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1

A search for pulsars in supernova remnants  

E-print Network

We have carried out a sensitive search for young pulsars associated with supernova remnants using the 76-m Lovell radio telescope at Jodrell Bank. The observations were made at 606 MHz using a system with a bandwidth of 8 MHz and a set noise temperature on cold sky of about 50 K. The survey targeted 33 remnants in the northern hemisphere and achieved a nominal sensitivity of ~1 mJy in most cases. Two pulsars were discovered in the course of this survey and the known pulsar PSR B1952+29 was detected. The new pulsars, J0215+6218 and J1957+2831, were found during searches of the supernova remnants G132.7+1.3 and G65.1+0.6 respectively. Based on a statistical analysis of the present sample of proposed pulsar-supernova remnant pairs, we conclude that at most 17 associations are likely to be real. We find no strong evidence for a genuine association between either of the two newly discovered pulsars and their target supernova remnants.

Lorimer, D R; Camilo, F M

1998-01-01

2

Confinement of the Crab pulsar's wind by its supernova remnant  

Microsoft Academic Search

A steady state, spherically symmetric, magnetohydrodynamic model of the Crab nebula is constructed. A highly relativistic positronic pulsar wind is terminated by a strong MHD shock that decelerates the flow and increases its pressure to match boundary conditions imposed by the recently discovered supernova remnant that surrounds the nebula. If the magnetic luminosity of the pulsar wind upstream of the

C. F. Kennel; F. V. Coroniti

1984-01-01

3

TeV Measurements of Young Pulsars and Supernova Remnants  

E-print Network

Observations have been made with the University of Durham Mark 6 telescope of a number of supernova remnants and young pulsars (Vela pulsar, PSR B1055-52, PSR J1105-6107, PSR J0537-6910 and PSR B0540-69). No VHE gamma ray emission, either steady or pulsed, has been detected from these objects.

P. M. Chadwick; K. Lyons; T. J. L. McComb; K. J. Orford; M. G. G. O'Connell; J. L. Osborne; S. M. Rayner; S. E. Shaw; K. E. Turver

1999-06-08

4

A search for pulsars in supernova remnants  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have carried out a sensitive search for young pulsars associated with\\u000asupernova remnants using the 76-m Lovell radio telescope at Jodrell Bank. The\\u000aobservations were made at 606 MHz using a system with a bandwidth of 8 MHz and\\u000aa set noise temperature on cold sky of about 50 K. The survey targeted 33\\u000aremnants in the northern hemisphere

D. R. Lorimer; A. G. Lyne; F. Camilo

1998-01-01

5

The VERITAS Supernova Remnant / Pulsar Wind Nebula Observation Program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Supernova remnants and pulsar wind nebulae together constitute the vast majority of galactic gamma-ray sources seen at TeV energies. Supernova remnants are widely considered to be the strongest candidate for the source of cosmic rays below the knee around 1015 eV. Pulsar wind nebulae, powered by the spin-down energy released by pulsars and visible due to synchrotron and inverse Compton radiation emitted by their constituent electrons, comprise one of the most populous VHE gamma-ray source classes. VERITAS, an array of four imaging Cherenkov telescopes located at the Whipple Observatory in southern Arizona, has made significant contributions to the study of both classes of objects. This poster will summarize the results of this observation program and prospects for the future.

Humensky, Thomas Brian; VERITAS Collaboration

2011-09-01

6

Interaction of a Pulsar Wind with the Expanding Supernova Remnant  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent Hubble Space Telescope observations of the Crab Nebula show filamentary structures that appear to originate from the Rayleigh-Taylor (R-T) instability operating on the supernova ejecta accelerated by the pulsar-driven wind. In order to understand the origin and formation of the filaments in the Crab Nebula, we study the interaction of a pulsar wind with the uniformly expanding supernova remnant by means of numerical simulation. We derive the self-similar solution of this model for a general power-law density profile of supernova ejecta. By performing two-dimensional numerical simulations, we find three independent instabilities in the interaction region between the pulsar wind and the expanding supernova remnant. The first weak instability occurs in the very beginning and is caused by the impulsive acceleration of supernova ejecta by the pulsar wind. The second instability occurs in the postshock flow (shock wave driven by pulsar bubble) during the intermediate stage. This second instability develops briefly while the gradients of density and pressure are of opposite signs (satisfying the criterion of the R-T instability). The third and most important instability develops as the shock driven by the pulsar bubble becomes accelerated (r ~ t6/5). This is the strongest instability and produces pronounced filamentary structures that resemble the observed filaments in the Crab Nebula. Our numerical simulations can reproduce important observational features of the Crab Nebula. The high-density heads in the R-T fingertips are produced because of the compressibility of the gas. The density of these heads is found to be about 10 times higher than other regions in the fingers. The mass contained in the R-T fingers is found to be 60%-75% of the total shocked mass, and the kinetic energy within the R-T fingers is 55%-72% of the total kinetic energy of the shocked flow. The R-T fingers are found to accelerate with a slower rate than the shock front, which is consistent with the observations. By comparing our simulations and the observations, we infer that the some finger-like filaments (region F or G in Hester's observations) started to develop about 657 yr ago.

Jun, Byung-Il

1998-05-01

7

Future GLAST observations of Supernova remnants and Pulsar Wind Nebulae  

E-print Network

Shell-type Supernova remnants (SNRs) have long been known to harbour a population of ultra-relativistic particles, accelerated in the Supernova shock wave by the mechanism of diffusive shock acceleration. Experimental evidence for the existence of electrons up to energies of ~100 TeV was first provided by the detection of hard X-ray synchrotron emission as e.g. in the shell of the young SNR SN1006. Furthermore using theoretical arguments shell-type Supernova remnants have long been considered as the main accelerator of protons - Cosmic rays - in the Galaxy; definite proof of this process is however still missing. Pulsar Wind Nebulae (PWN) - diffuse structures surrounding young pulsars - are another class of objects known to be a site of particle acceleration in the Galaxy, again through the detection of hard synchrotron X-rays such as in the Crab Nebula. Gamma-rays above 100 MeV provide a direct access to acceleration processes. The GLAST Large Area telescope (LAT) will be operating in the energy range between 30 MeV and 300 GeV and will provide excellent sensitivity, angular and energy resolution in a previously rather poorly explored energy band. We will describe prospects for the investigation of these Galactic particle accelerators with GLAST.

GLAST Collaboration; S. Funk

2007-09-20

8

Future GLAST Observations of Supernova Remnants And Pulsar Wind Nebulae  

SciTech Connect

Shell-type Supernova remnants (SNRs) have long been known to harbour a population of ultra-relativistic particles, accelerated in the Supernova shock wave by the mechanism of diffusive shock acceleration. Experimental evidence for the existence of electrons up to energies of 100 TeV was first provided by the detection of hard X-ray synchrotron emission as e.g. in the shell of the young SNR SN1006. Furthermore using theoretical arguments shell-type Supernova remnants have long been considered as the main accelerator of protons - Cosmic rays - in the Galaxy; definite proof of this process is however still missing. Pulsar Wind Nebulae (PWN) - diffuse structures surrounding young pulsars - are another class of objects known to be a site of particle acceleration in the Galaxy, again through the detection of hard synchrotron X-rays such as in the Crab Nebula. Gamma-rays above 100 MeV provide a direct access to acceleration processes. The GLAST Large Area telescope (LAT) will be operating in the energy range between 30 MeV and 300 GeV and will provide excellent sensitivity, angular and energy resolution in a previously rather poorly explored energy band. We will describe prospects for the investigation of these Galactic particle accelerators with GLAST.

Funk, S.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park

2007-09-26

9

Future GLAST observations of Supernova remnants and Pulsar Wind Nebulae  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Shell-type Supernova remnants (SNRs) have long been known to harbour a population of ultra-relativistic particles, accelerated in the Supernova shock wave by the mechanism of Diffusive shock acceleration. Experimental evidence for the existence of electrons up to energies of ~100 TeV was first provided by the detection of hard X-ray synchrotron emission as e.g. in the shell of the young SNR SN1006. Furthermore using theoretical arguments shell-type Supernova remnants have long been considered as the main accelerator of protons - Cosmic rays - in the Galaxy; definite proof of this process is however still missing. Pulsar Wind Nebulae (PWN) - diffuse structures surrounding young pulsars - are another class of objects known to be a site of particle acceleration in the Galaxy, again through the detection of hard synchrotron X-rays such as in the Crab Nebula. Gamma-rays above 100 MeV provide a direct access to acceleration processes. Ultra-relativistic electrons emit gamma-radiation through Inverse Compton scattering in ubiquitous photon fields (such as CMBR, star light and dust emission or local synchrotron radiation), protons emit gamma-radiation through the decay of pi0s, generated in proton-proton interactions with Interstellar material such as gas clouds. Recent advances in ground-based gamma-ray astronomy e.g. made by Cherenkov Telescopes above an energy threshold of 100 GeV have shown, that both shell-type SNRs and PWN are classes of gamma-ray emitting objects in the Galaxy. The upcoming GLAST Large Area Telescope (LAT) will be operating in the energy range between 30 MeV and 300 GeV and will provide excellent sensitivity, angular and energy resolution in a poorly investigated energy band. Shell-type SNRs as well as PWN provide natural targets for GLAST observations and detections. We will describe prospects for the investigation of these Galactic particle accelerators with GLAST.

Funk, S.

10

Comparing supernova remnants around strongly magnetized and canonical pulsars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The origin of the strong magnetic fields measured in magnetars is one of the main uncertainties in the neutron star field. On the other hand, the recent discovery of a large number of such strongly magnetized neutron stars is calling for more investigation on their formation. The first proposed model for the formation of such strong magnetic fields in magnetars was through alpha-dynamo effects on the rapidly rotating core of a massive star. Other scenarios involve highly magnetic massive progenitors that conserve their strong magnetic moment into the core after the explosion, or a common envelope phase of a massive binary system. In this work, we do a complete re-analysis of the archival X-ray emission of the supernova remnants (SNRs) surrounding magnetars, and compare our results with all other bright X-ray emitting SNRs, which are associated with compact central objects (which are proposed to have magnetar-like B-fields buried in the crust by strong accretion soon after their formation), high-B pulsars and normal pulsars. We find that emission lines in SNRs hosting highly magnetic neutron stars do not differ significantly in elements or ionization state from those observed in other SNRs, neither averaging on the whole remnants, nor studying different parts of their total spatial extent. Furthermore, we find no significant evidence that the total X-ray luminosities of SNRs hosting magnetars, are on average larger than that of typical young X-ray SNRs. Although biased by a small number of objects, we found that for a similar age, there is the same percentage of magnetars showing a detectable SNR than for the normal pulsar population.

Martin, J.; Rea, N.; Torres, D. F.; Papitto, A.

2014-11-01

11

Future GLAST Observations of Supernova Remnants and Pulsar Wind Nebulae  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Shell-type Supernova remnants (SNRs) have long been known to harbour a population of ultra-relativistic particles, accelerated in the Supernova shock wave by the mechanism of Diffusive shock acceleration. Experimental evidence for the existence of electrons up to energies of 100 TeV was first provided by the detection of hard X-ray synchrotron emission as e.g. in the shell of the young SNR SN1006. Furthermore using theoretical arguments shell-type Supernova remnants have long been considered as the main accelerator of protons Cosmic rays in the Galaxy; definite proof of this process is however still missing. Pulsar Wind Nebulae (PWN) diffuse structures surrounding young pulsars are another class of objects known to be a site of particle acceleration in the Galaxy, again through the detection of hard synchrotron X-rays such as in the Crab Nebula. Gamma-rays above 100 MeV provide a direct access to acceleration processes. Ultra-relativistic electrons emit gamma-radiation through Inverse Compton scattering in ubiquitous photon fields (such as CMBR, star light and dust emission or local synchrotron radiation), protons emit gamma-radiation through the decay of pi0s, generated in proton-proton interactions with Interstellar material such as gas clouds. Recent advances in ground-based gamma-ray astronomy e.g. made by Cherenkov Telescopes above an energy threshold of 100 GeV have shown, that both shell-type SNRs and PWN are classes of gamma-ray emitting objects in the Galaxy. The upcoming GLAST Large Area Telescope (LAT) will be operating in the energy range between 30 MeV and 300 GeV and will provide excellent sensitivity, angular and energy resolution in a poorly investigated energy band. Shell-type SNRs as well as PWN provide natural targets for GLAST observations and detections and in this poster we will describe prospects for the investigation of these Galactic particle accelerators with GLAST.

Funk, Stefan; LAT Collab. Pulsars, GLAST; SNR; Plerions Group

2006-12-01

12

Comparing supernova remnants around strongly magnetized and canonical pulsars  

E-print Network

The origin of the strong magnetic fields measured in magnetars is one of the main uncertainties in the neutron star field. On the other hand, the recent discovery of a large number of such strongly magnetized neutron stars, is calling for more investigation on their formation. The first proposed model for the formation of such strong magnetic fields in magnetars was through alpha-dynamo effects on the rapidly rotating core of a massive star. Other scenarios involve highly magnetic massive progenitors that conserve their strong magnetic moment into the core after the explosion, or a common envelope phase of a massive binary system. In this work, we do a complete re-analysis of the archival X-ray emission of the Supernova Remnants (SNR) surrounding magnetars, and compare our results with all other bright X-ray emitting SNRs, which are associated with Compact Central Objects (CCOs; which are proposed to have magnetar-like B-fields buried in the crust by strong accretion soon after their formation), high-B pulsar...

Martin, J; Torres, D F; Papitto, A

2014-01-01

13

The pulsar wind nebula around PSR B1853+01 in the supernova remnant W44  

E-print Network

We present radio observations of a region in the vicinity of the young pulsar PSR B1853+01 in the supernova remnant W44. The pulsar is located at the apex of an extended feature with cometary morphology. We argue on the basis of its morphology and its spectral index and polarization properties that this is a synchrotron nebula produced by the spin down energy of the pulsar. The geometry and physical parameters of this pulsar-powered nebula and W44 are used to derive three different measures of the pulsar's transverse velocity. A range of estimates between 315 and 470 km/s are derived, resulting in a typical value of 375 km/s. The observed synchrotron spectrum from radio to X-ray wavelengths is used to put constraints on the energetics of the nebula and to derive the parameters of the pulsar wind.

Frail, D A; Goss, W M; Dubner, G M

1996-01-01

14

A new nearby pulsar wind nebula overlapping the RX J0852.0-4622 supernova remnant  

E-print Network

Energetic pulsars can be embedded in a nebula of relativistic leptons which is powered by the dissipation of the rotational energy of the pulsar. The object PSR J0855-4644 is an energetic and fast-spinning pulsar (Edot = 1.1x10^36 erg/s, P=65 ms) discovered near the South-East rim of the supernova remnant (SNR) RX J0852.0-4622 (aka Vela Jr) by the Parkes multibeam survey. The position of the pulsar is in spatial coincidence with an enhancement in X-rays and TeV gamma-rays, which could be due to its putative pulsar wind nebula (PWN). The purpose of this study is to search for diffuse non-thermal X-ray emission around PSR J0855-4644 to test for the presence of a PWN and to estimate the distance to the pulsar. An X-ray observation was carried out with the XMM-Newton satellite to constrain the properties of the pulsar and its nebula. The absorption column density derived in X-rays from the pulsar and from different regions of the rim of the SNR was compared with the absorption derived from the atomic (HI) and mol...

Acero, F; Ballet, J; Renaud, M; Terrier, R

2012-01-01

15

Chandra Detection of a Pulsar Wind Nebula Associated With Supernova Remnant 3C 396  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We present a 100 ks observation of the Galactic supernova remnant 3C396 (G39.2-0.3) with the Chandra X-Ray Observatory that we compare to a 20cm map of the remnant from the Very Large Array. In the Chandra images, a nonthermal nebula containing an embedded pointlike source is apparent near the center of the remnant which we interpret as a synchrotron pulsar wind nebula surrounding a yet undetected pulsar. From the 2-10 keV spectrum for the nebula (N(sub H) = 5.3 plus or minus 0.9 x 10(exp 22) per square centimeter, GAMMA =1.5 plus or minus 0.3) we derive an unabsorbed x-ray flux of S(sub z)=1.62 x 10(exp -12) erg per square centimeter per second, and from this we estimate the spin-down power of the neutron star to be E(sup dot) = 7.2 x 10(exp 36) ergs per second. The central nebula is morphologically complex, showing bent, extended structure. The radio and X-ray shells of the remnant correlate poorly on large scales, particularly on the eastern half of the remnant, which appears very faint in X-ray images. At both radio and X-ray wavelengths the western half of the remnant is substantially brighter than the east.

Olbert, C. M.; Keohane, J. W.; Arnaud, K. A.; Dyer, K. K.; Reynolds, S. P.; Safi-Harb, S.

2003-01-01

16

Signatures of pulsars in the light curves of newly formed supernova remnants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We explore the effect of pulsars, in particular those born with millisecond periods, on their surrounding supernova ejectas. While they spin down, fast-spinning pulsars release their tremendous rotational energy in the form of a relativistic magnetized wind that can affect the dynamics and luminosity of the supernova. We estimate the thermal and non-thermal radiations expected from these specific objects, concentrating at times a few years after the onset of the explosion. We find that the bolometric light curves present a high luminosity plateau (that can reach 1043-1044 erg s-1) over a few years. An equally bright TeV gamma-ray emission, and a milder X-ray peak (of the order of 1040-1042 erg s-1) could also appear a few months to a few years after the explosion, as the pulsar wind nebula emerges, depending on the injection parameters. The observations of these signatures by following the emission of a large number of supernovae could have important implications for the understanding of core-collapse supernovae and reveal the nature of the remnant compact object.

Kotera, K.; Phinney, E. S.; Olinto, A. V.

2013-07-01

17

The Fermi Gamma Ray Space Telescope discovers the Pulsar in the Young Galactic Supernova-Remnant CTA 1  

SciTech Connect

Energetic young pulsars and expanding blast waves (supernova remnants, SNRs) are the most visible remains after massive stars, ending their lives, explode in core-collapse supernovae. The Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope has unveiled a radio quiet pulsar located near the center of the compact synchrotron nebula inside the supernova remnant CTA 1. The pulsar, discovered through its gamma-ray pulsations, has a period of 316.86 ms, a period derivative of 3.614 x 10{sup -13} s s{sup -1}. Its characteristic age of 10{sup 4} years is comparable to that estimated for the SNR. It is conjectured that most unidentified Galactic gamma ray sources associated with star-forming regions and SNRs are such young pulsars.

Abdo, Aous A.; Ackermann, M.; Atwood, W.B.; Baldini, L.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Baring, M.G.; Bastieri, Denis; Baughman, B.M.; Bechtol, K.; Bellazzini, R.; Berenji, B.; Blandford, R.D.; Bloom, Elliott D.; Bogaert, G.; Bonamente, E.; Borgland, A.W.; Bregeon, J.; Brez, A.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P.

2009-05-15

18

A Near-Infrared Search for Counterparts to Three Pulsars in Young Supernova Remnants  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present moderately deep JHKs-band searches for near-infrared counterparts to three energetic pulsars in young supernova remnants: PSR B1509-58, PSR J1811-1925, and PSR J1930+1852. We identify a possible counterpart to PSR B1509-58 (which has H~=20.6 mag and Ks~=19.4 mag, comparable to the flux extrapolated from the X-ray spectrum) with an X-ray-to-infrared flux ratio very similar to that of the Crab

David L. Kaplan; Dae-Sik Moon

2006-01-01

19

Constraining the Evolutionary Fate of Central Compact Objects: "Old" Radio Pulsars in Supernova Remnants  

E-print Network

Central compact objects (CCOs) constitute a population of radio-quiet, slowly-spinning ($\\ge$100 ms) young neutron stars with anomalously high thermal X-ray luminosities. Their spin-down properties imply weak dipole magnetic fields ($\\sim$$10^{10-11}$ G) and characteristic ages much greater than the ages of their host supernova remnants (SNRs). However, CCOs may possess strong "hidden" internal magnetic fields that may re-emerge on timescales $\\gtrsim$10 kyr, with the neutron star possibly activating as a radio pulsar in the process. This suggests that the immediate descendants of CCOs may be masquerading as slowly spinning "old" radio pulsars. We present an X-ray survey of all ordinary radio pulsars within 6 kpc that are positionally coincident with Galactic SNRs in order to test the possible connection between the supposedly old, but possibly very young pulsars, and the SNRs. None of the targets exhibits anomalously high thermal X-ray luminosity, suggesting that they are genuine old ordinary pulsars unrelat...

Bogdanov, Slavko; Kaspi, Victoria M

2014-01-01

20

Non-thermal emission in astrophysical environments: From pulsars to supernova remnants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study of electromagnetic radiation from distant astrophysical objects provides essential data in understanding physics of these sources. In particular, non-thermal radiation provides great insight into the properties of local environments, particle populations, and emission mechanisms, knowledge which otherwise would remain untapped. Throughout the projects conducted for this dissertation, we modeled certain aspects of observed non-thermal emission from three classes of sources: radio pulsars, pulsar wind nebulae, and supernova remnants. Orbital variation in the double pulsar system PSR J0737-3039A/B can be used to probe the details of the magnetospheric structure of pulsar B. Strongly magnetized wind from pulsar A distorts the magnetosphere of pulsar B in a way similar to the solar wind's distortion of the Earth's magnetosphere. Using the two complimentary models of pulsar B's magnetosphere, adapted from the Earth's magnetosphere models by Dungey and Tsyganenko, we determine the precise location of the coherent radio emission generation region in pulsar B's magnetosphere. This analysis is complemented by modeling the observed evolution of the pulse profiles of B due to geodetic precession. The emission region is located at about 3750 stellar radii and has a horseshoe-like shape centered on the polar magnetic field lines. The best fit angular parameters of the emission region indicate that radio emission is generated on the field lines which, according to the theoretical models, originate close to the poles and carry the maximum current. When considered together, not only do the results of the two models converge, they can explain why the modulation of B's radio emission at A's period is observed only within a certain orbital phase region. We discuss the implications of these results for pulsar magnetospheric models and mechanisms of coherent radio emission generation. We also developed a spatially-resolved, analytic model for the high-energy non-thermal emission from pulsar wind nebulae (PWNe). Theoretically, synchrotron cooling should cause a gradual change in particle spectrum downstream. This effect is indeed observed in the X-ray spectra of The Crab Nebula , 3C 58, and G21.5.0.9. However, current theoretical models of PWNe that only account for the bulk motion in the pulsar outflow overestimate the steepening of the resulted emission spectrum. This implies that there is an additional mechanism of particle transport which would supply energetic particles to the outer layers of the PWN. Our model solves the lack of high-energy electrons in the outer regions of the nebula by taking the diffusion of particles into account. The resulting multi-wavelength spectra exhibits multiple breaks, which is in agreement with observations. Thin non-thermal X-ray filaments are often seen near shock fronts in young supernova remnants (SNRs), often spatially coincident with the high energy gamma-ray emission. The formation of such discrete features is likely influenced by the combined effects of radiative cooling, advection, and diffusion. Spatially-resolved spectral studies of the filaments may, therefore, provide significant insights into the relative importance of main physical processes involved in young SNRs. Using 1 Ms Chandra observation of Cassiopeia A, we perform advection-diffusion modeling of synchrotron emission of filaments to measure the magnetic field, shock obliquity, the diffusion strength and the plasma turbulence level.

Lomiashvili, David

21

A Near-Infrared Search for Counterparts to Three Pulsars in Young Supernova Remnants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present moderately deep JHKs-band searches for near-infrared counterparts to three energetic pulsars in young supernova remnants: PSR B1509-58, PSR J1811-1925, and PSR J1930+1852. We identify a possible counterpart to PSR B1509-58 (which has H~=20.6 mag and Ks~=19.4 mag, comparable to the flux extrapolated from the X-ray spectrum) with an X-ray-to-infrared flux ratio very similar to that of the Crab pulsar on the basis of its coincidence with the X-ray and radio positions and its anomalous colors, but whether or not we have identified the correct counterpart remains to be confirmed by future observations. For PSR J1811-1925 and PSR J1930+1852 we detect no counterparts, which seems to be consistent with the X-ray-to-infrared flux ratios implied by other young pulsars. Based, in part, on data obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership between the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and NASA, and was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation.

Kaplan, David L.; Moon, Dae-Sik

2006-06-01

22

ROSAT observations of the unusual supernova remnant CTB 80 containing the pulsar PSR 1951 + 32  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The unusal supernova remnant CTB, 80 containing the 39.5 ms pulsar PSR 1951 + 32, has been observed with the Position Sensitive Proportional Counter (PSPC) and the High Resolution Imager (HRI) aboard ROSAT. The HRI image, centered on the pulsar, is composed of a bright compact core of approximately 1 arcminute radius containing the pulsar and a compact nebula, as well as a diffuse nebula extending approximately 5 arcminutes eastward of the pulsar. The PSPC allowed us to model the spectra of the point source, the compact nebula and the 5 arcminute diffuse nebula. For a power-law spectrum with photon index Gamma approximately 2 and an interstellar column density of N(sub H) approximately 3 x 10(exp 21)/cm(exp 21) the derived luminosities are approximately 2.3 x 10(exp 33) d(sub 2.5)(exp 2) ergs/s from the pointlike source, approximately 3.9 x 10(exp 33) d(sup 2.5)(exp 2) ergs/s from the compact nebula, and approximately 1.8 x 10(exp 33) d(sub 2.5)(exp 2) ergs/s from the 5 arcminutes diffuse nebula. In addition, the 2 deg diameter circular field of view of the PSPC reveals a hard emission feature southeast of the pulsar with a conical geometry extending out to the edge of the detector. The spectrum from this region is well described by a two-temperature Raymond-Smith thermal plasma with an average temperature of approximately 10(exp 7) K and a luminosity of approximately 10(exp 34)d(sub 2.5)(exp 2) ergs/s. Pulsations from the 39.5 ms puslar, PSR 1951 + 32, are detected at the 99% confidence level. The implied pulsed fration is approximately 35% with a complicated energy-dependent behavior. The compact core and the extended diffuse nebula can be explained as synchrotron radiation from the relativistic pulsar wind confined by the ram pressure of the surrounding inhomgeneous medium. The conelike feature detected southeast of PSR 1951 + 32 is consistent with emission from an optically thin SNR in the radiative cooling phase of its evolution.

Safi-Harb, Samar; Ogelman, Hakki; Finley, John P.

1995-01-01

23

VERITAS Observations of Supernova Remnants and Pulsar Wind Nebulae in the Fermi Era  

E-print Network

Supernova remnants (SNRs) are among the strongest candidates to explain the flux of cosmic rays below the knee around 10^15 eV. Pulsar wind nebulae (PWNe), synchrotron nebulae powered by the spin-down of energetic young pulsars, comprise one of the most populous VHE gamma-ray source classes. Gamma-ray studies in the GeV and TeV bands probe the nature (ions vs. electrons), production, and diffusion of high-energy particles in SNRs and PWNe. For sources that are visible across both the GeV and TeV bands, such as IC 443, the spatial and spectral distribution of gamma rays can be studied over an unprecedented energy range. This presentation will review recent VERITAS results, including studies of Cassiopeia A, IC 443, PSR J1930+1852, and the SNR G106.3+2.7/Boomerang region, and discuss prospects for complementary studies of SNRs and PWNe in the Fermi and VHE gamma-ray bands.

Humensky, Thomas Brian

2009-01-01

24

Studies of Pulsar Wind Nebula in the Supernova Remnant IC443: Preliminary Observations from the Chandra Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Preliminary observations of the Chandra data were made in order to study the Pulsar Wind Nebula in the Supernova Remnant IC443. The Chandra X-ray observatory short observation on IC443 was centred on 13 chip ACIS. The CIAO analytical programme was used for the data analysis. The data were separated into point source, with an energy range of 2.1 to 10.0

E. A. Ariyibi

2009-01-01

25

Observation of Crab-Like Supernova Remnants  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of this program was to observe the supernova remnants 3C58 and G21.5-0.9 and to search for pulsed emission. If a pulsar were to be found, the period derivative and inferred magnetic field would have extreme values if pulsar evolution had followed the standard model. If this is not the case, the standard model must be revised. We also sought to obtain very accurate measurement of the synchrotron emission spectrum of each remnant.

Seward, Frederick D.

2001-01-01

26

A Multi-Frequency Radio Study of Supernova Remnant G292.0+1.8 and its Pulsar Wind Nebula  

E-print Network

(Abridged) We present a detailed radio study of the young supernova remnant (SNR) G292.0+1.8 and its associated pulsar PSR J1124-5916, using the Australia Telescope Compact Array at observing wavelengths of 20, 13 and 6 cm. We find that the radio morphology of the source consists of three main components: a polarized flat-spectrum central core coincident with the pulsar J1124-5916, a surrounding circular steep-spectrum plateau with sharp outer edges and, superimposed on the plateau, a series of radial filaments with spectra significantly flatter than their surroundings. HI absorption argues for a lower limit on the distance to the system of 6 kpc. The core clearly corresponds to radio emission from a pulsar wind nebula powered by PSR J1124-5916, while the plateau represents the surrounding SNR shell. The plateau's sharp outer rim delineates the SNR's forward shock, while the thickness of the plateau region demonstrates that the forward and reverse shocks are well-separated. Assuming a distance of 6 kpc and an age for the source of 2500 yr, we infer an expansion velocity for the SNR of ~1200 km/s and an ambient density ~0.9 cm^-3. We interpret the flat-spectrum radial filaments superimposed on the steeper-spectrum plateau as Rayleigh-Taylor unstable regions between the forward and reverse shocks of the SNR. The flat radio spectrum seen for these features results from efficient second-order Fermi acceleration in strongly amplified magnetic fields.

B. M. Gaensler; B. J. Wallace

2003-05-09

27

Deep X-Ray Observations of the Young High-magnetic-field Radio Pulsar J1119-6127 and Supernova Remnant G292.2-0.5  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-magnetic-field radio pulsars are important transition objects for understanding the connection between magnetars and conventional radio pulsars. We present a detailed study of the young radio pulsar J1119-6127, which has a characteristic age of 1900 yr and a spin-down-inferred magnetic field of 4.1 × 1013 G, and its associated supernova remnant G292.2-0.5, using deep XMM-Newton and Chandra X-ray Observatory exposures of over 120 ks from each telescope. The pulsar emission shows strong modulation below 2.5 keV with a single-peaked profile and a large pulsed fraction of 0.48 ± 0.12. Employing a magnetic, partially ionized hydrogen atmosphere model, we find that the observed pulse profile can be produced by a single hot spot of temperature 0.13 keV covering about one-third of the stellar surface, and we place an upper limit of 0.08 keV for an antipodal hot spot with the same area. The non-uniform surface temperature distribution could be the result of anisotropic heat conduction under a strong magnetic field, and a single-peaked profile seems common among high-B radio pulsars. For the associated remnant G292.2-0.5, its large diameter could be attributed to fast expansion in a low-density wind cavity, likely formed by a Wolf-Rayet progenitor, similar to two other high-B radio pulsars.

Ng, C.-Y.; Kaspi, V. M.; Ho, W. C. G.; Weltevrede, P.; Bogdanov, S.; Shannon, R.; Gonzalez, M. E.

2012-12-01

28

The Young Core-Collapse Supernova Remnant G11.2-0.3: An Asymmetric Circumstellar Medium and a Variable Pulsar Wind Nebula  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

G11.2-0.3 is a young supernova remnant (SNR) that has been suggested to be associated with a historical supernova of 386 AD. In addition to a bright radio and X-ray shell, it contains a pulsar wind nebula (PWN) and a 65 ms pulsar. We present first results from new deep (about 400 ks in duration) Chandra observations from 2013 May and September. Ahead of the main shell, there are a number of outlying X-ray protrusions surrounded by bow shocks, presumably produced by dense ejecta knots. Pronounced spectral variations are seen in thermal X-ray spectra of the main shell, indicating the presence of shocks with a wide range in shock speeds and large spatial variations in intervening absorption. A band of soft X-ray emission is clearly seen at the remnant's center. We interpret this band as a result of the interaction of supernova ejecta with the strongly asymmetric wind produced by a red supergiant SN progenitor shortly before its explosion. We study interstellar absorption in the central region of the remnant, finding high absorption everywhere. This rules out the association of G11.2-0.3 with SN 386. The PWN is dominated by a bright "jet" whose spatial morphology is markedly different between our May and September observations.

Borkowski, Kazimierz J.; Moseby, A.; Reynolds, S. P.

2014-01-01

29

Timing Behavior of the Magnetically Active Rotation-Powered Pulsar in the Supernova Remnant Kesteven 75  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We report a large spin-up glitch in PSR J1846-0258 which coincided with the onset of magnetar-like behavior on 2006 May 31. We show that the pulsar experienced an unusually large glitch recovery, with a recovery fraction of Q = 5.9+/-0.3, resulting in a net decrease of the pulse frequency. Such a glitch recovery has never before been observed in a rotation-powered pulsar, however, similar but smaller glitch over-recovery has been recently reported in the magnetar AXP 4U 0142+61 and may have occurred in the SGR 1900+14. We discuss the implications of the unusual timing behavior in PSR J1846-0258 on its status as the first identified magnetically active rotation-powered pulsar.

Livingstone, Margaret A.; Gavriil, Fotis P.; Kaspi, Victoria M.

2009-01-01

30

Discovery of a young, 267 millisecond pulsar in the supernova remnant W44  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper reports the discovery of a 267 msec pulsar, PSR 1853 + 01, in the SNR W44 (G34.7 - 0.4), located south of the W44, well within its radio shell and at the outher edge of the X-ray emission region which fills the SNR interior. The PSR 1853 + 01 is separated only 20 arcmin from the PSR 1854 + 00 pulsar discovered by Mohanty (1983). Results of timing observatons of PSR 1853 + 01 are presented, and a possible relationship between the two objects is examined. It is suggested that the two pulsars may have a common origin in a binary system disrupted by the explosion that produced W44.

Wolszczan, A.; Cordes, J. M.; Dewey, R. J.

1991-01-01

31

The Supernova Remnant CTA 1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The supernova remnants G327.1-1.1 and G327.4+0.4 (Kes 27) are located 1.5 deg apart in the constellation Norma. In 1980, Einstein IPC observations discovered that both were irregular filled-center X-ray sources with possible point sources superposed. This paper describes new ROSAT position sensitive proportional counter (PSPC) observations which both map the diffuse structure and clearly show several unresolved sources in each field. Both remnants have bright emitting regions inside the limb which might indicate the presence of high energy electrons accelerated by a pulsar. The interior region is more prominent in G327.1-1.1 than in Kes 27. The spectra are relatively strongly absorbed, as expected from distant remnants close to the galactic plane. Comparison of the X-ray and radio maps of each remnant allows us to attribute some emission to a shell and some to the interior. With this information, a blast-wave model is used to derive approximate ages and energy release. Indications are that the Kes 27 supernova deposited approximately 10(exp 51) ergs in the surrounding medium. The G327.1-1.1 event probably deposited a factor of 3-10 less.

Seward, Frederick D.

1996-01-01

32

Discovery of Radio Pulsations from the X-ray Pulsar JO205+6449 in Supernova Remnant 3C58 with the Green Bank Telescope  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We report the discovery with the 100m Green Bank Telescope of 65 ms radio pulsations from the X-ray pulsar J0205+6449 at the center of supernova remnant 3C58, making this possibly the youngest radio pulsar known. From our observations at frequencies of 820 and 1375 MHz, the free electron column density to USSR J0205+6449 is found to be 140.7 +/- 0.3/cc pc. The barycentric pulsar period P and P(dot) determined from a phase-coherent timing solution are consistent with the values previously measured from X-ray observations. The averaged radio profile of USSR J0205+6449 consists of one sharp pulse of width = 3 ms = 0.05 P. The pulsar is an exceedingly weak radio source, with pulse-averaged flux density in the 1400 MHz band of approximately 45 micro-Jy and a spectral index of approximately -2.1. Its radio luminosity of approximately 0.5 may kpc(exp 2) at 1400 MHz is lower than that of approximately 99% of known pulsar and is the lowest among known young pulsars.

Camilo, F.; Stairs, I. H.; Lorimer, D. R.; Backer, D. C.; Ransom, S. M.; Klein, B.; Wielebinski, R.; Kramer, M.; McLaughlin, M. A.; Arzoumanian, Z.; White, Nicholas E. (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

33

PSR J1833-1034: Discovery of the Central Young Pulsar in the Supernova Remnant G21.5-0.9  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have discovered the pulsar associated with the supernova remnant G21.5-0.9. PSR J1833-1034, with spin period P=61.8 ms and dispersion measure 169 cm-3 pc, is very faint, with pulse-averaged flux density of ~70 ?Jy at a frequency of 1.4 GHz, and was first detected in a deep search with the Parkes telescope. Subsequent observations with Parkes and the Green Bank Telescope have confirmed this detection and yield a period derivative P?=2.02×10-13. These spin parameters imply a characteristic age ?c=4.8 kyr and a spin-down luminosity E?=3.3×1037 ergs s-1, the latter value exceeded only by the Crab pulsar among the rotation-powered pulsars known in our Galaxy. The pulsar has an unusually steep radio spectrum in the 0.8-2.0 GHz range, with power-law index ~3.0, and a narrow single-peaked pulse profile with FWHM of 0.04P. We have analyzed 350 ks of archival Chandra X-Ray Observatory HRC data and find a pointlike source of luminosity ~3×10-5E?, offset from the center of an elliptical region of size ~7''×5'' and luminosity ~10-3E? within which likely lies the pulsar wind termination shock. We have searched for X-ray pulsations in a 30 ks HRC observation without success, deriving a pulsed fraction upper limit for a sinusoidal pulse shape of about 70% of the pulsar flux. We revisit the distance to G21.5-0.9 based on H I and CO observations, arguing that it is 4.7+/-0.4 kpc. We use existing X-ray and radio observations of the pulsar wind nebula, along with the measured properties of its engine and a recent detection of the supernova remnant shell, to argue that G21.5-0.9 and PSR J1833-1034 are much younger than ?c and likely their true age is <~1000 yr. In that case, the initial spin period of the pulsar was >~55 ms.

Camilo, F.; Ransom, S. M.; Gaensler, B. M.; Slane, P. O.; Lorimer, D. R.; Reynolds, J.; Manchester, R. N.; Murray, S. S.

2006-01-01

34

A Study of Composite Supernova Remnants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a study of composite supernova remnants (SNRs) and the detailed description of two of them, each one a good example of the two classes of composite SNRs. W44 is a thermal-dominated SNR with a shell-like morphology in the radio band and a distinctly peaked centered one in the X-ray. We have analyzed two different models to explain this particular X-ray-emission spatial distribution. In addition, we have for the first time detected the X-ray synchrotron nebula associated with the radio pulsar PSR B1853+01 located within the boundaries of the SNR. MSH 11-62 is a power-law-dominated remnant but no pulsar associated with the remnant has been detected until now. We have isolated the point-like source of high-energy emission coming from this SNR and deduce from the spectral analysis some characteristics of the pulsar yet to be detected in the radio band. Both of these SNRs present the characteristic of the center-filled remnants in contradiction with the standard scenarios of supernova evolution although they are very different from each other. It is very likely that W44 gets its centered-peaked profile from the dominating radiative losses as it is probably entering the radiative phase of standard supernova evolution, while MSH 11-62 gets its from the yet undetected radio pulsar most probably present at the center of the synchrotron emission detected. In addition, we have presented data on a middle age pulsar with no remnant counterpart but for which we detect synchrotron emission in much the same way that the emission is detected for MSH 11-62.

Harrus, Ilana Muriel

1997-10-01

35

Supernova Remnants And GLAST  

SciTech Connect

It has long been speculated that supernova remnants represent a major source of cosmic rays in the Galaxy. Observations over the past decade have ceremoniously unveiled direct evidence of particle acceleration in SNRs to energies approaching the knee of the cosmic ray spectrum. Nonthermal X-ray emission from shell-type SNRs reveals multi-TeV electrons, and the dynamical properties of several SNRs point to efficient acceleration of ions. Observations of TeV gamma-ray emission have confirmed the presence of energetic particles in several remnants as well, but there remains considerable debate as to whether this emission originates with high energy electrons or ions. Equally uncertain are the exact conditions that lead to efficient particle acceleration. Based on the catalog of EGRET sources, we know that there is a large population of Galactic gamma-ray sources whose distribution is similar to that of SNRs.With the increased resolution and sensitivity of GLAST, the gamma-ray SNRs from this population will be identified. Their detailed emission structure, along with their spectra, will provide the link between their environments and their spectra in other wavebands to constrain emission models and to potentially identify direct evidence of ion acceleration in SNRs. Here I summarize recent observational and theoretical work in the area of cosmic ray acceleration by SNRs, and discuss the contributions GLAST will bring to our understanding of this problem.

Slane, Patrick; /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys.

2011-11-29

36

DISCOVERY OF A HIGHLY ENERGETIC PULSAR ASSOCIATED WITH IGR J14003-6326 IN THE YOUNG UNCATALOGED GALACTIC SUPERNOVA REMNANT G310.6-1.6  

SciTech Connect

We report the discovery of 31.18 ms pulsations from the INTEGRAL source IGR J14003-6326 using the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE). This pulsar is most likely associated with the bright Chandra X-ray point source lying at the center of G310.6-1.6, a previously unrecognized Galactic composite supernova remnant (SNR) with a bright central non-thermal radio and X-ray nebula, taken to be the pulsar wind nebula (PWN). PSR J1400-6325 is amongst the most energetic rotation-powered pulsars in the Galaxy, with a spin-down luminosity of E-dot = 5.1x10{sup 37} erg s{sup -1}. In the rotating dipole model, the surface dipole magnetic field strength is B{sub s} = 1.1 x 10{sup 12} G and the characteristic age {tau}{sub c{identical_to}}P/2 P-dot = 12.7 kyr. The high spin-down power is consistent with the hard spectral indices of the pulsar and the nebula of 1.22 {+-} 0.15 and 1.83 {+-} 0.08, respectively, and a 2-10 keV flux ratio F {sub PWN}/F {sub PSR} {approx} 8. Follow-up Parkes observations resulted in the detection of radio emission at 10 and 20 cm from PSR J1400-6325 at a dispersion measure of {approx}560 cm{sup -3} pc, which implies a relatively large distance of 10 {+-} 3 kpc. However, the resulting location off the Galactic plane of {approx}280 pc would be much larger than the typical thickness of the molecular disk, and we argue that G310.6-1.6 lies at a distance of {approx}7 kpc. There is no gamma-ray counterpart to the nebula or pulsar in the Fermi data published so far. A multi-wavelength study of this new composite SNR, from radio to very high-energy gamma rays, suggests a young ({approx}<10{sup 3} yr) system formed by a sub-energetic ({approx}<10{sup 50} erg), low ejecta mass (M {sub ej} {approx} 3 M {sub sun}) supernova explosion that occurred in a low-density environment (n {sub 0{approx}} 0.01 cm{sup -3}).

Renaud, M.; Marandon, V.; Terrier, R.; Mattana, F.; Lebrun, F. [AstroParticule et Cosmologie (APC), CNRS-UMR 7164, Universite Paris 7 Denis Diderot, F-75205 Paris (France); Gotthelf, E. V. [Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, Columbia University, 550 West 120th Street, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Rodriguez, J. [CEA Saclay, Laboratoire AIM, CNRS-UMR 7158, DSM/IRFU/Service d'Astrophysique, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Tomsick, J. A. [Space Sciences Laboratory, 7 Gauss Way, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-7450 (United States); Manchester, R. N., E-mail: mrenaud@lpta.in2p3.f [CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science, Australia Telescope National Facility, P.O. Box 76, Epping NSW 1710 (Australia)

2010-06-10

37

CHANDRA AND XMM-NEWTON STUDIES OF THE SUPERNOVA REMNANT G292.2-0.5 ASSOCIATED WITH THE PULSAR J1119-6127  

SciTech Connect

We present the first detailed imaging and spatially resolved spectroscopic study of the Galactic supernova remnant (SNR) G292.2-0.5, associated with the high-magnetic field radio pulsar (PSR) J1119-6127, using Chandra and XMM-Newton. The high-resolution X-ray images reveal a partially limb-brightened morphology in the west, with diffuse emission concentrated toward the interior of the remnant unlike the complete shell-like morphology observed at radio wavelengths. The spectra of most of the diffuse emission regions within the remnant are best described by a two-component thermal+non-thermal model. The thermal component is described by a plane-parallel, non-equilibrium ionization plasma model with a temperature kT ranging from 1.3{sup +0.3}{sub -0.2} keV in the western side of the remnant to 2.3{sup +2.9}{sub -0.5} keV in the east, a column density increasing from 1.0{sup +0.1}{sub -0.6} Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 22} cm{sup -2} in the west to 1.8{sup +0.2}{sub -0.4} Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 22} cm{sup -2} in the east, and a low ionization timescale ranging from (5.7{sup +0.8}{sub -0.7}) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 9} cm{sup -3} s in the SNR interior to (3.6{sup +0.7}{sub -0.6}) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 10} cm{sup -3} s in the western side-suggestive of expansion of a young remnant in a low-density medium. The spatial and spectral differences across the SNR are consistent with the presence of a dark cloud in the eastern part of the SNR, absorbing the soft X-ray emission, as also revealed by the optical image of that region. The spectra from some of the regions also show slightly enhanced metal abundances from Ne, Mg, and Si, hinting at the first evidence for ejecta heated by the reverse shock. Comparing our inferred metal abundances to core-collapse nucleosynthesis models yields, we estimate a high progenitor mass of {approx}30 M{sub Sun} suggesting a Type Ib/c supernova. We confirm the presence of non-thermal X-ray emission from regions close to the pulsar, with the emission characterized by a power-law model with a hard photon index similar to that seen in the compact pulsar wind nebula. We estimate an SNR age range between 4.2 kyr (free expansion phase) and 7.1 kyr (Sedov phase) at an assumed distance of 8.4 kpc, a factor of a few higher than the measured pulsar's age upper limit of 1.9 kyr.

Kumar, Harsha S.; Safi-Harb, Samar [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, R3T 2N2 (Canada); Gonzalez, Marjorie E., E-mail: harsha@physics.umanitoba.ca, E-mail: samar@physics.umanitoba.ca, E-mail: gonzalez@phas.ubc.ca [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z1 (Canada)

2012-08-01

38

OH Masers and Supernova Remnants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

OH(1720 MHz) masers are created by the interaction of supernova remnants with molecular clouds. These masers are pumped by collisions in warm, shocked molecular gas with OH column densities in the range 1016-1017, cm-2. Excitation calculations suggest that inversion of the 6049 MHz OH line may occur at the higher column densities that have been inferred from main-line absorption studies of supernova remnants with the Green Bank Telescope. OH(6049 MHz) masers have therefore been proposed as a complementary indicator of remnant-cloud interaction. This motivated searches for 6049 MHz maser emission from supernova remnants using the Parkes 63 m and Effelsberg 100 m telescopes, and the Australia Telescope Compact Array. A total of forty-one remnants have been examined by one or more of these surveys, but without success. To check the accuracy of the OH column densities inferred from the single-dish observations we modelled OH absorption at 1667 MHz observed with the Very Large Array towards three supernova remnants, IC 443, W44 and 3C 391. The results are mixed - the OH column is revised upwards in IC443, downwards in 3C391, and is somewhat reduced in W44. We conclude that OH columns exceeding 1017 cm-2 are indeed present in some supernova remnants and so the lack of any detections is not explained by low OH column density. We discuss the possibility that non-local line overlap is responsible for suppressing the inversion of the 6049 MHz line.

Wardle, Mark; McDonnell, Korinne

2012-07-01

39

On understanding the lives of dead stars : Supernova Remnant N103B, radio pulsar B1951+32, and the Rabbit  

E-print Network

Using the Chandra High Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer, we observed the young Supernova Remnant N103B in the Large Magellanic Cloud as part of the Guaranteed Time Observation program. N103B has a small overall ...

Migliazzo, Joshua Marc, 1977-

2003-01-01

40

Young Pulsar Reveals Clues to Supernova  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Astronomers examined the remnants of a stellar explosion with NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory and discovered one of the youngest known pulsars. The properties of this pulsar, a neutron star rotating 15 times a second, will enable scientists to better understand how neutron stars are formed in the seconds just before a supernova explosion, and how they pump energy into the space around them for thousands of years after the explosion. A team led by Stephen Murray of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics in Cambridge, MA studied 3C58, the remains of a supernova observed on Earth in 1181 AD in the constellation Cassiopeia. In addition to a pulsating central source they observed an extended X-ray source surrounding the pulsar thought to be produced by a cloud of high-energy particles about 20 light years across. These results were presented at the "Two Years of Science with Chandra" symposium in Washington, D.C. According to Murray, "Our discovery shows that all pulsars are not born equal. This pulsar is about the same age as the Crab Nebula pulsar, but there is little family resemblance." Murray explained that the 3C58 pulsar, which is now rotating at about half the rate of the Crab pulsar, is rotating almost as fast as it was when it was formed. In contrast, the Crab pulsar was formed spinning much more rapidly and has slowed to about half its initial speed. Conventional theory has assumed that all pulsars were like the Crab, born with rapid rotation and then have spun down considerably. The observations of 3C58, along with Chandra observations by another group of scientists of a pulsar associated with the supernova of 386 AD have cast doubt on that assumption, however. Furthermore, the X-ray power of 3C58 and its surrounding nebula are 20,000 and 1,000 times weaker than the Crab pulsar and its surrounding nebula respectively. One possibility for the low power of 3C58 is that the energy flow from its pulsar is primarily in the form of electromagnetic fields, so the energy is transported to much greater distances from the pulsar, where it has yet to be detected. Another possibility is that the association of 3C58 with the supernova of 1181 AD is spurious, in which case 3C58 would be much older. In view of the lack of other radio and X-ray sources that could be the remnant of Supernova 1181 AD, this is considered unlikely. The team also used X-ray data taken by NASA's Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer satellite in 1997 to confirm the existence of the pulsar and to measure its present slow-down rate. The Chandra observations were made on November 30, 1999, and December 23, 2000, using the High Resolution Camera (HRC), which was built by the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory in Cambridge, Mass. under the direction of Stephen Murray. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL, manages the Chandra program for the Office of Space Science, Washington, DC. TRW, Inc., Redondo Beach, California, is the prime contractor for the spacecraft. The Smithsonian's Chandra X-ray Center controls science and flight operations from Cambridge, MA. Images associated with this release are available on the World Wide Web at: http://chandra.harvard.edu AND http://chandra.nasa.gov

2001-09-01

41

Optical supernova remnant observations from Skinakas Observatory  

Microsoft Academic Search

High energy studies of supernova remnants provide direct insight into major properties of these objects. Morphological and spectral studies of remnants in X-rays allow us to estimate parameters like the age of the remnant, the explosion energy and the ambient interstellar density. Optical studies of supernova remnants focus on the interaction of the primary blast wave with dense \\

F. Mavromatakis; J. Papamastorakis; J. Ventura; P. Boumis

2002-01-01

42

Identifying Elements in Supernova Remnants  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity has students use X-ray line data to identify elements contained in supernova remnants. In groups of 2 or more, they will be given several X-ray spectra from the ASCA X-ray satellite and will be asked to determine what elements are present, using a chart listing elements and the energies of their emission lines. Following a class discussion of their results, they will be given ASTRO-E spectra of the same sources and asked to determine which elements are present. Finally, they will be given spectra from Constellation-X and asked to determine what elements are present. Students will then compare and contrast Supernova Remnant Spectral Data from the three different X-ray observatories as a class. This site contains links to the simulated spectra, chart, student worksheet, and instructions.

2007-02-02

43

Super-luminous Supernova Remnants  

E-print Network

Some extragalactic SNRs are more than two orders of magnitude more luminous than the young Galactic SNR Cas A. These SNRs are called super-luminous or ultra-luminous SNRs. Their high luminosities can be caused by chance superpositions of multiple objects, interactions with a very dense environment, or unusually powerful supernova explosions. Four super-luminous SNRs are known: one in NGC 4449, one in NGC 6946, and two in M101. The two remnants in M101, NGC 5471B and MF83, are recently suggested to be "hypernova remnants" possibly connected to the GRBs. We have obtained new or archival HST WFPC2 images and new high-dispersion echelle spectra of these super-luminous SNRs, in order to examine their stellar and interstellar environments and to analyze their energetics. We discuss the physical nature of these four SNRs, with a special emphasis on the two ``hypernova remnants'' in M101.

Chu, Y H; Lai, S P; Chu, You-Hua; Lai, Shih-Ping

1999-01-01

44

Super-luminous Supernova Remnants  

E-print Network

Some extragalactic SNRs are more than two orders of magnitude more luminous than the young Galactic SNR Cas A. These SNRs are called super-luminous or ultra-luminous SNRs. Their high luminosities can be caused by chance superpositions of multiple objects, interactions with a very dense environment, or unusually powerful supernova explosions. Four super-luminous SNRs are known: one in NGC 4449, one in NGC 6946, and two in M101. The two remnants in M101, NGC 5471B and MF83, are recently suggested to be "hypernova remnants" possibly connected to the GRBs. We have obtained new or archival HST WFPC2 images and new high-dispersion echelle spectra of these super-luminous SNRs, in order to examine their stellar and interstellar environments and to analyze their energetics. We discuss the physical nature of these four SNRs, with a special emphasis on the two ``hypernova remnants'' in M101.

You-Hua Chu; C. -H. Rosie Chen; Shih-Ping Lai

1999-09-04

45

Molecular Environments of Supernova Remnants†  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are about 70 Galactic supernova remnants (SNRs) that are now confirmed or suggested to be in physical contact with molecular clouds (MCs) with six kinds of evidence of multiwavelength observations. Recent detailed CO-line spectroscopic mappings of a series of SNRs reveal them to be in cavities of molecular gas, implying the roles the progenitors may have played. We predict a linear correlation between the wind bubble sizes of main-sequence OB stars in a molecular environment and the stellar masses and discuss its implication for supernova progenitors. The molecular environments of SNRs can serve as a good probe for the ?-rays arising from the hadronic interaction of the accelerated protons, and this paper also discusses the ?-ray emission from MCs illuminated by diffusive protons that escape from SNR shocks.

Chen, Yang; Jiang, Bing; Zhou, Ping; Su, Yang; Zhou, Xin; Li, Hui; Zhang, Xiao

2014-01-01

46

Circumstellar Nebulae in Young Supernova Remnants  

E-print Network

Supernovae descendent from massive stars explode in media that have been modified by their progenitors' mass loss and UV radiation. The supernova ejecta will first interact with the circumstellar material shed by the progenitors at late evolutionary stages, and then interact with the interstellar material. Circumstellar nebulae in supernova remnants can be diagnosed by their small expansion velocities and high [N II]/H$\\alpha$ ratios. The presence of circumstellar nebulae appears ubiquitous among known young supernova remnants. These nebulae can be compared to those around evolved massive stars to assess the nature of their supernova progenitors. Three types of archeological artifacts of supernova progenitors have been observed in supernovae and/or young supernova remnants: (1) deathbed ejecta, (2) circumstellar nebulae, and (3) interstellar bubbles. Examples of these three types are given.

Y. -H. Chu

2000-12-29

47

Suzaku Observations of Young Supernova Remnants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have observed several young supernova remnants with the Japanese X-ray satellite Suzaku to study the nucleosynthesis in supernova explosions. We have discovered very low abundant elements, chromium, manganeese, for the first time in Tycho's Kepler's and N103B supernova remants. We also found nickel in Kepler's supernova remant. The production yield of those metals tells us the nucleosynthesis in the thermonuclear explosive supernovae metallicity environment at the progenitor stars were born.

Tamagawa, Toru

2010-08-01

48

Einstein Observations of Galactic supernova remnants  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper summarizes the observations of Galactic supernova remnants with the imaging detectors of the Einstein Observatory. X-ray surface brightness contours of 47 remnants are shown together with gray-scale pictures. Count rates for these remnants have been derived and are listed for the HRI, IPC, and MPC detectors.

Seward, Frederick D.

1990-01-01

49

$10^{51}$ Ergs The Evolution of Shell Supernova Remnants  

E-print Network

This paper reports on a workshop hosted by the University of Minnesota, March 23-26, 1997. It addressed fundamental dynamical issues associated with the evolution of shell supernova remnants and the relationships between supernova remnants and their environments. The workshop considered, in addition to classical shell SNRs, dynamical issues involving X-ray filled composite remnants and pulsar driven shells, such as that in the Crab Nebula. Approximately 75 participants with wide ranging interests attended the workshop. An even larger community helped through extensive on-line debates prior to the meeting. Each of the several sessions, organized mostly around chronological labels, also addressed some underlying, general physical themes: How are SNR dynamics and structures modified by the character of the CSM and the ISM and vice versa? How are magnetic fields generated in SNRs and how do magnetic fields influence SNRs? Where and how are cosmic-rays (electrons and ions) produced in SNRs and how does their prese...

Jones, T W; Jun, B I; Borkowski, K J; Dubner, G M; Frail, D A; Kang, H; Kassim, N E; McCray, R; Rudnick, Lawrence; Jun, Byung-Il; Borkowski, Kazimierz J.; Dubner, Gloria; Frail, Dale A.; Kang, Hyesung; Kassim, Namir E.; Cray, Richard Mc

1997-01-01

50

Antiprotons Produced in Supernova Remnants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the energy spectrum of an antiproton cosmic ray (CR) component calculated on the basis of the nonlinear kinetic model of CR production in supernova remnants (SNRs). The model includes the reacceleration of antiprotons already existing in the interstellar medium as well as the creation of antiprotons in nuclear collisions of accelerated protons with gas nuclei and their subsequent acceleration by SNR shocks. It is shown that the production of antiprotons in SNRs produces a considerable effect in their resultant energy spectrum, making it essentially flatter above 10 GeV so that the spectrum at TeV energies increases by a factor of 5. The calculated antiproton spectrum is consistent with the PAMELA data, which correspond to energies below 100 GeV. As a consistency check, we have also calculated within the same model the energy spectra of secondary nuclei and show that the measured boron-to-carbon ratio is consistent with the significant SNR contribution.

Berezhko, E. G.; Ksenofontov, L. T.

2014-08-01

51

Observations of the supernova remnant W28 at TeV energies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The atmospheric Cerenkov imaging technique has been used to search for point-like and diffuse TeV gamma-ray emission from the southern supernova remnant, W28, and surrounding region. The search, made with the CANGAROO 3.8 m telescope, encompasses a number of interesting features, the supernova remnant itself, the EGRET source 3EG J1800-2338, the pulsar PSR J1801-23, strong 1720 MHz OH masers and

G. P. Rowell; T. Naito; S. A. Dazeley; P. G. Edwards; S. Gunji; T. Hara; J. Holder; A. Kawachi; T. Kifune; Y. Matsubara; Y. Mizumoto; M. Mori; H. Muraishi; Y. Muraki; K. Nishijima; S. Ogio; J. R. Patterson; M. D. Roberts; T. Sako; K. Sakurazawa; R. Susukita; T. Tamura; T. Tanimori; G. J. Thornton; S. Yanagita; T. Yoshida; T. Yoshikoshi

2000-01-01

52

Fermi Proves Supernova Remnants Make Cosmic Rays  

NASA Video Gallery

The husks of exploded stars produce some of the fastest particles in the cosmos. New findings by NASA's Fermi show that two supernova remnants accelerate protons to near the speed of light. The pro...

53

Supernova remnants: the X-ray perspective  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Supernova remnants are beautiful astronomical objects that are also of high scientific interest, because they provide insights into supernova explosion mechanisms, and because they are the likely sources of Galactic cosmic rays. X-ray observations are an important means to study these objects. And in particular the advances made in X-ray imaging spectroscopy over the last two decades has greatly increased our knowledge about supernova remnants. It has made it possible to map the products of fresh nucleosynthesis, and resulted in the identification of regions near shock fronts that emit X-ray synchrotron radiation. Since X-ray synchrotron radiation requires 10-100 TeV electrons, which lose their energies rapidly, the study of X-ray synchrotron radiation has revealed those regions where active and rapid particle acceleration is taking place. In this text all the relevant aspects of X-ray emission from supernova remnants are reviewed and put into the context of supernova explosion properties and the physics and evolution of supernova remnants. The first half of this review has a more tutorial style and discusses the basics of supernova remnant physics and X-ray spectroscopy of the hot plasmas they contain. This includes hydrodynamics, shock heating, thermal conduction, radiation processes, non-equilibrium ionization, He-like ion triplet lines, and cosmic ray acceleration. The second half offers a review of the advances made in field of X-ray spectroscopy of supernova remnants during the last 15 year. This period coincides with the availability of X-ray imaging spectrometers. In addition, I discuss the results of high resolution X-ray spectroscopy with the Chandra and XMM-Newton gratings. Although these instruments are not ideal for studying extended sources, they nevertheless provided interesting results for a limited number of remnants. These results provide a glimpse of what may be achieved with future microcalorimeters that will be available on board future X-ray observatories. In discussing the results of the last 15 years I have chosen to discuss a few topics that are of particular interest. These include the properties of Type Ia supernova remnants, which appear to be regularly shaped and have stratified ejecta, in contrast to core collapse supernova remnants, which have patchy ejecta distributions. For core collapse supernova remnants I discuss the spatial distribution of fresh nucleosynthesis products, but also their properties in connection to the neutron stars they contain. For the mature supernova remnants I focus on the prototypal supernova remnants Vela and the Cygnus Loop. And I discuss the interesting class of mixed-morphology remnants. Many of these mature supernova remnants contain still plasma with enhanced ejecta abundances. Over the last five years it has also become clear that many mixed-morphology remnants contain plasma that is overionized. This is in contrast to most other supernova remnants, which contain underionized plasmas. This text ends with a review of X-ray synchrotron radiation from shock regions, which has made it clear that some form of magnetic-field amplification is operating near shocks, and is an indication of efficient cosmic-ray acceleration.

Vink, Jacco

2012-12-01

54

Supernova remnants: the X-ray perspective  

E-print Network

Supernova remnants are beautiful astronomical objects that are also of high scientific interest, because they provide insights into supernova explosion mechanisms, and because they are the likely sources of Galactic cosmic rays. X-ray observations are an important means to study these objects.And in particular the advances made in X-ray imaging spectroscopy over the last two decades has greatly increased our knowledge about supernova remnants. It has made it possible to map the products of fresh nucleosynthesis, and resulted in the identification of regions near shock fronts that emit X-ray synchrotron radiation. In this text all the relevant aspects of X-ray emission from supernova remnants are reviewed and put into the context of supernova explosion properties and the physics and evolution of supernova remnants. The first half of this review has a more tutorial style and discusses the basics of supernova remnant physics and thermal and non-thermal X-ray emission. The second half offers a review of the recen...

Vink, Jacco

2011-01-01

55

Core-collapse supernova remnants and interactions with their surroundings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis examines three core-collapse supernova remnants (SNR)---the Cygnus Loop in the Milky Way and 0453-68.5 and 0540-69.3 in the Large Magellanic Cloud---of varying ages and in varying states of interaction with the surrounding interstellar medium (ISM), using X-ray imaging spectroscopy with Chandra and supplemental data from other wavelengths. We use results from our analysis to address three main questions. First, we examine the applicability of the common Sedov-Taylor adiabatic blast wave model to core-collapse supernovae. Second, we determine the elemental abundances around the shell of these supernova remnants to determine if the use of SNRs as a gauge of abundances in the ISM is justified. Finally, we examine the pulsar wind nebulae (PWNe) in 0453-68.5 and 0540-69.3 and search for evidence of interaction between these PWNe and their immediate surroundings. We see highly inhomogeneous ISM surrounding all three surveyed SNRs, contrary to the key assumption in the Sedov-Taylor model of a uniform surrounding medium. In all three studied SNRs, we find that shock speeds are dependent on the density of the surrounding material. As subsidiary results, we also find depleted elemental abundances of oxygen, magnesium, and silicon, relative to typical ISM, around all three studied supernova remnants. Although this subsidiary result is not conclusive, we believe that it merits a followup study. In 0540-69.3 and 0453-68.5, which contain central pulsars, we find that the explosion directionality, which can be inferred from the pulsar's proper motion relative to the SNR, is not related to the morphology of the SNR itself. We conclude from this that the asymmetric shapes common in core-collapse supernova remnants can be more a function of the complex environments surrounding the progenitors of core-collapse supernovae than of the supernova explosions themselves. Finally, we see that the PWN in 0453-68.5 shows signs of having mixed with the surrounding thermal- emitting material, while the PWN in 0540-69.3 appears to have not mixed with or interacted with the surrounding SNR material to any substantial degree. We believe that this result may indicate that the degree of interaction between a PWN and its surroundings is dependent on age and possibly shell morphology, although further study is needed.

Brantseg, Thomas Felton

56

The neutron star born in the Antlia supernova remnant  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Among all known young nearby neutron stars, we search for the neutron star that was born in the same supernova event that formed the Antlia supernova remnant (SNR). We also look for a runaway star that could have been the former companion to the neutron star (if it exists) and then got ejected due to the same supernova. We find the pulsar PSR J0630-2834 to be the best candidate for a common origin with the Antlia SNR. In that scenario, the SNR is ?1.2 Myr old and is presently located at a distance of ?138 pc. We consider the runaway star HIP 47155 a former companion candidate to PSR J0630-2834. The encounter time and place is consistent with both stars being ejected from the Antlia SNR. We measured the radial velocity of HIP 47155 as 32.42 ± 0.70 km s-1.

Tetzlaff, N.; Torres, G.; Neuhäuser, R.; Hohle, M. M.

2013-10-01

57

The Distance to the Vela Supernova Remnant  

E-print Network

We have obtained high resolution Ca II and Na I absorption line spectra toward 68 OB stars in the direction of the Vela Supernova Remnant. The stars lie at distances of 190 -- 2800 pc as determined by Hipparcos and spectroscopic parallax estimations. The presence of high velocity absorption attributable to the remnant along some of the sight lines constrains the remnant distance to 250+/-30 pc. This distance is consistent with several recent investigations that suggest that the canonical remnant distance of 500 pc is too large.

Alexandra N. Cha; Kenneth R. Sembach; Anthony C. Danks

1999-02-16

58

X-ray spectra of supernova remnants  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

X-ray spectra were obtained from fields in three supernova remnants with the solid state spectrometer of the HEAO 2 satellite. These spectra, which contain lines from K-shell transitions of several abundant elements with atomic numbers between 10 and 22, were compared with various models, including some of spectra that would be produced by adiabatic phase remnants when the time-dependence of the ionization is considered.

Szymkowiak, A. E.

1985-01-01

59

Imagery and spectroscopy of supernova remnants and H-2 regions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Research activities relating to supernova remnants were summarized. The topics reviewed include: progenitor stars of supernova remnants, UV/optical/radio/X-ray imagery of selected regions in the Cygnus Loop, UV/optical spectroscopy of the Cygnus Loop spur, and extragalactic supernova remnant spectra.

Dufour, R. J.

1984-01-01

60

10^51 Ergs: The Evolution of Shell Supernova Remnants  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on the workshop ``10^51 Ergs: The Evolution of Shell Supernova Remnants,'' hosted by the University of Minnesota, 1997 March 23-26. The workshop was designed to address fundamental dynamical issues associated with the evolution of shell supernova remnants and to understand better the relationships between supernova remnants and their environments. Although the title points only to classical, shell

T. W. Jones; Lawrence Rudnick; Byung-Il Jun; Kazimierz J. Borkowski; Gloria Dubner; Dale A. Frail; Hyesung Kang; Namir E. Kassim; Richard McCray

1998-01-01

61

Ultra High Energy Neutrinos from Supernova Remnants  

E-print Network

In this paper we discuss possible ultra high energy ($\\ge$ TeV) neutrino emission from Supernova Remnants (SNRs), specifically the hadronic gamma ray production models. Recent very high energy (VHE) $\\gamma$ ray observation from SNRs is the main motivation behind this study.

Mou Roy

1999-01-15

62

HI Study of Southern Galactic Supernova Remnants  

E-print Network

We briefly summarize the survey of HI 21 cm emission lines to search for shocked atomic gas associated with Galactic supernova remnants (SNRs) in the southern sky. For G347.3-0.5, we discuss the distance to the SNR and the implications of the HI results.

Bon-Chul Koo; Ji-hyun Kang; Naomi McClure-Griffiths

2003-11-06

63

What causes barrel-shaped supernova remnants?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Even from the earliest crude radio maps of 40 years ago, it was apparent that Galactic supernova remnants (SNR) are anything but well-behaved expanding spheres. In particular a significant fraction of SNRs have a bilateral, or ``barrel'', morphology, with a clear axis of reflection symmetry along which there is negligible emission, and with bright flanks on either side. There are

B. M. Gaensler; A. J. Green; G. M. Dubner; E. B. Giacani; W. M. Goss

1998-01-01

64

Dynamics of Kepler's supernova remnant  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Observations of Kepler's SNR have revealed a strong interaction with the ambient medium, far in excess of that expected at a distance of about 600 pc away from the Galactic plane where Kepler's SNR is located. This has been interpreted as a result of the interaction of supernova ejecta with the dense circumstellar medium (CSM). Based on the bow-shock model of Bandiera (1985), we study the dynamics of this interaction. The CSM distribution consists of an undisturbed stellar wind of a moving supernova progenitor and a dense shell formed in its interaction with a tenuous interstellar medium. Supernova ejecta drive a blast wave through the stellar wind which splits into the transmitted and reflected shocks upon hitting this bow-shock shell. We identify the transmitted shock with the nonradiative, Balmer-dominated shocks found recently in Kepler's SNR. The transmitted shock most probably penetrated the shell in the vicinity of the stagnation point.

Borkowski, Kazimierz J.; Blondin, John M.; Sarazin, Craig L.

1992-01-01

65

$10^{51}$ Ergs: The Evolution of Shell Supernova Remnants  

E-print Network

This paper reports on a workshop hosted by the University of Minnesota, March 23-26, 1997. It addressed fundamental dynamical issues associated with the evolution of shell supernova remnants and the relationships between supernova remnants and their environments. The workshop considered, in addition to classical shell SNRs, dynamical issues involving X-ray filled composite remnants and pulsar driven shells, such as that in the Crab Nebula. Approximately 75 participants with wide ranging interests attended the workshop. An even larger community helped through extensive on-line debates prior to the meeting. Each of the several sessions, organized mostly around chronological labels, also addressed some underlying, general physical themes: How are SNR dynamics and structures modified by the character of the CSM and the ISM and vice versa? How are magnetic fields generated in SNRs and how do magnetic fields influence SNRs? Where and how are cosmic-rays (electrons and ions) produced in SNRs and how does their presence influence or reveal SNR dynamics? How does SNR blast energy partition into various components over time and what controls conversion between components? In lieu of a proceedings volume, we present here a synopsis of the workshop in the form of brief summaries of the workshop sessions. The sharpest impressions from the workshop were the crucial and under-appreciated roles that environments have on SNR appearance and dynamics and the critical need for broad-based studies to understand these beautiful, but enigmatic objects. \\\\

T. W. Jones; Lawrence Rudnick; Byung-Il Jun; Kazimierz J. Borkowski; Gloria Dubner; Dale A. Frail; Hyesung Kang; Namir E. Kassim; Richard McCray

1997-10-21

66

Grain Destruction in Evolving Supernova Remnants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Supernova remnant (SNR) shocks are believed to be the primary regions of destruction for interstellar dust grains. This destruction occurs primarily because of the grain acceleration that occurs when the shock causes the gas and magnetic field to be compressed. Most calculations of grain destruction in shocks have used steady, plane parallel shocks, but in the interstellar medium most shocks result from SNRs and have significant time dependent and non-planar effects. We present new results for grain destruction that use numerical hydrodynamical calculations of supernova remnant evolution and include all important grain processes. We show that the lower density behind SNR shocks leads to substantially less grain destruction, alleviating the discrepancy between the grain destruction and creation timescales for silicate grains.

Slavin, Jonathan David

2014-06-01

67

Resonance Line Scattering in Supernova Remnant Shocks  

E-print Network

We present a three dimensional radiative transfer model to examine the effects of resonance line scattering in the post-shock flow behind a non-radiative supernova remnant shock. For a rippled shock front viewed edge-on, line scattering significantly reduces the observed flux of CIV 1549 and NV 1240, two important diagnostic lines in the ultraviolet spectra of supernova remnants. The correction factor (defined to be the ratio of the line flux that would be observed neglecting scattering, to the actual observed line flux) is a function of position within the filament. For sufficiently large regions that include crisp edges as well as more diffuse regions of the filament structure, the CIV and NV correction factors are between about 1.5 and 3.5 (and the CIV correction factor is invariably larger than the NV correction factor). The correction factors have a larger range when smaller regions are considered. The CIV correction factor is about 6 at the filament edges, while the NV correction factor is about 4. These simulations of resonance line scattering will be useful for the analysis of supernova remnant shock spectra.

Ravi Sankrit; Kenneth Wood

2001-03-08

68

G65.2+5.7: A Thermal Composite Supernova Remnant With a Cool Shell  

E-print Network

This paper presents archival ROSAT PSPC observations of the G65.2+5.7 supernova remnant (also known as G65.3+5.7). Little material obscures this remnant and so it was well observed, even at the softest end of ROSAT's bandpass (~0.11 to 0.28 keV). These soft X-ray images reveal the remnant's centrally-filled morphology which, in combination with existing radio frequency observations, places G65.2+5.7 in the thermal composite (mixed morphology) class of supernova remnants. Not only might G65.2+5.7 be the oldest known thermal composite supernova remnant, but owing to its optically revealed cool, dense shell, this remnant supports the proposal that thermal composite supernova remnants lack X-ray bright shells because they have evolved beyond the adiabatic phase. These observations also reveal a slightly extended point source centered on RA = 19h 36m 46s, dec = 30deg 40' 07'' and extending 6.5 arcmin in radius in the band 67 map. The source of this emission has yet to be discovered, as there is no known pulsar at ...

Shelton, R L; Petre, R

2004-01-01

69

G65.2+5.7: A Thermal Composite Supernova Remnant with a Cool Shell  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents archival ROSAT PSPC observations of the G65.2+5.7 supernova remnant (also known as G65.3+5.7). Little material obscures this remnant and so it was well observed, even at the softest end of ROSATs bandpass (approx. 0.11 to 0.28 keV). These soft X-ray images reveal the remnant s centrally-filled morphology which, in combination with existing radio frequency observations, places G65.2+5.7 in the thermal composite (mixed morphology) class of supernova remnants. Not only might G65.2+5.7 be the oldest known thermal composite supernova remnant, but owing to its optically revealed cool, dense shell, this remnant supports the proposal that thermal composite supernova remnants lack X-ray bright shells because they have evolved beyond the adiabatic phase. These observations also reveal a slightly extended point source centered on RA = l9(sup h) 36(sup m) 46(sup s). dec = 30 deg.40 min.07 sec.and extending 6.5 arc min in radius in the band 67 map. The source of this emission has yet to be discovered, as there is no known pulsar at this location.

Shelton, R. L.; Kuntz, K. D.; Petre, R.

2004-01-01

70

Environs of Bilateral Supernova Remnants with Neutron Stars  

E-print Network

We report on Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) HI observations carried out in the direction of bilateral supernova remnants (SNRs) with associated neutron stars: G296.5+10.0 and G320.4--1.2, in a search for the origin of such morphology. From these studies we conclude that in the case of G296.5+10.0, located far from the Galactic plane, the HI distribution has not influenced the present morphology of the SNR. In the case of G320.4--1.2, evolving in a denser medium, the combined action of the central pulsar, PSR B1509-58, with the peculiar distribution of the surrounding medium, has determined the observed characteristics of the SNR.

G. Dubner; E. Giacani; B. M. Gaensler; W. M. Goss; A. J. Green

2001-12-06

71

Environs of Bilateral Supernova Remnants with Neutron Stars  

E-print Network

We report on Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) HI observations carried out in the direction of bilateral supernova remnants (SNRs) with associated neutron stars: G296.5+10.0 and G320.4--1.2, in a search for the origin of such morphology. From these studies we conclude that in the case of G296.5+10.0, located far from the Galactic plane, the HI distribution has not influenced the present morphology of the SNR. In the case of G320.4--1.2, evolving in a denser medium, the combined action of the central pulsar, PSR B1509-58, with the peculiar distribution of the surrounding medium, has determined the observed characteristics of the SNR.

Dubner, G M; Gaensler, B M; Goss, W M; Green, A J

2001-01-01

72

The Hubble Heritage Image of the Crab Nebula Supernova Remnant  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Hubble Heritage Project has the aim of providing the public with pictorially striking images of celestial objects obtained with NASA's Hubble Space Telescope. Here we present a 5-color Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2) image of the Crab Nebula, a ~950 year old supernova remnant located 6500 light-years distant in the constellation Taurus. The images were obtained in 1995 January and April, and the science investigation reporting results was published by Blair, W. P., et al. (1997, ApJS, 109, 473--480). Over 10 hours of exposure time through 5 separate optical continuum band and emission-line filters were used to study size scales and ionization structures of the filaments and newly synthesized dust within the expanding ejecta. The Heritage version of these data shows several important aspects of the Crab Nebula all in one spectacular image. The continuum image shows stars, including the enigmatic pulsar (the collapsed core of the original star) and the ghostly diffuse synchrotron nebula energized by the pulsar. The synchrotron nebula in turn heats and ionizes the surrounding clumpy filaments of gas and dust visible in the emission line images. These filaments are the supernova ejecta that were expelled during the explosion and are now expanding outward from the pulsar at high speed. The different colors in the picture show optical emission lines of hydrogen (orange), nitrogen (red), sulfur (pink) and oxygen (bluish-green). The subtle changes in color from one filament to the next arise because of varying temperatures and densities of the gas, and variable chemical abundances of the ``star stuff," or the doppler shifting of emission into or out of the various narrow filter bandpasses. Support for this work was provided by NASA through grant numbers GO-07632.01-96A and GO-5354.04-93A from the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555.

Blair, W. P.; English, J.; Bond, H. E.; Christian, C. A.; Frattare, L.; Hamilton, F.; Levay, Z.; Noll, K. S.

2000-05-01

73

VHE Gamma-ray Supernova Remnants  

SciTech Connect

Increasing observational evidence gathered especially in X-rays and {gamma}-rays during the course of the last few years support the notion that Supernova remnants (SNRs) are Galactic particle accelerators up to energies close to the ''knee'' in the energy spectrum of Cosmic rays. This review summarizes the current status of {gamma}-ray observations of SNRs. Shell-type as well as plerionic type SNRs are addressed and prospect for observations of these two source classes with the upcoming GLAST satellite in the energy regime above 100 MeV are given.

Funk, Stefan; /KIPAC, Menlo Park

2007-01-22

74

An optical and near-infrared search for a pulsar in Supernova 1987A  

SciTech Connect

The author describes a search for an optical pulsar in the remnant of Supernova 1987A. He performed over one hundred separate observations of the supernova, covering wavelengths from 3500 {angstrom} to 1.8 microns, with sensitivity to pulsations as faint as magnitude 22.7. As of September 26, 1990, no evidence was seen for pulsations due to a pulsar in the supernova. Implications of this result for predictions of pulsar optical luminosity are discussed. For the search, two photodiode detectors and a data system were built. Their design, calibration, and performance are described. The detectors allowed increased sensitivity of as much as a factor of 5 over standard photomultiplier tubes, and extended this search to near-infrared wavelengths.

Sasseen, T.P.

1990-01-01

75

An optical and near infrared search for a pulsar in Supernova 1987A  

SciTech Connect

We describe a search for an optical pulsar in the remnant of Supernova 1987A. We have performed over one hundred separate observations of the supernova, covering wavelengths from 3500 angstroms to 1.8 microns, with sensitivity to pulsations as faint as magnitude 22.7. As of September 26, 1990, we have not seen evidence for pulsations due to a pulsar in the supernova. We discuss the implications of this result on predictions of pulsar optical luminosity. We have constructed for the search two photodiode detectors and a data system. We describe their design, calibration and performance. These detectors have allowed us to increase our sensitivity as much as a factor of 5 over standard photomultiplier tubes, and extend this search to near infrared wavelengths. 59 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

Sasseen, T.P.

1990-12-01

76

The Interstellar Medium around the Supernova Remnant G320.4-1.2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using the Australia Telescope Compact Array, we have carried out a survey of the H I emission in the direction of the barrel-shaped supernova remnant (SNR) G320.4-1.2 (MSH 15-52) and its associated young pulsar B1509-58. The angular resolution of the data is 4.0'×2.7', and the rms noise is of order 30 mJy beam-1 (~0.5 K). The H I observations indicate

G. M. Dubner; B. M. Gaensler; E. B. Giacani; W. M. Goss; A. J. Green

2002-01-01

77

XMM-Newton Observations of the Galactic Supernova Remnant CTB 109  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Galactic supernova remnant (SNR) CTB 109 has a spectacular semi-circular morphology in both the X-ray and the radio and is associated with the anomalous X-ray pulsar 1E 2259+586. As no X-ray emission is observed from the western part of the SNR shell, the outer blast wave has apparently been stopped by a giant molecular cloud complex which is located

M. Sasaki; P. P. Plucinsky; T. J. Gaetz; R. K. Smith; R. J. Edgar; P. O. Slane

2003-01-01

78

The diffuse X-ray emission of the supernova remnant CTB 109  

Microsoft Academic Search

X-ray spatial structures and spectral mapping of the supernova remnant CTB 109 (G109.1-1.0) have been obtained by a 34,000 s ROSAT PSPC observation. CTB 109 appears a partial eastern X-ray shell surrounding the X-ray-bright central pulsar 1E 2259+586. There is no X-ray shell on the western side due to the interaction with a molecular cloud. The count rates of the

J.-H. Rho; R. Petre

1993-01-01

79

A Newly Discovered Supernova Remnant and MSH 11-62 and 3C58  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

CTA 1 is a center-filled supernova remnant (SNR) whose morphology and spectrum indicate the presence of a central pulsar, a synchrotron nebula, and a thermal component associated with the expansion of the blast wave into the interstellar medium. The centrally bright emission surrounds the position of a faint point source of X-rays observed with the ROSAT Position Sensitive Proportional Counter (PSPC). Here we report on Advanced Spacecraft for Cosmology Astrophysics (ASCA) observations that confirm the nonthermal nature of the diffuse emission from the central regions of the remnant. We also present evidence for weak thermal emission that appears to increase in strength toward the outer boundary of the SNR. Thus, CTA 1 appears to be an X-ray composite remnant. Both the aftermath of the explosive supernova event and the energetic compact core are observable.

Slane, Patrick O.

2000-01-01

80

A Study of Supernova Remnants with Center-Filled X-Ray Morphology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

CTA 1 is a center-filled supernova remnant (SNR) whose morphology and spectrum indicate the presence of a central pulsar, a synchrotron nebula, and a thermal component associated with the expansion of the blast wave into the interstellar medium. The centrally bright emission surrounds the position of a faint point source of x-rays observed with the ROSAT PSPC. Here we report on ASCA observations that confirm the nonthermal nature of the diffuse emission from the central regions of the remnant. We also present evidence for weak thermal emission that appears to increase in strength toward the outer boundary of the SNR. Thus, CTA 1 appears to be an x-ray composite remnant. Both the aftermath of the explosive supernova event and the energetic compact core are observable.

Slane, Patrick O.

1997-01-01

81

Interstellar scattering of compact radio sources near supernova remnants  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A multifrequency VLBI search for interstellar scattering of extragalactic radio sources near supernova remnants is reported. VLBI observations at 610, 1663, and 4991 MHz were made of compact sources near the supernova remnants CTA 1, G33.6 + 0.1, G74.9 + 1.2, and HB 21, and 610 MHz observations were also made of a source near HB 9. These observations were motivated by the possibility of enhanced cosmic ray-induced turbulence in front of supernova remnants, as expected in 'diffusive' theories of shock wave acceleration. Angular broadening is definitely seen in the case of the source 2013 + 370, which lies within 4 arcmin of the supernova remnant G74.9 + 1.2. Present observations cannot unambiguously attribute the scattering material to the supernova remnant, as the line of sight also passes through the Cygnus OB1 association. The source 1849 + 005 appears to be highly scattered, as fringes were not detected even on short baselines at 5 GHz. This result may be due to the low galactic longitude of this source rather than its proximity to the supernova remnant G 33.6 + 0.1. Broadening was not detected for sources whose lines of sight pass close to the supernova remnants HB 9, HB 21, and CTA 1.

Spangler, S. R.; Mutel, R. L.; Benson, J. M.; Cordes, J. M.

1986-01-01

82

Particle Acceleration by Shocks in Supernova Remnants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Particle acceleration occurs on a range of scales from AU in the heliosphere to Mpc in clusters of galaxies and to energies ranging from MeV to exaelectronvolt (EeV). A number of acceleration processes have been proposed, but diffusive shock acceleration (DSA) is widely invoked as the predominant mechanism. DSA operates on all these scales and probably to the highest energies. DSA is simple, robust and predicts a universal spectrum. However, there are still many unknowns regarding particle acceleration. This paper focuses on the particular question of whether supernova remnants (SNR) can produce the Galactic cosmic ray (CR) spectrum up to the knee at a few petaelectronvolt (PeV). The answer depends in large part on the detailed physics of diffusive shock acceleration.

Bell, Anthony Raymond

2014-10-01

83

New Light on Supernova Remnants: an Introduction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent significant advances in infrared, X-ray and gamma-ray observational astronomy have opened new horizons in the supernova remnant (SNR) research, greatly adding to the conventional radio and optical studies of these objects. This new exploration is just beginning, but a number of discoveries have been already reported, including unambiguous detection of nonthermal X-rays and association of gamma-ray sources with several SNRs. The observed radiation is associated either with collisionless shocks and the shock-heated plasmas or with neutron stars. The focus of this special session is on shocks: I will introduce the audience to the physics of strong collisionless shocks and discuss how physical processes in these shocks lead to the generation of the observed radiation throughout the electromagnetic spectrum. I will then sketch our current ideas about the evolution of SNRs, starting with young, ejecta-dominated remnants and ending with old, momentum-driven SNRs, and discuss the observational implications. The strong interrelation between observations throughout the electromagnetic spectrum is noted, reflecting the common underlying physics of collisionless shocks. Effects of dust grains on X-ray spectra, their thermal infrared emission, and their role in the process of cosmic ray acceleration will be highlighted.

Borkowski, K. J.

1997-05-01

84

Supernova remnants and the physics of strong shock waves  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper reports on a Workshop on Supernova Remnants and the Physics of Strong Shock Waves hosted by North Carolina State University at Raleigh, North Carolina, September 16-18, 1993. The workshop brought together observers, shock theorists, cosmic-ray specialists, and simulators to address the role supernova remnants can play in furthering our understanding of the complex plasma physics associated with collisionless shocks and particle acceleration. Over fifty scientists presented papers on various aspects of supernova remnants. In lieu of a proceedings volume, we present here a synopsis of the workshop, in the form of brief summaries of each workshop session.

Ellison, Donald C.; Reynolds, Stephen P.; Borkowski, Kazimierz; Chevalier, Roger; Cox, Donald P.; Dickel, John R.; Pisarski, Ryszard; Raymond, John; Spangler, Stephen R.; Volk, Heinrich J.

1994-01-01

85

G55.0+0.3: A Highly Evolved Supernova Remnant  

E-print Network

Multi-frequency analysis has revealed the presence of a new supernova remnant, G55.0+0.3, in the Galactic plane. A kinematic distance of 14 kpc has been measured from HI spectral line data. The faint, clumpy half-shell is non-thermal and has a physical radius of 70 pc. Using an evolutionary model, the age of the remnant is estimated to be on the order of one million years, which exceeds conventional limits by a factor of five. The remnant may be associated with the nearby pulsar J1932+2020, which has a spin-down age of 1.1 million years. This work implies that the radiative lifetimes of remnants could be much longer than previously suggested.

B. C. Matthews; B. J. Wallace; A. R. Taylor

1997-09-30

86

Supernova remnants and the origin of cosmic rays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Supernova remnants have long been considered to be the dominant sources of Galactic cosmic rays. For a long time the prime evidence consisted of radio synchrotron radiation from supernova remnants, indicating the presence of electrons with energies of several GeV. However, in order to explain the cosmic ray energy density and spectrum in the Galaxy supernova remnant should use 10% of the explosion energy to accelerate particles, and about 99% of the accelerated particles should be protons and other atomic nuclei. Over the last decade a lot of progress has been made in providing evidence that supernova remnant can accelerate protons to very high energies. The evidence consists of, among others, X-ray synchrotron radiation from narrow regions close to supernova remnant shock fronts, indicating the presence of 10-100 TeV electrons, and providing evidence for amplified magnetic fields, gamma-ray emission from both young and mature supernova remnants. The high magnetic fields indicate that the condition for accelerating protons to >1015 eV are there, whereas the gamma-ray emission from some mature remnants indicate that protons have been accelerated.

Vink, Jacco

2014-01-01

87

Study of the extended radio emission of two supernova remnants and four planetary nebulae associated to MIPSGAL bubbles  

E-print Network

We present radio observations of two supernova remnants and four planetary nebulae with the Very Large Array and the Green Bank Telescope. These objects are part of a larger sample of radio sources, discussed in a previous paper, counterpart of the MIPSGAL 24-micron compact bubbles. For the two supernova remnants we combined the interferometric observations with single-dish data to obtain both a high resolution and a good sensitivity to extended structures. We discuss in detail the entire combination procedure adopted and the reliability of the resulting maps. For one supernova remnant we pose a more stringent upper limit for the flux density of its undetected pulsar, and we also show prominent spectral index spatial variations, probably due to inhomogeneities in the magnetic field and in its ejecta or to an interaction between the supernova shock and molecular clouds. We eventually use the 5-GHz maps of the four planetary nebulae to estimate their distance and their ionized mass.

Ingallinera, Adriano; Umana, Grazia; Leto, Paolo; Agliozzo, Claudia; Buemi, Carla

2014-01-01

88

Optical emission-line properties of evolved galactic supernova remnants  

Microsoft Academic Search

New optical spectrophotometric data are presented for the supernova remnants CTB 1, OA 184, VRO 42.05.01, S147, the Monoceros Loop, G206.9 + 2.3, and G65.3 + 5.7. These data are combined with published spectral data to study some of the general properties of evolved galactic supernova remnants. It is found that (1) O I and O II forbidden line strengths,

R. A. Fesen; W. P. Blair; R. P. Kirshner

1985-01-01

89

XMM-NEWTON OBSERVATIONS OF TWO CANDIDATE SUPERNOVA REMNANTS  

SciTech Connect

Candidate supernova remnants (SNRs) G23.5+0.1 and G25.5+0.0 were observed by XMM-Newton in the course of a snapshot survey of plerionic and composite SNRs in the Galactic plane. In the field of G23.5+0.1, we detected an extended source, {approx}3' in diameter, which we tentatively interpret as a pulsar wind nebula (PWN) of the middle-aged radio pulsar B1830-08 (J1833-0827; P = 85.3 ms, {tau} = 147 kyr, E-dot = 5.8 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 35} erg s{sup -1}, d = 5.7 kpc), with the PWN luminosity L{sub 0.2-10keV} Almost-Equal-To 5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 33} erg s{sup -1} Almost-Equal-To 8 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3} E-dot . The pulsar is not resolved in the EPIC images. Our analysis suggests an association between PSR B1830-08 and the surrounding diffuse radio emission. If the radio emission is due to the SNR, then the pulsar must be significantly younger than its characteristic age. Alternatively, the radio emission may come from a relic PWN. The field also contains SGR 1833-0832 and another middle-aged pulsar B1829-08 (J1832-0827; P = 647 ms, {tau} = 161 kyr, E-dot = 9.3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 33} erg s{sup -1}, d = 4.7 kpc), none of which are detected in our observation. In the field of G25.5+0.0, which contains the extended TeV source HESS J1837-069, we detected the recently discovered young high-energy pulsar J1838-0655 (P = 70.5 ms, {tau} = 23 kyr, E-dot = 5.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 36} erg s{sup -1}) embedded in a PWN with extent of 1.'3. The unabsorbed pulsar + PWN luminosity is L{sub 2-11keV} Almost-Equal-To 2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 34} erg s{sup -1} Almost-Equal-To 4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3} E-dot at an assumed distance of 7 kpc. We also detected another PWN candidate (AX J1837.3-0652) with an extent of 2' and unabsorbed luminosity L{sub 2-10keV} Almost-Equal-To 4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 33} erg s{sup -1} at d = 7 kpc. The third X-ray source, located within the extent of the HESS J1837-069, has a peculiar extended radio counterpart, possibly a radio galaxy with a double nucleus or a microquasar. We did not find any evidence of the SNR emission in the G25.5+0.0 field. We provide detailed multiwavelength analysis and identifications of other field sources and discuss robustness of the G25.5+0.0 and G23.5+0.1 classifications as SNRs.

Kargaltsev, O. [Department of Astronomy, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611-2055 (United States); Schmitt, B. M.; Pavlov, G. G. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Lab., University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Misanovic, Z. [School of Physics, Monash University, Melbourne, 3800 VIC (Australia)

2012-01-20

90

The structure and development of supernova remnant 1987A  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate emission observed from Supernova Remnant (SNR) 1987A and develop theoretical models to explain its origin. The supernova (SN) progenitor was surrounded by an equatorial ring of gas which was illuminated by the SN's initial flash of ionizing radiation. As the SN ejecta expands into this circumstellar gas a double-shock structure forms, consisting of a blast wave which propagates

Eli Newton Michael

2002-01-01

91

MODIFIED EQUIPARTITION CALCULATION FOR SUPERNOVA REMNANTS  

SciTech Connect

Determination of the magnetic field strength in the interstellar medium is one of the more complex tasks of contemporary astrophysics. We can only estimate the order of magnitude of the magnetic field strength by using a few very limited methods. Besides the Zeeman effect and Faraday rotation, the equipartition or minimum-energy calculation is a widespread method for estimating magnetic field strength and energy contained in the magnetic field and cosmic-ray particles by using only the radio synchrotron emission. Despite its approximate character, it remains a useful tool, especially when there are no other data about the magnetic field in a source. In this paper, we give a modified calculation that we think is more appropriate for estimating magnetic field strengths and energetics in supernova remnants (SNRs). We present calculated estimates of the magnetic field strengths for all Galactic SNRs for which the necessary observational data are available. The Web application for calculation of the magnetic field strengths of SNRs is available at http://poincare.matf.bg.ac.rs/{approx}arbo/eqp/.

Arbutina, B.; Urosevic, D.; Andjelic, M. M.; Pavlovic, M. Z. [Department of Astronomy, Faculty of Mathematics, University of Belgrade, Studentski trg 16, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia); Vukotic, B., E-mail: arbo@math.rs [Astronomical Observatory, Volgina 7, 11060 Belgrade (Serbia)

2012-02-10

92

Hadronic Gamma Rays from Supernova Remnants  

E-print Network

A gas cloud near a supernova remnant (SNR) provides a target for pp-collisions leading to subsequent gamma-ray emission through neutral pion decay. The assumption of a power-law ambient spectrum of accelerated particles with index near -2 is usually built into models predicting the spectra of very-high energy (VHE) gamma-ray emission from SNRs. However, if the gas cloud is located at some distance from the SNR shock, this assumption is not necessarily correct. In this case, the particles which interact with the cloud are those leaking from the shock and their spectrum is approximately monoenergetic with the injection energy gradually decreasing as the SNR ages. In the GLAST energy range the gamma-ray spectrum resulting from particle interactions with the gas cloud will be flatter than expected, with the cutoff defined by the pion momentum distribution in the laboratory frame. We evaluate the flux of particles escaping from a SNR shock and apply the results to the VHE diffuse emission detected by the HESS at the Galactic centre.

I. V. Moskalenko; T. A. Porter; M. A. Malkov; P. H. Diamond

2007-05-25

93

High energy survey of supernova remnants with BATSE  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The burst and transient source experiment (BATSE) survey of the high energy emission from supernova remnants is reported on. The ability of BATSE to continuously monitor the entire sky in the 20 keV to 2 MeV energy range enables a large group of remnants to by studied at high energies. Preliminary analysis indicates the likely detection of several supernova remnants other than the Crab nebula. Among these are MSH 15-52, Vela, Cas A and possibly HB 9. The techniques employed are discussed together with the status of the survey and its limitations.

McCollough, M. L.; Wilson, C. A.; Zhang, S. N.; Harmon, B. A.

1997-01-01

94

Discovery of optical candidate supernova remnants in Sagittarius  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During an [O III] survey of planetary nebulae, we identified a region in Sagittarius containing several candidate supernova remants (SNRs) and obtained deep optical narrow-band images and spectra to explore their nature. We obtained images of the area of interest by acquiring observations in the emission lines of H? + [N II], [S II] and [O III]. The resulting mosaic covers an area of 1.4° × 1.0°, where both filamentary and diffuse emission was discovered, suggesting that there is more than one SNR in the area. Deep long-slit spectra were also taken of eight different regions. Both the flux-calibrated images and the spectra show that the emission from the filamentary structures originates from shock-heated gas, while the photo-ionization mechanism is responsible for the diffuse emission. Part of the optical emission is found to be correlated with the radio at 4850 MHz suggesting that they are related, while the infrared emission found in the area at 12 ?m and 22 ?m marginally correlates with the optical. The presence of the [O III] emission line in one of the candidate SNRs implies that the shock velocities in the interstellar "clouds" are between 120 km s-1 and 200 km s-1, while its absence in the other candidate SNRs indicates that the shock velocities there are slower. For all candidate remnants, the [S II] ?? 6716/6731 ratio indicates that the electron densities are below 240 cm-3, while the H? emission is measured to be between 0.6 and 41 × 10-17 erg s-1 cm-2 arcsec-2. The existence of eight pulsars within 1.5° of the center of the candidate SNRs also implies that there are many SNRs in the area as well as that the detected optical emission could be part of a number of supernovae explosions.

Alikakos, J.; Boumis, P.; Christopoulou, P. E.; Goudis, C. D.

2012-08-01

95

The radio remnant of Supernova 1987A at high frequencies and high resolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As the remnant of Supernova (SN) 1987A has been getting brighter over time, new observations at high frequencies have allowed imaging of the radio emission at unprecedented detail. We present a new radio image at 44 GHz of the supernova remnant (SNR), derived from observations performed with the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) in 2011. The diffraction-limited image has a resolution of 349×225 mas, which is the highest achieved to date in high-dynamic range images of the SNR. We also present a new image at 18 GHz, also derived from ATCA observations performed in 2011, which is super-resolved to 0''.25. The new 44 and 18 GHz images yield the first high-resolution spectral index map of the remnant. The comparison of the 44 GHz image with contemporaneous X-ray and H? observations allows further investigations of the nature of the remnant asymmetry and sheds more light into the progenitor hypotheses and SN explosion. In light of simple free-free absorption models, we discuss the likelihood of detecting at 44 GHz the possible emission originating from a pulsar wind nebula (PWN) or a compact source in the centre of the remnant.

Zanardo, G.; Staveley-Smith, L.; Ng, C.-Y.; Gaensler, B. M.; Potter, T. M.; Manchester, R. N.; Tzioumis, A. K.

2014-01-01

96

Cosmic Ray Spectrum in Supernova Remnant Shocks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We perform kinetic simulations of diffusive shock acceleration (DSA) in Type Ia supernova remnants (SNRs) expanding into a uniform interstellar medium (ISM). Bohm-like diffusion due to self-excited Alfvén waves is assumed,and simple models for Alfvénic drift and dissipation are adopted. Phenomenological models for thermal leakage injection are considered as well. We find that the preshock gas temperature is the primary parameter that governs the cosmic ray (CR) acceleration efficiency and energy spectrum,while the CR injection rate is a secondary parameter. For SNRs in the warm ISM of T_0 ? 10^5K, if the injection fraction is ? ? 10^{-4},the DSA is efficient enough to convert more than 20 % of the SN explosion energy into CRs and the accelerated CR spectrum exhibits a concave curvature flattening to E^{-1.6}, which is characteristic of CR modified shocks. Such a flat source spectrum near the knee energy, however, may not be reconciled with the CR spectrum observed at Earth.On the other hand, SNRs in the hot ISM of T_0? 10^6K with a small injection fraction, ? < 10^{-4}, are inefficient accelerators with less than 10 % of the explosion energy getting converted to CRs. Also the shock structure is almost test-particle like and the ensuing CR spectrum can be steeper than E^{-2}. With amplified magnetic field strength of order of 30?G, Alfvén waves generated by the streaming instability may drift upstream fast enough to make the modified test-particle power-law as steep as E^{-2.3}, which is more consistent with the observed CR spectrum.

Kang, Hyesung

2010-04-01

97

RXTE Observation of the Tycho Supernova Remnant  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

SN1006 [4] and Cas A [1, 9] supernova remnants have been shown convincingly to have a hard X-ray power-law continuum. This continuum is thought to be the synchrotron radiation from accelerated electrons of approx. 100 TeV at the shock fronts. Our goal of AO2 RXTE observation is to detect the hard X-ray continuum and to determine the nature of the continuum from Tycho SNR. A detection of a power-law continuum from Tycho SNR can strongly argue for SNRs are the source of cosmic rays with the first order Fermi acceleration as the energizing process. We report the results of our AO2 RXTE 1 x 10(exp 5) sec observation of Tycho SNR. We detect two components of the X-ray spectrum from Tycho SNR both at better than 3 omega confidence. The best two component models are: bremsstrahlung (kT=2.67 +/- 0.13 keV) + bremsstrahlung (kT=7.07 +/- 2.21/1.72 keV) or bremsstrahlung (kT=2.36 +/- 0.21/0.57 keV) + power-law (gamma=2.58 +/- 0.12/0.09 ). This result is an improvement compaxed with the previous most sensitive X-ray measurements by Ginga which shows Tycho's observed X-ray continuum requires a two-component model to yield acceptable fits with the hard component parameters being highly uncertain. Our RXTE measurements constrain all parameter within 3o, ranges. However, we cannot yet distinguish between thermal and nonthermal models for the hard component. In the followings, we describe what we accomplished in the period covered by the grant proposal.

The, Lih-Sin

1998-01-01

98

Supernova Remnants, Cosmic Rays, and GLAST  

SciTech Connect

The shock waves of supernova remnants (SNRs) are the traditional sources of Galactic cosmic rays, at least up to about 3000 TeV (the 'knee' energy in the cosmic-ray spectrum). In the last decade or so, X-ray observations have confirmed in a few SNRs the presence of synchrotron-X-ray-emitting electrons with energies of order 100 TeV. TeV photons from SNRs have been observed with ground-based air Cerenkov telescopes as well, but it is still unclear whether they are due to hadronic processes (inelastic p-p scattering of cosmic-ray protons from thermal gas, with secondary neutral pions decaying to gamma rays), or to leptonic processes (inverse-Compton upscattering of cosmic microwave background photons, or bremsstrahlung). The spatial structure of synchrotron X-rays as observed with the Chandra X-ray Observatory suggests the remarkable possibility that magnetic fields are amplified by orders of magnitude in strong shock waves. The electron spectra inferred from X-rays reach 100 TeV, but at that energy are cutting off steeply, well below the 'knee' energy. Are the cutoff processes due only to radiative losses so that ion spectra might continue unsteepened? Can we confirm the presence of energetic ions in SNRs at all? Are typical SNRs capable of supplying the pool of Galactic cosmic rays? Is strong magnetic-field amplification a property of strong astrophysical shocks in general? These major questions require the next generation of observational tools. I shall outline the theoretical and observational framework of particle acceleration to high energies in SNRs, and shall describe how GLAST will advance this field.

Reynolds, Steve (North Carolina State University) [North Carolina State University

2006-02-13

99

Thermal Radiation of Supernova Remnants in Radio Domain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The evolution of supernova remnants is linked to the propagation of a collisionless shock wave, formed during the initial expansion of high-velocity supernova ejecta through the interstellar environment. Theoretical studies of shock waves are very important for the analysis of supernova remnants, as well as processes in the interstellar medium in general. In this doctoral dissertation, some theoretical results based on the magnetohydrodynamical theory of shock waves are presented, with special emphasis on ideal radiative magnetohydrodynamics for the optically thick case. Particularly, solutions for the case when jump in adiabatic index and/or ratio of gas to total pressure is allowed, are discussed. The main hypothesis of this dissertation is that thermal bremsstrahlung radiation at radio continuum frequencies can provide a significant contribution in the case of several Galactic supernova remnants. This hypothesis can give a natural explanation for nearly concave up radio continuum spectra of several Galactic supernova remnants that are expanding in the environment with higher than average density. In this context, it is important to identify the existence of the possible indicators of ensemble of thermal electrons at sufficiently low temperatures and sufficiently high densities so that the thermal bremsstrahlung radiation linked to a particular remnant could be observed at radio continuum frequencies (vicinity, interaction or expansion through the molecular cloud, presence of the cooled thermal X-ray electrons during the post Sedov-Taylor phases, detection of low-frequency turnovers associated with thermal absorption linked to the remnant, detection in Halpha, identification of radio recombination lines linked to the remnant, etc). The significant presence of thermal component could theoretically explain radio-spectral indices less than 0.5 measured for several evolutionary older supernova remnants, (mainly of mixed-morphology class) that expand in the high density region. Actually, these smaller radio-spectral indices, under the assumption of simple power law, would represent a natural manifestation of a significant fraction of thermal emission at radio continuum frequencies. However, present knowledge of the radio continuum spectra of Galactic supernova remnants is still not determined precisely enough for any definite conclusions to be made about the inherent thermal radio-emission from supernova remnants. A thorough analysis is only possible in the case of three Galactic supernova remnants (3C396, IC443, 3C391) for which the thermal contribution is determined despite high associated uncertainties. New observations in the near future will lay the groundwork for making firmer conclusions about the existence of the so-called radio thermally active supernova remnants. This dissertation highlights the importance of observations of supernova remnants in X and gamma-rays, and multiwavelength analysis is general. Besides, it suggests a possible detection of gamma-rays from supernova remnant 3C434.1 based on the observations made by Fermi.

Onic, Dusan

100

The Interstellar Medium around the Supernova Remnant G320.4-1.2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using the Australia Telescope Compact Array, we have carried out a survey of\\u000athe HI emission in the direction of the ``barrel-shaped'' supernova remnant\\u000a(SNR) G320.4-1.2 (MSH 15-52) and its associated young pulsar B1509-58. The\\u000aangular resolution of the data is 4.0x2.7 arcmin, and the rms noise of the\\u000aorder of 30 mJy\\/beam (~0.5 K). The HI observations indicate that

G. M. Dubner; B. M. Gaensler; E. B. Giacani; W. M. Goss; A. J. Green

2001-01-01

101

Far-Ultraviolet Cooling Features of the Antlia Supernova Remnant  

E-print Network

We present far-ultraviolet observations of the Antlia supernova remnant obtained with Far-ultraviolet IMaging Spectrograph (FIMS, also called SPEAR). The strongest lines observed are C IV 1548,1551 and C III 977. The C IV emission of this mixed-morphology supernova remnant shows a clumpy distribution, and the line intensity is nearly constant with radius. The C III 977 line, though too weak to be mapped over the whole remnant, is shown to vary radially. The line intensity peaks at about half the radius, and drops at the edge of the remnant. Both the clumpy distribution of C IV and the rise in the C IV to C III ratio towards the edge suggest that central emission is from evaporating cloudlets rather than thermal conduction in a more uniform, dense medium.

Jong-Ho Shinn; Kyoung Wook Min; Ravi Sankrit; Kwang-Sun Ryu; Il-Joong Kim; Wonyong Han; Uk-Won Nam; Jang-Hyun Park; Jerry Edelstein; Eric J. Korpela

2007-10-08

102

New Galactic supernova remnants discovered with IPHAS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As part of a systematic search programme of a 10° wide strip of the northern Galactic plane, we present preliminary evidence for the discovery of four (and possibly five) new supernova remnants (SNRs). The pilot search area covered the 19-20 h right ascension zone sampling from +20° to +55° in declination using binned mosaic images from the Isaac Newton Telescope Photometric H? Survey (IPHAS). The optical identification of the candidate SNRs was based mainly on their filamentary and arc-like emission morphologies, their apparently coherent, even if fractured, structure and clear disconnection from any diffuse neighbouring H II region type nebulosity. Follow-up optical spectroscopy was undertaken, sampling carefully across prominent features of these faint sources. The resulting spectra revealed typical emission-line ratios for shock-excited nebulae which are characteristic of SNRs, which, along with the latest diagnostic diagrams, strongly support the likely SNR nature of these sources: G038.7-1.3 (IPHASX J190640.5+042819), G067.6+0.9 (IPHASX J195744.9+305306), G066.0-0.0 (IPHASX J195749.2+290259) and G065.8-0.5 (IPHASX J195920.4+283740). A fifth possible younger, higher density nebula SNR candidate, G067.8+0.5 (IPHASX J200002.4+305035), was discovered ˜5 arcmin to the west of IPHASX J195744.9+305306, and it warrants further study. A multiwavelength cross-check from available archived data in the regions of these candidates was also performed with a focus on possible radio counterparts. A close positional match between previously unrecognized radio structures at several frequencies and across various components of the H? optical image data was found for all SNR candidates. This lends further direct support for the SNR nature of these objects. Evolved SNRs may have very weak and/or highly fragmented radio emission which could explain why they had not been previously recognized, but the association becomes clear in combination with the optical emission.

Sabin, L.; Parker, Q. A.; Contreras, M. E.; Olguín, L.; Frew, D. J.; Stupar, M.; Vázquez, R.; Wright, N. J.; Corradi, R. L. M.; Morris, R. A. H.

2013-05-01

103

Supernova Remnant Progenitor Masses in M31  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using Hubble Space Telescope photometry, we age-date 59 supernova remnants (SNRs) in the spiral galaxy M31 and use these ages to estimate zero-age main-sequence masses (M ZAMS) for their progenitors. To accomplish this, we create color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) and employ CMD fitting to measure the recent star formation history of the regions surrounding cataloged SNR sites. We identify any young coeval population that likely produced the progenitor star, then assign an age and uncertainty to that population. Application of stellar evolution models allows us to infer the M ZAMS from this age. Because our technique is not contingent on identification or precise location of the progenitor star, it can be applied to the location of any known SNRs. We identify significant young star formation around 53 of the 59 SNRs and assign progenitor masses to these, representing a factor of ~2 increase over currently measured progenitor masses. We consider the remaining six SNRs as either probable Type Ia candidates or the result of core-collapse progenitors that have escaped their birth sites. In general, the distribution of recovered progenitor masses is bottom-heavy, showing a paucity of the most massive stars. If we assume a single power-law distribution, dN/dMvpropM ?, then we find a distribution that is steeper than a Salpeter initial mass function (IMF) (? = -2.35). In particular, we find values of ? outside the range -2.7 >= ? >= -4.4 to be inconsistent with our measured distribution at 95% confidence. If instead we assume a distribution that follows a Salpeter IMF up to some maximum mass, then we find that values of M Max > 26 are inconsistent with the measured distribution at 95% confidence. In either scenario, the data suggest that some fraction of massive stars may not explode. The result is preliminary and requires more SNRs and further analysis. In addition, we use our distribution to estimate a minimum mass for core collapse between 7.0 and 7.8 M ?.

Jennings, Zachary G.; Williams, Benjamin F.; Murphy, Jeremiah W.; Dalcanton, Julianne J.; Gilbert, Karoline M.; Dolphin, Andrew E.; Fouesneau, Morgan; Weisz, Daniel R.

2012-12-01

104

SUPERNOVA REMNANT PROGENITOR MASSES IN M31  

SciTech Connect

Using Hubble Space Telescope photometry, we age-date 59 supernova remnants (SNRs) in the spiral galaxy M31 and use these ages to estimate zero-age main-sequence masses (M{sub ZAMS}) for their progenitors. To accomplish this, we create color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) and employ CMD fitting to measure the recent star formation history of the regions surrounding cataloged SNR sites. We identify any young coeval population that likely produced the progenitor star, then assign an age and uncertainty to that population. Application of stellar evolution models allows us to infer the M{sub ZAMS} from this age. Because our technique is not contingent on identification or precise location of the progenitor star, it can be applied to the location of any known SNRs. We identify significant young star formation around 53 of the 59 SNRs and assign progenitor masses to these, representing a factor of {approx}2 increase over currently measured progenitor masses. We consider the remaining six SNRs as either probable Type Ia candidates or the result of core-collapse progenitors that have escaped their birth sites. In general, the distribution of recovered progenitor masses is bottom-heavy, showing a paucity of the most massive stars. If we assume a single power-law distribution, dN/dM{proportional_to}M{sup {alpha}}, then we find a distribution that is steeper than a Salpeter initial mass function (IMF) ({alpha} = -2.35). In particular, we find values of {alpha} outside the range -2.7 {>=} {alpha} {>=} -4.4 to be inconsistent with our measured distribution at 95% confidence. If instead we assume a distribution that follows a Salpeter IMF up to some maximum mass, then we find that values of M{sub Max} > 26 are inconsistent with the measured distribution at 95% confidence. In either scenario, the data suggest that some fraction of massive stars may not explode. The result is preliminary and requires more SNRs and further analysis. In addition, we use our distribution to estimate a minimum mass for core collapse between 7.0 and 7.8 M{sub Sun }.

Jennings, Zachary G.; Williams, Benjamin F.; Dalcanton, Julianne J.; Gilbert, Karoline M.; Fouesneau, Morgan; Weisz, Daniel R. [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington Seattle, Box 351580, WA 98195 (United States); Murphy, Jeremiah W. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Dolphin, Andrew E., E-mail: zachjenn@uw.edu, E-mail: adolphin@raytheon.com [Raytheon, 1151 East Hermans Road, Tucson, AZ 85706 (United States)

2012-12-10

105

ROSAT PSPC and HRI Observations of Supernova Remnant G292.0+1.8  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The supernova remnant G292.0+1.8 was observed by the ROSAT PSPC for 18 ksec as part of this grant. Considerable effort was put into the analysis of the PSPC spectra. The major work went into nonequilibrium ionization joint spectral fits with the Einstein SSS and EXOSAT ME data which indicated that the two spatial regions of this remnant (a central bar and a plateau region covering a larger extent) had similar abundances, but different excitation conditions (temperature and ionization state), an important conclusion, if true. Unfortunately as this work was being finished, new ASCA data revealed the presence of a previously unknown, spectrally hard X-ray source near the center of the remnant which contaminated the SSS and ME data and as a consequence made our detailed spectral analysis done up until then un-publishable. We searched for evidence of this hard source in the PSPC data both spectrally and using timing searches (for a pulsar), but found nothing significant. ROSAT HRI data were also obtained on this remnant. These data were compared to the Einstein HRI data to search for evidence of spectral variations with position and possible expansion of the X-ray remnant. One feature in the remnant appears to have changed in brightness although it is not clear what is the cause of the change. No evidence for the hard ASCA source was apparent in the HRI data.

Hughes, John P.

1999-01-01

106

Gamma-ray emission expected from Kepler's supernova remnant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims.Nonlinear kinetic theory of cosmic ray (CR) acceleration in supernova remnants (SNRs) is used to investigate the properties of Kepler's SNR and, in particular, to predict the gamma-ray spectrum expected from this SNR. Methods: .Observations of the nonthermal radio and X-ray emission spectra as well as theoretical constraints for the total supernova (SN) explosion energy E_sn are used to constrain

E. G. Berezhko; L. T. Ksenofontov; H. J. Völk

2006-01-01

107

GSH 90-28-17: a possible old supernova remnant  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

GSH 90-28-17 is a high-latitude Galactic H I supershell, identified in the H I supershell catalogues with a velocity vlsr ˜ -17 km s-1. We used the new Galactic Arecibo L-band Feed Array (GALFA) H I survey data, which have much higher resolution and sensitivity than was previously available, to re-examine the properties of the supershell. We derived a new distance of 400 pc for GSH 90-28-17 and suggested that it is related to the Lac OB1 association. The radius of GSH 90-28-17 is 66.0 ± 3.5 pc. The H I mass of the shell is (3.1 ± 0.1) × 104 M?. It has an age of ˜4.5 Myr and a total kinetic energy of (8.2 ± 0.3) × 1048 erg. We extracted radio continuum data for the GSH 90-28-17 region from the 408-MHz All-Sky Survey and Bonn 1420-MHz survey and filtered the diffuse background Galactic emission. A radio loop-like ridge is found to be associated with the H I shell at both frequencies and shows a non-thermal origin, with a temperature-temperature (TT)-plot index of ? = -1.35 ± 0.69. In addition, the pulsar J2307+2225, with a similar distance, is found in the shell region. We conclude that GSH 90-28-17 is probably an old, type II supernova remnant in the solar neighbourhood.

Xiao, L.; Zhu, M.

2014-02-01

108

Young Collapsed Supernova Remnants: Similarities and Differences in Neutron Stars, Black Holes, and More Exotic Objects  

E-print Network

Type Ia supernovae are thought to explode completely, leaving no condensed remnant, only an expanding shell. Other types of supernovae are thought to involve core collapse and are expected to leave a condensed remnant, which could be either a neutron star or a black hole, or just possibly, something more exotic, such as a quark orstrange star, a naked singularity, a frozen star, a wormhole or a red hole. It has proven surprisingly difficult to determine which type of condensed remnant has been formed in those cases where the diagnostic highly regular pulsar signature of a neutron star is absent. We consider possible observational differences between the two standard candidates, as well as the more speculative alternatives. We classify condensed remnants according to whether they do or do not possess three major features: 1)a hard surface, 2)an event horizon, and 3)a singularity. Black holes and neutron stars differ on all three criteria. Some of the less frequently considered alternatives are "intermediate," in the sense that they possess some of the traits of a black hole and some of the traits of a neutron star. This possibility makes distinguishing the various possibilities even more difficult.

James S. Graber

2000-12-09

109

Evolution of The Remnant of Supernova 1987A in Radio  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present updated results from radio imaging observations of the remnant of supernova 1987A at 9 GHz, taken with the Australia Telescope Compact Array since 1992. Our results show that both the emission latitude and the east-west asymmetry in surface brightness have gradually decreased since day 7000 (mid-2006), reflecting the increasing interaction of the forward shock with the circumstellar material. We found a constant expansion rate of ~4000km/s for the radio remnant, but no conclusive evidence of deceleration. We compare the results with the evolution of the remnant in X-rays and discuss the physical environment of the circumstellar material.

Ng, Stephen C.-Y.; Tzioumis, Anastasios; Gaensler, Bryan; Manchester, Richard; Zanardo, Giovanna; Staveley-Smith, Lister; Potter, Tobby

110

The Crab Nebula and related supernova remnants; Proceedings of the Workshop, George Mason University, Fairfax, VA, October 11, 12, 1984  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Papers are presented on the Crab Nebula's composition, helium distribution, outer structure and jet, and evolution. Attention is given to line emission from supernova remnants and charge transfer reactions, a magnetohydrodynamic model of the Crab Nebula and its radiation, inferences made using data on the pulsed flux from the crab pulsar, a new interpretation of the crab pulsar X-ray interpulse radiation, and evolutionary models of the Crab Nebula's progenitor. Other topics include the evolution of the centimeter flux of 3C58 and the Crab Nebula, a search for a shock wave around the Crab Nebula, high resolution radio studies of the Crab Nebula, supernova shell structure, and the nature of the remnant 0540-693 and its implications for the study of crablike remnants. Papers are also presented on X-ray observations of: Crab-like remnants, the Crab Nebula, the Vela X region, W28, and 3C400.2. Other papers include the 50 millisecond pulsar in the Large Magellanic Cloud and the X-ray pulse emission mechanism, optical emission from the plerionic core of CTB 80, and one-arcminute resolution observations of W50.

Kafatos, M. C. (editor); Henry, R. B. C. (editor)

1985-01-01

111

Hot interstellar tunnels. 1: Simulation of interacting supernova remnants  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The theory required to build a numerical simulation of interacting supernova remnants is developed. The hot cavities within a population of remnants will become connected, with varying ease and speed, for a variety of assumed conditions in the outer shells of old remnants. Apparently neither radiative cooling nor thermal conduction in a large-scale galactic magnetic field can destroy hot cavity regions, if they grow, faster than they are reheated by supernova shock waves, but interstellar mass motions disrupt the contiguity of extensive cavities necessary for the dispersal of these shocks over a wide volume. Monte Carlo simulations show that a quasi-equilibrium is reached in the test space within 10 million yrs of the first supernova and is characterized by an average cavity filling fraction of the interstellar volume. Aspects of this equilibrium are discussed for a range of supernova rates. Two predictions are not confirmed within this range: critical growth of hot regions to encompass the entire medium, and the efficient quenching of a remnant's expansion by interaction with other cavities.

Smith, B. W.

1976-01-01

112

Low-frequency radio maps and spectra of supernova remnants  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Low-frequency radio maps of 18 supernova remnants have been constructed from observations made at the Arecibo Observatory. The integrated flux densities have been combined with others in the literature to show that most of the sources have simple power-law spectra. None of the sources show features which would suggest changes in the spectrum spatially across the given source.

Dickel, J. R.; Denoyer, L. K.

1975-01-01

113

X-ray studies of supernova remnants: A different view of supernova explosions  

PubMed Central

The unprecedented spatial and spectral resolutions of Chandra have revolutionized our view of the X-ray emission from supernova remnants. The excellent datasets accumulated on young, ejecta-dominated objects like Cas A or Tycho present a unique opportunity to study at the same time the chemical and physical structure of the explosion debris and the characteristics of the circumstellar medium sculpted by the progenitor before the explosion. Supernova remnants can thus put strong constraints on fundamental aspects of both supernova explosion physics and stellar evolution scenarios for supernova progenitors. This view of the supernova phenomenon is completely independent of, and complementary to, the study of distant extragalactic supernovae at optical wavelengths. The calibration of these two techniques has recently become possible thanks to the detection and spectroscopic follow-up of supernova light echoes. In this paper, I review the most relevant results on supernova remnants obtained during the first decade of Chandra and the impact that these results have had on open issues in supernova research. PMID:20404206

Badenes, Carles

2010-01-01

114

X-ray studies of supernova remnants: a different view of supernova explosions.  

PubMed

The unprecedented spatial and spectral resolutions of Chandra have revolutionized our view of the X-ray emission from supernova remnants. The excellent datasets accumulated on young, ejecta-dominated objects like Cas A or Tycho present a unique opportunity to study at the same time the chemical and physical structure of the explosion debris and the characteristics of the circumstellar medium sculpted by the progenitor before the explosion. Supernova remnants can thus put strong constraints on fundamental aspects of both supernova explosion physics and stellar evolution scenarios for supernova progenitors. This view of the supernova phenomenon is completely independent of, and complementary to, the study of distant extragalactic supernovae at optical wavelengths. The calibration of these two techniques has recently become possible thanks to the detection and spectroscopic follow-up of supernova light echoes. In this paper, I review the most relevant results on supernova remnants obtained during the first decade of Chandra and the impact that these results have had on open issues in supernova research. PMID:20404206

Badenes, Carles

2010-04-20

115

Excited-State OH Masers and Supernova Remnants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The collisionally pumped, ground-state 1720 MHz maser line of OH is widely recognized as a tracer for shocked regions and observed in star-forming regions and supernova remnants. Whereas some lines of excited states of OH have been detected and studied in star-forming regions, the subject of excited-state OH in supernova remnants-where high collision rates are to be expected-is only recently being addressed. Modeling of collisional excitation of OH demonstrates that 1720, 4765, and 6049 MHz masers can occur under similar conditions in regions of shocked gas. In particular, the 6049 and 4765 MHz masers become more significant at increased OH column densities where the 1720 MHz masers begin to be quenched. In supernova remnants, the detection of excited-state OH line maser emission could therefore serve as a probe of regions of higher column densities. Using the Very Large Array, we searched for excited-state OH in the 4.7, 7.8, 8.2, and 23.8 GHz lines in four well-studied supernova remnants with strong 1720 MHz maser emission (Sgr A East, W28, W44 and IC 443). No detections were made, at typical detection limits of around 10 mJy beam-1. The search for the 6 GHz lines were done using Effelsberg since the VLA receivers did not cover those frequencies, and are reported on in an accompanying letter (Fish and coworkers). We also cross-correlated the positions of known supernova remnants with the positions of 1612 MHz maser emission obtained from blind surveys. No probable associations were found, perhaps except in the Sgr A East region. The lack of detections of excited-state OH indicates that the OH column densities suffice for 1720 MHz inversion but not for inversion of excited-state transitions, consistent with the expected results for C-type shocks.

Pihlström, Ylva M.; Fish, Vincent L.; Sjouwerman, Loránt O.; Zschaechner, Laura K.; Lockett, Philip B.; Elitzur, Moshe

2008-03-01

116

Optical emission-line properties of evolved galactic supernova remnants  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

New optical spectrophotometric data are presented for the supernova remnants CTB 1, OA 184, VRO 42.05.01, S147, the Monoceros Loop, G206.9 + 2.3, and G65.3 + 5.7. These data are combined with published spectral data to study some of the general properties of evolved galactic supernova remnants. It is found that (1) O I and O II forbidden line strengths, when used in conjunction with the usual H-alpha S II forbidden line ratio test, provide an excellent additional diagnostic for discriminating remnants from H II regions; (2) the line ratios H-alpha forbidden line N II, H-alpha forbidden line S II, and forbidden line S II 6717/6731 A generally do not vary substantially among the filaments of an individual remnant; and (3) the observed correlation of forbidden line N II/H-alpha with S II forbidden line 6717/6731 A in remnants is the result of observational selection rather than of evolutionary effects. A galactic nitrogen abundance gradient of d log (N/H)/dR = -0.088 dex/kpc, which is in agreement with that derived from H II regions. However, no abundance gradients for oxygen or sulfur are indicated from the remnant data.

Fesen, R. A.; Blair, W. P.; Kirshner, R. P.

1985-01-01

117

Observations of the supernova remnant W28 at TeV energies  

E-print Network

The atmospheric Cerenkov imaging technique has been used to search for point-like and diffuse TeV gamma-ray emission from the southern supernova remnant, W28, and surrounding region. The search, made with the CANGAROO 3.8m telescope, encompasses a number of interesting features, the supernova remnant itself, the EGRET source 3EG J1800-2338, the pulsar PSR J1801-23, strong 1720 MHz OH masers and molecular clouds on the north and east boundaries of the remnant. An analysis tailored to extended and off-axis point sources was used, and no evidence for TeV gamma-ray emission from any of the features described above was found in data taken over the 1994 and 1995 seasons. Our upper limit (E>1.5 TeV) for a diffuse source of radius 0.25deg encompassing both molecular clouds was calculated at 6.64e-12 photons cm^-2 s^-1 (from 1994 data), and interpreted within the framework of a model predicting TeV gamma-rays from shocked-accelerated hadrons. Our upper limit suggests the need for some cutoff in the parent spectrum of accelerated hadrons and/or slightly steeper parent spectra than that used here (-2.1). As to the nature of 3EG J1800-2338, it possibly does not result entirely from pi-zero decay, a conclusion also consistent with its location in relation to W28.

G. P. Rowell; T. Naito; S. A. Dazeley; P. G. Edwards; S. Gunji; T. Hara; J. Holder; A. Kawachi; T. Kifune; Y. Matsubara; Y. Mizumoto; M. Mori; H. Muraishi; Y. Muraki; K. Nishijima; S. Ogio; J. R. Patterson; M. D. Roberts; T. Sako; K. Sakurazawa; R. Susukita; T. Tamura; T. Tanimori; G. J. Thornton; S. Yanagita; T. Yoshida; T. Yoshikoshi

2000-04-19

118

Analysis of Shock Interactions and Supernova Morphology from Molecular Emission Around Young Supernova Remnants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have observed the supernova remnant Cassiopeia A (Cas A) in the mid-infrared from 10-40 microns with the Spitzer Space Telescope and at millimeter wavelengths in 12CO and 13CO J=2-1 (230 and 220 GHz) with the Heinrich Hertz Submillimeter Telescope (HHSMT). Broadened (6 - 10 km/s) CO emission in the millimeter indicates that some molecular clouds towards the line of sight of the Cas A shock front have been shock broadened by ejecta from the remnant. The IR spectra demonstrate high-velocity emission along the northern shock front of the remnant coincident with bright radio continuum emission. These features trace a direct interaction with the Cas A shock front. Furthermore, some of the broadened molecular emission extends 1 - 2 arcminutes beyond the furthest extent of the SNR shock front. We infer from the proximity to the remnant as well as the positions of broadened CO emission that this material is accelerated by ejecta with velocity significantly larger than the observed free-expansion velocity of the Cas A shock front. This observation is consistent with a bipolar outflow as well as fast-moving ejecta pistons inferred in the Cas A remnant, in particular along the southwest to northeast axis of the remnant. We extend this type of analysis to other young, galactic supernova remnants in order to place constraints on the morphology and shock interactions during supernova events.

Kilpatrick, Charles; Bieging, J. H.; Rieke, G.

2014-01-01

119

Mechanism for strong shock electron heating in supernova remnants  

SciTech Connect

It is shown that collisionless shock waves propagating away from a supernova may be directly responsible for the 10 keV X-ray emission seen in supernova remnants. A sequence of plasma instabilities (Buneman and ion acoustic) between the reflected and/or transmitted ions and the background electrons at the foot of the shock front can give rise to rapid anomalous heating of electrons. Hybrid simulations of a perpendicular collisionless shock are presented to demonstrate that this heating can arise within a self-consistently computed shock structure. 15 references.

Cargill, P.J.; Papadopoulos, K.

1988-06-01

120

X-ray spectral variations in supernova remnants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Supernovae (SNe) and their remnants are critical tools for understanding such areas of astrophysics as galaxy evolution, star formation, cosmology, and cosmic ray origins. In this dissertation, we explore how X-ray spectral variations provide a way to draw out clues from supernova remnants (SNRs) that may improve their use as astrophysical tools. In our first studies of two remnants, we investigate absorption, abundance; and emission type variations. For N63A, we discover an intervening absorbing cloud currently being engulfed by the remnant. Our study of 0509--67.5 reveals the need for a component of non-thermal emission at the rim of the SNR, indicating possible sites of cosmic ray acceleration. The abundances we derive for this SNR put constraints on allowed SN Ia explosion models. While these studies are successful at gleaning important information about the remnants, the techniques we use to identify the spectral variations are somewhat ad hoc. Thus, we explore the use of a more versatile, relatively unbiased technique, a principal components analysis (PCA). We pioneer its application to SNRs through Tycho's SNR. PCA picks out previously known variations, but allows for a more quantitative assessment of them. This feature allows us to separate cleanly line-dominated from featureless regions in Tycho. We argue that the resulting morphology is evidence for the acceleration of cosmic ray ions at the forward shock. A completely new variation is revealed, as well, whose interpretation points to differences in the oxygen and sulfur abundances in what was thought to be a fairly homogeneous remnant. Lastly, we apply PCA to Cas A, the remnant of a core-collapse SN. PCA unveils regions with unusual spectra, which may be used to explore the SNR evolution and SN explosion asymmetries.

Warren, Jessica Sawyer

121

Planck intermediate results. XXXI. Microwave survey of Galactic supernova remnants  

E-print Network

The all-sky Planck survey in 9 frequency bands was used to search for emission from all 274 known Galactic supernova remnants. Of these, 17 were detected in at least two Planck frequencies. The radio-through-microwave spectral energy distributions were compiled to determine the emission mechanism for microwave emission. In only one case, IC 443, is the high-frequency emission clearly from dust associated with the supernova remnant. In all cases, the low-frequency emission is from synchrotron radiation. A single power law, as predicted for a population of relativistic particles with energy distribution that extends continuously to high energies, is evident for many sources, including the Crab and PKS 1209-51/52. A decrease in flux density relative to the extrapolation of radio emission is evident in several sources. Their spectral energy distributions can be approximated as broken power laws, $S_\

Arnaud, M

2014-01-01

122

Supernova Remnants: acceleration of particles and gamma-ray emission  

E-print Network

Particle acceleration in the dynamically evolving environment of Supernova Remnants is discussed in the framework of a genuinely time-dependent nonlinear theory, assuming spherical symmetry. As a consequence the dependence of injection on the angle between shock normal and external magnetic field direction requires a renormalisation of the calculated particle fluxes. The recent observational results in TeV gamma-rays from such objects are discussed and found to be consistent with theory. We conclude that for the present instrumental sensitivities there are no reasons to draw premature negative conclusions as to the possible origin of the Galactic Cosmic Rays below the "knee" in Supernova Remnants. In addition, theoretical predictions and observations are getting very close. Therefore the coming generation of ground-based and space-borne detectors will decide this basic question of astrophysics.

H. J. Voelk

2001-05-21

123

Hydrodynamic simulation of supernova remnants including efficient particle acceleration  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of supernova remnants (SNRs) show nonthermal X-rays assumed to be synchrotron emission from shock accelerated TeV electrons. The existence of these TeV electrons strongly suggests that the shocks in SNRs are sources of galactic cosmic rays (CRs). In addition, there is convincing evidence from broad-band studies of individual SNRs and elsewhere that the particle acceleration process in SNRs

D. C. Ellison; Anne Decourchelle; Jean Ballet

2004-01-01

124

Strong evidences of hadron acceleration in Tycho's Supernova Remnant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Very recent gamma-ray observations of G120.1+1.4 (Tycho's) supernova remnant (SNR) by Fermi-LAT and VERITAS provided new fundamental pieces of information for understanding particle acceleration and non-thermal emission in SNRs. We want to outline a coherent description of Tycho's properties in terms of SNR evolution, shock hydrodynamics and multi-wavelength emission by accounting for particle acceleration at the forward shock via first

G. Morlino; D. Caprioli

2011-01-01

125

Observations of nine supernova remnants at 10.6 GHz  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Intensity contour and polarization observation maps of nine supernova remnants at a microwave frequency are presented and discussed. The data provided are the highest-frequency (10.6 GHz) measurements to date for several of these sources and should therefore be useful in determining their spectra. Polarization ranges from 2 or 3% to as high as 40-50%. Integrated fluxes for the sources vary from about 3 to more than 25.

Becker, R. H.; Kundu, M. R.

1975-01-01

126

Neutral Hydrogen in the Direction of the VELA Supernova Remnant  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have carried out a study of the distribution and kinematics of the neutral hydrogen in the direction of the Vela supernova remnant (SNR). A field of 6.8d x 5.4d centered at l = 264.1d, b = -1.6d was surveyed using the Parkes 64 m radio telescope (half-power beamwidth 14.7' at 21 cm). Nearly 2300 H i profiles were obtained

G. M. Dubner; A. J. Green; W. M. Goss; D. C.-J. Bock; E. Giacani

1998-01-01

127

Fermi Large Area Telescope Detection of Supernova Remnant RCW 86  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using 5.4 yr Fermi Large Area Telescope data, we report the detection of GeV ?-ray emission from the shell-type supernova remnant RCW 86 (G315.4-2.3) with a significance of ~5.1?. The data slightly favors an extended emission of this supernova remnant. The spectral index of RCW 86 is found to be very hard, ? ~ 1.4, in the 0.4-300 GeV range. A one-zone leptonic model can well fit the multi-wavelength data from radio to very high energy ?-rays. The very hard GeV ?-ray spectrum and the inferred low gas density seem to disfavor a hadronic origin for the ?-rays. The ?-ray behavior of RCW 86 is very similar to several other TeV shell-type supernova remnants, e.g., RX J1713.7-3946, RX J0852.0-4622, SN 1006, and HESS J1731-347.

Yuan, Qiang; Huang, Xiaoyuan; Liu, Siming; Zhang, Bing

2014-04-01

128

Parametric studies of cosmic ray acceleration in supernova remnants  

E-print Network

We present a library of numerical models of cosmic-ray accelerating supernova remnants (SNRs) evolving through a homogeneous ambient medium. We analyse distributions of the different energy components and diffusive shock acceleration time-scales for the models in various conditions. The library comprises a variety of SNR evolutionary scenarios and is used to map remnants with sufficiently known properties. This mapping constrains the respective ambient medium properties and the acceleration efficiency. Employing the library, we derive the ambient medium density, ambient magnetic field strength and the cosmic-ray acceleration efficiency for models of Tycho and SN 1006 remnants and refine the ages of SNR 0509-67.5 and SNR 0519-69.0.

Kosenko, D; Decourchelle, A

2014-01-01

129

OXYGEN-RICH SUPERNOVA REMNANT IN THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This is a NASA Hubble Space Telescope image of the tattered debris of a star that exploded 3,000 years ago as a supernova. This supernova remnant, called N132D, lies 169,000 light-years away in the satellite galaxy, the Large Magellanic Cloud. A Hubble Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 image of the inner regions of the supernova remnant shows the complex collisions that take place as fast moving ejecta slam into cool, dense interstellar clouds. This level of detail in the expanding filaments could only be seen previously in much closer supernova remnants. Now, Hubble's capabilities extend the detailed study of supernovae out to the distance of a neighboring galaxy. Material thrown out from the interior of the exploded star at velocities of more than four million miles per hour (2,000 kilometers per second) plows into neighboring clouds to create luminescent shock fronts. The blue-green filaments in the image correspond to oxygen-rich gas ejected from the core of the star. The oxygen-rich filaments glow as they pass through a network of shock fronts reflected off dense interstellar clouds that surrounded the exploded star. These dense clouds, which appear as reddish filaments, also glow as the shock wave from the supernova crushes and heats the clouds. Supernova remnants provide a rare opportunity to observe directly the interiors of stars far more massive than our Sun. The precursor star to this remnant, which was located slightly below and left of center in the image, is estimated to have been 25 times the mass of our Sun. These stars 'cook' heavier elements through nuclear fusion, including oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, iron etc., and the titanic supernova explosions scatter this material back into space where it is used to create new generations of stars. This is the mechanism by which the gas and dust that formed our solar system became enriched with the elements that sustain life on this planet. Hubble spectroscopic observations will be used to determine the exact chemical composition of this nuclear- processed material, and thereby test theories of stellar evolution. The image shows a region of the remnant 50 light-years across. The supernova explosion should have been visible from Earth's southern hemisphere around 1,000 B.C., but there are no known historical records that chronicle what would have appeared as a 'new star' in the heavens. This 'true color' picture was made by superposing images taken on 9-10 August 1994 in three of the strongest optical emission lines: singly ionized sulfur (red), doubly ionized oxygen (green), and singly ionized oxygen (blue). Photo credit: Jon A. Morse (STScI) and NASA Investigating team: William P. Blair (PI; JHU), Michael A. Dopita (MSSSO), Robert P. Kirshner (Harvard), Knox S. Long (STScI), Jon A. Morse (STScI), John C. Raymond (SAO), Ralph S. Sutherland (UC-Boulder), and P. Frank Winkler (Middlebury). Image files in GIF and JPEG format may be accessed via anonymous ftp from oposite.stsci.edu in /pubinfo: GIF: /pubinfo/GIF/N132D.GIF JPEG: /pubinfo/JPEG/N132D.jpg The same images are available via World Wide Web from links in URL http://www.stsci.edu/public.html.

2002-01-01

130

A New Young Galactic Supernova Remnant Containing a Compact Object: G15.9+0.2  

E-print Network

We identify the radio-emitting shell-type supernova remnant G15.9+0.2 as a relatively young remnant containing an X-ray point source that may be its associated neutron star. The integrated spectrum of the remnant shell obtained from our 30 ks exploratory Chandra observation shows very strong lines that require elevated element abundances from ejecta, in particular of sulfur. A plane-shock model fit gives a temperature $kT = 0.9 (0.8, 1.0)$ keV, an ionization timescale $n_et = 6 (4, 9) \\times 10^{10}$ cm$^{-3}$ s, and a sulfur abundance of 2.1 (1.7, 2.7) times solar (90% confidence limits). Two-component models with one solar and one enriched component are also plausible, but are not well constrained by the data. Various estimates give a remnant age of order $10^3$ yr, which would make G15.9+0.2 among the dozen or so youngest remnants in the Galaxy. The sparse point source spectrum is consistent with either a steep $\\Gamma \\sim$ 4 power law or a $kT \\sim$ 0.4 keV blackbody. The spectrum is absorbed by a H column density $N_H \\sim 4 \\times 10^{22}$ cm$^{-2}$ similar to that required for the remnant shell. The implied 2--9.5 keV source luminosity is about $10^{33}$ ergs s$^{-1}$ for an assumed distance of 8.5 kpc consistent with the high absorption column. We suggest that the point source is either a rotation-powered pulsar or a compact central object (CCO).

S. P. Reynolds; K. J. Borkowski; U. Hwang; I. Harrus; R. Petre; G. Dubner

2006-10-11

131

A high-sensitivity search for X-rays from supernova remnants in Aquila.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A high-sensitivity scan of the galactic plane from 70 to 30 deg was performed to search for 2-20-keV X rays from supernova remnants. The spectra of five X-ray sources detected between 44 and 31 deg longitude are presented, of which only two might be associated with suggested supernova remnants. Upper limits are given for the 19 possible supernova remnants scanned.

Schwartz, D. A.; Boldt, E. A.; Holt, S. S.; Serlemitsos, P. J.; Bleach, R. D.

1972-01-01

132

A high sensitivity search for X-rays from supernova remnants in Aquila  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A high sensitivity scan of the galactic plane was performed to search for 2-20 keV X-rays from supernova remnants. The spectra of five X-ray sources detected between 44 deg and 31 deg longitude, of which only two might be associated with suggested supernova remnants, are reported on. Upper limits are presented for the 19 possible supernova remnants scanned in this survey.

Schwartz, D. A.; Bleach, D. A.; Boldt, E. A.; Holt, S. S.; Serlemitsos, P. J.

1972-01-01

133

CONSTRAINING EXPLOSION TYPE OF YOUNG SUPERNOVA REMNANTS USING 24 ?m EMISSION MORPHOLOGY  

E-print Network

Determination of the explosion type of supernova remnants (SNRs) can be challenging, as SNRs are hundreds to thousands of years old and supernovae are classified based on spectral properties days after explosion. Previous ...

Peters, Charee L.

134

Observation of Nonthermal Emission from the Supernova Remnant IC443 with RXTE  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this paper we present analysis of X-ray spectra from the supernova remnant IC443 obtained using the PCA on RXTE. The spectra in the 3 - 20 keV band are well fit by a two-component model consisting of thermal and nonthermal components. We compare these results with recent results of other X-ray missions and discuss the need for a cut-off in the nonthermal spectrum. Recent Chandra and XMM-Newton observations suggest that much of the nonthermal emission from IC443 can be attributed to a pulsar wind nebula. We present the results of our search for periodic emission in the RXTE PCA data. We then discuss the origin o f the nonthermal component and its possible association with the unidentified EGRET source.

Sturner, S. J.; Keohane, J. W.; Reimer, O.

2002-01-01

135

Distant Supernova Remnant Imaged by Chandra's High Resolution Camera  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The High Resolution Camera (HRC), one of the two X-ray cameras on NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory, was placed into the focus for the first time on Monday, August 30. The first target was LMC X-1, a point-like source of X rays in the Large Magellanic Cloud. The Large Magellanic Cloud, a companion galaxy to the Milky Way, is 160,000 light years from Earth. After checking the focus with LMC X-1, Chandra observed N132D, a remnant of an exploded star in the Large Magellanic Cloud. "These were preliminary test observations," emphasized Dr. Stephen Murray, of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, principal investigator for the High Resolution Camera. "But we are very pleased with the results. All indications are that the HRC will produce X-ray images of unprecedented clarity." The N132D image shows a highly structured remnant, or shell, of 10-million-degree gas that is 80 light years across. Such a shell in the vicinity of the Sun would encompass more than fifty nearby stars. The amount of material in the N132D hot gas remnant is equal to that of 600 suns. The N132D supernova remnant appears to be colliding with a giant molecular cloud, which produces the brightening on the southern rim of the remnant. The molecular cloud, visible with a radio telescope, has the mass of 300,000 suns. The relatively weak x-radiation on the upper left shows that the shock wave is expanding into a less dense region on the edge of the molecular cloud. A number of small circular structures are visible in the central regions and a hint of a large circular loop can be seen in the upper part of the remnant. Whether the peculiar shape of the supernova remnant can be fully explained in terms of these effects, or whether they point to a peculiar cylindrically shaped explosion remains to be seen. -more- "The image is so rich in structure that it will take a while to sort out what is really going on," Murray said. "It could be multiple supernovas, or absorbing clouds in the vicinity of the supernova." The unique capabilities of the HRC stem from the close match of its imaging capability to the focusing power of the mirrors. When used with the Chandra mirrors, the HRC will make images that reveal detail as small as one-half an arc second. This is equivalent to the ability to read a stop sign at a distance of twelve miles. The checkout period for the HRC will continue for the next few weeks, during which time the team expects to acquire images of other supernova remnants, star clusters, and starburst galaxies. To follow Chandra's progress, visit the Chandra News Web site at: http://chandra.harvard.edu AND http://chandra.nasa.gov NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama, manages the Chandra X-ray Observatory for NASA's Office of Space Science, NASA Headquarters, Washington, D.C. The Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory's Chandra X-ray Center in Cambridge, Mass., manages the Chandra science program and controls the observatory for NASA. TRW Space and Electronics Group of Redondo Beach, Calif., leads the contractor team that built Chandra. High resolution digital versions of the X-ray image (300 dpi JPG, TIFF) and other information associated with this release are available on the Internet at: http://chandra.harvard.edu/photo/0050/ or via links in: http://chandra.harvard.edu

1999-09-01

136

Molecular Environment of the Supernova Remnant IC 443: Discovery of the Molecular Shells Surrounding the Remnant  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have carried out 12CO, 13CO, and C18O observations toward the mixed morphology supernova remnant (SNR) IC 443. The observations cover a 1.°5 × 1.°5 area and allow us to investigate the overall molecular environment of the remnant. Some northern and northeastern partial shell structure of CO gas is around the remnant. One of the partial shells, about 5' extending beyond the northeastern border of the remnant's bright radio shell, seems to just confine the faint radio halo. On the other hand, some faint CO clumps can be discerned along the eastern boundary of the faint remnant's radio halo. Connecting the eastern CO clumps, the northeastern partial shell structures, and the northern CO partial shell, we can see that a half molecular ring structure appears to surround the remnant. The LSR velocity of the half-ring structure is in the range of -5 km s-1 to -2 km s-1, which is consistent with that of the -4 km s-1 molecular clouds. We suggest that the half-ring structure of the CO emission at V LSR ~ -4 km s-1 is associated with the SNR. The structures are possibly swept up by the stellar winds of SNR IC 443's massive progenitor. Based on the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer and the Two Micron All Sky Survey near-IR database, 62 young stellar object (YSO) candidates are selected within the radio halo of the remnant. These YSO candidates concentrated along the boundary of the remnant's bright radio shell are likely to be triggered by the stellar winds from the massive progenitor of SNR IC 443.

Su, Yang; Fang, Min; Yang, Ji; Zhou, Ping; Chen, Yang

2014-06-01

137

High-resolution radio and X-ray observations of the supernova remnant W28  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present study has the objective to report the first high resolution radio and X-ray observations of the central part of the galactic supernova remnant, W28, taking into account the possible association of the remnant with the unidentified gamma-ray source, 2CG 006-00. This gamma-ray source is approximately two-thirds as bright as the Crab pulsar above 100 MeV, and has a somewhat flatter spectrum. Both the radio and X-ray observations reveal previously unknown aspects of W28 which support the possibility of W28 being a gamma-ray source. The radio data show a flat-spectrum, nonthermal component reminiscent of the Crab Nebula and Vela, both of which are confirmed gamma-ray sources. The X-ray observations reveal a compact source within W28, again suggestive of both the Crab and Vela. If the similarities among W28, the Crab Nebula, and the Vela remnant are valid, the gamma-ray source 2CG 00-00 should be studied for periodicity, the conclusive signature of a compact source of emission.

Andrews, M. D.; Basart, J. P.; Lamb, R. C.; Becker, R. H.

1983-01-01

138

Chandra Observations of the Galactic Oxygen-Rich Supernova Remnant G292.0+1.8  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present results from an observation of the young Galactic supernova remnant G292.0+1.8 with the Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer (ACIS) onboard Chandra X-ray Observatory. In the 0.2 - 8 keV energy band, the high resolution ACIS images has uncovered a complex morphology consisting of the knots and filaments of enriched ejecta and shocked ISM, as well as the limb-brightened blast wave around the periphery of the SNR. Imaging in the soft (0.4-2 keV) and hard (>2 keV) X-ray bands has revealed the presence of a hard point-like source surrounded by a diffuse nebula that are believed to be a pulsar and its wind nebula. Chandra HRC timing-mode observations have been approved for a fast pulsar search to confirm this identification. We also present the equivalent width maps for the elemental species O, Ne, Fe, Mg, Si, S, and Ar that have allowed us to identify regions of enhanced metallicity in the remnant. We find that the ejecta knots in G292.0+1.8 are all very in Ne and Mg line emission, with weaker O and Si emission and little Fe. These features can be modeled in terms of pure metal plasmas devoid of H. The brightest emission near the center of the remnant shows solar to sub-solar abundances and temperatures near 0.5 keV, indicating a shocked ISM origin. In sharp contrast with Chandra results for Cas A, the only other young Galactic oxygen-rich SNR, we find no evidence for Si- and Fe-rich ejecta in G292.0+1.8.

Park, S.; Roming, P.

2001-09-01

139

New Limits on Enhanced Turbulence at Supernova Remnants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Theories of cosmic ray acceleration by supernova remnants predict the existence of regions of intense magnetohydrodynamic turbulence upstream and downstream of the shock wave. Such regions are observed in the case of shock waves in the interplanetary medium, and the interplanetary turbulence possesses substantial density fluctuations. In the interplanetary medium, such turbulent regions produce enhanced radio propagation effects such as scintillations and angular broadening. In this paper, we report a search for enhanced angular broadening of the radio sources J0547+273 and J0128+631, observed through the supernova remnants S147 and G127.1+0.5, respectively. The observations were made with the Very Long Baseline Array of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory in the Fall of 2002. Observations were made at wavelengths of 6, 13, 18, and 21 cm. These multifrequency observations allow the scattered and intrinsic structures of these sources to be distinguished. For both sources, angular broadening attributable to interstellar turbulence was measured. The scattering sizes correspond to 1 GHz angular diameters (FWHM) of 8.9 milliarcseconds (mas) for J0128+631 and 6.4 mas for J0547+273, with uncertainties of about 1 mas for both sources. The expected ``incidental'' angular broadening due to the interstellar medium along these lines of sight was estimated from an updated version of the model of Lazio and Cordes (ApJ 479, 238, 1998). The incidental angular size estimates are 9.5 mas and 6.5-7.0 mas for J0128+631 and J0547+273, respectively. We therefore find no evidence for an enhancement of scattering, and thus intense turbulence, associated with either supernova remnant. Quantitative limits on the properties of waves and turbulence will be presented. This work was supported by grant ATM03-54782 from the Division of Atmospheric Sciences, National Science Foundation.

Spitler, L.; Spangler, S.

2004-12-01

140

Galactic Cosmic Ray Origin Sites: Supernova Remnants and Superbubbles  

E-print Network

We discuss processes in galactic cosmic ray (GCR) acceleration sites - supernova remnants, compact associations of young massive stars, and superbubbles. Mechanisms of efficient conversion of the mechanical power of the outflows driven by supernova shocks and fast stellar winds of young stars into magnetic fields and relativistic particles are discussed. The high efficiency of particle acceleration in the sources implies the importance of nonlinear feedback effects in a symbiotic relationship where the magnetic turbulence required to accelerate the CRs is created by the accelerated CRs themselves. Non-thermal emission produced by relativistic particles (both those confined in and those that escape from the cosmic accelerators) can be used to constrain the basic physical models of the GCR sources. High resolution X-ray synchrotron imaging, combined with GeV-TeV gamma ray spectra, is a powerful tool to probe the maximum energies of accelerated particles. Future MeV regime spectroscopy will provide unique inform...

Bykov, A M; Gladilin, P E; Osipov, S M; 10.1063/1.4772219

2012-01-01

141

A compressed cloud in the Vela supernova remnant  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Strong interstellar absorption lines of C I, arising from the two excited fine-structure levels, are found in IUE observations of HD 72350 (type B4 III). An analysis of the excited-level populations of C I gives local temperature and pressure limits, and auxiliary data on the limit of column density for excited O I and the carbon ionization help to establish that (1) the local temperature is within the limits of 25-100 K, and (2) the pressure/Boltzmann's constant ratio is at least 10 to the 4.3/cu cm K, despite its small size. This high-pressure cloud is discussed in terms of shock compression by the Vela supernova blast wave, along with the relationship of this kind of cloud compression to star formation and to the origin of the characteristic filamentary emission arcs seen in Vela and other supernova remnants

Jenkins, E. B.; Silk, J.; Leep, E. M.; Wallerstein, G.

1981-01-01

142

Gamma-Ray Emission From Crushed Clouds in Supernova Remnants  

SciTech Connect

It is shown that the radio and gamma-ray emission observed from newly-found 'GeV-bright' supernova remnants (SNRs) can be explained by a model, in which a shocked cloud and shock-accelerated cosmic rays (CRs) frozen in it are simultaneously compressed by the supernova blastwave as a result of formation of a radiative cloud shock. Simple reacceleration of pre-existing CRs is generally sufficient to power the observed gamma-ray emission through the decays of {pi}{sup 0}-mesons produced in hadronic interactions between high-energy protons (nuclei) and gas in the compressed-cloud layer. This model provides a natural account of the observed synchrotron radiation in SNRs W51C, W44 and IC 443 with flat radio spectral index, which can be ascribed to a combination of secondary and reaccelerated electrons and positrons.

Uchiyama, Yasunobu; Blandford, Roger D.; Funk, Stefan; /SLAC; Tajima, Hiroyasu; /Nagoya U., Solar-Terrestrial Environ. Lab.; Tanaka, Takaaki; /KIPAC, Menlo Park; ,

2010-10-27

143

The Masses of M31 Supernova Remnant Progenitors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose to expand our previous successful archival program to constrain the progenitor masses of supernova remnants {SNRs} in M31. Our previous program has resulted in 2 papers that each significantly improve our knowledge of the mass distribution of stars that produce supernovae. However, a new and significantly improved SNR catalog has been released this year, which is more comprehensive and reliable that anything available at the time of our previous program. The amount of high-quality HST imaging has also increased. This new catalog provides 106 SNRs with HST coverage, 67 of which were not measured by our previous archival program. Furthermore, our technique for measuring uncertainties in our mass estimates has become more reliable. This expanded and updated program will increase the number of measurements SNRs by a factor of 2, while also producing a much cleaner, more homogeneous sample.

Williams, Benjamin

2014-10-01

144

What Produced the Ultraluminous Supernova Remnant in NGC 6946?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ultraluminous supernova remnant (SNR) in NGC 6946 is the brightest known\\u000aSNR in X-rays, ~1000 times brighter than Cas A. To probe the nature of this\\u000aremnant and its progenitor, we have obtained high-dispersion optical echelle\\u000aspectra. The echelle spectra detect H-alpha, [N II], and [O III] lines, and\\u000aresolve these lines into a narrow (FWHM ~20--40 km\\/s) component

Bryan C. Dunne; Robert A. Gruendl; You-Hua Chu

1999-01-01

145

Late-time hohlraum pressure dynamics in supernova remnant experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is shown that laser driven hohlraums obtain significant internal pressures which affect the hydrodynamics of high-energy density shock-tube experiments. By incorporating this previously neglected hohlraum pressure effect (in addition to the usual x-ray drive) into computer simulations which model the NOVA laser driven supernova remnant experiment [R. P. Drake, S. G. Glendinning, K. Estabrook, B. A. Remington, R. McCray, R. J. Williams, L. J. Suter, T. B. Smith, J. J. Carroll III, R. A. London, and E. Liang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 2068 (1998)], calculations are able to reproduce the observed structure of hydrodynamic features.

Hurricane, O. A.; Glendinning, S. G.; Remington, B. A.; Drake, R. P.; Dannenberg, K. K.

2001-06-01

146

An X-ray study of the supernova remnant G20.0-0.2 and its surroundings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aims: We study the supernova remnant G20.0-0.2 and its surroundings to look for the high-energy counterpart of the radio nebula and to find evidence of interaction between the shock front and the interstellar medium. Methods: We used Chandra archival observations to analyze the X-ray emission from the supernova remnant. The surrounding gas was investigated using data extracted from the Galactic Ring Survey, the VLA Galactic Plane Survey, the Galactic Legacy Infrared Midplane Survey Extraordinaire, and the Bolocam Galactic Plane Survey. Results: G20.0-0.2 shows diffuse X-ray emission from the central region of the radio remnant. Although the current data do not allow us to distinguish between a thermal or non-thermal origin for the X-ray diffuse emission, based on the radio properties we suggest a synchrotron origin as the most favorable. The hard X-ray point source CXO J182807.4-113516 appears located at the geometrical center of the remnant and is a potential candidate to be the pulsar powering the nebula. We found a molecular cloud adjacent to the flattest border of G20.0-0.2, indicating a probable interaction between the shock front of the remnant and the molecular gas. Several young stellar object candidates are found located in the brightest region of the molecular emission, as well as over a millimeter continuum source and a dark cloud. This distribution is an indication of an active star-forming region around the supernova remnant.

Petriella, A.; Paron, S. A.; Giacani, E. B.

2013-06-01

147

X-ray Measurements of Tycho Supernova Remnant's Dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the following work we present X-ray dynamics measurements of the Tycho supernova remnant G120.1+01.4. We compare observations and spectra from 2005 and 2009 archived in XMM Newton Science Archive in order to determine differences caused by collision with surrounding interstellar medium (ISM) as well as by remnant’s own expansion. We have calculated the azimuthal expansion of remnant’s edges to vary from 0.194 arcsec/yr to 0.438 arcsec/yr, while the highest values are found to have the azimuth of about 60° in the south-east and the lowest expansion overall is estimated on the north. Comparison of fluxes has shown that the highest estimated energy gain of 3.1 times was measured in reverse shock region around the azimuth of 300° in the energy range from 6.1 keV to 8 keV, whereas the highest energy loss was found to be in the same energy range in forward shock region with the azimuth of approximately 70° reaching 2.4 times lower energy compared with the values from 2005. We have also defined the most abundant heavy elements within energy scale from 200 eV to 8 keV, which are identified through spectral lines to be Fe XVIII (0.849 keV), Mg XI and XII (1.34 keV, 1.46 keV), Si XIII (1.83 keV), S XV (2.41 keV, 2.86 keV) and Ca XIX (3.84 keV).

Brchnelova, Michaela

2014-01-01

148

Nonlinear Shock Acceleration and Photon Emission in Supernova Remnants  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We have extended a simple model of nonlinear diffusive shock acceleration (Berezhko & Ellison 1999: Ellison &, Berezhko 1999a) to include the injection and acceleration of electrons and the production of photons from bremsstrahlung, synchrotron, inverse Compton, and pion-decay processes. We argue that, the results of this model, which is simpler to use than more elaborate ones, offer a significant improvement, over test-particle, power-law spectra which are often used in astrophysical applications of diffusive shock acceleration. With an evolutionary supernova remnant (SNR) model to obtain shock parameters as functions of ambient interstellar medium parameters and time, we predict broad-band continuum photon emission from supernova remnants in general, and SN1006 in particular, showing that our results compare well with the more complete time-dependent and spherically symmetric nonlinear model of Berezhko, Ksenofontov, & Petukhov (1999a). We discuss the implications nonlinear shock acceleration has for X-ray line emission, and use our model to describe how ambient conditions determine the TeV/radio flux ratio, an important parameter for gamma-ray observations of radio SNRs.

Ellison, Donald C.; Berezhko, Evgeny G.; Baring, Matthew G.

2000-01-01

149

Shocks in Dense Clouds in the Vela Supernova Remnant: FUSE  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We have obtained 8 LWRS FUSE spectra to study a recently identified interaction of the Vela supernova remnant with a dense cloud region along its western edge. The goal is to quantify the temperature, ionization, density, and abundance characteristics associated with this shock/dense cloud interface by means of UV absorption line studies. Our detection of high-velocity absorption line C I at +90 to +130 km/s with IUE toward a narrow region interior to the Vela SNR strongly suggests the Vela supernova remnant is interacting with a dense ISM or molecular cloud. The shock/dense cloud interface is suggested by (1) the rarity of detection of high-velocity C I seen in IUE spectra, (2) its very limited spatial distribution in the remnant, and (3) a marked decrease in X-ray emission in the region immediately west of the position of these stars where one also finds a 100 micron emission ridge in IRAS images. We have investigated the shock physics and general properties of this interaction region through a focussed UV absorption line study using FUSE spectra. We have FUSE data on OVI absorption lines observed toward 8 stars behind the Vela supernova remnant (SNR). We compare the OVI observations with IUE observations of CIV absorption toward the same stars. Most of the stars, which are all B stars, have complex continua making the extraction of absorption lines difficult. Three of the stars, HD 72088, HD 72089 and HD 72350, however, are rapid rotators (v sin i less than 100 km/s) making the derivation of absorption column densities much easier. We have measured OVI and CIV column densities for the "main component" (i.e. the low velocity component) for these stars. In addition, by removing the H2 line at 1032.35A (121.6 km/s relative to OVI), we find high velocity components of OVI at approximately 150 km/s that we attribute to the shock in the Vela SNR. The column density ratios and magnitudes are compared to both steady shock models and results of hydrodynamical SNR modeling. We find that the models require the shock to be relatively slow (approximately 100 - 170 km/s) to match the FUSE data. We discuss the implications of our results for models of the evolution of the Vela SNR.

Nichols, Joy; Sonneborn, George (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

150

An X-ray and optical study of the supernova remnant W44  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We report the results of a 8000 s observation of the supernova remnant W44 using the ROSAT Position Sensitive Proportional Counter (PSPC). The image shows the same centrally peaked morphology observed by the Einstein IPC and contrasts with the shell-like radio morphology. The eastern limb shows a lack of X-ray emission within the radio shell, probably due to the interaction between the Supernova Remnants (SNR) and a molecular cloud. No counterpart to the pulsar 1853 + 01 in W44 has been detected, with L(sub X) less than 1.3 x 10(exp 32) ergs/s in the 0.2 to 2.4 keV band. The spectral analysis of the central part of W44, combining EXOSAT ME and Einstein SSS data, shows that the shocked plasma has not reached ionization equilibrium. The best nonequilibrium fit to PSPC, ME, and SSS spectra gives Eta = 10(exp 51) ergs cm(exp -6), T(sub s) = 10(exp 7) K with T(sub e) = T(sub i), suggesting conditions are approaching ionization equilibrium. There is no evidence of enhanced abundances of Mg, Si, S, or Fe. The variation of temperature and column density was obtained region by region using the PSPC and Einstein IPC. The temperature is largely uniform over the remnant, but strong column density variations are found to be consistent with molecular clouds in the line of sight. An evaporation model with a two-phase interstellar medium structure of clumps and interclump gas (White & Long 1991) can explain the X-ray centrally peaked morphology of W44. The clumps remaining behind a SN shock provide a reservoir of material, and evaporat e to increase the density of X-ray emitting gas in the interior of a SNR. The uniform temperature distribution of W44 strongly supports the predictions of this model. In addition, mosaiced H alpha and (S II) images of W44, taken using the prime focus universal extragalactic instrument (PFUEI) camera on the Palomar 60 sec telescope, reveal the first discovery of optical filaments (both H alpha and (S II)) in the northwestern and southeastern portion of the remnant, within the X-ray emitting region. The optical filaments and the X-ray image showing locally brighter emission and clumps along the filaments suggest both are produced by the interaction between the supernova shock front and regions of enhanced ambient density.

Rho, Jeongee; Petre, R.; Schlegel, Eric M.

1994-01-01

151

Image of the Vela Supernova Remnant Taken by the High Energy Astronomy Observatory (HEAO)-2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Like the Crab Nebula, the Vela Supernova Remnant has a radio pulsar at its center. In this image taken by the High Energy Astronomy Observatory (HEAO)-2/Einstein Observatory, the pulsar appears as a point source surrounded by weak and diffused emissions of x-rays. HEAO-2's computer processing system was able to record and display the total number of x-ray photons (a tiny bundle of radiant energy used as the fundamental unit of electromagnetic radiation) on a scale along the margin of the picture. The HEAO-2, the first imaging and largest x-ray telescope built to date, was capable of producing actual photographs of x-ray objects. Shortly after launch, the HEAO-2 was nicknamed the Einstein Observatory by its scientific experimenters in honor of the centernial of the birth of Albert Einstein, whose concepts of relativity and gravitation have influenced much of modern astrophysics, particularly x-ray astronomy. The HEAO-2, designed and developed by TRW, Inc. under the project management of the Marshall Space Flight Center, was launched aboard an Atlas/Centaur launch vehicle on November 13, 1978.

1980-01-01

152

The Interstellar Medium around the Supernova Remnant G320.4-1.2  

E-print Network

Using the Australia Telescope Compact Array, we have carried out a survey of the HI emission in the direction of the ``barrel-shaped'' supernova remnant (SNR) G320.4-1.2 (MSH 15-52) and its associated young pulsar B1509-58. The angular resolution of the data is 4.0x2.7 arcmin, and the rms noise of the order of 30 mJy/beam (~0.5 K). The HI observations indicate that the N-NW radio limb has encountered a dense HI filament (density ~12 cm^-3) at the same LSR velocity than that of the SNR (V_LSR ~ -68 km/s). This HI concentration would be responsible for the flattened shape of the NW lobe of G320.4-1.2, and for the formation of the radio/optical/X-ray nebula RCW 89. The emission associated with the bright knots in the interior of RCW 89 can be explained as arising from the interaction between the collimated relativistic outflow from the pulsar and the denser part of this HI filament (density ~15 cm^-3). The S-SE half of the SNR, on the other hand, seems to have rapidly expanded across a lower density enviroment (...

Dubner, G M; Giacani, E B; Goss, W M; Green, A J

2002-01-01

153

On the X-ray spectrum of Kepler's supernova remnant  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We have devised a method to do nonequilibrium ionization calculations on the results of two-dimensional hydrodynamical simulations, based on the algorithm of Hughes & Helfand (1985). We have calculated the ionization structure and X-ray emission for a two-dimensional numerical hydrodynamical simulation for the remnant of Kepler's supernova (SN); the hydrodynamical model was presented in a previous paper. In this model, the progenitor of Kepler's SN is assumed to have been a massive runaway star ejected from the Galactic plane. In its red supergiant stage, its dense stellar wind was distorted and compressed into a bow shock by the ram pressure of the tenuous interstellar medium. The subsequent interaction of the supernova ejecta with this asymmetric circumstellar matter produced a strongly asymmetric supernova remnant (SNR). In this paper, we present calculated X-ray spectra for this hydrodynamical model. A comparison with observations implies a moderate overabundance of Fe in Kepler's SNR (only 50% larger than its cosmic value), in contrast to a large (6 to 15) Fe overabundance derived previously. However, we confirm earlier conclusions that Si and S abundances are 2 to 3 times solar. These modest enhancements of Si, S, and Fe may be attributed either to heavy-element enriched SN ejecta or to the initial chemical abundances of the SN progenitor, which originated in the metal-rich inner Galaxy. The comparison of our models with the observed spectra confirm theoretical predictions that moderate electron heating occurs at strong collisionless shock fronts, with the implied electron/mean temperature ratio of approximately 0.5.

Borkowski, Kazimierz J.; Sarazin, Craig L.; Blondin, John M.

1994-01-01

154

An X-ray Investigation of Three Supernova Remnants in the Large Magellanic Cloud  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have investigated three supernova remnants (SNRs) in the LMC using multi-wavelength data. These SNRs are generally fainter than the known sample (see Section 4) and may represent a previously missed population. One of our SNRs is the second LMC remnant analyzed which is larger than any Galactic remnant for which a definite size has been established. The analysis of

Matthew D. Klimek; R. C. Smith; R. L. Shelton; R. Williams

2010-01-01

155

AN X-RAY INVESTIGATION OF THREE SUPERNOVA REMNANTS IN THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have investigated three supernova remnants (SNRs) in the LMC using multi-wavelength data. These SNRs are generally fainter than the known sample (see Section 4) and may represent a previously missed population. One of our SNRs is the second LMC remnant analyzed which is larger than any Galactic remnant for which a definite size has been established. The analysis of

Matthew D. Klimek; R. C. Smith; R. L. Shelton; R. Williams

2010-01-01

156

Dust in a Type Ia Supernova Progenitor: Spitzer Spectroscopy of Kepler's Supernova Remnant  

E-print Network

Characterization of the relatively poorly-understood progenitor systems of Type Ia supernovae is of great importance in astrophysics, particularly given the important cosmological role that these supernovae play. Kepler's Supernova Remnant, the result of a Type Ia supernova, shows evidence for an interaction with a dense circumstellar medium (CSM), suggesting a single-degenerate progenitor system. We present 7.5-38 $\\mu$m infrared (IR) spectra of the remnant, obtained with the {\\it Spitzer Space Telescope}, dominated by emission from warm dust. Broad spectral features at 10 and 18 $\\mu$m, consistent with various silicate particles, are seen throughout. These silicates were likely formed in the stellar outflow from the progenitor system during the AGB stage of evolution, and imply an oxygen-rich chemistry. In addition to silicate dust, a second component, possibly carbonaceous dust, is necessary to account for the short-wavelength IRS and IRAC data. This could imply a mixed chemistry in the atmosphere of the p...

Williams, Brian J; Reynolds, Stephen P; Ghavamian, Parviz; Blair, William P; Long, Knox S; Sankrit, Ravi

2012-01-01

157

XMM-Newton Observations of the Galactic Supernova Remnant CTB 109  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Galactic supernova remnant (SNR) CTB 109 has a spectacular semi-circular morphology in both the X-ray and the radio and is associated with the anomalous X-ray pulsar 1E 2259+586. As no X-ray emission is observed from the western part of the SNR shell, the outer blast wave has apparently been stopped by a giant molecular cloud complex which is located in the west. Inside the shell, CTB 109 has an X-ray bright region in the east, known as the 'Lobe' or the 'Jet'. The analysis of the XMM AO1 data of CTB 109 shows that the emission from the 'Lobe' is thermal in origin. There are spectral variations in the 'Lobe', probably caused by differences in the ionization timescale of the plasma and the foreground absorption. Spectra of the 'Lobe' and various regions in the remnant shell do not differ significantly and clearly show Mg and Si lines. The enhanced X-ray emission of the 'Lobe' is indicative of an interaction of the SNR shock wave with a molecular cloud. From the XMM EPIC data, we derived values for, e.g., the blast wave shock velocity or the age of the SNR. This work was supported by CXC contract NAS8-39073 and Chandra grant GO0-1127X.

Sasaki, M.; Plucinsky, P. P.; Gaetz, T. J.; Smith, R. K.; Edgar, R. J.; Slane, P. O.

2003-12-01

158

A Chandra/ACIS Study of 30 Doradus I. Superbubbles and Supernova Remnants  

E-print Network

We present an X-ray tour of diffuse emission in the 30 Doradus star-forming complex in the Large Magellanic Cloud using high-spatial-resolution X-ray images and spatially-resolved spectra obtained with the Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer aboard the Chandra X-ray Observatory. The dominant X-ray feature of the 30 Doradus nebula is the intricate network of diffuse emission generated by interacting stellar winds and supernovae working together to create vast superbubbles filled with hot plasma. We construct maps of the region showing variations in plasma temperature (T = 3--9 million degrees), absorption (N_H = 1--6 x 10^{21} cm^{-2}), and absorption-corrected X-ray surface brightness (S_X = 3--126 x 10^{31} ergs s^{-1} pc^{-2}). Enhanced images reveal the pulsar wind nebula in the composite supernova remnant N157B and the Chandra data show spectral evolution from non-thermal synchrotron emission in the N157B core to a thermal plasma in its outer regions. In a companion paper we show that R136, the central massive star cluster, is resolved at the arcsecond level into almost 100 X-ray sources. Through X-ray studies of 30 Doradus the complete life cycle of such a massive stellar cluster can be revealed.

L. K. Townsley; P. S. Broos; E. D. Feigelson; B. R. Brandl; Y. -H. Chu; G. P. Garmire; G. G. Pavlov

2006-01-05

159

Asymmetric Circumstellar Matter in Type Ia Supernova Remnants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The progenitors of Type Ia supernovae (SNe) are not well understood, but are likely to be of diverse origin, including single- and double-degenerate binary systems. Among single-degenerate progenitors, substantial amounts of circumstellar material (CSM) are expelled prior to the SN explosions by asymptotic giant branch (AGB) companions to the accreting white dwarfs. A subsequent collision of SN ejecta with the dense AGB wind has been detected among several distant SNe such as SN 2002ic, SN 2008J, and more recently PTF11kx. Dense CSM ejected by an AGB companion is present in the remnant of Kepler's SN of 1604, a Type Ia event. Observations of distant SNe hint at strongly asymmetric CSM distributions. A recent study of the CSM in Kepler's SNR by Burkey et al. indicates a large (factor of 10) density contrast between the dense, disk-like equatorial outflow and the more tenuous AGB wind above the orbital plane. A significant fraction of mature Type Ia SNRs in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) shows the presence of dense Fe-rich ejecta in their interiors that cannot be explained by standard models of Type Ia explosions in a uniform ambient interstellar medium. We explore the hypothesis that these remnants originated in Type Ia explosions with strongly asymmetric CSM distributions such as found in Kepler's SNR. We present results of 2-D hydrodynamical simulations of the interaction of SN ejecta with asymmetric, disk-like AGB winds throughout the whole adiabatic stage of SNR evolution. Dense, asymmetric, and highly-ionized Fe-rich ejecta are indeed present in the simulated remnants, while the blast wave assumes a spherical shape shortly after passage through the ambient CSM. We also present simulated X-ray images and spectra and compare them with X-ray observations of selected remnants in the LMC. These remnants include DEM L238 and L249, recently observed by Suzaku, whose X-ray emission is strongly dominated by dense Fe-rich ejecta in their interiors. We contrast these remnants to more typical mature Type Ia SNRs such as 0534-69.9 and 0548-70.4 whose Suzaku spectra can be satisfactorily modeled with standard (without any CSM) X-ray models for Type Ia SNRs.

Borkowski, Kazimierz J.; Reynolds, S. P.; Blondin, J. M.

2013-01-01

160

The Interstellar Medium around the Supernova Remnant G320.4-1.2  

E-print Network

Using the Australia Telescope Compact Array, we have carried out a survey of the HI emission in the direction of the ``barrel-shaped'' supernova remnant (SNR) G320.4-1.2 (MSH 15-52) and its associated young pulsar B1509-58. The angular resolution of the data is 4.0x2.7 arcmin, and the rms noise of the order of 30 mJy/beam (~0.5 K). The HI observations indicate that the N-NW radio limb has encountered a dense HI filament (density ~12 cm^-3) at the same LSR velocity than that of the SNR (V_LSR ~ -68 km/s). This HI concentration would be responsible for the flattened shape of the NW lobe of G320.4-1.2, and for the formation of the radio/optical/X-ray nebula RCW 89. The emission associated with the bright knots in the interior of RCW 89 can be explained as arising from the interaction between the collimated relativistic outflow from the pulsar and the denser part of this HI filament (density ~15 cm^-3). The S-SE half of the SNR, on the other hand, seems to have rapidly expanded across a lower density enviroment (density ~0.4 cm^-3). The HI data also reveal an unusual HI feature aligned with a collimated outflow generated by the pulsar, suggestive of association with the SNR. The anomalous kinematical velocity of this feature (V_LSR ~ 15 km/s), however, is difficult to explain.

G. M. Dubner; B. M. Gaensler; E. B. Giacani; W. M. Goss; A. J. Green

2001-10-09

161

Phosphorus in the Young Supernova Remnant Cassiopeia A  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Phosphorus (31P), which is essential for life, is thought to be synthesized in massive stars and dispersed into interstellar space when these stars explode as supernovae (SNe). Here, we report on near-infrared spectroscopic observations of the young SN remnant Cassiopeia A, which show that the abundance ratio of phosphorus to the major nucleosynthetic product iron (56Fe) in SN material is up to 100 times the average ratio of the Milky Way, confirming that phosphorus is produced in SNe. The observed range is compatible with predictions from SN nucleosynthetic models but not with the scenario in which the chemical elements in the inner SN layers are completely mixed by hydrodynamic instabilities during the explosion.

Koo, Bon-Chul; Lee, Yong-Hyun; Moon, Dae-Sik; Yoon, Sung-Chul; Raymond, John C.

2013-12-01

162

Phosphorus in the Young Supernova Remnant Cassiopeia A  

E-print Network

Phosphorus ($^{31}$P), which is essential for life, is thought to be synthesized in massive stars and dispersed into interstellar space when these stars explode as supernovae (SNe). Here we report on near-infrared spectroscopic observations of the young SN remnant Cassiopeia A, which show that the abundance ratio of phosphorus to the major nucleosynthetic product iron ($^{56}$Fe) in SN material is up to 100 times the average ratio of the Milky Way, confirming that phosphorus is produced in SNe. The observed range is compatible with predictions from SN nucleosynthetic models but not with the scenario in which the chemical elements in the inner SN layers are completely mixed by hydrodynamic instabilities during the explosion.

Koo, Bon-Chul; Moon, Dae-Sik; Yoon, Sung-Chul; Raymond, John C

2013-01-01

163

High-Resolution Polarimetry of Supernova Remnant Kesteven 69  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reported here are high-resolution 6 cm measurements of the adolescent supernova remnant (SNR) Kesteven 69 made with the hybrid BnC configuration of the Very Large Array. Several three-field mosaics of the polarized and total intensity have been used to study this SNR. These investigations lead to a coherent picture of this region. The expanding shock defines an outer rim of high total intensity, suggesting the front is running into large dense clouds with random magnetic field directions. The SNR consists of predominantly of two types of regions, those with high total and relatively weak polarized emission and those with relatively weak total and strong polarized emission. This morphology can be generally explained by the number of clouds with organized magnetic field along the line of sight. Within this SNR there are regions where the field is varying from radial to tangential. As the SN shock encounters clouds, magnetic fields within clouds will strongly affect cloud dynamics.

Wood, C. A.; Mufson, S. L.; Dickel, J. R.

2008-06-01

164

What Are the Compact Central Objects in Supernova Remnants?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent Chandra observations of the compact central objects in supernova remnants have shown puzzling results that do not seem to be consistent with either black holes or neutron stars. (See e.g. Pavlov, Sanwal, Garmire and Zavlin, astro-ph-0112322.) In particular, the inferred effective emitting surface is too small to be the entire surface of a neutron star, but too bright to be a black hole. We discuss the possibility that these compact objects might be red holes instead of black holes or neutron stars. Red holes, which occur in alternate theories of gravity, naturally predict both the greater brightness of the emissions and the smaller effective size of the emitting surface from a collapsed object of the appropriate mass.

Graber, James

2002-04-01

165

A catalogue of Galactic supernova remnants (Green, 2014)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This catalogue of known Galactic supernova remnants (SNRs) is an updated version of the catalogues of Galactic SNRs presented in detail in Green (1984, 1988), in summary form in Green (1991, 1996, 2004, 2009), and on the Web (versions of 1995 July, 1996 August, 1998 September, 2000 August, 2001 December, 2004 January and 2006 April). (Note that version published in Green (1996) was produced in 1993.) This the 2014 May version of the catalogue contains 294 SNRs, and is based on results published in the literature up to the end of 2013. The basic summary data included in this catalogue for each SNR are its Galactic coordinates, RA and Dec (J2000.0), angular size, type, flux density at 1GHz, spectral index, and any other names. Notes on these parameters, on possible remnants not included, and questionable SNRs listed in the catalogue are given in the full version of the catalogue on the Web. It should be noted that there are selection effects which apply to the identification of Galactic SNRs (e.g., Green 1991, 2004, 2005, 2009), so that care should be taken if these data are used in any statistical studies. Published in Green, D.A., 2014, BASI, 42, in press (=2014arXiv1409.0637G). (1 data file).

Green, D. A.

2014-09-01

166

On VI imaging instrumentation and spectroscopic observations in supernova remnants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For my thesis project, I designed and built a high resolution imaging spectrograph, the Imaging Spectrograph for Interstellar Shocks (ISIS), that flew on a sub-orbital rocket from White Sands Missile Range on November 18th, 2002. This rocket-borne instrument was designed to image hot plasma at O VI lambdalambda1032/1038 A behind a shock front in the Cygnus Loop. The new type of instrument developed for this application is a novel type of spectrograph that relies on a standard telescope for its optical layout. This layout, in conjunction with aberration-corrected holography, is capable of arcsecond quality imaging in diffracted light while maintaining an arcsecond image at the telescope focus. The follow-up research is based on observations of N132D, a young, oxygen rich supernova remnant in the Large Magellanic Cloud. These new spectroscopic observations from the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer of emitting O VI in the shocked stellar ejecta were used to distinguish between different models of the ejecta and demonstrate that there is lack of appropriate observations of this type of remnant.

Beasley, Matthew Nelson

2003-10-01

167

On VI Imaging Instrumentation and Spectroscopic Observations in Supernova Remnants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For my thesis, I designed and built a high resolution imaging spectrograph, the Imaging Spectrograph for Interstellar Shocks (ISIS), that flew on a sub-orbital rocket from White Sands Missile Range on November 18th, 2002. This rocket-borne instrument was designed to image hot plasma at O vi ? ? 1032/1038 Å \\space behind a shock front in the Cygnus Loop. The new type of instrument developed for this application is a novel type of spectrograph that relies on a standard telescope for its optical layout. This layout, in conjunction with aberration-corrected holography, is capable of arcsecond quality imaging in diffracted light while maintaining arcsecond imaging at the telescope focus. The follow-up research is based on observations of N132D, a young, oxygen rich supernova remnant in the Large Magellanic Cloud. These new spectroscopic observations from the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer of emitting O vi in the shocked stellar ejecta were used to distinguish between different models of the ejecta and demonstrate that there is lack of appropriate observations of this type of remnant. This work was supported by NASA grants NAG5-5096, NAG5-7465, NAG5-8955, and NAG5-10319. M. Beasley was supported by a Graduate Student Research Program fellowship NGT5-50340.

Beasley, M. N.

2003-12-01

168

Cicrumnuclear Supernova Remnants and HII Regions in NGC 253  

E-print Network

Archival VLA data has been used to produce arcsecond-resolution 6- and 20-cm images of the region surrounding the nuclear 200-pc (~15") starburst in NGC 253. Twenty-two discrete sources stronger than 0.4 mJy have been detected within ~2 kpc (~3') of the galaxy nucleus; almost all these sources must be associated with the galaxy. None of the radio sources coincides with a detected X-ray binary, so they appear to be due to supernova remnants and H II regions. The region outside the central starburst has a derived radio supernova rate of <~0.1/yr, and may account for at least 20% of the recent star formation in NGC 253. Most of the newly identified sources have steep, nonthermal radio spectra, but several relatively strong thermal sources also exist, containing the equivalent of tens of O5 stars. These stars are spread over tens of parsecs, and are embedded in regions having average ionized gas densities of 20-200/cm^3, much lower than in the most active nuclear star-forming regions in NGC 253 or in the super star clusters seen in other galaxies. The strongest region of thermal emission coincides with a highly reddened area seen at near-infrared wavelengths, possibly containing optically obscured H II regions.

James S. Ulvestad

2000-03-31

169

Galactic cosmic ray origin sites: Supernova remnants and superbubbles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We discuss processes in galactic cosmic ray (GCR) acceleration sites - supernova remnants, compact associations of young massive stars, and superbubbles. Mechanisms of efficient conversion of the mechanical power of the outflows driven by supernova shocks and fast stellar winds of young stars into magnetic fields and relativistic particles are discussed. The high efficiency of particle acceleration in the sources implies the importance of nonlinear feedback effects in a symbiotic relationship where the magnetic turbulence required to accelerate the CRs is created by the accelerated CRs themselves. Non-thermal emission produced by relativistic particles (both those confined in and those that escape from the cosmic accelerators) can be used to constrain the basic physical models of the GCR sources. High resolution X-ray synchrotron imaging, combined with GeV-TeV gamma ray spectra, is a powerful tool to probe the maximum energies of accelerated particles. Future MeV regime spectroscopy will provide unique information on the composition of accelerated particles.

Bykov, A. M.; Ellison, D. C.; Gladilin, P. E.; Osipov, S. M.

2012-12-01

170

PHYSICAL STRUCTURE AND NATURE OF SUPERNOVA REMNANTS IN M101  

SciTech Connect

Supernova remnant (SNR) candidates in the giant spiral galaxy M101 have been previously identified from ground-based H{alpha} and [S II] images. We have used archival Hubble Space Telescope (HST) H{alpha} and broadband images as well as stellar photometry of 55 SNR candidates to examine their physical structure, interstellar environment, and underlying stellar population. We have also obtained high-dispersion echelle spectra to search for shocked high-velocity gas in 18 SNR candidates, and identified X-ray counterparts to SNR candidates using data from archival observations made by the Chandra X-Ray Observatory. Twenty-one of these 55 SNR candidates studied have X-ray counterparts, although one of them is a known ultraluminous X-ray source. The multi-wavelength information has been used to assess the nature of each SNR candidate. We find that within this limited sample, {approx}16% are likely remnants of Type Ia SNe and {approx}45% are remnants of core-collapse SNe. In addition, about {approx}36% are large candidates which we suggest are either superbubbles or OB/H II complexes. Existing radio observations are not sensitive enough to detect the non-thermal emission from these SNR candidates. Several radio sources are coincident with X-ray sources, but they are associated with either giant H II regions in M101 or background galaxies. The archival HST H{alpha} images do not cover the entire galaxy and thus prevents a complete study of M101. Furthermore, the lack of HST [S II] images precludes searches for small SNR candidates which could not be identified by ground-based observations. Such high-resolution images are needed in order to obtain a complete census of SNRs in M101 for a comprehensive investigation of the distribution, population, and rates of SNe in this galaxy.

Franchetti, Nicholas A.; Gruendl, Robert A.; Chu, You-Hua; Dunne, Bryan C. [Astronomy Department, University of Illinois, 1002 W. Green Street, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Pannuti, Thomas G.; Grimes, Caleb K. [Department of Earth and Space Sciences, Space Science Center, Morehead State University, 235 Martindale Drive, Morehead, KY 40351 (United States); Kuntz, Kip D. [Henry A. Rowland Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Chen, C.-H. Rosie [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Aldridge, Tabitha M., E-mail: franche1@illinois.edu, E-mail: gruendl@astro.illinois.edu, E-mail: yhchu@astro.illinois.edu, E-mail: bdunne@astro.illinois.edu, E-mail: t.pannuti@moreheadstate.edu, E-mail: ckgrim01@moreheadstate.edu, E-mail: kuntz@pha.jhu.edu, E-mail: rchen@mpifr-bonn.mpg.de, E-mail: z1611057@students.niu.edu [Department of Geology and Environmental Geosciences, Northern Illinois University, Davis Hall 312, Normal Road, DeKalb, IL 60115 (United States)

2012-04-15

171

ROSAT HRI observations of Magellanic Cloud supernova remnants  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Analysis of deep ROSAT high resolution imager (HRI) observations of two oxygen-rich supernova remnants (SNR's) in the Magellanic Clouds is described. For N132D, I exploit the limited spectral information provided by the HRI to investigate arcsecond scale spectral variations. I find that there is a region of harder X-ray emission near the southern limb and regions of softer emission near the center and northwestern limb. The remnant is believed to be interacting with a molecular cloud and the harder emission to the south is explained as a result of increased absorption along the line-of-sight there. I argue that the softer emission comes from X-ray emitting material with an enhanced abundance of oxygen. For the second SNR, E0102.2 72.2, the spatial structure is investigated in detail using two-dimensional image fitting techniques. Evidence is found for a ring-like and a spherically symmetric shell-like component both of which were modeled as homogeneous regions. In addition, a significant fraction of the observed flux (approximately 11 percent) must come from a resolved clumped component. A comparison with optical and radio imagery is made to provide a physical basis for the components identified in the X-ray analysis. The mass of X-ray emitting gas in the remnant is estimated and a value of approximately 75 M(solar mass) was determined. The dominant uncertainty on this quantity is the extent of unresolved clumping in the X-ray gas. Such clumping would tend to reduce the mass estimate by f(exp 1/2), where f is the mean volume filling factor of the gas.

Hughes, John P.

1994-01-01

172

THE MIPSGAL VIEW OF SUPERNOVA REMNANTS IN THE GALACTIC PLANE  

SciTech Connect

We report the detection of Galactic supernova remnants (SNRs) in the mid-infrared (at 24 and 70 {mu}m), in the coordinate ranges 10{sup 0} < l < 65{sup 0} and 285{sup 0} < l < 350{sup 0}, |b| < 1{sup 0}, using MIPS aboard the Spitzer Space Telescope. We search for infrared counterparts to SNRs in Green's catalog and identify 39 out of 121, i.e., a detection rate of about 32%. Such a relatively low detection fraction is mainly due to confusion with nearby foreground/background sources and diffuse emission. The SNRs in our sample show a linear trend in [F{sub 8}/F{sub 24}] versus [F{sub 70}/F{sub 24}]. We compare their infrared fluxes with their corresponding radio flux at 1.4 GHz and find that most remnants have a ratio of 70 {mu}m to 1.4 GHz which is similar to those found in previous studies of SNRs (with the exception of a few that have ratios closer to those of H II regions). Furthermore, we retrieve a slope close to unity when correlating infrared (24 and 70 {mu}m) with 1.4 GHz emission. Our survey is more successful in detecting remnants with bright X-ray emission, which we find is well correlated with the 24 {mu}m morphology. Moreover, by comparing the power emitted in the X-ray, infrared, and radio, we conclude that the energy released in the infrared is comparable to the cooling in the X-ray range.

Pinheiro Goncalves, D. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 50 St. George Street, Toronto, ON, M5S 3H4 (Canada); Noriega-Crespo, A.; Paladini, R.; Carey, S. J. [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Martin, P. G., E-mail: goncalves@astro.utoronto.ca [CITA, University of Toronto, 60 St. George Street, Toronto, ON, M5S 3H4 (Canada)

2011-08-15

173

G29.7-0.3: another supernova remnant with an identity crisis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

New radio and X-ray observations of the galactic supernova remnant G29.7-0.3 show that it is composed of two spectrally distinct components: a steep-spectrum, incomplete shell 3 arcmin in extent enclosing a flat-spectrum, X-ray emitting region 30 arcsec across. Thus, G29.7-0.3 joins the ranks of supernova remnants which exhibit a combination of Crab-like and shell remnant attributes. The Crab-like core has the highest ratio of X-ray radio luminosity of all the Crab-like remnants observed to date, suggesting that it is an extremely young object.

Becker, R. H.; Helfand, D. J.; Szymkowiak, A. E.

1983-01-01

174

Fermi-LAT Observation of Supernova Remnant S147  

SciTech Connect

We present an analysis of gamma-ray data obtained with the Large Area Telescope (LAT) onboard the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope in the region around SNR S147 (G180.0-1.7). A spatially extended gamma-ray source detected in an energy range of 0.2-10 GeV is found to coincide with SNR S147. We confirm its spatial extension at >5{sigma} confidence level. The gamma-ray flux is (3.8 {+-} 0.6) x 10{sup -8} photons cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}, corresponding to a luminosity of 1.3 x 10{sup 34} (d/1.3 kpc){sup 2} erg s{sup -1} in this energy range. The gamma-ray emission exhibits a possible spatial correlation with prominent H{alpha} filaments of S147. There is no indication that the gamma-ray emission comes from the associated pulsar PSR J0538+2817. The gamma-ray spectrum integrated over the remnant is likely dominated by the decay of neutral {pi} mesons produced through the proton-proton collisions in the filaments. Reacceleration of pre-existing CRs and subsequent adiabatic compression in the filaments is sufficient to provide the required energy density of high-energy protons.

Katsuta, J.; Uchiyama, Y.; Tanaka, T.; /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Tajima, H.; /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Nagoya U., Solar-Terrestrial Environ. Lab.; Bechtol, K.; Funk, S.; Lande, J.; /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Ballet, J.; /AIM, Saclay; Hanabata, Y.; /Hiroshima U.; Lemoine-Goumard, M.; /CENBG, Gradignan; Takahashi, T.; /JAXA, Sagamihara

2012-08-17

175

Revisiting the Pulsar Injection Problem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose snapshot XMM-Newton observations of three Galactic supernova remnants with positionally coincident radio pulsars in order to confirm or refute the plausible connection between the supposedly old (but possibly very young) pulsars and the supernova remnants. Based on this we could constrain the Galactic population of neutron stars born spinning slowly and determine any connection between the new class of so-called ``anti-magnetars'' and normal radio pulsars, This study has important implications for understanding the birth, evolution, and properties of the Galactic population of neutron stars, especially in light of very recent discoveries.

Bogdanov, Slavko

2011-10-01

176

Supernova Remnant W49B and Its Environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study gamma-ray supernova remnant (SNR) W49B and its environment using recent radio and infrared data. Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph low resolution data of W49B shows shocked excitation lines of H2 (0,0) S(0)-S(7) from the SNR-molecular cloud interaction. The H2 gas is composed of two components with temperatures of ~260 K and ~1060 K, respectively. Various spectral lines from atomic and ionic particles are detected toward W49B. We suggest that the ionic phase has an electron density of ~500 cm-3 and a temperature of ~104 K by the spectral line diagnoses. The mid- and far-infrared data from MSX, Spitzer, and Herschel reveal a 151 ± 20 K hot dust component with a mass of 7.5 ± 6.6 × 10-4 M ? and a 45 ± 4 K warm dust component with a mass of 6.4 ± 3.2 M ?. The hot dust is likely from materials swept up by the shock of W49B. The warm dust may possibly originate from the evaporation of clouds interacting with W49B. We build the H I absorption spectra of W49B and four nearby H II regions (W49A, G42.90+0.58, G42.43-0.26, and G43.19-0.53) and study the relation between W49B and the surrounding molecular clouds by employing the 2.12 ?m infrared and CO data. We therefore obtain a kinematic distance of ~10 kpc for W49B and suggest that the remnant is likely associated with the CO cloud at about 40 km s-1.

Zhu, H.; Tian, W. W.; Zuo, P.

2014-10-01

177

G65.2+5.7: A Thermal Composite Supernova Remnant with a Cool Shell  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents archival ROSAT PSPC observations of the G65.2+5.7 supernova remnant (also known as G65.3+5.7). Little material obscures this remnant, and so it was well observed, even at the softest end of ROSAT's bandpass (~0.11-0.28 keV). These soft X-ray images reveal the remnant's centrally filled morphology, which, in combination with existing radio frequency observations, places G65.2+5.7 in the thermal

R. L. Shelton; K. D. Kuntz; R. Petre

2004-01-01

178

A New Young Galactic Supernova Remnant Containing a Compact Object: G15.9+0.2  

Microsoft Academic Search

We identify the radio-emitting shell-type supernova remnant G15.9+0.2 as a relatively young remnant containing an X-ray point source that may be its associated neutron star. The integrated spectrum of the remnant shell obtained from our 30 ks exploratory Chandra observation shows very strong lines that require elevated element abundances from ejecta, in particular of sulfur. A plane-shock model fit gives

Stephen P. Reynolds; Kazimierz J. Borkowski; Una Hwang; Ilana Harrus; Robert Petre; Gloria Dubner

2006-01-01

179

Supernova Remnants in the Multi-wavelength Era  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Supernova remnants (SNRs) influence and probe the properties of the gas and dust that compose the interstellar medium (ISM) into which they are born -- the ISM from which other stars and planets may form. The increasing prevalence of sensitive, high-resolution, large-scale surveys offers an avenue to progress our understanding of SNRs, more accurately count sources, and more precisely constrain the stellar contribution to the ISM of the Milky Way. Here I will outline a few case studies in which data from multiple wavebands are brought to bare on issues of source classification, environment, morphology, and evolutionary phase. In examining just these few cases, I find a misclassified SNR, a pair whose unusual morphologies can be explained by a partial transition to the radiative phase, and provide further insight into a set of SNR candidates which, if confirmed, may be amongst the youngest in the Galaxy. These examples demonstrate the potential of including existing multi-wavelength data in the analysis of SNRs.

Robbins, William; Gaensler, B. M.; Murphy, T.; Reeves, S.; Moss, V.; Green, A. J.

2013-01-01

180

EFFECTS OF NEUTRAL PARTICLES ON MODIFIED SHOCKS AT SUPERNOVA REMNANTS  

SciTech Connect

H{alpha} emission from supernova remnants (SNRs) implies the existence of neutral hydrogens in the ambient medium. In the precursor of an SNR shock modified by cosmic rays (CRs), upstream plasmas are pushed by the CR pressure, but neutral particles are not, so that the relative velocity appears and some neutral particles become pickup ions by the charge exchange process in the precursor. We investigate how the pickup ions generated in the precursor affect the shock structure and the particle acceleration. If the CR pressure is larger than 20% of the shock ram pressure, the compression of the subshock becomes smaller than that without pickup ions because of the pressure of the pickup ions. Moreover, even if the shock is modified by CRs, the total compression ratio can be smaller than 4. In addition, the pickup ions play an important role for the injection into the particle acceleration. If the shock is a quasi-perpendicular shock and if the multiply reflected ion acceleration occurs, the CR spectrum can be harder than that of the test particle diffusive shock acceleration below GeV.

Ohira, Yutaka [Theory Center, Institute of Particle and Nuclear Studies, KEK (High Energy Accelerator Research Organization), 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba 305-0801 (Japan); Takahara, Fumio, E-mail: ohira@post.kek.j [Department of Earth and Space Science, Graduate School of Science, Osaka University, 1-1 Machikaneyama-cho, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan)

2010-09-20

181

Discovery of 35 New Supernova Remnants in the Inner Galaxy  

E-print Network

We report the discovery of up to 35 new supernova remnants (SNRs) from a 42 arcsec resolution 90cm multi-configuration Very Large Array survey of the Galactic plane covering 4.5 deg< l <22.0 deg and |b| < 1.25 deg. Archival 20cm, 11cm, and 8 micron data have also been used to identify the SNRs and constrain their properties. The 90cm image is sensitive to SNRs with diameters 2.5 arcmin to 50 arcmin and down to a surface brightness limit of about 10^{-21} W m^{-2} Hz^{-1} sr^{-1}. This survey has nearly tripled the number of SNRs known in this part of the Galaxy, and represents an overall 15% increase in the total number of Galactic SNRs. These results suggest that further deep low frequency surveys of the inner Galaxy will solve the discrepancy between the expected number of Galactic SNRs and the significantly smaller number of currently known SNRs.

C. L. Brogan; J. D. Gelfand; B. M. Gaensler; N. E. Kassim; T. J. Lazio

2006-01-19

182

Fermi LAT observation of supernova remnant HB9  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A 5.5-yr Fermi LAT gamma-ray observation shows significant extended emission at the position of the supernova remnant HB9 (G160.9+2.6). The significance of the detection above the background for photon energies above 0.2 GeV is 16?. The gamma-ray flux above 0.2 GeV is (2.23 ± 0.19stat) × 10-8 photons cm-2 s-1, and the corresponding luminosity above 1 GeV is 1.4 × 1033 erg s-1 (for a source distance of 1 kpc). The spectrum of the source is best described by curved power law (log-parabola, dN/dE=N_0 E^{-(? +? log(E/1 GeV))} with ? = (2.24 ± 0.09stat) and ? = 0.4 ± 0.1stat)). The gamma-ray spectrum of the source is consistent with both leptonic and hadronic models, and the relevant physical parameters in each case are derived. More studies on the ambient density in the region of HB9 should be carried out to rule out or confirm hadronic and non-thermal bremsstrahlung scenarios for the gamma-ray emission.

Araya, Miguel

2014-10-01

183

XMM-Newton observation of the Galactic supernova remnant W51C (G49.1-0.1)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context. The supernova remnant (SNR) W51C is a Galactic object located in a strongly inhomogeneous interstellar medium with signs of an interaction of the SNR blast wave with dense molecular gas. Aims: Diffuse X-ray emission from the interior of the SNR can reveal element abundances in the different emission regions and shed light on the type of supernova (SN) explosion and its progenitor. The hard X-ray emission helps to identify possible candidates for a pulsar formed in the SN explosion and for its pulsar wind nebula (PWN). Methods: We have analysed X-ray data obtained with XMM-Newton. Spectral analyses in selected regions were performed. Results: Ejecta emission in the bright western part of the SNR, located next to a complex of dense molecular gas, was confirmed. The Ne and Mg abundances suggest a massive progenitor with a mass of >20 M?. Two extended regions emitting hard X-rays were identified (corresponding to the known sources [KLS2002] HX3 west and CXO J192318.5+140305 discovered with ASCA and Chandra, respectively), each of which has an additional point source inside and shows a power-law spectrum with ? ? 1.8. Based on their X-ray emission, both sources can be classified as PWN candidates. Based on observations obtained with XMM-Newton, an ESA science mission with instruments and contributions directly funded by ESA Member States and NASA.

Sasaki, Manami; Heinitz, Cornelia; Warth, Gabriele; Pühlhofer, Gerd

2014-03-01

184

SUPERNOVA REMNANT KES 17: AN EFFICIENT COSMIC RAY ACCELERATOR INSIDE A MOLECULAR CLOUD  

SciTech Connect

The supernova remnant Kes 17 (SNR G304.6+0.1) is one of a few but growing number of remnants detected across the electromagnetic spectrum. In this paper, we analyze recent radio, X-ray, and ?-ray observations of this object, determining that efficient cosmic ray acceleration is required to explain its broadband non-thermal spectrum. These observations also suggest that Kes 17 is expanding inside a molecular cloud, though our determination of its age depends on whether thermal conduction or clump evaporation is primarily responsible for its center-filled thermal X-ray morphology. Evidence for efficient cosmic ray acceleration in Kes 17 supports recent theoretical work concluding that the strong magnetic field, turbulence, and clumpy nature of molecular clouds enhance cosmic ray production in supernova remnants. While additional observations are needed to confirm this interpretation, further study of Kes 17 is important for understanding how cosmic rays are accelerated in supernova remnants.

Gelfand, Joseph D. [NYU Abu Dhabi, P.O. Box 903, New York, NY 10276 (United States); Castro, Daniel [MIT Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, 77 Massachusetts Avenue 37-241, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Slane, Patrick O. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Temim, Tea [Observational Cosmology Lab, Code 665, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Hughes, John P. [Department of Physics and Astronomy Rutgers University 136 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Rakowski, Cara, E-mail: jg168@cosmo.nyu.edu, E-mail: cara.rakowski@gmail.com [United States Patent and Trademark Office, 600 Dulany Street, Alexandria, VA (United States)

2013-11-10

185

The Interstellar Environment of Filled-Center Supernova Remnants: II. G63.7+1.1  

E-print Network

A multi-wavelength investigation of the candidate supernova remnant G63.7+1.1 and its surrounding interstellar medium is presented. On the basis of radio continuum data we conclude that the object is a filled-center supernova remnant, perhaps in the course of becoming a composite remnant. The morphology of the remnant, along with HI, 12CO and high resolution IRAS data, suggest that G63.7+1.1 is interacting directly with the ISM, and does not lie in a low density region of the ISM. This in turn strongly suggests that the detected nebula is not surrounded by an invisible halo of supernova ejecta. The association between the SNR and HI and CO features near the tangent point implies a kinematic distance for G63.7+1.1 of 3.8 +/- 1.5 kpc.

B. J. Wallace; T. L. Landecker; A. R. Taylor

1997-08-15

186

The structure and development of supernova remnant 1987A  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate emission observed from Supernova Remnant (SNR) 1987A and develop theoretical models to explain its origin. The supernova (SN) progenitor was surrounded by an equatorial ring of gas which was illuminated by the SN's initial flash of ionizing radiation. As the SN ejecta expands into this circumstellar gas a double-shock structure forms, consisting of a blast wave which propagates into the circumstellar material and a reverse- shock front which propagates back into the SN ejecta. We establish that the brightening emission observed from SNR 1987A is created by these shock fronts. We interpret Hubble Space Telescope (HST) observations of the optical and ultraviolet spectra of the first brightening spot on the equatorial ring. This spot marks the location of radiative shocks created where the blast wave has impacted dense gas protruding inward from the ring. The observed line widths indicate that only shocks with velocities <250 km s-1 have become radiative, while line ratios indicate that much of the emission must come from slower ( ? 135 km s-1) shocks. We discuss the X-ray emission observed from SNR 1987A with the Chandra X-ray Observatory. The X-ray spectra are well fit by plane-parallel shock models with post-shock electron temperatures of ?2.6 keV and ionization ages of ?6 × 1010 cm-3 s, characteristic parameters of the shocked plasma behind the blast wave. The X-ray line profile has a width of ?5000 km s-1, indicating a blast-wave velocity of ?3500 km s-1 (mean post-shock temperature of ?17 keV). This is direct evidence for incomplete electron-ion temperature equilibration behind the blast wave. We present line profiles of high-velocity Ly? and H? emission from SNR 1987A obtained with HST. This emission comes from hydrogen in the ejecta which passes through the reverse shock. The observed emission is confined within ?±30° about the equatorial plane and has a radius of ?75% of the distance to the ring. The measured reverse-shock geometry is consistent with the expansion of the ejecta into a bipolar hourglass-shaped nebula. We determine the expansion rate of the reverse-shock surface to be 3600 ± 900 km s-1 from the reverse-shock's light curve.

Michael, Eli Newton

2002-12-01

187

Some arguments in support of the association of PSR B1706-44 with the supernova remnant G343.1-2.3  

E-print Network

We present some arguments in support of the association of the pulsar PSR B1706-44 with the supernova remnant G343.1-2.3, based on the idea that these objects could be the result of a supernova explosion within a mushroom-like cavity (created by the supernova progenitor wind breaking out of the parent molecular cloud). We suggest that in addition to the known bright "half" of G343.1-2.3 there should exist a more extended and weaker component, such that the actual shape of G343.1-2.3 is similar to that of the well-known SNR VRO 42.05.01. We have found such a component in archival radio data.

Douglas C. -J. Bock; V. V. Gvaramadze

2001-11-22

188

A Broadband X-Ray Study of Supernova Remnant 3C 397  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a broadband imaging and spectral study of the radio-bright supernova remnant (SNR) 3C 397 with ROSAT, ASCA, and RXTE. A bright X-ray spot seen in the HRI image hints at the presence of a pulsar-powered component and gives this SNR a composite X-ray morphology. Combined ROSAT and ASCA imaging shows that the remnant is highly asymmetric, with its X-ray emission peaking at the western lobe. The hard-band images obtained with the ASCA Gas Imaging Spectrometer show that much of the hard X-ray emission arises from the western lobe, associated with the SNR shell, with little hard X-ray emission associated with the central hot spot. The spectrum from 3C 397 is heavily absorbed and dominated by thermal emission with emission lines evident from Mg, Si, S, Ar and Fe. Single-component models fail to describe the X-ray spectrum, and at least two components are required: a soft component characterized by a low temperature and a large ionization timescale, and a hard component required to account for the Fe-K emission line and characterized by a much lower ionization timescale. We use a set of nonequilibrium ionization (NEI) models (Borkowski et al., in preparation), and find that the fitted parameters are robust. The temperatures from the soft and hard components are ~0.2 keV and ~1.6 keV respectively. The corresponding ionization timescales n0t (n0 being the preshock hydrogen density) are ~6×1012 cm-3 s and ~6×1010 cm-3 s, respectively. The large n0t of the soft component suggests it is approaching ionization equilibrium; thus it can be fit equally well with a collisional equilibrium ionization model. The spectrum obtained with the Proportional Counter Array (PCA) of RXTE is contaminated by emission from the Galactic ridge, with only ~15% of the count rate originating from 3C 397 in the 5-15 keV range. The PCA spectrum allowed us to confirm the thermal nature of the hard X-ray emission. A third component originating from a pulsar-driven component is possible, but the contamination of the source signal by the Galactic ridge did not allow us to determine its parameters or find pulsations from any hidden pulsar. We discuss the X-ray spectrum in the light of two scenarios: a young ejecta-dominated remnant of a core-collapse SN, and a middle-aged SNR expanding in a dense ISM. In the first scenario, the hot component arises from the SNR shell, and the soft component from an ejecta-dominated component. 3C 397 would be a young SNR (a few thousand years old), but intermediate in dynamical age between the young historical shells (like Tycho or Kepler), and those that are well into the Sedov phase of evolution (like Vela). In the second scenario, the soft component represents the blast wave propagating in a dense medium, and the hard component is associated with hot gas encountering a fast shock, or arising from thermal conduction. In this latter scenario, the SNR would be ~twice as old, and transitioning into the radiative phase. The current picture we present in this paper is marginally consistent with this scenario, but it cannot be excluded. A spatially resolved spectroscopic study is needed to resolve the soft and hard components and differentiate between the two scenarios. Future Chandra and XMM data will also address the nature of the mysterious central (radio-quiet) X-ray spot.

Safi-Harb, S.; Petre, R.; Arnaud, K. A.; Keohane, J. W.; Borkowski, K. J.; Dyer, K. K.; Reynolds, S. P.; Hughes, J. P.

2000-12-01

189

On the (neglected) Proper Motion of the Crab Pulsar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Crab pulsar has been the first pulsar associated with its Supernova Remnant and the interaction between the two has been subject of deep and detailed studies. Associating Rosat HRI picture of the pulsar and its surroundings with WFPC2 images of the remnant, Hester et al. (1995) draw a convicing picture of the central part of the Crab Nebula "symmetrical about the (presumed) rotation axis of the pulsar". Here we want to point out that the kinematics of the Crab pulsar is providing a strightforward explanation of the inner symmetry of the Crab Nebula through the already known, but somehow overlooked, proper motion of the Crab pulsar.

Caraveo, P. A.; Mignani, R.; Longoni, A.

190

Discovery of the supernova remnant G351.0-5.4  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While searching the NRAO VLA Sky Survey (NVSS) for diffuse radio emission, we have serendipitously discovered extended radio emission close to the Galactic plane. The radio morphology suggests the presence of a previously unknown Galactic supernova remnant. An unclassified ?-ray source detected by EGRET (3EG J1744-3934) is present in the same location and may stem from the interaction between high-speed particles escaping the remnant and the surrounding interstellar medium. Our aim is to confirm the presence of a previously unknown supernova remnant and to determine a possible association with the ?-ray emission 3EG J1744-3934. We have conducted optical and radio follow-ups of the target using the Dark Energy Camera (DECam) on the Blanco telescope at Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO) and the Giant Meterwave Radio Telescope (GMRT). We then combined these data with archival radio and ?-ray observations. While we detected the extended emission in four different radio bands (325, 1400, 2417, and 4850 MHz), no optical counterpart has been identified. Given its morphology and brightness, it is likely that the radio emission is caused by an old supernova remnant no longer visible in the optical band. Although an unclassified EGRET source is co-located with the supernova remnant, Fermi-LAT data do not show a significant ?-ray excess that is correlated with the radio emission. However, in the radial distribution of the ?-ray events, a spatially extended feature is related to supernova remnant at a confidence level of ~1.5?. We classify the newly discovered extended emission in the radio band as the old remnant of a previously unknown Galactic supernova: SNR G351.0-5.4. FITS files of Figs. 1 and 5 are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/568/A107

de Gasperin, F.; Evoli, C.; Brüggen, M.; Hektor, A.; Cardillo, M.; Thorman, P.; Dawson, W. A.; Morrison, C. B.

2014-08-01

191

N157B: X-ray evidence for a Crab-like supernova remnant  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The X-ray observation of the supernova remnant N 157B is described. The Rosat High Resolution Imager (HRI) X-ray emission from the remnant was decomposed into point-like sources. The spectra showed abundance-enhanced neon and magnesium lines, indicating that the remnant originated in a massive progenitor. The flat and featureless data from the Advanced Satellite for Cosmology and Astrophysics (ASCA) confirm the Crab-like nature of the remnant. By interpreting both the thermal spectral component and the shell as representing the remnant's outer shock, the age of the remnant was estimated to be 4 x 10(exp 3) yr and the energy release approximately 2 x 10(exp 50) erg.

Gotthelf, Eric V.; Wang, Q. Daniel

1996-01-01

192

Are supernova remnants quasi-parallel or quasi-perpendicular accelerators  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Observations of shock waves in the solar system which show a pronounced difference in the plasma wave and particle environment depending on whether the shock is propagating along or perpendicular to the interplanetary magnetic field are discussed. Theories for particle acceleration developed for quasi-parallel and quasi-perpendicular shocks, when extended to the interstellar medium suggest that the relativistic electrons in radio supernova remnants are accelerated by either the Q parallel or Q perpendicular mechanisms. A model for the galactic magnetic field and published maps of supernova remnants were used to search for a dependence of structure on the angle Phi. Results show no tendency for the remnants as a whole to favor the relationship expected for either mechanism, although individual sources resemble model remnants of one or the other acceleration process.

Spangler, S. R.; Leckband, J. A.; Cairns, I. H.

1989-01-01

193

Multifrequency study of SNR J0533-7202, a new supernova remnant in the LMC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a detailed study of Australia Telescope Compact Array observations of a newly discovered Large Magellanic Cloud supernova remnant (SNR), SNR J0533-7202. This object follows a horseshoe morphology, with a size of 37 pc × 28 pc (1 pc uncertainty in each direction). It exhibits a radio spectrum with the intrinsic synchrotron spectral index of ? = -0.47 ± 0.06 between 73 and 6 cm. We report detections of regions showing moderately high fractional polarization at 6 cm, with a peak value of 36 ± 6 per cent and a mean fractional polarization of 12 ± 7 per cent. We also estimate an average rotation measure across the remnant of -591 rad m-2. The current lack of deep X-ray observation precludes any conclusion about high-energy emission from the remnant. The association with an old stellar population favours a thermonuclear supernova origin of the remnant.

Bozzetto, L. M.; Filipovi?, M. D.; Crawford, E. J.; Sasaki, M.; Maggi, P.; Haberl, F.; Uroševi?, D.; Payne, J. L.; De Horta, A. Y.; Stupar, M.; Gruendl, R.; Dickel, J.

2013-07-01

194

The Shock Structure of Supernova Remnant IC443  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We present and discuss ISO observations of IC443, a supernova remnant interacting with a molecular cloud. An SWS spectrum centered on molecular hydrogen clump R10E (RA(2000) = 6 17 7.6, Decl(2000) = 22 25 34.6) is dominated by strong [SiII] (34 microns) emission and the pure rotational transitions of molecular hydrogen ranging from 0-0 S(1) to 0-0 S(13). Fits to these H$-2$ lines imply a large column (approx. 7E19 cm$ {-2)$) of warm (T approx. 700 K) gas and an ortho/para ratio for hydrogen near 3. LWS Fabry-Perot spectra of [OI] (63 microns) and [CII] (158 microns) at positions R10E and C (RA(2000) = 6 17 42.8, Decl(2000) = 22 21 38.1) find broad (approx. 75 km/s), blue-shifted (-40 km/s) line profiles; their similarity strongly suggests a common, shock-generated origin for these two lines. The surprisingly large [CII]/[OI] ratio (approx. 0.1 to 0.2) confirms previous observations with the Kuiper Airborne Observatory. These [CII] and [OI] line intensities, the [SiII] intensity (above), and LWS grating measurements of OH (119 microns) and [OI] (145 microns) are all readily fit by a single, fast J-shock model. Although the [OI] (63) emission can alternatively be produced by a slow C-shock, this ensemble of lines can not be produced by such a shock and provides strong evidence for the existence of a J-shock. A 24-arcmin strip map shows that this far-infrared line emission is spatially correlated with the H$-2$ 1-0 S(1) emission, which most likely arises in an associated C-shock. In addition to this spatially correlated shock emission, the strip map identifies extended [CII] and [OI] emission with a significantly larger line ratio (approx. 0.6); this 'background' component is compared with current J-shock, C-shock, photo-dissociation region (PDR), and X-ray dissociation region (XDR) models in an effort to explain its origin.

Haas, Michael R.; Higdon, S. J. U.; Burton, M. G.; Hollenbach, D. J.; Fonda, Mark (Technical Monitor)

2003-01-01

195

MAGNETIC AMPLIFICATION BY MAGNETIZED COSMIC RAYS IN SUPERNOVA REMNANT SHOCKS  

SciTech Connect

X-ray observations of synchrotron rims in supernova remnant (SNR) shocks show evidence of efficient electron acceleration and strong magnetic field amplification (a factor of {approx}100 between the upstream and downstream medium). This amplification may be due to plasma instabilities driven by shock-accelerated particles or cosmic rays (CRs), as they propagate ahead of the shocks. One candidate process is the cosmic ray current-driven (CRCD) instability caused by the electric current of 'unmagnetized' CRs (i.e., CRs whose Larmor radii are much larger than the length scale of the CRCD modes) propagating parallel to the upstream magnetic field. Particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations have shown that the back-reaction of the amplified field on CRs would limit the amplification factor of this instability to less than {approx}10 in galactic SNRs (not including the additional field compression at the shock). In this paper, we study the possibility of further amplification driven near shocks by 'magnetized' CRs, whose Larmor radii are smaller than the length scale of the field that was previously amplified by the CRCD instability. We find that additional amplification can occur due to a new instability, driven by the CR current perpendicular to the field, which we term the perpendicular current-driven instability (PCDI). We derive the growth rate of this instability and, using PIC simulations, study its non-linear evolution. We show that the maximum amplification of PCDI is determined by the disruption of CR current, which happens when CR Larmor radii in the amplified field become comparable to the length scale of the instability. We find that, in regions close to the shock, PCDI grows on scales smaller than the scales of the CRCD instability, and, therefore, it results in larger amplification of the field (amplification factor up to {approx}45). One possible observational signature of PCDI is the characteristic dependence of the amplified field on the shock velocity, B {sup 2} {proportional_to} v {sup 2} {sub sh}, which contrasts with the one corresponding to the CRCD instability acting alone, B {sup 2} {proportional_to} v {sup 3} {sub sh}. Our results strengthen the idea of CRs driving a significant part of the magnetic field amplification observed in SNR shocks.

Riquelme, Mario A.; Spitkovsky, Anatoly, E-mail: marh@astro.princeton.ed, E-mail: anatoly@astro.princeton.ed [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)

2010-07-10

196

Supernova remnants and diffuse ionized gas in M31  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Researchers have compiled an initial list of radio/optical supernova remnants (SNRs) in M31, by searching for radio identifications of emission-line sources with a high (SII)/H alpha ratio (greater than 0.60). The (SII) filter included both sulfur lines and the H alpha filter did not include (NII). This search revealed 11 SNRs, of which only two were known. In addition, researchers detected radio emission from 3 SNRs that were identified in previous optical surveys (D'Odorico et al., 1980), but that were outside the charge coupled device (CCD) fields. The 14 objects only include the most obvious candidates, but a full search is in progress and the researchers expect to find several more SNRs. Also not all optical SNRs show detectable radio emission and a pure optical list of SNR candidates based only on the ratio of (SII)/H alpha emission contains many more objects. Two conclusions are apparent. First, the radio properties of the SNRs in M31 are quite similar to those of Galactic SNRs as is illustrated. The brightnesses are not systematically lower as has been suggested in the past (Dickel and D'Odorico, 1984). Second, the slope of the relation is close to -2; this slope is expected from the intrinsic dependence between surface brightness and diameter. The radio luminosity of the SNRs does not seem to depend strongly on diameter, or age, contrary to model predictions. Selection effects, however, play an important role in these plots. The CCD images show widespread diffuse ionized gas with a ratio of (SII)/H alpha that is higher than that of discrete HII regions. Discrete HII regions typically show ratios between 0.2 to 0.3, while the diffuse gas in the arms consistently shows ratios of 0.5. Researchers can trace this gas across the spiral arms to emission measures below 5 pc cm (-6). Its properties seem to be similar to that of the diffuse gas in the solar neighborhood.

Walterbos, Rene; Braun, Robert

1990-01-01

197

Hidden supernova remnants in the Large Magellanic Cloud H II complex N44  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We have obtained ROSAT PSPC observations of N44, one of the largest H II complexes in the Large Magellanic Cloud. The X-ray emission mostly fails within the ionized shell structures in N44. We find that one faint shell is a classical supernova remnant overlooked by previous surveys. If we model the two largest shells as pressure-driven superbubbles, the predicted X-ray luminosity falls far below the observed value. Instead, we show that off-center supernova remnants hitting superbubble shells can explain the excess X-ray emission.

Chu, You-Hua; Low, Mordecai-Mark M.; Garcia-Segura, Gullermo; Wakker, Bart; Kennicutt, Robert C., Jr.

1993-01-01

198

X-ray images of Puppis A and IC 443. [supernova remnant model  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

X-ray images of the Puppis A and IC 443 supernova remnants, recorded with a rocket-borne imaging X-ray telescope, are presented. These images indicate a complex X-ray morphology and only weak correlation with the radio and optical pictures. The observations lend further support to a picture wherein Puppis A, IC 443, and possibly most other supernova remnants of moderate age result from blast waves propagating into a substantially inhomogeneous interstellar medium. We conclude that caution must be used in interpreting X-ray observations in terms of simple blast-wave models where spherical symmetry is assumed.

Levine, A.; Petre, R.; Smith, G. C.; Evans, K. D.; Rolf, D.; Rappaport, S.

1979-01-01

199

A New Thermal Composite Supernova Remnant, G65.2+5.7  

Microsoft Academic Search

G65.2+5.7 has long been known to be a large old supernova remnant. The archival ROSAT PSPC observations presented in this poster reveal that this remnant's interior is X-ray bright, while its shell is X-ray dim. These observations, in combination with existing radio-frequency observations, qualify G65.2+5.7 to be a member of the intriguing \\

R. L. Shelton; K. D. Kuntz; R. Petre

2004-01-01

200

Ongoing cosmic ray acceleration in the supernova remnant W51C revealed with the MAGIC telescopes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The supernova remnant (SNR) W51C interacts with the molecular clouds of the star-forming region W51B, making the W51 complex one of the most promising targets to study cosmic ray acceleration. Gamma-ray emission from this region was discovered by Fermi/LAT and H.E.S.S., although its location was compatible with the SNR shell, the molecular cloud (MC) and a pulsar wind nebula (PWN) candidate. The modeling of the spectral energy distribution presented by the Fermi/LAT collaboration suggests a hadronic emission mechanism. Furthermore indications of an enhanced flux of low energy cosmic rays in the interaction region between SNR and MC have been reported based on ionization measurements in the mm regime. MAGIC conducted deep observations of W51, yielding a detection of an extended emission with more than 11 standard deviations. We extend the spectrum from the highest Fermi/LAT energies to ~5 TeV and find that it follows a single power law with an index of 2.58+/-0.07stat+/-0.22syst. We restrict the main part of the emission region to the zone where the SNR interacts with the molecular clouds. We also find a tail extending towards the PWN candidate CXO J192318.5+140305, possibly contributing up to 20% of the total flux. The broad band spectral energy distribution can be explained with a hadronic model that implies proton acceleration at least up to 50 TeV. This result, together with the morphology of the source, suggests that we observe ongoing acceleration of ions in the interaction zone between the SNR and the cloud.

Krause, J.; Reichardt, I.; Carmona, E.; Gozzini, S. R.; Jankowski, F.; MAGIC Collaboration

2012-12-01

201

3D Simulations of Supernova Remnants from Type Ia Supernova Models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Type Ia supernovae (SNe) originate from thermonuclear explosions of white dwarfs. A great deal is still unknown about the explosion mechanisms, particularly the degree of asymmetry. However, Type Ia supernova remnants (SNRs) can bear the imprint of asymmetry long after the explosion. A SNR of interest is G1.9+0.3, the youngest Galactic SNR, which demonstrates an unusual spatial distribution of elements in the ejecta. While its X-ray spectrum is dominated by synchrotron emission, spectral lines of highly ionized Si, S, and Fe are seen in a few locations, with Fe near the edge of the remnant and with strongly varying Fe/Si ratios. An asymmetric explosion within the white dwarf progenitor may be necessary to explain these unusual features of G1.9+0.3, in particular the shocked Fe at large radii. We use the VH-1 hydrodynamics code to evolve initial Type Ia explosion models in 1, 2, and 3 dimensions at an age of 100 seconds provided by other researchers to study asymmetry, the ignition properties, and the nucleosynthesis resulting from these explosions. We follow the evolution of these models interacting with a uniform external medium to a few hundred years in age. We find the abundance and location of ejecta elements from our models to be inconsistent with the observations of G1.9+0.3; while our models show asymmetric element distributions, we find no tendency for iron-group elements to be found beyond intermediate-mass elements, or for significant iron to be reverse-shocked at all at the age of G1.9+0.3. We compare the amounts of shocked iron-group and intermediate-mass elements as a function of time in the different models. Some new kind of explosion asymmetry may be required to explain G1.9+0.3. This work was performed as part of NC State University's Undergraduate Research in Computational Astrophysics (URCA) program, an REU program supported by the National Science Foundation through award AST-1032736.

Johnson, Heather; Reynolds, S. P.; Frohlich, C.; Blondin, J. M.

2014-01-01

202

SUPERNOVA EJECTA IN THE YOUNGEST GALACTIC SUPERNOVA REMNANT G1.9+0.3  

SciTech Connect

G1.9+0.3 is the youngest known Galactic supernova remnant (SNR), with an estimated supernova (SN) explosion date of {approx}1900, and most likely located near the Galactic center. Only the outermost ejecta layers with free-expansion velocities {approx}>18,000 km s{sup -1} have been shocked so far in this dynamically young, likely Type Ia SNR. A long (980 ks) Chandra observation in 2011 allowed spatially resolved spectroscopy of heavy-element ejecta. We denoised Chandra data with the spatio-spectral method of Krishnamurthy et al., and used a wavelet-based technique to spatially localize thermal emission produced by intermediate-mass elements (IMEs; Si and S) and iron. The spatial distribution of both IMEs and Fe is extremely asymmetric, with the strongest ejecta emission in the northern rim. Fe K{alpha} emission is particularly prominent there, and fits with thermal models indicate strongly oversolar Fe abundances. In a localized, outlying region in the northern rim, IMEs are less abundant than Fe, indicating that undiluted Fe-group elements (including {sup 56}Ni) with velocities >18,000 km s{sup -1} were ejected by this SN. However, in the inner west rim, we find Si- and S-rich ejecta without any traces of Fe, so high-velocity products of O-burning were also ejected. G1.9+0.3 appears similar to energetic Type Ia SNe such as SN 2010jn where iron-group elements at such high free-expansion velocities have been recently detected. The pronounced asymmetry in the ejecta distribution and abundance inhomogeneities are best explained by a strongly asymmetric SN explosion, similar to those produced in some recent three-dimensional delayed-detonation Type Ia models.

Borkowski, Kazimierz J.; Reynolds, Stephen P. [Department of Physics, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695-8202 (United States); Hwang, Una [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Green, David A. [Cavendish Laboratory, 19 J.J. Thomson Ave., Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Petre, Robert [NASA/GSFC, Code 660, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Krishnamurthy, Kalyani; Willett, Rebecca, E-mail: kborkow@unity.ncsu.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708 (United States)

2013-07-01

203

Supernova Ejecta in the Youngest Galactic Supernova Remnant G1.9+0.3  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

G1.9+0.3 is the youngest known Galactic supernova remnant (SNR), with an estimated supernova (SN) explosion date of ~1900, and most likely located near the Galactic center. Only the outermost ejecta layers with free-expansion velocities gsim18,000 km s-1 have been shocked so far in this dynamically young, likely Type Ia SNR. A long (980 ks) Chandra observation in 2011 allowed spatially resolved spectroscopy of heavy-element ejecta. We denoised Chandra data with the spatio-spectral method of Krishnamurthy et al., and used a wavelet-based technique to spatially localize thermal emission produced by intermediate-mass elements (IMEs; Si and S) and iron. The spatial distribution of both IMEs and Fe is extremely asymmetric, with the strongest ejecta emission in the northern rim. Fe K? emission is particularly prominent there, and fits with thermal models indicate strongly oversolar Fe abundances. In a localized, outlying region in the northern rim, IMEs are less abundant than Fe, indicating that undiluted Fe-group elements (including 56Ni) with velocities >18,000 km s-1 were ejected by this SN. However, in the inner west rim, we find Si- and S-rich ejecta without any traces of Fe, so high-velocity products of O-burning were also ejected. G1.9+0.3 appears similar to energetic Type Ia SNe such as SN 2010jn where iron-group elements at such high free-expansion velocities have been recently detected. The pronounced asymmetry in the ejecta distribution and abundance inhomogeneities are best explained by a strongly asymmetric SN explosion, similar to those produced in some recent three-dimensional delayed-detonation Type Ia models.

Borkowski, Kazimierz J.; Reynolds, Stephen P.; Hwang, Una; Green, David A.; Petre, Robert; Krishnamurthy, Kalyani; Willett, Rebecca

2013-07-01

204

RADIO DETECTION OF A CANDIDATE NEUTRON STAR ASSOCIATED WITH GALACTIC CENTER SUPERNOVA REMNANT SAGITTARIUS A EAST  

SciTech Connect

We report the Very Large Array (VLA) detection of the radio counterpart of the X-ray object referred to as the 'Cannonball', which has been proposed to be the remnant neutron star resulting from the creation of the Galactic center supernova remnant, Sagittarius A East. The radio object was detected both in our new VLA image from observations in 2012 at 5.5 GHz and in archival VLA images from observations in 1987 at 4.75 GHz and in the period from 1990 to 2002 at 8.31 GHz. The radio morphology of this object is characterized as a compact, partially resolved point source located at the northern tip of a radio 'tongue' similar to the X-ray structure observed by Chandra. Behind the Cannonball, a radio counterpart to the X-ray plume is observed. This object consists of a broad radio plume with a size of 30''×15'', followed by a linear tail having a length of 30''. The compact head and broad plume sources appear to have relatively flat spectra (??{sup ?}) with mean values of ? = –0.44 ± 0.08 and –0.10 ± 0.02, respectively, and the linear tail shows a steep spectrum with the mean value of –1.94 ± 0.05. The total radio luminosity integrated from these components is ?8 × 10{sup 33} erg s{sup –1}, while the emission from the head and tongue amounts for only ?1.5 × 10{sup 31} erg s{sup –1}. Based on the images obtained from the two epochs' observations at 5 GHz, we infer the proper motion of the object: ?{sub ?} = 0.001 ± 0.003 arcsec yr{sup –1} and ?{sub ?} = 0.013 ± 0.003 arcsec yr{sup –1}. With an implied velocity of 500 km s{sup –1}, a plausible model can be constructed in which a runaway neutron star surrounded by a pulsar wind nebula was created in the event that produced Sgr A East. The inferred age of this object, assuming that its origin coincides with the center of Sgr A East, is approximately 9000 yr.

Zhao, Jun-Hui [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, MS 78, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Morris, Mark R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Goss, W. M., E-mail: jzhao@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: morris@astro.ucla.edu, E-mail: mgoss@aoc.nrao.edu [NRAO, P.O. Box O, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States)

2013-11-10

205

A Spitzer Space Telescope Infrared Survey of Supernova Remnants in the Inner Galaxy  

E-print Network

Using Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) images at 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, and 8 microns from the GLIMPSE Legacy science program on the Spitzer Space Telescope, we searched for infrared counterparts to the 95 known supernova remnants that are located within galactic longitudes 65>|l|>10 degrees and latitudes |b|<1 degree. Eighteen infrared counterparts were detected. Many other supernova remnants could have significant infrared emission but are in portions of the Milky Way too confused to allow separation from bright HII regions and pervasive mid-infrared emission from atomic and molecular clouds along the line of sight. Infrared emission from supernova remnants originates from synchrotron emission, shock-heated dust, atomic fine-structure lines, and molecular lines. The detected remnants are G11.2-0.3, Kes 69, G22.7-0.2, 3C 391, W 44, 3C 396, 3C 397, W 49B, G54.4-0.3, Kes 17, Kes 20A, RCW 103, G344.7-0.1, G346.6-0.2, CTB 37A, G348.5-0.0, and G349.7+0.2. The infrared colors suggest emission from molecular lines (9 remnants), fine-structure lines (3), and PAH (4), or a combination; some remnants feature multiple colors in different regions. None of the remnants are dominated by synchrotron radiation at mid-infrared wavelengths. The IRAC-detected sample emphasizes remnants interacting with relatively dense gas, for which most of the shock cooling occurs through molecular or ionic lines in the mid-infrared.

William T. Reach; Jeonghee Rho; Achim Tappe; Thomas G. Pannuti; Crystal L. Brogan; Edward B. Churchwell; Marilyn R. Meade; Brian Babler; Remy Indebetouw; Barbara A. Whitney

2005-10-20

206

Cosmic-ray diffusion near the Bohm limit in the Cassiopeia A supernova remnant  

E-print Network

ARTICLES Cosmic-ray diffusion near the Bohm limit in the Cassiopeia A supernova remnant M. D. STAGE made it possible to image the keV-scale synchrotron emission produced by cosmic-ray electrons been the leading candidates for the acceleration of cosmic rays1,2 . Diffusive shock acceleration

Loss, Daniel

207

Studying The Hi Emission Of Supernova Remnants In The I-GALFA Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

A search for expanding, HI shells around galactic supernova remnants (SNR) was conducted using the Inner Galactic Plane Arecibo L-band Feed Array (I-GALFA) HI survey. This survey, which mapped out the distribution of HI emission within the galactic plane, spanned an area that included a total of thirty eight SNR positions. HI intensity was viewed over a velocity range of

Chelsea Vincent; J. Kang

2011-01-01

208

Fermi-LAT and WMAP observations of the supernova remnant Puppis A  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The supernova remnant (SNR) Puppis A (aka G260.4-3.4) is a middle-aged supernova remnant, which displays increasing X-ray surface brightness from West to East corresponding to an increasing density of the ambient interstellar medium at the Eastern and Northern shell. The dense IR photon field and the high ambient density around the remnant make it an ideal case to study in ?-rays. Gamma-ray studies based on three years of observations with the Large Area Telescope (LAT) aboard Fermi have revealed the high energy gamma-ray emission from SNR Puppis A. The ?-ray emission from the remnant is spatially extended, and nicely matches the radio and X-ray morphologies. Its ?-ray spectrum is well described by a simple power law with an index of ~2.1, and it is among the faintest supernova remnants yet detected at GeV energies. To constrain the relativistic electron population, seven years of Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) data were also analyzed, and enabled to extend the radio spectrum up to 93 GHz. The results obtained in the radio and ?-ray domains are described in detail, as well as the possible origins of the high energy ?-ray emission (Bremsstrahlung, Inverse Compton scattering by electrons or decay of neutral pions produced by proton interactions).

Grondin, Marie-Hélène; Hewitt, John W.; Lemoine-Goumard, Marianne; Reposeur, Thierry; Reposeur

2014-01-01

209

Discriminating the Progenitor Type of Supernova Remnants with Iron K-shell Emission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Supernova remnants (SNRs) retain crucial information about both their parent explosion and circumstellar material left behind by their progenitor. However, the complexity of the interaction between supernova ejecta and ambient medium often blurs this information, and it is not uncommon for the basic progenitor type (Ia or core-collapse) of well-studied remnants to remain uncertain. Here we present a powerful new observational diagnostic to discriminate between progenitor types and constrain the ambient medium density of SNRs using solely Fe K-shell X-ray emission. We analyze all extant Suzaku observations of SNRs and detect Fe K? emission from 23 young or middle-aged remnants, including five first detections (IC 443, G292.0+1.8, G337.2-0.7, N49, and N63A). The Fe K? centroids clearly separate progenitor types, with the Fe-rich ejecta in Type Ia remnants being significantly less ionized than in core-collapse SNRs. Within each progenitor group, the Fe K? luminosity and centroid are well correlated, with more luminous objects having more highly ionized Fe. Our results indicate that there is a strong connection between explosion type and ambient medium density, and suggest that Type Ia supernova progenitors do not substantially modify their surroundings at radii of up to several parsecs. We also detect a K-shell radiative recombination continuum of Fe in W49B and IC 443, implying a strong circumstellar interaction in the early evolutionary phases of these core-collapse remnants.

Yamaguchi, Hiroya; Badenes, Carles; Petre, Robert; Nakano, Toshio; Castro, Daniel; Enoto, Teruaki; Hiraga, Junko S.; Hughes, John P.; Maeda, Yoshitomo; Nobukawa, Masayoshi; Safi-Harb, Samar; Slane, Patrick O.; Smith, Randall K.; Uchida, Hiroyuki

2014-04-01

210

X-ray emission from young supernova remnants - Nonionization equilibrium abundances and emissivities  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

X-ray line emission from hot, low-density plasma in young supernova remnants is strongly enhanced by departures from ionization equilibrium. The X-ray emission from a Sedov blast wave has been calculated using a nonequilibrium evolutionary treatment of the ionization structure, and the resulting spectrum has been fitted to HEAO 2 SSS data for Tycho's remnant. These models yield dramatically different elemental abundances for heavy elements (Ne, Mg, Si, S, Ar, Ca, and Fe), compared with two-temperature component equilibrium models of Becker et al. (1979, 1980). Nonequilibrium broad-band X-ray emissivities result in lower mass determinations for the supernova ejecta. Areas of further improvement of remnant X-ray modeling are suggested.

Shull, J. M.

1982-01-01

211

Interpretation of the number versus diameter distribution for supernova remnants in the Large Magellanic Cloud  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An examination is conducted of the cumulative number versus diameter relation for an X-ray selected sample of supernova remnants in the Large Magellanic Cloud in an attempt to understand the evolutionary state of these objects. Previous studies have suggested that the observed linear N(D) relation requires the remnants in the cloud to be freely expanding. Detailed calculations have been carried out to determine the effect of a luminosity threshold on the observed distribution and it is shown that the observations can be fitted by remnants which are in the adiabatic or later stages of evolution. The implications of the results for the supernova creation rate in the LMC are discussed.

Hughes, J. P.; Helfand, D. J.; Kahn, S. M.

1984-01-01

212

An XMM-Newton Search for Crab-like Supernova Remnants  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The primary goals of the study are to search for evidence of non-thermal emission that would suggest the presence of a pulsar in this compact SNR. We have performed the reduction of the EPIC data for this observation, cleaning the data to remove time intervals of enhanced particle background, and have created maps in several energy bands, and on a variety of smoothing scales. We find no evidence for emission from the SNR. Given the small angular size of the SNR, we conclude that rather than being a young remnant, it is actually fairly old, but distant. At its current stage of evolution, the remnant shell has apparently entered the radiative phase, wherein the shell temperature has cooled sufficiently to be either below X-ray-emitting temperatures or at temperatures easily absorbed the foreground interstellar material. We have thus concluded that this SNR is not a viable candidate for a young ejecta-rich or pulsar-driven SNR.

Mushotzky, Richard (Technical Monitor); Slane, Patrick

2005-01-01

213

Swift/BAT Detection of Hard X-Rays from Tycho's Supernova Remnant: Evidence for Titanium-44  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report Swift/Burst Alert Telescope survey observations of the Tycho's supernova remnant, performed over a period of 104 months since the mission's launch. The remnant is detected with high significance (>10?) below 50 keV. We detect significant hard X-ray emission in the 60-85 keV band, above the continuum level predicted by a simple synchrotron model. The location of the observed excess is consistent with line emission from radioactive titanium-44, so far reported only for Type II supernova explosions. We discuss the implications of these results in the context of the galactic supernova rate, and nucleosynthesis in Type Ia supernova.

Troja, E.; Segreto, A.; La Parola, V.; Hartmann, D.; Baumgartner, W.; Markwardt, C.; Barthelmy, S.; Cusumano, G.; Gehrels, N.

2014-12-01

214

Swift/BAT detection of hard X-rays from Tycho's Supernova Remnant: Evidence for Titanium-44  

E-print Network

We report Swift/BAT survey observations of the Tycho's supernova remnant, performed over a period of 104 months since the mission's launch. The remnant is detected with high significance (>10 sigma) below 50 keV. We detect significant hard X-ray emission in the 60-85 keV band, above the continuum level predicted by a simple synchrotron model. The location of the observed excess is consistent with line emission from radioactive Titanium-44, so far reported only for Type II supernova explosions. We discuss the implications of these results in the context of the galactic supernova rate, and nucleosynthesis in Type Ia supernova.

Troja, E; La Parola, V; Hartmann, D; Baumgartner, W; Markwardt, C; Barthelmy, S; Cusumano, G; Gehrels, N

2014-01-01

215

XMM-Newton Observations of HESSJ1813-178 Reveal a Composite Supernova Remnant  

SciTech Connect

Aims--We present X-ray and {sup 12}CO(J=1-0) observations of the very-high-energy (VHE) {gamma}-ray source HESS J1813-178 with the aim of understanding the origin of the {gamma}-ray emission. Methods--High-angular resolution X-ray studies of the VHE {gamma}-ray emission region are performed using 18.6 ks of XMM-Newton data, taken on HESS J1813-178 in October 2005. Using this dataset we are able to undertake spectral and morphological studies of the X-ray emission object with greater precision than previous studies. NANTEN {sup 12}CO(J=1-0) data are used to search for correlations of the {gamma}-ray emission with molecular clouds which could act as target material for {gamma}-ray production in a hadronic scenario. Results--The NANTEN {sup 12}CO(J=1-0) observations show a giant molecular cloud of mass 2.5 x 10{sup 5} M{sub {circle_dot}} at a distance of 4 kpc in the vicinity of HESS J1813-178. Even though there is no direct positional coincidence, this giant cloud might have influenced the evolution of the {gamma}-ray source and its surroundings. The X-ray data show a highly absorbed (n{sub H} {approx} 1 x 10{sup 23} cm{sup -2}) non-thermal X-ray emitting object coincident with the previously known ASCA source AXJ1813-178 showing a compact core and an extended tail towards the north-east, located in the center of the radio shell-type Supernova remnant (SNR) G12.82-0.2. This central object shows morphological and spectral resemblance to a Pulsar Wind Nebula (PWN) and we therefore consider that this object is very likely to be a composite SNR. Nevertheless, we cannot distinguish between the scenarios in which the {gamma}-rays originate in the shell of the SNR and the one in which they originate in the central object. We discuss both scenarios in terms of a one-zone leptonic model and demonstrate, that in order to connect the core X-ray emission to the VHE {gamma}-ray emission electrons have to be accelerated to energies of at least 1 PeV. We conclude that if indeed the X-rays are connected to the VHE {gamma}-rays HESS J1813-178 has to be a Galactic Pevatron.

Funk, S.; Hinton, J.A.; Moriguchi, Y.; Aharonian, F.A.; Fukui, Y.; Hofmann, W.; Horns, D.; Puehlhofer, G.; Reimer, O.; Rowell, G.; Terrier, R.; Vink, J.; Wagner, S.

2006-11-27

216

MODIFIED EQUIPARTITION CALCULATION FOR SUPERNOVA REMNANTS. CASES ? = 0.5 AND ? = 1  

SciTech Connect

The equipartition or minimum energy calculation is a well-known procedure for estimating the magnetic field strength and the total energy in the magnetic field and cosmic ray particles by using only the radio synchrotron emission. In one of our previous papers, we have offered a modified equipartition calculation for supernova remnants (SNRs) with spectral indices 0.5 < ? < 1. Here we extend the analysis to SNRs with ? = 0.5 and ? = 1.

Arbutina, B.; Uroševi?, D.; Vu?eti?, M. M.; Pavlovi?, M. Z. [Department of Astronomy, Faculty of Mathematics, University of Belgrade, Studentski trg 16, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia); Vukoti?, B., E-mail: arbo@math.rs [Astronomical Observatory, Volgina 7, 11060 Belgrade 38 (Serbia)

2013-11-01

217

A Comparison of X-ray and Radio Emission from the Supernova Remnant Cassiopeia A  

Microsoft Academic Search

We compare the radio and soft X-ray brightness as a function of position\\u000awithin the young supernova remnant Cassiopeia A. A moderately strong\\u000acorrelation (r = 0.7) was found between the X-ray emission (corrected for\\u000ainterstellar absorption) and radio emission, showing that the thermal and\\u000arelativistic plasmas occupy the same volumes and are regulated by common\\u000aunderlying parameters. The logarithmic

Jonathan W. Keohane; Lawrence Rudnick; Martha C. Anderson

1996-01-01

218

High velocity material in the young supernova remnant G292.0+1.8  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-dispersion optical spectra of the radio supernova remnant (SNR) G292.0+1.8 and a low-dispersion spectrum covering the wavelength range from 4000 to 7500 A are examined in order to determine the SNR's radial velocity and investigate the faint nebula associated with the SNR. It is shown that the velocity spread of the nebular material of anomalous composition is greater than 2000

P. Murdin; D. H. Clark

1979-01-01

219

In my Beginning is my End: Dust Destruction in the Cassiopeia A Supernova Remnant  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has been demonstrated by observations that young supernovae (SNe) are indeed able to efficiently synthesize dust. However, it is unclear how much of the freshly formed dust can reach the interstellar medium and contribute to the observed emission. At the same time, SNe represent the major agent responsible for dust destruction. Because SNe are possibly the only viable dust factory in the early Universe, it is extremely important to establish the fate of the newly formed dust. Our work explores the possibility that a significant fraction of any dust formed after the explosion is destroyed within the supernova remnant itself. In the Cassiopeia A supernova remnant, dust emission has been observed associated with optical knots containing recently formed material. The dust present in such clumps is threatened by the reverse shock traveling through the ejecta toward the center of the remnant. The shock is able to disrupt the clumps and will inject the dust grains into a hot gas, where they will be eroded and possibly destroyed by thermal and inertial sputtering. We present a model that describes the propagation of the reverse shock into the supernova cavity and evaluates the modifications in the grain size distribution due to the encounter with the reverse shock. This is the first step required to quantify the amount of dust ultimately able to survive. Our model accounts for the variation of the physical properties of both the shock and the ejecta across the remnant. In particular, this means taking explicitly into consideration, for the first time in this kind of studies, the effect of clumping of the ejecta.

Micelotta, E.; Dwek, E.

220

Thermal X-Ray Emission and Cosmic-Ray Production in Young Supernova Remnants  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed a simple model to investigate the modifications of the hydrodynamics and nonequilibrium ionization X-ray emission in young supernova remnants due to nonlinear particle acceleration. In nonlinear, diffusive shock acceleration, the heating of the gas to X-ray-emitting temperatures is strongly coupled to the acceleration of cosmic-ray ions. If the acceleration is efficient and a significant fraction of the

Anne Decourchelle; Donald C. Ellison; Jean Ballet

2000-01-01

221

Investigation of the large-scale neutral hydrogen near the supernova remnant W28  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distribution and kinematics of neutral hydrogen have been studied in a\\u000awide area around the supernova remnant W28. A 2.5 x 2.5 arcdeg field centered\\u000aat l = 6.5 arcdeg, b = 0 arcdeg was surveyed using the Parkes 64-m radio\\u000atelescope (HPBW 14.7 arcmin at lambda 21 cm). Even though W28 is located in a\\u000acomplex zone of

Pablo F. Velazquez; Gloria M. Dubner; W. Miller Goss; Anne J. Green

2002-01-01

222

Investigation of the Large-scale Neutral Hydrogen near the Supernova Remnant W28  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distribution and kinematics of neutral hydrogen have been studied in a wide area around the supernova remnant (SNR) W28. A 2.5d×2.5d field centered at l=6.5d, b=0° was surveyed using the Parkes 64 m radio telescope (half-power beamwidth of 14.7' at lambda21 cm). Even though W28 is located in a complex zone of the Galactic plane, we have found different

P. F. Velázquez; G. M. Dubner; W. M. Goss; A. J. Green

2002-01-01

223

Radio properties of three young supernova remnants in the Large Magellanic Cloud  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radio images of N132D, N103B, and 0519-690 have been made with the Australian Telescope. These three prominent young Supernova remnants (SNRs) in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) have significantly different optical properties: N132D is oxygen rich and probably had a massive progenitor similar to Cas A; N103B, on the edge of a massive H II region complex, was probably also

John R. Dickel; D. K. Milne

1995-01-01

224

Multi-dimensional Simulations of the Expanding Supernova Remnant of SN 1987A  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The expanding remnant from SN 1987A is an excellent laboratory for investigating the physics of supernovae explosions. There is still a large number of outstanding questions, such as the reason for the asymmetric radio morphology, the structure of the pre-supernova environment, and the efficiency of particle acceleration at the supernova shock. We explore these questions using three-dimensional simulations of the expanding remnant between days 820 and 10,000 after the supernova. We combine a hydrodynamical simulation with semi-analytic treatments of diffusive shock acceleration and magnetic field amplification to derive radio emission as part of an inverse problem. Simulations show that an asymmetric explosion, combined with magnetic field amplification at the expanding shock, is able to replicate the persistent one-sided radio morphology of the remnant. We use an asymmetric Truelove & McKee progenitor with an envelope mass of 10 M ? and an energy of 1.5 × 1044 J. A termination shock in the progenitor's stellar wind at a distance of 0.''43-0.''51 provides a good fit to the turn on of radio emission around day 1200. For the H II region, a minimum distance of 0.''63 ± 0.''01 and maximum particle number density of (7.11 ± 1.78) × 107 m–3 produces a good fit to the evolving average radius and velocity of the expanding shocks from day 2000 to day 7000 after explosion. The model predicts a noticeable reduction, and possibly a temporary reversal, in the asymmetric radio morphology of the remnant after day 7000, when the forward shock left the eastern lobe of the equatorial ring.

Potter, T. M.; Staveley-Smith, L.; Reville, B.; Ng, C.-Y.; Bicknell, G. V.; Sutherland, R. S.; Wagner, A. Y.

2014-10-01

225

Imaging and Spectroscopy of a New, Nearby Supernova Remnant and a Potentially Ejected Neutron Star.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We request funding to support an XMM-Newton Cycle 11 observation (Priority B, unfunded, 56 ksec) of the newly-discovered supernova remnant Swift J132150.9-633350, and a nearby point source that may be an ejected neutron star. The remnant was discovered in the Swift Galactic Plane Survey (PI Miller), and confirmed via a 5 ksec Chandra snapshot. The spectrum of the remnant indicates enhances abundances, especially in Fe and Ni, and points to a young age for the remnant. The distance to the remnant is not yet know, but for plausible distances it is one of the 10-20 youngest remnants known. The deep XMM-Newton observation we have obtained is therefore an important look at an important source; it can help to reveal the nature of the explosion and the progenitor star. Moreover, only XMM-Newton has the field of view and CCD chip geometry that will allow for a simultaneous study of a nearby point source. Few young neutron stars are known, and this observation marks a rare chance to study one in detail. Our funding request is based on the work required to complete the analysis of this observation, and to publish the results. This research addresses NASA science goals for astrophysics, including "How do matter, energy, space, and time behave under the extraordinary diverse conditions of the cosmos?"

Miller, Jon

226

APEX observations of supernova remnants - I. Non-stationary MHD-shocks in W44  

E-print Network

Aims. The interaction of supernova remnants (SNRs) with molecular clouds gives rise to strong molecular emission in the far-IR and sub-mm wavelength regimes. The application of MHD shock models in the interpretation of this line emission can yield valuable information on the energetic and chemical impact of supernova remnants. Methods. New mapping observations with the APEX telescope in CO (3-2), (4-3), (6-5), (7-6) and 13CO (3-2) towards two regions in the supernova remnant W44 are presented. Integrated intensities are extracted on five different positions, corresponding to local maxima of CO emission. The integrated intensities are compared to the outputs of a grid of models, which combine an MHD shock code with a radiative transfer module based on the large velocity gradient approximation. Results. All extracted spectra show ambient and line-of-sight components as well as blue- and red-shifted wings indicating the presence of shocked gas. Basing the shock model fits only on the highest-lying transitions th...

Anderl, S; Güsten, R

2014-01-01

227

Direct Measurement of Neutron-Star Recoil in the Oxygen-Rich Supernova Remnant Puppis A  

E-print Network

A sequence of three Chandra X-ray Observatory High Resolution Camera images taken over a span of five years reveals arc-second-scale displacement of RX J0822-4300, the stellar remnant (presumably a neutron star) near the center of the Puppis A supernova remnant. We measure its proper motion to be 0.165+/-0.025 arcsec/yr toward the west-southwest. At a distance of 2 kpc, this corresponds to a transverse space velocity of ~1600 km/s. The space velocity is consistent with the explosion center inferred from proper motions of the oxygen-rich optical filaments, and confirms the idea that Puppis A resulted from an asymmetric explosion accompanied by a kick that imparted roughly 3*10^49 ergs of kinetic energy (some 3 percent of the kinetic energy for a typical supernova) to the stellar remnant. We discuss constraints on core-collapse supernova models that have been proposed to explain neutron star kick velocities.

P. Frank Winkler; Robert Petre

2006-08-09

228

G306.3-0.9: A Newly Discovered Young Galactic Supernova Remnant  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present X-ray and radio observations of the new Galactic supernova remnant (SNR) G306.3-0.9, recently discovered by Swift. Chandra imaging reveals a complex morphology, dominated by a bright shock. The X-ray spectrum is broadly consistent with a young SNR in the Sedov phase, implying an age of 2500 yr for a distance of 8 kpc, plausibly identifying this as one of the 20 youngest Galactic SNRs. Australia Telescope Compact Array imaging reveals a prominent ridge of radio emission that correlates with the X-ray emission. We find a flux density of ~160 mJy at 1 GHz, which is the lowest radio flux recorded for a Galactic SNR to date. The remnant is also detected at 24 ?m, indicating the presence of irradiated warm dust. The data reveal no compelling evidence for the presence of a compact stellar remnant.

Reynolds, Mark T.; Loi, Shyeh T.; Murphy, Tara; Miller, Jon M.; Maitra, Dipankar; Gültekin, Kayhan; Gehrels, Neil; Kennea, Jamie A.; Siegel, Michael H.; Gelbord, Jonathan; Kuin, Paul; Moss, Vanessa; Reeves, Sarah; Robbins, William J.; Gaensler, B. M.; Reis, Rubens C.; Petre, Robert

2013-04-01

229

G306.3-0.9: A Newly Discovered Young Galactic Supernova Remnant  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present X-ray and radio observations of the new Galactic supernova remnant (SNR) G306.3-0.9, recently discovered by Swift. Chandra imaging reveals a complex morphology, dominated by a bright shock. The X-ray spectrum is broadly consistent with a young SNR in the Sedov phase, implying an age of 2500 yr for a distance of 8 kpc, plausibly identifying this as one of the 20 youngest Galactic SNRs. Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) imaging reveals a prominent ridge of radio emission that correlates with the X-ray emission. We find a flux density of ~ 160 mJy at 1 GHz, which is the lowest radio flux recorded for a Galactic SNR to date. The remnant is also detected at 24 microns, indicating the presence of irradiated warm dust. The data reveal no compelling evidence for the presence of a compact stellar remnant.

Reynolds, Mark; Loi, S. T.; Murphy, T.; Miller, J. M.; Maitra, D.; Gultekin, K.; Gehrels, N.; Kennea, J. A.; Siegel, M. H.; Gelbord, J.; Kuin, P.; Moss, V.; Reeves, S.; Robbins, W. J.; Gaensler, B. M.; Reis, R. C.; Petre, R.

2013-04-01

230

The ultraviolet spectrum of an oxygen-rich supernova remnant in the Small Magellanic Cloud  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ultraviolet and optical spectra data are presented for the oxygen-rich supernova remnant 1E 0102-7219 in the SMC. These UV data are the first to seriously constrain the UV emission from an oxygen-rich remnant. Emission lines of O I, forbidden O II, semiforbidden O III, semiforbidden O IV, C IV, forbidden Ne IV, and Mg II have been unambiguously detected in the UV. Shock models for material with abundances appropriate to massive stellar ejecta are calculated, and a number of differences between these models and the observations are found. The UV lines are observed to be weaker relative to optical lines than expected from models. Models of photoionization by the remnant's X-ray emission are calculated, and these provide a better qualitative match to the observed spectra. Approximate abundances in the ejecta are derived and the implications these have for the precursor star are discussed.

Blair, William P.; Raymond, John C.; Danziger, John; Matteucci, Francesca

1989-01-01

231

G306.3-0.9: A NEWLY DISCOVERED YOUNG GALACTIC SUPERNOVA REMNANT  

SciTech Connect

We present X-ray and radio observations of the new Galactic supernova remnant (SNR) G306.3-0.9, recently discovered by Swift. Chandra imaging reveals a complex morphology, dominated by a bright shock. The X-ray spectrum is broadly consistent with a young SNR in the Sedov phase, implying an age of 2500 yr for a distance of 8 kpc, plausibly identifying this as one of the 20 youngest Galactic SNRs. Australia Telescope Compact Array imaging reveals a prominent ridge of radio emission that correlates with the X-ray emission. We find a flux density of {approx}160 mJy at 1 GHz, which is the lowest radio flux recorded for a Galactic SNR to date. The remnant is also detected at 24 {mu}m, indicating the presence of irradiated warm dust. The data reveal no compelling evidence for the presence of a compact stellar remnant.

Reynolds, Mark T.; Miller, Jon M.; Maitra, Dipankar; Gueltekin, Kayhan; Reis, Rubens C. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)] [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Loi, Shyeh T.; Murphy, Tara; Moss, Vanessa; Reeves, Sarah; Robbins, William J.; Gaensler, B. M. [Sydney Institute for Astronomy (SIfA), School of Physics, The University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia)] [Sydney Institute for Astronomy (SIfA), School of Physics, The University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Gehrels, Neil; Petre, Robert [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)] [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Kennea, Jamie A.; Siegel, Michael H.; Gelbord, Jonathan [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 525 Davey Lab, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)] [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 525 Davey Lab, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Kuin, Paul, E-mail: markrey@umich.edu [Mullard Space Science Laboratory, University College London, Holmbury St Mary, Dorking, Surrey RH5 6NT (United Kingdom)] [Mullard Space Science Laboratory, University College London, Holmbury St Mary, Dorking, Surrey RH5 6NT (United Kingdom)

2013-04-01

232

Discriminating the Progenitor Type of Supernova Remnants with Iron K-Shell Emission  

E-print Network

Supernova remnants (SNRs) retain crucial information about both their parent explosion and circumstellar material left behind by their progenitor. However, the complexity of the interaction between supernova ejecta and ambient medium often blurs this information, and it is not uncommon for the basic progenitor type (Ia or core-collapse) of well-studied remnants to remain uncertain. Here we present a powerful new observational diagnostic to discriminate between progenitor types and constrain the ambient medium density of SNRs solely using Fe K-shell X-ray emission. We analyze all extant Suzaku observations of SNRs and detect Fe K alpha emission from 23 young or middle-aged remnants, including five first detections (IC 443, G292.0+1.8, G337.2-0.7, N49, and N63A). The Fe K alpha centroids clearly separate progenitor types, with the Fe-rich ejecta in Type Ia remnants being significantly less ionized than in core-collapse SNRs. Within each progenitor group, the Fe K alpha luminosity and centroid are well correlate...

Yamaguchi, Hiroya; Petre, Robert; Nakano, Toshio; Castro, Daniel; Enoto, Teruaki; Hiraga, Junko S; Hughes, John P; Maeda, Yoshitomo; Nobukawa, Masayoshi; Safi-Harb, Samar; Slane, Patrick O; Smith, Randall K; Uchida, Hiroyuki

2014-01-01

233

An X-ray Search for Compact Central Sources in Supernova Remnants II: Six Large Diameter SNRs  

E-print Network

We present the second in a series of results in which we have searched for undiscovered neutron stars in supernova remnants (SNRs). This paper deals with the largest six SNRs in our sample, too large for Chandra or XMM-Newton to cover in a single pointing. These SNRs are nearby, with typical distances of snap-shot images of the remaining 13 sources. Of these, 10 were point sources with readily identified counterparts, two were extended, and one was not detected in the Chandra observation but is likely a flare star. One of the extended sources may be a pulsar wind nebula, but if so it is probably not associated with the nearby SNR. We are then left with no identified neutron stars in these six SNRs down to luminosity limits of \\~1e32 ergs/s. These limits are generally less than the luminosities of typical neutron stars of the same ages, but are compatible with some lower-luminosity sources such as the neutron stars in the SNRs CTA 1 and IC 443.

D. L. Kaplan; B. M. Gaensler; S. R. Kulkarni; P. O. Slane

2006-02-14

234

An X-Ray Search for Compact Central Sources in Supernova Remnants. II. Six Large-Diameter SNRs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the second in a series of studies in which we have searched for undiscovered neutron stars in supernova remnants (SNRs). This paper deals with the six largest SNRs in our sample, too large for Chandra or XMM-Newton to cover in a single pointing. These SNRs are nearby, with typical distances of <1 kpc. We therefore used the ROSAT Bright Source Catalog and past observations in the literature to identify X-ray point sources in and near the SNRs. Out of 54 sources, we were immediately able to identify optical/IR counterparts to 41 from existing data. We obtained Chandra snapshot images of the remaining 13 sources. Of these, 10 were point sources with readily identified counterparts, two were extended, and one was not detected in the Chandra observation but is likely a flare star. One of the extended sources may be a pulsar wind nebula, but if so it is probably not associated with the nearby SNR. We are then left with no identified neutron stars in these six SNRs down to luminosity limits of ~1032 ergs s-1. These limits are generally less than the luminosities of typical neutron stars of the same ages, but are compatible with some lower luminosity sources such as the neutron stars in the SNRs CTA 1 and IC 443.

Kaplan, D. L.; Gaensler, B. M.; Kulkarni, S. R.; Slane, P. O.

2006-04-01

235

Hard X-ray Emission and Efficient Particle Acceleration by Supernova Remnants  

SciTech Connect

I discuss the non-thermal X-ray emission from young supernova remnants. Over the last decade it has become clear from both X-ray and {gamma}-ray observations that young supernovae accelerate particles up to 100 TeV. In soft X-rays the accelerated >10 TeV electrons produce synchrotron radiation, coming from narrow filaments located at the shock fronts. The width of these filaments shows that the magnetic fields are relatively high, thus providing evidence for magnetic field amplification.The synchrotron radiation of several remnants is known to extend into the hard X-ray regime. In particular Cas A, has a spectrum that appears as a power law up to almost 100 TeV. This is very surprising, as a steepening is expected going from the soft to the hard X-ray band. The spectrum is likely a result of many superimposed individual spectra, each steepening at different energies. This implies considerable spatial variation in hard X-rays, an obvious target for Simbol-X. The variations will be important to infer local shock acceleration properties, but also magnetic field fluctuations may cause spatial and temporal variations.Finally, I draw the attention to super bubbles and supernovae as sources of cosmic rays. As such they may be sources of hard X-ray emission. In particular, supernovae exploding inside the dense red supergiants winds of their progenitors ares promising candidates for hard X-ray emission.

Vink, Jacco [Astronomical Institute Utrecht, Utrecht University, P.O. Box 80000, 3508TA Utrecht (Netherlands)

2009-05-11

236

Radio and X-ray study of two multi-shell supernova remnants: Kes 79 and G352.7-0.1  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aims: We investigate two multi-shell galactic supernova remnants (SNRs), Kes 79, and G352.7-0.1, to understand the causes of this morphology. Methods: The research was carried out based on new and reprocessed archival VLA observations and XMM-Newton archival data. The surrounding gas was investigated based on data extracted from the HI Canadian Galactic Plane Survey, the 13CO Galactic Ring Survey, and the HI Southern Galactic Plane Survey. Results: The present study infers that the overall morphology of both SNRs is the result of the mass-loss history of their respective progenitor stars. Kes 79 is likely to be the product of the gravitational collapse of a massive O9 star evolving near a molecular cloud and within the precursor's wind-driven bubble, while G352.7-0.1 should be the result of interactions of the SNR with an asymmetric wind from the progenitor together with projection effects. No radio point source or pulsar wind nebula was found to be associated with the X-ray pulsar CXOU J185238.6+004020 in Kes 79. The X-ray study of G352.7-0.1 found that most of the thermal X-ray radiation completely fills the interior of the remnant and originates in heated ejecta. Characteristic parameters, such as radio flux, radio spectral index, age, distance, shock velocity, initial energy, and luminosity, were estimated for both SNRs. Carrera del Investigador Científico of CONICET, Argentina.

Giacani, E.; Smith, M. J. S.; Dubner, G.; Loiseau, N.; Castelletti, G.; Paron, S.

2009-11-01

237

CHANDRA Spatially Resolved Spectroscopic Study and Multi-Wavelength Imaging of the Supernova Remnant 3C397 (G41.1-0.3)  

E-print Network

(Abridged) We present a CHANDRA observation of the supernova remnant (SNR) 3C397 (G41.1-0.3) obtained with ACIS-S. Previous studies of this SNR have shown that the remnant harbors a central X-ray `hot spot' suggestive of a compact object associated with 3C397. With the Chandra data, we can rule out the nature of the hot spot as a pulsar or a pulsar wind nebula, and put an upper limit on the flux of a hidden compact object of F (0.5--10 keV)~6E-13 erg/cm2/s. We found two point sources in the observed CHANDRA field. We argue that none of them is associated with 3C397, and that the hard source is a newly discovered AGN. The CHANDRA image reveals arcseconds-scale clumps and knots which are strongly correlated with the radio VLA image, except for the X-ray hot spot. Our CHANDRA spatially resolved spectroscopic study shows that one-component models are inadequate, and that at least two non-equilibrium ionization thermal components are needed to fit the spectra of each selected region. The derived average spectral p...

Safi-Harb, S; Petre, R; Holt, S S; Durouchoux, P

2004-01-01

238

Unpulsed X-rays from pulsars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Preliminary results of several programs to detect thermal X-ray emission from isolated neutron stars are presented. Results of Einstein pulsar surveys indicate that either the majority of supernovas which leave remnants do not produce neutron stars, or the cooling calculations are in need of substantial revision. When appropriate relativistic thermodynamics and updated high energy nuclear physics are included, the new calculations predict significantly lower temperatures for standard neutron star equations of state. X-ray results give strong evidence that five of the seven historical remnants and a large majority of the other remnants of less than 1000 yr do not contain radio pulsars. A survey of known radio pulsars is also presented, which is designed to test the heating mechanisms required by various theories of pulsar emission and neutron star structure, and consists of a survey of all known pulsars within 300 pc.

Helfand, D. J.

1981-01-01

239

Shock and Awe: Measuring the Expansion of the Shock Front of Supernova Remnant SN1006  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have determined the expansion of the supernova remnant (SNR) of SN1006 over a seven-year period, using data collected in 2003 and 2010. The data was calibrated and imaged using Miriad and CASA programming before we stacked the two images to accurately assess the expansion rate. Our data was collected from the Very Large Array (VLA) in New Mexico and Australian Telescope Compact Array (ATCA). The 2003 epoch observations were conducted at the ATCA and the VLA. The 2010 epoch observations were conducted only at the ATCA. We processed the data using the Miriad and CASA software packages, which allowed us to perform calibration and imaging of radio interferometer visibility data. We deconvolved the raw images using CLEAN and MAXEN (maximum entropy deconvolution) to remove spurious side lobes, resulting in epoch images with a synthesized beamwidth of 6.0 arcseconds per beam. We used the 2010 image as a template to align the 2003 image and to match resolution. A difference image formed from the two epoch images reveals an obvious expansion of the SNR. We measured the expansion rate at nine points along the shell of the remnant. We found that the expansion rate varied across the remnant’s shell. The greatest amount of expansion measured was 5.71 arcseconds over seven years, which for a distance of 2.2 kpc, has the remnant moving at 8,500 km/s. The average expansion measured across the shell was 4.25 arcseconds over seven years.

Dills, Sidney; McKinney, L.; Moffett, D. A.; Reynoso, E.

2014-01-01

240

HFPK 334: An Unusual Supernova Remnant in the Small Magellanic Cloud  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present new Australia Telescope Compact Array radio-continuum and XMM-Newton/Chandra X-ray Observatory observations of the unusual supernova remnant (SNR) HFPK 334 in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC). The remnant follows a shell-type morphology in the radio continuum and has a size of ~20 pc at the SMC distance. The X-ray morphology is similar; however, we detect a prominent point source close to the center of the SNR exhibiting a spectrum with a best-fit power law with a photon index of ? = 2.7 ± 0.5. This central point source is most likely a background object and cannot be directly associated with the remnant. The high temperature, nonequilibrium conditions in the diffuse region suggest that this gas has been recently shocked and points toward a younger SNR with an age of <~ 1800 yr. With an average radio spectral index of ? = –0.59 ± 0.09, we find that an equipartition magnetic field for the remnant is ~90 ?G, a value typical of younger SNRs in low-density environments. Also, we report the detection of scattered radio polarization across the remnant at 20 cm, with a peak fractional polarization level of 25% ± 5%.

Crawford, E. J.; Filipovi?, M. D.; McEntaffer, R. L.; Brantseg, T.; Heitritter, K.; Roper, Q.; Haberl, F.; Uroševi?, D.

2014-11-01

241

A New Young Galactic Supernova Remnant Containing a Compact Object: G15.9+0.2  

E-print Network

We identify the radio-emitting shell-type supernova remnant G15.9+0.2 as a relatively young remnant containing an X-ray point source that may be its associated neutron star. The integrated spectrum of the remnant shell obtained from our 30 ks exploratory Chandra observation shows very strong lines that require elevated element abundances from ejecta, in particular of sulfur. A plane-shock model fit gives a temperature $kT = 0.9 (0.8, 1.0)$ keV, an ionization timescale $n_et = 6 (4, 9) \\times 10^{10}$ cm$^{-3}$ s, and a sulfur abundance of 2.1 (1.7, 2.7) times solar (90% confidence limits). Two-component models with one solar and one enriched component are also plausible, but are not well constrained by the data. Various estimates give a remnant age of order $10^3$ yr, which would make G15.9+0.2 among the dozen or so youngest remnants in the Galaxy. The sparse point source spectrum is consistent with either a steep $\\Gamma \\sim$ 4 power law or a $kT \\sim$ 0.4 keV blackbody. The spectrum is absorbed by a H colu...

Reynolds, S P; Hwang, U; Harrus, I; Petre, R; Dubner, G

2006-01-01

242

Failed Supernovae Explain the Compact Remnant Mass Function  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One explanation for the absence of higher mass red supergiants (16.5 M ? <~ M <~ 25 M ?) as the progenitors of Type IIP supernovae (SNe) is that they die in failed SNe creating black holes. Simulations show that such failed SNe still eject their hydrogen envelopes in a weak transient, leaving a black hole with the mass of the star's helium core (5-8 M ?). Here we show that this naturally explains the typical masses of observed black holes and the gap between neutron star and black hole masses without any fine-tuning of stellar mass loss, binary mass transfer, or the SN mechanism, beyond having it fail in a mass range where many progenitor models have density structures that make the explosions more likely to fail. There is no difficulty including this ~20% population of failed SNe in any accounting of SN types over the progenitor mass function. And, other than patience, there is no observational barrier to either detecting these black hole formation events or limiting their rates to be well below this prediction.

Kochanek, C. S.

2014-04-01

243

A multi-wavelength study of the radio source G296.7-0.9: confirmation as a Galactic supernova remnant  

E-print Network

We present a multi-wavelength study of the radio source G296.7-0.9. This source has a bilateral radio morphology, a radio spectral index of -0.5 +/- 0.1, sparse patches of linear polarisation, and thermal X-rays with a bright arc near the radio boundary. Considering these characteristics, we conclude that G296.7-0.9 is a supernova remnant (SNR). The age and morphology of the SNR in the context of its environment suggest that the source is co-located with an HII region, and that portions of the shock front have broken out into a lower density medium. We see no evidence for a neutron star or pulsar wind nebula associated with SNR G296.7-0.9.

Robbins, W J; Murphy, T; Reeves, S; Green, A J

2011-01-01

244

3-D Model of Broadband Emission from Supernova Remnants Undergoing Non-linear Diffusive Shock Acceleration  

SciTech Connect

We present a 3-dimensional model of supernova remnants (SNRs) where the hydrodynamical evolution of the remnant is modeled consistently with nonlinear diffusive shock acceleration occurring at the outer blast wave. The model includes particle escape and diffusion outside of the forward shock, and particle interactions with arbitrary distributions of external ambient material, such as molecular clouds. We include synchrotron emission and cooling, bremsstrahlung radiation, neutral pion production, inverse-Compton (IC), and Coulomb energy-loss. Boardband spectra have been calculated for typical parameters including dense regions of gas external to a 1000 year old SNR. In this paper, we describe the details of our model but do not attempt a detailed fit to any specific remnant. We also do not include magnetic field amplification (MFA), even though this effect may be important in some young remnants. In this first presentation of the model we don't attempt a detailed fit to any specific remnant. Our aim is to develop a flexible platform, which can be generalized to include effects such as MFA, and which can be easily adapted to various SNR environments, including Type Ia SNRs, which explode in a constant density medium, and Type II SNRs, which explode in a pre-supernova wind. When applied to a specific SNR, our model will predict cosmic-ray spectra and multi-wavelength morphology in projected images for instruments with varying spatial and spectral resolutions. We show examples of these spectra and images and emphasize the importance of measurements in the hard X-ray, GeV, and TeV gamma-ray bands for investigating key ingredients in the acceleration mechanism, and for deducing whether or not TeV emission is produced by IC from electrons or pion-decay from protons.

Lee, Shiu-Hang; Kamae, Tuneyoshi; Ellison, Donald C.

2008-07-02

245

An ASCA Study of the Composite Supernova Remnant G18.95-1.1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This is the final report on the work done on Supernova Remnant (SNR) G18-95-1.1. The data were taken on April, 2. 1998 and delivered a couple of months later to the Principal Investigator (PI: Dr. Ilana Harrus). We received a CD-ROM containing the results of the standard processing pipeline and all the files needed for the analysis. We have analyzed the data and presented a poster on this object at the 194th American Astronomical Society Meeting in Chicago (June 1999). A copy of the poster is appended to this report. The poster presentation triggered several discussions and we are summarizing the analysis results and those discussions in a paper to be submitted soon to the Astrophysical Journal. We have appended the draft of the paper to this report. It must be noted that the paper is still in its early stages. In particular more work is needed in the physical implications of the results of the spectral analysis and in the comparison with theoretical models to understand the curious morphology of the remnant. The project should be completed within the next two months. Attachment: "ASCA study of the centrally-peaked thermal supernova remnant: G18.95-1.1".

Harrus, Ilana

2000-01-01

246

The resolved structure of the extragalactic supernova remnant SNR 4449-1  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) observations of the milliarcsecond-scale radio structure of the supernova remnant SNR 4449-1 in the galaxy NGC 4449. This young and superluminous remnant was observed at 1.6 GHz (? = 18 cm) with the European VLBI Network. The observations confirm earlier identifications of this object with a supernova remnant (SNR) while revealing a somewhat different morphology compared with the structure reported by Bietenholz et al. from VLBI observations at 1.4 GHz. This difference is discussed here in the context of structural sensitivity of both observations. The 1.6 GHz image yields accurate estimates of the size (0.0422 arcsec × 0.0285 arcsec and 0.8 pc × 0.5 pc) and age (˜55 yr) of SNR 4449-1. With a total flux of 6.1 ± 0.6 mJy measured in the VLBI image, the historical light curve of the source can be well represented by a power-law decay with a power index of -1.19 ± 0.07. The SNR exhibits a decline rate of the radio emission of 2.2 ± 0.1 per cent yr-1 and a radio luminosity of 1.74 × 1035 erg s-1.

Mezcua, M.; Lobanov, A. P.; Martí-Vidal, I.

2013-12-01

247

Discovery of the supernova remnant G351.0-5.4  

E-print Network

Context. While searching the NRAO VLA Sky Survey (NVSS) for diffuse radio emission, we have serendipitously discovered extended radio emission close to the Galactic plane. The radio morphology suggests the presence of a previously unknown Galactic supernova remnant. An unclassified {\\gamma}-ray source detected by EGRET (3EG J1744-3934) is present in the same location and may stem from the interaction between high-speed particles escaping the remnant and the surrounding interstellar medium. Aims. Our aim is to confirm the presence of a previously unknown supernova remnant and to determine a possible association with the {\\gamma}-ray emission 3EG J1744-3934. Methods. We have conducted optical and radio follow-ups of the target using the Dark Energy Camera (DECam) on the Blanco telescope at Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO) and the Giant Meterwave Radio Telescope (GMRT). We then combined these data with archival radio and {\\gamma}-ray observations. Results. While we detected the extended emission in...

de Gasperin, F; Bruggen, M; Hektor, A; Cardillo, M; Thorman, P; Dawson, W A; Morrison, C B

2014-01-01

248

Recoil of the Stellar Remnant from the Puppis A Supernova: Proper-Motion Measurement from Chandra  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A sequence of three Chandra X-ray Observatory High Resolution Camera images taken over a span of five years reveals arc-second-scale displacement of RX J0822--4300, the stellar remnant near the center of the Puppis A supernova remnant. We measure its proper motion to be 0.16±0.02 arcsec yr-1 toward the west-southwest. At a distance of 2 kpc, this corresponds to a transverse space velocity of 1500 km s-1. This is the first case of a compact X-ray source with a directly measured proper motion. The space velocity is consistent with the explosion center inferred from proper motions of the oxygen-rich optical filaments, and confirms the idea that Puppis A resulted from an asymmetric explosion accompanied by a kick that imparted on the order of 3x1049 ergs of kinetic energy (some 3 percent of the supernova kinetic energy) to the stellar remnant. We will summarize this measurement and discuss possible mechanisms for producing such a violent kick. This research has been supported by NASA grant GO4-5062X.

Petre, Robert; Winkler, P. F.

2006-09-01

249

Leptonic origin of TeV gamma-rays from Supernova Remnants  

E-print Network

The lineless power-law emission observed by ASCA from the northeastern rim of the supernova remnant SN1006 has recently been interpreted as synchrotron radiation of electrons with energies around 100 TeV. In this letter we calculate the flux of inverse Compton emission at TeV photon energies that is a natural consequence of the existence of such high energy electrons and the cosmic microwave background. We find that the predicted flux is near the present sensitivity limit of the southern \\v Cerenkov telescope CANGAROO, and should be detectable with the next performance improvements. The spectrum of SN1006 at a few TeV will be very soft. The existence of such highest energy electrons in SN1006 may not be a unique to this remnant. We can therefore conclude that the detection of TeV $\\gamma$-ray emission in any supernova remnant does not necessarily provide evidence for a large number of cosmic ray nucleons in these objects, and thus is no simple test of cosmic ray origin as far as nucleons are concerned.

M. Pohl

1996-02-22

250

Four new X-ray-selected supernova remnants in the Large Magellanic Cloud  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aims: We present a detailed multi-wavelength study of four new supernova remnants (SNRs) in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). The objects were identified as SNR candidates in X-ray observations performed during the survey of the LMC with XMM-Newton. Methods: Data obained with XMM-Newton are used to investigate the morphological and spectral features of the remnants in X-rays. We measure the plasma conditions, look for supernova (SN) ejecta emission, and constrain some of the SNR properties (e.g. age and ambient density). We supplement the X-ray data with optical, infrared, and radio-continuum archival observations, which allow us to understand the conditions resulting in the current appearance of the remnants. Based on the spatially-resolved star formation history (SFH) of the LMC together with the X-ray spectra, we attempt to type the supernovae that created the remnants. Results: We confirm all four objects as SNRs, to which we assign the names MCSNR J0508-6830, MCSNR J0511-6759, MCSNR J0514-6840, and MCSNR J0517-6759. In the first two remnants, an X-ray bright plasma is surrounded by very faint [S ii] emission. The emission from the central plasma is dominated by Fe L-shell lines, and the derived iron abundance is greatly in excess of solar. This establishes their type Ia (i.e. thermonuclear) SN origin. They appear to be more evolved versions of other Magellanic Cloud iron-rich SNRs which are centrally-peaked in X-rays. From the two other remnants (MCSNR J0514-6840 and MCSNR J0517-6759), we do not see ejecta emission. At all wavelengths at which they are detected, the local environment plays a key role in their observational appearance. We present evidence that MCSNR J0517-6759 is close to and interacting with a molecular cloud, suggesting a massive progenitor. Based on observations obtained with XMM-Newton, an ESA science mission with instruments and contributions directly funded by ESA Member States and NASA.

Maggi, P.; Haberl, F.; Kavanagh, P. J.; Points, S. D.; Dickel, J.; Bozzetto, L. M.; Sasaki, M.; Chu, Y.-H.; Gruendl, R. A.; Filipovi?, M. D.; Pietsch, W.

2014-01-01

251

Infrared and X-Ray Spectroscopy of the KES 75 Supernova Remnant Shell: Characterizing the Dust and Gas Properties  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We present deep Chandra observations and Spitzer Space Telescope infrared (IR) spectroscopy of the shell in the composite supernova remnant (SNR) Kes 75 (G29.7-0.3). The remnant is composed of a central pulsar wind nebula and a bright partial shell in the south that is visible at radio, IR, and X-ray wavelengths. The X-ray emission can be modeled by either a single thermal component with a temperature of 1.5 keV, or with two thermal components with temperatures of 1.5 and 0.2 keV. Previous studies suggest that the hot component may originate from reverse-shocked SN ejecta. However, our new analysis shows no definitive evidence for enhanced abundances of Si, S, Ar, Mg, and Fe, as expected from supernova (SN) ejecta, or for the IR spectral signatures characteristic of confirmed SN condensed dust, thus favoring a circumstellar or interstellar origin for the X-ray and IR emission. The X-ray and ill emission in the shell are spatially correlated, suggesting that the dust particles are collisionally heated by the X-ray emitting gas. The IR spectrum of the shell is dominated by continuum emission from dust with little, or no line emission. Modeling the IR spectrum shows that the dust is heated to a temperature of 140 K by a relatively dense, hot plasma, that also gives rise to the hot X-ray emission component. The density inferred from the IR emission is significantly higher than the density inferred from the X-ray models, suggesting a low filling factor for this X-ray emitting gas. The total mass of the warm dust component is at least 1.3 x 10(exp -2) solar mass, assuming no significant dust destruction has occurred in the shell. The IR data also reveal the presence of an additional plasma component with a cooler temperature, consistent with the 0.2 keV gas component. Our IR analysis therefore provides an independent verification of the cooler component of the X-ray emission. The complementary analyses of the X-ray and IR emission provide quantitative estimates of density and filling factors of the clumpy medium swept up by the SNR.

Temim, Tea; Dwek, Eli; Slane, Patrick; Arendt, Richard G.

2009-01-01

252

The Connection between the Vela Supernova Remnant, the Optical Nebula RCW 37, and the Young X-Ray Supernova Remnant RX J0852.0-4622  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The association between the Pencil nebula (RCW 37, NGC 2736), the Vela X-ray fragment D/D^ ' and the recently discovered new X-ray supernova remnant (RX J0852.0-4622) in Vela is investigated. [O III] 5007 Å line profiles of RCW 37 are presented that show the kinematics of this nebula for the first time. A partial velocity ellipse is present in the pv array of line profiles. The kinematics and morphology could suggest that the structure of RCW 37 is that of a thin curved sheet of optical emission that is undergoing a systematic expansion. A simple explanation for the data is that RX J0852.0-4622 has occured within the older, larger Vela SNR and that a portion of the supernova ejecta from RX J0852.0-4622 has impacted the pre-existing cold dense wall of the Vela SNR. The thin sheet of optical emission then traces out the inside edge of this shocked wall while the X-ray emission marks shock-heated gas. This model predicts that the distance to RX J0852.0-4622 will be that of the main Vela SNR which has been recently measured to be of order 250pc.

Redman, M. P.; Meaburn, J.; Bryce, M.; Harman, D. J.; O'Brien, T. J.

2003-01-01

253

Electron Heating, Magnetic Field Amplification, and Cosmic Ray Precursor Length at Supernova Remnant Shocks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the observability, by direct and indirect means, of a shock precursor arising from magnetic field amplification by cosmic rays. We estimate the depth of such a precursor under conditions of nonresonant amplification, which provides magnetic field strengths comparable to those inferred for supernova remnants. Magnetic field generation occurs as the streaming cosmic rays induce a plasma return current, and may be quenched either by nonresonant or resonant channels. In the former case, the cosmic rays become magnetized and amplification saturates at higher magnetic fields. The precursor can extend out to 10^17 - 10^18 cm and is potentially resolvable in Galactic supernova remnants. If the saturation occurs instead by resonant channels, the cosmic rays are scattered by turbulence and the precursor length will likely be too small to be resolvable with current instruments. The dependence of precursor length on shock velocity has implications for electron heating. In the case of resonant saturation, this dependence is similar to that in the more familiar resonantly generated shock precursor, which when expressed in terms of the cosmic ray diffusion coefficient ? and shock velocity v_s is ? /v_s. In the nonresonantly saturated case, the precursor length declines less quickly with increasing v_s. Where precursor length proportional to 1/v_s gives constant electron heating, as observed for instance by Ghavamian et al. and van Adelsberg et al., this increased precursor length would be expected to lead to higher electron temperatures at faster supernova remnant shocks than studied by these previous works as an indirect observation of the shock precursor. Existing results and new data analysis of SN 1006 and Cas A suggests some observational support for this idea. Work supported by NASA ADAP program and by basic research funds of the Office of Naval Research.

Laming, J. M.; Hwang, U.; Ghavamian, P.; Rakowski, C. E.

2014-01-01

254

EXPANSION OF THE YOUNGEST GALACTIC SUPERNOVA REMNANT G1.9+0.3  

SciTech Connect

We present a measurement of the expansion and brightening of G1.9 + 0.3, the youngest Galactic supernova remnant (SNR), comparing Chandra X-ray images obtained in 2007 and 2009. A simple uniform-expansion model describes the data well, giving an expansion rate of 0.642% {+-} 0.049% yr{sup -1} and a flux increase of 1.7% {+-} 1.0% yr{sup -1}. Without deceleration, the remnant age would then be 156 {+-} 11 yr, consistent with earlier results. Since deceleration must have occurred, this age is an upper limit; we estimate an age of about 110 yr or an explosion date of about 1900. The flux increase is comparable to reported increases at radio wavelengths. G1.9+0.3 is the only Galactic SNR increasing in flux, with implications for the physics of electron acceleration in shock waves.

Carlton, Ashley K. [Department of Physics, Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, NC 27109 (United States); Borkowski, Kazimierz J.; Reynolds, Stephen P. [Department of Physics, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695-8202 (United States); Hwang, Una; Petre, Robert [NASA/GSFC, Code 660, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Green, David A. [Cavendish Laboratory, 19 J.J. Thomson Ave., Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Krishnamurthy, Kalyani; Willett, Rebecca, E-mail: carlak7@wfu.edu [Electrical and Computer Engineering, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708 (United States)

2011-08-10

255

High Spatial Resolution Studies of Blastwave Interactions in the Vela Supernova Remnant  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The report targeted two interaction zones within the Vela supernova remnant for HRI observation and data reduction and analysis. Approximately 40 ksec of HRI integration time was awarded for each of the awarded target regions, one at priority 2 and one at priority 3. The observations have been completed for the priority 2 observation. Some observations have been made of the priority 3 target, however the data have not yet been received by the PI. The priority 2 data have been received and analyzed and the results have been prepared for publication. The chief results are as follows: (1) the radial profile of the X-ray emission from the western rim is characterized by a sudden increase in emission at the blastwave interaction region which is unresolved spatially at HRI resolution. The profile is consistent with the expanding blastwave from the remnant encountering a large, coherent structure in the surrounding ISM; (2) the X-ray emission lags slightly 'behind', approx. 10(exp 16)cm the H(alpha) and OIII optical filaments, consistent with the expected spatial profile of the emission assuming parameters derived from earlier PSPC observations of the region. the combination of the X-ray and optical interference filter data allow us to set limits on the distance to the Vela remnant and the general nature of the blastwave interactions in the remnant.

Craig, William

1997-01-01

256

Supernova Explosions in the Early Universe: Evolution of Radiative Remnants and the Halo Destruction Efficiency  

E-print Network

We study the evolution of supernova (SN) remnants of the first stars, taking proper account of the radiative feedback of the progenitor stars on the surroundings. We carry out a series of one-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations with radiative cooling, starting from initial configurations that are drawn from the results of our earlier radiation hydrodynamic simulations of the first HII regions. In low-mass (explosion. The blastwave quickly propagates over the halo's virial radius, leading to complete evacuation of the gas even with the input energy of 10^50 erg. We find that a large fraction of the remnant's thermal energy is lost in 0.1-10 Myr by line cooling, whereas, for larger explosion energies, the remnant expands even more rapidly with decreasing interior density, and cools predominantly via inverse Compton process. In higher mass halos, the gas density near the explosion site remains high and the SN shock is heavily confined; the thermal energy of the remnant is quickly radiated away by free-free emission, even if the total input energy exceeds the binding energy of halos by two orders of magnitude. We show that the efficiency of halo destruction is determined not only by the explosion energy but also by the gas density profile, and thus controlled by radiative feedback prior to the explosion. Several implications of our results for the formation of first quasars and second-generation stars in the universe are also discussed.

Tetsu Kitayama; Naoki Yoshida

2005-05-18

257

A method for computing synchrotron and inverse-Compton emission from hydrodynamic simulations of supernova remnants  

E-print Network

The observational signature of supernova remnants (SNRs) is very complex, in terms of both their geometrical shape and their spectral properties, dominated by non-thermal synchrotron and inverse-Compton scattering. We propose a post-processing method to analyse the broad-band emission of SNRs based on three-dimensional hydrodynamical simulations. From the hydrodynamical data, we estimate the distribution of non-thermal electrons accelerated at the shock wave and follow the subsequent evolution as they lose or gain energy by adiabatic expansion or compression and emit energy by radiation. As a first test case, we use a simulation of a bipolar supernova expanding into a cloudy medium. We find that our method qualitatively reproduces the main observational features of typical SNRs and produces fluxes of the right order of magnitude, allowing for further use in more extended sets of models.

Obergaulinger, M; Aloy, M A; Iyudin, A

2014-01-01

258

G0.57-0.018: A young supernova remnant? INTEGRAL and VLA observations  

E-print Network

We report INTEGRAL/IBIS gamma-ray and VLA radio observations of G0.570-0.018, a diffuse X-ray source recently discovered by ASCA and Chandra in the Galactic center region. Based on its spectrum and morphology, G0.570-0.018 has been proposed to be a very young supernova remnant. In this scenario, the presence of gamma-ray lines coming from the short-lived radioactive nucleus 44Ti as well as synchrotron radio continuum emission are expected. The first could provide informations on nucleosynthesis environments in the interior of exploding stars, the latter could probe the interaction between the supernova blast wave and the circumstellar/interstellar matter. We have not detected 44Ti lines nor any conspicuous radio feature associated with this source down to the achieved sensitivities. From the derived upper limits we set constraints on the nature of G0.570-0.018.

M. Renaud; S. Paron; R. Terrier; F. Lebrun; G. Dubner; E. Giacani; A. Bykov

2005-10-10

259

G0.57-0.018: A young supernova remnant? INTEGRAL and VLA observations  

E-print Network

We report INTEGRAL/IBIS gamma-ray and VLA radio observations of G0.570-0.018, a diffuse X-ray source recently discovered by ASCA and Chandra in the Galactic center region. Based on its spectrum and morphology, G0.570-0.018 has been proposed to be a very young supernova remnant. In this scenario, the presence of gamma-ray lines coming from the short-lived radioactive nucleus 44Ti as well as synchrotron radio continuum emission are expected. The first could provide informations on nucleosynthesis environments in the interior of exploding stars, the latter could probe the interaction between the supernova blast wave and the circumstellar/interstellar matter. We have not detected 44Ti lines nor any conspicuous radio feature associated with this source down to the achieved sensitivities. From the derived upper limits we set constraints on the nature of G0.570-0.018.

Renaud, M; Terrier, R; Lebrun, F; Dubner, G; Giacani, E; Bykov, A

2006-01-01

260

Emissions from supernova remnants in the presence of small-scale random magnetic fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study non-thermal emissions by relativistic electrons from supernova remnants(SNRs) in the presence of small-scale random and large-scale regular magnetic fields. We extend our pure jitter and inverse Compton emission models (Ogasawara et al. 2006) and construct the emission models with regular magnetic fields. We apply them to the multi-wavelength data of TeV gamma-ray sources SNRs RX J1713.7-3946 (G347.3-0.5) and RX J0852.0-4622 (G266.6-1.2). The physical fit parameters of random and regular magnetic fields are discussed.

Yoshida, T.; Yanagita, S.; Kifune, T.

261

Analysis of LAC Observations of Clusters of Galaxies and Supernova Remnants  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The following publications are included and serve as the final report: The X-ray Spectrum of Abell 665; Clusters of Galaxies; Ginga Observation of an Oxygen-rich Supernova Remnant; Ginga Observations of the Coma Cluster and Studies of the Spatial Distribution of Iron; A Measurement of the Hubble Constant from the X-ray Properties and the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich Effect of Abell 2218; Non-polytropic Model for the Coma Cluster; and Abundance Gradients in Cooling Flow Clusters: Ginga LAC (Large Area Counter) and Einstein SSS (Solid State Spectrometer) Spectra of A496, A1795, A2142, and A2199.

Hughes, J.

1996-01-01

262

H2 excitation by magnetic shock precursors in the Cygnus Loop supernova remnant  

SciTech Connect

Emission from vibrationally excited H2 has been discovered which is associated with the bright optical shock-excited filaments to the northeast of the Cygnus Loop supernova remnant. Infrared spectroscopy and infrared and optical narrow-band images of the shock-excited gas have been obtained in an effort to understand the mechanism of H2 excitation. A shock model with a magnetic precursor is proposed which explains quantitatively the observed H2 surface brightness, level population, and relation to optical emission. A shock with a magnetic precursor can also account for some of the anomalous properties of nonradiative shocks. 64 refs.

Graham, J.R.; Wright, G.S.; Hester, J.J.; Longmore, A.J. (Palomar Observatory, Pasadena, CA (USA) Joint Astronomy Center, Hilo, HI (USA) California Institute of Technology, Pasadena (USA) Royal Observatory, Edinburgh (Scotland))

1991-01-01

263

Investigation of the large-scale neutral hydrogen near the supernova remnant W28  

E-print Network

The distribution and kinematics of neutral hydrogen have been studied in a wide area around the supernova remnant W28. A 2.5 x 2.5 arcdeg field centered at l = 6.5 arcdeg, b = 0 arcdeg was surveyed using the Parkes 64-m radio telescope (HPBW 14.7 arcmin at lambda 21 cm). Even though W28 is located in a complex zone of the Galactic plane, we have found different HI features which are evidence of the interaction between W28 and its surrounding gas.

Velazquez, P F; Goss, W M; Green, A J; Velazquez, Pablo F.; Dubner, Gloria M.; Green, Anne J.

2002-01-01

264

Investigation of the large-scale neutral hydrogen near the supernova remnant W28  

E-print Network

The distribution and kinematics of neutral hydrogen have been studied in a wide area around the supernova remnant W28. A 2.5 x 2.5 arcdeg field centered at l = 6.5 arcdeg, b = 0 arcdeg was surveyed using the Parkes 64-m radio telescope (HPBW 14.7 arcmin at lambda 21 cm). Even though W28 is located in a complex zone of the Galactic plane, we have found different HI features which are evidence of the interaction between W28 and its surrounding gas.

Pablo F. Velazquez; Gloria M. Dubner; W. Miller Goss; Anne J. Green

2002-07-24

265

Infrared emission from the supernova remnant Puppis A: Dust and gas parameters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The infrared (IR) spectra of collisionally heated dust at several regions across the supernova remnant (SNR) Puppis A were modelled. Through the comparison of the actual and model spectra, the possible range of gas density and temperature within these areas was narrowed down. From the models, information on the minimum and maximum dust grain sizes and the amount of sputtering which has occurred was found. Finally the mass of gas and dust, the IR luminosity, the effective thickness, and the length of time since the dust was swept up by the SNR were derived for these regions.

Arendt, Richard G.; Dwek, Eli; Petre, R

1989-01-01

266

Soft X-ray emission from the Lupus Loop and Sn 1006 supernova remnants  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

X-ray maps of the Lupus region have been obtained in a raster scan observation from SAS 3. These show the Lupus Loop to be a faint extended source of soft X-rays with a temperature about 2.5 million K. The most prominent feature of the region is the A.D. 1006 supernova remnant, which is unexpectedly bright at 0.2-1.0 keV. One speculative interpretation of the low-energy flux from SN 1006 is as blackbody radiation from a hot neutron star.

Winkler, P. F., Jr.; Hearn, D. R.; Richardson, J. A.; Behnken, J. M.

1979-01-01

267

Optical emission from shock. VI. Abundance gradient in M33 from supernova remnants  

SciTech Connect

The absolute abundance gradient in the spiral arms of the galaxy M33 has been obtained using supernova remnants (SNRs) as a tracer of gaseous phase abundance in the interstellar medium. No galactic enrichment theory is entirely successful in explaining the observations. The gradient in N/S abundance obtained from SNRs is identical to that given by H II region observations. Nitrogen seems to be produced first as a primary but later (at higher enrichment and star mass to gas mass ratio) as a secondary nucleosynthesis element.

Dopita, M.A.; D'Odorico, S.; Benvenuti, P.

1980-03-01

268

Radio observations of the Crab-like supernova remnant 3C 58. I - Total intensity observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Crab-like supernova remnant 3C 58 was observed with the VLA at frequencies of 1446 and 4886 MHz, with resolutions of 2.0 and 2.45 arcsec, respectively. It is found that 3C 58 has a considerably larger extent than previously realized, particularly at the eastern and western edges and above and below the central bulge. Some parts of the periphery are markedly confined while others are not; some confined-edge regions are slightly limb brightened. The fainter outer envelope contains extensive filamentation as do the brighter central regions. The filament profiles are nearly identical at 1446 and 4886 MHz.

Reynolds, Stephen P.; Aller, Hugh D.

1988-04-01

269

High-velocity, high-excitation neutral carbon in a cloud in the Vela supernova remnant  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

HD 72089 is situated behind the Vela supernova remnant, and the interstellar absorption lines in the spectrum of this star are remarkable for two reasons. First, there are six distinct velocity components that span the (heliocentric) velocity range -60 to +121 km/s in the lines of Na I and Ca II. Second, two of the components at high velocity, one at +85 km/s and another at +121.5 km/s, have densities that are large enough to produce observable lines from neutral carbon. The gas moving at +121.5 km/s has such a large pressure that the excited fine-structure levels of the ground electronic state of C I are collisionally populated nearly in proportion to their level degeneracies. This high-velocity gas exhibits unusually low column densities of Mg I and Na I, compared to that of C I. We propose that the +121.5 km/s component represents gas that has cooled and recombined in a zone that follows a shock driven into a cloud by the very recent passage of a supernova blast wave. A representative preshock density of n(sub H) approximately = 13/cc and velocity v(sub s) = 100 km/s is indicated by the strength of diffuse (O III) emission lines seen in directions very near HD 72089. The strong collisional population of excited C I and apparent absence of excited levels of O I give a most favorable fit to the conditions 1000 less than n(sub H) less than 2900/cc over a temperature range 300 less than T less than 1000 K. The fact that the compression is not substantially more than this indicates that the preshock gas may have had an embedded, transverse magnetic field with a strength B greater than or approximately = 1 micro-G. The large dynamical pressure of the supernova blast wave that would be needed to create the cloud shock that we describe implies that the energy of the supernova was 8 x 10(exp 51) ergs, if the Vela remnant is 500 pc away. We can bring this value much closer to typical supernova energies E less than or approximately = 10(exp 51) ergs if the distance to the remnant is revised downward by at least a factor of 2.

Jenkins, Edward B.; Wallerstein, George

1995-01-01

270

The Observations of the Supernova Remnant G65.2+5.7 in the Emission Lines of OIII NII and SII  

Microsoft Academic Search

Isophote charts in the [O III], [N II], and [S II] lines of the bright filament S 91 lying to the SE of the supernova remnant G 65.2+5.7 are constructed. The stratification of the emission regions in these lines is discovered. [O III] regions lie closer to the external ridge of the supernova remnant than the regions which emit the

T. G. Sitnik; A. Y. Klementeva; M. S. Toropova

1983-01-01

271

Observations of discrete gamma ray sources with SAS-2. [compact sources centered on Crab nebula and Vela X supernova remnant  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Compact gamma ray sources centered on the Crab nebula and the Vela X supernova remnant are considered. An excess in the galactic radiation was observed in both regions. Data indicate that a large fraction of this flux is pulsed. The excess from the Vela region could reflect either a large-scale galactic feature, such as a superposition of spiral arm segments, or it could be associated with the Vela supernova remnant. Low-energy gamma ray bursts were observed in the SAS-2 anticoincidence shielding.

Thompson, D. J.; Fichtel, C. E.; Hartman, R. C.; Kniffen, D. A.; Bignami, G. F.

1974-01-01

272

Supernova outbursts and the formation of relativistic objects. II  

Microsoft Academic Search

A genetic relationship between a pulsar and a supenova remnant may be ; considered persuasive only if they are <30 pc apart. Just two pairs satisfy this ; criterion: P0531--Crab and P0833---Vela: in these cases the components also agree ; in age. The scarcity of pairs suggests that supernova remnants disperse quite ; rapidly (in approx equal 4.10⁴ yr); thus

O. Kh. Guseinov; F. K. Kazumov; V. I. Lazarev; A. V. Osipchuk

1973-01-01

273

Electron Heating, Magnetic Field Amplification, and Cosmic-Ray Precursor Length at Supernova Remnant Shocks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the observability, by direct and indirect means, of a shock precursor arising from magnetic field amplification by cosmic rays. We estimate the depth of such a precursor under conditions of nonresonant amplification, which can provide magnetic field strengths comparable to those inferred for supernova remnants. Magnetic field generation occurs as the streaming cosmic rays induce a plasma return current, and it may be quenched by either nonresonant or resonant channels. In the case of nonresonant saturation, the cosmic rays become magnetized and amplification saturates at higher magnetic fields. The precursor can extend out to 1017-1018 cm and is potentially detectable. If resonant saturation occurs, the cosmic rays are scattered by turbulence and the precursor length will likely be much smaller. The dependence of precursor length on shock velocity has implications for electron heating. In the case of resonant saturation, this dependence is similar to that in the more familiar resonantly generated shock precursor, which when expressed in terms of the cosmic-ray diffusion coefficient kappav and shock velocity vs is kappav/vs . In the nonresonantly saturated case, the precursor length declines less quickly with increasing vs . Where precursor length proportional to 1/vs gives constant electron heating, this increased precursor length could be expected to lead to higher electron temperatures for nonresonant amplification. This should be expected at faster supernova remnant shocks than studied by previous works. Existing results and new data analysis of SN 1006 and Cas A suggest some observational support for this idea.

Laming, J. Martin; Hwang, Una; Ghavamian, Parviz; Rakowski, Cara

2014-07-01

274

Near-Infrared Spectroscopy of the Cassiopeia A and Kepler Supernova Remnants  

E-print Network

Near-infrared spectra (0.95 - 2.4 micron) of the Cassiopeia A and Kepler supernova remnants (SNRs) are presented. Low-dispersion (R = 700) spectra were obtained for five bright fast-moving ejecta knots (FMKs) at two locations on the main shell and for three bright circumstellar knots (QSFs) near the southwest rim of Cas A. The main shell FMKs in Cas A exhibit a sparse near-infrared spectrum dominated by [S II] 1.03 micron emission with a handful of other, fainter emission lines. Among these are two high-ionization silicon lines, [Si VI] 1.96 micron and [Si X] 1.43 micron, which have been detected in AGNs and novae but never before in a supernova remnant. The near-infrared spectra of circumstellar QSFs in Cas A show a much richer spectrum, with strong He I 1.083 micron emission and over a dozen bright [Fe II] lines. Observed [Fe II] line ratios indicate electron densities of 5 - 9 * 10^4 cm^-3 in the QSFs. The Cas A QSF data are quite similar to the observed spectrum of a bright circumstellar knot along the no...

Gerardy, C L

2001-01-01

275

A Comparison of X-ray and Radio Emission from the Supernova Remnant Cassiopeia A  

E-print Network

We compare the radio and soft X-ray brightness as a function of position within the young supernova remnant Cassiopeia A. A moderately strong correlation (r = 0.7) was found between the X-ray emission (corrected for interstellar absorption) and radio emission, showing that the thermal and relativistic plasmas occupy the same volumes and are regulated by common underlying parameters. The logarithmic slope of the relationship, ln(Sx-ray) = 1.2 x Sradio + ln(k) implies that the variations in brightness are primarily due to path length differences. The X-ray and radio emissivities are both high in the same general locations, but their more detailed relationship is poorly constrained and probably shows significant scatter. The strongest radio and X-ray absorption is found at the western boundary of Cas A. Based on the properties of Cas A and the absorbing molecular cloud, we argue that they are physically interacting. We also compare ASCA derived column densities with 21 cm H I and 18 cm OH optical depths in the direction of Cas A, in order to provide an independent estimate of ISM properties. We derive an average value for the H I spin temperature of about 40 K and measure the ratio of OH to molecular hydrogen to be nominally larger than previous estimates. Keywords: Cas A, Cassiopeia A, interstellar medium, molecular clouds, radio astronomy, supernova remnants, X-ray astronomy

Jonathan W. Keohane; Lawrence Rudnick; Martha C. Anderson

1996-03-14

276

New X-ray lights on the supernova remnant population of the Large Magellanic Cloud  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Supernova remnants (SNRs) mark the end point of stellar evolution. They return nucleosynthesis products to the interstellar medium (ISM), enriching and mixing it with freshly-produced heavy elements. Studying SNRs in general, and their X-ray emission in particular, is crucial to advance our understanding of many important astrophysical processes. With an XMM-Newton Very Large Programme (PI: F. Haberl), we conducted an X-ray survey of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). As opposed to the Milky Way, the LMC offers an ideal target, at a well-constrained distance with small absorption column densities. Thus, X-ray properties of the evolved end of the SNR population of a galaxy can be studied. I will present the characteristics of the newly X-ray-discovered SNRs, with emphasis on the discovery of several iron-rich SNRs, which are the most evolved remnants of type Ia (i.e. thermonuclear) supernovae. I will take advantage of the high level of completeness of our sample of SNRs to i) present the X-ray luminosity function (XLF) of LMC SNRs, extended towards lower-luminosity objects, comparing it to the XLF of SNRs in other galaxies; and ii) compare the spatial distribution of SNRs and star formation histories in the LMC.

Maggi, P.; Haberl, F.; Sasaki, M.; Kavanagh, P.; Filipovi?, M.; Bozzetto, L.; Points, S.; Chu, Y.; Gruendl, R.; Dickel, J.

2014-07-01

277

AKARI AND BLAST OBSERVATIONS OF THE CASSIOPEIA A SUPERNOVA REMNANT AND SURROUNDING INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM  

SciTech Connect

We use new large area far infrared maps ranging from 65 to 500 {mu}m obtained with the AKARI and the Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope missions to characterize the dust emission toward the Cassiopeia A supernova remnant (SNR). Using the AKARI high-resolution data we find a new 'tepid' dust grain population at a temperature of {approx}35 K and with an estimated mass of 0.06 M{sub sun}. This component is confined to the central area of the SNR and may represent newly formed dust in the unshocked supernova ejecta. While the mass of tepid dust that we measure is insufficient by itself to account for the dust observed at high redshift, it does constitute an additional dust population to contribute to those previously reported. We fit our maps at 65, 90, 140, 250, 350, and 500 {mu}m to obtain maps of the column density and temperature of 'cold' dust (near 16 K) distributed throughout the region. The large column density of cold dust associated with clouds seen in molecular emission extends continuously from the surrounding interstellar medium to project on the SNR, where the foreground component of the clouds is also detectable through optical, X-ray, and molecular extinction. At the resolution available here, there is no morphological signature to isolate any cold dust associated only with the SNR from this confusing interstellar emission. Our fit also recovers the previously detected 'hot' dust in the remnant, with characteristic temperature 100 K.

Sibthorpe, B. [UK Astronomy Technology Centre, Royal Observatory Edinburgh, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh, EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Ade, P. A. R.; Griffin, M.; Hargrave, P. C.; Mauskopf, P. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Cardiff University, 5 The Parade, Cardiff, CF24 3AA (United Kingdom); Bock, J. J. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA 91109-8099 (United States); Chapin, E. L.; Halpern, M.; Marsden, G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, 6224 Agricultural Road, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Devlin, M. J.; Dicker, S.; Klein, J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, 209 South 33rd Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Gundersen, J. O. [Department of Physics, University of Miami, 1320 Campo Sano Drive, Coral Gables, FL 33146 (United States); Hughes, D. H. [Instituto Nacional de Astrofisica, Optica y Electronica, Luis Enrique Erro 1, Tonantzintla, Puebla 72840 (Mexico); Jeong, W.-S. [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, 61-1, Hwaam-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of); Kaneda, H. [Department of Astrophysics, Nagoya University, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Koo, B.-C.; Lee, H.-G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-747 (Korea, Republic of); Martin, P. G. [Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 60 St. George Street, Toronto, ON M5S 3H8 (Canada); Moon, D.-S., E-mail: bruce.sibthorpe@stfc.ac.u [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 50 St. George Street, Toronto, ON M5S 3H4 (Canada)

2010-08-20

278

RADIOACTIVE SCANDIUM IN THE YOUNGEST GALACTIC SUPERNOVA REMNANT G1.9+0.3  

SciTech Connect

We report the discovery of thermal X-ray emission from the youngest Galactic supernova remnant G1.9+0.3, from a 237 ks Chandra observation. We detect strong K{alpha} lines of Si, S, Ar, Ca, and Fe. In addition, we detect a 4.1 keV line with 99.971% confidence which we attribute to {sup 44}Sc, produced by electron capture from {sup 44}Ti. Combining the data with our earlier Chandra observation allows us to detect the line in two regions independently. For a remnant age of 100 yr, our measured total line strength indicates synthesis of (1-7) x 10{sup -5} M {sub sun} of {sup 44}Ti, in the range predicted for both Type Ia and core-collapse supernovae (SNe), but somewhat smaller than the 2 x 10{sup -4} M {sub sun} reported for Cas A. The line spectrum indicates supersolar abundances. The Fe emission has a width of about 28,000 km s{sup -1}, consistent with an age of {approx}100 yr and with the inferred mean shock velocity of 14,000 km s{sup -1} deduced assuming a distance of 8.5 kpc. Most thermal emission comes from regions of lower X-ray but higher radio surface brightness. Deeper observations should allow more detailed spatial mapping of {sup 44}Sc, with significant implications for models of nucleosynthesis in Type Ia SNe.

Borkowski, Kazimierz J.; Reynolds, Stephen P. [Department of Physics, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695-8202 (United States); Green, David A. [Cavendish Laboratory, 19 J.J. Thomson Ave., Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Hwang, Una; Petre, Robert [NASA/GSFC, Code 660, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Krishnamurthy, Kalyani; Willett, Rebecca, E-mail: kborkow@unity.ncsu.ed [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708 (United States)

2010-12-01

279

The Search for Faint Radio Supernova Remnants in the Outer Galaxy: Five New Discoveries  

E-print Network

High resolution and sensitivity large-scale radio surveys of the Milky Way are critical in the discovery of very low surface brightness supernova remnants (SNRs), which may constitute a significant portion of the Galactic SNRs still unaccounted for (ostensibly the Missing SNR problem). The overall purpose here is to present the results of a systematic, deep data-mining of the Canadian Galactic Plane Survey (CGPS) for faint, extended non-thermal and polarized emission structures that are likely the shells of uncatalogued supernova remnants. We examine 5$\\times$5 degree mosaics from the entire 1420 MHz continuum and polarization dataset of the CGPS after removing unresolved point sources and subsequently smoothing them. Newly revealed extended emission objects are compared to similarly-prepared CGPS 408 MHz continuum mosaics, as well as to source-removed mosaics from various existing radio surveys at 4.8 GHz, 2.7 GHz, and 327 MHz, to identify candidates with non-thermal emission characteristics. We integrate fl...

Gerbrandt, Stephanie; Kothes, Roland; Geisbuesch, Joern; Tung, Albert

2014-01-01

280

Time-dependent Diffusive Shock Acceleration in Slow Supernova Remnant Shocks  

E-print Network

Recent gamma ray observations show that middle aged supernova remnants interacting with molecular clouds can be sources of both GeV and TeV emission. Models involving re-acceleration of pre-existing cosmic rays in the ambient medium and direct interaction between supernova remnant and molecular clouds have been proposed to explain the observed gamma ray emission. For the re-acceleration process, standard DSA theory in the test particle limit produces a steady state particle spectrum that is too flat compared to observations, which suggests that the high energy part of the observed spectrum has not yet reached a steady state. We derive a time dependent DSA solution in the test particle limit for situations involving re-acceleration of pre-existing cosmic rays in the preshock medium. Simple estimates with our time dependent DSA solution plus a molecular cloud interaction model can reproduce the overall shape of the spectra of IC 443 and W44 from GeV to TeV energies through pure $\\pi^0$-decay emission. We allow ...

Tang, Xiaping

2014-01-01

281

The End of Amnesia: Measuring the Metallicities of Type Ia SN Progenitors with Manganese Lines in Supernova Remnants  

E-print Network

The Mn to Cr mass ratio in supernova ejecta has recently been proposed as a tracer of Type Ia SN progenitor metallicity. We review the advantages and problems of this observable quantity, and discuss them in the framework of the Tycho Supernova Remnant. The fluxes of the Mn and Cr Kalpha lines in the X-ray spectra of Tycho observed by the Suzaku satellite suggests a progenitor of supersolar metallicity.

Badenes, Carles; Hughes, John P

2009-01-01

282

Radio and X-ray study of two multi-shell Supernova Remnants: Kes79 and G352.7-0.1  

E-print Network

We investigate two multi-shell galactic supernova remnants (SNRs), Kes79 and G352.7-0.1, to understand the causes of such morphology. The research was carried out based on new and reprocessed archival VLA observations and XMM-Newton archival data. The surrounding was investigated based on data extracted from the HI Canadian Galactic Plane Survey, the 13^CO Galactic Ring Survey and the HI Southern Galactic Plane Survey. The present study revealed that the overall morphology of both SNRs is the result of the mass-loss history of their respective progenitor stars. Kes79 would be the product of the gravitational collapse of a massive O9 star evolving near a molecular cloud and within the precursor's wind-driven bubble, while G352.7-0.1 would be the result of interactions of the SNR with an asymmetric wind from the progenitor together with projection effects. No radio point source or pulsar wind nebula was found associated with the X-ray pulsar CXOU J185238.6+004020 in Kes79. The X-ray study of G352.7-0.1, on its ...

Giacani, E; Dubner, G; Loiseau, N; Castelletti, G; Paron, S

2009-01-01

283

Supernova Remnants Associated with Molecular Clouds in the Large Magellanic Cloud  

E-print Network

We used the Swedish-ESO Submillimeter Telescope (SEST) to search for CO emission associated with three supernova remnants (SNRs) in the Large Magellanic Cloud: N49, N132D, and N23. Observations were carried out in the J=2-1 rotational transition of CO (230.5 GHz) where the half power beamwidth of the SEST is 23". Molecular clouds were discovered near N49 and N132D; no CO emission was discovered in the region we mapped near N23. The N49 cloud has a peak line temperature of 0.75 K, spatial scale of ~7 pc and virial mass of ~30,000 solar masses. The N132D cloud is brighter with a peak temperature of 5 K; it is also larger ~22 pc and considerably more massive 200,000 solar masses. The velocities derived for the clouds near N49 and N132D, +286.0 km/s and +264.0 km/s, agree well with the previously known velocities of the associated SNRs: +286 km/s and +268 km/s, respectively. ROSAT X-ray images show that the ambient density into which the remnants are expanding appears to be significantly increased in the direction of the clouds. Taken together these observations indicate a physical association between the remnants and their respective, presumably natal, molecular clouds. The association of N49 and N132D with dense regions of molecular material means that both were likely products of short-lived progenitors that exploded as core-collapse supernovae.

Kenneth R. Banas; John P. Hughes; L. Bronfman; L. -A. Nyman

1996-12-19

284

A Chandra X-Ray Survey of Ejecta in the Cassiopeia A Supernova Remnant  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We present a survey of the X-ray emitting ejecta in the Cassiopeia A supernova remnant based on an extensive analysis of over 6000 spectral regions extracted on 2.5-10" angular scales using the Chandra 1 Ms observation. We interpret these results in the context of hydrodynamical models for the evolution of the remnant. The distributions of fitted temperature and ionization age are highly peaked and suggest that the ejecta were subjected to multiple secondary shocks. Based on the fitted emission measure and element abundances, and an estimate of the emitting volume, we derive masses for the X-ray emitting ejecta as well as showing the distribution of the mass of various elements over the remnant. The total shocked Fe mass appears to be roughly 0.14 Solar Mass, which accounts for nearly all of the mass expected in Fe ejecta. We find two populations of Fe ejecta, that associated with normal Si-burning and that associated with alpha-rich freeze-out, with a mass ratio of approximately 2:1. Surprisingly, essentially all of this Fe (both components) is well outside the central regions of the SNR, presumably having been ejected by hydrodynamic instabilities during the explosion. We discuss this, and its implications for the neutron star kick.

Hwang, Una; Laming, J. Martin

2011-01-01

285

An Attempt at a Unified Model for the Gamma-Ray Emission of Supernova Remnants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Shocks of supernova remnants (SNRs) are important (and perhaps the dominant) agents for the production of the Galactic cosmic rays. Recent ?-ray observations of several SNRs have made this case more compelling. However, these broadband high-energy measurements also reveal a variety of spectral shapes demanding more comprehensive modeling of emissions from SNRs. According to the locally observed fluxes of cosmic-ray protons and electrons, the electron-to-proton number ratio is known to be about 1%. Assuming such a ratio is universal for all SNRs and identical spectral shape for all kinds of accelerated particles, we propose a unified model that ascribes the distinct ?-ray spectra of different SNRs to variations of the medium density and the spectral difference between cosmic-ray electrons and protons observed from Earth to transport effects. For low-density environments, the ?-ray emission is inverse-Compton dominated. For high-density environments like systems of high-energy particles interacting with molecular clouds, the ?-ray emission is ?0-decay dominated. The model predicts a hadronic origin of ?-ray emission from very old remnants interacting mostly with molecular clouds and a leptonic origin for intermediate-age remnants whose shocks propagate in a low-density environment created by their progenitors via, e.g., strong stellar winds. These results can be regarded as evidence in support of the SNR origin of Galactic cosmic rays.

Yuan, Qiang; Liu, Siming; Bi, Xiaojun

2012-12-01

286

Cygnus Loop supernova remnant: new observations and a framework for understanding its structure and evolution  

SciTech Connect

New observational data on the Cygnus Loop supernova remnant (SNR) include: (1) a detailed high resolution comparison of x-ray and optical emission for a field in the SE; (2) a map of the (O III) electron temperature for the field previously studied by Hester, Parker, and Dufour (1983); and (3) CCD imagery of the NE limb in the light of four emission lines. A wide range of new and existing observations of the Loop are for the first time interpreted within the context of a single physical description. The Cygnus Loop is not an evaporative SNR evolving into the McKee and Ostriker (1977) ISM, nor are tiny cloudlets necessary to explain its morphology. The data show the Cygnus Loop to be evolving into a medium consisting primarily of an intercloud phase with N/sub 0/ approx. 0.1 cm/sup -3/ containing clouds with parsec dimensions and N/sub 0/ less than or equal to 10 cm/sup -3/. The optical emission arises from extensive sheet like radiative shock fronts driven into the clouds. These fronts locally form the outer boundary of the remnant. The appearance of x-ray emission outside the optical emission on the limbs is due solely to projection effects. The distorted and bumpy shock front is shown to give rise in projection to the filamentary morphology of the remnant.

Hester, J.J.

1985-01-01

287

High Resolution X-Ray Spectroscopy and Imaging of Supernova Remnant N132D  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The observation of the supernova remnant N132D by the scientific instruments on board the XMM-Newton satellite is presented. The X-rays from N132D are dispersed into a detailed line-rich spectrum using the Reflection Grating Spectrometers. Spectral lines of C, N, O, Ne, Mg, Si, S, and Fe are identified. Images of the remnant, in narrow wavelength bands, produced by the European Photon Imaging Cameras reveal a complex spatial structure of the ionic distribution. While K - shell Fe seems to originate near the centre, all of the other ions are observed along the shell. An emission excess of O(6+) over O(7+) is detected on the northeastern edge of the remnant. This can be a sign of hot ionising conditions, or it can reflect a relatively cool region. Spectral fitting of the CCD spectrum suggests high temperatures in this region, but a detailed analysis of the atomic processes involved in producing the O(6+) spectral lines leads to the conclusion that the intensities of these lines alone cannot provide a conclusive distinction between the two scenarios.

Behar, Ehud; Rasmussen, Andrew; Griffiths, R. Gareth; Dennerl, Konrad; Audard, Marc; Aschenbach, Bernd

2000-01-01

288

Hard X-Ray Emission and 44Ti Line Features of the Tycho Supernova Remnant  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A deep hard X-ray survey of the International Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory (INTEGRAL) satellite has detected for the first time non-thermal emission up to 90 keV in the Tycho supernova (SN) remnant. Its 3-100 keV spectrum is fitted with a thermal bremsstrahlung of kT ~ 0.81 ± 0.45 keV plus a power-law model of ? ~ 3.01 ± 0.16. Based on diffusive shock acceleration theory, this non-thermal emission, together with radio measurements, implies that the Tycho remnant may not accelerate protons up to >PeV but to hundreds TeV. Only heavier nuclei may be accelerated to the cosmic ray spectral "knee." In addition, using INTEGRAL, we search for soft gamma-ray lines at 67.9 and 78.4 keV that come from the decay of radioactive 44Ti in the Tycho remnant. A bump feature in the 60-90 keV energy band, potentially associated with the 44Ti line emission, is found with a marginal significance level of ~2.6?. The corresponding 3? upper limit on the 44Ti line flux amounts to 1.5 × 10-5 photon cm-2 s-1. Implications on the progenitor of the Tycho SN, considered to be a Type Ia SN prototype, are discussed.

Wang, Wei; Li, Zhuo

2014-07-01

289

H.E.S.S. upper limits for Kepler's supernova remnant  

E-print Network

Observations of Kepler's supernova remnant (G4.5+6.8) with the H.E.S.S. telescope array in 2004 and 2005 with a total live time of 13 h are presented. Stereoscopic imaging of Cherenkov radiation from extensive air showers is used to reconstruct the energy and direction of the incident gamma rays. No evidence for a very high energy (VHE: >100 GeV) gamma-ray signal from the direction of the remnant is found. An upper limit (99% confidence level) on the energy flux in the range 230 GeV - 12.8 TeV of 8.6 x 10^{-13} erg cm^{-2} s^{-1} is obtained. In the context of an existing theoretical model for the remnant, the lack of a detectable gamma-ray flux implies a distance of at least 6.4 kpc. A corresponding upper limit for the density of the ambient matter of 0.7 cm^{-3} is derived. With this distance limit, and assuming a spectral index Gamma = 2, the total energy in accelerated protons is limited to E_p gamma-ray flux from inverse Compton scattering is below the measured upper limit for magnetic field values greater than 52 muG.

HESS Collaboration; F. Aharonian

2008-06-20

290

Spitzer Observations of the Type Ia Supernova Remnant N103B: A Type Ia with CSM Interaction?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A small but growing subclass of Type Ia supernovae show signs of interaction with material in a circumstellar medium (CSM), likely the result of significant pre-supernova mass loss from the progenitor system. Among Type Ia supernova remnants (SNRs), only the remnant of Kepler's supernova has been shown to be interacting with a dense CSM. We report results from Spitzer observations of SNR 0509-68.7, also known as N103B, a young Type Ia supernova remnant in the Large Magellanic Cloud that shows interaction with a dense medium in its western hemisphere. Our images show that N103B has strong IR emission from warm dust in the post-shock environment. The post-shock gas density we derive, 45 cm$^{-3}$, is much higher than in other Type Ia remnants in the LMC, though a lack of spatial resolution may bias measurements towards regions of higher than average density. Thisdensity is similar to that in Kepler's SNR. Optical images show H$\\alpha$ emission along the entire periphery of the western portion of the shock, with [O III] and [S II] lines emitted from a few dense clumps of material where the shock has become radiative. The dust is silicate in nature, though standard silicate dust models fail to reproduce the ``18 $\\mu$m'' silicate feature that peaks instead at 17.3 $\\mu$m. We propose that the dense material is circumstellar material lost from the progenitor system, as with Kepler. If the CSM interpretation is correct, this remnant would become the second member, along with Kepler, of a class of Type Ia remnants characterized by interaction with a dense CSM hundreds of years post-explosion. A lack of N enhancement eliminates symbiotic AGB progenitors. The white dwarf companion must have been relatively unevolved at the time of the explosion.

Williams, Brian J.; Borkowski, Kazimierz J.; Reynolds, Stephen P.; Ghavamian, Parviz; Raymond, John C.; Long, Knox S.; Blair, William P.; Sankrit, Ravi; Winkler, P. Frank; Hendrick, Sean Patrick

2014-08-01

291

Chandra X-Ray Observatory Arcsecond Imaging of the Young, Oxygen-rich Supernova Remnant 1E 0102.2-7219.  

PubMed

We present observations of the young, oxygen-rich supernova remnant 1E 0102.2-7219 taken by the Chandra X-Ray Observatory during its orbital activation and checkout phase. The boundary of the blast-wave shock is clearly seen for the first time, allowing the diameter of the remnant and the mean blast-wave velocity to be determined accurately. The prominent X-ray bright ring of material may be the result of the reverse shock encountering ejecta; the radial variation of O vii versus O viii emission indicates an ionizing shock propagating inward, possibly through a strong density gradient in the ejecta. We compare the X-ray emission with Australia Telescope Compact Array 6 cm radio observations (Amy & Ball) and with archival Hubble Space Telescope [O iii] observations. The ring of radio emission is predominantly inward of the outer blast wave, which is consistent with an interpretation of synchrotron radiation originating behind the blast wave but outward of the bright X-ray ring of emission. Many (but not all) of the prominent optical filaments are seen to correspond to X-ray bright regions. We obtain an upper limit of approximately 9x1033 ergs s-1 (3 sigma) on any potential pulsar X-ray emission from the central region. PMID:10790068

Gaetz; Butt; Edgar; Eriksen; Plucinsky; Schlegel; Smith

2000-05-01

292

Spitzer Observations of the Type Ia Supernova Remnant N103B: Kepler's Older Cousin?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report results from Spitzer observations of SNR 0509-68.7, also known as N103B, a young Type Ia supernova remnant (SNR) in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) that shows interaction with a dense medium in its western hemisphere. Our images show that N103B has strong IR emission from warm dust in the post-shock environment. The post-shock gas density we derive, 45 cm-3, is much higher than in other Type Ia remnants in the LMC, though a lack of spatial resolution may bias measurements toward regions of higher than average density. This density is similar to that in Kepler's SNR, a Type Ia interacting with a circumstellar medium (CSM). Optical images show H? emission along the entire periphery of the western portion of the shock, with [O III] and [S II] lines emitted from a few dense clumps of material where the shock has become radiative. The dust is silicate in nature, though standard silicate dust models fail to reproduce the "18 ?m" silicate feature that peaks instead at 17.3 ?m. We propose that the dense material is circumstellar material lost from the progenitor system, as with Kepler. If the CSM interpretation is correct, this remnant would become the second member, along with Kepler, of a class of Type Ia remnants characterized by interaction with a dense CSM hundreds of years post-explosion. A lack of N enhancement eliminates symbiotic asymptotic giant branch progenitors. The white dwarf companion must have been relatively unevolved at the time of the explosion.

Williams, Brian J.; Borkowski, Kazimierz J.; Reynolds, Stephen P.; Ghavamian, Parviz; Raymond, John C.; Long, Knox S.; Blair, William P.; Sankrit, Ravi; Winkler, P. Frank; Hendrick, Sean P.

2014-08-01

293

Spatially Resolved Thermal Continuum Absorption against Supernova Remnant W49B  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present subarcminute resolution imaging of the Galactic supernova remnant W49B at 74 MHz (25") and 327 MHz (6"), the former being the lowest frequency at which the source has been resolved. While the 327 MHz image shows a shell-like morphology similar to that seen at higher frequencies, the 74 MHz image is considerably different, with the southwest region of the remnant almost completely attenuated. The implied 74 MHz optical depth (~1.6) is much higher than the intrinsic absorption levels seen inside two other relatively young remnants, Cas A and the Crab Nebula, nor are natural variations in the relativistic electron energy spectra expected at such levels. The geometry of the absorption is also inconsistent with intrinsic absorption. We attribute the absorption to extrinsic free-free absorption by an intervening cloud of thermal electrons. Its presence has already been inferred from the low-frequency turnover in the integrated continuum spectrum and from the detection of radio recombination lines toward the remnant. Our observations confirm the basic conclusions of those measurements, and our observations have resolved the absorber into a complex of classical H II regions surrounded either partially or fully by low-density H II gas. We identify this low-density gas as an extended H II region envelope (EHE), whose statistical properties were inferred from low-resolution meter- and centimeter-wavelength recombination line observations. Comparison of our radio images with H I and H2CO observations shows that the intervening thermal gas is likely associated with neutral and molecular material as well. This EHE may be responsible for the enhanced radio-wave scattering seen in the general direction of the W49 complex.

Lacey, C. K.; Lazio, T. Joseph W.; Kassim, Namir E.; Duric, N.; Briggs, D. S.; Dyer, K. K.

2001-10-01

294

EVOLUTION OF THE RADIO REMNANT OF SUPERNOVA 1987A: MORPHOLOGICAL CHANGES FROM DAY 7000  

SciTech Connect

We present radio imaging observations of supernova remnant 1987A at 9 GHz, taken with the Australia Telescope Compact Array over 21 years from 1992 to 2013. By employing a Fourier modeling technique to fit the visibility data, we show that the remnant structure has evolved significantly since day 7000 (mid-2006): the emission latitude has gradually decreased such that the overall geometry has become more similar to a ring structure. Around the same time, we find a decreasing trend in the east-west asymmetry of the surface emissivity. These results could reflect the increasing interaction of the forward shock with material around the circumstellar ring, and the relative weakening of the interaction with the lower-density material at higher latitudes. The morphological evolution caused an apparent break in the remnant expansion measured with a torus model, from a velocity of 4600{sup +150}{sub -}200 km s{sup –1} between day 4000 and 7000 to 2400{sup +100}{sub -200} km s{sup –1} after day 7000. However, we emphasize that there is no conclusive evidence for a physical slowing of the shock at any given latitude in the expanding remnant, and that a change of radio morphology alone appears to dominate the evolution. This is supported by our ring-only fits which show a constant expansion of 3890 ± 50 km s{sup –1} without deceleration between days 4000 and 9000. We suggest that once the emission latitude no longer decreases, the expansion velocity obtained from the torus model should return to the same value as that measured with the ring model.

Ng, C.-Y. [Department of Physics, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road (Hong Kong); Zanardo, G.; Potter, T. M.; Staveley-Smith, L. [International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research (ICRAR), The University of Western Australia, Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia); Gaensler, B. M. [Australian Research Council, Centre of Excellence for All-sky Astrophysics (CAASTRO) (Australia); Manchester, R. N.; Tzioumis, A. K., E-mail: ncy@bohr.physics.hku.hk [CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science, Australia Telescope National Facility, Marsfield, NSW 1710 (Australia)

2013-11-10

295

Polarization Observations of 1720 MHz OH Masers toward the Three Supernova Remnants W28, W44, and IC 443  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present arcsecond resolution observations from the VLA with full Stokes polarimetry of the ground-state satellite line of the hydroxyl molecule (OH) at 1720.53 MHz (2 Pi 3\\/2, J = \\\\frac {3}{2} , F = 2 --> 1) toward three Galactic supernova remnants: W28, W44, and IC 443. The total number of individual OH (1720 MHz) \\

M. J. Claussen; D. A. Frail; W. M. Goss; R. A. Gaume

1997-01-01

296

A Sino-German lambda6 cm polarization survey of the Galactic plane. V. Large supernova remnants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Context. Observations of large supernova remnants (SNRs) at high frequencies are rare, but provide valuable information about their physical properties. Aims: The total intensity and polarization properties of 16 large SNRs in the Galactic plane are investigated based on observations of the Urumqi lambda6 cm polarization survey of the Galactic plane with an angular resolution of 9.5 arcmin. Methods: We

X. Y. Gao; J. L. Han; W. Reich; P. Reich; X. H. Sun; L. Xiao

2011-01-01

297

H I Absorption of Polarized Emission: A New Technique for Determining Kinematic Distances to Galactic Supernova Remnants  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a new method of determining the systemic velocity of Galactic supernova remnants (SNRs) based on H I absorption of their linearly polarized radio continuum emission. Conventional H I observations of total power emission are limited by H I emission and self-absorption along the line of sight, but since H I emission is unpolarized, the only limits on measurements

R. Kothes; T. L. Landecker; M. Wolleben

2004-01-01

298

An X-Ray, Optical, and Radio Search for Supernova Remnants in the Nearby Sculptor Group Sd Galaxy NGC 7793  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is the second in a series devoted to examining the multiwavelength properties of supernova remnants (SNRs) located in nearby galaxies. We consider here the resident SNRs in the nearby Sculptor group Sd galaxy NGC 7793. Using our own Very Large Array (VLA) radio observations at 6 and 20 cm, as well as archived ROSAT X-ray data, previously published

Thomas G. Pannuti; Nebojsa Duric; Christina K. Lacey; Annette M. N. Ferguson; Marcus A. Magnor; Caylin Mendelowitz

2002-01-01

299

The End of Amnesia: A New Method for Measuring the Metallicity of Type Ia Supernova Progenitors Using Manganese Lines in Supernova Remnants  

E-print Network

We propose a new method to measure the metallicity of Type Ia supernova progenitors using Mn and Cr lines in the X-ray spectra of young supernova remnants. We show that the Mn to Cr mass ratio in Type Ia supernova ejecta is tightly correlated with the initial metallicity of the progenitor, as determined by the neutron excess of the white dwarf material before thermonuclear runaway. We use this correlation, together with the flux of the Cr and Mn Kalpha X-ray lines in the Tycho supernova remnant recently detected by Suzaku (Tamagawa et al. 2008) to derive a metallicity of log(Z) = -1.32 (+0.67,-0.33) for the progenitor of this supernova, which corresponds to log(Z/Zsun)= 0.60 (+0.31,-0.60) according to the latest determination of the solar metallicity by Asplund et al. (2005). The uncertainty in the measurement is large, but metallicities much smaller than the solar value can be confidently discarded. We discuss the implications of this result for future research on Type Ia supernova progenitors.

Badenes, Carles; Hughes, John P

2008-01-01

300

The End of Amnesia: A New Method for Measuring the Metallicity of Type Ia Supernova Progenitors Using Manganese Lines in Supernova Remnants  

E-print Network

We propose a new method to measure the metallicity of Type Ia supernova progenitors using Mn and Cr lines in the X-ray spectra of young supernova remnants. We show that the Mn to Cr mass ratio in Type Ia supernova ejecta is tightly correlated with the initial metallicity of the progenitor, as determined by the neutron excess of the white dwarf material before thermonuclear runaway. We use this correlation, together with the flux of the Cr and Mn Kalpha X-ray lines in the Tycho supernova remnant recently detected by Suzaku (Tamagawa et al. 2008) to derive a metallicity of log(Z) = -1.32 (+0.67,-0.33) for the progenitor of this supernova, which corresponds to log(Z/Zsun)= 0.60 (+0.31,-0.60) according to the latest determination of the solar metallicity by Asplund et al. (2005). The uncertainty in the measurement is large, but metallicities much smaller than the solar value can be confidently discarded. We discuss the implications of this result for future research on Type Ia supernova progenitors.

Carles Badenes; Eduardo Bravo; John P. Hughes

2008-05-21

301

The many sides of RCW 86: a Type Ia supernova remnant evolving in its progenitor's wind bubble  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the results of a detailed investigation of the Galactic supernova remnant RCW 86 using the XMM-Newton X-ray telescope. RCW 86 is the probable remnant of SN 185 A.D., a supernova that likely exploded inside a wind-blown cavity. We use the XMM-Newton Reflection Grating Spectrometer to derive precise temperatures and ionization ages of the plasma, which are an indication of the interaction history of the remnant with the presumed cavity. We find that the spectra are well fitted by two non-equilibrium ionization models, which enables us to constrain the properties of the ejecta and interstellar matter plasma. Furthermore, we performed a principal component analysis on EPIC MOS and pn data to find regions with particular spectral properties. We present evidence that the shocked ejecta, emitting Fe K and Si line emission, are confined to a shell of approximately 2 pc width with an oblate spheroidal morphology. Using detailed hydrodynamical simulations, we show that general dynamical and emission properties at different portions of the remnant can be well reproduced by a Type Ia supernova that exploded in a non-spherically symmetric wind-blown cavity. We also show that this cavity can be created using general wind properties for a single degenerate system. Our data and simulations provide further evidence that RCW 86 is indeed the remnant of SN 185, and is the likely result of a Type Ia explosion of single degenerate origin.

Broersen, Sjors; Chiotellis, Alexandros; Vink, Jacco; Bamba, Aya

2014-07-01

302

An Expanded HST/WFC3 Survey of M83: Project Overview and Targeted Supernova Remnant Search  

E-print Network

We present an optical/NIR imaging survey of the face-on spiral galaxy M83, using data from the Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3). Seven fields are used to cover a large fraction of the inner disk, with observations in nine broadband and narrowband filters. In conjunction with a deep Chandra survey and other new radio and optical ground-based work, these data enable a broad range of science projects to be pursued. We provide an overview of the WFC3 data and processing and then delve into one topic, the population of young supernova remnants. We used a search method targeted toward soft X-ray sources to identify 26 new supernova remnants. Many compact emission nebulae detected in [Fe II] 1.644 micron align with known remnants and this diagnostic has also been used to identify many new remnants, some of which are hard to find with optical images. We include 37 previously identified supernova remnants that the data reveal to be <0.5'' in angular size and thus are difficult to characterize from ...

Blair, William P; Dopita, Michael A; Ghavamian, Parviz; Hammer, Derek; Kuntz, K D; Long, Knox S; Soria, Roberto; Whitmore, Bradley C; Winkler, P Frank

2014-01-01

303

On the Origin of Radial Magnetic Fields in Young Supernova Remnants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the radio emission from young supernova remnants by means of three-dimensional numerical MHD simulations of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability in the shell of the remnant. The computation is carried out in spherical polar coordinates (r, ?, ?) by using a moving grid technique that allows us to resolve the shell finely. The three-dimensional result shows more turbulent (complex) structures in the mixing region than the two-dimensional result, and the instability is found to deform the reverse shock front Stokes parameters (I, Q, and U) are computed to study the radio properties of the remnant. The total intensity map shows two distinctive regions (inner and outer shells). The inner shell appears to be complex and turbulent, exhibiting loop structures and plumes as a result of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability, while the outer shell is faint and laminar because of the shocked uniform ambient magnetic fields. The inner shell resembles the observed radio structure in the main shell of young SNRs, which is evidence that the Rayleigh-Taylor instability is an ongoing process in young SNRs. When only the peculiar components of the magnetic fields generated by the instability are considered, the polarization B-vector in the inner radio shell is preferentially radial with about 20%-50% of fractional polarization, which is higher than the observed value. The fractional polarization is lowest in the turbulent inner shell and increases outward, which is attributed to the geometric effect The polarized intensity is found to be correlated with the total intensity. We demonstrate that the polarized intensity from the turbulent region can dominate over the polarized intensity from the shocked uniform fields if the amplified field is sufficiently strong. Therefore, we conclude that the Rayleigh-Taylor instability can explain the dominant radial magnetic field in the main shell of young supernova remnants. However, the outer faint shell shows a dominant tangential field orientation due to the shock-compression because this region is not mixed by the Rayleigh-Taylor instability, which is contrary to observations. Therefore, another mechanism is necessary to produce the radial components of the magnetic field at the outer shock, which we suggest to be a clumpy medium model.

Jun, Byung-Il; Norman, Michael L.

1996-11-01

304

VizieR Online Data Catalog: Images of supernova remnant G351.0-5.4 (de Gasperin+, 2014)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While searching the NRAO VLA Sky Survey (NVSS) for diffuse radio emission, we have serendipitously discovered extended radio emission close to the Galactic plane. The radio morphology suggests the presence of a previously unknown Galactic supernova remnant. An unclassified gamma-ray source detected by EGRET (3EG J1744-3934) is present in the same location and may stem from the interaction between high-speed particles escaping the remnant and the surrounding interstellar medium. Our aim is to confirm the presence of a previously unknown supernova remnant and to determine a possible association with the gamma-ray emission 3EG J1744-3934. We have conducted optical and radio follow-ups of the target using the Dark Energy Camera (DECam) on the Blanco telescope at Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO) and the Giant Meterwave Radio Telescope (GMRT). We then combined these data with archival radio and gamma-ray observations. (2 data files).

de Gasperin, F.; Evoli, C.; Bruggen, M.; Hektor, A.; Cardillo, M.; Thorman, P.; Dawson, W. A.; Morrison, C. B.

2014-08-01

305

The X-ray properties of supernova remnants in the Large Magellanic Cloud  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Einstein Observatory instruments were used to survey the generic properties of LMC supernova remnants (SNR). The study covered the diffuse optical bar, the 30 Dor nebula, the surrounding H I cloud, and a high fraction of the spiral arms. Twelve SNRs were identified as X-ray sources and two SNR, N157B and 0540 - 69.3, were located from radio emissions. Filamentary H-alpha emissions also revealed five other objects. X-ray intensity data indicated that density levels of the matter surrounding SNR decrease with SNR diameter. The data suggest that Sedov models for SN may not be accurate for LMC SN, which exhibit too great a luminosity scatter in the surrounding interstellar material. The emissions may be accounted for by ejecta from the SN or by multiphase interstellar material.

Long, K. S.

1983-01-01

306

Detection of the characteristic pion-decay signature in supernova remnants.  

PubMed

Cosmic rays are particles (mostly protons) accelerated to relativistic speeds. Despite wide agreement that supernova remnants (SNRs) are the sources of galactic cosmic rays, unequivocal evidence for the acceleration of protons in these objects is still lacking. When accelerated protons encounter interstellar material, they produce neutral pions, which in turn decay into gamma rays. This offers a compelling way to detect the acceleration sites of protons. The identification of pion-decay gamma rays has been difficult because high-energy electrons also produce gamma rays via bremsstrahlung and inverse Compton scattering. We detected the characteristic pion-decay feature in the gamma-ray spectra of two SNRs, IC 443 and W44, with the Fermi Large Area Telescope. This detection provides direct evidence that cosmic-ray protons are accelerated in SNRs. PMID:23413352

Ackermann, M; Ajello, M; Allafort, A; Baldini, L; Ballet, J; Barbiellini, G; Baring, M G; Bastieri, D; Bechtol, K; Bellazzini, R; Blandford, R D; Bloom, E D; Bonamente, E; Borgland, A W; Bottacini, E; Brandt, T J; Bregeon, J; Brigida, M; Bruel, P; Buehler, R; Busetto, G; Buson, S; Caliandro, G A; Cameron, R A; Caraveo, P A; Casandjian, J M; Cecchi, C; Celik, O; Charles, E; Chaty, S; Chaves, R C G; Chekhtman, A; Cheung, C C; Chiang, J; Chiaro, G; Cillis, A N; Ciprini, S; Claus, R; Cohen-Tanugi, J; Cominsky, L R; Conrad, J; Corbel, S; Cutini, S; D'Ammando, F; de Angelis, A; de Palma, F; Dermer, C D; do Couto e Silva, E; Drell, P S; Drlica-Wagner, A; Falletti, L; Favuzzi, C; Ferrara, E C; Franckowiak, A; Fukazawa, Y; Funk, S; Fusco, P; Gargano, F; Germani, S; Giglietto, N; Giommi, P; Giordano, F; Giroletti, M; Glanzman, T; Godfrey, G; Grenier, I A; Grondin, M-H; Grove, J E; Guiriec, S; Hadasch, D; Hanabata, Y; Harding, A K; Hayashida, M; Hayashi, K; Hays, E; Hewitt, J W; Hill, A B; Hughes, R E; Jackson, M S; Jogler, T; Jóhannesson, G; Johnson, A S; Kamae, T; Kataoka, J; Katsuta, J; Knödlseder, J; Kuss, M; Lande, J; Larsson, S; Latronico, L; Lemoine-Goumard, M; Longo, F; Loparco, F; Lovellette, M N; Lubrano, P; Madejski, G M; Massaro, F; Mayer, M; Mazziotta, M N; McEnery, J E; Mehault, J; Michelson, P F; Mignani, R P; Mitthumsiri, W; Mizuno, T; Moiseev, A A; Monzani, M E; Morselli, A; Moskalenko, I V; Murgia, S; Nakamori, T; Nemmen, R; Nuss, E; Ohno, M; Ohsugi, T; Omodei, N; Orienti, M; Orlando, E; Ormes, J F; Paneque, D; Perkins, J S; Pesce-Rollins, M; Piron, F; Pivato, G; Rainò, S; Rando, R; Razzano, M; Razzaque, S; Reimer, A; Reimer, O; Ritz, S; Romoli, C; Sánchez-Conde, M; Schulz, A; Sgrò, C; Simeon, P E; Siskind, E J; Smith, D A; Spandre, G; Spinelli, P; Stecker, F W; Strong, A W; Suson, D J; Tajima, H; Takahashi, H; Takahashi, T; Tanaka, T; Thayer, J G; Thayer, J B; Thompson, D J; Thorsett, S E; Tibaldo, L; Tibolla, O; Tinivella, M; Troja, E; Uchiyama, Y; Usher, T L; Vandenbroucke, J; Vasileiou, V; Vianello, G; Vitale, V; Waite, A P; Werner, M; Winer, B L; Wood, K S; Wood, M; Yamazaki, R; Yang, Z; Zimmer, S

2013-02-15

307

Detection of the Characteristic Pion-Decay Signature in Supernova Remnants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cosmic rays are particles (mostly protons) accelerated to relativistic speeds. Despite wide agreement that supernova remnants (SNRs) are the sources of galactic cosmic rays, unequivocal evidence for the acceleration of protons in these objects is still lacking. When accelerated protons encounter interstellar material, they produce neutral pions, which in turn decay into gamma rays. This offers a compelling way to detect the acceleration sites of protons. The identification of pion-decay gamma rays has been difficult because high-energy electrons also produce gamma rays via bremsstrahlung and inverse Compton scattering. We detected the characteristic pion-decay feature in the gamma-ray spectra of two SNRs, IC 443 and W44, with the Fermi Large Area Telescope. This detection provides direct evidence that cosmic-ray protons are accelerated in SNRs.

Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Allafort, A.; Baldini, L.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Baring, M. G.; Bastieri, D.; Bechtol, K.; Bellazzini, R.; Blandford, R. D.; Bloom, E. D.; Bonamente, E.; Borgland, A. W.; Bottacini, E.; Brandt, T. J.; Bregeon, J.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P.; Buehler, R.; Busetto, G.; Buson, S.; Caliandro, G. A.; Cameron, R. A.; Caraveo, P. A.; Casandjian, J. M.; Cecchi, C.; Çelik, Ö.; Charles, E.; Chaty, S.; Chaves, R. C. G.; Chekhtman, A.; Cheung, C. C.; Chiang, J.; Chiaro, G.; Cillis, A. N.; Ciprini, S.; Claus, R.; Cohen-Tanugi, J.; Cominsky, L. R.; Conrad, J.; Corbel, S.; Cutini, S.; D'Ammando, F.; de Angelis, A.; de Palma, F.; Dermer, C. D.; do Couto e Silva, E.; Drell, P. S.; Drlica-Wagner, A.; Falletti, L.; Favuzzi, C.; Ferrara, E. C.; Franckowiak, A.; Fukazawa, Y.; Funk, S.; Fusco, P.; Gargano, F.; Germani, S.; Giglietto, N.; Giommi, P.; Giordano, F.; Giroletti, M.; Glanzman, T.; Godfrey, G.; Grenier, I. A.; Grondin, M.-H.; Grove, J. E.; Guiriec, S.; Hadasch, D.; Hanabata, Y.; Harding, A. K.; Hayashida, M.; Hayashi, K.; Hays, E.; Hewitt, J. W.; Hill, A. B.; Hughes, R. E.; Jackson, M. S.; Jogler, T.; Jóhannesson, G.; Johnson, A. S.; Kamae, T.; Kataoka, J.; Katsuta, J.; Knödlseder, J.; Kuss, M.; Lande, J.; Larsson, S.; Latronico, L.; Lemoine-Goumard, M.; Longo, F.; Loparco, F.; Lovellette, M. N.; Lubrano, P.; Madejski, G. M.; Massaro, F.; Mayer, M.; Mazziotta, M. N.; McEnery, J. E.; Mehault, J.; Michelson, P. F.; Mignani, R. P.; Mitthumsiri, W.; Mizuno, T.; Moiseev, A. A.; Monzani, M. E.; Morselli, A.; Moskalenko, I. V.; Murgia, S.; Nakamori, T.; Nemmen, R.; Nuss, E.; Ohno, M.; Ohsugi, T.; Omodei, N.; Orienti, M.; Orlando, E.; Ormes, J. F.; Paneque, D.; Perkins, J. S.; Pesce-Rollins, M.; Piron, F.; Pivato, G.; Rainò, S.; Rando, R.; Razzano, M.; Razzaque, S.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Ritz, S.; Romoli, C.; Sánchez-Conde, M.; Schulz, A.; Sgrò, C.; Simeon, P. E.; Siskind, E. J.; Smith, D. A.; Spandre, G.; Spinelli, P.; Stecker, F. W.; Strong, A. W.; Suson, D. J.; Tajima, H.; Takahashi, H.; Takahashi, T.; Tanaka, T.; Thayer, J. G.; Thayer, J. B.; Thompson, D. J.; Thorsett, S. E.; Tibaldo, L.; Tibolla, O.; Tinivella, M.; Troja, E.; Uchiyama, Y.; Usher, T. L.; Vandenbroucke, J.; Vasileiou, V.; Vianello, G.; Vitale, V.; Waite, A. P.; Werner, M.; Winer, B. L.; Wood, K. S.; Wood, M.; Yamazaki, R.; Yang, Z.; Zimmer, S.

2013-02-01

308

A possible explanation of photon emission from supernova remnants by jitter radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate a possibility that non-thermal X-ray emission in a supernova remnant(SNR) is produced by jitter radiation, which is the analogue of synchrotron radiation in small-scale random magnetic fields. We can fit the multi-wavelength data of SNRs RX J1713.7-3946 (G347.3-0.5) and RX J0852.0-4622 (G266.6-1.2) by constructing pure jitter and inverse Compton (IC) emission models. We find that the physical fit parameters of random magnetic fields take values of several tens of ?G strength and of the order of ˜107 cm correlation length. These properties of random magnetic fields in collisionless shock of SNRs are discussed.

Ogasawara, T.; Yoshida, T.; Yanagita, S.; Kifune, T.

2007-06-01

309

Acceleration of cosmic rays by young core-collapse supernova remnants  

E-print Network

Context. Supernova Remnants (SNRs) are thought to be the primary candidates for the sources of Galactic cosmic rays. According to Diffusive Shock Acceleration theory, SNR shocks produce a power-law spectrum with index s = 2, perhaps non-linearly modified to harder spectra at high energy. Observations of SNRs often indicate particle spectra that are softer than that and show features not expected from classical theory. Known drawbacks of the standard approach are the assumption that SNRs evolve in a uniform environment, and that the reverse shock does not accelerate particles. Relaxing those assumptions increases the complexity of the problem, because one needs reliable hydrodynamical data for the plasma flow as well as good estimates for the magnetic field at the reverse shock. Aims. We show that these two factors are especially important when modeling young core-collapse SNRs that evolve in a complicated circumstellar medium shaped by the winds of progenitor stars. Methods. We use high-resolution numerical s...

Telezhinsky, I; Pohl, M

2012-01-01

310

Cosmic ray ionisation of a molecular cloud shocked by the W28 supernova remnant  

E-print Network

Cosmic rays are an essential ingredient in the evolution of the interstellar medium, as they dominate the ionisation of the dense molecular gas, where stars and planets form. However, since they are efficiently scattered by the galactic magnetic fields, many questions remain open, such as where exactly they are accelerated, what is their original energy spectrum, and how they propagate into molecular clouds. In this work we present new observations and discuss in detail a method that allows us to measure the cosmic ray ionisation rate towards the molecular clouds close to the W28 supernova remnant. To perform these measurements, we use CO, HCO$^+$, and DCO$^+$ millimetre line observations and compare them with the predictions of radiative transfer and chemical models away from thermodynamical equilibrium. The CO observations allow us to constrain the density, temperature, and column density towards each observed position, while the DCO$^+$/HCO$^+$ abundance ratios provide us with constraints on the electron f...

Vaupré, Solenn; Ceccarelli, C; Dubus, G; Gabici, S; Montmerle, T

2014-01-01

311

XMM and Chandra Spectroscopy of the Brightest Supernova Remnants in M33  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a spectral analysis of the X-ray brightest Supernova Remnants (SNRs) in the nearby, spiral galaxy M33 from our deep XMM-Newton survey (see poster by Garofali et al. this conference) that complements our previous survey with Chandra (ChASeM33). We have simultaneously fit the XMM and Chandra spectra to constrain the temperature and abundances. We do not find any young (t<1,000 yr) SNRs that could be analogs of Cas A or the Crab, but we find several SNRs older than 1,000 yr that show evidence of enhanced abundances. The X-ray detected SNRs appear to occur preferentially in regions with a higher than average density of the Interstellar Medium. We present the first detailed spectral analysis of the third most luminous X-ray SNR in M33 that was outside the ChASeM33 survey area.

Plucinsky, Paul

2014-08-01

312

Dense Gas Towards the RX J1713.7-3946 Supernova Remnant  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present results from a Mopra 7 mm-wavelength survey that targeted the dense gas-tracing CS(1-0) transition towards the young ?-ray-bright supernova remnant, RX J1713.7-3946 (SNR G 347.3-0.5). In a hadronic ?-ray emission scenario, where cosmic ray (CR) protons interact with gas to produce the observed ?-ray emission, the mass of potential CR target material is an important factor. We summarise newly discovered dense gas components, towards Cores G and L, and Clumps N1, N2, N3, and T1, which have masses of 1 - 104 M?. We argue that these components are not likely to contribute significantly to ?-ray emission in a hadronic ?-ray emission scenario. This would be the case if RX J1713.7-3946 were at either the currently favoured distance of ~1 kpc or an alternate distance (as suggested in some previous studies) of ~6 kpc.

Maxted, Nigel I.; Rowell, Gavin P.; Dawson, Bruce R.; Burton, Michael G.; Fukui, Yasuo; Lazendic, Jasmina; Kawamura, Akiko; Horachi, Hirotaka; Sano, Hidetoshi; Walsh, Andrew J.; Yoshiike, Satoshi; Fukuda, Tatsuya

2013-11-01

313

Soft X-Ray Spectroscopy of the Cygnus Loop Supernova Remnant  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the results of a suborbital rocket flight whose scientific target was the Cygnus Loop Supernova Remnant. The payload consists of wire grid collimators, off-plane grating arrays, and gaseous electron multiplier (GEM) detectors. The system is designed for spectral measurements in the 17-107 Å bandpass with a resolution up to ~60 (?/??). The Extended X-ray Off-plane Spectrometer (EXOS) was launched on a Terrier-Black Brant rocket on 2009 November 13 from White Sands Missile Range and obtained 340 s of useable scientific data. The X-ray emission is dominated by O VII and O VIII, including the He-like O VII triplet at ~22 Å. Another emission feature at ~45 Å is composed primarily of Si XI and Si XII. The best-fit model to this spectrum is an equilibrium plasma model at a temperature of log(T) = 6.4 (0.23 keV).

Oakley, Phil; McEntaffer, Randall; Cash, Webster

2013-03-01

314

SUBARU HIGH-RESOLUTION SPECTROSCOPY OF STAR G IN THE TYCHO SUPERNOVA REMNANT  

SciTech Connect

It is widely believed that Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) originate in binary systems where a white dwarf accretes material from a companion star until its mass approaches the Chandrasekhar mass and carbon is ignited in the white dwarf's core. This scenario predicts that the donor star should survive the supernova (SNe) explosion, providing an opportunity to understand the progenitors of SNe Ia. In this paper, we argue that rotation is a generic signature expected of most nongiant donor stars that is easily measurable. Ruiz-Lapuente et al. examined stars in the center of the remnant of SN 1572 (Tycho SN) and showed evidence that a subgiant star (Star G by their naming convention) near the remnant's center was the system's donor star. We present high-resolution (R {approx_equal} 40, 000) spectra taken with the High Dispersion Spectrograph on Subaru of this candidate donor star and measure the star's radial velocity as 79 {+-} 2 km s{sup -1} with respect to the local standard of rest and put an upper limit on the star's rotation of 7.5 km s{sup -1}. In addition, by comparing images that were taken in 1970 and 2004, we measure the proper motion of Star G to be {mu} {sub l} = -1.6 {+-} 2.1 mas yr{sup -1} and {mu} {sub b} = -2.7 {+-} 1.6 mas yr{sup -1}. We demonstrate that all of the measured properties of Star G presented in this paper are consistent with those of a star in the direction of Tycho SN that is not associated with the SN event. However, we discuss an unlikely, but still viable scenario for Star G to be the donor star, and suggest further observations that might be able to confirm or refute it.

Kerzendorf, Wolfgang E.; Schmidt, Brian P.; Yong, David [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Mount Stromlo Observatory, Cotter Road, Weston Creek, ACT 2611 (Australia); Asplund, M. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 1, Postfach 1317, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Nomoto, Ken'ichi [Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8568 (Japan); Podsiadlowski, Ph. [Department of Astrophysics, University of Oxford, Oxford, OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Frebel, Anna [McDonald Observatory, University of Texas, 1 University Station C1402, Austin, TX 78712-0259 (United States); Fesen, Robert A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, 6127 Wilder Laboratory, Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH 03755 (United States)], E-mail: wkerzend@mso.anu.edu.au, E-mail: brian@mso.anu.edu.au, E-mail: yong@mso.anu.edu.au, E-mail: nomoto@astron.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp, E-mail: podsi@astro.ox.ac.uk, E-mail: anna@astro.as.utexas.edu, E-mail: fesen@snr.dartmouth.edu

2009-08-20

315

Cosmic ray induced ionisation of a molecular cloud shocked by the W28 supernova remnant  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cosmic rays are an essential ingredient in the evolution of the interstellar medium, as they dominate the ionisation of the dense molecular gas, where stars and planets form. However, since they are efficiently scattered by the galactic magnetic fields, many questions remain open, such as where exactly they are accelerated, what is their original energy spectrum, and how they propagate into molecular clouds. In this work we present new observations and discuss in detail a method that allows us to measure the cosmic ray ionisation rate towards the molecular clouds close to the W28 supernova remnant. To perform these measurements, we use CO, HCO+, and DCO+ millimetre line observations and compare them with the predictions of radiative transfer and chemical models away from thermodynamical equilibrium. The CO observations allow us to constrain the density, temperature, and column density towards each observed position, while the DCO+/HCO+ abundance ratios provide us with constraints on the electron fraction and, consequently, on the cosmic ray ionisation rate. Towards positions located close to the supernova remnant, we find cosmic ray ionisation rates much larger (?100) than those in standard galactic clouds. Conversely, towards one position situated at a larger distance, we derive a standard cosmic ray ionisation rate. Overall, these observations support the hypothesis that the ? rays observed in the region have a hadronic origin. In addition, based on CR diffusion estimates, we find that the ionisation of the gas is likely due to 0.1-1 GeV cosmic rays. Finally, these observations are also in agreement with the global picture of cosmic ray diffusion, in which the low-energy tail of the cosmic ray population diffuses at smaller distances than the high-energy counterpart.

Vaupré, S.; Hily-Blant, P.; Ceccarelli, C.; Dubus, G.; Gabici, S.; Montmerle, T.

2014-08-01

316

The structure of TeV-bright shell-type supernova remnants  

E-print Network

Aims. Two-dimensional MHD simulations are used to model the emission properties of TeV-bright shell-type supernova remnants (SNRs) and to explore their nature. Methods. In the leptonic scenario for the TeV emission, the $\\gamma$-ray emission is produced via Inverse Compton scattering of background soft photons by high-energy electrons accelerated by the shocks of the SNRs. The TeV emissivity is proportional to the magnetic field energy density and MHD simulations can be used to model the TeV structure of such remnants directly. 2D MHD simulations for SNRs are then performed under the assumption that the ambient interstellar medium is turbulent with the magnetic field and density fluctuations following a Kolmogorov-like power-law spectrum. Results. (1) As expected, these simulations confirm early 1D and 2D modelings of these sources, namely the hydrodynamical evolution of the shock waves and amplification of magnetic field by Rayleigh-Taylor convective flows and by shocks propagating in a turbulent medium; (2)...

Yang, Chuyuan; Fang, Jun; Li, Hui

2014-01-01

317

Spitzer Observations of the Type Ia Supernova Remnant N103B: Kepler's Older Cousin?  

E-print Network

We report results from Spitzer observations of SNR 0509-68.7, also known as N103B, a young Type Ia supernova remnant in the Large Magellanic Cloud that shows interaction with a dense medium in its western hemisphere. Our images show that N103B has strong IR emission from warm dust in the post-shock environment. The post-shock gas density we derive, 45 cm$^{-3}$, is much higher than in other Type Ia remnants in the LMC, though a lack of spatial resolution may bias measurements towards regions of higher than average density. This density is similar to that in Kepler's SNR, a Type Ia interacting with a circumstellar medium. Optical images show H$\\alpha$ emission along the entire periphery of the western portion of the shock, with [O III] and [S II] lines emitted from a few dense clumps of material where the shock has become radiative. The dust is silicate in nature, though standard silicate dust models fail to reproduce the "18 $\\mu$m" silicate feature that peaks instead at 17.3 $\\mu$m. We propose that the dense...

Williams, Brian J; Reynolds, Stephen P; Ghavamian, Parviz; Raymond, John C; Long, Knox S; Blair, William P; Winkler, P Frank; Sankrit, Ravi; Hendrick, Sean P

2014-01-01

318

Fermi-LAT and WMAP observations of the Puppis A supernova remnant  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Puppis A (G260.4-3.4) is a middle-aged supernova remnant displaying increasing X-ray surface brightness from West to East corresponding to an increasing density of the ambient interstellar medium at the Eastern and Northern shell. The dense IR photon field and the high ambient density around the remnant make it an ideal case to study in ?-rays. Three years of Fermi-LAT data have been analyzed showing a spatially extended ?-ray emission with a morphology matching that observed in the radio and X-ray domains. The ?-ray spectrum is well described by a simple power law with an index of 2.1. To constrain the relativistic electron population we have used seven years of WMAP data to extend the radio spectrum up to 93 GHz. The results obtained in the radio and ?-ray domains will be described in detail, as well as the possible origins of the very high energy ?-ray emission (Bremsstrahlung, Inverse Compton scattering by electrons or decay of neutral pions produced by proton interactions).

Lemoine-Goumard, M.; Grondin, M.-H.; Hewitt, J. W.; Reposeur, T.; Fermi-LAT Collaboration

2012-12-01

319

Supernova Remnants and Nucleosynthesis (fos 30): Augmentation Cycle 2 Observations - Spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Overall program: UV and optical spectra of four supernova remnants (SNRs) will be used to study a number of problems related to abundances, grain destruction, interstellar medium properties and physical conditions in SNR shocks. Representatives of three of the main classes of SNRs (Crab-nebula like, Balmer-line and "normal") will be studied in the LMC, where reasonably low reddening permits UV observations. An oxygen-rich SNR in NGC 4449 will be observed, taking advantage of the small FOS slits to isolate the SNR from surrounding H II emission. Two M33 SNRs that were previously part of this proposal have been dropped due to time limitations. This proposal is augmented time to obtain early acq images of two LMC remnants and spectra of N49, which had early acq images in Cy. 0. NOTE: SPECTROSCOPY AND IMAGING ORIGINALLY IN THIS CYCLE 2 PROPOSAL HAVE BEEN SPLIT BY STSCI INTO TWO SEPARATE PROPOSALS TO ALLOW FOR SCHEDULING OF CYCLE 2 EARLY ACQ IMAGING ( FOR LATER CYCLES ) SINCE CYCLE 2 SPECTROSCOPY DEPENDS ON MEASUREMENT OF EARLY ACQ IMAGING OF OTHER TARGETS FROM EARLIER CYCLES.

Davidsen, Arthur

1991-07-01

320

Spectroscopy and Time Variability of Absorption Lines in the Direction of the Vela Supernova Remnant  

E-print Network

We present high resolution (R~75,000), high signal-to-noise (S/N~100) Ca II $\\lambda$3933.663 and Na I $\\lambda\\lambda$5889.951, 5895.924 spectra of 68 stars in the direction of the Vela supernova remnant. The spectra comprise the most complete high resolution, high S/N, optical survey of early type stars in this region of the sky. A subset of the sight lines has been observed at multiple epochs, 1993/1994 and 1996. Of the thirteen stars observed twice, seven have spectra revealing changes in the equivalent width and/or velocity structure of lines, most of which arise from remnant gas. Such time variability has been reported previously for the sight lines towards HD 72089 and HD 72997 by Danks & Sembach (1995) and for HD 72127 by Hobbs et al. (1991). We have confirmed the ongoing time variability of these spectra and present new evidence of variability in the spectra of HD 73658, HD 74455, HD 75309 and HD 75821. We have tabulated Na I and Ca II absorption line information for the sight lines in our sample to serve as a benchmark for further investigations of the dynamics and evolution of the Vela SNR.

Alexandra N. Cha; Kenneth R. Sembach

1999-09-07

321

FERMI-LAT OBSERVATIONS AND A BROADBAND STUDY OF SUPERNOVA REMNANT CTB 109  

SciTech Connect

CTB 109 (G109.1-1.0) is a Galactic supernova remnant (SNR) with a hemispherical shell morphology in X-rays and in the radio band. In this work, we report the detection of {gamma}-ray emission coincident with CTB 109, using 37 months of data from the Large Area Telescope on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. We study the broadband characteristics of the remnant using a model that includes hydrodynamics, efficient cosmic-ray (CR) acceleration, nonthermal emission, and a self-consistent calculation of the X-ray thermal emission. We find that the observations can be successfully fit with two distinct parameter sets, one where the {gamma}-ray emission is produced primarily by leptons accelerated at the SNR forward shock and the other where {gamma}-rays produced by forward shock accelerated CR ions dominate the high-energy emission. Consideration of thermal X-ray emission introduces a novel element to the broadband fitting process, and while it does not rule out either the leptonic or the hadronic scenarios, it constrains the parameter sets required by the model to fit the observations. Moreover, the model that best fits the thermal and nonthermal emission observations is an intermediate case, where both radiation from accelerated electrons and hadrons contribute almost equally to the {gamma}-ray flux observed.

Castro, Daniel [MIT-Kavli Center for Astrophysics and Space Research, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Slane, Patrick; Patnaude, Daniel J. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Ellison, Donald C. [Physics Department, North Carolina State University, Box 8202, Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States)

2012-09-01

322

Radio-Continuum Emission from the Young Galactic Supernova Remnant G1.9+0.3  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present an analysis of a new Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) radio-continuum observation of supernova remnant (SNR) G1.9+0.3, which at an age of ˜181±25 years is the youngest known in the Galaxy. We analysed all available radio-continuum observations at 6-cm from the ATCA and Very Large Array. Using this data we estimate an expansion rate for G1.9+0.3 of 0.563±0.078 percent per year between 1984 and 2009. We note that in the 1980's G1.9+0.3 expanded somewhat slower (0.484 percent per year) than more recently (0.641 percent per year). We estimate that the average spectral index between 20-cm and 6-cm, across the entire SNR is ?=-0.72±0.26 which is typical for younger SNRs. At 6-cm, we detect an average of 6 percent fractionally polarised radio emission with a peak of 17±3 percent. The polarised emission follows the contours of the strongest of X-ray emission. Using the new equipartition formula we estimate a magnetic field strength of B?273 ? G, which to date, is one of the highest magnetic field strength found for any SNR and consistent with G1.9+0.3 being a very young remnant.

De Horta, A. Y.; Filipovic, M. D.; Crawford, E. J.; Stootman, F. H.; Pannuti, T. G.; Bozzetto, L. M.; Collier, J. D.; Sommer, E. R.; Kosakowski, A. R.

2014-10-01

323

DISCOVERY OF TeV GAMMA-RAY EMISSION FROM TYCHO'S SUPERNOVA REMNANT  

SciTech Connect

We report the discovery of TeV gamma-ray emission from the Type Ia supernova remnant (SNR) G120.1+1.4, known as Tycho's SNR. Observations performed in the period 2008-2010 with the VERITAS ground-based gamma-ray observatory reveal weak emission coming from the direction of the remnant, compatible with a point source located at 00{sup h}25{sup m}27.{sup s}0, + 64{sup 0}10'50'' (J2000). The TeV photon spectrum measured by VERITAS can be described with a power law dN/dE = C(E/3.42 TeV){sup -}{Gamma} with {Gamma} = 1.95 {+-} 0.51{sub stat} {+-} 0.30{sub sys} and C = (1.55 {+-} 0.43{sub stat} {+-} 0.47{sub sys}) x 10{sup -14} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} TeV{sup -1}. The integral flux above 1 TeV corresponds to {approx}0.9% of the steady Crab Nebula emission above the same energy, making it one of the weakest sources yet detected in TeV gamma rays. We present both leptonic and hadronic models that can describe the data. The lowest magnetic field allowed in these models is {approx}80 {mu}G, which may be interpreted as evidence for magnetic field amplification.

Acciari, V. A.; Benbow, W. [Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Amado, AZ 85645 (United States); Aliu, E.; Errando, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Barnard College, Columbia University, NY 10027 (United States); Arlen, T. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Aune, T. [Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics and Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Beilicke, M.; Buckley, J. H.; Bugaev, V.; Dickherber, R. [Department of Physics, Washington University, St. Louis, MO 63130 (United States); Bradbury, S. M. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leeds, Leeds, LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Byrum, K. [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Cannon, A.; Collins-Hughes, E. [School of Physics, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Cesarini, A. [School of Physics, National University of Ireland Galway, University Road, Galway (Ireland); Ciupik, L. [Astronomy Department, Adler Planetarium and Astronomy Museum, Chicago, IL 60605 (United States); Cui, W.; Finley, J. P. [Department of Physics, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Duke, C. [Department of Physics, Grinnell College, Grinnell, IA 50112-1690 (United States); Finnegan, G., E-mail: dbsaxon@udel.edu, E-mail: wakely@uchicago.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States)

2011-04-01

324

IUE spectra and optical imaging of the oxygen-rich supernova remnant N132D  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We present new optical Charge Coupled Devices (CCD) interference filter imagery and International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) spectroscopy for the oxygen-rich supernova remnant N132D in the Large Magellanic Cloud. The optical images show a wealth of structure, and comparison with an archival Einstein High Resolution Imager (HRI) X-ray image shows that a few optical features have X-ray counter-parts, but in general there is little correlation between X-ray and optical features. The IUE spectra at two positions show strong lines of carbon and oxygen, with lines of neon, magnesium, silicon, and helium also present and variable in relative intensities. We use optical data for N132D from Dopita & Tuohy (1984) with our UV observations to compare with shock models (both with and without thermal conduction) and X-ray photoionization model calculations. While none of the model fits is entirely satisfactory, the generally weak UV emission relative to optical disagrees with the general character of shock model predictions and indicates that photoionization is the dominant excitation mechanism for the UV/optical emission. This conclusion is similar to what was found for E0102 - 7219, the oxygen-rich remnant in the Small Magellanic Cloud. We derive rough abundances for the emitting material in N132D, compare to stellar nucleosynthesis models, and discuss the implications for its precursor. A precursor near 20 solar mass is consistent with the data.

Blair, William P.; Raymond, John C.; Long, Knox S.

1994-01-01

325

Bulk X-ray Doppler Velocities in the Supernova Remnant Cassiopeia A  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We map the average line-of-sight velocities of the X-ray-emitting mass in the supernova remnant Cassiopeia A using measurements of the centroid of the Si-Healpha blend with the Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer on the Chandra X-Ray Observatory. This 4 inch scale map confirms the broad trends noted in previous studies, namely, that the line-of-sight velocity scale is roughly 2000-3000 kilometers per second with relatively more blueshifted material in the southeastern region of the remnant than in the northwest; new details are that the northwestern region consists of two arcs, with the southernmost one representing the most redshifted X-ray-emitting material in Cas A. These results are consistent with contemporaneous results from XMM-Newton. The X-ray patterns resemble the complex velocity patterns measured at optical wavelengths for much denser ejecta, and they support the growing body of evidence that the explosion and subsequent evolution of Cas A were highly asymmetrical.

Hwang, Una; Szymkowiak, Andrew E.; Petre, Robert; Holt, Stephen S.; White, Nicholas E. (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

326

Possible Detection of the Stellar Donor or Remnant for the Type Iax Supernova 2008ha  

E-print Network

Type Iax supernovae (SNe Iax) are thermonuclear explosions that are related to SNe Ia, but are physically distinct. The most important differences are that SNe Iax have significantly lower luminosity (1% - 50% that of typical SNe Ia), lower ejecta mass (~0.1 - 0.5 M_sun), and may leave a bound remnant. The most extreme SN Iax is SN 2008ha, which peaked at M_V = -14.2 mag, about 5 mag below that of typical SNe Ia. Here, we present Hubble Space Telescope (HST) images of UGC 12682, the host galaxy of SN 2008ha, taken 4.1 years after the peak brightness of SN 2008ha. In these deep, high-resolution images, we detect a source coincident (0.86 HST pixels; 0.043"; 1.1 sigma) with the position of SN 2008ha with M_F814W = -5.4 mag. We determine that this source is unlikely to be a chance coincidence, but that scenario cannot be completely ruled out. If this source is directly related to SN 2008ha, it is either the luminous bound remnant of the progenitor white dwarf or its companion star. The source is consistent with ...

Foley, Ryan J; Jha, Saurabh W; Bildsten, Lars; Fong, Wen-fai; Narayan, Gautham; Rest, Armin; Stritzinger, Maximilian D

2014-01-01

327

ASCA Observations of the Supernova Remnant IC 443 Thermal Structure and Detection of Overionized Plasma  

E-print Network

We present the results of X-ray spatial and spectral studies of the ``mixed-morphology'' supernova remnant IC 443 using ASCA. IC 443 has a center-filled image in X-ray band, contrasting with the shell-like appearance in radio and optical bands. The overall X-ray emission is thermal, not from a synchrotron nebula. ASCA observed IC 443 three times, covering the whole remnant. From the image analysis, we found that the softness-ratio map reveals a shell-like structure. At the same time, its spectra require two (1.0 keV and 0.2 keV) plasma components; the emission of the 0.2 keV plasma is stronger in the region near the shell than the center. These results can be explained by a simple model that IC 443 has a hot (1.0 keV) interior surrounded by a cool (0.2 keV) outer shell. From the emission measures, we infer that the 0.2 keV plasma is denser than the 1.0 keV plasma, suggesting pressure equilibrium between the two. In addition, we found that the ionization temperature of sulfur, obtained from H-like K$\\alpha$ to...

Kawasaki, M; Nagase, F; Masai, K; Ishida, M; Petre, R; Kawasaki, Masahiro; Ozaki, Masanobu; Nagase, Fumiaki; Masai, Kuniaki; Ishida, Manabu; Petre, Robert

2002-01-01

328

VERITAS observations of supernova remnants for studies of cosmic ray acceleration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Supernova remnants (SNRs) have been suggested as the main sites for acceleration of cosmic rays (CRs) with energies up to the knee region ( 10(15) eV). Gamma-ray emission from SNRs can provide a unique window to observe the cosmic ray acceleration and to test existing acceleration models in these objects. The Very Energetic Radiation Imaging Telescope Array System (VERITAS) is an array of atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes that measures gamma rays with energies higher than 100 GeV. Located in Arizona, USA, VERITAS has observed several SNRs in the northern hemisphere since the beginning of operations in 2007. These include two young SNRs of different types (Cassiopeia A and Tycho), as well as middle- to old-aged remnants with nearby target material such as molecular clouds. Gamma-ray data from different types of SNRs in different evolutionary stages are important to study SNRs as CR accelerators. Here we present a summary of VERITAS results on Galactic SNRs including Tycho, and discuss what these observations have taught us.

Park, Nahee

329

Frequency dependence of the evolution of the radio emission of the supernova remnant Cas A  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many-year measurements of the radio flux of the young supernova remnant Cassiopeia A relative to the radio galaxy Cygnus A were continued at 290 and 151.5 MHz. The new data are used together with previously published observations carried out at decameter, meter, centimeter, and millimeter wavelengths to derive the frequency dependence of the secular variation of the radio flux density of Cas A: . The observed slowing of the secular variations with decreasing frequency at decameter wavelengths can be explained by a decrease in the optical depth of a remnant HII zone around Cas A with time due to recombination of hydrogen atoms. The new derived frequency dependence for the rate of the secular decrease, absolute and relative measurements of the radio flux density of Cas A carried out over the last 25 years, and the absolute spectrum of Cyg A are used to construct the spectrum of Cas A in the range 5-250 000 MHz predicted for epoch 2015.5.

Vinyaikin, E. N.

2014-09-01

330

MOLECULAR CLOUDS AS A PROBE OF COSMIC-RAY ACCELERATION IN A SUPERNOVA REMNANT  

SciTech Connect

We study cosmic-ray acceleration in a supernova remnant (SNR) and the escape from it. We model nonthermal particle and photon spectra for the hidden SNR in the open cluster Westerlund 2, and the old-age mixed-morphology SNR W 28. We assume that the SNR shock propagates in a low-density cavity, which is created and heated through the activities of the progenitor stars and/or previous supernova explosions. We indicate that the diffusion coefficient for cosmic rays around the SNRs is less than approx1% of that away from them. We compare our predictions with the gamma-ray spectra of molecular clouds illuminated by the cosmic rays (Fermi and H.E.S.S.). We found that the spectral indices of the particles are approx2.3. This may be because the particles were accelerated at the end of the Sedov phase, and because energy-dependent escape and propagation of particles did not much affect the spectrum.

Fujita, Yutaka; Ohira, Yutaka; Tanaka, Shuta J.; Takahara, Fumio [Department of Earth and Space Science, Graduate School of Science, Osaka University, 1-1 Machikaneyama-cho, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan)

2009-12-20

331

Cr-K Emission Line as a Constraint on the Progenitor Properties of Supernova Remnants  

E-print Network

We perform a survey of the Cr, Mn and Fe-K emission lines in young supernova remnants (SNRs) with the Japanese X-ray astronomy satellite {\\sl Suzaku}. The Cr and/or Mn emission lines are detected in 3C\\,397 and 0519-69.0 for the first time. We also confirm the detection of these lines in Kepler, W49B, N103B and Cas A. We derive the line parameters (i.e., the line centroid energy, flux and equivalent width [EW]) for these six sources and perform a correlation analysis for the line center energies of Cr, Mn and Fe. Also included in the correlation analysis are Tycho and G344.7-0.1 for which the Cr, Mn and Fe-K line parameters were available in the literature through {\\sl Suzaku} observations. We find that the line center energies of Cr correlates very well with that of Fe and that of Mn. This confirms our previous findings that the Cr, Mn and Fe are spatially co-located, share a similar ionization state, and have a common origin in the supernova nucleo-synthesis. We find that the ratio of the EW of the Cr emiss...

Yang, X J; Lu, F J; Li, Aigen; Xiang, F Y; Xiao, H P; Zhong, J X

2013-01-01

332

Filling the gap between supernova explosions and their remnants: the Cassiopeia A laboratory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Supernova remnats (SNRs) show a complex morphology characterized by an inhomogeneous spatial distribution of ejecta, believed to reflect pristine structures and features of the progenitor supernova (SN) explosion. Filling the gap between SN explosions and their remnants is very important for a comprehension of the origin of present-day structure of ejecta in SNRs and to probe and constraint current models of SN explosions. The SNR Cassiopeia A (Cas A) is an attractive laboratory for studying the SNe-SNRs connection, being one of the best studied SNRs for which its 3D structure is known. We present a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model describing the evolution of Cas A from the immediate aftermath of the SN explosion to its expansion through the interstellar medium, taking into account the distribution of element abundances of the ejecta, the backreaction of accelerated cosmic rays at the shock front, and the deviations from equilibrium of ionizazion for the most important elements. We use the model to derive the physical parameters characterizing the SN explosion and reproducing the today morphology of Cas A.

Orlando, S.; Miceli, M.; Pumo, M.; Bocchino, F.; Reale, F.; Peres, G.

2014-07-01

333

Carbon Monoxide Observations Toward the Supernova Remnant 3C 391: Interaction Confirmed  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present observations of the J = 1 -> 0 transition of CO toward the radio-bright supernova remnant 3C 391 made with the NRAO 12-m telescope.(*) Our earlier radio continuum observations of 3C 391 showed a morphology strongly suggestive of evolution near a density discontinuity in the external medium. In this interpretation, the supernova went off near the edge of a moderately dense molecular cloud, and after a few hundred to a thousand years the blast wave broke out of the edge of the cloud to emerge as a larger, lower surface-brightness extension to the SNR. Survey data indicated nearby CO at appropriate velocities but direct evidence for interaction was lacking. Our new observations strongly support the interaction picture. CO contours drop steeply at the location of the inner edge of the SNR radio emission; the ``blowout'' extension is in the direction of steepest decrease of CO contours. Extensions on the bright limb of radio continuum perfectly match the edges of a strong CO condensation. A consistent picture then involves the SNR blast wave eating its way into the molecular cloud, destroying CO as it goes. The data also indicate directly that shock acceleration of electrons at least to 10 GeV or so is possible even for a blast wave encountering dense neutral material. We describe the quantitative implications of the interaction picture for 3C 391 and for SNRs in general. (*) The NRAO is operated by Associated Universities, Inc., under a cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation.

Wilner, D. J.; Reynolds, S. P.; Moffett, D. A.

1996-05-01

334

The Morphology and Dynamics of Jet-driven Supernova Remnants: The Case of W49B  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The circumstellar medium (CSM) of a massive star is modified by its winds before a supernova (SN) explosion occurs, and thus the evolution of the resulting supernova remnant (SNR) is influenced by both the geometry of the explosion as well as the complex structure of the CSM. Motivated by recent work suggesting the SNR W49B was a jet-driven SN expanding in a complex CSM, we explore how the dynamics and the metal distributions in a jet-driven explosion are modified by the interaction with the surrounding environment. In particular, we perform hydrodynamical calculations to study the dynamics and explosive nucleosynthesis of a jet-driven SN triggered by the collapse of a 25 M ? Wolf-Rayet star and its subsequent interaction with the CSM up to several hundred years following the explosion. We find that although the CSM has small-scale effects on the structure of the SNR, the overall morphology and abundance patterns are reflective of the initial asymmetry of the SN explosion. Thus, we predict that jet-driven SNRs, such as W49B, should be identifiable based on morphology and abundance patterns at ages up to several hundred years, even if they expand into a complex CSM environment.

González-Casanova, Diego F.; De Colle, Fabio; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico; Lopez, Laura A.

2014-02-01

335

Discovery of Recombining Plasma in the Supernova Remnant 3C 391  

E-print Network

Recent X-ray study of middle-aged supernova remnants (SNRs) reveals strong radiative recombination continua (RRCs) associated with overionized plasmas, of which the origin still remains uncertain. We report our discovery of an RRC in the middle-aged SNR 3C 391. If the X-ray spectrum is fitted with a two-temperature plasma model in collisional ionization equilibrium (CIE), residuals of Si XIV Ly alpha line at 2.006 keV, S XVI Ly alpha line at 2.623 keV and the edge of RRC of Si XIII at 2.666 keV are found. The X-ray spectrum is better described by a composite model consisting of a CIE plasma and a recombining plasma (RP). The abundance pattern suggests that the RP is associated to the ejecta from a core-collapse supernova with a progenitor star of 15 solar mass. There is no significant difference of the recombining plasma parameters between the southeast region and the northwest region surrounded by dense molecular clouds. We also find a hint of Fe I K alpha line at 6.4 keV (~2.4 sigma detection) from the sout...

Sato, Tamotsu; Takahashi, Tadayuki; Odaka, Hirokazu; Nakashima, Shinya

2014-01-01

336

Modeling Supernova Remnants and Cosmic-Ray Acceleration in Complex Environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Supernovae (SNe) often occur in complex environments containing dense molecular clouds and/or pre-SN wind material. We propose to develop models for the supernova remnant (SNR) evolution, cosmic-ray (CR) production, and radiation in these complex media using methods that combine hydrodynamic simulations, analytic techniques, and Monte Carlo methods. We will self-consistently model efficient (i.e., nonlinear) diffusive shock acceleration and the radiation, thermal and non-thermal, the accelerated particles produce. In particular, we will: (1) include high-energy "escaping" CRs, critical for understanding the GeV-TeV emission, as well as CRs trapped in the SNR; (2) produce a self-consistent model of the thermal and non-thermal emission from the reverse shock, as well as the forward shock; and, (3) calculate the additional ionization from superthermal electrons contributing to X-ray line emission. Our work will facilitate the interpretation of data from a number of current NASA missions (e.g., Chandra, XMM-Newton, Fermi, Suzaku), as well as ground-based observatories (e.g., HESS, VERITAS, and MAGIC), and should lead to predictions that can be tested on future X-ray and gamma-ray telescopes. Since strong collisionless shocks, and the energetic particles they produce, occur throughout the Universe, the benefits obtained from understanding the production of CRs and radiation in SNRs will extend well beyond the Milky Way.

Ellison, Don

337

Spitzer IRS Observations of the XA Region in the Cygnus Loop Supernova Remnant  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on spectra of two positions in the XA region of the Cygnus Loop supernova remnant obtained with the InfraRed Spectrograph on the Spitzer Space Telescope. The spectra span the 10-35 ?m wavelength range, which contains a number of collisionally excited forbidden lines. These data are supplemented by optical spectra obtained at the Whipple Observatory and an archival UV spectrum from the International Ultraviolet Explorer. Coverage from the UV through the IR provides tests of shock wave models and tight constraints on model parameters. Only lines from high ionization species are detected in the spectrum of a filament on the edge of the remnant. The filament traces a 180 km s-1 shock that has just begun to cool, and the oxygen to neon abundance ratio lies in the normal range found for Galactic H II regions. Lines from both high and low ionization species are detected in the spectrum of the cusp of a shock-cloud interaction, which lies within the remnant boundary. The spectrum of the cusp region is matched by a shock of about 150 km s-1 that has cooled and begun to recombine. The post-shock region has a swept-up column density of about 1.3 × 1018 cm-2, and the gas has reached a temperature of 7000-8000 K. The spectrum of the Cusp indicates that roughly half of the refractory silicon and iron atoms have been liberated from the grains. Dust emission is not detected at either position. Based on observations made with the Spitzer Space Telescope.

Sankrit, Ravi; Raymond, John C.; Bautista, Manuel; Gaetz, Terrance J.; Williams, Brian J.; Blair, William P.; Borkowski, Kazimierz J.; Long, Knox S.

2014-05-01

338

Radio pulsar timing observations for GRO  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Gamma rays probably provide the best diagnostic tool for probing the enigmatic physics of pulsar magnetospheres. At present, however, only two pulsars - the young, nearby ones in the Crab and Vela X supernova remnants - are reliably detected at gamma-ray energies. With adequate radio observations to provide independent timing information, Gamma Ray Observatory should be able to detect a number of additional pulsars, and the results will be of great benefit in testing magnetospheric theories and models. Timing observations for this purpose were started at a number of radio observatories around the world. The general procedures being used are described. A status report on the work is given.

Taylor, J. H.

1990-01-01

339

A CHANDRA VIEW OF NON-THERMAL EMISSION IN THE NORTHWESTERN REGION OF SUPERNOVA REMNANT RCW 86: PARTICLE ACCELERATION AND MAGNETIC FIELDS  

E-print Network

The shocks of supernova remnants are believed to accelerate particles to cosmic ray (CR) energies. The amplification of the magnetic field due to CRs propagating in the shock region is expected to have an impact on both ...

Castro, Daniel

340

Ionization break-out from millisecond pulsar wind nebulae: an X-ray probe of the origin of superluminous supernovae  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic spin-down of a rapidly rotating (millisecond) neutron star has been proposed as the power source of hydrogen-poor `superluminous' supernovae (SLSNe-I). However, producing an unambiguous test that can distinguish this model from alternatives, such as circumstellar interaction, has proven challenging. After the supernova explosion, the pulsar wind inflates a hot cavity behind the expanding stellar ejecta: the nascent millisecond pulsar wind nebula. Electron/positron pairs injected by the wind cool through inverse Compton scattering and synchrotron emission, producing a pair cascade and hard X-ray spectrum inside the nebula. These X-rays ionize the inner exposed side of the ejecta, driving an ionization front that propagates outwards with time. Under some conditions this front can breach the ejecta surface within months after the optical supernova peak, allowing ˜0.1-1 keV photons to escape the nebula unattenuated with a characteristic luminosity LX ˜ 1043-1045 erg s-1. This `ionization break-out' may explain the luminous X-ray emission observed from the transient SCP 06F, providing direct evidence that this SLSN was indeed engine powered. Luminous break-out requires a low ejecta mass and that the spin-down time of the pulsar be comparable to the photon diffusion time-scale at optical maximum, the latter condition being similar to that required for a supernova with a high optical fluence. These relatively special requirements may explain why most SLSNe-I are not accompanied by detectable X-ray emission. Global asymmetry of the supernova ejecta increases the likelihood of an early break-out along the direction of lowest density. Atomic states with lower threshold energies are more readily ionized at earlier times near optical maximum, allowing `UV break-out' across a wider range of pulsar and ejecta properties than X-ray break-out, possibly contributing to the blue/UV colours of SLSNe-I.

Metzger, Brian D.; Vurm, Indrek; Hascoët, Romain; Beloborodov, Andrei M.

2014-01-01

341

Nonuniform Expansion of the Youngest Galactic Supernova Remnant G1.9+0.3  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

G1.9+0.3 is the youngest known Galactic supernova remnant (SNR), about 100 yr old from global expansion measurements, and most likely the result of an asymmetric Type Ia supernova explosion. We smoothed a Chandra image from a 1 Ms observation in 2011 and fit the resulting model to unsmoothed images from 2007 and 2009, allowing for expansion and image shifts. The measured expansion rates strongly deviate from uniform expansion, increasing inward by about 60% along the X-ray bright SE-NW axis, from 0.52% +- 0.03% per yr to 0.84% +- 0.06% per yr. This corresponds to undecelerated ages of 120 - 190 yr, confirming the young age of G1.9 +0.3, and implying a significant (deceleration parameter m < 0.6) deceleration of the blast wave. The spatially-integrated X-ray flux, strongly dominated by synchrotron emission, increases at a rate of 1.9% +- 0.7% per year, in agreement with previous measurements. G1.9+0.3 is the only Galactic SNR brightening at X-ray and radio wavelengths. We identify the inner rims with the reverse shock and more slowly-expanding rims farther out with the blast wave. The large spread in expansion ages between the reverse shock and the blast wave requires abrupt density gradients in either the ejecta or the ambient medium, to suddenly decelerate the reverse shock or the blast wave. The blast wave could have been decelerated recently by an encounter with a modest (factor of several) density discontinuity in the ambient medium, such as found at a wind termination shock, implying a strong presupernova wind from the progenitor system. Alternatively, the reverse shock might have encountered a larger (factor of 10 or more) density discontinuity within the SN ejecta, such as found in pulsating delayed-detonation Type Ia SN models. Through 1D hydrodynamical simulations, we demonstrate that the blast wave is much more decelerated than the reverse shock in these models for remnants at ages similar to G1.9+0.3. The presence of strong density gradients in the outer ejecta of Type Ia SNe has significant implications for the interpretation of their early-time spectra and for understanding how white dwarfs explode.

Reynolds, Stephen P.; Borkowski, Kazimierz J.; Green, David; Hwang, Una; Petre, Robert

2014-08-01

342

Supernova remnants and candidates detected in the XMM-Newton M 31 large survey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context. We present the analysis of supernova remnants (SNRs) and candidates in M 31 identified in the XMM-Newton large programme survey of M 31. Supernova remnants are among the brightest X-ray sources in a galaxy. They are good indicators of the recent star-formation activities of galaxies and the interstellar environment in which they evolve. Aims: By combining the X-ray data of sources in M 31 with optical data as well as optical and radio catalogues, we aim to compile a complete, revised list of SNRs emitting X-rays in M 31 detected with XMM-Newton, study their luminosity and spatial distributions, and understand the X-ray spectra of the brightest SNRs. Methods: We analysed the X-ray spectra of the 12 brightest SNRs and candidates that have been observed with XMM-Newton. Our study of the four brightest sources allowed us to perform a more detailed spectral analysis and compare different models to describe their spectrum. For all M 31 large programme sources, we searched for their optical counterparts in the H?, [S ii], and [O iii] images of the Local Group Galaxy Survey. Results: We confirm 21 X-ray sources as counterparts to known SNRs. In addition, we identify 5 new X-ray sources as X-ray and optically emitting SNRs. Seventeen sources are no longer considered as SNR candidates. We thus create a list of 26 X-ray SNRs and 20 X-ray SNR candidates in M 31 based on their X-ray, optical, and radio emission, which is the most recent complete list of X-ray SNRs in M 31. The brightest SNRs have X-ray luminosities of up to 8 × 1036 erg s-1 in the 0.35-2.0 keV band. Based on observations obtained with XMM-Newton, an ESA science mission with instruments and contributions directly funded by ESA Member States and NASA.Appendices are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

Sasaki, M.; Pietsch, W.; Haberl, F.; Hatzidimitriou, D.; Stiele, H.; Williams, B.; Kong, A.; Kolb, U.

2012-08-01

343

Kinematics of the Galactic Supernova Remnant G206.9+2.3  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We studied the kinematics of the galactic supernova remnant (SNR) G206.9+2.3 (PKS 0646+06) in the [SII] &?; 6717 and 6731 Å lines, as one of the initial steps of a long-term project to determine kinematical distances to galactic SNRs with optical counterparts. We obtained the kinematic distance to this nebula by first showing that the filaments detected were in fact the optical counterpart of the radio SNR. The distance estimated here is slightly greater than that of the Monoceros Loop. We estimate that G206.9+2.3 is located about 2.2 kpc from the Sun, in a zone where several background and foreground nebulae at different velocities are seen in projection. We measured a shock velocity of 86 km s^{-1} and a linear diameter of 18 pc. Finally, we calculated the energy deposited in the interstellar medium by the SN explosion as 1.7×10^{49} ergs and concluded that the SNR is in the radiative phase of evolution with an age of 6.4×10^{4} years. %Z Brand, J., & Blitz, L. 1993, A&A, 275, 67 Caswell, J. L. 1970, Australian J. Phys., 23, 105 Davies, R. D., & Meaburn, J. 1978, A&A, 69, 443 Day, G., Caswell, J., & Cooke, D. 1972, Australian J. Phys. Astrophys. Supp., 25, 1 Gao, X. Y., Han, J. L., Reich, W., Reich, P., Sun, X. H. & Xiao L. 2011, A&A, 529, 159 Graham, D. A., Haslam, C. G. T., Salter C. J. & Wilson W.E. 1982, A&A, 109, 145 Green, D.A. 2009, A Catalogue of Galactic Supernova Remnants, available online at http://www.mrao.cam.ac.uk/surveys/snrs/ Haslam, C. G. T., & Salter, C. J. 1971, MNRAS, 151, 385 Holden, D. J. 1968, MNRAS, 141, 57 Leahy, D. A. 1986, A&A, 156, 191 Le Coarer, E., Rosado, M., Georgelin, Y., et al. 1993, A&A, 280, 365 Lozinskaya, T. A. 1972, Soviet Astron., 15, 910 Rosado, M. 1982, ReMexAA, 5, 127 Rosado, M., Langarica, R., Bernal, A. et al. 1995, ReMexAA(SC), 3,268 Rosado, M., Ambrocio-Cruz, P., LeCoarer, E., & Marcelin, M. 1996, A&A, 315, 243 Stupar, M., & Parker, Q. A. 2011, MNRAS, 414, 2282 van den Bergh, S. 1978, ApJ, 220, 171

Ambrocio-Cruz, P.; Rosado, M.; Le Coarer, E.; Bernal, A.; Gutiérrez, L.

2014-10-01

344

THE MAGELLAN/IMACS CATALOG OF OPTICAL SUPERNOVA REMNANT CANDIDATES IN M83  

SciTech Connect

We present a new optical imaging survey of supernova remnants (SNRs) in M83, using data obtained with the Magellan I 6.5 m telescope and IMACS instrument under conditions of excellent seeing. Using the criterion of strong [S II] emission relative to H{alpha}, we confirm all but three of the 71 SNR candidates listed in our previous survey, and expand the SNR candidate list to 225 objects, more than tripling the earlier sample. Comparing the optical survey with a new deep X-ray survey of M83 with Chandra, we find that 61 of these SNR candidates have X-ray counterparts. We also identify an additional list of 46 [O III]-selected nebulae for follow-up as potential ejecta-dominated remnants, seven of which have associated X-ray emission that makes them strong candidates. Some of the other [O III]-bright objects could also be normal interstellar medium (ISM) dominated SNRs with shocks fast enough to doubly ionize oxygen, but with H{alpha} and [S II] emission faint enough to have been missed. A few of these objects may also be H II regions with abnormally high [O III] emission compared with the majority of M83 H II regions, compact nebulae excited by young Wolf-Rayet stars, or even background active galactic nuclei. The SNR H{alpha} luminosity function in M83 is shifted by a factor of {approx}4.5 times higher than for M33 SNRs, indicative of a higher mean ISM density in M83. We describe the search technique used to identify the SNR candidates and provide basic information and finder charts for the objects.

Blair, William P. [Henry A. Rowland Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, 3400 N. Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Winkler, P. Frank [Department of Physics, Middlebury College, Middlebury, VT 05753 (United States); Long, Knox S., E-mail: wpb@pha.jhu.edu, E-mail: winkler@middlebury.edu, E-mail: long@stsci.edu [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

2012-11-15

345

Slowly rotating pulsars and magnetic field decay  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two dozen long period pulsars are separated from the swarm of ordinary pulsars by an obvious gap in the P versus Sd diagram (where Sd=log?(P)+21.0), with a plausible upper boundary for ordinary pulsars. Possible pulsar evolutionary tracks are discussed to explain the diagram in terms of previously suggested scenarios of magnetic field decay. The (P-Sd) diagram is difficult to understand if there is no magnetic field decay during the active life of pulsars. However, if the magnetic fields of neutron stars decay exponentially, almost all slowly rotating pulsars must have been injected with a very long initial spin period of about 2 seconds, which seems impossible. Based on qualitative analyses, it is concluded that magnetic fields of neutron stars decay as a power-law, with a time scale related to the initial field strengths. The plausible boundary and the gap are suggested to naturally divide pulsars with distinct magnetic "genes", ie. pulsars which were born from strongly magnetized progenitors -- such as Bp stars, and pulsars born from normal massive stars. The possibility remains open that a fraction of slowly rotating pulsars were injected with long initial spin periods, while others would have a classical pulsar evolution history. It is suggested that PSR B1849+00 was born in the supernova remnant Kes-79 with an initial period of about 2 seconds.

Han, J. L.

1997-02-01

346

Gamma-Ray Observations of the Supernova Remnant RX J0852.0-4622 with the Fermi LAT  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report on gamma-ray observations of the supernova remnant (SNR) RX J0852.0-4622 with the Large Area Telescope (LAT) aboard the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. In the Fermi LAT data, we find a spatially extended source at the location of the SNR. The extension is consistent with the SNR size seen in other wavelengths such as X-rays and TeV gamma rays,

T. Tanaka; A. Allafort; J. Ballet; S. Funk; F. Giordano; J. Hewitt; M. Lemoine-Goumard; H. Tajima; O. Tibolla; Y. Uchiyama

2011-01-01

347

Gamma-Ray Observations of the Supernova Remnant RX J0852.0-4622 with the Fermi Large Area Telescope  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report on gamma-ray observations of the supernova remnant (SNR) RX J0852.0-4622 with the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. In the Fermi-LAT data, we find a spatially extended source at the location of the SNR. The extension is consistent with the SNR size seen in other wavelengths such as X-rays and TeV gamma rays,

T. Tanaka; A. Allafort; J. Ballet; S. Funk; F. Giordano; J. Hewitt; M. Lemoine-Goumard; H. Tajima; O. Tibolla; Y. Uchiyama

2011-01-01

348

Soft X-ray spectrum and structure of the supernova remnant G65.2+5.7  

Microsoft Academic Search

The HEAO 1 low energy detectors have observed the supernova remnant G65.2+5.7 in the energy range 0.2-2.5 keV. A strong, extended source of X-ray emission is observed coincident with the eastern side of the optical filamentary structure. The characteristic temperature of the emission is in the range 2-3.8 x 10 to the 6th K, and evidence is found for line

K. O. Mason; S. M. Kahn; P. A. Charles; M. L. Lampton; R. Blissett

1979-01-01

349

Far-ultraviolet Emission-line Morphologies of the Supernova Remnant G65.3+5.7  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the first far-ultraviolet (FUV) emission-line morphologies of the whole region of the supernova remnant (SNR) G65.3+5.7 using the FIMS\\/SPEAR data. The morphologies of the C IV lambdalambda1548, 1551, He II lambda1640, and O III] lambdalambda1661, 1666 lines appear to be closely related to the optical and\\/or soft X-ray images obtained in previous studies. Dramatic differences between the C

I.-J. Kim; K.-I. Seon; K.-W. Min; J.-H. Shinn; W. Han; J. Edelstein

2010-01-01

350

The neutral gas environment of the young supernova remnant SN 1006 (G327.6+14.6)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using the Australia Telescope Compact Array, we have carried out a survey of the H I emission in the direction of the bilateral supernova remnant (SNR) SN 1006 (G327.6+14.6). The angular resolution of the data is 4.7' x 3.0', and the rms noise ~39 mJy\\/beam (~ 0.3 K). To recover structures at low spatial frequencies, single dish data have been

G. M. Dubner; E. B. Giacani; W. M. Goss; A. J. Green; L.-Å. Nyman

2002-01-01

351

Age Discrepancy Throws Pulsar Theories into Turmoil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Astronomers using the National Science Foundation's Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescope have found a pulsar -- a spinning, superdense neutron star -- that apparently is considerably younger than previously thought. This finding, combined with the discovery in 2000 of a pulsar that was older than previously thought, means that many assumptions astronomers have made about how pulsars are born and age must be reexamined, according to the researchers. Supernova Remnant and Pulsar -- Click on image for larger view Infrared Image of Supernova Remnant; Dashed Line and Arrow Indicate Pulsar's Motion Detected by VLA "We are learning that each individual pulsar is a very complicated object, and we should assume nothing about it," said Bryan Gaensler, of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics in Cambridge, MA. "Our work makes it more difficult to put pulsars into neat categories, but ultimately will yield new insights into how pulsars are born," he added. The research is reported in the March 10 edition of the Astrophysical Journal Letters. The astronomers studied a pulsar called B1951+32 and a supernova remnant called CTB 80, both nearly 8,000 light-years from Earth. The supernova remnant is the shell of debris from the explosion of a giant star. The explosion resulted from the giant star's catastrophic collapse into the superdense neutron star. By observing the pulsar and the supernova remnant from 1989 to 2000 with the VLA, the scientists were able to measure the movement of the pulsar, which, they found, is moving directly outward from the center of the shell of explosion debris. "We've always felt that, if you see a pulsar and a supernova remnant close together, the pulsar had been born in an explosion at the center of the supernova remnant, but this is the first time that actual observational measurement shows a pulsar moving away from the center of the supernova remnant. It's nice to finally have such an example," said Joshua Migliazzo of the Center for Space Research at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, another one of the researchers. By tracking the pulsar's motion for more than a decade, the astronomers were able to calculate that it is traveling through space at more than 500,000 miles per hour. At that speed, the pulsar required about 64,000 years to travel from its birthplace -- the site of the supernova explosion -- to its present location. That means, the astronomers say, that the pulsar is about 64,000 years old. This age, however, differs significantly from the age estimated by another method which has been used by astronomers for decades. This method uses measurements of the rotation rate of the neutron star and the tiny amount by which that rotation slows over time to arrive at an estimate called the pulsar's "characteristic age." For B1951+32, that method produced an estimated age of 107,000 years. "Now we have a pulsar that is much younger than we thought. In 2000, a different pulsar was shown to be significantly older than we thought. That means that some of the assumptions that have gone into estimating the ages of these objects are unjustified," Migliazzo said. The pulsar's rotation is thought to slow because the neutron star's powerful magnetic field acts as a giant dynamo, emitting light, radio waves and other electromagnetic radiation as the star rotates. The energy lost by emitting the radiation results in the star's rotation slowing down. Previous estimates of pulsar ages have assumed that all pulsars are born spinning much faster than we see them now, that the physical characteristics of the pulsar such as its mass and magnetic-field strength do not change with time, and that the slowdown rate can be estimated by applying the physics of a magnet spinning in a vacuum. "With one pulsar older than the estimates and one younger, we now realize that we have to question all three of these assumptions," said Gaensler. Further research, the scientists say, should help them understand more about the conditions under which pulsars f

2002-03-01

352

Cr-K EMISSION LINE AS A CONSTRAINT ON THE PROGENITOR PROPERTIES OF SUPERNOVA REMNANTS  

SciTech Connect

We perform a survey of the Cr, Mn, and Fe-K emission lines in young supernova remnants (SNRs) with the Japanese X-ray astronomy satellite Suzaku. The Cr and/or Mn emission lines are detected in 3C 397 and 0519-69.0 for the first time. We also confirm the detection of these lines in Kepler, W49B, N103B, and Cas A. We derive the line parameters (i.e., the line centroid energy, flux, and equivalent width (EW)) for these six sources and perform a correlation analysis for the line center energies of Cr, Mn, and Fe. Also included in the correlation analysis are Tycho and G344.7-0.1 for which the Cr, Mn, and Fe-K line parameters were available in the literature through Suzaku observations. We find that the line center energies of Cr correlate very well with that of Fe and that of Mn. This confirms our previous findings that Cr, Mn, and Fe are spatially co-located, share a similar ionization state, and have a common origin in the supernova nucleosynthesis. We find that the ratio of the EW of the Cr emission line to that of Fe ({gamma}{sub Cr/Fe}{identical_to}EW(Cr)/EW(Fe)) provides useful constraints on the SNR progenitors and on the SN explosion mechanisms: for SNRs with {gamma}{sub Cr/Fe} > 2%, a Type Ia origin is favored (e.g., N103B, G344.7-0.1, 3C 397, and 0519-69.0); for SNRs with {gamma}{sub Cr/Fe} < 2%, they could be of either core-collapse origin or carbon-deflagration Ia origin.

Yang, X. J.; Xiang, F. Y.; Xiao, H. P.; Zhong, J. X. [Department of Physics, Xiangtan University, Xiangtan 411105 (China)] [Department of Physics, Xiangtan University, Xiangtan 411105 (China); Tsunemi, H. [Department of Earth and Space Science, Osaka University, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan)] [Department of Earth and Space Science, Osaka University, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan); Lu, F. J. [Key Laboratory for Particle Astrophysics, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China)] [Key Laboratory for Particle Astrophysics, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Li, Aigen, E-mail: xjyang@xtu.edu.cn [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States)] [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States)

2013-03-20

353

NONTHERMAL RADIATION FROM SUPERNOVA REMNANTS: EFFECTS OF MAGNETIC FIELD AMPLIFICATION AND PARTICLE ESCAPE  

SciTech Connect

We explore nonlinear effects of wave-particle interactions on the diffusive shock acceleration (DSA) process in Type Ia-like supernova remnant (SNR) blast waves by implementing phenomenological models for magnetic field amplification (MFA), Alfvénic drift, and particle escape in time-dependent numerical simulations of nonlinear DSA. For typical SNR parameters, the cosmic-ray (CR) protons can be accelerated to PeV energies only if the region of amplified field ahead of the shock is extensive enough to contain the diffusion lengths of the particles of interest. Even with the help of Alfvénic drift, it remains somewhat challenging to construct a nonlinear DSA model for SNRs in which of the order of 10% of the supernova explosion energy is converted into CR energy and the magnetic field is amplified by a factor of 10 or so in the shock precursor, while, at the same time, the energy spectrum of PeV protons is steeper than E {sup –2}. To explore the influence of these physical effects on observed SNR emission, we also compute the resulting radio-to-gamma-ray spectra. Nonthermal emission spectra, especially in X-ray and gamma-ray bands, depend on the time-dependent evolution of the CR injection process, MFA, and particle escape, as well as the shock dynamic evolution. This result comes from the fact that the high-energy end of the CR spectrum is composed of particles that are injected in the very early stages of the blast wave evolution. Thus, it is crucial to better understand the plasma wave-particle interactions associated with collisionless shocks in detailed modeling of nonthermal radiation from SNRs.

Kang, Hyesung [Department of Earth Sciences, Pusan National University, Pusan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of); Jones, T. W. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Edmon, Paul P., E-mail: kang@uju.es.pusan.ac.kr, E-mail: twj@msi.umn.edu, E-mail: pedmon@cfa.harvard.edu [Research Computing, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

2013-11-01

354

KINEMATICS OF SHOCKED MOLECULAR GAS ADJACENT TO THE SUPERNOVA REMNANT W44  

SciTech Connect

We mapped molecular gas toward the supernova remnant W44 in the HCO{sup +} J = 1-0 line with the Nobeyama Radio Observatory 45 m telescope and in the CO J = 3-2 line with the Atacama Submillimeter Telescope Experiment 10 m telescope. High-velocity emission wings were detected in both lines over the area where the radio shell of W44 overlaps with the molecular cloud in the plane of the sky. We found that the average velocity distributions of the wing emission can be fit by a uniform expansion model. The best-fit expansion velocities are 12.2 {+-} 0.3 km s{sup -1} and 13.2 {+-} 0.2 km s{sup -1} in HCO{sup +} and CO, respectively. The non-wing CO J = 3-2 component is also fit by the same model with an expansion velocity of 4.7 {+-} 0.1 km s{sup -1}. This component might be dominated by a post-shock higher-density region where the shock velocity had slowed down. The kinetic energy of the shocked molecular gas is estimated to be (3.5 {+-} 1.3) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 49} erg. Adding this and the energy of the previously identified H I shell, we conclude that (1.2 {+-} 0.2) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 50} erg has been converted into gas kinetic energy from the initial baryonic energy of the W44 supernova. We also found ultra-high-velocity CO J = 3-2 wing emission with a velocity width of {approx}100 km s{sup -1} at (l, b) = (+34. Degree-Sign 73, -0. Degree-Sign 47). The origin of this extremely high velocity wing is a mystery.

Sashida, Tomoro; Oka, Tomoharu; Tanaka, Kunihiko; Aono, Kazuya; Matsumura, Shinji [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Keio University, 3-14-1 Hiyoshi, Kohoku-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 223-8522 (Japan); Nagai, Makoto; Seta, Masumichi [Institute of Physics, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennoudai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8571 (Japan)

2013-09-01

355

INDUCED ROTATION IN THREE-DIMENSIONAL SIMULATIONS OF CORE-COLLAPSE SUPERNOVAE: IMPLICATIONS FOR PULSAR SPINS  

SciTech Connect

It has been suggested that the observed rotation periods of radio pulsars might be induced by a non-axisymmetric spiral-mode instability in the turbulent region behind the stalled supernova bounce shock, even if the progenitor core was not initially rotating. In this paper, using the three-dimensional Adaptive Mesh Refinement code CASTRO with a realistic progenitor and equation of state and a simple neutrino heating and cooling scheme, we present a numerical study of the evolution in three dimensions of the rotational profile of a supernova core from collapse, through bounce and shock stagnation, to delayed explosion. By the end of our simulation ({approx}420 ms after core bounce), we do not witness significant spin-up of the proto-neutron star core left behind. However, we do see the development before the explosion of strong differential rotation in the turbulent gain region between the core and stalled shock. Shells in this region acquire high spin rates that reach {approx}150 Hz, but this region contains too little mass and angular momentum to translate, even if left behind, into rapid rotation for the full neutron star. We also find that much of the induced angular momentum is likely to be ejected in the explosion, and moreover that even if the optimal amount of induced angular momentum is retained in the core, the resulting spin period is likely to be quite modest. Nevertheless, induced periods of seconds are possible.

Rantsiou, Emmanouela; Burrows, Adam; Nordhaus, Jason [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Almgren, Ann, E-mail: emmarant@astro.princeton.edu, E-mail: burrows@astro.princeton.edu, E-mail: nordhaus@astro.princeton.edu, E-mail: asalmgren@lbl.gov [Computational Research Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

2011-05-01

356

Discovery of a Pre-existing Molecular Filament Associated with Supernova Remnant G127.1+0.5  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We performed millimeter observations in CO lines toward the supernova remnant (SNR) G127.1+0.5. We found a molecular filament at 4-13 km s-1 consisting of two distinct parts: a straight part coming out of the remnant region and a curved part in the remnant region. The curved part is coincides well with the bright SNR shell detected in 1420 MHz radio continuum and mid-infrared observations in the northeastern region. In addition, redshifted line wing broadening is found only in the curved part of the molecular filament, which indicates a physical interaction. These provide strong evidences, for the first time, to confirm the association between an SNR and a pre-existing long molecular filament. Multi-band observations in the northeastern remnant shell could be explained by the interaction between the remnant shock and the dense molecular filament. RADEX radiative transfer modeling of the quiet and shocked components yield physical conditions consistent with the passage of a non-dissociative J-type shock. We argue that the curved part of the filament is fully engulfed by the remnant's forward shock. A spatial correlation between aggregated young stellar objects (YSOs) and the adjacent molecular filament close to the SNR is also found, which could be related to the progenitor's activity.

Zhou, Xin; Yang, Ji; Fang, Min; Su, Yang

2014-08-01

357

Spatially-resolved Spectroscopy of the IC443 Pulsar Wind Nebula and Environs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Deep Chandra ACIS observations of the region around the putative pulsar, CXOU J061705.3+222117, in the supernova remnant IC443 reveal, for the first time, a ring-like morphology surrounding the pulsar and a jet-like structure oriented roughly north-south across the ring and through the pulsar location. The observations further confirm that (1) the spectrum and flux of the central object are consistent with a rotation-powered pulsar interpretation, (2) the non-thermal surrounding nebula is likely powered by the pulsar wind, and (3) the thermal-dominated spectrum at greater distances is consistent with emission from the supernova remnant. The cometary shape of the nebula, suggesting motion towards the southwest (or, equivalently, flow of ambient medium to the northeast), appears to be subsonic; there is no evidence for a strong bow shock, and the circular ring is not distorted by motion through the ambient medium.

Swartz, D. A.; Weisskopf, M. C.; Zavlin, V. E.; Bucciantini, N.; Clarke, T. E.; Karovska, M.; Pavlov, G. G.; O'Dell, S. L.; vanderHorst, A J.; Yukita, M.

2013-01-01

358

FERMI-LAT DISCOVERY OF GeV GAMMA-RAY EMISSION FROM THE YOUNG SUPERNOVA REMNANT CASSIOPEIA A  

SciTech Connect

We report on the first detection of GeV high-energy gamma-ray emission from a young supernova remnant (SNR) with the Large Area Telescope aboard the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. These observations reveal a source with no discernible spatial extension detected at a significance level of 12.2{sigma} above 500 MeV at a location that is consistent with the position of the remnant of the supernova explosion that occurred around 1680 in the Cassiopeia constellation-Cassiopeia A (Cas A). The gamma-ray flux and spectral shape of the source are consistent with a scenario in which the gamma-ray emission originates from relativistic particles accelerated in the shell of this remnant. The total content of cosmic rays (electrons and protons) accelerated in Cas A can be estimated as W {sub CR} {approx_equal} (1-4) x 10{sup 49} erg thanks to the well-known density in the remnant assuming that the observed gamma ray originates in the SNR shell(s). The magnetic field in the radio-emitting plasma can be robustly constrained as B {>=} 0.1 mG, providing new evidence of the magnetic field amplification at the forward shock and the strong field in the shocked ejecta.0.

Abdo, A. A. [Space Science Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Allafort, A.; Bechtol, K.; Berenji, B.; Blandford, R. D.; Bloom, E. D.; Borgland, A. W. [W. W. Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory, Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Department of Physics and SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Baldini, L.; Bellazzini, R.; Bregeon, J.; Brez, A. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Ballet, J. [Laboratoire AIM, CEA-IRFU/CNRS/Universite Paris Diderot, Service d'Astrophysique, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); Barbiellini, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Trieste, I-34127 Trieste (Italy); Baring, M. G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rice University, MS-108, P.O. Box 1892, Houston, TX 77251 (United States); Bastieri, D. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Padova, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Baughman, B. M. [Department of Physics, Center for Cosmology and Astro-Particle Physics, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Bonamente, E. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Perugia, I-06123 Perugia (Italy); Brigida, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica 'M. Merlin' dell'Universita e del Politecnico di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy)], E-mail: funk@slac.stanford.edu, E-mail: uchiyama@slac.stanford.edu (and others)

2010-02-10

359

Fermi-LAT Discovery of GeV Gamma-ray Emission from the Young Supernova Remnant Cassiopeia A  

SciTech Connect

We report on the first detection of GeV high-energy gamma-ray emission from a young supernova remnant with the Large Area Telescope aboard the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. These observations reveal a source with no discernible spatial extension detected at a significance level of 12.2{sigma} above 500 MeV at a location that is consistent with the position of the remnant of the supernova explosion that occurred around 1680 in the Cassiopeia constellation - Cassiopeia A. The gamma-ray flux and spectral shape of the source are consistent with a scenario in which the gamma-ray emission originates from relativistic particles accelerated in the shell of this remnant. The total content of cosmic rays (electrons and protons) accelerated in Cas A can be estimated as W{sub CR} {approx_equal} (1-4) x 10{sup 49} erg thanks to the well-known density in the remnant assuming that the observed gamma-ray originates in the SNR shell(s). The magnetic field in the radio-emitting plasma can be robustly constrained as B {ge} 0.1 mG, providing new evidence of the magnetic field amplification at the forward shock and the strong field in the shocked ejecta.

Abdo, A.A.

2011-08-19

360

Three-dimensional Simulations of the Non-thermal Broadband Emission from Young Supernova Remnants Including Efficient Particle Acceleration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Supernova remnants are believed to be major contributors to Galactic cosmic rays. In this paper, we explore how the non-thermal emission from young remnants can be used to probe the production of energetic particles at the shock (both protons and electrons). Our model couples hydrodynamic simulations of a supernova remnant with a kinetic treatment of particle acceleration. We include two important back-reaction loops upstream of the shock: energetic particles can (1) modify the flow structure and (2) amplify the magnetic field. As the latter process is not fully understood, we use different limit cases that encompass a wide range of possibilities. We follow the history of the shock dynamics and of the particle transport downstream of the shock, which allows us to compute the non-thermal emission from the remnant at any given age. We do this in three dimensions, in order to generate projected maps that can be compared with observations. We observe that completely different recipes for the magnetic field can lead to similar modifications of the shock structure, although to very different configurations of the field and particles. We show how this affects the emission patterns in different energy bands, from radio to X-rays and ?-rays. High magnetic fields (>100 ?G) directly impact the synchrotron emission from electrons, by restricting their emission to thin rims, and indirectly impact the inverse Compton emission from electrons and also the pion decay emission from protons, mostly by shifting their cut-off energies to respectively lower and higher energies.

Ferrand, Gilles; Decourchelle, Anne; Safi-Harb, Samar

2014-07-01

361

A census of high-energy observations of Galactic supernova remnants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the first public database of high-energy observations of all known Galactic supernova remnants (SNRs). In Section 1 we introduce the rationale for this work motivated primarily by studying particle acceleration in SNRs, and which aims at bridging the already existing census of Galactic SNRs (primarily made at radio wavelengths) with the ever-growing but diverse observations of these objects at high-energies (in the X-ray and ?-ray regimes). In Section 2 we show how users can browse the database using a dedicated web front-end (http://www.physics.umanitoba.ca/snr/SNRcat). In Section 3 we give some basic statistics about the records we have collected so far, which provides a summary of our current view of Galactic SNRs. Finally, in Section 4, we discuss some possible extensions of this work. We believe that this catalogue will be useful to both observers and theorists, and timely with the synergy in radio/high-energy SNR studies as well as the upcoming new high-energy missions. A feedback form provided on the website will allow users to provide comments or input, thus helping us keep the database up-to-date with the latest observations.

Ferrand, Gilles; Safi-Harb, Samar

2012-05-01

362

Probing the interaction between the SS433 jets and the supernova remnant W50  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

W50 is a large Supernova Remnant (SNR) powered by the enigmatic twin-jet source: SS433. It has a unique morphology with two large X-ray lobes connecting SS433 to the radio lobes, the so-called radio `ears'. We review previous X-ray observations of W50/SS433 which have allowed us to pin down the non-thermal nature of the X-ray emission from the eastern lobe. We interpret the X-ray spectrum as synchrotron radiation from highly energetic particles resulting from the interaction between the eastern jet and the SNR shell (Safi-Harb & Petre 1999, ApJ, 512, 784). We also present new observations of the western lobe obtained with the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer (RXTE), combined with millimeter observations, in order to probe regions of interaction between the western jet and a dense molecular cloud. This study is aimed at shedding light on the energetics from SS433, understanding the asymmetries of the lobes, and testing for cosmic ray acceleration in a Galactic twin-jet source.

Safi-Harb, S.; Durouchoux, P.; Petre, R.

363

Spitzer spectral line mapping of supernova remnants: I. Basic data and principal component analysis  

E-print Network

We report the results of spectroscopic mapping observations carried out toward small (1 x 1 arcmin) regions within the supernova remnants W44, W28, IC443, and 3C391 using the Infrared Spectrograph of the Spitzer Space Telescope. These observations, covering the 5.2 - 37 micron spectral region, have led to the detection of a total of 15 fine structure transitions of Ne+, Ne++, Si+, P+, S, S++, Cl+, Fe+, and Fe++; the S(0) - S(7) pure rotational lines of molecular hydrogen; and the R(3) and R(4) transitions of hydrogen deuteride. In addition to these 25 spectral lines, the 6.2, 7.7, 8.6, 11.3 and 12.6 micron PAH emission bands were also observed. Most of the detected line transitions have proven strong enough to map in several sources, providing a comprehensive picture of the relative distribution of the various line emissions observable in the Spitzer/IRS bandpass. A principal component analysis of the spectral line maps reveals that the observed emission lines fall into five distinct groups, each of which may...

Neufeld, David A; Kaufman, Michael J; Snell, Ronald L; Melnick, Gary J; Bergin, Edwin A; Sonnentrucker, Paule

2007-01-01

364

Fermi Large Area Telescope Observations of the Cygnus Loop Supernova Remnant  

SciTech Connect

We present an analysis of the gamma-ray measurements by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) onboard the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope in the region of the supernova remnant (SNR) Cygnus Loop (G74.0-8.5). We detect significant gamma-ray emission associated with the SNR in the energy band 0.2-100 GeV. The gamma-ray spectrum shows a break in the range 2-3 GeV. The gamma-ray luminosity is {approx} 1 x 10{sup 33} erg s{sup -1} between 1-100 GeV, much lower than those of other GeV-emitting SNRs. The morphology is best represented by a ring shape, with inner/outer radii 0{sup o}.7 {+-} 0{sup o}.1 and 1{sup o}.6 {+-} 0{sup o}.1. Given the association among X-ray rims, H{alpha} filaments and gamma-ray emission, we argue that gamma rays originate in interactions between particles accelerated in the SNR and interstellar gas or radiation fields adjacent to the shock regions. The decay of neutral pions produced in nucleon-nucleon interactions between accelerated hadrons and interstellar gas provides a reasonable explanation for the gamma-ray spectrum.

Katagiri, H.; /Ibaraki U., Mito; Tibaldo, L.; /INFN, Padua /Padua U. /Paris U., VI-VII; Ballet, J.; /Paris U., VI-VII; Giordano, F.; /Bari U. /Bari Polytechnic /INFN, Bari; Grenier, I.A.; /Paris U., VI-VII; Porter, T.A.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC; Roth, M.; /Washington U., Seattle; Tibolla, O.; /Wurzburg U.; Uchiyama, Y.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC; Yamazaki, R.; /Sagamihara, Aoyama Gakuin U.

2011-11-08

365

COSMIC-RAY STREAMING FROM SUPERNOVA REMNANTS AND GAMMA-RAY EMISSION FROM NEARBY MOLECULAR CLOUDS  

SciTech Connect

High-energy gamma-ray emission has been detected recently from supernova remnants (SNRs) and their surroundings. The existence of molecular clouds near some of the SNRs suggests that the gamma rays originate predominantly from p-p interactions with cosmic rays (CRs) accelerated at a closeby SNR shock wave. Here we investigate the acceleration of CRs and the gamma-ray production in the cloud self-consistently by taking into account the interactions of the streaming instability and the background turbulence both at the shock front and in the ensuing propagation to the clouds. We focus on the later evolution of SNRs, when the conventional treatment of the streaming instability is valid but the magnetic field is enhanced due to Bell's current instability and/or the dynamo generation of magnetic field in the precursor region. We calculate the time dependence of the maximum energy of the accelerated particles. This result is then used to determine the diffusive flux of the runaway particles escaping the shock region, from which we obtain the gamma spectrum consistent with observations. Finally, we check the self-consistency of our results by comparing the required level of diffusion with the level of the streaming instability attainable in the presence of turbulence damping. The energy range of CRs subject to the streaming instability is able to produce the observed energy spectrum of gamma rays.

Yan Huirong [Kavli Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Peking University, Beijing, 100871 (China); Lazarian, A. [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Schlickeiser, R., E-mail: hryan@pku.edu.cn [Institute for Theoretical Physics IV, Ruhr University, Bochum, 44780 (Germany)

2012-02-01

366

An Optical and X-ray Examination of Two Radio Supernova Remnant Candidates in 30 Doradus  

E-print Network

The giant HII region 30 Doradus is known for its violent internal motions and bright diffuse X-ray emission, suggesting the existence of supernova remnants (SNRs), but no nonthermal radio emission has been detected. Recently, Lazendic et al. compared the H-alpha/H-beta and radio/H-alpha ratios and suggested two small radio sources to be nonthermal and thus SNR candidates; however, no optical or X-ray counterparts were detected. We have used high-resolution optical images and high-dispersion spectra to examine the morphological, spectral, and kinematic properties of these two SNR candidates, and still find no optical evidence supporting their identification as SNRs. We have also determined the X-ray luminosities of these SNR candidates, and find them 1-3 orders of magnitude lower than those commonly seen in young SNRs. High extinction can obscure optical and X-ray signatures of an SNR, but would prohibit the use of a high radio/H-alpha ratio to identify nonthermal radio emission. We suggest that the SNR candid...

Chu, Y H; Chen, C H R; Lazendic, J S; Dickel, J R

2004-01-01

367

An Optical and X-ray Examination of Two Radio Supernova Remnant Candidates in 30 Doradus  

E-print Network

The giant HII region 30 Doradus is known for its violent internal motions and bright diffuse X-ray emission, suggesting the existence of supernova remnants (SNRs), but no nonthermal radio emission has been detected. Recently, Lazendic et al. compared the H-alpha/H-beta and radio/H-alpha ratios and suggested two small radio sources to be nonthermal and thus SNR candidates; however, no optical or X-ray counterparts were detected. We have used high-resolution optical images and high-dispersion spectra to examine the morphological, spectral, and kinematic properties of these two SNR candidates, and still find no optical evidence supporting their identification as SNRs. We have also determined the X-ray luminosities of these SNR candidates, and find them 1-3 orders of magnitude lower than those commonly seen in young SNRs. High extinction can obscure optical and X-ray signatures of an SNR, but would prohibit the use of a high radio/H-alpha ratio to identify nonthermal radio emission. We suggest that the SNR candidate MCRX J053831.8-690620 is associated with a young star forming region; while the radio emission originates from the obscured star forming region, the observed optical emission is dominated by the foreground. We suggest that the SNR candidate MCRX J053838.8-690730 is associated with a dust/molecular cloud, which obscures some optical emission but not the radio emission.

Y. -H. Chu; R. A. Gruendl; C. -H. R. Chen; J. S. Lazendic; J. R. Dickel

2004-07-22

368

Interaction of planetary nebulae, Eta-Carinae and supernova remnants with the Interstellar Medium  

E-print Network

The image of planetary nebulae (PN), supernova remnant (SNR) and Eta-Carinae is made by three different physical processes. The first process is the expansion of the shell that can be modeled by the canonical laws of motion in the spherical case and by the momentum conservation when gradients of density are present in the interstellar medium. The quality of the simulations is introduced along one direction as well along many directions. The second process is the diffusion of particles that radiate from the advancing layer. The 3D diffusion from a sphere, the 1D diffusion with drift and 1D random walk are analyzed. The third process is the composition of the image through an integral operation along the line of sight. The developed framework is applied to three PN which are A39, the Ring nebula and the etched hourglass nebula MyCn 18, the hybrid object Eta-Carinae, and to two SNR which are SN 1993J and SN 1006. In all the considered cases a careful comparison between the observed and theoretical profiles in in...

Zaninetti, L

2012-01-01

369

Class I Methanol (CH3OH) Maser Conditions near Supernova Remnants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present results from calculations of the physical conditions necessary for the occurrence of 36.169 (4-1-30 E), 44.070 (70-61 A +), 84.521 (5-1-40 E), and 95.169 (80-71 A +) GHz methanol (CH3OH) maser emission lines near supernova remnants (SNRs), using the MOLPOP-CEP program. The calculations show that given a sufficient methanol abundance, methanol maser emission arises over a wide range of densities and temperatures, with optimal conditions at n ~ 104-106 cm-3 and T > 60 K. The 36 GHz and 44 GHz transitions display more significant maser optical depths compared to the 84 GHz and 95 GHz transitions over the majority of physical conditions. It is also shown that line ratios are an important and applicable probe of the gas conditions. The line ratio changes are largely a result of the E-type transitions becoming quenched faster at increasing densities. The modeling results are discussed using recent observations of CH3OH and hydroxyl (OH) masers near the SNRs G1.4-0.1, W28, and Sgr A East.

McEwen, Bridget C.; Pihlström, Ylva M.; Sjouwerman, Loránt O.

2014-10-01

370

The Suzaku Key Project of the Kepler Supernova Remnant: A Status Report  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Kepler supernova remnant (SNR) is a historical (SN 1604) Type Ia SNR with a peculiar progenitor that exploded in the ambient medium modified by stellar winds. We detect atomic emission lines from trace ejecta elements Mn and Cr in the Kepler SNR using our initial 100 ks Suzaku observation. The detection of these low abundant metal species produced by incomplete Si-burning in the Type Ia SN provides a unique opportunity to reveal the progenitor's metallicity. We also detect K line emission from the Ni-rich ejecta which was produced in the nuclear statistical equilibrium at the deepest core of the progenitor. As the start of our Suzaku Key Project of the Kepler SNR to place a tight constraint on the progenitor's metallicity, we performed 220 ks background observations to reduce the systematic errors on the Mn and Cr line flux measurements. We report on the refined measurements of the Mn to Cr line flux ratio using our new background data. Our preliminary results suggest an enhanced metallicity (several times the Solar) for the Kepler SNR's progenitor. The completion of our Suzaku Key Project with the upcoming deep Kepler observation will be essential to pin down the suggested high metallicity of the progenitor by significantly reducing the large statistical uncertainties embedded in the current data.

Park, Sangwook; Badenes, C.; Hughes, J. P.; Slane, P. O.; Burrows, D. N.; Mori, K.

2010-02-01

371

Determination of acceleration mechanism characteristics directly and nonparametrically from observations: Application to supernova remnants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed an inversion method for determination of the characteristics of the acceleration mechanism directly and nonparametrically from observations, in contrast to the usual forward fitting of parametric model variables to observations. In two recent papers [V. Petrosian and Q. Chen, Astrophys. J. 712, L131 (2010); Q. Chen and V. Petrosian, Astrophys. J. 777, 33 (2013)], we demonstrated the efficacy of this inversion method by its application to acceleration of electrons in solar flares based on stochastic acceleration by turbulence. Here we explore its application for determining the characteristics of shock acceleration in supernova remnants (SNRs) based on the electron spectra deduced from the observed nonthermal radiation from SNRs and the spectrum of the cosmic ray electrons observed near the Earth. These spectra are related by the process of escape of the electrons from SNRs and energy loss during their transport in the Galaxy. Thus, these observations allow us to determine spectral characteristics of the momentum and pitch angle diffusion coefficients, which play crucial roles in both direct acceleration by turbulence and in high Mach number shocks. Assuming that the average electron spectrum deduced from a few well-known SNRs is representative of those in the solar neighborhood, we find interesting discrepancies between our deduced forms for these coefficients and those expected from well-known wave-particle interactions. This may indicate that the standard assumptions made in the treatment of shock acceleration need revision. In particular, the escape of particles from SNRs may be more complex than generally assumed.

Petrosian, Vahé; Chen, Qingrong

2014-05-01

372

Nonthermal Radiation of Young Supernova Remnants: The Case of CAS A  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The processes responsible for the broadband radiation of the young supernova remnant Cas A are explored by using a new code that is designed for a detailed treatment of the diffusive shock acceleration of particles in the nonlinear regime. The model is based on spherically symmetric hydrodynamic equations complemented with transport equations for relativistic particles. Electrons, protons, and the oxygen ions accelerated by forward and reverse shocks are included in the numerical calculations. We show that the available multi-wavelength observations in the radio, X-ray, and gamma-ray bands can be best explained by invoking particle acceleration by both forward and reversed shocks. Although the TeV gamma-ray observations can be interpreted by interactions of both accelerated electrons and protons/ions, the measurements by Fermi Large Area Telescope at energies below 1 GeV give a tentative preference to the hadronic origin of gamma-rays. Then, the acceleration efficiency in this source, despite the previous claims, should be very high; 25% of the explosion energy (or approximately 3 × 1050 erg) should already be converted to cosmic rays, mainly by the forward shock. At the same time, the model calculations do not provide extension of the maximum energy of accelerated protons beyond 100 TeV. In this model, the acceleration of electrons is dominated by the reverse shock; the required 1048 erg can be achieved under the assumption that the injection of electrons (positrons) is supported by the radioactive decay of 44Ti.

Zirakashvili, V. N.; Aharonian, F. A.; Yang, R.; Oña-Wilhelmi, E.; Tuffs, R. J.

2014-04-01

373

Recombining Plasma in the Gamma-Ray-emitting Mixed-morphology Supernova Remnant 3C 391  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A group of middle-aged mixed-morphology (MM) supernova remnants (SNRs) interacting with molecular clouds (MCs) has been discovered to be strong GeV gamma-ray emitters by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on board the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope (Fermi-LAT). The recent observations of the Suzaku X-ray satellite have revealed that some of these interacting gamma-ray-emitting SNRs, such as IC443, W49B, W44, and G359.1-0.5, have overionized plasmas. 3C 391 (G31.9+0.0) is another Galactic MM SNR interacting with MCs. It was observed in GeV gamma rays by Fermi-LAT as well as in the 0.3-10.0 keV X-ray band by Suzaku. In this work, 3C 391 was detected in GeV gamma rays with a significance of ~18? and we showed that the GeV emission is point-like in nature. The GeV gamma-ray spectrum was shown to be best explained by the decay of neutral pions assuming that the protons follow a broken power-law distribution. We revealed radiative recombination structures of silicon and sulfur from 3C 391 using Suzaku data. In this paper, we discuss the possible origin of this type of radiative plasma and hadronic gamma rays.

Ergin, T.; Sezer, A.; Saha, L.; Majumdar, P.; Chatterjee, A.; Bayirli, A.; Ercan, E. N.

2014-07-01

374

X-ray spectroscopy of the mixed morphology supernova remnant W 28 with XMM-Newton  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on spatially resolved X-ray spectroscopy of the north-eastern part of the mixed morphology supernova remnant (SNR) W 28 with XMM-Newton. The observed field of view includes a prominent and twisted shell emission forming the edge of this SNR as well as part of the center-filled X-ray emission brightening toward the south-west edge of the field of view. The shell region spectra are in general represented by an optically thin thermal plasma emission in collisional ionization equilibrium with a temperature of ˜ 0.3 keV and a density of ˜ 10 cm-3, which is much higher than the density obtained for inner parts. In contrast, we detected no significant X-ray flux from one of the TeV ?-ray peaks with an upper-limit flux of 2.1 × 10-14 erg cm-2 s-1 in the 2-10 keV band. The large flux ratio of TeV to X-ray, larger than 16, and the spatial coincidence of the molecular cloud and the TeV ?-ray emission site indicate that the TeV ?-ray of W 28 is ?0-decay emission originating from collisions between accelerated protons and molecular cloud protons. Comparing the spectrum in the TeV band and the X-ray upper limit, we obtained a weak upper limit on the magnetic field strength B ? 1500 ?G.

Nakamura, Ryoko; Bamba, Aya; Ishida, Manabu; Yamazaki, Ryo; Tatematsu, Ken'ichi; Kohri, Kazunori; Pühlhofer, Gerd; Wagner, Stefan J.; Sawada, Makoto

2014-06-01

375

A Generalized Model of Nonlinear Diffusive Shock Acceleration Coupled to an Evolving Supernova Remnant  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To better model the efficient production of cosmic rays (CRs) in supernova remnants (SNRs) with the associated coupling between CR production and SNR dynamics, we have generalized an existing cr-hydro-NEI code to include the following processes: (1) an explicit calculation of the upstream precursor structure including the position-dependent flow speed, density, temperature, and magnetic field strength; (2) a momentum- and space-dependent CR diffusion coefficient; (3) an explicit calculation of magnetic field amplification; (4) calculation of the maximum CR momentum using the amplified magnetic field; (5) a finite Alfvén speed for the particle scattering centers; and (6) the ability to accelerate a superthermal seed population of CRs, as well as the ambient thermal plasma. While a great deal of work has been done modeling SNRs, most work has concentrated on either the continuum emission from relativistic electrons or ions or the thermal emission from the shock heated plasma. Our generalized code combines these elements and describes the interplay between CR production and SNR evolution, including the nonlinear coupling of efficient diffusive shock acceleration, based mainly on the work of P. Blasi and coworkers, and a non-equilibrium ionization (NEI) calculation of thermal X-ray line emission. We believe that our generalized model will provide a consistent modeling platform for SNRs, including those interacting with molecular clouds, and improve the interpretation of current and future observations, including the high-quality spectra expected from Astro-H. SNR RX J1713.7-3946 is modeled as an example.

Lee, Shiu-Hang; Ellison, Donald C.; Nagataki, Shigehiro

2012-05-01

376

An interpretation of the overionized plasma in supernova remnant W49B  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

W49B is a mixed-morphology supernova remnant (SNR) with the presence of enhanced abundances and overionization confirmed by X-ray observation. For the overionization, a strong radiative recombination continuum (RRC) has been detected and confirmed by SUZAKU and XMM-Newton. Here, we investigate these intriguing observational results through a multidimensional hydrodynamic model that takes into account, for the first time, the mixing of ejecta with the circumstellar and interstellar medium, thermal conduction, and non-equilibrium ionization. The model can reproduce the morphology and the overionization pattern of W49B. We found that the overionized plasma originates from the rapid cooling of the hot plasma originally heated by the shock reflected from the dense ring-like cloud. In addition, based on the most updated ATOMDB (v2.0.2), we calculated the spectrum of one cell in the overionized region from the simulation results at present. We got the overionized spectrum that is in agreement with the observational results. Thus, our primary result indicates that the model is consistent with the observations both spatially and spectrally.

Zhou, Xin; Miceli, Marco; Bocchino, Fabrizio; Orlando, Salvatore; Chen, Yang; Ji, Li; Yang, Ji

2014-01-01

377

Dust Destruction in a Nonradiative Shock in the Cygnus Loop Supernova Remnant  

SciTech Connect

We present 24 {mu}m and 70 {mu}m images of a non-radiative shock in the Cygnus Loop supernova remnant, obtained with the Multiband Imaging Photometer on board the Spitzer Space Telescope. The observed emission is from dust grains heated in the post-shock region. The 70 {mu}m to 24 {mu}m flux ratio depends on the dust heating and the dust destruction rates, and thereby it is a sensitive tracer of the gas density and temperature in the shocked plasma. We model the dust emission and grain destruction in the post-shock flow, and find that the observed 70 {mu}m to 24 {mu}m flux ratios are produced for post-shock densities, n{sub H}{approx}2.0 cm{sup -3} and electron temperatures of about 0.20 keV. We find that about 35% of the dust has been destroyed in the shock, and that non-thermal sputtering (i.e. sputtering due to bulk motion of the grains relative to the gas) contributes significantly to the dust destruction.

Sankrit, Ravi [SOFIA, NASA Ames Research Center, M/S 211-3, Moffett Field, CA 94041 (United States); Williams, Brian J.; Borkowski, Kazimierz J.; Reynolds, Stephen P. [North Carolina State University (United States); Raymond, John C.; Gaetz, Terrance J. [Smithsonian Astronomical Observatory (United States); Blair, William P. [Johns Hopkins University (United States); Ghavamian, Parviz; Long, Knox S. [STScI (United States)

2009-11-11

378

DUST DESTRUCTION IN A NON-RADIATIVE SHOCK IN THE CYGNUS LOOP SUPERNOVA REMNANT  

SciTech Connect

We present 24 {mu}m and 70 {mu}m images of a non-radiative shock in the Cygnus Loop supernova remnant, obtained with the Multiband Imaging Photometer for Spitzer on board the Spitzer Space Telescope. The post-shock region is resolved in these images. The ratio of the 70 {mu}m to the 24 {mu}m flux rises from about 14 at a distance 0.'1 behind the shock front to about 22 in a zone 0.'75 further downstream, as grains are destroyed in the hot plasma. Models of dust emission and destruction using post-shock electron temperatures between 0.15 keV and 0.30 keV and post-shock densities, n{sub H}{approx} 2.0 cm{sup -3}, predict flux ratios that match the observations. Non-thermal sputtering (i.e., sputtering due to bulk motion of the grains relative to the gas) contributes significantly to the dust destruction under these shock conditions. From the model calculations, we infer that about 35% by mass of the grains are destroyed over a 0.14 pc region behind the shock front.

Sankrit, Ravi [SOFIA/USRA, NASA Ames Research Center, M/S N211-3, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Williams, Brian J.; Borkowski, Kazimierz J.; Reynolds, Stephen P. [North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States); Gaetz, Terrance J.; Raymond, John C. [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, Tucson, AZ (United States); Blair, William P. [Johns Hopkins University, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD (United States); Ghavamian, Parviz; Long, Knox S. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD (United States)

2010-04-01

379

Image of the Supernova Remnant Cassiopeia A Taken by the High Energy Astronomy Observatory (HEAO)-2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This x-ray photograph of the Supernova remnant Cassiopeia A, taken with the High Energy Astronomy Observatory (HEAO) 2/Einstein Observatory, shows that the regions with fast moving knots of material in the expanding shell are bright and clear. A faint x-ray halo, just outside the bright shell, is interpreted as a shock wave moving ahead of the expanding debris. The HEAO-2, the first imaging and largest x-ray telescope built to date, was capable of producing actual photographs of x-ray objects. Shortly after launch, the HEAO-2 was nicknamed the Einstein Observatory by its scientific experimenters in honor of the centernial of the birth of Albert Einstein, whose concepts of relativity and gravitation have influenced much of modern astrophysics, particularly x-ray astronomy. The HEAO-2, designed and developed by TRW, Inc. under the project management of the Marshall Space Flight Center, was launched aboard an Atlas/Centaur launch vehicle on November 13, 1978.

1980-01-01

380

Neutral hydrogen towards 3C 10, the remnant of Tycho's supernova  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aperture synthesis observations of neutral hydrogen towards the remnant of Tycho's supernova (AD 1572), 3C 10, have been made with the Cambridge Half-Mile Telescope. Details of the absorption features indicate that the distance of 3C 10 is in the range of 1.7-3.7 kpc. The neutral hydrogen in a cloud in the local arm has a spin temperature of about 80 K and an optical depth of order unity. Numerous arc and filamentary structures are seen in emission; some have been analyzed in terms of expanding shells. These are found to have H I masses between 500 solar masses and 280,000 solar masses, and H I kinetic energies between 3.5 x 10 to the 40th J and 6 x 10 to the 43rd J. Stellar winds are proposed as energy sources for two of the arcs because three open clusters are near the center of curvature of one, and a bright star near the center of the other. An open cluster, three 9th mag stars and two CO clouds are seen to coincide with various minima in the H I emission. Two other CO clouds coincide with bright H I emission features, as does the small H II region S175.

Albinson, J. S.; Tuffs, R. J.; Swinbank, E.; Gull, S. F.

1986-03-01

381

Supernova Remnants in the Sedov Expansion Phase: Thermal X-Ray Emission  

E-print Network

Improved calculations of X-ray spectra for supernova remnants (SNRs) in the Sedov-Taylor phase are reported, which for the first time include reliable atomic data for Fe L-shell lines. This new set of Sedov models also allows for a partial collisionless heating of electrons at the blast wave and for energy transfer from ions to electrons through Coulomb collisions. X-ray emission calculations are based on the updated Hamilton-Sarazin spectral model. The calculated X-ray spectra are succesfully interpreted in terms of three distribution functions: the electron temperature and ionization timescale distributions, and the ionization timescale averaged electron temperature distribution. The comparison of Sedov models with a frequently used single nonequilibrium ionization (NEI) timescale model reveals that this simple model is generally not an appropriate approximation to X-ray spectra of SNRs. We find instead that plane-parallel shocks provide a useful approximation to X-ray spectra of SNRs, particularly for young SNRs. Sedov X-ray models described here, together with simpler plane shock and single ionization timescale models, have been implemented as standard models in the widely used XSPEC v11 spectral software package.

K. J. Borkowski; W. J. Lyerly; S. P. Reynolds

2000-08-03

382

Supernova Remnant Kesteven 27: Interaction with A Neighbor HI Cloud Viewed by Fermi  

E-print Network

We report on the likely detection of {\\gamma}-ray emission from the young supernova remnant (SNR) Kesteven 27 (Kes 27). We analyze 5.7 yr Fermi Large Area Telescope data of the SNR region and find a point source at a position consistent with the radio brightness peak of Kes 27, which is located in the eastern region of the SNR and caused by the interaction with a nearby HI cloud. The source's emission has a power-law spectrum with a photon index of 2.5$\\pm$0.1 and a >0.2 GeV luminosity of 5.8$\\times$10$^{34}$ erg s$^{-1}$ at a distance of 4.3 kpc. Comparing the properties of the source with that of other SNRs that are known to be interacting with nearby high-density clouds, we discuss the origin of the source's emission. The spectral energy distribution of the source can be described by a hadronic model that considers the interaction of protons, escaping from the shock front, with a high-density cloud.

Xing, Yi; Zhang, Xiao; Chen, Yang

2014-01-01

383

Kinematics of the Galactic Supernova Remnant G206.9+2.3  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We studied the kinematics of the galactic supernova remnant (SNR) G206.9+2.3 (PKS 0646+06) in the [SII] ? 6717 and 6731 Å lines, as one of the initial steps of a long-term project to determine kinematical distances to galactic SNRs with optical counterparts. We obtained the kinematic distance to this nebula by first showing that the filaments detected were in fact the optical counterpart of the radio SNR. The distance estimated here is slightly greater than that of the Monoceros Loop. We estimate that G206.9+2.3 is located about 2.2 kpc from the Sun, in a zone where several background and foreground nebulae at different velocities are seen in projection. We measured a shock velocity of 86 km s^{-1} and a linear diameter of 18 pc. Finally, we calculated the energy deposited in the interstellar medium by the SN explosion as 1.7× 10^{49} ergs and concluded that the SNR is in the radiative phase of evolution with an age of 6.4× 10^{4} years.

Ambrocio-Cruz, P.; Rosado, M.; Le Coarer, E.; Bernal, A.; Gutiérrez, L.

2014-10-01

384

The bizarre young supernova remnant G350.1-0.3  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

G350.1-0.3 is a very young and bright supernova remnant with an estimated age of 900 years and lies at a distance of 4.5 kpc. The radio continuum emission from the source is coincident with a bright X-ray source seen by XMM. In close proximity to the radio and X-Ray emission, there is a possible a neutron star associated with G350.1-0.3. We are embarking on a multi-wavelength effort to understand this apparently very young object. A key part of this campaign is a search for 1720-MHz OH masers. SNRs such as G350.1-0.3 are thought to be prime candidates for these masers, since the soft X-rays can dissociate water molecules and produce OH. A detection of the 1720-MHz OH line acts as direct evidence for interaction with molecular gas, and also provides a good distance estimate to the system. Furthermore, using the radio continuum emission from the second IF we will probe the magneto-ionic properties of the SNR by making Faraday Rotation Measure synthesis maps.

Harvey-Smith, Lisa; Gaensler, Bryan; McClure-Griffiths, Naomi; Slane, Patrick; Camilo, Fernando; Green, Anne; Brogan, Crystal; Lazendic-Galloway, Jasmina; Robishaw, Timothy

2008-10-01

385

Neutral pion emission from accelerated protons in the supernova remnant W44  

E-print Network

We present the AGILE gamma-ray observations in the energy range 50 MeV - 10 GeV of the supernova remnant (SNR) W44, one of the most interesting systems for studying cosmic-ray production. W44 is an intermediate-age SNR (20, 000 years) and its ejecta expand in a dense medium as shown by a prominent radio shell, nearby molecular clouds, and bright [SII] emitting regions. We extend our gamma-ray analysis to energies substantially lower than previous measurements which could not conclusively establish the nature of the radiation. We find that gamma-ray emission matches remarkably well both the position and shape of the inner SNR shocked plasma. Furthermore, the gamma-ray spectrum shows a prominent peak near 1 GeV with a clear decrement at energies below a few hundreds of MeV as expected from neutral pion decay. Here we demonstrate that: (1) hadron-dominated models are consistent with all W44 multiwavelength constraints derived from radio, optical, X-ray, and gamma-ray observations; (2) ad hoc lepton-dominated mod...

Giuliani, A; Tavani, M; Fukui, Y; Yoshiike, S; Torii, K; Dubner, G; Castelletti, G; Barbiellini, G; Bulgarelli, A; Caraveo, P; Costa, E; Cattaneo, P W; Chen, A; Contessi, T; Del Monte, E; Donnarumma, I; Evangelista, Y; Feroci, M; Gianotti, F; Lazzarotto, F; Lucarelli, F; Longo, F; Marisaldi, M; Mereghetti, S; Pacciani, L; Pellizzoni, A; Piano, G; Picozza, P; Pittori, C; Pucella, G; Rapisarda, M; Rappoldi, A; Sabatini, S; Soffitta, P; Striani, E; Trifoglio, M; Trois, A; Vercellone, S; Verrecchia, F; Vittorini, V; Colafrancesco, S; Giommi, P; Bignami, G

2011-01-01

386

The Most Likely Sources of High Energy Cosmic-Ray Electrons in Supernova Remnants  

E-print Network

Evidences of non-thermal X-ray emission and TeV gamma-rays from the supernova remnants (SNRs) has strengthened the hypothesis that primary Galactic cosmic-ray electrons are accelerated in SNRs. High energy electrons lose energy via synchrotron and inverse Compton processes during propagation in the Galaxy. Due to these radiative losses, TeV electrons liberated from SNRs at distances larger than ~1 kpc, or times older than ~10^5 yr, cannot reach the solar system. We investigated the cosmic-ray electron spectrum observed in the solar system using an analytical method, and considered several candidate sources among nearby SNRs which may contribute to the high energy electron flux. Especially, we discuss the effects for the release time from SNRs after the explosion, as well as the deviation of a source spectrum from a simple power-law. From this calculation, we found that some nearby sources such as the Vela, Cygnus Loop, or Monogem could leave unique signatures in the form of identifiable structure in the energ...

Kobayashi, T; Yoshida, K; Nishimura, J

2004-01-01

387

Synchrotron X-ray diagnostics of cutoff shape of nonthermal electron spectrum at young supernova remnants  

E-print Network

Context: The synchrotron X-rays can be a useful tool to investigate the electron acceleration at young supernova remnants (SNRs). Aims: At present, since the magnetic field configuration around the shocks of SNRs is uncertain, it is not clear whether the electron acceleration is limited by SNR age, synchrotron cooling, or even escape from the acceleration region. We study if the acceleration mechanism can be constrained by the cutoff shape of the electron spectrum around the maximum energy. Methods: We derive analytical formulae of the cutoff shape in each case where the maximum electron energy is determined by SNR age, synchrotron cooling and escape from the shock. They are related to the energy dependence of the electron diffusion coefficient. Next, we discuss whether information on the cutoff shape is provided by near future observations which gives simply the photon indices and the flux ratios in the soft and hard X-ray bands. Results: If the power-law index of the electron spectrum is independently deter...

Yamazaki, Ryo; Sawada, Makoto; Bamba, Aya

2014-01-01

388

UNRAVELING THE ORIGIN OF OVERIONIZED PLASMA IN THE GALACTIC SUPERNOVA REMNANT W49B  

SciTech Connect

Recent observations have shown several supernova remnants (SNRs) have overionized plasmas, where ions are stripped of more electrons than they would be if in equilibrium with the electron temperature. Rapid electron cooling is necessary to produce this situation, yet the physical origin of that cooling remains uncertain. To assess the cooling scenario responsible for overionization, in this paper we identify and map the overionized plasma in the Galactic SNR W49B based on a 220 ks Chandra Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer observation. We performed a spatially resolved spectroscopic analysis, measuring the electron temperature by modeling the continuum and comparing it to the temperature given by the flux ratio of the He-like and H-like lines of sulfur and argon. Using these results, we find that W49B is overionized in the west, with a gradient of overionization increasing from east to west. As the ejecta expansion is impeded by molecular material in the east but not in the west, our overionization maps suggest the dominant cooling mechanism is adiabatic expansion of the hot plasma.

Lopez, Laura A.; Castro, Daniel [MIT-Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, 37-664H, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Pearson, Sarah [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 30, 2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California Santa Cruz, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95060 (United States); Yamaguchi, Hiroya; Slane, Patrick O.; Smith, Randall K., E-mail: lopez@space.mit.edu [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

2013-11-10

389

The X-Ray Spectrum of the Supernova Remnant 1E 0102-72.3  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this letter we present the soft X-ray (5-35A) spectrum of the supernova remnant (SNR) IE 0102-72.3 in the Small Magellanic Cloud, acquired by the reflection grating spectrometer (RGS) aboard ESA's XMM-Newton Observatory. This extended-source X-ray spectrum of unprecedented spectral resolution (lambda/Delta(lambda) approx. 300) permits, for the first time, unabiguous identification and measurement of isolated emission lines and line complexes alike. The diagnostic power of performing spectroscopy using groups of emission lines from single ions is exemplified. In particular, the bright Lyman and helium series lines for light elements (C VI, O VII, O VIII, Ne IX, Ne X and possibly Mg XI & Mg XII) show peculiar ratios, where the values [1s - np] / [1s - (n + l)p] are systematically weaker than expected for electron impact excitation. These measured ratios resemble signatures of recombining or charge exchanging plasmas. We argue that charge exchange, given its large cross section and evidence for inhomogeneous media within the SNR, is a likely mechanism for the observed emission. Also. the well known temperature diagnostics G(T(sub e)) = (i + f)/r of helium- like triplets (O VII & Ne IX) indicate high temperatures, well above the maximum emission temperature T(sub m) for each ion, and consistent with a purely ionizing plasma. The density diagnostics R(n(sub e)) = f / i meanwhile, are consistent with the low density limit, as expected.

Rasmussen, Andrew P.; Behar, Ehud; Kahn, Steven M.; denHerder, Jan Willem; vanderHeyden, Kurt

1997-01-01

390

Chandra Spatially Resolved Spectroscopic Study and Multiwavelength Imaging of the Supernova Remnant 3C 397 (G41.1-0.3)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a Chandra observation of the supernova remnant (SNR) 3C 397 (G41.1-0.3) obtained with the Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer (ACIS-S). Previous studies of this SNR have shown that the remnant harbors a central X-ray ``hot spot'' suggestive of a compact object associated with 3C 397. With the Chandra data, we can rule out the nature of the hot spot as a pulsar or a pulsar wind nebula and put an upper limit on the flux of a hidden compact object of FX(0.5-10keV)~6×10-13 ergs cm-2 s-1. We found two point sources in the observed Chandra field. We argue that neither of them is associated with 3C 397 and that the hard source, CXO J190741.2+070650, which is characterized by a heavily absorbed spectrum with a strong Fe line, is a newly discovered active galactic nucleus. The Chandra image reveals arcsecond-scale clumps and knots that are strongly correlated with the radio VLA image, except for the X-ray hot spot. Our Chandra spatially resolved spectroscopic study shows that one-component models are inadequate and that at least two nonequilibrium ionization thermal components are needed to fit the spectra of each selected region. The derived average spectral parameters are consistent with the previous global ASCA fits performed by Safi-Harb and coworkers. However, the hard component requires a high abundance of Fe indicating the presence of hot Fe ejecta. When comparing the eastern with the western lobe, we find that the column density, the brightness, and the ionization timescales are generally higher for the western side. This result, combined with our study of the 3C 397 environs at millimeter wavelengths, indicates a denser medium to the west of the SNR. Our multiwavelength imaging and spectral study favors the scenario in which 3C 397 is a ~5300 year old SNR expanding in a medium with a marked density gradient and is likely to be encountering a molecular cloud on the western side. We propose that 3C 397 will evolve into a mixed-morphology SNR.

Safi-Harb, S.; Dubner, G.; Petre, R.; Holt, S. S.; Durouchoux, P.

2005-01-01

391