Ia remnants being significantly less ionized than in core-collapse SNRs. Within each progenitor group, the Fe K? luminosity and centroid are well correlated, with more luminous objects having more highly ionized Fe. Our results indicate that there is a strong connection between explosion type and ambient medium density, and suggest that Type Ia supernova progenitors do not substantially modify their surroundings at radii of up to several parsecs. We also detect a K-shell radiative recombination continuum of Fe in W49B and IC 443, implying a strong circumstellar interaction in the early evolutionary phases of these core-collapse remnants.

Yamaguchi, Hiroya; Badenes, Carles; Petre, Robert; Nakano, Toshio; Castro, Daniel; Enoto, Teruaki; Hiraga, Junko S.; Hughes, John P.; Maeda, Yoshitomo; Nobukawa, Masayoshi; Safi-Harb, Samar; Slane, Patrick O.; Smith, Randall K.; Uchida, Hiroyuki

2014-04-01

235

A search for OH 6 GHz maser emission towards southern supernova remnants  

E-print Network

OH masers at 1720 MHz have proven to be excellent indicators of interactions between supernova remnants and molecular clouds. Recent calculations suggest that the 6049 MHz OH maser line is excited for higher column densities than for the 1720 MHz line. It is therefore a potentially valuable indicator of remnant-cloud interaction. We present preliminary results of a survey using the Parkes Methanol Multibeam receiver for 6049 MHz and 6035/6030 MHz OH masers towards 36 supernova remnants and 4 fields in the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds. While no 6049 MHz masers have been found, three new sites of 6035 and 6030 MHz OH maser emission have been discovered in star-forming regions.

Korinne E. McDonnell; Alan E. Vaughan; Mark Wardle

2007-04-18

236

Optical emission from a fast shock wave - The remnants of Tycho's supernova and SN 1006  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The faint optical filaments in Tycho's supernova remnant appear to be emission from a shock front moving at 5600 km/s. The intensity of the hydrogen lines, the absence of forbidden lines of heavy elements in the spectrum, and the width of the filaments are explained by a model in which a collisionless shock wave is moving into partially neutral gas. The presence of the neutral gas can be used to set an upper limit of approximately 5 x 10 to the 47th power ergs to the energy in ionizing radiation emitted by a Type I supernova. The patchy neutral gas is probably part of the warm neutral component of the interstellar medium. The existing information on the remnant of SN 1006 indicates that its emission is similar in nature to that from Tycho's remnant.

Chevalier, R. A.; Raymond, J. C.

1978-01-01

237

X-ray emission from young supernova remnants - Nonionization equilibrium abundances and emissivities  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

X-ray line emission from hot, low-density plasma in young supernova remnants is strongly enhanced by departures from ionization equilibrium. The X-ray emission from a Sedov blast wave has been calculated using a nonequilibrium evolutionary treatment of the ionization structure, and the resulting spectrum has been fitted to HEAO 2 SSS data for Tycho's remnant. These models yield dramatically different elemental abundances for heavy elements (Ne, Mg, Si, S, Ar, Ca, and Fe), compared with two-temperature component equilibrium models of Becker et al. (1979, 1980). Nonequilibrium broad-band X-ray emissivities result in lower mass determinations for the supernova ejecta. Areas of further improvement of remnant X-ray modeling are suggested.

Shull, J. M.

1982-01-01

238

An Integral View of Balmer-dominated Shocks in Supernova Remnants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present integral-field spectroscopic observations with the VIMOS-IFU at the VLT of fast (2000-3000 kms-1) Balmer-dominated shocks surrounding the northwestern rim of the remnant of supernova 1006. The high spatial and spectral resolution of the instrument enable us to show that the physical characteristics of the shocks exhibit a strong spatial variation over few atomic scale lengths across 133 sky locations. Our results point to the presence of a population of non-thermal protons (10-100 keV) which might well be the seed particles for generating high-energy cosmic rays. We also present observations of Tycho's supernova remnant taken with the narrow-band tunable filter imager OSIRIS at the GTC and the Fabry-Perot interferometer GHaFaS at the WHT to resolve respectively the broad and narrow H? lines across a large part of the remnant.

Nikoli?, Sladjana; van de Ven, Glenn; Heng, Kevin; Kupko, Daniel; Lopez Aguerri, Jose Alfonso; Méndez-Abreu, Jairo; Serra, Joan Font; Beckman, John

2014-01-01

239

Simulation of the growth of the 3D Rayleigh-Taylor instability in Supernova Remnants using an expanding reference frame  

E-print Network

Context: The Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities generated by the deceleration of a supernova remnant during the ejecta-dominated phase are known to produce finger-like structures in the matter distribution which modify the geometry of the remnant. The morphology of supernova remnants is also expected to be modified when efficient particle acceleration occurs at their shocks. Aims: The impact of the Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities from the ejecta-dominated to the Sedov-Taylor phase is investigated over one octant of the supernova remnant. We also study the effect of efficient particle acceleration at the forward shock on the growth of the Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities. Methods: We modified the Adaptive Mesh Refinement code RAMSES to study with hydrodynamic numerical simulations the evolution of supernova remnants in the framework of an expanding reference frame. The adiabatic index of a relativistic gas between the forward shock and the contact discontinuity mimics the presence of accelerated particles. Results: The ...

Fraschetti, Federico; Ballet, Jean; Decourchelle, Anne

2010-01-01

240

An XMM-Newton Search for Crab-like Supernova Remnants  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The primary goals of the study are to search for evidence of non-thermal emission that would suggest the presence of a pulsar in this compact SNR. We have performed the reduction of the EPIC data for this observation, cleaning the data to remove time intervals of enhanced particle background, and have created maps in several energy bands, and on a variety of smoothing scales. We find no evidence for emission from the SNR. Given the small angular size of the SNR, we conclude that rather than being a young remnant, it is actually fairly old, but distant. At its current stage of evolution, the remnant shell has apparently entered the radiative phase, wherein the shell temperature has cooled sufficiently to be either below X-ray-emitting temperatures or at temperatures easily absorbed the foreground interstellar material. We have thus concluded that this SNR is not a viable candidate for a young ejecta-rich or pulsar-driven SNR.

Mushotzky, Richard (Technical Monitor); Slane, Patrick

2005-01-01

241

How Do The Properties of Light Help Us To Study Supernovae and Their Remnants?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource describes special properties of light that can help us to understand objects that are millions and billions of light years away. Students explore some of these properties and how they can use them to understand our universe. They will understand that superheated material created by the supernova explosion gives off X-rays and gamma-rays. They will find the answers to questions such as what electromagnetic (EM) radiation is and what units are used to characterize it. They also learn that it pays to make multiple observations of astronomical objects, since they emit light of different energies, that supernovae remnants can give off visible light, ultraviolet light, radio waves and X-rays, and that each observation of a supernovae remnant can give us different information about it. The site also includes a student exercise and links to more information.

242

Interactions Between CRs and MCs in the Vicinity of Supernova Remnants  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Supernovae are incredibly energetic events which drive the dynamic state of the interstellar medium and accelerate cosmic rays up to energies of a few PeV. I present multi-wavelength observations constraining the shocks, chemistry, dust grain processing, and magnetic fields in a large sample of supernova remnants interacting with dense clouds. These are among the most luminous Galactic sources detected by the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope. Surprisingly, spectral breaks are seen between GeV and TeV energies. Radio spectral breaks have also been detected for a few remnants, providing clear evidence that supernovae are a significant source of hadronic cosmic rays in the Galaxy. Resolving the origin of these spectral breaks will allow the physics of cosmic ray acceleration and diffusion to be probed.

Hewitt, John W.

2011-01-01

243

EVOLUTION OF POST-IMPACT REMNANT HELIUM STARS IN TYPE Ia SUPERNOVA REMNANTS WITHIN THE SINGLE-DEGENERATE SCENARIO  

SciTech Connect

The progenitor systems of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) are still under debate. Based on recent hydrodynamics simulations, non-degenerate companions in the single-degenerate scenario (SDS) should survive the supernova (SN) impact. One way to distinguish between the SDS and the double-degenerate scenario is to search for the post-impact remnant stars (PIRSs) in SN Ia remnants. Using a technique that combines multi-dimensional hydrodynamics simulations with one-dimensional stellar evolution simulations, we have examined the post-impact evolution of helium-rich binary companions in the SDS. It is found that these helium-rich PIRSs (He PIRSs) dramatically expand and evolve to a luminous phase (L {approx} 10{sup 4} L{sub Sun }) about 10 yr after an SN explosion. Subsequently, they contract and evolve to become hot blue-subdwarf-like (sdO-like) stars by releasing gravitational energy, persisting as sdO-like stars for several million years before evolving to the helium red-giant phase. We therefore predict that a luminous OB-like star should be detectable within {approx}30 yr after the SN explosion. Thereafter, it will shrink and become an sdO-like star in the central regions of SN Ia remnants within star-forming regions for SN Ia progenitors evolved via the helium-star channel in the SDS. These He PIRSs are predicted to be rapidly rotating (v{sub rot} {approx}> 50 km s{sup -1}) and to have high spatial velocities (v{sub linear} {approx}> 500 km s{sup -1}). Furthermore, if SN remnants have diffused away and are not recognizable at a later stage, He PIRSs could be an additional source of single sdO stars and/or hypervelocity stars.

Pan, Kuo-Chuan; Ricker, Paul M. [Department of Astronomy, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1002 West Green Street, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Taam, Ronald E., E-mail: kpan2@illinois.edu, E-mail: pmricker@illinois.edu, E-mail: r-taam@northwestern.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States)

2013-08-10

244

Toward an Empirical Theory of Pulsar Emission XI. Understanding the Orientations of Pulsar Radiation and Supernova "Kicks"  

E-print Network

Two entwined problems have remained unresolved since pulsars were discovered nearly 50 years ago: the orientation of their polarized emission relative to the emitting magnetic field and the direction of putative supernova ``kicks' relative to their rotation axes. The rotational orientation of most pulsars can be inferred only from the (``fiducial') polarization angle of their radiation, when their beam points directly at the Earth and the emitting polar fluxtube field is $\\parallel$ to the rotation axis. Earlier studies have been unrevealing owing to the admixture of different types of radiation (core and conal, two polarization modes), producing both $\\parallel$ or $\\perp$ alignments. In this paper we analyze the some 50 pulsars having three characteristics: core radiation beams, reliable absolute polarimetry, and accurate proper motions. The ``fiducial' polarization angle of the core emission, we then find, is usually oriented $\\perp$ to the proper-motion direction on the sky. As the primary core emission i...

Rankin, Joanna M

2015-01-01

245

The Vela Pulsar and Its Synchrotron Nebula  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present high-resolution Chandra X-ray observations of PSR0833-45, the 89 ms pulsar associated with the Vela supernova remnant. We have acquired two observations of the pulsar separated by one month to search for morphological changes in the pulsar and its environment following an extreme glitch in its rotation frequency. We find a well-resolved nebula with a morphology remarkably similar to

D. J. Helfand; E. V. Gotthelf; J. P. Halpern

2000-01-01

246

Two-temperature models of old supernova remnants with ion and electron thermal conduction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To investigate the potential effects thermal conduction may have on the evolution of old supernova remnants, we present the results of 1D (spherically symmetric) numerical simulations of a remnant in a homogeneous interstellar medium for four different cases: (1) without thermal conduction; (2) with both electron and ion thermal conduction assuming equal temperatures; (3) with electron thermal conduction only, following electron and ion temperatures separately; and (4) with both electron and ion thermal conduction following separate temperatures. We followed the entire evolution until the completion of the remnant bubble collapse. Our most significant result is that in remnant evolution studies concerned principally with either the shell or bubble evolution at late times, reasonable results are obtained with single-temperature models. When the electron and ion temperatures are followed separately, however, ion thermal conduction cannot safely be ignored.

Cui, Wei; Cox, Donald P.

1992-01-01

247

Chandra Observations and Models of the Mixed Morphology Supernova Remnant W44: Global Trends  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We report on the Chandra observations of the archetypical mixed morphology (or thermal composite) supernova remnant, W44. As with other mixed morphology remnants, W44's projected center is bright in thermal X-rays. It has an obvious radio shell, but no discernable X-ray shell. In addition, X-ray bright knots dot W44's image. The spectral analysis of the Chandra data show that the remnant s hot, bright projected center is metal-rich and that the bright knots are regions of comparatively elevated elemental abundances. Neon is among the affected elements, suggesting that ejecta contributes to the abundance trends. Furthermore, some of the emitting iron atoms appear to be underionized with respect to the other ions, providing the first potential X-ray evidence for dust destruction in a supernova remnant. We use the Chandra data to test the following explanations for W44's X-ray bright center: 1.) entropy mixing due to bulk mixing or thermal conduction, 2.) evaporation of swept up clouds, and 3.) a metallicity gradient, possibly due to dust destruction and ejecta enrichment. In these tests, we assume that the remnant has evolved beyond the adiabatic evolutionary stage, which explains the X-ray dimness of the shell. The entropy mixed model spectrum was tested against the Chandra spectrum for the remnant's projected center and found to be a good match. The evaporating clouds model was constrained by the finding that the ionization parameters of the bright knots are similar to those of the surrounding regions. While both the entropy mixed and the evaporating clouds models are known to predict centrally bright X-ray morphologies, their predictions fall short of the observed brightness gradient. The resulting brightness gap can be largely filled in by emission from the extra metals in and near the remnant's projected center. The preponderance of evidence (including that drawn from other studies) suggests that W44's remarkable morphology can be attributed to dust destruction and ejecta enrichment within an entropy mixed, adiabatic phase supernova remnant. The Chandra data prompts a new question - by what astrophysical mechanisms are the metals distributed so inhomogeneously in the supernova remnant.

Shelton, R. L.; Kuntz, K. D.; Petre, R.

2004-01-01

248

The Compression Ratio of the Supernova Remnant SN 1006  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the results of an analysis of a Chandra X-ray observation of the northeastern rim of SN 1006. The bright X-ray emitting filaments in this region are extraordinarily narrow compared to the angular radius of the remnant. These results suggest that the ambient magnetic field is highly compressed with a compression ratio much larger than four. The compressed field

G. Allen; S. Sturner

2002-01-01

249

Investigation of the Progenitors of the Type Ia Supernovae Associated With the LMC Supernova Remnants 0505-67.9 and 0509-68.7  

E-print Network

Although Type Ia supernovae have been heavily scrutinized due to their use in making cosmological distance estimates, we are still unable to definitively identify the progenitors for the entire population. While answers have been presented for certain specific systems, a complete solution remains elusive. We present observations of two supernova remnants (SNRs) in the Large Magellanic Cloud, SNR 0505-67.9 and SNR 0509-68.7, for which we have identified the center of the remnant and the 99.73% containment central region in which any companion star left over after the supernova must be located. Both remnants have a number of potential ex-companion stars near their centers; all possible single and double degenerate progenitor models remain viable for these two supernovae. Future observations may be able to identify the true ex-companions for both remnants.

Pagnotta, Ashley

2015-01-01

250

Synchrotron X-Ray Rims in Tycho's Supernova Remnant are Energy Dependent  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several young supernova remnants exhibit thin X-ray bright rims of synchrotron radiation at their forward shocks. Thin rims have been taken to indicate that shock-accelerated electrons rapidly cool downstream of the shock, requiring strong magnetic field amplification. But, magnetic field damping immediately behind the shock could produce similarly thin rims. Synchrotron loss-limited rim widths should decrease with energy whereas damping limited rims should be relatively energy-independent. To discriminate between models, we measured rim widths around Tycho's supernova remnant in 5 energy bands using an archival 750 ks Chandra observation. Rims narrow with increasing energy, favoring loss-limited radiation over magnetic damping and corroborating similar observations in the remnant of SN 1006. Observed widths are best fit by electron transport models requiring amplified magnetic fields of ~200-1000 µG and particle diffusion coefficients ~1-100x Bohm values, consistent with prior work on Tycho's SNR. Non-negligible diffusion results in some degeneracy between magnetic field strength and diffusion coefficient in setting observed rim widths, but strong magnetic fields are required for all measurements. A different approach may be needed to better constrain diffusion at supernova remnant shocks.

Tran, Aaron; Williams, Brian J.; Petre, Robert; Ressler, Sean; Reynolds, Stephen P.

2015-01-01

251

Uncovering the Properties of Young Neutron Stars and their Surrounding Supernova Remnants  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This five-year grant involves the study of young neutron stars, particularly those in supernova remnants.In the fourth year of this program, the following studies have been undertaken in support of this effort: 1.CTA 1: Following up on our ROSAT and ASCA studies of this SNR, we obtained observations with the XMM-Newton observatory to investigate the central compact source and surrounding nebula. 2. 3C 58: Based upon our earlier Chandra observations, we submitted a successful Chandra Large Project proposal for a 350 ks observation of this young neutron star and its wind nebula. 3. G347.3 - - 0.5: Our Chandra observations of portions of this SNR were aimed at studying the nonthermal X-ray emission from the remnant shell. 4. Chandra Survey for Compact Objects in Supernova Remnants: We have formed a collaboration to carry out an extensive search for young neutron stars in nearby supernova remnants. Using X-ray observations from an approved Chandra Large Project, as well as from additional approved XMM observations, we are investigating a volume-limited sample of SNRs for which there is currently no evidence of associated neutron stars.

Oliversen, Ronald J. (Technical Monitor); Slane, Patrick O.

2004-01-01

252

Swift/BAT detection of hard X-rays from Tycho's Supernova Remnant: Evidence for Titanium-44  

E-print Network

We report Swift/BAT survey observations of the Tycho's supernova remnant, performed over a period of 104 months since the mission's launch. The remnant is detected with high significance (>10 sigma) below 50 keV. We detect significant hard X-ray emission in the 60-85 keV band, above the continuum level predicted by a simple synchrotron model. The location of the observed excess is consistent with line emission from radioactive Titanium-44, so far reported only for Type II supernova explosions. We discuss the implications of these results in the context of the galactic supernova rate, and nucleosynthesis in Type Ia supernova.

Troja, E; La Parola, V; Hartmann, D; Baumgartner, W; Markwardt, C; Barthelmy, S; Cusumano, G; Gehrels, N

2014-01-01

253

Imagine the Universe: Radioactive Decay in Supernova Remnants  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site explains how supernovae can be detected and studied by measuring the decay of radioactive elements in the material ejected from them. It is part of the Goddard Space Flight Center's "Imagine the Universe" website, created by GSFC's Laboratory for High Energy Astrophysics. It includes text, remotely sensed imagery, and links to other topics related to high energy astrophysics.

254

Anisotropic Thermal Conduction in Supernova Remnants: Relevance to Hot Gas Filling Factors in the Magnetized ISM  

E-print Network

We explore the importance of anisotropic thermal conduction in the evolution of supernova remnants via numerical simulations. The mean temperature of the bubble of hot gas is decreased by a factor of ~3 compared to simulations without thermal conduction, together with an increase in the mean density of hot gas by a similar factor. Thus, thermal conduction greatly reduces the volume of hot gas produced over the life of the remnant. This underscores the importance of thermal conduction in estimating the hot gas filling fraction and emissivities in high-stage ions in Galactic and proto-galactic ISMs.

David A. Tilley; Dinshaw S. Balsara

2006-04-05

255

Five Years in the Mid-Infrared Development of the SN 1987A Supernova Remnant  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Spitzer has been used to monitor the mid-IR evolution of SN 1987A over a 5 year period as it develops into a supernova remnant through interaction with its surrounding environment. This interaction is dominated by the collision of the ejecta with the pre-existing equatorial ring. The mid-IR continuum indicates an increasing mass of shock-heated silicate dust, but without any significant change in temperature of the dust grains. Comparison of the IR and X-ray evolution of the remnant can be used to infer plasma conditions and the processing of the dust in the shock-heated X-ray emitting gas.

Dwek, Eliahu

2009-01-01

256

The Progenitor of the New COMPTEL/ROSAT Supernova Remnant in Vela  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We show that (1) the newly discovered supernova remnant (SNR) GROJ0852-4642/RXJ0852.0-4622 was created by a core-collapse supernova of a massive star and (2) the same supernova event that produced the Ti-44 detected by COMPTEL from this source is probably also responsible for a large fraction of the observed Al-26 emission in the Vela region detected by the same instrument. The first conclusion is based on the fact that the remnant is currently expanding too slowly given its young age for it to be caused by a Type la supernova. If the current SNR shell expansion speed is greater than 3000 km/s, a 15 solar mass. Type II supernova with a moderate kinetic energy exploding at about 150 pc away is favored. If the SNR expansion speed is lower than 2000 km/s, as derived naively from X-ray data, a much more energetic supernova is required to have occurred at approximately 250 pc away in a dense environment at the edge of the Gum Nebula. This progenitor has a preferred ejecta mass of less than or equal to 10(Solar Mass), and therefore it is probably a Type Ib or Type Ic supernova. However, the required high ambient density of n(sub H) greater than or equal to 100 cu cm in this scenario is difficult to reconcile with the regional CO data. A combination of our estimates of the age/energetics of the new SNR and the almost perfect positional coincidence of the new SNR with the centroid of the COMPTEL Al-26 emission feature of the Vela region strongly favors a causal connection. If confirmed, this will be the first case in which both Ti-44 and Al-26 are detected from the same young SNR, and together they can be used to select preferred theoretical core-collapse supernova models.

Chen, Wan; Gehrels, Neil

1999-01-01

257

THE GALACTIC SUPERNOVA REMNANT W49B LIKELY ORIGINATES FROM A JET-DRIVEN, CORE-COLLAPSE EXPLOSION  

E-print Network

We present results from a 220 ks observation of the Galactic supernova remnant (SNR) W49B using the Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer on board the Chanrda X-ray Observatory. We exploit these data to perform detailed spatially ...

Lopez, Laura A.

258

A CR-HYDRO-NEI MODEL OF THE STRUCTURE AND BROADBAND EMISSION FROM TYCHO’S SUPERNOVA REMNANT  

E-print Network

Tycho's supernova remnant (SNR) is well-established as a source of particle acceleration to very high energies. Constraints from numerous studies indicate that the observed ?-ray emission results primarily from hadronic ...

Slane, P.

259

Raising the Dead: Clues to Type Ia Supernova Physics from the Remnant 0509-67.5  

E-print Network

We present Chandra X-ray observations of the young supernova remnant (SNR) 0509-67.5 in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), believed to be the product of a Type Ia supernova (SN Ia). The remnant is very round in shape, with a distinct clumpy shell-like structure. Our Chandra data reveal the remnant to be rich in silicon, sulfur, and iron. The yields of our fits to the global spectrum confirm that 0509-67.5 is the remnant of an SN Ia and show a clear preference for delayed detonation explosion models for SNe Ia. We study the spectrum of the single brightest isolated knot in the remnant and find that it is enhanced in iron by a factor of roughly two relative to the global remnant abundances. This feature, along with similar knots seen in Tycho's SNR, argues for the presence of modest small-scale composition inhomogeneities in SNe Ia. The presence of both Si and Fe, with abundance ratios that vary from knot to knot, indicates that these came from the transition region between the Si- and Fe-rich zones in the exploded star, possibly as a result of energy input to the ejecta at late times due to the radioactive decay of 56Ni and 56Co. Two cases for the continuum emission from the global spectrum were modeled: one where the continuum is dominated by hydrogen thermal bremsstrahlung radiation; another where the continuum arises from non-thermal synchrotron radiation. The former case requires a relatively large value for the ambient density (~1 cm^-3). Another estimate of the ambient density comes from using the shell structure of the remnant in the context of dynamical models. This requires a much lower value for the density (<0.05 cm^-3) which is more consistent with other evidence known about 0509-67.5. We therefore conclude that the bulk of the continuum emission from 0509-67.5 has a non-thermal origin.

Jessica S. Warren; John P. Hughes

2004-05-11

260

Very high resolution observations of the radio source in the supernova remnant G127.1+0.5  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of recent very long baseline interferometry of G127.11+0.54 at 10.65 GHz reveal a core dual 'jet' structure. The morphology and physical properties of the compact source are similar to those of SS 433. The combined data from various studies of this object suggest that G127.11+0.54 may be the stellar remnant of the supernova event which also produced the supernova remnant G127.1+0.5.

Geldzahler, B. J.; Shaffer, D. B.

1982-01-01

261

Discovery of TeV Gamma Rays from SN 1006: Further Evidence for the Supernova Remnant Origin of Cosmic Rays  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this Letter we report the discovery of TeV gamma-ray emission from a supernova remnant made with the CANGAROO 3.8 m telescope. TeV gamma rays were detected at the sky position and extension coincident with the northeast rim of shell-type supernova remnant (SNR) SN 1006 (Type Ia). SN 1006 has been a most likely candidate for an extended TeV gamma-ray

T. Tanimori; Y. Hayami; S. Kamei; S. A. Dazeley; P. G. Edwards; S. Gunji; S. Hara; T. Hara; J. Holder; A. Kawachi; T. Kifune; R. Kita; T. Konishi; A. Masaike; Y. Matsubara; T. Matsuoka; Y. Mizumoto; M. Mori; M. Moriya; H. Muraishi; Y. Muraki; T. Naito; K. Nishijima; S. Oda; S. Ogio; J. R. Patterson; M. D. Roberts; G. P. Rowell; K. Sakurazawa; T. Sako; Y. Sato; R. Susukita; A. Suzuki; R. Suzuki; T. Tamura; G. J. Thornton; S. Yanagita; T. Yoshida; T. Yoshikoshi

1998-01-01

262

Permitted O I line emission from oxygen nebulosities of supernova remnants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The O I 7774 and 8446 Å line emission from fast-moving oxygen nebulosities of Puppis A and Cassiopeia A is much weaker than that predicted by models for a steady shock wave in a pure oxygen gas. In the models, these lines result from recombination in the photoionized tail of the wave. The author argues that the postshock flow in the oxygen-dominated supernova ejecta may be nonsteady and truncated in the tail, as has been proposed for shocked interstellar clouds in the Cygnus Loop and the Vela supernova remnants.

Itoh, Hiroshi

263

XMM-Newton Observations of HESSJ1813-178 Reveal a Composite Supernova Remnant  

SciTech Connect

Aims--We present X-ray and {sup 12}CO(J=1-0) observations of the very-high-energy (VHE) {gamma}-ray source HESS J1813-178 with the aim of understanding the origin of the {gamma}-ray emission. Methods--High-angular resolution X-ray studies of the VHE {gamma}-ray emission region are performed using 18.6 ks of XMM-Newton data, taken on HESS J1813-178 in October 2005. Using this dataset we are able to undertake spectral and morphological studies of the X-ray emission object with greater precision than previous studies. NANTEN {sup 12}CO(J=1-0) data are used to search for correlations of the {gamma}-ray emission with molecular clouds which could act as target material for {gamma}-ray production in a hadronic scenario. Results--The NANTEN {sup 12}CO(J=1-0) observations show a giant molecular cloud of mass 2.5 x 10{sup 5} M{sub {circle_dot}} at a distance of 4 kpc in the vicinity of HESS J1813-178. Even though there is no direct positional coincidence, this giant cloud might have influenced the evolution of the {gamma}-ray source and its surroundings. The X-ray data show a highly absorbed (n{sub H} {approx} 1 x 10{sup 23} cm{sup -2}) non-thermal X-ray emitting object coincident with the previously known ASCA source AXJ1813-178 showing a compact core and an extended tail towards the north-east, located in the center of the radio shell-type Supernova remnant (SNR) G12.82-0.2. This central object shows morphological and spectral resemblance to a Pulsar Wind Nebula (PWN) and we therefore consider that this object is very likely to be a composite SNR. Nevertheless, we cannot distinguish between the scenarios in which the {gamma}-rays originate in the shell of the SNR and the one in which they originate in the central object. We discuss both scenarios in terms of a one-zone leptonic model and demonstrate, that in order to connect the core X-ray emission to the VHE {gamma}-ray emission electrons have to be accelerated to energies of at least 1 PeV. We conclude that if indeed the X-rays are connected to the VHE {gamma}-rays HESS J1813-178 has to be a Galactic Pevatron.

Funk, S.; Hinton, J.A.; Moriguchi, Y.; Aharonian, F.A.; Fukui, Y.; Hofmann, W.; Horns, D.; Puehlhofer, G.; Reimer, O.; Rowell, G.; Terrier, R.; Vink, J.; Wagner, S.

2006-11-27

264

Onion-shell model of cosmic ray acceleration in supernova remnants  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method is devised to approximate the spatially averaged momentum distribution function for the accelerated particles at the end of the active lifetime of a supernova remnant. The analysis is confined to the test particle approximation and adiabatic losses are oversimplified, but unsteady shock motion, evolving shock strength, and non-uniform gas flow effects on the accelerated particle spectrum are included. Monoenergetic protons are injected at the shock front. It is found that the dominant effect on the resultant accelerated particle spectrum is a changing spectral index with shock strength. High energy particles are produced in early phases, and the resultant distribution function is a slowly varying power law over several orders of magnitude, independent of the specific details of the supernova remnant.

Bogdan, T. J.; Volk, H. J.

1983-01-01

265

X-RAY EMISSION FROM STRONGLY ASYMMETRIC CIRCUMSTELLAR MATERIAL IN THE REMNANT OF KEPLER'S SUPERNOVA  

SciTech Connect

Kepler's supernova remnant resulted from a thermonuclear explosion, but is interacting with circumstellar material (CSM) lost from the progenitor system. We describe a statistical technique for isolating X-ray emission due to CSM from that due to shocked ejecta. Shocked CSM coincides well in position with 24 {mu}m emission seen by Spitzer. We find most CSM to be distributed along the bright north rim, but substantial concentrations are also found projected against the center of the remnant, roughly along a diameter with position angle {approx}100 Degree-Sign . We interpret this as evidence for a disk distribution of CSM before the supernova, with the line of sight to the observer roughly in the disk plane. We present two-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations of this scenario in qualitative agreement with the observed CSM morphology. Our observations require Kepler to have originated in a close binary system with an asymptotic giant branch star companion.

Burkey, Mary T.; Reynolds, Stephen P.; Borkowski, Kazimierz J.; Blondin, John M., E-mail: reynolds@ncsu.edu [Department of Physics, North Carolina State University, Raleigh NC 27695-8202 (United States)

2013-02-10

266

A study of the X-ray characteristics of mixed-morphology supernova remnants with 1720 MHz OH maser emission  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radio surveys of supernova remnants (SNRs) in the Galaxy have discovered 19 SNRs which are accompanied by the OH maser emission at 1720 MHz. This unusual maser is thought to be produced behind a shock front when a SNR expands into a molecular cloud. An important ingredient of this model is that the X-ray emission from the remnant enhances the

Zhi-Yao Yu

2005-01-01

267

Thermal X-Ray Emission and Cosmic-Ray Production in Young Supernova Remnants  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed a simple model to investigate the modifications of the hydrodynamics and nonequilibrium ionization X-ray emission in young supernova remnants due to nonlinear particle acceleration. In nonlinear, diffusive shock acceleration, the heating of the gas to X-ray-emitting temperatures is strongly coupled to the acceleration of cosmic-ray ions. If the acceleration is efficient and a significant fraction of the

Anne Decourchelle; Donald C. Ellison; Jean Ballet

2000-01-01

268

In my Beginning is my End: Dust Destruction in the Cassiopeia A Supernova Remnant  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has been demonstrated by observations that young supernovae (SNe) are indeed able to efficiently synthesize dust. However, it is unclear how much of the freshly formed dust can reach the interstellar medium and contribute to the observed emission. At the same time, SNe represent the major agent responsible for dust destruction. Because SNe are possibly the only viable dust factory in the early Universe, it is extremely important to establish the fate of the newly formed dust. Our work explores the possibility that a significant fraction of any dust formed after the explosion is destroyed within the supernova remnant itself. In the Cassiopeia A supernova remnant, dust emission has been observed associated with optical knots containing recently formed material. The dust present in such clumps is threatened by the reverse shock traveling through the ejecta toward the center of the remnant. The shock is able to disrupt the clumps and will inject the dust grains into a hot gas, where they will be eroded and possibly destroyed by thermal and inertial sputtering. We present a model that describes the propagation of the reverse shock into the supernova cavity and evaluates the modifications in the grain size distribution due to the encounter with the reverse shock. This is the first step required to quantify the amount of dust ultimately able to survive. Our model accounts for the variation of the physical properties of both the shock and the ejecta across the remnant. In particular, this means taking explicitly into consideration, for the first time in this kind of studies, the effect of clumping of the ejecta.

Micelotta, E.; Dwek, E.

269

MODIFIED EQUIPARTITION CALCULATION FOR SUPERNOVA REMNANTS. CASES ? = 0.5 AND ? = 1  

SciTech Connect

The equipartition or minimum energy calculation is a well-known procedure for estimating the magnetic field strength and the total energy in the magnetic field and cosmic ray particles by using only the radio synchrotron emission. In one of our previous papers, we have offered a modified equipartition calculation for supernova remnants (SNRs) with spectral indices 0.5 < ? < 1. Here we extend the analysis to SNRs with ? = 0.5 and ? = 1.

Arbutina, B.; Uroševi?, D.; Vu?eti?, M. M.; Pavlovi?, M. Z. [Department of Astronomy, Faculty of Mathematics, University of Belgrade, Studentski trg 16, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia); Vukoti?, B., E-mail: arbo@math.rs [Astronomical Observatory, Volgina 7, 11060 Belgrade 38 (Serbia)

2013-11-01

270

The Most Likely Sources of High-Energy Cosmic-Ray Electrons in Supernova Remnants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence of nonthermal X-ray emission and TeV gamma rays from supernova remnants (SNRs) have strengthened the hypothesis that primary Galactic cosmic-ray electrons are accelerated in SNRs. High-energy electrons lose energy via synchrotron and inverse Compton processes during propagation in the Galaxy. Because of these radiative losses, TeV electrons liberated from SNRs at distances larger than ~1 kpc, or times older

T. Kobayashi; Y. Komori; K. Yoshida; J. Nishimura

2004-01-01

271

Multi-dimensional Simulations of the Expanding Supernova Remnant of SN 1987A  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The expanding remnant from SN 1987A is an excellent laboratory for investigating the physics of supernovae explosions. There is still a large number of outstanding questions, such as the reason for the asymmetric radio morphology, the structure of the pre-supernova environment, and the efficiency of particle acceleration at the supernova shock. We explore these questions using three-dimensional simulations of the expanding remnant between days 820 and 10,000 after the supernova. We combine a hydrodynamical simulation with semi-analytic treatments of diffusive shock acceleration and magnetic field amplification to derive radio emission as part of an inverse problem. Simulations show that an asymmetric explosion, combined with magnetic field amplification at the expanding shock, is able to replicate the persistent one-sided radio morphology of the remnant. We use an asymmetric Truelove & McKee progenitor with an envelope mass of 10 M ? and an energy of 1.5 × 1044 J. A termination shock in the progenitor's stellar wind at a distance of 0.''43-0.''51 provides a good fit to the turn on of radio emission around day 1200. For the H II region, a minimum distance of 0.''63 ± 0.''01 and maximum particle number density of (7.11 ± 1.78) × 107 m–3 produces a good fit to the evolving average radius and velocity of the expanding shocks from day 2000 to day 7000 after explosion. The model predicts a noticeable reduction, and possibly a temporary reversal, in the asymmetric radio morphology of the remnant after day 7000, when the forward shock left the eastern lobe of the equatorial ring.

Potter, T. M.; Staveley-Smith, L.; Reville, B.; Ng, C.-Y.; Bicknell, G. V.; Sutherland, R. S.; Wagner, A. Y.

2014-10-01

272

VLA Observations of J1228+441, a Luminous Supernova Remnant in NGC 4449  

Microsoft Academic Search

The luminous, oxygen-rich supernova remnant J1228+441 is located in the irregular galaxy NGC 4449 and has been observed at radio wavelengths for 30 years. An analysis of recent Very Large Array (VLA) observations of NGC 4449, combined with VLA archive data and previously published VLA and Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope observations, yields light curves at 6 and 20 cm from

Christina K. Lacey; W. M. Goss; Leila K. Mizouni

2007-01-01

273

VLA Observations of J1228+441, a Luminous Supernova Remnant in NGC 4449  

Microsoft Academic Search

The luminous, oxygen-rich supernova remnant, J1228+441, is located in the\\u000airregular galaxy NGC 4449 and has been observed at radio wavelengths for thirty\\u000ayears. An analysis of recent VLA observations of NGC 4449, combined with VLA\\u000aarchive data and previously published VLA and WSRT observations, yields light\\u000acurves at 6 and 20 cm from 1972 to 2002. The light curves

Christina K. Lacey; W. M. Goss; Leila K. Mizouni

2007-01-01

274

Diffuse neutrinos from extragalactic supernova remnants: Dominating the 100 TeV IceCube flux  

E-print Network

IceCube has measured a diffuse astrophysical flux of TeV-PeV neutrinos. The most plausible sources are unique high energy cosmic ray accelerators like hypernova remnants (HNRs) and remnants from gamma ray bursts in star-burst galaxies, which can produce primary cosmic rays with the required energies and abundance. In this case, however, ordinary supernova remnants (SNRs), which are far more abundant than HNRs, produce a comparable or larger neutrino flux in the ranges up to 100-150 TeV energies, implying a spectral break in the IceCube signal around these energies. The SNRs contribution in the diffuse flux up to these hundred TeV energies provides a natural baseline and then constrains the expected PeV flux.

Chakraborty, Sovan

2015-01-01

275

The Bubble-like Interior of the Core-Collapse Supernova Remnant Cassiopeia A  

E-print Network

The death of massive stars is believed to involve aspheric explosions initiated by the collapse of an iron core. The specifics of how these catastrophic explosions proceed remain uncertain due, in part, to limited observational constraints on various processes that can introduce asymmetries deep inside the star. Here we present near-infrared observations of the young Milky Way supernova remnant Cassiopeia A, descendant of a type IIb core-collapse explosion, and a three-dimensional map of its interior, unshocked ejecta. The remnant's interior has a bubble-like morphology that smoothly connects to and helps explain the multi-ringed structures seen in the remnant's bright reverse shocked main shell of expanding debris. This internal structure may have originated from turbulent mixing processes that encouraged the development of outwardly expanding plumes of radioactive 56Ni-rich ejecta. If this is true, substantial amounts of its decay product, 56Fe, may still reside in these interior cavities.

Milisavljevic, Dan

2015-01-01

276

G306.3-0.9: A Newly Discovered Young Galactic Supernova Remnant  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We present X-ray and radio observations of the new Galactic supernova remnant (SNR) G306.3-0.9, recently discovered by Swift. Chandra imaging reveals a complex morphology, dominated by a bright shock. The X-ray spectrum is broadly consistent with a young SNR in the Sedov phase, implying an age of 2500 yr for a distance of 8 kpc, plausibly identifying this as one of the 20 youngest Galactic SNRs. Australia Telescope Compact Array imaging reveals a prominent ridge of radio emission that correlates with the X-ray emission. We find a flux density of 160 mJy at 1 GHz, which is the lowest radio flux recorded for a Galactic SNR to date. The remnant is also detected at 24µm, indicating the presence of irradiated warm dust. The data reveal no compelling evidence for the presence of a compact stellar remnant.

Reynolds, Mark T.; Loi, Syheh T.; Murphy, Tara; Miller, Jon M.; Maitra, Dipankar; Gueltekin, Kayhan; Gehrels, Neil; Kennea, Jamie A.; Siegel, Michael H.; Gelbord, Jonathan; Kuin, Paul; Moss, Vanessa; Reeves, Sarah; Robbins, William J.; Gaensler, B. M.; Reis, Rubens C.; Petre, Robert

2013-01-01

277

THE {sup 7}Li/{sup 6}Li ISOTOPE RATIO NEAR THE SUPERNOVA REMNANT IC 443  

SciTech Connect

We present an analysis of {sup 7}Li/{sup 6}Li isotope ratios along four sight lines that probe diffuse molecular gas near the supernova remnant IC 443. Recent gamma-ray observations have revealed the presence of shock-accelerated cosmic rays interacting with the molecular cloud surrounding the remnant. Our results indicate that the {sup 7}Li/{sup 6}Li ratio is lower in regions more strongly affected by these interactions, a sign of recent Li production by cosmic rays. We find that {sup 7}Li/{sup 6}Li Almost-Equal-To 7 toward HD 254755, which is located just outside the visible edge of IC 443, while {sup 7}Li/{sup 6}Li Almost-Equal-To 3 along the line of sight to HD 43582, which probes the interior region of the supernova remnant. No evidence of {sup 7}Li synthesis by neutrino-induced spallation is found in material presumably contaminated by the ejecta of a core-collapse supernova. The lack of a neutrino signature in the {sup 7}Li/{sup 6}Li ratios near IC 443 is consistent with recent models of Galactic chemical evolution, which suggest that the {nu}-process plays only a minor role in Li production.

Taylor, C. J.; Ritchey, A. M.; Federman, S. R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43606 (United States); Lambert, D. L., E-mail: corbin.taylor@rockets.utoledo.edu, E-mail: steven.federman@utoledo.edu, E-mail: aritchey@astro.washington.edu, E-mail: dll@astro.as.utexas.edu [W. J. McDonald Observatory, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States)

2012-05-01

278

High-resolution IUE observations of interstellar absorption lines in the Vela supernova remnant  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ultraviolet spectra of 45 stars in the vicinity of the Vela supernova remnant were recorded by the short-wavelength echelle spectrograph aboard the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE). Over one-third of the stars show interstellar absorption lines at large radial velocities (greater than 60 km/s). The mapping of these high-velocity components in the sky suggests the motions are chaotic, rather than from a coherent expansion of the remnant material. In accord with earlier conclusions from Copernicus data, the gas at high velocity exhibits higher than normal ionization and shows substantially less depletion of nonvolatile elements than normal interstellar material at low velocities. Relatively strong lines from neutral carbon in the two excited fine-structure states indicate that the neutral clouds within the remnant have had their pressures enhanced by the passage of the blast wave from the supernova. Also, the remnant seems to show a significant enhancement in the abundances of low-velocity Si IV, C IV, and N V over those found in the general interstellar medium.

Jenkins, E. B.; Wallerstein, G.; Silk, J.

1984-01-01

279

The acceleration of high-velocity clouds in supernova remnants  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Interstellar clouds passed by blast waves emanating from supernova explosions will be accelerated by the ram pressure of the expanding interior shocked gas. We present numerical and analytical solutions for cloud acceleration in this environment, comparing the results with recent observations of faint, high-velocity (greater than 100 km/sec) filaments observed in Cygnus and Vela. Photons from the conductive interface between the clouds and the surrounding medium can provide the ionizing flux necessary for observable optical emission. Several predictions are made, the most important of which is that fast clouds of neutral hydrogen with column densities of about 10 quintillion per sq cm should be observable in 21 cm studies of SNRs.

Mckee, C. F.; Cowie, L. L.; Ostriker, J. P.

1978-01-01

280

THE ABSENCE OF EX-COMPANIONS IN TYPE Ia SUPERNOVA REMNANTS  

SciTech Connect

Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) play important roles in our study of the expansion and acceleration of the universe, but because we do not know the exact nature or natures of the progenitors, there is a systematic uncertainty that must be resolved if SNe Ia are to become more precise cosmic probes. No progenitor system has ever been identified either in the pre- or post-explosion images of a Ia event. There have been recent claims for and against the detection of ex-companion stars in several SNe Ia remnants. These studies, however, usually ignore the angular momentum gain of the progenitor white dwarf (WD), which leads to a spin-up phase and a subsequent spin-down phase before explosion. For spin-down timescales greater than 10{sup 5} years, the donor star could be too dim to detect by the time of explosion. Here we revisit the current limits on ex-companion stars to SNR 0509-67.5, a 400-year-old remnant in the Large Magellanic Cloud. If the effects of possible angular momentum gain on the WD are included, a wide range of single-degenerate progenitor models are allowed for this remnant. We demonstrate that the current absence of evidence for ex-companion stars in this remnant, as well as other SNe Ia remnants, does not necessarily provide the evidence of absence for ex-companions. We discuss potential ways to identify such ex-companion stars through deep imaging observations.

Di Stefano, R. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Kilic, Mukremin, E-mail: rd@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: kilic@ou.edu [Homer L. Dodge Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Oklahoma, 440 West Brooks Street, Norman, OK 73019 (United States)

2012-11-01

281

3-D Model of Broadband Emission from Supernova Remnants Undergoing Non-linear Diffusive Shock Acceleration  

SciTech Connect

We present a 3-dimensional model of supernova remnants (SNRs) where the hydrodynamical evolution of the remnant is modeled consistently with nonlinear diffusive shock acceleration occurring at the outer blast wave. The model includes particle escape and diffusion outside of the forward shock, and particle interactions with arbitrary distributions of external ambient material, such as molecular clouds. We include synchrotron emission and cooling, bremsstrahlung radiation, neutral pion production, inverse-Compton (IC), and Coulomb energy-loss. Boardband spectra have been calculated for typical parameters including dense regions of gas external to a 1000 year old SNR. In this paper, we describe the details of our model but do not attempt a detailed fit to any specific remnant. We also do not include magnetic field amplification (MFA), even though this effect may be important in some young remnants. In this first presentation of the model we don't attempt a detailed fit to any specific remnant. Our aim is to develop a flexible platform, which can be generalized to include effects such as MFA, and which can be easily adapted to various SNR environments, including Type Ia SNRs, which explode in a constant density medium, and Type II SNRs, which explode in a pre-supernova wind. When applied to a specific SNR, our model will predict cosmic-ray spectra and multi-wavelength morphology in projected images for instruments with varying spatial and spectral resolutions. We show examples of these spectra and images and emphasize the importance of measurements in the hard X-ray, GeV, and TeV gamma-ray bands for investigating key ingredients in the acceleration mechanism, and for deducing whether or not TeV emission is produced by IC from electrons or pion-decay from protons.

Lee, Shiu-Hang; Kamae, Tuneyoshi; Ellison, Donald C.

2008-07-02

282

Investigations of supernovae and supernova remnants in the era of SKA  

E-print Network

Two main physical mechanisms are used to explain supernova explosions: thermonuclear explosion of a white dwarf(Type Ia) and core collapse of a massive star (Type II and Type Ib/Ic). Type Ia supernovae serve as distance indicators that led to the discovery of the accelerating expansion of the Universe. The exact nature of their progenitor systems however remain unclear. Radio emission from the interaction between the explosion shock front and its surrounding CSM or ISM provides an important probe into the progenitor star's last evolutionary stage. No radio emission has yet been detected from Type Ia supernovae by current telescopes. The SKA will hopefully detect radio emission from Type Ia supernovae due to its much better sensitivity and resolution. There is a 'supernovae rate problem' for the core collapse supernovae because the optically dim ones are missed due to being intrinsically faint and/or due to dust obscuration. A number of dust-enshrouded optically hidden supernovae should be discovered via SKA1-...

Wang, Lingzhi; Zhu, Hui; Tian, Wenwu; Wang, Xiaofeng

2015-01-01

283

EVIDENCE FOR PARTICLE ACCELERATION TO THE KNEE OF THE COSMIC RAY SPECTRUM IN TYCHO'S SUPERNOVA REMNANT  

SciTech Connect

Supernova remnants (SNRs) have long been assumed to be the source of cosmic rays (CRs) up to the 'knee' of the CR spectrum at 10{sup 15} eV, accelerating particles to relativistic energies in their blast waves by the process of diffusive shock acceleration (DSA). Since CR nuclei do not radiate efficiently, their presence must be inferred indirectly. Previous theoretical calculations and X-ray observations show that CR acceleration significantly modifies the structure of the SNR and greatly amplifies the interstellar magnetic field. We present new, deep X-ray observations of the remnant of Tycho's supernova (SN 1572, henceforth Tycho), which reveal a previously unknown, strikingly ordered pattern of non-thermal high-emissivity stripes in the projected interior of the remnant, with spacing that corresponds to the gyroradii of 10{sup 14}-10{sup 15} eV protons. Spectroscopy of the stripes shows the plasma to be highly turbulent on the (smaller) scale of the Larmor radii of TeV energy electrons. Models of the shock amplification of magnetic fields produce structure on the scale of the gyroradius of the highest energy CRs present, but they do not predict the highly ordered pattern we observe. We interpret the stripes as evidence for acceleration of particles to near the knee of the CR spectrum in regions of enhanced magnetic turbulence, while the observed highly ordered pattern of these features provides a new challenge to models of DSA.

Eriksen, Kristoffer A.; Hughes, John P. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers, State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Badenes, Carles [School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv 69978 (Israel); Fesen, Robert [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH 03755 (United States); Ghavamian, Parviz [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Moffett, David [Department of Physics, Furman University, Greenville, SC 29613 (United States); Plucinksy, Paul P.; Slane, Patrick [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Rakowski, Cara E. [Space Science Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Reynoso, Estela M. [Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

2011-02-20

284

An ASCA Study of the Composite Supernova Remnant G18.95-1.1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This is the final report on the work done on Supernova Remnant (SNR) G18-95-1.1. The data were taken on April, 2. 1998 and delivered a couple of months later to the Principal Investigator (PI: Dr. Ilana Harrus). We received a CD-ROM containing the results of the standard processing pipeline and all the files needed for the analysis. We have analyzed the data and presented a poster on this object at the 194th American Astronomical Society Meeting in Chicago (June 1999). A copy of the poster is appended to this report. The poster presentation triggered several discussions and we are summarizing the analysis results and those discussions in a paper to be submitted soon to the Astrophysical Journal. We have appended the draft of the paper to this report. It must be noted that the paper is still in its early stages. In particular more work is needed in the physical implications of the results of the spectral analysis and in the comparison with theoretical models to understand the curious morphology of the remnant. The project should be completed within the next two months. Attachment: "ASCA study of the centrally-peaked thermal supernova remnant: G18.95-1.1".

Harrus, Ilana

2000-01-01

285

Recoil of the Stellar Remnant from the Puppis A Supernova: Proper-Motion Measurement from Chandra  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A sequence of three Chandra X-ray Observatory High Resolution Camera images taken over a span of five years reveals arc-second-scale displacement of RX-J0822--4300, the stellar remnant near the center of the Puppis A supernova remnant. We measure its proper motion to be 0.16+/-0.02 arcsec/yr toward the west-southwest. At a distance of 2 kpc, this corresponds to a transverse space velocity of approx. 1500 km/s. This is the first case of a compact X-ray source with a directly measured proper motion. The space velocity is consistent with the explosion center inferred from proper motions of the oxygen-rich optical filaments, and confirms the idea that Puppis A resulted from an asymmetric explosion accompanied by a kick that imparted on the order of 3 x 10(exp 49) ergs of kinetic energy (some 3 percent of the supernova kinetic energy) to the stellar remnant. We will summarize this measurement and discuss possible mechanisms for producing such a violent kick. This research has been supported by NASA grant G04-5062X.

Petre, Robert; Winkler, P. F.

2006-01-01

286

Fermi-Lat and WMAP Observations of the Puppis a Supernova Remnant  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We report the detection of GeV gamma-ray emission from the supernova remnant Puppis A with the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope. Puppis A is among the faintest supernova remnants yet detected at GeV energies, with a luminosity of only 2.7×10(exp 34) (D/2.2 kpc)(exp 2) erg s(exp -1) between 1 and 100 GeV. The gamma-ray emission from the remnant is spatially extended, with a morphology matching that of the radio and X-ray emission, and is well described by a simple power law with an index of 2.1. We attempt to model the broadband spectral energy distribution, from radio to gamma-rays, using standard nonthermal emission mechanisms. To constrain the relativistic electron population we use 7 years of WMAP data to extend the radio spectrum up to 93 GHz. Both leptonic and hadronic dominated models can reproduce the nonthermal spectral energy distribution, requiring a total content of cosmic ray (CR) electrons and protons accelerated in Puppis A of at least WCR is approx. (1 - 5)×10 (exp 49) erg.

Hewitt, John William; Grondin, M. H.; Lemoine-Goumard, M.; Reposeur, T.; Ballet, J.; Tanaka, T.

2012-01-01

287

The Chandra ACIS Survey of M33: X-ray, Optical, and Radio Properties of the Supernova Remnants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

M33 contains a large number of emission nebulae identified as supernova remnants (SNRs) based on the high [S II]:H? ratios characteristic of shocked gas. Using Chandra data from the ChASeM33 survey with a 0.35-2 keV sensitivity of ~2 × 1034 erg s-1, we have detected 82 of 137 SNR candidates, yielding confirmation of (or at least strongly support for) their SNR identifications. This provides the largest sample of remnants detected at optical and X-ray wavelengths in any galaxy, including the Milky Way. A spectral analysis of the seven X-ray brightest SNRs reveals that two, G98-31 and G98-35, have spectra that appear to indicate enrichment by ejecta from core-collapse supernova explosions. In general, the X-ray-detected SNRs have soft X-ray spectra compared to the vast majority of sources detected along the line of sight to M33. It is unlikely that there are any other undiscovered thermally dominated X-ray SNRs with luminosities in excess of ~4 × 1035 erg s-1 in the portions of M33 covered by the ChASeM33 survey. We have used a combination of new and archival optical and radio observations to attempt to better understand why some objects are detected as X-ray sources and others are not. We have also developed a morphological classification scheme for the optically identified SNRs and discussed the efficacy of this scheme as a predictor of X-ray detectability. Finally, we have compared the SNRs found in M33 to those that have been observed in the Galaxy and the Magellanic Clouds. There are no close analogs of Cas A, Kepler's SNR, Tycho's SNR, or the Crab Nebula in the regions of M33 surveyed, but we have found an X-ray source with a power-law spectrum coincident with a small-diameter radio source that may be the first pulsar-wind nebula recognized in M33.

Long, Knox S.; Blair, William P.; Winkler, P. Frank; Becker, Robert H.; Gaetz, Terrance J.; Ghavamian, Parviz; Helfand, David J.; Hughes, John P.; Kirshner, Robert P.; Kuntz, Kip D.; McNeil, Emily K.; Pannuti, Thomas G.; Plucinsky, Paul P.; Saul, Destry; Tüllmann, Ralph; Williams, Benjamin

2010-04-01

288

Infrared and X-Ray Spectroscopy of the Kes 75 Supernova Remnant Shell: Characterizing the Dust and Gas Properties  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We present deep Chandra observations and Spitzer Space Telescope infrared (IR) spectroscopy of the shell in the composite supernova remnant (SNR) Kes 75 (G29.7-0.3). The remnant is composed of a central pulsar wind nebula and a bright partial shell in the south that is visible at radio, IR, and X-ray wavelengths. The X-ray emission can be modeled by either a single thermal component with a temperature of approximately 1.5 keY, or with two thermal components with temperatures of 1.5 and 0.2 keY. Previous studies suggest that the hot component may originate from reverse-shocked supernova (SN) ejecta. However, our new analysis shows no definitive evidence for enhanced abundances of Si, S, Ar, Mg, and Fe, as expected from SN ejecta, or for the IR spectral signatures characteristic of confirmed SN condensed dust, thus favoring a circumstellar or interstellar origin for the X-ray and IR emission. The X-ray and IR emission in the shell are spatially correlated, suggesting that the dust particles are collisionally heated by the X-ray emitting gas. The IR spectrum of the shell is dominated by continuum emission from dust with little, or no line emission. Modeling the IR spectrum shows that the dust is heated to a temperature of approximately 140 K by a relatively dense, hot plasma that also gives rise to the hot X-my emission component. The density inferred from the IR emission is significantly higher than the density inferred from the X-ray models, suggesting a low filling factor for this X-my emitting gas. The total mass of the warm dust component is at least 1.3 x 10(exp -2) x solar mass, assuming no significant dust destruction has occurred in the shell. The IR data also reveal the presence of an additional plasma component with a cooler temperature, consistent with the 0.2 keV gas component. Our IR analysis therefore provides an independent verification of the cooler component of the X-ray emission. The complementary analyses of the X-ray and IR emission provide quantitative estimates of density and filling factors of the clumpy medium swept up by the SNR.

Temim, Tea; Slane, Patrick; Arendt, Richard G.; Dwek, Eli

2011-01-01

289

Infrared and X-Ray Spectroscopy of the KES 75 Supernova Remnant Shell: Characterizing the Dust and Gas Properties  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We present deep Chandra observations and Spitzer Space Telescope infrared (IR) spectroscopy of the shell in the composite supernova remnant (SNR) Kes 75 (G29.7-0.3). The remnant is composed of a central pulsar wind nebula and a bright partial shell in the south that is visible at radio, IR, and X-ray wavelengths. The X-ray emission can be modeled by either a single thermal component with a temperature of 1.5 keV, or with two thermal components with temperatures of 1.5 and 0.2 keV. Previous studies suggest that the hot component may originate from reverse-shocked SN ejecta. However, our new analysis shows no definitive evidence for enhanced abundances of Si, S, Ar, Mg, and Fe, as expected from supernova (SN) ejecta, or for the IR spectral signatures characteristic of confirmed SN condensed dust, thus favoring a circumstellar or interstellar origin for the X-ray and IR emission. The X-ray and ill emission in the shell are spatially correlated, suggesting that the dust particles are collisionally heated by the X-ray emitting gas. The IR spectrum of the shell is dominated by continuum emission from dust with little, or no line emission. Modeling the IR spectrum shows that the dust is heated to a temperature of 140 K by a relatively dense, hot plasma, that also gives rise to the hot X-ray emission component. The density inferred from the IR emission is significantly higher than the density inferred from the X-ray models, suggesting a low filling factor for this X-ray emitting gas. The total mass of the warm dust component is at least 1.3 x 10(exp -2) solar mass, assuming no significant dust destruction has occurred in the shell. The IR data also reveal the presence of an additional plasma component with a cooler temperature, consistent with the 0.2 keV gas component. Our IR analysis therefore provides an independent verification of the cooler component of the X-ray emission. The complementary analyses of the X-ray and IR emission provide quantitative estimates of density and filling factors of the clumpy medium swept up by the SNR.

Temim, Tea; Dwek, Eli; Slane, Patrick; Arendt, Richard G.

2009-01-01

290

The relativistic ISM in M33: Role of the supernova remnants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The role of supernova remnants in producing and maintaining the relativistic interstellar medium is investigated for the case of the nearby galaxy M33. Analysis of a radio continuum sample of supernova remnants (SNRs) has led to the following results. (1) The SNRs use roughly 1%-10% of their blast energy to produce relativistic particles. (2) The currently observed SNR population contains between 0.1% and 1% of the relativistic particle energy of the entire interstellar medium of M33, which leads to reasonable values of the particle residence time in the disk. (3) The distribution of synchrotron spectral indices indicates that the particle populations of the observed SNRs have energy spectra with power-law indices of 2.2 +/- 0.4, consistent with values predicted by diffusive shock acceleration theory. Taken together, the three results favor the hypothesis that SNRs account for the bulk of M33's relativistic medium. It is further shown that, as a consequence of these results, the predicted SN rate is 1 per 140-250 yr, in general agreement with independent estimates of the SN rate and the absence of historical supernovae.

Duric, N.; Gordon, S. M.; Goss, W. M.; Viallefond, F.; Lacey, C.

1995-05-01

291

Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities in Type Ia supernova remnants undergoing cosmic ray particle acceleration - low adiabatic index solutions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study investigates the evolution of Rayleigh-Taylor (R-T) instabilities in Type Ia supernova remnants that are associated with a low adiabatic index ?, where ? < 5/3, which reflects the expected change in the supernova shock structure as a result of cosmic ray particle acceleration. Extreme cases, such as the case with the maximum compression ratio that corresponds to ?= 1.1, are examined. As ? decreases, the shock compression ratio rises, and an increasingly narrow intershock region with a more pronounced initial mixture of R-T unstable gas is produced. Consequently, the remnant outline may be perturbed by small-amplitude, small-wavelength bumps. However, as the instability decays over time, the extent of convective mixing in terms of the ratio of the radius of the R-T fingers to the blast wave does not strongly depend on the value of ? for ?? 1.2. As a result of the age of the remnant, the unstable gas cannot extend sufficiently far to form metal-enriched filaments of ejecta material close to the periphery of Tycho's supernova remnant. The consistency of the dynamic properties of Tycho's remnant with the adiabatic model ?= 5/3 reveals that the injection of cosmic rays is too weak to alter the shock structure. Even with very efficient acceleration of cosmic rays at the shock, significantly enhanced mixing is not expected in Type Ia supernova remnants.

Wang, Chih-Yueh

2011-07-01

292

AN X-RAY INVESTIGATION OF THREE SUPERNOVA REMNANTS IN THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD  

SciTech Connect

We have investigated three supernova remnants (SNRs) in the LMC using multi-wavelength data. These SNRs are generally fainter than the known sample (see Section 4) and may represent a previously missed population. One of our SNRs is the second LMC remnant analyzed which is larger than any Galactic remnant for which a definite size has been established. The analysis of such a large remnant contributes to the understanding of the population of highly evolved SNRs. We have obtained X-ray images and spectra of three of these recently identified SNRs using the XMM-Newton observatory. These data, in conjunction with pre-existing optical emission-line images and spectra, were used to determine the physical conditions of the optical- and X-ray-emitting gas in the SNRs. We have compared the morphologies of the SNRs in the different wavebands. The physical properties of the warm ionized shell were determined from the H{alpha} surface brightness and the SNR expansion velocity. The X-ray spectra were fit with a thermal plasma model and the physical conditions of the hot gas were derived from the model fits. Finally, we have compared our observations with simulations of SNR evolution.

Klimek, Matthew D.; Points, S. D.; Smith, R. C. [Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, Casilla 603, La Serena (Chile); Shelton, R. L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602 (United States); Williams, R., E-mail: klimek@physics.rutgers.ed, E-mail: spoints@ctio.noao.ed, E-mail: csmith@ctio.noao.ed, E-mail: rls@physast.uga.ed, E-mail: rosanina@ccssc.or [Columbus State University, Coca-Cola Space Science Center, 701 Front Avenue, Columbus, GA, 31901 (United States)

2010-12-20

293

X-ray characteristics of the Lupus Loop and SN 1006 supernova remnants  

SciTech Connect

The spatial extent of the Lupus Loop and spectra for the Lupus Loop and SN1006 supernova remnants have been determined with a rocket-borne payload. The Lupus Loop is an extended source of soft X-rays (approx. 300' diam) that shows a correlation between its brightest x-ray and radio-emission regions. Its spectrum is characterized by a temperature of 350 eV. Thus, the Lupus Loop appears similar to Vela X and Cygnus Loop, although much weaker. Emission from SN1006 is spatially unresolved and exhibits a harder spectrum than that of the Lupus Loop. All spectral data (0.2 to 10 keV) from our observation and previous observations are satisfactorily fit with a power law (index = 2.15). This spectral dependence suggests the possibility that a rotating neutron star is the underlying source of the radiated energy although such an interpretation appears inconsistent with the remnant's morphology.

Toor, A.

1980-01-01

294

COSMIC-RAY ELECTRON EVOLUTION IN THE SUPERNOVA REMNANT RX J1713.7-3946  

SciTech Connect

A simple formalism to describe nonthermal electron acceleration, evolution, and radiation in supernova remnants (SNRs) is presented. The electron continuity equation is analytically solved assuming that the nonthermal electron injection power is proportional to the rate at which the kinetic energy of matter is swept up in an adiabatically expanding SNR shell. We apply this model to Fermi and HESS data from the SNR RX J1713.7-3946 and find that a one-zone leptonic model with Compton-scattered cosmic microwave background and interstellar infrared photons has difficulty providing a good fit to its spectral energy distribution, provided the source is at a distance {approx}1 kpc from the Earth. However, the inclusion of multiple zones, as hinted at by recent Chandra observations, does provide a good fit, but requires a second zone of compact knots with magnetic fields B {approx} 16 {mu}G, comparable to shock-compressed fields found in the bulk of the remnant.

Finke, Justin D.; Dermer, Charles D., E-mail: justin.finke@nrl.navy.mil [U.S. Naval Research Laboratory, Code 7653, 4555 Overlook Ave. SW, Washington, DC 20375-5352 (United States)

2012-05-20

295

ANALYTICAL AND MONTE CARLO RESULTS FOR THE SURFACE-BRIGHTNESS-DIAMETER RELATIONSHIP IN SUPERNOVA REMNANTS  

SciTech Connect

The surface-brightness-diameter relationship for supernova remnants is explained by adopting a model of direct conversion of the flux of kinetic energy into synchrotron luminosity. Two laws of motion are adopted: a power-law model for the radius-time relationship and a model that uses the thin layer approximation. The fluctuations in the log-log surface diameter relationship are modeled by a Monte Carlo simulation. In this model, a new probability density function for the density as a function of the galactic height is introduced.

Zaninetti, Lorenzo, E-mail: zaninetti@ph.unito.it [Dipartimento di Fisica Generale, Via Pietro Giuria 1, 10125 Torino (Italy)

2012-02-10

296

Spectral observation of the composite supernova remnant G 29.7-0.3  

Microsoft Academic Search

The X-ray properties of the supernova remnant G 29.7-0.3 are discussed based on spectral data from the EXOSAT satellite. In the 2 to 10 keV range a featureless power-law spectrum is obtained, the best-fit parameters being: energy spectral index a=-0.77, hydrogen column density on the line of sight NH=2.3.1022 cm-2. The incident X-ray flux from the source is (3.6±0.1) 1011

L. Koch-Miramond; R. Rocchia; J. Davelaar; F. A. Jansen; R. H. Becker; R. Braun

1985-01-01

297

An Investigation into PAH Destruction in Nearby Supernova Remnants, North Polar Spur and Cygnus Loop  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our goal in conducting this research was to look at the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)/large dust grain emission intensity ratio in nearby supernova remnants to find evidence for selective PAH destruction by hot gas and high velocity shock waves within these regions, as predicted by the models of Arendt et al. (2010) and Micelotta et al. (2010a,b). Two supernova remnants were studied- the North Polar Spur (NPS) and the Cygnus Loop. The data for PAHs were obtained from the WISE W3 12 micron all-sky map processed by Meisner & Finkbeiner (2014), and the data for the larger grains come from the IRAS 100 micron all-sky map processed by Schlegel, Finkbeiner & Davis (1998). After obtaining a control PAH/large grain intensity ratio of ~2.8 (DN/px)/(MJy/sr) from two high latitude clouds, MBM 30 and MBM 32, we found that the intensity ratios across the NPS and Cygnus Loop were not far off- ~2.7 (DN/px)/(MJy/sr) and ~3.1 (DN/px)/(MJy/sr), respectively- showing no evidence of selective large-scale PAH destruction in supernova remnants. The individual intensities for both PAHs and large grains do decrease inside the Cygnus Loop, however, suggesting a decrease in abundances of both grain types, which could mean total dust grain destruction with the normal ratios coming from foreground and background dust located in the line of sight of the remnant. In addition, temperature and E(B-V) measurements taken from calibrated IRAS images show that while the dust column density increases in the Eastern Veil of the Cygnus Loop, the dust temperature reaches a local maximum, indicating the heating of large grains by interaction with the hot gas in the remnant. The PAH/large grain ratio in the Eastern Veil does decrease and could be indicative of currently ongoing active grain destruction there, with the PAHs being destroyed on a more rapid timescale than the large grains.We are grateful for financial support from the NSF REU Program grant to the Department of Physics & Astronomy at the University of Toledo.

Burkhart, Sarah M.; Witt, Adolf N.

2015-01-01

298

Supernova basics Supernova types  

E-print Network

1 Supernovae · Supernova basics · Supernova types · Light Curves · SN Spectra ­ after explosion · Supernova Remnants (SNRs) · Collisional Ionization #12;2 Supernova Basics · Supernova (SN) explosions in our) · Typical SN rates ~ 1/Galaxy/century · Recent local supernovae: 1006 AD, 1054 AD (produced Crab nebula

Crenshaw, Michael

299

X-ray spectra of the Cassiopeia A and TYCHO supernova remnants and their element abundances  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

X-ray spectra of the supernova remnants Cas A and Tycho were obtained with the gas scintillation proportional counters on board Tenma. The observed spectra can be well fitted with single thermal bremsstrahlung continuum spectra with several emission features due to line blends of silicon, sulfur, argon, calcium, and iron. The mean energies of these line blends cannot be accounted for by invoking an equilibrium ionization model, but a simple, nonequilibrium model gives agreement with the data. In particular, the mean energy of each of the five line blends implies a value for the ionization time scale (the product of the electron density and time) of 1.0 × 1011 cm-3 s and 6.0 × 109 cm-3 s for Cas A and for Tycho respectively. The line intensities compared with those predicted by the nonequilibrium model give the element abundances in these objects. The results support current models of Type I and Type II supernovae.

Tsunemi, H.; Yamashita, K.; Masai, K.; Hayakawa, S.; Koyama, K.

1986-07-01

300

Supernova Remnants Interacting with Molecular Clouds: X-ray and Gamma-ray Signatures  

E-print Network

The giant molecular clouds (MCs) found in the Milky Way and similar galaxies play a crucial role in the evolution of these systems. The supernova explosions that mark the death of massive stars in these regions often lead to interactions between the supernova remnants (SNRs) and the clouds. These interactions have a profound effect on our understanding of SNRs. Shocks in SNRs should be capable of accelerating particles to cosmic ray (CR) energies with efficiencies high enough to power Galactic CRs. X-ray and gamma-ray studies have established the presence of relativistic electrons and protons is some SNRs and provided strong evidence for diffusive shock acceleration as the primary acceleration mechanism, including strongly amplified magnetic fields, temperature and ionization effects on the shock-heated plasmas, and modifications to the dynamical evolution of some systems. Because protons dominate the overall energetics of the CRs, it is crucial to understand this hadronic component even though electrons are ...

Slane, P; Ellison, D C; Dubner, G; Castro, D

2014-01-01

301

SN 1993J - The X-ray Story of a Supernova Slowly Transitioning to a Remnant  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Supernova 1993J in the nearby galaxy M81 is one of the best observed supernovae (SNe) in X-rays, with better long-term X-ray time-sampling than any other SN. We re-analysed most of the available archival data on SN 1993J, combined with a 79ks Chandra observation obtained by our group in Aug 2010. Together, the data constitute a veritable history of a Type IIb SN from its explosion, through its outward journey into the surrounding medium, and on its way to becoming a remnant. The X-ray emission probes the characteristics of the surrounding medium, and the kinematics of the SN shock wave(s). In this project we explore the evolution of these quantities in SN 1993J, together with the evolution of its X-ray spectrum.

Dwarkadas, V.; Bauer, F.; Bietenholz, M.; Bartel, N.

2014-07-01

302

SN 1993J - The X-ray Story of a Supernova Slowly Transitioning to a Remnant  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Supernova 1993J in the nearby galaxy M81 is one of the best observed supernovae (SNe) in X-rays, with better long-term X-ray time-sampling than any other SN. We re-analysed most of the available archival data on SN 1993J, combined with a 79ks Chandra observation obtained by our group in Aug 2010. Together, the data constitute a veritable history of a Type IIb SN from its explosion, through its outward journey into the surrounding medium, and on its way to becoming a remnant. The X-ray emission probes the characteristics of the surrounding medium, and the kinematics of the SN shock wave(s). In this project we explore the evolution of these quantities in SN 1993J, together with the evolution of its X-ray spectrum.

Dwarkadas, Vikram; Bauer, Franz E.

2014-06-01

303

High-velocity, high-excitation neutral carbon in a cloud in the Vela supernova remnant  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

HD 72089 is situated behind the Vela supernova remnant, and the interstellar absorption lines in the spectrum of this star are remarkable for two reasons. First, there are six distinct velocity components that span the (heliocentric) velocity range -60 to +121 km/s in the lines of Na I and Ca II. Second, two of the components at high velocity, one at +85 km/s and another at +121.5 km/s, have densities that are large enough to produce observable lines from neutral carbon. The gas moving at +121.5 km/s has such a large pressure that the excited fine-structure levels of the ground electronic state of C I are collisionally populated nearly in proportion to their level degeneracies. This high-velocity gas exhibits unusually low column densities of Mg I and Na I, compared to that of C I. We propose that the +121.5 km/s component represents gas that has cooled and recombined in a zone that follows a shock driven into a cloud by the very recent passage of a supernova blast wave. A representative preshock density of n(sub H) approximately = 13/cc and velocity v(sub s) = 100 km/s is indicated by the strength of diffuse (O III) emission lines seen in directions very near HD 72089. The strong collisional population of excited C I and apparent absence of excited levels of O I give a most favorable fit to the conditions 1000 less than n(sub H) less than 2900/cc over a temperature range 300 less than T less than 1000 K. The fact that the compression is not substantially more than this indicates that the preshock gas may have had an embedded, transverse magnetic field with a strength B greater than or approximately = 1 micro-G. The large dynamical pressure of the supernova blast wave that would be needed to create the cloud shock that we describe implies that the energy of the supernova was 8 x 10(exp 51) ergs, if the Vela remnant is 500 pc away. We can bring this value much closer to typical supernova energies E less than or approximately = 10(exp 51) ergs if the distance to the remnant is revised downward by at least a factor of 2.

Jenkins, Edward B.; Wallerstein, George

1995-01-01

304

Maximum Energies of Shock-Accelerated Electrons in Young Shell Supernova Remnants  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Young supernova remnants (SNRs) are often assumed to be the source of cosmic rays up to energies approaching the slight steepening in the cosmic ray spectrum at around 1000 TeV, known as the "knee." We show that the observed X-ray emission of 14 radio-bright shell remnants, including all five historical shells, can be used to put limits on E(sub max), the energy at which the electron energy distribution must steepen from its slope at radio-emitting energies. Most of the remnants show thermal spectra, so any synchrotron component must fall below the observed X-ray fluxes. We obtain upper limits on E(sub max) by considering the most rapid physically plausible cutoff in the relativistic electron distribution, an exponential, which is as sharp or sharper than found in any more elaborate models. This maximally curved model then gives us the highest possible E(sub max) consistent with not exceeding observed X-rays. Our results are thus independent of particular models for the electron spectrum in SNRs. Assuming homogeneous emitting volumes with a constant magnetic field strength of 10 uG, no object could reach 1000 TeV, and only one, Kes 73, has an upper limit on E(sub max), above 100 TeV. All the other remnants have limits at or below 80 TeV. E(sub max) is probably set by the finite remnant lifetime rather than by synchrotron losses for remnants younger than a few thousand years, so that an observed electron steepening should be accompanied by steepening at the same energy for protons. More complicated, inhomogeneous models could allow higher values of E(sub max) in parts of the remnant, but the emission-weighted average value, that characteristic of typical electrons, should obey these limits. The young remnants are not expected to improve much over their remaining lives at producing the highest energy Galactic cosmic rays; if they cannot, this picture of cosmic-ray origin may need major alteration.

Reynolds, Stephen P.; Keohane, Jonathan W.; White, Nicholas E. (Technical Monitor)

1999-01-01

305

LIMITS ON THE NUMBER OF GALACTIC YOUNG SUPERNOVA REMNANTS EMITTING IN THE DECAY LINES OF {sup 44}Ti  

SciTech Connect

We revise the assumptions of the parameters involved in predicting the number of supernova remnants detectable in the nuclear lines of the decay chain of {sup 44}Ti. Specifically, we consider the distribution of the supernova progenitors, the supernova rate in the Galaxy, the ratios of supernova types, the Galactic production of {sup 44}Ti, and the {sup 44}Ti yield from supernovae of different types to derive credible bounds on the expected number of detectable remnants. We find that, within 1? uncertainty, the Galaxy should contain an average of 5.1{sup +2.4}{sub -2.0} remnants detectable to a survey with a {sup 44}Ti decay line flux limit of 10{sup –5} photons cm{sup –2} s{sup –1}, with a probability of detecting a single remnant of 2.7{sup +10.0}{sub -2.4}%, and an expected number of detections between two and nine remnants, making the single detection of Cas A unlikely but consistent with our models. Our results show that the probability of detecting the brightest {sup 44}Ti flux source at the high absolute Galactic longitude of Cas A or above is ?10%. Using the detected flux of Cas A, we attempt to constrain the Galactic supernova rate and Galactic production of {sup 44}Ti, but find the detection to be only weakly informative. We conclude that even future surveys having 200 times more sensitivity than state-of-the-art surveys can be guaranteed to detect only a few new remnants, with an expected number of detections between 8 and 21 at a limiting {sup 44}Ti decay flux of 10{sup –7} photons cm{sup –2} s{sup –1}.

Dufour, François; Kaspi, Victoria M., E-mail: dufourf@physics.mcgill.ca [Department of Physics, McGill University, 3600 rue University, Montréal, QC H3A 2T8 (Canada)

2013-09-20

306

IRAS 15099-5856: REMARKABLE MID-INFRARED SOURCE WITH PROMINENT CRYSTALLINE SILICATE EMISSION EMBEDDED IN THE SUPERNOVA REMNANT MSH15-52  

SciTech Connect

We report new mid-infrared (MIR) observations of the remarkable object IRAS 15099-5856 using the space telescopes AKARI and Spitzer, which demonstrate the presence of prominent crystalline silicate emission in this bright source. IRAS 15099-5856 has a complex morphology with a bright central compact source (IRS1) surrounded by knots, spurs, and several extended ({approx}4') arc-like filaments. The source is seen only at {>=}10 {mu}m. The Spitzer mid-infrared spectrum of IRS1 shows prominent emission features from Mg-rich crystalline silicates, strong [Ne II] 12.81 {mu}m, and several other faint ionic lines. We model the MIR spectrum as thermal emission from dust and compare with the Herbig Be star HD 100546 and the luminous blue variable R71, which show very similar MIR spectra. Molecular line observations reveal two molecular clouds around the source, but no associated dense molecular cores. We suggest that IRS1 is heated by UV radiation from the adjacent O star Muzzio 10 and that its crystalline silicates most likely originated in a mass outflow from the progenitor of the supernova remnant (SNR) MSH 15-52. IRS1, which is embedded in the SNR, could have been shielded from the SN blast wave if the progenitor was in a close binary system with Muzzio 10. If MSH 15-52 is a remnant of Type Ib/c supernova (SN Ib/c), as has been previously proposed, this would confirm the binary model for SN Ib/c. IRS1 and the associated structures may be the relics of massive star death, as shaped by the supernova explosion, the pulsar wind, and the intense ionizing radiation of the embedded O star.

Koo, Bon-Chul; Kim, Hyun-Jeong; Im, Myungshin [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); McKee, Christopher F. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Suh, Kyung-Won [Department of Astronomy and Space Science, Chungbuk National University, Cheingju-City 361-763 (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Dae-Sik; Lee, Ho-Gyu [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S 3H4 (Canada); Onaka, Takashi [Department of Astronomy, University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Burton, Michael G. [School of Physics, University of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales 2052 (Australia); Hiramatsu, Masaaki [Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Bessell, Michael S. [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Mount Stromlo Observatory (Australia); Gaensler, B. M. [Sydney Institute for Astronomy, School of Physics, The University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Lee, Jae-Joon [Astronomy and Astrophysics Department, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Jeong, Woong-Seob [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, 61-1, Whaam-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of); Tatematsu, Ken'ichi; Kawabe, Ryohei; Ezawa, Hajime [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1, Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Kohno, Kotaro [Institute of Astronomy, University of Tokyo, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-0015 (Japan); Wilson, Grant; Yun, Min S., E-mail: koo@astrohi.snu.ac.kr [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States)

2011-05-01

307

The acceleration of cosmic-ray protons in the supernova remnant RX J1713.7-3946  

Microsoft Academic Search

Protons with energies up to ~1015eV are the main component of cosmic rays, but evidence for the specific locations where they could have been accelerated to these energies has been lacking. Electrons are known to be accelerated to cosmic-ray energies in supernova remnants, and the shock waves associated with such remnants, when they hit the surrounding interstellar medium, could also

R. Enomoto; T. Tanimori; T. Naito; T. Yoshida; S. Yanagita; M. Mori; P. G. Edwards; A. Asahara; G. V. Bicknell; S. Gunji; S. Hara; T. Hara; S. Hayashi; C. Itoh; S. Kabuki; F. Kajino; H. Katagiri; J. Kataoka; A. Kawachi; T. Kifune; H. Kubo; J. Kushida; S. Maeda; A. Maeshiro; Y. Matsubara; Y. Mizumoto; M. Moriya; H. Muraishi; Y. Muraki; T. Nakase; K. Nishijima; M. Ohishi; K. Okumura; J. R. Patterson; K. Sakurazawa; R. Suzuki; D. L. Swaby; K. Takano; T. Takano; F. Tokanai; K. Tsuchiya; H. Tsunoo; K. Uruma; A. Watanabe; T. Yoshikoshi

2002-01-01

308

On the Influence of Supernova Remnant Thermal Energy in Powering Galactic Winds  

E-print Network

The fundamental tenet of the classical supernovae-driven wind model of elliptical galaxies is that the residual thermal energy of all supernovae remnants (SNRs) provide sufficient energy to overcome the binding energy of the remaining interstellar gas, thereby driving a global galactic wind. We re-examine model predictions of this epoch of wind ejection t_GW, highlighting a heretofore underappreciated sensitivity to the adopted remnant thermal energy formalism, and illustrating cases in which previous work may have substantially overestimated t_GW. Arguments based upon chemical evolution alone, put forth to reject the hypothesis of dark matter distributions similar to the luminous component in spheroids, are shown to be tenuous. Finally, the predicted enrichment of intracluster gas during the wind phase of cluster ellipticals, and its relation to the selected SNR interior thermal energy evolutionary scheme, is addressed. Despite the success of previous wind models, our results still call into question the correctness of the simple analytical approach used thus far, and imply that a more appropriate technique should be adopted in the future.

Brad K. Gibson

1994-10-11

309

GAMMA-RAY EMISSION OF ACCELERATED PARTICLES ESCAPING A SUPERNOVA REMNANT IN A MOLECULAR CLOUD  

SciTech Connect

We present a model of gamma-ray emission from core-collapse supernovae (SNe) originating from the explosions of massive young stars. The fast forward shock of the supernova remnant (SNR) can accelerate particles by diffusive shock acceleration (DSA) in a cavern blown by a strong, pre-SN stellar wind. As a fundamental part of nonlinear DSA, some fraction of the accelerated particles escape the shock and interact with a surrounding massive dense shell producing hard photon emission. To calculate this emission, we have developed a new Monte Carlo technique for propagating the cosmic rays (CRs) produced by the forward shock of the SNR, into the dense, external material. This technique is incorporated in a hydrodynamic model of an evolving SNR which includes the nonlinear feedback of CRs on the SNR evolution, the production of escaping CRs along with those that remain trapped within the remnant, and the broadband emission of radiation from trapped and escaping CRs. While our combined CR-hydro-escape model is quite general and applies to both core collapse and thermonuclear SNe, the parameters we choose for our discussion here are more typical of SNRs from very massive stars whose emission spectra differ somewhat from those produced by lower mass progenitors directly interacting with a molecular cloud.

Ellison, Donald C. [Physics Department, North Carolina State University, Box 8202, Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States); Bykov, Andrei M., E-mail: don_ellison@ncsu.edu, E-mail: byk@astro.ioffe.ru [Ioffe Institute for Physics and Technology, 194021 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

2011-04-20

310

Electron-Ion Heat Exchange from Electrostatic Potentials in Supernova Remnant Shocks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The partitioning of thermal energy between electrons and ions in supernova remnant shocks is an outstanding problem. X-ray observations show that inferred proton temperatures differ considerably from simple hydrodynamic expectations of shock heating in the compressed flow. In electron-ion shocks, a cross-shock electrostatic potential, akin to a capacitance, should arise due to the different inertial gyroscales of the two species. It provides a mechanism for energy exchange between these charges. In this paper, we explore the effects of cross-shock electrostatics using a Monte Carlo simulation, where test particles gyrate and stochastically diffuse in a background fluid pre-defined by MHD jump conditions. The cross-shock electric field is derived from the steady-state spatial distribution of particles via a modified Poisson's equation that includes Debye screening. In subsequent simulation runs, the charges kinetically respond to this field, in addition to the background magnetic and drift electric fields, and new charge separation potentials are derived. This iterative feedback loop continues until a self-consistent solution is obtained. Our results show a significant departure of the electron distribution from the usual thermal plus power-law form, and clearly demonstrates substantial heating of the electron population. This phenomenon has important implications for the interpretation of X-ray emission in supernova remnants.

Baring, Matthew; Barchas, Joseph

311

Time-Dependent Diffusive Shock Acceleration in Slow Supernova Remnant Shocks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent gamma ray observations show that middle aged supernova remnants interacting with molecular clouds can be sources of both GeV and TeV emission. Models involving re-acceleration of pre-existing cosmic rays in the ambient medium and direct interaction between supernova remnant and molecular clouds have been proposed to explain the observed gamma ray emission. For the re-acceleration process, standard DSA theory in the test particle limit produces a steady state particle spectrum that is too flat compared to observations, which suggests that the high energy part of the observed spectrum has not yet reached a steady state. We derive a time dependent DSA solution in the test particle limit for situations involving re-acceleration of pre-existing cosmic rays in the preshock medium. Simple estimates with our time dependent DSA solution plus a molecular cloud interaction model can reproduce the overall shape of the spectra of IC 443 and W44 from GeV to TeV energies through pure ?^0-decay emission.We allow for a power law momentum dependence of the diffusion coefficient, finding that a power law index of 0.5 is favored.

Xiaping, Tang; Chevalier, Roger

2015-01-01

312

Particle Acceleration, Magnetic Field Generation and Emission from Relativistic Jets and Supernova Remnants  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We performed numerical simulations of particle acceleration, magnetic field generation, and emission from shocks in order to understand the observed emission from relativistic jets and supernova remnants. The investigation involves the study of collisionless shocks, where the Weibel instability is responsible for particle acceleration as well as magnetic field generation. A 3-D relativistic particle-in-cell (RPIC) code has been used to investigate the shock processes in electron-positron plasmas. The evolution of theWeibe1 instability and its associated magnetic field generation and particle acceleration are studied with two different jet velocities (0 = 2,5 - slow, fast) corresponding to either outflows in supernova remnants or relativistic jets, such as those found in AGNs and microquasars. Slow jets have intrinsically different structures in both the generated magnetic fields and the accelerated particle spectrum. In particular, the jet head has a very weak magnetic field and the ambient electrons are strongly accelerated and dragged by the jet particles. The simulation results exhibit jitter radiation from inhomogeneous magnetic fields, generated by the Weibel instability, which has different spectral properties than standard synchrotron emission in a homogeneous magnetic field.

Nishikawa, K.-I.; Hartmann, D. H.; Hardee, P.; Hededal, C.; Mizunno, Y.; Fishman, G. J.

2006-01-01

313

Computer simulations of cosmic-ray diffusion near supernova remnant shock waves  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A plasma simulation model was used to study the resonant interactions between streaming cosmic-ray ions and a self-consistent spectrum of Alfven waves, such as might exist in the interstellar medium upstream of a supernova remnant shock wave. The computational model is a hybrid one, in which the background interstellar medium is an MHD fluid and the cosmic-rays are discrete kinetic particles. The particle sources for the electromagnetic fields are obtained by averaging over the fast cyclotron motions. When the perturbed magnetic field is larger than 10 percent of the background field, the macro- and microphysics are no longer correctly predicted by quasi-linear theory. The particles are trapped by the waves and show sharp jumps in their pitch-angles relative to the background magnetic field, and the effective ninety-degree scattering time for diffusion parallel to the background magnetic field is reduced to between 5 and 30 cyclotron periods. Simulation results suggest that Type 1 supernova remnants may be the principal sites of cosmic ray acceleration.

Max, C. E.; Zachary, A. L.; Arons, J.

1989-01-01

314

Time-Dependent Diffusive Shock Acceleration in Slow Supernova Remnant Shocks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent gamma ray observations show that middle aged supernova remnants interacting with molecular clouds can be sources of both GeV and TeV emission. Models involving re-acceleration of pre-existing cosmic rays in the ambient medium and direct interaction between supernova remnant and molecular clouds have been proposed to explain the observed gamma ray emission. For the re-acceleration process, standard DSA theory in the test particle limit produces a steady state particle spectrum that is too flat compared to observations, which suggests that the high energy part of the observed spectrum has not yet reached a steady state. We derive a time dependent DSA solution in the test particle limit for situations involving re-acceleration of pre-existing cosmic rays in the preshock medium. Simple estimates with our time dependent DSA solution plus a molecular cloud interaction model can reproduce the overall shape of the spectra of IC 443 and W44 from GeV to TeV energies through pure ?^0-decay emission. We allow for a power law momentum dependence of the diffusion coefficient, finding that a power law index of 0.5 is favored.

Tang, Xiaping; Chevalier, Roger

2015-01-01

315

Modeling W44 as a Supernova Remnant in a Density Gradient, with a Partially Formed Dense Shell and Thermal Conduction in the Hot Interior  

E-print Network

(shortened version) We show that many observations of W44, a supernova remnant in the galactic plane at a distance of about 2500 pc, are remarkably consistent with the simplest realistic model. The model remnant is evolving in a smooth ambient medium of fairly high density, about 6 cm^-3 on average, with a substantial density gradient. At the observed time it has an age of about 20,000 years, consistent with the age of the associated pulsar, and a radius of 11 to 13 pc. Over most of the outer surface, radiative cooling has become important in the post shock gas; on the denser end there has been sufficient compression of the cooled gas to develop a very thin dense half shell of about 450 M_sun, supported against further compression by nonthermal pressure. The half shell has an expansion velocity of about 150 km s^-1, and is bounded on the outer surface by a radiative shock with that speed. We provide several analytic tools for the assembly of models of this type. We review the early evolution and shell formation analyses and their generalizations to evolution in a density gradient. We also calculate the density and temperature that should be present in the hot interior of a remnant with thermal conduction. We supply the van der Laan mechanism in a particularly useful form for the calculation of radio continuum from radiative remnants. Finally, we demonstrate a simple technique for estimating the optical emission expected. These tools are employed to choose parameters of models which we then explore with our 1d and 2d hydrocodes, providing, respectively, the detailed x-ray spectra and dynamical characteristics.

R. L. Shelton; Donald P. Cox; Witold Maciejewski; Randall Smith; Tomasz Plewa; Andrew Pawl; Michal Rozyczka

1998-06-05

316

Giant-scale supernova remnants - The role of differential galactic rotation and the formation of molecular clouds  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The evolution of remnants produced by the total supernova power from an evolved OB association in a differentially rotating galactic disk is presented. The calculations at 5 kpc and 10 kpc from the galactic center lead to column densities across the remnant shell, or across sections of the remnants, which eventually exceed the opacity criterion of Franco and Cox (1986) and thus form molecular clouds. The resultant clouds have masses larger than 100,000 solar masses, dimensions of several hundred parsecs, and a separation larger than 1 kpc. In contrast, at 20 kpc from the galactic center the opacity criterion is never fulfilled.

Tenorio-Tagle, G.; Palous, J.

1987-01-01

317

Giant-scale supernova remnants - The role of differential galactic rotation and the formation of molecular clouds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The evolution of remnants produced by the total supernova power from an evolved OB association in a differentially rotating galactic disk is presented. The calculations at 5 kpc and 10 kpc from the galactic center lead to column densities across the remnant shell, or across sections of the remnants, which eventually exceed the opacity criterion Nopacity = 1021Z_sun;/Z cm-2 (Franco and Cox, 1986) and thus form molecular clouds. The resultant clouds have masses larger than 105M_sun;, dimensions of several hundred parsecs and a separation larger than 1 kpc. In contrast, at 20 kpc from the galactic center the opacity criterion is never fulfilled.

Tenorio-Tagle, G.; Palous, J.

1987-11-01

318

Thermal and non-thermal X-rays from the Galactic supernova remnant G348.5+0.1  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on Suzaku results of the two distinct regions in the Galactic supernova remnant G348.5+0.1: extended thermal X-rays ("soft diffuse") at the north-east region and non-thermal X-rays (CXOU J171419.8-383023) at the north-west region. The X-ray spectrum of the soft diffuse X-rays can be fitted with neither an ionization equilibrium nor a non-equilibrium (ionizing) plasma model, leaving saw- tooth residuals in the 1.5-3 keV energy band. The residual structures can be produced when free electrons are recombined to the K-shells of highly ionized Mg and Si ions. In fact, the X-ray spectrum is nicely fitted with a recombination-dominant plasma model. We propose a scenario whereby the plasma in a nearly fully ionized state at high temperature quickly changed to a recombining phase due to selective cooling of electrons to a lower temperature of ˜ 0.5 keV. The spectrum of CXOU J171419.8-383023 is well explained by a simple power-law model with a photon index of 1.9, nearly equal to the typical value for pulsar wind nebulae. Since the distance is estimated to be the same as that of the soft diffuse radiation, we infer that both the soft diffuse X-rays and CXOU J171419.8-383023 are associated with the same object, SNR G348.5+0.1.

Yamauchi, Shigeo; Minami, Sari; Ota, Naomi; Koyama, Katsuji

2014-02-01

319

Could a Nearby Supernova Explosion have Caused a Mass Extinction?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine the possibility that a nearby supernova explosion could have caused one or more of the mass extinctions identified by paleontologists. We discuss the possible rate of such events in the light of the recent suggested identification of Geminga as a supernova remnant less than 100 parsec (pc) away and the discovery of a millisecond pulsar about 150 pc

John Ellis; David N. Schramm

1995-01-01

320

Could a nearby supernova explosion have caused a mass extinction?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine the possibility that a nearby supernova explosion could have caused one or more of the mass extinctions identified by palaeontologists. We discuss the likely rate of such events in the light of the recent identification of Geminga as a supernova remnant less than 100 pc away and the discovery of a millisecond pulsar about 150 pc away, and

Jonathan Richard Ellis; David N. Schramm

1993-01-01

321

A CHANDRA X-RAY SURVEY OF EJECTA IN THE CASSIOPEIA A SUPERNOVA REMNANT  

SciTech Connect

We present a survey of the X-ray-emitting ejecta in the Cassiopeia A supernova remnant (SNR) based on an extensive analysis of over 6000 spectral regions extracted on 2.''5-10'' angular scales using the Chandra 1 Ms observation. We interpret these results in the context of hydrodynamical models for the evolution of the remnant. The distributions of fitted temperature and ionization age, and the implied mass coordinates, are highly peaked and suggest that the ejecta were subjected to multiple secondary shocks following reverse shock interaction with ejecta inhomogeneities. Based on the fitted emission measure and element abundances, and an estimate of the emitting volume, we derive masses for the X-ray-emitting ejecta and also show the distribution of the mass of various elements over the remnant. An upper limit to the total shocked Fe mass visible in X-rays appears to be roughly 0.13 M{sub Sun }, which accounts for nearly all of the mass expected in Fe ejecta. We find two populations of Fe ejecta, that associated with normal Si burning and that possibly associated with {alpha}-rich freezeout, with a mass ratio of approximately 2:1. Essentially all of the observed Fe (both components) lies well outside the central regions of the SNR, possibly having been ejected by hydrodynamic instabilities during the explosion. We discuss this and its implications for the neutron star kick.

Hwang, Una [Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States); Laming, J. Martin, E-mail: Una.Hwang-1@gsfc.nasa.gov, E-mail: laming@nrl.navy.mil [Naval Research Laboratory, Code 7674L, Washington, DC 20375 (United States)

2012-02-20

322

A Chandra X-Ray Survey of Ejecta in the Cassiopeia A Supernova Remnant  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We present a survey of the X-ray emitting ejecta in the Cassiopeia A supernova remnant based on an extensive analysis of over 6000 spectral regions extracted on 2.5-10" angular scales using the Chandra 1 Ms observation. We interpret these results in the context of hydrodynamical models for the evolution of the remnant. The distributions of fitted temperature and ionization age are highly peaked and suggest that the ejecta were subjected to multiple secondary shocks. Based on the fitted emission measure and element abundances, and an estimate of the emitting volume, we derive masses for the X-ray emitting ejecta as well as showing the distribution of the mass of various elements over the remnant. The total shocked Fe mass appears to be roughly 0.14 Solar Mass, which accounts for nearly all of the mass expected in Fe ejecta. We find two populations of Fe ejecta, that associated with normal Si-burning and that associated with alpha-rich freeze-out, with a mass ratio of approximately 2:1. Surprisingly, essentially all of this Fe (both components) is well outside the central regions of the SNR, presumably having been ejected by hydrodynamic instabilities during the explosion. We discuss this, and its implications for the neutron star kick.

Hwang, Una; Laming, J. Martin

2011-01-01

323

Kepler's Supernova Remnant: A View from Chandra X-Ray Observatory  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site]

[figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1

Each top panel in the composite above shows the entire remnant. Each color in the composite represents a different region of the electromagnetic spectrum, from X-rays to infrared light. The X-ray and infrared data cannot be seen with the human eye. Astronomers have color-coded those data so they can be seen in these images.

The bottom panels are close-up views of the remnant. In the bottom, center image, Hubble sees fine details in the brightest, densest areas of gas. The region seen in these images is outlined in the top, center panel.

The images indicate that the bubble of gas that makes up the supernova remnant appears different in various types of light. Chandra reveals the hottest gas [colored blue and colored green], which radiates in X-rays. The blue color represents the higher-energy gas; the green, the lower-energy gas. Hubble shows the brightest, densest gas [colored yellow], which appears in visible light. Spitzer unveils heated dust [colored red], which radiates in infrared light.

2004-01-01

324

AN ATTEMPT AT A UNIFIED MODEL FOR THE GAMMA-RAY EMISSION OF SUPERNOVA REMNANTS  

SciTech Connect

Shocks of supernova remnants (SNRs) are important (and perhaps the dominant) agents for the production of the Galactic cosmic rays. Recent {gamma}-ray observations of several SNRs have made this case more compelling. However, these broadband high-energy measurements also reveal a variety of spectral shapes demanding more comprehensive modeling of emissions from SNRs. According to the locally observed fluxes of cosmic-ray protons and electrons, the electron-to-proton number ratio is known to be about 1%. Assuming such a ratio is universal for all SNRs and identical spectral shape for all kinds of accelerated particles, we propose a unified model that ascribes the distinct {gamma}-ray spectra of different SNRs to variations of the medium density and the spectral difference between cosmic-ray electrons and protons observed from Earth to transport effects. For low-density environments, the {gamma}-ray emission is inverse-Compton dominated. For high-density environments like systems of high-energy particles interacting with molecular clouds, the {gamma}-ray emission is {pi}{sup 0}-decay dominated. The model predicts a hadronic origin of {gamma}-ray emission from very old remnants interacting mostly with molecular clouds and a leptonic origin for intermediate-age remnants whose shocks propagate in a low-density environment created by their progenitors via, e.g., strong stellar winds. These results can be regarded as evidence in support of the SNR origin of Galactic cosmic rays.

Yuan Qiang; Bi Xiaojun [Key Laboratory of Particle Astrophysics, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Liu Siming [Key Laboratory of Dark Matter and Space Astronomy, Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China)

2012-12-20

325

Mechanism for spectral break in cosmic ray proton spectrum of supernova remnant W44.  

PubMed

Recent observations of supernova remnant W44 by the Fermi spacecraft observatory support the idea that the bulk of galactic cosmic rays is accelerated in such remnants by a Fermi mechanism, also known as diffusive shock acceleration. However, the W44 expands into weakly ionized dense gas, and so a significant revision of the mechanism is required. Here, we provide the necessary modifications and demonstrate that strong ion-neutral collisions in the remnant surrounding lead to the steepening of the energy spectrum of accelerated particles by exactly one power. The spectral break is caused by Alfven wave evanescence leading to the fractional particle losses. The gamma-ray spectrum generated in collisions of the accelerated protons with the ambient gas is calculated and successfully fitted to the Fermi Observatory data. The parent proton spectrum is best represented by a classical test particle power law ?E(-2), steepening to E(-3) at E(br)?7?GeV due to deteriorated particle confinement. PMID:21326226

Malkov, M A; Diamond, P H; Sagdeev, R Z

2011-01-01

326

Spitzer IRS Observations of the XA Region in the Cygnus Loop Supernova Remnant  

E-print Network

We report on spectra of two positions in the XA region of the Cygnus Loop supernova remnant obtained with the InfraRed Spectrograph on the Spitzer Space Telescope. The spectra span the 10-35 micron wavelength range, which contains a number of collisionally excited forbidden lines. These data are supplemented by optical spectra obtained at the Whipple Observatory and an archival UV spectrum from the International Ultraviolet Explorer. Coverage from the UV through the IR provides tests of shock wave models and tight constraints on model parameters. Only lines from high ionization species are detected in the spectrum of a filament on the edge of the remnant. The filament traces a 180 km/s shock that has just begun to cool, and the oxygen to neon abundance ratio lies in the normal range found for Galactic H II regions. Lines from both high and low ionization species are detected in the spectrum of the cusp of a shock-cloud interaction, which lies within the remnant boundary. The spectrum of the cusp region is mat...

Sankrit, R; Bautista, M; Gaetz, T J; Williams, B J; Blair, W P; Borkowski, K J; Long, K S

2014-01-01

327

A Search for Evidence of Non-Thermal Emission from the Supernova Remnants 37A/B  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ADP grant NAG5-9211 entitled 'A Search for Evidence of Non-Thermal Emission from the Supernova Remnants 37 A/B' was not used to support an analysis of the ASCA data for these two remnants because the ASCA mission ended before the remnants were observed. The grant was used to support similar research on two remnants in the Large Magellanic Cloud, N132D and N 103B. An analysis of the Chandra data for these two remnants exhibits some evidence of non-thermal emission from small regions in the remnants. The X-ray spectra for these regions can not be adequately described by a single thermal X-ray emission model. However, if an X-ray synchrotron component is also included, the spectral data can be well described by the model and the values of the fit parameters are consistent with the values expected. These results were presented at the 199th Meeting of the American Astronomical Society. In summary, the grant has enabled us to strengthen the evidence that supernova remnants outside our Galaxy can also accelerate electrons to very-high energies. The results of this analysis will be published soon in the Astrophysical Journal,

Oliversen, R.

2002-01-01

328

Optical and Far-UV Spectroscopy of Knot D in the Vela Supernova Remnant  

E-print Network

We present spectra of optical filaments associated with the X-ray knot D in the Vela supernova remnant. It has been suggested that Knot D is formed by a bullet of supernova ejecta, that it is a break-out of the shock front of the Vela SNR, and also that it is an outflow from the recently discovered remnant RXJ0852.0-4622. We find that Knot D is a bow shock propagating into an interstellar cloud with normal abundances and typical cloud densities (n_H ~ 4-11 cm^-3). Optical longslit spectra show that the [S II] 6716,6731 to Halpha line ratio is greater than unity, proving that the optical filaments are shock excited. The analysis of far-ultraviolet spectra obtained with the Hopkins Ultraviolet Telescope and with the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) LWRS aperture show that slower shocks (~100 km s^-1) produce most of the low ionization lines such as O III] 1662, while faster shocks (~180 km s^-1) produce the O VI 1032,1038 and other high ionization lines. C III and O VI lines are also detected in the FUSE MDRS aperture, which was located on an X-ray bright region away from the optical filaments. The lines have two velocity components consistent with ~150 km s^-1 shocks on the near and far sides of the knot. The driving pressure in the X-ray knot, P/k ~ 1.8E+7 cm^-3 K, is derived from the shock properties. This is over an order of magnitude larger than the characteristic X-ray pressure in the Vela SNR. The velocity distribution of the emission and the overpressure support the idea that Knot D is a bow shock around a bullet or cloud that originated near the center of the Vela remnant.

Ravi Sankrit; William P. Blair; John C. Raymond

2003-02-13

329

Spitzer Observations of the Type Ia Supernova Remnant N103B: A Type Ia with CSM Interaction?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A small but growing subclass of Type Ia supernovae show signs of interaction with material in a circumstellar medium (CSM), likely the result of significant pre-supernova mass loss from the progenitor system. Among Type Ia supernova remnants (SNRs), only the remnant of Kepler's supernova has been shown to be interacting with a dense CSM. We report results from Spitzer observations of SNR 0509-68.7, also known as N103B, a young Type Ia supernova remnant in the Large Magellanic Cloud that shows interaction with a dense medium in its western hemisphere. Our images show that N103B has strong IR emission from warm dust in the post-shock environment. The post-shock gas density we derive, 45 cm$^{-3}$, is much higher than in other Type Ia remnants in the LMC, though a lack of spatial resolution may bias measurements towards regions of higher than average density. Thisdensity is similar to that in Kepler's SNR. Optical images show H$\\alpha$ emission along the entire periphery of the western portion of the shock, with [O III] and [S II] lines emitted from a few dense clumps of material where the shock has become radiative. The dust is silicate in nature, though standard silicate dust models fail to reproduce the ``18 $\\mu$m'' silicate feature that peaks instead at 17.3 $\\mu$m. We propose that the dense material is circumstellar material lost from the progenitor system, as with Kepler. If the CSM interpretation is correct, this remnant would become the second member, along with Kepler, of a class of Type Ia remnants characterized by interaction with a dense CSM hundreds of years post-explosion. A lack of N enhancement eliminates symbiotic AGB progenitors. The white dwarf companion must have been relatively unevolved at the time of the explosion.

Williams, Brian J.; Borkowski, Kazimierz J.; Reynolds, Stephen P.; Ghavamian, Parviz; Raymond, John C.; Long, Knox S.; Blair, William P.; Sankrit, Ravi; Winkler, P. Frank; Hendrick, Sean Patrick

2014-08-01

330

Two populations of X-ray pulsars produced by two types of supernova  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two types of supernova are thought to produce the overwhelming majority of neutron stars in the Universe. The first type, iron-core-collapse supernovae, occurs when a high-mass star develops a degenerate iron core that exceeds the Chandrasekhar limit. The second type, electron-capture supernovae, is associated with the collapse of a lower-mass oxygen-neon-magnesium core as it loses pressure support owing to the sudden capture of electrons by neon and/or magnesium nuclei. It has hitherto been impossible to identify the two distinct families of neutron stars produced in these formation channels. Here we report that a large, well-known class of neutron-star-hosting X-ray pulsars is actually composed of two distinct subpopulations with different characteristic spin periods, orbital periods and orbital eccentricities. This class, the Be/X-ray binaries, contains neutron stars that accrete material from a more massive companion star. The two subpopulations are most probably associated with the two distinct types of neutron-star-forming supernova, with electron-capture supernovae preferentially producing systems with short spin periods, short orbital periods and low eccentricities. Intriguingly, the split between the two subpopulations is clearest in the distribution of the logarithm of spin period, a result that had not been predicted and which still remains to be explained.

Knigge, Christian; Coe, Malcolm J.; Podsiadlowski, Philipp

2011-11-01

331

Two populations of X-ray pulsars produced by two types of supernova.  

PubMed

Two types of supernova are thought to produce the overwhelming majority of neutron stars in the Universe. The first type, iron-core-collapse supernovae, occurs when a high-mass star develops a degenerate iron core that exceeds the Chandrasekhar limit. The second type, electron-capture supernovae, is associated with the collapse of a lower-mass oxygen-neon-magnesium core as it loses pressure support owing to the sudden capture of electrons by neon and/or magnesium nuclei. It has hitherto been impossible to identify the two distinct families of neutron stars produced in these formation channels. Here we report that a large, well-known class of neutron-star-hosting X-ray pulsars is actually composed of two distinct subpopulations with different characteristic spin periods, orbital periods and orbital eccentricities. This class, the Be/X-ray binaries, contains neutron stars that accrete material from a more massive companion star. The two subpopulations are most probably associated with the two distinct types of neutron-star-forming supernova, with electron-capture supernovae preferentially producing systems with short spin periods, short orbital periods and low eccentricities. Intriguingly, the split between the two subpopulations is clearest in the distribution of the logarithm of spin period, a result that had not been predicted and which still remains to be explained. PMID:22080948

Knigge, Christian; Coe, Malcolm J; Podsiadlowski, Philipp

2011-11-17

332

Chandra X-Ray Observatory Arcsecond Imaging of the Young, Oxygen-rich Supernova Remnant 1E 0102.2-7219.  

PubMed

We present observations of the young, oxygen-rich supernova remnant 1E 0102.2-7219 taken by the Chandra X-Ray Observatory during its orbital activation and checkout phase. The boundary of the blast-wave shock is clearly seen for the first time, allowing the diameter of the remnant and the mean blast-wave velocity to be determined accurately. The prominent X-ray bright ring of material may be the result of the reverse shock encountering ejecta; the radial variation of O vii versus O viii emission indicates an ionizing shock propagating inward, possibly through a strong density gradient in the ejecta. We compare the X-ray emission with Australia Telescope Compact Array 6 cm radio observations (Amy & Ball) and with archival Hubble Space Telescope [O iii] observations. The ring of radio emission is predominantly inward of the outer blast wave, which is consistent with an interpretation of synchrotron radiation originating behind the blast wave but outward of the bright X-ray ring of emission. Many (but not all) of the prominent optical filaments are seen to correspond to X-ray bright regions. We obtain an upper limit of approximately 9x1033 ergs s-1 (3 sigma) on any potential pulsar X-ray emission from the central region. PMID:10790068

Gaetz; Butt; Edgar; Eriksen; Plucinsky; Schlegel; Smith

2000-05-01

333

Swift/BAT detection of hard X-rays from Tycho;s Supernova Remnant: Evidence for 44Ti  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report Swift/BAT survey observations of the Tycho supernova remnant, performed over a period of 104 month. A total exposure of 19.6 Ms was used to detect significant hard X-ray emission up to about 100 keV. Excess emission above this continuum in the 60-85 keV band was found, consistent with line emission from radioactive 44T. We discuss the implications of these results in the context of the galactic supernova rate, and nucleosynthesis in Type II and Type Ia supernova, with emphasis on the production of 44Ti.

Hartmann, Dieter; Troja, Eleonora; Baumgartner, Wayne H.; Markwardt, Craig; Barthelmy, Scott Douglas; Gehrels, Neil; Segreto, Alberto; La Parola, Valentina

2014-06-01

334

Fermi Large Area Telescope observations of the supernova remnant HESS J1731-347  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context. HESS J1731-347 has been identified as one of the few TeV-bright shell-type supernova remnants (SNRs). These remnants are dominated by nonthermal emission, and the nature of TeV emission has been continuously debated for nearly a decade. Aims: We carry out the detailed modeling of the radio to ?-ray spectrum of HESS J1731-347 to constrain the magnetic field and energetic particles sources, which we compare with those of the other TeV-bright shell-type SNRs explored before. Methods: Four years of data from Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) observations for regions around this remnant are analyzed, leading to no detection correlated with the source discovered in the TeV band. The Markov chain Monte Carlo method is used to constrain parameters of one-zone models for the overall emission spectrum. Results: Based on the 99.9% upper limits of fluxes in the GeV range, one-zone hadronic models with an energetic proton spectral slope greater than 1.8 can be ruled out, which favors a leptonic origin for the ?-ray emission, making this remnant a sibling of the brightest TeV SNR RX J1713.7-3946, the Vela Junior SNR RX J0852.0-4622, and RCW 86. The best-fit leptonic model has an electron spectral slope of 1.8 and a magnetic field of ~30 ?G, which is at least a factor of 2 higher than those of RX J1713.7-3946 and RX J0852.0-4622, posing a challenge to the distance estimate and/or the energy equipartition between energetic electrons and the magnetic field of this source. A measurement of the shock speed will address this challenge and has implications on the magnetic field evolution and electron acceleration driven by shocks of SNRs.

Yang, Rui-zhi; Zhang, Xiao; Yuan, Qiang; Liu, Siming

2014-07-01

335

Unveiling the spatial structure of the overionized plasma in the supernova remnant W49B  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

W49B is a mixed-morphology supernova remnant with thermal X-ray emission dominated by the ejecta. In this remnant, the presence of overionized plasma has been directly established, with information about its spatial structure. However, the physical origin of the overionized plasma in W49B has not yet been understood. We investigate this intriguing issue through a 2D hydrodynamic model that takes into account, for the first time, the mixing of ejecta with the inhomogeneous circumstellar and interstellar medium, the thermal conduction, the radiative losses from optically thin plasma and the deviations from equilibrium of ionization induced by plasma dynamics. The model was set up on the basis of the observational results. We found that the thermal conduction plays an important role in the evolution of W49B, inducing the evaporation of the circumstellar ring-like cloud (whose presence has been deduced from previous observations) that mingles with the surrounding hot medium, cooling down the shocked plasma, and pushes the ejecta backwards to the centre of the remnant, forming there a jet-like structure. During the evolution, a large region of overionized plasma forms within the remnant. The overionized plasma originates from the rapid cooling of the hot plasma originally heated by the shock reflected from the dense ring-like cloud. In particular, we found two different ways for the rapid cooling of plasma to appear: (i) the mixing of relatively cold and dense material evaporated from the ring with the hot shocked plasma and (ii) the rapid adiabatic expansion of the ejecta. The spatial distribution of the radiative recombination continuum predicted by the numerical model is in good agreement with that observed.

Zhou, Xin; Miceli, Marco; Bocchino, Fabrizio; Orlando, Salvatore; Chen, Yang

2011-07-01

336

EVOLUTION OF THE RADIO REMNANT OF SUPERNOVA 1987A: MORPHOLOGICAL CHANGES FROM DAY 7000  

SciTech Connect

We present radio imaging observations of supernova remnant 1987A at 9 GHz, taken with the Australia Telescope Compact Array over 21 years from 1992 to 2013. By employing a Fourier modeling technique to fit the visibility data, we show that the remnant structure has evolved significantly since day 7000 (mid-2006): the emission latitude has gradually decreased such that the overall geometry has become more similar to a ring structure. Around the same time, we find a decreasing trend in the east-west asymmetry of the surface emissivity. These results could reflect the increasing interaction of the forward shock with material around the circumstellar ring, and the relative weakening of the interaction with the lower-density material at higher latitudes. The morphological evolution caused an apparent break in the remnant expansion measured with a torus model, from a velocity of 4600{sup +150}{sub -}200 km s{sup –1} between day 4000 and 7000 to 2400{sup +100}{sub -200} km s{sup –1} after day 7000. However, we emphasize that there is no conclusive evidence for a physical slowing of the shock at any given latitude in the expanding remnant, and that a change of radio morphology alone appears to dominate the evolution. This is supported by our ring-only fits which show a constant expansion of 3890 ± 50 km s{sup –1} without deceleration between days 4000 and 9000. We suggest that once the emission latitude no longer decreases, the expansion velocity obtained from the torus model should return to the same value as that measured with the ring model.

Ng, C.-Y. [Department of Physics, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road (Hong Kong); Zanardo, G.; Potter, T. M.; Staveley-Smith, L. [International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research (ICRAR), The University of Western Australia, Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia); Gaensler, B. M. [Australian Research Council, Centre of Excellence for All-sky Astrophysics (CAASTRO) (Australia); Manchester, R. N.; Tzioumis, A. K., E-mail: ncy@bohr.physics.hku.hk [CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science, Australia Telescope National Facility, Marsfield, NSW 1710 (Australia)

2013-11-10

337

The Expansion Rate, Age, and Distance of the Supernova Remnant G266.2-1.2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We reprocessed and analyzed the 2003 and 2008 Chandra ACIS data for the supernova remnant G266.2-1.2. The data for two adjacent annular wedges along a relatively bright and narrow portion of the northwestern rim indicate that it has moved by about 2.39 ± 0.57 arcsec over a period of 5.652 yr. The corresponding expansion rate (0.42 ± 0.10 arcsec/yr or 13.6 ± 5.7 %/kyr) is about half of the rate reported for an analysis of XMM data from a similar region of the remnant over a similar time interval (Katsuda, Tsunemi & Mori, 2008). A hydrodynamic analysis was performed using the models of Truelove & McKee (1999). Many scenarios were considered using broad ranges of initial kinetic energies, ejecta masses, ejecta mass density distributions, ambient densities, and evolutionary states. The results were constrained by the Chandra expansion rate (assuming it is representative of the remnant as a whole), an inferred lower limit on the forward shock speed, an upper limit on the inferred thermal X-ray emission, and energy considerations. The results of this analysis suggest that G266.2-1.2 is most likely between 2.4 and 5.1 kyr old, whether or not it was produced by a type Ia or type II event. If the remnant is expanding into the material shed by a steady stellar wind instead of a uniform ambient medium, then it could be older by a factor of up to 1.5. In no case is the remnant expected to be younger than 2.2 kyr. Therefore, it is too old to be associated with emission from the decay of Ti-44 or with features in the abundance of nitrate in South Pole ice core samples. The hydrodynamic results provide only a weak constraint on the distance of G266.2-1.2. An analysis of previously-published distance estimates and constraints suggests that the remnant is between about 0.5 and 1.0 kpc. This limitation does not significantly affect the estimate of the age. We adopt the distance of thecloser of two groups of material in the Vela Molecular Ridge (i.e. 0.7 ± 0.2 kpc, Liseau et al. 1992). This distance is consistent with the progenitor having been a member of the Vel OB1 association (Eggen 1982).

Allen, Glenn E.; DeLaney, Tracey; Filipovic, Miroslav D; Houck, John C.; Pannuti, Thomas; Stage, Michael D.

2014-08-01

338

Nonthermal X-Ray Emission from the Shell-Type Supernova Remnant G347.3-0.5  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent Advanced Spacecraft for Cosmology Astrophysics (ASCA) observations of G347.3-0.5, a supernova remnant (SNR) discovered in the ROSAT All-Sky Survey, reveal nonthermal emission from a region along the northwestern shell. Here we report on new pointed ASCA observations of G347.3-0.5 that confirm this result for all the bright shell regions and also reveal similar emission, although with slightly different spectral properties, from the remainder of the SNR. Curiously, no thermal X-ray emission is detected anywhere in the remnant. We derive limits on the amount of thermal emitting material present in G347.3-0.5 and present new radio continuum, CO, and infrared results that indicate that the remnant is distant and of moderate age. We show that our observations are broadly consistent with a scenario that has most of the supernova remnant shock wave still within the stellar wind bubble of its progenitor star, while part of it appears to be interacting with denser material. A point source at the center of the remnant has spectral properties similar to those expected for a neutron star and may represent the compact relic of the supernova progenitor.

Slane, Patrick O.; Gaensler, Bryan M.; Dame, T. M.; Hughes, John P.; Plucinsky, Paul P.; Green, Anne

2002-01-01

339

Very high energy gamma-ray emission from Tycho's supernova remnant  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Supernova remnant (SNR) G120.1+1.4 (also known as Tycho's SNR) is the remnant of one of only five confirmed historical supernovae. As such, it has been well studied across the electromagnetic spectrum. This thesis describes the first statistically significant detection of very high energy (VHE) (˜ 100 GeV to 100 TeV) gamma rays from Tycho's SNR, reported in 2011 by the VERITAS collaboration. The analysis that led to that detection was performed by this author, and this dissertation will discuss the process in detail. Subsequently, a statistically significant detection in high energy (HE) (˜ 30 MeV to 100 GeV) gamma rays was reported by other authors using data from the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope. Comparison of models to the spectral energy distribution of the photon flux from this remnant in HE and VHE gamma rays favors a hadronic origin for the emission, particularly when combined with current X-ray data, although a leptonic origin cannot be ruled out at this time. This is significant because a confirmed hadronic origin for the gamma-ray emission would identify this SNR as a site of cosmic ray acceleration, providing observational evidence for the idea that SNRs are the source of the Galactic cosmic ray population. Chapter 1 of this dissertation will provide historical background on Tycho's SNR, along with a summary of modern observations of the remnant across the electromagnetic spectrum. Chapter 2 is a discussion of the role played by SNRs in the process of cosmic ray acceleration, including both theoretical underpinnings and observational evidence. Chapter 3 provides an overview of the field of VHE gamma-ray astronomy, with discussions of gamma-ray production mechanisms and gamma-ray source classes. Chapter 4 describes the instruments used to observe HE and VHE gamma rays. Chapter 5 is a discussion of general analysis methods and techniques for data from Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes (IACTs). Chapter 6 provides details about the specific analysis I completed on VERITAS data on Tycho's SNR. Lastly, Chapter 7 discusses the modeling and interpretation of the VHE Tycho detection in the context of current multiwavelength observational results.

Saxon, Dana Boltuch

340

The End of Amnesia: A New Method for Measuring the Metallicity of Type Ia Supernova Progenitors Using Manganese Lines in Supernova Remnants  

E-print Network

We propose a new method to measure the metallicity of Type Ia supernova progenitors using Mn and Cr lines in the X-ray spectra of young supernova remnants. We show that the Mn to Cr mass ratio in Type Ia supernova ejecta is tightly correlated with the initial metallicity of the progenitor, as determined by the neutron excess of the white dwarf material before thermonuclear runaway. We use this correlation, together with the flux of the Cr and Mn Kalpha X-ray lines in the Tycho supernova remnant recently detected by Suzaku (Tamagawa et al. 2008) to derive a metallicity of log(Z) = -1.32 (+0.67,-0.33) for the progenitor of this supernova, which corresponds to log(Z/Zsun)= 0.60 (+0.31,-0.60) according to the latest determination of the solar metallicity by Asplund et al. (2005). The uncertainty in the measurement is large, but metallicities much smaller than the solar value can be confidently discarded. We discuss the implications of this result for future research on Type Ia supernova progenitors.

Carles Badenes; Eduardo Bravo; John P. Hughes

2008-05-21

341

Detection of 16 gamma-ray pulsars through blind frequency searches using the Fermi LAT.  

PubMed

Pulsars are rapidly rotating, highly magnetized neutron stars emitting radiation across the electromagnetic spectrum. Although there are more than 1800 known radio pulsars, until recently only seven were observed to pulse in gamma rays, and these were all discovered at other wavelengths. The Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) makes it possible to pinpoint neutron stars through their gamma-ray pulsations. We report the detection of 16 gamma-ray pulsars in blind frequency searches using the LAT. Most of these pulsars are coincident with previously unidentified gamma-ray sources, and many are associated with supernova remnants. Direct detection of gamma-ray pulsars enables studies of emission mechanisms, population statistics, and the energetics of pulsar wind nebulae and supernova remnants. PMID:19574346

Abdo, A A; Ackermann, M; Ajello, M; Anderson, B; Atwood, W B; Axelsson, M; Baldini, L; Ballet, J; Barbiellini, G; Baring, M G; Bastieri, D; Baughman, B M; Bechtol, K; Bellazzini, R; Berenji, B; Bignami, G F; Blandford, R D; Bloom, E D; Bonamente, E; Borgland, A W; Bregeon, J; Brez, A; Brigida, M; Bruel, P; Burnett, T H; Caliandro, G A; Cameron, R A; Caraveo, P A; Casandjian, J M; Cecchi, C; Celik, O; Chekhtman, A; Cheung, C C; Chiang, J; Ciprini, S; Claus, R; Cohen-Tanugi, J; Conrad, J; Cutini, S; Dermer, C D; de Angelis, A; de Luca, A; de Palma, F; Digel, S W; Dormody, M; do Couto e Silva, E; Drell, P S; Dubois, R; Dumora, D; Farnier, C; Favuzzi, C; Fegan, S J; Fukazawa, Y; Funk, S; Fusco, P; Gargano, F; Gasparrini, D; Gehrels, N; Germani, S; Giebels, B; Giglietto, N; Giommi, P; Giordano, F; Glanzman, T; Godfrey, G; Grenier, I A; Grondin, M-H; Grove, J E; Guillemot, L; Guiriec, S; Gwon, C; Hanabata, Y; Harding, A K; Hayashida, M; Hays, E; Hughes, R E; Jóhannesson, G; Johnson, R P; Johnson, T J; Johnson, W N; Kamae, T; Katagiri, H; Kataoka, J; Kawai, N; Kerr, M; Knödlseder, J; Kocian, M L; Kuss, M; Lande, J; Latronico, L; Lemoine-Goumard, M; Longo, F; Loparco, F; Lott, B; Lovellette, M N; Lubrano, P; Madejski, G M; Makeev, A; Marelli, M; Mazziotta, M N; McConville, W; McEnery, J E; Meurer, C; Michelson, P F; Mitthumsiri, W; Mizuno, T; Monte, C; Monzani, M E; Morselli, A; Moskalenko, I V; Murgia, S; Nolan, P L; Norris, J P; Nuss, E; Ohsugi, T; Omodei, N; Orlando, E; Ormes, J F; Paneque, D; Parent, D; Pelassa, V; Pepe, M; Pesce-Rollins, M; Pierbattista, M; Piron, F; Porter, T A; Primack, J R; Rainò, S; Rando, R; Ray, P S; Razzano, M; Rea, N; Reimer, A; Reimer, O; Reposeur, T; Ritz, S; Rochester, L S; Rodriguez, A Y; Romani, R W; Ryde, F; Sadrozinski, H F-W; Sanchez, D; Sander, A; Saz Parkinson, P M; Scargle, J D; Sgrò, C; Siskind, E J; Smith, D A; Smith, P D; Spandre, G; Spinelli, P; Starck, J-L; Strickman, M S; Suson, D J; Tajima, H; Takahashi, H; Takahashi, T; Tanaka, T; Thayer, J G; Thompson, D J; Tibaldo, L; Tibolla, O; Torres, D F; Tosti, G; Tramacere, A; Uchiyama, Y; Usher, T L; Van Etten, A; Vasileiou, V; Vilchez, N; Vitale, V; Waite, A P; Wang, P; Watters, K; Winer, B L; Wolff, M T; Wood, K S; Ylinen, T; Ziegler, M

2009-08-14

342

Anisotropic transport and early dynamical impact of Cosmic Rays around Supernova remnants  

E-print Network

We present a novel implementation of cosmic rays (CR) in the magneto-hydrodynamic code FLASH. CRs are described as separate fluids with different energies. CR advection, energy dependent anisotropic diffusion with respect to the magnetic field and adiabatic losses to follow the evolution of spectra are taken into account. We present a first study of the transport and immediate (~150 kyr) dynamical impact of CRs on the turbulent magnetised interstellar medium around supernova remnants on scales up to 80 pc. CR diffusion quickly leads to an efficient acceleration of low-density gas (mainly perpendicular to the magnetic field) with accelerations up to two orders of magnitude above the thermal values. Peaked (at 1 GeV) CR injection spectra have a stronger impact on the dynamics than power-law spectra. For realistic magnetic field configurations low energy CRs (with smaller diffusion coefficients) distribute anisotropically with large spatial variations of a factor of ten and more. Adiabatic losses can change the ...

Girichidis, Philipp; Walch, Stefanie; Hanasz, Michal

2014-01-01

343

Detection of the Characteristic Pion-Decay Signature in Supernova Remnants  

E-print Network

Cosmic rays are particles (mostly protons) accelerated to relativistic speeds. Despite wide agreement that supernova remnants (SNRs) are the sources of galactic cosmic rays, unequivocal evidence for the acceleration of protons in these objects is still lacking. When accelerated protons encounter interstellar material, they produce neutral pions, which in turn decay into gamma rays. This offers a compelling way to detect the acceleration sites of protons. The identification of pion-decay gamma rays has been difficult because high-energy electrons also produce gamma rays via bremsstrahlung and inverse Compton scattering. We detected the characteristic pion-decay feature in the gamma-ray spectra of two SNRs, IC 443 and W44, with the Fermi Large Area Telescope. This detection provides direct evidence that cosmic-ray protons are accelerated in SNRs.

:,; Ajello, M; Allafort, A; Baldini, L; Ballet, J; Barbiellini, G; Baring, M G; Bastieri, D; Bechtol, K; Bellazzini, R; Blandford, R D; Bloom, E D; Bonamente, E; Borgland, A W; Bottacini, E; Brandt, T J; Bregeon, J; Brigida, M; Bruel, P; Buehler, R; Busetto, G; Buson, S; Caliandro, G A; Cameron, R A; Caraveo, P A; Casandjian, J M; Cecchi, C; Çelik, Ö; Charles, E; Chaty, S; Chaves, R C G; Chekhtman, A; Cheung, C C; Chiang, J; Chiaro, G; Cillis, A N; Ciprini, S; Claus, R; Cohen-Tanugi, J; Cominsky, L R; Conrad, J; Corbel, S; Cutini, S; D'Ammando, F; de Angelis, A; de Palma, F; Dermer, C D; Silva, E do Couto e; Drell, P S; Drlica-Wagner, A; Falletti, L; Favuzzi, C; Ferrara, E C; Franckowiak, A; Fukazawa, Y; Funk, S; Fusco, P; Gargano, F; Germani, S; Giglietto, N; Giommi, P; Giordano, F; Giroletti, M; Glanzman, T; Godfrey, G; Grenier, I A; Grondin, M -H; Grove, J E; Guiriec, S; Hadasch, D; Hanabata, Y; Harding, A K; Hayashida, M; Hayashi, K; Hays, E; Hewitt, J; Hill, A B; Hughes, R E; Jackson, M S; Jogler, T; Jóhannesson, G; Johnson, A S; Kamae, T; Kataoka, J; Katsuta, J; Knödlseder, J; Kuss, M; Lande, J; Larsson, S; Latronico, L; Lemoine-Goumard, M; Longo, F; Loparco, F; Lovellette, M N; Lubrano, P; Madejski, G M; Massaro, F; Mayer, M; Mazziotta, M N; McEnery, J E; Mehault, J; Michelson, P F; Mignani, R P; Mitthumsiri, W; Mizuno, T; Moiseev, A A; Monzani, M E; Morselli, A; Moskalenko, I V; Murgia, S; Nakamori, T; Nemmen, R; Nuss, E; Ohno, M; Ohsugi, T; Omodei, N; Orienti, M; Orlando, E; Ormes, J F; Paneque, D; Perkins, J S; Pesce-Rollins, M; Piron, F; Pivato, G; Rainò, S; Rando, R; Razzano, M; Razzaque, S; Reimer, A; Reimer, O; Ritz, S; Romoli, C; Sánchez-Conde, M; Schulz, A; Sgrò, C; Simeon, P E; Siskind, E J; Smith, D A; Spandre, G; Spinelli, P; Stecker, F W; Strong, A W; Suson, D J; Tajima, H; Takahashi, H; Takahashi, T; Tanaka, T; Thayer, J G; Thayer, J B; Thompson, D J; Thorsett, S E; Tibaldo, L; Tibolla, O; Tinivella, M; Troja, E; Uchiyama, Y; Usher, T L; Vandenbroucke, J; Vasileiou, V; Vianello, G; Vitale, V; Waite, A P; Werner, M; Winer, B L; Wood, K S; Wood, M; Yamazaki, R; Yang, Z; Zimmer, S

2013-01-01

344

44Ti radioactivity in young supernova remnants: Cas A and SN 1987A  

E-print Network

We investigate radioactivity from the decay sequence of 44Ti in young supernova remnants (SNRs), Cassiopeia A (Cas A) and SN 1987A. It is shown by a linear analysis that ionization of 44Ti, a pure electron capture decay isotope, affects the radioactivity contradistinctively in these two SNRs: Ionization of 44Ti to H-like and He-like states enhances its present radioactivity in Cas A, while such high-ionization decreases its radioactivity in SN 1987A. We briefly discuss the enhancement factor of the present radioactivity of Cas A considering microscopic (atomic/nuclear) physics combined with a hydrodynamical SNR evolution model. For SN 1987A, we have obtained the initial 44Ti mass of (0.82-2.3) X 10^{-4} M_solar from our Monte-Carlo simulations. The resulting fluxes of gamma and hard X-rays emerged from the 44Ti decay are given for the current and future experiments.

Yuko Motizuki; Shiomi Kumagai

2003-11-04

345

X-Ray Imaging of Galactic Supernova Remnant G299.2-2.9  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present images of Galactic supernova remnant (SNR) G299.2-2.9 obtained from data collected from a 640 ks exposure with the ACIS-I array on board the Chandra X-Ray Observatory. For the first time, we resolve the entire SNR, including the complete faint central nebula region which is composed of metal-rich ejecta, using Chandra high-resolution imaging spectroscopy. Two previously unobserved, very faint shell-like structures are detected along the northern and southern ends of the SNR, each extending past the diffuse emission that surrounds the bright shell. We present hardness ratio maps and equivalent width images from emission lines of several elements to identify spatial variations in the electron temperature and line strengths throughout the SNR. We discuss some preliminary results from our spectral analysis of several sub-regions of metal-rich ejecta and shocked ambient material.

Post, Seth; Badenes, C.; Burrows, D. N.; Hughes, J. P.; Lee, J.; Mori, K.; Park, S.; Slane, P.

2012-01-01

346

Supernova remnants colliding with molecular clouds: From high- to low-energy interactions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is now well established that a class of gamma-ray sources in the galactic plane, especially in the TeV range as seen by HESS and other Cerenkov telescopes, and in the GeV range by the Fermi and AGILE satellites, is associated with intermediate-age supernova remnants interacting with molecular clouds in massive star-forming regions. After a brief general introduction linking high-energy gamma-rays and cosmic rays, I will focus on a few such gamma-ray sources (W28, W44, and W51) and the challenging conclusions that can be drawn from them. I will then describe our recent work on related submm measurements and implications of enhanced ionizing effects in molecular clouds due to locally accelerated low-energy cosmic rays.

Montmerle, T.

2014-10-01

347

DISCOVERY OF THE SMALL-DIAMETER, YOUNG SUPERNOVA REMNANT G354.4+0.0  

SciTech Connect

We report the discovery of a shell-like structure G354.4+0.0 of size 1.'6 that shows the morphology of a shell supernova remnant (SNR). Part of the structure shows polarized emission in a NRAO VLA sky survey map. Based on 330 MHz and 1.4 GHz Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope observations and existing observations at higher frequencies, we conclude that the partial shell structure showing synchrotron emission is embedded in an extended H II region of size {approx}4'. The spectrum of the diffuse H II region turns over between 1.4 GHz and 330 MHz. The H I absorption spectrum shows this objected to be located more than 5 kpc from Sun. Based on its morphology, non-thermal polarized emission, and size, this object is one of the youngest SNRs discovered in the Galaxy with an estimated age of {approx}100-500 yr.

Roy, Subhashis [NCRA-TIFR, Pune 411007 (India); Pal, Sabyasachi, E-mail: roy@ncra.tifr.res.in, E-mail: sabya@csp.res.in [Indian Centre for Space Physics, Kolkata 700084 (India)

2013-09-10

348

Detection of the characteristic pion-decay signature in supernova remnants.  

PubMed

Cosmic rays are particles (mostly protons) accelerated to relativistic speeds. Despite wide agreement that supernova remnants (SNRs) are the sources of galactic cosmic rays, unequivocal evidence for the acceleration of protons in these objects is still lacking. When accelerated protons encounter interstellar material, they produce neutral pions, which in turn decay into gamma rays. This offers a compelling way to detect the acceleration sites of protons. The identification of pion-decay gamma rays has been difficult because high-energy electrons also produce gamma rays via bremsstrahlung and inverse Compton scattering. We detected the characteristic pion-decay feature in the gamma-ray spectra of two SNRs, IC 443 and W44, with the Fermi Large Area Telescope. This detection provides direct evidence that cosmic-ray protons are accelerated in SNRs. PMID:23413352

Ackermann, M; Ajello, M; Allafort, A; Baldini, L; Ballet, J; Barbiellini, G; Baring, M G; Bastieri, D; Bechtol, K; Bellazzini, R; Blandford, R D; Bloom, E D; Bonamente, E; Borgland, A W; Bottacini, E; Brandt, T J; Bregeon, J; Brigida, M; Bruel, P; Buehler, R; Busetto, G; Buson, S; Caliandro, G A; Cameron, R A; Caraveo, P A; Casandjian, J M; Cecchi, C; Celik, O; Charles, E; Chaty, S; Chaves, R C G; Chekhtman, A; Cheung, C C; Chiang, J; Chiaro, G; Cillis, A N; Ciprini, S; Claus, R; Cohen-Tanugi, J; Cominsky, L R; Conrad, J; Corbel, S; Cutini, S; D'Ammando, F; de Angelis, A; de Palma, F; Dermer, C D; do Couto e Silva, E; Drell, P S; Drlica-Wagner, A; Falletti, L; Favuzzi, C; Ferrara, E C; Franckowiak, A; Fukazawa, Y; Funk, S; Fusco, P; Gargano, F; Germani, S; Giglietto, N; Giommi, P; Giordano, F; Giroletti, M; Glanzman, T; Godfrey, G; Grenier, I A; Grondin, M-H; Grove, J E; Guiriec, S; Hadasch, D; Hanabata, Y; Harding, A K; Hayashida, M; Hayashi, K; Hays, E; Hewitt, J W; Hill, A B; Hughes, R E; Jackson, M S; Jogler, T; Jóhannesson, G; Johnson, A S; Kamae, T; Kataoka, J; Katsuta, J; Knödlseder, J; Kuss, M; Lande, J; Larsson, S; Latronico, L; Lemoine-Goumard, M; Longo, F; Loparco, F; Lovellette, M N; Lubrano, P; Madejski, G M; Massaro, F; Mayer, M; Mazziotta, M N; McEnery, J E; Mehault, J; Michelson, P F; Mignani, R P; Mitthumsiri, W; Mizuno, T; Moiseev, A A; Monzani, M E; Morselli, A; Moskalenko, I V; Murgia, S; Nakamori, T; Nemmen, R; Nuss, E; Ohno, M; Ohsugi, T; Omodei, N; Orienti, M; Orlando, E; Ormes, J F; Paneque, D; Perkins, J S; Pesce-Rollins, M; Piron, F; Pivato, G; Rainò, S; Rando, R; Razzano, M; Razzaque, S; Reimer, A; Reimer, O; Ritz, S; Romoli, C; Sánchez-Conde, M; Schulz, A; Sgrò, C; Simeon, P E; Siskind, E J; Smith, D A; Spandre, G; Spinelli, P; Stecker, F W; Strong, A W; Suson, D J; Tajima, H; Takahashi, H; Takahashi, T; Tanaka, T; Thayer, J G; Thayer, J B; Thompson, D J; Thorsett, S E; Tibaldo, L; Tibolla, O; Tinivella, M; Troja, E; Uchiyama, Y; Usher, T L; Vandenbroucke, J; Vasileiou, V; Vianello, G; Vitale, V; Waite, A P; Werner, M; Winer, B L; Wood, K S; Wood, M; Yamazaki, R; Yang, Z; Zimmer, S

2013-02-15

349

Spitzer Observations of Dust Destruction in the Puppis A Supernova Remnant  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Imaging and spectral observations of the Puppis A supernova remnant (SNR) with the Spitzer Space Telescope confirm that its IR emission is dominated by the thermal continuum emission of swept-up interstellar dust which is collisionally heated by the X-ray emitting gas of the SNR. Line emission is too weak to affect the fluxes measured in broadband observations, and is poorly correlated with the IR or X-ray emission. Modeling of spectra from regions both in the SNR and in the associated ISM show that the ubiquitous polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) of the ISM are destroyed within the SNR, along with nearly 25% of the mass of graphite and silicate dust grains.

Arendt, Richard G.; Dwek, Eli,; Blair, William P.; Ghavamian, Parviz; Long, Knox S.

2010-01-01

350

A VLA Low Frequency Survey of the Supernova Remnant Population in M83  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present low frequency observations of the grand design spiral galaxy, M83, using the C and L bands of the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA). With recent optical (HST) and X-ray (Chandra) observations and utilizing the newly expanded bandwidth of the VLA, we are exploring the radio spectral properties of the more than 150 radio point sources in M83. These observations allow us to probe the evolution of supernova remnants (SNRs) and to find previously undiscovered SNRs. These observations represent the fourth epoch of deep VLA observations of M83. The National Radio Astronomy Observatory is a facility of the National Science Foundation operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities.

Stockdale, Christopher; Pritchard, T. A.; Blair, W. P.; Cowan, J. J.; Godfrey, L.; Miller-Jones, J.; Kuntz, K. D.; Long, K. S.; Maddox, L. A.; Plucinsky, P. P.; Soria, R.; Whitmore, B. C.; Winkler, P. F.

2014-01-01

351

Two GeV-TeV Supernova Remnants without Associated Neutral and Molecular Clouds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

TeV gamma ray emissions have been detected at the directions of supernova remnants (SNRs) W51C and Tycho SNR. We analyze the Hi absorption spectra towards W51C, Tycho SNR and their nearby compact sources. We conclude that W51C is at a distance of about 4.3 kpc and Tycho SNR has a distance of 2.5 ~ 3.0 kpc. Our study detects high-velocity Hi clouds which coincide with star formation region W51B, but finds that the clouds are behind W51B which argues against previous claims that W51C has shocked the high velocity Hi clouds. We argue that Tycho SNR is naked Ia SNR (lack of evidence of interacting with adjacent neutral and molecular cloud). This gives two examples that the very high gamma ray emission from SNRs does not likely originate from SNR-cloud interaction.

Tian, W.; Leahy, D.; Zhu, H.; Su, H.

2014-02-01

352

Systematic X-ray Mapping of Metal-Rich Ejecta in Bright Supernova Remnants.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We apply our adaptive mesh technique coupled with simple automated NEI spectral modelings for archival Chandra data of several bright supernova remnants (SNRs) DEML71, N132D, E0102-72.3, G292.0+1.8, G299.2-2.9, Kepler, and Tycho. Based on the chi-square distributions of these model fits, we identify regions in which metal elements are enhanced compared to the circumstellar/interstellar abundances, and thus map over-abundant ejecta regions throughout these SNRs. With these maps we also reveal spatial structures of the individual ejecta elements O, Ne, Mg, Si, and Fe. We find that this simple chi-square mapping is effective to study spatial distributions of ejecta elements without performing extensive spectral model fits for individual sub-regions in SNRs. These ejecta maps may also be useful to reveal global structures such as the contact discontinuity. We present our preliminary results demonstrating the utility of this method.

Schenck, Andrew; Park, Sangwook; Bhalerao, Jayant; Post, Seth; Alan, Neslihan; Abualfoul, Mujahed

2015-01-01

353

The impact of supernova fragments on the evolution of multisupernova remnants  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Analytical approximations and 2D hydrodynamical simulations are used to examine the interaction of supernova fragments with the internal structure of large multisupernova remnants (MSRs). The fragments are thermalized by reverse shocks generated in the interaction with the MSR interior, which is assumed to be hot and rarefied. The evolution is divided into two stages: before and after reaching a reference distance, R(E), from the explosion site. As the density of the expanding fragment drops, the reverse shock accelerates, and, when the distance R(E) is reached, it begins to effectively erode the fragment. At some selected evolutionary times, the X-ray emission from the shocked fragment is also calculated. The direct bombardment of the MRS shell by the shocked fragment has a series of important consequences: it excites, punctures, and deforms the expanding shell.

Franco, J.; Ferrara, A.; Rozyczka, M.; Tenorio-Tgale, G.; Cox, D. P.

1993-01-01

354

The Three-dimensional Structure of the Cassiopeia A Supernova Remnant. I. The Spherical Shell  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The three-dimensional structure of the Cassiopeia A supernova remnant is explored via 73 long-slit optical spectra (spanning 6250-7600 Å) which cross the face and "jet" region of the nebula. We extracted position, radial velocity, and line intensity information from nearly 25,000 cross sections of these original data, resulting in a library of 3663 fast-moving knots (FMKs) and 450 quasi-stationary flocculi (QSFs) detections. We performed an iterative least-squares spherical fit to the data, using this to convert radial velocities to line-of-sight distances. We have built up a picture of the remnant as a spherical circumstellar shell of 104"5±0"7 radius, corresponding to 5.3 × 1018 cm (1.7 pc). The center on the sky is displaced by 8".7 west and 12".6 north of the proper motion center. The velocity center of our fitted sphere has been redshifted by 770±40 km s-1 from the presumed expansion center at zero velocity. This expansion of the ejecta from a displaced center accounts for the observed radial velocity difference at the front and back faces. The average rate of expansion of the FMKs is 5290±90 km s-1, while the asymmetric values are 4520 km s-1 at the blueshifted face, and 6060 km s-1 at the redshifted face. Based on a comparison of our suite of radial velocities with all the available proper-motion and age data, we find the distance to Cas A to be 3.4+0.3-0.1 kpc. Our kinematic analysis shows the optically emitting ejecta of Cas A have been slowed certainly by less than 7%, and probably by less than 4% and that the velocity of the reverse shock driven into the knots is about 200 km s-1. We conclude that the center of expansion of the supernova is displaced by about 0.36 pc (1.1 × 1018 cm) to the northwest and front of the geometric center of the bubble. The geometry suggests that the density of the surrounding medium is greater in the direction of displacement. The asymmetrically distributed radial velocities of the QSFs, of which 76% are blueshifted, also support this interpretation. Line ratios suggest that the pressure is higher on the front side of the remnant than on the back. There is a global trend of increasing electron density with radial velocity in this direction, and a stronger trend of increasing [O II]/[S II] from back to front. We suggest that this is due to collisional deexcitation of [S II] on the high-pressure side of the remnant, rather than a real composition trend. We also see evidence for density variations in both the shell and ejecta, concluding that the front face of the composite shell is of higher density than the far face, and that the blueshifted ejecta may be of higher density than that at the far face. However, in this study we see no evidence for any ordered change in abundances of the ejecta across Cas A. The weight of observational evidence suggests that the general form of the Cas A supernova remnant is due to the expansion of ejecta from a displaced center within an approximately spherical shell. We have concluded that there is no optical evidence for a dual-hemisphere model in the velocity structure of Cas A. In particular, we find that the outer radio emission must truly lie outside the inner radio and optical shell. The inner shell is made up of decelerated circumstellar material and the SN material which was ejected at highest velocity. The optical FMKs consist of newly interacting knots of ejecta which are just undergoing deceleration and are distributed in rings on the surface of the sphere.

Reed, Jeri E.; Hester, J. Jeff; Fabian, A. C.; Winkler, P. F.

1995-02-01

355

Cosmic ray induced ionisation of a molecular cloud shocked by the W28 supernova remnant  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cosmic rays are an essential ingredient in the evolution of the interstellar medium, as they dominate the ionisation of the dense molecular gas, where stars and planets form. However, since they are efficiently scattered by the galactic magnetic fields, many questions remain open, such as where exactly they are accelerated, what is their original energy spectrum, and how they propagate into molecular clouds. In this work we present new observations and discuss in detail a method that allows us to measure the cosmic ray ionisation rate towards the molecular clouds close to the W28 supernova remnant. To perform these measurements, we use CO, HCO+, and DCO+ millimetre line observations and compare them with the predictions of radiative transfer and chemical models away from thermodynamical equilibrium. The CO observations allow us to constrain the density, temperature, and column density towards each observed position, while the DCO+/HCO+ abundance ratios provide us with constraints on the electron fraction and, consequently, on the cosmic ray ionisation rate. Towards positions located close to the supernova remnant, we find cosmic ray ionisation rates much larger (?100) than those in standard galactic clouds. Conversely, towards one position situated at a larger distance, we derive a standard cosmic ray ionisation rate. Overall, these observations support the hypothesis that the ? rays observed in the region have a hadronic origin. In addition, based on CR diffusion estimates, we find that the ionisation of the gas is likely due to 0.1-1 GeV cosmic rays. Finally, these observations are also in agreement with the global picture of cosmic ray diffusion, in which the low-energy tail of the cosmic ray population diffuses at smaller distances than the high-energy counterpart.

Vaupré, S.; Hily-Blant, P.; Ceccarelli, C.; Dubus, G.; Gabici, S.; Montmerle, T.

2014-08-01

356

Subaru High-Resolution Spectroscopy of Star G in the Tycho Supernova Remnant  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is widely believed that Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) originate in binary systems where a white dwarf accretes material from a companion star until its mass approaches the Chandrasekhar mass and carbon is ignited in the white dwarf's core. This scenario predicts that the donor star should survive the supernova (SNe) explosion, providing an opportunity to understand the progenitors of SNe Ia. In this paper, we argue that rotation is a generic signature expected of most nongiant donor stars that is easily measurable. Ruiz-Lapuente et al. examined stars in the center of the remnant of SN 1572 (Tycho SN) and showed evidence that a subgiant star (Star G by their naming convention) near the remnant's center was the system's donor star. We present high-resolution (R sime 40, 000) spectra taken with the High Dispersion Spectrograph on Subaru of this candidate donor star and measure the star's radial velocity as 79 ± 2 km s-1 with respect to the local standard of rest and put an upper limit on the star's rotation of 7.5 km s-1. In addition, by comparing images that were taken in 1970 and 2004, we measure the proper motion of Star G to be ? l = -1.6 ± 2.1 mas yr-1 and ? b = -2.7 ± 1.6 mas yr-1. We demonstrate that all of the measured properties of Star G presented in this paper are consistent with those of a star in the direction of Tycho SN that is not associated with the SN event. However, we discuss an unlikely, but still viable scenario for Star G to be the donor star, and suggest further observations that might be able to confirm or refute it. Based in part on data collected at Subaru telescope, which is operated by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan.

Kerzendorf, Wolfgang E.; Schmidt, Brian P.; Asplund, M.; Nomoto, Ken'ichi; Podsiadlowski, Ph.; Frebel, Anna; Fesen, Robert A.; Yong, David

2009-08-01

357

Application of a 3D, Adaptive, Parallel, MHD Code to Supernova Remnant Simulations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We at Michigan have a computational model, BATS-R-US, which incorporates several modern features that make it suitable for calculations of supernova remnant evolution. In particular, it is a three-dimensional MHD model, using a method called the Multiscale Adaptive Upwind Scheme for MagnetoHydroDynamics (MAUS-MHD). It incorporates a data structure that allows for adaptive refinement of the mesh, even in massively parallel calculations. Its advanced Godunov method, a solution-adaptive, upwind, high-resolution scheme, incorporates a new, flux-based approach to the Riemann solver with improved numerical properties. This code has been successfully applied to several problems, including the simulation of comets and of planetary magnetospheres, in the 3D context of the Heliosphere. The code was developed under a NASA computational grand challenge grant to run very rapidly on parallel platforms. It is also now being used to study time-dependent systems such as the transport of particles and energy from solar coronal mass ejections to the Earth. We are in the process of modifying this code so that it can accommodate the very strong shocks present in supernova remnants. Our test case simulates the explosion of a star of 1.4 solar masses with an energy of 1 foe, in a uniform background medium. We have performed runs of 250,000 to 1 million cells on 8 nodes of an Origin 2000. These relatively coarse grids do not allow fine details of instabilities to become visible. Nevertheless, the macroscopic evolution of the shock is simulated well, with the forward and reverse shocks visible in velocity profiles. We will show our work to date. This work was supported by NASA through its GSRP program.

Kominsky, P.; Drake, R. P.; Powell, K. G.

2001-05-01

358

Hydrodynamic simulations of the interaction of supernova shock waves with a clumpy environment: the case of the RX J0852.0-4622 (Vela Jr) supernova remnant  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Observations in all electromagnetic bands show that many supernova remnants (SNRs) have a very aspherical shape. This can be the result of asymmetries in the supernova explosion or a clumpy circumstellar medium. We study the generation of inhomogeneities and the mixing of elements arising from these two sources in multidimensional hydrodynamic simulations of the propagation of a supernova blast wave into a cloudy environment. We model a specific SNR, Vela Jr (RX J0852.0-4622). By comparing our results with recent observations, we can constrain the properties of the explosion. We find that a very energetic explosion of several 1051 erg occurring roughly about 800 years ago is consistent with the shape and emission of the SNR, as well as a supernova with an energy closer to the canonical value of 1051 erg a few thousand years ago.

Obergaulinger, M.; Iyudin, A. F.; Müller, E.; Smoot, G. F.

2014-01-01

359

EXPECTED GAMMA-RAY EMISSION OF SUPERNOVA REMNANT SN 1987A  

SciTech Connect

A nonlinear kinetic theory of cosmic ray (CR) acceleration in supernova remnants (SNRs) is employed to re-examine the nonthermal properties of the remnant of SN 1987A for an extended evolutionary period of 5-100 yr. It is shown that an efficient production of nuclear CRs leads to a strong modification of the outer SNR shock and to a large downstream magnetic field B{sub d} {approx} 20 mG. The shock modification and the strong field are required to yield the steep radio emission spectrum observed, as well as the considerable synchrotron cooling of high-energy electrons which diminishes their X-ray synchrotron flux. These features are also consistent with the existing X-ray observations. The expected {gamma}-ray energy flux at TeV energies at the current epoch is nearly {epsilon}{sub {gamma}} F{sub {gamma}} {approx} 4 x 10{sup -13} erg cm{sup 2} s{sup -1} under reasonable assumptions about the overall magnetic field topology and the turbulent perturbations of this field. The general nonthermal strength of the source is expected to increase roughly by a factor of two over the next 15-20 years; thereafter, it should decrease with time in a secular form.

Berezhko, E. G.; Ksenofontov, L. T. [Yu.G. Shafer Institute of Cosmophysical Research and Aeronomy, 31 Lenin Avenue, 677980 Yakutsk (Russian Federation); Voelk, H. J., E-mail: ksenofon@ikfia.ysn.ru [Max Planck Institut fuer Kernphysik, Postfach 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg (Germany)

2011-05-01

360

Einstein observations of the Vela supernova remnant - The spatial structure of the hot emitting gas  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Spatially resolved (aproximately 1 arcmin) X-ray maps of the Vela supernova remnant have been constructed in two spectral bands, 0.2-1.0 keV and 0.8-2.0 keV, from a series of 36 separate observations with the Imaging Proportional Counter of the Einstein Observatory. The maps exhibit substantial structure on all angular scales. Spectral analysis shows that the emission from the remnant can be consistently described as thermal radiation from hot gas which is nonuniform in density and temperature, but which is in approximate pressure equilibrium. It is found that p/k is approximately 3-4 x 10 to the 5th/cu cm K. The soft X-ray emission exhibits a high degree of correlation with the optical filamentary structure, in the sense that the most prominent filaments either tightly surround or are coincident with the brightest X-ray regions. This suggests that the softest X-radiation may originate in 'warm' gas which is evaporated from the denser clouds responsible for the optical and ultraviolet filaments. Such an interpretation is quantitatively investigated, and shown to be only marginally consistent with the observations.

Kahn, S. M.; Gorenstein, P.; Harnden, F. R., Jr.; Seward, F. D.

1985-01-01

361

The polarization and depolarization of radio emission from supernova remnant Cassiopeia A  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a study of polarimetric images of the supernova remnant Cassiopeia A at observing wavelengths of lambda = 6 and 20 cm. We find that the brigth ring is strongly depolarized at lambda = 20 cm and conclude that this is due to a mixing of the relativistic plasma responsible for the synchrotron emission and the thermal soft X-ray-emitting material behind the reverse shock. On large scales, the magnetic field is radial in Cas A, as is common in young remnants. However, the radial field region extends well beyond the bright ring, putting constraints on the field-generating mechanism. Two interesting types of small-scale features are also found and probably reflect the same underlying phenomena; the first are features at lambda = 20 cm that appear to have penetrated beyond the Faraday depolarizing shell, and the second are regions of small-scale variations in the magnetic field direction at lambda = 6 cm. Both of these are likely to be identified with moderately dense clumps of stellar ejecta, leading to the bow shocks discussed by Braun, Gull, & Perley (1987) and the evolving compact features discussed by Anderson & Rudnick (1995a).

Anderson, M. C.; Keohane, J. W.; Rudnick, L.

1995-03-01

362

VizieR Online Data Catalog: A catalogue of Galactic supernova remnants (Green, 2014)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This catalogue of known Galactic supernova remnants (SNRs) is an updated version of the catalogues of Galactic SNRs presented in detail in Green (1984, 1988), in summary form in Green (1991, 1996, 2004, 2009), and on the Web (versions of 1995 July, 1996 August, 1998 September, 2000 August, 2001 December, 2004 January and 2006 April). (Note that version published in Green (1996) was produced in 1993.) This the 2014 May version of the catalogue contains 294 SNRs, and is based on results published in the literature up to the end of 2013. The basic summary data included in this catalogue for each SNR are its Galactic coordinates, RA and Dec (J2000.0), angular size, type, flux density at 1GHz, spectral index, and any other names. Notes on these parameters, on possible remnants not included, and questionable SNRs listed in the catalogue are given in the full version of the catalogue on the Web. It should be noted that there are selection effects which apply to the identification of Galactic SNRs (e.g., Green 1991, 2004, 2005, 2009), so that care should be taken if these data are used in any statistical studies. Published in Green, D.A., 2014, BASI, 42, 47 (2014BASI...42...47G). (1 data file).

Green, D. A.

2014-09-01

363

DISCOVERY OF TeV GAMMA-RAY EMISSION FROM TYCHO'S SUPERNOVA REMNANT  

SciTech Connect

We report the discovery of TeV gamma-ray emission from the Type Ia supernova remnant (SNR) G120.1+1.4, known as Tycho's SNR. Observations performed in the period 2008-2010 with the VERITAS ground-based gamma-ray observatory reveal weak emission coming from the direction of the remnant, compatible with a point source located at 00{sup h}25{sup m}27.{sup s}0, + 64{sup 0}10'50'' (J2000). The TeV photon spectrum measured by VERITAS can be described with a power law dN/dE = C(E/3.42 TeV){sup -}{Gamma} with {Gamma} = 1.95 {+-} 0.51{sub stat} {+-} 0.30{sub sys} and C = (1.55 {+-} 0.43{sub stat} {+-} 0.47{sub sys}) x 10{sup -14} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} TeV{sup -1}. The integral flux above 1 TeV corresponds to {approx}0.9% of the steady Crab Nebula emission above the same energy, making it one of the weakest sources yet detected in TeV gamma rays. We present both leptonic and hadronic models that can describe the data. The lowest magnetic field allowed in these models is {approx}80 {mu}G, which may be interpreted as evidence for magnetic field amplification.

Acciari, V. A.; Benbow, W. [Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Amado, AZ 85645 (United States); Aliu, E.; Errando, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Barnard College, Columbia University, NY 10027 (United States); Arlen, T. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Aune, T. [Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics and Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Beilicke, M.; Buckley, J. H.; Bugaev, V.; Dickherber, R. [Department of Physics, Washington University, St. Louis, MO 63130 (United States); Bradbury, S. M. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leeds, Leeds, LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Byrum, K. [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Cannon, A.; Collins-Hughes, E. [School of Physics, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Cesarini, A. [School of Physics, National University of Ireland Galway, University Road, Galway (Ireland); Ciupik, L. [Astronomy Department, Adler Planetarium and Astronomy Museum, Chicago, IL 60605 (United States); Cui, W.; Finley, J. P. [Department of Physics, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Duke, C. [Department of Physics, Grinnell College, Grinnell, IA 50112-1690 (United States); Finnegan, G., E-mail: dbsaxon@udel.edu, E-mail: wakely@uchicago.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States)

2011-04-01

364

VERITAS observations of supernova remnants for studies of cosmic ray acceleration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Supernova remnants (SNRs) have been suggested as the main sites for acceleration of cosmic rays (CRs) with energies up to the knee region ( 10(15) eV). Gamma-ray emission from SNRs can provide a unique window to observe the cosmic ray acceleration and to test existing acceleration models in these objects. The Very Energetic Radiation Imaging Telescope Array System (VERITAS) is an array of atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes that measures gamma rays with energies higher than 100 GeV. Located in Arizona, USA, VERITAS has observed several SNRs in the northern hemisphere since the beginning of operations in 2007. These include two young SNRs of different types (Cassiopeia A and Tycho), as well as middle- to old-aged remnants with nearby target material such as molecular clouds. Gamma-ray data from different types of SNRs in different evolutionary stages are important to study SNRs as CR accelerators. Here we present a summary of VERITAS results on Galactic SNRs including Tycho, and discuss what these observations have taught us.

Park, Nahee

365

FERMI-LAT OBSERVATIONS AND A BROADBAND STUDY OF SUPERNOVA REMNANT CTB 109  

SciTech Connect

CTB 109 (G109.1-1.0) is a Galactic supernova remnant (SNR) with a hemispherical shell morphology in X-rays and in the radio band. In this work, we report the detection of {gamma}-ray emission coincident with CTB 109, using 37 months of data from the Large Area Telescope on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. We study the broadband characteristics of the remnant using a model that includes hydrodynamics, efficient cosmic-ray (CR) acceleration, nonthermal emission, and a self-consistent calculation of the X-ray thermal emission. We find that the observations can be successfully fit with two distinct parameter sets, one where the {gamma}-ray emission is produced primarily by leptons accelerated at the SNR forward shock and the other where {gamma}-rays produced by forward shock accelerated CR ions dominate the high-energy emission. Consideration of thermal X-ray emission introduces a novel element to the broadband fitting process, and while it does not rule out either the leptonic or the hadronic scenarios, it constrains the parameter sets required by the model to fit the observations. Moreover, the model that best fits the thermal and nonthermal emission observations is an intermediate case, where both radiation from accelerated electrons and hadrons contribute almost equally to the {gamma}-ray flux observed.

Castro, Daniel [MIT-Kavli Center for Astrophysics and Space Research, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Slane, Patrick; Patnaude, Daniel J. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Ellison, Donald C. [Physics Department, North Carolina State University, Box 8202, Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States)

2012-09-01

366

Radio-Continuum Emission from the Young Galactic Supernova Remnant G1.9+0.3  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present an analysis of a new Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) radio-continuum observation of supernova remnant (SNR) G1.9+0.3, which at an age of ˜181±25 years is the youngest known in the Galaxy. We analysed all available radio-continuum observations at 6-cm from the ATCA and Very Large Array. Using this data we estimate an expansion rate for G1.9+0.3 of 0.563±0.078 percent per year between 1984 and 2009. We note that in the 1980's G1.9+0.3 expanded somewhat slower (0.484 percent per year) than more recently (0.641 percent per year). We estimate that the average spectral index between 20-cm and 6-cm, across the entire SNR is ?=-0.72±0.26 which is typical for younger SNRs. At 6-cm, we detect an average of 6 percent fractionally polarised radio emission with a peak of 17±3 percent. The polarised emission follows the contours of the strongest of X-ray emission. Using the new equipartition formula we estimate a magnetic field strength of B?273 ? G, which to date, is one of the highest magnetic field strength found for any SNR and consistent with G1.9+0.3 being a very young remnant.

De Horta, A. Y.; Filipovic, M. D.; Crawford, E. J.; Stootman, F. H.; Pannuti, T. G.; Bozzetto, L. M.; Collier, J. D.; Sommer, E. R.; Kosakowski, A. R.

2014-10-01

367

MOLECULAR ENVIRONMENT AND AN X-RAY SPECTROSCOPY OF SUPERNOVA REMNANT KESTEVEN 78  

SciTech Connect

We investigate the molecular environment of the Galactic supernova remnant (SNR) Kesteven 78 and perform an XMM-Newton X-ray spectroscopic study for the northeastern edge of the remnant. SNR Kes 78 is found to interact with the molecular clouds (MCs) at a systemic local standard of rest velocity of 81 km s{sup -1}. At around this velocity, the SNR appears to contact a long molecular strip in the northeast and a large cloud in the east as revealed in the {sup 13}CO line, which may be responsible for the radio brightness peak and the OH maser, respectively. The {sup 12}CO-line bright region morphologically matches the eastern bright radio shell in general, and the SNR is consistent in extent with a CO cavity. Broadened {sup 12}CO-line profiles discerned in the eastern maser region and the western clumpy molecular arc and the elevated {sup 12}CO (J = 2-1)/(J = 1-0) ratios along the SNR boundary may be signatures of shock perturbation in the molecular gas. The SNR-MC association places the SNR at a kinematic distance of 4.8 kpc. The X-rays arising from the northeastern radio shell are emitted by underionized hot ({approx}1.5 keV), low-density ({approx}0.1 cm{sup -3}) plasma with solar abundance, and the plasma may be of intercloud origin. The age of the remnant is inferred to be about 6 kyr. The size of the molecular cavity in Kes 78 implies an initial mass around 22 M{sub Sun} for the progenitor.

Zhou Ping; Chen Yang [Department of Astronomy, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

2011-12-10

368

A Multiwavelength Study of Supernova Remnants in M33: The Radio Subsample  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

M33 is the current focus of a project to identify and study supernova remnantsi (SNRs) using observations in radio, X-ray and optical wavelengths. Here, we present the results from the radio selected sample of SNRs in M33. The radio observations were obtained with the Very Large Array and the Westerbork Synthesis Array at 6 and 20 cm. The flux and spectral index of all sources down to the 3sigma noise level of the maps have been measured. From the resulting catalogue, a list of candidate SNRs has been compiled, where the sample is defined as all radio sources with a non-thermal spectral index. This effectively eliminates most HII regions, but also includes background radio sources. Because of the inclusion of background sources, it is necessary to turn to other wavelengths for confirmation. We have examined the sites of radio emission using interference filter (6100 Angstroms, [SII], H? ) observations taken with the KPNO 4m telescope. Following the method of Long et al. (1990,Ap. J. Suppl. 72,61), we have identified a list of 37 non-thermal radio sources that have a high [SII]/H? ratio, making them probable optical SNR candidates. We have observed 32 of these spectroscopically at the MMT with the Red Channel long-slit spectrograph. The results of these observations will be presented. The multiwavelength approach allows us more than the ability to confirm the existence of new remnants, it also gives us valuable information on the dynamics of the SNR and its interaction with the surrounding medium. As an example, we are studying a particularily interesting remnant in M33 which has been detected in X-ray, radio and optical and is located in the HII region NGC 592. With information from all three wavelengths we are exploring the properties of the shock, the efficiency of conversion of shock energy into relativistic particles, and the state of evolution of the remnant.

Gordon, S.; Kirshner, R.; Duric, N.; Long, K.

1992-12-01

369

0049-73.6: A Remnant of a Low-Mass Core-Collapse Supernova  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present observations with the Chandra X-Ray Observatory of the supernova remnant 0049-73.6 in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC). In addition to the outer shell of the swept-up SMC gas, a bright ejecta dominated-ring is present in the remnant's interior. X-ray spectrum of the outer shell shows normal SMC abundances, and allows us to estimate the current blast wave speed at 600 km s-1. The swept-up mass is equal to 160 M?, the SNR age is 16,000 yr, and the explosion energy is 8 × 1050 ergs. The brightest parts of the inner ring are dominated by O- and Ne-rich heavy-element ejecta. 0049-73.6 is thus a remnant of a core-collapse explosion. More diffuse interior ejecta emission shows less prominent O and Ne lines. We performed 1-D hydrodynamical simulations in order to understand the spatial structure of 0049-73.6. We identify the bright inner ring with a dense shell of ejecta interior to the contact discontinuity separating the shocked SMC gas and the SN ejecta. The reverse shock itself might might have already propagated into the low-density innermost ejecta. The observed location of the bright ring allows us to set up an upper limit of about 7-8 M? of SN ejecta. The total mass of O within heavy-element ejecta is about 0.2--0.3 M?. The filling fraction of the O-rich gas is less than 1%, and its high ionization state suggests that the observed emission is dominated by the dense ejecta clumps. The progenitor mass is estimated at about 10 M?. It is likely that the progenitor star was a red supergiant star such as seen in a recent Type II-plateau SN 2003gd.

Borkowski, K. J.; Hendrick, S. P.; Reynolds, S. P.

2004-08-01

370

Spitzer IRS Observations of the XA Region in the Cygnus Loop Supernova Remnant  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on spectra of two positions in the XA region of the Cygnus Loop supernova remnant obtained with the InfraRed Spectrograph on the Spitzer Space Telescope. The spectra span the 10-35 ?m wavelength range, which contains a number of collisionally excited forbidden lines. These data are supplemented by optical spectra obtained at the Whipple Observatory and an archival UV spectrum from the International Ultraviolet Explorer. Coverage from the UV through the IR provides tests of shock wave models and tight constraints on model parameters. Only lines from high ionization species are detected in the spectrum of a filament on the edge of the remnant. The filament traces a 180 km s-1 shock that has just begun to cool, and the oxygen to neon abundance ratio lies in the normal range found for Galactic H II regions. Lines from both high and low ionization species are detected in the spectrum of the cusp of a shock-cloud interaction, which lies within the remnant boundary. The spectrum of the cusp region is matched by a shock of about 150 km s-1 that has cooled and begun to recombine. The post-shock region has a swept-up column density of about 1.3 × 1018 cm-2, and the gas has reached a temperature of 7000-8000 K. The spectrum of the Cusp indicates that roughly half of the refractory silicon and iron atoms have been liberated from the grains. Dust emission is not detected at either position. Based on observations made with the Spitzer Space Telescope.

Sankrit, Ravi; Raymond, John C.; Bautista, Manuel; Gaetz, Terrance J.; Williams, Brian J.; Blair, William P.; Borkowski, Kazimierz J.; Long, Knox S.

2014-05-01

371

Discovery of a VHE gamma-ray source coincident with the supernova remnant CTB 37A  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aims: The supernova remnant (SNR) complex CTB 37 is an interesting candidate for observations with very high energy (VHE) ?-ray telescopes such as HESS. In this region, three SNRs are seen. One of them is potentially associated with several molecular clouds, a circumstance that can be used to probe the acceleration of hadronic cosmic rays. Methods: This region was observed with the HESS Cherenkov telescopes and the data were analyzed with standard HESS procedures. Recent X-ray observations with Chandra and XMM-Newton were used to search for X-ray counterparts. Results: The discovery of a new VHE ?-ray source HESS J1714-385 coincident with the remnant CTB 37A is reported. The energy spectrum is well described by a power-law with a photon index of ? = 2.30 ± 0.13 and a differential flux at 1 TeV of ?0 = (8.7 ± 1.0stat ± 1.8sys) × 10-13 cm-2 s-1 TeV-1. The integrated flux above 1 TeV is equivalent to 3% of the flux of the Crab nebula above the same energy. This VHE ?-ray source is a counterpart candidate for the unidentified EGRET source 3EG J1714-3857. The observed VHE emission is consistent with the molecular gas distribution around CTB 37A; a close match is expected in a hadronic scenario for ?-ray production. The X-ray observations reveal the presence of thermal X-rays from the NE part of the SNR. In the NW part of the remnant, an extended non-thermal X-ray source, CXOU J171419.8-383023, is discovered as well. Possible connections of the X-ray emission to the newly found VHE source are discussed.

Aharonian, F.; Akhperjanian, A. G.; Barres de Almeida, U.; Bazer-Bachi, A. R.; Behera, B.; Beilicke, M.; Benbow, W.; Bernlöhr, K.; Boisson, C.; Borrel, V.; Braun, I.; Brion, E.; Brucker, J.; Bühler, R.; Bulik, T.; Büsching, I.; Boutelier, T.; Carrigan, S.; Chadwick, P. M.; Chaves, R.; Chounet, L.-M.; Clapson, A. C.; Coignet, G.; Cornils, R.; Costamante, L.; Dalton, M.; Degrange, B.; Dickinson, H. J.; Djannati-Ataï, A.; Domainko, W.; O'C. Drury, L.; Dubois, F.; Dubus, G.; Dyks, J.; Egberts, K.; Emmanoulopoulos, D.; Espigat, P.; Farnier, C.; Feinstein, F.; Fiasson, A.; Förster, A.; Fontaine, G.; Funk, S.; Füßling, M.; Gabici, S.; Gallant, Y. A.; Giebels, B.; Glicenstein, J. F.; Glück, B.; Goret, P.; Hadjichristidis, C.; Hauser, D.; Hauser, M.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henri, G.; Hermann, G.; Hinton, J. A.; Hoffmann, A.; Hofmann, W.; Holleran, M.; Hoppe, S.; Horns, D.; Jacholkowska, A.; de Jager, O. C.; Jung, I.; Katarzy?ski, K.; Kaufmann, S.; Kendziorra, E.; Kerschhaggl, M.; Khangulyan, D.; Khélifi, B.; Keogh, D.; Komin, Nu.; Kosack, K.; Lamanna, G.; Latham, I. J.; Lemoine-Goumard, M.; Lenain, J.-P.; Lohse, T.; Martin, J. M.; Martineau-Huynh, O.; Marcowith, A.; Masterson, C.; Maurin, D.; McComb, T. J. L.; Moderski, R.; Moulin, E.; Nakajima, H.; Naumann-Godo, M.; de Naurois, M.; Nedbal, D.; Nekrassov, D.; Nolan, S. J.; Ohm, S.; Olive, J.-P.; de Oña Wilhelmi, E.; Orford, K. J.; Osborne, J. L.; Ostrowski, M.; Panter, M.; Pedaletti, G.; Pelletier, G.; Petrucci, P.-O.; Pita, S.; Pühlhofer, G.; Punch, M.; Quirrenbach, A.; Raubenheimer, B. C.; Raue, M.; Rayner, S. M.; Reimer, O.; Renaud, M.; Rieger, F.; Ripken, J.; Rob, L.; Rosier-Lees, S.; Rowell, G.; Rudak, B.; Ruppel, J.; Sahakian, V.; Santangelo, A.; Schlickeiser, R.; Schöck, F. M.; Schröder, R.; Schwanke, U.; Schwarzburg, S.; Schwemmer, S.; Shalchi, A.; Skilton, J. L.; Sol, H.; Spangler, D.; Stawarz, ?.; Steenkamp, R.; Stegmann, C.; Superina, G.; Tam, P. H.; Tavernet, J.-P.; Terrier, R.; Tibolla, O.; van Eldik, C.; Vasileiadis, G.; Venter, C.; Vialle, J. P.; Vincent, P.; Vivier, M.; Völk, H. J.; Volpe, F.; Wagner, S. J.; Ward, M.; Zdziarski, A. A.; Zech, A.

2008-11-01

372

XMM-Newton studies of Supernova Remnants in the Large Magellanic Cloud  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Supernova remnants (SNRs) are leading contributors to the energy balance, chemical enrichment, and mixing of the interstellar medium (ISM). The Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) hosts a large sample of SNRs. The close proximity of the LMC (~50 kpc), combined with moderate foreground ISM absorption, makes it an ideal target for studying these significant objects. In the course of an X-ray survey of the LMC, the space-borne observatory XMM-Newton discovered several new SNRs. A sample of previously known SNRs was observed for the first time with modern X-ray instruments as well. We used these new data to perform X-ray imaging and spectral analyses. We measure properties of the sample such as temperature, composition, and age. Based on the local stellar populations, we also discuss the nature of their parent supernovae. This research is supported by the Villanova Undergraduate Research Fellows (VURF), the Max Planck Society (MPG), and the DAAD-RISE scholarship program. We also acknowledge support from NSF/RUI Grant AST 1009903 to Villanova University.

Ambrosino, William; Guinan, E. F.; Maggi, Pierre; Haberl, Frank

2014-01-01

373

Imaging of the Supernova Remnant Cassiopeia A with the Multiband Imaging Photometer for Spitzer (MIPS)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present new images of the supernova remnant (SNR) Cas A observed in the 24 and 70 ?m bands of the Spitzer Space Telescope (Spitzer). The IR emission correlates well with the Si X-ray and optical [S II] emission but poorly with either the synchrotron-dominated radio structure or the continuum X-ray emission. The IR is therefore dominated by thermal emission from dust within the SNR and associated with emission-line gas inside the reverse shock region, confirming earlier IRAS and Infrared Space Observatory results. Supplemented by new photometric measurements from archived Midcourse Space Experiment images, we suggest stochastic heating to model the overall mid- to far-IR spectral energy distribution. The 24 and 70 ?m images also reveal a counterjet to the well-known northeast jet feature imaged previously at X-ray, optical, and radio wavelengths. This IR counterjet corresponds well with (optical) fast-moving knots confirming its outflow nature. The opposing jetlike features define a symmetry axis that bisects the SNR and suggest that the supernova explosion was axisymmetric. The IR images also show a region in which the SNR forward shock appears to be propagating into a ~650 Msolar molecular cloud. The new images also show other details of the surrounding ISM structure, including two groups of knots extending ~6'-12' on either side of the SNR.

Hines, D. C.; Rieke, G. H.; Gordon, K. D.; Rho, J.; Misselt, K. A.; Woodward, C. E.; Werner, M. W.; Krause, O.; Latter, W. B.; Engelbracht, C. W.; Egami, E.; Kelly, D. M.; Muzerolle, J.; Stansberry, J. A.; Su, K. Y. L.; Morrison, J. E.; Young, E. T.; Noriega-Crespo, A.; Padgett, D. L.; Gehrz, R. D.; Polomski, E.; Beeman, J. W.; Haller, E. E.

2004-09-01

374

CONSTRAINING EXPLOSION TYPE OF YOUNG SUPERNOVA REMNANTS USING 24 {mu}m EMISSION MORPHOLOGY  

SciTech Connect

Determination of the explosion type of supernova remnants (SNRs) can be challenging, as SNRs are hundreds to thousands of years old and supernovae are classified based on spectral properties days after explosion. Previous studies of thermal X-ray emission from Milky Way and Large Magellanic Cloud SNRs have shown that Type Ia and core-collapse (CC) SNRs have statistically different symmetries, and thus these sources can be typed based on their X-ray morphologies. In this Letter, we extend the same technique, a multipole expansion technique using power ratios, to infrared (IR) images of SNRs to test whether they can be typed using the symmetry of their warm dust emission as well. We analyzed archival Spitzer Space Telescope Multiband Imaging Photometer 24 {mu}m observations of the previously used X-ray sample, and we find that the two classes of SNRs separate according to their IR morphologies. The Type Ia SNRs are statistically more circular and mirror symmetric than the CC SNRs, likely due to the different circumstellar environments and explosion geometries of the progenitors. Broadly, our work indicates that the IR emission retains information of the explosive origins of the SNR and offers a new method to type SNRs based on IR morphology.

Peters, Charee L.; Stassun, Keivan G. [Department of Physics, Fisk University, 1000 17th Ave N Nashville, TN 37208 (United States); Lopez, Laura A.; Figueroa-Feliciano, Enectali [MIT-Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, 37-664H, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico, E-mail: charee.l.peters@vanderbilt.edu [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California Santa Cruz, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95060 (United States)

2013-07-10

375

POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBON PROCESSING IN THE BLAST WAVE OF THE SUPERNOVA REMNANT N132D  

SciTech Connect

We present Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph 14-36 {mu}m mapping observations of the supernova remnant N132D in the Large Magellanic Cloud. This study focuses on the processing of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) that we previously identified in the southern blast wave. The mid-infrared spectra show strong continuum emission from shock-heated dust and a unique, nearly featureless plateau in the 15-20 {mu}m region, which we attribute to PAH molecules. The typical PAH emission bands observed in the surrounding interstellar medium ahead of the blast wave disappear, which indicates shock processing of PAH molecules. The PAH plateau appears most strongly at the outer edge of the blast wave and coincides with diffuse X-ray emission that precedes the brightest X-ray and optical filaments. This suggests that PAH molecules in the surrounding medium are swept up and processed in the hot gas of the blast wave shock, where they survive the harsh conditions long enough to be detected. We also observe a broad emission feature at 20 {mu}m appearing with the PAH plateau. We speculate that this feature is either due to FeO dust grains or connected to the processing of PAHs in the supernova blast wave shock.

Tappe, A. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, MS-72, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Rho, J. [SOFIA Science Mission Operations/USRA, NASA Ames Research Center, MS 211-3, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Boersma, C. [NASA Ames Research Center, MS 245-6, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Micelotta, E. R., E-mail: atappe@cfa.harvard.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Western University, 1151 Richmond Street, London, Ontario N6A 3K7 (Canada)

2012-08-01

376

Spitzer Observations of Dust Destruction in the Puppis A Supernova Remnant  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The interaction of the Puppis A supernova remnant (SNR) with a neighboring molecular cloud provides a unique opportunity to measure the amount of grain destruction in an SNR shock. Spitzer Space Telescope MIPS imaging of the entire SNR at 24, 70, and 160 micrometers shows an extremely good correlation with X-ray emission, indicating that the SNR's IR radiation is dominated by the thermal emission of swept-up interstellar dust, collisionally heated by the hot shocked gas. Spitzer IRS spectral observations targeted both the Bright Eastern Knot (BEK) of the SNR where a small cloud has been engulfed by the supernova blast wave and outlying portions of the associated molecular cloud that are yet to be hit by the shock front. Modeling the spectra from both regions reveals the composition and the grain size distribution of the interstellar dust, both in front of and behind the SNR shock front. The comparison shows that the ubiquitous polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons of the interstellar medium are destroyed within the BEK, along with nearly 25% of the mass of graphite and silicate dust grains.

Arendt, Richard G.; Dweek, Eli; Blair, William P.; Ghavamian, Parviz; Hwang, Una; Long, Knox X.; Petre, Robert; Rho, Jeonghee; Winkler, P. Frank

2010-01-01

377

Protrusions Beyond the Blast Waves of Young Type Ia Supernova Remnants: Hydrodynamic Instabilities or Ejecta Bullets?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High resolution imaging of two young Type Ia supernova remnants (SNRs), Tycho and SN 1006, has revealed several morphological features which have resisted explanation with numerical simulations. One such feature is the presence of shocked ejecta blobs protruding beyond the mean forward shock radius. Two current theories explain the presence of such ejecta: highly dense ejecta shrapnel produced in the explosion penetrating the forward shock, or plumes generated by hydrodynamic instabilities long after the initial explosion. We investigate the shrapnel theory through hydrodynamic simulations in 2D and 3D of the evolution of dense ejecta clumps embedded in an exponential density profile, appropriate for Type Ia supernovae. We use high-resolution 2D simulations to identify relevant clump parameters which we investigate further in 3D. In contradiction to some former work, we find that sufficiently resolved clumps in 2D models shatter upon collision with the forward shock, yielding new protrusion features. In both 2D and 3D, shrapnel is capable of penetrating the forward shock, but the resultant protrusions in 3D simulations vary significantly from those in similar 2D runs, implying 2D simulations may not be an accurate method of investigating the shrapnel theory. We compare the our simulations with Chandra observations of projections seen in Tycho and SN 1006. This work was performed as part of NC State University's Undergraduate Research in Computational Astrophysics (URCA) program, an REU program supported by the National Science Foundation through award AST-1032736.

Dyer, Ashton; Blondin, J. M.; Reynolds, S. P.

2014-01-01

378

Evidence of hadronic interaction in Tycho Supernova Remnant using Fermi-LAT data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) has observed Tycho Supernova Remnant in the MeV-GeV energy range. The spectrum has been studied using the first three years of data and new data are being collected. We present a multiwavelength model of the observed spectrum from radio to TeV energy range, based on the hypothesis of hadronic origin of ?-rays. As described by the Fermi acceleration theory, a single proton population was considered, modeled with a simple power-law in momentum. The photon emissivity is computed following Kamae et al (2006) [T. Kamae, et al., ApJ 647 (2006) 692]. The leptonic component is also taken into account according to Giordano et al. (2012) [F. Giordano, et al., ApJ 744 (2012) L2] prescriptions and it turns out to be negligible with respect to the hadronic one. The model returns a spectral index of 2.23 (± 0.05) and an acceleration efficiency of 5% of the total kinetic energy expelled in Supernova explosion and it may provide a hint of the acceleration processes in SNRs up to energies close to the knee of cosmic ray spectrum. This work shows that experimental data can be easily explained with a simple model, representing a good test for the acceleration theory.

Caragiulo, M.; Di Venere, L.

2014-11-01

379

Discovery of recombining plasma in the supernova remnant 3C 391  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent X-ray study of middle-aged supernova remnants (SNRs) reveals strong radiative recombination continua (RRCs) associated with overionized plasmas, which origin still remains uncertain. We report a discovery of an RRC in the middle-aged SNR 3C 391. If the X-ray spectrum is fitted with a two-temperature plasma model in collisional ionization equilibrium (CIE), residuals of a Si XIV Ly? line at 2.006 keV, a S XVI Ly? line at 2.623 keV and the edge of a RRC of Si XIII at 2.666 keV are found. In fact, the X-ray spectrum is well described by the composite model consisting of the CIE plasma and a recombining plasma (RP). The abundance pattern suggests that the RP is due to ejecta from core-collapse supernova of the progenitor mass of about 15 M?. There is no significant difference of the recombining parameters between the south-east region and the north-west region surrounded by dense molecular clouds. We also find a hint of a Fe I K? line at 6.4 keV (2.4 ? detection) from the south-east region of the SNR.

Sato, Tamotsu; Koyama, Katsuji; Takahashi, Tadayuki; Odaka, Hirokazu; Nakashima, Shinya

2014-12-01

380

THE DOUBLE PULSAR: EVIDENCE FOR NEUTRON STAR FORMATION WITHOUT AN IRON CORE-COLLAPSE SUPERNOVA  

SciTech Connect

The double pulsar system PSR J0737-3039A/B is a double neutron star binary, with a 2.4 hr orbital period, which has allowed measurement of relativistic orbital perturbations to high precision. The low mass of the second-formed neutron star, as well as the low system eccentricity and proper motion, point to a different evolutionary scenario compared to most other known double neutron star systems. We describe analysis of the pulse profile shape over 6 years of observations and present the resulting constraints on the system geometry. We find the recycled pulsar in this system, PSR J0737-3039A, to be a near-orthogonal rotator with an average separation between its spin and magnetic axes of 90 Degree-Sign {+-} 11 Degree-Sign {+-} 5 Degree-Sign . Furthermore, we find a mean 95% upper limit on the misalignment between its spin and orbital angular momentum axes of 3. Degree-Sign 2, assuming that the observed emission comes from both magnetic poles. This tight constraint lends credence to the idea that the supernova that formed the second pulsar was relatively symmetric, possibly involving electron capture onto an O-Ne-Mg core.

Ferdman, R. D.; Kramer, M.; Stappers, B. W.; Lyne, A. G. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics, Alan Turing Building, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom)] [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics, Alan Turing Building, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Stairs, I. H. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z1 (Canada)] [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Breton, R. P. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, Highfield, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom)] [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, Highfield, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); McLaughlin, M. A. [Department of Physics, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26505 (United States)] [Department of Physics, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26505 (United States); Freire, P. C. C. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Radioastronomie, Auf dem Huegel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany)] [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Radioastronomie, Auf dem Huegel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Possenti, A. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Cagliari, Loc. Poggio dei Pini, I-09012 Capoterra (Italy)] [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Cagliari, Loc. Poggio dei Pini, I-09012 Capoterra (Italy); Kaspi, V. M. [Department of Physics, McGill University, Ernest Rutherford Physics Building, 3600 University Street, Montreal, QC H3A 2T8 (Canada)] [Department of Physics, McGill University, Ernest Rutherford Physics Building, 3600 University Street, Montreal, QC H3A 2T8 (Canada); Manchester, R. N., E-mail: ferdman@jb.man.ac.uk [CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science, Australia Telescope National Facility, Epping, NSW 1710 (Australia)

2013-04-10

381

Ultrahigh energy cosmic ray nuclei from extragalactic pulsars and the effect of their Galactic counterparts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The acceleration of ultrahigh energy nuclei in fast spinning newborn pulsars can explain the observed spectrum of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays and the trend towards heavier nuclei for energies above 1019 eV as reported by the Auger Observatory. Pulsar acceleration implies a hard injection spectrum ( ~ E-1) due to pulsar spin down and a maximum energy Emax ~ Z 1019 eV due to the limit on the spin rate of neutron stars. We have previously shown that the escape through the young supernova remnant softens the spectrum, decreases slightly the maximum energy, and generates secondary nuclei. Here we show that the distribution of pulsar birth periods and the effect of propagation in the interstellar and intergalactic media modifies the combined spectrum of all pulsars. By assuming a normal distribution of pulsar birth periods centered at 300 ms, we show that the contribution of extragalactic pulsar births to the ultrahigh energy cosmic ray spectrum naturally gives rise to a contribution to very high energy cosmic rays (VHECRs, between 1016 and 1018 eV) by Galactic pulsar births. The required injected composition to fit the observed spectrum depends on the absolute energy scale, which is uncertain, differing between Auger Observatory and Telescope Array. The contribution of Galactic pulsar births can also bridge the gap between predictions for cosmic ray acceleration in supernova remnants and the observed spectrum just below the ankle, depending on the composition of the cosmic rays that escape the supernova remnant and the diffusion behavior of VHECRs in the Galaxy.

Fang, Ke; Kotera, Kumiko; Olinto, Angela V.

2013-03-01

382

The structure of TeV-bright shell-type supernova remnants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aims: Two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations are used to model the emission properties of TeV-bright shell-type supernova remnants (SNRs) and to explore their nature. Methods: In the leptonic scenario for the TeV emission, the ?-ray emission is produced via inverse Compton scattering of background soft photons by high-energy electrons accelerated by the shocks of the SNRs. In a previous paper, we showed that since the energy densities of the cosmic microwave background radiation and that of the IR/optical background photons are much higher than that of the photons produced by the same high-energy electrons via the synchrotron process, the observed correlation between X-ray and TeV brightness of SNR RX J1713.7-3946 can be readily explained with the assumption that the energy density of relativistic electrons is proportional to that of the magnetic field. The TeV emissivity is therefore proportional to the magnetic field energy density and MHD simulations can be used to model the TeV structure of such remnants directly. Two-dimensional MHD simulations for SNRs are then performed under the assumption that the ambient interstellar medium is turbulent with the magnetic field and density fluctuations, following a Kolmogorov-like power-law spectrum. Results: (1) As expected, these simulations confirm early 1D and 2D modelings of these sources, namely the hydrodynamical evolution of the shock waves and amplification of magnetic field by Rayleigh-Taylor convective flows and by shocks propagating in a turbulent medium; (2) we reproduce rather complex morphological structure for ?-rays, for example, the bright thin rim and significant asymmetry, suggesting intrinsic variations of the source morphology not related to the structure of the progenitor and environment; and (3) the observed radial profile of several remnants are well reproduced with an ambient medium density of 0.1-1 cm-3. An even lower ambient density leads to a sharper drop of the TeV brightness with radius than what is observed near the outer edge of these remnants. Conclusions: In a turbulent background medium, we can reproduce the observed characteristics of several shell-type TeV SNRs with reasonable parameters except for a higher ambient density than that inferred from X-ray observations.

Yang, Chuyuan; Liu, Siming; Fang, Jun; Li, Hui

2015-01-01

383

A CHANDRA VIEW OF NON-THERMAL EMISSION IN THE NORTHWESTERN REGION OF SUPERNOVA REMNANT RCW 86: PARTICLE ACCELERATION AND MAGNETIC FIELDS  

E-print Network

The shocks of supernova remnants are believed to accelerate particles to cosmic ray (CR) energies. The amplification of the magnetic field due to CRs propagating in the shock region is expected to have an impact on both ...

Castro, Daniel

384

FISICA Integral Field Spectroscopy of the Shocked Iron Gas in the Supernova Remnant G11.2--0.3  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have recently discovered strong iron line ([Fe II] (lambda)1.644 (mu)m) emission in the young supernova remnant G11.2-0.3. The iron line emission occurs at the south-eastern shell edge of G11.2-0.3, and positionally overlaps with the very strong X-ray and radio emission of the supernova remnant. The iron line emission is most likely caused by the shock acceleration of G11.2-0.3 interacting with the ambient medium. We propose to carry out JH-band integral-field spectroscopy of the two iron line clumps in G11.2-0.3 with FISICA, an image-slicing integral-field unit for FLAMINGOS, which will give us a uniquely comprehensive view of the strong shock acceleration of a SNR.

Moon, Dae-Sik; Eikenberry, Stephen S.; Koo, Bon-Chul; Raines, S. Nicholas; Gruel, Nicolas

2006-02-01

385

High-Resolution X-Ray Spectroscopy of the Galactic Supernova Remnant Puppis A with the XMM-Newton RGS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We present high-resolution X-ray spectra of cloud-shock interaction regions in the eastern and northern rims of the Galactic supernova remnant Puppis A, using the Reflection Grating Spectrometer onboard the XMM-Newton satellite. A number of emission lines including K(alpha) triplets of He-like N, O , and Ne are clearly resolved for the first time. Intensity ratios of forbidden to resonance lines in the triplets are found to be higher than predictions by thermal emission models having plausible plasma parameters. The anomalous line ratios cannot be reproduced by effects of resonance scattering, recombination, or inner-shell ionization processes, but could be explained by charge-exchange emission that should arise at interfaces between the cold/warm clouds and the hot plasma. Our observations thus provide observational support for charge-exchange X-ray emission in supernova remnants.

Katsuda, Satoru; Tsunemi, Hiroshi; Mori, Koji; Uchida, Hiroyuki; Petre, Robert; Yamada, Shinya; Akamatsu, Hiroki; Konami, Saori; Tamagawa, Toru

2012-01-01

386

The Slow X-Ray Expansion of the Northwestern Rim of the Supernova Remnant RX J0852.0-4622  

E-print Network

The detection of radioactive decay line of 44Ti provides a unique evidence that the gamma-ray source is a young (< 1,000 yr) supernova remnant because of its short lifetime of about 90 yr. Only two Galactic remnants, Cassiopeia A and RX J0852.0-4622, are hitherto reported to be the 44Ti line emitter, although the detection from the latter has been debated. Here we report on an expansion measurement of the northwestern rim of RX J0852.0-4622 obtained with X-ray observations separated by 6.5 yr. The expansion rate is derived to be 0.023+/-0.006% that is about five times lower than those of young historical remnants. Such a slow expansion suggests that RX J0852.0-4622 is not a young remnant as has been expected. We estimate the age of 1,700-4,300 yr of this remnant depending on its evolutionary stage. Assuming a high shock speed of about 3000 km/sec, which is suggested by the detection of non-thermal X-ray radiation, the distance of about 750 pc to this remnant is also derived.

S. Katsuda; H. Tsunemi; K. Mori

2008-03-22

387

The kinematics of the bi-lobal supernova remnant G 65.3+5.7 - Paper II  

E-print Network

Further deep, narrow-band images in the light of [O III] 5007 A have been added to the previous mosaic of the faint galactic supernova remnant G 65.3+5.7. Additionally longslit spatially resolved [O III] 5007 A line profiles have been obtained at sample positions using the Manchester Echelle Spectrometer at the San Pedro Martir observatory. The remnant is shown to be predominantly bi-lobal with an EW axis for this structure. However, a faint additional northern lobe has now been revealed. Splitting of the profiles along the slit lengths, when extrapolated to the remnant's centre, although uncertain suggests that the expansion velocity of this remnant is between 124 and 187 km/s ie much lower than the 400 km/s previously predicted for the forward shock velocity from the X-ray emission. An expansion proper motion measurement of 2.1+-0.4 arcsec in 48 years for the remnant's filamentary edge in the light of Halpha+[N II] has also been made. When combined with an expansion velocity of ~155 km/s, a distance of ~800 pc to G 65.3+5.7 is derived. Several possibilities are considered for the large difference in the expansion velocity measured here and the 400 km/s shock velocity required to generate the X-ray emission. It is also suggested that the morphology of the remnant may be created by a tilt in the galactic magnetic field in this vicinity.

P. Boumis; J. Meaburn; J. A. Lopez; F. Mavromatakis; M. P. Redman; D. J. Harman; C. D. Goudis

2004-05-18

388