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Sample records for pulse duration modulation

  1. PULSE DURATION LENGTHENER

    DOEpatents

    Aiken, W.R.

    1958-02-01

    This patent pertains to pulse modifying apparatus and, more particularly, describes a device to provide a rise time and time base expander for signal pulses having a very short duration. The basic element of the device is a vacuum tube comprising a charged particie beam, grid control means, an accelerating electrode, a drift tube, and a collector electrode. As the short duration input pulse modulates the particle beam through the grid control means, the voltage between the drift tube and accelerating electrode is caused to vary, whereby the output signal from the collector is a pulse having longer rise time, expanded duration and proportionate characteristics of the original pulse. The invention is particuiarly useful where subsequent pulse circultry does not have the frequency bandwidth to handle the short duration pulse without distorting it.

  2. Effects of stimulation frequency versus pulse duration modulation on muscle fatigue

    PubMed Central

    Kesar, Trisha; Chou, Li-Wei; Binder-Macleod, Stuart A.

    2008-01-01

    During functional electrical stimulation (FES), both the frequency and intensity can be increased to increase muscle force output and counteract the effects of muscle fatigue. Most current FES systems, however, deliver a constant frequency and only vary the stimulation intensity to control muscle force. This study compared muscle performance and fatigue produced during repetitive electrical stimulation using three different strategies: (1) constant pulse-duration and stepwise increases in frequency (frequency-modulation); (2) constant frequency and stepwise increases in pulse-duration (pulse-duration-modulation); and (3) constant frequency and pulse-duration (no-modulation). Surface electrical stimulation was delivered to the quadriceps femoris muscles of 12 healthy individuals and isometric forces were recorded. Muscle performance was assessed by measuring the percent changes in the peak forces and force–time integrals between the first and the last fatiguing trains. Muscle fatigue was assessed by measuring percent declines in peak force between the 60 Hz pre- and post-fatigue testing trains. The results showed that frequency-modulation showed better performance for both peak forces and force–time integrals in response to the fatiguing trains than pulse-duration-modulation, while producing similar levels of muscle fatigue. Although frequency-modulation is not commonly used during FES, clinicians should consider this strategy to improve muscle performance. PMID:17317219

  3. High power fiber MOPA based QCW laser delivering pulses with arbitrary duration on demand at high modulation bandwidth.

    PubMed

    Petkovšek, Rok; Novak, Vid; Agrež, Vid

    2015-12-28

    We report on a concept of a fiber MOPA based quasi-CW laser working at high modulation bandwidths up to 40 MHz capable of producing arbitrary pulse durations at arbitrary repetition rates. An output power of over 100 W was achieved and an on-off contrast of 25 dB. The laser features a dual-channel (dual-wavelength) seed source, a double stage YDF amplifier and a volume-Bragg-grating-based signal de-multiplexer. Minimization of transients was conducted through experiment and model analysis. PMID:26831982

  4. Effects of pulse duration on magnetostimulation thresholds

    SciTech Connect

    Saritas, Emine U.; Goodwill, Patrick W.; Conolly, Steven M.

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Medical imaging techniques such as magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic particle imaging (MPI) utilize time-varying magnetic fields that are subject to magnetostimulation limits, which often limit the speed of the imaging process. Various human-subject experiments have studied the amplitude and frequency dependence of these thresholds for gradient or homogeneous magnetic fields. Another contributing factor was shown to be number of cycles in a magnetic pulse, where the thresholds decreased with longer pulses. The latter result was demonstrated on two subjects only, at a single frequency of 1.27 kHz. Hence, whether the observed effect was due to the number of cycles or due to the pulse duration was not specified. In addition, a gradient-type field was utilized; hence, whether the same phenomenon applies to homogeneous magnetic fields remained unknown. Here, the authors investigate the pulse duration dependence of magnetostimulation limits for a 20-fold range of frequencies using homogeneous magnetic fields, such as the ones used for the drive field in MPI. Methods: Magnetostimulation thresholds were measured in the arms of six healthy subjects (age: 27 ± 5 yr). Each experiment comprised testing the thresholds at eight different pulse durations between 2 and 125 ms at a single frequency, which took approximately 30–40 min/subject. A total of 34 experiments were performed at three different frequencies: 1.2, 5.7, and 25.5 kHz. A solenoid coil providing homogeneous magnetic field was used to induce stimulation, and the field amplitude was measured in real time. A pre-emphasis based pulse shaping method was employed to accurately control the pulse durations. Subjects reported stimulation via a mouse click whenever they felt a twitching/tingling sensation. A sigmoid function was fitted to the subject responses to find the threshold at a specific frequency and duration, and the whole procedure was repeated at all relevant frequencies and pulse durations

  5. Investigation of laser temporal pulse duration on Rayleigh scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Nee, T.A.; Roberts, J.R.

    1982-02-01

    Relative Rayleigh-scattering cross sections from nitrogen have been measured for various pulse durations and wavelengths of incident laser radiation. No pulse-duration dependence has been observed for laser pulses as short as 5 ns, and classical theory is found to be still valid over the pulse-width range (5< or =..delta..t< or =110 ns) of our observations.

  6. Period and pulse duration with "strobe" lights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birriel, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Strobe lights have traditionally been discussed in The Physics Teacher in the context of stop action strobe photography. During the Halloween season most department and hardware stores sell inexpensive, compact "strobe" lights (although these can be found online year round). These lights generally sell for under 10 and usually employ LED lights. Most such devices have a rotary switch to adjust the rate at which the LED bulbs flash. This rotary switch is not calibrated—i.e., it has no markings to indicate the rate, but in general the greater the rotation of the switch from the off position, the faster the rate of flashing. We show how these simple devices can be used with a light sensor to study both the frequency of flashing and the duration of the light pulse. We briefly discuss if these devices are truly strobe lights.

  7. Kicking atoms with finite duration pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fekete, Julia; Chai, Shijie; Daszuta, Boris; Andersen, Mikkel F.

    2016-05-01

    The atom optics delta-kicked particle is a paradigmatic system for experimental studies of quantum chaos and classical-quantum correspondence. It consists of a cloud of laser cooled atoms exposed to a periodically pulsed standing wave of far off-resonant laser light. A purely quantum phenomena in such systems are quantum resonances which transfers the atoms into a coherent superposition of largely separated momentum states. Using such large momentum transfer ``beamsplitters'' in atom interferometers may have applications in high precision metrology. The growth in momentum separation cannot be maintained indefinitely due to finite laser power. The largest momentum transfer is achieved by violating the usual delta-kick assumption. Therefore we explore the behavior of the atom optics kicked particle with finite pulse duration. We have developed a semi-classical model which shows good agreement with the full quantum description as well as our experiments. Furthermore we have found a simple scaling law that helps to identify optimal parameters for an atom interferometer. We verify this by measurements of the ``Talbot time'' (a measurement of h/m) which together with other well-known constants constitute a measurement of the fine structure constant.

  8. Effect of laser pulse duration in picosecond ultrasonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dehoux, T.; Perton, M.; Chigarev, N.; Rossignol, C.; Rampnoux, J.-M.; Audoin, B.

    2006-09-01

    An optical grating has been introduced in a picosecond ultrasonics experiment, in order to vary continuously the duration of the laser beam pulse from 0.1to150ps. The evolution of the measured signal has been observed and analyzed through the comparison with a theoretical approach based on a two-temperature model. The latter allows matching the acoustic echoes together with the thermal background and the coincidence peak, for each pulse duration and at any time scale. The broadening of the acoustic echoes and the disappearing of its Brillouin component, along with the diminishing of the thermal coincidence peak, have been demonstrated when increasing the pulse duration. For a constant incident pulse energy, the efficiency of acoustic generation is optimum for the shortest pulses. Nevertheless, for longer pulses designed to obtain thermal conditions below the ablation threshold, acoustic generation could be enhanced.

  9. Inductively stabilized, long pulse duration transverse discharge apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Sze, Robert C.

    1986-01-01

    An inductively stabilized, long pulse duration transverse discharge apparatus. The use of a segmented electrode where each segment is attached to an inductive element permits high energy, high efficiency, long-pulsed laser outputs to be obtained. The present apparatus has been demonstrated with rare-gas halide lasing media. Orders of magnitude increase in pulse repetition frequency are obtained in lasing devices that do not utilize gas flow.

  10. TDR Using Autocorrelation and Varying-Duration Pulses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucena, Angel; Mullinex, Pam; Huang, PoTien; Santiago, Josephine; Mata, Carlos; Zavala, Carlos; Lane, John

    2008-01-01

    In an alternative to a prior technique of time-domain-reflectometry (TDR) in which very short excitation pulses are used, the pulses have very short rise and fall times and the pulse duration is varied continuously between a minimum and a maximum value. In both the present and prior techniques, the basic idea is to (1) measure the times between the generation of excitation pulses and the reception of reflections of the pulses as indications of the locations of one or more defects along a cable and (2) measure the amplitudes of the reflections as indication of the magnitudes of the defects. In general, an excitation pulse has a duration T. Each leading and trailing edge of an excitation pulse generates a reflection from a defect, so that a unique pair of reflections is associated with each defect. In the present alternative technique, the processing of the measured reflection signal includes computation of the autocorrelation function R(tau) identical with fx(t)x(t-tau)dt where t is time, x(t) is the measured reflection signal at time t, and taus is the correlation interval. The integration is performed over a measurement time interval short enough to enable identification and location of a defect within the corresponding spatial interval along the cable. Typically, where there is a defect, R(tau) exhibits a negative peak having maximum magnitude for tau in the vicinity of T. This peak can be used as a means of identifying a leading-edge/trailing-edge reflection pair. For a given spatial interval, measurements are made and R(tau) computed, as described above, for pulse durations T ranging from the minimum to the maximum value. The advantage of doing this is that the effective signal-to-noise ratio may be significantly increased over that attainable by use of a fixed pulse duration T.

  11. Precise manipulation on spike train of uneven duration or delay pulses with a time grating system.

    PubMed

    Li, Yue; Wang, Shiwei; Xu, Jianqiu; Tang, Yulong

    2015-11-16

    In this paper, we proposed a time grating system to achieve spike train of uneven duration or delay (STUD) pulses, and theoretically study their features under various modulation conditions. This time grating scheme, which is a temporal analogy of spatial grating, introduces great degree of freedom for controlling the output pulse characteristics (pulse width, repetition rate, pulse shape, etc.) through simply tuning the electronics elements and the programmable phase modulation function. The narrowest pulse width is highly determined by the modulation parameters and the branch number N, and the numerically obtained value is around tens of femtoseconds in the current case. When super-Gaussian pulses are modulated with an optimized and modified trapezoidal function, the pulse rising/falling edge can be greatly compressed to form a clean nearly-square wave (with edges less than 10 fs). STUD pulses generated with this time grating system have high-degree controllability and are very beneficial for suppressing parametric instabilities in laser driven inertial confinement fusion. PMID:26698432

  12. Pulse amplitude modulated chlorophyll fluorometer

    SciTech Connect

    Greenbaum, Elias; Wu, Jie

    2015-12-29

    Chlorophyll fluorometry may be used for detecting toxins in a sample because of changes in micro algae. A portable lab on a chip ("LOAC") based chlorophyll fluorometer may be used for toxin detection and environmental monitoring. In particular, the system may include a microfluidic pulse amplitude modulated ("PAM") chlorophyll fluorometer. The LOAC PAM chlorophyll fluorometer may analyze microalgae and cyanobacteria that grow naturally in source drinking water.

  13. Development of high-voltage pulse-slicer unit with variable pulse duration for pulse radiolysis system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Upadhyay, J.; Sharma, M. L.; Navathe, C. P.; Toley, M. A.; Shinde, S. J.; Nadkarni, S. A.; Sarkar, S. K.

    2012-02-01

    A high-voltage pulse-slicer unit with variable pulse duration has been developed and integrated with a 7 MeV linear electron accelerator (LINAC) for pulse radiolysis investigation. The pulse-slicer unit provides switching voltage from 1 kV to 10 kV with rise time better than 5 ns. Two MOSFET based 10 kV switches were configured in differential mode to get variable duration pulses. The high-voltage pulse has been applied to the deflecting plates of the LINAC for slicing of electron beam of 2 μs duration. The duration of the electron beam has been varied from 30 ns to 2 μs with the optimized pulse amplitude of 7 kV to get corresponding radiation doses from 6 Gy to 167 Gy.

  14. The Duration of Motor Responses Evoked with Intracortical Microstimulation in Rats Is Primarily Modulated by Stimulus Amplitude and Train Duration

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Meghan; Sawan, Mohamad

    2016-01-01

    Microstimulation of brain tissue plays a key role in a variety of sensory prosthetics, clinical therapies and research applications, however the effects of stimulation parameters on the responses they evoke remain widely unknown. In particular, the effects of parameters when delivered in the form of a stimulus train as opposed to a single pulse are not well understood despite the prevalence of stimulus train use. We aimed to investigate the contribution of each parameter of a stimulus train to the duration of the motor responses they evoke in forelimb muscles. We used constant-current, biphasic, square wave pulse trains in acute terminal experiments under ketamine anaesthesia. Stimulation parameters were systematically tested in a pair-wise fashion in the caudal forelimb region of the motor cortex in 7 Sprague-Dawley rats while motor evoked potential (MEP) recordings from the forelimb were used to quantify the influence of each parameter in the train. Stimulus amplitude and train duration were shown to be the dominant parameters responsible for increasing the total duration of the MEP, while interphase interval had no effect. Increasing stimulus frequency from 100–200 Hz or pulse duration from 0.18–0.34 ms were also effective methods of extending response durations. Response duration was strongly correlated with peak time and amplitude. Our findings suggest that motor cortex intracortical microstimulations are often conducted at a higher frequency rate and longer train duration than necessary to evoke maximal response duration. We demonstrated that the temporal properties of the evoked response can be both predicted by certain response metrics and modulated via alterations to the stimulation signal parameters. PMID:27442588

  15. The Duration of Motor Responses Evoked with Intracortical Microstimulation in Rats Is Primarily Modulated by Stimulus Amplitude and Train Duration.

    PubMed

    Watson, Meghan; Sawan, Mohamad; Dancause, Numa

    2016-01-01

    Microstimulation of brain tissue plays a key role in a variety of sensory prosthetics, clinical therapies and research applications, however the effects of stimulation parameters on the responses they evoke remain widely unknown. In particular, the effects of parameters when delivered in the form of a stimulus train as opposed to a single pulse are not well understood despite the prevalence of stimulus train use. We aimed to investigate the contribution of each parameter of a stimulus train to the duration of the motor responses they evoke in forelimb muscles. We used constant-current, biphasic, square wave pulse trains in acute terminal experiments under ketamine anaesthesia. Stimulation parameters were systematically tested in a pair-wise fashion in the caudal forelimb region of the motor cortex in 7 Sprague-Dawley rats while motor evoked potential (MEP) recordings from the forelimb were used to quantify the influence of each parameter in the train. Stimulus amplitude and train duration were shown to be the dominant parameters responsible for increasing the total duration of the MEP, while interphase interval had no effect. Increasing stimulus frequency from 100-200 Hz or pulse duration from 0.18-0.34 ms were also effective methods of extending response durations. Response duration was strongly correlated with peak time and amplitude. Our findings suggest that motor cortex intracortical microstimulations are often conducted at a higher frequency rate and longer train duration than necessary to evoke maximal response duration. We demonstrated that the temporal properties of the evoked response can be both predicted by certain response metrics and modulated via alterations to the stimulation signal parameters. PMID:27442588

  16. Energy distribution of fast electrons accelerated by high intensity laser pulse depending on laser pulse duration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kojima, Sadaoki; Arikawa, Yasunobu; Morace, Alessio; Hata, Masayasu; Nagatomo, Hideo; Ozaki, Tetsuo; Sakata, Shohei; Lee, Seung Ho; Matsuo, Kazuki; Farley Law, King Fai; Tosaki, Shota; Yogo, Akifumi; Johzaki, Tomoyuki; Sunahara, Atsushi; Sakagami, Hitoshi; Nakai, Mitsuo; Nishimura, Hiroaki; Shiraga, Hiroyuki; Fujioka, Shinsuke; Azechi, Hiroshi

    2016-05-01

    The dependence of high-energy electron generation on the pulse duration of a high intensity LFEX laser was experimentally investigated. The LFEX laser (λ = 1.054 and intensity = 2.5 – 3 x 1018 W/cm2) pulses were focused on a 1 mm3 gold cubic block after reducing the intensities of the foot pulse and pedestal by using a plasma mirror. The full width at half maximum (FWHM) duration of the intense laser pulse could be set to either 1.2 ps or 4 ps by temporally stacking four beams of the LFEX laser, for which the slope temperature of the high-energy electron distribution was 0.7 MeV and 1.4 MeV, respectively. The slope temperature increment cannot be explained without considering pulse duration effects on fast electron generation.

  17. Role of PTHrP(1-34) Pulse Frequency Versus Pulse Duration to Enhance Mesenchymal Stromal Cell Chondrogenesis.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Jennifer; Ortel, Marlen; Hagmann, Sebastien; Hoeflich, Andreas; Richter, Wiltrud

    2016-12-01

    Generation of phenotypically stable, articular chondrocytes from mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) is still an unaccomplished task, with formation of abundant, hyaline extracellular matrix, and avoidance of hypertrophy being prime challenges. We recently demonstrated that parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) is a promising factor to direct chondrogenesis of MSCs towards an articular phenotype, since intermittent PTHrP application stimulated cartilage matrix production and reduced undesired hypertrophy. We here investigated the role of frequency, pulse duration, total exposure time, and underlying mechanisms in order to unlock the full potential of PTHrP actions. Human MSC subjected to in vitro chondrogenesis for six weeks were exposed to 2.5 nM PTHrP(1-34) pulses from days 7 to 42. Application frequency was increased from three times weekly (3 × 6 h/week) to daily maintaining either the duration of individual pulses (6 h/day) or total exposure time (18 h/week; 2.6 h/day). Daily PTHrP treatment significantly increased extracellular matrix deposition regardless of pulse duration and suppressed alkaline-phosphatase activity by 87%. High total exposure time significantly reduced cell proliferation at day 14. Pulse duration was critically important to significantly reduce IHH expression, but irrelevant for PTHrP-induced suppression of the hypertrophic markers MEF2C and IBSP. COL10A1, RUNX2, and MMP13 expression remained unaltered. Decreased IGFBP-2, -3, and -6 expression suggested modulated IGF-I availability in PTHrP groups, while drop of SOX9 protein levels during the PTHrP-pulse may delay chondroblast formation and hypertrophy. Overall, the significantly optimized timing of PTHrP-pulses demonstrated a vast potential to enhance chondrogenesis of MSC and suppress hypertrophy possibly via superior balancing of IGF- and SOX9-related mechanisms. J. Cell. Physiol. 231: 2673-2681, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27548511

  18. Heterodimer Autorepression Loop: A Robust and Flexible Pulse-Generating Genetic Module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lannoo, B.; Carlon, E.; Lefranc, M.

    2016-07-01

    We investigate the dynamics of the heterodimer autorepression loop (HAL), a small genetic module in which a protein A acts as an autorepressor and binds to a second protein B to form an A B dimer. For suitable values of the rate constants, the HAL produces pulses of A alternating with pulses of B . By means of analytical and numerical calculations, we show that the duration of A pulses is extremely robust against variation of the rate constants while the duration of the B pulses can be flexibly adjusted. The HAL is thus a minimal genetic module generating robust pulses with a tunable duration, an interesting property for cellular signaling.

  19. Modulated pulse bathymetric lidar Monte Carlo simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Tao; Wang, Yabo; Wang, Rong; Du, Peng; Min, Xia

    2015-10-01

    A typical modulated pulse bathymetric lidar system is investigated by simulation using a modulated pulse lidar simulation system. In the simulation, the return signal is generated by Monte Carlo method with modulated pulse propagation model and processed by mathematical tools like cross-correlation and digital filter. Computer simulation results incorporating the modulation detection scheme reveal a significant suppression of the water backscattering signal and corresponding target contrast enhancement. More simulation experiments are performed with various modulation and reception variables to investigate the effect of them on the bathymetric system performance.

  20. Synchronization tracking in pulse position modulation receiver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vilnrotter, Victor A.

    1987-01-01

    A clock pulse generator for decoding pulse position modulation in an optical communication receiver is synchronized by a delay tracking loop which multiplies impulses of a data pulse by the square wave clock pulses from the generator to produce positive impulses when the clock pulse is of one level, and negative impulses when the clock pulse is of another level. A delay tracking loop integrates the impulses and produces an error signal that adjusts the delay so the clock pulses will be synchronized with data pulses. A dead-time tau sub d is provided between data pulses of an interval tau sub p in the data pulse period tau. When synchronized, the average number of positive impulses integrated will equal the average number of negative impulses over the continuous stream of data pulses.

  1. Phase matching of high order harmonic generation using dynamic phase modulation caused by a non-collinear modulation pulse

    DOEpatents

    Cohen, Oren; Kapteyn, Henry C.; Mumane, Margaret M.

    2010-02-16

    Phase matching high harmonic generation (HHG) uses a single, long duration non-collinear modulating pulse intersecting the driving pulse. A femtosecond driving pulse is focused into an HHG medium (such as a noble gas) to cause high-harmonic generation (HHG), for example in the X-ray region of the spectrum, via electrons separating from and recombining with gas atoms. A non-collinear pulse intersects the driving pulse within the gas, and modulates the field seen by the electrons while separated from their atoms. The modulating pulse is low power and long duration, and its frequency and amplitude is chosen to improve HHG phase matching by increasing the areas of constructive interference between the driving pulse and the HHG, relative to the areas of destructive interference.

  2. A Long Pulse Solid State Induction Modulator

    SciTech Connect

    Cassel, R

    2004-05-04

    The Next Linear Collider accelerator is developing a high efficiency, highly reliable, and low cost pulsed-power modulator to drive the NLC 500KV, 230A X band klystrons. The induction of fractional turn transformer is most applicable for short pulse width of less than 1.5 microseconds due to the size of the induction cores involved. This paper will cover the techniques SLAC is developing to use the induction modulator in longer pulse operation of up to 15 microseconds. The 3 microseconds SLAC design as will, as the proposals for wider pulse application will be discussed.

  3. Note: compact helical pulse forming line for the generation of longer duration rectangular pulse.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Surender Kumar; Deb, P; Sharma, Archana; Shukla, R; Prabaharan, T; Adhikary, B; Shyam, A

    2012-06-01

    The helical pulsed forming line (PFL) can generate longer duration rectangular pulse in a smaller length. A compact PFL using helical water line is designed and experimentally investigated. The impedance of the helical PFL is 22 [ohm sign]. The compactness is achieved in terms of reduction in length of the PFL by a factor of 5.5 using helical water PFL as compared to coaxial water PFL of same length. The helical PFL was pulsed charged to 200 kV using a high voltage pulse transformer in 4.5 μs and discharged into the matched 22 Ω resistive load through a self-breakdown pressurized spark gap switch. The rectangular voltage pulse of 100 kV, 260 ns (FWHM) is measured across the load. The effect of reduction in water temperature on the pulse width is also studied experimentally. The increase in pulse width up to 7% more is observed by reducing the temperature of the deionized water to 5 °C. It will further reduce the length of the PFL and make the system small for compact pulsed power drivers. PMID:22755669

  4. On pulse duration of self-terminating lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bokhan, P. A.

    2011-02-01

    The problem of the maximum pulse duration τmax of self-terminating lasers is considered. It is shown that the duration depends on the transition probability in the laser channel, on the decay rate of the resonant state in all other channels, and on the excitation rate of the metastable state. As a result, τmax is found to be significantly shorter than previously estimated. The criteria for converting the 'self-terminating' lasing to quasi-cw lasing are determined. It is shown that in the case of nonselective depopulation of the metastable state, for example in capillary lasers or in a fast flow of the active medium gas, it is impossible to obtain continuous lasing. Some concrete examples are considered. It is established that in several studies of barium vapour lasers (λ = 1.5 μm) and nitrogen lasers (λ = 337 nm), collisional lasing is obtained by increasing the relaxation rate of the metastable state in collisions with working particles (barium atoms and nitrogen molecules).

  5. Investigation of stone retropulsion as a function of Ho:YAG Laser pulse duration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Hyun Wook; Lee, Ho; Petersen, Jason; Teichman, J. H.; Welch, A. J.

    2006-02-01

    Stone retropulsion during Ho:YAG (λ = 2.12 μm) laser lithotripsy with various pulse durations (τ p: 250 ~ 495 μsec) was investigated. Depending on pulse energy, optical pulse durations were divided into two regimes: short pulse (250~350 μsec) and long pulse (315~495 μsec). Retropulsion distance was measured as a function of pulse energy from 0.4 J to 1.2 J. Calculus phantoms made from plaster of Paris were ablated with a free running Ho:YAG laser using various optical fibers (200, 400, 600 μm) in water. In order to examine the ablation efficiency of two different pulse durations, a single pulse was applied, and the dynamics of the recoil action of a calculus phantom was monitored using a high-speed camera. The correlation among laser-induced topography, ablation volume, and retropulsion was evaluated. Higher pulse energy and larger fibers resulted in larger ablation volume and retropulsion. At a given pulse energy, optical pulses with different durations yielded comparable ablation volumes. The shorter duration pulses induced more retropulsion than longer pulses did at the same pulse energy. Larger retropulsion with the shorter pulse is thought to be induced by higher temperature at the vapor-solid interface, subsequently resulting in faster plume ejection with higher recoil momentum. The results suggest that a longer pulse could minimize retropulsion of the stone during lithotripsy.

  6. Simple circuit produces high-speed, fixed duration pulses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrahan, N. M.

    1965-01-01

    Circuit generates an output pulse of fixed width from a variable width input pulse. The circuit consists of a tunnel diode in parallel with an inductance driven by a constant current generator. It is used for pulsed communication equipment design.

  7. Generation of individually modulated femtosecond pulse string by multilayer volume holographic gratings.

    PubMed

    Yan, Xiaona; Gao, Lirun; Yang, Xihua; Dai, Ye; Chen, Yuanyuan; Ma, Guohong

    2014-10-20

    A scheme to generate individually modulated femtosecond pulse string by multilayer volume holographic grating (MVHG) is proposed. Based on Kogelnik's coupled-wave theory and matrix optics, temporal and spectral expressions of diffracted field are given when a femtosecond pulse is diffracted by a MVHG. It is shown that the number of diffracted sub-pulses in the pulse string equals to the number of grating layers of the MVHG, peak intensity and duration of each diffracted sub-pulse depend on thickness of the corresponding grating layer, whereas pulse interval between adjacent sub-pulses is related to thickness of the corresponding buffer layer. Thus by modulating parameters of the MVHG, individually modulated femtosecond pulse string can be acquired. Based on Bragg selectivity of the volume grating and phase shift provided by the buffer layers, we give an explanation on these phenomena. The result is useful to design MVHG-based devices employed in optical communications, pulse shaping and processing. PMID:25401645

  8. Pulse width modulation inverter with battery charger

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slicker, James M. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    An inverter is connected between a source of DC power and a three-phase AC induction motor, and a microprocessor-based circuit controls the inverter using pulse width modulation techniques. In the disclosed method of pulse width modulation, both edges of each pulse of a carrier pulse train are equally modulated by a time proportional to sin .theta., where .theta. is the angular displacement of the pulse center at the motor stator frequency from a fixed reference point on the carrier waveform. The carrier waveform frequency is a multiple of the motor stator frequency. The modulated pulse train is then applied to each of the motor phase inputs with respective phase shifts of 120.degree. at the stator frequency. Switching control commands for electronic switches in the inverter are stored in a random access memory (RAM) and the locations of the RAM are successively read out in a cyclic manner, each bit of a given RAM location controlling a respective phase input of the motor. The DC power source preferably comprises rechargeable batteries and all but one of the electronic switches in the inverter can be disabled, the remaining electronic switch being part of a flyback DC-DC converter circuit for recharging the battery.

  9. Pulse width modulation inverter with battery charger

    DOEpatents

    Slicker, James M.

    1985-01-01

    An inverter is connected between a source of DC power and a three-phase AC induction motor, and a microprocessor-based circuit controls the inverter using pulse width modulation techniques. In the disclosed method of pulse width modulation, both edges of each pulse of a carrier pulse train are equally modulated by a time proportional to sin .theta., where .theta. is the angular displacement of the pulse center at the motor stator frequency from a fixed reference point on the carrier waveform. The carrier waveform frequency is a multiple of the motor stator frequency. The modulated pulse train is then applied to each of the motor phase inputs with respective phase shifts of 120.degree. at the stator frequency. Switching control commands for electronic switches in the inverter are stored in a random access memory (RAM) and the locations of the RAM are successively read out in a cyclic manner, each bit of a given RAM location controlling a respective phase input of the motor. The DC power source preferably comprises rechargeable batteries and all but one of the electronic switches in the inverter can be disabled, the remaining electronic switch being part of a "flyback" DC-DC converter circuit for recharging the battery.

  10. Three-Level 48-Pulse STATCOM with Pulse Width Modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Bhim; Srinivas, Kadagala Venkata

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, a new control strategy of a three-level 48-pulse static synchronous compensator (STATCOM) is proposed with a constant dc link voltage and pulse width modulation at fundamental frequency switching. The proposed STATCOM is realized using eight units of three-level voltage source converters (VSCs) to form a three-level 48-pulse STATCOM. The conduction angle of each three-level VSC is modulated to control the ac converter output voltage, which controls the reactive power of the STATCOM. A fuzzy logic controller is used to control the STATCOM. The dynamic performance of the STATCOM is studied for the control of the reference reactive power, the reference terminal voltage and under the switching of inductive and capacitive loads.

  11. 140-fs duration and 60-W peak power blue-violet optical pulses generated by a dispersion-compensated GaInN mode-locked semiconductor laser diode using a nonlinear pulse compressor.

    PubMed

    Kono, Shunsuke; Watanabe, Hideki; Koda, Rintaro; Fuutagawa, Noriyuki; Narui, Hironobu

    2015-12-14

    Blue-violet optical pulses of 140-fs duration and 60-W peak power were obtained from a dispersion-compensated GaInN mode-locked semiconductor laser diode using a nonlinear pulse compression technique. Wavelength-dependent group velocity dispersion expressed by third-order phase dispersion was applied to the optical pulses using a pulse compressor with a spatial light modulator. The obtained optical pulses had the shortest duration ever obtained for a mode-locked semiconductor laser diode using edge-emitting type devices. PMID:26698968

  12. Circuit multiplies pulse width modulation, exhibits linear transfer function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlson, A. W.; Furciniti, A.

    1967-01-01

    Modulation multiplier provides a simple means of multiplying the width modulation of a pulse train by a constant factor. It operates directly on a pulse width modulated input signal to generate an output pulse train having a greater degree of width modulation than the input signal.

  13. Optimal control of laser plasma instabilities using Spike Trains of Uneven Duration and Delay (STUD pulses) for ICF and IFE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afeyan, Bedros; Hüller, Stefan

    2013-11-01

    An adaptive method of controlling parametric instabilities in laser produced plasmas is proposed. It involves fast temporal modulation of a laser pulse on the fastest instability's amplification time scale, adapting to changing and unknown plasma conditions. These pulses are comprised of on and off sequences having at least one or two orders of magnitude contrast between them. Such laser illumination profiles are called STUD pulses for Spike Trains of Uneven Duration and Delay. The STUD pulse program includes scrambling the speckle patterns spatially in between the laser spikes. The off times allow damping of driven waves. The scrambling of the hot spots allows tens of damping times to elapse before hot spot locations experience recurring high intensity spikes. Damping in the meantime will have healed the scars of past growth. Another unique feature of STUD pulses on crossing beams is that their temporal profiles can be interlaced or staggered, and their interactions thus controlled with an on-off switch and a dimmer.

  14. Coherent pulse position modulation quantum cipher

    SciTech Connect

    Sohma, Masaki; Hirota, Osamu

    2014-12-04

    On the basis of fundamental idea of Yuen, we present a new type of quantum random cipher, where pulse position modulated signals are encrypted in the picture of quantum Gaussian wave form. We discuss the security of our proposed system with a phase mask encryption.

  15. Effect of wavelength and pulse duration on laser micro-welding of monocrystalline silicon and glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nordin, I. H. W.; Okamoto, Y.; Okada, A.; Jiang, H.; Sakagawa, T.

    2016-04-01

    Micro-welding characteristics of silicon and glass by pulsed lasers are described. In this study, four types of laser beam, which are nanosecond pulsed laser and picosecond pulsed laser of 532 and 1064 nm in wavelength, were used for joining monocrystalline silicon and glass. Influence of wavelength and pulse duration on micro-welding of monocrystalline silicon and glass was experimentally investigated under the same spot diameter, and the molten area of monocrystalline silicon and glass was characterized. Finally, the breaking strength was evaluated for the overlap weld joint with different pulse duration and wavelength. A splash area of molten silicon around the weld bead line was obvious in the nanosecond pulsed laser. On the other hand, there was no remarkable molten splash around the weld bead line in the picosecond pulsed laser. Breaking strength of specimens with 1064 nm wavelength was higher than with 532 nm wavelength in nanosecond laser, whereas breaking strength of laser-irradiated specimen by picosecond pulse duration was higher than that by nanosecond pulse duration. It is concluded that the combination of picosecond pulse duration and infrared wavelength leads to the stable molten area appearance of the weld bead and higher breaking strength in micro-welding of glass and monocrystalline silicon.

  16. Influence of laser pulse duration on extreme ultraviolet and ion emission features from tin plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Roy, A. E-mail: aroy@barc.gov.in; Harilal, S. S.; Polek, M. P.; Hassan, S. M.; Hassanein, A.; Endo, A.

    2014-03-15

    We investigated the role of laser pulse duration and intensity on extreme ultraviolet (EUV) generation and ion emission from a laser produced Sn plasma. For producing plasmas, planar slabs of pure Sn were irradiated with 1064 nm Nd:YAG laser pulses with varying pulse duration (5–20 ns) and intensity. Experimental results performed at CMUXE indicate that the conversion efficiency (CE) of the EUV radiation strongly depend on laser pulse width and intensity, with a maximum CE of ∼2.0% measured for the shortest laser pulse width used (5 ns). Faraday Cup ion analysis of Sn plasma showed that the ion flux kinetic profiles are shifted to higher energy side with the reduction in laser pulse duration and narrower ion kinetic profiles are obtained for the longest pulse width used. However, our initial results showed that at a constant laser energy, the ion flux is more or less constant regardless of the excitation laser pulse width. The enhanced EUV emission obtained at shortest laser pulse duration studied is related to efficient laser-plasma reheating supported by presence of higher energy ions at these pulse durations.

  17. Solid-state pulse modulator for a 1.7-MW X-band magnetron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Jaegu; Shin, Yong-Moon; Choi, Young-Wook; Kim, Kwan-Ho

    2014-05-01

    Medical linear accelerators (LINAC) for cancer treatment require pulse modulators to generate high-power pulses with a fast rise time, flat top and short duration to drive high-power magnetrons. Solid-state pulse modulators (SSPM) for medical LINACs that use high power semiconductor switches with high repetition rates, high stability and long lifetimes have been introduced to replace conventional linear-type pulse generators that use gaseous discharge switches. In this paper, the performance of a developed SSPM, which mainly consists of a capacitor charger, an insulatedgate bipolar transistor (IGBT)-capacitor stack and a pulse transformer, is evaluated with a dummy load and an X-band magnetron load. A theoretical analysis of the pulse transformer, which is a critical element of the SSPM, is carried out. The output pulse has a fast rise time and low droop, such that the modulator can drive the X-band magnetron.

  18. State dependent model predictive control for orbital rendezvous using pulse-width pulse-frequency modulated thrusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Peng; Zhu, Zheng H.; Meguid, S. A.

    2016-07-01

    This paper studies the pulse-width pulse-frequency modulation based trajectory planning for orbital rendezvous and proximity maneuvering near a non-cooperative spacecraft in an elliptical orbit. The problem is formulated by converting the continuous control input, output from the state dependent model predictive control, into a sequence of pulses of constant magnitude by controlling firing frequency and duration of constant-magnitude thrusters. The state dependent model predictive control is derived by minimizing the control error of states and control roughness of control input for a safe, smooth and fuel efficient approaching trajectory. The resulting nonlinear programming problem is converted into a series of quadratic programming problem and solved by numerical iteration using the receding horizon strategy. The numerical results show that the proposed state dependent model predictive control with the pulse-width pulse-frequency modulation is able to effectively generate optimized trajectories using equivalent control pulses for the proximity maneuvering with less energy consumption.

  19. Efficient excitation of a mesospheric sodium laser guide star by intermediate-duration pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, J.R.

    1994-02-01

    Calculations of backscatter emission of meosopheric sodium atoms in a laser guide star that is excited by pulses ranging from 30-ns to 0.9-{mu}s duration are described. The efficient use of such pulses at saturating irradiance values is shown to require {approximately} 3 GHz of spectral broadening to provide access to the full absorption spectrum of the D{sub 2} line. The broadening is provided by frequency modulation. A set of density matrices was used to account for all 24 hyperfine states and inhomogeneous Doppler broadening. At the broadband (3-GHz) saturation irradiance of 4 W/cm{sup 2}, both linearly and circularly polarized laser beams are shown to produce emission rates exceeding 60% of the maximum possible rate-equation rate for the 0.9-{mu}s pulses. As expected, circular polarization produced more backscatter than did linear polarization, but the enhancement never exceeded 1/3 in the calculations that are reported. A brief estimate of state precession in the Earth`s magnetic field suggests that achieving even this enhancement will require that the time scale for optical pumping be held to less than 1 {mu}s, which will require the use of irradiances greater than 0.7 W/cm{sup 2} and spectral coverage of the full 3-GHz hyperfine-plus-Doppler absorption profile, at least until most of the population is pumped out of the F = 1 ground states. 46 refs., 24 figs., 5 tabs.

  20. Waveform design considerations for modulated pulse lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Connor, Shawn; Lee, Robert; Mullen, Linda; Cochenour, Brandon

    2014-05-01

    Techniques have been developed to mitigate many of the issues associated with underwater imaging in turbid environments. However, as targets get smaller and better camouflaged, new techniques are needed to enhance system sensitivity. Researchers at NAVAIR have been developing several techniques that use RF modulation to suppress background clutter and enhance target detection. One approach in particular uses modulation to encode a pulse in a synchronous line scan configuration. Previous results have shown this technique to be effective at both forward and backscatter suppression. Nearly a perfect analog to modulated pulse radar, this technique can leverage additional signal processing and pulse encoding schemes to further suppress background clutter, pull signals out of noise, and improve image resolution. Additionally, using a software controlled transmitter, we can exploit this flexibility without the need to change out expensive hardware. Various types of encoding schemes were tested and compared. We report on their comparative effectiveness relative to a more conventional non-coded pulse scheme to suppress background clutter and improved target detection.

  1. Programmable Pulse-Position-Modulation Encoder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, David; Farr, William

    2006-01-01

    A programmable pulse-position-modulation (PPM) encoder has been designed for use in testing an optical communication link. The encoder includes a programmable state machine and an electronic code book that can be updated to accommodate different PPM coding schemes. The encoder includes a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) that is programmed to step through the stored state machine and code book and that drives a custom high-speed serializer circuit board that is capable of generating subnanosecond pulses. The stored state machine and code book can be updated by means of a simple text interface through the serial port of a personal computer.

  2. Method and apparatus for producing durationally short ultraviolet or x-ray laser pulses

    DOEpatents

    MacGowan, B.J.; Matthews, D.L.; Trebes, J.E.

    1987-05-05

    A method and apparatus is disclosed for producing ultraviolet or x- ray laser pulses of short duration. An ultraviolet or x-ray laser pulse of long duration is progressively refracted, across the surface of an opaque barrier, by a streaming plasma that is produced by illuminating a solid target with a pulse of conventional line focused high power laser radiation. The short pulse of ultraviolet or x-ray laser radiation, which may be amplified to high power, is separated out by passage through a slit aperture in the opaque barrier.

  3. Method and apparatus for producing durationally short ultraviolet or X-ray laser pulses

    DOEpatents

    MacGowan, Brian J.; Matthews, Dennis L.; Trebes, James E.

    1988-01-01

    A method and apparatus is disclosed for producing ultraviolet or X-ray laser pulses of short duration (32). An ultraviolet or X-ray laser pulse of long duration (12) is progressively refracted, across the surface of an opaque barrier (28), by a streaming plasma (22) that is produced by illuminating a solid target (16, 18) with a pulse of conventional line focused high power laser radiation (20). The short pulse of ultraviolet or X-ray laser radiation (32), which may be amplified to high power (40, 42), is separated out by passage through a slit aperture (30) in the opaque barrier (28).

  4. Dynamics of frequency-modulated soliton-like pulses in a longitudinally inhomogeneous, anomalous group velocity dispersion fibre amplifier

    SciTech Connect

    Zolotovskii, Igor' O; Korobko, D A; Okhotnikov, Oleg G; Sysolyatin, A A; Fotiadi, A A

    2012-09-30

    We examine conditions for the formation and amplification of frequency-modulated soliton-like pulses in longitudinally inhomogeneous, anomalous group velocity dispersion fibres. The group velocity dispersion profiles necessary for the existence and amplification of such pulses in active fibres are identified and the pulse duration and chirp are determined as functions of propagation distance. (optical fibres, lasers and amplifiers. properties and applications)

  5. Influence of the cubic spectral phase of high-power laser pulses on their self-phase modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ginzburg, V. N.; Kochetkov, A. A.; Yakovlev, I. V.; Mironov, S. Yu; Shaykin, A. A.; Khazanov, E. A.

    2016-02-01

    Spectral broadening of high-power transform-limited laser pulses under self-phase modulation in a medium with cubic nonlinearity is widely used to reduce pulse duration and to increase its power. It is shown that the cubic spectral phase of the initial pulse leads to a qualitatively different broadening of its spectrum: the spectrum has narrow peaks and broadening decreases. However, the use of chirped mirrors allows such pulses to be as effectively compressed as transform-limited pulses.

  6. The effects of pulse duration on ablation pressure driven by laser radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Lei; Li, Xiao-Ya Zhu, Wen-Jun; Wang, Jia-Xiang; Tang, Chang-Jian

    2015-03-28

    The effects of laser pulse duration on the ablation pressure induced by laser radiation are investigated using Al target. Numerical simulation results using one dimensional radiation hydro code for laser intensities from 5×10{sup 12}W/cm{sup 2} to 5×10{sup 13}W/cm{sup 2} and pulse durations from 0.5 ns to 20 ns are presented. These results suggest that the laser intensity scaling law of ablation pressure differs for different pulse durations. And the theoretical analysis shows that the effects of laser pulse duration on ablation pressure are mainly caused by two regimes: the unsteady-state flow and the radiative energy loss to vacuum.

  7. High power laser pulses with voltage controlled durations of 400 - 1000 ps.

    PubMed

    Harth, F; Ulm, T; Lührmann, M; Knappe, R; Klehr, A; Hoffmann, Th; Erbert, G; L'huillier, J A

    2012-03-26

    We report on the generation and amplification of pulses with pulse widths of 400 - 1000 ps at 1064 nm. For pulse generation an ultra-fast semiconductor modulator is used that modulates a cw-beam of a DFB diode laser. The pulse lengths could be adjusted by the use of a voltage control. The pulses were amplified in a solid state Nd:YVO₄ regenerative amplifier to an average power of up to 47.7 W at 100 - 816 kHz. PMID:22453379

  8. Factors influencing the microwave pulse duration in a klystron-like relativistic backward wave oscillator

    SciTech Connect

    Xiao Renzhen; Zhang Xiaowei; Zhang Ligang; Li Xiaoze; Zhang Lijun

    2012-07-15

    In this paper, we analyze the factors that affect the microwave pulse duration in a klystron-like relativistic backward wave oscillator (RBWO), including the diode voltage, the guiding magnetic field, the electron beam collector, the extraction cavity, and the gap between the electron beam and the slow wave structure (SWS). The results show that the microwave pulse duration increases with the diode voltage until breakdown occurs on the surface of the extraction cavity. The pulse duration at low guiding magnetic field is generally 5-10 ns smaller than that at high magnetic field due to the asymmetric electron emission and the larger energy spread of the electron beam. The electron beam collector can affect the microwave pulse duration significantly because of the anode plasma generated by bombardment of the electron beam on the collector surface. The introduction of the extraction cavity only slightly changes the pulse duration. The decrease of the gap between the electron beam and the SWS can increase the microwave pulse duration greatly.

  9. Diffraction response of photorefractive polymers over nine orders of magnitude of pulse duration

    PubMed Central

    Blanche, Pierre-Alexandre; Lynn, Brittany; Churin, Dmitriy; Kieu, Khanh; Norwood, Robert A.; Peyghambarian, Nasser

    2016-01-01

    The development of a single mode fiber-based pulsed laser with variable pulse duration, energy, and repetition rate has enabled the characterization of photorefractive polymer (PRP) in a previously inaccessible regime located between millisecond and microsecond single pulse illumination. With the addition of CW and nanosecond pulse lasers, four wave mixing measurements covering 9 orders of magnitudes in pulse duration are reported. Reciprocity failure of the diffraction efficiency according to the pulse duration for a constant energy density is observed and attributed to multiple excitation, transport and trapping events of the charge carriers. However, for pulses shorter than 30 μs, the efficiency reaches a plateau where an increase in energy density no longer affects the efficiency. This plateau is due to the saturation of the charge generation at high peak power given the limited number of sensitizer sites. The same behavior is observed in two different types of devices composed of the same material but with or without a buffer layer covering one electrode, which confirm the origin of these mechanisms. This new type of measurement is especially important to optimize PRP for applications using short pulse duration. PMID:27364998

  10. Diffraction response of photorefractive polymers over nine orders of magnitude of pulse duration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanche, Pierre-Alexandre; Lynn, Brittany; Churin, Dmitriy; Kieu, Khanh; Norwood, Robert A.; Peyghambarian, Nasser

    2016-07-01

    The development of a single mode fiber-based pulsed laser with variable pulse duration, energy, and repetition rate has enabled the characterization of photorefractive polymer (PRP) in a previously inaccessible regime located between millisecond and microsecond single pulse illumination. With the addition of CW and nanosecond pulse lasers, four wave mixing measurements covering 9 orders of magnitudes in pulse duration are reported. Reciprocity failure of the diffraction efficiency according to the pulse duration for a constant energy density is observed and attributed to multiple excitation, transport and trapping events of the charge carriers. However, for pulses shorter than 30 μs, the efficiency reaches a plateau where an increase in energy density no longer affects the efficiency. This plateau is due to the saturation of the charge generation at high peak power given the limited number of sensitizer sites. The same behavior is observed in two different types of devices composed of the same material but with or without a buffer layer covering one electrode, which confirm the origin of these mechanisms. This new type of measurement is especially important to optimize PRP for applications using short pulse duration.

  11. Diffraction response of photorefractive polymers over nine orders of magnitude of pulse duration.

    PubMed

    Blanche, Pierre-Alexandre; Lynn, Brittany; Churin, Dmitriy; Kieu, Khanh; Norwood, Robert A; Peyghambarian, Nasser

    2016-01-01

    The development of a single mode fiber-based pulsed laser with variable pulse duration, energy, and repetition rate has enabled the characterization of photorefractive polymer (PRP) in a previously inaccessible regime located between millisecond and microsecond single pulse illumination. With the addition of CW and nanosecond pulse lasers, four wave mixing measurements covering 9 orders of magnitudes in pulse duration are reported. Reciprocity failure of the diffraction efficiency according to the pulse duration for a constant energy density is observed and attributed to multiple excitation, transport and trapping events of the charge carriers. However, for pulses shorter than 30 μs, the efficiency reaches a plateau where an increase in energy density no longer affects the efficiency. This plateau is due to the saturation of the charge generation at high peak power given the limited number of sensitizer sites. The same behavior is observed in two different types of devices composed of the same material but with or without a buffer layer covering one electrode, which confirm the origin of these mechanisms. This new type of measurement is especially important to optimize PRP for applications using short pulse duration. PMID:27364998

  12. Laser pulse modulation instabilities in plasma channels

    PubMed

    Sprangle; Hafizi; Penano

    2000-04-01

    In this paper the modulational instability associated with propagation of intense laser pulses in a partially stripped, preformed plasma channel is analyzed. In general, modulation instabilities are caused by the interplay between (anomalous) group velocity dispersion and self-phase modulation. The analysis is based on a systematic approach that includes finite-perturbation-length effects, nonlinearities, group velocity dispersion, and transverse effects. To properly include the radial variation of both the laser field and plasma channel, the source-dependent expansion method for analyzing the wave equation is employed. Matched equilibria for a laser beam propagating in a plasma channel are obtained and analyzed. Modulation of a uniform (matched) laser beam equilibrium in a plasma channel leads to a coupled pair of differential equations for the perturbed spot size and laser field amplitude. A general dispersion relation is derived and solved. Surface plots of the spatial growth rate as a function of laser beam power and the modulation wave number are presented. PMID:11088236

  13. Dependence of gold nanoparticle production on pulse duration by laser ablation in liquid media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riabinina, Daria; Chaker, Mohamed; Margot, Joëlle

    2012-04-01

    The dependence on laser fluence and laser pulse duration of size, size distribution and concentration of gold nanoparticles synthesized by laser ablation in liquid media was investigated. It was demonstrated that increasing laser energy from 1 to 5 mJ/pulse enhances the ablation rate by a factor of 100. The behavior of the ablation rate, hence of the nanoparticle concentration, as a function of pulse duration (varied from 40 fs to 200 ps) was found to strongly differ from that in air, which can be explained by photoionization and important losses of laser energy in the femtosecond regime. The optimal pulse duration for maximum ablation rate in liquid media was found to be equal to 2 ps.

  14. Compression of X-ray Free Electron Laser Pulses to Attosecond Duration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadler, James D.; Nathvani, Ricky; Oleśkiewicz, Piotr; Ceurvorst, Luke A.; Ratan, Naren; Kasim, Muhammad F.; Trines, Raoul M. G. M.; Bingham, Robert; Norreys, Peter A.

    2015-11-01

    State of the art X-ray Free Electron Laser facilities currently provide the brightest X-ray pulses available, typically with mJ energy and several hundred femtosecond duration. Here we present one- and two-dimensional Particle-in-Cell simulations, utilising the process of stimulated Raman amplification, showing that these pulses are compressed to a temporally coherent, sub-femtosecond pulse at 8% efficiency. Pulses of this type may pave the way for routine time resolution of electrons in nm size potentials. Furthermore, evidence is presented that significant Landau damping and wave-breaking may be beneficial in distorting the rear of the interaction and further reducing the final pulse duration.

  15. Compression of X-ray Free Electron Laser Pulses to Attosecond Duration.

    PubMed

    Sadler, James D; Nathvani, Ricky; Oleśkiewicz, Piotr; Ceurvorst, Luke A; Ratan, Naren; Kasim, Muhammad F; Trines, Raoul M G M; Bingham, Robert; Norreys, Peter A

    2015-01-01

    State of the art X-ray Free Electron Laser facilities currently provide the brightest X-ray pulses available, typically with mJ energy and several hundred femtosecond duration. Here we present one- and two-dimensional Particle-in-Cell simulations, utilising the process of stimulated Raman amplification, showing that these pulses are compressed to a temporally coherent, sub-femtosecond pulse at 8% efficiency. Pulses of this type may pave the way for routine time resolution of electrons in nm size potentials. Furthermore, evidence is presented that significant Landau damping and wave-breaking may be beneficial in distorting the rear of the interaction and further reducing the final pulse duration. PMID:26568520

  16. Compression of X-ray Free Electron Laser Pulses to Attosecond Duration

    PubMed Central

    Sadler, James D.; Nathvani, Ricky; Oleśkiewicz, Piotr; Ceurvorst, Luke A.; Ratan, Naren; Kasim, Muhammad F.; Trines, Raoul M. G. M.; Bingham, Robert; Norreys, Peter A.

    2015-01-01

    State of the art X-ray Free Electron Laser facilities currently provide the brightest X-ray pulses available, typically with mJ energy and several hundred femtosecond duration. Here we present one- and two-dimensional Particle-in-Cell simulations, utilising the process of stimulated Raman amplification, showing that these pulses are compressed to a temporally coherent, sub-femtosecond pulse at 8% efficiency. Pulses of this type may pave the way for routine time resolution of electrons in nm size potentials. Furthermore, evidence is presented that significant Landau damping and wave-breaking may be beneficial in distorting the rear of the interaction and further reducing the final pulse duration. PMID:26568520

  17. A megawatt solid-state modulator for high repetition rate pulse generation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Y; Pribyl, P; Gekelman, W

    2016-02-01

    A novel solid-state modulator capable of generating rapid consecutive power pulses is constructed to facilitate experiments on plasma interaction with high power microwave pulses. The modulator is designed to output a 100 kHz tone burst, which consists of up to 10 pulses, each with 1 μs duration and 1 MW peak power. The pulses are formed by discharging a total of 480 μF capacitors through 24 synchronized MOSFETs and 6 step-up transformers. The highly modular design, as a replacement of an old single-pulse version used in earlier experiments which employs a pulse forming network, brings great flexibility and wide potential to its application. A systematic cost-effectiveness analysis is also presented. PMID:26931851

  18. A megawatt solid-state modulator for high repetition rate pulse generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y.; Pribyl, P.; Gekelman, W.

    2016-02-01

    A novel solid-state modulator capable of generating rapid consecutive power pulses is constructed to facilitate experiments on plasma interaction with high power microwave pulses. The modulator is designed to output a 100 kHz tone burst, which consists of up to 10 pulses, each with 1 μs duration and 1 MW peak power. The pulses are formed by discharging a total of 480 μF capacitors through 24 synchronized MOSFETs and 6 step-up transformers. The highly modular design, as a replacement of an old single-pulse version used in earlier experiments which employs a pulse forming network, brings great flexibility and wide potential to its application. A systematic cost-effectiveness analysis is also presented.

  19. Chaotic carrier pulse position modulation communication system and method

    DOEpatents

    Abarbanel, Henry D. I.; Larson, Lawrence E.; Rulkov, Nikolai F.; Sushchik, Mikhail M.; Tsimring, Lev S.; Volkovskii, Alexander R.

    2001-01-01

    A chaotic carrier pulse position modulation communication system and method is disclosed. The system includes a transmitter and receiver having matched chaotic pulse regenerators. The chaotic pulse regenerator in the receiver produces a synchronized replica of a chaotic pulse train generated by the regenerator in the transmitter. The pulse train from the transmitter can therefore act as a carrier signal. Data is encoded by the transmitter through selectively altering the interpulse timing between pulses in the chaotic pulse train. The altered pulse train is transmitted as a pulse signal. The receiver can detect whether a particular interpulse interval in the pulse signal has been altered by reference to the synchronized replica it generates, and can therefore detect the data transmitted by the receiver. Preferably, the receiver predicts the earliest moment in time it can expect a next pulse after observation of at least two consecutive pulses. It then decodes the pulse signal beginning at a short time before expected arrival of a pulse.

  20. Ventricular myocyte injury by high-intensity electric field: Effect of pulse duration.

    PubMed

    Prado, Luiza Ns; Goulart, Jair T; Zoccoler, Marcelo; Oliveira, Pedro X

    2016-04-01

    Although high-intensity electric fields (HEF) application is currently the only effective therapy available to terminate ventricular fibrillation, it may cause injury to cardiac cells. In this study we determined the relation between HEF pulse length and cardiomyocyte lethal injury. We obtained lethality curves by survival analysis, which were used to determine the value of HEF necessary to kill 50% of cells (E50) and plotted a strength-duration (SxD) curve for lethality with 10 different durations: 0.1, 0.2, 0.5, 1, 3, 5, 10, 20, 35 and 70 ms. For the same durations we also obtained an SxD curve for excitation and established an indicator for stimulatory safeness (stimulation safety factor - SSF) as the ratio between the SxD curve for lethality and one for excitation. We found that the lower the pulse duration, the higher the HEF intensity required to cell death. Contrary to expectations, the highest SSF value does not correspond to the lowest pulse duration but to the one of 0.5 ms. As defibrillation threshold has been described as duration-dependent, our results imply that the use of shorter stimulus duration - instead of the one typically used in the clinic (10 ms) - might increase defibrillation safeness. PMID:26830130

  1. Short-wavelength ablation of solids: pulse duration and wavelength effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juha, Libor; Bittner, Michal; Chvostova, Dagmar; Letal, Vit; Krasa, Josef; Otcenasek, Zdenek; Kozlova, Michaela; Polan, Jiri; Prag, Ansgar R.; Rus, Bedrich; Stupka, Michal; Krzywinski, Jacek; Andrejczuk, Andrzej; Pelka, Jerzy B.; Sobierajski, Ryszard H.; Ryc, Leszek; Feldhaus, Josef; Boody, Frederick P.; Fiedorowicz, Henryk; Bartnik, Andrzej; Mikolajczyk, Janusz; Rakowski, Rafal; Kubat, P.; Pina, Ladislav; Grisham, Michael E.; Vaschenko, Georgiy O.; Menoni, Carmen S.; Rocca, Jorge J. G.

    2004-11-01

    For conventional wavelength (UV-Vis-IR) lasers delivering radiation energy to the surface of materials, ablation thresholds, ablation (etch) rates, and the quality of ablated structures often differ dramatically between short (typically nanosecond) and ultrashort (typically femtosecond) pulses. Various short-wavelength (l < 100 nm) lasers emitting pulses with durations ranging from ~ 10 fs to ~ 1 ns have recently been put into a routine operation. This makes it possible to investigate how the ablation characteristics depend on the pulse duration in the XUV spectral region. 1.2-ns pulses of 46.9-nm radiation delivered from a capillary-discharge Ne-like Ar laser (Colorado State University, Fort Collins), focused by a spherical Sc/Si multilayer-coated mirror were used for an ablation of organic polymers and silicon. Various materials were irradiated with ellipsoidal-mirror-focused XUV radiation (λ = 86 nm, τ = 30-100 fs) generated by the free-electron laser (FEL) operated at the TESLA Test Facility (TTF1 FEL) in Hamburg. The beam of the Ne-like Zn XUV laser (λ = 21.2 nm, τ < 100 ps) driven by the Prague Asterix Laser System (PALS) was also successfully focused by a spherical Si/Mo multilayer-coated mirror to ablate various materials. Based on the results of the experiments, the etch rates for three different pulse durations are compared using the XUV-ABLATOR code to compensate for the wavelength difference. Comparing the values of etch rates calculated for short pulses with those measured for ultrashort pulses, we can study the influence of pulse duration on XUV ablation efficiency. Ablation efficiencies measured with short pulses at various wavelengths (i.e. 86/46.9/21.2 nm from the above-mentioned lasers and ~ 1 nm from the double stream gas-puff Xe plasma source driven by PALS) show that the wavelength influences the etch rate mainly through the different attenuation lengths.

  2. Dependence of Nd:YAG laser derusting and passivation of iron artifacts on pulse duration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osticioli, Iacopo; Siano, Salvatore

    2013-11-01

    In this work laser derusting and passivation process of iron objects of conservation interest were investigated. In particular, the effects induced by laser irradiation of three lasers with different temporal emission regimes were studied, exhibiting very different behavior. Nd:YAG(1064 nm) laser systems were employed in the experiments: a Q-Switching laser with pulse duration of 8 ns, a Long Q-Switching laser with pulse duration of 120 ns and a Short Free Running pulse duration in a range of 40-120 μs. These lasers are commonly used in conservation. Lasers treatments were applied on iron samples subjected to natural weathering in outdoor conditions for about five years. Moreover some experiments were also performed on metallic parts of an original chandelier from the seventies as well as on a deeply corroded Roman sword. Results obtained reveals that longer pulse duration leads to phase changes on the rust layer and a homogeneous black-grayish coating is formed on the surface (identified as magnetite) after treatment. Whereas, QS laser pulses are capable to induce ablation of the corrosion layer exposing the pure metal underneath. Finally, LQS interaction includes deep ablation with localized micro-melting of the metal surface and partial transformation of the residual mineral areas was observed. The irradiation results were characterized through optical and BS- ESEM along with Raman spectroscopy, which allowed a clear phenomenological differentiation among the three operating regimes and provided information on their optimal exploitation in restoration of iron artifacts.

  3. Subfemtosecond Pulse Generation by Molecular Modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolov, Alexei V.

    2002-05-01

    We describe a new source of coherent radiation, with spectrum extending over many octaves of optical bandwidth [1]. We demonstrate collinear generation of mutually-coherent spectral sidebands, ranging in wavelength from 2.95 μm in infrared to 195 nm in ultraviolet, with energy above 1 mJ per 10 ns pulse for each of the nine central sidebands. The essence of our technique is the adiabatic preparation of a macroscopic molecular ensemble in a single vibrational superposition-state [2]. When this is achieved, coherent molecular motion modulates laser light and produces a wide FM-like spectrum, which allows sub-cycle subfemtosecond pulse compression [3-5]. We use this source in two experiments: (I) We demonstrate generation and detection of amplitude and frequency modulated light with a 90 THz modulation frequency [6]. (II) We demonstrate coherent control of multiphoton ionization on a few-femtosecond time scale, under conditions where photoionization requires eleven photons of the lowest frequency and five photons of the highest frequency of the spectrum. Furthermore, we use the pulse-shape dependent ionization as a tool for characterization of our single-cycle waveform [7]. This is a first step toward studying subfemtosecond atomic and molecular dynamics. Future possibilities include studies of multiphoton phenomena as functions of molecular coordinates, and as functions of optical sub-cycle phase. REFERENCES: [1] A. V. Sokolov, D. R. Walker, D. D. Yavuz, G. Y. Yin, and S. E. Harris, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 562 (2000). [2] S. E. Harris and A. V. Sokolov, Phys. Rev. A 55, R4019 (1997). [3] S. E. Harris and A. V. Sokolov, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 2894 (1998). [4] A. V. Sokolov, D. D. Yavuz, and S. E. Harris, Opt. Lett. 24, 557-559 (1999). [5] A. V. Sokolov, Opt. Lett. 24, 1248 (1999). [6] A. V. Sokolov, D. D. Yavuz, D. R. Walker, G. Y. Yin, and S. E. Harris, Phys. Rev. A 63, 051801 (2001). [7] A. V. Sokolov, D. R. Walker, D. D. Yavuz, G. Y. Yin, and S. E. Harris, Phys. Rev

  4. Optical pulse compression reflectometry based on single-sideband modulator driven by electrical frequency-modulated pulse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Weiwen; Yu, Lei; Yang, Shuo; Chen, Jianping

    2016-05-01

    We propose a novel scheme to generate a linear frequency-modulated optical pulse with high extinction ratio based on an electrical frequency-modulated pulse and optical single-sideband modulator. This scheme is proved to improve the stability and accuracy of optical pulse compression reflectometry (OPCR). In the experiment, a high spatial resolution of 10 cm and a long measurement range of 10.8 km using a laser source with 2-km coherence length are demonstrated.

  5. Multifunction audio digitizer. [producing direct delta and pulse code modulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monford, L. G., Jr. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    An illustrative embodiment of the invention includes apparatus which simultaneously produces both direct delta modulation and pulse code modulation. An input signal, after amplification, is supplied to a window comparator which supplies a polarity control signal to gate the output of a clock to the appropriate input of a binary up-down counter. The control signals provide direct delta modulation while the up-down counter output provides pulse code modulation.

  6. Effects of Biphasic Current Pulse Frequency, Amplitude, Duration and Interphase Gap on Eye Movement Responses to Prosthetic Electrical Stimulation of the Vestibular Nerve

    PubMed Central

    Davidovics, Natan S.; Fridman, Gene Y.; Chiang, Bryce; Della Santina, Charles C.

    2011-01-01

    An implantable prosthesis that stimulates vestibular nerve branches to restore sensation of head rotation and vision-stabilizing reflexes could benefit individuals disabled by bilateral loss of vestibular (inner ear balance) function. We developed a prosthesis that partly restores normal function in animals by delivering pulse frequency modulated (PFM) biphasic current pulses via electrodes implanted in semicircular canals. Because the optimal stimulus encoding strategy is not yet known, we investigated effects of varying biphasic current pulse frequency, amplitude, duration and interphase gap on vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) eye movements in chinchillas. Increasing pulse frequency increased response amplitude while maintaining a relatively constant axis of rotation. Increasing pulse amplitude (range 0–325 μA) also increased response amplitude but spuriously shifted eye movement axis, probably due to current spread beyond the target nerve. Shorter pulse durations (range 28–340 μs) required less charge to elicit a given response amplitude and caused less axis shift than longer durations. Varying interphase gap (range 25–175 μs) had no significant effect. While specific values reported herein depend on microanatomy and electrode location in each case, we conclude that PFM with short duration biphasic pulses should form the foundation for further optimization of stimulus encoding strategies for vestibular prostheses intended to restore sensation of head rotation. PMID:20813652

  7. Pulse distortion and modulation instability in laser plasma interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Jha, Pallavi; Singh, Ram Gopal; Upadhyay, Ajay K.

    2009-01-15

    The present paper deals with the propagation of a short, intense, Gaussian laser pulse in plasma. Using a one dimensional model, a wave equation including finite pulse length and group velocity dispersion is set up and solved to obtain the intensity distribution across the laser pulse. It is shown that the pulse profile becomes asymmetric as it propagates through plasma. Further, the growth rate of modulation instability and range of unstable frequencies across the laser pulse have been derived and graphically analyzed.

  8. High repetition rate multi-channel source of high-power rf-modulated pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulmaskulov, M. R.; Pedos, M. S.; Rukin, S. N.; Sharypov, K. A.; Shpak, V. G.; Shunailov, S. A.; Yalandin, M. I.; Romanchenko, I. V.; Rostov, V. V.

    2015-07-01

    This paper presents the results of testing a high voltage pulse generator based on parallel gyromagnetic nonlinear transmission lines filled with saturable ferrite. The generator is capable of producing almost identical stable rf-modulated nanosecond high voltage pulses in each of the two, or four, parallel output channels. The output voltage amplitude in each channel can reach -285 or -180 kV, respectively, with a rf modulation depth of up to 60%. Drive pulses were produced as the packets of duration 1-5 s at a pulse repetition frequency of 800 Hz using a driver equipped with all-solid-state switches. Splitting the driver pulse provided electric field strengths in the channels which were below the breakdown field strength of the transmission lines. As a result, the use of nonlinear transmission lines of reduced diameter made it possible to increase the center frequency of the excited rf oscillations to ˜2 GHz.

  9. Influence of the Nd:YAG Laser Pulse Duration on the Temperature of Primary Enamel

    PubMed Central

    Valério, R. A.; da Cunha, V. S.; Galo, R.; de Lima, F. A.; Bachmann, L.; Corona, S. A. M.; Borsatto, M. C.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the temperature change on specimens of primary enamel irradiated with different pulse duration of Nd:YAG laser. Fifteen sound primary molars were sectioned mesiodistally, resulting in 30 specimens (3.5 × 3.5 × 2.0 mm). Two small holes were made on the dentin surface in which K-type thermocouples were installed to evaluate thermal changes. Specimens were randomly assigned in 3 groups (n = 10): A = EL (extra long pulse, 10.000 μs), B = LP (long pulse, 700 μs), and C = SP (short pulse, 350 μs). Nd:YAG laser (λ = 1.064 μm) was applied at contact mode (10 Hz, 0.8 W, 80 mJ) and energy density of 0.637 mJ/mm2. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed for the statistical analysis (P = 0.46). Nd:YAG laser pulse duration provided no difference on the temperature changes on primary enamel, in which the following means were observed: A = EL (23.15°C ± 7.75), B = LP (27.33°C ± 11.32), and C = SP (26.91°C ± 12.85). It can be concluded that the duration of the laser pulse Nd:YAG increased the temperature of the primary enamel but was not influenced by different pulse durations used in the irradiation. PMID:25874244

  10. Toxicity of two pulsed metal exposures to Daphnia magna: relative effects of pulsed duration-concentration and influence of interpulse period.

    PubMed

    Hoang, Tham C; Gallagher, Jeffrey S; Tomasso, Joseph R; Klaine, Stephen J

    2007-11-01

    Aquatic organisms living in surface waters experience fluctuating contaminant exposures that vary in concentration, duration, and frequency. This study characterized the role of pulsed concentration, pulsed duration, and the interval between pulses on the toxicity of four metals (Cu, Zn, Se, and As) to Daphnia magna. During 21-d toxicity tests, neonatal D. magna were exposed to single or double pulses. Pulsed concentrations and durations ranged from 32 to 6000 microg/L and 8 to 96 h, respectively. Intervals between two pulses ranged from 24 to 288 h. Mortality, growth, and reproduction were characterized for exposures. For single-pulse exposures of Cu and As, metal concentration had a stronger effect on survival of D. magna than did pulsed duration: pulses with 2X concentration and 1Y duration resulted in more mortality than did pulses with 1X concentration and 2Y duration. In contrast, effects of pulsed duration were stronger than metal concentration for Zn. However, the effects of duration and concentration were similar for Se. The relative effects of pulsed concentration and duration found in the present study revealed that the common method using area under the curve (AUC = concentration x duration) may not always accurately estimate environmental risk from metals (e.g., for Cu, Zn, As). In addition, the occurrence of delayed mortality in the present study revealed that using continuous exposure bioassays might underestimate metal toxicity to aquatic biota. For double-pulse exposures, the toxicity of the second pulse was influenced by the first pulse for all four metals. This influence was dependent on the pulsed concentration and duration and the interval between pulses. Further, toxicity caused by the second pulse decreased as the time between the exposures increased. For all four metals, there existed an interval great enough that the toxicity of the two pulses was independent. This would result in less toxicity for multiple exposures than continuous

  11. Global synchronization of parallel processors using clock pulse width modulation

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Dong; Ellavsky, Matthew R.; Franke, Ross L.; Gara, Alan; Gooding, Thomas M.; Haring, Rudolf A.; Jeanson, Mark J.; Kopcsay, Gerard V.; Liebsch, Thomas A.; Littrell, Daniel; Ohmacht, Martin; Reed, Don D.; Schenck, Brandon E.; Swetz, Richard A.

    2013-04-02

    A circuit generates a global clock signal with a pulse width modification to synchronize processors in a parallel computing system. The circuit may include a hardware module and a clock splitter. The hardware module may generate a clock signal and performs a pulse width modification on the clock signal. The pulse width modification changes a pulse width within a clock period in the clock signal. The clock splitter may distribute the pulse width modified clock signal to a plurality of processors in the parallel computing system.

  12. Quasi-real-time photon pulse duration measurement by analysis of FEL radiation spectra.

    PubMed

    Engel, Robin; Düsterer, Stefan; Brenner, Günter; Teubner, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    For photon diagnostics at free-electron lasers (FELs), the determination of the photon pulse duration is an important challenge and a complex task. This is especially true for SASE FELs with strongly fluctuating pulse parameters. However, most techniques require an extensive experimental setup, data acquisition and evaluation time, limiting the usability in all-day operation. In contrast, the presented work uses an existing approach based on the analysis of statistical properties of measured SASE FEL spectra and implements it as a software tool, integrated in FLASH's data acquisition system. This allows the calculation of the average pulse durations from a set of measured spectral distributions with only seconds of delay, whenever high-resolution spectra are recorded. PMID:26698053

  13. Quasi-real-time photon pulse duration measurement by analysis of FEL radiation spectra

    PubMed Central

    Engel, Robin; Düsterer, Stefan; Brenner, Günter; Teubner, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    For photon diagnostics at free-electron lasers (FELs), the determination of the photon pulse duration is an important challenge and a complex task. This is especially true for SASE FELs with strongly fluctuating pulse parameters. However, most techniques require an extensive experimental setup, data acquisition and evaluation time, limiting the usability in all-day operation. In contrast, the presented work uses an existing approach based on the analysis of statistical properties of measured SASE FEL spectra and implements it as a software tool, integrated in FLASH’s data acquisition system. This allows the calculation of the average pulse durations from a set of measured spectral distributions with only seconds of delay, whenever high-resolution spectra are recorded. PMID:26698053

  14. Context-Dependent Neural Modulations in the Perception of Duration

    PubMed Central

    Murai, Yuki; Yotsumoto, Yuko

    2016-01-01

    Recent neuroimaging studies have revealed that distinct brain networks are recruited in the perception of sub- and supra-second timescales, whereas psychophysical studies have suggested that there are common or continuous mechanisms for perceiving these two durations. The present study aimed to elucidate the neural implementation of such continuity by examining the neural correlates of peri-second timing. We measured neural activity during a duration reproduction task using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Our results replicate the findings of previous studies in showing that separate neural networks are recruited for sub-versus supra-second time perception: motor systems including the motor cortex and the supplementary motor area for sub-second perception, and the frontal, parietal, and auditory cortical areas for supra-second perception. We further found that the peri-second perception activated both the sub- and supra-second networks, and that the timing system that processed duration perception in previous trials was more involved in subsequent peri-second processing. These results indicate that the sub- and supra-second timing systems overlap at around 1 s, and cooperate to optimally encode duration based on the hysteresis of previous trials. PMID:27013993

  15. Simultaneous optimization of power and duration of radio-frequency pulse in PARACEST MRI.

    PubMed

    Rezaeian, Mohammad-Reza; Hossein-Zadeh, Gholam-Ali; Soltanian-Zadeh, Hamid

    2016-07-01

    Chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) MRI is increasingly used to probe mobile proteins and microenvironment properties, and shows great promise for tumor and stroke diagnosis. The CEST effect is complex and depends not only on the CEST agent concentration, exchange rates, the characteristic of the magnetization transfer (MT), and the relaxation properties of the tissue, but also varies with the experimental conditions such as radio-frequency (RF) pulse power and duration. The RF pulse is one of the most important factors that promote the CEST effect for biological properties such as pH, temperature and protein content, especially for contrast agents with intermediate to fast exchange rates. The CEST effect is susceptible to the RF duration and power. The present study aims at determining the optimal power and the corresponding optimal duration (that maximize the CEST effect) using an off-resonance scheme through a new definition of the CEST effect. This definition is formulated by solving the Bloch-McConnell equation through the R1ρ method (based on the eigenspace solution) for both of the MT and CEST effects as well as their interactions. The proposed formulations of the optimal RF pulse power and duration are the first formulations in which the MT effect is considered. The extracted optimal RF pulse duration and power are compared with those of the MTR asymmetry model in two- and three-pool systems, using synthetic data that are similar to the muscle tissue. To validate them further, the formulations are compared with the empirical formulation of the CEST effect and other findings of the previous researches. By extending our formulations, the optimal power and the corresponding optimal duration (in the biological systems with many chemical exchange sites) can be determined. PMID:26956610

  16. Diode laser based water vapor DIAL using modulated pulse technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pham, Phong Le Hoai; Abo, Makoto

    2014-11-01

    In this paper, we propose a diode laser based differential absorption lidar (DIAL) for measuring lower-tropospheric water vapor profile using the modulated pulse technique. The transmitter is based on single-mode diode laser and tapered semiconductor optical amplifier with a peak power of 10W around 800nm absorption band, and the receiver telescope diameter is 35cm. The selected wavelengths are compared to referenced wavelengths in terms of random error and systematic errors. The key component of modulated pulse technique, a macropulse, is generated with a repetition rate of 10 kHz, and the modulation within the macropulse is coded according to a pseudorandom sequence with 100ns chip width. As a result, we evaluate both single pulse modulation and pseudorandom coded pulse modulation technique. The water vapor profiles conducted from these modulation techniques are compared to the real observation data in summer in Japan.

  17. Pulse compression techniques to improve modulated pulsed laser line scan systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Robert W.; Nash, Justin K.; Cochenour, Brandon M.; Mullen, Linda J.

    2015-05-01

    A modulated pulse laser imaging system has been developed which utilizes coded/chirped RF modulation to mitigate the adverse effects of optical scattering in degraded visual underwater environments. Current laser imaging techniques employ either short pulses or single frequency modulated pulses to obtain both intensity and range images. Systems using short pulses have high range resolution but are susceptible to scattering due to the wide bandwidth nature of the pulse. Range gating can be used to limit the effects of backscatter, but this can lead to blind spots in the range image. Modulated pulse systems can help suppress the contribution from scattered light in generated imagery without gating the receiver. However, the use of narrowband, single tone modulation results in limited range resolution where small targets are camouflaged within the background. This drives the need for systems which have high range resolution while still suppressing the effects of scattering caused by the environment. Coded/chirped modulated pulses enable the use of radar pulse compression techniques to substantially increase range resolution while also providing a way to discriminate the object of interest from the light scattered from the environment. Linearly frequency chirped waveforms and phase shift keyed barker codes were experimentally investigated to determine the effects that pulse compression would have on intensity/range data. The effect of modulation frequency on the data produced with both wideband and narrowband modulation was also investigated. The results from laboratory experiments will be presented and compared to model predictions.

  18. Laser ablation of GaAs in liquid: the role of laser pulse duration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Bonis, Angela; Galasso, Agostino; Santagata, Antonio; Teghil, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    The synthesis of gallium arsenide (GaAs) nanoparticles has attracted wide scientific and technological interest due to the possibility of tuning the GaAs NP (nanoparticle) band gap across the visible spectrum and their consequent use in optoelectronic devices. In recent years, laser ablation in liquid (LAL) has been widely used for the preparation of colloidal solutions of semiconducting and metallic nanoparticles, thanks to its flexibility. With the aim of highlighting the key role played by laser pulse duration on the ablation mechanism and on the properties of the obtained materials, laser ablation of a gallium arsenide target in acetone was performed using laser sources operating in two different temporal regimes: Nd:glass laser (λ   =  527 nm, pulse duration of 250 fs and frequency repetition rate of 10 Hz) and Nd:YAG laser (λ   =  532 nm, pulse duration of 7 ns and frequency repetition rate of 10 Hz). The ablation process was studied following the dynamics of the laser induced shock waves (SWs) and cavitation bubbles (CBs) by fast shadowgraphy, showing that CB dimension and lifetime is related to the laser pulse length. A characterization of the obtained materials by TEM (transmission electron microscopy) and microRaman spectroscopy have shown that quite spherical gallium oxide/GaAs nanoparticles can be obtained by nanosecond laser ablation. On the other hand, pure polycrystalline GaAs nanoparticles can be produced by using an ultrashort laser source.

  19. Parametric amplification and compression to ultrashort pulse duration of resonant linear waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguergaray, C.; Andersen, T. V.; Schimpf, D. N.; Schmidt, O.; Rothhardt, J.; Schreiber, T.; Limpert, J.; Cormier, E.; Tünnermann, A.

    2007-04-01

    We report on an optical parametric amplification system which is pumped and seeded by fiber generated laser radiation. Due to its low broadening threshold, high spatial beam quality and high stability, the fiber based broad bandwidth signal generation is a promising alternative to white light generation in bulky glass or sapphire plates. We demonstrate a novel and successful signal engineering implemented in a setup for parametric amplification and subsequent recompression of resonant linear waves resulting from soliton fission in a highly nonlinear photonic crystal fiber. The applied pump source is a high repetition rate ytterbium-doped fiber chirped pulse amplification system. The presented approach results in the generation of ~50 fs pulses at MHz repetition rate. The potential of generating even shorter pulse duration and higher pulse energies will be discussed.

  20. Speech perception with interaction-compensated simultaneous stimulation and long pulse durations in cochlear implant users.

    PubMed

    Schatzer, Reinhold; Koroleva, Inna; Griessner, Andreas; Levin, Sergey; Kusovkov, Vladislav; Yanov, Yuri; Zierhofer, Clemens

    2015-04-01

    Early multi-channel designs in the history of cochlear implant development were based on a vocoder-type processing of frequency channels and presented bands of compressed analog stimulus waveforms simultaneously on multiple tonotopically arranged electrodes. The realization that the direct summation of electrical fields as a result of simultaneous electrode stimulation exacerbates interactions among the stimulation channels and limits cochlear implant outcome led to the breakthrough in the development of cochlear implants, the continuous interleaved (CIS) sampling coding strategy. By interleaving stimulation pulses across electrodes, CIS activates only a single electrode at each point in time, preventing a direct summation of electrical fields and hence the primary component of channel interactions. In this paper we show that a previously presented approach of simultaneous stimulation with channel interaction compensation (CIC) may also ameliorate the deleterious effects of simultaneous channel interaction on speech perception. In an acute study conducted in eleven experienced MED-EL implant users, configurations involving simultaneous stimulation with CIC and doubled pulse phase durations have been investigated. As pairs of electrodes were activated simultaneously and pulse durations were doubled, carrier rates remained the same. Comparison conditions involved both CIS and fine structure (FS) strategies, either with strictly sequential or paired-simultaneous stimulation. Results showed no statistical difference in the perception of sentences in noise and monosyllables for sequential and paired-simultaneous stimulation with doubled phase durations. This suggests that CIC can largely compensate for the effects of simultaneous channel interaction, for both CIS and FS coding strategies. A simultaneous stimulation paradigm has a number of potential advantages over a traditional sequential interleaved design. The flexibility gained when dropping the requirement of

  1. The effect of pulse duration on laser-induced damage by 1053-nm light in potassium dihydrogen phosphate crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cross, D. A.; Braunstein, M. R.; Carr, C. W.

    2007-01-01

    Laser induced damage in potassium dihydogen phosphate (KDP) has previously been shown to depend significantly on pulse duration for 351-nm Gaussian pulses. In this work we studied the properties of damage initiated by 1053-nm temporally Gaussian pulses with 10ns and 3ns FWHM durations. Our results indicate that the number of damage sites induced by 1053-nm light scales with pulse duration (τ) as τ I/τ II) 0.17 in contrast to the previously reported results for 351-nm light as (τ I/τ II) 0.35. This indicates that damage site formation is significantly less probable at longer wavelengths for a given fluence.

  2. Combining microwave beams with high peak power and long pulse duration

    SciTech Connect

    Li Guolin; Shu Ting; Yuan Chengwei; Zhang Jun; Jin Zhenxing; Yang Jianhua

    2010-03-15

    The beam combining results with a metal dichroic plate illuminated by the S/X band gigawatt level high power microwaves are presented. According to the previous experiments, the microwave breakdown problem becomes obvious when the peak power and the pulse duration increase, thus, several methods for enhancing the power handling capacity have been considered, and the metal dichroic plates are redesigned to handle the S/X band high power microwaves. Then the design, fabrication, and testing procedure are discussed in detail. The further experimental results reveal that, operated on the self-built accelerator Spark-04, the radiated powers from the S and X band sources have reached 1.8 GW with pulse durations of about 80 ns, and both beams have been successfully operated on the selected dichroic plate without microwave breakdown.

  3. Laser Pulse Duration Is Critical For the Generation of Plasmonic Nanobubbles

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Plasmonic nanobubbles (PNBs) are transient vapor nanobubbles generated in liquid around laser-overheated plasmonic nanoparticles. Unlike plasmonic nanoparticles, PNBs’ properties are still largely unknown due to their highly nonstationary nature. Here we show the influence of the duration of the optical excitation on the energy efficacy and threshold of PNB generation. The combination of picosecond pulsed excitation with the nanoparticle clustering provides the highest energy efficacy and the lowest threshold fluence, around 5 mJ cm–2, of PNB generation. In contrast, long excitation pulses reduce the energy efficacy of PNB generation by several orders of magnitude. Ultimately, the continuous excitation has the minimal energy efficacy, nine orders of magnitude lower than that for the picosecond excitation. Thus, the duration of the optical excitation of plasmonic nanoparticles can have a stronger effect on the PNB generation than the excitation wavelength, nanoparticle size, shape, or other “stationary” properties of plasmonic nanoparticles. PMID:24916057

  4. A rapid change of the Hercules X-1 pulse profile and high-state duration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soong, Yang; Gruber, Duane E.; Rothschild, Richard E.

    1987-01-01

    Her X-1 has been observed in the 13-180 keV energy range by the HEAO 1 A-4 Low-Energy Detectors during selected phases of the 35 d on-off cycle. During a pointing observation in September 1978, the pulse profile was observed to change continuously from its normal shape to an anomalous double-pulsed form. Moreover, at this time the main-on state, normally of the duration 10 d, was seen to terminate after only 7 d. Since such an anomalous pulse profile has also been reported by Truemper et al. in 1986 during a short-on state, three short-on states in the HEAO 1 data were also investigated. One short-on observation had the sensitivity to detect pulsing, and the observed profile also had an anomalous double-pulsed form. Current models for the 35 d cycle of Her X-1 have been examined, and a model with a neutron star undergoing free precession could not explain the sudden change of pulse profile within 20 hr at the end of a main-on state.

  5. Pulse-duration effect in nonsequential double ionization of Ar atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Shansi; Chen, Xiang; Zhang, Jingtao; Ren, Xianghe

    2016-05-01

    Nonsequential double ionization of Ar atoms in intense few-cycle laser pulses is studied by a classical ensemble method. The laser pulses are of trapezoidal shape with one cycle in both ramp on and ramp off. We obtain the cycle-resolved electron dynamics by increasing the optical cycles in the laser pulse one by one. We find that, at the higher laser intensity, the correlated-electron momentum distribution (CMD) in the three-cycle laser pulse exhibits two predominate structures in the first and third quadrants. They are formed by the electron pairs in which the second electron is knocked out by the returning electron in the second cycle. As the pulse duration increases, more electron pairs accumulate in the second and fourth quadrants of the CMDs. In these electron pairs, the second electron is first excited owing to collision with the returning electron and then is ionized by the laser field. By varying the peak intensity, we show the transition of the CMDs from anticorrelation to correlation in three-cycle laser pulses, which disproves that multiple collisions cause the transition.

  6. High-order harmonic generation from laser plasma produced by pulses of different duration

    SciTech Connect

    Ganeev, R. A.; Suzuki, M.; Baba, M.; Kuroda, H.

    2007-08-15

    The high-order harmonic generation was analyzed by interaction of the femtosecond pulses with the laser plasma produced on the surfaces of various targets. The plasma formation was accomplished by the interaction of the prepulse radiation of different pulse duration (160 fs, 1.5 ps, 210 ps, and 20 ns) with the low-Z (lithium, boron, carbon), medium-Z (manganese, zinc, nickel), and high-Z (silver, barium) targets. We showed that plasma formation conditions play a crucial role in harmonic generation and the optimization of this process mostly depends on the energy of prepulse rather than its intensity at the target surface. These studies also demonstrated that the delay between the prepulse and femtosecond pulse is another important parameter, which distinguishes harmonic generation in the cases of the low- and high-Z targets.

  7. Design of compact Marx module with square pulse output.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hongwei; Xie, Weiping; Yuan, Jianqiang; Wang, Lingyun; Ma, Xun; Jiang, Ping

    2016-07-01

    Compact pulsed power system based on compact Marx generator is widely used in terms of drive resistance and capacitive loads. This system usually adopts high performance components such as high energy density capacitors, compact switches, and integrated structure. Traditional compact Marx generator can only output double-exponential pulse profile. In this paper a compact, low-impedance Marx module which can output rectangular pulse profile is design and tested. This module has multiple circuits of different discharge frequencies in parallel to generate quasi-rectangular pulse. Discharge characteristic of an ideal module with infinite branches is calculated theoretically. A module with two branches has been designed and tested. Test results show that the impedance of the module is 1.2 Ω. When charging voltage is 100.6 kV and load resistance is 1 Ω, the peak output pulse is 45.2 kV voltage, the peak power is about 2 GW, the pulse width is about 130 ns, and the rise time is about 35 ns. The energy density and power density of the module are 15 kJ/m(3) and 140 GW/m(3), respectively. PMID:27475580

  8. Design of compact Marx module with square pulse output

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hongwei; Xie, Weiping; Yuan, Jianqiang; Wang, Lingyun; Ma, Xun; Jiang, Ping

    2016-07-01

    Compact pulsed power system based on compact Marx generator is widely used in terms of drive resistance and capacitive loads. This system usually adopts high performance components such as high energy density capacitors, compact switches, and integrated structure. Traditional compact Marx generator can only output double-exponential pulse profile. In this paper a compact, low-impedance Marx module which can output rectangular pulse profile is design and tested. This module has multiple circuits of different discharge frequencies in parallel to generate quasi-rectangular pulse. Discharge characteristic of an ideal module with infinite branches is calculated theoretically. A module with two branches has been designed and tested. Test results show that the impedance of the module is 1.2 Ω. When charging voltage is 100.6 kV and load resistance is 1 Ω, the peak output pulse is 45.2 kV voltage, the peak power is about 2 GW, the pulse width is about 130 ns, and the rise time is about 35 ns. The energy density and power density of the module are 15 kJ/m3 and 140 GW/m3, respectively.

  9. System parameters germane to relativistic klystron amplifiers: how the utility of pulse energy depends on pulse duration, the target, and the atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myers, John M.

    1994-05-01

    Relativistic klystron amplifiers (RKAs) at a variety of carrier wavelengths and pulse durations appear feasible to supply microwave pulses to an array of antennas acting as a beam weapon against targets at or above 100 km in altitude. In order to avoid voltage breakdown in the atmosphere, the array area must be large enough to converge the beam, producing a higher energy flux on target than at intermediate altitudes susceptible to breakdown. The area required depends on the physics of atmospheric ionization and on the pulse duration and the carrier wavelength of the RKA. A quantitative statement of the dependence of array area on relevant parameters is presented. The energy per RKA pulse that is usable without delay lines is determined here as a function of RKA pulse duration and wavelength. Changing the pulse length from 160 ns to 1 microsecond(s) and shortening the wavelength raise the energy usable without delay lines by a factor of 1000.

  10. A compact high power pulsed modulator based on spiral Blumlein line.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jinliang; Yin, Yi; Ge, Bin; Cheng, Xinbing; Feng, Jiahuai; Zhang, Jiande; Wang, Xinxin

    2007-10-01

    A compact high power pulsed modulator based on spiral water Blumlein line, which consists of primary storage capacitors, a Tesla transformer, a spiral Blumlein line of water dielectric, and a field-emission diode, is described. The experimental results showed that the diode voltage is more than 500 kV, the electron beam current of diode is about 32 kA, and the pulse duration is about 180 ns. The distributions for electrical field in the spiral water Blumlein line were obtained by the simulations. In addition, the process of the charging a spiral Blumlein line was simulated through the PSPICE software to get the wave form of charging voltage of pulse forming line, the diode voltage, and diode current of modulator. The theoretical and simulated results are in agreement. This accelerator is very compact and works stably and reliably. PMID:17979411

  11. RF modulation studies on an S band pulse compressor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Shu; Feng-Li, Zhao; Shi-Lun, Pei; Ou-Zheng, Xiao

    2016-03-01

    An S band SLED-type pulse compressor has been manufactured by the Institute of High Energy Physics, Beijing, trying to reach 100 MW maximum input power, which means the output peak power is about 500 MW at the phase reversal time. To improve the reliability at very high power, amplitude modulation and phase modulation with flat-top output are considered, and RF modulation studies on the S-band SLED are presented in this paper. Furthermore, a method is developed using the CST Microwave Studio transient solver to simulate the time response of the pulse compressor, which can verify the modulation theory. In addition, the experimental setup was constructed and the flat-top output obtained in low power tests. Both amplitude modulation and phase modulation methods can give flat-top output, and the average power gain for both methods is almost the same. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11475201)

  12. Laser pulse duration dependence of the low-energy structure in strong field ionization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Yu Hang; Zhang, Kaikai; Blaga, Cosmin; Xu, Junliang; Agostini, Pierre; Dimauro, Louis; Schmidt, Bruno; Légaré, François; The Ohio State University Team; Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique Team

    2015-05-01

    Low-energy structure (LES) in strong field ionization is a spike-like feature appearing in the low energy part (a few eV) of photoelectron spectra along the laser polarization. It has been observed in rare gas atoms and diatomic molecules. In the classical picture, the formation of LES is due to the Coulomb interaction between the ionized electron and its parent ion via the process of multiple forward scattering, which can happen only if the electron is ionized with a small drift momentum. We have studied the LES in rare gas atoms with few-cycle laser pulses centered at 1800nm. We observed that the LES peak shifts to lower energy as the pulse duration decreases from 5 down to 2 optical cycles, which is in qualitative agreement with classical-trajectory Monte Carlo simulations. Classically, the shift could be attributed to the dependence of the ratio between the field amplitude of the central cycle and the adjacent cycle on the pulse duration. Our data support the classical nature of the LES.

  13. Pulse Shaped Constant Envelope 8-PSK Modulation Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tao, Jianping; Horan, Sheila

    1997-01-01

    This report provides simulation results for constant envelope pulse shaped 8 Level Phase Shift Keying (8 PSK) modulation for end to end system performance. In order to increase bandwidth utilization, pulse shaping is applied to signals before they are modulated. This report provides simulation results of power spectra and measurement of bit errors produced by pulse shaping in a non-linear channel with Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN). The pulse shaping filters can placed before (Type B) or after (Type A) signals are modulated. Three kinds of baseband filters, 5th order Butterworth, 3rd order Bessel and Square-Root Raised Cosine with different BTs or roll off factors, are utilized in the simulations. The simulations were performed on a Signal Processing Worksystem (SPW).

  14. Superposed pulse amplitude modulation for visible light communication.

    PubMed

    Li, J F; Huang, Z T; Zhang, R Q; Zeng, F X; Jiang, M; Ji, Y F

    2013-12-16

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate a novel modulation scheme called superposed pulse amplitude modulation (SPAM) which is low-cost, insensitive to non-linearity of light emitting diode (LED). Multiple optical pulses transmit parallelly from different spatial position in the LED array and overlap linearly in free space to realize SPAM. With LED arrangement, the experimental results show that using the modulation we proposed the data rate of 120 Mbit/s with BER 1 × 10(-3) can be achieved with an optical blue filter and RC post-equalization. PMID:24514674

  15. Efficient generation of mode-locked pulses in Nd:YVO4 with a pulse duration adjustable between 34 ps and 1 ns.

    PubMed

    Lührmann, Markus; Theobald, Christian; Wallenstein, Richard; L'huillier, Johannes A

    2009-04-13

    We report on the generation of highly stable active continuous mode-locked pulses in diode pumped Nd:YVO(4) with an adjustable pulse duration between 34 ps and 1 ns. With this laser an average output power of up to 7.3 W with an excellent stability and beam quality with a M(2)-value of < 1.1 is obtained. For all pulse durations the pulses were within a factor of 1.15 above the Fourier limit. Due to these characteristics the presented system is an attractive oscillator for OPCPA concepts. PMID:19365440

  16. Spectroscopic imaging with improved gradient modulated constant adiabaticity pulses on high-field clinical scanners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andronesi, Ovidiu C.; Ramadan, Saadallah; Ratai, Eva-Maria; Jennings, Dominique; Mountford, Carolyn E.; Sorensen, A. Gregory

    2010-04-01

    The purpose of this work was to design and implement constant adiabaticity gradient modulated pulses that have improved slice profiles and reduced artifacts for spectroscopic imaging on 3 T clinical scanners equipped with standard hardware. The newly proposed pulses were designed using the gradient offset independent adiabaticity (GOIA, Tannus and Garwood [13]) method using WURST modulation for RF and gradient waveforms. The GOIA-WURST pulses were compared with GOIA-HS n (GOIA based on nth-order hyperbolic secant) and FOCI (frequency offset corrected inversion) pulses of the same bandwidth and duration. Numerical simulations and experimental measurements in phantoms and healthy volunteers are presented. GOIA-WURST pulses provide improved slice profile that have less slice smearing for off-resonance frequencies compared to GOIA-HS n pulses. The peak RF amplitude of GOIA-WURST is much lower (40% less) than FOCI but slightly higher (14.9% more) to GOIA-HS n. The quality of spectra as shown by the analysis of lineshapes, eddy currents artifacts, subcutaneous lipid contamination and SNR is improved for GOIA-WURST. GOIA-WURST pulse tested in this work shows that reliable spectroscopic imaging could be obtained in routine clinical setup and might facilitate the use of clinical spectroscopy.

  17. Pulse Amplitude and Delay Modulation: Design and performance analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slaiman, Iskandar; Tang, Tong Boon; Hamid, Nor Hisham

    2015-06-01

    Power efficient modulation techniques have previously been proposed to provide the uplink in visible light communication systems. However, such techniques have poor bandwidth utilization as multiple bits are mapped to single narrow pulse. When the bandwidth is limited, it has been found that degradation in optical power becomes very high and data rate poor. In this paper we introduce a new modulation technique called Pulse Amplitude and Delay Modulation (PADM). We compare its performance with Dual Header Pulse Interval Modulation (DH-PIM) that has the best reported bandwidth efficiency. Experiment results show that the data rate could be enhanced from 3.2 kps to 4.3 kbs using a red link (640 nm) under same error rate. This suggests PADM has better bandwidth efficiency than DH-PIM.

  18. Electro-Optical Modulator Bias Control Using Bipolar Pulses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farr, William; Kovalik, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    An improved method has been devised for controlling the DC bias applied to an electro-optical crystal that is part of a Mach-Zehnder modulator that generates low-duty-cycle optical pulses for a pulse-position modulation (PPM) optical data-communication system. In such a system, it is desirable to minimize the transmission of light during the intervals between pulses, and for this purpose, it is necessary to maximize the extinction ratio of the modulator (the ratio between the power transmitted during an "on" period and the power transmitted during an "off" period). The present method is related to prior dither error feedback methods, but unlike in those methods, there is no need for an auxiliary modulation subsystem to generate a dithering signal. Instead, as described below, dither is effected through alternation of the polarity of the modulation signal. The upper part of Figure 1 schematically depicts a Mach-Zehnder modulator. The signal applied to the electro-optical crystal consists of a radio-frequency modulating pulse signal, VRF, superimposed on a DC bias Vbias. Maximum extinction occurs during the off (VRF = 0) period if Vbias is set at a value that makes the two optical paths differ by an odd integer multiple of a half wavelength so that the beams traveling along the two paths interfere destructively at the output beam splitter. Assuming that the modulating pulse signal VRF has a rectangular waveform, maximum transmission occurs during the "on" period if the amplitude of VRF is set to a value, V , that shifts the length of the affected optical path by a half wavelength so that now the two beams interfere constructively at the output beam splitter. The modulating pulse signal is AC-coupled from an amplifier to the electro-optical crystal. Sometimes, two successive pulses occur so close in time that the operating point of the amplifier drifts, one result being that there is not enough time for the signal level to return to ground between pulses. Also, the

  19. Effects of temporal laser profile on the emission spectra for underwater laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy: Study by short-interval double pulses with different pulse durations

    SciTech Connect

    Tamura, Ayaka Matsumoto, Ayumu; Nishi, Naoya; Sakka, Tetsuo; Nakajima, Takashi; Ogata, Yukio H.; Fukami, Kazuhiro

    2015-01-14

    We investigate the effects of temporal laser profile on the emission spectra of laser ablation plasma in water. We use short-interval (76 ns) double pulses with different pulse durations of the composing two pulses for the irradiation of underwater target. Narrow atomic spectral lines in emission spectra are obtained by the irradiation, where the two pulses are wide enough to be merged into a single-pulse-like temporal profile, while deformed spectra are obtained when the two pulses are fully separated. The behavior of the atomic spectral lines for the different pulse durations is consistent with that of the temporal profiles of the optical emission intensities of the plasma. All these results suggest that continuous excitation of the plasma during the laser irradiation for ∼100 ns is a key to obtain narrow emission spectral lines.

  20. Simulations of drastically reduced SBS with laser pulses composed of a Spike Train of Uneven Duration and Delay (STUD pulses)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hüller, Stefan; Afeyan, Bedros

    2013-11-01

    By comparing the impact of established laser smoothing techniques like Random Phase Plates (RPP) and Smoothing by Spectral Dispersion (SSD) to the concept of "Spike Trains of Uneven Duration and Delay" (STUD pulses) on the amplification of parametric instabilities in laser-produced plasmas, we show with the help of numerical simulations, that STUD pulses can drastically reduce instability growth by orders of magnitude. The simulation results, obtained with the code Harmony in a nonuniformly flowing mm-size plasma for the Stimulated Brillouin Scattering (SBS) instability, show that the efficiency of the STUD pulse technique is due to the fact that successive re-amplification in space and time of parametrically excited plasma waves inside laser hot spots is minimized. An overall mean fluctuation level of ion acoustic waves at low amplitude is established because of the frequent change of the speckle pattern in successive spikes. This level stays orders of magnitude below the levels of ion acoustic waves excited in hot spots of RPP and SSD laser beams.

  1. Performance of Variable Duration STUD Pulses with Fixed Peal Intensity and their Compliments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hüller, Stefan; Afeyan, Bedros

    2015-11-01

    The simplest approach to STUD pulse implementation, given the requisite bandwidth of the laser is to keep the peak spike intensities fixed while modulating the lasers on and off on a 1-10 ps time scale. To what extent spatial scrambling is required in this case is compared to cases where the peak spike intensity varies with the duty cycle at fixed pulse width, to preserve the energy of the overall laser pulse. We compare RPP/CPP, SSD and STUD pulses at fixed energy with both variable pulse width and fixed peak intensity configurations and vice versa. This allows us to highlight the effects of speckle statistics, memory accumulation and pump depletion in setting gain saturation levels from the ideal democratized, incoherent sums of small growth spurts equally from all regions of the plasma, vs localized and highly nonlinear growth and re-amplification due to the unchanging or much too slowly changing nature of the illumination strategy, such as RPP/CPP or SSD. Work supported by the DOE NNSA-OFES Joint Program on HEDLP.

  2. Demonstration of negative signal delay with short-duration transient pulse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravelo, B.

    2011-07-01

    This paper introduces theoretic and experimental analyses of short-duration pulse propagation through a negative group delay (NGD) circuit. The basic analysis method of this electronic circuit operating in baseband and microwave frequencies is investigated. Then, its electrical fundamental characteristics vis-à-vis transient signals are developed. To validate the theoretic concept, planar hybrid devices with one- and two-stage NGD cells were designed, simulated, fabricated and tested. Transient analyses with ultra-wide band (UWB) pulse signals with different widths are realized. Then, experimental results in good agreement with the theoretical predictions were observed. Consequently, group delay going down under -2.5 ns is evidenced in baseband frequency up to 63 MHz with one-stage NGD cell. In time-domain, a Gaussian pulse in advance of about t0 = -1.5 ns or 20% of its half-height time-width was measured. This corresponds to a negative group velocity of about vg = L/t0 = -0.13c (L is the physical length of the tested device and c is light speed in the vacuum). More significant NGD value over 100-MHz bandwidth is stated with two-stage NGD cells. This results in a Gaussian pulse peak advance of about -5 ns (raising a group velocity of about vg = -0.12c) or 31% of its half-height time-width. Finally, some potential applications based on the NGD function are discussed.

  3. Optical Parameter Variability in Laser Nerve Stimulation: A Study of Pulse Duration, Repetition Rate, and Wavelength

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Joseph T.; Jansen, E. Duco; Bendett, Mark; Webb, Jim; Ralph, Heather; Richter, Claus-Peter

    2012-01-01

    Pulsed lasers can evoke neural activity from motor as well as sensory neurons in vivo. Lasers allow more selective spatial resolution of stimulation than the conventional electrical stimulation. To date, few studies have examined pulsed, mid-infrared laser stimulation of nerves and very little of the available optical parameter space has been studied. In this study, a pulsed diode laser, with wavelength between 1.844–1.873 μm, was used to elicit compound action potentials (CAPs) from the auditory system of the gerbil. We found that pulse durations as short as 35 μs elicit a CAP from the cochlea. In addition, repetition rates up to 13 Hz can continually stimulate cochlear spiral ganglion cells for extended periods of time. Varying the wavelength and, therefore, the optical penetration depth, allowed different populations of neurons to be stimulated. The technology of optical stimulation could significantly improve cochlear implants, which are hampered by a lack of spatial selectivity. PMID:17554829

  4. Improved PWM control for GTO inverters with pulse number modulation

    SciTech Connect

    Tadakuma, Susuma; Tanaka, Shigeru; Miura, Kazutoshi; Ofosu-Amaah, W.

    1996-05-01

    This paper proposes pulse number modulation (PNM)-assisted pulse-width modulation (PWM) control to improve the modulation factor of bridge inverters and to solve voltage uncontrollability in neutral point clamped (NPC) inverters. The basic idea is to enlarge the linear region of PWM control via PNM technology. The authors will show the following through simulation and experimental results: (1) conventional bridge inverters can utilize at most 80% of the nominal inverter capacity because of the limit of the modulation factor. The PWM and PNM combined control is able to improve the modulation factor up to approximately 1.0; (2) the PWM and PNM control enables linear voltage control in the NPC inverter even for an extremely small reference. The PNM technology also contributes to a reduction in switching losses.

  5. Laser-fired contact formation on metallized and passivated silicon wafers under short pulse durations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raghavan, Ashwin S.

    The objective of this work is to develop a comprehensive understanding of the physical processes governing laser-fired contact (LFC) formation under microsecond pulse durations. Primary emphasis is placed on understanding how processing parameters influence contact morphology, passivation layer quality, alloying of Al and Si, and contact resistance. In addition, the research seeks to develop a quantitative method to accurately predict the contact geometry, thermal cycles, heat and mass transfer phenomena, and the influence of contact pitch distance on substrate temperatures in order to improve the physical understanding of the underlying processes. Finally, the work seeks to predict how geometry for LFCs produced with microsecond pulses will influence fabrication and performance factors, such as the rear side contacting scheme, rear surface series resistance and effective rear surface recombination rates. The characterization of LFC cross-sections reveals that the use of microsecond pulse durations results in the formation of three-dimensional hemispherical or half-ellipsoidal contact geometries. The LFC is heavily alloyed with Al and Si and is composed of a two-phase Al-Si microstructure that grows from the Si wafer during resolidification. As a result of forming a large three-dimensional contact geometry, the total contact resistance is governed by the interfacial contact area between the LFC and the wafer rather than the planar contact area at the original Al-Si interface within an opening in the passivation layer. By forming three-dimensional LFCs, the total contact resistance is significantly reduced in comparison to that predicted for planar contacts. In addition, despite the high energy densities associated with microsecond pulse durations, the passivation layer is well preserved outside of the immediate contact region. Therefore, the use of microsecond pulse durations can be used to improve device performance by leading to lower total contact resistances

  6. Alignment and pulse-duration effects in two-photon double ionization of H2 by femtosecond XUV laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Xiaoxu; Bartschat, Klaus; Schneider, Barry I.; Koesterke, Lars

    2014-10-01

    We present calculations for the dependence of the two-photon double ionization (DI) of H2 on the relative orientation of the linear laser polarization to the internuclear axis and the length of the pulse. We use the fixed-nuclei approximation at the equilibrium distance of 1.4 a0, where a0=0.529 ×10-10m is the Bohr radius. Central photon energies cover the entire direct DI domain from 26.5 to 34.0 eV. In contrast to the parallel geometry studied earlier [X. Guan, K. Bartschat, B. I. Schneider, and L. Koesterke, Phys. Rev. A 83, 043403 (2011), 10.1103/PhysRevA.83.043403], the effect of the pulse duration is almost negligible for the case when the two axes are perpendicular to each other. This is a consequence of the symmetry rules for dipole excitation in the two cases. In the parallel geometry, doubly excited states of 1Σu+ symmetry affect the cross section, while in the perpendicular geometry only much longer-lived 1Πu states are present. This accounts for the different convergence patterns observed in the calculated cross sections as a function of the pulse length. When the photon energy approaches the threshold of sequential DI, a sharp increase of the generalized total cross section (GTCS) with increasing pulse duration is also observed in the perpendicular geometry, very similar to the case of the molecular axis being oriented along the laser polarization direction. Our results differ from those of Colgan et al. [J. Colgan, M. S. Pindzola, and F. Robicheaux, J. Phys. B 41, 121002 (2008), 10.1088/0953-4075/41/12/121002] and Morales et al. [F. Morales, F. Martín, D. A. Horner, T. N. Rescigno, and C. W. McCurdy, J. Phys. B 42, 134013 (2009), 10.1088/0953-4075/42/13/134013], but are in excellent agreement with the GTCSs of Simonsen et al. [A. S. Simonsen, S. A. Sørngård, R. Nepstad, and M. Førre, Phys. Rev. A 85, 063404 (2012), 10.1103/PhysRevA.85.063404] over the entire domain of direct DI.

  7. A simple highly stable and temporally synchronizable Nd:glass laser oscillator delivering laser pulses of variable pulse duration from sub-nanosecond to few nanoseconds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, A. K.; Joshi, R. A.; Patidar, R. K.; Naik, P. A.; Gupta, P. D.

    2007-04-01

    A simple flash lamp pumped Nd:phosphate glass laser oscillator has been designed and set up delivering laser pulses of variable duration from ˜800 ps to 6 ns. It is based on Q-switching and full-wavelength cavity dumping and provides single laser pulse energy of 5 mJ and 11 mJ corresponding to pulse duration of ˜800 ps and 6 ns respectively at an electrical pump energy of 50 J. While the maximum pulse duration is governed by the cavity round trip time, the lower limit is decided by the switching speed of the high voltage pulse to the Pockels cell of the cavity dumper. Output laser pulses have shown enhanced pulse energy stability by dumping the cavity four round trips after the peak buildup. The laser pulses were synchronized with 250 ps positively chirped laser pulse train derived from an independent commercial cw mode locked Nd:fluorophosphate glass laser oscillator. The temporal jitter between these two pulses was measured to be ˜200 ps, limited by the speed of the electronics used.

  8. Photonic crystal Fano laser: terahertz modulation and ultrashort pulse generation.

    PubMed

    Mork, J; Chen, Y; Heuck, M

    2014-10-17

    We suggest and analyze a laser with a mirror realized by Fano interference between a waveguide and a nanocavity. For small-amplitude modulation of the nanocavity resonance, the laser can be modulated at frequencies exceeding 1 THz, not being limited by carrier dynamics as for conventional lasers. For larger modulation, a transition from pure frequency modulation to the generation of ultrashort pulses is observed. The laser dynamics is analyzed by generalizing the field equation for conventional lasers to account for a dynamical mirror, described by coupled mode theory. PMID:25361259

  9. Modulation instability of laser pulse in magnetized plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Jha, Pallavi; Kumar, Punit; Raj, Gaurav; Upadhyaya, Ajay K.

    2005-12-15

    Modulation instability of a laser pulse propagating through transversely magnetized underdense plasma is studied. It is observed that interaction of laser radiation with plasma in the presence of uniform magnetic field results in an additional perturbed transverse plasma current density along with the relativistic and ponderomotive nonlinear current densities, thus affecting the modulational interaction. In the plane wave limit it is observed that modulational interaction is more stable for magnetized plasma as compared to the unmagnetized case. The analysis shows that there is a significant reduction in the growth rate of modulation instability over a given range of unstable wave numbers due to magnetization of plasma.

  10. Effect of pulse duration on resonant heating of laser-irradiated argon and deuterium clusters.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Ayush; Antonsen, T M; Taguchi, T; Palastro, J

    2006-10-01

    We study the effect of pulse duration on the heating of single van der Waals bound argon and deuterium clusters by a strong laser field using a two-dimensional (2D) electrostatic particle-in-cell (PIC) code in the range of laser-cluster parameters such that kinetic as well as hydrodynamic effects are active. Heating is dominated by a collisionless resonant absorption process that involves energetic electrons transiting through the cluster. A size-dependent intensity threshold defines the onset of this resonance [T. Taguchi, Physical Review Letters, 92, 20 (2004)]. It is seen that increasing the laser pulse duration lowers this intensity threshold and the energetic electrons take multiple laser periods to transit the cluster instead of one laser period. Our simulations also show that strong electron heating is accompanied by the generation of a high-energy peak in the ion energy distribution function. We also calculate the yield of thermonuclear fusion neutrons from exploding deuterium clusters using the PIC model with periodic boundary conditions that allows for the interaction of ions from neighboring clusters. PMID:17155183

  11. Dependence of core heating properties on heating pulse duration and intensity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johzaki, Tomoyuki; Nagatomo, Hideo; Sunahara, Atsushi; Cai, Hongbo; Sakagami, Hitoshi; Mima, Kunioki

    2009-11-01

    In the cone-guiding fast ignition, an imploded core is heated by the energy transport of fast electrons generated by the ultra-intense short-pulse laser at the cone inner surface. The fast core heating (˜800eV) has been demonstrated at integrated experiments with GEKKO-XII+ PW laser systems. As the next step, experiments using more powerful heating laser, FIREX, have been started at ILE, Osaka university. In FIREX-I (phase-I of FIREX), our goal is the demonstration of efficient core heating (Ti ˜ 5keV) using a newly developed 10kJ LFEX laser. In the first integrated experiments, the LFEX laser is operated with low energy mode (˜0.5kJ/4ps) to validate the previous GEKKO+PW experiments. Between the two experiments, though the laser energy is similar (˜0.5kJ), the duration is different; ˜0.5ps in the PW laser and ˜ 4ps in the LFEX laser. In this paper, we evaluate the dependence of core heating properties on the heating pulse duration on the basis of integrated simulations with FI^3 (Fast Ignition Integrated Interconnecting) code system.

  12. Pulse duration determines levels of Hsp70 induction in tissues following laser irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mackanos, Mark A.; Contag, Christopher H.

    2011-07-01

    Induction of heat shock protein (Hsp) expression correlates with cytoprotection, reduced tissue damage, and accelerated healing in animal models. Since Hsps are transcriptionally activated in response to stress, they can act as stress indicators in burn injury or surgical procedures that produce heat and thermal change. A fast in vivo readout for induction of Hsp transcription in tissues would allow for the study of these proteins as therapeutic effect mediators and reporters of thermal stress/damage. We used a transgenic reporter mouse in which a luciferase expression is controlled by the regulatory region of the inducible 70 kilodalton (kDa) Hsp as a rapid readout of cellular responses to laser-mediated thermal stress/injury in mouse skin. We assessed the pulse duration dependence of the Hsp70 expression after irradiation with a CO2 laser at 10.6 μm in wavelength over a range of 1000 to 1 ms. Hsp70 induction varied with changes in laser pulse durations and radiant exposures, which defined the ranges at which thermal activation of Hsp70 can be used to protect cells from subsequent stress, and reveals the window of thermal stress that tissues can endure.

  13. Pulse modulated control synthesis for a flexible spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anthony, Tobin C.; Wie, Bong; Carroll, Stanley

    1989-01-01

    The describing function method is employed for the nonlinear control analysis and design of a flexible spacecraft equipped with pulse modulated reaction jets. The method provides a means of characterizing the pulse modulator in terms of its gain and phase for structural mode limit cycle analysis. Although the describing function method is inherently inexact and is not widely used in practice, a new way of utilizing it for practical control design problems is presented. It is shown that the approximations inherent in the method can be accounted as a modeling uncertainty for the nonlinear control robustness analysis. The pulse modulated control system of the Intelsat 5 spacecraft is used as an example to illustrate the concept and methodology developed in the paper. The nonlinear stability margins predicted by the describing function analysis are verified from nonlinear simulations.

  14. Pulse-Width-Modulating Driver for Brushless dc Motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salomon, Phil M.

    1991-01-01

    High-current pulse-width-modulating driver for brushless dc motor features optical coupling of timing signals from low-current control circuitry to high-current motor-driving circuitry. Provides high electrical isolation of motor-power supply, helping to prevent fast, high-current motor-driving pulses from being coupled through power supplies into control circuitry, where they interfere with low-current control signals.

  15. Successful management of a refractory case of postoperative herniorrhaphy pain with extended duration pulsed radiofrequency

    PubMed Central

    Thapa, D; Ahuja, V; Verma, P; Das, C

    2016-01-01

    Chronic postsurgical pain (CPSP) is a distressful condition following hernia surgery. A 25-year-old, 55 kg male patient presented with severe pain on the right side of the lower abdomen that radiated to the testicle and the inner side of the thigh. Patient was symptomatic since 5 months following inguinal herniorrhaphy surgery. The pain was not relieved with pharmacological and interventional nerve blocks. An ultrasound-guided ilioinguinal-iliohypogastric (II-IH) block with extended duration (42°C, four cycles of 120 s each) pulsed radiofrequency (PRF) and a diagnostic genital branch of genitofemoral nerve (GGFN) block provided pain relief. After 1-month, an extended duration PRF in GGFN resulted in complete resolution of symptoms. During a regular follow-up of 9 months, patient reported an improved quality-of-life. We believe the successful management of CPSP following hernia repair with single extended duration PRF of II-IH and GGFN has not been described in the literature. PMID:26955321

  16. Influence of pulse duration on erbium and holmium laser ablation under water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ith, Michael; Frenz, Martin; Pratisto, Hans S.; Weber, Heinz P.; Altermatt, Hans J.; Staeubli, Hans U.; Asshauer, Thomas; Delacretaz, Guy P.; Salathe, Rene-Paul; Gerber, Bruno E.

    1995-01-01

    Erbium and Holmium lasers are ideally suited for cutting and drilling biological tissue. This is due to the fact that their wavelengths (Er:YSGG at 2.79 micrometers and Ho:YAG at 2.12 micrometers ) are strongly absorbed in water which is present in all tissues. Combined with an optical fiber these lasers seem to be optimal instruments for endoscopic and/or minimal invasive applications in surgery. In this study we focused our interest on cutting of human meniscus in the knee where, besides a very limited operation field, the standard arthroscopic treatment is performed in a liquid, highly absorbing environment. The bubble formation process, therefore, has to be well understood because it mainly determines relevant aspects of tissue ablation. The influence of the laser parameters in general and the influence of pulse duration in particular are determined in this paper for two different laser wavelengths. The goal was to determine the optimum laser parameters in view of a high ablation efficiency, a high precision and a minimal destruction of the adjacent tissue. To determine the optimum pulse duration for ablating tissue under water and to obtain a better understanding of the channel formation process, transmission and pressure measurements together with video flash photography were performed. Additionally, we determined experimentally the ratio between initial laser pulse energy and energy available for tissue treatment under water. To prove the results obtained, cuts in human meniscus were performed, sectioned and evaluated. The comparison between the results obtained with the Erbium and Holmium laser revealed a strong influence of the absorption coefficients on the tissue effects, especially on the ablation efficiency and on the zone of thermally and mechanically damaged tissue.

  17. Combinatorial gene regulation by modulation of relative pulse timing

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yihan; Sohn, Chang Ho; Dalal, Chiraj K.; Cai, Long; Elowitz, Michael B.

    2015-01-01

    Studies of individual living cells have revealed that many transcription factors activate in dynamic, and often stochastic, pulses within the same cell. However, it has remained unclear whether cells might modulate the relative timing of these pulses to control gene expression. Here, using quantitative single-cell time-lapse imaging of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we show that the pulsatile transcription factors Msn2 and Mig1 combinatorially regulate their target genes through modulation of their relative pulse timing. The activator Msn2 and repressor Mig1 pulsed in either a temporally overlapping or non-overlapping manner during their transient response to different inputs, with only the non-overlapping dynamics efficiently activating target gene expression. Similarly, under constant environmental conditions, where Msn2 and Mig1 exhibit sporadic pulsing, glucose concentration modulated the temporal overlap between pulses of the two factors. Together, these results reveal a time-based mode of combinatorial gene regulation. Regulation through relative signal timing is common in engineering and neurobiology, and these results suggest that it could also function broadly within the signaling and regulatory systems of the cell. PMID:26466562

  18. Pulse-Modulation Scheme For Voice And Telemetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mills, William J.

    1993-01-01

    Pulse-modulation scheme provides for transmission of 1 channel of voice information along with 16 channels of serially multiplexed analog iotelemetric information, all on single radio-frequency carrier signal. Encoder/multiplexer combination effects PMD scheme, in which biotelemetry encoded in time-division multiplex PIM, while voice encoded in PWM. Combination of PIM and PWM encoding called "pulse modulated data" or PMD. Principal advantage of scheme simplicity: comodulation of voice along with biotelemetry involves minimal additional circuitry in transmitter. In receiver, biotelemetric data extracted by ordinary PIM-encoding circuitry, not affected by voice PWM; and simple PWM decoder added to receiver to recover voice.

  19. Duration of an intense laser pulse can determine the breakage of multiple chemical bonds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Xinhua; Lötstedt, Erik; Roither, Stefan; Schöffler, Markus; Kartashov, Daniil; Midorikawa, Katsumi; Baltuška, Andrius; Yamanouchi, Kaoru; Kitzler, Markus

    2015-08-01

    Control over the breakage of a certain chemical bond in a molecule by an ultrashort laser pulse has been considered for decades. With the availability of intense non-resonant laser fields it became possible to pre-determine femtosecond to picosecond molecular bond breakage dynamics by controlled distortions of the electronic molecular system on sub-femtosecond time scales using field-sensitive processes such as strong-field ionization or excitation. So far, all successful demonstrations in this area considered only fragmentation reactions, where only one bond is broken and the molecule is split into merely two moieties. Here, using ethylene (C2H4) as an example, we experimentally investigate whether complex fragmentation reactions that involve the breakage of more than one chemical bond can be influenced by parameters of an ultrashort intense laser pulse. We show that the dynamics of removing three electrons by strong-field ionization determines the ratio of fragmentation of the molecular trication into two respectively three moieties. We observe a relative increase of two-body fragmentations with the laser pulse duration by almost an order of magnitude. Supported by quantum chemical simulations we explain our experimental results by the interplay between the dynamics of electron removal and nuclear motion.

  20. Improving the spatial resolution of epiretinal implants by increasing stimulus pulse duration.

    PubMed

    Weitz, Andrew C; Nanduri, Devyani; Behrend, Matthew R; Gonzalez-Calle, Alejandra; Greenberg, Robert J; Humayun, Mark S; Chow, Robert H; Weiland, James D

    2015-12-16

    Retinal prosthetic implants are the only approved treatment for retinitis pigmentosa, a disease of the eye that causes blindness through gradual degeneration of photoreceptors. An array of microelectrodes triggered by input from a camera stimulates surviving retinal neurons, with each electrode acting as a pixel. Unintended stimulation of retinal ganglion cell axons causes patients to see large oblong shapes of light, rather than focal spots, making it difficult to perceive forms. To address this problem, we performed calcium imaging in isolated retinas and mapped the patterns of cells activated by different electrical stimulation protocols. We found that pulse durations two orders of magnitude longer than those typically used in existing implants stimulated inner retinal neurons while avoiding activation of ganglion cell axons, thus confining retinal responses to the site of the electrode. Multielectrode stimulation with 25-ms pulses can pattern letters on the retina corresponding to a Snellen acuity of 20/312. We validated our findings in a patient with an implanted epiretinal prosthesis by demonstrating that 25-ms pulses evoke focal spots of light. PMID:26676610

  1. Duration of an intense laser pulse can determine the breakage of multiple chemical bonds.

    PubMed

    Xie, Xinhua; Lötstedt, Erik; Roither, Stefan; Schöffler, Markus; Kartashov, Daniil; Midorikawa, Katsumi; Baltuška, Andrius; Yamanouchi, Kaoru; Kitzler, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Control over the breakage of a certain chemical bond in a molecule by an ultrashort laser pulse has been considered for decades. With the availability of intense non-resonant laser fields it became possible to pre-determine femtosecond to picosecond molecular bond breakage dynamics by controlled distortions of the electronic molecular system on sub-femtosecond time scales using field-sensitive processes such as strong-field ionization or excitation. So far, all successful demonstrations in this area considered only fragmentation reactions, where only one bond is broken and the molecule is split into merely two moieties. Here, using ethylene (C2H4) as an example, we experimentally investigate whether complex fragmentation reactions that involve the breakage of more than one chemical bond can be influenced by parameters of an ultrashort intense laser pulse. We show that the dynamics of removing three electrons by strong-field ionization determines the ratio of fragmentation of the molecular trication into two respectively three moieties. We observe a relative increase of two-body fragmentations with the laser pulse duration by almost an order of magnitude. Supported by quantum chemical simulations we explain our experimental results by the interplay between the dynamics of electron removal and nuclear motion. PMID:26271602

  2. The effect of pulse duration on laser-induced damage by 1053-nm light in potassium dihydrogen phosphate crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Cross, D A; Braunstein, M R; Carr, C W

    2006-11-27

    Laser induced damage in potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP) has previously been shown to depend significantly on pulse duration for 351-nm Gaussian pulses. In this work we studied the properties of damage initiated by 1053-nm temporally Gaussian pulses with 10ns and 3ns FWHM durations. Our results indicate that the number of damage sites induced by 1053-nm light scales with pulse duration ({tau}) as ({tau}{sub 1}/{tau}{sub 2}){sup 0.17} in contrast to the previously reported results for 351-nm light as ({tau}{sub 1}/{tau}{sub 2}){sup 0.35}. This indicates that damage site formation is significantly less probable at longer wavelengths for a given fluence.

  3. Spin-Echo Modulation Experiments with Soft Gaussian Pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miao, Xijia; Freeman, Ray

    An analysis is presented for a homonuclear spin-echo experiment in which refocusing and spin inversion are implemented by simultaneous soft 180° pulses applied to two weakly coupled spins. It is shown that for this experiment, simple pulses of short duration (for example, Gaussian pulses) are preferable to more complex shapes such as BURP pulses or Gaussian cascades, since this limits the generation of undesirable multiple-quantum coherence. An expression is derived for the optimum delay between excitation and detection for the generation of anti-phase magnetization at the two sites. The theoretical results are in good agreement with experiment. The doubly selective spin-echo technique is shown to be useful for the determination of small unresolved spin-spin splittings, and this is illustrated with results from the 400 MHz proton spectrum of strychnine.

  4. High dynamic extinction ratio and pulse modulation of optical signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrov, A.; Tronev, A. V.; Lebedev, V.; Il'ichev, I. V.; Velichko, E.; Shamray, A.

    2015-11-01

    The use of a saturable absorber for increasing the extinction ratio at external modulation of optical signals is considered. An erbium doped fiber was used as the saturable absorber in the experiments. A considerable increase in the static extinction ratio (up to 50 dB) was demonstrated. A rather long erbium doped fiber relaxation time (about 10 ms) was a limiting factor in the case of pulse modulation. Ways of overcoming this drawback are discussed.

  5. All-optical short pulse translation through cross-phase modulation in a VO₂ thin film.

    PubMed

    Fardad, Shima; Das, Susobhan; Salandrino, Alessandro; Breckenfeld, Eric; Kim, Heungsoo; Wu, Judy; Hui, Rongqing

    2016-01-15

    VO2 is a promising material for reconfigurable photonic devices due to the ultrafast changes in electronic and optical properties associated with its dielectric-to-metal phase transition. Based on a fiber-optic, pump-probe setup at 1550 nm wavelength window, and by varying the pump-pulse duration, we show that the material phase transition is primarily caused by the pump-pulse energy. For the first time, we demonstrate that the instantaneous optical phase modulation of probe during pump leading edge can be utilized to create short optical pulses at probe wavelength, through optical frequency discrimination. This circumvents the impact of long recovery time well known for the phase transition of VO2. PMID:26766683

  6. All solid-state mode-locked flashlamp pumped Nd:YAG laser system with selectable pulse duration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubecek, Vaclav; Diels, Jean-Claude; Stintz, Andreas; Jelinkova, Helena; Dombrovsky, Andrej; Cech, Miroslav

    2005-04-01

    All solid state mode-locked flashlamp pumped Nd:YAG laser system with selectable pulse duration was developed based on the oscillator where a single semiconductor structure containing a multiple-quantum-well was used as a saturable absorber for mode-locking, and energy limiter for passive negative feedback. Single pulse selection from various parts of extended 200 ns long Q-switched pulse train enables the changing of pulse duration before entering into three stages of laser amplifiers. Using of additional acousto-optic mode-locker, stability enhancement of the output pulses was obtained and the amplitude fluctuations were reduced below 5%. The exploitation of the solid state saturable absorber and limiter integrated in the single element improved significantly the long term characteristics of the laser system which can be therefore used for various applications as a satellite laser ranging, spectroscopy, or medicine.

  7. Pulse-Population Modulation For Induction Machines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, Irving G.

    1989-01-01

    Low-frequency synthesizer developed to provide low-frequency waveform by synthesis from high-frequency power system. Waveform assembled by allowing conduction of discrete half cycles of high-frequency carrier. Frequency of synthesized wave controlled by pulse pattern. By controlling relationship between slip and stator frequencies, one operates induction motor either as motor or generator. Such bidirectional energy transducer used as starter/generator for engine, or as servo-mechanism for control of acceleration and deceleration. Other advantages include operation under controlled voltage-to-frequency ratios to maintain high-efficiency and high power factor, and no reflection of low-frequency noise into 20-kHz distribution bus.

  8. Adiabatic quantum computing with phase modulated laser pulses

    PubMed Central

    Goswami, Debabrata

    2005-01-01

    Implementation of quantum logical gates for multilevel systems is demonstrated through decoherence control under the quantum adiabatic method using simple phase modulated laser pulses. We make use of selective population inversion and Hamiltonian evolution with time to achieve such goals robustly instead of the standard unitary transformation language. PMID:17195865

  9. Width-modulated square-wave pulses for ultrasound applications.

    PubMed

    Smith, Peter R; Cowell, David M J; Freear, Steven

    2013-11-01

    A method of output pressure control for ultrasound transducers using switched excitation is described. The method generates width-modulated square-wave pulse sequences that are suitable for driving ultrasound transducers using MOSFETs or similar devices. Sequences are encoded using an optimized level-shifted, carrier-comparison, pulse-width modulation (PWM) strategy derived from existing PWM theory, and modified specifically for ultrasound applications. The modifications are: a reduction in carrier frequency so that the smallest number of pulses are generated and minimal switching is necessary; alteration of a linear carrier form to follow a trigonometric relationship in accordance with the expected fundamental output; and application of frequency modulation to the carrier when generating frequency-modulated, amplitude- tapered signals. The PWM method permits control of output pressure for arbitrary waveform sequences at diagnostic frequencies (approximately 5 MHz) when sampled at 100 MHz, and is applicable to pulse shaping and array apodization. Arbitrary waveform generation capability is demonstrated in simulation using convolution with a transducer's impulse response, and experimentally with hydrophone measurement. Benefits in coded imaging are demonstrated when compared with fixed-width square-wave (pseudo-chirp) excitation in coded imaging, including reduction in image artifacts and peak side-lobe levels for two cases, showing 10 and 8 dB reduction in peak side-lobe level experimentally, compared with 11 and 7 dB reduction in simulation. In all cases, the experimental observations correlate strongly with simulated data. PMID:24158282

  10. Temporal and spatial modulation in laser-pulse propagation.

    PubMed

    Crenshaw, M E; Cantrell, C D

    1988-05-01

    An intense laser pulse that is nearly resonant with an atomic transition and that can initially be described as smooth and nearly adiabatic can acquire significant temporal and spatial modulation as the result of propagation through an atomic vapor. Computer calculations demonstrate that the temporal modulation is a result of enhancement, under propagation, of the initially small nonadiabatic portion of the transient nonlinear atomic response. The transient nonlinear atomic response varies with the field strength so that the transverse variation in field strength results in a spatial modulation, known as conical emission. PMID:19745907

  11. Laser processing of glass fiber reinforced thermoplastics with different wavelengths and pulse durations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schilling, N.; Krupop, B.; Klotzbach, U.

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, laser processing of fiber reinforced thermoplastics is investigated with different laser sources. Aim of the study is to determine the process windows in which selective ablation of polymer matrix and homogenous ablation of matrix and fiber occurs. To reach this, laser sources with different wavelengths (10600 nm, 1064 nm and 532 nm) and pulse durations in μs, ns and ps regime are compared on their ablation behavior of natural and black colored glass fiber reinforced polypropylene. Best results were achieved with ns lasers with IR wavelength at black colored material. At this parameter combination a wide process window can be shown where no damage of the reinforcing fibers happens.

  12. Ignition and Growth Modeling of Short Pulse Duration Shock Initiation Experiments on HNS IV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarver, Craig; Chidester, Steven

    2013-06-01

    Short pulse duration shock initiation experiments on 1.60 g/cm3 density (92% TMD) HNS IV have been reported by Schwarz, Bowden et al., Dudley et al., Goveas et al., Greenaway et al., and others. This flyer threshold velocity for detonation/failure data plus measured unreacted HNS Hugoniot data and detonation cylinder test product expansion data were used as the experimental basis for the development of an Ignition and Growth reactive flow model for the shock initiation of HNS IV. The resulting Ignition and Growth HNS IV model parameters yielded good overall agreement with all of this experimental data. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.: Explosive, HNS IV, shock to detonation transition, Ignition and Growth: 82.33.Vx, 82.40.Fp.

  13. Effect of Pulse Duration on Polytetrafluoroethylene Shocked above the Crystalline Phase II-Iii Transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, E. N.; Gray, G. T.; Rae, P. J.; Trujillo, C. P.; Bourne, N. K.

    2007-12-01

    We present an experimental study of crystalline structure evolution of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) due to pressure-induced phase transitions in a semi-crystalline polymer using soft-recovery, shock-loading techniques coupled with mechanical and chemical post-shock analysis. Gas-launched, plate impact experiments have been performed on pedigreed PTFE 7C, mounted in momentum-trapped, shock assemblies, with impact pressures above and below the phase II to phase III crystalline transition. Below the phase transition only subtle changes were observed in the crystallinity, microstructure, and mechanical response of PTFE. Shock loading of PTFE 7C above the phase II-III transition was seen to cause both an increase in crystallinity from 38% to ˜53% and a finer crystalline microstructure, and changed the yield and flow stress behavior. We particularly focus on the effect of pulse duration on the microstructure evolution.

  14. Effect of Pulse Duration on Polytetrafluoroethylene Shocked Above the Crystalline Phase II--III Transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Eric N.; Gray, George T., III; Rae, Philip J.; Trujillo, Carl P.; Bourne, Neil K.

    2007-06-01

    We present an experimental study of crystalline structure evolution of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) due to pressure-induced phase transitions in a semi-crystalline polymer using soft-recovery, shock-loading techniques coupled with mechanical and chemical post-shock analysis. Gas-launched, plate impact experiments have been performed on pedigreed PTFE 7C, mounted in momentum-trapped, shock assemblies, with impact pressures above and below the phase II to phase III crystalline transition. Below the phase transition only subtle changes were observed in the crystallinity, microstructure, and mechanical response of PTFE. Shock loading of PTFE 7C above the phase II--III transition was seen to cause both an increase in crystallinity from 38% to ˜53% (by Differential Scanning Calorimetry, DSC) and a finer crystalline microstructure, and changed the yield and flow stress behavior. We particularly focus on the effect of pulse duration on the microstructure evolution.

  15. 1053-nm all-fiber multi-pulse phase modulator for chirped pulse amplification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, Yuanyuan; Wang, Xiaochao; Fan, Wei; Qiao, Zhi; Chen, Xin

    2016-01-01

    An all-fiber multi-pass phase modulator for chirped pulse amplification centered at 1053nm is demonstrated. An optical pulse with a 3-dB bandwidth of 2.23nm centered at 1053 nm is obtained based on the system. And spectrum with negative dispersion is obtain by an all-fiber architecture which can be used for ultrashort laser source in ps.

  16. Materials processing by use of a Ti:Sapphire laser with automatically-adjustable pulse duration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamata, M.; Imahoko, T.; Ozono, K.; Obara, M.

    We have developed an automatic pulsewidth-adjustable femtosecond Ti:Sapphire laser system that can generate an output of 50 fs-1 ps in duration, and sub-mJ/pulse at a repetition rate of 1 kpps. The automatic pulse compressor enables one to control the pulsewidth in the range of 50 fs-1 ps by use of a personal computer (PC). The compressor can change the distance in-between and the tilt angle of the grating pairs by use of two stepping motors and two piezo-electric transducer(PZT) driven actuators, respectively. Both are controlled by a PC. Therefore, not only control of the pulsewidth, but also of the optical chirp becomes easy. By use of this femtosecond laser system, we fabricated a waveguide in fused quartz. The numerical aperture is chosen to 0.007 to loosely focus the femtosecond laser. The fabricated waveguides are well controllable by the incident laser pulsewidth. We also demonstrated the ablation processing of hydroxyapatite (Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2), which is a key component of human tooth and human bone for orthopedics and dentistry. With pulsewidth tunable output from 50 fs through 2 ps at 1 kpps, the chemical content of calcium and phosphorus is kept unchanged before and after 50-fs-2-ps laser ablation. We also demonstrated the precise ablation processing of human tooth enamel with 2 ps Ti:Sapphire laser.

  17. Ultrashort laser pulse ablation of copper, silicon and gelatin: effect of the pulse duration on the ablation thresholds and the incubation coefficients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nathala, Chandra S. R.; Ajami, Ali; Husinsky, Wolfgang; Farooq, Bilal; Kudryashov, Sergey I.; Daskalova, Albena; Bliznakova, Irina; Assion, Andreas

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, the influence of the pulse duration on the ablation threshold and the incubation coefficient was investigated for three different types of materials: metal (copper), semiconductor (silicon) and biopolymer (gelatin). Ablation threshold values and the incubation coefficients have been measured for multiple Ti:sapphire laser pulses (3 to 1000 pulses) and for four different pulse durations (10, 30, 250 and 550 fs). The ablation threshold fluence was determined by extrapolation of curves from squared crater diameter versus fluence plots. For copper and silicon, the experiments were conducted in vacuum and for gelatin in air. For all materials, the ablation threshold fluence increases with the pulse duration. For copper, the threshold increases as τ 0.05, for silicon as τ 0.12 and for gelatin as τ 0.22. By extrapolating the curves of the threshold fluence versus number of pulses, the single-shot threshold fluence was determined for each sample. For 30 fs pulses, the single-shot threshold fluences were found to be 0.79, 0.35, and 0.99 J/cm2 and the incubation coefficients were found to be 0.75, 0.83 and 0.68 for copper, silicon and gelatin, respectively.

  18. Compact femtosecond electron diffractometer with 100 keV electron bunches approaching the single-electron pulse duration limit

    SciTech Connect

    Waldecker, Lutz Bertoni, Roman; Ernstorfer, Ralph

    2015-01-28

    We present the design and implementation of a highly compact femtosecond electron diffractometer working at electron energies up to 100 keV. We use a multi-body particle tracing code to simulate electron bunch propagation through the setup and to calculate pulse durations at the sample position. Our simulations show that electron bunches containing few thousands of electrons per bunch are only weakly broadened by space-charge effects and their pulse duration is thus close to the one of a single-electron wavepacket. With our compact setup, we can create electron bunches containing up to 5000 electrons with a pulse duration below 100 fs on the sample. We use the diffractometer to track the energy transfer from photoexcited electrons to the lattice in a thin film of titanium. This process takes place on the timescale of few-hundred femtoseconds and a fully equilibrated state is reached within 1 ps.

  19. Determination of the pulse duration of an x-ray free electron laser using highly resolved single-shot spectra.

    PubMed

    Inubushi, Yuichi; Tono, Kensuke; Togashi, Tadashi; Sato, Takahiro; Hatsui, Takaki; Kameshima, Takashi; Togawa, Kazuaki; Hara, Toru; Tanaka, Takashi; Tanaka, Hitoshi; Ishikawa, Tetsuya; Yabashi, Makina

    2012-10-01

    We determined the pulse duration of x-ray free electron laser light at 10 keV using highly resolved single-shot spectra, combined with an x-ray free electron laser simulation. Spectral profiles, which were measured with a spectrometer composed of an ultraprecisely figured elliptical mirror and an analyzer flat crystal of silicon (555), changed markedly when we varied the compression strength of the electron bunch. The analysis showed that the pulse durations were reduced from 31 to 4.5 fs for the strongest compression condition. The method, which is readily applicable to evaluate shorter pulse durations, provides a firm basis for the development of femtosecond to attosecond sciences in the x-ray region. PMID:23083249

  20. Population transfer by an amplitude-modulated pulse

    SciTech Connect

    Vitanov, N.V.; Yatsenko, L.P.; Bergmann, K.

    2003-10-01

    We propose a technique for coherent population inversion of a two-state system, which uses an amplitude-modulated pulse. In the modulation-free adiabatic basis, the modulation introduces oscillating interaction between the adiabatic states. In a second rotating-wave approximation picture, this oscillating interaction induces a pair of level crossings between the energies of the adiabatic states if the modulation frequency is chosen appropriately. By suitably offsetting the modulation with respect to the center of the pulse, one can make the modulation act only in the vicinity of one of these crossings. In a higher-order adiabatic basis, this crossing shows up as an avoided crossing between the energies of the higher-order adiabatic states. As a result robust and efficient population transfer can be achieved between the adiabatic states, and hence, between the original bare states. We derive analytically the conditions on the interaction parameters for this technique and verify them with numerical simulations. Possible experimental implementations are discussed.

  1. Exact analysis of particle dynamics in combined field of finite duration laser pulse and static axial magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Sagar, Vikram; Sengupta, Sudip; Kaw, Predhiman

    2012-11-15

    Dynamics of a charged particle is studied in the field of a relativistically intense linearly polarized finite duration laser pulse in the presence of a static axial magnetic field. For a finite duration laser pulse whose temporal shape is defined by Gaussian profile, exact analytical expressions are derived for the particle trajectory, momentum, and energy as function of laser phase. From the solutions, it is shown that, unlike for the monochromatic plane wave case, resonant phase locking time between the particle and laser pulse is finite. The net energy transferred to the particle does not increase monotonically but tends to saturate. It is further shown that appropriate tuning of cyclotron frequency of the particle with the characteristic frequency in the pulse spectrum can lead to the generation of accelerated particles with variable energies in MeV-TeV range.

  2. Note: Measurement of extreme-short current pulse duration of runaway electron beam in atmospheric pressure air

    SciTech Connect

    Tarasenko, V. F.; Rybka, D. V.; Burachenko, A. G.; Lomaev, M. I.; Balzovsky, E. V.

    2012-08-15

    This note reports the time-amplitude characteristic of the supershort avalanche electron beam with up to 20 ps time resolution. For the first time it is shown that the electron beam downstream of small-diameter diaphragms in atmospheric pressure air has a complex structure which depends on the interelectrode gap width and cathode design. With a spherical cathode and collimator the minimum duration at half maximum of the supershort avalanche electron beam current pulse was shown to be {approx}25 ps. The minimum duration at half maximum of one peak in the pulses with two peaks can reach {approx}25 ps too.

  3. Effects of laser pulse duration and intensity on Coulomb explosion of CO2: Signatures of charge-resonance enhanced ionization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litvinyuk, Igor V.; Bocharova, Irina; Sanderson, Joseph; Kieffer, Jean-Claude; Légaré, François

    2009-11-01

    We studied laser-induced Coulomb explosion of CO2 by full triple-coincidence momentum resolved detection of resulting ion fragments. From the coincidence momentum data we can reconstruct molecular geometry immediately before explosion. We observe the dynamics of Coulomb explosion by comparing reconstructed CO2 geometries for different Ti:Sapphire laser pulse durations (at the same intensity) ranging from few cycles (7 fs) to 200 fs. We conclude that for longer pulse durations (>=100 fs) Coulomb explosion proceeds through the enhanced ionization mechanism taking place at the critical O-O distance of 8 a.u., similarly to well known charge-resonance enhanced ionization (CREI) in H2.

  4. Short-pulse cross-phase modulation in an electromagnetically-induced-transparency medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feizpour, Amir; Dmochowski, Greg; Steinberg, Aephraim M.

    2016-01-01

    Electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) has been proposed as a way to greatly enhance cross-phase modulation, with the possibility of leading to few-photon-level optical nonlinearities [Schmidt and Imamoglu, Opt. Lett. 21, 1936 (1996), 10.1364/OL.21.001936]. This enhancement grows as the transparency window width, ΔEIT, is narrowed. Decreasing ΔEIT, however, has been shown to increase the response time of the nonlinear medium. This suggests that, for a given pulse duration, the nonlinearity would diminish once the window width became narrower than this pulse bandwidth. We show that this is not the case: the peak phase shift saturates but does not decrease. We show that in the regimes of most practical interest—narrow EIT windows perturbed by short signal pulses—the enhancement offered by EIT is not only in the magnitude of the nonlinear phase shift but also in its increased duration. That is, for the case of signal pulses much shorter (temporally) than the inverse EIT bandwidth, the narrow window serves to prolong the effect of the passing signal pulse, leading to an integrated phase shift that grows linearly with 1 /ΔEIT ; this continued growth of the integrated phase shift improves the detectability of the phase shift, in principle, without bound. For many purposes, it is this detectability which is of more interest than the absolute magnitude of the peak phase shift. We present analytical expressions based on a linear time-invariant model that accounts for the temporal behavior of the cross-phase modulation for several parameter ranges of interest. We conclude that in order to optimize the detectability of the EIT-based cross-phase shift, one should use the narrowest possible EIT window and a signal pulse that is as broadband as the excited-state linewidth and detuned by half a linewidth.

  5. Dynamics of laser-induced channel formation in water and influence of pulse duration on the ablation of biotissue under water with pulsed erbium-laser radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ith, M.; Pratisto, H.; Altermatt, H. J.; Frenz, M.; Weber, H. P.

    1994-12-01

    The ability to use fiber-delivered erbium-laser radiation for non-contact arthroscopic meniscectomy in a liquid environment was studied. The laser radiation is transmitted through a water-vapor channel created by the leading part of the laser pulse. The dynamics of the channel formation around a submerged fiber tip was investigated with time-resolved flash photography. Strong pressure transients with amplitudes up to a few hundreds of bars measured with a needle hydrophone were found to accompany the channel formation process. Additional pressure transients in the range of kbars were observed after the laser pulse associated with the collapse of the vapor channel. Transmission measurements revealed that the duration the laser-induced channel stays open, and therefore the energy transmittable through it, is substantially determined by the laser pulse duration. The optimum pulse duration was found to be in the range between 250 and 350 µS. This was confirmed by histological evaluations of the laser incisions in meniscus: Increasing the pulse duration from 300 to 800 µs leads to a decrease in the crater depth from 1600 to 300 µm. A comparison of the histological examination after laser treatment through air and through water gave information on the influence of the vapor channel on the ablation efficiency, the cutting quality and the induced thermal damage in the adjacent tissue. The study shows that the erbium laser combined with an adequate fiber delivery system represents an effective surgical instrument liable to become increasingly accepted in orthopedic surgery.

  6. Diffraction leveraged modulation of X-ray pulses using MEMS-based X-ray optics

    DOEpatents

    Lopez, Daniel; Shenoy, Gopal; Wang, Jin; Walko, Donald A.; Jung, Il-Woong; Mukhopadhyay, Deepkishore

    2016-08-09

    A method and apparatus are provided for implementing Bragg-diffraction leveraged modulation of X-ray pulses using MicroElectroMechanical systems (MEMS) based diffractive optics. An oscillating crystalline MEMS device generates a controllable time-window for diffraction of the incident X-ray radiation. The Bragg-diffraction leveraged modulation of X-ray pulses includes isolating a particular pulse, spatially separating individual pulses, and spreading a single pulse from an X-ray pulse-train.

  7. Different pulse pattern generation by frequency detuning in pulse modulated actively mode-locked ytterbium doped fiber laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, He; Chen, Sheng-Ping; Si, Lei; Zhang, Bin; Jiang, Zong-Fu

    2015-10-01

    We report the results of our recent experimental investigation of the modulation frequency detuning effect on the output pulse dynamics in a pulse modulated actively mode-locked ytterbium doped fiber laser. The experimental study shows the existence of five different mode-locking states that mainly depend on the modulation frequency detuning, which are: (a) amplitude-even harmonic/fundamental mode-locking, (b) Q-switched harmonic/fundamental mode-locking, (c) sinusoidal wave modulation mode, (d) pulses bundle state, and (e) noise-like state. A detailed experimental characterization of the output pulses dynamics in each operating mode is presented.

  8. A 1 MEGAWATT POLYPHASE BOOST CONVERTER-MODULATOR FOR KLYSTRON PULSE APPLICATION

    SciTech Connect

    W.A. REASS; J.D. DOSS; R.F. GRIBBLE

    2001-06-01

    This paper describes electrical design criteria and first operational results a 140 kV, 1 MW average, 11 MW peak, zero-voltage-switching 20 kHz polyphase bridge, boost converter/modulator for klystron pulse application. The DC-DC converter derives the buss voltages from a standard 13.8 kV to 2300 Y substation cast-core transformer. Energy storage and filtering is provided by self-clearing metallized hazy polypropylene traction capacitors. Three ''H-Bridge'' Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT) switching networks are used to generate the polyphase 20 kHz transformer primary drive waveforms. The 20 kHz drive waveforms are chirped the appropriate duration to generate the desired klystron pulse width. PWM (pulse width modulation) of the individual 20 kHz pulses is utilized to provide regulated output waveforms with adaptive feedforward and feedback techniques. The boost transformer design utilizes amorphous nanocrystalline material that provides the required low core loss at design flux levels and switching frequencies. Resonant shunt-peaking is used on the transformer secondary to boost output voltage and resonate transformer leakage inductance. With the appropriate transformer leakage inductance and peaking capacitance, zero-voltage-switching of the IGBT's is attained, minimizing switching losses. A review of these design parameters and the first results of the performance characteristics will be presented.

  9. Development and performance of pulse-width-modulated static inverter and converter modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pittman, P. F.; Gourash, F.; Birchenough, A. G.; Pittman, P. F.; Ravas, R. J.; Hall, W. G.

    1971-01-01

    Pulse-width-modulated inverter and converter modules are being developed for modular aerospace electrical power systems. The modules, rate 2.5 kilowatts per module and 10-minute - 150-percent overload, operate from 56 volts dc. The converter module provides two output voltages: a nominal link voltage of 200 volts dc when used with the inverter, and 150 volts dc to a load bus when used separately. The inverter module output is 400-hertz, sinusoidal, three-phase, 120/208 volts. Tests of breadboard models with standard parts and integrated circuits show rated power efficiencies of 71.4 and 85.1 percent and voltage regulation of 5 and 3.1 percent for inverter and converter modules, respectively. Sine-wave output distortion is 0.74 percent.

  10. Low dose short duration pulsed electromagnetic field effects on cultured human chondrocytes: An experimental study

    PubMed Central

    Anbarasan, Selvam; Baraneedharan, Ulaganathan; Paul, Solomon FD; Kaur, Harpreet; Rangaswami, Subramoniam; Bhaskar, Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    Background: Pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) is used to treat bone and joint disorders for over 30 years. Recent studies demonstrate a significant effect of PEMF on bone and cartilage proliferation, differentiation, synthesis of extracellular matrix (ECM) and production of growth factors. The aim of this study is to assess if PEMF of low frequency, ultralow field strength and short time exposure have beneficial effects on in-vitro cultured human chondrocytes. Materials and Methods: Primary human chondrocytes cultures were established using articular cartilage obtained from knee joint during joint replacement surgery. Post characterization, the cells were exposed to PEMF at frequencies ranging from 0.1 to 10 Hz and field intensities ranging from 0.65 to 1.95 μT for 60 min/day for 3 consecutive days to analyze the viability, ECM component synthesis, proliferation and morphology related changes post exposure. Association between exposure doses and cellular effects were analyzed with paired't’ test. Results: In-vitro PEMF exposure of 0.1 Hz frequency, 1.95 μT and duration of 60 min/day for 3 consecutive days produced the most favorable response on chondrocytes viability (P < 0.001), ECM component production (P < 0.001) and multiplication. Exposure of identical chondrocyte cultures to PEMFs of 0.65 μT field intensity at 1 Hz frequency resulted in less significant response. Exposure to 1.3 μT PEMFs at 10 Hz frequency does not show any significant effects in different analytical parameters. Conclusions: Short duration PEMF exposure may represent a new therapy for patients with Osteoarthritis (OA). PMID:26955182

  11. A high-precision pulse-width modulator source.

    SciTech Connect

    Lenkszus, F.; Laird, R.

    1999-09-30

    A novel high-resolution pulse-width modulator (PWM) is being developed for a new digital regulator for the Advanced Photon Source power converters. The circuit features 82-ps setability over an 80-{micro}s range. Our application requires a 50-{micro}s fill-scale range; therefore the 82-ps setability is equivalent to better than 19 bits. The circuit is presently implemented as a VME module and is an integral part of the digital regulator prototype. The design concept and performance results will be presented.

  12. Optical UWB pulse generator using an N tap microwave photonic filter and phase inversion adaptable to different pulse modulation formats.

    PubMed

    Bolea, Mario; Mora, José; Ortega, Beatriz; Capmany, José

    2009-03-30

    We propose theoretically and demonstrate experimentally an optical architecture for flexible Ultra-Wideband pulse generation. It is based on an N-tap reconfigurable microwave photonic filter fed by a laser array by using phase inversion in a Mach-Zehnder modulator. Since a large number of positive and negative coefficients can be easily implemented, UWB pulses fitted to the FCC mask requirements can be generated. As an example, a four tap pulse generator is experimentally demonstrated which complies with the FCC regulation. The proposed pulse generator allows different pulse modulation formats since the amplitude, polarity and time delay of generated pulse is controlled. PMID:19333263

  13. Adaptive differential pulse-code modulation with adaptive bit allocation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frangoulis, E. D.; Yoshida, K.; Turner, L. F.

    1984-08-01

    Studies have been conducted regarding the possibility to obtain good quality speech at data rates in the range from 16 kbit/s to 32 kbit/s. The techniques considered are related to adaptive predictive coding (APC) and adaptive differential pulse-code modulation (ADPCM). At 16 kbit/s adaptive transform coding (ATC) has also been used. The present investigation is concerned with a new method of speech coding. The described method employs adaptive bit allocation, similar to that used in adaptive transform coding, together with adaptive differential pulse-code modulation, employing first-order prediction. The new method has the objective to improve the quality of the speech over that which can be obtained with conventional ADPCM employing a fourth-order predictor. Attention is given to the ADPCM-AB system, the design of a subjective test, and the application of switched preemphasis to ADPCM.

  14. Analyzing Pulse-Code Modulation On A Small Computer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Massey, David E.

    1988-01-01

    System for analysis pulse-code modulation (PCM) comprises personal computer, computer program, and peripheral interface adapter on circuit board that plugs into expansion bus of computer. Functions essentially as "snapshot" PCM decommutator, which accepts and stores thousands of frames of PCM data, sifts through them repeatedly to process according to routines specified by operator. Enables faster testing and involves less equipment than older testing systems.

  15. Single event effects in pulse width modulation controllers

    SciTech Connect

    Penzin, S.H.; Crain, W.R.; Crawford, K.B.; Hansel, S.J.; Kirshman, J.F.; Koga, R.

    1996-12-01

    SEE testing was performed on pulse width modulation (PWM) controllers which are commonly used in switching mode power supply systems. The devices are designed using both Set-Reset (SR) flip-flops and Toggle (T) flip-flops which are vulnerable to single event upset (SEU) in a radiation environment. Depending on the implementation of the different devices the effect can be significant in spaceflight hardware.

  16. Two Serial Data to Pulse Code Modulation System Interfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamory, Phil

    2006-01-01

    Two pulse code modulation (PCM) system interfaces for asynchronous serial data are described. One interface is for global positioning system (GPS) data on the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center (DFRC) F-15B (McDonnell Douglas Corporation, St. Louis, Missouri) airplane, tail number 836 (F-15B/836). The other is for flight control computer data on the duPont Aerospace (La Jolla, California) DP-1, a 53-percent scale model of the duPont Aerospace DP-2.

  17. Capacity of the Generalized Pulse-Position Modulation Channel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamkins, J.; Klimesh, M.; McElience, R.; Moision, B.

    2005-01-01

    We show the capacity of a generalized pulse-position modulation (PPM) channel, where the input vectors may be any set that allows a transitive group of coordinate permutations, is achieved by a uniform input distribution. We derive a simple expression in terms of the Kullback Leibler distance for the binary case, and the asymptote in the PPM order. We prove a sub-additivity result for the PPM channel and use it to show PPM capacity is monotonic in the order.

  18. Simultaneous observation of nascent plasma and bubble induced by laser ablation in water with various pulse durations

    SciTech Connect

    Tamura, Ayaka Matsumoto, Ayumu; Nishi, Naoya; Sakka, Tetsuo; Fukami, Kazuhiro

    2015-05-07

    We investigate the effects of pulse duration on the dynamics of the nascent plasma and bubble induced by laser ablation in water. To examine the relationship between the nascent plasma and the bubble without disturbed by shot-to-shot fluctuation, we observe the images of the plasma and the bubble simultaneously by using two intensified charge coupled device detectors. We successfully observe the images of the plasma and bubble during the pulsed-irradiation, when the bubble size is as small as 20 μm. The light-emitting region of the plasma during the laser irradiation seems to exceed the bubble boundary in the case of the short-pulse (30-ns pulse) irradiation, while the size of the plasma is significantly smaller than that of the bubble in the case of the long-pulse (100-ns pulse) irradiation. The results suggest that the extent of the plasma quenching in the initial stage significantly depends on the pulse duration. Also, we investigate how the plasma-bubble relationship in the very early stage affects the shape of the atomic spectral lines observed at the later delay time of 600 ns. The present work gives important information to obtain high quality spectra in the application of underwater laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy, as well as to clarify the mechanism of liquid-phase laser ablation.

  19. Design of Optical Pulse Position Modulation (PPM) Translating Receiver

    SciTech Connect

    Mendez, A J; Hernandez, V J; Gagliardi, R M; Bennett, C V

    2009-06-19

    M-ary pulse position modulation (M-ary PPM) signaling is a means of transmitting multiple bits per symbol in an intensity modulated/direct detection (IM/DD) system. PPM is used in applications with average power limitations. In optical communication systems, PPM becomes challenging to implement at gigabit rates and/or large M, since pulsed signaling requires higher electronic processing bandwidths than the fundamental transmission rate. they have thus been exploring techniques for PPM communications using optical processing. Previous work described a transmitter algorithm that directly translates a bit sequence of N digital bits to the optical pulse position m for any M = 2{sup N}. It has been considerably more difficult to define a similar receiver algorithm that translates the received optical pulse position directly back to a bit sequence with minimal electronic processing. Designs for specific Ms (e.g., 4-ary) have been shown and implemented, but are difficult to scale to larger M. In this work, they present for the first time a generalized PPM translating receiver that is applicable to all M and data rates.

  20. Laser-induced microjet: wavelength and pulse duration effects on bubble and jet generation for drug injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Hun-jae; Park, Mi-ae; Sirotkin, Fedir V.; Yoh, Jack J.

    2013-12-01

    The expansion of the laser-induced bubble is the main mechanism in the developed microjet injector. In this study, Nd:YAG and Er:YAG lasers are used as triggers of the bubble formation. The impact of the laser parameters on the bubble dynamics is studied and the performance of the injector is evaluated. We found that the main cause of the differences in the bubble behavior comes from the pulse duration and wavelength. For Nd:YAG laser, the pulse duration is very short relative to the bubble lifetime making the behavior of the bubble close to that of the cavitation bubble, while in Er:YAG case, the high absorption in the water and long pulse duration change the initial behavior of the bubble making it close to a vapor bubble. The contraction and subsequent rebound are typical for cavitation bubbles in both cases. The results show that the laser-induced microjet injector generates velocity which is sufficient for the drug delivery for both laser beams of different pulse duration. We estimate the typical velocity within 30-80 m/s range and the breakup length to be larger than 1 mm suitable for trans-dermal drug injection.

  1. Short Shock Pulse Duration Experiments Plus Ignition and Growth Modeling on Composition B

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    May, Chadd; Tarver, Craig

    2013-06-01

    Short pulse duration shock initiation experiments were performed on 1.71 g/cm3 Composition B using electrically driven kapton flyer plates. Critical impact velocities for initiation at several flyer plate thicknesses and diameters were determined. For 2 mm diameter flyers, the critical velocities for shock initiation ranged from 4.06 to 4.72 km/s for flyer thicknesses ranging from 127 to 50.8 microns. Since the failure diameter of Composition B is approximately 4 mm, the kapton flyers imparted sufficient energy to overcome the effects of both rear and size rarefaction wave energy loses and cause detonation. The Ignition and Growth reactive flow model parameters for Composition B were modified to include unreacted Hugoniot, detonation reaction zone, and overdriven detonation experimental data and then applied to the kapton flyer data with good results. This work was performed under the auspices of the U. S. Department of Energy by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract No. DE-AC52-07NA27344.: Explosive, Composition B, shock to detonation transition, Ignition and Growth: 82.33.Vx, 82.40.Fp.

  2. Modulation depth enhancement of ESEEM experiments using pulse trains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitrikas, George; Prokopiou, Georgia

    2015-05-01

    We present a new way to increase the modulation amplitude of electron spin echo envelope modulation (ESEEM) experiments that are based on electron spin coherence. The method uses a train of N refocusing π -pulses where each one of them redistributes the electron spin coherence among allowed and forbidden EPR transitions. This in turn leads to a significant enhancement of the ESEEM effect, depending on the strength of the hyperfine interaction and the number of applied pulses, N. We derive analytical expressions for a general two-dimensional (2D) scheme which is based on the refocused primary echo and we explore the expected modulation enhancement of various correlation peaks as a function of k (modulation depth parameter) and N. In addition, we inspect two different one-dimensional (1D) versions of the method, namely the Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) sequence occurring for t1 =t2, and an extension of the primary echo sequence occurring for t2 = 0 . Our study shows that these methods are particularly useful for detecting weak hyperfine couplings of magnetic nuclei having small gn factors and low natural abundances like 13C and 29 Si. The theoretically predicted features are confirmed by experiments in disordered spin systems.

  3. Modulation depth enhancement of ESEEM experiments using pulse trains.

    PubMed

    Mitrikas, George; Prokopiou, Georgia

    2015-05-01

    We present a new way to increase the modulation amplitude of electron spin echo envelope modulation (ESEEM) experiments that are based on electron spin coherence. The method uses a train of N refocusing π-pulses where each one of them redistributes the electron spin coherence among allowed and forbidden EPR transitions. This in turn leads to a significant enhancement of the ESEEM effect, depending on the strength of the hyperfine interaction and the number of applied pulses, N. We derive analytical expressions for a general two-dimensional (2D) scheme which is based on the refocused primary echo and we explore the expected modulation enhancement of various correlation peaks as a function of k (modulation depth parameter) and N. In addition, we inspect two different one-dimensional (1D) versions of the method, namely the Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) sequence occurring for t1=t2, and an extension of the primary echo sequence occurring for t2=0. Our study shows that these methods are particularly useful for detecting weak hyperfine couplings of magnetic nuclei having small gn factors and low natural abundances like (13)C and (29)Si. The theoretically predicted features are confirmed by experiments in disordered spin systems. PMID:25838255

  4. Dynamic characterization of short duration stress pulses generated by a magnetic flyer plate in carbon-fiber/epoxy laminates

    SciTech Connect

    Bruck, H.A.; Epstein, J.S.; Perry, K.E. Jr.; Abdallah, M.G.

    1995-11-01

    There is a great deal of interest in characterizing the dynamic mechanical behavior of laminated carbon-fiber/epoxy composites for military and aerospace applications. Current research efforts have been directed at measuring the strength lost because of accumulated damage. Very little work has been done to determine how this damage is accumulated during dynamic mechanical loading. Of particular interest is the effect of short duration (< 1 {micro}s) stress pulses on mechanical behavior such as delamination. In this paper, a magnetic flyer plate apparatus is presented for generating a short duration stress pulse in a unidirectional carbon-fiber/epoxy laminated composite. The stress pulse is characterized using a dynamic moire interferometer.

  5. Pulse modulated high-pressure caesium discharge lamp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, H.; Muzeroll, M. E.; Chamberlain, J. C.; Maya, J.

    2001-02-01

    The high-pressure caesium discharge has a favourable spectral distribution consisting of a smooth recombination continuum in the visible range. When operated on a continuous power source, the spectrum in the visible region is close to blackbody radiation; however, the lamp efficacy is restrained by the self-reversed resonance lines occurring at 825 nm and 894 nm. Pulse modulation significantly increases the core plasma temperature, suppresses the near-infrared segment of the spectrum, strongly enhances the continuous radiation in the visible region, and successfully avoids overloading (<40 W cm-2) the arc tubes. The spectrum in the visible appears to have the same shape as blackbody radiation when the lamp is operated on a multiple pulse modulated power source. The arc tube geometry, caesium/mercury compositions, and power supply waveforms were optimized for photometric performance through a series of comparison tests. The lamp efficacy increased with narrower diameter arc tubes, higher lamp currents, as well as higher current crest factors (ratio of current pulse peak to RMS current). The highest efficacy achieved for the lamp operated on the pulse modulated power supply was 46 lpw. The lamp exhibits excellent dimming characteristics and has a colour rendering index (CRI) very close to a thermal source such as a tungsten halogen lamp. This study provides a framework for the design of a new lamp/ballast system which features excellent dimming characteristics, a near-perfect CRI, an efficacy above 40 lpw, and long life. The application for this light source could be a replacement for a high-end tungsten halogen or a white high-pressure sodium lamp.

  6. Nitriding molybdenum: Effects of duration and fill gas pressure when using 100-Hz pulse DC discharge technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikhlaq, U.; R., Ahmad; Shafiq, M.; Saleem, S.; S. Shah, M.; Hussain, T.; A. Khan, I.; K., Abbas; S. Abbas, M.

    2014-10-01

    Molybdenum is nitrided by a 100-Hz pulsed DC glow discharge technique for various time durations and fill gas pressures to study the effects on the surface properties of molybdenum. X-ray diffractometry (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and atomic force microscopy (AFM) are used for the structural and morphological analysis of the nitrided layers. Vickers' microhardness tester is utilized to investigate surface microhardness. Phase analysis shows the formation of more molybdenum nitride molecules for longer nitriding durations at fill gas pressures of 2 mbar and 3 mbar (1 bar = 105 Pa). A considerable increase in surface microhardness (approximately by a factor of 2) is observed for longer duration (10 h) and 2-mbar pressure. Longer duration (10 h) and 2-mbar fill gas pressure favors the formation of homogeneous, smooth, hard layers by the incorporation of more nitrogen.

  7. Laser pulse duration dependence of blister formation on back-radiated Ti thin films for BB-LIFT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodfriend, N. T.; Starinskiy, S. V.; Nerushev, O. A.; Bulgakova, N. M.; Bulgakov, A. V.; Campbell, E. E. B.

    2016-03-01

    The influence of the laser pulse duration on the mechanism of blister formation in the particle transfer technique, blister-based laser-induced forward transfer, was investigated. Pulses from a fs Ti:Sapphire laser (120 fs, 800 nm) and from a ns Nd:YAG laser (7 ns, 532 nm) were used to directly compare blister formation on thin titanium films of ca. 300 nm thickness, deposited on glass. The different blister morphologies were compared and contrasted by using optical microscopy and atomic force microscopy. The results provide evidence for different blister formation mechanisms: for fs pulses the mechanism is predominantly ablation at the metal-glass interface accompanied by confined plasma expansion and deformation of the remaining metal film; for ns pulses it is heating accompanied by thermal expansion of the metal film.

  8. Millisecond duration pulses for flow-through electro-induced protein extraction from E. coli and associated eradication.

    PubMed

    Coustets, M; Ganeva, V; Galutzov, B; Teissie, J

    2015-06-01

    Pulsed electric fields are used to induce membrane permeabilization on cells. In the case of species with cell wall (yeasts, microalgae), it was previously shown that when the pulse duration was several ms long, this resulted in a cytoplasmic soluble protein slow leakage. In this work, we show that a similar consequence can be obtained with different strains of E. coli. Experimental evidences of a resulting wall alteration are described. Pre-industrial flow process pilots are used. As the membrane electropermeabilization can be irreversible by applying a proper choice of the pulse parameters, this approach is used for bacterial inactivation in flow process. It is observed that sub-millisecond pulse trains are more cost effective than longer ones. PMID:25183448

  9. Influence of laser pulse duration on the electrochemical performance of laser structured LiFePO4 composite electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mangang, M.; Seifert, H. J.; Pfleging, W.

    2016-02-01

    Lithium iron phosphate is a promising cathode material for lithium-ion batteries, despite its low electrical conductivity and lithium-ion diffusion kinetic. To overcome the reduced rate performance, three dimensional (3D) architectures were generated in composite cathode layers. By using ultrashort laser radiation with pulse durations in the femtosecond regime the ablation depth per pulse is three times higher compared to nanosecond laser pulses. Due to the 3D structuring, the surface area of the active material which is in direct contact with liquid electrolyte, i.e. the active surface, is increased. As a result the capacity retention and the cycle stability were significantly improved, especially for high charging/discharging currents. Furthermore, a 3D structure leads to higher currents during cyclic voltammetry. Thus, the lithium-ion diffusion kinetic in the cell was improved. In addition, using ultrashort laser pulses results in a high aspect ratio and further improvement of the cell kinetic was achieved.

  10. Optimization of Pulsed-DEER Measurements for Gd-Based Labels: Choice of Operational Frequencies, Pulse Durations and Positions, and Temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Raitsimring, A.; Astashkin, A. V.; Enemark, J. H.; Kaminker, I.; Goldfarb, D.; Walter, E. D.; Song, Y.; Meade, T. J.

    2012-12-29

    In this work, the experimental conditions and parameters necessary to optimize the long-distance (≥ 60 Å) Double Electron-Electron Resonance (DEER) measurements of biomacromolecules labeled with Gd(III) tags are analyzed. The specific parameters discussed are the temperature, microwave band, the separation between the pumping and observation frequencies, pulse train repetition rate, pulse durations and pulse positioning in the electron paramagnetic resonance spectrum. It was found that: (i) in optimized DEER measurements, the observation pulses have to be applied at the maximum of the EPR spectrum; (ii) the optimal temperature range for Ka-band measurements is 14-17 K, while in W-band the optimal temperatures are between 6-9 K; (iii) W-band is preferable to Ka-band for DEER measurements. Recent achievements and the conditions necessary for short-distance measurements (<15 Å) are also briefly discussed.

  11. Fractal Reference Signals in Pulse-Width Modulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lurie, Boris; Lurie, Helen

    2005-01-01

    A report proposes the use of waveforms having fractal shapes reminiscent of sawteeth (in contradistinction to conventional regular sawtooth waveforms) as reference signals for pulse-width modulation in control systems for thrusters of spacecraft flying in formation. Fractal reference signals may also be attractive in some terrestrial control systems - especially those in which pulse-width modulation is used for precise control of electric motors. The report asserts that the use of fractal reference signals would enable the synchronous control of several variables of a spacecraft formation, such that consumption of propellant would be minimized, intervals between thruster firings would be long (as preferred for performing scientific observations), and delays in controlling large-thrust maneuvers for retargeting would be minimized. The report further asserts that whereas different controllers would be needed for different modes of operation if conventional pulsewidth modulation were used, the use of fractal reference signals would enable the same controller to function nearly optimally in all regimes of operation, so that only this one controller would be needed.

  12. Laser cutting of titanium with pulsed and modulated pulsed Nd:YAG lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maher, Warren; Tong, Kwok-On

    1998-05-01

    Recent test results demonstrate the differences between laser cutting of Ti with different pulsed formats at 1.06 micrometer wavelength. The precision Laser Machining (PLM) consortium is dedicated to investigating improved processing obtained with the use of diode-pumped Nd:YAG lasers having high beam quality and high average power. One of the PLM lasers developed at TRW was used to determine the best parameters for laser cutting 0.034' Ti. Average power was available up to 340 W. Pulse repetition rates were 322 Hz with pulse lengths of 454 microseconds, while the modulated laser output had a 142 kHz micropulse train within the pulse envelope. Beam quality was sufficient to permit a 100 micrometer spot size to be used with f/10 focusing. Ar assist gas was used. At each setting of the laser average power the cutting tests usually were tried at 11 different speeds, up to 3'/second. The highest speed for which cutting is possible at a given average power is the threshold speed for that power. The cut specimens were evaluated for dross for a variety of rear surface Ar cross flow conditions. Each cut specimen also was evaluated for excess heating indicated by metallurgical and/or surface chemistry changes. Cutting at speeds above a critical minimum speed for each setting of laser average power greatly reduces degradation due to excess heating. Good cutting is possible between the threshold speed and this minimum speed (both a function of average power). Data for threshold and minimum speed were obtained for the pulsed and the modulated pulsed laser output. These tests also determined evidence of optimum conditions for cutting with a rear cross flow of Ar that substantially eliminates rear surface dross on the edge of the kerf. The quality of the cut edge was evaluated by inspection of its polished cross-section.

  13. Optical modulation of astrocyte network using ultrashort pulsed laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Jonghee; Ku, Taeyun; Chong, Kyuha; Ryu, Seung-Wook; Choi, Chulhee

    2012-03-01

    Astrocyte, the most abundant cell type in the central nervous system, has been one of major topics in neuroscience. Even though many tools have been developed for the analysis of astrocyte function, there has been no adequate tool that can modulates astrocyte network without pharmaceutical or genetic interventions. Here we found that ultrashort pulsed laser stimulation can induce label-free activation of astrocytes as well as apoptotic-like cell death in a dose-dependent manner. Upon irradiation with high intensity pulsed lasers, the irradiated cells with short exposure time showed very rapid mitochondria fragmentation, membrane blebbing and cytoskeletal retraction. We applied this technique to investigate in vivo function of astrocyte network in the CNS: in the aspect of neurovascular coupling and blood-brain barrier. We propose that this noninvasive technique can be widely applied for in vivo study of complex cellular network.

  14. Laser detection of remote targets applying chaotic pulse position modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Pengfei; Geng, Dongxian; Wang, Wei; Gong, Mali

    2015-11-01

    Chaotic pulse position modulation (CPPM) has been successfully used in robust digital communication for years. We propose to adapt CPPM for laser detection of remote targets to address the issue of noise. Specified in a time-of-flight (TOF) consecutive laser ranging application scenario, the feasibility of laser detection applying CPPM for laser detection is experimentally investigated. The scheme including the adaptive design for laser detection and parameter settings with validation is introduced. Lab-based electrical experiment and a proof-of-concept outdoor TOF experiment are further conducted to verify the feasibility of laser ranging and detection using CPPM through comparison with traditional Lidar detection and other pulse interval patterns. According to experiments and the following analysis, laser ranging using CPPM is feasible and more robust than traditional laser ranging.

  15. Duration of Diabetes Predicts Aortic Pulse Wave Velocity and Vascular Events in Alström Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Jamie; Carey, Catherine; Barrett, Timothy; Campbell, Fiona; Maffei, Pietro; Marshall, Jan D.; Paisey, Christopher; Steeds, Richard P.; Edwards, Nicola C.; Bunce, Susan; Geberhiwot, Tarekegn

    2015-01-01

    Context: Alström syndrome is characterized by increased risk of cardiovascular disease from childhood. Objective: To explore the association between risk factors for cardiovascular disease, aortic pulse wave velocity, and vascular events in Alström syndrome. Design: Cross-sectional analyses with 5-year follow-up. Setting: The UK NHS nationally commissioned specialist clinics for Alström syndrome. Patients: Thirty-one Alström patients undertook vascular risk assessment, cardiac studies, and aortic pulse wave velocity measurement. Subsequent clinical outcomes were recorded. Interventions: Insulin resistance was treated with lifestyle intervention and metformin, and diabetes with the addition of glitazones, glucagon-like peptide 1 agonists, and/or insulin. Thyroid and T deficiencies were corrected. Dyslipidemia was treated with statins and nicotinic acid derivatives. Cardiomyopathy was treated with standard therapy as required. Main Outcome Measures: The associations of age, gender, and risk factors for cardiovascular disease with aortic pulse wave velocity were assessed and correlated with the effects of reduction in left ventricular function. Vascular events were monitored for 5 years. Results: Aortic pulse wave velocity was positively associated with the duration of diabetes (P = .001) and inversely with left ventricular ejection fraction (P = .036). Five of the cohort with cardiovascular events had higher aortic pulse wave velocity (P = .0247), and all had long duration of diabetes. Conclusions: Duration of diabetes predicted aortic pulse wave velocity in Alström syndrome, which in turn predicted cardiovascular events. This offers hope of secondary prevention because type 2 diabetes can be delayed or reversed by lifestyle interventions. PMID:26066530

  16. The influence of flight speed on the ranging performance of bats using frequency modulated echolocation pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boonman, Arjan M.; Parsons, Stuart; Jones, Gareth

    2003-01-01

    Many species of bat use ultrasonic frequency modulated (FM) pulses to measure the distance to objects by timing the emission and reception of each pulse. Echolocation is mainly used in flight. Since the flight speed of bats often exceeds 1% of the speed of sound, Doppler effects will lead to compression of the time between emission and reception as well as an elevation of the echo frequencies, resulting in a distortion of the perceived range. This paper describes the consequences of these Doppler effects on the ranging performance of bats using different pulse designs. The consequences of Doppler effects on ranging performance described in this paper assume bats to have a very accurate ranging resolution, which is feasible with a filterbank receiver. By modeling two receiver types, it was first established that the effects of Doppler compression are virtually independent of the receiver type. Then, used a cross-correlation model was used to investigate the effect of flight speed on Doppler tolerance and range-Doppler coupling separately. This paper further shows how pulse duration, bandwidth, function type, and harmonics influence Doppler tolerance and range-Doppler coupling. The influence of each signal parameter is illustrated using calls of several bat species. It is argued that range-Doppler coupling is a significant source of error in bat echolocation, and various strategies bats could employ to deal with this problem, including the use of range rate information are discussed.

  17. PHz-wide supercontinua of nondispersing subcycle pulses generated by extreme modulational instability.

    PubMed

    Tani, F; Travers, J C; Russell, P St J

    2013-07-19

    Modulational instability (MI) of 500 fs, 5 μJ pulses, propagating in gas-filled hollow-core kagome photonic crystal fiber, is studied numerically and experimentally. By tuning the pressure and launched energy, we control the duration of the pulses emerging as a consequence of MI and hence are able to study two regimes: the classical MI case leading to few-cycle solitons of the nonlinear Schrödinger equation; and an extreme case leading to the formation of nondispersing subcycle pulses (0.5 to 2 fs) with peak intensities of order 10(14) W cm(-2). Insight into the two regimes is obtained using a novel statistical analysis of the soliton parameters. Numerical simulations and experimental measurements show that, when a train of these pulses is generated, strong ionization of the gas occurs. This extreme MI is used to experimentally generate a high energy (>1 μJ) and spectrally broad supercontinuum extending from the deep ultraviolet (320 nm) to the infrared (1300 nm). PMID:23909325

  18. Electron density modulation in an asymmetric bipolar pulsed dc magnetron discharge

    SciTech Connect

    Karkari, S. K.; Ellingboe, A. R.; Gaman, C.; Swindells, I.; Bradley, J. W.

    2007-09-15

    This paper investigates the spatial and temporal variation in plasma electron density over a region between 5 and 10 cm above the race-track region of a pulsed magnetron sputtering target. The pulse operation is performed using an asymmetric bipolar pulsed dc power supply, which provides a sequence of large negative ''on-phase'' voltage (-350 V) and a small positive ''reverse-phase'' voltage (+10 V) for 55% of the pulse duration (10 {mu}s). The electron density is measured using a floating microwave hairpin resonance probe. The results show electron expulsion from the target in the initial on phase, which propagates with a characteristic speed exceeding the ion thermal speed. In the steady state on phase, a consistent higher density is observed. A quantitative model has been developed to explain the resultant density drops in the initial on phase. While in the reverse phase, we observed an anomalous growth in density at a specific location from the target (d>7 cm). The mechanism behind the increase in electron density has been attributed to the modulation in spatial plasma potential, which was measured earlier in the same apparatus using a floating emissive probe [J. W. Bradley et al., Plasma Sources Sci. Technol. 13, 189 (2004)].

  19. Porcine skin visible lesion thresholds for near-infrared lasers including modeling at two pulse durations and spot sizes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cain, Clarence P.; Polhamus, Garrett D.; Roach, William P.; Stolarski, David J.; Schuster, Kurt J.; Stockton, Kevin; Rockwell, Benjamin A.; Chen, Bo; Welch, Ashley J.

    2006-07-01

    With the advent of such systems as the airborne laser and advanced tactical laser, high-energy lasers that use 1315-nm wavelengths in the near-infrared band will soon present a new laser safety challenge to armed forces and civilian populations. Experiments in nonhuman primates using this wavelength have demonstrated a range of ocular injuries, including corneal, lenticular, and retinal lesions as a function of pulse duration. American National Standards Institute (ANSI) laser safety standards have traditionally been based on experimental data, and there is scant data for this wavelength. We are reporting minimum visible lesion (MVL) threshold measurements using a porcine skin model for two different pulse durations and spot sizes for this wavelength. We also compare our measurements to results from our model based on the heat transfer equation and rate process equation, together with actual temperature measurements on the skin surface using a high-speed infrared camera. Our MVL-ED50 thresholds for long pulses (350 µs) at 24-h postexposure are measured to be 99 and 83 Jcm-2 for spot sizes of 0.7 and 1.3 mm diam, respectively. Q-switched laser pulses of 50 ns have a lower threshold of 11 Jcm-2 for a 5-mm-diam top-hat laser pulse.

  20. Reduction of the pulse duration of the ultrafast laser pulses of the Two-Photon Laser Scanning Microscopy (2PLSM)

    PubMed Central

    Reshak, Ali Hussain

    2008-01-01

    Background We provide an update of our two-photon laser scanning microscope by compressing or reducing the broadening of the pulse width of ultrafast laser pulses for dispersion precompensation, to enable the pulses to penetrate deeply inside the sample. Findings The broadening comes as the pulses pass through the optical elements. We enhanced and modified the quality and the sharpness of images by enhancing the resolution using special polarizer namely Glan Laser polarizer GL10. This polarizer consists of two prisms separated by air space. This air separation between the two prisms uses to delay the red wavelength when the light leaves the first prism to the air then to second prism. We note a considerable enhancing with using the GL polarizer, and we can see the details of the leaf structure in early stages when we trying to get focus through z-stacks of images in comparison to exactly the same measurements without using GL polarizer. Hence, with this modification we able to reduce the time of exposure the sample to the laser radiation thereby we will reduce the probability of photobleaching and phototoxicity. When the pulse width reduced, the average power of the laser pulses maintained at a constant level. Significant enhancement is found between the two kinds of images of the Two-Photon Excitation Fluorescence (TPEF). Conclusion In summary reduction the laser pulse width allowed to collect more diffraction orders which will used to form the images. The more diffraction orders the higher resolution images. PMID:18710492

  1. Laser stimulation of the auditory system at 1.94 μm and microsecond pulse durations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izzo, Agnella D.; Walsh, Joseph T., Jr.; Ralph, Heather; Webb, Jim; Wells, Jonathon; Bendett, Mark; Richter, Claus-Peter

    2008-02-01

    Light can artificially stimulate nerve activity in vivo. A significant advantage of optical neural stimulation is the potential for higher spatial selectivity when compared with electrical stimulation. An increased spatial selectivity of stimulation could improve significantly the function of neuroprosthetics, such as cochlear implants. Cochlear implants restore a sense of hearing and communication to deaf individuals by directly electrically stimulating the remaining neural cells in the cochlea. However, performance is limited by overlapping electric fields from neighboring electrodes. Here, we report on experiments with a new laser, offering a previously unavailable wavelength, 1.94μm, and pulse durations down to 5μs, to stimulate cochlear neurons. Compound action potentials (CAP) were evoked from the gerbil cochlea with pulse durations as short as 1μs. Data show that water absorption of light is a significant factor in optical stimulation, as evidenced by the required distance between the optical fiber and the neurons during stimulation. CAP threshold measurements indicate that there is an optimal range of pulse durations over which to deposit the laser energy, less than ~100μs. The implications of these data could direct further research and design of an optical cochlear implant.

  2. Effect of adjusting pulse durations of functional electrical stimulation cycling on energy expenditure and fatigue after spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Gorgey, Ashraf S; Poarch, Hunter J; Dolbow, David D; Castillo, Teodoro; Gater, David R

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to determine the effects of three different pulse durations (200, 350, and 500 microseconds [P200, P350, and P500, respectively]) on oxygen uptake (VO2), cycling performance, and energy expenditure (EE) percentage of fatigue of the knee extensor muscle group immediately and 48 to 72 h after cycling in persons with spinal cord injury (SCI). A convenience sample of 10 individuals with motor complete SCI participated in a repeated-measures design using a functional electrical stimulation (FES) cycle ergometer over a 3 wk period. There was no difference among the three FES protocols on relative VO2 or cycling EE. Delta EE between exercise and rest was 42% greater in both P500 and P350 compared with P200 (p = 0.07), whereas recovery VO2 was 23% greater in P350 compared with P200 (p = 0.03). There was no difference in the outcomes of the three pulse durations on muscle fatigue. Knee extensor torque significantly decreased immediately after (p < 0.001) and 48 to 72 h after (p < 0.001) FES leg cycling. Lengthening pulse duration did not affect submaximal or relative VO2 or EE, total EE, and time to fatigue. Greater recovery VO2 and delta EE were noted in P350 and P500 compared with P200. An acute bout of FES leg cycling resulted in torque reduction that did not fully recover 48 to 72 h after cycling. PMID:25803753

  3. Dual-Pulse Pulse Position Modulation (DPPM) for Deep-Space Optical Communications: Performance and Practicality Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Jing; Hylton, Alan; Budinger, James; Nappier, Jennifer; Downey, Joseph; Raible, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Due to its simplicity and robustness against wavefront distortion, pulse position modulation (PPM) with photon counting detector has been seriously considered for long-haul optical wireless systems. This paper evaluates the dual-pulse case and compares it with the conventional single-pulse case. Analytical expressions for symbol error rate and bit error rate are first derived and numerically evaluated, for the strong, negative-exponential turbulent atmosphere; and bandwidth efficiency and throughput are subsequently assessed. It is shown that, under a set of practical constraints including pulse width and pulse repetition frequency (PRF), dual-pulse PPM enables a better channel utilization and hence a higher throughput than it single-pulse counterpart. This result is new and different from the previous idealistic studies that showed multi-pulse PPM provided no essential information-theoretic gains than single-pulse PPM.

  4. Spectral, kinetic and polarization characteristics of luminescence of acriflavine in polymeric matrix under pulsed excitation with different durations and intensities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaputskaya, I. A.; Ermilov, E. A.; Tannert, S.; Röder, B.; Gorbatsevich, S. K.

    2006-08-01

    Spectral, kinetic and polarization characteristics of fluorescence and thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) of dye solid solutions have been investigated. It was shown that the increasing of the excitation pulse duration results in rise of TADF decay time, but an increasing of the long pulse excitation intensity results in a faster TADF decay. In the presence of Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) the fluorescence spectrum is shifting non-monotonically with time when the intensity of the excitation pulse is high. At the time moment when the excitation is switched off the polarization degree of luminescence of the concentrated dye solutions strongly reduces. The energy transfer from the molecules in the S 1 state to the molecules in the T 1 state reduces the depolarization of luminescence caused by FRET. Numerical simulations were made by means of Monte-Carlo integrations and results were compared with experimental data obtained for acriflavine in polyvinyl alcohol films.

  5. Abstinence duration modulates striatal functioning during monetary reward processing in cocaine patients.

    PubMed

    Bustamante, Juan-Carlos; Barrós-Loscertales, Alfonso; Costumero, Víctor; Fuentes-Claramonte, Paola; Rosell-Negre, Patricia; Ventura-Campos, Noelia; Llopis, Juan-José; Ávila, César

    2014-09-01

    Pre-clinical and clinical studies in cocaine addiction highlight alterations in the striatal dopaminergic reward system that subserve maintenance of cocaine use. Using an instrumental conditioning paradigm with monetary reinforcement, we studied striatal functional alterations in long-term abstinent cocaine-dependent patients and striatal functioning as a function of abstinence and treatment duration. Eighteen patients and 20 controls underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging during a Monetary Incentive Delay task. Region of interest analyses based on masks of the dorsal and ventral striatum were conducted to test between-group differences and the functional effects in the cocaine group of time (in months) with no more than two lapses from the first time patients visited the clinical service to seek treatment at the scanning time (duration of treatment), and the functional effects of the number of months with no lapses or relapses at the scanning session time (length of abstinence). We applied a voxel-wise and a cluster-wise FWE-corrected level (pFWE) at a threshold of P < 0.05. The patient group showed lower activation in the right caudate during reward anticipation than the control group. The regression analyses in the patients group revealed a positive correlation between duration of treatment and brain activity in the left caudate during reward anticipation. Likewise, length of abstinence negatively correlated with brain activity in the bilateral nucleus accumbens during monetary outcome processing. In conclusion, caudate and nucleus accumbens show a different brain response pattern to non-drug rewards during cocaine addiction, which can be modulated by treatment success. PMID:23445167

  6. Transcranial electrical brain stimulation modulates neuronal tuning curves in perception of numerosity and duration

    PubMed Central

    Javadi, Amir Homayoun; Brunec, Iva K.; Walsh, Vincent; Penny, Will D.; Spiers, Hugo J.

    2014-01-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a non-invasive brain stimulation method with many putative applications and reported to effectively modulate behaviour. However, its effects have yet to be considered at a computational level. To address this we modelled the tuning curves underlying the behavioural effects of stimulation in a perceptual task. Participants judged which of the two serially presented images contained more items (numerosity judgement task) or was presented longer (duration judgement task). During presentation of the second image their posterior parietal cortices (PPCs) were stimulated bilaterally with opposite polarities for 1.6 s. We also examined the impact of three stimulation conditions on behaviour: anodal right-PPC and cathodal left-PPC (rA-lC), reverse order (lA-rC) and no-stimulation condition. Behavioural results showed that participants were more accurate in numerosity and duration judgement tasks when they were stimulated with lA-rC and rA-lC stimulation conditions respectively. Simultaneously, a decrease in performance on numerosity and duration judgement tasks was observed when the stimulation condition favoured the other task. Thus, our results revealed a double-dissociation of laterality and task. Importantly, we were able to model the effects of stimulation on behaviour. Our computational modelling showed that participants' superior performance was attributable to a narrower tuning curve — smaller standard deviation of detection noise. We believe that this approach may prove useful in understanding the impact of brain stimulation on other cognitive domains. PMID:25130301

  7. Reaching white-light radiation source of ultrafast laser pulses with tunable peak power using nonlinear self-phase modulation in neon gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tawfik, Walid

    2016-08-01

    A source of white-light radiation that generates few-cycle pulses with controlled peak power values has been developed. These ultrafast pulses have been observed by spectral broadening of 32 fs pulses through nonlinear self-phase modulation in a neon-filled hollow-fiber then compressed with a pair of chirped mirrors for dispersion compensation. The observed pulses reached transform-limited duration of 5.77 fs and their peak power values varied from 57 GW up to 104 GW at repetition rate of 1 kHz. Moreover, the applied method is used for a direct tuning of the peak power of the output pulses through varying the chirping of the input pulses at different neon pressures. The observed results may give an opportunity to control the ultrafast interaction dynamics on the femtosecond time scale and facilitate the regeneration of attosecond pulses.

  8. Methods of Optimal Control of Laser-Plasma Instabilities Using Spike Trains of Uneven Duration and Delay (STUD Pulses)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afeyan, Bedros

    2013-10-01

    We have recently introduced and extensively studied a new adaptive method of LPI control. It promises to extend the effectiveness of laser as inertial fusion drivers by allowing active control of stimulated Raman and Brillouin scattering and crossed beam energy transfer. It breaks multi-nanosecond pulses into a series of picosecond (ps) time scale spikes with comparable gaps in between. The height and width of each spike as well as their separations are optimization parameters. In addition, the spatial speckle patterns are changed after a number of successive spikes as needed (from every spike to never). The combination of these parameters allows the taming of parametric instabilities to conform to any desired reduced reflectivity profile, within the bounds of the performance limitations of the lasers. Instead of pulse shaping on hydrodynamical time scales, far faster (from 1 ps to 10 ps) modulations of the laser profile will be needed to implement the STUD pulse program for full LPI control. We will show theoretical and computational evidence for the effectiveness of the STUD pulse program to control LPI. The physics of why STUD pulses work and how optimization can be implemented efficiently using statistical nonlinear optical models and techniques will be explained. We will also discuss a novel diagnostic system employing STUD pulses that will allow the boosted measurement of velocity distribution function slopes on a ps time scale in the small crossing volume of a pump and a probe beam. Various regimes from weak to strong coupling and weak to strong damping will be treated. Novel pulse modulation schemes and diagnostic tools based on time-lenses used in both microscope and telescope modes will be suggested for the execution of the STUD pule program. Work Supported by the DOE NNSA-OFES Joint Program on HEDLP and DOE OFES SBIR Phase I Grants.

  9. Shuttle extravehicular activity signal processor pulse amplitude modulation decommutator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noble, D. E.; Conrad, W. M.

    1974-01-01

    To provide data with long-term stability and accuracy, the pulse amplitude modulation (PAM) decommutator was synchronized to the PAM-return to zero wavetrain, and each channel was sampled with a common sample and hold circuit and digitized sequentially. The digital value of each channel was then scaled by the digital value of the calibration channels. The corrected digital value of each channel was stored for one complete frame and then transferred to the multiplexer-demultiplexer at a high rate in one block of serial digital data. A test model was built to demonstrate this design approach taken for the PAM decom and performance data was provided. The accuracies obtained with various signal to noise ratios are shown.

  10. Detection alternatives for pulse position modulation (PPM) optical communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mecherle, G. Stephen

    1986-01-01

    An analysis is conducted for alternative optical communication detection strategies employing pulse position modulation (PPM). In cases without error correcting codes, the M-ary maximum count strategy is noted to furnish the best performance on the basis of its maximum a posteriori character. In cases with error correcting codes, the decoder has the additional option of hard or soft decisioning and each of the unencoded detection schemes can interface directly with a hard decision decoder. Illustrative hard decision coding gains are evaluated for M-ary Reed-Solomon and binary BCH codes with an APD receiver. The performance of rate-1/2 Reed-Solomon codes is compared for Delta-max and threshold soft decision strategies with an APD receiver.

  11. An investigation of fatigue phenomenon in the upper limb muscle due to short duration pulses in an FES system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naeem, Jannatul; Wong Azman, Amelia; Khan, Sheroz; Mohd Mustafah, Yasir

    2013-12-01

    Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES) is a method of artificially stimulating muscles or nerves in order to result in contraction or relaxation of muscles. Many studies have shown that FES system has helped patients to live a better lives especially those who are suffering from physical mobility. Unfortunately, one of the main limitations of an FES system besides of its high cost is largely due to muscle fatigue. Muscle fatigue will affect the training duration which could delay patients' recovery rate. In this paper, we analyzed the occurrence of this fatigue phenomenon in terms of stimulator parameters such as amplitude, frequency, pulse width and pulse shape. The objective of this investigation is to identify other key features of the FES system parameters in order to prolong the training duration among patients. The experiment has been done on a healthy person for the duration of one minute and later the muscles response will be observed. Resultant muscle response is recorded as force using force resistive sensor. The experimental results show muscles will get fatigue at a different rate as the frequency increases. The experiment also shows that the duty cycle is reciprocal to the resultant force.

  12. Laser-induced damage of hafnia coatings as a function of pulse duration in the femtosecond to nanosecond range

    SciTech Connect

    Gallais, Laurent; Mangote, Benoit; Zerrad, Myriam; Commandre, Mireille; Melninkaitis, Andrius; Mirauskas, Julius; Jeskevic, Maksim; Sirutkaitis, Valdas

    2011-03-20

    Laser-damage thresholds and morphologies of hafnia single layers exposed under femtosecond, picosecond, and nanosecond single pulses (1030/1064nm) are reported. The samples were made with different deposition parameters in order to study how the damage behavior of the samples evolves with the pulse duration and how it is linked to the deposition process. In the femtosecond to picosecond regime, the scaling law of the laser-induced damage threshold as a function of pulse duration is in good agreement with the models of photo and avalanche ionization based on the rate equation for free electron generation. However, differences in the damage morphologies between samples are shown. No correlation between the nanosecond and femtosecond/picosecond laser-damage resistance of hafnia coatings could be established. We also report evidence of the transition in damage mechanisms for hafnia, from an ablation process linked to intrinsic properties of the material to a defect-induced process, that exists between a few picoseconds and a few tens of picoseconds.

  13. NMR implementation of adiabatic SAT algorithm using strongly modulated pulses.

    PubMed

    Mitra, Avik; Mahesh, T S; Kumar, Anil

    2008-03-28

    NMR implementation of adiabatic algorithms face severe problems in homonuclear spin systems since the qubit selective pulses are long and during this period, evolution under the Hamiltonian and decoherence cause errors. The decoherence destroys the answer as it causes the final state to evolve to mixed state and in homonuclear systems, evolution under the internal Hamiltonian causes phase errors preventing the initial state to converge to the solution state. The resolution of these issues is necessary before one can proceed to implement an adiabatic algorithm in a large system where homonuclear coupled spins will become a necessity. In the present work, we demonstrate that by using "strongly modulated pulses" (SMPs) for the creation of interpolating Hamiltonian, one can circumvent both the problems and successfully implement the adiabatic SAT algorithm in a homonuclear three qubit system. This work also demonstrates that the SMPs tremendously reduce the time taken for the implementation of the algorithm, can overcome problems associated with decoherence, and will be the modality in future implementation of quantum information processing by NMR. PMID:18376911

  14. NMR implementation of adiabatic SAT algorithm using strongly modulated pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitra, Avik; Mahesh, T. S.; Kumar, Anil

    2008-03-01

    NMR implementation of adiabatic algorithms face severe problems in homonuclear spin systems since the qubit selective pulses are long and during this period, evolution under the Hamiltonian and decoherence cause errors. The decoherence destroys the answer as it causes the final state to evolve to mixed state and in homonuclear systems, evolution under the internal Hamiltonian causes phase errors preventing the initial state to converge to the solution state. The resolution of these issues is necessary before one can proceed to implement an adiabatic algorithm in a large system where homonuclear coupled spins will become a necessity. In the present work, we demonstrate that by using "strongly modulated pulses" (SMPs) for the creation of interpolating Hamiltonian, one can circumvent both the problems and successfully implement the adiabatic SAT algorithm in a homonuclear three qubit system. This work also demonstrates that the SMPs tremendously reduce the time taken for the implementation of the algorithm, can overcome problems associated with decoherence, and will be the modality in future implementation of quantum information processing by NMR.

  15. Bromodeoxyuridine-mediated radiosensitization in hum glioma: The effect of concentration, duration, and fluoropyrimidine modulation

    SciTech Connect

    McLaughlin, P.W.; Lawrence, T.S.; Seabury, H.

    1994-10-15

    To define the relative influence of duration of exposure, concentration, and modulation by fluorodeoxyuridines (FdUrd) on the incorporation of 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdUrd) into DNA of human malignant glioma line (D-54) in vitro and in vivo. In vitro studies: an established human malignant glioma line (D-54)was exposed to a clinically achievable concentration of BrdUrd to model intravenous (1 {mu}M BrdUrd) and intraarterial (4 {mu}MBrdUrd) conditions. The influence of modulation was assessed using 1 nM FdUrd. Incorporation of BrdUrd, radiosensitization, and cytotoxicity were determined after 24, 72, and 120 h drug exposures. In Vivo studies: nude mice bearing D-54 xenografts were infused with BrdUrd at 100 mg/kg/day for 7 and 14 days or BrdUrd at 400 mg/kg/day for 5 days. The influence of modulation was assessed by combining 100 mg/kg/day of BrdUrd with 0.1, 0.3 and 1 mg/kg/day FdUrd for 7 days. Incorporation of BrddUrd into the DNA of tumor, gut, and marrow were determined. In Vitro: thymidine replacement and radiosensitization were a function of concentration, and incorporation began to plateau after 2 to 3 population doublings. Modulation with 1 nM FdUrd significantly increased incorporation. Radiosensitization was a linear function of thymidine replacement under all conditions tested. In Vivo: infusion with 400 mg/kg/day for 5 days resulted in greater tumor incorporation (10.3 {plus_minus} 0.4% thymidine replaced) than treatment with 100 mg/kg/day for 14 days (6.0 {plus_minus} 0.6% of thymidine replaced) than treatment with 100 mg/kg/day for 14 days for 14 days (6.0 {plus_minus} 0.6% of thymidine replaced). Infusion of FdUrd with BrdUrd increased normal tissue incorporation of BrdUrd, but failed to increase BrdUrd incorporation in tumor cells. These results suggest that relatively short, high dose rate infusions may be preferable to long, low dose rate infusions. 33 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Propagation of the pulsed electron beam of nanosecond duration in gas composition of high pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kholodnaya, G.; Sazonov, R.; Ponomarev, D.; Remnev, G.

    2015-11-01

    This paper presents the results of the investigation of the propagation of an electron beam in the high-pressure gas compositions (50, 300, and 760 Torr): sulfur hexafluoride and hydrogen, sulfur hexafluoride and nitrogen, sulfur hexafluoride and argon. The experiments have been performed using the TEA-500 laboratory accelerator. The main parameters of the accelerator are as follows: an accelerating voltage of 500 kV; an electron beam current of 10 kA; a pulse width at half maximum of 60 ns; a pulse energy of 200 J; a pulse repetition rate of up to 5 pulses per second, a beam diameter of 5 cm. The pulsed electron beam was injected into a 55 cm metal drift tube. The drift tube is equipped with three reverse-current shunts with simultaneous detecting of signals. The obtained results of the investigation make it possible to conclude that the picture of the processes occurring in the interaction of an electron beam in the high-pressure gas compositions is different from that observed in the propagation of the electron beam in the low-pressure gas compositions (1 Torr).

  17. The impact of pulsed RFI on the coded BER performance of the nonlinear satellite communication channel. [with BPSK modulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinberg, A.

    1981-01-01

    An examination is conducted of the coded bit error rate (BER) performance of a satellite communication system in which binary phase-shift-keyed (BPSK) modulation is employed, pulsed CW or pulsed noise RFI is present, and the transponder contains a nonlinearity characterized by arbitrary AM/AM and AM/PM characteristics; the RFI pulse duration is further assumed to exceed that of the information symbol. Computed performance curves consider several hypothetical RFI scenarios in which either a hard limiter or an 8 dB clipper represent the transponder amplitude nonlinearity. Results demonstrate the potential seriousness of RFI duty cycles as low as 2 percent, and the fact that CW represents the most severe form of interference.

  18. Multi-pulse frequency shifted (MPFS) multiple access modulation for ultra wideband

    DOEpatents

    Nekoogar, Faranak; Dowla, Farid U.

    2012-01-24

    The multi-pulse frequency shifted technique uses mutually orthogonal short duration pulses o transmit and receive information in a UWB multiuser communication system. The multiuser system uses the same pulse shape with different frequencies for the reference and data for each user. Different users have a different pulse shape (mutually orthogonal to each other) and different transmit and reference frequencies. At the receiver, the reference pulse is frequency shifted to match the data pulse and a correlation scheme followed by a hard decision block detects the data.

  19. Effect of pulse duration on plasmonic enhanced ultrafast laser-induced bubble generation in water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lachaine, R.; Boulais, E.; Bourbeau, E.; Meunier, M.

    2013-07-01

    Bubbles generated in water by focusing femtosecond and picosecond laser pulses in the presence of 100 nm gold nanoparticles have been investigated in the fluence range usually used for efficient cell transfection (100-200 mJ/cm2). Since resulting bubbles are at the nanoscale, direct observation using optical microscopy is not possible. An optical in-situ method has been developed to monitor the time-resolved variation in the extinction cross-section of an irradiated nanoparticle solution sample. This method is used to measure the bubbles lifetime and deduce their average diameter. We show that bubbles generated with femtosecond pulses (40-500 fs) last two times longer and are larger in average than those generated with picosecond pulses (0.5-5 ps). Controlling those bubble properties is necessary for optimizing off-resonance plasmonic enhanced ultrafast laser cell transfection.

  20. Precision control of lesions by high-intensity focused ultrasound cavitation-based histotripsy through varying pulse duration.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jin; Bigelow, Timothy A; Nagaraju, Ravindra

    2013-07-01

    The goal of this experimental study was to explore the feasibility of acquiring controllable precision through varying pulse duration for lesions generated by cavitation-based histotripsy. Histotripsy uses high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) at low duty factor to create energetic bubble clouds inside tissue to liquefy a region. It uses cavitation-mediated mechanical effects while minimizing heating, and has the advantages of real-time monitoring and lesion fidelity to treatment planning. In our study, histotripsy was applied to three groups of tissue-mimicking agar samples of different stiffnesses (29.4 ± 5.3, 44.8 ± 5.9, and 66.4 ± 7.1 kPa). B-mode imaging was used first to quantify bubble cluster dimensions in both water and agar. Then, a 4.5-mm-wide square (lateral to the focal plane) was scanned in a raster pattern with a step size of 0.75 mm in agar histotripsy experiments to estimate equivalent bubble cluster dimensions based on the histotripsyinduced damage. The 15-s exposure at each treatment location comprised 5000 sine-wave tone bursts at a spatial-peak pulseaverage intensity of 41.1 kW/cm2, with peak compressional and rarefactional pressures of 102 and 17 MPa, respectively. The results showed that bubble cluster width and length increased with pulse duration and decreased with agar stiffness. Therefore, a significant improvement in histotripsy precision could be achieved by reducing the pulse duration. PMID:25004507

  1. Influence of pulse duration, energy, and focusing on laser-assisted water condensation

    SciTech Connect

    Petit, Y.; Henin, S.; Kasparian, J.; Wolf, J. P.; Rohwetter, P.; Stelmaszczyk, K.; Hao, Z. Q.; Nakaema, W. M.; Woeste, L.; Vogel, A.; Pohl, T.; Weber, K.

    2011-01-24

    We investigate the influence of laser parameters on laser-assisted water condensation in the atmosphere. Pulse energy is the most critical parameter. Nanoparticle generation depends linearly on energy beyond the filamentation threshold. Shorter pulses are more efficient than longer ones with saturation at {approx}1.5 ps. Multifilamenting beams appear more efficient than strongly focused ones in triggering the condensation and growth of submicronic particles, while polarization has a negligible influence on the process. The data suggest that the initiation of laser-assisted condensation relies on the photodissociation of the air molecules rather than on their photoionization.

  2. Characterization of a High Efficiency, Ultrashort Pulse Shaper Incorporating a Reflective 4096-Element Spatial Light Modulator

    PubMed Central

    Field, Jeffrey J.; Planchon, Thomas A.; Amir, Wafa; Durfee, Charles G.; Squier, Jeff A.

    2009-01-01

    We demonstrate pulse shaping via arbitrary phase modulation with a reflective, 1×4096 element, liquid crystal spatial light modulator (SLM). The unique construction of this device provides a very high efficiency when the device is used for phase modulation only in a prism based pulse shaper, namely 85%. We also present a single shot characterization of the SLM in the spatial domain and a single shot characterization of the pulse shaper in the spectral domain. These characterization methods provide a detailed picture of how the SLM modifies the spectral phase of an ultrashort pulse. PMID:19562096

  3. Characterization of a high efficiency, ultrashort pulse shaper incorporating a reflective 4096-element spatial light modulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Field, Jeffrey J.; Planchon, Thomas A.; Amir, Wafa; Durfee, Charles G.; Squier, Jeff A.

    2007-10-01

    We demonstrate pulse shaping via arbitrary phase modulation with a reflective, 1 × 4096 element, liquid crystal spatial light modulator (SLM). The unique construction of this device provides a very high efficiency when the device is used for phase modulation only in a prism based pulse shaper, namely 85%. We also present a single shot characterization of the SLM in the spatial domain and a single shot characterization of the pulse shaper in the spectral domain. These characterization methods provide a detailed picture of how the SLM modifies the spectral phase of an ultrashort pulse.

  4. Ultrawideband monocycle pulse generation based on polarization modulator and low speed electrical NRZ signal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Guodan; Zhang, Qiufang; Wang, Quan

    2015-07-01

    A novel ultrawideband (UWB) monocycle pulse generation system by modulating a polarization modulator (PolM) with a low speed electrical nonreturn-to-zero (NRZ) signal is proposed, which significantly reduce the bandwidth requirement of the driving signal. At each bit transition of the input NRZ signal, two polarity-reversed Gaussian pulses are generated. By properly setting the delay between these two Gaussian pulses, an optical UWB monocycle pulse can be generated. Biphase modulation (BPM) can be realized by electrically switching the polarization direction at the output of PolM, if an electrically tunable arbitrary wave plate (AWP) is employed.

  5. Lidar-radar velocimetry using a pulse-to-pulse coherent rf-modulated Q-switched laser.

    PubMed

    Vallet, M; Barreaux, J; Romanelli, M; Pillet, G; Thévenin, J; Wang, L; Brunel, M

    2013-08-01

    An rf-modulated pulse train from a passively Q-switched Nd:YAG laser has been generated using an extra-cavity acousto-optic modulator. The rf modulation reproduces the spectral quality of the local oscillator. It leads to a high pulse-to-pulse phase coherence, i.e., phase memory, over thousands of pulses. The potentialities of this transmitter for lidar-radar are demonstrated by performing Doppler velocimetry on indoor moving targets. The experimental results are in good agreement with a model based on elementary signal processing theory. In particular, we show experimentally and theoretically that lidar-radar is a promising technique that allows discrimination between translation and rotation movements. Being independent of the laser internal dynamics, this scheme can be applied to any Q-switched laser. PMID:23913058

  6. 5- and 6-pulse electron spin echo envelope modulation (ESEEM) of multi-nuclear spin systems.

    PubMed

    Kasumaj, B; Stoll, S

    2008-02-01

    In 3-pulse ESEEM and the original 4-pulse HYSCORE, nuclei with large modulation depth (k approximately 1) suppress spectral peaks from nuclei with weak modulations (k approximately 0). This cross suppression can impede the detection of the latter nuclei, which are often the ones of interest. We show that two extended pulse sequences, 5-pulse ESEEM and 6-pulse HYSCORE, can be used as experimental alternatives that suffer less strongly from the cross suppression and allow to recover signals of k approximately 0 nuclei in the presence of k approximately 1 nuclei. In the extended sequences, modulations from k approximately 0 nuclei are strongly enhanced. In addition, multi-quantum transitions are absent which simplifies the spectra. General analytical expressions for the modulation signals in these sequences are derived and discussed. Numerical simulations and experimental spectra that demonstrate the higher sensitivity of the extended pulse sequences are presented. PMID:18035567

  7. A modulated pulse laser for underwater detection, ranging, imaging, and communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cochenour, Brandon; Mullen, Linda; Muth, John

    2012-06-01

    A new, modulated-pulse, technique is currently being investigated for underwater laser detection, ranging, imag- ing, and communications. This technique represents a unique marriage of pulsed and intensity modulated sources. For detection, ranging, and imaging, the source can be congured to transmit a variety of intensity modulated waveforms, from single-tone to pseudorandom code. The utility of such waveforms in turbid underwater envi- ronments in the presence of backscatter is investigated in this work. The modulated pulse laser may also nd utility in underwater laser communication links. In addition to exibility in modulation format additional variable parameters, such as macro-pulse width and macro-pulse repetition rate, provide a link designer with additional methods of optimizing links based on the bandwidth, power, range, etc. needed for the application. Initial laboratory experiments in simulated ocean waters are presented.

  8. Red and blue pulse timing control for pulse width modulation light dimming of light emitting diodes for plant cultivation.

    PubMed

    Shimada, Aoi; Taniguchi, Yoshio

    2011-09-01

    A pulse width modulation (PWM) light dimming system containing red and blue light emitting diodes was designed and constructed. Cultivation of the plant Arabidopsis thaliana under various light dimming wave patterns was compared. Control of the pulse timing (phase of wave pattern) between red and blue light in PWM light dimming was examined. Different plant growth was obtained by changing the phase of red and blue pulses. Pulse timing control of PWM light dimming for plant cultivation has the potential to act as a method for probing photosynthesis. PMID:21622005

  9. Shaping the output pulse of a linear-transformer-driver module.

    SciTech Connect

    Long, Finis W.; McKee, G. Randall; Stoltzfus, Brian Scott; Woodworth, Joseph Ray; McKenney, John Lee; Fowler, William E.; Mazarakis, Michael Gerrassimos; Porter, John L.; Stygar, William A.; Savage, Mark Edward; LeChien, Keith, R.; Van De Valde, David M.

    2008-11-01

    We demonstrate that a wide variety of current-pulse shapes can be generated using a linear-transformer-driver (LTD) module that drives an internal water-insulated transmission line. The shapes are produced by varying the timing and initial charge voltage of each of the module's cavities. The LTD-driven accelerator architecture outlined in [Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 10, 030401 (2007)] provides additional pulse-shaping flexibility by allowing the modules that drive the accelerator to be triggered at different times. The module output pulses would be combined and symmetrized by water-insulated radial-transmission-line impedance transformers [Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 11, 030401 (2008)].

  10. Average power constraints in AlGaAs semiconductor lasers under pulse-position-modulation conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, J.

    1986-01-01

    In some optical communications systems there are advantages to using low duty-cycle pulsed modulation formats such as pulse-position-modulation. However, because of intrinsic limitations of AlGaAs semiconductor lasers, the average power that they can deliver in a pulsed mode of operation is lower than in a CW mode. The magnitude of this problem and its implications are analyzed in this letter, and one possible solution is mentioned.

  11. Self-phase modulation of femtosecond pulses in hollow photonic-crystal fibres

    SciTech Connect

    Konorov, Stanislav O; Zheltikov, Aleksei M; Sidorov-Biryukov, D A; Bugar, I; Chorvat, D J; Beloglazov, V I; Skibina, N B; Shcherbakov, Andrei V; Chorvat, D; Mel'nikov, L A

    2004-01-31

    Self-phase modulation of femtosecond laser pulses in hollow-core photonic-crystal fibres is experimentally studied. Photonic-crystal fibres allowing single-mode waveguide regimes of nonlinear-optical interactions to be implemented with maximum transmission for 800-nm femtosecond pulses are designed and fabricated. A radical enhancement of self-phase modulation is demonstrated for submicrojoule femtosecond pulses of Ti:sapphire-laser radiation propagating through hollow photonic-crystal fibres. (optical fibres)

  12. Testing a scale pulsed modulator for an IEC neutron source into a resistive load

    SciTech Connect

    Dale, Gregory E; Wheat, Robert M; Aragonez, Robert

    2009-01-01

    A 1/10th scaled prototype pulse modulator for an Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (IEC) neutron source has been designed and tested at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The scaled prototype modulator is based on a solid-state Marx architecture and has an output voltage of 13 kV and an output current of 10 A. The modulator has a variable pulse width between 50 {micro}s and 1 ms with < 5% droop at all pulse widths. The modulator operates with a duty factor up to 5% and has a maximum pulse repetition frequency of 1 kHz. The use of a solid-state Marx modulator in this application has several potential benefits. These benefits include variable pulse width and amplitude, inherent switch overcurrent and transient overvoltage protection, and increased efficiency over DC supplies used in this application. Several new features were incorporated into this design including inductorless charging, fully snubberless operation, and stage fusing. The scaled prototype modulator has been tested using a 1 k{Omega} resistive load. Test results are given. Short (50 {micro}s) and long (1 ms) pulses are demonstrated as well as high duty factor operation (1 kHz rep rate at a 50 {micro}s pulse width for a 5% duty factor). Pulse agility of the modulator is demonstrated through turning the individual Marx stages on and off in sequence producing ramp, pyramid, and reverse pyramid waveforms.

  13. Altered gene expression in cultured microglia in response to simulated blast overpressure: possible role of pulse duration.

    PubMed

    Kane, Michael J; Angoa-Pérez, Mariana; Francescutti, Dina M; Sykes, Catherine E; Briggs, Denise I; Leung, Lai Yee; VandeVord, Pamela J; Kuhn, Donald M

    2012-07-26

    Blast overpressure has long been known to cause barotrauma to air-filled organs such as lung and middle ear. However, experience in Iraq and Afghanistan is revealing that individuals exposed to explosive munitions can also suffer traumatic brain injury (TBI) even in the absence of obvious external injury. The interaction of a blast shock wave with the brain in the intact cranial vault is extremely complex making it difficult to conclude that a blast wave interacts in a direct manner with the brain to cause injury. In an attempt to "isolate" the shock wave and test its primary effects on cells, we exposed cultured microglia to simulated blast overpressure in a barochamber. Overpressures ranging from 15 to 45 psi did not change microglial Cox-2 levels or TNF-α secretion nor did they cause cell damage. Microarray analysis revealed increases in expression of a number of microglial genes relating to immune function and inflammatory responses to include Saa3, Irg1, Fas and CxCl10. All changes in gene expression were dependent on pulse duration and were independent of pressure. These results indicate that microglia are mildly activated by blast overpressure and uncover a heretofore undocumented role for pulse duration in this process. PMID:22698585

  14. Altered Gene Expression in Cultured Microglia in Response to Simulated Blast Overpressure: Possible Role of Pulse Duration

    PubMed Central

    Kane, Michael J.; Angoa-Pérez, Mariana; Francescutti, Dina M.; Sykes, Catherine E.; Briggs, Denise I.; Leung, Lai Yee; VandeVord, Pamela J.; Kuhn, Donald M.

    2012-01-01

    Blast overpressure has long been known to cause barotrauma to air-filled organs such as lung and middle ear. However, experience in Iraq and Afghanistan is revealing that individuals exposed to explosive munitions can also suffer traumatic brain injury (TBI) even in the absence of obvious external injury. The interaction of a blast shock wave with the brain in the intact cranial vault is extremely complex making it difficult to conclude that a blast wave interacts in a direct manner with the brain to cause injury. In an attempt to “isolate” the shock wave and test its primary effects on cells, we exposed cultured microglia to simulated blast overpressure in a barochamber. Overpressures ranging from 15–45 psi did not change microglial Cox-2 levels or TNF-α secretion nor did they cause cell damage. Microarray analysis revealed increases in expression of a number of microglial genes relating to immune function and inflammatory responses to include Saa3, Irg1, Fas and CxCl10. All changes in gene expression were dependent on pulse duration and were independent of pressure. These results indicate that microglia are mildly activated by blast overpressure and uncover a heretofore undocumented role for pulse duration in this process. PMID:22698585

  15. All-optical UWB pulse generation and pulse shape modulation by using dual-in dual-out Mach-Zehnder Modulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Jie; Xu, Kun; Li, Jianqiang; Huang, Hao; Zhang, Ye; Wu, Jian; Hong, Xiaobin; Lin, Jingtong

    2008-11-01

    In this paper, a novel method to generate both monocycle and doublet UWB pulses is demonstrated, where pulse shape modulation(PSM) can be easily implemented. Only two wavelengths and two modulators (one dual-in dual-out modulator) are applied to achieve PSM. The data driving the first modulator is set to be 250Mbit/s 107-1 pseudo-random bit sequence (PRBS). The 1GHz pulse pattern is synchronised with the data. The electrical spectrum of the signals processes the centre frequency of 4GHz and -10dB bandwidth of 5.9GHz. The fractional bandwidth is about 147.5%, which matches the FCC standard.

  16. Compact pulse width modulation circuitry for silicon photomultiplier readout.

    PubMed

    Bieniosek, M F; Olcott, P D; Levin, C S

    2013-08-01

    The adoption of solid-state photodetectors for positron emission tomography (PET) system design and the interest in 3D interaction information from PET detectors has lead to an increasing number of readout channels in PET systems. To handle these additional readout channels, PET readout electronics should be simplified to reduce the power consumption, cost, and size of the electronics for a single channel. Pulse-width modulation (PWM), where detector pulses are converted to digital pulses with width proportional to the detected photon energy, promises to simplify PET readout by converting the signals to digital form at the beginning of the processing chain, and allowing a single time-to-digital converter to perform the data acquisition for many channels rather than routing many analogue channels and digitizing in the back end. Integrator based PWM systems, also known as charge-to-time converters (QTCs), are especially compact, reducing the front-end electronics to an op-amp integrator with a resistor discharge, and a comparator. QTCs, however, have a long dead-time during which dark count noise is integrated, reducing the output signal-to-noise ratio. This work presents a QTC based PWM circuit with a gated integrator that shows performance improvements over existing QTC based PWM. By opening and closing an analogue switch on the input of the integrator, the circuit can be controlled to integrate only the portions of the signal with a high signal-to-noise ratio. It also allows for multiplexing different detectors into the same PWM circuit while avoiding uncorrelated noise propagation between photodetector channels. Four gated integrator PWM circuits were built to readout the spatial channels of two position sensitive solid-state photomultiplier (PS-SSPM). Results show a 4 × 4 array 0.9 mm × 0.9 mm × 15 mm of LYSO crystals being identified on the 5 mm × 5 mm PS-SSPM at room temperature with no degradation for twofold multiplexing. In principle, much larger

  17. Compact Pulse Width Modulation Circuitry for Silicon Photomultiplier Readout

    PubMed Central

    Bieniosek, M F; Olcott, P D; Levin, C S

    2013-01-01

    The adoption of solid state photo-detectors for positron emission tomography (PET) system design and the interest in 3D interaction information from PET detectors has lead to an increasing number of readout channels in PET systems. To handle these additional readout channels, PET readout electronics should be simplified to reduce the power consumption, cost, and size of the electronics for a single channel. Pulse width modulation (PWM), where detector pulses are converted to digital pulses with width proportional to the detected photon energy, promises to simplify PET readout by converting the signals to digital form at the beginning of the processing chain, and allowing a single time-to-digital converter to perform the data acquisition for many channels rather than routing many analog channels and digitizing in the back end. Integrator based PWM systems, also known as charge-to-time converters (QTC), are especially compact, reducing the front-end electronics to an op-amp integrator with a resistor discharge, and a comparator. QTCs, however, have a long dead-time during which dark count noise is integrated, reducing the output signal to noise ratio. This work presents a QTC based PWM circuit with a gated integrator that shows performance improvements over existing QTC based PWM. By opening and closing an analog switch on the input of the integrator, the circuit can be controlled to integrate only the portions of the signal with a high signal-to-noise ratio. It also allows for multiplexing different detectors into the same PWM circuit while avoiding uncorrelated noise propagation between photodetector channels. Four gated integrator PWM circuits were built to readout the spatial channels of two position sensitive solid state photomultiplier (PS-SSPM). Results show a 4×4 array 0.9mm×0.9mm×15mm of LYSO crystals being identified on the 5mm×5mm PS-SSPM at room temperature with no degradation for 2-fold multiplexing. In principle, much larger multiplexing ratios are

  18. Compact pulse width modulation circuitry for silicon photomultiplier readout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bieniosek, M. F.; Olcott, P. D.; Levin, C. S.

    2013-08-01

    The adoption of solid-state photodetectors for positron emission tomography (PET) system design and the interest in 3D interaction information from PET detectors has lead to an increasing number of readout channels in PET systems. To handle these additional readout channels, PET readout electronics should be simplified to reduce the power consumption, cost, and size of the electronics for a single channel. Pulse-width modulation (PWM), where detector pulses are converted to digital pulses with width proportional to the detected photon energy, promises to simplify PET readout by converting the signals to digital form at the beginning of the processing chain, and allowing a single time-to-digital converter to perform the data acquisition for many channels rather than routing many analogue channels and digitizing in the back end. Integrator based PWM systems, also known as charge-to-time converters (QTCs), are especially compact, reducing the front-end electronics to an op-amp integrator with a resistor discharge, and a comparator. QTCs, however, have a long dead-time during which dark count noise is integrated, reducing the output signal-to-noise ratio. This work presents a QTC based PWM circuit with a gated integrator that shows performance improvements over existing QTC based PWM. By opening and closing an analogue switch on the input of the integrator, the circuit can be controlled to integrate only the portions of the signal with a high signal-to-noise ratio. It also allows for multiplexing different detectors into the same PWM circuit while avoiding uncorrelated noise propagation between photodetector channels. Four gated integrator PWM circuits were built to readout the spatial channels of two position sensitive solid-state photomultiplier (PS-SSPM). Results show a 4 × 4 array 0.9 mm × 0.9 mm × 15 mm of LYSO crystals being identified on the 5 mm × 5 mm PS-SSPM at room temperature with no degradation for twofold multiplexing. In principle, much larger

  19. Analysis of Mg spectral features produced by irradiations of laser pulses with different contrast and pulse durations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stafford, A.; Safronova, A. S.; Safronova, U. I.; Kantsyrev, V. L.; Faenov, A. Y.; Wiewior, P.; Weller, M. E.; Shrestha, I.; Shlyaptseva, V. V.; Paudel, Y.

    2014-03-01

    Experiments performed at the Leopard Laser Facility at the Nevada Terawatt Facility of the University of Nevada, Reno have produced K-shell Mg spectra with complex satellite features. K-shell Mg spectra were collected from experiments comprised of three different conditions related to laser pulse and contrast. Two spectrometers were fielded: a survey convex spectrometer with a potassium hydrogen phthalate (KAP) crystal (R ˜ 300) and a high resolution focusing spectrometer with spatial resolution using a spherically bent mica crystal (R ˜ 3000). These spectra included dielectronic satellite (DS) lines that were investigated using the quasi-relativistic many-body perturbation theory (MZ) code for previously identified transitions from autoionizing 2lnl‧ states in He-like Mg and new transitions involving autoionizing 1s3lnl‧ states in Li-like Mg and 1s3l3l‧3l″ in Be-like Mg calculated using the Hartree-Fock-relativistic method (COWAN code). Radiative and non-radiative data are combined to obtain branching ratios, intensities and effective emission rate coefficients of DS lines. Synthetic spectra were matched to experimental data to identify strong satellite structures to the Heβ (7.8507 Å) and Lyα (8.4192 Å) resonance transitions.

  20. Flexible control of femtosecond pulse duration and separation using an emittance-spoiling foil in x-ray free-electron lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, Y.; Behrens, C.; Coffee, R.; Decker, F. -J.; Emma, P.; Field, C.; Helml, W.; Huang, Z.; Krejcik, P.; Krzywinski, J.; Loos, H.; Lutman, A.; Marinelli, A.; Maxwell, T. J.; Turner, J.

    2015-06-22

    We report experimental studies of generating and controlling femtosecond x-ray pulses in free-electron lasers (FELs) using an emittance spoiling foil. By selectivity spoiling the transverse emittance of the electron beam, the output pulse duration or double-pulse separation is adjusted with a variable size single or double slotted foil. Measurements were performed with an X-band transverse deflector located downstream of the FEL undulator, from which both the FEL lasing and emittance spoiling effects are observed directly.

  1. Pulse modulation effect on velocity fringes. [holography of moving objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decker, A. J.

    1975-01-01

    The degradation of a hologram caused by object motion can be utilized to measure the rate of change of the length of an object beam. A rectangular shaped laser pulse is ordinarily used to illuminate the object in such an investigation. The velocity fringes obtained are considered in the calculation. There are no velocity fringes for Gaussian shaped pulses or for the pulses produced by a Q-switched ruby laser. It is shown with the aid of a mathematical analysis that a pulse of oscillating intensity or a pulse train will yield velocity fringes regardless of the shape of an individual pulse.

  2. Influence of wavelength and pulse duration on single-shot x-ray diffraction patterns from nonspherical nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sander, Katharina; Peltz, Christian; Varin, Charles; Scheel, Stefan; Brabec, Thomas; Fennel, Thomas

    2015-10-01

    We introduce a complex scaling discrete dipole approximation (CSDDA) method and study single-shot x-ray diffraction patterns from non-spherical, absorbing nanotargets in the limit of linear response. The convergence of the employed Born series-based iterative solution of the discrete dipole approximation problem via optimal complex mixing turns out to be substantially faster than the original approach with real-valued mixing coefficients, without additional numerical effort per iteration. The CSDDA method is employed to calculate soft x-ray diffraction patterns from large icosahedral silver nanoparticles with diameters up to about 250 {nm}. Our analysis confirms the requirement of relatively long wavelengths to map truly 3D structure information to the experimentally accessible regions of 2D scattering images. On the other hand, we show that short wavelengths are preferable to retain visibility of fine structures such as interference fringes in the scattering patterns when using ultrashort x-ray pulses in the attosecond domain. A simple model is presented to estimate the minimal pulse duration below which the fringe contrast vanishes. Knowledge of the impact of the bandwidth of short pulses on the diffraction images is important to extract information on ultrafast dynamical processes from time-resolved x-ray diffractive imaging experiments on free nanoparticles, in particular at long wavelengths.

  3. Programming microbes using pulse width modulation of optical signals.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Eric A; Basu, Amar S; Bayer, Travis S

    2013-11-15

    Cells transmit and receive information via signalling pathways. A number of studies have revealed that information is encoded in the temporal dynamics of these pathways and has highlighted how pathway architecture can influence the propagation of signals in time and space. The functional properties of pathway architecture can also be exploited by synthetic biologists to enable precise control of cellular physiology. Here, we characterised the response of a bacterial light-responsive, two-component system to oscillating signals of varying frequencies. We found that the system acted as a low-pass filter, able to respond to low-frequency oscillations and unable to respond to high-frequency oscillations. We then demonstrate that the low-pass filtering behavior can be exploited to enable precise control of gene expression using a strategy termed pulse width modulation (PWM). PWM is a common strategy used in electronics for information encoding that converts a series of digital input signals to an analog response. We further show how the PWM strategy extends the utility of bacterial optogenetic control, allowing the fine-tuning of expression levels, programming of temporal dynamics, and control of microbial physiology via manipulation of a metabolic enzyme. PMID:23928560

  4. Pulsed klystrons with feedback controlled mod-anode modulators

    SciTech Connect

    Reass, William A; Baca, David M; Jerry, Davis L; Rees, Daniel E

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a fast rise and fall, totem-pole mod-anode modulators for klystron application. Details of these systems as recently installed utilizing a beam switch tube ''on-deck'' and a planar triode ''off-deck'' in a grid-catch feedback regulated configuration will be provided. The grid-catch configuration regulates the klystron mod-anode voltage at a specified set-point during switching as well as providing a control mechanism that flat-top regulates the klystron beam current during the pulse. This flat-topped klystron beam current is maintained while the capacitor bank droops. In addition, we will review more modern on-deck designs using a high gain, high voltage planar triode as a regulating and switching element. These designs are being developed, tested, and implemented for the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) accelerator refurbishment project, ''LANSCE-R''. An advantage of the planar triode is that the tube can be directly operated with solid state linear components and provides for a very compact design. The tubes are inexpensive compared to stacked semiconductor switching assemblies and also provide a linear control capability. Details of these designs are provided as well as operational and developmental results.

  5. Generation of high-quality parabolic pulses with optimized duration and energy by use of dispersive frequency-to-time mapping.

    PubMed

    Huh, Jeonghyun; Azaña, José

    2015-10-19

    We propose and demonstrate a novel linear-optics method for high-fidelity parabolic pulse generation with durations ranging from the picosecond to the sub-nanosecond range. This method is based on dispersion-induced frequency-to-time mapping combined with spectral shaping in order to overcome constraints of previous linear shaping approaches. Temporal waveform distortions associated with the need to satisfy a far-field condition are eliminated by use of a virtual time-lens process, which is directly implemented in the linear spectral shaping stage. Using this approach, the generated parabolic pulses are able to maintain most energy spectrum available from the input pulse frequency bandwidth, regardless of the target pulse duration, which is not anymore limited by the finest spectral resolution of the optical pulse spectrum shaper. High-quality parabolic pulses, with durations from 25ps to 400ps and output powers exceeding 4dBm before amplification, have been experimentally synthesized from a picosecond mode-locked optical source using a commercial optical pulse shaper with a frequency resolution >10GHz. In particular, we report the synthesis of full-duty cycle parabolic pulses that match up almost exactly with an ideal fitting over the entire pulse period. PMID:26480437

  6. Pulse duration effects on laser-assisted electron transfer cross section for He2+ ions colliding with atomic hydrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domínguez-Gutiérrez, Francisco Javier; Cabrera-Trujillo, Remigio

    2014-08-01

    We study the effect of the pulse duration for an ultra-fast and intense laser on the fundamental process of electron capture by analyzing the excitation probability into the n = 2 and n = 3 states when He2+ collides with atomic hydrogen in the 0.05-10 keV/amu energy range, a region of interest for diagnostic processes on plasma and fusion power reactors. We solve the time-dependent Schrödinger equation to calculate the electron capture probability by means of a finite-differences, as well as by an electron-nuclear dynamics approach. In particular, we study the effects of 1, 3, 6, and 10 fs laser pulses at FWHM, wavelength of 780 nm and intensity of 3.5 × 1012 W/cm2. We report good agreement for the laser-free state and total electron transfer cross-sections when compared to available theoretical and experimental data. The effect of the laser pulse on the electron capture probability as a function of the impact parameter is such that the charge exchange probability increases considerably in the impact parameter radial region with an increase in the amplitude oscillations and a phase shift on the Stückelberg oscillations. We find an increase on the total electron exchange cross-section for low projectile collision energy when compared to the laser-free case with a minimal effect at high collision energies. We find that the 1 fs laser pulse has a minimal effect, except for very low collision energies. Although in general, the longer the laser pulse, the larger the electron capture probability, at very low collision energies all pulse widths have an effect. For processes in the atto-second region, our findings suggest that to enhance the laser-assisted charge exchange, the best region for short pulses is at very low collision energies. We also find that the s and p state charge exchange cross section are equally affected. We provide a qualitative discussion of these findings.

  7. Impact of High-Frequency Spectral Phase Modulation on the Temporal Profile of Short Optical Pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Dorrer, C.; Bromage, J.

    2008-03-18

    The impact of high-frequency spectral phase modulation on the temporal intensity of optical pulses is derived analytically and simulated in two different regimes. The temporal contrast of an optical pulse close to the Fourier-transform limit is degraded by a pedestal related to the power spectral density of the spectral phase modulation. When the optical pulse is highly chirped, its intensity modulation is directly related to the spectral phase variations with a transfer function depending on the second-order dispersion of the chirped pulse. The metrology of the spectral phase of an optical pulse using temporal-intensity measurements performed after chirping the pulse is studied. The effect of spatial averaging is also discussed.

  8. The effect of pulse duration on the growth rate of laser-induced damage sites at 351 nm on fused silica surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Negres, R A; Norton, M A; Liao, Z M; Cross, D A; Bude, J D; Carr, C W

    2009-10-29

    Past work in the area of laser-induced damage growth has shown growth rates to be primarily dependent on the laser fluence and wavelength. More recent studies suggest that growth rate, similar to the damage initiation process, is affected by a number of additional parameters including pulse duration, pulse shape, site size, and internal structure. In this study, we focus on the effect of pulse duration on the growth rate of laser damage sites located on the exit surface of fused silica optics. Our results demonstrate, for the first time, a significant dependence of growth rate at 351 nm on pulse duration from 1 ns to 15 ns as {tau}{sup 0.3} for sites in the 50-100 {micro}m size range.

  9. Solid-state pulse modulator using Marx generator for a medical linac electron-gun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Heuijin; Hyeok Jeong, Dong; Lee, Manwoo; Lee, Mujin; Yi, Jungyu; Yang, Kwangmo; Ro, Sung Chae

    2016-04-01

    A medical linac is used for the cancer treatment and consists of an accelerating column, waveguide components, a magnetron, an electron-gun, a pulse modulator, and an irradiation system. The pulse modulator based on hydrogen thyratron-switched pulse-forming network is commonly used in linac. As the improvement of the high power semiconductors in switching speed, voltage rating, and current rating, an insulated gate bipolar transistor has become the more popular device used for pulsed power systems. We propose a solid-state pulse modulator to generator high voltage by multi-stacked storage-switch stages based on the Marx generator. The advantage of our modulator comes from the use of two semiconductors to control charging and discharging of the storage capacitor at each stage and it allows to generate the pulse with various amplitudes, widths, and shapes. In addition, a gate driver for two semiconductors is designed to reduce the control channels and to protect the circuits. It is developed for providing the pulsed power to a medical linac electron-gun that requires 25 kV and 1 A as the first application. In order to improve the power efficiency and achieve the compactness modulator, a capacitor charging power supply, a Marx pulse generator, and an electron-gun heater isolated transformer are constructed and integrated. This technology is also being developed to extend the high power pulsed system with > 1 MW and also other applications such as a plasma immersed ion implantation and a micro pulse electrostatic precipitator which especially require variable pulse shape and high repetition rate > 1 kHz. The paper describes the design features and the construction of this solid-state pulse modulator. Also shown are the performance results into the linac electron-gun.

  10. Evolution dynamics of charge state distribution in neon interaction with x-ray pulses of variant intensities and durations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Cheng; Zeng, Jiaolong; Yuan, Jianmin

    2015-03-01

    The level population and charge state distribution (CSD) of the neon atomic system interacting with x-ray pulses of variant intensities and durations at a central photon energy of 1110 eV are investigated by solving the time-dependent rate equations. The laser beam has a circular spot size with a Gaussian intensity pattern and the time history of the intensity is represented by Gaussian distribution in time. As an example, the CSD as a function of time is given at different distances from the spot center for an x-ray beam of intensity 1.5 × 1017 W/cm2 and duration 75 fs (fs) for a spot size of 1 μm (full width at half maximum). The final CSD after averaging over the space and time is compared with a recent experiment and good agreement is found between the theory and experiment. Then systematic investigations are carried out to study the evolution of CSD with a wide range of intensity from 1.0 × 1015 W/cm2 to 1.0 × 1019 W/cm2 and duration from 30 fs to 100 fs. The results show that at intensities lower than 1.0 × 1015 W/cm2, the CSD shows a typical physical picture of weak x-ray photoionization of the neutral atomic neon. At higher intensity, i.e., larger than 5.0 × 1016 W/cm2, the dominant ionization stages are Ne7+ and Ne8+, while the fractions of ions in the Ne3+-Ne6+ stages are low for all laser durations and intensities.

  11. A new sealed RF-excited CO2 laser for enamel ablation operating at 9.4μm with pulse duration of 26 μs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Kenneth H.; Jew, Jamison M.; Fried, Daniel

    2016-02-01

    Several studies over the past 20 years have identified that carbon dioxide lasers operating at wavelengths between 9.3 and 9.6-μm with pulse durations near 20-µs are ideal for hard tissue ablation. Those wavelengths are coincident with the peak absorption of the mineral phase and the pulse duration is close to the thermal relaxation time of the deposited energy of a few microseconds to minimize peripheral thermal damage and long enough to minimize plasma shielding effects to allow efficient ablation at practical rates. The desired pulse duration near 20-μs has been difficult to achieve since it is too long for TEA lasers and too short for RF-excited lasers for efficient operation. Recently, Coherent Inc. (Santa Clara, CA) developed the J5-V laser for microvia drilling which can produce laser pulses greater than 100 mJ in energy at 9.4-μm with a pulse duration of 26-µs and it can achieve pulse repetition rates of 3 KHz. We report the first results using this laser to ablate enamel and dentin. The onset of plasma shielding does not occur until the fluence exceeds 100 J/cm2 allowing efficient ablation at rates exceeding 50-μm per pulse. This laser is ideally suited for the selective ablation of carious lesions.

  12. Convoluted effect of laser fluence and pulse duration on the property of a nanosecond laser-induced plasma into an argon ambient gas at the atmospheric pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Bai Xueshi; Ma Qianli; Motto-Ros, Vincent; Yu Jin; Sabourdy, David; Nguyen, Luc; Jalocha, Alain

    2013-01-07

    We studied the behavior of the plasma induced by a nanosecond infrared (1064 nm) laser pulse on a metallic target (Al) during its propagation into argon ambient gas at the atmospheric pressure and especially over the delay interval ranging from several hundred nanoseconds to several microseconds. In such interval, the plasma is particularly interesting as a spectroscopic emission source for laser-induced plasma spectroscopy (LIBS). We show a convoluted effect between laser fluence and pulse duration on the structure and the emission property of the plasma. With a relatively high fluence of about 160 J/cm{sup 2} where a strong plasma shielding effect is observed, a short pulse of about 4 ns duration is shown to be significantly more efficient to excite the optical emission from the ablation vapor than a long pulse of about 25 ns duration. While with a lower fluence of about 65 J/cm{sup 2}, a significantly more efficient excitation is observed with the long pulse. We interpret our observations by considering the post-ablation interaction between the generated plume and the tailing part of the laser pulse. We demonstrate that the ionization of the layer of ambient gas surrounding the ablation vapor plays an important role in plasma shielding. Such ionization is the consequence of laser-supported absorption wave and directly dependent on the laser fluence and the pulse duration. Further observations of the structure of the generated plume in its early stage of expansion support our explanations.

  13. High-power pulsed thulium fiber oscillator modulated by stimulated Brillouin scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Yulong Xu, Jianqiu

    2014-01-06

    A pulsed ∼2-μm thulium-doped fiber laser passively modulated by distributed stimulated Brillouin scattering achieves 10.2 W average power and >100 kHz repetition rate with a very simple all-fiber configuration. The maximum pulse energy and peak power surpass 100 μJ and 6 kW, respectively. Another distinct property is that the pulse width is clamped around 17 ns at all power levels. All the average-power, pulse energy, and peak power show the highest values from passively modulated fiber lasers in all wavelength regions.

  14. Amplification of frequency-modulated soliton-like pulses in inhomogeneous optical waveguides with normal dispersion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zolotovskii, I. O.; Novikov, S. G.; Okhotnikov, O. G.; Sementsov, D. I.; Yavtushenko, I. O.; Yavtushenko, M. S.

    2012-06-01

    The possibility of effective amplification of self-similar frequency-modulated pulses (FMPs) in longitudinally inhomogeneous active optical waveguides is studied. Peculiarities of the dynamics of parabolic pulses with a constant frequency modulation rate are considered. An optimal profile of variation of the group velocity dispersion was obtained in correspondence with optimal amplification of a similariton-like pulse. The use of FMPs in amplifying and longitudinally inhomogeneous optical waveguides with a correspondingly matched profile of normal dispersion of group velocities is shown to be capable of providing for an amplification of subpicosecond pulses up to energies above 1 nJ.

  15. Lidar sensing of the atmosphere with gigawatt laser pulses of femtosecond duration

    SciTech Connect

    Bukin, O A; Golik, S S; Il'in, A A; Kulchin, Yu N; Lisitsa, V V; Shmirko, K A; Babii, M Yu; Kolesnikov, A V; Kabanov, A M; Matvienko, G G; Oshlakov, V K

    2014-06-30

    We present the results of sensing of the atmosphere in the condition of a transition 'continent – ocean' zone by means of gigawatt femtosecond pulses of the fundamental and second harmonics of a Ti : sapphire laser. In the regime of multi-frequency sensing (supercontinuum from the fundamental harmonic) the emission lines of the first positive system of the nitrogen molecule B{sup 3}Π{sub g} – A{sup 3}Σ{sub u}{sup +} have been recorded, while the sensing using of the second harmonic have revealed the possibility of detecting the lines of Raman scattering of nitrogen (λ = 441 nm). The intensity ratio of the line of Raman scattering of nitrogen and the line of elastic scattering at the wavelength of λ = 400 nm amounts to 5.6 × 10{sup -4}. (extreme light fields and their applications)

  16. Intense-Field Ionization of Monoaromatic Hydrocarbons using Radiation Pulses of Ultrashort Duration: Monohalobenzenes and Azabenzenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scarborough, T.; Strohaber, J.; Foote, D.; McAcy, C.; Uiterwaal, C. J.

    2014-04-01

    Using 50-fs, 800-nm pulses, we study the intense-field ionization and fragmentation of the monohalobenzenes C6H5-X (X=F, Cl, Br, I) and of the heterocyclics azabenzene C5H5N (pyridine) and the three diazabenzenes C4H4N2 (pyridazine, pyrimidine, and pyrazine). Avoiding focal intensity averaging we find indications of resonance-enhanced MPI. In the monohalobenzenes the propensity for fragmentation increases for increasing Z: fluorobenzene yields predominantly C6H5Fn+, while iodobenzene yields atomic ions with charges up to I8+. We ascribe this to the heavy-atom effect: the large charge of the heavy halogens' nuclei induces ultrafast intersystem crossing to dissociative triplet states.

  17. Formation of an electron beam with a duration shorter than 100 fs during photoemission of electrons by femtosecond laser pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Mironov, B. N.; Aseev, S. A. Minogin, V. G. Chekalin, S. V.

    2008-06-15

    Irradiation of a thin metal target by 38-fs laser pulses at a wavelength of 800 nm is shown to generate a beam of photoelectrons that contains a component whose duration is shorter than 100 fs. The ensemble of photoelectrons is formed by photoemission of a gold film about 10 nm thick sputtered on the base of a prism made of fused silica. The laser beam irradiates a dielectric-metal interface and propagates inside the prism at an angle of 45{sup o} to a normal to the interface. The photoelectron beam is formed by accelerating photoelectrons in a spatially inhomogeneous electrostatic potential. The ultrashort component of the photoelectron beam is found to be formed under the action of a ponderomotive potential. It is shown that the ultrashort electron component can be separated from the remaining part of the photoelectron beam with the help of an inhomogeneous electrostatic field.

  18. Pulse Width Modulation Applied to Olfactory Stimulation for Intensity Tuning.

    PubMed

    Andrieu, Patrice; Billot, Pierre-Édouard; Millot, Jean-Louis; Gharbi, Tijani

    2015-01-01

    For most olfactometers described in the literature, adjusting olfactory stimulation intensity involves modifying the dilution of the odorant in a neutral solution (water, mineral, oil, etc.), the dilution of the odorant air in neutral airflow, or the surface of the odorant in contact with airflow. But, for most of these above-mentioned devices, manual intervention is necessary for adjusting concentration. We present in this article a method of controlling odorant concentration via a computer which can be implemented on even the most dynamic olfactometers. We used Pulse Width Modulation (PWM), a technique commonly used in electronic or electrical engineering, and we have applied it to odor delivery. PWM, when applied to odor delivery, comprises an alternative presentation of odorant air and clean air at a high frequency. The cycle period (odor presentation and rest) is 200 ms. In order to modify odorant concentration, the ratio between the odorant period and clean air presentation during a cycle is modified. This ratio is named duty cycle. Gas chromatography measurements show that this method offers a range of mixing factors from 33% to 100% (continuous presentation of odor). Proof of principle is provided via a psychophysical experiment. Three odors (isoamyl acetate, butanol and pyridine) were presented to twenty subjects. Each odor was delivered three times with five values of duty cycles. After each stimulation, the subjects were asked to estimate the intensity of the stimulus on a 10 point scale, ranging from 0 (undetectable) to 9 (very strong). Results show a main effect of the duty cycles on the intensity ratings for all tested odors. PMID:26710120

  19. Pulse Width Modulation Applied to Olfactory Stimulation for Intensity Tuning

    PubMed Central

    Millot, Jean-Louis; Gharbi, Tijani

    2015-01-01

    For most olfactometers described in the literature, adjusting olfactory stimulation intensity involves modifying the dilution of the odorant in a neutral solution (water, mineral, oil, etc.), the dilution of the odorant air in neutral airflow, or the surface of the odorant in contact with airflow. But, for most of these above-mentioned devices, manual intervention is necessary for adjusting concentration. We present in this article a method of controlling odorant concentration via a computer which can be implemented on even the most dynamic olfactometers. We used Pulse Width Modulation (PWM), a technique commonly used in electronic or electrical engineering, and we have applied it to odor delivery. PWM, when applied to odor delivery, comprises an alternative presentation of odorant air and clean air at a high frequency. The cycle period (odor presentation and rest) is 200 ms. In order to modify odorant concentration, the ratio between the odorant period and clean air presentation during a cycle is modified. This ratio is named duty cycle. Gas chromatography measurements show that this method offers a range of mixing factors from 33% to 100% (continuous presentation of odor). Proof of principle is provided via a psychophysical experiment. Three odors (isoamyl acetate, butanol and pyridine) were presented to twenty subjects. Each odor was delivered three times with five values of duty cycles. After each stimulation, the subjects were asked to estimate the intensity of the stimulus on a 10 point scale, ranging from 0 (undetectable) to 9 (very strong). Results show a main effect of the duty cycles on the intensity ratings for all tested odors. PMID:26710120

  20. GPU-based parallel clustered differential pulse code modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jiaji; Li, Wenze; Kong, Wanqiu

    2015-10-01

    Hyperspectral remote sensing technology is widely used in marine remote sensing, geological exploration, atmospheric and environmental remote sensing. Owing to the rapid development of hyperspectral remote sensing technology, resolution of hyperspectral image has got a huge boost. Thus data size of hyperspectral image is becoming larger. In order to reduce their saving and transmission cost, lossless compression for hyperspectral image has become an important research topic. In recent years, large numbers of algorithms have been proposed to reduce the redundancy between different spectra. Among of them, the most classical and expansible algorithm is the Clustered Differential Pulse Code Modulation (CDPCM) algorithm. This algorithm contains three parts: first clusters all spectral lines, then trains linear predictors for each band. Secondly, use these predictors to predict pixels, and get the residual image by subtraction between original image and predicted image. Finally, encode the residual image. However, the process of calculating predictors is timecosting. In order to improve the processing speed, we propose a parallel C-DPCM based on CUDA (Compute Unified Device Architecture) with GPU. Recently, general-purpose computing based on GPUs has been greatly developed. The capacity of GPU improves rapidly by increasing the number of processing units and storage control units. CUDA is a parallel computing platform and programming model created by NVIDIA. It gives developers direct access to the virtual instruction set and memory of the parallel computational elements in GPUs. Our core idea is to achieve the calculation of predictors in parallel. By respectively adopting global memory, shared memory and register memory, we finally get a decent speedup.

  1. Effect of dye laser pulse duration on selective cutaneous vascular injury

    SciTech Connect

    Garden, J.M.; Tan, O.T.; Kerschmann, R.; Boll, J.; Furumoto, H.; Anderson, R.R.; Parrish, J.A.

    1986-11-01

    The pulsed dye laser at 577 nm, a wavelength well absorbed by oxyhemoglobin, causes highly selective thermal injury to cutaneous blood vessels. Confinement of thermal damage to microvessels is, in theory, related to the laser exposure time (pulsewidth) on selective vascular injury. This study investigates the effect of 577 nm dye laser pulsewidth on selective vascular injury. Nine Caucasian, normal volunteers received 577 nm dye laser exposures at pulsewidths of 1.5-350 microseconds to their skin. Clinical purpura threshold exposure doses were determined in each volunteer, and biopsies of threshold and suprathreshold doses were examined in each volunteer. The laser exposure dose required to produce purpura increased as pulsewidth increased in all 9 subjects (p less than 0.001). This finding corresponds to laser pulsewidths equal to or exceeding the thermal relaxation times for dermal blood vessels. Histologically, vessel damage was selectively, but qualitatively, different for short vs long pulsewidths. Pulsewidths shorter than 20 microseconds caused vessel wall fragmentation and hemorrhage, whereas longer pulsewidths caused no significant hemorrhage. The purpura noted clinically appears to be due to a coagulum of intralumenal denatured erythrocytes. At 24 h, there was marked vessel wall necrosis at all pulsewidths. The short pulsewidths may cause erythrocyte vaporization, rapid thermal expansion, and mechanical vessel rupture with hemorrhage. Long pulsewidths appear to cause thermal denaturation with less mechanical vessel damage. The selective, nonhemorrhagic, vascular necrosis caused by the long-pulsewidth dye laser may lead to a more desirable clinical outcome in the therapy of blood vessel disease processes.

  2. Linearly frequency-modulated pulsed single-frequency fiber laser at 1083 nm.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuanfei; Yang, Changsheng; Li, Can; Feng, Zhouming; Xu, Shanhui; Deng, Huaqiu; Yang, Zhongmin

    2016-02-22

    A linearly frequency-modulated, actively Q-switched, single-frequency ring fiber laser based on injection seeding from an ultra-short cavity is demonstrated at 1083 nm. A piezoelectric transducer is employed to obtain linearly frequency-modulating performance and over 1.05 GHz frequency-tuning range is achieved with a modulating frequency reaching tens of kilohertz. A maximum peak power of the stable output pulse is over 3.83 W during frequency-modulating process. This type of pulsed fiber laser provides a promising candidate for coherent LIDAR in the measurement of thermosphere. PMID:26906980

  3. Shifts in frequency-modulated pulses recorded during an encounter with Blainville's beaked whales (Mesoplodon densirostris).

    PubMed

    Keating, Jennifer L; Barlow, Jay; Rankin, Shannon

    2016-08-01

    Echolocation signals produced by beaked whales (family: Ziphiidae) include frequency-modulated (FM) pulses that appear to have species-specific characteristics. To date there has been no established evidence that a single species of beaked whale might produce more than one type of FM pulse. In 2014 a group of Blainville's beaked whales (Mesoplodon densirostris) were sighted off of Southern California; recordings included FM pulses with significant increases in peak frequency, center frequency, and -10 dB bandwidth relative to FM pulses previously attributed to this species. This research suggests there may be greater variation in received beaked whale FM pulses than previously understood. PMID:27586775

  4. Short optical pulse generation at 40 GHz with a bulk electro-absorption modulator packaged device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langlois, Patrick; Moore, Ronald; Prosyk, Kelvin; O'Keefe, Sean; Oosterom, Jill A.; Betty, Ian; Foster, Robert; Greenspan, Jonathan; Singh, Priti

    2003-12-01

    Short optical pulse generation at 40GHz and 1540nm wavelength is achieved using fully packaged bulk quaternary electro-absorption modulator modules. Experimental results obtained with broadband and narrowband optimized packaged modules are presented and compared against empirical model predictions. Pulse duty cycle, extinction ratio and chirp are studied as a function of sinusoidal drive voltage and detuning between operating wavelength and modulator absorption band edge. Design rules and performance trade-offs are discussed. Low-chirp pulses with a FWHM of ~12ps and sub-4ps at a rate of 40GHz are demonstrated. Optical time-domain demultiplexing of a 40GHz to a 10GHz pulse train is also demonstrated with better than 20dB extinction ratio.

  5. Modulated pulse laser with pseudorandom coding capabilities for underwater ranging, detection, and imaging.

    PubMed

    Cochenour, Brandon; Mullen, Linda; Muth, John

    2011-11-20

    Optical detection, ranging, and imaging of targets in turbid water is complicated by absorption and scattering. It has been shown that using a pulsed laser source with a range-gated receiver or an intensity modulated source with a coherent RF receiver can improve target contrast in turbid water. A blended approach using a modulated-pulse waveform has been previously suggested as a way to further improve target contrast. However only recently has a rugged and reliable laser source been developed that is capable of synthesizing such a waveform so that the effect of the underwater environment on the propagation of a modulated pulse can be studied. In this paper, we outline the motivation for the modulated-pulse (MP) concept, and experimentally evaluate different MP waveforms: single-tone MP and pseudorandom coded MP sequences. PMID:22108874

  6. A Novel Approach to Photonic Generation and Modulation of Ultra-Wideband Pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, Peng; Guo, Hao; Chen, Dalei; Zhu, Huatao

    2016-01-01

    A novel approach to photonic generation of ultra-wideband (UWB) signals is proposed in this paper. The proposed signal generator is capable of generating UWB doublet pulses with flexible reconfigurability, and many different pulse modulation formats, including the commonly used pulse-position modulation (PPM) and bi-phase modulation (BPM) can be realized. Moreover, the photonic UWB pulse generator is capable of generating UWB signals with a tunable spectral notch-band, which is desirable to realize the interference avoidance between UWB and other narrow band systems, such as Wi-Fi. A mathematical model describing the proposed system is developed and the generation of UWB signals with different modulation formats is demonstrated via computer simulations.

  7. Signal to Noise Ratios of Pulsed and Sinewave Modulated Direct Detection Lidar for IPDA Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sun, Xiaoli; Abshire, James B.

    2011-01-01

    The signal-to-noise ratios have been derived for IPDA lidar using a direct detection receiver for both pulsed and sinewave laser modulation techniques, and the results and laboratory measurements are presented

  8. Multi-pulse multi-delay (MPMD) multiple access modulation for UWB

    DOEpatents

    Dowla, Farid U.; Nekoogar, Faranak

    2007-03-20

    A new modulation scheme in UWB communications is introduced. This modulation technique utilizes multiple orthogonal transmitted-reference pulses for UWB channelization. The proposed UWB receiver samples the second order statistical function at both zero and non-zero lags and matches the samples to stored second order statistical functions, thus sampling and matching the shape of second order statistical functions rather than just the shape of the received pulses.

  9. Minimizing pattern effects in semiconductor lasers at high rate pulse modulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torphammar, P.; Tell, R.; Eklund, H.; Johnston, A. R.

    1979-01-01

    This paper deals with analytical and experimental work related to modulation of a semiconductor laser used in high bit rate communication. The approach is based upon minimizing the charge storage effect by a proper choice of the area of the modulating pulses and the bias current. The concept of using additional current pulses to probe for variations in electron density between pulses is investigated. The primary limitation on bit rate is found to be the ability to generate laser drive pulses free of ringing or similar transients. This and the 300 ps pulsewidth, an experimental constraint, limit the bit rate to about 1 Gbit/s. However, by using this approach it appears that bit rates considerably higher than 2 Gbits/s could be reached with sufficiently accurate control of drive pulse shape. It is found that the laser bias and the current pulse area had to be controlled within 1 percent and 10 percent, respectively.

  10. Effect of coil orientation on strength–duration time constant and I-wave activation with controllable pulse parameter transcranial magnetic stimulation

    PubMed Central

    D’Ostilio, Kevin; Goetz, Stefan M.; Hannah, Ricci; Ciocca, Matteo; Chieffo, Raffaella; Chen, Jui-Cheng A.; Peterchev, Angel V.; Rothwell, John C.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To compare the strength–duration (S–D) time constants of motor cortex structures activated by current pulses oriented posterior–anterior (PA) or anterior–posterior (AP) across the central sulcus. Methods Motor threshold and input–output curve, along with motor evoked potential (MEP) latencies, of first dorsal interosseus were determined at pulse widths of 30, 60, and 120 μs using a controllable pulse parameter (cTMS) device, with the coil oriented PA or AP. These were used to estimate the S–D time constant and we compared with data for responses evoked by cTMS of the ulnar nerve at the elbow. Results The S–D time constant with PA was shorter than for AP stimulation (230.9 ± 97.2 vs. 294.2 ± 90.9 μs; p < 0.001). These values were similar to those calculated after stimulation of ulnar nerve (197 ± 47 μs). MEP latencies to AP, but not PA stimulation were affected by pulse width, showing longer latencies following short duration stimuli. Conclusion PA and AP stimuli appear to activate the axons of neurons with different time constants. Short duration AP pulses are more selective than longer pulses in recruiting longer latency corticospinal output. Significance More selective stimulation of neural elements may be achieved by manipulating pulse width and orientation. PMID:26077634

  11. The Pulse Width Modulator ASIC for Deep Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carr, Gregory A.; Wester, Gene W.; Lam, Barbara; Bennett, Johnny; Franco, Lauro; Woo, Erika

    2004-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory has started the development of a Pulse Width Modulator Application Specific Integrated Circuit (PWMA). This development is leveraging the previous development of the Switch Control ASIC (SCA). The purpose of the development is to provide the control for a selected range of power converter topologies and to meet the stringent environmental requirements of deep space missions. The PWMA will include several power control functions that are not normally included on the off-the-shelf components available today. One key functional requirement is the ability to implement an N + K redundant power converter with the ability to control the charging of a battery. Other applications will be the typical point of load isolated and non-isolated power converters. The purpose the development is not only to provide a much needed flight part, but also to accelerate the engineering process by using a standard cell library from previous ASIC developments. Under previous developments with Boeing and Lockheed Martin, JPL has produced three ASICs. Each ASIC has been implemented by using an analog standard cell library. One such development was the SCA, which is design to provide a floating power switch control. The functional verification of this ASIC has been completed and the cells used have been targeted for the new development of the PWMA. The primary function of the PWMA is to provide the control function of a point of load power converter. The design is an isolated 60 W converter with a 33 V output. In architecting the design, several functions were left up to the power converter design in order to make the ASIC more generic. The ASIC can be used for several power converter topologies and power levels. Some additional features have been added to the ASIC to provide the interfaces for multi-phase topologies and battery control functions. An N+K fault tolerant strategy has been implemented in order to provide the battery control functions. The PWMA has

  12. 47 W, 6 ns constant pulse duration, high-repetition-rate cavity-dumped Q-switched TEM(00) Nd:YVO(4) oscillator.

    PubMed

    McDonagh, Louis; Wallenstein, Richard; Knappe, Ralf

    2006-11-15

    We report on a cavity-dumped Q-switched TEM(00) Nd:YVO(4) oscillator offering a unique combination of high power, constant short pulse duration, and high repetition rate, suppressing the gain dependence of pulse duration in classical Q-switched oscillators. Its performance is compared with that of the same oscillator operated in a classical Q-switched regime, demonstrating the much higher peak powers achievable with this technique, especially at high repetition rates. Up to 31 W of 532 nm green light was generated by frequency doubling in a noncritical phase matched LBO crystal, corresponding to 70% conversion efficiency. PMID:17072404

  13. Modulation of hERG potassium channel gating normalizes action potential duration prolonged by dysfunctional KCNQ1 potassium channel

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hongkang; Zou, Beiyan; Yu, Haibo; Moretti, Alessandra; Wang, Xiaoying; Yan, Wei; Babcock, Joseph J.; Bellin, Milena; McManus, Owen B.; Tomaselli, Gordon; Nan, Fajun; Laugwitz, Karl-Ludwig; Li, Min

    2012-01-01

    Long QT syndrome (LQTS) is a genetic disease characterized by a prolonged QT interval in an electrocardiogram (ECG), leading to higher risk of sudden cardiac death. Among the 12 identified genes causal to heritable LQTS, ∼90% of affected individuals harbor mutations in either KCNQ1 or human ether-a-go-go related genes (hERG), which encode two repolarizing potassium currents known as IKs and IKr. The ability to quantitatively assess contributions of different current components is therefore important for investigating disease phenotypes and testing effectiveness of pharmacological modulation. Here we report a quantitative analysis by simulating cardiac action potentials of cultured human cardiomyocytes to match the experimental waveforms of both healthy control and LQT syndrome type 1 (LQT1) action potentials. The quantitative evaluation suggests that elevation of IKr by reducing voltage sensitivity of inactivation, not via slowing of deactivation, could more effectively restore normal QT duration if IKs is reduced. Using a unique specific chemical activator for IKr that has a primary effect of causing a right shift of V1/2 for inactivation, we then examined the duration changes of autonomous action potentials from differentiated human cardiomyocytes. Indeed, this activator causes dose-dependent shortening of the action potential durations and is able to normalize action potentials of cells of patients with LQT1. In contrast, an IKr chemical activator of primary effects in slowing channel deactivation was not effective in modulating action potential durations. Our studies provide both the theoretical basis and experimental support for compensatory normalization of action potential duration by a pharmacological agent. PMID:22745159

  14. Infrared laser damage thresholds for skin at wavelengths from 0.810 to 1.54 microns for femto-to-microsecond pulse durations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cain, Clarence P.; Roach, William P.; Stolarski, David J.; Noojin, Gary D.; Kumru, Semih S.; Stockton, Kevin L.; Zohner, Justin J.; Rockwell, Benjamin A.

    2007-02-01

    In this paper we report on our combined measurements of the visible lesion thresholds for porcine skin for wavelengths in the infrared from 810 nm at 44 fs to 1318 nm at pulse durations of 50 ns and 350μs to 1540 nm including pulse durations of 31 ns and 600 μs. We also measure thresholds for various spot sizes from less than 1 mm to 5 mm in diameter. All three wavelengths and five pulse durations are used extensively in research and the military. We compare these minimum visible lesion thresholds with ANSI standards set for maximum permissible exposures in the infrared wavelengths. We have measured non-linear effects at the laser-tissue interface for pulse durations below 1μs and determined that damage at these short pulse durations are usually not thermal effects. Damage at the skin surface may include acoustical effects, laser ablation and/or low-density plasma effects, depending on the wavelength and pulse duration. Also the damage effects may be short-lived and disappear within a few days or may last for much longer time periods including permanent discolorations. For femtosecond pulses at 810 nm, damage was almost instant and at 1 hour had an ED50 of 8.2 mJ of pulse energy. After 24 hours, most of the lesions disappeared and the ED50 increased by almost a factor of 3 to 21.3 mJ. There was a similar trend for the 1.318 μ laser for spot sizes of 2 mm and 5 mm where the ED50 was larger after 24 hours. However, for the 1.54 μ laser with a spot size of 5 mm, the ED50 actually decreased by a small amount; from 6.3 Jcm-2 to 6.1 Jcm-2 after 24 hours. Thresholds also decreased for the 1314 nm laser at 350 μs for spot sizes of 0.7 mm and 1.3 mm diameter after 24 hours. Different results were obtained for the 1540 nm laser at 600 μs pulse durations where the ED50 decreased for spot sizes 1 mm and below, but increased slightly for the 5 mm diameter spot size from 6.4 Jcm-2 to 7.4 Jcm-2

  15. A Novel Pulse-Based Modulation Technique for Wideband Low Power Communication with Neuroprosthetic Devices

    PubMed Central

    Inanlou, Farzad; Kiani, Mehdi

    2011-01-01

    Pulse Harmonic Modulation (PHM) is a novel pulse-based (carrierless) modulation method for wideband, low power data transmission across inductive telemetry links that operate in the near-field domain. PHM utilizes two or more unidentical pulses during each bit period to minimize intersymbol interference (ISI). In this paper, we describe the PHM concept and demonstrate its operation with a proof-of-concept prototype, which achieves a data rate of 5.2 Mbps at 1 cm coil separation with a bit error rate (BER) of 10−6. PMID:21096070

  16. EFFECTS OF CONTINUOUS-WAVE, PULSED, AND SINUSOIDAL-AMPLITUDE-MODULATED MICROWAVES ON BRAIN ENERGY METABOLISM

    EPA Science Inventory

    A comparison of the effects of continuous wave, sinusoidal-amplitude modulated, and pulsed square-wave-modulated 591-MHz microwave exposures on brain energy metabolism was made in male Sprague Dawley rats (175-225g). Brain NADH fluorescence, adensine triphosphate (ATP) concentrat...

  17. Method and apparatus for improved efficiency in a pulse-width-modulated alternating current motor drive

    DOEpatents

    Konrad, C.E.; Boothe, R.W.

    1996-01-23

    A scheme for optimizing the efficiency of an AC motor drive operated in a pulse-width-modulated mode provides that the modulation frequency of the power furnished to the motor is a function of commanded motor torque and is higher at lower torque requirements than at higher torque requirements. 6 figs.

  18. Method and apparatus for improved efficiency in a pulse-width-modulated alternating current motor drive

    DOEpatents

    Konrad, Charles E.; Boothe, Richard W.

    1994-01-01

    A scheme for optimizing the efficiency of an AC motor drive operated in a pulse-width-modulated mode provides that the modulation frequency of the power furnished to the motor is a function of commanded motor torque and is higher at lower torque requirements than at higher torque requirements.

  19. Method and apparatus for improved efficiency in a pulse-width-modulated alternating current motor drive

    DOEpatents

    Konrad, Charles E.; Boothe, Richard W.

    1996-01-01

    A scheme for optimizing the efficiency of an AC motor drive operated in a pulse-width-modulated mode provides that the modulation frequency of the power furnished to the motor is a function of commanded motor torque and is higher at lower torque requirements than at higher torque requirements.

  20. Multilevel pulse-position modulation for optical power-efficient communication.

    PubMed

    Karlsson, Magnus; Agrell, Erik

    2011-12-12

    A family of modulation formats is derived by combining pulse-position modulation (PPM) with multilevel dual-polarization signal constellations. With 16-PPM, gains of up to 5.4 dB are obtained over dual-polarization QPSK, at the cost of reduced spectral efficiency. PMID:22274105

  1. Method and apparatus for improved efficiency in a pulse-width-modulated alternating current motor drive

    DOEpatents

    Konrad, C.E.; Boothe, R.W.

    1994-02-15

    A scheme for optimizing the efficiency of an AC motor drive operated in a pulse-width-modulated mode provides that the modulation frequency of the power furnished to the motor is a function of commanded motor torque and is higher at lower torque requirements than at higher torque requirements. 6 figures.

  2. Femtosecond strong-field quantum control with sinusoidally phase-modulated pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Wollenhaupt, M.; Praekelt, A.; Sarpe-Tudoran, C.; Liese, D.; Bayer, T.; Baumert, T.

    2006-06-15

    The quantum control of the ionization of potassium atoms using shaped intense femtosecond laser pulses is investigated. We use sinusoidal phase modulation as a prototype for complex shaped pulses to investigate the physical mechanism of the strong-field quantum control by shaped femtosecond light fields. The influence of all parameters characterizing the sinusoidal phase modulation on strong-field-induced dynamics is studied systematically in experiment and theory. Our results are interpreted in terms of the selective population of dressed states (SPODS) which gives a natural physical picture of the dynamics in intense laser fields. We show that modulated femtosecond pulses in combination with photoelectron spectroscopy are a versatile tool to prepare and to probe SPODS. The decomposition of the excitation and ionization process induced by shaped pulses into elementary physically transparent steps is discussed.

  3. The Relationship Between Duration of Postrotary Nystagmus and Driver Behavior: Learning Theory Module.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geier, Suzanne Smith; Young, Barbara

    It was hypothesized that behavior patterns, learned early in life and maintained by almost continuous reinforcement, are determined by basic physiology, which in this study is represented by the duration of postrotary nystagmus (involuntary eyeball movement following rotational stimulation). The Southern California Postrotary Nystagmus Test was…

  4. Study on pulsed-discharge devices by using pulse-forming-network modules toward intense X-ray source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anzai, Nobuyuki; Takewaki, Daiki; Tachinami, Fumitaka; Takahashi, Kazumasa; Sasaki, Toru; Aso, Tsukasa; Kikuchi, Takashi; Harada, Nob.

    2016-03-01

    A pulsed-power generator with a high rate of current rise was studied toward generating intense X-ray source from an X-pinch plasmas. The pulsed-power generator consists of 48 pulse-forming-network (PFN) modules with a three-stage of LC ladder circuit. To evaluate the rate of current rise for the pulsed-power generator, we demonstrated the short circuit experiments with low operation voltage. The rate of current rise depends on the number of PFN modules due to the decrease of inductance of PFN. The rate of current rise for 48 PFN modules at 10 kV of an operation voltage is estimated to be 0.1 kA/ns. To predict the rate of current rise for the requirement to obtain the intense X-ray from the X-pinch, the circuit simulation was demonstrated. The results indicated that the operation voltage requires over 70 kV for the rate of current rise of 1 kA/ns.

  5. Pulse Interval Modulation for Ultra-High Speed IR-UWB Communications Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herceg, Marijan; Švedek, Tomislav; Matić, Tomislav

    2010-12-01

    This paper analyzes performances of the Pulse Interval Modulation (PIM) scheme for impulse radio ultra-wideband (IR-UWB) communication systems. Due to the PIM anisochronous nature, a tap delay line (TDL) coded division multiple access (CDMA) scheme based on strict optical orthogonal codes (SOOC) is proposed. This scheme is suitable for multiuser high-speed data asynchronous transmission applications because the average symbol length is shorter than in Pulse Position Modulation (PPM) schemes and it needs only chip synchronization. The error probability over the additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) channel is derived in the single- and multi-user environment and compared with other modulation schemes.

  6. Ultrashort light pulses generated from modulation instability: background removal and soliton content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahnke, Christoph; Mitschke, Fedor

    2014-07-01

    Modulation instability can be used to convert a continuous light wave into a train of pulses on a constant background. It is a longstanding discussion whether these pulses can be converted into solitons. We clarify the situation by using a more general mathematical context, invoking the Akhmediev breather, Peregrine soliton and Kuznetsov-Ma soliton solutions of the wave equation, and suggest the use of a Mach-Zehnder interferometer to remove the background. Expressions for the pulse widths and peak powers thus obtained are presented, and their soliton content is determined. It turns out that more than 95 % of each pulse's energy can be converted to a soliton.

  7. Low noise laser system generating 26-fs pulse duration, 30-kW peak power, and tunability from 800- to 1200-nm for ultrafast spectroscopy and multiphoton microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Resan, Bojan; Brunner, Felix; Rohrbacher, Andreas; Ammann, Hubert; Weingarten, Kurt J.

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate a novel low noise, tunable, high-peak-power, ultrafast laser system based on a SESAM-modelocked, solid-state Yb tungstate laser plus spectral broadening via a microstructured fiber followed by pulse compression. The spectral selection, tuning, and pulse compression are performed with a simple prism compressor. The spectral broadening and fiber parameters are chosen to insure low-noise operation of the tunable output. The long-term stable output pulses are tunable from 800 to 1200 nm, with a peak power up to 30 kW and pulse duration down to 26 fs. This system is attractive for variety of applications including ultrafast spectroscopy, multiphoton (TPE, SHG, THG, CARS) and multimodal microscopy, nanosurgery, nanostructuring, and optical coherence tomography (OCT). Such system is simpler, lower-cost, and much easier to use (fully turn-key) compared to a currently available solutions for near-infrared ultrashort pulses, typically a Ti:sapphire laser-pumped OPO.

  8. High-efficiency PPMgLN-based mid-infrared optical parametric oscillator pumped by a MOPA-structured fiber laser with long pulse duration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Tao; Liu, Hao; Huang, Yuxiang; Shu, Rong

    2015-12-01

    We report our recent investigation on the conversion efficiency improvement of a PPMgLN-based single pump pass, singly resonant optical parametric oscillator (OPO) pumped by an acousto-optic Q-switched fiber MOPA. The impacts of the pump pulse duration and signal reflectivity on the pump-to-idler conversion efficiency were studied by numerically solving the coupled wave equations in the first place. The results revealed that longer pulse durations were beneficial to higher conversion efficiencies as long as the signal reflectivity of the OPO cavity was optimized accordingly. Experiments were carried out thereafter utilizing the optimal parameters obtained from the simulation. Idler powers of 4.7 and 3.81 W were achieved at 3.4 and 3.8 μm, respectively, under the highest pump power of 28 W with pump pulse duration of 240 ns. The experimental results were in good agreement with the calculated results. According to our simulation, higher conversion efficiency could be expected when such an OPO was pumped by pulses with even longer duration provided that the signal reflectivity of the output coupler was optimized under that pump condition.

  9. Industrial applications of high-average power high-peak power nanosecond pulse duration Nd:YAG lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, Paul M.; Ellwi, Samir

    2009-02-01

    Within the vast range of laser materials processing applications, every type of successful commercial laser has been driven by a major industrial process. For high average power, high peak power, nanosecond pulse duration Nd:YAG DPSS lasers, the enabling process is high speed surface engineering. This includes applications such as thin film patterning and selective coating removal in markets such as the flat panel displays (FPD), solar and automotive industries. Applications such as these tend to require working spots that have uniform intensity distribution using specific shapes and dimensions, so a range of innovative beam delivery systems have been developed that convert the gaussian beam shape produced by the laser into a range of rectangular and/or shaped spots, as required by demands of each project. In this paper the authors will discuss the key parameters of this type of laser and examine why they are important for high speed surface engineering projects, and how they affect the underlying laser-material interaction and the removal mechanism. Several case studies will be considered in the FPD and solar markets, exploring the close link between the application, the key laser characteristics and the beam delivery system that link these together.

  10. Method and apparatus for pulse width modulation control of an AC induction motor

    DOEpatents

    Geppert, Steven; Slicker, James M.

    1984-01-01

    An inverter is connected between a source of DC power and a three-phase AC induction motor, and a micro-processor-based circuit controls the inverter using pulse width modulation techniques. In the disclosed method of pulse width modulation, both edges of each pulse of a carrier pulse train are equally modulated by a time proportional to sin .THETA., where .THETA. is the angular displacement of the pulse center at the motor stator frequency from a fixed reference point on the carrier waveform. The carrier waveform frequency is a multiple of the motor stator frequency. The modulated pulse train is then applied to each of the motor phase inputs with respective phase shifts of 120.degree. at the stator frequency. Switching control commands of electronic switches in the inverter are stored in a random access memory (RAM) and the locations of the RAM are successively read out in a cyclic manner, each bit of a given RAM location controlling a respective phase input of the motor. The DC power source preferably comprises rechargeable batteries and all but one of the electronic switches in the inverter can be disabled, the remaining electronic switch being part of a "flyback" DC-DC converter circuit for recharging the battery.

  11. Method and apparatus for pulse width modulation control of an AC induction motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geppert, Steven (Inventor); Slicker, James M. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    An inverter is connected between a source of DC power and a three-phase AC induction motor, and a micro-processor-based circuit controls the inverter using pulse width modulation techniques. In the disclosed method of pulse width modulation, both edges of each pulse of a carrier pulse train are equally modulated by a time proportional to sin .THETA., where .THETA. is the angular displacement of the pulse center at the motor stator frequency from a fixed reference point on the carrier waveform. The carrier waveform frequency is a multiple of the motor stator frequency. The modulated pulse train is then applied to each of the motor phase inputs with respective phase shifts of 120.degree. at the stator frequency. Switching control commands of electronic switches in the inverter are stored in a random access memory (RAM) and the locations of the RAM are successively read out in a cyclic manner, each bit of a given RAM location controlling a respective phase input of the motor. The DC power source preferably comprises rechargeable batteries and all but one of the electronic switches in the inverter can be disabled, the remaining electronic switch being part of a flyback DC-DC converter circuit for recharging the battery.

  12. Temperature control system with a pulse width modulated bridge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heyser, R. C. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    A temperature control system, which includes a modified wheatstone bridge with a resistive-capacitive (RC) circuit in one leg of the bridge, is disclosed. The RC circuit includes a resistor which provides an effective resistance as a function of its absolute resistance and the on-time to off-time ratio of pulses supplied to a switch connected across it. A sawtooth voltage is produced across the RC circuit. The voltage is compared with the voltage across a temperature sensor with heat being applied during each pulse period portion when the sawtooth voltage exceeds the voltage across the temperature sensor.

  13. UWB doublet signal generation and modulation based on DFB laser under optical pulses injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Dalei; Wang, Rong; Xiang, Peng; Pu, Tao; Fang, Tao; Zhou, Hua; Zhao, Jiyong; Huang, Long; Zhu, Huatao; Wang, Peng

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, a novel scheme to generate ultra-wideband (UWB) doublet signals based on the cross-gain modulation (XGM) effect in the DFB lasers is proposed and experimentally demonstrated, the modulation and transmission of the generated UWB doublet signals are also researched. In the proposed system, a gain-switched laser (GSL) is used as a master laser (ML) and the optical pulses from the ML are optically injected into two paralleled DFB lasers, which are used as slave lasers (SL). Then the outputs from the SLs are detected by a balanced photodiode (BPD) to generate the Bi-phased UWB signals. By properly setting the system parameters, UWB signals with various modulation formats such as on-off keying (OOK), pulse amplitude modulation (PAM) as well as the phase-shift keying (PSK) can be generated. In addition, fiber transmission of the modulated UWB signals is also experimentally investigated.

  14. Development of Modulator Pulse Stability Measurement Device and Test Results at SLAC

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, C.; Burkhart, C.; Kemp, M.; Morris, B.; Beukers, T.; Ciprian, R.; Nguyen, M.; /SLAC

    2011-08-19

    In this paper, the development of a pulse stability measurement device is presented. The measurement accuracy is better than 250uV, about 4.2ppm of a typical 60V input pulse. Pulse signals up to +/- 80V peak can be measured. The device works together with an oscilloscope. The primary function of the measurement device is to provide a precision offset, such that variations in the flattop of the modulator voltage pulse can be accurately resolved. The oscilloscope records the difference between the pulse flattop and the reference for a series of waveforms. The scope math functions are utilized to calculate the rms variations over the series. The frequency response of the device is characterized by the measured cutoff frequency of about 6.5MHz. In addition to detailing the design and calibration of the precision pulse stability device, measurements of SLAC line-type linac modulators and recently developed induction modulators will be presented. Factors affecting pulse stability will be discussed.

  15. The polyphase resonant converter modulator for pulse power and plasma applications

    SciTech Connect

    Reass, W. A.; Baca, D. M.; Doss, James D.; Gribble, R.; North, W. R.

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes a new technique to generate high voltage pulses (100 kV and up) with high peak power (10 MW and up) and high average power (1 MW and up) from a low voltage input source (e.g. +/- 1.2 kV). This technology is presently being used to provide cathode pulse modulation for the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) accelerator klystron RF amplifiers, which operate to 140 kV 11 MW peak power and 1.1 MW average power. The design of the modulator, referred to as the Polyphase Resonant Converter-Modulator takes advantage of high-power component advances, in response to the needs of the traction motor industry (in particular, railroad locomotives), such as Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistors (IGBT's) and self-clearing metallized hazy polypropylene capacitors. In addition, the use of amorphous nanocrystalline transformer core alloy permits high frequency voltage and current transformation with low loss and small size. Other unique concepts embodied in the converter-modulator topology are polyphase resonant voltage multiplication and resonant rectification. These techniques further reduce size and improve electrical efficiency. Because of the resonant conversion techniques, electronic 'crowbars' and other load protective networks are not required. A shorted load detunes the circuit resonance and little power transfer can occur. This yields a high-power, high-voltage system that is inherently self-protective. To provide regulated output voltages, Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) of the individual IGBT pulses is used. A Digital signal Processor (DSP) is used to control the IGBT's, with adaptive feed forward and feedback control algorithms that improve pulse fidelity. The converter-modulator has many attributes that make it attractive to various pulse power and plasma applications such as high power RF sources, neutral beam modulators, and various plasma applications. This paper will review the design as used for the SNS accelerator and speculate on related plasma

  16. Computational modeling of laser-plasma interactions: pulse self-modulation and energy transfer between intersecting laser pulses.

    PubMed

    Kupfer, Rotem; Barmashenko, Boris; Bar, Ilana

    2013-07-01

    The nonlinear interaction of intense femtosecond laser pulses with a self-induced plasma channel in air and the energy transfer between two intersecting laser pulses were simulated using the finite-difference time-domain particle-in-cell method. Implementation of a simple numerical code enabled modeling of various phenomena, including pulse self-modulation in the spatiotemporal and spectral domains, conical emission, and energy transfer between two intersecting laser beams. The mechanism for energy transfer was found to be related to a plasma waveguide array induced by Moiré patterns of the interfering electric fields. The simulation results provide a persuasive replication and explanation of previous experimental results, when carried out under comparable physical conditions, and lead to prediction of others. This approach allows us to further examine the effect of the laser and plasma parameters on the simulation results and to investigate the underlying physics. PMID:23944583

  17. Computational modeling of laser-plasma interactions: Pulse self-modulation and energy transfer between intersecting laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kupfer, Rotem; Barmashenko, Boris; Bar, Ilana

    2013-07-01

    The nonlinear interaction of intense femtosecond laser pulses with a self-induced plasma channel in air and the energy transfer between two intersecting laser pulses were simulated using the finite-difference time-domain particle-in-cell method. Implementation of a simple numerical code enabled modeling of various phenomena, including pulse self-modulation in the spatiotemporal and spectral domains, conical emission, and energy transfer between two intersecting laser beams. The mechanism for energy transfer was found to be related to a plasma waveguide array induced by Moiré patterns of the interfering electric fields. The simulation results provide a persuasive replication and explanation of previous experimental results, when carried out under comparable physical conditions, and lead to prediction of others. This approach allows us to further examine the effect of the laser and plasma parameters on the simulation results and to investigate the underlying physics.

  18. The influence of laser pulse duration and energy on ICP-MS signal intensity, elemental fractionation, and particle size distribution in NIR fs-LA-ICP-MS

    PubMed Central

    Diwakar, Prasoon K.; Harilal, Sivanandan S.; LaHaye, Nicole L.; Hassanein, Ahmed; Kulkarni, Pramod

    2015-01-01

    Laser parameters, typically wavelength, pulse width, irradiance, repetition rate, and pulse energy, are critical parameters which influence the laser ablation process and thereby influence the LA-ICP-MS signal. In recent times, femtosecond laser ablation has gained popularity owing to the reduction in fractionation related issues and improved analytical performance which can provide matrix-independent sampling. The advantage offered by fs-LA is due to shorter pulse duration of the laser as compared to the phonon relaxation time and heat diffusion time. Hence the thermal effects are minimized in fs-LA. Recently, fs-LA-ICP-MS demonstrated improved analytical performance as compared to ns-LA-ICP-MS, but detailed mechanisms and processes are still not clearly understood. Improvement of fs-LA-ICP-MS over ns-LA-ICP-MS elucidates the importance of laser pulse duration and related effects on the ablation process. In this study, we have investigated the influence of laser pulse width (40 fs to 0.3 ns) and energy on LA-ICP-MS signal intensity and repeatability using a brass sample. Experiments were performed in single spot ablation mode as well as rastering ablation mode to monitor the Cu/Zn ratio. The recorded ICP-MS signal was correlated with total particle counts generated during laser ablation as well as particle size distribution. Our results show the importance of pulse width effects in the fs regime that becomes more pronounced when moving from femtosecond to picosecond and nanosecond regimes. PMID:26664120

  19. Combinatorial pulse position modulation for power-efficient free-space laser communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Budinger, James M.; Vanderaar, M.; Wagner, P.; Bibyk, Steven

    1993-01-01

    A new modulation technique called combinatorial pulse position modulation (CPPM) is presented as a power-efficient alternative to quaternary pulse position modulation (QPPM) for direct-detection, free-space laser communications. The special case of 16C4PPM is compared to QPPM in terms of data throughput and bit error rate (BER) performance for similar laser power and pulse duty cycle requirements. The increased throughput from CPPM enables the use of forward error corrective (FEC) encoding for a net decrease in the amount of laser power required for a given data throughput compared to uncoded QPPM. A specific, practical case of coded CPPM is shown to reduce the amount of power required to transmit and receive a given data sequence by at least 4.7 dB. Hardware techniques for maximum likelihood detection and symbol timing recovery are presented.

  20. Real-time monitoring of charge accumulation during pulse-time-modulated plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Ohtake, Hiroto; Jinnai, Butsurin; Suzuki, Yuya; Soda, Shinnosuke; Shimmura, Tadashi; Samukawa, Seiji

    2006-11-15

    The authors investigated real-time monitoring of charge accumulation during pulse-time-modulated plasma processes by using their developed on-wafer monitoring chip. The charge accumulation potential between the top surface and the bottom in a SiO{sub 2} contact structure was measured during pulse-time-modulated plasma exposure with an on-wafer monitoring device. In conventional plasma with rf bias, the electron shading effect could be clearly observed as the potential difference between the wafer surface and the contact-hole bottom. Conversely, the accumulated charge in the pulse-time-modulated operation was drastically decreased. Time-resolved electron and ion flows to the SiO{sub 2} contact hole were clarified by the on-wafer monitoring. Accordingly, it was confirmed that the on-wafer monitoring is a very effective tool for investigating the local charge accumulation in actual device structures.

  1. Combinatorial pulse position modulation for power-efficient free-space laser communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budinger, James M.; Vanderaar, Mark J.; Wagner, Paul K.; Bibyk, Steven B.

    1993-08-01

    A new modulation technique called combinatorial pulse position modulation (CPPM) is presented as a power-efficient alternating to quaternary pulse position modulation (QPPM) for direct-detection, free-space laser communications. The special case of 16C4PPM is compared to QPPM in terms of data throughput and bit error rate (BER) performance for similar laser power and pulse duty cycle requirements. The increased throughput from CPPM enables the use of forward error corrective (FEC) encoding for a net decrease in the amount of laser power required for a given data throughput compared to uncoded QPPM. A specific, practical case of coded CPPM is shown to reduce the amount of power required to transmit and receive a given data sequence by at least 4.7 dB. Novel hardware techniques for maximum likelihood detection and symbol timing recovery are presented.

  2. Shaping pulses using frequency conversion with a modulated picosecond free electron laser

    SciTech Connect

    Hooper, B.A.; Madey, J.M.J.

    1995-12-31

    Computer simulations and experiments indicate that we can shape the infrared picosecond pulses of the Mark III FEL in amplitude, frequency, and phase. Strongly modulated fundamental and second harmonic pulses have been generated by operating the Mark III FEL in the regime of strong sideband growth. In this paper, we present the results of simulations and experiments for second harmonic generation with fundamental inputs from 2 to 3 {mu}m.

  3. High-power vacuum-tube modulator with pulse-width control

    SciTech Connect

    Manoilo, V.S.; Chebotarev, V.V.; Kulik, N.V.; Lishenko, B.A.; Shevchuk, B.A.; Tereshin, V.I.; Voznyi, V.I.

    1984-03-01

    The authors describe a modulator for shaping square pulses of up to 35 kV and 30 A. The device may be powered from the line or from a storage battery. It will produce 2 pulses of widths from 50 microseconds to 50 milliseconds with rise times of about 10 microseconds. A protections circuit allows voltage to be taken from the load in the presence of breakdown for about 20 microseconds.

  4. The pulse modulator for the mod-anode of the cluster klystron

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Y.; Palmer, R.; Wang, H.

    1996-05-01

    A high voltage pulse generator using a Zarem type modulator was developed. The Zarem type circuit doesn`t require a matched load, making it suitable to drive the mod-anode of the cluster klystron, which has a capacitive load. The principle and the experiments, as well as the analyses and the simulations of the observed phenomena, (ringing, pulse {open_quotes}skirt{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}deficiency{close_quotes}) are presented.

  5. Levels of attention and task difficulty in the modulation of interval duration mismatch negativity.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Alana M; Davalos, Deana B

    2015-01-01

    Time perception has been described as a fundamental skill needed to engage in a number of higher level cognitive processes essential to successfully navigate everyday life (e.g., planning, sequencing, etc.) Temporal processing is often thought of as a basic neural process that impacts a variety of other cognitive processes. Others, however, have argued that timing in the brain can be affected by a number of variables such as attention and motivation. In an effort to better understand timing in the brain at a basic level with minimal attentional demands, researchers have often employed use of the mismatch negativity (MMN). MMN, specifically duration MMN (dMMN) and interval MMN (iMMN) have been popular methods for studying temporal processing in populations for which attention or motivation may be an issue (e.g., clinical populations, early developmental studies). There are, however, select studies which suggest that attention may in fact modify both temporal processing in general and the MMN event-related potential. It is unclear the degree to which attention affects MMN or whether the effects differ depending on the complexity or difficulty of the MMN paradigm. The iMMN indexes temporal processing and is elicited by introducing a deviant interval duration amid a series of standards. A greater degree of difference in the deviant from the standard elicits a heightened iMMN. Unlike past studies, in which attention was intentionally directed toward a closed-captioned move, the current study had participants partake in tasks involving varying degrees of attention (passive, low, and high) with varying degrees of deviants (small, medium, and large) to better understand the role of attention on the iMMN and to assess whether level of attention paired with changes in task difficulty differentially influence the iMMN electrophysiological responses. Data from 19 subjects were recorded in an iMMN paradigm. The amplitude of the iMMN waveform showed an increase with attention

  6. Levels of attention and task difficulty in the modulation of interval duration mismatch negativity

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Alana M.; Davalos, Deana B.

    2015-01-01

    Time perception has been described as a fundamental skill needed to engage in a number of higher level cognitive processes essential to successfully navigate everyday life (e.g., planning, sequencing, etc.) Temporal processing is often thought of as a basic neural process that impacts a variety of other cognitive processes. Others, however, have argued that timing in the brain can be affected by a number of variables such as attention and motivation. In an effort to better understand timing in the brain at a basic level with minimal attentional demands, researchers have often employed use of the mismatch negativity (MMN). MMN, specifically duration MMN (dMMN) and interval MMN (iMMN) have been popular methods for studying temporal processing in populations for which attention or motivation may be an issue (e.g., clinical populations, early developmental studies). There are, however, select studies which suggest that attention may in fact modify both temporal processing in general and the MMN event-related potential. It is unclear the degree to which attention affects MMN or whether the effects differ depending on the complexity or difficulty of the MMN paradigm. The iMMN indexes temporal processing and is elicited by introducing a deviant interval duration amid a series of standards. A greater degree of difference in the deviant from the standard elicits a heightened iMMN. Unlike past studies, in which attention was intentionally directed toward a closed-captioned move, the current study had participants partake in tasks involving varying degrees of attention (passive, low, and high) with varying degrees of deviants (small, medium, and large) to better understand the role of attention on the iMMN and to assess whether level of attention paired with changes in task difficulty differentially influence the iMMN electrophysiological responses. Data from 19 subjects were recorded in an iMMN paradigm. The amplitude of the iMMN waveform showed an increase with attention

  7. Detecting Fleeting MRI Signals with Frequency-Modulated Pulses

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Naoharu; Idiyatullin, Djaudat; Corum, Curtis; Moeller, Steen; Chamberlain, Ryan; O'Connell, Robert; Nixdorf, Donald R.; Garwood, Michael

    2012-01-01

    We describe a fundamentally different approach to MRI referred to as SWIFT (sweep imaging with Fourier transformation). SWIFT exploits time-shared RF excitation and signal acquisition, allowing capture of signal from spins with extremely short transverse relaxation time, T2*. The MR signal is acquired in gaps inserted into a broadband frequency-swept excitation pulse, which results in acquisition delays of only 1 – 2 microseconds. In SWIFT, 3D k-space is sampled in a radial manner, whereby one projection of the object is acquired in the gaps of each frequency-swept pulse, allowing a repetition time (TR) on the order of the pulse length (typically 1 – 3 milliseconds). Since the orientation of consecutive projections varies in a smooth manner (i.e., only small increments in the values of the x, y, z gradients occur from view to view), SWIFT scanning is close to inaudible and is insensitive to gradient timing errors and eddy currents. SWIFT images can be acquired in scan times similar to and sometimes faster than conventional 3D gradient echo techniques. With its ability to capture signals from ultrashort T2* spins, SWIFT promises to expand the role of MRI in areas of research where MRI previously played no or negligible role. In this article, we show wood and tooth images obtained with SWIFT as examples of materials with ultrashort T2*. Early experience suggests SWIFT can play a role in materials science and porous media research. PMID:22661791

  8. Sampling modulation technique in radio-frequency helium glow discharge emission source by use of pulsed laser ablation.

    PubMed

    Naeem, Tariq Mahmood; Matsuta, Hideyuki; Wagatsuma, Kazuaki

    2004-05-01

    An emission excitation source comprising a high-frequency diode-pumped Q-switched Nd:YAG laser and a radio-frequency powered glow discharge lamp is proposed. In this system sample atoms ablated by the laser irradiation are introduced into the lamp chamber and subsequently excited by the helium glow discharge plasma. The pulsed operation of the laser can produce a cyclic variation in the emission intensities of the sample atoms whereas the plasma gas species emit the radiation continuously. The salient feature of the proposed technique is the selective detection of the laser modulation signal from the rest of the continuous background emissions, which can be achieved with the phase sensitive detection of the lock-in amplifier. The arrangement may be used to estimate the emission intensity of the laser ablated atom, free from the interference of other species present in the plasma. The experiments were conducted with a 13.56 MHz radio-frequency (rf) generator operated at 80 W power to produce plasma and the laser at a wavelength of 1064 nm (pulse duration:34 ns, repetition rate:7 kHz and average pulse energy of about 0.36 mJ) was employed for sample ablation. The measurements resulted in almost complete removal of nitrogen molecular bands (N(2)(+) 391.44 nm). Considerable reduction (about 75%) in the emission intensity of a carbon atomic line (C I 193.03 nm) was also observed. PMID:15034707

  9. Frequency modulation in shock wave-boundary layer interaction by repetitive-pulse laser energy deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamba, T.; Pham, H. S.; Shoda, T.; Iwakawa, A.; Sasoh, A.

    2015-09-01

    Modulation of shock foot oscillation due to energy deposition by repetitive laser pulses in shock wave-boundary layer interaction over an axisymmetric nose-cylinder-flare model in Mach 1.92 flow was experimentally studied. From a series of 256 schlieren images, density oscillation spectra at each pixel were obtained. When laser pulses of approximately 7 mJ were deposited with a repetition frequency, fe, of 30 kHz or lower, the flare shock oscillation had a peak spectrum equivalent to the value of fe. However, with fe of 40 kHz-60 kHz, it experienced frequency modulation down to lower than 20 kHz.

  10. Development of a width-modulated pulse rebalance electronics loop for strapdown gyroscopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blalock, T. V.; Kennedy, E. J.; Mcknight, R. D.

    1973-01-01

    A new width modulated pulse rebalance electronics loop was developed for use with strapdown gyroscopes. Advantages of the width modulated binary over the ternary loop are the following: (1) The H-switch is easier to implement; (2) torque is applied in finely quantized increments; (3) the analog-to-digital conversion for data generation is inside the loop and is directly determined by the torque pulse; (4) on part of the loop compensation network bypasses the gyroscope; and (5) the torquer is fed constant power.

  11. A chopper system for shortening the duration of pulsed supersonic beams seeded with NO or Br2 down to 13 μs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lam, Jessica; Rennick, Christopher J.; Softley, Timothy P.

    2015-05-01

    A chopper wheel construct is used to shorten the duration of a molecular beam to 13 μs. Molecular beams seeded with NO or with Br2 and an initial pulse width of ≥200 μs were passed through a spinning chopper wheel, which was driven by a brushless DC in vacuo motor at a range of speeds, from 3000 rpm to 80 000 rpm. The resulting duration of the molecular-beam pulses measured at the laser detection volume ranged from 80 μs to 13 μs and was the same for both NO and Br2. The duration is consistent with a simple analytical model, and the minimum pulse width measured is limited by the spreading of the beam between the chopper and the detection point as a consequence of the longitudinal velocity distribution of the beam. The setup adopted here effectively eliminates buildup of background gas without the use of a differential pumping stage, and a clean narrow pulse is obtained with low rotational temperature.

  12. A chopper system for shortening the duration of pulsed supersonic beams seeded with NO or Br{sub 2} down to 13 μs

    SciTech Connect

    Lam, Jessica; Rennick, Christopher J.; Softley, Timothy P.

    2015-05-15

    A chopper wheel construct is used to shorten the duration of a molecular beam to 13 μs. Molecular beams seeded with NO or with Br{sub 2} and an initial pulse width of ≥200 μs were passed through a spinning chopper wheel, which was driven by a brushless DC in vacuo motor at a range of speeds, from 3000 rpm to 80 000 rpm. The resulting duration of the molecular-beam pulses measured at the laser detection volume ranged from 80 μs to 13 μs and was the same for both NO and Br{sub 2}. The duration is consistent with a simple analytical model, and the minimum pulse width measured is limited by the spreading of the beam between the chopper and the detection point as a consequence of the longitudinal velocity distribution of the beam. The setup adopted here effectively eliminates buildup of background gas without the use of a differential pumping stage, and a clean narrow pulse is obtained with low rotational temperature.

  13. 1 MHz repetition rate hollow fiber pulse compression to sub-100-fs duration at 100 W average power.

    PubMed

    Rothhardt, Jan; Hädrich, Steffen; Carstens, Henning; Herrick, Nicholas; Demmler, Stefan; Limpert, Jens; Tünnermann, Andreas

    2011-12-01

    We report on nonlinear pulse compression at very high average power. A high-power fiber chirped pulse amplification system based on a novel large pitch photonic crystal fiber delivers 700 fs pulses with 200 μJ pulse energy at a 1 MHz repetition rate, resulting in 200 W of average power. Subsequent spectral broadening in a xenon-filled hollow-core fiber and pulse compression with chirped mirrors is employed for pulse shortening and peak power enhancement. For the first time, to our knowledge, more than 100 W of average power are transmitted through a noble-gas-filled hollow fiber. After pulse compression of 81 fs, 93 μJ pulses are obtained at a 1 MHz repetition rate. PMID:22139257

  14. Hybrid Simulation of Duty Cycle Influences on Pulse Modulated RF SiH4/Ar Discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xifeng; Song, Yuanhong; Zhao, Shuxia; Dai, Zhongling; Wang, Younian

    2016-04-01

    A one-dimensional fluid/Monte-Carlo (MC) hybrid model is developed to describe capacitively coupled SiH4/Ar discharge, in which the lower electrode is applied by a RF source and pulse modulated by a square-wave, to investigate the modulation effects of the pulse duty cycle on the discharge mechanism. An electron Monte Carlo simulation is used to calculate the electron energy distribution as a function of position and time phase. Rate coefficients in chemical reactions can then be obtained and transferred to the fluid model for the calculation of electron temperature and densities of different species, such as electrons, ions, and radicals. The simulation results show that, the electron energy distribution f(ɛ) is modulated evidently within a pulse cycle, with its tail extending to higher energies during the power-on period, while shrinking back promptly in the afterglow period. Thus, the rate coefficients could be controlled during the discharge, resulting in modulation of the species composition on the substrate compared with continuous excitation. Meanwhile, more negative ions, like SiH‑3 and SiH‑2, may escape to the electrodes owing to the collapse of ambipolar electric fields, which is beneficial to films deposition. Pulse modulation is thus expected to provide additional methods to customize the plasma densities and components. supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 11275038)

  15. Modulated heat pulse propagation and partial transport barriers in chaotic magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    del-Castillo-Negrete, Diego; Blazevski, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    Direct numerical simulations of the time dependent parallel heat transport equation modeling heat pulses driven by power modulation in three-dimensional chaotic magnetic fields are presented. The numerical method is based on the Fourier formulation of a Lagrangian-Green's function method that provides an accurate and efficient technique for the solution of the parallel heat transport equation in the presence of harmonic power modulation. The numerical results presented provide conclusive evidence that even in the absence of magnetic flux surfaces, chaotic magnetic field configurations with intermediate levels of stochasticity exhibit transport barriers to modulated heat pulse propagation. In particular, high-order islands and remnants of destroyed flux surfaces (Cantori) act as partial barriers that slow down or even stop the propagation of heat waves at places where the magnetic field connection length exhibits a strong gradient. Results on modulated heat pulse propagation in fully stochastic fields and across magnetic islands are also presented. In qualitative agreement with recent experiments in large helical device and DIII-D, it is shown that the elliptic (O) and hyperbolic (X) points of magnetic islands have a direct impact on the spatio-temporal dependence of the amplitude of modulated heat pulses.

  16. Modern optical signal processing experiments demonstrating intensity and pulse-width modulation using an acousto-optic modulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poon, Ting-Chung; McNeill, Mark D.; Moore, Daniel J.

    1997-09-01

    Two experiments are presented to introduce undergraduate students in electrical engineering or physics to modern optical signal processing. Both experiments use an acousto-optic (AO) Bragg cell together with additional electronics to modify the intensity of a laser beam. Specifically, we show how an AO feedback system operating in the Bragg regime can be configured to produce amplitude modulated (AM) and pulse-width modulated optical signals. The basic components of the AO feedback system include a laser, an AO Bragg cell, an electronic AM modulator, a photodetector, an amplifier, and an electronic adder. Except for the laser, the AM modulator, and the Bragg cell, each of these components can be constructed with low cost electronics. A tutorial outlining the principles of acousto-optics is included to provide sufficient understanding of the Bragg cell. The project described in the paper has been used as a demonstration for junior- and senior-level undergraduate students in electrical engineering communications and optics classes.

  17. High-resolution width-modulated pulse rebalance electronics for strapdown gyroscopes and accelerometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennedy, E. J.; Blalock, T. V.; Bryan, W. L.; Rush, K.

    1974-01-01

    Three different rebalance electronic loops were designed, implemented, and evaluated. The loops were width-modulated binary types using a 614.4 kHz keying signal; they were developed to accommodate the following three inertial sensors with the indicated resolution values: (1) Kearfott 2412 accelerometer - resolution = 260 micro-g/data pulse, (2) Honeywell GG334 gyroscope - resolution = 3.9 milli-arc-sec/data pulse, (3) Kearfott 2401-009 accelerometer - resolution = 144 milli-g/data pulse. Design theory, details of the design implementation, and experimental results for each loop are presented.

  18. Experimental studies of the overshoot and undershoot in pulse-modulated radio-frequency atmospheric discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huo, W. G.; Li, R. M.; Shi, J. J.; Ding, Z. F.

    2016-08-01

    The overshoot and undershoot of the applied voltage on the electrodes, the discharge current, and radio frequency (RF) power were observed at the initial phase of pulse-modulated (PM) RF atmospheric pressure discharges, but factors influencing the overshoot and undershoot have not been fully elucidated. In this paper, the experimental studies were performed to seek the reasons for the overshoot and undershoot. The experimental results show that the overshoot and undershoot are associated with the pulse frequency, the rise time of pulse signal, and the series capacitor Cs in the inversely L-shaped matching network. In the case of a high RF power discharge, these overshoot and undershoot become serious when shortening the rise time of a pulse signal (5 ns) or operating at a moderate pulse frequency (500 Hz or 1 kHz).

  19. Minimum-loss vector PWM strategy for three-phase inverters. [Pulse Width Modulation

    SciTech Connect

    Trzynadlowski, A.M. . Dept. of Electrical Engineering); Legowski, S. . Dept. of Electrical Engineering)

    1994-01-01

    A novel vector Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) method for three-phase voltage-controlled inverters is described. The so-called Minimum-Loss Vector PWM (MLVPWM) strategy is characterized by the minimum amount of switching losses incurred in the inverter switches. Comparative analysis proving superiority of the MLVPWM technique over the existing regular-sampling PWM methods, and results of experimental investigation of a prototype modulator are presented.

  20. Ultrafast saturation of electronic-resonance-enhanced coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering and comparison for pulse durations in the nanosecond to femtosecond regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patnaik, Anil K.; Roy, Sukesh; Gord, James R.

    2016-02-01

    The saturation threshold of a probe pulse in an ultrafast electronic-resonance-enhanced (ERE) coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) configuration is calculated. We demonstrate that while the underdamping condition is a sufficient condition for saturation of ERE-CARS with the long-pulse excitations, a transient gain must be achieved to saturate the ERE-CARS signal for the ultrafast probe regime. We identify that the area under the probe pulse can be used as a definitive parameter to determine the criterion for a saturation threshold for ultrafast ERE-CARS. From a simplified analytical solution and a detailed numerical calculation based on density-matrix equations, the saturation threshold of ERE-CARS is compared for a wide range of probe-pulse durations from the 10-ns to the 10-fs regime. The theory explains both qualitatively and quantitatively the saturation thresholds of resonant transitions and also gives a predictive capability for other pulse duration regimes. The presented criterion for the saturation threshold will be useful in establishing the design parameters for ultrafast ERE-CARS.

  1. New hybrid reverse differential pulse position width modulation scheme for wireless optical communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Renbo; Liu, Hongzhan; Qiao, Yaojun

    2014-05-01

    In order to improve the power efficiency and reduce the packet error rate of reverse differential pulse position modulation (RDPPM) for wireless optical communication (WOC), a hybrid reverse differential pulse position width modulation (RDPPWM) scheme is proposed, based on RDPPM and reverse pulse width modulation. Subsequently, the symbol structure of RDPPWM is briefly analyzed, and its performance is compared with that of other modulation schemes in terms of average transmitted power, bandwidth requirement, and packet error rate over ideal additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) channels. Based on the given model, the simulation results show that the proposed modulation scheme has the advantages of improving the power efficiency and reducing the bandwidth requirement. Moreover, in terms of error probability performance, RDPPWM can achieve a much lower packet error rate than that of RDPPM. For example, at the same received signal power of -28 dBm, the packet error rate of RDPPWM can decrease to 2.6×10-12, while that of RDPPM is 2.2×10. Furthermore, RDPPWM does not need symbol synchronization at the receiving end. These considerations make RDPPWM a favorable candidate to select as the modulation scheme in the WOC systems.

  2. Vector species richness increases haemorrhagic disease prevalence through functional diversity modulating the duration of seasonal transmission.

    PubMed

    Park, Andrew W; Cleveland, Christopher A; Dallas, Tad A; Corn, Joseph L

    2016-06-01

    Although many parasites are transmitted between hosts by a suite of arthropod vectors, the impact of vector biodiversity on parasite transmission is poorly understood. Positive relationships between host infection prevalence and vector species richness (SR) may operate through multiple mechanisms, including (i) increased vector abundance, (ii) a sampling effect in which species of high vectorial capacity are more likely to occur in species-rich communities, and (iii) functional diversity whereby communities comprised species with distinct phenologies may extend the duration of seasonal transmission. Teasing such mechanisms apart is impeded by a lack of appropriate data, yet could highlight a neglected role for functional diversity in parasite transmission. We used statistical modelling of extensive host, vector and microparasite data to test the hypothesis that functional diversity leading to longer seasonal transmission explained variable levels of disease in a wildlife population. We additionally developed a simple transmission model to guide our expectation of how an increased transmission season translates to infection prevalence. Our study demonstrates that vector SR is associated with increased levels of disease reporting, but not via increases in vector abundance or via a sampling effect. Rather, the relationship operates by extending the length of seasonal transmission, in line with theoretical predictions. PMID:26206418

  3. Influence of the Duration of Thermal Action on the Errors in Determining the Thermophysical Characteristics of Ceramic Materials by a Laser Pulse Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsov, G. V.; Kats, M. D.

    2016-06-01

    An analysis of the errors involved in determining the thermophysical characteristics of a special-purpose ceramic material — zirconium carbide — is made. It is shown that the errors of determining the heat capacity and thermal diffusivity of the indicated material under conditions corresponding to the implementation of the laser pulse method vary nonmonotonically depending on the pulse duration. The possibility of attaining minimum values of methodical errors by appropriately selecting the thickness of a sample and of the time of its heating is shown.

  4. Characterization of pulse amplitude and pulse rate modulation for a human vestibular implant during acute electrical stimulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, T. A. K.; DiGiovanna, J.; Cavuscens, S.; Ranieri, M.; Guinand, N.; van de Berg, R.; Carpaneto, J.; Kingma, H.; Guyot, J.-P.; Micera, S.; Perez Fornos, A.

    2016-08-01

    Objective. The vestibular system provides essential information about balance and spatial orientation via the brain to other sensory and motor systems. Bilateral vestibular loss significantly reduces quality of life, but vestibular implants (VIs) have demonstrated potential to restore lost function. However, optimal electrical stimulation strategies have not yet been identified in patients. In this study, we compared the two most common strategies, pulse amplitude modulation (PAM) and pulse rate modulation (PRM), in patients. Approach. Four subjects with a modified cochlear implant including electrodes targeting the peripheral vestibular nerve branches were tested. Charge-equivalent PAM and PRM were applied after adaptation to baseline stimulation. Vestibulo-ocular reflex eye movement responses were recorded to evaluate stimulation efficacy during acute clinical testing sessions. Main results. PAM evoked larger amplitude eye movement responses than PRM. Eye movement response axes for lateral canal stimulation were marginally better aligned with PRM than with PAM. A neural network model was developed for the tested stimulation strategies to provide insights on possible neural mechanisms. This model suggested that PAM would consistently cause a larger ensemble firing rate of neurons and thus larger responses than PRM. Significance. Due to the larger magnitude of eye movement responses, our findings strongly suggest PAM as the preferred strategy for initial VI modulation.

  5. Antibodies with beta-adrenergic activity from chronic chagasic patients modulate the QT interval and M cell action potential duration

    PubMed Central

    Medei, Emiliano Horacio; Nascimento, José H.M.; Pedrosa, Roberto C.; Barcellos, Luciane; Masuda, Masako O.; Sicouri, Serge; Elizari, Marcelo V.; Campos de Carvalho, Antonio C.

    2009-01-01

    Aims The aim of this study was to investigate whether the sera from chronic chagasic patients (CChPs) with beta-1 adrenergic activity (Ab-β) can modulate ventricular repolarization. Beta-adrenergic activity has been described in CChP. It increases the L-type calcium current and heart rate in isolated hearts, but its effects on ventricular repolarization has not been described. Methods and results In isolated rabbit hearts, under pacing condition, QT interval was measured under Ab-β perfusion. Beta-adrenergic activity was also tested in guinea pig ventricular M cells. Furthermore, the immunoglobulin fraction (IgG-β) of the Ab-β was tested on Ito, ICa, and Iks currents in rat, rabbit, and guinea pig myocytes, respectively. Beta-adrenergic activity shortened the QT interval. This effect was abolished in the presence of propranolol. In addition, sera from CChP without beta-adrenergic activity (Ab-β) did not modulate QT interval. The M cell action potential duration (APD) was reversibly shortened by Ab-β. Atenolol inhibited this effect of Ab-β, and Ab- did not modulate the AP of M cells. Ito was not modulated by isoproterenol nor by IgG-β. However, IgG-β increased ICa and IKs. Conclusion The shortening of the QT interval and APD in M cells and the increase of IKs and ICa induced by IgG-β contribute to repolarization changes that may trigger malignant ventricular arrhythmias observed in patients with chronic chagasic or idiopathic cardiomyopathy. PMID:18515284

  6. 948 kHz repetition rate, picosecond pulse duration, all-PM 1.03 μm mode-locked fiber laser based on nonlinear polarization evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boivinet, S.; Lecourt, J.-B.; Hernandez, Y.; Fotiadi, A.; Mégret, P.

    2014-05-01

    We present in this study a PM all-fiber laser oscillator passively mode-locked (ML) at 1.03 μm. The laser is based on Nonlinear Polarization Evolution (NPE) in polarization maintaining (PM) fibers. In order to obtain the mode-locking regime, a nonlinear reflective mirror including a fibered polarizer, a long fiber span and a fibered Faraday mirror (FM) is inserted in a Fabry-Perot laser cavity. In this work we explain the principles of operation of this original laser design that permits to generate ultrashort pulses at low repetition (lower that 1MHz) rate with a cavity length of 100 m of fiber. In this experiment, the measured pulse duration is about 6 ps. To our knowledge this is the first all-PM mode-locked laser based on the NPE with a cavity of 100m length fiber and a delivered pulse duration of few picosecondes. Furthermore, the different mode-locked regimes of the laser, i.e. multi-pulse, noise-like mode-locked and single pulse, are presented together with the ways of controlling the apparition of these regimes. When the single pulse mode-locking regime is achieved, the laser delivers linearly polarized pulses in a very stable way. Finally, this study includes numerical results which are obtained with the resolution of the NonLinear Schrodinger Equations (NLSE) with the Split-Step Fourier (SSF) algorithm. This modeling has led to the understanding of the different modes of operation of the laser. In particular, the influence of the peak power on the reflection of the nonlinear mirror and its operation are studied.

  7. Increased damage thresholds due to laser pulse modulation

    SciTech Connect

    Feit, M.D.; Musher, S.L.; Shapiro, E.G.; Rubenchik, A.M. |

    1995-05-30

    Nonlinear self-focusing in laser glass imposes limits on the energy fluence that can be safely transmitted without risking damage. For this reason, it is desirable to strictly limit the peak to average spatial variations of fluence by smoothing schemes such as Smoothing by Spectral Dispersion (SSD). While spatial variations are problematic, the same is not necessarily true of temporal variations since normal group velocity dispersion tends to smooth out temporal peaks caused by spatial self-focusing. Earlier work indicated that increased bandwidth can delay the onset of self focusing. The present work re-examines the question of self focusing threshold increases due to high bandwidth by investigating another source of such increase in three dimensional beam breakup--the bending instability. For simplicity, the authors consider the behavior of a single space-time speckle. Normal dispersion can lead to splitting of the pulse and delay of self focusing for short enough pulses as noted above. In addition to the self focusing instability, the laser beam is also subject to the so-called bending (sausage like) instability which can spatially disperse the field maxima over time. Because the bending instability breaks an initial axial symmetry, a full three dimensional numerical simulation is required to study it accurately. Such calculations are possible, but costly. The authors have used a modified 2D nonlinear Schroedinger equation with a high power nonlinearity since this mimics the 3D behavior of the competition between self focusing and bending. This study is relevant for inertial confinement conditions.

  8. All-fibre sensing loop using pulse-modulated light-emitting diode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adamovsky, G.

    1985-01-01

    A sensing system is presented which includes a pulse-modulated light-emitting diode (LED) and an all-fibre-optic loop generating a reference signal in the time domain. The basic principle of operation and parameters are introduced, and some properties of such a system are experimentally examined using a microbend sensor.

  9. Tunable, high peak power terahertz radiation from optical rectification of a short modulated laser pulse.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Daniel F; Ting, Antonio; Alexeev, Ilya; Fischer, Richard; Sprangle, Phillip; Kapetenakos, Christos A; Zigler, Arie

    2006-07-24

    A new way of generating high peak power terahertz radiation using ultra-short pulse lasers is demonstrated. The optical pulse from a titanium:sapphire laser system is stretched and modulated using a spatial filtering technique to produce a several picosecond long pulse modulated at the terahertz frequency. A collinear type II phase matched interaction is realized via angle tuning in a gallium selenide crystal. Peak powers of at least 1.5 kW are produced in a 5 mm thick crystal, and tunability is demonstrated between 0.7 and 2.0 THz. Simulations predict that 150 kW of peak power can be produced in a 5 mm thick crystal. The technique also allows for control of the terahertz bandwidth. PMID:19516863

  10. High-intensity interval training: Modulating interval duration in overweight/obese men

    PubMed Central

    Smith-Ryan, Abbie E.; Melvin, Malia N.; Wingfield, Hailee L.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction High-intensity interval training (HIIT) is a time-efficient strategy shown to induce various cardiovascular and metabolic adaptations. Little is known about the optimal tolerable combination of intensity and volume necessary for adaptations, especially in clinical populations. Objectives In a randomized controlled pilot design, we evaluated the effects of two types of interval training protocols, varying in intensity and interval duration, on clinical outcomes in overweight/obese men. Methods Twenty-five men [body mass index (BMI) > 25 kg·m2] completed baseline body composition measures: fat mass (FM), lean mass (LM) and percent body fat (%BF) and fasting blood glucose, lipids and insulin (IN). A graded exercise cycling test was completed for peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak) and power output (PO). Participants were randomly assigned to high-intensity short interval (1MIN-HIIT), high-intensity interval (2MIN-HIIT) or control groups. 1MIN-HIIT and 2MIN-HIIT completed 3 weeks of cycling interval training, 3 days/week, consisting of either 10 × 1 min bouts at 90% PO with 1 min rests (1MIN-HIIT) or 5 × 2 min bouts with 1 min rests at undulating intensities (80%–100%) (2MIN-HIIT). Results There were no significant training effects on FM (Δ1.06 ± 1.25 kg) or %BF (Δ1.13% ± 1.88%), compared to CON. Increases in LM were not significant but increased by 1.7 kg and 2.1 kg for 1MIN and 2MIN-HIIT groups, respectively. Increases in VO2peak were also not significant for 1MIN (3.4 ml·kg−1·min−1) or 2MIN groups (2.7 ml·kg−1·min−1). IN sensitivity (HOMA-IR) improved for both training groups (Δ −2.78 ± 3.48 units; p < 0.05) compared to CON. Conclusion HIIT may be an effective short-term strategy to improve cardiorespiratory fitness and IN sensitivity in overweight males. PMID:25913937

  11. Modified Dual Three-Pulse Modulation technique for single-phase inverter topology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sree Harsha, N. R.; Anitha, G. S.; Sreedevi, A.

    2016-01-01

    In a recent paper, a new modulation technique called Dual Three Pulse Modulation (DTPM) was proposed to improve the efficiency of the power converters of the Electric/Hybrid/Fuel-cell vehicles. It was simulated in PSIM 9.0.4 and uses analog multiplexers to generate the modulating signals for the DC/DC converter and inverter. The circuit used is complex and many other simulation softwares do not support the analog multiplexers as well. Also, the DTPM technique produces modulating signals for the converter, which are essentially needed to produce the modulating signals for the inverter. Hence, it cannot be used efficiently to switch the valves of a stand-alone inverter. We propose a new method to generate the modulating signals to switch MOSFETs of a single phase Dual-Three pulse Modulation based stand-alone inverter. The circuits proposed are simulated in Multisim 12.0. We also show an alternate way to switch a DC/DC converter in a way depicted by DTPM technique both in simulation (MATLAB/Simulink) and hardware. The circuitry is relatively simple and can be used for the further investigations of DTPM technique.

  12. ASSESSMENT OF THE IMMUNE RESPONSIVENESS OF MICE IRRADIATED WITH CONTINUOUS WAVE OR PULSE-MODULATED 425-MHZ RADIO FREQUENCY RADIATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Groups of female BALB/C mice were irradiated with 425-MHz radio frequency (RF) radiation either continuous wave (CW) or pulse modulated (PM, 1-ms pulse width, 250 pulses/s). Mice were irradiated in a rectangular strip-transmission line at average forward powers of 78, 17.7, or 5 ...

  13. 180 mJ, long-pulse-duration, master-oscillator power amplifier with linewidth less than 25.6 kHz for laser guide stars.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chunhua; Zhang, Xiang; Ye, Zhibin; Liu, Chong; Chen, Jun

    2013-07-01

    A high-energy single-frequency hundred-microsecond long-pulse solid-state laser is demonstrated, which features an electro-optically modulated seed laser and two-stage double-passed pulse-pumped solid-state laser rod amplifier. Laser output with energy of 180 mJ, repetition rate of 50 Hz, and pulse width of 150 μs is achieved. The laser linewidth is measured to be less than 25.52 kHz by a fiber delay self-heterodyne method. In addition, a closed-loop controlling system is adopted to lock the center wavelength. No relaxation oscillation spikes appear in the pulse temporal profile, which is beneficial for further amplification. PMID:23842267

  14. Development of modulating permanent magnet sextupole lens for focusing of pulsed cold neutrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Masako; Iwashita, Yoshihisa; Ichikawa, Masahiro; Sugimoto, Takanori; Tongu, Hiromu; Fujisawa, Hiroshi; Shimizu, Hirohiko M.; Ino, Takashi; Mishima, Kenji; Taketani, Kaoru; Yoshioka, Tamaki; Muto, Suguru; Morishima, Takahiro; Oku, Takayuki; Suzuki, Jun-ichi; Shinohara, Takenao; Sakai, Kenji; Sato, Hiromi; Hirota, Katsuya; Otake, Yoshie; Seki, Yoshichika; Kawasaki, Shinsuke; Komamiya, Sachio; Kamiya, Yoshio; Otono, Hidetoshi; Yamashita, Satoru; Geltenbort, Peter

    2009-09-01

    Modulating permanent magnet sextupole lens (PMSx) for focusing pulsed cold neutrons is under development. The synchronized modulation of its field gradient suppresses the chromatic aberration which arises from the Time Of Flight method. The strength of the magnetic field, the torque, and the rise of temperature during its operation are studied on a fabricated prototype. Experiments on focusing pulsed very cold neutrons (VCN) at ILL (Institute of Laue Langevin, France) were carried out and VCN with around λ=40 Å were focused by the PMSx at a focal length of about 0.5 m. The experimental results are presented in conjunction with the principle of the neutron focusing and the modulating method of the focal strength of permanent magnet lens with the double ring structure.

  15. Low cost laser system generating 26-fs pulse duration, 30-kW peak power, and tunability from 800 to 1200 nm for multiphoton microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Resan, Bojan; Brunner, Felix; Rohrbacher, Andreas; Ammann, Hubert; Weingarten, Kurt J.

    2012-03-01

    We demonstrate a novel low-cost, low-noise, tunable, high-peak-power, ultrafast laser system based on a SESAMmodelocked, solid-state Yb tungstate laser plus spectral broadening via a microstructured fiber followed by pulse compression. The spectral selection, tuning, and pulse compression are performed with a simple prism compressor. The spectral broadening and fiber parameters are chosen to insure low-noise and short pulse operation of the tunable output. The long-term stable output pulses are tunable from 800 to 1200 nm, with a peak power up to 30 kW and pulse duration down to 26 fs. We demonstrate the generation of an output beam with 30 fs pulsewidth and multiple colors in infrared. In particular, we compressed selected spectral slices centered at 960 and 1100 nm suitable for imaging with green fluorescent protein and red dyes. Such a multicolor, 30 fs laser is ideally suited for simultaneous multispectral multiphoton imaging. This system is attractive for variety of applications including multiphoton (TPE, SHG, THG, CARS) and multimodal microscopy, nanosurgery, and optical coherence tomography (OCT). Such system is simpler, lower-cost, and much easier to use (fully turn-key) compared to a currently available solutions for near-infrared ultrashort pulses, typically a Ti:sapphire laser-pumped OPO.

  16. Experimental study on the single event effects in pulse width modulators by laser testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Zhao; Xiaoqiang, Guo; Wei, Chen; Hongxia, Guo; Dongsheng, Lin; Hanning, Wang; Yinhong, Luo; Lili, Ding; Yuanming, Wang

    2015-11-01

    This paper presents single event effect (SEE) characteristics of UC1845AJ pulse width modulators (PWMs) by laser testing. In combination with analysis to map PWM circuitry in the microchip dies, the typical SEE response waveforms for laser pulses located in different circuit blocks of UC1845AJ are obtained and the SEE mechanisms are analyzed. The laser SEE test results show that there are some differences in the SEE mechanisms of different circuit blocks, and phase shifts or changes in the duty cycles of few output pulses are the main SEE behaviors for UC1845AJ. In addition, a new SEE behavior which manifests as changes in the duty cycles of many output pulses is revealed. This means that an SEE hardened design should be considered.

  17. Solution of the pulse width modulation problem using orthogonal polynomials and Korteweg-de Vries equations.

    PubMed

    Chudnovsky, D V; Chudnovsky, G V

    1999-10-26

    The mathematical underpinning of the pulse width modulation (PWM) technique lies in the attempt to represent "accurately" harmonic waveforms using only square forms of a fixed height. The accuracy can be measured using many norms, but the quality of the approximation of the analog signal (a harmonic form) by a digital one (simple pulses of a fixed high voltage level) requires the elimination of high order harmonics in the error term. The most important practical problem is in "accurate" reproduction of sine-wave using the same number of pulses as the number of high harmonics eliminated. We describe in this paper a complete solution of the PWM problem using Pade approximations, orthogonal polynomials, and solitons. The main result of the paper is the characterization of discrete pulses answering the general PWM problem in terms of the manifold of all rational solutions to Korteweg-de Vries equations. PMID:10535909

  18. Apoptotic cell death during Drosophila oogenesis is differentially increased by electromagnetic radiation depending on modulation, intensity and duration of exposure.

    PubMed

    Sagioglou, Niki E; Manta, Areti K; Giannarakis, Ioannis K; Skouroliakou, Aikaterini S; Margaritis, Lukas H

    2016-01-01

    Present generations are being repeatedly exposed to different types and doses of non-ionizing radiation (NIR) from wireless technologies (FM radio, TETRA and TV stations, GSM and UMTS phones/base stations, Wi-Fi networks, DECT phones). Although there is controversy on the published data regarding the non-thermal effects of NIR, studies have convincingly demonstrated bioeffects. Their results indicate that modulation, intensity, exposure duration and model system are important factors determining the biological response to irradiation. Attempting to address the dependence of NIR bioeffectiveness on these factors, apoptosis in the model biological system Drosophila melanogaster was studied under different exposure protocols. A signal generator was used operating alternatively under Continuous Wave (CW) or Frequency Modulation (FM) emission modes, at three power output values (10 dB, 0, -10 dB), under four carrier frequencies (100, 395, 682, 900 MHz). Newly emerged flies were exposed either acutely (6 min or 60 min on the 6th day), or repeatedly (6 min or 60 min daily for the first 6 days of their life). All exposure protocols resulted in an increase of apoptotic cell death (ACD) observed in egg chambers, even at very low electric field strengths. FM waves seem to have a stronger effect in ACD than continuous waves. Regarding intensity and temporal exposure pattern, EMF-biological tissue interaction is not linear in response. Intensity threshold for the induction of biological effects depends on frequency, modulation and temporal exposure pattern with unknown so far mechanisms. Given this complexity, translating such experimental data into possible human exposure guidelines is yet arbitrary. PMID:25333897

  19. Source duration of stress and water-pressure induced seismicity derived from experimental analysis of P wave pulse width in granite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masuda, K.

    2013-12-01

    Pulse widths of P waves in granite, measured in the laboratory, were analyzed to investigate source durations of rupture processes for water-pressure induced and stress-induced microseismicity. Much evidence suggests that fluids in the subsurface are intimately linked to faulting processes. Studies of seismicity induced by water injection are thus important for understanding the trigger mechanisms of earthquakes as well as for engineering applications such as hydraulic fracturing of rocks at depth for petroleum extraction. Determining the cause of seismic events is very important in seismology and engineering; however, water-pressure induced seismic events are difficult to distinguish from those induced by purely tectonic stress. To investigate this problem, we analyzed the waveforms of acoustic emissions (AEs) produced in the laboratory by both water-pressure induced and stress-induced microseismicity. We used a cylinder (50 mm in diameter and 100 mm in length) of medium-grained granite. We applied a differential stress of about 70% of fracture strength, to the rock sample under 40 MPa confining pressure and held it constant throughout the experiment. When the primary creep stage and acoustic emissions (AEs) caused by the initial loading had ceased, we injected distilled water into the bottom end of the sample at a constant pressure of 17 MPa until macroscopic fracture occurred. We analysed AE waveforms produced by stress-induced AEs which occurred before the water-injection and by water-pressure induced AEs which occurred after the water-injection. Pulse widths were measured from the waveform traces plotted from the digital data. To investigate the source duration of the rupture process, we estimated the pulse width at the source and normalized by event magnitude to obtain a scaled pulse width at the source. After the effects of event size and hypocentral distance were removed from observed pulse widths, the ratio of the scaled source durations of water

  20. Modulated heat pulse propagation and partial transport barriers in chaotic magnetic fields

    DOE PAGESBeta

    del-Castillo-Negrete, Diego; Blazevski, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    Direct numerical simulations of the time dependent parallel heat transport equation modeling heat pulses driven by power modulation in 3-dimensional chaotic magnetic fields are presented. The numerical method is based on the Fourier formulation of a Lagrangian-Green's function method that provides an accurate and efficient technique for the solution of the parallel heat transport equation in the presence of harmonic power modulation. The numerical results presented provide conclusive evidence that even in the absence of magnetic flux surfaces, chaotic magnetic field configurations with intermediate levels of stochasticity exhibit transport barriers to modulated heat pulse propagation. In particular, high-order islands and remnants of destroyed flux surfaces (Cantori) act as partial barriers that slow down or even stop the propagation of heat waves at places where the magnetic field connection length exhibits a strong gradient. The key parameter ismore » $$\\gamma=\\sqrt{\\omega/2 \\chi_\\parallel}$$ that determines the length scale, $$1/\\gamma$$, of the heat wave penetration along the magnetic field line. For large perturbation frequencies, $$\\omega \\gg 1$$, or small parallel thermal conductivities, $$\\chi_\\parallel \\ll 1$$, parallel heat transport is strongly damped and the magnetic field partial barriers act as robust barriers where the heat wave amplitude vanishes and its phase speed slows down to a halt. On the other hand, in the limit of small $$\\gamma$$, parallel heat transport is largely unimpeded, global transport is observed and the radial amplitude and phase speed of the heat wave remain finite. Results on modulated heat pulse propagation in fully stochastic fields and across magnetic islands are also presented. In qualitative agreement with recent experiments in LHD and DIII-D, it is shown that the elliptic (O) and hyperbolic (X) points of magnetic islands have a direct impact on the spatio-temporal dependence of the amplitude and the time delay

  1. Stable supercontinuum pulse generated by modulation instability in a dispersion-managed fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Liang; Yang, Zhan-Ying; Zhao, Li-Chen; Yang, Wen-Li

    2016-08-01

    We study on non-linear localized waves on continuous wave background in a dispersion and non-linearity management fibre. We find a stable supercontinuum pulse can be generated from a small modulation on continuous wave in a proper management way, for which the pulse spectrum width and its growth rate can be controlled well by the management parameters. Additionally, we demonstrate a Kuznetsov-Ma breather like non-linear localized wave can exist in a periodic dispersion management fibre, and its spectrum evolution is distinctive from the Kuznetsov-Ma breather's.

  2. Optical and electrical characterization of pulse-modulated argon atmospheric-pressure inductively coupled microplasma jets

    SciTech Connect

    Tajima, Satomi; Tsuchiya, Shouichi; Matsumori, Masashi; Nakatsuka, Shigeki; Ichiki, Takanori

    2010-10-15

    The critical parameters determining the generation of the pulse-modulated argon atmospheric-pressure inductively coupled plasma (AP-ICP) microjet were studied by varying the power, P, pulse-modulation frequency, f, and duty ratio, DR. The temporal changes in the net output power, P{sub net}, monitored between the very high frequency power supply and matching network by an rf sampler, and ArI 4s{sup '}[1/2]{sub 1}{sup O}-4p{sup '}[1/2]{sub 0} emission from the antenna were measured to elucidate the behavior of this plasma. The AP-ICP microjet, which produces high-density (0.9-1.1x10{sup 15} cm{sup -3}) nonequilibrium plasma, consists of an alumina discharge tube with the inner diameter of 0.8 mm. The generation diagram of the pulse-modulated plasma was created by having f as the horizontal axis and DR as the vertical axis while varying P up to 50 W. At f{<=}10 kHz, the plasma was generated at above the linear lines of f and DR, which indicated the existence of the critical power-off period of approximately 80 {mu}s. At f>10 kHz, the pulse-modulated plasma was produced above constant DR and almost independent of f. The time-averaged power, P, which is the product of P and DR, had to be more than 8-10 W to sustain the pulse-modulated plasma. From the measurement of the temporal changes in the net power and ArI emission, the dynamic behavior of the pulse-modulated plasma was revealed as follows. The prebreakdown period was present for {approx}5 {mu}s after the power was turned on. Once the plasma was generated, the impedance was changed and the reflected power gradually decreased. A strong emission peak was observed immediately after the breakdown, followed by the gradual increase up to the steady state. Finally, the intense afterpeak was observed at 0.8 {mu}s after the power was turned off.

  3. Construction of a magnetic bottle spectrometer and its application to pulse duration measurement of X-ray laser using a pump-probe method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Namba, S.; Hasegawa, N.; Kishimoto, M.; Nishikino, M.; Ishino, M.; Kawachi, T.

    2015-11-01

    To characterize the temporal evolution of ultrashort X-ray pulses emitted by laser plasmas using a pump-probe method, a magnetic bottle time-of-flight electron spectrometer is constructed. The design is determined by numerical calculations of a mirror magnetic field and of the electron trajectory in a flight tube. The performance of the spectrometer is characterized by measuring the electron spectra of xenon atoms irradiated with a laser-driven plasma X-ray pulse. In addition, two-color above-threshold ionization (ATI) experiment is conducted for measurement of the X-ray laser pulse duration, in which xenon atoms are simultaneously irradiated with an X-ray laser pump and an IR laser probe. The correlation in the intensity of the sideband spectra of the 4d inner-shell photoelectrons and in the time delay of the two laser pulses yields an X-ray pulse width of 5.7 ps, in good agreement with the value obtained using an X-ray streak camera.

  4. Construction of a magnetic bottle spectrometer and its application to pulse duration measurement of X-ray laser using a pump-probe method

    SciTech Connect

    Namba, S.; Hasegawa, N.; Kishimoto, M.; Nishikino, M.; Ishino, M.; Kawachi, T.

    2015-11-15

    To characterize the temporal evolution of ultrashort X-ray pulses emitted by laser plasmas using a pump-probe method, a magnetic bottle time-of-flight electron spectrometer is constructed. The design is determined by numerical calculations of a mirror magnetic field and of the electron trajectory in a flight tube. The performance of the spectrometer is characterized by measuring the electron spectra of xenon atoms irradiated with a laser-driven plasma X-ray pulse. In addition, two-color above-threshold ionization (ATI) experiment is conducted for measurement of the X-ray laser pulse duration, in which xenon atoms are simultaneously irradiated with an X-ray laser pump and an IR laser probe. The correlation in the intensity of the sideband spectra of the 4d inner-shell photoelectrons and in the time delay of the two laser pulses yields an X-ray pulse width of 5.7 ps, in good agreement with the value obtained using an X-ray streak camera.

  5. Design and development of a prototype 25 kV, 10 A long pulse Marx modulator for high power klystron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acharya, Mahesh; Shrivastava, Purushottam

    2016-02-01

    Research, design, and development of high average power modulators for the proposed Indian Spallation Neutron Source are in progress at Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology. With this objective, a prototype of 25 kV, 10 A, 1 ms Marx modulator at repetition rate of 1 Hz has been designed and developed which serves as a proof of principle and technology assessment stage for further development of high repetition rate high voltage high average power modulators. Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT) based modules of 2.8 kV switching capability have been used as main modules. The modulator had 8.2% droop in output voltage pulse without any droop compensation circuit. A droop compensation involving 15 corrector modules has been used to reduce the droop up to 1%. We have used IGBT based 250 V switches to realize the corrector module. A microcontroller based control unit was designed and developed for triggering the main and corrector modules. With this control unit, programmable output pulse has been achieved. Electrical isolation between high voltage circuits and control circuit has been achieved by the use of fiber optic based control signal transmission. Output pulses of 1 ms pulse width, 800 ns rise time, and 5 μs fall time have been achieved. The modulator has advantages of modular design, adjustable pulse width, adjustable rise time, and fall time.

  6. Design and development of a prototype 25 kV, 10 A long pulse Marx modulator for high power klystron.

    PubMed

    Acharya, Mahesh; Shrivastava, Purushottam

    2016-02-01

    Research, design, and development of high average power modulators for the proposed Indian Spallation Neutron Source are in progress at Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology. With this objective, a prototype of 25 kV, 10 A, 1 ms Marx modulator at repetition rate of 1 Hz has been designed and developed which serves as a proof of principle and technology assessment stage for further development of high repetition rate high voltage high average power modulators. Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT) based modules of 2.8 kV switching capability have been used as main modules. The modulator had 8.2% droop in output voltage pulse without any droop compensation circuit. A droop compensation involving 15 corrector modules has been used to reduce the droop up to 1%. We have used IGBT based 250 V switches to realize the corrector module. A microcontroller based control unit was designed and developed for triggering the main and corrector modules. With this control unit, programmable output pulse has been achieved. Electrical isolation between high voltage circuits and control circuit has been achieved by the use of fiber optic based control signal transmission. Output pulses of 1 ms pulse width, 800 ns rise time, and 5 μs fall time have been achieved. The modulator has advantages of modular design, adjustable pulse width, adjustable rise time, and fall time. PMID:26931898

  7. Periodic modulation in pulse arrival times from young pulsars: a renewed case for neutron star precession

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerr, M.; Hobbs, G.; Johnston, S.; Shannon, R. M.

    2016-01-01

    In a search for periodic variation in the arrival times of pulses from 151 young, energetic pulsars, we have identified seven cases of modulation consistent with one or two harmonics of a single fundamental with time-scale 0.5-1.5 yr. We use simulations to show that these modulations are statistically significant and of high quality (sinusoidal) even when contaminated by the strong stochastic timing noise common to young pulsars. Although planetary companions could induce such modulation, the large implied masses and 2:1 mean motion resonances challenge such an explanation. Instead, the modulation is likely to be intrinsic to the pulsar, arising from quasi-periodic switching between stable magnetospheric states, and we propose that precession of the neutron star may regulate this switching.

  8. Tandem-pulsed acousto-optics: an analytical framework of modulated high-contrast speckle patterns.

    PubMed

    Resink, S G; Steenbergen, W

    2015-06-01

    Recently we presented acousto-optic (AO) probing of scattering media using addition or subtraction of speckle patterns due to tandem nanosecond pulses. Here we present a theoretical framework for ideal (polarized, noise-free) speckle patterns with unity contrast that links ultrasound-induced optical phase modulation, the fraction of light that is tagged by ultrasound, speckle contrast, mean square difference of speckle patterns and the contrast of the summation of speckle patterns acquired at different ultrasound phases. We derive the important relations from basic assumptions and definitions, and then validate them with simulations. For ultrasound-generated phase modulation angles below 0.7 rad (assuming uniform modulation), we are now able to relate speckle pattern statistics to the acousto-optic phase modulation. Hence our theory allows quantifying speckle observations in terms of ultrasonically tagged fractions of light for near-unity-contrast speckle patterns. PMID:25985079

  9. Efficient amplitude-modulated pulses for triple- to single-quantum coherence conversion in MQMAS NMR.

    PubMed

    Colaux, Henri; Dawson, Daniel M; Ashbrook, Sharon E

    2014-08-01

    The conversion between multiple- and single-quantum coherences is integral to many nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments of quadrupolar nuclei. This conversion is relatively inefficient when effected by a single pulse, and many composite pulse schemes have been developed to improve this efficiency. To provide the maximum improvement, such schemes typically require time-consuming experimental optimization. Here, we demonstrate an approach for generating amplitude-modulated pulses to enhance the efficiency of the triple- to single-quantum conversion. The optimization is performed using the SIMPSON and MATLAB packages and results in efficient pulses that can be used without experimental reoptimisation. Most significant signal enhancements are obtained when good estimates of the inherent radio-frequency nutation rate and the magnitude of the quadrupolar coupling are used as input to the optimization, but the pulses appear robust to reasonable variations in either parameter, producing significant enhancements compared to a single-pulse conversion, and also comparable or improved efficiency over other commonly used approaches. In all cases, the ease of implementation of our method is advantageous, particularly for cases with low sensitivity, where the improvement is most needed (e.g., low gyromagnetic ratio or high quadrupolar coupling). Our approach offers the potential to routinely improve the sensitivity of high-resolution NMR spectra of nuclei and systems that would, perhaps, otherwise be deemed "too challenging". PMID:25047226

  10. Electrical noise modulates perception of electrical pulses in humans: sensation enhancement via stochastic resonance.

    PubMed

    Iliopoulos, Fivos; Nierhaus, Till; Villringer, Arno

    2014-03-01

    Although noise is usually considered to be harmful for signal detection and information transmission, stochastic resonance (SR) describes the counterintuitive phenomenon of noise enhancing the detection and transmission of weak input signals. In mammalian sensory systems, SR-related phenomena may arise both in the peripheral and the central nervous system. Here, we investigate behavioral SR effects of subliminal electrical noise stimulation on the perception of somatosensory stimuli in humans. We compare the likelihood to detect near-threshold pulses of different intensities applied on the left index finger during presence vs. absence of subliminal noise on the same or an adjacent finger. We show that (low-pass) noise can enhance signal detection when applied on the same finger. This enhancement is strong for near-threshold pulses below the 50% detection threshold and becomes stronger when near-threshold pulses are applied as brief trains. The effect reverses at pulse intensities above threshold, especially when noise is replaced by subliminal sinusoidal stimulation, arguing for a peripheral direct current addition. Unfiltered noise applied on longer pulses enhances detection of all pulse intensities. Noise applied to an adjacent finger has two opposing effects: an inhibiting effect (presumably due to lateral inhibition) and an enhancing effect (most likely due to SR in the central nervous system). In summary, we demonstrate that subliminal noise can significantly modulate detection performance of near-threshold stimuli. Our results indicate SR effects in the peripheral and central nervous system. PMID:24353303

  11. Efficient Amplitude-Modulated Pulses for Triple- to Single-Quantum Coherence Conversion in MQMAS NMR

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The conversion between multiple- and single-quantum coherences is integral to many nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments of quadrupolar nuclei. This conversion is relatively inefficient when effected by a single pulse, and many composite pulse schemes have been developed to improve this efficiency. To provide the maximum improvement, such schemes typically require time-consuming experimental optimization. Here, we demonstrate an approach for generating amplitude-modulated pulses to enhance the efficiency of the triple- to single-quantum conversion. The optimization is performed using the SIMPSON and MATLAB packages and results in efficient pulses that can be used without experimental reoptimisation. Most significant signal enhancements are obtained when good estimates of the inherent radio-frequency nutation rate and the magnitude of the quadrupolar coupling are used as input to the optimization, but the pulses appear robust to reasonable variations in either parameter, producing significant enhancements compared to a single-pulse conversion, and also comparable or improved efficiency over other commonly used approaches. In all cases, the ease of implementation of our method is advantageous, particularly for cases with low sensitivity, where the improvement is most needed (e.g., low gyromagnetic ratio or high quadrupolar coupling). Our approach offers the potential to routinely improve the sensitivity of high-resolution NMR spectra of nuclei and systems that would, perhaps, otherwise be deemed “too challenging”. PMID:25047226

  12. Effect of level, duration, and inter-pulse interval of 1-2 kHz sonar signal exposures on harbor porpoise hearing.

    PubMed

    Kastelein, Ronald A; Hoek, Lean; Gransier, Robin; Rambags, Martijn; Claeys, Naomi

    2014-07-01

    Safety criteria for underwater low-frequency active sonar sounds produced during naval exercises are needed to protect harbor porpoise hearing. As a first step toward defining criteria, a porpoise was exposed to sequences consisting of series of 1-s, 1-2 kHz sonar down-sweeps without harmonics (as fatiguing noise) at various combinations of average received sound pressure levels (SPLs; 144-179 dB re 1 μPa), exposure durations (1.9-240 min), and duty cycles (5%-100%). Hearing thresholds were determined for a narrow-band frequency-swept sine wave centered at 1.5 kHz before exposure to the fatiguing noise, and at 1-4, 4-8, 8-12, 48, 96, 144, and 1400 min after exposure, to quantify temporary threshold shifts (TTSs) and recovery of hearing. Results show that the inter-pulse interval of the fatiguing noise is an important parameter in determining the magnitude of noise-induced TTS. For the reported range of exposure combinations (duration and SPL), the energy of the exposure (i.e., cumulative sound exposure level; SELcum) can be used to predict the induced TTS, if the inter-pulse interval is known. Exposures with equal SELcum but with different inter-pulse intervals do not result in the same induced TTS. PMID:24993225

  13. Trepanning drilling of stainless steel using a high-power Ytterbium-doped fiber ultrafast laser: influence of pulse duration on hole geometry and processing quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez, John; Dijoux, Mathieu; Devillard, Raphael; Faucon, Marc; Kling, Rainer

    2014-03-01

    Percussion drilling is a well-established technique for several applicative markets such as for aircraft and watch industries. Lamp pumped solid state lasers and more recently fiber lasers, operating in millisecond or nanosecond regimes, are classically used for these applications. However, due to their long pulse duration, these technologies are not suitable for emerging applicative market such as fuel injectors for automotive industry. Only the ultrashort laser technology, combined with special drilling optics like trepanning head, has the potential to fulfill the needs for this new market in terms of processing quality, custom-shape capabilities and short drilling time. Although numerous papers dealing with percussion drilling have been reported in the literature, only few papers are dedicated to trepanning drilling. In this context, we present some results on the influence of pulse duration on gas-assisted laser drilling of stainless steel using a trepanning head and a high power Ytterbium doped fiber ultrafast laser (20W). The influence of pulse energy (7- 64μJ), fluence (3-25 J/cm2), drilling time (1-20s), processing gas pressure and drilling strategy will be discussed as well.

  14. FEM modeling and histological analyses on thermal damage induced in facial skin resurfacing procedure with different CO2 laser pulse duration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, Francesca; Zingoni, Tiziano; Di Cicco, Emiliano; Manetti, Leonardo; Pini, Roberto; Fortuna, Damiano

    2011-07-01

    Laser light is nowadays routinely used in the aesthetic treatments of facial skin, such as in laser rejuvenation, scar removal etc. The induced thermal damage may be varied by setting different laser parameters, in order to obtain a particular aesthetic result. In this work, it is proposed a theoretical study on the induced thermal damage in the deep tissue, by considering different laser pulse duration. The study is based on the Finite Element Method (FEM): a bidimensional model of the facial skin is depicted in axial symmetry, considering the different skin structures and their different optical and thermal parameters; the conversion of laser light into thermal energy is modeled by the bio-heat equation. The light source is a CO2 laser, with different pulse durations. The model enabled to study the thermal damage induced into the skin, by calculating the Arrhenius integral. The post-processing results enabled to study in space and time the temperature dynamics induced in the facial skin, to study the eventual cumulative effects of subsequent laser pulses and to optimize the procedure for applications in dermatological surgery. The calculated data where then validated in an experimental measurement session, performed in a sheep animal model. Histological analyses were performed on the treated tissues, evidencing the spatial distribution and the entity of the thermal damage in the collageneous tissue. Modeling and experimental results were in good agreement, and they were used to design a new optimized laser based skin resurfacing procedure.

  15. An Interleaver Implementation for the Serially Concatenated Pulse-Position Modulation Decoder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheng, Michael K.; Moision, Bruce E.; Hamkins, Jon; Nakashima, Michael A.

    2006-01-01

    We describe novel interleaver and deinterleaver architectures that support bandwidth efficient memory access for decoders of turbo-like codes that are used in conjunction with high order modulations. The presentation focuses on a decoder for serially concatenated pulse-position modulation (SCPPM), which is a forward-error-correction code designed by NASA to support laser communications from Mars at more than 50 megabits-per-second (Mbps). For 64-ary PPM, the new architectures effectively triple the fan-in of the interleaver and fan-out of the deinterleaver, enabling parallelization that doubles the overall throughput. The techniques described here can be readily modified for other PPM orders.

  16. The Progress of SBIR Supported R& D of Solid State Pulse Modulators

    SciTech Connect

    Koontz, R

    2004-05-04

    The Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) grant program funded by the US Department of Energy makes a number of awards each year for R&D in the field of accelerator technology including high power pulse modulators and their components. This paper outlines program requirements, and reviews some of the awards made in the last three years in support of high power modulator systems and solid state switching. A number of award recipients are presenting the results of their SBIR R&D at this workshop.

  17. Sliding mode pulse-width modulation technique for direct torque controlled induction motor drive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bounadja, M.; Belarbi, A. W.; Belmadani, B.

    2010-05-01

    This paper presents a novel pulse-width modulation technique based sliding mode approach for direct torque control of an induction machine drive. Methodology begins with a sliding mode control of machine's torque and stator flux to generate the reference voltage vector and to reduce parameters sensitivity. Then, the switching control of the three-phase inverter is developed using sliding mode concept to make the system tracking reference voltage inputs. The main features of the proposed methodologies are the high tracking accuracy and the much easier implementation compared to the space vector modulation. Simulations are carried out to confirm the effectiveness of proposed control algorithms.

  18. Nonlinear dynamics control in single-phase inverter with sinusoidal pulse-width modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andriyanov, A. I.; Mikhal'tsov, D. Yu

    2016-04-01

    A variant of technical implementation of the control system of a single-phase voltage inverter with sinusoidal pulse-width modulation, based on target-oriented control, which ensures the desired nonlinear dynamic properties of the system, is proposed. The control system under discussion solves the problem of providing a sinusoidal output voltage of the inverter when changing its parameters in a wide range, accompanied by bifurcations. This eliminates unwanted dynamic modes without parametric synthesis of the system. The target-oriented control for managing the dynamics of nonlinear systems with sinusoidal pulse-width modulation is used for the first time and gives a number of advantages compared to other known methods.

  19. Transmission errors and forward error correction in embedded differential pulse code modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodman, D. J.; Sundberg, C.-E.

    1983-11-01

    Formulas are derived for the combined effects of quantization and transmission errors on embedded Differential Pulse Code Modulation (DPCM) performance. The present analysis, which is both more general and precise than previous work on transmission errors in digital communication of analog signals, includes as its special cases the conventional DPCM and Pulse code Modulation. An SNR formula is obtained in which the effects of source characteristics and the effects of transmission characteristics are clearly distinguishable. Also given in computationally convenient form are specialized formulas applying to uncoded transmission through a random-error channel, transmission through a slowly fading channel, and transmission with all or part of the DCPM signal being protected by an error-correcting code.

  20. A solid-state PWM phase-shifter. [Pulse Width Modulation

    SciTech Connect

    Ooi, Boon Teck; Dai, Shu Zu; Galiana, F.D. )

    1993-04-01

    The solid-state, pulse width modulated (PWM) phase-shifter is based on gate-turn-off (GTO) thyristors or other valves with force commutation capabilities. Besides serving the phase-shifter function, it offers regulated control over 3 independent quantities: the real power passing through it and the VARs on both sides to which it is connected. The power transferred can be bidirectional and the VARs can be leading or lagging.

  1. Pulse Code Modulation (PCM) encoder handbook for Aydin Vector MMP-900 series system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raphael, David

    1995-01-01

    This handbook explicates the hardware and software properties of a time division multiplex system. This system is used to sample analog and digital data. The data is then merged with frame synchronization information to produce a serial pulse coded modulation (PCM) bit stream. Information in this handbook is required by users to design congruous interface and attest effective utilization of this encoder system. Aydin Vector provides all of the components for these systems to Goddard Space Flight Center/Wallops Flight Facility.

  2. Quaternary pulse position modulation electronics for free-space laser communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Budinger, J. M.; Kerslake, S. D.; Nagy, L. A.; Shalkhauser, M. J.; Soni, N. J.; Cauley, M. A.; Mohamed, J. H.; Stover, J. B.; Romanofsky, R. R.; Lizanich, P. J.

    1991-01-01

    The development of a high data-rate communications electronic subsystem for future application in free-space, direct-detection laser communications is described. The dual channel subsystem uses quaternary pulse position modulation (QPPM) and operates at a throughput of 650 megabits per second. Transmitting functions described include source data multiplexing, channel data multiplexing, and QPPM symbol encoding. Implementation of a prototype version in discrete gallium arsenide logic, radiofrequency components, and microstrip circuitry is presented.

  3. Quaternary pulse position modulation electronics for free-space laser communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Budinger, J. M.; Kerslake, S. D.; Nagy, L. A.; Shalkhauser, M. J.; Soni, N. J.; Cauley, M. A.; Mohamed, J. H.; Stover, J. B.; Romanofsky, R. R.; Lizanich, P. J.

    1991-01-01

    The development of a high data-rate communications electronic subsystem for future application in free-space, direct-detection laser communications is described. The dual channel subsystem uses quaternary pulse position modulation (GPPM) and operates at a throughput of 650 megabits per second. Transmitting functions described include source data multiplexing, channel data multiplexing, and QPPM symbol encoding. Implementation of a prototype version in discrete gallium arsenide logic, radiofrequency components, and microstrip circuitry is presented.

  4. Counteracting radio frequency inhomogeneity in the human brain at 7 Tesla using strongly modulating pulses.

    PubMed

    Boulant, N; Mangin, J-F; Amadon, A

    2009-05-01

    We report flip angle and spoiled gradient echo measurements at 7 Tesla on human brains in three-dimensional imaging, using strongly modulating pulses to counteract the transmitted radiofrequency inhomogeneity problem. Compared with the standard square pulse results, three points of improvement are demonstrated, namely: (i) the removal of the bright center (typical at high fields when using a quadrature head coil), (ii) the substantial gain of signal in the regions of low B(1) intensity, and (iii) an increased 35% signal uniformity over the whole brain at the flip angle where maximum contrast between white and gray matter occurs. We also find by means of simulations that standard BIR-4 adiabatic pulses need several times more energy to reach a similar performance at the same field strength. PMID:19253378

  5. Optical pulse compression using the combination of phase modulation and high-order dispersion compensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Guo; Pan, Wei; Zou, Xihua

    2010-09-01

    Optical pulse compression using high-order dispersion compensation is proposed and theoretically analyzed. Firstly, the required dispersion profile for the high-order dispersion compensation is derived, according to the linear chirp and the nonlinear chirp of a phase-modulated continuous-wave (CW) laser source. With the use of the high-order dispersion compensation, such as the combination compensation of the second order dispersion (SOD) and the fourth order dispersion (FOD), an efficient pulse compression having a less time-bandwidth product and a greater peak power is realized. A sampled fiber Bragg grating (FBG) with both the SOD and the FOD is then designed using the equivalent chirp and the reconstruction algorithm. Finally, in the numerical simulation an optical pulse with a time-bandwidth product of 0.79 is generated via high-order dispersion compensation that is performed by using the sampled FBG.

  6. Response of a coupled two-spin system to on-resonance amplitude modulated RF pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Jinyuan; Ye, Chaohui; Sanctuary, B. C.

    A weakly scalar-coupled two-spin system subjected to two amplitude modulated RF pulses on exact resonance is treated by means of the rotation operator approach. The theory presented here enables coherence evolution to be evaluated by the routine procedure and to be expressed in analytical form. The evolution behaviour from the equilibrium state is discussed in some detail. It is shown that the application of rotation matrix and quaternion elements clarifies evolution expressions. The numerical calculation is performed by way of quaternions. Examples of BURP (band-selective, uniform response, purephase) and sinc-shaped RF pulses are given and the case of time-symmetrical RF pulses is analysed further.

  7. Research of photonic-assisted triangular-shaped pulses generation based on quadrupling RF modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Jin; Ning, Ti-gang; Li, Jing; Li, Yue-qin; Chen, Hong-yao; Zhang, Chan

    2015-05-01

    We propose an approach to generate optical triangular-shaped pulse train with tunable repetition rate using quadrupling radio frequency (RF) modulation and optical grating dispersion-induced power fading. In this work, a piece of chirped fiber Bragg grating (FBG) is employed as the dispersive media to remove the undesired 8th harmonic in optical intensity. Thus, the generated harmonics of optical intensity can be corresponding to the first two Fourier components of typical periodic triangular pulses. This work also analyzes the impacts of the extinction ratio and the bias voltage drift on the harmonic distortion suppression ratio. After that, the value of the extinction ratio and the range of the bias voltage drift can be obtained. The advantage of this proposal is that it can generate high order frequency-multiplexed optical pulses train which can be applied in all optical signal processing and other fields.

  8. Fuzzy control with amplitude/pulse-width modulation of nerve electrical stimulation for muscle force control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, C.-C. K.; Liu, W.-C.; Chan, C.-C.; Ju, M.-S.

    2012-04-01

    The main goal of this study was to study the performance of fuzzy logic controllers combined with simplified hybrid amplitude/pulse-width (AM/PW) modulation to regulate muscle force via nerve electrical stimulation. The recruitment curves with AM/PW and AM modulations were constructed for the calf muscles of rabbits. Integrated with the modulation methods, a proportional-integral-derivative (PID) and three fuzzy logic controllers were designed and applied for the electrical stimulation of tibial nerves to control the ankle torque under isometric conditions. The performance of the two modulation methods combined with the four controllers was compared when the ankle was fixed at three positions for both in vivo experiments and model simulations using a nonlinear muscle model. For the animal experiments, AM/PW modulation performed better than AM modulation alone. The fuzzy PI controller performed marginally better and was resistant to external noises, though it tended to have a larger overshoot. The performance of the controllers had a similar trend in the three different joint positions, and the simulation results with the nonlinear model matched the experimental results well. In conclusion, AM/PW modulation improved controller performance, while the contribution of fuzzy logic was only marginal.

  9. Pulse-number discrimination by Cope's gray treefrog (Hyla chrysoscelis) in modulated and unmodulated noise

    PubMed Central

    Vélez, Alejandro; Linehan-Skillings, Betsy Jo; Gu, Yuwen; Sun, Yuting; Bee, Mark A.

    2013-01-01

    In Cope's gray treefrog (Hyla chrysoscelis), thresholds for recognizing conspecific calls are lower in temporally modulated noise backgrounds compared with unmodulated noise. The effect of modulated noise on discrimination among different conspecific calls is unknown. In quiet, females prefer calls with relatively more pulses. This study tested the hypotheses that noise impairs selectivity for longer calls and that processes akin to dip listening in modulated noise can ameliorate this impairment. In two-stimulus choice tests, female subjects were allowed to choose between an average-length call and a shorter or longer alternative. Tests were replicated at two signal levels in quiet and in the presence of chorus-shaped noise that was unmodulated, modulated by a sinusoid, or modulated by envelopes resembling natural choruses. When subjects showed a preference, it was always for the relatively longer call. Noise reduced preferences for longer calls, but the magnitude of this reduction was unrelated to whether the noise envelope was modulated or unmodulated. Together, the results are inconsistent with the hypothesis that dip listening improves a female gray treefrog's ability to select longer calls in modulated compared with unmodulated noise. PMID:24116442

  10. Fuzzy control with amplitude/pulse-width modulation of nerve electrical stimulation for muscle force control.

    PubMed

    Lin, C-C K; Liu, W-C; Chan, C-C; Ju, M-S

    2012-04-01

    The main goal of this study was to study the performance of fuzzy logic controllers combined with simplified hybrid amplitude/pulse-width (AM/PW) modulation to regulate muscle force via nerve electrical stimulation. The recruitment curves with AM/PW and AM modulations were constructed for the calf muscles of rabbits. Integrated with the modulation methods, a proportional-integral-derivative (PID) and three fuzzy logic controllers were designed and applied for the electrical stimulation of tibial nerves to control the ankle torque under isometric conditions. The performance of the two modulation methods combined with the four controllers was compared when the ankle was fixed at three positions for both in vivo experiments and model simulations using a nonlinear muscle model. For the animal experiments, AM/PW modulation performed better than AM modulation alone. The fuzzy PI controller performed marginally better and was resistant to external noises, though it tended to have a larger overshoot. The performance of the controllers had a similar trend in the three different joint positions, and the simulation results with the nonlinear model matched the experimental results well. In conclusion, AM/PW modulation improved controller performance, while the contribution of fuzzy logic was only marginal. PMID:22422279

  11. Correction of Excitation Profile in Zero Echo Time (ZTE) Imaging Using Quadratic Phase-Modulated RF Pulse Excitation and Iterative Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Li, Cheng; Magland, Jeremy F.; Seifert, Alan C.

    2014-01-01

    Zero-echo Time (ZTE) imaging is a promising technique for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of short-T2 tissue nuclei in tissues. A problem inherent to the method currently hindering its translation to the clinic is the presence of a spatial encoding gradient during excitation, which causes the hard pulse to become spatially selective, resulting in blurring and shadow artifacts in the image. While shortening radiofrequency (RF) pulse duration alleviates this problem the resulting elevated RF peak power and specific absorption rate (SAR) in practice impede such a solution. In this work, an approach is described to correct the artifacts by applying quadratic phase-modulated RF excitation and iteratively solving an inverse problem formulated from the signal model of ZTE imaging. A simple pulse sequence is also developed to measure the excitation profile of the RF pulse. Results from simulations, phantom and in vivo studies, demonstrate the effectiveness of the method in correcting image artifacts caused by inhomogeneous excitation. The proposed method may contribute toward establishing ZTE MRI as a routine 3D pulse sequence for imaging protons and other nuclei with quasi solid-state behavior on clinical scanners. PMID:24710164

  12. Time- and frequency-dependent model of time-resolved coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) with a picosecond-duration probe pulse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stauffer, Hans U.; Miller, Joseph D.; Slipchenko, Mikhail N.; Meyer, Terrence R.; Prince, Benjamin D.; Roy, Sukesh; Gord, James R.

    2014-01-01

    The hybrid femtosecond/picosecond coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (fs/ps CARS) technique presents a promising alternative to either fs time-resolved or ps frequency-resolved CARS in both gas-phase thermometry and condensed-phase excited-state dynamics applications. A theoretical description of time-dependent CARS is used to examine this recently developed probe technique, and quantitative comparisons of the full time-frequency evolution show excellent accuracy in predicting the experimental vibrational CARS spectra obtained for two model systems. The interrelated time- and frequency-domain spectral signatures of gas-phase species produced by hybrid fs/ps CARS are explored with a focus on gas-phase N2 vibrational CARS, which is commonly used as a thermometric diagnostic of combusting flows. In particular, we discuss the merits of the simple top-hat spectral filter typically used to generate the ps-duration hybrid fs/ps CARS probe pulse, including strong discrimination against non-resonant background that often contaminates CARS signal. It is further demonstrated, via comparison with vibrational CARS results on a time-evolving solvated organic chromophore, that this top-hat probe-pulse configuration can provide improved spectral resolution, although the degree of improvement depends on the dephasing timescales of the observed molecular modes and the duration and timing of the narrowband final pulse. Additionally, we discuss the virtues of a frequency-domain Lorentzian probe-pulse lineshape and its potential for improving the hybrid fs/ps CARS technique as a diagnostic in high-pressure gas-phase thermometry applications.

  13. Time- and frequency-dependent model of time-resolved coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) with a picosecond-duration probe pulse.

    PubMed

    Stauffer, Hans U; Miller, Joseph D; Slipchenko, Mikhail N; Meyer, Terrence R; Prince, Benjamin D; Roy, Sukesh; Gord, James R

    2014-01-14

    The hybrid femtosecond∕picosecond coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (fs∕ps CARS) technique presents a promising alternative to either fs time-resolved or ps frequency-resolved CARS in both gas-phase thermometry and condensed-phase excited-state dynamics applications. A theoretical description of time-dependent CARS is used to examine this recently developed probe technique, and quantitative comparisons of the full time-frequency evolution show excellent accuracy in predicting the experimental vibrational CARS spectra obtained for two model systems. The interrelated time- and frequency-domain spectral signatures of gas-phase species produced by hybrid fs∕ps CARS are explored with a focus on gas-phase N2 vibrational CARS, which is commonly used as a thermometric diagnostic of combusting flows. In particular, we discuss the merits of the simple top-hat spectral filter typically used to generate the ps-duration hybrid fs∕ps CARS probe pulse, including strong discrimination against non-resonant background that often contaminates CARS signal. It is further demonstrated, via comparison with vibrational CARS results on a time-evolving solvated organic chromophore, that this top-hat probe-pulse configuration can provide improved spectral resolution, although the degree of improvement depends on the dephasing timescales of the observed molecular modes and the duration and timing of the narrowband final pulse. Additionally, we discuss the virtues of a frequency-domain Lorentzian probe-pulse lineshape and its potential for improving the hybrid fs∕ps CARS technique as a diagnostic in high-pressure gas-phase thermometry applications. PMID:24437886

  14. Analytical spectroscopic investigation of wavelength and pulse duration effects on laser-induced changes of egg-yolk-based tempera paints.

    PubMed

    Oujja, Mohamed; Pouli, Paraskevi; Domingo, Concepción; Fotakis, Costas; Castillejo, Marta

    2010-05-01

    The application of laser cleaning methodologies to light-sensitive substrates such as those encountered in artistic paintings is an extremely delicate issue. The cleaning of paintings and polychromes is an irreversibly invasive intervention; therefore, prior to the implementation of laser cleaning methodologies, a thorough characterization of the interaction between laser pulses and painting components is required. In this work, the modifications induced by irradiation with pulses of 150 picoseconds (at 1064 and 213 nm) and 15 nanoseconds (at 213 nm) on unvarnished aged model egg-yolk-based paints were examined following a spectroanalytical approach. Laser-induced chemical changes on samples of unpigmented and widely used artist's pigment temperas were investigated by spectrofluorimetry and Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy, while color changes were quantified by colorimetry. Noticeable modifications of the Raman and fluorescence bands attributed to pigments are absent except for vermillion, for which the pigment bands tend to disappear upon irradiation at 1064 nm. Interestingly, no discoloration was observed on most of the pigments upon irradiation at 213 nm (150 ps), including the light-sensitive vermillion, while no indications of carbonization or charring of the paint layers, which could give rise to amorphous carbon bands, were obtained at any of the irradiation conditions explored. Comparison of the results using the two different pulse durations and wavelengths illustrates the participation of mechanisms of diverse origin according to the chemical composition of the pigment and highlights the importance of the optimization of the laser parameters, specifically fluence, pulse duration, and wavelength, in conservation treatments of paintings. PMID:20482972

  15. Generation of 0.5 mJ, few-cycle laser pulses by an adaptive phase modulator.

    PubMed

    Wang, He; Wu, Yi; Li, Chengquan; Mashiko, Hiroki; Gilbertson, Steve; Chang, Zenghu

    2008-09-15

    Previously, pulses shorter than 4 fs were generated by compressing white light from gas-filled hollow-core fibers with adaptive phase modulators; however, the energy of the few-cycle pulses was limited to 15 microJ. Here, we report the generation of 550 microJ, 5 fs pulses by using a liquid crystal spatial light modulator in a grating-based 4f system. The high pulse energy was obtained by improving the throughput of the phase modulator and by increasing the input laser energy. When the pulses were used in high harmonic generation, it was found that the harmonic spectra depend strongly on the high order spectral phases of the driving laser fields. PMID:18794981

  16. Filamentation of a phase-modulated pulse under conditions of normal, anomalous and zero group velocity dispersion

    SciTech Connect

    Chekalin, S V; Kompanets, V O; Smetanina, E O; Spirkov, A I; Kandidov, V P

    2014-06-30

    We have investigated experimentally and numerically the influence of the initial temporal phase modulation of a pulse on the spatiotemporal intensity distribution and the frequency-angular spectrum of femtosecond laser pulses with self-channelling in a condensed medium. We have detected a decrease in the intensity of divergent anti-Stokes frequency components during filamentation of radiation under conditions of normal group-velocity dispersion (GVD) and strong phase modulation. In the zero-GVD regime under conditions of the phase modulation of radiation, the spatiotemporal transformation of the pulse is similar to that in the normal-GVD regime, which leads to a qualitative change in the supercontinuum spectrum. In the anomalous-GVD regime, a sequence of 'light bullets' is formed in the filament for both a phase-modulated and a transform-limited pulse. (extreme light fields and their applications)

  17. Filamentation of a phase-modulated pulse under conditions of normal, anomalous and zero group velocity dispersion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chekalin, S. V.; Smetanina, E. O.; Spirkov, A. I.; Kompanets, V. O.; Kandidov, V. P.

    2014-06-01

    We have investigated experimentally and numerically the influence of the initial temporal phase modulation of a pulse on the spatiotemporal intensity distribution and the frequency-angular spectrum of femtosecond laser pulses with self-channelling in a condensed medium. We have detected a decrease in the intensity of divergent anti-Stokes frequency components during filamentation of radiation under conditions of normal group-velocity dispersion (GVD) and strong phase modulation. In the zero-GVD regime under conditions of the phase modulation of radiation, the spatiotemporal transformation of the pulse is similar to that in the normal-GVD regime, which leads to a qualitative change in the supercontinuum spectrum. In the anomalous-GVD regime, a sequence of 'light bullets' is formed in the filament for both a phase-modulated and a transform-limited pulse.

  18. Jitter model and signal processing techniques for pulse width modulation optical recording

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Max M.-K.

    1991-01-01

    A jitter model and signal processing techniques are discussed for data recovery in Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) optical recording. In PWM, information is stored through modulating sizes of sequential marks alternating in magnetic polarization or in material structure. Jitter, defined as the deviation from the original mark size in the time domain, will result in error detection if it is excessively large. A new approach is taken in data recovery by first using a high speed counter clock to convert time marks to amplitude marks, and signal processing techniques are used to minimize jitter according to the jitter model. The signal processing techniques include motor speed and intersymbol interference equalization, differential and additive detection, and differential and additive modulation.

  19. Waveform timing performance of a 5 GS/s fast pulse sampling module with DRS4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jin-Hong; Liu, Shu-Bin; An, Qi

    2015-10-01

    We first clarify timing issues of non-uniform sampling intervals regarding a 5 GS/s fast pulse sampling module with DRS4. A calibration strategy is proposed, and as a result, the waveform timing performance is improved to below 10 ps RMS. We then further evaluate waveform-timing performance of the module by comparing with a 10 GS/s oscilloscope in a setup with plastic scintillators and fast PMTs. Different waveform timing algorithms are employed for analysis, and the module shows comparable timing performance with that of the oscilloscope. Supported by Knowledge Innovation Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (KJCX2-YW-N27), and National Natural Science Foundation of China (11175176)

  20. A Pulsed Modulator Power Supply for the g-2 Muon Storage Ring Injection Kicker

    SciTech Connect

    Mi,J.; Lee, Y.Y.; Morse, W. M.; Pai, C.; Pappas, G.; Sanders, R.; Semertzidis, Y.

    1999-03-29

    This paper describes the pulse modulator power supplies used to drive the kicker magnets that inject the muon beam into the g-2 storage ring that has been built at Brookhaven. Three modulators built into coaxial structures consisting of a series circuit of an energy storage capacitor, damping resistor and a fast thyratron switch are used to energize three magnets that kick the beam into the proper orbit. A 100 kV charging power supply is used to charge the capacitor to 95 kV. the damping resistor shapes the magnet current waveform to a 450 nanosecond half-sine to match the injection requirements. this paper discusses the modulator design, construction and operation.

  1. Dual header pulse interval modulation (DH-PIM) in FSO communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Tianping; Peng, Kai; Lu, Yimin; Lu, Gang

    2007-11-01

    Recently, free space optical communication has attracted a considerable amount of interest as an alternative medium to radio for wireless transmission. It has many advantages such as a huge unregulated bandwidth, high data rates, and resistance to multi-path fading relative security against eavesdropping. The work presented in this thesis focuses on modulation schemes. Concerns of eye safety and power consumption limit the average transmitter power, which suggests that modulation techniques possessing a high peak-to-mean power ratio are favorable. This is generally achieved by trading off power efficiency against bandwidth efficiency. A novel dual-header pulse interval modulation (DH-PIM) for optical wireless communications is proposed in this paper. The symbol structure, the spectral properties, and the expression for bandwidth requirement and optical power requirement of DH-PIM in the absence of and in the presence of multi-path dispersion is presented in this paper.

  2. Terahertz modulation of the Faraday rotation by laser pulses via the optical Kerr effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subkhangulov, R. R.; Mikhaylovskiy, R. V.; Zvezdin, A. K.; Kruglyak, V. V.; Rasing, Th.; Kimel, A. V.

    2016-02-01

    The magneto-optical Faraday effect played a crucial role in the elucidation of the electromagnetic nature of light. Today it is powerful means to probe magnetism and the basic operational principle of magneto-optical modulators. Understanding the mechanisms allowing for modulation of the magneto-optical response at terahertz frequencies may have far-reaching consequences for photonics, ultrafast optomagnetism and magnonics, as well as for future development of ultrafast Faraday modulators. Here we suggest a conceptually new approach for an ultrafast tunable magneto-optical modulation with the help of counter-propagating laser pulses. Using terbium gallium garnet (Tb3Ga5O12) we demonstrate the feasibility of such magneto-optical modulation with a frequency up to 1.1 THz, which is continuously tunable by means of an external magnetic field. Besides the novel concept for ultrafast magneto-optical polarization modulation, our findings reveal the importance of accounting for propagation effects in the interpretation of pump-probe magneto-optical experiments.

  3. Sub-ten nanosecond laser pulse shaping using lithium niobate modulators and a double-passed tapered amplifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, C. E., III; Gould, P. L.

    2015-05-01

    We present progress on developing a laser pulse shaping system capable of generating pulses shorter than ten nanoseconds and frequency chirps of up to about 5 GHz in 2.5 ns. Shaped control of phase and amplitude on this timescale may prove useful for producing ultracold molecules and controlling atomic hyperfine state populations. The pulses are generated by passing 780 nm light from an external cavity diode laser through a fiber-coupled lithium niobate (LN) phase modulator (PM) in series with an LN intensity modulator (IM). The modulators are driven with a single-channel 8 GS/s arbitrary waveform generator configured with an RF delay line for quasi-two channel pulsed operation. The optical pulses are then amplified in a double-pass tapered amplifier (TA). The TA's intrinsic mode structure leads to an etalon effect that modulates the pulse amplitude during a frequency chirp. To reduce this unwanted effect, a compensating intensity modulation can be programmed onto the seed pulse. This work is supported by DOE.

  4. Desynchronization of electrically evoked auditory-nerve activity by high-frequency pulse trains of long duration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litvak, Leonid M.; Smith, Zachary M.; Delgutte, Bertrand; Eddington, Donald K.

    2003-10-01

    Rubinstein et al. [Hear. Res. 127, 108-118 (1999)] suggested that the neural representation of the waveforms of electric stimuli might be improved by introducing an ongoing, high-rate, desynchronizing pulse train (DPT). A DPT may desynchronize neural responses to electric stimulation in a manner similar to spontaneous activity in a healthy ear. To test this hypothesis, responses of auditory-nerve fibers (ANFs) to 10-min-long electric pulse trains (5 kpps) were recorded from acutely deafened, anesthetized cats. Stimuli were delivered via an intracochlear electrode, and their amplitude was chosen to elicit a response in most ANFs. Responses to pulse trains showed pronounced adaptation during the first 1-2 min, followed by either a sustained response or cessation of spike discharges for the remainder of the stimulus. The adapted discharge rates showed a broad distribution across the ANF population like spontaneous activity. However, a higher proportion of fibers (46%) responded to the DPT at rates below 5 spikes/s than for spontaneous activity, and 12% of the fibers responded at higher rates than any spontaneously active fiber. Interspike interval histograms of sustained responses for some fibers had Poisson-like (exponential) shapes, resembling spontaneous activity, while others exhibited preferred intervals and, occasionally, bursting. Simultaneous recordings from pairs of fibers revealed no evidence of correlated activity, suggesting that the DPT does desynchronize the auditory nerve activity. Overall, these results suggest that responses to an ongoing DPT resemble spontaneous activity in a normal ear for a substantial fraction of the ANFs.

  5. RF-modulated pulsed fiber optic lidar transmitter for improved underwater imaging and communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimpel, F.; Chen, Y.; Fouron, J.-L.; Akbulut, M.; Engin, D.; Gupta, S.

    2011-03-01

    We present results on the design, development and initial testing of a fiber-optic based RF-modulated lidar transmitter operating at 532nm, for underwater imaging application in littoral waters. The design implementation is based on using state-of-the-art high-speed FPGAs, thereby producing optical waveforms with arbitrary digital-RF-modulated pulse patterns with carrier frequencies >= 3GHz, with a repetition rate of 0.5-1MHz, and with average powers >=5W (at 532nm). Use of RF-modulated bursts above 500MHz, instead of single optical pulse lidar detection, reduces the effect of volumetric backscatter for underwater imaging application, leading to an improved signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR) and contrast, for a given range. Initial underwater target detection tests conducted at Patuxent River Naval Air Station, MD, in a large water-tank facility, validates the advantages of this hybrid-lidar-radar (HLR) approach for improved underwater imaging, over a wide range of turbidity levels and both white and black targets. The compact, robust and power-efficient fiber laser architecture lends very well to lidar sensor integration on unmanned-underwater-vehicle (UUV) platforms. HLR transmitters can also provide similar advantages in active-sensing situations dominated by continuous backscatter, e.g. underwater communications, imaging through smoke and fire environment, rotor-craft landing in degraded visual environment, and pointing-tracking of active-EO sensors through fog.

  6. Breakdown of a gas on a metallic surface by CO2 laser pulses of 10-1000 microsec duration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovalev, A. S.; Popov, A. M.; Rakhimov, A. T.; Seleznev, B. V.; Khropov, S. M.

    1985-04-01

    The formation of a plasma on the surface of a metal target under direct exposure to a CO2 laser is studied theoretically. A classical kinetic equation is derived to calculate the critical radiation intensity of several metallic target materials. Experimental measurements of the time to the development of optical breakdown are found to agree with the theoretical results. It is shown that the breakdown discontinuity of the target shifts to the front of the laser pulse if the temperature of the radiation exceeds the critical temperature. No relation was found between the breakdown discontinuity and the boiling point of the metallic target materials.

  7. X-ray reverberations and the giant X-ray bursts. [short duration pulse in plasma cloud surrounding X-ray source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Canizares, C. R.

    1976-01-01

    It is shown that the shape and spectral evolution of the giant X-ray bursts from the source 3U 1820-30 can be explained by Compton scattering of a short, intense X-ray pulse in a cloud surrounding the source. Pulse shapes due to Thomson scattering of an X-ray burst in an electron cloud were calculated for the (1) optically thin case on the assumption of one scattering per photon, (2) intermediate case with optical depth of about unity, and (3) optically thick case where the process is regarded as diffusion of photons through a uniform sphere. For the intermediate case, the effects of the reverberation were determined explicitly by Monte Carlo calculation. For an optical depth of 3, square pulse duration of 2 sec, characteristic cloud radius of 70,000 km, characteristic cloud density of 4 times 10 to the 14th per cu cm, and temperature of 5-30 keV, the calculations give a reasonably accurate description of X-ray bursts from 3U 1820-30. The scattering model does not imply the existence of a supermassive, central black hole.

  8. 180 MW/180 KW pulse modulator for S-band klystron of LUE-200 linac of IREN installation of JINR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Kim Dong; Sumbaev, A. P.; Shvetsov, V. N.

    2014-09-01

    The offer on working out of the pulse modulator with 180 MW pulse power and 180 kW average power for pulse S-band klystrons of LUE-200 linac of IREN installation at the Laboratory of neutron physics (FLNP) at JINR is formulated. Main requirements, key parameters and element base of the modulator are presented. The variant of the basic scheme on the basis of 14 (or 11) stage 2 parallel PFN with the thyratron switchboard (TGI2-10K/50) and six parallel high voltage power supplies (CCPS Power Supply) is considered.

  9. Cross modulation method of transformation of the spatial coherence of pulsed laser radiation in a nonlinear medium

    SciTech Connect

    Kitsak, M A; Kitsak, A I

    2008-04-30

    The cross modulation method of transformation of the spatial coherence of low-power pulsed laser radiation in a nonlinear medium is proposed. The method is realised experimentally in a multimode optical fibre. The estimates of the degree of spatial coherence of radiation subjected to the phase cross modulation demonstrated the high efficiency of this radiation decorrelation mechanism. (control of laser radiation parameters)

  10. Development of Pulse Position Modulation/Optical CDMA (PPM/O-CDMA) for Gb/s Fiber Optic Networking

    SciTech Connect

    Mendez, A J; Hernandez, V J; Gagliardi, R M; Bennett, C V; Lennon, W J

    2006-05-25

    Pulse position modulation (PPM) in lasercom systems is known to provide potential advantages over other modulation schemes. [1]. In PPM, a periodic time frame is established and data is transmitted by placing a pulse in any one of several subintervals (or ''slots'') within each frame. In PPM/O-CDMA all users use the same frame structure and each transmits its unique address code in place of the PPM pulse. The advantage of PPM as a pulsed signal format is that (1) a single pulse can transmit multiple bits during each frame; (2) decoding (determining which subinterval contains the pulse) is by comparison rather than threshold tests (as in on-off-keying); (3) each user transmits in only a small fraction of the frame, hence the multi-access interference (MAI) of any user statistically spreads over the entire frame time, reducing the chance of overlap with any other user; and (4) under an average power constraint, increasing frame time increases the peak pulse power (i.e., PPM trades average power for peak power). The most straightforward approach to implementing PPM/O-CDMA data modulator inserts the PPM pulse modulation first, then imposes the O-CDMA coding. A pulsed PPM modulator converts bits (words) into pulse positions. In the case of wavelength/time (W/T) matrix codes, multi-wavelength pulses are generated at the beginning of each frame, at the frame rate. For M-ary PPM, a block of k bits represents M = 2{sup k} unique interval positions in the frame corresponding to M-l specific time delays (the zero delay is also a position). PPM modulation is achieved by shifting the initial pulse into an interval position with delay D(i) (i=0,1,2,..,M-1). The location of a pulse position (selection of a delay) therefore identifies a unique k-bit word in the frame. At the receiver, determining which delay occurs relative to the frame start time decodes the data word. The probability of pulse overlap between two users decreases with M, which therefore decreases the probability

  11. Large energy pulse generation modulated by graphene epitaxially grown on silicon carbide.

    PubMed

    Yu, Haohai; Chen, Xiufang; Zhang, Huaijin; Xu, Xiangang; Hu, Xiaobo; Wang, Zhengping; Wang, Jiyang; Zhuang, Shidong; Jiang, Minhua

    2010-12-28

    Graphene grown by thermal decomposition of a two-inch 6H silicon carbide (SiC) wafers surface was used to modulate a large energy pulse laser. Because of its saturable absorbing properties, graphene was used as a passive Q-switcher, and because of its high refractive index the SiC substrate was used as an output coupler. Together they formed a setup where the passively Q-switched neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG) crystal laser was realized with the pulse energy of 159.2 nJ. Our results illustrate the feasibility of using graphene as an inexpensive Q-switcher for solid-state lasers and its promising applications in integrated optics. PMID:21058692

  12. Avoiding the hazards of pulse-width modulated adjustable-speed drives

    SciTech Connect

    Howe, B.

    1993-12-31

    Pulse-width modulated (PWM) adjustable-speed drives are taking over the market for ASDs under 200 horsepower because they are less expensive and more reliable than competing technologies and because they provide more precise control of motor acceleration, speed, and torque. Misapplication of PWM drives has led to numerous motor failures, however, which could discourage use of this promising technology. Such problems can be readily prevented by careful specification and installation of the drive, the motor, and the cabling between them. What`s behind these costly and inconvenient technical difficulties? They`re caused by interactions between the extremely rapid voltage pulses from the drive and the motor windings, which can lead to excessive voltages that damage the winding insulation and lead to motor failure. PWM drives can also cause radio frequency interference and excessive heating of conduit systems.

  13. Modulational instability and generation of pulse trains in asymmetric dual-core nonlinear optical fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganapathy, R.; Malomed, Boris A.; Porsezian, K.

    2006-06-01

    Instability of continuous-wave (CW) states is investigated in a system of two parallel-coupled fibers, with a pumped (active) nonlinear dispersive core and a lossy (passive) linear one. Modulational instability (MI) conditions are found from linearized equations for small perturbations, the results being drastically different for the normal and anomalous group-velocity dispersion (GVD) in the active core. Simulations of the full system demonstrate that the development of the MI in the former regime leads to establishment of a regular or chaotic array of pulses, if the MI saturates, or a chain of well-separated peaks with continuously growing amplitudes if the instability does not saturate. In the anomalous-GVD regime, a chain of return-to-zero (RZ) peaks, or a single RZ peak emerge, also with growing amplitudes. The latter can be used as a source of RZ pulses for optical telecommunications.

  14. High-fidelity pulse density modulation in neuromorphic electric circuits utilizing natural heterogeneity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Utagawa, Akira; Asai, Tetsuya; Amemiya, Yoshihito

    Hospedales et al. have recently proposed a neural network model of the “vestibulo-ocular reflex” (VOR) in which a common input was given to multiple nonidentical spiking neurons that were exposed to uncorrelated temporal noise, and the output was represented by the sum of these neurons. Although the function of the VOR network is equivalent to pulse density modulation, the neurons' non-uniformity and temporal noises given to the neurons were shown to improve the output spike's fidelity to the analog input. In this paper, we propose a CMOS analog circuit for implementing the VOR network that exploits the non-uniformity of real MOS devices. Through extensive laboratory experiments using discrete MOS devices, we show that the output's fidelity to the input pulses is clearly improved by using multiple neuron circuits, in which the non-uniformity is naturally embedded into the devices.

  15. Differential pulse amplitude modulation for multiple-input single-output OWVLC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, S. H.; Kwon, D. H.; Kim, S. J.; Son, Y. H.; Han, S. K.

    2015-01-01

    White light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are widely used for lighting due to their energy efficiency, eco-friendly, and small size than previously light sources such as incandescent, fluorescent bulbs and so on. Optical wireless visible light communication (OWVLC) based on LED merges lighting and communications in applications such as indoor lighting, traffic signals, vehicles, and underwater communications because LED can be easily modulated. However, physical bandwidth of LED is limited about several MHz by slow time constant of the phosphor and characteristics of device. Therefore, using the simplest modulation format which is non-return-zero on-off-keying (NRZ-OOK), the data rate reaches only to dozens Mbit/s. Thus, to improve the transmission capacity, optical filtering and pre-, post-equalizer are adapted. Also, high-speed wireless connectivity is implemented using spectrally efficient modulation methods: orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) or discrete multi-tone (DMT). However, these modulation methods need additional digital signal processing such as FFT and IFFT, thus complexity of transmitter and receiver is increasing. To reduce the complexity of transmitter and receiver, we proposed a novel modulation scheme which is named differential pulse amplitude modulation. The proposed modulation scheme transmits different NRZ-OOK signals with same amplitude and unit time delay using each LED chip, respectively. The `N' parallel signals from LEDs are overlapped and directly detected at optical receiver. Received signal is demodulated by power difference between unit time slots. The proposed scheme can overcome the bandwidth limitation of LEDs and data rate can be improved according to number of LEDs without complex digital signal processing.

  16. The Extent of Active Processing of a Long-Duration Stimulus Modulates the Scalp-Recorded Sustained Potential

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Kenneth; Herzig, Alyssa; Jashmidi, Parastoo

    2009-01-01

    A long-duration stimulus will elicit a negative sustained potential (SP) that is maximum in amplitude over fronto-central areas of the scalp. This study examines how the duration of active attentional processing of the stimulus might also elicit a nonsensory contingent negative variation (CNV) that overlaps and summates to the SP. Subjects were…

  17. A new sealed RF-excited CO2 laser for enamel ablation operating at 9.4-μm with a pulse duration of 26-μs

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Kenneth H.; Jew, Jamison M.; Fried, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Several studies over the past 20 years have shown that carbon dioxide lasers operating at wavelengths between 9.3 and 9.6-μm with pulse durations near 20-μs are ideal for hard tissue ablation. Those wavelengths are coincident with the peak absorption of the mineral phase. The pulse duration is close to the thermal relaxation time of the deposited energy of a few microseconds which is short enough to minimize peripheral thermal damage and long enough to minimize plasma shielding effects to allow efficient ablation at practical rates. The desired pulse duration near 20-μs has been difficult to achieve since it is too long for transverse excited atmospheric pressure (TEA) lasers and too short for radio-frequency (RF) excited lasers for efficient operation. Recently, Coherent Inc. (Santa Clara, CA) developed the Diamond J5-V laser for microvia drilling which can produce laser pulses greater than 100-mJ in energy at 9.4-μm with a pulse duration of 26-μs and it can achieve pulse repetition rates of 3 KHz. We report the first results using this laser to ablate dental enamel. Efficient ablation of dental enamel is possible at rates exceeding 50-μm per pulse. This laser is ideally suited for the selective ablation of carious lesions. PMID:27006521

  18. Dependence of the absorption of pulsed CO{sub 2}-laser radiation by silane on wavenumber, fluence, pulse duration, temperature, optical path length, and pressure of absorbing and nonabsorbing gases

    SciTech Connect

    Blazejowski, J.; Gruzdiewa, L.; Rulewski, J.; Lampe, F.W.

    1995-05-15

    The absorption of three lines [{ital P}(20), 944.2 cm{sup {minus}1}; {ital P}(14), 949.2 cm{sup {minus}1}; and {ital R}(24), 978.5 cm{sup {minus}1}] of the pulsed CO{sub 2} laser (00{sup 0}1--10{sup 0}0 transition) by SiH{sub 4} was measured at various pulse energy, pulse duration, temperature, optical path length, and pressure of the compound and nonabsorbing foreign gases. In addition, low intensity infrared absorption spectrum of silane was compared with high intensity absorption characteristics for all lines of the pulsed CO{sub 2} laser. The experimental dependencies show deviations from the phenomenological Beer--Lambert law which can be considered as arising from the high intensity of an incident radiation and collisions of absorbing molecules with surroundings. These effects were included into the expression, being an extended form of the Beer--Lambert law, which reasonably approximates all experimental data. The results, except for extending knowledge on the interaction of a high power laser radiation with matter, can help understanding and planning processes leading to preparation of silicon-containing technologically important materials.

  19. Performance of high-convergence, layered DT implosions with extended-duration pulses at the National Ignition Facility.

    PubMed

    Smalyuk, V A; Atherton, L J; Benedetti, L R; Bionta, R; Bleuel, D; Bond, E; Bradley, D K; Caggiano, J; Callahan, D A; Casey, D T; Celliers, P M; Cerjan, C J; Clark, D; Dewald, E L; Dixit, S N; Döppner, T; Edgell, D H; Edwards, M J; Frenje, J; Gatu-Johnson, M; Glebov, V Y; Glenn, S; Glenzer, S H; Grim, G; Haan, S W; Hammel, B A; Hartouni, E P; Hatarik, R; Hatchett, S; Hicks, D G; Hsing, W W; Izumi, N; Jones, O S; Key, M H; Khan, S F; Kilkenny, J D; Kline, J L; Knauer, J; Kyrala, G A; Landen, O L; Le Pape, S; Lindl, J D; Ma, T; MacGowan, B J; Mackinnon, A J; MacPhee, A G; McNaney, J; Meezan, N B; Moody, J D; Moore, A; Moran, M; Moses, E I; Pak, A; Parham, T; Park, H-S; Patel, P K; Petrasso, R; Ralph, J E; Regan, S P; Remington, B A; Robey, H F; Ross, J S; Spears, B K; Springer, P T; Suter, L J; Tommasini, R; Town, R P; Weber, S V; Widmann, K

    2013-11-22

    Radiation-driven, low-adiabat, cryogenic DT layered plastic capsule implosions were carried out on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) to study the sensitivity of performance to peak power and drive duration. An implosion with extended drive and at reduced peak power of 350 TW achieved the highest compression with fuel areal density of ~1.3±0.1 g/cm2, representing a significant step from previously measured ~1.0 g/cm2 toward a goal of 1.5 g/cm2. Future experiments will focus on understanding and mitigating hydrodynamic instabilities and mix, and improving symmetry required to reach the threshold for thermonuclear ignition on NIF. PMID:24313493

  20. Design of a pulse-type strain gauge balance for a long-test-duration hypersonic shock tunnel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y.; Liu, Y.; Jiang, Z.

    2016-01-01

    When the measurement of aerodynamic forces is conducted in a hypersonic shock tunnel, the inertial forces lead to low-frequency vibrations of the model, and its motion cannot be addressed through digital filtering because a sufficient number of cycles cannot be obtained during a tunnel run. This finding implies restrictions on the model size and mass as the natural frequencies are inversely proportional to the length scale of the model. Therefore, the force measurement still has many problems, particularly for large and heavy models. Different structures of a strain gauge balance (SGB) are proposed and designed, and the measurement element is further optimized to overcome the difficulties encountered during the measurement of aerodynamic forces in a shock tunnel. The motivation for this study is to assess the structural performance of the SGB used in a long-test-duration JF12 hypersonic shock tunnel, which has more than 100 ms of test time. Force tests were conducted for a large-scale cone with a 10° semivertex angle and a length of 0.75 m in the JF12 long-test-duration shock tunnel. The finite element method was used for the analysis of the vibrational characteristics of the Model-Balance-Sting System (MBSS) to ensure a sufficient number of cycles, particularly for the axial force signal during a shock tunnel run. The higher-stiffness SGB used in the test shows good performance, wherein the frequency of the MBSS increases because of the stiff construction of the balance. The experimental results are compared with the data obtained in another wind tunnel and exhibit good agreement at M = 7 and α =5°.

  1. Pulse-width modulated external resistance increases the microbial fuel cell power output.

    PubMed

    Coronado, J; Perrier, M; Tartakovsky, B

    2013-11-01

    This study describes MFC operation with a pulse-width modulated connection of the external resistor (R-PWM mode) at low and high frequencies. Analysis of the output voltage profiles acquired during R-PWM tests showed the presence of slow and fast dynamic components, which can be described by a simple equivalent circuit model suitable for process control applications. At operating frequencies above 100 Hz a noticeable improvement in MFC performance was observed with the power output increase of 22-43% as compared to MFC operation with a constant external resistance. PMID:23989037

  2. Modeling of testosterone regulation by pulse-modulated feedback: An experimental data study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattsson, Per; Medvedev, Alexander

    2013-10-01

    The continuous part of a hybrid (pulse-modulated) model of testosterone feedback regulation is extended with infinite-dimensional and nonlinear dynamics, to better explain the testosterone concentration profiles observed in clinical data. A linear least-squares based optimization algorithm is developed for the purpose of detecting impulses of gonadotropin-realsing hormone from measured concentration of luteinizing hormone. The parameters in the model are estimated from hormone concentration measured in human males, and simulation results from the full closed-loop system are provided.

  3. Pulse Code Modulation (PCM) encoder handbook for Aydin Vector MMP-600 series system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Currier, S. F.; Powell, W. R.

    1986-01-01

    The hardware and software characteristics of a time division multiplex system are described. The system is used to sample analog and digital data. The data is merged with synchronization information to produce a serial pulse coded modulation (PCM) bit stream. Information presented herein is required by users to design compatible interfaces and assure effective utilization of this encoder system. GSFC/Wallops Flight Facility has flown approximately 50 of these systems through 1984 on sounding rockets with no inflight failures. Aydin Vector manufactures all of the components for these systems.

  4. Effects of Treatment Duration and Cooling Rate on Pure Aluminum Solidification Upon Pulse Magneto-Oscillation Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edry, Itzhak; Mordechai, Tomer; Frage, Nachum; Hayun, Shmuel

    2016-03-01

    The effect of pulse magneto-oscillation (PMO) treatment on casting grain size has been widely investigated. Nevertheless, its mechanism remains unclear, especially when PMO is applied at different periods during solidification, namely when only applied above the melting point. In the present work, the effect of PMO treatment applied at different segments during solidification was investigated. It was found that the dendrite fragmentation model may well explain the effect of PMO applied during the dendrite growth stage. However, only the cavities activation model may account for the effect when PMO is conducted above the melting point. In current study, the effect of PMO treatment on grain size was also investigated at various cooling rates. It was established that the cooling rate had only a slight effect on grain size when PMO treatment was applied. Thus, PMO treatment may provide homogeneous grain size distribution in castings with different wall thicknesses that solidified with various cooling rates.

  5. Performance of Multiple Pulse Multiple Delay Modulated UWB Signals in a Multiple Access Indoor Wireless Channel

    SciTech Connect

    Nekoogar, F

    2003-06-12

    In this paper, the performance of a two user UWB multiple access (UWB-MA) system based on multiple-pulse multiple-delay (MPMD) modulation scheme in an indoor wireless channel is evaluated by computer simulations. The indoor multipath propagation channel model used in this study is based on the modified statistical Saleh-Valenzuela model proposed by Foerester and Li from Intel. The simulation results indicate that the multipath performance of MPMD modulated signals in a multiple access system outperforms the nonmultipath case as the number of autocorrelation function (ACF) sampling points increases for each user. This is an unusual but important result, since MPMD receiver exploits multipath phenomenon in indoor wireless channels to increase the BER performance, hence the transmission rate in a UWB-MA system.

  6. Enthalpy modulation of a laminar pulsed nitrogen arc jet: time-resolved diagnostics and model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rat, V.; Krowka, J.; Coudert, J. F.

    2015-08-01

    In most studies, plasma spraying of liquid feedstock for ceramic coating elaboration requires limiting the arc motion to obtain stable plasma and to favour homogeneous treatment of nanomaterials. In this chapter, an alternative approach is proposed and consists of using a pulsed arc jet modulating the specific enthalpy in time. The momentum and heat transfers can be controlled provided a synchronous injection of materials is associated with it. The rotational temperatures of the nitrogen arc jet are measured by means of time-resolved optical emission spectroscopy synchronized with the arc voltage. The enthalpy modulation ratio (hmax/hmin) is shown to be close to 2.68. A simplified model of the dynamics of heat transfers is used to interpret diagnostics and highlights a time delay between arc voltage and enthalpy at the nozzle exit due to the characteristic time of heat transfers and residence time of plasma.

  7. Noninvasive in vivo tissue and pulse modulated Raman spectroscopy of human capillary blood and plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaiken, J.; Ellis, Katie; Eslick, Patrick; Piacente, Lauren; Voss, Ethan

    2006-02-01

    We have refined of our previously published tissue modulation technique for obtaining Raman spectra of blood in fingertip capillary beds. Results from the newest LighTouch device benefit from more consistent management of applied force and temperature and more consistent tissue placement. Comparing these more precisely obtained spectra with other spectra obtained from the same capillary beds using the natural heart driven pulse as modulation reveals essential aspects of microcirculation such as plasma skimming, the Faraeus effect and the Faraeus-Lindqvist effect. We discuss these results in the context of performing noninvasive quantitative analysis of blood and blood components in vivo. We show the first Raman spectra of human blood plasma noninvasive, in vivo.

  8. Ultrasound-modulated optical imaging using a photorefractive interferometer and a powerful long pulse laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rousseau, Guy; Blouin, Alain; Monchalin, Jean-Pierre

    2009-02-01

    Ultrasound-modulated optical imaging is an emerging biodiagnostic technique which provides the optical spectroscopic signature and the spatial localization of an optically absorbing object embedded in a strongly scattering medium. The transverse resolution of the technique is determined by the lateral extent of ultrasound beam focal zone while the axial resolution is obtained by using short ultrasound pulses. The practical application of this technique is presently limited by its poor sensitivity. Moreover, any method to enhance the signal-to-noise ratio must satisfy the biomedical safety limits. In this paper, we propose to use a pulsed single-frequency laser source to raise the optical peak power applied to the scattering medium and to collect more ultrasonically tagged photons. Such a laser source allows illuminating the tissues mainly during the transit time of the ultrasonic wave. A single-frequency Nd:YAG laser emitting 500-μs pulses with a peak power superior to 100 W was used. Tagged photons were detected with a GaAs photorefractive interferometer characterized by a large optical etendue. When pumped by high intensity laser pulses, such an interferometer provides the fast response time essential to obtain an apparatus insensitive to the speckle decorrelation encountered in biomedical applications. Consequently, the combination of a large-etendue photorefractive interferometer with a high-power pulsed laser could allow obtaining both the sensitivity and the fast response time necessary for biomedical applications. Measurements performed in 30- and 60-mm thick optical phantoms made of titanium dioxide particles dispersed in sunflower oil are presented. Results obtained in 30- and 60-mm thick chicken breast samples are also reported.

  9. Pulse

    MedlinePlus

    Heart rate; Heart beat ... The pulse can be measured at areas where an artery passes close to the skin. These areas include the: ... side of the foot Wrist To measure the pulse at the wrist, place the index and middle ...

  10. Effects of adsorbed proteins, an antifouling agent and long-duration DC voltage pulses on the impedance of silicon-based neural microelectrodes.

    PubMed

    Sommakia, Salah; Rickus, Jenna L; Otto, Kevin J

    2009-01-01

    The successful use of implantable neural microelectrodes as neuroprosthetic devices depends on the mitigation of the reactive tissue response of the brain. One of the factors affecting the ultimate severity of the reactive tissue response and the in vivo electrical properties of the microelectrodes is the initial adsorption of proteins onto the surface of the implanted microelectrodes. In this study we quantify the increase in microelectrode impedance magnitude at physiological frequencies following electrode immersion in a 10% bovine serum albumin (BSA) solution. We also demonstrate the efficacy of a common antifouling molecule, poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG), in preventing a significant increase in microelectrode impedance. In addition, we show the feasibility of using long-duration DC voltage pulses to remove adsorbed proteins from the microelectrode surface. PMID:19963693

  11. The study of burst pulses envelope in Ytterbium-doped fiber amplifier modulating by pulsed pump source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lei; Yu, Haijuan; Zhang, Jingyuan; Qi, Yaoyao; Qiao, Zhongliang; Lin, Xuechun

    2016-02-01

    The characteristics of fiber amplifiers of burst pulses envelope during the propagation are comprehensively studied under the conditions of pulsed pump with low repetition rate. The variation of signal envelopes, pump power and upper-level population distribution are discussed in this paper. The impacts of linear varied and exponential varied pump to the raising edge and tailing edge of the output pulses' envelope, are mainly emphasized. Finally, the genetic algorithm is employed to reshape the pulses' envelopes.

  12. Single Event Effects Testing of the Linfinity SG1525A Pulse Width Modulator Controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, J. W., Jr.; Carts, M. A.; LaBel, K. A.; Forney, J. D.; Irwin, T. L.

    2003-01-01

    Pulse Width Modulator (PWM) Controllers are the heart of switching power supply systems in development today. The PWMs considered here have the same integration advantages as many other controllers but it also includes the interface drivers for the follow-on power Field Effect Transistors (FET). Previous work on these types of devices looked into the required test methodologies [ 11 and the impact of radiation on the soft start and shutdown circuits of typically incorporated in the technology [2]. Taking advantage of this previous work this study was undertaken to determine the single event destructive and transient susceptibility of the Linfinity SG1525A Pulse Width Modulator Controller. The device was monitored for transient interruptions in the output signals and for destructive events induced by exposing it to a heavy ion beam at the Texas A&M University Cyclotron Single Event Effects Test Facility. After exposing these devices to the beam, a new upset mode has been identified that can lead to catastrophic power supply system failure if this event would occur while drive power FETs off the two device outputs. The devices and the test methods used will be described first. This will be followed by a brief description of the data collected to date (not all data can be presented with the length constraints of the summary) and a summary of the key results.

  13. Adaptive Bessel-autocorrelation of ultrashort pulses with phase-only spatial light modulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huferath-von Luepke, Silke; Bock, Martin; Grunwald, Ruediger

    2009-06-01

    Recently, we proposed a new approach of a noncollinear correlation technique for ultrashort-pulsed coherent optical signals which was referred to as Bessel-autocorrelator (BAC). The BAC-principle combines the advantages of Bessellike nondiffracting beams like stable propagation, angular robustness and self-reconstruction with the principle of temporal autocorrelation. In comparison to other phase-sensitive measuring techniques, autocorrelation is most straightforward and time-effective because of non-iterative data processing. The analysis of nonlinearly converted fringe patterns of pulsed Bessel-like beams reveals their temporal signature from details of fringe envelopes. By splitting the beams with axicon arrays into multiple sub-beams, transversal resolution is approximated. Here we report on adaptive implementations of BACs with improved phase resolution realized by phase-only liquid-crystal-on-silicon spatial light modulators (LCoS-SLMs). Programming microaxicon phase functions in gray value maps enables for a flexible variation of phase and geometry. Experiments on the diagnostics of few-cycle pulses emitted by a mode-locked Ti:sapphire laser oscillator at wavelengths around 800 nm with 2D-BAC and angular tuned BAC were performed. All-optical phase shift BAC and fringe free BAC approaches are discussed.

  14. Highly precise and accurate terahertz polarization measurements based on electro-optic sampling with polarization modulation of probe pulses.

    PubMed

    Nemoto, Natsuki; Higuchi, Takuya; Kanda, Natsuki; Konishi, Kuniaki; Kuwata-Gonokami, Makoto

    2014-07-28

    We have developed an electro-optic (EO) sampling method with polarization modulation of probe pulses; this method allows us to measure the direction of a terahertz (THz) electric-field vector with a precision of 0.1 mrad in a data acquisition time of 660 ms using a 14.0-kHz repetition rate pulsed light source. Through combination with a THz time-domain spectroscopy technique, a time-dependent two-dimensional THz electric field was obtained. We used a photoelastic modulator for probe-polarization modulation and a (111)-oriented zincblende crystal as the EO crystal. Using the tilted pulse front excitation method with stable regeneratively amplified pulses, we prepared stable and intense THz pulses and performed pulse-by-pulse analog-to-digital conversion of the signals. These techniques significantly reduced statistical errors and enabled sub-mrad THz polarization measurements. We examined the performance of this method by measuring a wire-grid polarizer as a sample. The present method will open a new frontier of high-precision THz polarization sensitive measurements. PMID:25089412

  15. Modeling and calibration of pulse-modulation based ToF imaging systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Süss, Andreas; Varga, Gabor; Marx, Michael; Fürst, Peter; Gläsener, Stefan; Tiedke, Wolfram; Jung, Melanie; Spickermann, Andreas; Hosticka, Bedrich J.

    2016-03-01

    Conversely to the continuous wave indirect time-of-flight (CW-iToF) imaging scheme, pulsed modulation ToF (PM-iToF) imaging is a promising depth measurement technique for operation at high ambient illumination. It is known that non-linearity and finite charge-transfer speed impact trueness and precision of ToF systems.1-3 As pulses are no Eigenfunctions to the shutter system, this issue is especially pronounced in pulsed modulation.2, 3 Despite these effects, it is possible to find analytical expressions founded on physical observations that map scenery parameters such as depth information, reflectance and ambient light level to sensor output.3, 4 In the application, the inverse of this map has to be evaluated. In PM-iToF, an inverse function cannot be yielded in a direct manner, as models proposed in the literature were transcendental.3, 4 For a limited range an approximating linearization can be performed to yield depth information.5 To extend the usable range, recently, an alternative approach that indirectly approximates the inverse function was presented.6 This method was founded on 1D doping concentration profiles, which, however, are typically not made available to end users. Also, limitations of the 1D approximation as well as stability are yet to be explored. This work presents a calibration methodology that copes with detector insufficiencies such as finite charge transfer speed. Contrarily to the state of the art, no prior knowledge on details of the underlying devices is required. The work covers measurement setup, a benchmark of various calibration schemes and deals with issues such as overfitting or defect pixels.

  16. Comparison of discrete multi-tone and pulse amplitude modulation for beyond 100 Gbps short-reach application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishihara, Masato; Kai, Yutaka; Tanaka, Toshiki; Takahara, Tomoo; Li, Lei; Yan, Weizhen; Liu, Bo; Tao, Zhenning; Rasmussen, Jens C.

    2013-12-01

    Advanced multi-level modulation is an attractive modulation technique for beyond 100 Gbps short reach optical transmission system. Above all, discrete multi-tone (DMT) technique and pulse amplitude modulation (PAM) technique are the strong candidates. We compared the 100 Gbps transmission characteristics of DMT and PAM by simulation and experiment. The comparison was done by using same devices and only the digital signal processing was changed. We studied the transmission distance dependence for 0.5 to 40 km and the impact of the frequency responses of the optical devices. Finally we discuss the features of the both modulation techniques.

  17. Single-frequency pulsed Brillouin-thulium fiber laser at 2 µm with nonlinear polarization rotation and active phase modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiong; Lv, Haibin; Zhou, Pu; Wu, Weijun; Wang, Xiaolin; Xiao, Hu; Liu, Zejin

    2014-10-01

    We present a single-frequency (SF) pulsed fiber laser at 2 µm based on stimulated Brillouin scattering in a thulium-doped fiber laser. The effective feedback of the fiber laser is quite weak to induce pulse operation. Nonlinear polarization rotation and active phase modulation are employed to compress the pulse width and stabilize the pulse train. This SF pulsed Brillouin-thulium fiber laser (BTFL) can generate a stable pulse train with a repetition rate of ˜310 kHz and a pulse width of ˜200 ns. The repetition rate of the pulse train can be adjusted by controlling the cavity length, and the pulse width can be tuned between 200 and 500 ns. The central wavelength locates at 1971.58 nm with an optical signal-to-noise ratio of more than 40 dB, and the linewidth is about 6 MHz. This is the first demonstration of the SF pulsed BTFL as far as we know.

  18. Discharge conditions for CW and pulse-modulated surface-wave plasmas in low-temperature sterilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, L.; Terashita, F.; Nonaka, H.; Ogino, A.; Nagata, T.; Koide, Y.; Nanko, S.; Kurawaki, I.; Nagatsu, M.

    2006-01-01

    The discharge conditions required for low-temperature plasma sterilization were investigated using low-pressure surface-wave plasma (SWP). The discharge conditions for both continuous wave (CW) and pulse-modulated SWPs in low-temperature sterilization of Geobacillus stearothermophilus with a population of 1.5 × 106 and 3.0 × 106 were studied by varying the microwave input power from 500 W to 3 kW, and the effective plasma treatment time from 40 to 300 s. Results showed that sterilization was possible in a shorter treatment time using a higher microwave power for both CW and pulse-modulated SWPs. Pulse-modulated SWPs gave effective sterilization at a temperature roughly 10 to 20 °C below that of CW SWPs under the same average microwave power.

  19. A pulse width modulated picket fence pulser to reduce accelerator start-up transients

    SciTech Connect

    Reass, William A; Balmes, Anthony A; Bradley, Joseph T; Netz, Dana; Sandoval, Jacob B

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a solid state modulator used to control the input beam to the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center 'LANSCE' 800 MeV accelerator. This electrostatic Ground Level Deflector (GLD) chops the beam after the 750 keV injection energy. Two GLD's are utilized, one for the 'H+' beam and another for the 'H-' beam. These modulators are mounted on the vacuum beam pipe and directly operate sets of deflection plates. To minimize the accelerator beam start up transients, the beam is let into the accelerator cavity structures by a pulse width modulated picket fence operating between 0 and 12 kV. As the deflection plate structure appears as a capacitive load, a totem-pole switching network is utilized to facilitate rise and fall times of {approx}50 ns that is able to sink and source current to minimize beam induced sidewall activation. This paper will describe the system design and provides operational results as now presently utilized on the LANSCE accelerator system.

  20. Stabilization and time resolved measurement of the frequency evolution of a modulated diode laser for chirped pulse generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varga-Umbrich, K.; Bakos, J. S.; Djotyan, G. P.; Ignácz, P. N.; Ráczkevi, B.; Sörlei, Zs; Szigeti, J.; Kedves, M. Á.

    2016-05-01

    We have developed experimental methods for the generation of chirped laser pulses of controlled frequency evolution in the nanosecond pulse length range for coherent atomic interaction studies. The pulses are sliced from the radiation of a cw external cavity diode laser while its drive current, and consequently its frequency, are sinusoidally modulated. By the proper choice of the modulation parameters, as well as of the timing of pulse slicing, we can produce a wide variety of frequency sweep ranges during the pulse. In order to obtain the required frequency chirp, we need to stabilize the center frequency of the modulated laser and to measure the resulting frequency evolution with appropriate temporal resolution. These tasks have been solved by creating a beat signal with a reference laser locked to an atomic transition frequency. The beat signal is then analyzed, as well as its spectral sideband peaks are fed back to the electronics of the frequency stabilization of the modulated laser. This method is simple and it has the possibility for high speed frequency sweep with narrow linewidth that is appropriate, for example, for selective manipulation of atomic states in a magneto-optical trap.

  1. FERRITE-FREE, OIL-SWITCHED, FOUR-STAGE, HIGH-GRADIENT MODULE FOR COMPACT PULSED POWER APPLICATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Rhodes, M A; Watson, J; Sanders, D; Sampayan, S; Caporaso, G

    2007-06-15

    We describe the design and present initial experimental results of a novel, high-gradient, compact pulsed power module. Our application focus is linear accelerators but our technology is easily applicable to a wide range of pulse-power applications. Our design incorporates and combines for the first time a number of our recently developed, enabling technologies including: a novel, bipolar pulse-forming line allowing module stacking without ferrites, very compact and fast oil filled switches, novel high-dielectric constant insulator/energy storage material, and a novel method for reducing edge enhancements in the pulse forming structure. The combination of these technologies enables us to design a very compact stackable module that will deliver high-gradient (5-10 MV/m) voltage at 5-10kA to arbitrary loads. Our prototype is comprised of four stages. Each stage is designed to operate at 300kV producing 1.2-MV into 120 Ohms. The pulse length is 25-ns and the pulse-shape is rectangular. We present initial experimental results up to 75 kV per stage with the switches operating in self-break mode.

  2. Development of a 33 kV, 20 A long pulse converter modulator for high average power klystron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reghu, T.; Mandloi, V.; Shrivastava, Purushottam

    2014-05-01

    Research, design, and development of high average power, long pulse modulators for the proposed Indian Spallation Neutron Source are underway at Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology. With this objective, a prototype of long pulse modulator capable of delivering 33 kV, 20 A at 5 Hz repetition rate has been designed and developed. Three Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistors (IGBT) based switching modules driving high frequency, high voltage transformers have been used to generate high voltage output. The IGBT based switching modules are shifted in phase by 120° with respect to each other. The switching frequency is 25 kHz. Pulses of 1.6 ms pulse width, 80 μs rise time, and 70 μs fall time have been achieved at the modulator output. A droop of ±0.6% is achieved using a simple segmented digital droop correction technique. The total fault energy transferred to the load during fault has been measured by conducting wire burn tests and is found to be within 3.5 J.

  3. Development of a 33 kV, 20 A long pulse converter modulator for high average power klystron

    SciTech Connect

    Reghu, T.; Mandloi, V.; Shrivastava, Purushottam

    2014-05-15

    Research, design, and development of high average power, long pulse modulators for the proposed Indian Spallation Neutron Source are underway at Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology. With this objective, a prototype of long pulse modulator capable of delivering 33 kV, 20 A at 5 Hz repetition rate has been designed and developed. Three Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistors (IGBT) based switching modules driving high frequency, high voltage transformers have been used to generate high voltage output. The IGBT based switching modules are shifted in phase by 120° with respect to each other. The switching frequency is 25 kHz. Pulses of 1.6 ms pulse width, 80 μs rise time, and 70 μs fall time have been achieved at the modulator output. A droop of ±0.6% is achieved using a simple segmented digital droop correction technique. The total fault energy transferred to the load during fault has been measured by conducting wire burn tests and is found to be within 3.5 J.

  4. Development of a 33 kV, 20 A long pulse converter modulator for high average power klystron.

    PubMed

    Reghu, T; Mandloi, V; Shrivastava, Purushottam

    2014-05-01

    Research, design, and development of high average power, long pulse modulators for the proposed Indian Spallation Neutron Source are underway at Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology. With this objective, a prototype of long pulse modulator capable of delivering 33 kV, 20 A at 5 Hz repetition rate has been designed and developed. Three Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistors (IGBT) based switching modules driving high frequency, high voltage transformers have been used to generate high voltage output. The IGBT based switching modules are shifted in phase by 120° with respect to each other. The switching frequency is 25 kHz. Pulses of 1.6 ms pulse width, 80 μs rise time, and 70 μs fall time have been achieved at the modulator output. A droop of ±0.6% is achieved using a simple segmented digital droop correction technique. The total fault energy transferred to the load during fault has been measured by conducting wire burn tests and is found to be within 3.5 J. PMID:24880410

  5. Temporal coherence shaping based on spectral-domain destructive interference of pulses with different self-phase modulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, D.; Takamasu, K.; Matsumoto, H.

    2013-03-01

    We show via a numerical simulation that the temporal coherence function (TCF) can be shaped by the destructive interference of pulses characterized by different amounts of self-phase modulation (SPM) in the spectral domain. We find that pulse spectra destructively interfering with one another can yield a TCF with distinct peaks. Numerical investigation demonstrates that the shape of the TCF is changeable not only by broadening the spectrum but also by overlapping spectra of the pulses that have experienced different amounts of SPM.

  6. Modulated Electron Cyclotron Drift Instability in a High-Power Pulsed Magnetron Discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsikata, Sedina; Minea, Tiberiu

    2015-05-01

    The electron cyclotron drift instability, implicated in electron heating and anomalous transport, is detected in the plasma of a planar magnetron. Electron density fluctuations associated with the mode are identified via an adapted coherent Thomson scattering diagnostic, under direct current and high-power pulsed magnetron operation. Time-resolved analysis of the mode amplitude reveals that the instability, found at MHz frequencies and millimeter scales, also exhibits a kHz-scale modulation consistent with the observation of larger-scale plasma density nonuniformities, such as the rotating spoke. Sharply collimated axial fluctuations observed at the magnetron axis are consistent with the presence of escaping electrons in a region where the magnetic and electric fields are antiparallel. These results distinguish aspects of magnetron physics from other plasma sources of similar geometry, such as the Hall thruster, and broaden the scope of instabilities which may be considered to dictate magnetron plasma features.

  7. Magnetic hysteresis curve influenced by power-semiconductor characteristics in pulse-width-modulation inverter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujisaki, Keisuke; Liu, Sungju

    2014-05-01

    The influence of power semiconductor characteristic in Pulse-width-modulation (PWM) inverter on the magnetic hysteresis curve in silicon steel is discussed through the measured magnetic hysteresis curves. The magnetic hysteresis curve of PWM inverter-fed silicon steel has a lot of minor loops as closed loops and open loops, which make an influence on the iron loss. Two shapes of minor loops are found to be caused by the voltage shifts and they are derived from the on-voltage of the semiconductors in PWM inverter circuit. Therefore, it is concluded that the power-semiconductor characteristic in PWM inverter makes an influence on the magnetic hysteresis curve in silicon steel.

  8. Reconfigurable optofluidic switch for generation of optical pulse width modulation based on tunable reflective interface.

    PubMed

    Mansuori, M; Zareei, G H; Hashemi, H

    2015-10-01

    We present a numerical method for generation of optical pulse width modulation (PWM) based on tunable reflective interface by using a microfluidic droplet. We demonstrate a single layer, planar, optofluidic PWM switch that is driven by excited alternating microbubbles. The main parameters of generation of this PWM such as frequency and speed of switching can be controlled by the mass flow rates of input fluids, and the shape of plug or droplet. Advantages of this design are the reconfigurability in design and the easy control of the switching parameters. The validation of the proposed design is carried out by employing the finite element method (FEM) for the mechanical simulation and the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) for the optical simulation. PMID:26479666

  9. Pulse-width modulation in defocused three-dimensional fringe projection.

    PubMed

    Ayubi, Gastón A; Ayubi, Jaime A; Di Martino, J Matías; Ferrari, José A

    2010-11-01

    Shape measurements by fringe projection methods require high-quality sinusoidal fringes. We present a sinusoidal fringe generation technique that utilizes slightly defocused binary fringe projection. The proposed method is a spatial version of the well-known pulse-width modulation (PWM) technique of electrical engineering. PWM is easy to implement using off-the-shelf projectors, and it allows us to overcome the gamma problem (i.e., the nonlinear projector response) in the output light intensity. We will demonstrate that, with a small defocusing level--lower than with other techniques proposed in the literature--a high-quality sinusoidal pattern is obtained. Validation experiments using a commercial video projector are presented. PMID:21042390

  10. Pulse-modulated dual-gas control subsystem for space cabin atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, J. K.

    1974-01-01

    An atmosphere control subsystem (ACS) was developed for use in a closed manned cabin, such as the Space Shuttle Orbiter. This subsystem uses the Perkin Elmer mass spectrometer for continuous measurement of major atmospheric constituents (H2, H2O, N2, O2, and CO2). The O2 and N2 analog signals are used as inputs to the controller, which produces a pulse-frequency-modulated output to operate the N2 gas admission solenoid valve and an on-off signal to operate the O2 valve. The proportional controller characteristic results in improved control accuracy as compared with previously used on-off controllers having significant dead-band. A 60-day evaluation test was performed on the ACS during which operation was measured at various values of control setpoint and simulated cabin leakage.

  11. Modulated electron cyclotron drift instability in a high-power pulsed magnetron discharge.

    PubMed

    Tsikata, Sedina; Minea, Tiberiu

    2015-05-01

    The electron cyclotron drift instability, implicated in electron heating and anomalous transport, is detected in the plasma of a planar magnetron. Electron density fluctuations associated with the mode are identified via an adapted coherent Thomson scattering diagnostic, under direct current and high-power pulsed magnetron operation. Time-resolved analysis of the mode amplitude reveals that the instability, found at MHz frequencies and millimeter scales, also exhibits a kHz-scale modulation consistent with the observation of larger-scale plasma density nonuniformities, such as the rotating spoke. Sharply collimated axial fluctuations observed at the magnetron axis are consistent with the presence of escaping electrons in a region where the magnetic and electric fields are antiparallel. These results distinguish aspects of magnetron physics from other plasma sources of similar geometry, such as the Hall thruster, and broaden the scope of instabilities which may be considered to dictate magnetron plasma features. PMID:26001007

  12. Investigating Emotional Top Down Modulation of Ambiguous Faces by Single Pulse TMS on Early Visual Cortices

    PubMed Central

    Yaple, Zachary A.; Vakhrushev, Roman

    2016-01-01

    Top-down processing is a mechanism in which memory, context and expectation are used to perceive stimuli. For this study we investigated how emotion content, induced by music mood, influences perception of happy and sad emoticons. Using single pulse TMS we stimulated right occipital face area (rOFA), primary visual cortex (V1) and vertex while subjects performed a face-detection task and listened to happy and sad music. At baseline, incongruent audio-visual pairings decreased performance, demonstrating dependence of emotion while perceiving ambiguous faces. However, performance of face identification decreased during rOFA stimulation regardless of emotional content. No effects were found between Cz and V1 stimulation. These results suggest that while rOFA is important for processing faces regardless of emotion, V1 stimulation had no effect. Our findings suggest that early visual cortex activity may not integrate emotional auditory information with visual information during emotion top-down modulation of faces. PMID:27445674

  13. Investigating Emotional Top Down Modulation of Ambiguous Faces by Single Pulse TMS on Early Visual Cortices.

    PubMed

    Yaple, Zachary A; Vakhrushev, Roman

    2016-01-01

    Top-down processing is a mechanism in which memory, context and expectation are used to perceive stimuli. For this study we investigated how emotion content, induced by music mood, influences perception of happy and sad emoticons. Using single pulse TMS we stimulated right occipital face area (rOFA), primary visual cortex (V1) and vertex while subjects performed a face-detection task and listened to happy and sad music. At baseline, incongruent audio-visual pairings decreased performance, demonstrating dependence of emotion while perceiving ambiguous faces. However, performance of face identification decreased during rOFA stimulation regardless of emotional content. No effects were found between Cz and V1 stimulation. These results suggest that while rOFA is important for processing faces regardless of emotion, V1 stimulation had no effect. Our findings suggest that early visual cortex activity may not integrate emotional auditory information with visual information during emotion top-down modulation of faces. PMID:27445674

  14. Pulse Code Modulation (PCM) data storage and analysis using a microcomputer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Massey, D. E.

    1986-01-01

    The current widespread use of microcomputers has led to the creation of some very low-cost instrumentation. A Pulse Code Modulation (PCM) storage device/data analyzer -- a peripheral plug-in board especially constructed to enable a personal computer to store and analyze data from a PCM source -- was designed and built for use on the NASA Sounding Rocket Program for PMC encoder configuration and testing. This board and custom-written software turns a computer into a snapshot PCM decommutator which will accept and store many hundreds or thousands of PCM telemetry data frames, then sift through them repeatedly. These data can be converted to any number base and displayed, examined for any bit dropouts or changes (in particular, words or frames), graphically plotted, or statistically analyzed.

  15. Study of the intensity noise and intensity modulation in a of hybrid soliton pulsed source

    SciTech Connect

    Dogru, Nuran; Oziazisi, M Sadetin

    2005-10-31

    The relative intensity noise (RIN) and small-signal intensity modulation (IM) of a hybrid soliton pulsed source (HSPS) with a linearly chirped Gaussian apodised fibre Bragg grating (FBG) are considered in the electric-field approximation. The HSPS is described by solving the dynamic coupled-mode equations. It is shown that consideration of the carrier density noise in the HSPS in addition to the spontaneous noise is necessary to analyse accurately noise in the mode-locked HSPS. It is also shown that the resonance peak spectral splitting (RPSS) of the IM near the frequency inverse to the round-trip time of light in the external cavity can be eliminated by selecting an appropriate linear chirp rate in the Gaussian apodised FBG. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  16. Ultra-low-power wireless transmitter for neural prostheses with modified pulse position modulation.

    PubMed

    Goodarzy, Farhad; Skafidas, Stan E

    2014-01-01

    An ultra-low-power wireless transmitter for embedded bionic systems is proposed, which achieves 40 pJ/b energy efficiency and delivers 500 kb/s data using the medical implant communication service frequency band (402-405 MHz). It consumes a measured peak power of 200 µW from a 1.2 V supply while occupying an active area of 0.0016 mm(2) in a 130 nm technology. A modified pulse position modulation technique called saturated amplified signal is proposed and implemented, which can reduce the overall and per bit transferred power consumption of the transmitter while reducing the complexity of the transmitter architectures, and hence potentially shrinking the size of the implemented circuitry. The design is capable of being fully integrated on single-chip solutions for surgically implanted bionic systems, wearable devices and neural embedded systems. PMID:26609374

  17. Soliton Pulse Compression in a Dispersion Decreasing Elliptic Birefringent Fiber with Effective Gain and Effective Phase Modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganapathy, R.; Kuriakose, V. C.

    We have considered soliton pulse compression in a dispersion decreasing ideal elliptical birefringent fiber with phase modulation. We have shown that there is exact balancing between the effective gain and the effective phase modulation and as a result arrive at the fundamental soliton solution. For the various dispersion decreasing profiles we have considered, we have shown that the hyperbolic profile is the best suitable choice for the dispersion decreasing profile as it provides fairly good compression even after compensating for the fiber loss.

  18. Zero Voltage Soft Switching Duty Cycle Pulse Modulated High Frequency Inverter-Fed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishitobi, Manabu; Matsushige, Takayuki; Nakaoka, Mutsuo; Bessyo, Daisuke; Omori, Hideki; Terai, Haruo

    The utility grid voltage of commercial AC power source in Japan and USA is 100V, but in other Asian and European countries, it is 220V. In recent years, in Japan 200V outputted single-phase three-wire system begins to be used for high power applications. In 100V utility AC power applications and systems, an active voltage clamped quasi-resonant inverter circuit topology sing IGBTs has been effectively used so far for the consumer microwave oven. In this paper, presented is a half bridge type voltage-clamped asymmetrical soft switching PWM high-frequency inverter type AC-DC converter using IGBTs which is designed for consumer magnetron drive used as the consumer microwave oven in 200V utility AC power system. The zero voltage soft switching inverter treated here can use the same power rated switching semiconductor devices and three-winding high frequency transformer as those of the active voltage clamped quasi-resonant inverter using the IGBTs that has already been used for 100V utility AC power source. The operating performances of the voltage source single ended push pull (SEPP) type soft switching PWM inverter are evaluated and discussed for 100V and 200V common use consumer microwave oven. The harmonic line current components in the utility AC power side of the AC-DC power converter with ZVS-PWM SEPP inverter are reduced and improved on the basis of sine wave like pulse frequency modulation and sine wave like pulse width modulation for the utility AC voltage source.

  19. Data Communications Using Guided Elastic Waves by Time Reversal Pulse Position Modulation: Experimental Study

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Yuanwei; Ying, Yujie; Zhao, Deshuang

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we present and demonstrate a low complexity elastic wave signaling and reception method to achieve high data rate communication on dispersive solid elastic media, such as metal pipes, using piezoelectric transducers of PZT (lead zirconate titanate). Data communication is realized using pulse position modulation (PPM) as the signaling method and the elastic medium as the communication channel. The communication system first transmits a small number of training pulses to probe the dispersive medium. The time-reversed probe signals are then utilized as the information carrying waveforms. Rapid timing acquisition of transmitted waveforms for demodulation over elastic medium is made possible by exploring the reciprocity property of guided elastic waves. The experimental tests were conducted using a National Instrument PXI system for waveform excitation and data acquisition. Data telemetry bit rates of 10 kbps, 20 kbps, 50 kbps and 100 kbps with the average bit error rates of 0, 5.75 x 10-4, 1.09 x 10-2 and 5.01 x 10-2, respectively, out of a total of 40, 000 transmitted bits were obtained when transmitting at the center frequency of 250 kHz and a 500 kHz bandwidth on steel pipe specimens. To emphasize the influence of time reversal, no complex processing techniques, such as adaptive channel equalization or error correction coding, were employed. PMID:23881122

  20. Design of low-power hybrid digital pulse width modulator with piecewise calibration scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhen, Shaowei; Hou, Sijian; Gan, Wubing; Chen, Jingbo; Luo, Ping; Zhang, Bo

    2015-12-01

    A low-power hybrid digital pulse width modulator (DPWM) is proposed in the paper. Owing to the piecewise calibration scheme, the delay time of delay line is locked to target frequency. The delay line consists of two piecewise lines with different control codes. The delay time of each cell in one sub-delay-line is longer than the last significant bit (LSB) of DPWM, while the delay time of each cell in the other sub-delay-line is shorter than LSB. Optimum linearity is realised with minimum standard cells. Simulation results show that the differential nonlinearity and integral nonlinearity are improved from 5.1 to 0.4 and from 5 to 1.3, respectively. The DPWM is fully synthesised and fabricated in a 90-nm CMOS process. The proposed DPWM occupies a silicon area of 0.01 mm2, with 31.5 μw core power consumption. Experimental results are shown to demonstrate the 2-MHz, 10-bit resolution implementation. Pulse width histogram is firstly introduced to characterise the linearity of the DPWM.

  1. Synchronized ps fiber lasers with pulse durations (25, 50, 100-2000ps) and repetition rates (100kHz-150Mhz) continuously tunable over three orders of magnitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dupuis, Alexandre; Burgoyne, Bryan; Pena, Guido; Archambault, André; Lemieux, Dominic; Solomonean, Vasile; Duong, Maxime; Villeneuve, Alain

    2013-03-01

    Ultrafast lasers are enabling precision machining of a wide variety of materials. However, the optimal laser parameters for proper material processing can differ greatly from one material to another. In order to cut high aspect-ratio features at high processing speeds the laser parameters such as pulse energy, repetition rate, and cutting speed need to be optimized. In particular, a shorter pulse duration plays an important role in reducing the thermal damage in the Heat-Affected Zones. In this paper we present a novel ps fiber laser whose electronically tunable parameters aim to facilitate the search for optimal processing parameters. The 20W 1064nm Yb fiber laser is based on a Master Oscillator Power Amplifier (MOPA) architecture with a repetition rate that can be tuned continuously from 120kHz to 120MHz. More importantly, the integration of three different pulse generators enables the pulse duration to be switched from 25ps to 50ps, or to any value within the 55ps to 2000ps range. By reducing the pulse duration from the ns-regime down to 25ps, the laser approaches the transition from the thermal processing regime to the ablation regime of most materials. Moreover, in this paper we demonstrate the synchronization of the pulses from two such MOPA lasers. This enables more elaborate multipulse processing schemes where the pulses of each laser can be set to different parameter values, such as an initial etching pulse followed by a thermal annealing pulse. It should be noted that all the laser parameters are controlled electronically with no moving parts, including the synchronization.

  2. Comparison of WDM/Pulse-Position-Modulation (WDM/PPM) with Code/Pulse-Position-Swapping (C/PPS) Based on Wavelength/Time Codes

    SciTech Connect

    Mendez, A J; Hernandez, V J; Gagliardi, R M; Bennett, C V

    2009-06-19

    Pulse position modulation (PPM) signaling is favored in intensity modulated/direct detection (IM/DD) systems that have average power limitations. Combining PPM with WDM over a fiber link (WDM/PPM) enables multiple accessing and increases the link's throughput. Electronic bandwidth and synchronization advantages are further gained by mapping the time slots of PPM onto a code space, or code/pulse-position-swapping (C/PPS). The property of multiple bits per symbol typical of PPM can be combined with multiple accessing by using wavelength/time [W/T] codes in C/PPS. This paper compares the performance of WDM/PPM and C/PPS for equal wavelengths and bandwidth.

  3. A large shock vein in L chondrite Roosevelt County 106: Evidence for a long-duration shock pulse on the L chondrite parent body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharp, Thomas G.; Xie, Zhidong; de Carli, Paul S.; Hu, Jinping

    2015-11-01

    A large shock-induced melt vein in L6 ordinary chondrite Roosevelt County 106 contains abundant high-pressure minerals, including olivine, enstatite, and plagioclase fragments that have been transformed to polycrystalline ringwoodite, majorite, lingunite, and jadeite. The host chondrite at the melt-vein margins contains olivines that are partially transformed to ringwoodite. The quenched silicate melt in the shock veins consists of majoritic garnets, up to 25 μm in size, magnetite, maghemite, and phyllosilicates. The magnetite, maghemite, and phyllosilicates are the terrestrial alteration products of magnesiowüstite and quenched glass. This assemblage indicates crystallization of the silicate melt at approximately 20-25 GPa and 2000 °C. Coarse majorite garnets in the centers of shock veins grade into increasingly finer grained dendritic garnets toward the vein margins, indicating increasing quench rates toward the margins as a result of thermal conduction to the surrounding chondrite host. Nanocrystalline boundary zones, that contain wadsleyite, ringwoodite, majorite, and magnesiowüstite, occur along shock-vein margins. These zones represent rapid quench of a boundary melt that contains less metal-sulfide than the bulk shock vein. One-dimensional finite element heat-flow calculations were performed to estimate a quench time of 750-1900 ms for a 1.6-mm thick shock vein. Because the vein crystallized as a single high-pressure assemblage, the shock pulse duration was at least as long as the quench time and therefore the sample remained at 20-25 GPa for at least 750 ms. This relatively long shock pulse, combined with a modest shock pressure, implies that this sample came from deep in the L chondrite parent body during a collision with a large impacting body, such as the impact event that disrupted the L chondrite parent body 470 Myr ago.

  4. Unraveling the roles of thermal annealing and off-time duration in magnetic properties of pulsed electrodeposited NiCu nanowire arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haji jamali, Z.; Almasi Kashi, M.; Ramazani, A.; Montazer, A. H.

    2015-05-01

    Magnetic alloy nanowires (ANWs) have long been studied owing to both their fundamental aspects and possible applications in magnetic storage media and magnetoresistance devices. Here, we report on the roles of thermal annealing and duration of off-time between pulses (toff) in crystalline characteristics and magnetic properties of arrays of pulsed electrodeposited NiCu ANWs (35 nm in diameter and a length of 1.2 μm), embedded in porous anodic alumina template. Increasing toff enabled us to increase the Cu content thereby fabricating NiCu ANWs with different crystallinity and alloy compositions. Although major hysteresis curve measurements showed no considerable change in magnetic properties before and after annealing, the first-order reversal curve (FORC) analysis provided new insights into the roles of thermal annealing and toff. In other words, FORC diagrams indicated the presence of low and high coercive field regions in annealed Ni-rich ANWs, coinciding with the increase in toff in as-deposited ANWs. The former has a small coercivity with strong demagnetizing magnetostatic interactions from neighboring NWs and may correspond to a soft magnetic phase. The latter has a greater coercivity with weak interactions, corresponding to a hard magnetic phase. On the other hand, for as-deposited and annealed Cu-rich NiCu ANWs, a mixed phase of the soft and hard segments could be found. Furthermore, a transition from the interacting Ni-rich to non-interacting Cu-rich ANWs took place with a magnetic field applied parallel to the NW axis. Thus, these arrays of ANWs with tunable magnetic phases and interactions may have potential applications in the nanoscale devices.

  5. Exploring Ramsey-coherent population trapping atomic clock realized with pulsed microwave modulated laser

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Jing; Yun, Peter; Tian, Yuan; Tan, Bozhong; Gu, Sihong

    2014-03-07

    A scheme for a Ramsey-coherent population trapping (CPT) atomic clock that eliminates the acousto-optic modulator (AOM) is proposed and experimentally studied. Driven by a periodically microwave modulated current, the vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser emits a continuous beam that switches between monochromatic and multichromatic modes. Ramsey-CPT interference has been studied with this mode-switching beam. In eliminating the AOM, which is used to generate pulsed laser in conventional Ramsey-CPT atomic clock, the physics package of the proposed scheme is virtually the same as that of a conventional compact CPT atomic clock, although the resource budget for the electronics will slightly increase as a microwave switch should be added. By evaluating and comparing experimentally recorded signals from the two Ramsey-CPT schemes, the short-term frequency stability of the proposed scheme was found to be 46% better than the scheme with AOM. The experimental results suggest that the implementation of a compact Ramsey-CPT atomic clock promises better frequency stability.

  6. Determination of the magnetic losses in laminated cores under pulse width modulation voltage supply

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidal, N.; Gandarias, K.; Almandoz, G.; Poza, J.

    2015-08-01

    In the laminated ferromagnetic cores employed in transformers and electrical machines energy losses occur resulting in a warming effect and efficiency decrease. Normally, manufacturers only provide iron losses data when a sinusoidal voltage supply is applied, but the actual operating characteristics of electrical machines include non-sinusoidal supplies, in particular pulse-width modulation (PWM). This information can be experimentally obtained, but only measuring systems that have function generators with arbitrarily programmable waveforms allow measurements in the presence of higher harmonics. Therefore, having an analytical tool to obtain the most accurate estimation of the magnetic losses is of great interest in addressing the design of electric machines. This paper validates an analytical-expression-based procedure, which delivers results with acceptable accuracy under all operating conditions for the estimation of losses in laminated cores. In addition, it investigates the influence of the modulation amplitude and the switching frequency of the PWM signals in the magnetic losses of soft magnetic materials. For this purpose, non-oriented fully processed electrical steel strips have been measured in a commercial AC permeameter using a single strip tester.

  7. Open-air type plasma chemical vaporization machining by applying pulse-width modulation control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeda, Yoshiki; Hata, Yuki; Endo, Katsuyoshi; Yamamura, Kazuya

    2014-03-01

    Photolithography techniques have been used to enable the low-cost and high-speed transfer of a pattern onto a silicon wafer. However, owing to the high integration of semiconductors, extreme ultraviolet will be increasingly used as the exposure light source and all optics must be reflective to focus light because the wavelength of the light will be so short that it cannot pass through a lens. The form accuracy of reflective optics affects the accuracy of transfer, and a flatness of less than 32 nm on a 6 inch photomask substrate is required according to the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors roadmap. Plasma chemical vaporization machining is an ultraprecise figuring technique that enables a form accuracy of nanometre order to be obtained. In our previous study, the removal volume was controlled by changing the scanning speed of the worktable. However, a discrepancy between the theoretical scanning speed and the actual scanning speed occurred owing to the inertia of the worktable when the change in speed was rapid. As an attempt to resolve this issue, we controlled the removal volume by controlling the electric power applied during plasma generation while maintaining a constant scanning speed. The methods that we adapted to control the applied electric power were amplitude-modulation (AM) control and pulse-width modulation (PWM) control. In this work, we evaluate the controllability of the material removal rate in the AM and PWM control modes.

  8. Implementations of artificial neural networks using current-mode pulse width modulation technique.

    PubMed

    El-Masry, E I; Yang, H K; Yakout, M A

    1997-01-01

    The use of a current-mode pulse width modulation (CM-PWM) technique to implement analog artificial neural networks (ANNs) is presented. This technique can be used to efficiently implement the weighted summation operation (WSO) that are required in the realization of a general ANN. The sigmoidal transformation is inherently performed by the nonlinear transconductance amplifier, which is a key component in the current integrator used in the realization of WSO. The CM-PWM implementation results in a minimum silicon area, and therefore is suitable for very large scale neural systems. Other pronounced features of the CM-PWM implementation are its easy programmability, electronically adjustable gains of neurons, and modular structures. In this paper, all the current-mode CMOS circuits (building blocks) required for the realization of CM-PWM ANNs are presented and simulated. Four modules for modular design of ANNs are introduced. Also, it is shown that the CM-PWM technique is an efficient method for implementing discrete-time cellular neural networks (DT-CNNs). Two application examples are given: a winner-take-all circuit and a connected component detector. PMID:18255657

  9. Pulse

    MedlinePlus

    ... resting for at least 10 minutes. Take the exercise heart rate while you are exercising. ... pulse rate can help determine if the patient's heart is pumping. ... rate gives information about your fitness level and health.

  10. Modulation instability and short-pulse generation in media with relaxing Kerr nonlinearity and high self-steepening

    SciTech Connect

    Zolotovskii, I O; Korobko, D A; Lapin, V A

    2014-01-31

    The modulation instability in waveguides with high Kerr nonlinearity, characterised by a delayed nonlinear response, has been investigated with allowance for the self-steepening parameter and third-order dispersion. General expressions for the modulation gain are obtained. The influence of the waveguide parameters on the gain is analysed. It is shown that the joint effect of the delayed nonlinear response and negative nonlinearity dispersion leads to an increase in the modulation gain. The relations obtained are confirmed by numerical simulation. The results of this study can be used to design compact generators of high-frequency pulse trains. (nonlinear optical phenomena)

  11. Scannerless three-dimensional imaging using a pulsed laser and an intensified charge-coupled device with linearly modulated gain

    SciTech Connect

    Jin Chenfei; Zhao Yuan; Zhang Yong; Liu Liping; Sun Xiudong

    2009-07-01

    We have developed a scannerless three-dimensional imaging approach that uses a pulsed laser to illuminate a target and an intensified charge-coupled device as the receiver with linearly modulated gain in gated time. The target range is extracted by processing an intensity image with linearly modulated gain and an intensity image with constant gain. Feasibility of the approach is demonstrated by an indoor experiment. Our prototype system can produce 256x256 pixel range images at a 20 Hz frame rate in an outdoor test. The test results indicate that range accuracy is related to the slope coefficient and initial value of the modulated gain.

  12. Refractive index modulation of Sb70Te30 phase-change thin films by multiple femtosecond laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Kai; Wang, Yang; Jiang, Minghui; Wu, Yiqun

    2016-05-01

    In this study, the controllable effective refractive index modulation of Sb70Te30 phase-change thin films between amorphous and crystalline states was achieved experimentally by multiple femtosecond laser pulses. The modulation mechanism was analyzed comprehensively by a spectral ellipsometer measurement, surface morphology observation, and two-temperature model calculations. We numerically demonstrate the application of the optically modulated refractive index of the phase-change thin films in a precisely adjustable color display. These results may provide further insights into ultrafast phase-transition mechanics and are useful in the design of programmable photonic and opto-electrical devices based on phase-change memory materials.

  13. Spectral modulation of ultraviolet femtosecond laser pulse by molecular alignment of CO2, O2, and N2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yongdong; Dai, Xiaomin; Wu, Jian; Ding, Liang'en; Zeng, Heping

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate efficient third harmonic generation of a near infrared femtosecond pulse through cascaded frequency doubling and sum-frequency generation processes, where the group velocity mismatching between the involved fundamental and generated second harmonic pulses, before they are sent to frequency mixing, are precompensated with a properly inserted nonlinear crystal. The spectrum of the generated third harmonic pulse with energy of 1.1 mJ is further modulated by using impulsive molecular alignments of CO2, O2, and N2, where significantly broadened spectrum in the ultraviolet spectral region is observed due to the additional cross-focusing effect from the parallel aligned molecules and the consequently enhanced self-phase modulation.

  14. The effect of laser pulse duration and beam shape on the selective removal of novel thin film layers for flexible electronic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moorhouse, C.; Karnakis, D. M.; Kapnopoulos, C.; Laskarakis, A.; Logothetidis, S.; Antonopoulos, G.; Mekeridis, E.

    2015-07-01

    Lightweight, flexible substrates coated with thin film layers <0.5μm thick are commonly utilized for modern electronic devices that are portable and constantly reducing in size, weight, power consumption and material cost. Patterning techniques for these thin films are required to provide device functionality and alternatives to photolithography such as direct write laser processes are particularly attractive. However, for complex devices with multiple thin layers, the quality requirements for laser scribing are extremely high, since each individual thin film layer must be patterned without damaging the underlying thin film layer(s) and also provide a suitable topography for subsequent layers to be deposited upon. Hence, the choice of the laser parameters is critical for a number of emerging thin film materials used in flexible electronic devices such as ITO, pedot:PSS, silver nanoparticle inks, amongst others. These thin films can be extremely sensitive to the thermal interaction with lasers and this report outlines the influence of laser pulse duration and beam shaping techniques on laser patterning of these thin films and the implications for laser system design.

  15. An integrated program for amplitude-modulated RF pulse generation and re-mapping with shaped gradients.

    PubMed

    Matson, G B

    1994-01-01

    Efficient generation of amplitude modulated, frequency selective RF pulses has been demonstrated by the Shinnar-Le Roux (SLR) algorithm. In the present article, we provide an overview of a relatively comprehensive computer program that includes a version of the SLR algorithm and also incorporates an algorithm for re-mapping a selective RF pulse onto a new dwell time with modulated gradients. The re-mapping may be used to reduce SAR, or to shorten the RF pulse time by increasing the gradient and RF strength in regions where the original RF pulse amplitude was low. The program includes additional useful features including a Bloch equations algorithm, and pulse scaling, to enable examination of pulse profiles under a variety of conditions such as RF inhomogeneity and even nuclear relaxation. The program, MATPULSE, was developed with the MATLAB for Windows programming language and makes extensive use of the MATLAB graphical user interface (GUI) features to generate a user-friendly interface. A number of examples are provided to illustrate the capabilities of the MATPULSE program. PMID:7854027

  16. Non-collinear spectral coherent combination of ultrashort laser pulses.

    PubMed

    Ionel, Laura; Ursescu, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    Non-collinear spectral coherent combining (NCSCC) of ultrashort pulses is analyzed. 2D modeling of the electromagnetic field is performed in case of NCSCC using two or three pulses with different wavelengths. In the case of two pulses, a potentially unwanted spatio-temporal structure of the field appears, corresponding to spatial and temporal modulation of the pulse. By using NCSCC of three 62 fs long pulses with different spectral composition, such spatial-temporal coupling is eliminated and the combined pulse duration in the focal region drops to less than half. The method is scalable to a large number of ultrashort pulses. PMID:27136998

  17. One-shot phase stepping with a pulsed laser and modulation of polarization: application to speckle interferometry.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Zurita, G; García-Arellano, A; Toto-Arellano, N I; Flores-Muñoz, V H; Pastrana-Sánchez, R; Robledo-Sánchez, C; Martínez-Bravo, O; Vásquez-Pasmiño, N; Costa-Vera, C

    2015-09-01

    For applications involving time varying optical phase distributions, fast cameras and/or pulsed lasers have to be used. To apply phase-shifting interferometry techniques (PSI) as well, single shot capture is required. Among others, modulation of polarization and phase grating interferometry is a possible technique to be considered. In this paper, a report about the use of this technique based on a double pulse laser system is presented. Single-pulse and twin-pulse operations are considered both in optical interferometers as well as in ESPI systems (mainly in subtraction mode). In ESPI a reduction of the degree of polarization appears due to scattering, so some measures have to be taken to prevent such deletereous effect. To show the feasibility of the proposed variants some experimental results are presented. PMID:26368442

  18. Ultra-low power anti-crosstalk collision avoidance light detection and ranging using chaotic pulse position modulation approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jie, Hao; Ma-li, Gong; Peng-fei, Du; Bao-jie, Lu; Fan, Zhang; Hai-tao, Zhang; Xing, Fu

    2016-07-01

    A novel concept of collision avoidance single-photon light detection and ranging (LIDAR) for vehicles has been demonstrated, in which chaotic pulse position modulation is applied on the transmitted laser pulses for robust anti-crosstalk purposes. Besides, single-photon detectors (SPD) and time correlated single photon counting techniques are adapted, to sense the ultra-low power used for the consideration of compact structure and eye safety. Parameters including pulse rate, discrimination threshold, and number of accumulated pulses have been thoroughly analyzed based on the detection requirements, resulting in specified receiver operating characteristics curves. Both simulation and indoor experiments were performed to verify the excellent anti-crosstalk capability of the presented collision avoidance LIDAR despite ultra-low transmitting power. Project supported by Tsinghua University Initiative Scientific Research Program, China (Grant No. 2014z21035).

  19. Pulsed infrared radiation excites cultured neonatal spiral and vestibular ganglion neurons by modulating mitochondrial calcium cycling

    PubMed Central

    Lumbreras, Vicente; Bas, Esperanza; Gupta, Chhavi

    2014-01-01

    Cochlear implants are currently the most effective solution for profound sensorineural hearing loss, and vestibular prostheses are under development to treat bilateral vestibulopathies. Electrical current spread in these neuroprostheses limits channel independence and, in some cases, may impair their performance. In comparison, optical stimuli that are spatially confined may result in a significant functional improvement. Pulsed infrared radiation (IR) has previously been shown to elicit responses in neurons. This study analyzes the response of neonatal rat spiral and vestibular ganglion neurons in vitro to IR (wavelength = 1,863 nm) using Ca2+ imaging. Both types of neurons responded consistently with robust intracellular Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i) transients that matched the low-frequency IR pulses applied (4 ms, 0.25–1 pps). Radiant exposures of ∼637 mJ/cm2 resulted in continual neuronal activation. Temperature or [Ca2+] variations in the media did not alter the IR-evoked transients, ruling out extracellular Ca2+ involvement or primary mediation by thermal effects on the plasma membrane. While blockage of Na+, K+, and Ca2+ plasma membrane channels did not alter the IR-evoked response, blocking of mitochondrial Ca2+ cycling with CGP-37157 or ruthenium red reversibly inhibited the IR-evoked [Ca2+]i transients. Additionally, the magnitude of the IR-evoked transients was dependent on ryanodine and cyclopiazonic acid-dependent Ca2+ release. These results suggest that IR modulation of intracellular calcium cycling contributes to stimulation of spiral and vestibular ganglion neurons. As a whole, the results suggest selective excitation of neurons in the IR beam path and the potential of IR stimulation in future auditory and vestibular prostheses. PMID:24920028

  20. Echolocating Big Brown Bats, Eptesicus fuscus, Modulate Pulse Intervals to Overcome Range Ambiguity in Cluttered Surroundings

    PubMed Central

    Wheeler, Alyssa R.; Fulton, Kara A.; Gaudette, Jason E.; Simmons, Ryan A.; Matsuo, Ikuo; Simmons, James A.

    2016-01-01

    Big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) emit trains of brief, wideband frequency-modulated (FM) echolocation sounds and use echoes of these sounds to orient, find insects, and guide flight through vegetation. They are observed to emit sounds that alternate between short and long inter-pulse intervals (IPIs), forming sonar sound groups. The occurrence of these strobe groups has been linked to flight in cluttered acoustic environments, but how exactly bats use sonar sound groups to orient and navigate is still a mystery. Here, the production of sound groups during clutter navigation was examined. Controlled flight experiments were conducted where the proximity of the nearest obstacles was systematically decreased while the extended scene was kept constant. Four bats flew along a corridor of varying widths (100, 70, and 40 cm) bounded by rows of vertically hanging plastic chains while in-flight echolocation calls were recorded. Bats shortened their IPIs for more rapid spatial sampling and also grouped their sounds more tightly when flying in narrower corridors. Bats emitted echolocation calls with progressively shorter IPIs over the course of a flight, and began their flights by emitting shorter starting IPI calls when clutter was denser. The percentage of sound groups containing 3 or more calls increased with increasing clutter proximity. Moreover, IPI sequences having internal structure become more pronounced when corridor width narrows. A novel metric for analyzing the temporal organization of sound sequences was developed, and the results indicate that the time interval between echolocation calls depends heavily on the preceding time interval. The occurrence of specific IPI patterns were dependent upon clutter, which suggests that sonar sound grouping may be an adaptive strategy for coping with pulse-echo ambiguity in cluttered surroundings. PMID:27445723

  1. Resolving the contribution of the uncoupled phycobilisomes to cyanobacterial pulse-amplitude modulated (PAM) fluorometry signals.

    PubMed

    Acuña, Alonso M; Snellenburg, Joris J; Gwizdala, Michal; Kirilovsky, Diana; van Grondelle, Rienk; van Stokkum, Ivo H M

    2016-01-01

    Pulse-amplitude modulated (PAM) fluorometry is extensively used to characterize photosynthetic organisms on the slow time-scale (1-1000 s). The saturation pulse method allows determination of the quantum yields of maximal (F(M)) and minimal fluorescence (F(0)), parameters related to the activity of the photosynthetic apparatus. Also, when the sample undergoes a certain light treatment during the measurement, the fluorescence quantum yields of the unquenched and the quenched states can be determined. In the case of cyanobacteria, however, the recorded fluorescence does not exclusively stem from the chlorophyll a in photosystem II (PSII). The phycobilins, the pigments of the cyanobacterial light-harvesting complexes, the phycobilisomes (PB), also contribute to the PAM signal, and therefore, F(0) and F(M) are no longer related to PSII only. We present a functional model that takes into account the presence of several fluorescent species whose concentrations can be resolved provided their fluorescence quantum yields are known. Data analysis of PAM measurements on in vivo cells of our model organism Synechocystis PCC6803 is discussed. Three different components are found necessary to fit the data: uncoupled PB (PB(free)), PB-PSII complexes, and free PSI. The free PSII contribution was negligible. The PB(free) contribution substantially increased in the mutants that lack the core terminal emitter subunits allophycocyanin D or allophycocyanin F. A positive correlation was found between the amount of PB(free) and the rate constants describing the binding of the activated orange carotenoid protein to PB, responsible for non-photochemical quenching. PMID:25893897

  2. Pulsed infrared radiation excites cultured neonatal spiral and vestibular ganglion neurons by modulating mitochondrial calcium cycling.

    PubMed

    Lumbreras, Vicente; Bas, Esperanza; Gupta, Chhavi; Rajguru, Suhrud M

    2014-09-15

    Cochlear implants are currently the most effective solution for profound sensorineural hearing loss, and vestibular prostheses are under development to treat bilateral vestibulopathies. Electrical current spread in these neuroprostheses limits channel independence and, in some cases, may impair their performance. In comparison, optical stimuli that are spatially confined may result in a significant functional improvement. Pulsed infrared radiation (IR) has previously been shown to elicit responses in neurons. This study analyzes the response of neonatal rat spiral and vestibular ganglion neurons in vitro to IR (wavelength = 1,863 nm) using Ca(2+) imaging. Both types of neurons responded consistently with robust intracellular Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)]i) transients that matched the low-frequency IR pulses applied (4 ms, 0.25-1 pps). Radiant exposures of ∼637 mJ/cm(2) resulted in continual neuronal activation. Temperature or [Ca(2+)] variations in the media did not alter the IR-evoked transients, ruling out extracellular Ca(2+) involvement or primary mediation by thermal effects on the plasma membrane. While blockage of Na(+), K(+), and Ca(2+) plasma membrane channels did not alter the IR-evoked response, blocking of mitochondrial Ca(2+) cycling with CGP-37157 or ruthenium red reversibly inhibited the IR-evoked [Ca(2+)]i transients. Additionally, the magnitude of the IR-evoked transients was dependent on ryanodine and cyclopiazonic acid-dependent Ca(2+) release. These results suggest that IR modulation of intracellular calcium cycling contributes to stimulation of spiral and vestibular ganglion neurons. As a whole, the results suggest selective excitation of neurons in the IR beam path and the potential of IR stimulation in future auditory and vestibular prostheses. PMID:24920028

  3. Echolocating Big Brown Bats, Eptesicus fuscus, Modulate Pulse Intervals to Overcome Range Ambiguity in Cluttered Surroundings.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, Alyssa R; Fulton, Kara A; Gaudette, Jason E; Simmons, Ryan A; Matsuo, Ikuo; Simmons, James A

    2016-01-01

    Big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) emit trains of brief, wideband frequency-modulated (FM) echolocation sounds and use echoes of these sounds to orient, find insects, and guide flight through vegetation. They are observed to emit sounds that alternate between short and long inter-pulse intervals (IPIs), forming sonar sound groups. The occurrence of these strobe groups has been linked to flight in cluttered acoustic environments, but how exactly bats use sonar sound groups to orient and navigate is still a mystery. Here, the production of sound groups during clutter navigation was examined. Controlled flight experiments were conducted where the proximity of the nearest obstacles was systematically decreased while the extended scene was kept constant. Four bats flew along a corridor of varying widths (100, 70, and 40 cm) bounded by rows of vertically hanging plastic chains while in-flight echolocation calls were recorded. Bats shortened their IPIs for more rapid spatial sampling and also grouped their sounds more tightly when flying in narrower corridors. Bats emitted echolocation calls with progressively shorter IPIs over the course of a flight, and began their flights by emitting shorter starting IPI calls when clutter was denser. The percentage of sound groups containing 3 or more calls increased with increasing clutter proximity. Moreover, IPI sequences having internal structure become more pronounced when corridor width narrows. A novel metric for analyzing the temporal organization of sound sequences was developed, and the results indicate that the time interval between echolocation calls depends heavily on the preceding time interval. The occurrence of specific IPI patterns were dependent upon clutter, which suggests that sonar sound grouping may be an adaptive strategy for coping with pulse-echo ambiguity in cluttered surroundings. PMID:27445723

  4. A Solid State Modulator for Driving SLAC 5045 Klystrons

    SciTech Connect

    Lamare, Jeffrey E

    2002-09-19

    A test is ongoing at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) where a solid state induction modulator is driving a SLAC 5045 klystron. The modulator generates 22 kV, 6 kA pulses that are stepped up by a 15.1 transformer that is a part of the klystron's pulse tank. The modulator's pulse duration is adjustable up to the volt-second limit of its cores, and it is capable of a pulse repetition frequency up to 120 Hz. The modulator's design, construction, and experimental results are the focus of this paper.

  5. Bactericidal effect of a Nd:YAG laser on Enterococcus faecalis at pulse durations of 15 and 25 ms in dentine depths of 500 and 1,000 μm.

    PubMed

    Franzen, René; Gutknecht, Norbert; Falken, Silke; Heussen, Nicole; Meister, Jörg

    2011-01-01

    The success of endodontic treatment depends on the effective elimination of microorganisms from the root canal, and lasers provide more effective disinfection than conventional treatment using rinsing solutions. The objective of this in vitro study was to determine the bactericidal effect of laser irradiation in dentine of various depths at a wavelength of 1,064 nm and pulse durations of 15 and 25 ms. A total of 90 dentine slices were cut from bovine incisors and divided into two groups (45 slices each) of thickness 500 and 1,000 μm. All were inoculated with a suspension of Enterococcus faecalis (5.07 × 10(9) bacteria/ml). Based on the clinically accepted dose (approximately 300 J/cm(2)), the following laser settings were chosen for this study: 1.75 W, 0.7 Hz for 4 s, three repetitions. The two groups were divided into two subgroups of 15 slices each to be irradiated with pulse durations of 15 and 25 ms. The remaining 15 slices per group were not irradiated to serve as a control. After irradiation, the colony-forming units (CFU) were counted and evaluated. To determine the bactericidal effect of irradiation with different pulse durations, the results in the different groups were compared statistically. For all irradiated subgroups a bactericidal effect was observed at pulse durations of 15 and 25 ms (p=0.0085 and p<0.0001). The corresponding average log kills were 0.29 (15 ms) and 0.52 (25 ms) for 500 μm and 0.15 and 0.3 for 1,000 μm, respectively. The results of this in vitro study showed that Nd:YAG laser irradiation with a pulse duration of 15 ms eliminated an average of 49% and 29% of E. faecalis at dentine depths of 500 μm and 1,000 μm, respectively, and irradiation with a pulse duration of 25 ms eliminated 70% (500 μm) and 50% (1,000 μm). However, these values are lower than those achieved with the established protocol using microsecond pulses. PMID:20809081

  6. Implementing fast sideband-modulated ``wah-wah'' pulses for driving transmon qubits with tight frequency separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vesterinen, V.; Saira, O.-P.; Bruno, A.; Egger, D. J.; Wilhelm, F. K.; Dicarlo, L.

    2014-03-01

    Packing multiple transmon qubits in a narrow frequency band is challenging due to the limited transmon anharmonicity: control drives targeting one qubit may drive the leakage transition of another. This cross-driving effect grows with decreasing gate time, potentially imposing a quantum speed limit. The widely used DRAG (derivative removal by adiabatic gate) technique only suppresses leakage in the targeted transmon. Adding a modulation tone to a Gaussian pulse envelope in one quadrature, and complementing with DRAG in the other, has been predicted [1] to reduce both intrinsic and cross-driving leakage. We have experimentally verified the performance of this new pulse-shaping method, termed ``wah-wah,'' with two transmons in a 2D circuit QED architecture. We optimize the modulation frequency and amplitude, and characterize the gate fidelity using randomized benchmarking (RB) and quantum process tomography. Pulses on the two qubits are characterized separately and simultaneously by interleaving the RB sequences. Wah-wah pulses show decoherence-limited fidelity at gate speeds where DRAG pulses add significant error. Research supported by NWO, EU projects SOLID and SCALEQIT, and the Research Foundation of Helsinki University of Technology.

  7. Comparison of intensity-modulated continuous-wave lasers with a chirped modulation frequency to pulsed lasers for photoacoustic imaging applications

    PubMed Central

    Petschke, Adam; La Rivière, Patrick J.

    2010-01-01

    Using a Green’s function solution to the photoacoustic wave equation, we compare intensity-modulated continuous-wave (CW) lasers with a chirped modulation frequency to pulsed lasers for photoacoustic imaging applications. Assuming the same transducer is used in both cases, we show that the axial resolution is identical and is determined by the transducer and material properties of the object. We derive a simple formula relating the signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) of the two imaging systems that only depends on the fluence of each pulse and the time-bandwidth product of the chirp pulse. We also compare the SNR of the two systems assuming the fluence is limited by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) laser safety guidelines for skin. We find that the SNR is about 20 dB to 30 dB larger for pulsed laser systems for reasonable values of the parameters. However, CW diode lasers have the advantage of being compact and relatively inexpensive, which may outweigh the lower SNR in many applications. PMID:21258540

  8. Design and Operation of a 9-bit Single-flux-quantum Pulse-frequency Modulation Digital-to-analog Converter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizugaki, Yoshinao; Takahashi, Yoshitaka; Shimada, Hiroshi; Maezawa, Masaaki

    We designed and operated a 9-bit single-flux-quantum (SFQ) digital-to-analog converter (DAC). SFQ pulse-frequency modulation (PFM) was employed for generation of variable quantum output voltage, where a 9-bit variable pulse number multiplier and a 100-fold voltage multiplier were the key components. Test chips were fabricated using a Nb Josephson integration technology. Arbitrary voltage waveforms were synthesized with the maximum voltage of 2.54 mV. For ac voltage standard applications, relationships between the DAC resolution and the synthesized waveform frequency are discussed.

  9. Using Pulse Width Modulation for Wireless Transmission of Neural Signals in Multichannel Neural Recording Systems

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Ming; Ghovanloo, Maysam

    2013-01-01

    We have used a well-known technique in wireless communication, pulse width modulation (PWM) of time division multiplexed (TDM) signals, within the architecture of a novel wireless integrated neural recording (WINeR) system. We have evaluated the performance of the PWM-based architecture and indicated its accuracy and potential sources of error through detailed theoretical analysis, simulations, and measurements on a setup consisting of a 15-channel WINeR prototype as the transmitter and two types of receivers; an Agilent 89600 vector signal analyzer and a custom wideband receiver, with 36 and 75 MHz of maximum bandwidth, respectively. Furthermore, we present simulation results from a realistic MATLAB-Simulink model of the entire WINeR system to observe the system behavior in response to changes in various parameters. We have concluded that the 15-ch WINeR prototype, which is fabricated in a 0.5-μm standard CMOS process and consumes 4.5 mW from ±1.5 V supplies, can acquire and wirelessly transmit up to 320 k-samples/s to a 75-MHz receiver with 8.4 bits of resolution, which is equivalent to a wireless data rate of ~ 2.26 Mb/s. PMID:19497823

  10. A 0.9-V pulse frequency modulation photosensor based on capacitive feedback reset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasuoka, Koutaro; Kagawa, Keiichiro; Ohta, Jun; Nunoshita, Masahiro

    2005-03-01

    We are developing a retinal prosthesis vision chip based on a pulse-frequency-modulation (PFM) photosensor. Because the device is implanted in the eye ball and is powered by RF coil coupling with limited energy, low voltage and small current operation is required to achieve low power dissipation. We propose a capacitive-feedback-reset method for the PFM vision chip. The proposed method uses capacitive feed back through the junction capacitance of the photodiode and gate-source overlap capacitance of the reset transistor. In the proposed PFM circuit, the feed-through effect in resetting contributes to avoid current competition, so that the high dynamic range can be achieved even at the low voltage operation. We have fabricated a pixel TEG circuit in a 0.35-μm CMOS technology. The PFM photosensor circuit is composed of a four-stage inverter-chain. Dynamic range of 136dB has been achieved with 0.8-V power supply.

  11. Pulse width modulation-based temperature tracking for feedback control of a shape memory alloy actuator.

    PubMed

    Ayvali, Elif; Desai, Jaydev P

    2014-04-01

    This work presents a temperature-feedback approach to control the radius of curvature of an arc-shaped shape memory alloy (SMA) wire. The nonlinear properties of the SMA such as phase transformation and its dependence on temperature and stress make SMA actuators difficult to control. Tracking a desired trajectory is more challenging than controlling just the position of the SMA actuator since the desired path is continuously changing. Consequently, tracking the desired strain directly or tracking the parameters such as temperature and electrical resistance that are related to strain with a model is a challenging task. Temperature-feedback is an attractive approach when direct measurement of strain is not practical. Pulse width modulation (PWM) is an effective method for SMA actuation and it can be used along with a compensator to control the temperature of the SMA. Using the constitutive model of the SMA, the desired temperature profile can be obtained for a given strain trajectory. A PWM-based nonlinear PID controller with a feed-forward heat transfer model is proposed to use temperature-feedback for tracking a desired temperature trajectory. The proposed controller is used during the heating phase of the SMA actuator. The controller proves to be effective in tracking step-wise and continuous trajectories. PMID:24791130

  12. Using pulse width modulation for wireless transmission of neural signals in multichannel neural recording systems.

    PubMed

    Yin, Ming; Ghovanloo, Maysam

    2009-08-01

    We have used a well-known technique in wireless communication, pulse width modulation (PWM) of time division multiplexed (TDM) signals, within the architecture of a novel wireless integrated neural recording (WINeR) system. We have evaluated the performance of the PWM-based architecture and indicated its accuracy and potential sources of error through detailed theoretical analysis, simulations, and measurements on a setup consisting of a 15-channel WINeR prototype as the transmitter and two types of receivers; an Agilent 89600 vector signal analyzer and a custom wideband receiver, with 36 and 75 MHz of maximum bandwidth, respectively. Furthermore, we present simulation results from a realistic MATLAB-Simulink model of the entire WINeR system to observe the system behavior in response to changes in various parameters. We have concluded that the 15-ch WINeR prototype, which is fabricated in a 0.5- mum standard CMOS process and consumes 4.5 mW from +/-1.5 V supplies, can acquire and wirelessly transmit up to 320 k-samples/s to a 75-MHz receiver with 8.4 bits of resolution, which is equivalent to a wireless data rate of approximately 2.56 Mb/s. PMID:19497823

  13. Pulse position modulated (PPM) ground receiver design for optical communications from deep space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biswas, Abhijit; Vilnrotter, Victor; Farr, William H.; Fort, D.; Sigman, E.

    2002-04-01

    Pulse position modulation (PPM) provides a means of using high peak power lasers for transmitting communications signals from planetary spacecraft to earth-based receiving stations. Large aperture (approximately 10 m diameter) telescopes will be used to collect and focus the laser communications signal originating from a deep space transmitter on to a PPM receiver. Large area (1 - 3 mm diameter) sensitive detectors, preceded by appropriate narrow (0.1 - 0.2 nm) optical band-pass filters and followed by low-noise, high-gain, amplifiers will serve as the PPM receiver front end. A digital assembly will form the backbone of the receiver. The PPM receiver will achieve and maintain slot synchronization based on sub slot sums generated by a field programmable-gated array (FPGA). Spacecraft dynamics and timing issues between the ground- based receiver and the transmitter on board the spacecraft must be taken into account. In the present report, requirements and design of a prototype PPM receiver being developed over the next year will be elaborated. The design is driven by the need to demonstrate and validate PPM reception using a variety of detectors under simulated conditions representative of those to be encountered in a deep space optical communications link.

  14. Pulse width modulation-based temperature tracking for feedback control of a shape memory alloy actuator

    PubMed Central

    Ayvali, Elif; Desai, Jaydev P.

    2013-01-01

    This work presents a temperature-feedback approach to control the radius of curvature of an arc-shaped shape memory alloy (SMA) wire. The nonlinear properties of the SMA such as phase transformation and its dependence on temperature and stress make SMA actuators difficult to control. Tracking a desired trajectory is more challenging than controlling just the position of the SMA actuator since the desired path is continuously changing. Consequently, tracking the desired strain directly or tracking the parameters such as temperature and electrical resistance that are related to strain with a model is a challenging task. Temperature-feedback is an attractive approach when direct measurement of strain is not practical. Pulse width modulation (PWM) is an effective method for SMA actuation and it can be used along with a compensator to control the temperature of the SMA. Using the constitutive model of the SMA, the desired temperature profile can be obtained for a given strain trajectory. A PWM-based nonlinear PID controller with a feed-forward heat transfer model is proposed to use temperature-feedback for tracking a desired temperature trajectory. The proposed controller is used during the heating phase of the SMA actuator. The controller proves to be effective in tracking step-wise and continuous trajectories. PMID:24791130

  15. Pulsed neutron-beam focusing by modulating a permanent-magnet sextupole lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Masako; Iwashita, Yoshihisa; Ichikawa, Masahiro; Fuwa, Yasuhiro; Tongu, Hiromu; Shimizu, Hirohiko M.; Mishima, Kenji; Yamada, Norifumi L.; Hirota, Katsuya; Otake, Yoshie; Seki, Yoshichika; Yamagata, Yutaka; Hino, Masahiro; Kitaguchi, Masaaki; Garbe, Ulf; Kennedy, Shane J.; Tung Lee, Wai; Andersen, Ken H.; Guerard, Bruno; Manzin, Giuliana; Geltenbort, Peter

    2015-04-01

    We have developed a compact permanent-magnet sextupole lens for neutrons that can focus a pulsed beam with a wide wavelength range-the maximum wavelength being more than double the minimum-while sufficiently suppressing the effect of chromatic aberration. The bore diameter is #x00F8;15 mm. Three units of a double-ring sextupole with a length of 66 mm are cascaded, resulting in a total length of 198 mm. The dynamic modulation range of the unit-averaged field gradient is 1.06 × 104-5.86 × 104Tm^{-2}. Permanent magnets and newly developed torque-canceling elements make the device compact, its production costs low, and its operation simpler than that of other magnetic lenses. The efficacy of this lens was verified using very cold neutrons. The diameter of the focused beam spots over the wavelength range of 27-55 Å was the same as that of the source aperture (2 mm diameter) when the magnification of the optical arrangement was unity. The total beam flux over this wavelength range was enhanced by a factor of 43. The focusing distance from the source to the detector was 1.84 m. In addition, in a demonstration of neutron image magnification, the image of a sample mask magnified by a factor of 4.1 was observed when the magnification of the optical arrangement was 5.0.

  16. Direct acceleration of electrons by a circular polarized laser pulse with phase modulation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Lun-Wu; Sheng, Zheng-Mao; Yu, M. Y.

    2013-11-15

    Electron acceleration by transversely echelon phase-modulated (EPM) circularly polarized (CP) intense laser pulse is investigated. Solution of the relativistic electron equations of motion shows that the CP EPM light wave structure can disrupt the harmonic response of a trapped electron not only in the transverse direction but also in the direction of laser propagation. In each laser cycle, there can be a net gain in the electron's transverse momentum, which is promptly converted into the forward direction by the Lorentz force. As a result, the electron can be trapped and accelerated in the favorable phase of the laser for a rather long time. Its momentum gain then accumulates and can eventually reach high levels. It is also found that with the CP EPM laser, the net acceleration of the electron is not sensitive to its initial position and velocity relative to the phase of the laser fields, so that such a laser can also be useful for accelerating thermal electron bunches to high energies.

  17. Wavelet analysis of pulse-amplitude-modulated chlorophyll fluorescence for differentiation of plant samples.

    PubMed

    Guo, Ya; Zhou, Yesen; Tan, Jinglu

    2015-04-01

    Pulse-amplitude-modulated (PAM) chlorophyll fluorescence (ChlF) from photosystem II (PSII) of plants has been routinely measured for the analysis of photosynthesis and environmental changes. PAM ChlF from PSII is non-stationary and has time-varying frequency characteristics; however, existing analysis of PAM ChlF has been limited to selected characteristic values in the time domain. Wavelet transform is recognized as an efficient tool for analyzing non-stationary signals. In this research, an attempt was made to analyze PAM ChlF through wavelet transform. Features of PAM ChlF signals were computed from wavelet decomposition to classify two tree species and to detect chilling and detachment stresses. The wavelet-based features were compared with the commonly-used maximal PSII efficiency Fv/Fm. Both the wavelet-based features and Fv/Fm could effectively classify two tree species, but the former showed superiority than the latter in detecting the stresses. Wavelet transform revealed chilling stress earlier than Fv/Fm and detected detachment stress Fv/Fm failed to show. The results show that wavelet transform is a useful technique for analysis of PAM ChlF. PMID:25665719

  18. Discrete-Time Demodulator Architectures for Free-Space Broadband Optical Pulse-Position Modulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gray, A. A.; Lee, C.

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this work is to develop discrete-time demodulator architectures for broadband optical pulse-position modulation (PPM) that are capable of processing Nyquist or near-Nyquist data rates. These architectures are motivated by the numerous advantages of realizing communications demodulators in digital very large scale integrated (VLSI) circuits. The architectures are developed within a framework that encompasses a large body of work in optical communications, synchronization, and multirate discrete-time signal processing and are constrained by the limitations of the state of the art in digital hardware. This work attempts to create a bridge between theoretical communication algorithms and analysis for deep-space optical PPM and modern digital VLSI. The primary focus of this work is on the synthesis of discrete-time processing architectures for accomplishing the most fundamental functions required in PPM demodulators, post-detection filtering, synchronization, and decision processing. The architectures derived are capable of closely approximating the theoretical performance of the continuous-time algorithms from which they are derived. The work concludes with an outline of the development path that leads to hardware.

  19. Molybdenum Oxides Deposited by Modulated Pulse Power Magnetron Sputtering: Stoichiometry as a Function of Process Parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, Neil R.; Sun, Lirong; Grant, John T.; Jones, John G.; Jakubiak, Rachel

    2015-10-01

    Molybdenum oxide films were deposited using modulated pulse power magnetron sputtering (MPPMS) from a molybdenum target in a reactive environment where the flow rate of oxygen was varied from 0 sccm to 2.00 sccm. By varying the amount of reactive oxygen available during deposition, the composition of the films ranged from metallic Mo to fully stoichiometric MoO3, when the molybdenum target became poisoned, due to the formation of a dielectric surface oxide coating. Film compositions were verified using high energy resolution x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Target poisoning occurred at an oxygen flow rate of 1.25 sccm and reversed when the flow rate decreased to about 1.00 sccm. MoO3 films deposited via MPPMS had densities of 3.8 g cm-3, 81% of the density of crystalline α-MoO3 as determined by x-ray reflectivity (XRR). In addition, XRR and atomic force microscopy data showed sub-nanometer surface roughness values. From spectroscopic ellipsometry, the measured refractive index of the MoO3 films at 589 nm was 1.97 with extinction coefficient values <0.02 at wavelengths above the measured absorption edge of 506 nm (2.45 eV).

  20. Timing performance of phased-locked loops in optical pulse position modulation communication systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lafaw, D. A.; Gardner, C. S.

    1984-01-01

    An optical digital communication system requires that an accurate clock signal be available at the receiver for proper synchronization with the transmitted signal. Phase synchronization is especially critical in M-ary pulse position modulation (PPM) systems where the optimum decision scheme is an energy detector which compares the energy in each of M time slots to decide which of M possible words was sent. Timing errors cause energy spillover into adjacent time slots (a form of intersymbol interference) so that only a portion of the signal energy may be attributed to the correct time slot. This effect decreases the effective signal, increases the effective noise, and increases the probability of error. A timing subsystem for a satellite-to-satellite optical PPM communication link is simulated. The receiver employs direct photodetection, preprocessing of the detected signal, and a phase-locked loop for timing synchronization. The variance of the relative phase error is examined under varying signal strength conditions as an indication of loop performance, and simulation results are compared to theoretical calculations.

  1. Optogenetics-enabled dynamic modulation of action potential duration in atrial tissue: feasibility of a novel therapeutic approach

    PubMed Central

    Karathanos, Thomas V.; Boyle, Patrick M.; Trayanova, Natalia A.

    2014-01-01

    Aims Diseases that abbreviate the cardiac action potential (AP) by increasing the strength of repolarizing transmembrane currents are highly arrhythmogenic. It has been proposed that optogenetic tools could be used to restore normal AP duration (APD) in the heart under such disease conditions. This study aims to evaluate the efficacy of an optogenetic treatment modality for prolonging pathologically shortened APs in a detailed computational model of short QT syndrome (SQTS) in the human atria, and compare it to drug treatment. Methods and results We used a human atrial myocyte model with faster repolarization caused by SQTS; light sensitivity was inscribed via the presence of channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2). We conducted simulations in single cells and in a magnetic resonance imaging-based model of the human left atrium (LA). Application of an appropriate optical stimulus to a diseased cell dynamically increased APD, producing an excellent match to control AP (<1.5 mV deviation); treatment of a diseased cell with an AP-prolonging drug (chloroquine) also increased APD, but the match to control AP was worse (>5 mV deviation). Under idealized conditions in the LA (uniform ChR2-expressing cell distribution, no light attenuation), optogenetics-based therapy outperformed chloroquine treatment (APD increased to 87% and 81% of control). However, when non-uniform ChR2-expressing cell distribution and light attenuation were incorporated, optogenetics-based treatment was less effective (APD only increased to 55%). Conclusion This study demonstrates proof of concept for optogenetics-based treatment of diseases that alter atrial AP shape. We identified key practical obstacles intrinsic to the optogenetic approach that must be overcome before such treatments can be realized. PMID:25362173

  2. The Pressurized Logistics Module: Providing Consumables and Resupply Logistics to the Lunar Surface for a Long-duration Manned Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, Amanda; Knight, Amanda

    2008-01-01

    In response to President Bush s 2004 Vision for Space Exploration initiative, NASA established an agency-wide Lunar Architecture Team (LAT) to develop the high-level requirements, assumptions, ground-rules and objectives for a manned mission to the moon. During Phase II of the evaluation, the Habitation Focus Element Group was directed to conceptually develop and design a Pressurized Logistics Module (PLM). The PLM task was delivered with one major requirement: to derive a system with minimal mass and cost, and a maximum, functional, internal volumetric area in order to provide the maximum amount of consumables, supportability and logistic re-supply for a crew of four to the Lunar surface with an overall integrated maximum weight of 5200kg. The PLM was derived from the Habitation Group s "mini-Hab" option. This concept required that the PLM have an aluminum-clad graphite epoxy external truss, utilized for increased mobility and stability, which would encompass a 2.7 meter diameter pressurized aluminum-lithium cylinder. Several trade studies and analyses were performed to determine the final length and orientation of the module, the number of systems required to maintain the PLM, and the number of hatches/mating mechanisms which would successfully and efficiently meet the requirements. Of the five specific configurations assessed, the PLM was determined to have a 3 meter by 3 meter by 5 meter external truss with a 2.7 meter diameter and 5 meter long horizontal, pressurized cylinder with one hatch/mating mechanism on one end cone. Two major assumptions aided in the formulation of the technical baseline: 1) the PLM should be sustainable for up to 18 months on the Lunar Lander without connection to its final destination, the Lunar Outpost, and 2) it must be self-sufficient to withstand a maximum eight hour transit from the Lander to the Outpost. Per these assumptions, eight major systems constitute the PLM: structures, passive mating, protection, power, thermal

  3. The theory and implementation of a high quality pulse width modulated waveform synthesiser applicable to voltage FED inverters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lower, Kim Nigel

    1985-03-01

    Modulation processes associated with the digital implementation of pulse width modulation (PWM) switching strategies were examined. A software package based on a portable turnkey structure is presented. Waveform synthesizer implementation techniques are reviewed. A three phase PWM waveform synthesizer for voltage fed inverters was realized. It is based on a constant carrier frequency of 18 kHz and a regular sample, single edge, asynchronous PWM switching scheme. With high carrier frequencies, it is possible to utilize simple switching strategies and as a consequence, many advantages are highlighted, emphasizing the importance to industrial and office markets.

  4. Recognition of Frequency Modulated Whistle-Like Sounds by a Bottlenose Dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) and Humans with Transformations in Amplitude, Duration and Frequency.

    PubMed

    Branstetter, Brian K; DeLong, Caroline M; Dziedzic, Brandon; Black, Amy; Bakhtiari, Kimberly

    2016-01-01

    Bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) use the frequency contour of whistles produced by conspecifics for individual recognition. Here we tested a bottlenose dolphin's (Tursiops truncatus) ability to recognize frequency modulated whistle-like sounds using a three alternative matching-to-sample paradigm. The dolphin was first trained to select a specific object (object A) in response to a specific sound (sound A) for a total of three object-sound associations. The sounds were then transformed by amplitude, duration, or frequency transposition while still preserving the frequency contour of each sound. For comparison purposes, 30 human participants completed an identical task with the same sounds, objects, and training procedure. The dolphin's ability to correctly match objects to sounds was robust to changes in amplitude with only a minor decrement in performance for short durations. The dolphin failed to recognize sounds that were frequency transposed by plus or minus ½ octaves. Human participants demonstrated robust recognition with all acoustic transformations. The results indicate that this dolphin's acoustic recognition of whistle-like sounds was constrained by absolute pitch. Unlike human speech, which varies considerably in average frequency, signature whistles are relatively stable in frequency, which may have selected for a whistle recognition system invariant to frequency transposition. PMID:26863519

  5. Recognition of Frequency Modulated Whistle-Like Sounds by a Bottlenose Dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) and Humans with Transformations in Amplitude, Duration and Frequency

    PubMed Central

    Branstetter, Brian K.; DeLong, Caroline M.; Dziedzic, Brandon; Black, Amy; Bakhtiari, Kimberly

    2016-01-01

    Bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) use the frequency contour of whistles produced by conspecifics for individual recognition. Here we tested a bottlenose dolphin’s (Tursiops truncatus) ability to recognize frequency modulated whistle-like sounds using a three alternative matching-to-sample paradigm. The dolphin was first trained to select a specific object (object A) in response to a specific sound (sound A) for a total of three object-sound associations. The sounds were then transformed by amplitude, duration, or frequency transposition while still preserving the frequency contour of each sound. For comparison purposes, 30 human participants completed an identical task with the same sounds, objects, and training procedure. The dolphin’s ability to correctly match objects to sounds was robust to changes in amplitude with only a minor decrement in performance for short durations. The dolphin failed to recognize sounds that were frequency transposed by plus or minus ½ octaves. Human participants demonstrated robust recognition with all acoustic transformations. The results indicate that this dolphin’s acoustic recognition of whistle-like sounds was constrained by absolute pitch. Unlike human speech, which varies considerably in average frequency, signature whistles are relatively stable in frequency, which may have selected for a whistle recognition system invariant to frequency transposition. PMID:26863519

  6. Full quaternion based finite-time cascade attitude control approach via pulse modulation synthesis for a spacecraft.

    PubMed

    Mazinan, A H; Pasand, M; Soltani, B

    2015-09-01

    In the aspect of further development of investigations in the area of spacecraft modeling and analysis of the control scheme, a new hybrid finite-time robust three-axis cascade attitude control approach is proposed via pulse modulation synthesis. The full quaternion based control approach proposed here is organized in association with both the inner and the outer closed loops. It is shown that the inner closed loop, which consists of the sliding mode finite-time control approach, the pulse width pulse frequency modulator, the control allocation and finally the dynamics of the spacecraft is realized to track the three-axis referenced commands of the angular velocities. The pulse width pulse frequency modulators are in fact employed in the inner closed loop to accommodate the control signals to a number of on-off thrusters, while the control allocation algorithm provides the commanded firing times for the reaction control thrusters in the overactuated spacecraft. Hereinafter, the outer closed loop, which consists of the proportional linear control approach and the kinematics of the spacecraft is correspondingly designed to deal with the attitude angles that are presented by quaternion vector. It should be noted that the main motivation of the present research is to realize a hybrid control method by using linear and nonlinear terms and to provide a reliable and robust control structure, which is able to track time varying three-axis referenced commands. Subsequently, a stability analysis is presented to verify the performance of the overall proposed cascade attitude control approach. To prove the effectiveness of the presented approach, a thorough investigation is presented compared to a number of recent corresponding benchmarks. PMID:26142216

  7. Diagnostics of reactive pulsed plasmas by UV and VUV absorption spectroscopy and by modulated beam Mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunge, Gilles

    2011-10-01

    Pulsed plasmas are promising for etching applications in the microelectronic industry. However, many new phenomena are involved when a high density discharge is pulsed. To better understand these processes it is necessary to probe the radicals' kinetics with a microsecond resolution. We have developed several diagnostics to reach this goal including broad band absorption spectroscopy with UV LEDs to detect small polyatomic radicals and with a deuterium VUV source to detect larger closed shell molecules and the modulated mass spectrometry to monitor atomic species. We will discuss the impact of the plasma pulsing frequency and duty cycle on the radical densities in Cl2 based plasmas, and the consequences on plasma processes. Work done in collaboration with Paul Bodart, Melisa Brihoum, Maxime Darnon, Erwin Pargon, Olivier Joubert, and Nader Sadeghi, CNRS/LTM.

  8. Liquid mixing enhanced by pulse width modulation in a Y-shaped jet configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Qingfeng; Zhong, Shan

    2013-04-01

    In this paper, mixing between two fluid streams, which are injected into a planar mixing channel via a Y-shaped confluence section at the same volume flow rate, is studied experimentally. The injection of the two fluid streams is controlled by two separate solenoid valves, which are operated with a phase difference of 180°, using pulse width modulation. The experiments are conducted using water at a mean Reynolds number between 83 and 250, a range of pulsation frequencies and two duty cycles (25 and 50%). Both particle-image velocimetry and planar laser-induced fluorescence technique are used to visualize the flow patterns and to quantify the mixing degree in the mixing channel. This experiment shows that the pulsation of each jet produces vortical structures, which promotes mixing via vortex entrainment and vortex breakup, and at the same time the mixing is also greatly enhanced by sequential segmentation produced by a 180° out-of-phase pulsation of the two jets. This mixing enhancement method is effective at a Reynolds number greater than 125 with a mixing degree of 0.9 being achieved. For the Reynolds numbers studied in the present experiments, an optimal frequency exists, which corresponds to a Strouhal number in the range of 0.5-2. Furthermore, at a given mean Reynolds number a lower duty cycle is found to produce a better mixing due to the resultant higher instantaneous Reynolds number in the jet flow. It is also found that pulsation of only one jet can produce a similar mixing effect.

  9. Auditory-nerve responses to varied inter-phase gap and phase duration of the electric pulse stimulus as predictors for neuronal degeneration.

    PubMed

    Ramekers, Dyan; Versnel, Huib; Strahl, Stefan B; Smeets, Emma M; Klis, Sjaak F L; Grolman, Wilko

    2014-04-01

    After severe hair cell loss, secondary degeneration of spiral ganglion cells (SGCs) is observed-a gradual process that spans years in humans but only takes weeks in guinea pigs. Being the target for cochlear implants (CIs), the physiological state of the SGCs is important for the effectiveness of a CI. For assessment of the nerve's state, focus has generally been on its response threshold. Our goal was to add a more detailed characterization of SGC functionality. To this end, the electrically evoked compound action potential (eCAP) was recorded in normal-hearing guinea pigs and guinea pigs that were deafened 2 or 6 weeks prior to the experiments. We evaluated changes in eCAP characteristics when the phase duration (PD) and inter-phase gap (IPG) of a biphasic current pulse were varied. We correlated the magnitude of these changes to quantified histological measures of neurodegeneration (SGC packing density and SGC size). The maximum eCAP amplitude, derived from the input-output function, decreased after deafening, and increased with both PD and IPG. The eCAP threshold did not change after deafening, and decreased with increasing PD and IPG. The dynamic range was wider for the 6-weeks-deaf animals than for the other two groups. Excitability increased with IPG (steeper slope of the input-output function and lower stimulation level at the half-maximum eCAP amplitude), but to a lesser extent for the deafened animals than for normal-hearing controls. The latency was shorter for the 6-weeks-deaf animals than for the other two groups. For several of these eCAP characteristics, the effect size of IPG correlated well with histological measures of degeneration, whereas effect size of PD did not. These correlations depend on the use of high current levels, which could limit clinical application. Nevertheless, their potential of these correlations towards assessment of the condition of the auditory nerve may be of great benefit to clinical diagnostics and prognosis in cochlear

  10. A novel range ambiguity resolution technique applying pulse-position modulation in time-of-flight ranging applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rieger, Peter; Ullrich, Andreas

    2012-06-01

    Time-of-Flight range measurements rely on the unambiguous assignment of each received echo signal to its causative emitted pulse signal. The maximum unambiguous measurement range depends on the signal group velocity in the propagation medium and the source signals' pulse repetition interval. When this range is exceeded an echo signal and its preceding pulse signal are not associated any longer and the result is ambiguous. We introduce a novel, two-stage approach which significantly increases the maximum unambiguous measurement range by applying a specifically coded pulse-position-modulation scheme to the train of emitted pulses in the first step. In the second step the analysis of resulting measurement ranges allows the unambiguous decision for the correct ranges. In this regard we also present a unique feature of a group of digital codes which helps to enhance detection robustness. Results are given on the basis of time-of-flight measurements from scanning LIDAR, where this technique has been implemented for the first time.

  11. System design and operation of a 100 kilovolt, 2 kilohertz pulse modulator for plasma source ion implantation

    SciTech Connect

    Reass, W.A.

    1994-07-01

    This paper describes the electrical design and operation of a high power modulator system implemented for the Los Alamos Plasma Source Ion Implantation (PSII) facility. To test the viability of the PSII process for various automotive components, the modulator must accept wide variations of load impedance. Components have varying area and composition which must be processed with different plasmas. Additionally, the load impedance may change by large factors during the typical 20 uS pulse, due to plasma displacement currents and sheath growth. As a preliminary design to test the system viability for automotive component implantation, suitable for a manufacturing environment, circuit topology must be able to directly scale to high power versions, for increased component through-put. We have chosen an evolutionary design approach with component families of characterized performance, which should Ion result in a reliable modulator system with component lifetimes. The modulator utilizes a pair of Litton L-3408 hollow beam amplifier tubes as switching elements in a ``hot-deck`` configuration. Internal to the main of planar triode hot deck, an additional pair decks, configured in a totem pole circuit, provide input drive to the L-3408 mod-anodes. The modulator can output over 2 amps average current (at 100 kV) with 1 kW of modanode drive. Diagnostic electronics monitor the load and stops pulses for 100 mS when a load arcs occur. This paper, in addition to providing detailed engineering design information, will provide operational characteristics and reliability data that direct the design to the higher power, mass production line capable modulators.

  12. SOLITONS: Nonreciprocal dynamics of pulses in a nonlinear inhomogeneous fibre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamova, M. S.; Zolotovskii, Igor'O.; Sementsov, Dmitrii I.

    2007-08-01

    The conditions, under which the nonreciprocity of the frequency modulation rate and pulse duration as well as the spectral nonreciprocity in fibres with different types of inhomogeneity of nonlinearity and group-velocity dispersion appear, are studied for the Gaussian and hyperbolic secant frequency-modulated pulses. Strong compression nonreciprocity is found in fibres with an alternating group-velocity dispersion periodically changing over its length.

  13. 50-Gbit/s optical pulse storage ring using novel rational-harmonic modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moores, J. D.; Wong, W. S.; Hall, K. L.

    1995-12-01

    50-Gbit / s, 3.8-kbit packets of optical return-to-zero data have been stored in a unidirectional fiber storage ring by use of a novel modulation scheme in which the ratio of the fundamental modulation frequency to the cavity fundamental frequency is rational (nonintegral). The modulation technique should be applicable to lasers and to soliton transmission.

  14. Compression of An Ultrashort Laser Pulse via Self-Phase Modulation in An Argon Channel

    SciTech Connect

    Kudo, Masashi; Higashiguchi, Takeshi; Yugami, Noboru

    2009-01-22

    Compression and splitting of the optical laser pulse due to multiple filamentation in an argon gas-filled channel was observed. A 130-140-fs linearly polarized pulse was successfully compressed to less than 60-80 fs with the output energy of a few 10 mJ.

  15. Relationship between prostate volume changes and treatment duration of neoadjuvant androgen deprivation during intensity-modulated radiation therapy for Japanese patients with prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Tomida, Masashi; Okudaira, Kuniyasu; Kamomae, Takeshi; Oguchi, Hiroshi; Miyake, Yoshikazu; Yoneda, Kazuo; Itoh, Yoshiyuki

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The application of neoadjuvant androgen deprivation (NAD) in prostate cancer leads to a reduction in prostate volume, and the trends in volume reduction differ according to the treatment duration of NAD. A reduction in volume during external beam radiation therapy may lead to the exposure of normal tissues to an unexpected dose. In fact, prostate volume reductions have primarily been reported in European and American institutions. Although the prostate volume of Japanese patients is known to be small, the trends in prostate volume change during radiation therapy remain unclear. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate the changes in prostate volume of Japanese patients during intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) with NAD. Nineteen Japanese patients with prostate cancer underwent IMRT with NAD. Kilovoltage computed tomography (CT) images were obtained for treatment planning and verification of the treatment position for each treatment fraction. The patients were divided into 3 groups based on the duration of NAD, as follows: NAD < 3 months (short NAD: S-NAD), 3 months ≤ NAD < 6 months (middle NAD: M-NAD), and NAD ≥ 6 months (long NAD: L-NAD). The prostate volume reductions at the 36th treatment fraction, relative to the planning CT, were 7.8%, 2.0%, and 1.7% for the S-NAD, M-NAD, and L-NAD groups, respectively. Prostate volume shrunk greater in the S-NAD group than in the M-NAD and L-NAD groups; this finding was consistent with those of previous studies. The prostate volume changes in Japanese patients were smaller compared to those in European and American patients. PMID:27578915

  16. Relationship between prostate volume changes and treatment duration of neoadjuvant androgen deprivation during intensity-modulated radiation therapy for Japanese patients with prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Tomida, Masashi; Okudaira, Kuniyasu; Kamomae, Takeshi; Oguchi, Hiroshi; Miyake, Yoshikazu; Yoneda, Kazuo; Itoh, Yoshiyuki

    2016-08-01

    The application of neoadjuvant androgen deprivation (NAD) in prostate cancer leads to a reduction in prostate volume, and the trends in volume reduction differ according to the treatment duration of NAD. A reduction in volume during external beam radiation therapy may lead to the exposure of normal tissues to an unexpected dose. In fact, prostate volume reductions have primarily been reported in European and American institutions. Although the prostate volume of Japanese patients is known to be small, the trends in prostate volume change during radiation therapy remain unclear. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate the changes in prostate volume of Japanese patients during intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) with NAD. Nineteen Japanese patients with prostate cancer underwent IMRT with NAD. Kilovoltage computed tomography (CT) images were obtained for treatment planning and verification of the treatment position for each treatment fraction. The patients were divided into 3 groups based on the duration of NAD, as follows: NAD < 3 months (short NAD: S-NAD), 3 months ≤ NAD < 6 months (middle NAD: M-NAD), and NAD ≥ 6 months (long NAD: L-NAD). The prostate volume reductions at the 36th treatment fraction, relative to the planning CT, were 7.8%, 2.0%, and 1.7% for the S-NAD, M-NAD, and L-NAD groups, respectively. Prostate volume shrunk greater in the S-NAD group than in the M-NAD and L-NAD groups; this finding was consistent with those of previous studies. The prostate volume changes in Japanese patients were smaller compared to those in European and American patients. PMID:27578915

  17. Pulsed FM mode locking of a Nd:BEL laser.

    PubMed

    Godil, A A; Li, K D; Bloom, D M

    1991-08-15

    A novel but simple and practical mode locker was built and demonstrated for a diode-pumped Nd:BEL laser. Fast electrical pulses from a comb generator drive a LiNbO(3) crystal, which produces pulsed electro-optic phase modulation in the laser cavity. Stable mode-locked pulses of 7.5-ps duration were obtained at a repetition rate of 250 MHz. PMID:19776932

  18. Phase-sensitive optical detection of ballistic phonon heat pulses using frequency-modulation spectroscopy and persistent spectral holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ambrose, W. P.; Moerner, W. E.

    1991-01-01

    With the use of laser frequency-modulation (FM) spectroscopy and persistent spectral holes, time-resolved phase-sensitive probing of ballistic phonon heat pulses is accomplished in the interior of a NaF crystal. The ballistic phonon heat pulses are generated by the absorption of a Nd:YAG (neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet) laser pulse in a Cr film on the sample surface. Local measurement of the propagating stress-strain field is illustrated by detecting the modulation of a spectral hole in the inhomogeneously broadened 607-nm color-center absorption in x-irradiated NaF at liquid-helium temperatures. By examining the dependence of the observed phonon time-of-flight data on the polarization of the probing light, the position within the sample, and the phase of FM detection, an identification of the acoustic polarizations of the propagating phonons may be made. The effects of phonon focusing and mode conversion upon reflection must be taken into account to complete the identification. Along with the ability to determine the sign of the acoustic disturbance, this experiment features a strain detection limit of 4×10-9 at a time resolution of 50 ns.

  19. Capacity of Pulse-Position Modulation (PPM) on Gaussian and Webb Channels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dolinar, S.; Divsalar, D.; Hamkins, J.; Pollara, F.

    2000-01-01

    This article computes the capacity of various idealized soft-decision channels modeling an optical channel using an avalanche photodiode detector (APD) and pulse-position modulation (PPM). The capacity of this optical channel depends in a complicated way on the physical parameters of the APD and the constraints imposed by the PPM orthogonal signaling set. This article attempts to identify and separate the effects of several fundamental parameters on the capacity of the APD-detected optical PPM channel. First, an overall signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) parameter is de ned such that the capacity as a function of a bit-normalized version of this SNR drops precipitously toward zero at quasi-brick-wall limits on bit SNR that are numerically the same as the well-understood brick-wall limits for the standard additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) channel. A second parameter is used to quantify the effects on capacity of one unique facet of the optical PPM channel (as compared with the standard AWGN channel) that causes the noise variance to be higher in signal slots than in nonsignal slots. This nonuniform noise variance yields interesting capacity effects even when the channel model is AWGN. A third parameter is used to measure the effects on capacity of the difference between an AWGN model and a non-Gaussian model proposed by Webb (see reference in [2]) for approximating the statistics of the APD-detected optical channel. Finally, a fourth parameter is used to quantify the blending of a Webb model with a pure AWGN model to account for thermal noise. Numerical results show that the capacity of M-ary orthogonal signaling on the Webb channel exhibits the same brick-wall Shannon limit, (M ln 2)=(M 1), as on the AWGN channel ( 1:59 dB for large M). Results also compare the capacity obtained by hard- and soft-output channels and indicate that soft-output channels o er a 3-dB advantage.

  20. Pulse-pressure-enhancing controller for better physiologic perfusion of rotary blood pumps based on speed modulation.

    PubMed

    Huang, Feng; Ruan, Xiaodong; Fu, Xin

    2014-01-01

    Sufficient pulsation is important for physiologic perfusion if adequate flow is to be guaranteed. A fuzzy control method for rotary blood pumps using active speed modulation is proposed in this article. It maintains the mean aortic pressure to provide sufficient perfusion while it simultaneously enhances the pulse pressure. The controller uses the indices extracted from the aortic pressure as feedback to determine the amplitude and offset of the rectangular speed modulation waveform, which is synchronous with the cardiac cycle. An additional algorithm is included to prevent regurgitation. The controller is tested both in a baroreflex-cardiovascular model and in a preliminary in vitro experiment. Simulation results demonstrate that the controller is able to increase the pulse pressure to approximately 20 mm Hg and at the same time maintains the mean pressure at 100 mm Hg, when heart failure occurs. It is also quite robust under various physiologic disturbances. Experimental results show that the speed modulation can be implemented in real pumps and that the controller is feasible in practice. PMID:24614360

  1. Transient features in nanosecond pulsed electric fields differentially modulate mitochondria and viability.

    PubMed

    Beebe, Stephen J; Chen, Yeong-Jer; Sain, Nova M; Schoenbach, Karl H; Xiao, Shu

    2012-01-01

    It is hypothesized that high frequency components of nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEFs), determined by transient pulse features, are important for maximizing electric field interactions with intracellular structures. For monopolar square wave pulses, these transient features are determined by the rapid rise and fall of the pulsed electric fields. To determine effects on mitochondria membranes and plasma membranes, N1-S1 hepatocellular carcinoma cells were exposed to single 600 ns pulses with varying electric fields (0-80 kV/cm) and short (15 ns) or long (150 ns) rise and fall times. Plasma membrane effects were evaluated using Fluo-4 to determine calcium influx, the only measurable source of increases in intracellular calcium. Mitochondria membrane effects were evaluated using tetramethylrhodamine ethyl ester (TMRE) to determine mitochondria membrane potentials (ΔΨm). Single pulses with short rise and fall times caused electric field-dependent increases in calcium influx, dissipation of ΔΨm and cell death. Pulses with long rise and fall times exhibited electric field-dependent increases in calcium influx, but diminished effects on dissipation of ΔΨm and viability. Results indicate that high frequency components have significant differential impact on mitochondria membranes, which determines cell death, but lesser variances on plasma membranes, which allows calcium influxes, a primary determinant for dissipation of ΔΨm and cell death. PMID:23284682

  2. Preliminary study of pulsed-electromagnetic fields effects on endothelial (HUVEC) cell secretions--modulation of the thrombo-hemorrhagic balance.

    PubMed

    Caprani, Adrien; Richert, Alain; Guglielmi, Jean-Paul; Flaud, Patrice

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the role of low-amplitude magnetic pulse with low repetition frequency superimposed on the environmental electromagnetic field (EMF) on the secretion of anti-aggregant (Prostacyclin or PGI(2)) and pro-aggregant (Thromboxane A(2)) agents in endothelial cells of the human umbilical cord vein (HUVEC). We established that magnetic pulse exposure modulates both PGI(2) and TXA(2). These modulations depend on the frequency, width of the pulse, and intensity of the magnetic field. Moreover, we corroborated previous results obtained with an endothelial cell line (EaHy-926), concerning the increased thrombo-embolic risk for the 1 Hz frequency. PMID:19037787

  3. 30-fs pulses tunable across the visible with a 100-kHz Ti:sapphire regenerative amplifier

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, M.K.; Armas, M.S.; Steiner-Shepard, M.K.; Negus, D.K.

    1995-03-15

    A 100-kHz mode-locked Ti:sapphire-seeded regenerative amplifier pumping an optical parametric amplifier generates femtosecond pulses tunable from 470 to 710 nm. This output was compressed with a pair of prisms to bandwidth-limited pulses of 80- to 40-fs duration and more than 150 nJ of energy. These tunable pulses were then bandwidth expanded through self-phase modulation in bulk material and further compressed to less than 30-fs duration.

  4. Radiated Emission of Breath Monitoring System Based on UWB Pulses in Spacecraft Modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russo, P.; Mariani Primiani, V.; De Leo, A.; Cerri, G.

    2012-05-01

    The paper describes some EMC aspects related to a UWB radar for monitoring astronauts breathing activity. Compliance to EMC space standards forces some design aspects, in particular the peak voltage and the pulse waveform. Moreover some simulations were carried out to consider realistic operating condition. In the first case the interference towards a victim wifi circuit was analyzed, in the second case the effect of the environment on the radiated pulse was studied.

  5. Robust integral variable structure controller and pulse-width pulse-frequency modulated input shaper design for flexible spacecraft with mismatched uncertainty/disturbance.

    PubMed

    Hu, Qinglei

    2007-10-01

    This paper presents a dual-stage control system design method for the flexible spacecraft attitude maneuvering control by use of on-off thrusters and active vibration control by input shaper. In this design approach, attitude control system and vibration suppression were designed separately using lower order model. As a stepping stone, an integral variable structure controller with the assumption of knowing the upper bounds of the mismatched lumped perturbation has been designed which ensures exponential convergence of attitude angle and angular velocity in the presence of bounded uncertainty/disturbances. To reconstruct estimates of the system states for use in a full information variable structure control law, an asymptotic variable structure observer is also employed. In addition, the thruster output is modulated in pulse-width pulse-frequency so that the output profile is similar to the continuous control histories. For actively suppressing the induced vibration, the input shaping technique is used to modify the existing command so that less vibration will be caused by the command itself, which only requires information about the vibration frequency and damping of the closed-loop system. The rationale behind this hybrid control scheme is that the integral variable structure controller can achieve good precision pointing, even in the presence of uncertainties/disturbances, whereas the shaped input attenuator is applied to actively suppress the undesirable vibrations excited by the rapid maneuvers. Simulation results for the spacecraft model show precise attitude control and vibration suppression. PMID:17706218

  6. Pulse-modulated second harmonic imaging microscope quantitatively demonstrates marked increase of collagen in tumor after chemotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raja, Anju M.; Xu, Shuoyu; Sun, Wanxin; Zhou, Jianbiao; Tai, Dean C. S.; Chen, Chien-Shing; Rajapakse, Jagath C.; So, Peter T. C.; Yu, Hanry

    2010-09-01

    Pulse-modulated second harmonic imaging microscopes (PM-SHIMs) exhibit improved signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) over conventional SHIMs on sensitive imaging and quantification of weak collagen signals inside tissues. We quantify the spatial distribution of sparse collagen inside a xenograft model of human acute myeloid leukemia (AML) tumor specimens treated with a new drug against receptor tyrosine kinase (ABT-869), and observe a significant increase in collagen area percentage, collagen fiber length, fiber width, and fiber number after chemotherapy. This finding reveals new insights into tumor responses to chemotherapy and suggests caution in developing new drugs and therapeutic regimens against cancers.

  7. Nanosecond pulse shaping at 780 nm with fiber-based electro-optical modulators and a double-pass tapered amplifier.

    PubMed

    Rogers, C E; Gould, P L

    2016-02-01

    We describe a system for generating frequency-chirped and amplitude-shaped pulses on time scales from sub-nanosecond to ten nanoseconds. The system starts with cw diode-laser light at 780 nm and utilizes fiber-based electro-optical phase and intensity modulators, driven by an arbitrary waveform generator, to generate the shaped pulses. These pulses are subsequently amplified to several hundred mW with a tapered amplifier in a delayed double-pass configuration. Frequency chirps up to 5 GHz in 2 ns and pulse widths as short as 0.15 ns have been realized. PMID:26906832

  8. Nanosecond pulse shaping at 780 nm with fiber-based electro-optical modulators and a double-pass tapered amplifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, C. E.; Gould, P. L.

    2016-02-01

    We describe a system for generating frequency-chirped and amplitude-shaped pulses on time scales from sub-nanosecond to ten nanoseconds. The system starts with cw diode-laser light at 780 nm and utilizes fiber-based electro-optical phase and intensity modulators, driven by an arbitrary waveform generator, to generate the shaped pulses. These pulses are subsequently amplified to several hundred mW with a tapered amplifier in a delayed double-pass configuration. Frequency chirps up to 5 GHz in 2 ns and pulse widths as short as 0.15 ns have been realized.

  9. [Pulse-modulated Electromagnetic Radiation of Extremely High Frequencies Protects Cellular DNA against Damaging Effect of Physico-Chemical Factors in vitro].

    PubMed

    Gapeyev, A B; Lukyanova, N A

    2015-01-01

    Using a comet assay technique, we investigated protective effects of. extremely high frequency electromagnetic radiation in combination with the damaging effect of X-ray irradiation, the effect of damaging agents hydrogen peroxide and methyl methanesulfonate on DNA in mouse whole blood leukocytes. It was shown that the preliminary exposure of the cells to low intensity pulse-modulated electromagnetic radiation (42.2 GHz, 0.1 mW/cm2, 20-min exposure, modulation frequencies of 1 and 16 Hz) caused protective effects decreasing the DNA damage by 20-45%. The efficacy of pulse-modulated electromagnetic radiation depended on the type of genotoxic agent and increased in a row methyl methanesulfonate--X-rays--hydrogen peroxide. Continuous electromagnetic radiation was ineffective. The mechanisms of protective effects may be connected with an induction of the adaptive response by nanomolar concentrations of reactive oxygen species formed by pulse-modulated electromagnetic radiation. PMID:26591599

  10. Electron beam accelerator with magnetic pulse compression and accelerator switching

    DOEpatents

    Birx, D.L.; Reginato, L.L.

    1984-03-22

    An electron beam accelerator is described comprising an electron beam generator-injector to produce a focused beam of greater than or equal to .1 MeV energy electrons; a plurality of substantially identical, aligned accelerator modules to sequentially receive and increase the kinetic energies of the beam electron by about .1-1 MeV per module. Each accelerator module includes a pulse-forming network that delivers a voltage pulse to the module of substantially .1-1 MeV maximum energy over a time duration of less than or equal to 1 ..mu..sec.

  11. Method and split cavity oscillator/modulator to generate pulsed particle beams and electromagnetic fields

    DOEpatents

    Clark, M. Collins; Coleman, P. Dale; Marder, Barry M.

    1993-01-01

    A compact device called the split cavity modulator whose self-generated oscillating electromagnetic field converts a steady particle beam into a modulated particle beam. The particle beam experiences both signs of the oscillating electric field during the transit through the split cavity modulator. The modulated particle beam can then be used to generate microwaves at that frequency and through the use of extractors, high efficiency extraction of microwave power is enabled. The modulated beam and the microwave frequency can be varied by the placement of resistive wires at nodes of oscillation within the cavity. The short beam travel length through the cavity permit higher currents because both space charge and pinching limitations are reduced. The need for an applied magnetic field to control the beam has been eliminated.

  12. Method and split cavity oscillator/modulator to generate pulsed particle beams and electromagnetic fields

    DOEpatents

    Clark, M.C.; Coleman, P.D.; Marder, B.M.

    1993-08-10

    A compact device called the split cavity modulator whose self-generated oscillating electromagnetic field converts a steady particle beam into a modulated particle beam. The particle beam experiences both signs of the oscillating electric field during the transit through the split cavity modulator. The modulated particle beam can then be used to generate microwaves at that frequency and through the use of extractors, high efficiency extraction of microwave power is enabled. The modulated beam and the microwave frequency can be varied by the placement of resistive wires at nodes of oscillation within the cavity. The short beam travel length through the cavity permit higher currents because both space charge and pinching limitations are reduced. The need for an applied magnetic field to control the beam has been eliminated.

  13. Variation in Cardiac Pulse Frequencies Modulates vSMC Phenotype Switching During Vascular Remodeling.

    PubMed

    Tosun, Zehra; McFetridge, Peter S

    2015-03-01

    In vitro perfusion systems have exposed vascular constructs to mechanical conditions that emulate physiological pulse pressure and found significant improvements in graft development. However, current models maintain constant, or set pulse/shear mechanics that do not account for the natural temporal variation in frequency. With an aim to develop clinically relevant small diameter vascular grafts, these investigations detail a perfusion culture model that incorporates temporal pulse pressure variation. Our objective was to test the hypothesis that short-term variation in heart rate, such as changes in respiratory activity, plays a significant role in vascular remodeling and graft development. The pulse rate of a healthy volunteer was logged to model the effect of daily activities on heart rate. Vascular bioreactors were used to deliver perfusion conditions based on modeled frequencies of temporal pulse variability, termed Physiologically Modeled Pulse Dynamics (PMPD). Acellular scaffolds derived from the human umbilical vein were seeded with human vascular smooth muscle cells and perfused under defined pulsatile conditions. vSMC exposed to constant pulse frequencies expressed a contractile phenotype, while exposure to PMPD drove cells to a synthetic state with continued cell proliferation, increased tensile strength and stiffness as well as diminished vasoactivity. Results show the temporal variation associated with normal heart physiology to have a profound effect on vascular remodeling and vasoactive function. While these models are representative of vascular regeneration further investigation is required to understanding these and other key regulators in vSMC phenotype switching in non-pathological or wound healing states. This understanding has important clinical implications that may lead to improved treatments that enhance vessel regeneration. PMID:26577103

  14. Resolution enhancement using pulse width modulation in digital micromirror device-based point-array scanning pattern exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, Hung-Fei; Huang, Yi-Jun

    2016-04-01

    Digital-mask lithography systems, with a digital micromirror device (DMD) as their central piece, have been widely used for defining patterns on printed circuit board (PCB). This study designed optical module parameters for point-array projection lithography based on field tracing technique to improve the quality of the aerial image on the exposure plane. In the realized optical module for the point-array projection lithography, a DMD was used as the dynamic digital-mask, and a 405-nm-wavelength laser was used to illuminate the DMD. The laser was then focused through the micro-lens array in the optical module to form a point array and was projected onto a dynamic scanning stage. By calculating the beam-overlapping rate, stage velocity, spot diameter, and DMD frame rate and programming them into the stage- and DMD-synchronized controller, the point array formed line patterns on the photoresist. Furthermore, using pulse width modulation (PWM) technique to operate the activation periods of the DMD mirrors effectively controlled the exposure and achieved a feature linewidth of less than 10 μm.

  15. Interglacial Durations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mangili, Clara; McManus, Jerry F.; Raynaud, Dominique

    2014-05-01

    In the context of future global warming induced by human activities, it is essential to assess the role of natural climatic variations. Precise knowledge of the duration of past interglacial periods is fundamental to the understanding of the potential future evolution of the Holocene. Past ice age cycles provide a natural laboratory for exploring the progression and duration of interglacial climate. Palaeorecords from ice, land and oceans extend over the last 800 ka, revealing eight glacial-interglacial cycles, with a range of insolation and greenhouse gas influences. The interglacials display a correspondingly large variety of intensity and duration, thus providing an opportunity for major insights into the mechanisms involved in the behaviour of interglacial climates. A comparison of the duration of these interglacials, however, is often difficult, as the definition of an interglacial depends on the archive that is considered. Therefore, to compare interglacial length and climate conditions from different archives, a consistent definition of interglacial conditions is required, ideally one that is not bound to the method nor to the archive under consideration. Here we present a method to identify interglacials and to calculate their length by mean of a simple statistical approach. We based our method on ~ 400 ka windows of time to determine mean climatic conditions while allowing for the possibility of long term evolution of the climatic baseline. For our study of interglacials of the past 800 ka, we used two windows that largely align with the pre- (800-430 ka ago) and post- (430-0 ka ago) mid-Brunhes event (MBE), although the resulting conclusions are not sensitive to this particular division. We applied this method to the last 800 ka of a few palaeoclimate records: the deuterium ice core (EDC) record as a climatic proxy, the benthic δ18O stack (LR04) as a proxy for sea level/ice volume, ice core (Vostok, EDC) atmospheric CO2 and additional records. Although

  16. Spin-echo magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging at 7 T with frequency-modulated refocusing pulses.

    PubMed

    Zhu, He; Soher, Brian J; Ouwerkerk, Ronald; Schär, Michael; Barker, Peter B

    2013-05-01

    Two approaches to high-resolution SENSE-encoded magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) of the human brain at 7 Tesla (T) with whole-slice coverage are described. Both sequences use high-bandwidth radiofrequency pulses to reduce chemical shift displacement artifacts, SENSE-encoding to reduce scan time, and dual-band water and lipid suppression optimized for 7 T. Simultaneous B0 and transmit B1 mapping was also used for both sequences to optimize field homogeneity using high-order shimming and determine optimum radiofrequency transmit level, respectively. One sequence ("Hahn-MRSI") used reduced flip angle (90°) refocusing pulses for lower radiofrequency power deposition, while the other sequence used adiabatic fast passage refocusing pulses for improved sensitivity and reduced signal dependence on the transmit-B1 level. In four normal subjects, adiabatic fast passage-MRSI showed a signal-to-noise ratio improvement of 3.2±0.5 compared to Hahn-MRSI at the same spatial resolution, pulse repetition time, echo time, and SENSE-acceleration factor. An interleaved two-slice Hahn-MRSI sequence is also demonstrated to be experimentally feasible. PMID:22692894

  17. 1  MW peak-power subpicosecond optical pulse source based on a gain-switched laser diode.

    PubMed

    Fang, Yi-Cheng; Chaki, Tomohiro; Hung, Jui-Hung; Yamada, Hirohito; Yokoyama, Hiroyuki

    2016-09-01

    We have generated optical pulses of 1.2 MW peak power and 0.6 ps duration using a 1060 nm band gain-switched laser diode pulse oscillator. Optical pulses are amplified by three-stage ytterbium-doped fiber amplifiers, and remarkable reductions of amplified spontaneous emission noise and temporal duration have been accomplished based on self-phase modulation in the middle-stage amplifier. After the main amplifier, optical pulses were temporally compressed by a grating pair, and this enabled generation of subpicosecond optical pulses with over 1 MW peak power. PMID:27607964

  18. Generation of runaway electrons and X-ray emission during breakdown of atmospheric-pressure air by voltage pulses with an ∼0.5-μs front duration

    SciTech Connect

    Kostyrya, I. D.; Tarasenko, V. F.

    2015-03-15

    Results are presented from experiments on the generation of runaway electron beams and X-ray emission in atmospheric-pressure air by using voltage pulses with an ∼0.5-μs front duration. It is shown that the use of small-curvature-radius spherical cathodes (or other cathodes with small curvature radii) decreases the intensity of the runaway electron beam and X-ray emission. It is found that, at sufficiently high voltages at the electrode gap (U{sub m} ∼ 100 kV), the gap breakdown, the formation of a spark channel, and the generation of a runaway electron beam occur over less than 10 ns. At high values of U{sub m} behind the anode that were reached by increasing the cathode size and the electrode gap length, a supershort avalanche electron beam with a full width at half-maximum (FWHM) of up to ∼100 ps was detected. At voltages of ∼50 kV, the second breakdown regime was revealed in which a runaway electron beam with an FWHM of ∼2 ns was generated, whereas the FWHM of the X-ray pulse increased to ∼100 ns. It is established that the energy of the bulk of runaway electrons decreases with increasing voltage front duration and is ⩽30 keV in the first regime and ⩽10 keV in the second regime.

  19. Generation of runaway electrons and X-ray emission during breakdown of atmospheric-pressure air by voltage pulses with an ˜0.5-μs front duration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostyrya, I. D.; Tarasenko, V. F.

    2015-03-01

    Results are presented from experiments on the generation of runaway electron beams and X-ray emission in atmospheric-pressure air by using voltage pulses with an ˜0.5-μs front duration. It is shown that the use of small-curvature-radius spherical cathodes (or other cathodes with small curvature radii) decreases the intensity of the runaway electron beam and X-ray emission. It is found that, at sufficiently high voltages at the electrode gap ( U m ˜ 100 kV), the gap breakdown, the formation of a spark channel, and the generation of a runaway electron beam occur over less than 10 ns. At high values of U m behind the anode that were reached by increasing the cathode size and the electrode gap length, a supershort avalanche electron beam with a full width at half-maximum (FWHM) of up to ˜100 ps was detected. At voltages of ˜50 kV, the second breakdown regime was revealed in which a runaway electron beam with an FWHM of ˜2 ns was generated, whereas the FWHM of the X-ray pulse increased to ˜100 ns. It is established that the energy of the bulk of runaway electrons decreases with increasing voltage front duration and is ⩽30 keV in the first regime and ⩽10 keV in the second regime.

  20. Pulse width modulated push-pull driven parallel resonant converter with active free-wheel

    DOEpatents

    Reass, William A.; Schrank, Louis

    2004-06-22

    An apparatus and method for high frequency alternating power generation to control kilowatts of supplied power in microseconds. The present invention includes a means for energy storage, push-pull switching means, control electronics, transformer means, resonant circuitry and means for excess energy recovery, all in electrical communication. A push-pull circuit works synchronously with a force commutated free-wheel transistor to provide current pulses to a transformer. A change in the conduction angle of the push-pull circuit changes the amount of energy coupled into the transformer's secondary oscillating circuit, thereby altering the induced secondary resonating voltage. At the end of each pulse, the force commutated free-wheel transistor causes residual excess energy in the primary circuit to be transmitted back to the storage capacitor for later use.