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Sample records for pulsed radar reflectometer

  1. First results from the small tight aspect ratio tokamak multifrequency pulse radar reflectometer

    SciTech Connect

    Shevchenko, V.F.; Walsh, M.J.

    1997-05-01

    A multifrequency pulse radar reflectometer (PRR) has been designed, commissioned, and is operating successfully on the small tight aspect ratio tokamak (START). The data obtained with this technique allow the study of the density profile evolution during the shot, revealing aspects of the plasma behavior during such events as the internal reconnection. A simple and effective profile-reconstruction algorithm using the stepwise profile approximation permits the monitoring of the plasma density profile immediately after each shot. Cross checks between the START hydrogen cyanide (HCN) interferometer and the line integral density determined by integrating the PRR generated data shows good agreement. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  2. First results from the small tight aspect ratio tokamak multifrequency pulse radar reflectometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shevchenko, V. F.; Walsh, M. J.

    1997-05-01

    A multifrequency pulse radar reflectometer (PRR) has been designed, commissioned, and is operating successfully on the small tight aspect ratio tokamak (START). The data obtained with this technique allow the study of the density profile evolution during the shot, revealing aspects of the plasma behavior during such events as the internal reconnection. A simple and effective profile-reconstruction algorithm using the stepwise profile approximation permits the monitoring of the plasma density profile immediately after each shot. Cross checks between the START hydrogen cyanide (HCN) interferometer and the line integral density determined by integrating the PRR generated data shows good agreement.

  3. Optimal design of reflectometer density profile measurements using a radar systems approach (invited)

    SciTech Connect

    Doyle, E.J.; Kim, K.W.; Peebles, W.A.; Rhodes, T.L.

    1997-01-01

    Reflectometry is an attractive and versatile diagnostic technique that can address a wide range of measurement needs on fusion devices. However, progress in the area of profile measurement has been hampered by the lack of a well-understood basis for the optimum design and implementation of such systems. Such a design basis is provided by the realization that reflectometer systems utilized for density profile measurements are in fact specialized forms of radar systems. In this article five criteria are introduced by which reflectometer systems can be systematically designed for optimal performance: range resolution, spatial sampling, turbulence immunity, bandwidth optimization, and the need for adaptive data processing. Many of these criteria are familiar from radar systems analysis, and are applicable to reflectometry after allowance is made for differences stemming from the nature of the plasma target. These criteria are utilized to critically evaluate current reflectometer density profile techniques and indicate improvements that can impact current and next step devices, such as ITER.{copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  4. Downhole pulse radar

    DOEpatents

    Chang, Hsi-Tien

    1989-01-01

    A borehole logging tool generates a fast rise-time, short duration, high peak-power radar pulse having broad energy distribution between 30 MHz and 300 MHz through a directional transmitting and receiving antennas having barium titanate in the electromagnetically active region to reduce the wavelength to within an order of magnitude of the diameter of the antenna. Radar returns from geological discontinuities are sampled for transmission uphole.

  5. Downhole pulse radar

    DOEpatents

    Chang, Hsi-Tien

    1987-09-28

    A borehole logging tool generates a fast rise-time, short duration, high peak-power radar pulse having broad energy distribution between 30 MHz and 300 MHz through a directional transmitting and receiving antennas having barium titanate in the electromagnetically active region to reduce the wavelength to within an order of magnitude of the diameter of the antenna. Radar returns from geological discontinuities are sampled for transmission uphole. 7 figs.

  6. Phase-sensitive optical coherence reflectometer with differential phase-shift keying of probe pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Alekseev, A E; Vdovenko, V S; Sergachev, I A; Simikin, D E; Gorshkov, B G; Potapov, V T

    2014-10-31

    We report a new method for reconstructing the signal shape of the external dynamic perturbations along the entire length of the fibre of an optical coherence reflectometer. The method proposed is based on differential phase-shift keying of a probe pulse and demodulation of scattered light by the phase diversity technique. Possibilities of the method are demonstrated experimentally. (fibre-optic sensors)

  7. Performance of a reflectometer at continuous wave and pulsed neutron sources

    SciTech Connect

    Fitzsimmons, M.R.

    1995-12-31

    The Monte-Carlo simulations presented here involve simulations of reflectivity measurements of one sample using a reflectometer of traditional geometry at different neutron sources. The same reflectometer was used in all simulations. Only the characteristics of the neutron source, and the technique used to measure neutron wavelength were changed. In the case of the CW simulation, a monochromating crystal was used to select a nearly monochromatic beam (MB) from the neutron spectrum. In the simulations of the pulse sources, the time needed to traverse a fixed distance was measured, from which neutron wavelength is deduced.

  8. Measurement of edge density profiles of Large Helical Device plasmas using an ultrashort-pulse reflectometer.

    PubMed

    Yokota, Y; Mase, A; Kogi, Y; Bruskin, L G; Tokuzawa, T; Kawahata, K

    2008-05-01

    We report here on the application of an ultrashort-pulse reflectometer (USPR) to Large Helical Device in National Institute for Fusion Science. An impulse with picosecond pulse width is used as a source in an USPR. Since the bandwidth of a source is inversely related to the pulse width, we can utilize the frequency range of microwave to millimeter-wave by using wide band transmission lines. The density profiles can be reconstructed by collecting time-of-flight signal of each frequency component of an impulse reflected from each cutoff layer. Remote control system using super science information network has been introduced to the present USPR system. PMID:18513099

  9. Influences of pulse on phase-sensitivity optical time domain reflectometer based distributed vibration sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Xiang; Zhang, Chunxi; Li, Lijing; Liang, Sheng; Li, Hao; Sun, Changjun

    2016-02-01

    The influences of pulse, including the pulse width Tp and the peak pulse power Ipeak, on phase-sensitivity optical time-domain reflectometer (φ-OTDR) based distributed vibration sensor are investigated in this paper. A numerical simulation is performed to illustrate the relationships between pulse and temporal response trace as well as the visibility of interferential Rayleigh backscattering light. The simulation results show that the method of amplifying Ipeak is benefit for increasing the amplitude of temporal response trace, while it is useless for improving the visibility. In contrast, the method of broadening Tp is useful for increasing the amplitude of temporal response trace by improving the visibility. Laboratory experiments are implemented by using a φ-OTDR prototype with an electro-dynamic vibration table producing stable vibration signals. The good agreement of experimental with simulated results validates the theoretical analysis.

  10. The performance of reflectometers at continuous wave and pulsed-neutron sources

    SciTech Connect

    Fritzsimmons, M.R.; Pynn, R.

    1995-12-01

    To quantify gains from time-of-flight (TOF) methods, identical reflectometers viewing a continuous wave (CW) neutron source and a variety of pulsed-neutron sources were simulated using a Monte Carlo technique. Reflectivity profiles obtained for a simple thin-film, reflecting,sample were nearly identical in all simulations, and models fitted to the simulated data yielded parameters (film thickness, surface roughness, and scattering length density) that were equally accurate and precise in all cases. The simulations confirm the power of the TOF method and demonstrate that the performance of pulsed sources for reflectometry does not scale simply as the inverse duty factor of the source. In the case of long-pulse sources, the simulations suggest that pulse tails have little effect on results obtained from specular reflectometry and that maximum brightness of the neutron source should be the primary design criterion.

  11. Project of the new multifunctional reflectometer GRAINS with horizontal sample plane at the IBR-2M pulsed reactor in Dubna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avdeev, M. V.; Bodnarchuk, V. I.; Lauter-Pasyuk, V. V.; Lauter, H.; Aksenov, V. L.; Yaradaikin, S. P.; Ulyanov, V. A.; Trounov, V. A.; Kalinin, S. I.

    2010-11-01

    The new multifunctional reflectometer GRAINS is under construction at the modernized high flux IBR-2 pulsed reactor (IBR-2M) of the FLNP JINR (Dubna, Russia). The principal feature of this reflectometer, the horizontal sample plane (or vertical scattering plane), enables the study of liquid-containing interfaces. The reflectometer will operate in the time-of-flight regime with constant sample illumination during measurements. The important advantage is the constant angular resolution with unvaried background. The additional modes of the GRAINS reflectometer comprise (1) off-specular scattering and GISANS, which are measured simultaneously in the TOF regime at a 2D position-sensitive detector; (2) angular encoding in the horizontal plane, which is provided by a Larmor precession region limited by current sheets in front of the sample; (3) 3D polarimetry in reflection, which is provided by a Larmor precession region around the sample position. The design of the reflectometer is optimised to take better advantage of an exceptionally broad wavelength band of the new cold moderator at the IBR-2M. The set-up will open up principally new possibilities for investigations in the field of interface nano-science at the IBR-2M reactor.

  12. Micro pulse laser radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spinhirne, James D. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    An eye safe, compact, solid state lidar for profiling atmospheric cloud and aerosol scattering is disclosed. The transmitter of the micro pulse lidar is a diode pumped micro-J pulse energy, high repetition rate Nd:YLF laser. Eye safety is obtained through beam expansion. The receiver employs a photon counting solid state Geiger mode avalanche photodiode detector. Data acquisition is by a single card multichannel scaler. Daytime background induced quantum noise is controlled by a narrow receiver field-of-view and a narrow bandwidth temperature controlled interference filter. Dynamic range of the signal is limited to optical geometric signal compression. Signal simulations and initial atmospheric measurements indicate that micropulse lider systems are capable of detecting and profiling all significant cloud and aerosol scattering through the troposphere and into the stratosphere. The intended applications are scientific studies and environmental monitoring which require full time, unattended measurements of the cloud and aerosol height structure.

  13. VERITAS: a high-flux neutron reflectometer with vertical sample geometry for a long pulse spallation source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattauch, S.; Ioffe, A.; Lott, D.; Menelle, A.; Ott, F.; Medic, Z.

    2016-04-01

    An instrument concept of a reflectometer with a vertical sample geometry fitted to the long pulse structure of a spallation source, called “VERITAS” at the ESS, is presented. It focuses on designing a reflectometer with high intensity at the lowest possible background following the users' demand to investigate thin layers or interfacial areas in the sub-nanometer length scale. The high intensity approach of the vertical reflectometer fits very well to the long pulse structure of the ESS. Its main goal is to deliver as much usable intensity as possible at the sample position and be able to access a reflectivity range of 8 orders of magnitude and more. The concept assures that the reflectivity measurements can be performed in its best way to maximize the flux delivered to the sample. The reflectometer is optimized for studies of (magnetic) layers having thicknesses down to 5Å and a surface area of 1x1cm2. With reflectivity measurements the depth-resolved, laterally averaged chemical and magnetic profile can be investigated. By using polarised neutrons, additional vector information on the in-plane magnetic correlations (off-specular scattering at the pm length scale, GISANS at the nm length scale) can be studied. The full polarisation analysis could be used for soft matter samples to correct for incoherent scattering which is presently limiting neutron reflectivity studies to a reflectivity range on the order of 10-6.

  14. GSFC short pulse radar, JONSWAP-75

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, D. M.; Walton, W. T.; Eckerman, J.; Kutz, R. L.; Dombrowski, M.; Kalshoven, J. E., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    In September 1975, the Goddard Space Flight Center operated a short pulse radar during ocean wave measuring experiments off the coast of West Germany in the North Sea. The experiment was part of JONSWAP-75. The radar system and operations during the experiment are described along with examples of data.

  15. Removing interfering clutter associated with radar pulses that an airborne radar receives from a radar transponder

    DOEpatents

    Ormesher, Richard C.; Axline, Robert M.

    2008-12-02

    Interfering clutter in radar pulses received by an airborne radar system from a radar transponder can be suppressed by developing a representation of the incoming echo-voltage time-series that permits the clutter associated with predetermined parts of the time-series to be estimated. These estimates can be used to estimate and suppress the clutter associated with other parts of the time-series.

  16. Binary Pulse Compression Techniques for MST Radars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodman, R. F.; Sulzer, M. P.; Farley, D. T.

    1984-01-01

    In most mesosphere-stratosphere-troposphere (MST) applications pulsed radars are peak power limited and have excess average power capability. Short pulses are required for good range resolution but the problem of range biguity (signals received simultaneously from more than one altitude) sets a minimum limit on the interpulse period (IPP). Pulse compression is a echnique which allows more of the transmitter average power capacity to be used without scarificing range resolution. Binary phase coding methods for pulse compression are discussed. Many aspects of codes and decoding and their applications to MST experiments are addressed; this includes Barker codes and longer individual codes, and then complementary codes and other code sets. Software decoding, hardware decoders, and coherent integrators are also discussed.

  17. Photoconductive circuit element reflectometer

    DOEpatents

    Rauscher, C.

    1987-12-07

    A photoconductive reflectometer for characterizing semiconductor devices at millimeter wavelength frequencies where a first photoconductive circuit element (PCE) is biased by a direct current voltage source and produces short electrical pulses when excited into conductance by short first laser light pulses. The electrical pulses are electronically conditioned to improve the frequency related amplitude characteristics of the pulses which thereafter propagate along a transmission line to a device under test. Second PCEs are connected along the transmission line to sample the signals on the transmission line when excited into conductance by short second laser light pulses, spaced apart in time a determinable period from the first laser light pulses. Electronic filters connected to each of the second PCEs act as low-pass filters and remove parasitic interference from the sampled signals and output the sampled signals in the form of slowed-motion images of the signals on the transmission line. 4 figs.

  18. Photoconductive circuit element reflectometer

    DOEpatents

    Rauscher, Christen

    1990-01-01

    A photoconductive reflectometer for characterizing semiconductor devices at millimeter wavelength frequencies where a first photoconductive circuit element (PCE) is biased by a direct current voltage source and produces short electrical pulses when excited into conductance by short first laser light pulses. The electrical pulses are electronically conditioned to improve the frequency related amplitude characteristics of the pulses which thereafter propagate along a transmission line to a device under test. Second PCEs are connected along the transmission line to sample the signals on the transmission line when excited into conductance by short second laser light pulses, spaced apart in time a variable period from the first laser light pulses. Electronic filters connected to each of the second PCEs act as low-pass filters and remove parasitic interference from the sampled signals and output the sampled signals in the form of slowed-motion images of the signals on the transmission line.

  19. Radar Range Sidelobe Reduction Using Adaptive Pulse Compression Technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Lihua; Coon, Michael; McLinden, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    Pulse compression has been widely used in radars so that low-power, long RF pulses can be transmitted, rather than a highpower short pulse. Pulse compression radars offer a number of advantages over high-power short pulsed radars, such as no need of high-power RF circuitry, no need of high-voltage electronics, compact size and light weight, better range resolution, and better reliability. However, range sidelobe associated with pulse compression has prevented the use of this technique on spaceborne radars since surface returns detected by range sidelobes may mask the returns from a nearby weak cloud or precipitation particles. Research on adaptive pulse compression was carried out utilizing a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) waveform generation board and a radar transceiver simulator. The results have shown significant improvements in pulse compression sidelobe performance. Microwave and millimeter-wave radars present many technological challenges for Earth and planetary science applications. The traditional tube-based radars use high-voltage power supply/modulators and high-power RF transmitters; therefore, these radars usually have large size, heavy weight, and reliability issues for space and airborne platforms. Pulse compression technology has provided a path toward meeting many of these radar challenges. Recent advances in digital waveform generation, digital receivers, and solid-state power amplifiers have opened a new era for applying pulse compression to the development of compact and high-performance airborne and spaceborne remote sensing radars. The primary objective of this innovative effort is to develop and test a new pulse compression technique to achieve ultrarange sidelobes so that this technique can be applied to spaceborne, airborne, and ground-based remote sensing radars to meet future science requirements. By using digital waveform generation, digital receiver, and solid-state power amplifier technologies, this improved pulse compression

  20. A very wide frequency band pulsed/IF radar system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, D. N.; Burnside, W. D.

    1988-01-01

    A pulsed/IF radar for compact range radar cross section measurements has been developed which converts RF returns to a fixed IF, so that amplification and grating may be performed at one frequency. This permits the use of components which have optimal performance at this frequency which results in a corresponding improvement in performance. Sensitivity and dynamic range are calculated for this system and compared with our old radar, and the effect of pulse width on clutter level is also studied. Sensitivity and accuracy tests are included to verify the performance of the radar.

  1. Compensating for inconsistent high power vircator microwave radar pulse sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McAulay, Alastair D.

    2012-06-01

    We investigate a vircator as an economical high power pulsed microwave source for radar. Because of the inconsistency of spark gaps in the driver and operation of the tube based vircator, the resulting ringing pulse has a different pulse shape each time a pulse is generated. Therefore every time we pulse the source we must remove the effects of the ringing source pulse from the data resulting from that pulse. Scattering from a scene is considered random (white noise) with a superimposed non-white component due to the pulse. We propose a whitening filter to remove the effects of the ringing pulse from the random data. This produces a similar result as spectral factorization in which we first determine the pulse from the power spectrum of the data and then deconvolve the ringing pulse out of the received data. The removal of pulse specific ringing increases range resolution and allows data from sequential pulses from a single vircator or pulses from separate vircators to be combined for joint processing in a synthetic aperture radar.

  2. A bistatic pulse-Doppler intruder-detection radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, B. C.; Callahan, M. W.

    The U.S. Air Force's Aircraft Security Radar (ASR) is a small pulse-Doppler radar designed to detect intruders on the ground near parked aircraft, with a moving target detection effectiveness that encompasses high speed vehicles and intruders moving at as little as 2 cm/sec. The ASR is comparatively insensitive to weather, and will be affected only by severe wind and rain storms. Five ASRs are typically used around an aircraft, in order to reduce the area of coverage. Attention is given to the ASR's theory of operation, radar parameters, and both intruder and nuisance alarm test results.

  3. Study to investigate and evaluate means of optimizing the radar function for the space shuttle. [(pulse radar)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Results are discussed of a study to define a radar and antenna system which best suits the space shuttle rendezvous requirements. Topics considered include antenna characteristics and antenna size tradeoffs, fundamental sources of measurement errors inherent in the target itself, backscattering crosssection models of the target and three basic candidate radar types. Antennas up to 1.5 meters in diameter are within specified installation constraints, however, a 1 meter diameter paraboloid and a folding, four slot backfeed on a two gimbal mount implemented for a spiral acquisition scan is recommended. The candidate radar types discussed are: (1) noncoherent pulse radar (2) coherent pulse radar and (3) pulse Doppler radar with linear FM ranging. The radar type recommended is a pulse Doppler with linear FM ranging. Block diagrams of each radar system are shown.

  4. Study to investigate and evaluate means of optimizing the radar function. [systems engineering of pulse radar for the space shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The investigations for a rendezvous radar system design and an integrated radar/communication system design are presented. Based on these investigations, system block diagrams are given and system parameters are optimized for the noncoherent pulse and coherent pulse Doppler radar modulation types. Both cooperative (transponder) and passive radar operation are examined including the optimization of the corresponding transponder design for the cooperative mode of operation.

  5. Micromotion feature extraction of radar target using tracking pulses with adaptive pulse repetition frequency adjustment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yijun; Zhang, Qun; Ma, Changzheng; Luo, Ying; Yeo, Tat Soon

    2014-01-01

    In multifunction phased array radar systems, different activities (e.g., tracking, searching, imaging, feature extraction, recognition, etc.) would need to be performed simultaneously. To relieve the conflict of the radar resource distribution, a micromotion feature extraction method using tracking pulses with adaptive pulse repetition frequencies (PRFs) is proposed in this paper. In this method, the idea of a varying PRF is utilized to solve the frequency-domain aliasing problem of the micro-Doppler signal. With appropriate atom set construction, the micromotion feature can be extracted and the image of the target can be obtained based on the Orthogonal Matching Pursuit algorithm. In our algorithm, the micromotion feature of a radar target is extracted from the tracking pulses and the quality of the constructed image is fed back into the radar system to adaptively adjust the PRF of the tracking pulses. Finally, simulation results illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  6. Clutter discrimination algorithm simulation in pulse laser radar imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yan-mei; Li, Huan; Guo, Hai-chao; Su, Xuan; Zhu, Fule

    2015-10-01

    Pulse laser radar imaging performance is greatly influenced by different kinds of clutter. Various algorithms are developed to mitigate clutter. However, estimating performance of a new algorithm is difficult. Here, a simulation model for estimating clutter discrimination algorithms is presented. This model consists of laser pulse emission, clutter jamming, laser pulse reception and target image producing. Additionally, a hardware platform is set up gathering clutter data reflected by ground and trees. The data logging is as clutter jamming input in the simulation model. The hardware platform includes a laser diode, a laser detector and a high sample rate data logging circuit. The laser diode transmits short laser pulses (40ns FWHM) at 12.5 kilohertz pulse rate and at 905nm wavelength. An analog-to-digital converter chip integrated in the sample circuit works at 250 mega samples per second. The simulation model and the hardware platform contribute to a clutter discrimination algorithm simulation system. Using this system, after analyzing clutter data logging, a new compound pulse detection algorithm is developed. This new algorithm combines matched filter algorithm and constant fraction discrimination (CFD) algorithm. Firstly, laser echo pulse signal is processed by matched filter algorithm. After the first step, CFD algorithm comes next. Finally, clutter jamming from ground and trees is discriminated and target image is produced. Laser radar images are simulated using CFD algorithm, matched filter algorithm and the new algorithm respectively. Simulation result demonstrates that the new algorithm achieves the best target imaging effect of mitigating clutter reflected by ground and trees.

  7. 94 GHz pulsed coherent radar for high power amplifier evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, Duncan A.; Hunter, Robert I.; Gallacher, Thomas F.

    2016-05-01

    We present the design and characterization of a 94 GHz pulsed coherent radar to be used for the evaluation and demonstration of novel wideband, high power vacuum tube amplifier technology. The radar is designed to be fully coherent and exploits a low phase noise architecture to maximize Doppler performance. We selected to use horn-fed Fresnel zone plate lens antennas (FZPs) with 4-level phase quantization as a low cost method of realizing large aperture (0.5 m) antennas. The measured performance of these FZPs agrees closely with the design predictions and exceeds that obtainable with a Cassegrain of an equivalent size.

  8. Ultra-wideband short-pulse radar with range accuracy for short range detection

    SciTech Connect

    Rodenbeck, Christopher T; Pankonin, Jeffrey; Heintzleman, Richard E; Kinzie, Nicola Jean; Popovic, Zorana P

    2014-10-07

    An ultra-wideband (UWB) radar transmitter apparatus comprises a pulse generator configured to produce from a sinusoidal input signal a pulsed output signal having a series of baseband pulses with a first pulse repetition frequency (PRF). The pulse generator includes a plurality of components that each have a nonlinear electrical reactance. A signal converter is coupled to the pulse generator and configured to convert the pulsed output signal into a pulsed radar transmit signal having a series of radar transmit pulses with a second PRF that is less than the first PRF.

  9. Forensic Application of FM-CW and Pulse Radar

    SciTech Connect

    S. K. Koppenjan; R. S. Freeland; M. L. Miller; R. E. Yoder

    2003-01-01

    Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) technology has supplied vital assistance in criminal investigations. However, law enforcement personnel desire further developments such that the technology is rapidly deployable, and that it provides both a simple user interface and sophisticated target identification. To assist in the development of target identification algorithms, our efforts involve gathering background GPR data for the various site conditions and circumstances that often typify clandestine burials. For this study, forensic anthropologists established shallow-grave plots at The University of Tennessee Anthropological Research Facility (ARF) that are specific to GPR research. These plots contain donated human cadavers lying in various configurations and depths, surrounded by assorted construction material and backfill debris. We scanned the plots using two GPR technologies: (1) a multi-frequency synthetic-aperture FM-CW radar (200-700 MHz) (GPR-X) developed by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Special Technologies Laboratory (STL), Bechtel Nevada (Koppenjan et al., 2000), and (2) a commercial pulse radar (SIR-20) manufactured by Geophysical Survey Systems, Inc. (400 and 900 MHz)(GSSI). The sweep-frequency data show the large biological mass decomposing within the torso as encircled ''hot spots.'' The 400-MHz pulse radar exhibit major horizontal reflectors above the body, with shadow reflectors (horizontal multiples) occurring beneath the body at 60 cm depth. The 400-MHz antenna was able to discern the grave walls and folded tarp covering the lower body. Under these moist, clay-rich conditions, the 900-MHz antenna was able to penetrate slightly beyond 30 cm beneath the concrete layer. However, neither system was able to penetrate beyond a one meter depth in the moist, clay-rich soil (fine, mixed, thermic Typic Paleudalf). Example scans from each system are provided, along with a discussion of the survey protocol and general performance.

  10. Advanced application flight experiment breadboard pulse compression radar altimeter program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Design, development and performance of the pulse compression radar altimeter is described. The high resolution breadboard system is designed to operate from an aircraft at 10 Kft above the ocean and to accurately measure altitude, sea wave height and sea reflectivity. The minicomputer controlled Ku band system provides six basic variables and an extensive digital recording capability for experimentation purposes. Signal bandwidths of 360 MHz are obtained using a reflective array compression line. Stretch processing is used to achieve 1000:1 pulse compression. The system range command LSB is 0.62 ns or 9.25 cm. A second order altitude tracker, aided by accelerometer inputs is implemented in the system software. During flight tests the system demonstrated an altitude resolution capability of 2.1 cm and sea wave height estimation accuracy of 10%. The altitude measurement performance exceeds that of the Skylab and GEOS-C predecessors by approximately an order of magnitude.

  11. Wake Vortex Tracking Using a 35 GHz Pulsed Doppler Radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neece, Robert T.; Britt, Charles L.; White, Joseph H.; Mudukutore, Ashok; Nguyen, Chi; Hooper, Bill

    2005-01-01

    A 35 GHz, pulsed-Doppler radar system has been designed and assembled for wake vortex detection and tracking in low visibility conditions. Aircraft wake vortices continue to be an important factor in determining safe following distances or spacings for aircraft in the terminal area. Currently, under instrument meteorological conditions (IMC), aircraft adhere to conservative, fixed following-distance guidelines based primarily on aircraft weight classifications. When ambient conditions are such that vortices will either drift or dissipate, leaving the flight corridor clear, the prescribed spacings are unnecessarily long and result in decreased airport throughput. There is a potential for significant airport efficiency improvement, if a system can be employed to aid regulators and pilots in setting safe and efficient following distances based on airport conditions. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the Federal Aviation Agency, and Volpe National Transportation Systems Center have promoted and worked to develop systems that would increase airport capacity and provide for safe reductions in aircraft separation. The NASA Aircraft Vortex Spacing System (AVOSS), a wake vortex spacing system that can provide dynamic adjustment of spacings based on real-time airport weather conditions, has demonstrated that Lidar systems can be successfully used to detect and track vortices in clear air conditions. To fill the need for detection capability in low-visibility conditions, a 35 GHz, pulsed-Doppler radar system is being investigated for use as a complimentary, low-visibility sensor for wake vortices. The radar sensor provides spatial and temporal information similar to that provided by Lidar, but under weather conditions that a Lidar cannot penetrate. Currently, we are analyzing the radar design based upon the data and experience gained during the wake vortex Lidar deployment with AVOSS at Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport. As part of this study

  12. Reflectometer design using nonimaging optics.

    PubMed

    Snail, K A

    1987-12-15

    A new type of two-stage reflectometer is proposed for the measurement of directional hemispherical reflectance. The proposed reflectometer consists of a primary collecting mirror coupled to a secondary mirror chosen to eliminate the Fresnel variation of the detector (or source) response. The secondary mirror shape needed is an inverted nonimaging compound parabolic concentrator (CPC). For direct mode operation, the detector is placed at the larger CPC aperture. Ray tracing of a CPC/ellipsoid reflectometer indicates that the throughput is high and isotropic. Design trade-offs and two-stage reflectometers employing a hemisphere and dual paraboloid primary are also discussed. PMID:20523525

  13. The pulse-pair algorithm as a robust estimator of turbulent weather spectral parameters using airborne pulse Doppler radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baxa, Ernest G., Jr.; Lee, Jonggil

    1991-01-01

    The pulse pair method for spectrum parameter estimation is commonly used in pulse Doppler weather radar signal processing since it is economical to implement and can be shown to be a maximum likelihood estimator. With the use of airborne weather radar for windshear detection, the turbulent weather and strong ground clutter return spectrum differs from that assumed in its derivation, so the performance robustness of the pulse pair technique must be understood. Here, the effect of radar system pulse to pulse phase jitter and signal spectrum skew on the pulse pair algorithm performance is discussed. Phase jitter effect may be significant when the weather return signal to clutter ratio is very low and clutter rejection filtering is attempted. The analysis can be used to develop design specifications for airborne radar system phase stability. It is also shown that the weather return spectrum skew can cause a significant bias in the pulse pair mean windspeed estimates, and that the poly pulse pair algorithm can reduce this bias. It is suggested that use of a spectrum mode estimator may be more appropriate in characterizing the windspeed within a radar range resolution cell for detection of hazardous windspeed gradients.

  14. Earth resources shuttle imaging radar. [systems analysis and design analysis of pulse radar for earth resources information system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    A report is presented on a preliminary design of a Synthetic Array Radar (SAR) intended for experimental use with the space shuttle program. The radar is called Earth Resources Shuttle Imaging Radar (ERSIR). Its primary purpose is to determine the usefulness of SAR in monitoring and managing earth resources. The design of the ERSIR, along with tradeoffs made during its evolution is discussed. The ERSIR consists of a flight sensor for collecting the raw radar data and a ground sensor used both for reducing these radar data to images and for extracting earth resources information from the data. The flight sensor consists of two high powered coherent, pulse radars, one that operates at L and the other at X-band. Radar data, recorded on tape can be either transmitted via a digital data link to a ground terminal or the tape can be delivered to the ground station after the shuttle lands. A description of data processing equipment and display devices is given.

  15. Microwave reflectometer ionization sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seals, Joseph; Fordham, Jeffrey A.; Pauley, Robert G.; Simonutti, Mario D.

    1993-01-01

    The development of the Microwave Reflectometer Ionization Sensor (MRIS) Instrument for use on the Aeroassist Flight Experiment (AFE) spacecraft is described. The instrument contract was terminated, due to cancellation of the AFE program, subsequent to testing of an engineering development model. The MRIS, a four-frequency reflectometer, was designed for the detection and location of critical electron density levels in spacecraft reentry plasmas. The instrument would sample the relative magnitude and phase of reflected signals at discrete frequency steps across 4 GHz bandwidths centered at four frequencies: 20, 44, 95, and 140 GHz. The sampled data would be stored for later processing to calculate the distance from the spacecraft surface to the critical electron densities versus time. Four stepped PM CW transmitter receivers were located behind the thermal protection system of the spacecraft with horn antennas radiating and receiving through an insulating tile. Techniques were developed to deal with interference, including multiple reflections and resonance effects, resulting from the antenna configuration and operating environment.

  16. Airborne profiling of ice thickness using a short pulse radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vickers, R. S.; Heighway, J. E.; Gedney, R.

    1973-01-01

    The acquisition and interpretation of ice thickness data from a mobile platform has for some time been a goal of the remote sensing community. Such data, once obtainable, is of value in monitoring the changes in ice thickness over large areas, and in mapping the potential hazards to traffic in shipping lanes. Measurements made from a helicopter-borne ice thickness profiler of ice in Lake Superior, Lake St. Clair and the St. Clair river as part of NASA's program to develop an ice information system are described. The profiler described is a high resolution, non-imaging, short pulse radar, operating at a carrier frequency of 2.7 GHz. The system can resolve reflective surfaces separated by as little as 10 cm. and permits measurement of the distance between resolvable surfaces with an accuracy of about 1 cm. Data samples are given for measurements both in a static (helicopter hovering), and a traverse mode. Ground truth measurements taken by an ice auger team traveling with the helicopter are compared with the remotely sensed data and the accuracy of the profiler is discussed based on these measurements.

  17. Measurement of lake ice thickness with a short-pulse radar system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, D. W.; Mueller, R. A.; Schertler, R. J.

    1976-01-01

    Measurements of lake ice thickness were made during March 1975 at the Straits of Mackinac by using a short-pulse radar system aboard an all-terrain vehicle. These measurements were compared with ice thicknesses determined with an auger. Over 25 sites were explored which had ice thicknesses in the range 29 to 60 cm. The maximum difference between radar and auger measurements was less than 9.8 percent. The magnitude of the error was less than + or - 3.5 cm. The NASA operating short-pulse radar system used in monitoring lake ice thickness from an aircraft is also described.

  18. Orthogonal on-off control of radar pulses for the suppression of mutual interference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yong Cheol

    1998-10-01

    Intelligent vehicles of the future will be guided by radars and other sensors to avoid obstacles. When multiple vehicles move simultaneously in autonomous navigational mode, mutual interference among car radars becomes a serious problem. An obstacle is illuminated with electromagnetic pulses from several radars. The signal at a radar receiver is actually a mixture of the self-reflection and the reflection of interfering pulses emitted by others. When standardized pulse- type radars are employed on vehicles for obstacle avoidance and so self-pulse and interfering pulses have identical pulse repetition interval, this SI (synchronous Interference) is very difficult to separate from the true reflection. We present a method of suppressing such a synchronous interference. By controlling the pulse emission of a radar in a binary orthogonal ON, OFF pattern, the true self-reflection can be separated from the false one. Two range maps are generated, TRM (true-reflection map) and SIM (synchronous- interference map). TRM is updated for every ON interval and SIM is updated for every OFF interval of the self-radar. SIM represents the SI of interfering radars while TRM keeps a record of a mixture of the true self-reflection and SI. Hence the true obstacles can be identified by the set subtraction operation. The performance of the proposed method is compared with that of the conventional M of N method. Bayesian analysis shows that the probability of false alarm is improved by order of 103 to approximately 106 while the deterioration in the probability of detection is negligible.

  19. Application of vector analysis on study of illuminated area and Doppler characteristics of airborne pulse radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Haijiang; Yang, Ling

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, the application of vector analysis tool in the illuminated area and the Doppler frequency distribution research for the airborne pulse radar is studied. An important feature of vector analysis is that it can closely combine the geometric ideas with algebraic calculations. Through coordinate transform, the relationship between the frame of radar antenna and the ground, under aircraft motion attitude, is derived. Under the time-space analysis, the overlap area between the footprint of radar beam and the pulse-illuminated zone is obtained. Furthermore, the Doppler frequency expression is successfully deduced. In addition, the Doppler frequency distribution is plotted finally. Using the time-space analysis results, some important parameters of a specified airborne radar system are obtained. Simultaneously, the results are applied to correct the phase error brought by attitude change in airborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imaging.

  20. Fpga based L-band pulse doppler radar design and implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savci, Kubilay

    As its name implies RADAR (Radio Detection and Ranging) is an electromagnetic sensor used for detection and locating targets from their return signals. Radar systems propagate electromagnetic energy, from the antenna which is in part intercepted by an object. Objects reradiate a portion of energy which is captured by the radar receiver. The received signal is then processed for information extraction. Radar systems are widely used for surveillance, air security, navigation, weather hazard detection, as well as remote sensing applications. In this work, an FPGA based L-band Pulse Doppler radar prototype, which is used for target detection, localization and velocity calculation has been built and a general-purpose Pulse Doppler radar processor has been developed. This radar is a ground based stationary monopulse radar, which transmits a short pulse with a certain pulse repetition frequency (PRF). Return signals from the target are processed and information about their location and velocity is extracted. Discrete components are used for the transmitter and receiver chain. The hardware solution is based on Xilinx Virtex-6 ML605 FPGA board, responsible for the control of the radar system and the digital signal processing of the received signal, which involves Constant False Alarm Rate (CFAR) detection and Pulse Doppler processing. The algorithm is implemented in MATLAB/SIMULINK using the Xilinx System Generator for DSP tool. The field programmable gate arrays (FPGA) implementation of the radar system provides the flexibility of changing parameters such as the PRF and pulse length therefore it can be used with different radar configurations as well. A VHDL design has been developed for 1Gbit Ethernet connection to transfer digitized return signal and detection results to PC. An A-Scope software has been developed with C# programming language to display time domain radar signals and detection results on PC. Data are processed both in FPGA chip and on PC. FPGA uses fixed

  1. Narrow bipolar pulse locations compared to thunderstorm radar echo structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karunarathna, Nadeeka; Marshall, Thomas C.; Stolzenburg, Maribeth; Karunarathne, Sumedhe

    2015-11-01

    The locations of 172 positive narrow bipolar pulses (NBPs) found on one day in Florida are superimposed on radar reflectivity data from that day. All 172 NBPs were found within the reflectivity of a thundercloud or at the edge of the reflectivity. The NBPs were classified into three groups: (I) in or above the high-reflectivity core of the storm, (II) in the convective region but not Group I, or (III) in the anvil region. Groups I, II, and III had, respectively, 79%, 17%, and 4% of the NBPs. Of the 136 NBPs in Group I, 43% occurred within the reflectivity core and 57% occurred above the core. A sequence of 34 positive NBPs during 1 h of one thunderstorm suggests that the majority of NBPs occurred during the rapid growth of two thunderstorm cells. Positive NBPs seem to recur in some storm locations; 67 (39%) of the NBPs were part of a recurrent set. We found 28 cases of NBPs recurring in approximately the same location, including 22 doublets, 3 triplets, 2 quadruplets, and 1 sextuplet. Analyses of one quadruplet and one sextuplet showed that these 10 positive NBPs occurred just above and/or right beside the high-reflectivity core on the downshear side of the core. Our data lead us to a hypothesis that NBPs occurring between the thunderstorm's upper positive charge and upper negative screening charge are initiated by small-scale charge regions with positive charge above negative charge, or opposite the orientation of the large-scale storm charges.

  2. Application of Time Domain Reflectometers in Urban Settings

    EPA Science Inventory

    Time domain reflectometers (TDRs) are sensors that measure the volumetric water content of soils and porous media. The sensors consist of stainless steel rods connected to a circuit board in an epoxy housing. An electromagnetic pulse is propagated along the rods. The time, or per...

  3. Effects of pulse width and coding on radar returns from clear air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cornish, C. R.

    1983-01-01

    In atmospheric radar studies it is desired to obtain maximum information about the atmosphere and to use efficiently the radar transmitter and processing hardware. Large pulse widths are used to increase the signal to noise ratio since clear air returns are generally weak and maximum height coverage is desired. Yet since good height resolution is equally important, pulse compression techniques such as phase coding are employed to optimize the average power of the transmitter. Considerations in implementing a coding scheme and subsequent effects of an impinging pulse on the atmosphere are investigated.

  4. Quantitative Gait Measurement With Pulse-Doppler Radar for Passive In-Home Gait Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Skubic, Marjorie; Rantz, Marilyn; Cuddihy, Paul E.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a pulse-Doppler radar system for in-home gait assessment of older adults. A methodology has been developed to extract gait parameters including walking speed and step time using Doppler radar. The gait parameters have been validated with a Vicon motion capture system in the lab with 13 participants and 158 test runs. The study revealed that for an optimal step recognition and walking speed estimation, a dual radar set up with one radar placed at foot level and the other at torso level is necessary. An excellent absolute agreement with intraclass correlation coefficients of 0.97 was found for step time estimation with the foot level radar. For walking speed, although both radars show excellent consistency they all have a system offset compared to the ground truth due to walking direction with respect to the radar beam. The torso level radar has a better performance (9% offset on average) in the speed estimation compared to the foot level radar (13%–18% offset). Quantitative analysis has been performed to compute the angles causing the systematic error. These lab results demonstrate the capability of the system to be used as a daily gait assessment tool in home environments, useful for fall risk assessment and other health care applications. The system is currently being tested in an unstructured home environment. PMID:24771566

  5. Quantitative gait measurement with pulse-Doppler radar for passive in-home gait assessment.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fang; Skubic, Marjorie; Rantz, Marilyn; Cuddihy, Paul E

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, we propose a pulse-Doppler radar system for in-home gait assessment of older adults. A methodology has been developed to extract gait parameters including walking speed and step time using Doppler radar. The gait parameters have been validated with a Vicon motion capture system in the lab with 13 participants and 158 test runs. The study revealed that for an optimal step recognition and walking speed estimation, a dual radar set up with one radar placed at foot level and the other at torso level is necessary. An excellent absolute agreement with intraclass correlation coefficients of 0.97 was found for step time estimation with the foot level radar. For walking speed, although both radars show excellent consistency they all have a system offset compared to the ground truth due to walking direction with respect to the radar beam. The torso level radar has a better performance (9% offset on average) in the speed estimation compared to the foot level radar (13%-18% offset). Quantitative analysis has been performed to compute the angles causing the systematic error. These lab results demonstrate the capability of the system to be used as a daily gait assessment tool in home environments, useful for fall risk assessment and other health care applications. The system is currently being tested in an unstructured home environment. PMID:24771566

  6. Lidar-radar velocimetry using a pulse-to-pulse coherent rf-modulated Q-switched laser.

    PubMed

    Vallet, M; Barreaux, J; Romanelli, M; Pillet, G; Thévenin, J; Wang, L; Brunel, M

    2013-08-01

    An rf-modulated pulse train from a passively Q-switched Nd:YAG laser has been generated using an extra-cavity acousto-optic modulator. The rf modulation reproduces the spectral quality of the local oscillator. It leads to a high pulse-to-pulse phase coherence, i.e., phase memory, over thousands of pulses. The potentialities of this transmitter for lidar-radar are demonstrated by performing Doppler velocimetry on indoor moving targets. The experimental results are in good agreement with a model based on elementary signal processing theory. In particular, we show experimentally and theoretically that lidar-radar is a promising technique that allows discrimination between translation and rotation movements. Being independent of the laser internal dynamics, this scheme can be applied to any Q-switched laser. PMID:23913058

  7. Sub-nanosecond ranging possibilities of optical radar at various signal levels and transmitted pulse widths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poultney, S. K.

    1971-01-01

    The behavior of the photomultiplier is considered, as well as the method of derivation of the photomultiplier output pulse and its relation to the reflected light pulse width and amplitude, and the calibration of range precision and accuracy. Pulsed laser radars with light pulse widths of 30, 3, and 0.1 nanosec a considered, with the 0.1 nanosec system capable of highest precision in several modes of operation, including a high repetition rate, single photoelectron reception mode. An alternate calibration scheme using a fast, triggerable light pulser is described in detail.

  8. Pulsed reflectometry experiments in T-11M tokamak: Preliminary results

    SciTech Connect

    Shevchenko, V.F.; Petrov, A.A.; Petrov, V.G.; Chaplygin, Yu.A.

    1994-12-31

    A pulsed radar-reflectometer (PRR) having a 32.1-GHz probing wavelength was developed within the framework of the T-14 program to study global displacements of the plasma column and to conduct routine measurements of electron-density profile at all stages of T-14 discharge. The first experimental results obtained on the T-11M tokamak with the single-frequency PRR are presented. 4 refs., 3 figs.

  9. Pulse compression radar reflectometry to measure electron density in plasma with parasitic reflections

    SciTech Connect

    Li Bin; Li Hong; Chen Zhipeng; Luo Chen; Wang Huihui; Geng Song; Feng Lei; Liu Qiuyan; Liu Wandong

    2008-07-15

    Pulse compression radar reflectometry is used to obtain electron density profile in plasma with parasitic reflections in this article. The pulse compression radar relies on the relation between the temporal width of a pulse and the frequency bandwidth of this pulse: {delta}t{proportional_to}1/{delta}f. So a set of sweep-frequency microwaves within a bandwidth {delta}f can be introduced sequentially into the plasma to obtain the same information as the one obtained by a real pulse. By applying a Fourier transform to the data of reflectivity array in the frequency domain, the temporal response in the time domain is obtained. The limitation of the parasitic reflections on measurement can be eliminated from the temporal response by the method of time gate. This is a prominent advantage when this method is compared to the traditional reflectometry. For this method, an appropriate compromise between the spatial resolution and the electron density resolution is important. Experimental results show that the profile obtained from pulse compression radar reflectometry is similar to that from a double Langmuir probe.

  10. Ice-type classifications from airborne pulse-limited radar altimeter return waveform characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fedor, L. S.; Hayne, G. S.; Walsh, E. J.

    1989-01-01

    During mid-March 1978, the NASA C-130 aircraft was deployed to Eielson Air Force Base in Fairbanks, Alaska, to make a series of flights over ice in the Beaufort Sea. The radar altimeter data analyzed were obtained northeast of Mackenzie Bay on March 14th in the vicinity of 69.9 deg N, 134.2 deg W. The data were obtained with a 13.9 GHz radar altimeter developed under the NASA Advanced Applications Flight Experiments (AAFE) Program. This airborne radar was built as a forerunner of the Seasat radar altimeter, and utilized the same pulse compression technique. Pulse-limited radar data taken with the altimeter from 1500-m altitude over sea ice are registered to high-quality photography. The backscattered power is statistically related the surface conductivity and to the number of facets whose surface normal is directed towards the radar. The variations of the radar return waveform shape and signal level are correlated with the variation of the ice type determined from photography. The AAFE altimeter has demonstrated that the return waveform shape and signal level of an airborne pulse-limited altimeter at 13.9 GHz respond to sea ice type. The signal level responded dramatically to even a very small fracture in the ice, as long as it occurred directly at the altimeter nadir point. Shear zones and regions of significant compression ridging consistently produced low signal levels. The return waveforms frequently evidenced the characteristics of both specular and diffuse scattering, and there was an indication that the power backscattered at 3 deg off-nadir in a shear zone was actually somewhat higher than that from nadir.

  11. Real-time image generation with a pulsed coherent laser radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corbett, Francis J.; Groden, Michael; Dryden, Gordon L.; Kovacs, Mark A.; Pfeiffer, George

    1997-08-01

    A kilowatt class, pulsed CO2 laser radar has been developed at Textron under a joint US Army-Air Force program. It is currently undergoing field trials; and successful coherent imaging and tracking experiments have been conducted over the past two years at the Air Force Maui Space surveillance Site. This paper describes the receiver- processor architecture of the laser radar system, the algorithms and waveforms, and the output products which are high resolution range-Doppler and range-amplitude image. Attention will be paid to the hardware and software methods used to achieve real-time, wideband operations.

  12. Study of radar pulse compression for high resolution satellite altimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dooley, R. P.; Nathanson, F. E.; Brooks, L. W.

    1974-01-01

    Pulse compression techniques are studied which are applicable to a satellite altimeter having a topographic resolution of + 10 cm. A systematic design procedure is used to determine the system parameters. The performance of an optimum, maximum likelihood processor is analysed, which provides the basis for modifying the standard split-gate tracker to achieve improved performance. Bandwidth considerations lead to the recommendation of a full deramp STRETCH pulse compression technique followed by an analog filter bank to separate range returns. The implementation of the recommended technique is examined.

  13. Ultra-Deep Bone Diagnostics with Fat-Skin Overlayers Using New Pulsed Photothermal Radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sreekumar, K.; Mandelis, A.

    2013-09-01

    The constraints imposed by the laser safety (maximum permissible exposure) ceiling on pump laser energy and the strong attenuation of thermal-wave signals in tissues significantly limit the photothermally active depth in most biological specimens to a level which is normally insufficient for practical applications (a few mm below the skin surface). A theoretical approach for improvement of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), minimizing the static (dc) component of the photothermal (PT) signal and making use of the PT radiometric nonlinearity has been introduced. At low frequencies fixed-pulse-width chirps of large peak power were found to be superior to all other equal energy modalities, with an SNR improvement by up to two orders of magnitude. Compared to radar peak delay and amplitude, the long-delayed radar output amplitude is found to be more sensitive to subsurface conditions. Two-dimensional spatial plots of this parameter depicting the back-surface conditions of bones with and without fat tissue overlayers are presented. Pulsed-chirp radar thermography has been demonstrated to monitor the degree of demineralization in goat rib bone with a substantial SNR and spatial resolution that is not practicable with harmonic radars of the same energy density.

  14. Fine range-motion simulation for hardware-in-the-loop testing of monostatic-pulsed LFM radars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olson, Richard F., Jr.

    2011-06-01

    Frequency stepping is an established technique for increasing the range resolution of pulsed Linear Frequency Modulation (LFM, or chirp) radar waveforms [1]. When a monostatic radar system employs this waveform for increased range resolution measurements on an object with motion relative to the radar platform, simple changes in the received waveform arise, requiring fine motion compensation on a per-pulse basis. These motion effects include phase, frequency and frequency slope offsets which vary according to the transmitted pulse frequency and frequency rate, and the object range and range rate. All three offsets are easily compensated by complementary offsets in Direct Digital Synthesizer outputs used to form frequency conversion LO signals in the radar receiver. Radars employing stepped frequency LFM waveforms may be tested in a Hardware-in-the-Loop (HWIL) facility in simulations involving scenes or objects with radar-relative motion. Under these conditions, the motion effects on the radar receiver input signals must be accurately computed, synthesized and must modify the transmit signal prior to its return to the receiver. Engineers at the U.S. Army AMRDEC Advanced Simulation Center have developed signal processing techniques for accurate simulation of fine range motion effects to support HWIL testing of pulsed LFM radar systems. This paper provides an analysis of the signal processing involved for a simple model of an HWIL RF signal generation chain. Some results are presented from successful application of the motion simulation methods in an HWIL test setting.

  15. Phase-sensitive optical coherence reflectometer using a supercontinuum source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Hoseong; Cho, Seung Bum; Kim, Dong Uk; Jeong, Sungho; Kim, Dug Young

    2012-03-01

    We report a high-speed phase-sensitive optical coherence reflectometer (OCR) with a stretched supercontinuum source. Firstly, supercontinuum source has been generated by injecting an amplified fiber laser pulses into a highly nonlinear optical fiber. The repetition rate and pulse duration of the generated supercontinuum source are 10 MHz and 30 ps respectively. The supercontinuum pulses are stretched into 70 ns pulses with a dispersion-compensating fiber (DCF). This pulse stretching technique enables us to measure the spectral information in the time domain. The relationship of time-wavelength has been measured by modified time-of-flight method. We have built a phase-sensitive OCR with this stretched pulse source and a two-dimensional (2D) scanning system. The displacement sensitivity of our proposed system has been investigated. We have demonstrated high-speed 2D imaging capability and single-point dynamics measurement performance of our proposed system.

  16. Highly depth-resolved chirped pulse photothermal radar for bone diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Kaiplavil, Sreekumar; Mandelis, Andreas

    2011-07-01

    A novel chirped pulse photothermal (PT) radiometric radar with improved sensitivity over the conventional harmonically modulated thermal-wave radar technique and alternative pulsed laser photothermal radiometry is introduced for the diagnosis of biological samples, especially bones with tissue and skin overlayers. The constraints imposed by the laser safety (maximum permissible exposure) ceiling on pump laser energy and the strong attenuation of thermal-wave signals in tissues significantly limit the photothermally active depth in most biological specimens to a level which is normally insufficient for practical applications (a few mm below the skin surface). A theoretical approach for improvement of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), minimizing the static (dc) component of the photothermal signal and making use of the photothermal radiometric nonlinearity has been introduced and verified by comparing the SNR of four distinct excitation wave forms (sine-wave, square-wave, constant-width and constant duty-cycle pulses) for chirping the pump laser, under constant exposure energy. At low frequencies fixed-pulsewidth chirps of large peak power were found to be superior to all other equal-energy modalities, with an SNR improvement up to two orders of magnitude. Distinct thickness-dependent characteristic delay times in a goat bone were obtained, establishing an active depth resolution range of ~2.8 mm in a layered skin-fat-bone structure, a favorable result compared to the maximum reported pulsed photothermal radiometric depth resolution <1 mm in turbid biological media. PMID:21806220

  17. Highly depth-resolved chirped pulse photothermal radar for bone diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaiplavil, Sreekumar; Mandelis, Andreas

    2011-07-01

    A novel chirped pulse photothermal (PT) radiometric radar with improved sensitivity over the conventional harmonically modulated thermal-wave radar technique and alternative pulsed laser photothermal radiometry is introduced for the diagnosis of biological samples, especially bones with tissue and skin overlayers. The constraints imposed by the laser safety (maximum permissible exposure) ceiling on pump laser energy and the strong attenuation of thermal-wave signals in tissues significantly limit the photothermally active depth in most biological specimens to a level which is normally insufficient for practical applications (a few mm below the skin surface). A theoretical approach for improvement of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), minimizing the static (dc) component of the photothermal signal and making use of the photothermal radiometric nonlinearity has been introduced and verified by comparing the SNR of four distinct excitation wave forms (sine-wave, square-wave, constant-width and constant duty-cycle pulses) for chirping the pump laser, under constant exposure energy. At low frequencies fixed-pulsewidth chirps of large peak power were found to be superior to all other equal-energy modalities, with an SNR improvement up to two orders of magnitude. Distinct thickness-dependent characteristic delay times in a goat bone were obtained, establishing an active depth resolution range of ˜2.8 mm in a layered skin-fat-bone structure, a favorable result compared to the maximum reported pulsed photothermal radiometric depth resolution <1 mm in turbid biological media.

  18. Maximum detection range limitation of pulse laser radar with Geiger-mode avalanche photodiode array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Hanjun; Xu, Benlian; Xu, Huigang; Chen, Jingbo; Fu, Yadan

    2015-05-01

    When designing and evaluating the performance of laser radar system, maximum detection range achievable is an essential parameter. The purpose of this paper is to propose a theoretical model of maximum detection range for simulating the Geiger-mode laser radar's ranging performance. Based on the laser radar equation and the requirement of the minimum acceptable detection probability, and assuming the primary electrons triggered by the echo photons obey Poisson statistics, the maximum range theoretical model is established. By using the system design parameters, the influence of five main factors, namely emitted pulse energy, noise, echo position, atmospheric attenuation coefficient, and target reflectivity on the maximum detection range are investigated. The results show that stronger emitted pulse energy, lower noise level, more front echo position in the range gate, higher atmospheric attenuation coefficient, and higher target reflectivity can result in greater maximum detection range. It is also shown that it's important to select the minimum acceptable detection probability, which is equivalent to the system signal-to-noise ratio for producing greater maximum detection range and lower false-alarm probability.

  19. Predicted performance of a 10.6 micron pulsed coherent laser radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, Kenneth W.

    1987-01-01

    Theoretical predictions are made for the S/N ratio effects of atmospheric turbulence, target features, and receiver configuration on the performance of a 10.6-micron pulsed coherent laser radar. The predictions obtained are compared with experimental data for two target types: terrain consisting of soil and trees, and a silage tower. It is predicted that the terrain target should be detectable with a 50-mm aperture at ranges of up to 2.5 km for 50 percent of the time; this performance has been achieved in practice.

  20. Investigation of mixed ionospheric and fround scatter using high spectral content pulse sequences for SuperDARN radars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spaleta, J.; Bristow, W. A.

    2013-12-01

    SuperDARN radars estimate plasma drift velocities from the Doppler shift observed on signals scattered from field-aligned density irregularities. These field-aligned density irregularities are embedded in the ionospheric plasma, and move at the same velocity as background plasma. As a result, the electromagnetic signals scattered from these irregularities are Doppler shifted. The SuperDARN radars routinely observe ionospheric scatter Doppler velocities ranging from zero to thousands of meters per second. The radars determine the Doppler shift of the ionospheric scatter by linear fitting the phase of an auto correlation function derived from the radar pulse sequence. The phase fitting technique employed assumes a single dominant velocity is present in the signal. In addition, the SuperDARN radars can also observe signals scattered from the ground. Once refracted by the ionospheric plasma and bent earthward, the radar pulses eventually reach the ground where they scatter, sending signal back to the radar. This ground-scatter signal is characterized as having a low Doppler shift and low spectral width. The SuperDARN radars are able to use these signal characteristics to discriminate the ground scatter signal from the ionospheric scatter, when regions of ground scatter are isolated from ionospheric scatter returns. The phase fitting assumption of a single dominate target can easily be violated at ranges where ground and ionospheric scatter mix together. Due to the wide elevation angle extent of the SuperDARN radar design, ground and ionospheric scatter from different propagation paths can mix together in the return signal. When this happens, the fitting algorithm attempts to fit to the dominant signal, and if ground scatter dominates, information about the ionospheric scatter at that range can be unresolved. One way to address the mix scatter situation is to use a high spectral content pulse sequence together with a spectral estimation technique. The high spectral

  1. A short-pulse K(a)-band instrumentation radar for foliage attenuation measurements.

    PubMed

    Puranen, Mikko; Eskelinen, Pekka

    2008-10-01

    A portable K(a)-band instrumentation radar for foliage attenuation measurements has been designed. It uses direct dielectric resonator oscillator multiplier pulse modulation giving a half power pulse width of 17 ns. The dual conversion scalar receiver utilizes either a digital storage oscilloscope in envelope detection format or a special gated comparator arrangement providing 1 m resolution and associated led seven segment display for data analysis. The calibrated dynamic range is better than 37 dB with an equivalent noise floor of 0.005 dBsm at 25 m test range distance. First experiments indicate an effective beamwidth close to 1 degree. The total weight is below 5 kg and the unit can be mounted on a conventional photographic tripod. Power is supplied from a 12 V/6 A h sealed lead acid battery giving an operating time in excess of 10 h. PMID:19044750

  2. Cramer-rao bounds and coherence performance analysis for next generation radar with pulse trains.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xiaowei; Tang, Jun; He, Qian; Wan, Shuang; Tang, Bo; Sun, Peilin; Zhang, Ning

    2013-01-01

    We study the Cramer-Rao bounds of parameter estimation and coherence performance for the next generation radar (NGR). In order to enhance the performance of NGR, the signal model of NGR with master-slave architecture based on a single pulse is extended to the case of pulse trains, in which multiple pulses are emitted from all sensors and then integrated spatially and temporally in a unique master sensor. For the MIMO mode of NGR where orthogonal waveforms are emitted, we derive the closed-form Cramer-Rao bound (CRB) for the estimates of generalized coherence parameters (GCPs), including the time delay differences, total phase differences and Doppler frequencies with respect to different sensors. For the coherent mode of NGR where the coherent waveforms are emitted after pre-compensation using the estimates of GCPs, we develop a performance bound of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) gain for NGR based on the aforementioned CRBs, taking all the estimation errors into consideration. It is shown that greatly improved estimation accuracy and coherence performance can be obtained with pulse trains employed in NGR. Numerical examples demonstrate the validity of the theoretical results. PMID:23612588

  3. Monitoring of railway embankment settlement with fiber-optic pulsed time-of-flight radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilpelä, Ari; Lyöri, Veijo; Duan, Guoyong

    2012-12-01

    This paper deals with a fiber-optic pulsed time-of-flight (PTOF) laser radar used for monitoring the settlement of a railway embankment. The operating principle is based on evaluating the changes in the lengths of the fiber-optic cables embedded in the embankment by measuring the time separation of the optical pulses reflected from both ends of the sensor fiber. The advantage of this method is that it integrates the elongation of the whole sensor, and many sensor fibers can be connected in series. In a field test, seven polyurethane-coated optical cables were installed in a railway embankment and used as 20-m long sensors. The optical timing pulses were created using specially polished optical connectors. The measured precision was 0.28 ps, which corresponds 1.8 μstrain elongation using a 20 m long sensor fiber, using an averaged value of 10 000 pulses for a single measurement value. The averaged elongation value of all sensors was used for cancelling out the effect of temperature variation on the elongation value of each individual sensor. The functionality of the method was tested by digging away a 7.5 m long and approximately 18 mm high section of sand below one sensor. It was measured as a +3 mm change in the length of the sensor fiber, which matched well with the theoretically calculated elongation value, 2.9 mm. The sensor type proved to be strong but flexible enough for this type of use.

  4. Cramer-Rao Bounds and Coherence Performance Analysis for Next Generation Radar with Pulse Trains

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Xiaowei; Tang, Jun; He, Qian; Wan, Shuang; Tang, Bo; Sun, Peilin; Zhang, Ning

    2013-01-01

    We study the Cramer-Rao bounds of parameter estimation and coherence performance for the next generation radar (NGR). In order to enhance the performance of NGR, the signal model of NGR with master-slave architecture based on a single pulse is extended to the case of pulse trains, in which multiple pulses are emitted from all sensors and then integrated spatially and temporally in a unique master sensor. For the MIMO mode of NGR where orthogonal waveforms are emitted, we derive the closed-form Cramer-Rao bound (CRB) for the estimates of generalized coherence parameters (GCPs), including the time delay differences, total phase differences and Doppler frequencies with respect to different sensors. For the coherent mode of NGR where the coherent waveforms are emitted after pre-compensation using the estimates of GCPs, we develop a performance bound of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) gain for NGR based on the aforementioned CRBs, taking all the estimation errors into consideration. It is shown that greatly improved estimation accuracy and coherence performance can be obtained with pulse trains employed in NGR. Numerical examples demonstrate the validity of the theoretical results. PMID:23612588

  5. Pulse-to-pulse correlation in CryoSat SAR mode radar altimeter echoes from the sea surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, W. H.

    2012-12-01

    Serial correlation among successive radar echoes returned from the ocean surface is an important design constraint in satellite altimetry. Walsh [1974, 1982] established the conventional wisdom. Taking the radar footprint to be a uniformly radiating disk, he derived a theoretically expected echo decorrelation time of about 0.5 milliseconds. Following Walsh, ocean altimeters usually employ a pulse repetition frequency (PRF) around 2 kHz, in order to obtain statistically independent echoes at (so it is thought) the maximum possible rate. CryoSat, designed for ranging to ice surfaces, employs a PRF of 18.2 kHz in its SAR mode. CryoSat SAR echo sequences over ocean surfaces can be used to empirically determine the ocean echo decorrelation, and thus to test Walsh's model. Such a test is presented in this paper. The analysis begins by forming the ensemble average of complex cross products of pairs of echoes separated by a time lag L * PRI, where the pulse repetition interval (PRI) is 55 microseconds and the echo lag L runs from 0 to 32. The L = 0 case yields the conventional pulse-limited waveform, which is used to determine the sea state in each ensemble average. The averages of lagged echo cross products reveal the complex coherency, with sampling in both slow time (lag, L), and fast time (range, sampled in waveform gates). Data from many areas and sea states are analyzed, and the results are explained using a simple theory approximating the complex coherency expected from a Gaussian radar pulse. This theory generalizes the classical Brown [1977] waveform model to lagged echo cross products, and generalizes Walsh's work to the case of footprints with non-uniform illumination and diffuse edges. Phase is due to vertical motion of the antenna. Amplitude variations in fast time are due to horizontal motion of the antenna, and are independent of wave height; their functional form confirms Brown's assumption that scattering is independent of azimuth. In slow time, the

  6. The new neutron reflectometer NERO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solina, D.; Lott, D.; Tietze, U.; Frank, O.; Leiner, V.; Schreyer, A.

    2006-11-01

    The year 2005 saw the opening of the new NEutron ReflectOmeter (NERO) at the GKSS research centre in Geesthacht, Germany for the investigation of magnetic and non-magnetic systems as well as soft matter nano-structures. NERO operates with a monochromatic beam of neutrons of wavelength 0.433 nm with a resolution better than 2%. An angular range of -20°<2 θ<100° allows for both reflectometry and high-angle diffraction measurements to be made. NERO has both a position-sensitive detector and a pencil detector installed for flexibility when making specular and diffuse measurements. NERO has been designed to accommodate heavy-sample environments such as cryo-furnaces and various kinds of magnets. Polarization analysis is available for the investigation of magnetic nano-structures. A supermirror stack with a wide angular-acceptance range will be available in 2006 for time-efficient measurements of magnetic diffuse reflectivity. Further information and proposal forms can be obtained online at http//:genf.gkss.de.

  7. The effect of oceanic whitecaps and foams on pulse-limited radar altimeters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zheng, Q. A.; Klemas, V.; Hayne, G. S.; Huang, N. E.

    1983-01-01

    Based on electromagnetic field theory of stratified media, the microwave reflectivity of a sea surface covered by whitecaps and foams at 13.9 GHz was computed. The computed results show that the reflectivity declines with increasing thickness of foams. The reflectivity of the sea surface without any whitecaps or foams is 0.6066 (20 C, S:35 per thousand), but it will be less than 0.15 when the thickness of foam cover is more than 0.3 cm. While gathering the data of whitecap and foam coverage in situ and reviewing whitecapping models, it can be shown that the effect of oceanic whitecaps and foams on the measured results of a pulse-limited radar altimeter working at high frequencies will not be negligible in high sea state conditions.

  8. Fixed lag smoothing target tracking in clutter for a high pulse repetition frequency radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Uzair; Shi, Yi Fang; Song, Taek Lyul

    2015-12-01

    A new method to smooth the target hybrid state with Gaussian mixture measurement likelihood-integrated track splitting (GMM-ITS) in the presence of clutter for a high pulse repetition frequency (HPRF) radar is proposed. This method smooths the target state at fixed lag N and considers all feasible multi-scan target existence sequences in the temporal window of scans in order to smooth the target hybrid state. The smoothing window can be of any length N. The proposed method to smooth the target hybrid state at fixed lag is also applied to the enhanced multiple model (EMM) tracking algorithm. Simulation results indicate that the performance of fixed lag smoothing GMM-ITS significantly improves false track discrimination and root mean square errors (RMSEs).

  9. The ATF two-frequency correlation reflectometer

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, G.R.; Wilgen, J.B.; Anabitarte, E.; Bell, J.D.; Harris, J.H.; Dunlap, J.L.; Thomas, C.E.

    1990-01-01

    The Advanced Toroidal Facility (ATF) density fluctuation reflectometer system consists of two individual reflectometers operating in the 30- to 40-GHz band. Each reflectometer consists of a tunable microwave source and a quadrature phase detector connected to the same antenna system. This arrangement allows two-frequency operation along the same radial chord for radial coherence measurements. The technique used in making radial coherence measurements is discussed and the results of such experiments are given. Initial experiments have shown high coherence when the frequencies of the two reflectometers are tuned close together and a clear loss of coherence as the radial separation of the cutoff layers is increased by increasing the frequency separation of the two reflectometers. Recent results have shown that local measurements of density fluctuations in plasmas with electron cyclotron heating (ECH) are possible and that detailed structure can be seen in the fluctuation spectra. In addition, radial correlation lengths have been found to be from 0.5 to 1.0 cm in ECH plasmas, with some frequency structures having correlation lengths up to 3 cm. In plasmas with neutral beam injection (NBI), the radial correlation lengths in the edge region have been found to be approximately 0.1--0.2 cm. 4 figs.

  10. Analysis and improved design considerations for airborne pulse Doppler radar signal processing in the detection of hazardous windshear

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Jonggil

    1990-01-01

    High resolution windspeed profile measurements are needed to provide reliable detection of hazardous low altitude windshear with an airborne pulse Doppler radar. The system phase noise in a Doppler weather radar may degrade the spectrum moment estimation quality and the clutter cancellation capability which are important in windshear detection. Also the bias due to weather return Doppler spectrum skewness may cause large errors in pulse pair spectral parameter estimates. These effects are analyzed for the improvement of an airborne Doppler weather radar signal processing design. A method is presented for the direct measurement of windspeed gradient using low pulse repetition frequency (PRF) radar. This spatial gradient is essential in obtaining the windshear hazard index. As an alternative, the modified Prony method is suggested as a spectrum mode estimator for both the clutter and weather signal. Estimation of Doppler spectrum modes may provide the desired windshear hazard information without the need of any preliminary processing requirement such as clutter filtering. The results obtained by processing a NASA simulation model output support consideration of mode identification as one component of a windshear detection algorithm.

  11. Remote profiling of lake ice using an S-band short pulse radar aboard an all-terrain vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, D. W.; Mueller, R. A.; Schertler, R. J.

    1975-01-01

    An airborne short-pulse radar system to measure ice thickness was designed. The system supported an effort to develop an all-weather Great Lakes Ice Information System to aid in extending the winter navigation season. Experimental studies into the accuracy and limitations of the system are described. A low power version was operated from an all-terrain vehicle on the Straits of Mackinac during March 1975. The vehicle allowed rapid surveying of large areas and eliminated the ambiguity in location between the radar system and the ground truth ice auger team. It was also possible to the effects of snow cover, surface melt water, pressure ridging, and ice type upon the accuracy of the system. Over 25 sites were explored which had ice thicknesses from 29 to 60 cm. The maximum radar overestimate was 9.8 percent, while the maximum underestimate was 6.6 percent. The average error of the 25 measurements was 0.1 percent.

  12. Detection capability of a pulsed Ground Penetrating Radar utilizing an oscilloscope and Radargram Fusion Approach for optimal signal quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seyfried, Daniel; Schoebel, Joerg

    2015-07-01

    In scientific research pulsed radars often employ a digital oscilloscope as sampling unit. The sensitivity of an oscilloscope is determined in general by means of the number of digits of its analog-to-digital converter and the selected full scale vertical setting, i.e., the maximal voltage range displayed. Furthermore oversampling or averaging of the input signal may increase the effective number of digits, hence the sensitivity. Especially for Ground Penetrating Radar applications high sensitivity of the radar system is demanded since reflection amplitudes of buried objects are strongly attenuated in ground. Hence, in order to achieve high detection capability this parameter is one of the most crucial ones. In this paper we analyze the detection capability of our pulsed radar system utilizing a Rohde & Schwarz RTO 1024 oscilloscope as sampling unit for Ground Penetrating Radar applications, such as detection of pipes and cables in the ground. Also effects of averaging and low-noise amplification of the received signal prior to sampling are investigated by means of an appropriate laboratory setup. To underline our findings we then present real-world radar measurements performed on our GPR test site, where we have buried pipes and cables of different types and materials in different depths. The results illustrate the requirement for proper choice of the settings of the oscilloscope for optimal data recording. However, as we show, displaying both strong signal contributions due to e.g., antenna cross-talk and direct ground bounce reflection as well as weak reflections from objects buried deeper in ground requires opposing trends for the oscilloscope's settings. We therefore present our Radargram Fusion Approach. By means of this approach multiple radargrams recorded in parallel, each with an individual optimized setting for a certain type of contribution, can be fused in an appropriate way in order to finally achieve a single radargram which displays all

  13. SOL Reflectometer for Alcator C-Mod

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, Gregory R; Wilgen, John B; Wukitch, Dr. Steve; Lin, Dr. Yijun; Lau, Cornwall H; Wallace, Gregory M

    2008-01-01

    A two-frequency x-mode reflectometer operating from 100 146 GHz is being deployed on Alcator C-Mod to measure the density profile and fluctuations in the scrape-off layer (SOL) immediately in-front of the new J-port ICRF antenna and the new B-port Lower Hybrid launcher. The reflectometer will cover densities from 1016 to 1020 m-3 at 5 5.4 T. To provide the greatest flexibility and capability to deal with density fluctuations approaching 100% peak to peak in the SOL, both full-phase and differential-phase measurement capabilities with sweep speeds of ~10 s to >1 ms are being implemented. The differential-phase measurement will use a difference-frequency of 500 MHz, corresponding to cutoff layer separations ranging from about 0.1 mm to 1 mm. The reflectometer will have 6 sets of launchers: 3 on the J-port ICRF antenna and 3 on the B-port LHRF launcher. The ICRF and LHRF antennas will incorporate reflectometer antennas at their top, bottom and mid-plane locations.

  14. Reflectometer distance measurement between parallel conductive plates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hearn, Chase P.; Neece, Robert T.

    1995-01-01

    This report presents an analytic and experimental investigation of the measurement problem in which a reflectometer is used to determine the distance to a target that is a highly conductive surface parallel to the reflectometer antenna ground plane. These parallel surfaces constitute a waveguide (WG) which can contribute parasitic perturbations that seriously degrade the accuracy of the measurements. Two distinct parallel-plate-waveguide (PPWG) phenomena are described, and their effects on both frequency and time-domain reflectometers are considered. The time-domain processing approach was found to be superior to a representative frequency-domain phase-measurement approach because of less susceptibility to perturbations produced by edge reflections and immunity to phase capture. Experimental results are presented which show that a simple radiating system modification can suppress parallel-plate (PP) propagation. The addition of a thin layer of lossy mu-metal 'magnetic absorber' to the antenna ground plane allowed a measurement accuracy of 0.025 cm (0.01 in.) when a vector network analyzer (VNA) is used as a time-domain reflectometer.

  15. Feasibility Study and Design of a Wearable System-on-a-Chip Pulse Radar for Contactless Cardiopulmonary Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Zito, Domenico; Pepe, Domenico; Neri, Bruno; Zito, Fabio; De Rossi, Danilo; Lanatà, Antonio

    2008-01-01

    A new system-on-a-chip radar sensor for next-generation wearable wireless interface applied to the human health care and safeguard is presented. The system overview is provided and the feasibility study of the radar sensor is presented. In detail, the overall system consists of a radar sensor for detecting the heart and breath rates and a low-power IEEE 802.15.4 ZigBee radio interface, which provides a wireless data link with remote data acquisition and control units. In particular, the pulse radar exploits 3.1–10.6 GHz ultra-wideband signals which allow a significant reduction of the transceiver complexity and then of its power consumption. The operating principle of the radar for the cardiopulmonary monitoring is highlighted and the results of the system analysis are reported. Moreover, the results obtained from the building-blocks design, the channel measurement, and the ultra-wideband antenna realization are reported. PMID:18389068

  16. Designing clutter rejection filters with complex coefficients for airborne pulsed Doppler weather radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jamora, Dennis A.

    1993-01-01

    Ground clutter interference is a major problem for airborne pulse Doppler radar operating at low altitudes in a look-down mode. With Doppler zero set at the aircraft ground speed, ground clutter rejection filtering is typically accomplished using a high-pass filter with real valued coefficients and a stopband notch centered at zero Doppler. Clutter spectra from the NASA Wind Shear Flight Experiments of l991-1992 show that the dominant clutter mode can be located away from zero Doppler, particularly at short ranges dominated by sidelobe returns. Use of digital notch filters with complex valued coefficients so that the stopband notch can be located at any Doppler frequency is investigated. Several clutter mode tracking algorithms are considered to estimate the Doppler frequency location of the dominant clutter mode. From the examination of night data, when a dominant clutter mode away from zero Doppler is present, complex filtering is able to significantly increase clutter rejection over use of a notch filter centered at zero Doppler.

  17. Determination of mean surface position and sea state from the radar return of a short-pulse satellite altimeter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrick, D. E.

    1972-01-01

    Using the specular point theory of scatter from a very rough surface, the average backscatter cross section per unit area per radar cell width is derived for a cell located at a given height above the mean sea surface. This result is then applied to predict the average radar cross section observed by a short-pulse altimeter as a function of time for two modes of operation: pulse-limited and beam-limited configurations. For a pulse-limited satellite altimeter, a family of curves is calculated showing the distortion of the leading edge of the receiver output signal as a function of sea state (i.e., wind speed). A signal processing scheme is discussed that permits an accurate determination of the mean surface position--even in high seas--and, as a by-product, the estimation of the significant seawave height (or wind speed above the surface). Comparison of these analytical results with experimental data for both pulse-limited and beam-limited operation lends credence to the model. Such a model should aid in the design of short-pulse altimeters for accurate determination of the geoid over the oceans, as well as for the use of such altimeters for orbital sea-state monitoring.

  18. Design considerations for high-power VHF radar transceivers: Phase matching long coaxial cables using a cable radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, P. E.; Ecklund, W. L.

    1983-01-01

    The Poker Flat 49.92-MHz MST radar uses 64 phase-controlled transmitters in individual shelters distributed throughout the antenna array. Phase control is accomplished by sampling the transmitted pulse at the directional coupler of each transmitter and sending the sample pulse back to a phase-control unit. This method requires phase matching 64 long (256 meter) coaxial cables (RG-213) to within several electrical degrees. Tests with a time domain reflectometer showed that attenuation of high frequency components in the long RG-213 cable rounded the leading edge of the reflected pulse so that the cables could only be measured to within 50 cm (about 45 deg at 49.92 MHz). Another measurement technique using a vector voltmeter to compare forward and reflected phase required a directional coupler with unattainable directivity. Several other techniques were also found lacking, primarily because of loss in the long RG-213 cables. At this point it was realized that what was needed was a simple version of the phase-coherent clear-air radar, i.e., a cable radar. The design and operation of this cable are described.

  19. Design of a Doppler reflectometer for KSTAR

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, K. D. Nam, Y. U.; Seo, Seong-Heon; Kim, Y. S.

    2014-11-15

    A Doppler reflectometer has been designed to measure the poloidal propagation velocity on the Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research (KSTAR) tokamak. It has the operating frequency range of V-band (50-75 GHz) and the monostatic antenna configuration with extraordinary mode (X-mode). The single sideband modulation with an intermediate frequency of 50 MHz is used for the heterodyne measurement with the 200 MHz in-phase and quadrature (I/Q) phase detector. The corrugated conical horn antenna is used to approximate the Gaussian beam propagation and it is installed together with the oversized rectangular waveguides in the vacuum vessel. The first commissioning test of the Doppler reflectometer system on the KSTAR tokamak is planned in the 2014 KSTAR experimental campaign.

  20. 2D microwave imaging reflectometer electronics

    SciTech Connect

    Spear, A. G.; Domier, C. W. Hu, X.; Muscatello, C. M.; Ren, X.; Luhmann, N. C.; Tobias, B. J.

    2014-11-15

    A 2D microwave imaging reflectometer system has been developed to visualize electron density fluctuations on the DIII-D tokamak. Simultaneously illuminated at four probe frequencies, large aperture optics image reflections from four density-dependent cutoff surfaces in the plasma over an extended region of the DIII-D plasma. Localized density fluctuations in the vicinity of the plasma cutoff surfaces modulate the plasma reflections, yielding a 2D image of electron density fluctuations. Details are presented of the receiver down conversion electronics that generate the in-phase (I) and quadrature (Q) reflectometer signals from which 2D density fluctuation data are obtained. Also presented are details on the control system and backplane used to manage the electronics as well as an introduction to the computer based control program.

  1. 2D microwave imaging reflectometer electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spear, A. G.; Domier, C. W.; Hu, X.; Muscatello, C. M.; Ren, X.; Tobias, B. J.; Luhmann, N. C.

    2014-11-01

    A 2D microwave imaging reflectometer system has been developed to visualize electron density fluctuations on the DIII-D tokamak. Simultaneously illuminated at four probe frequencies, large aperture optics image reflections from four density-dependent cutoff surfaces in the plasma over an extended region of the DIII-D plasma. Localized density fluctuations in the vicinity of the plasma cutoff surfaces modulate the plasma reflections, yielding a 2D image of electron density fluctuations. Details are presented of the receiver down conversion electronics that generate the in-phase (I) and quadrature (Q) reflectometer signals from which 2D density fluctuation data are obtained. Also presented are details on the control system and backplane used to manage the electronics as well as an introduction to the computer based control program.

  2. 2D microwave imaging reflectometer electronics.

    PubMed

    Spear, A G; Domier, C W; Hu, X; Muscatello, C M; Ren, X; Tobias, B J; Luhmann, N C

    2014-11-01

    A 2D microwave imaging reflectometer system has been developed to visualize electron density fluctuations on the DIII-D tokamak. Simultaneously illuminated at four probe frequencies, large aperture optics image reflections from four density-dependent cutoff surfaces in the plasma over an extended region of the DIII-D plasma. Localized density fluctuations in the vicinity of the plasma cutoff surfaces modulate the plasma reflections, yielding a 2D image of electron density fluctuations. Details are presented of the receiver down conversion electronics that generate the in-phase (I) and quadrature (Q) reflectometer signals from which 2D density fluctuation data are obtained. Also presented are details on the control system and backplane used to manage the electronics as well as an introduction to the computer based control program. PMID:25430247

  3. Bone-demineralization diagnosis in a bone-tissue-skin matrix using the pulsed-chirped photothermal radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaiplavil, Sreekumar; Mandelis, Andreas

    2012-02-01

    A chirped pulsed photothermal radiometric radar is introduced for the diagnosis of biological samples, especially bones with tissue and skin overlayers. The constraints imposed by the laser safety (maximum permissible exposure, MPE) ceiling on pump laser energy and the strong attenuation of thermal-wave signals in tissues significantly limit the photothermally active depth in most biological specimens to a level which is normally insufficient for practical applications (approx. 1 mm below the skin surface). A theoretical approach for improvement of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), minimizing the static (dc) component of the photothermal signal and making use of the photothermal radiometric nonlinearity has been introduced and verified by comparing the SNR of four distinct excitation wave forms (sine-wave, square-wave, constant- width and constant duty-cycle pulses) for chirping the pump laser, under constant exposure energy. At low frequencies fixed-pulsewidth chirps of large peak power were found to be superior to all other equal-energy modalities, with an SNR improvement up to two orders of magnitude. Distinct thickness-dependent characteristic delay times in a goat bone were obtained, establishing an active depth resolution range of ca. 2.8 mm in a layered skin-fat- bone structure, a favorable result compared to the maximum reported pulsed photothermal radiometric depth resolution < 1 mm in turbid biological media. Compared to radar peak delay and amplitude, the long-delayed radar output amplitude is found to be more sensitive to subsurface conditions. Two-dimensional spatial plots of this parameter depicting the back surface conditions of bones with and without fat-tissue overlayers are presented.

  4. Circuit Design to Stabilize the Reflectometer Local Oscillator Signals

    SciTech Connect

    Kung, C. C.; Kramer, G. J.; Johnson, E.; Solomon, W.; Nazikian, R.

    2005-10-04

    Reflectometry, which uses the microwave radar technique to probe the magnetically confined fusion plasmas, is a very powerful tool to observe the density fluctuations in the fusion plasmas. Typically, two or more microwave beams of different frequencies are used to study the plasma density fluctuations. The frequency separation between these two beams of the PPPL designed reflectometer system upgrade on the DIII-D tokamak can be varied over 18 GHz. Due to the performance of the associated electronics, the local oscillator (LO) power level at the LO port of the I/Q demodulator suffers more than 12 dB of power fluctuations when the frequency separation is varied. Thus, the I/Q demodulator performance is impaired. In order to correct this problem, a power leveling circuit is introduced in the PPPL upgrade. According to the test results, the LO power fluctuation was regulated to be within 1 dB for greater than 16 dB of input power variation over the full dynamic bandwidth of the receiver.

  5. Automotive radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohling, Hermann

    2004-07-01

    Radar networks for automtovie short-range applications (up to 30m) based on powerful but inexpensive 24GHz high range resolution pulse or FMCW radar systems have been developed at the Technical University of Hamburg-Harburg. The described system has been integrated in to an experimental vehicle and tested in real street environment. This paper considers the general network design, the individual pulse or FMCW radar sensors, the network signal processing scheme, the tracking procedure and possible automotive applications, respectively. Object position estimation is accomplished by the very precise range measurement of each individual sensor and additional trilateration procedures. The paper concludes with some results obtained in realistic traffic conditions with multiple target situations using 24 GHz radar network.

  6. Remote profiling of lake ice thickness using a short pulse radar system aboard a C-47 aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, D. W.; Heighway, J. E.; Shook, D. F.; Jirberg, R. J.; Vickers, R. S.

    1974-01-01

    Design and operation of short pulse radar systems for use in ice thickness measurement are described. Two ice profiling systems were tested, an S system which used either random noise or continous wave modulation at 2.8 GHz and a less powerful C band system which operated at 6.0 GHz and did not have random noise modulation. Flight altitudes of 4,000 feet were used, but the S band system was usable at 7,000 feet allowing flights in poor weather conditions. A minimum ice thickness of four inches is required for measurement, while the thickest ice measured was 36 inches. System accuracy is plus or minus one inch.

  7. An analysis of short pulse and dual frequency radar techniques for measuring ocean wave spectra from satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, F. C.

    1980-01-01

    Scanning beam microwave radars were used to measure ocean wave directional spectra from satellites. In principle, surface wave spectral resolution in wave number can be obtained using either short pulse (SP) or dual frequency (DF) techniques; in either case, directional resolution obtains naturally as a consequence of a Bragg-like wave front matching. A four frequency moment characterization of backscatter from the near vertical using physical optics in the high frequency limit was applied to an analysis of the SP and DF measurement techniques. The intrinsic electromagnetic modulation spectrum was to the first order in wave steepness proportional to the large wave directional slope spectrum. Harmonic distortion was small and was a minimum near 10 deg incidence. NonGaussian wave statistics can have an effect comparable to that in the second order of scattering from a normally distributed sea surface. The SP technique is superior to the DF technique in terms of measurement signal to noise ratio and contrast ratio.

  8. Recalculation of an artificially released avalanche with SAMOS and validation with measurements from a pulsed Doppler radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sailer, R.; Rammer, L.; Sampl, P.

    A joint experiment was carried out on 10 February 1999 by the Swiss Federal Institute for Snow and Avalanche Research (SFISAR) and the Austrian Institute for Avalanche and Torrent Research (AIATR, of the Federal Office and Re-search Centre for Forests, BFW) to measure forces and velocities at the full scale experimental site CRÊTA BESSE in VALLÉE DE LA SIONNE, Canton du Valais, Switzerland. A huge avalanche could be released artificially, which permitted extensive investigations (dynamic measurements, im-provement of measurement systems, simulation model verification, design of protective measures, etc.). The results of the velocity measurements from the dual frequency pulsed Doppler avalanche radar of the AIATR and the recalculation with the numerical simulation model SAMOS are explained in this paper.

  9. Model of a fibreoptic phase-sensitive reflectometer and its comparison with the experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Tosoni, O; Podivilov, Evgenii V; Babin, Sergei A; Aksenov, S B

    2010-12-09

    A statistical model describing the Rayleigh-scattering reflectograms of narrowband Gaussian pulses in optical fibres is constructed taking into account linear (the finite spectral linewidth because of frequency fluctuations, finite frequency band of the photodetector) and nonlinear (modulation instability) effects influencing the reflectograms' visibility. The model is compared with the experiment, demonstrating the adequacy of the theoretical description. The possibilities of obtaining optimal parameters, important for practical applications of the phase-sensitive reflectometer as a distributed fibreoptic intrusion sensor are discussed. (optical fibres)

  10. Green pulsed lidar-radar emitter based on a multipass frequency-shifting external cavity.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haiyang; Brunel, Marc; Romanelli, Marco; Vallet, Marc

    2016-04-01

    This paper investigates the radio frequency (RF) up-conversion properties of a frequency-shifting external cavity on a laser beam. We consider an infrared passively Q-switched pulsed laser whose intensity modulation results from the multiple round-trips in the external cavity, which contains a frequency shifter. The output beam undergoes optical second-harmonic generation necessary to reach the green wavelength. We model the pulse train using a rate-equation model to simulate the laser pulses, together with a time-delayed interference calculation taking both the diffraction efficiency and the Gaussian beam propagation into account. The predictions are verified experimentally using a diode-pumped Nd:YAG laser passively Q-switched by Cr4+:YAG whose pulse train makes multiple round-trips in a mode-matched external cavity containing an acousto-optic frequency shifter driven at 85 MHz. Second-harmonic generation is realized in a KTP crystal, yielding RF-modulated pulses at 532 nm with a modulation contrast of almost 100%. RF harmonics up to the 6th order (1.020 GHz) are observed in the green output pulses. Such a RF-modulated green laser may find applications in underwater detection and ranging. PMID:27139644

  11. The multipurpose time-of-flight neutron reflectometer “Platypus” at Australia's OPAL reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, M.; Nelson, A.; Holt, S. A.; Saerbeck, T.; Hamilton, W. A.; Klose, F.

    2011-03-01

    In this manuscript we describe the major components of the Platypus time-of-flight neutron reflectometer at the 20 MW OPAL reactor in Sydney, Australia. Platypus is a multipurpose spectrometer for the characterisation of solid thin films, materials adsorbed at the solid-liquid interface and free-liquid surfaces. It also has the capacity to study magnetic thin films using spin-polarised neutrons. Platypus utilises a white neutron beam ( λ=2-20 Å) that is pulsed using boron-coated disc chopper pairs; thus providing the capacity to tailor the wavelength resolution of the pulses to suit the system under investigation. Supermirror optical components are used to focus, deflect or spin-polarise the broad bandwidth neutron beams, and typical incident spectra are presented for each configuration. A series of neutron reflectivity datasets are presented, indicating the quality and flexibility of this spectrometer. Minimum reflectivity values of <10 -7 are observed; while maximum thickness values of 325 nm have been measured for single-component films and 483 nm for a multilayer system. Off-specular measurements have also been made to investigate in-plane features as opposed to those normal to the sample surface. Finally, the first published studies conducted using the Platypus time-of-flight neutron reflectometer are presented.

  12. SOL Reflectometer for Alcator C-MOD

    SciTech Connect

    Lau, Cornwall H; Hanson, Gregory R; Wilgen, John B; Lin, Dr. Yijun; Wukitch, Dr. Steve

    2010-10-01

    A swept-frequency X-mode reflectometer is being built for Alcator C-Mod to measure the scrape-off layer density profiles at the top, middle, and bottom locations in front of both the new lower hybrid launcher and the new ion cyclotron range of frequencies antenna. The system is planned to operate between 100 and 146 GHz at sweep rates from 10 {micro}s to 1 ms, and will cover a density range of approximately 10{sup 16}-10{sup 20} m{sup -3} at B{sub 0} = 5-5.4 T. To minimize the effects of density fluctuations, both differential phase and full phase reflectometry will be employed. Design, test data, and calibration results of this electronics system will be discussed. To reduce attenuation losses, tallguide (TE{sub 01}) will be used for most of the transmission line system. Simulations of high mode conversion in tallguide components, such as e-plane hyperbolic secant radius of curvature bends, tapers, and horn antennas will be shown. Experimental measurements of the total attenuation losses of these components in the lower hybrid waveguide run will also be presented.

  13. Ground-penetrating radar methods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ground-penetrating radar geophysical methods are finding greater and greater use in agriculture. With the ground-penetrating radar (GPR) method, an electromagnetic radio energy (radar) pulse is directed into the subsurface, followed by measurement of the elapsed time taken by the radar signal as it ...

  14. Five years use of Pulse Doppler RADAR-utechnology in debris-flows monitoring - experience at three test sites so far

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koschuch, Richard; Brauner, Michael; Hu, Kaiheng; Hübl, Johannes

    2016-04-01

    Automatic monitoring of alpine mass movement is a major challenge in dealing with natural hazards. The presented research project shows a new approach in measurment and alarming technology for water level changes an debris flow by using a high-frequency Pulse Doppler RADAR. The detection system was implemented on 3 places (2 in Tirol/Austria within the monitoring systems of the IAN/BOKU; 1 in Dongchuan/China within the monitoring systems of the IMHE/Chinese Academy of Science) in order to prove the applicability of the RADAR in monitoring torrential activities (e.g. debris-flows, mudflows, flash floods, etc.). The main objective is to illustrate the principles and the potential of an innovative RADAR system and its versatility as an automatic detection system for fast (> 1 km/h - 300 km/h) alpine mass movements of any kind. The high frequency RADAR device was already successfully tested for snow avalanches in Sedrun/Switzerland (Lussi et al., 2012), in Ischgl/Austria (Kogelnig et al., 2012). The experience and the data of the five year showed the enormous potential of the presented RADAR technology in use as an independent warning and monitoring system in the field of natural hazard. We have been able to measure water level changes, surface velocities and several debris flows and can compare this data with the other installed systems.

  15. A scaled down laboratory experiment of cross-borehole pulse radar signatures for detection of a terminated tunnel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Jae-Hyoung; Jung, Ji-Hyun; Kim, Se-Yun; Yook, Jong-Gwan

    2016-09-01

    In the cross-borehole pulse radar signatures measured near the front end of a terminated tunnel, the time-of-arrival (TOA) with fully penetrated tunnel is significantly shortened due to the relatively fast pulse propagation in an empty tunnel compared with the TOA obtained without a tunnel. To analyze the TOA variation with the protrusion length of the terminated tunnel from the line-of-sight between two antennas or boreholes, additional borehole pairs are required around the terminated tunnel in spite of their high construction costs. As an alternative, a laboratory scaled down experiment, which has a high ability to simulate different underground configurations, is designed for investigation into the TOA effects of tunnel termination. A round ceramic rod with a careful selection of its dielectric constant is immersed in pure water in a water tank and used to simulate the tunnel in the experiment. Coaxial fed dipole antennas with balanced wire and ferrite cores are used not only to suppress borehole-guided waves but also to generate a symmetric radiation pattern. The accuracy of the laboratory scaled down experiment is verified by the symmetricity of the measured diffraction pattern of the fully penetrated ceramic rod. Then, the TOA variation is measured for the protrusion length of the ceramic rod relative to the line-of-sight between two antennas from  +80 mm to  ‑80 mm with an equal step of 5 mm. Based on the scaled down experimental measurements of the TOA, it is found that a tunnel 1.2 m away from the measuring cross-borehole section closely approaches the scaled up variation curve under the same conditions of the protrusion length.

  16. Prospects for high accuracy time dissemination and synchronization using coded radar pulses from a low-earth orbiting spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Detoma, Edoardo V.; Dionisio, C.

    1995-01-01

    The radar (an acronym for radio detection and ranging) is an instrument developed just before the WW-II to precisely measure the position of an object (target) in space. This is done by emitting a narrow pulse of electromagnetic energy in the RF spectrum, receiving the return echo and measuring the time of flight in the two-way path from the emitter to the target. The propagation delay provides a measure of the range to the target, which is not in itself sufficient to uniquely locate the position of the same in space. However, if a directional antenna is used, the direction of the echo can be assessed by the antenna pointing angles. In this way the position of the target can be uniquely determined in space. How well this can be done is a function of the resolution of the measurements performed (range and direction, i.e.: angles); in turn, the resolution will dictate the time and frequency requirements of the reference oscillator.

  17. Impulse radar studfinder

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, T.E.

    1995-10-10

    An impulse radar studfinder propagates electromagnetic pulses and detects reflected pulses from a fixed range. Unmodulated pulses, about 200 ps wide, are emitted. A large number of reflected pulses are sampled and averaged. Background reflections are subtracted. Reflections from wall studs or other hidden objects are detected and displayed using light emitting diodes. 9 figs.

  18. Impulse radar studfinder

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, Thomas E.

    1995-01-01

    An impulse radar studfinder propagates electromagnetic pulses and detects reflected pulses from a fixed range. Unmodulated pulses, about 200 ps wide, are emitted. A large number of reflected pulses are sampled and averaged. Background reflections are subtracted. Reflections from wall studs or other hidden objects are detected and displayed using light emitting diodes.

  19. Radar Waveform Pulse Analysis Measurement System for High-Power GaN Amplifiers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thrivikraman, Tushar; Perkovic-Martin, Dragana; Jenabi, Masud; Hoffman, James

    2012-01-01

    This work presents a measurement system to characterize the pulsed response of high-power GaN amplifiers for use in space-based SAR platforms that require very strict amplitude and phase stability. The measurement system is able to record and analyze data on three different time scales: fast, slow, and long, which allows for greater detail of the mechanisms that impact amplitude and phase stability. The system is fully automated through MATLAB, which offers both instrument control capability and in-situ data processing. To validate this system, a high-power GaN HEMT amplifier operated in saturation was characterized. The fast time results show that variations to the amplitude and phase are correlated to DC supply transients, while long time characteristics are correlated to temperature changes.

  20. Doublet Pulse Coherent Laser Radar for Tracking of Resident Space Objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prasad, Narasimha S.; Rudd, Van; Shald, Scott; Sandford, Stephen; Dimarcantonio, Albert

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the development of a long range ladar system known as ExoSPEAR at NASA Langley Research Center for tracking rapidly moving resident space objects is discussed. Based on 100 W, nanosecond class, near-IR laser, this ladar system with coherent detection technique is currently being investigated for short dwell time measurements of resident space objects (RSOs) in LEO and beyond for space surveillance applications. This unique ladar architecture is configured using a continuously agile doublet-pulse waveform scheme coupled to a closed-loop tracking and control loop approach to simultaneously achieve mm class range precision and mm/s velocity precision and hence obtain unprecedented track accuracies. Salient features of the design architecture followed by performance modeling and engagement simulations illustrating the dependence of range and velocity precision in LEO orbits on ladar parameters are presented. Estimated limits on detectable optical cross sections of RSOs in LEO orbits are discussed.

  1. Analysis of the ITER LFS Reflectometer Transmission Line System

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, Gregory R; Wilgen, John B; Bigelow, Tim S; Diem, Stephanie J; Biewer, Theodore M

    2010-01-01

    A critical issue in the design of the ITER Low Field Side (LFS) reflectometer is the transmission line (TL) system. A TL connects each launcher to a diagnostic instrument. Each TL will typically consist of ~42 m of corrugated waveguide and up to 10 miter bends. Important issues for the performance of the TL system are mode conversion and reflections. Minimizing mode conversion and reflections in the waveguide are critical to minimizing standing waves and phase errors in the reflectometer-measured phase. The performance of the corrugated waveguide and miter bends is analyzed and recommendations given.

  2. A PC based time domain reflectometer for space station cable fault isolation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pham, Michael; McClean, Marty; Hossain, Sabbir; Vo, Peter; Kouns, Ken

    1994-01-01

    Significant problems are faced by astronauts on orbit in the Space Station when trying to locate electrical faults in multi-segment avionics and communication cables. These problems necessitate the development of an automated portable device that will detect and locate cable faults using the pulse-echo technique known as Time Domain Reflectometry. A breadboard time domain reflectometer (TDR) circuit board was designed and developed at the NASA-JSC. The TDR board works in conjunction with a GRiD lap-top computer to automate the fault detection and isolation process. A software program was written to automatically display the nature and location of any possible faults. The breadboard system can isolate open circuit and short circuit faults within two feet in a typical space station cable configuration. Follow-on efforts planned for 1994 will produce a compact, portable prototype Space Station TDR capable of automated switching in multi-conductor cables for high fidelity evaluation. This device has many possible commercial applications, including commercial and military aircraft avionics, cable TV, telephone, communication, information and computer network systems. This paper describes the principle of time domain reflectometry and the methodology for on-orbit avionics utility distribution system repair, utilizing the newly developed device called the Space Station Time Domain Reflectometer (SSTDR).

  3. Application of Time Domain Reflectometers in Urban Settings

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is a poster for the Million Trees NYC research symposium in New York City, NY, March 5-6, 2010. The poster gives a summary of how time domain reflectometers can be installed in urban fill soil, engineered bioretention media, and recycled concrete aggregate to document the ...

  4. Application of Time Domain Reflectometers to Urban Settings

    EPA Science Inventory

    Time domain reflectometers (TDRs) are in-situ monitoring probes that produce a temperature-compensated signal proportional to soil moisture content of the surrounding material when calibrated to a particular media. Typically used in agricultural settings, TDRs may also be applied...

  5. Scrape-off layer reflectometer for Alcator C-Mod.

    PubMed

    Hanson, G R; Wilgen, J B; Lau, C; Lin, Y; Wallace, G M; Wukitch, S J

    2008-10-01

    A two-frequency x-mode reflectometer operating from 100 to 146 GHz is deployed on Alcator C-Mod to measure the density profile and fluctuations in the scrape-off layer (SOL) immediately in front of the new J-port ICRF antenna and the new C-port lower hybrid launcher. The reflectometer covers densities from 10(16) to 10(20) m(-3) at 5-5.4 T. To provide the greatest flexibility and capability to deal with density fluctuations approaching 100% peak-to-peak in the SOL, both full-phase and differential-phase measurement capabilities with sweep speeds of approximately 10 micros to >1 ms are implemented. The differential-phase measurement uses a difference frequency of 500 MHz, corresponding to cutoff layer separations ranging from about 0.1 to 1 mm. The reflectometer has six sets of launchers: three on the ICRF antenna and three on the lower hybrid launcher. Both the ICRF antenna and the lower hybrid launcher incorporate reflectometer antennas at their top, bottom, and midplane locations. PMID:19044598

  6. Scrape-off layer reflectometer for Alcator C-Mod

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, G. R.; Wilgen, J. B.; Lau, C.; Lin, Y.; Wallace, G. M.; Wukitch, S. J.

    2008-10-15

    A two-frequency x-mode reflectometer operating from 100 to 146 GHz is deployed on Alcator C-Mod to measure the density profile and fluctuations in the scrape-off layer (SOL) immediately in front of the new J-port ICRF antenna and the new C-port lower hybrid launcher. The reflectometer covers densities from 10{sup 16} to 10{sup 20} m{sup -3} at 5-5.4 T. To provide the greatest flexibility and capability to deal with density fluctuations approaching 100% peak-to-peak in the SOL, both full-phase and differential-phase measurement capabilities with sweep speeds of {approx}10 {mu}s to >1 ms are implemented. The differential-phase measurement uses a difference frequency of 500 MHz, corresponding to cutoff layer separations ranging from about 0.1 to 1 mm. The reflectometer has six sets of launchers: three on the ICRF antenna and three on the lower hybrid launcher. Both the ICRF antenna and the lower hybrid launcher incorporate reflectometer antennas at their top, bottom, and midplane locations.

  7. Scrape-off layer reflectometer for Alcator C-Moda)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanson, G. R.; Wilgen, J. B.; Lau, C.; Lin, Y.; Wallace, G. M.; Wukitch, S. J.

    2008-10-01

    A two-frequency x-mode reflectometer operating from 100 to 146 GHz is deployed on Alcator C-Mod to measure the density profile and fluctuations in the scrape-off layer (SOL) immediately in front of the new J-port ICRF antenna and the new C-port lower hybrid launcher. The reflectometer covers densities from 1016 to 1020 m-3 at 5-5.4 T. To provide the greatest flexibility and capability to deal with density fluctuations approaching 100% peak-to-peak in the SOL, both full-phase and differential-phase measurement capabilities with sweep speeds of ˜10 μs to >1 ms are implemented. The differential-phase measurement uses a difference frequency of 500 MHz, corresponding to cutoff layer separations ranging from about 0.1 to 1 mm. The reflectometer has six sets of launchers: three on the ICRF antenna and three on the lower hybrid launcher. Both the ICRF antenna and the lower hybrid launcher incorporate reflectometer antennas at their top, bottom, and midplane locations.

  8. ASIC-enabled High Resolution Optical Time Domain Reflectometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skendzic, Sandra

    Fiber optics has become the preferred technology in communication systems because of what it has to offer: high data transmission rates, immunity to electromagnetic interference, and lightweight, flexible cables. An optical time domain reflectometer (OTDR) provides a convenient method of locating and diagnosing faults (e.g. break in a fiber) along a fiber that can obstruct crucial optical pathways. Both the ability to resolve the precise location of the fault and distinguish between two discrete, closely spaced faults are figures of merit. This thesis presents an implementation of a high resolution OTDR through the use of a compact and programmable ASIC (application specific integrated circuit). The integration of many essential OTDR functions on a single chip is advantageous over existing commercial instruments because it enables small, lightweight packaging, and offers low power and cost efficiency. Furthermore, its compactness presents the option of placing multiple ASICs in parallel, which can conceivably ease the characterization of densely populated fiber optic networks. The OTDR ASIC consists of a tunable clock, pattern generator, precise timer, electrical receiver, and signal sampling circuit. During OTDR operation, the chip generates narrow electrical pulse, which can then be converted to optical format when coupled with an external laser diode driver. The ASIC also works with an external photodetector to measure the timing and amplitude of optical reflections in a fiber. It has a 1 cm sampling resolution, which allows for a 2 cm spatial resolution. While this OTDR ASIC has been previously demonstrated for multimode fiber fault diagnostics, this thesis focuses on extending its functionality to single mode fiber. To validate this novel approach to OTDR, this thesis is divided into five chapters: (1) introduction, (2) implementation, (3), performance of ASIC-based OTDR, (4) exploration in optical pre-amplification with a semiconductor optical amplifier, and

  9. Upgrades to the profile and Doppler reflectometer systems on EAST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Jian Qiang; Liu, A. Di; Doyle, Edward J.; Wang, Guiding; Li, Hong; Zhou, Chu; Zhang, Xiao Hui; Wang, Ming Yuan; Zhang, Jin; Yu, Chang Xuan

    2015-11-01

    The USTC reflectometer systems on the EAST Tokamak have been upgraded, including new Q- and V-band monostatic FMCW profile reflectometer systems with dynamic calibration, efficient transition lines with quasi-optical lenses and corrugated waveguides, dual polarization operation. The profile system is integrated with an 8-channel Doppler backscattering (DBS) system in a new flexible microwave front-end, and a second DBS system is at a separate toroidal location. The new systems cater for variable scenarios and allow for poloidal and toroidal turbulence correlations. We present the designs for these upgraded systems, system calibrations and measurements of the beam profile in laboratory, as well as the primary experimental results from EAST operation. Work supported by the Natural Science Foundation of China 11475173, National Magnetic Confinement Fusion Energy Development Program of China 2013GB106002 and 2014GB109002, US DOE Grants DE-SC0010424 and DE-SC0010469, and China Scholarship Council 3026.

  10. Optimization studies of the ITER low field side reflectometer

    SciTech Connect

    Diem, S. J.; Wilgen, J. B.; Bigelow, T. S.; Hanson, G. R.; Harvey, R. W.; Smirnov, A. P.

    2010-10-15

    Microwave reflectometry will be used on ITER to measure the electron density profile, density fluctuations due to MHD/turbulence, edge localized mode (ELM) density transients, and as an L-H transition monitor. The ITER low field side reflectometer system will measure both core and edge quantities using multiple antenna arrays spanning frequency ranges of 15-155 GHz for the O-mode system and 55-220 GHz for the X-mode system. Optimization studies using the GENRAY ray-tracing code have been done for edge and core measurements. The reflectometer launchers will utilize the HE11 mode launched from circular corrugated waveguide. The launched beams are assumed to be Gaussian with a beam waist diameter of 0.643 times the waveguide diameter. Optimum launcher size and placement are investigated by computing the antenna coupling between launchers, assuming the launched and received beams have a Gaussian beam pattern.

  11. Optimization studies of the ITER low field side reflectometer.

    PubMed

    Diem, S J; Wilgen, J B; Bigelow, T S; Hanson, G R; Harvey, R W; Smirnov, A P

    2010-10-01

    Microwave reflectometry will be used on ITER to measure the electron density profile, density fluctuations due to MHD/turbulence, edge localized mode (ELM) density transients, and as an L-H transition monitor. The ITER low field side reflectometer system will measure both core and edge quantities using multiple antenna arrays spanning frequency ranges of 15-155 GHz for the O-mode system and 55-220 GHz for the X-mode system. Optimization studies using the GENRAY ray-tracing code have been done for edge and core measurements. The reflectometer launchers will utilize the HE11 mode launched from circular corrugated waveguide. The launched beams are assumed to be Gaussian with a beam waist diameter of 0.643 times the waveguide diameter. Optimum launcher size and placement are investigated by computing the antenna coupling between launchers, assuming the launched and received beams have a Gaussian beam pattern. PMID:21033946

  12. Optimization studies of the ITER low field side reflectometer

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, Gregory R; Wilgen, John B; Bigelow, Tim S; Diem, Stephanie J

    2010-01-01

    Microwave reflectometry will be used on ITER to measure the electron density profile, density fluctuations due to MHD/turbulence, ELM density transients, and as a L-H transition monitor. The ITER low field side (LFS) reflectometer system will measure both core and edge quantities using multiple antenna arrays spanning frequency ranges of 15-155 GHz for the O-mode system and 55-220 GHz for the X-mode system. Optimization studies using the GENRAY ray-tracing code have been done for edge and core measurements. The reflectometer launchers will utilize the HE11 mode launched from circular corrugated waveguide. The launched beams are assumed to be Gaussian with a beam waist diameter of 0.643 times the waveguide diameter. Optimum launcher size and placement are investigated by computing the antenna coupling between launchers, assuming the launched and received beams have a Gaussian beam pattern.

  13. High precision damage-resistant multiple-pass ultraviolet reflectometer

    SciTech Connect

    Jolin, L.J.; Foltyn, S.R.

    1984-01-01

    A multiple-pass cell was reported by John White in 1942. Since them, it has been adapted for use as a high-precision reflectometer. The multiple-pass reflectometer has been studied and reported by Arnon and Baumeister. Here, a reflectometer which is similar is described. It utilizes a uv laser operating at lambda = 351 nm as the source and the White-cell mirrors are high-reflection dielectric coatings designed for that wavelength. Because of the low-loss reflectors used in the cell, a high number of traversals, reflections, can be achieved; R greater than or equal to 239. The use of dielectric mirrors also improves the damage resistance of the apparatus which is important when a uv laser beam is used. The results of reflectance measurements performed on several ultraviolet high reflectors are also reported. These include conventional dielectric coatings as well as a hybrid coating consisting of Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/, HfO/sub 2/, and SiO/sub 2/ layers. The Los Alamos optical damage laboratory has observed and defined several types of laser-induced damage to optical materials. In the case of high reflection, multi-layer, dielectric coatings, damage may be defined as any change in the coating layers or at the substrate interface which causes a measurable change in reflectance at its design wavelength. Since most dielectric high reflectors have reflectances approaching unity, and a change caused by laser irradiation can be minute, a precise method for measuring high reflectance must be utilized. A multiple-pass reflectometer based on the White cell was selected because of its demonstratd precision and high accuracy. It utilizes a laser as the source for reasons described later.

  14. New reflectometer systems for the DIII-D tokamak (abstract)

    SciTech Connect

    Doyle, E.J.; Kim, K.W.; Burns, S.; Nguyen, X.; Peebles, W.A.; Rhodes, T.L. )

    1992-10-01

    During a machine vent in December 1991, two new reflectometer systems were successfully installed and tested on the DIII-D tokamak. The first is an {ital X}-mode broadband system primarily intended for density profile measurements, utilizing BWO sources and covering {ital Q} and {ital V} frequency bands (33--50 and 50--75 GHz). The second system is an adaptation of a pre-existing inside launch (high field side) ECRH waveguide to provide an inside launch reflectometer capability at the same frequencies and polarization as an outside launch fixed frequency {ital O}-mode system. The new systems will have a dual role in both directly supporting the DIII-D physics program, and also acting as flexible and adaptable test beds for the development of reactor relevant reflectometer systems, such as required for ITER. Specific examples of planned measurements include investigation of possible in/out plasma asymmetries at the {ital L}--{ital H} transition and ELMs, and demonstration of routine and reliable density profile measurements. It is expected that preliminary data from the inside launch system will be available by the time of the conference. This work is supported by the U. S. Department of Energy under Grant No. DE-FG03-86-ER53225 and General Atomics subcontract SC120536 under DOE Contract No. DE-AC03-89ER51114.

  15. Design of a horizontal neutron reflectometer for the European Spallation Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nekrassov, D.; Trapp, M.; Lieutenant, K.; Moulin, J.-F.; Strobl, M.; Steitz, R.

    2014-08-01

    A design study of a horizontal neutron reflectometer adapted to the general baseline of the long pulse European Spallation Source (ESS) is presented. The instrument layout comprises advanced solutions for the neutron guide, high-resolution pulse shaping and beam bending onto a sample surface being thoroughly adjusted to the properties of the ESS. The length of this instrument is roughly 55 m, enabling δλ/λ resolutions from 0.5% to 10%. The incident beam is focused in horizontal plane to boost measurements of sample sizes of 1×1 cm2 and smaller with potential beam deflection in both downward and upward directions. The primary range of neutron wavelengths utilized by the instrument is 2-7.1 Å. If the wavelength range needs to be extended, then this is possible by utilizing only every second (third, fourth) pulse by suppressing all other pulses by the chopper system and thus increase the longest usable wavelength to 12.2 (17.3, 22.4) Å. Angles of incidence can be set between 0° and 9° with a total accessible q-range from 4×10-3 Å-1 up to 1 Å-1, while the δθ/θ resolution can be freely set. The instrument operates in both θ/θ (free liquid surfaces) and θ/2θ (solid-liquid, air-solid interfaces) geometries. The experimental setup will in particular enable direct studies on ultrathin films (d ≈10 Å) and buried monolayers to multilayered structures of up to 3000 Å total thickness. The horizontal reflectometer will further foster investigations of hierarchical systems from nanometer to micrometer length scale (the latter by off-specular scattering), as well as their kinetics and dynamical properties, in particular under load (shear, pressure, external fields). Polarization and polarization analysis as well as the GISANS option are designed as potential modules to be implemented in the generic instrument layout. The instrument is highly flexible and offers a variety of different measurement modes. With respect to its mechanical components the instrument

  16. Pulse

    MedlinePlus

    Heart rate; Heart beat ... The pulse can be measured at areas where an artery passes close to the skin. These areas include the: ... side of the foot Wrist To measure the pulse at the wrist, place the index and middle ...

  17. Radar transponder operation with compensation for distortion due to amplitude modulation

    DOEpatents

    Ormesher, Richard C.; Tise, Bertice L.; Axline, Jr., Robert M.

    2011-01-04

    In radar transponder operation, a variably delayed gating signal is used to gate a received radar pulse and thereby produce a corresponding gated radar pulse for transmission back to the source of the received radar pulse. This compensates for signal distortion due to amplitude modulation on the retransmitted pulse.

  18. Hemi-ellipsoidal mirror infrared reflectometer: development and operation.

    PubMed

    Wood, B E; Pipes, J G; Smith, A M; Roux, J A

    1976-04-01

    The development and testing of an ir hemi-ellipsoidal mirror reflectometer (HEMR), operational over a wavelength interval of 2-34 microm, are described. This optical system measures the hemispherical-directional reflectance of room temperature samples relative to a specular gold-coated surface. For a source and sample area commensurate with detectable energy requirements, it is shown experimentally that the HEMR is functional with very tolerable errors. Finally, the hemispherical-directional reflectance of test samples, e.g., black paints, gold diffuser, sulfur, cesium iodide, and others, is presented for wavelengths from 2 microm to 34 microm. PMID:20165100

  19. Pulsed coherent solid-state 1.06-micron and 2.1-micron laser radar systems for remote velocity measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, Sammy W.; Huffaker, R. Milton; Kavaya, Michael J.; Hale, Charley P.; Magee, James R.

    1990-01-01

    A low average power, pulsed, solid-state, 1.06-micron coherent laser radar (CLR) for range and velocity measurements of atmospheric and hard targets has been developed. The system has been operating at a field test site near Boulder, CO since September, 1988. Measurements have been taken on moving targets such as atmospheric aerosol particles, belt sanders, spinning disks, and various stationary targets. The field measurements have shown that this system exhibits excellent velocity measurement performance. A fast-tuning CW Nd:YAG oscillator has also been developed which has a frequency tuning range of greater than 30 GHz (which spans a target radial velocity range of over 16 km/s) and a tuning speed greater than 30 GHz/ms.

  20. A neutron reflectometer with horizontal sample geometry at CARR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Guangcui; Zhang, Hongxia; Cheng, He; Han, Charles C.; Li, Tianfu; He, Linfeng; Liu, YunTao; Chen, Dongfeng

    2011-11-01

    A neutron reflectometer with horizontal sample geometry has been developed by the Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences (ICCAS), and recently installed at China Advanced Research Reactor (CARR) under the participating research team agreement with China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE). This instrument is the first neutron reflectometer in China, and is dedicated to the structural characterization of thin films and multilayers of soft matter. For the cold neutron source and curved guide, the feasible wavelength of the incident neutron beam is 4.75 Å monochromated by pyrolytic graphite crystals, and this permits the scattering vector Q ranging from -0.23 to 0.4 Å-1. This instrument is equipped with a 3He point detector to measure the incident neutron beam and a 3He point detector or linear position sensitive detector to detect the reflected neutron beam. It allows a step-by-step measurement by isochronously changing the incident and reflective angles, and also can be treated as a simple optical imaging element simultaneously measuring neutron reflectivity of multi incident angles using a loosely collimated beam in the absence of significant off-specular scattering. A detailed description of this flexible instrument and its performance characteristics are given.

  1. Monte Carlo simulation of the spear reflectometer at LANSCE

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, G.S.

    1995-12-31

    The Monte Carlo instrument simulation code, MCLIB, contains elements to represent several components found in neutron spectrometers including slits, choppers, detectors, sources and various samples. Using these elements to represent the components of a neutron scattering instrument, one can simulate, for example, an inelastic spectrometer, a small angle scattering machine, or a reflectometer. In order to benchmark the code, we chose to compare simulated data from the MCLIB code with an actual experiment performed on the SPEAR reflectometer at LANSCE. This was done by first fitting an actual SPEAR data set to obtain the model scattering-length-density profile, {Beta}(z), for the sample and the substrate. Then these parameters were used as input values for the sample scattering function. A simplified model of SPEAR was chosen which contained all of the essential components of the instrument. A code containing the MCLIB subroutines was then written to simulate this simplified instrument. The resulting data was then fit and compared to the actual data set in terms of the statistics, resolution and accuracy.

  2. Development of a reflectometer for a large EUV mirror in NewSUBARU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iguchi, Haruki; Hashimoto, Hiraku; Kuki, Masaki; Harada, Tetsuo; Watanabe, Takeo; Kinoshita, Hiroo

    2015-07-01

    In extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) lithography, mirror optics is coated with a Mo/Si multilayer film. Since throughput of an EUV system is directly depends on the multilayer film reflectance, we have developed a mask reflectometer to evaluate the reflectance in BL-10 beamline of the NewSUBARU synchrotron facility. In particular, the EUV output power from a EUV light source relates to the reflectance of a collector mirror. Thus, we installed a new large reflectometer in BL-10 beamline to evaluate the collector mirror reflectance. The reflectometer can measure a mirror with a diameter of up to 800 mm, a thickness of 250 mm, and a weight of 50 kg. The entire sample surface can be measured in spherical coordinate using vertical γ and rotation Φ axis. Each axis positions are measured with optical encoders precisely, and are controlled in closed-loop operation. We measured reflectance of an EUV mask using the large reflectometer and the mask reflectometer. The peak reflectance was well consisted with the two reflectometer within 0.1%. The large reflectometer has high reproducibility of the peak reflectance measurement.

  3. Venus Radar Mapper (VRM): Multimode radar system design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, William T. K.; Edgerton, Alvin T.

    1986-01-01

    The surface of Venus has remained a relative mystery because of the very dense atmosphere that is opaque to visible radiation and, thus, normal photographic techniques used to explore the other terrestrial objects in the solar system are useless. The atmosphere is, however, almost transparent to radar waves and images of the surface have been produced via Earth-based and orbital radars. The technique of obtaining radar images of a surface is variously called side looking radar, imaging radar, or synthetic aperture radar (SAR). The radar requires a moving platform in which the antenna is side looking. High resolution is obtained in the cross-track or range direction by conventional radar pulse encoding. In the along-track or azimuth direction, the resolution would normally be the antenna beam width, but for the SAR case, a much longer antenna (or much sharper beam) is obtained by moving past a surface target as shown, and then combining the echoes from many pulses, by using the Doppler data, to obtain the images. The radar design of the Venus Radar Mapper (VRM) is discussed. It will acquire global radar imagery and altimetry data of the surface of Venus.

  4. Polarimetric Doppler Weather Radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bringi, V. N.; Chandrasekar, V.

    2001-10-01

    This work provides a detailed introduction to the principles of Doppler and polarimetric radar, focusing in particular on their use in the analysis of weather systems. The authors first discuss underlying topics such as electromagnetic scattering, polarization, and wave propagation. They then detail the engineering aspects of pulsed Doppler polarimetric radar, before examining key applications in meteorology and remote sensing. The book is aimed at graduate students of electrical engineering and atmospheric science as well as practitioners involved in the applications of polarimetric radar.

  5. Pulse

    MedlinePlus

    ... resting for at least 10 minutes. Take the exercise heart rate while you are exercising. ... pulse rate can help determine if the patient's heart is pumping. ... rate gives information about your fitness level and health.

  6. ALICE—An advanced reflectometer for static and dynamic experiments in magnetism at synchrotron radiation facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Abrudan, R.; Brüssing, F.; Salikhov, R.; Meermann, J.; Zabel, H.; Radu, I.; Ryll, H.; Radu, F.

    2015-06-15

    We report on significant developments of a high vacuum reflectometer (diffractometer) and spectrometer for soft x-ray synchrotron experiments which allows conducting a wide range of static and dynamic experiments. Although the chamber named ALICE was designed for the analysis of magnetic hetero- and nanostructures via resonant magnetic x-ray scattering, the instrument is not limited to this technique. The versatility of the instrument was testified by a series of pilot experiments. Static measurements involve the possibility to use scattering and spectroscopy synchrotron based techniques (photon-in photon-out, photon-in electron-out, and coherent scattering). Dynamic experiments require either laser or magnetic field pulses to excite the spin system followed by x-ray probe in the time domain from nano- to femtosecond delay times. In this temporal range, the demagnetization/remagnetization dynamics and magnetization precession in a number of magnetic materials (metals, alloys, and magnetic multilayers) can be probed in an element specific manner. We demonstrate here the capabilities of the system to host a variety of experiments, featuring ALICE as one of the most versatile and demanded instruments at the Helmholtz Center in Berlin-BESSY II synchrotron center in Berlin, Germany.

  7. ALICE—An advanced reflectometer for static and dynamic experiments in magnetism at synchrotron radiation facilities.

    PubMed

    Abrudan, R; Brüssing, F; Salikhov, R; Meermann, J; Radu, I; Ryll, H; Radu, F; Zabel, H

    2015-06-01

    We report on significant developments of a high vacuum reflectometer (diffractometer) and spectrometer for soft x-ray synchrotron experiments which allows conducting a wide range of static and dynamic experiments. Although the chamber named ALICE was designed for the analysis of magnetic hetero- and nanostructures via resonant magnetic x-ray scattering, the instrument is not limited to this technique. The versatility of the instrument was testified by a series of pilot experiments. Static measurements involve the possibility to use scattering and spectroscopy synchrotron based techniques (photon-in photon-out, photon-in electron-out, and coherent scattering). Dynamic experiments require either laser or magnetic field pulses to excite the spin system followed by x-ray probe in the time domain from nano- to femtosecond delay times. In this temporal range, the demagnetization/remagnetization dynamics and magnetization precession in a number of magnetic materials (metals, alloys, and magnetic multilayers) can be probed in an element specific manner. We demonstrate here the capabilities of the system to host a variety of experiments, featuring ALICE as one of the most versatile and demanded instruments at the Helmholtz Center in Berlin-BESSY II synchrotron center in Berlin, Germany. PMID:26133845

  8. Phase-sensitive optical time domain reflectometer for distributed fence-perimeter intrusion detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Xuhui; Zhou, Deliang; Lu, Bin; Liu, Sufang; Pan, Ming

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate a distributed fence-perimeter intrusion detection system using a phase-sensitive optical time domain reflectometer (Φ-OTDR) with several advantages, such as high spatial resolution, large detection range, single-end measurement and immunity from electromagnetic interference. By the effort of generating a high-extinction-ratio optical pulse, optimizing the incident optical power and utilizing a differential algorithm, a home-made Φ-OTDR system, as a distributed vibration sensor, is implemented with a spatial resolution of 10 meter. Nowadays, a fence-perimeter intrusion detection system is desired for the security monitor. We set up a fence perimeter using a fiber cable containing only one fiber and a field experiment is carried out based on our Φ-OTDR system. Various vibration events are recorded and analyzed, including wind blowing, personal climbing and knocking. The experiment results reveal unique vibration characteristics of different events in the frequency domain and confirm the effectiveness of the homemade Φ-OTDR system in the application of the distributed fence-perimeter intrusion detection.

  9. ALICE—An advanced reflectometer for static and dynamic experiments in magnetism at synchrotron radiation facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abrudan, R.; Brüssing, F.; Salikhov, R.; Meermann, J.; Radu, I.; Ryll, H.; Radu, F.; Zabel, H.

    2015-06-01

    We report on significant developments of a high vacuum reflectometer (diffractometer) and spectrometer for soft x-ray synchrotron experiments which allows conducting a wide range of static and dynamic experiments. Although the chamber named ALICE was designed for the analysis of magnetic hetero- and nanostructures via resonant magnetic x-ray scattering, the instrument is not limited to this technique. The versatility of the instrument was testified by a series of pilot experiments. Static measurements involve the possibility to use scattering and spectroscopy synchrotron based techniques (photon-in photon-out, photon-in electron-out, and coherent scattering). Dynamic experiments require either laser or magnetic field pulses to excite the spin system followed by x-ray probe in the time domain from nano- to femtosecond delay times. In this temporal range, the demagnetization/remagnetization dynamics and magnetization precession in a number of magnetic materials (metals, alloys, and magnetic multilayers) can be probed in an element specific manner. We demonstrate here the capabilities of the system to host a variety of experiments, featuring ALICE as one of the most versatile and demanded instruments at the Helmholtz Center in Berlin-BESSY II synchrotron center in Berlin, Germany.

  10. Fading reduction in a phase optical time-domain reflectometer with multimode sensitive fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alekseev, A. E.; Vdovenko, V. S.; Gorshkov, B. G.; Potapov, V. T.; Simikin, D. E.

    2016-09-01

    In the present paper we propose a novel type of a coherent phase-sensitive optical time-domain reflectometer (OTDR) that utilizes a multimode optical fiber as a sensitive element and is capable of considerable reduction of signal fading. Elimination of OTDR signal fading consequently removes randomly occurring insensitivity of the fiber regions to an external phase action. The backscattered light field at the input of OTDR sensitive multimode optical fiber is represented by a speckle-like pattern, due to a so called modal noise phenomenon. This speckle pattern randomly changes when an optical probe pulse propagates in the fiber line. The backscattered field intensity in every single speckle changes in time statistically independently from the intensity change in every other speckle remote enough from the first one. Thus, on the output of a multimode sensitive fiber, there exist several statistically independent reflectograms, and every single reflectogram contains the same information about external action. The joint independent analysis of these reflectograms can result in reduced or complete fading elimination.

  11. Reflectometer measurements of density fluctuations in tokamak plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Nazikian, R.; Mazzucato, E.

    1994-08-01

    We show that many anomalous features observed in reflectometer measurements of turbulent fluctuations in tokamak plasmas, such as loss of coherent reflection, large amplitude fluctuations, large angular divergence of the reflected waves and correlation lengths of the order of the free space wavelength of the probe beam, can be explained by modeling the plasma fluctuations as a poloidally varying random phase grating located at the cutoff with a phase magnitude given by 1D geometric optics. A key result of our analysis is that the turbulence spectrum cannot be inferred from phase measurements when large amplitude fluctuations are observed at the receiver. However, the turbulence spectrum may still be recovered from phase measurements by use of imaging optics, and wide angle phase sensitive receivers.

  12. Technologies For A Superconducting Sampling Oscilloscope/Time Domain Reflectometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whiteley, S. R.; Hanson, E. R.; Hohenwarter, G. K. G.; Kuo, F.; Faris, S. M.

    1988-09-01

    HYPRES, Inc. has introduced to the commercial marketplace a Sampling Oscilloscope/Time Domain Reflectometer (TDR) based on Josephson junction technology. The unit offers measurement performance commensurate with the inherent high speed of the Josephson elements, e.g., bandwidths in excess of 70 GHz and rise times on the order of 5 ps. A Josephson {rigger recognizer and delay circuit allows triggering of the sampling oscilloscope from the signal itself, with full view of the trigger point. Input modules offering different sensitivities or TDR capability are quickly interchangeable, and operating temperature is achieved in less than one minute. The technical details of the cooling technique and the chip circuitry will be described in this paper .

  13. Microwave Doppler reflectometer system in the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak.

    PubMed

    Zhou, C; Liu, A D; Zhang, X H; Hu, J Q; Wang, M Y; Li, H; Lan, T; Xie, J L; Sun, X; Ding, W X; Liu, W D; Yu, C X

    2013-10-01

    A Doppler reflectometer system has recently been installed in the Experimental Advanced Superconducting (EAST) Tokamak. It includes two separated systems, one for Q-band (33-50 GHz) and the other for V-band (50-75 GHz). The optical system consists of a flat mirror and a parabolic mirror which are optimized to improve the spectral resolution. A synthesizer is used as the source and a 20 MHz single band frequency modulator is used to get a differential frequency for heterodyne detection. Ray tracing simulations are used to calculate the scattering location and the perpendicular wave number. In EAST last experimental campaign, the Doppler shifted signals have been obtained and the radial profiles of the perpendicular propagation velocity during L-mode and H-mode are calculated. PMID:24182112

  14. Monte Carlo modeling of an integrating sphere reflectometer.

    PubMed

    Prokhorov, Alexander V; Mekhontsev, Sergey N; Hanssen, Leonard M

    2003-07-01

    The Monte Carlo method has been applied to numerical modeling of an integrating sphere designed for hemispherical-directional reflectance factor measurements. It is shown that a conventional algorithm of backward ray tracing used for estimation of characteristics of the radiation field at a given point has slow convergence for small source-to-sphere-diameter ratios. A newly developed algorithm that substantially improves the convergence by calculation of direct source-induced irradiation for every point of diffuse reflection of rays traced is described. The method developed is applied to an integrating sphere reflectometer for the visible and infrared spectral ranges. Parametric studies of hemispherical radiance distributions for radiation incident onto the sample center were performed. The deviations of measured sample reflectance from the actual reflectance as a result of various factors were computed. The accuracy of the results, adequacy of the reflectance model, and other important aspects of the algorithm implementation are discussed. PMID:12868822

  15. Radiometric Calibration Techniques for Signal-of-Opportunity Reflectometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piepmeier, Jeffrey R.; Shah, Rashmi; Deshpande, Manohar; Johnson, Carey

    2014-01-01

    Bi-static reflection measurements utilizing global navigation satellite service (GNSS) or other signals of opportunity (SoOp) can be used to sense ocean and terrestrial surface properties. End-to-end calibration of GNSS-R has been performed using well-characterized reflection surface (e.g., water), direct path antenna, and receiver gain characterization. We propose an augmented approach using on-board receiver electronics for radiometric calibration of SoOp reflectometers utilizing direct and reflected signal receiving antennas. The method calibrates receiver and correlator gains and offsets utilizing a reference switch and common noise source. On-board electronic calibration sources, such as reference switches, noise diodes and loop-back circuits, have shown great utility in stabilizing total power and correlation microwave radiometer and scatterometer receiver electronics in L-band spaceborne instruments. Application to SoOp instruments is likely to bring several benefits. For example, application to provide short and long time scale calibration stability of the direct path channel, especially in low signal-to-noise ratio configurations, is directly analogous to the microwave radiometer problem. The direct path channel is analogous to the loopback path in a scatterometer to provide a reference of the transmitted power, although the receiver is independent from the reflected path channel. Thus, a common noise source can be used to measure the gain ratio of the two paths. Using these techniques long-term (days to weeks) calibration stability of spaceborne L-band scatterometer and radiometer has been achieved better than 0.1. Similar long-term stability would likely be needed for a spaceborne reflectometer mission to measure terrestrial properties such as soil moisture.

  16. Using doppler radar images to estimate aircraft navigational heading error

    DOEpatents

    Doerry, Armin W.; Jordan, Jay D.; Kim, Theodore J.

    2012-07-03

    A yaw angle error of a motion measurement system carried on an aircraft for navigation is estimated from Doppler radar images captured using the aircraft. At least two radar pulses aimed at respectively different physical locations in a targeted area are transmitted from a radar antenna carried on the aircraft. At least two Doppler radar images that respectively correspond to the at least two transmitted radar pulses are produced. These images are used to produce an estimate of the yaw angle error.

  17. Techniques to Determine Maintenace Frequency of Permeable Pavement Systems with Time Domain Reflectometers (TDRs

    EPA Science Inventory

    As the surface clogs in permeable pavement systems, they lose effectiveness and require maintenance. There is limited direct guidance for determining when maintenance is needed to prevent surface runoff bypass. Research is being conducted using multiple time domain reflectomete...

  18. Coherent reflectometer with a two-fibre scattered-light interferometer

    SciTech Connect

    Vdovenko, V S; Gorshkov, B G; Zazirnyi, M V; Kulakov, A T; Kurkov, Andrei S; Paramonov, Vladimir M

    2011-02-28

    We have designed and implemented a new fibre-optic phase-sensitive coherent reflectometer configuration, which allows one to avoid signal fading owing to the use of a two-fibre scattered-light interferometer. (fiber optics)

  19. Assessment of Clogging Dynamics in Permeable Pavement Systems with Time Domain Reflectometers

    EPA Science Inventory

    Infiltration is a primary functional mechanism in green infrastructure stormwater controls. This study used time domain reflectometers (TDRs) to measure spatial infiltration and assess clogging dynamics of permeable pavement systems in Edison, NJ, and Louisville, KY. In 2009, t...

  20. First results of the SOL reflectometer on Alcator C-Mod.

    PubMed

    Lau, C; Hanson, G; Lin, Y; Wilgen, J; Wukitch, S; Labombard, B; Wallace, G

    2012-10-01

    A swept-frequency X-mode reflectometer has been built on Alcator C-Mod to measure the scrape-off layer (SOL) density profiles adjacent to the lower hybrid launcher. The reflectometer system operates between 100 and 146 GHz at sweep rates from 10 μs to 1 ms and covers a density range of ∼10(16)-10(20) m(-3) at B(0) = 5-5.4 T. This paper discusses the analysis of reflectometer density profiles and presents first experimental results of SOL density profile modifications due to the application of lower hybrid range-of-frequencies power to L-mode discharges. Comparison between density profiles measured by the X-mode reflectometer and scanning Langmuir probes is also shown. PMID:23126969

  1. First results of the SOL reflectometer on Alcator C-Moda)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lau, C.; Hanson, G.; Lin, Y.; Wilgen, J.; Wukitch, S.; Labombard, B.; Wallace, G.

    2012-10-01

    A swept-frequency X-mode reflectometer has been built on Alcator C-Mod to measure the scrape-off layer (SOL) density profiles adjacent to the lower hybrid launcher. The reflectometer system operates between 100 and 146 GHz at sweep rates from 10 μs to 1 ms and covers a density range of ˜1016-1020 m-3 at B0 = 5-5.4 T. This paper discusses the analysis of reflectometer density profiles and presents first experimental results of SOL density profile modifications due to the application of lower hybrid range-of-frequencies power to L-mode discharges. Comparison between density profiles measured by the X-mode reflectometer and scanning Langmuir probes is also shown.

  2. Multifrequency channel microwave reflectometer with frequency hopping operation for density fluctuation measurements in Large Helical Device

    SciTech Connect

    Tokuzawa, T.; Kawahata, K.; Ejiri, A.

    2010-10-15

    In order to measure the internal structure of density fluctuations using a microwave reflectometer, the broadband frequency tunable system, which has the ability of fast and stable hopping operation, has been improved in the Large Helical Device. Simultaneous multipoint measurement is the key issue of this development. For accurate phase measurement, the system utilizes a single sideband modulation technique. Currently, a dual channel heterodyne frequency hopping reflectometer system has been constructed and applied to the Alfven eigenmode measurements.

  3. Coded continuous wave meteor radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vierinen, Juha; Chau, Jorge L.; Pfeffer, Nico; Clahsen, Matthias; Stober, Gunter

    2016-03-01

    The concept of a coded continuous wave specular meteor radar (SMR) is described. The radar uses a continuously transmitted pseudorandom phase-modulated waveform, which has several advantages compared to conventional pulsed SMRs. The coding avoids range and Doppler aliasing, which are in some cases problematic with pulsed radars. Continuous transmissions maximize pulse compression gain, allowing operation at lower peak power than a pulsed system. With continuous coding, the temporal and spectral resolution are not dependent on the transmit waveform and they can be fairly flexibly changed after performing a measurement. The low signal-to-noise ratio before pulse compression, combined with independent pseudorandom transmit waveforms, allows multiple geographically separated transmitters to be used in the same frequency band simultaneously without significantly interfering with each other. Because the same frequency band can be used by multiple transmitters, the same interferometric receiver antennas can be used to receive multiple transmitters at the same time. The principles of the signal processing are discussed, in addition to discussion of several practical ways to increase computation speed, and how to optimally detect meteor echoes. Measurements from a campaign performed with a coded continuous wave SMR are shown and compared with two standard pulsed SMR measurements. The type of meteor radar described in this paper would be suited for use in a large-scale multi-static network of meteor radar transmitters and receivers. Such a system would be useful for increasing the number of meteor detections to obtain improved meteor radar data products.

  4. Pulsed power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, David H.

    Pulsed power systems are critical elements for such prospective weapons technologies as high-power microwaves, electrothermal and electromagnetic projectile launchers, neutral particle beams, space-based FELs, ground-based lasers, and charged particle beams. Pulsed power will also be essential for the development of nonweapon military systems such as lidars and ultrawideband radars, and could serve as the bases for nuclear weapon effect simulators. The pulsed power generation requirements for each of these systems is considered.

  5. Ultra-wideband radar motion sensor

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, Thomas E.

    1994-01-01

    A motion sensor is based on ultra-wideband (UWB) radar. UWB radar range is determined by a pulse-echo interval. For motion detection, the sensors operate by staring at a fixed range and then sensing any change in the averaged radar reflectivity at that range. A sampling gate is opened at a fixed delay after the emission of a transmit pulse. The resultant sampling gate output is averaged over repeated pulses. Changes in the averaged sampling gate output represent changes in the radar reflectivity at a particular range, and thus motion.

  6. Ultra-wideband radar motion sensor

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, T.E.

    1994-11-01

    A motion sensor is based on ultra-wideband (UWB) radar. UWB radar range is determined by a pulse-echo interval. For motion detection, the sensors operate by staring at a fixed range and then sensing any change in the averaged radar reflectivity at that range. A sampling gate is opened at a fixed delay after the emission of a transmit pulse. The resultant sampling gate output is averaged over repeated pulses. Changes in the averaged sampling gate output represent changes in the radar reflectivity at a particular range, and thus motion. 15 figs.

  7. Radar principles with applications to tracking systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogler, Philip L.

    Theoretical and practical aspects of radar tracking are discussed in an introduction for first-year graduate students and practicing radar engineers. Chapters are devoted to the radar sensor, signal processing, waveform selection, pulse compression, measurement theory, Kalman filtering, adaptive Kalman filtering, coordinate systems, a representative STT system, data correlation logic, a representative TWS system, ESA allocation logic, and a representative ESA radar system. Diagrams, graphs, and a glossary of terms are provided.

  8. Upgrades to the Polarized Neutron Reflectometer Asterix at LANSCE

    SciTech Connect

    Pynn, Roger

    2015-03-16

    We have upgraded the polarized neutron reflectometer, Asterix, at the Lujan Neutron Scattering Center at Los Alamos for the benefit of the research communities that study magnetic and complex-fluid films, both of which play important roles in support of the DOE’s energy mission. The upgrades to the instrument include: • A secondary spectrometer that was integrated with a Huber sample goniometer purchased with other funds just prior to the start of our project. The secondary spectrometer provides a flexible length for the scattered flight path, includes a mechanism to select among 3 alternative polarization analyzers as well as a support for new neutron detectors. Also included is an optic rail for reproducible positioning of components for Spin Echo Scattering Angle Measurement (SESAME). The entire secondary spectrometer is now non-magnetic, as required for neutron Larmor labeling. • A broad-band neutron polarizer for the incident neutron beam based on the V geometry. • A wide-angle neutron polarization analyzer • A 2d position-sensitive neutron detector • Electromagnetic coils (Wollaston prisms) for SESAME plus the associated power supplies, cooling, safety systems and integration into the data acquisition system. The upgrades allowed a nearly effortless transition between configurations required to serve the polarized neutron reflectometry community, users of the 11 T cryomagnet and users of SESAME.

  9. Scrape-off layer reflectometer for Alcator C-Mod.

    PubMed

    Lau, Cornwall; Hanson, Greg; Wilgen, John; Lin, Yijun; Wukitch, Steve

    2010-10-01

    A swept-frequency X-mode reflectometer is being built for Alcator C-Mod to measure the scrape-off layer density profiles at the top, middle, and bottom locations in front of both the new lower hybrid launcher and the new ion cyclotron range of frequencies antenna. The system is planned to operate between 100 and 146 GHz at sweep rates from 10 μs to 1 ms, and will cover a density range of approximately 10(16)-10(20) m(-3) at B(0)=5-5.4 T. To minimize the effects of density fluctuations, both differential phase and full phase reflectometry will be employed. Design, test data, and calibration results of this electronics system will be discussed. To reduce attenuation losses, tallguide (TE(01)) will be used for most of the transmission line system. Simulations of high mode conversion in tallguide components, such as e-plane hyperbolic secant radius of curvature bends, tapers, and horn antennas will be shown. Experimental measurements of the total attenuation losses of these components in the lower hybrid waveguide run will also be presented. PMID:21033950

  10. Scrape-off layer reflectometer for Alcator C-Mod

    SciTech Connect

    Lau, Cornwall; Lin Yijun; Wukitch, Steve; Hanson, Greg; Wilgen, John

    2010-10-15

    A swept-frequency X-mode reflectometer is being built for Alcator C-Mod to measure the scrape-off layer density profiles at the top, middle, and bottom locations in front of both the new lower hybrid launcher and the new ion cyclotron range of frequencies antenna. The system is planned to operate between 100 and 146 GHz at sweep rates from 10 {mu}s to 1 ms, and will cover a density range of approximately 10{sup 16}-10{sup 20} m{sup -3} at B{sub 0}=5-5.4 T. To minimize the effects of density fluctuations, both differential phase and full phase reflectometry will be employed. Design, test data, and calibration results of this electronics system will be discussed. To reduce attenuation losses, tallguide (TE{sub 01}) will be used for most of the transmission line system. Simulations of high mode conversion in tallguide components, such as e-plane hyperbolic secant radius of curvature bends, tapers, and horn antennas will be shown. Experimental measurements of the total attenuation losses of these components in the lower hybrid waveguide run will also be presented.

  11. Scrape-off layer reflectometer for Alcator C-Moda)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lau, Cornwall; Hanson, Greg; Wilgen, John; Lin, Yijun; Wukitch, Steve

    2010-10-01

    A swept-frequency X-mode reflectometer is being built for Alcator C-Mod to measure the scrape-off layer density profiles at the top, middle, and bottom locations in front of both the new lower hybrid launcher and the new ion cyclotron range of frequencies antenna. The system is planned to operate between 100 and 146 GHz at sweep rates from 10 μs to 1 ms, and will cover a density range of approximately 1016-1020 m-3 at B0=5-5.4 T. To minimize the effects of density fluctuations, both differential phase and full phase reflectometry will be employed. Design, test data, and calibration results of this electronics system will be discussed. To reduce attenuation losses, tallguide (TE01) will be used for most of the transmission line system. Simulations of high mode conversion in tallguide components, such as e-plane hyperbolic secant radius of curvature bends, tapers, and horn antennas will be shown. Experimental measurements of the total attenuation losses of these components in the lower hybrid waveguide run will also be presented.

  12. Implementation of a Microwave Imaging Reflectometer on DIII-D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kriete, D. M.; Tobias, B. J.

    2013-10-01

    The microwave imaging reflectometer (MIR) is a new plasma diagnostic system on DIII-D that will make localized measurements of density fluctuations on a poloidal cross section of the tokamak. The data from these measurements will provide a quantitative picture of plasma turbulence and MHD instabilities. This project's focus is to install the MIR system on DIII-D, perform calibration tests on it, and develop data analysis tools to process MIR data, with a focus on estimating measurement error. Tests include taking dark shots to subtract out passive noise from the measurements and taking plasma shots to better quantify active noise. Synthetic diagnostics based on numerical codes will also be used to evaluate the MIR system. The MIR uses the same optics as the existing electron cyclotron emission imaging (ECEI) system so, after completion, physicists will have access to a 2D image of both density and temperature fluctuations within the plasma. The MIR thus has broad utility across experiments seeking to understand turbulent transport. Supported by the National Undergraduate Fellowship Program in Plasma Physics and Fusion Energy Sciences and the US DOE under DE-FC02-04ER54698 and DE-AC02-09CH11466.

  13. Registration of Alfven resonances in TCABR tokamak by the scanning reflectometer at sideband frequencies

    SciTech Connect

    Ruchko, L. F.; Elfimov, A. G.; Teixeira, C. M.; Elizondo, J. I.; Sanada, E.; Galvao, R. M. O.; Manso, M. E.; Silva, A.

    2011-02-15

    A frequency scanning O-mode reflectometer was used for studies of plasma density oscillations during local Alfven wave (LAW) excitation in the Tokamak Chauffage Alfven Bresilien (TCABR) at the frequency f{sub A}= 5 MHz. It was found that the spectrum of the reflectometer output signal, which consists mainly of the ''beat'' frequency f{sub B}, is modified by the LAW excitation, and two additional frequency peaks appear, which are symmetrical in relation to the LAW excitation frequency f=f{sub A}{+-}f{sub B}. This result opens the possibility to improve the efficiency of studying the LAW induced density oscillations. The symmetry of these frequency peaks yields the possibility of finding the microwave frequency at which the reflectometer cutoff layer coincides with radial position of the LAW resonance zone in the TCABR tokamak.

  14. Direct detection of lower hybrid wave using a reflectometer on Alcator C-Moda)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiraiwa, S.; Baek, S.; Dominguez, A.; Marmar, E.; Parker, R.; Kramer, G. J.

    2010-10-01

    The possibility of directly detecting a density perturbation produced by lower hybrid (LH) waves using a reflectometer is presented. We investigate the microwave scattering of reflectometer probe beams by a model density fluctuation produced by short wavelength LH waves in an Alcator C-Mod experimental condition. In the O-mode case, the maximum response of phase measurement is found to occur when the density perturbation is approximately centimeters in front of the antenna, where Bragg scattering condition is satisfied. In the X-mode case, the phase measurement is predicted to be more sensitive to the density fluctuation close to the cut-off layer. A feasibility test was carried out using a 50 GHz O-mode reflectometer on the Alcator C-Mod tokamak, and positive results including the detection of 4.6 GHz pump wave and parametric decay instabilities were obtained.

  15. Radar Performance Improvement. Angle Tracking Modification to Fire Control Radar System for Space Shuttle Rendezvous

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Little, G. R.

    1976-01-01

    The AN/APQ-153 fire control radar modified to provide angle tracking was evaluated for improved performance. The frequency agile modifications are discussed along with the range-rate improvement modifications, and the radar to computer interface. A parametric design and comparison of noncoherent and coherent radar systems are presented. It is shown that the shuttle rendezvous range and range-rate requirements can be made by a Ku-Band noncoherent pulse radar.

  16. Meteor detection on ST (MST) radars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Avery, S. K.

    1987-01-01

    The ability to detect radar echoes from backscatter due to turbulent irregularities of the radio refractive index in the clear atmosphere has lead to an increasing number of established mesosphere - stratosphere - troposphere (MST or ST) radars. Humidity and temperature variations are responsible for the echo in the troposphere and stratosphere and turbulence acting on electron density gradients provides the echo in the mesosphere. The MST radar and its smaller version, the ST radar, are pulsed Doppler radars operating in the VHF - UHF frequency range. These echoes can be used to determine upper atmosphere winds at little extra cost to the ST radar configuration. In addition, the meteor echoes can supplement mesospheric data from an MST radar. The detection techniques required on the ST radar for delineating meteor echo returns are described.

  17. Characteristics of Sunset radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, J. L.

    1983-01-01

    Located in a narrow canyon 15 km west of Boulder, Colorado, the Sunset pulsed Doppler radar was the first radar designed and constructed specifically as a VHF ST radar. The antenna system is a phased array of coaxial-colinear dopoles with computer-controlled phase shifters for each line of dipoles. It operates at a frequency of 40.475 MHz and a wavelength of 7.41M. Peak transmitter power is 100 kW. Aperture efficiency is 0.58 and resistive loss is 0.30 for its 3600 sq m area. The practical steering rate is 1 record/minute/position to any arbitrary antenna beam position. The first clear-air turbulence echoes and wind velocity measurements were obtained in 1974. Significant accomplishments are listed.

  18. Rain radar instrument definition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vincent, Nicolas; Chenebault, J.; Suinot, Noel; Mancini, Paolo L.

    1996-12-01

    As a result of a pre-phase a study, founded by ESA, this paper presents the definition of a spaceborne Rain Radar, candidate instrument for earth explorer precipitation mission. Based upon the description of user requirements for such a dedicated mission, a mission analysis defines the most suitable space segment. At system level, a parametric analysis compares pros and cons of instrument concepts associated with rain rate retrieval algorithms in order to select the most performing one. Several trade-off analysis at subsystem level leads then to the definition of the proposed design. In particular, as pulse compression is implemented in order to increase the radar sensitivity, the selected method to achieve a pulse response with a side-lobe level below--60 dB is presented. Antenna is another critical rain radar subsystem and several designs are com pared: direct radiating array, single or dual reflector illuminated by single or dual feed arrays. At least, feasibility of centralized amplification using TWTA is compared with criticality of Tx/Rx modules for distributed amplification. Mass and power budgets of the designed instrument are summarized as well as standard deviations and bias of simulated rain rate retrieval profiles. The feasibility of a compliant rain radar instrument is therefore demonstrated.

  19. Planetary Radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neish, Catherine D.; Carter, Lynn M.

    2015-01-01

    This chapter describes the principles of planetary radar, and the primary scientific discoveries that have been made using this technique. The chapter starts by describing the different types of radar systems and how they are used to acquire images and accurate topography of planetary surfaces and probe their subsurface structure. It then explains how these products can be used to understand the properties of the target being investigated. Several examples of discoveries made with planetary radar are then summarized, covering solar system objects from Mercury to Saturn. Finally, opportunities for future discoveries in planetary radar are outlined and discussed.

  20. A new hand-held optical reflectometer to measure enamel erosion: correlation with surface hardness and calcium release

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Thiago Saads; Baumann, Tommy; Lussi, Adrian

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, the surface reflection intensity (SRI) was measured from enamel with different induced erosion degrees using a hand-held pen-size reflectometer (Hand-Held) and a Table-Top reflectometer. To validate the Hand-Held reflectometer, we correlated its optical signals with the change of surface microhardness (SMH), and amount of calcium released from the enamel samples during erosion. We used 124 tooth enamel specimens that were exposed to an erosive challenge of either 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, or 10 minutes. SRI and SMH were measured before and after the erosive challenge and we also measured the amount of calcium released to the citric acid. Relative SRI loss (rSRIloss) and relative SMH loss (rSMHloss) were calculated. rSRIloss from the Hand-Held and the Table-Top reflectometers were similar and significantly correlated to rSMHloss and calcium release. The regression analyses showed a significant association between rSRIloss from both reflectometers and rSMHloss and calcium, showing that both reflectometers can be used to measure erosive demineralization of enamel. The Hand-Held reflectometer is capable of assessing in vitro erosion, correlating to other commonly used methods. It is small, easy to handle and provides fast measurement, being a possible candidate to measure erosion in clinical studies. PMID:27121129

  1. An analysis of the effects of secondary reflections on dual-frequency reflectometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hearn, C. P.; Cockrell, C. R.; Harrah, S. D.

    1990-01-01

    The error-producing mechanism involving secondary reflections in a dual-frequency, distance measuring reflectometer is examined analytically. Equations defining the phase, and hence distance, error are derived. The error-reducing potential of frequency-sweeping is demonstrated. It is shown that a single spurious return can be completely nullified by optimizing the sweep width.

  2. Coded continuous wave meteor radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vierinen, J.; Chau, J. L.; Pfeffer, N.; Clahsen, M.; Stober, G.

    2015-07-01

    The concept of coded continuous wave meteor radar is introduced. The radar uses a continuously transmitted pseudo-random waveform, which has several advantages: coding avoids range aliased echoes, which are often seen with commonly used pulsed specular meteor radars (SMRs); continuous transmissions maximize pulse compression gain, allowing operation with significantly lower peak transmit power; the temporal resolution can be changed after performing a measurement, as it does not depend on pulse spacing; and the low signal to noise ratio allows multiple geographically separated transmitters to be used in the same frequency band without significantly interfering with each other. The latter allows the same receiver antennas to be used to receive multiple transmitters. The principles of the signal processing are discussed, in addition to discussion of several practical ways to increase computation speed, and how to optimally detect meteor echoes. Measurements from a campaign performed with a coded continuous wave SMR are shown and compared with two standard pulsed SMR measurements. The type of meteor radar described in this paper would be suited for use in a large scale multi-static network of meteor radar transmitters and receivers. This would, for example, provide higher spatio-temporal resolution for mesospheric wind field measurements.

  3. Spaceborne radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, R. K.; Eckerman, J.; Meneghini, R.; Atlas, D.; Boerner, W. M.; Cherry, S.; Clark, J. F.; Doviak, R. J.; Goldhirsh, J.; Lhermitte, R. M.

    1981-01-01

    The spaceborne radar panel considered how radar could be used to measure precipitation from satellites. The emphasis was on how radar could be used with radiometry (at microwave, visible (VIS), and infrared (IR) wavelengths) to reduce the uncertainties of measuring precipitation with radiometry alone. In addition, the fundamental electromagnetic interactions involved in the measurements were discussed to determine the key work areas for research and development to produce effective instruments. Various approaches to implementing radar systems on satellites were considered for both shared and dedicated instruments. Finally, a research and development strategy was proposed for establishing the parametric relations and retrieval algorithms required for extracting precipitation information from the radar and associated radiometric data.

  4. Helicopter discrimination apparatus for the murine radar

    DOEpatents

    Webb, Jr., John G.; Gray, Roger M.

    1977-01-01

    A helicopter discrimination apparatus for a radar utilizing doppler filtering to discriminate between a missile and ground clutter. The short duration of the doppler filter pulses which are emitted by helicopter rotor blades are processed to prevent false alarms, thus allowing the radar-protected helicopter to operate in formation with other helicopters while maintaining protection against infra-red-seeking missiles.

  5. Laboratory-based x-ray reflectometer for multilayer characterization in the 15–150 keV energy band

    SciTech Connect

    Windt, David L.

    2015-04-15

    A laboratory-based X-ray reflectometer has been developed to measure the performance of hard X-ray multilayer coatings at their operational X-ray energies and incidence angles. The instrument uses a sealed-tube X-ray source with a tungsten anode that can operate up to 160 kV to provide usable radiation in the 15–150 keV energy band. Two sets of adjustable tungsten carbide slit assemblies, spaced 4.1 m apart, are used to produce a low-divergence white beam, typically set to 40 μm × 800 μm in size at the sample. Multilayer coatings under test are held flat using a vacuum chuck and are mounted at the center of a high-resolution goniometer used for precise angular positioning of the sample and detector; additionally, motorized linear stages provide both vertical and horizontal adjustments of the sample position relative to the incident beam. A CdTe energy-sensitive detector, located behind a third adjustable slit, is used in conjunction with pulse-shaping electronics and a multi-channel analyzer to capture both the incident and reflected spectra; the absolute reflectance of the coating under test is computed as the ratio of the two spectra. The instrument’s design, construction, and operation are described in detail, and example results are presented obtained with both periodic, narrow-band and depth-graded, wide-band hard X-ray multilayer coatings.

  6. Laboratory-based x-ray reflectometer for multilayer characterization in the 15-150 keV energy band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Windt, David L.

    2015-04-01

    A laboratory-based X-ray reflectometer has been developed to measure the performance of hard X-ray multilayer coatings at their operational X-ray energies and incidence angles. The instrument uses a sealed-tube X-ray source with a tungsten anode that can operate up to 160 kV to provide usable radiation in the 15-150 keV energy band. Two sets of adjustable tungsten carbide slit assemblies, spaced 4.1 m apart, are used to produce a low-divergence white beam, typically set to 40 μm × 800 μm in size at the sample. Multilayer coatings under test are held flat using a vacuum chuck and are mounted at the center of a high-resolution goniometer used for precise angular positioning of the sample and detector; additionally, motorized linear stages provide both vertical and horizontal adjustments of the sample position relative to the incident beam. A CdTe energy-sensitive detector, located behind a third adjustable slit, is used in conjunction with pulse-shaping electronics and a multi-channel analyzer to capture both the incident and reflected spectra; the absolute reflectance of the coating under test is computed as the ratio of the two spectra. The instrument's design, construction, and operation are described in detail, and example results are presented obtained with both periodic, narrow-band and depth-graded, wide-band hard X-ray multilayer coatings.

  7. Imaging synthetic aperture radar

    DOEpatents

    Burns, Bryan L.; Cordaro, J. Thomas

    1997-01-01

    A linear-FM SAR imaging radar method and apparatus to produce a real-time image by first arranging the returned signals into a plurality of subaperture arrays, the columns of each subaperture array having samples of dechirped baseband pulses, and further including a processing of each subaperture array to obtain coarse-resolution in azimuth, then fine-resolution in range, and lastly, to combine the processed subapertures to obtain the final fine-resolution in azimuth. Greater efficiency is achieved because both the transmitted signal and a local oscillator signal mixed with the returned signal can be varied on a pulse-to-pulse basis as a function of radar motion. Moreover, a novel circuit can adjust the sampling location and the A/D sample rate of the combined dechirped baseband signal which greatly reduces processing time and hardware. The processing steps include implementing a window function, stabilizing either a central reference point and/or all other points of a subaperture with respect to doppler frequency and/or range as a function of radar motion, sorting and compressing the signals using a standard fourier transforms. The stabilization of each processing part is accomplished with vector multiplication using waveforms generated as a function of radar motion wherein these waveforms may be synthesized in integrated circuits. Stabilization of range migration as a function of doppler frequency by simple vector multiplication is a particularly useful feature of the invention; as is stabilization of azimuth migration by correcting for spatially varying phase errors prior to the application of an autofocus process.

  8. The instrumental principles of MST radars and incoherent scatter radars and the configuration of radar system hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roettger, Juergen

    1989-01-01

    The principle of pulse modulation used in the case of coherent scatter radars (MST radars) is discussed. Coherent detection and the corresponding system configuration is delineated. Antenna requirements and design are outlined and the phase-coherent transmitter/receiver system is described. Transmit/receive duplexers, transmitters, receivers, and quadrature detectors are explained. The radar controller, integrator, decoder and correlator design as well as the data transfer and the control and monitoring by the host computer are delineated. Typical operation parameters of some well-known radars are summarized.

  9. Radar history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Putley, Ernest

    2008-07-01

    The invention of radar, as mentioned in Chris Lavers' article on warship stealth technology (March pp21-25), continues to be a subject of discussion. Here in Malvern we have just unveiled a blue plaque to commemorate the physicist Albert Percival Rowe, who arrived in 1942 as the head of the Telecommunications Research Establishment (TRE), which was the Air Ministry research facility responsible for the first British radar systems.

  10. Multibeam synthetic aperture radar for global oceanography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jain, A.

    1979-01-01

    A single-frequency multibeam synthetic aperture radar concept for large swath imaging desired for global oceanography is evaluated. Each beam iilluminates a separate range and azimuth interval, and images for different beams may be separated on the basis of the Doppler spectrum of the beams or their spatial azimuth separation in the image plane of the radar processor. The azimuth resolution of the radar system is selected so that the Doppler spectrum of each beam does not interfere with the Doppler foldover due to the finite pulse repetition frequency of the radar system.

  11. Meteorological Radar Facility for the Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eckerman, J.

    1975-01-01

    A proposed meteorological radar facility for Space Shuttle missions is described as a device suitable for providing vertical profiles of the precipitation distribution in the atmosphere above land masses and over ocean, thus ensuring three-dimensional mapping of the hydrometeor-precipitation distribution in the atmosphere. Some performance characteristics essential to orbiting meteorological radar systems and typical parameters are discussed, including large swath width, narrow beamwidth, frequency agility, and antenna configuration and orientation. Also discussed are the capabilities of the device as a test bed sensor with multiple mode capability, being able to operate in real aperture/pulse radar, real aperture/pulse Doppler and synthetic azimuth processing modes.

  12. [Correction method for infrared spectral emissivity measurement system based on integrating sphere reflectometer].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu-Feng; Dai, Jing-Min; Zhang, Yu; Pan, Wei-Dong; Zhang, Lei

    2013-08-01

    In view of the influence of non-ideal reference standard on spectral emissivity measurement, by analyzing the principle of infrared emissivity measurement system based on integrating sphere reflectometer, a calibration method suitable for measuring spectral emissivity system using the reflection measurement was proposed. By fitting a spectral reflectance curve of the reference standard sample to the given reflectance data, the correction coefficient of measurement system was computed. Then the output voltage curve of reference standard sample was corrected by this coefficient. The system error caused by the imperfection of reference standard was eliminated. The correction method was applied to the spectral emissivity measurement system based on integrating sphere reflectometer. The results measured by the corrected system and the results measured by energy comparison measurement were compared to verify the feasibility and effectivity of this correction method in improving the accuracy of spectral emissivity measurement. PMID:24159891

  13. X-mode heterodyne reflectometer for edge density profile measurements on Tore Supra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clairet, F.; Sabot, R.; Bottereau, Ch.; Chareau, J. M.; Paume, M.; Heuraux, S.; Colin, M.; Hacquin, S.; Leclert, G.

    2001-01-01

    A new broadband reflectometer operating in the frequency range 50-75 GHz in extraordinary mode polarization has been developed and tested on Tore Supra to measure edge density profiles. Using solid state source and active frequency multipliers, it performs routine measurements in 20 μs. Modulation of the source frequency is the clue to heterodyne detection in order to ensure a high dynamic sensitivity without any phase locking system. The reflectometer can achieve a repetition rate of 5 μs between sweeps, so the dynamic behavior of fast plasma events can be followed. The profile is reconstructed fully automatically from raw data and initialization is given by detection of the first cutoff. The profiles are part of the public database of Tore Supra. High reliability of the measurements for various plasma conditions makes this diagnostic an ideal tool to study the plasma-surface interaction physics and rf antenna coupling processes.

  14. Physical Characteristics of Arctic Clouds from Ground-based Remote-sensing with a Polarized Micro-Pulse Lidar and a 95-GHz Cloud Radar in Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiobara, M.; Takano, T.; Okamoto, H.; Yabuki, M.

    2015-12-01

    Clouds and aerosols are key elements having a potential to change climate by their radiative effects on the energy balance in the global climate system. In the Arctic, we have been continuing ground-based remote-sensing measurements for clouds and aerosols using a sky-radiometer, a micro-pulse lidar (MPL) and an all-sky camera in Ny-Ålesund (78.9N, 11.9E), Svalbard since early 2000's. In addition to such regular operations, several new measurements have been performed with a polarization MPL since August 2013, a 95GHz Doppler cloud radar since September 2013, and a dual frequency microwave radiometer since June 2014. An intensive field experiment for cloud-aerosol-radiation interaction study named A-CARE (PI: J. Ukita) was conducted for water clouds in the period of 23 June - 13 July 2014 and for mixed phase clouds in the period of 30 March - 23 April 2015 in Ny-Alesund. The experiment consisted of ground-based remote-sensing and in-situ cloud microphysics measurements. In this paper, preliminary results from these remote-sensing measurements will be presented, particularly in regard to physical characteristics of Arctic clouds based on radar-lidar collocated observation in Ny-Ålesund.

  15. Tangential velocity measurement using interferometric MTI radar

    DOEpatents

    Doerry, Armin W.; Mileshosky, Brian P.; Bickel, Douglas L.

    2006-01-03

    Radar systems use time delay measurements between a transmitted signal and its echo to calculate range to a target. Ranges that change with time cause a Doppler offset in phase and frequency of the echo. Consequently, the closing velocity between target and radar can be measured by measuring the Doppler offset of the echo. The closing velocity is also known as radial velocity, or line-of-sight velocity. Doppler frequency is measured in a pulse-Doppler radar as a linear phase shift over a set of radar pulses during some Coherent Processing Interval (CPI). An Interferometric Moving Target Indicator (MTI) radar can be used to measure the tangential velocity component of a moving target. Multiple baselines, along with the conventional radial velocity measurement, allow estimating the true 3-D velocity of a target.

  16. Analysis of the ITER Low Field Side Reflectometer Transmission Line System

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, Gregory R; Wilgen, John B; Bigelow, Tim S; Diem, Stephanie J; Biewer, Theodore M

    2010-01-01

    A critical issue in the design of the ITER low field side reflectometer is the transmission line (TL) system. A TL connects each launcher to a diagnostic instrument. Each TL will typically consist of 42 m of corrugated waveguide and up to ten miter bends. Important issues for the performance of the TL system are mode conversion and reflections. Minimizing these issues are critical to minimizing standing waves and phase errors. The performance of TL system is analyzed and recommendations are given.

  17. Energetic particles detected by the Electron Reflectometer instrument on the Mars Global Surveyor, 1999-2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delory, Gregory T.; Luhmann, Janet G.; Brain, David; Lillis, Robert J.; Mitchell, David L.; Mewaldt, Richard A.; Falkenberg, Thea Vilstrup

    2012-06-01

    We report the observation of galactic cosmic rays and solar energetic particles by the Electron Reflectometer instrument aboard the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) spacecraft from May of 1999 to the mission conclusion in November 2006. Originally designed to detect low-energy electrons, the Electron Reflectometer also measured particles with energies >30 MeV that penetrated the aluminum housing of the instrument and were detected directly by microchannel plates in the instrument interior. Using a combination of theoretical and experimental results, we show how the Electron Reflectometer microchannel plates recorded high energy galactic cosmic rays with ˜45% efficiency. Comparisons of this data to galactic cosmic ray proton fluxes obtained from the Advanced Composition Explorer yield agreement to within 10% and reveal the expected solar cycle modulation as well as shorter timescale variations. Solar energetic particles were detected by the same mechanism as galactic cosmic rays; however, their flux levels are far more uncertain due to shielding effects and the energy-dependent response of the microchannel plates. Using the solar energetic particle data, we have developed a catalog of energetic particle events at Mars associated with solar flares and coronal mass ejections, which includes the identification of interplanetary shocks. MGS observations of energetic particles at varying geometries between the Earth and Mars that include shocks produced by halo, limb, and backsided events provide a unique data set for use by the heliophysics modeling community.

  18. Extreme-ultraviolet collector mirror measurement using large reflectometer at NewSUBARU synchrotron facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iguchi, Haruki; Hashimoto, Hiraku; Kuki, Masaki; Harada, Tetsuo; Kinoshita, Hiroo; Watanabe, Takeo; Platonov, Yuriy Y.; Kriese, Michael D.; Rodriguez, Jim R.

    2016-06-01

    In extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) lithography, the development of high-power EUV sources is one of the critical issues. The EUV output power directly depends on the collector mirror performance. Furthermore, mirrors with large diameters are necessary to achieve high collecting performance and take sufficient distance to prevent heat and debris from a radiation point of the source. Thus collector mirror development with accurate reflectometer is important. We have developed a large reflectometer at BL-10 beamline of the NewSUBARU synchrotron facility that can be used for mirrors with diameters, thicknesses, and weights of up to 800 mm, 250 mm, and 50 kg, respectively. This reflectometer can measure reflectivity with fully s-polarized EUV light. In this study, we measured the reflectance of a 412-mm-diameter EUV collector mirror using a maximum incident angle of 36°. We obtained the peak reflectance, center wavelength and reflection bandwidth results and compared our results with Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt results.

  19. Three dimensional measurements of Geodesic Acoustic Mode with correlation Doppler reflectometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, W. L.; Shi, Z. B.; Xu, Y.; Zou, X. L.; Duan, X. R.; Chen, W.; Jiang, M.; Yang, Z. C.; Zhang, B. Y.; Shi, P. W.; Liu, Z. T.; Xu, M.; Song, X. M.; Cheng, J.; Ke, R.; Nie, L.; Cui, Z. Y.; Fu, B. Z.; Ding, X. T.; Dong, J. Q.; Liu, Yi.; Yan, L. W.; Yang, Q. W.; Liu, Yong; the HL-2A Team

    2015-10-01

    Correlation Doppler reflectometers have been newly developed in the HL-2A Tokamak. Owing to the flexibility of the diagnostic arrangements, the multi-channel systems allow us to study, simultaneously, the radial properties of edge turbulence and its long-range correlation in both the poloidal and toroidal direction. With these reflectometers, three-dimensional spatial structure of Geodesic Acoustic Mode (GAM) is surveyed, including the symmetric feature of Er fluctuations in both poloidal and toroidal directions, and the radial propagation of GAMs. The bi-coherence analysis for the Er fluctuations suggests that the three-wave nonlinear interaction could be the mechanism for the generation of GAM. The temporal evolution of GAM during the plasma density modulation experiments has been studied. The results show that the collisional damping plays a role in suppressing the GAM magnitudes, and hence, weakening the regulating effects of GAM on ambient turbulence. Three dimensional correlation Doppler measurements of GAM activity demonstrate that the newly developed correlation Doppler reflectometers in HL-2A are powerful tools for edge turbulence studies with high reliability. A shorter version of this contribution is due to be published in PoS at: ``1st EPS conference on Plasma Diagnostics''.

  20. The evaluation of satellite-borne weather radar system designs using real ground-based radar data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dobson, E. B.; Kalshoven, J. E., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    The paper presents method of evaluating proposed satellite radar systems using real radar data, and discusses methods of displaying the results which will hopefully facilitate easy comparison of systems. A single pencil beam pulsed radar system is considered while the precipitation data base comes from six rain days observed by SPANDAR. The many additional factors that must be considered in the radar equation such as attenuation and scattering (Mie and Rayleigh) are discussed along with some indication where possible errors lie.

  1. An MSK Radar Waveform

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quirk, Kevin J.; Srinivasan, Meera

    2012-01-01

    The minimum-shift-keying (MSK) radar waveform is formed by periodically extending a waveform that separately modulates the in-phase and quadrature- phase components of the carrier with offset pulse-shaped pseudo noise (PN) sequences. To generate this waveform, a pair of periodic PN sequences is each passed through a pulse-shaping filter with a half sinusoid impulse response. These shaped PN waveforms are then offset by half a chip time and are separately modulated on the in-phase and quadrature phase components of an RF carrier. This new radar waveform allows an increase in radar resolution without the need for additional spectrum. In addition, it provides self-interference suppression and configurable peak sidelobes. Compared strictly on the basis of the expressions for delay resolution, main-lobe bandwidth, effective Doppler bandwidth, and peak ambiguity sidelobe, it appears that bi-phase coded (BPC) outperforms the new MSK waveform. However, a radar waveform must meet certain constraints imposed by the transmission and reception of the modulation, as well as criteria dictated by the observation. In particular, the phase discontinuity of the BPC waveform presents a significant impediment to the achievement of finer resolutions in radar measurements a limitation that is overcome by using the continuous phase MSK waveform. The phase continuity, and the lower fractional out-of-band power of MSK, increases the allowable bandwidth compared with BPC, resulting in a factor of two increase in the range resolution of the radar. The MSK waveform also has been demonstrated to have an ambiguity sidelobe structure very similar to BPC, where the sidelobe levels can be decreased by increasing the length of the m-sequence used in its generation. This ability to set the peak sidelobe level is advantageous as it allows the system to be configured to a variety of targets, including those with a larger dynamic range. Other conventionally used waveforms that possess an even greater

  2. Radar simulation program upgrade and algorithm development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britt, Charles L.

    1991-01-01

    The NASA Radar Simulation Program is a comprehensive calculation of the expected output of an airborne coherent pulse Doppler radar system viewing a low level microburst along or near the approach path. Inputs to the program include the radar system parameters and data files that contain the characteristics of the microbursts to be simulated, the ground clutter map, and the discrete target data base which provides a simulation of the moving ground clutter. For each range bin, the simulation calculates the received signal amplitude level by integrating the product of the antenna gain pattern and the scattering source amplitude and phase of a spherical shell volume segment defined by the pulse width, radar range, and ground plane intersection. A series of in-phase and quadrature pulses are generated and stored for further processing if desired. In addition, various signal processing techniques are used to derive the simulated velocity and hazard measurements, and store them for use in plotting and display programs.

  3. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huneycutt, Bryan L.

    1993-01-01

    The Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C is the next radar in the series of spaceborne radar experiments, which began with Seasat and continued with SIR-A and SIR-B. The SIR-C instrument has been designed to obtain simultaneous multifrequency and simultaneous multipolarization radar images from a low earth orbit. It is a multiparameter imaging radar that will be flown during at least two different seasons. The instrument operates in the squint alignment mode, the extended aperture mode, the scansar mode, and the interferometry mode. The instrument uses engineering techniques such as beam nulling for echo tracking, pulse repetition frequency hopping for Doppler centroid tracking, generating the frequency step chirp for radar parameter flexibility, block floating-point quantizing for data rate compression, and elevation beamwidth broadening for increasing the swath illumination.

  4. Fly eye radar or micro-radar sensor technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molchanov, Pavlo; Asmolova, Olga

    2014-05-01

    To compensate for its eye's inability to point its eye at a target, the fly's eye consists of multiple angularly spaced sensors giving the fly the wide-area visual coverage it needs to detect and avoid the threats around him. Based on a similar concept a revolutionary new micro-radar sensor technology is proposed for detecting and tracking ground and/or airborne low profile low altitude targets in harsh urban environments. Distributed along a border or around a protected object (military facility and buildings, camp, stadium) small size, low power unattended radar sensors can be used for target detection and tracking, threat warning, pre-shot sniper protection and provides effective support for homeland security. In addition it can provide 3D recognition and targets classification due to its use of five orders more pulses than any scanning radar to each space point, by using few points of view, diversity signals and intelligent processing. The application of an array of directional antennas eliminates the need for a mechanical scanning antenna or phase processor. It radically decreases radar size and increases bearing accuracy several folds. The proposed micro-radar sensors can be easy connected to one or several operators by point-to-point invisible protected communication. The directional antennas have higher gain, can be multi-frequency and connected to a multi-functional network. Fly eye micro-radars are inexpensive, can be expendable and will reduce cost of defense.

  5. Topical report on subsurface fracture mapping from geothermal wellbores. Phase I. Pulsed radar techniques. Phase II. Conventional logging methods. Phase III. Magnetic borehole ranging

    SciTech Connect

    Hartenbaum, B.A.; Rawson, G.

    1980-09-01

    To advance the state-of-the-art in Hot Dry Rock technology, an evaluation is made of (i) the use of radar to map far-field fractures, (ii) the use of more than twenty different conventional well logging tools to map borehole-fracture intercepts, and (iii) the use of magnetic dipole ranging to determine the relative positions of the injection well and the production well within the fractured zone. It is found that according to calculations, VHF backscatter radar has the potential for mapping fractures within a distance of 50 +- 20 meters from the wellbore. A new technique for improving fracture identification is presented. Analyses of extant data indicate that when used synergistically the (1) caliper, (2) resistivity dipmeter, (3) televiewer, (4) television, (5) impression packer, and (6) acoustic transmission are useful for mapping borehole-fracture intercepts. Improvements in both data interpretation techniques and high temperature operation are required. The surveying of one borehole from another appears feasible at ranges of up to 200 to 500 meters by using a low frequency magnetic field generated by a moderately strong dipole source (a solenoid) located in one borehole, a sensitive B field detector that traverses part of the second borehole, narrow band filtering, and special data inversion techniques.

  6. Planetary radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, R. M.

    1980-01-01

    The radar astronomy activities supported by the Deep Space Network during June, July, and August 1980 are reported. The planetary bodies observed were Venus, Mercury, and the asteroid Toro. Data were obtained at both S and X band, and the observations were considered successful.

  7. Architecture for a 1-GHz Digital RADAR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mallik, Udayan

    2011-01-01

    An architecture for a Direct RF-digitization Type Digital Mode RADAR was developed at GSFC in 2008. Two variations of a basic architecture were developed for use on RADAR imaging missions using aircraft and spacecraft. Both systems can operate with a pulse repetition rate up to 10 MHz with 8 received RF samples per pulse repetition interval, or at up to 19 kHz with 4K received RF samples per pulse repetition interval. The first design describes a computer architecture for a Continuous Mode RADAR transceiver with a real-time signal processing and display architecture. The architecture can operate at a high pulse repetition rate without interruption for an infinite amount of time. The second design describes a smaller and less costly burst mode RADAR that can transceive high pulse repetition rate RF signals without interruption for up to 37 seconds. The burst-mode RADAR was designed to operate on an off-line signal processing paradigm. The temporal distribution of RF samples acquired and reported to the RADAR processor remains uniform and free of distortion in both proposed architectures. The majority of the RADAR's electronics is implemented in digital CMOS (complementary metal oxide semiconductor), and analog circuits are restricted to signal amplification operations and analog to digital conversion. An implementation of the proposed systems will create a 1-GHz, Direct RF-digitization Type, L-Band Digital RADAR--the highest band achievable for Nyquist Rate, Direct RF-digitization Systems that do not implement an electronic IF downsample stage (after the receiver signal amplification stage), using commercially available off-the-shelf integrated circuits.

  8. Simulation of automatic gain control method for laser radar receiver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Xiping; Shang, Hongbo; Wang, Lina; Yang, Shuang

    2008-12-01

    A receiver with high dynamic response and wide control range are necessary for a laser radar system. In this paper, an automatic gain control scheme for laser radar receiver is proposed. The scheme is based on a closed-loop logarithmic feedback method. Signal models for pulse laser radar system are created and as the input to the AGC model. The signal is supposed to be very weak and with a nanosecond order of pulse width in the light of the property of the laser radar. The method and the simulation for the AGC will be presented in detail.

  9. Development of frequency modulated continuous wave reflectometer for electron density profile measurement on the HL-2A tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Zhong, W. L. Shi, Z. B.; Liu, Z. T.; Chen, W.; Jiang, M.; Li, J.; Cui, Z. Y.; Song, X. M.; Chen, L. Y.; Ding, X. T.; Liu, Yi; Yan, L. W.; Yang, Q. W.; Duan, X. R.; Huang, X. L.; Zou, X. L.

    2014-01-15

    The frequency modulated continuous wave reflectometer was developed for the first time on the HL-2A tokamak. The system utilizes a voltage controlled oscillator and an active multiplier for broadband coverage and detects as heterodyne mode. Three reflectometers have been installed and operated in extraordinary mode polarization on HL-2A to measure density profiles at low field side, covering the Q-band (33–50 GHz), V-band (50–75 GHz), and W-band (75–110 GHz). For density profile reconstruction from the phase shift of the probing wave, a corrected phase unwrapping method is introduced in this article. The effectiveness of the method is demonstrated. The density profile behavior of a fast plasma event is presented and it demonstrates the capability of the reflectometer. These diagnostics will be contributed to the routine density profile measurements and the plasma physics study on HL-2A.

  10. A satellite-based radar wind sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xin, Weizhuang

    1991-01-01

    The objective is to investigate the application of Doppler radar systems for global wind measurement. A model of the satellite-based radar wind sounder (RAWS) is discussed, and many critical problems in the designing process, such as the antenna scan pattern, tracking the Doppler shift caused by satellite motion, and backscattering of radar signals from different types of clouds, are discussed along with their computer simulations. In addition, algorithms for measuring mean frequency of radar echoes, such as the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) estimator, the covariance estimator, and the estimators based on autoregressive models, are discussed. Monte Carlo computer simulations were used to compare the performance of these algorithms. Anti-alias methods are discussed for the FFT and the autoregressive methods. Several algorithms for reducing radar ambiguity were studied, such as random phase coding methods and staggered pulse repitition frequncy (PRF) methods. Computer simulations showed that these methods are not applicable to the RAWS because of the broad spectral widths of the radar echoes from clouds. A waveform modulation method using the concept of spread spectrum and correlation detection was developed to solve the radar ambiguity. Radar ambiguity functions were used to analyze the effective signal-to-noise ratios for the waveform modulation method. The results showed that, with suitable bandwidth product and modulation of the waveform, this method can achieve the desired maximum range and maximum frequency of the radar system.

  11. TRMM radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Okamoto, Kenichi

    1993-01-01

    The results of a conceptual design study and the performance of key components of the Bread Board Model (BBM) of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) radar are presented. The radar, which operates at 13.8 GHz and is designed to meet TRMM mission objectives, has a minimum measurable rain rate of 0.5 mm/h with a range resolution of 250 m, a horizontal resolution of about 4 km, and a swath width of 220 km. A 128-element active phased array system is adopted to achieve contiguous scanning within the swath. The basic characteristics of BBM were confirmed by experiments. The development of EM started with the cooperation of NASDA and CRL.

  12. Analysis of the ITER low field side reflectometer transmission line system.

    PubMed

    Hanson, G R; Wilgen, J B; Bigelow, T S; Diem, S J; Biewer, T M

    2010-10-01

    A critical issue in the design of the ITER low field side reflectometer is the transmission line (TL) system. A TL connects each launcher to a diagnostic instrument. Each TL will typically consist of ∼42 m of corrugated waveguide and up to ten miter bends. Important issues for the performance of the TL system are mode conversion and reflections. Minimizing these issues are critical to minimizing standing waves and phase errors. The performance of TL system is analyzed and recommendations are given. PMID:21033952

  13. Handheld directional reflectometer: an angular imaging device to measure BRDF and HDR in real time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattison, Phillip R.; Dombrowski, Mark S.; Lorenz, James M.; Davis, Keith J.; Mann, Harley C.; Johnson, Philip; Foos, Bryan

    1998-10-01

    Many applications require quantitative measurements of surface light scattering, including quality control on production lines, inspection of painted surfaces, inspection of field repairs, etc. Instruments for measuring surface scattering typically fall into two main categories, namely bidirectional reflectometers, which measure the angular distribution of scattering, and hemispherical directional reflectometers, which measure the total scattering into the hemisphere above the surface. Measurement of the bi-directional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) gives the greatest insight into how light is scattered from a surface. Measurements of BRDF, however, are typically very lengthy measurements taken by moving a source and detector to map the scattering. Since BRDF has four angular degrees of freedom, such measurements can require hours to days to complete. Instruments for measuring BRDF are also typically laboratory devices, although a field- portable bi-directional reflectometer does exist. Hemispherical directional reflectance (HDR) is a much easier measurement to make, although care must be taken to use the proper methodology when measuring at wavelengths beyond 10 micrometer, since integrating spheres (typically used to make such measurements) are very energy inefficient and lose their integrating properties at very long wavelengths. A few field- portable hemispherical directional reflectometers do exist, but typically measure HDR only at near-normal angles. Boeing Defense and Space Group and Surface Optics Corporation, under a contract from the Air Force Research Laboratory, have developed a new hand-held instrument capable of measuring both BRDF and HDR using a unique, patented angular imaging technique. A combination of an hemi-ellipsoidal mirror and an additional lens translate the angular scatter from a surface into a two-dimensional spatial distribution, which is recorded by an imaging array. This configuration fully maps the scattering from a half

  14. Lunar Radar Cross Section at Low Frequency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriguez, P.; Kennedy, E. J.; Kossey, P.; McCarrick, M.; Kaiser, M. L.; Bougeret, J.-L.; Tokarev, Y. V.

    2002-01-01

    Recent bistatic measurements of the lunar radar cross-section have extended the spectrum to long radio wavelength. We have utilized the HF Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) radar facility near Gakona, Alaska to transmit high power pulses at 8.075 MHz to the Moon; the echo pulses were received onboard the NASA/WIND spacecraft by the WAVES HF receiver. This lunar radar experiment follows our previous use of earth-based HF radar with satellites to conduct space experiments. The spacecraft was approaching the Moon for a scheduled orbit perturbation when our experiment of 13 September 2001 was conducted. During the two-hour experiment, the radial distance of the satellite from the Moon varied from 28 to 24 Rm, where Rm is in lunar radii.

  15. Radar channel balancing with commutation

    SciTech Connect

    Doerry, Armin Walter

    2014-02-01

    When multiple channels are employed in a pulse-Doppler radar, achieving and maintaining balance between the channels is problematic. In some circumstances the channels may be commutated to achieve adequate balance. Commutation is the switching, trading, toggling, or multiplexing of the channels between signal paths. Commutation allows modulating the imbalance energy away from the balanced energy in Doppler, where it can be mitigated with filtering.

  16. GINA--a polarized neutron reflectometer at the Budapest Neutron Centre.

    PubMed

    Bottyán, L; Merkel, D G; Nagy, B; Füzi, J; Sajti, Sz; Deák, L; Endrőczi, G; Petrenko, A V; Major, J

    2013-01-01

    The setup, capabilities, and operation parameters of the neutron reflectometer GINA, the recently installed "Grazing Incidence Neutron Apparatus" at the Budapest Neutron Centre, are introduced. GINA, a dance-floor-type, constant-energy, angle-dispersive reflectometer is equipped with a 2D position-sensitive detector to study specular and off-specular scattering. Wavelength options between 3.2 and 5.7 Å are available for unpolarized and polarized neutrons. Spin polarization and analysis are achieved by magnetized transmission supermirrors and radio-frequency adiabatic spin flippers. As a result of vertical focusing by a five-element pyrolytic graphite monochromator, the reflected intensity from a 20 × 20 mm(2) sample has been doubled. GINA is dedicated to studies of magnetic films and heterostructures, but unpolarized options for non-magnetic films, membranes, and other surfaces are also provided. Shortly after its startup, reflectivity values as low as 3 × 10(-5) have been measured by the instrument. The instrument capabilities are demonstrated by a non-polarized and a polarized reflectivity experiment on a Si wafer and on a magnetic film of [(62)Ni/(nat)Ni](5) isotope-periodic layer composition. The facility is now open for the international user community. Its further development is underway establishing new sample environment options and spin analysis of off-specularly scattered radiation as well as further decreasing the background. PMID:23387700

  17. GINA-A polarized neutron reflectometer at the Budapest Neutron Centre

    SciTech Connect

    Bottyan, L.; Merkel, D. G.; Nagy, B.; Sajti, Sz.; Deak, L.; Endroczi, G.; Fuezi, J.; Petrenko, A. V.; Major, J.

    2013-01-15

    The setup, capabilities, and operation parameters of the neutron reflectometer GINA, the recently installed 'Grazing Incidence Neutron Apparatus' at the Budapest Neutron Centre, are introduced. GINA, a dance-floor-type, constant-energy, angle-dispersive reflectometer is equipped with a 2D position-sensitive detector to study specular and off-specular scattering. Wavelength options between 3.2 and 5.7 A are available for unpolarized and polarized neutrons. Spin polarization and analysis are achieved by magnetized transmission supermirrors and radio-frequency adiabatic spin flippers. As a result of vertical focusing by a five-element pyrolytic graphite monochromator, the reflected intensity from a 20 Multiplication-Sign 20 mm{sup 2} sample has been doubled. GINA is dedicated to studies of magnetic films and heterostructures, but unpolarized options for non-magnetic films, membranes, and other surfaces are also provided. Shortly after its startup, reflectivity values as low as 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -5} have been measured by the instrument. The instrument capabilities are demonstrated by a non-polarized and a polarized reflectivity experiment on a Si wafer and on a magnetic film of [{sup 62}Ni/{sup nat}Ni]{sub 5} isotope-periodic layer composition. The facility is now open for the international user community. Its further development is underway establishing new sample environment options and spin analysis of off-specularly scattered radiation as well as further decreasing the background.

  18. Performance and data analysis aspects of the new DIII-D monostatic profile reflectometer systema)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, L.; Peebles, W. A.; Doyle, E. J.; Rhodes, T. L.; Crocker, N.; Nguyen, X.; Wannberg, C. W.; Wang, G.

    2014-11-01

    A new frequency-modulated profile reflectometer system, featuring a monostatic antenna geometry (using one microwave antenna for both launch and receive), has been installed on the DIII-D tokamak, providing a first experimental test of this measurement approach for profile reflectometry. Significant features of the new system are briefly described in this paper, including the new monostatic arrangement, use of overmoded, broadband transmission waveguide, and dual-polarization combination/demultiplexing. Updated data processing and analysis, and in-service performance aspects of the new monostatic profile reflectometer system are also presented. By using a raytracing code (GENRAY) to determine the approximate trajectory of the probe beam, the electron density (ne) profile can be successfully reconstructed with L-mode plasmas vertically shifted by more than 10 cm off the vessel midplane. Specifically, it is demonstrated that the new system has a capability to measure ne profiles with plasma vertical offsets of up to ±17 cm. Examples are also presented of accurate, high time and spatial resolution density profile measurements made over a wide range of DIII-D conditions, e.g., the measured temporal evolution of the density profile across a L-H transition.

  19. Focusing neutron reflectometry: Implementation and experience on the TOF-reflectometer Amor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stahn, J.; Glavic, A.

    2016-06-01

    Neutron reflectometry is a powerful tool to investigate chemical and magnetic depth profiles near surfaces. The advantages of neutrons compared to x-rays are their sensitivity to isotopes, the high penetration capabilities and the high sensitivity to magnetic induction. The biggest disadvantage however is the low flux available, which leads to much longer counting times on much larger samples. In order to boost the performance of neutron reflectometers, a focusing guide system was developed and realised over recent years. Here we report on the application and performance of a down-scaled demonstrator of such a Selene guide, installed as an add-on on the time-of-flight (TOF) reflectometer Amor at the PSI. Due to the limited size of the guide, the flux is concentrated to a footprint of at most 2 mm width. It is thus possible to avoid illumination of contacts even on small samples. Despite the fact that typical samples measured on Amor with a size of 10 × 10mm2 are markedly under illuminated, the presented set-up leads to a reduction in counting time of 80%. The use of the demonstrator thus allows for in-situ or in-operando investigations with a time resolution of a few minutes for a qz range from 0.005Å-1 to 0.08Å-1. Besides a short recapitulation of the concept of focusing reflectometry, a detailed description of the data reduction and its quality is given, followed by an application example.

  20. FSR: a field portable spectral reflectometer to measure ground from NIR to LWIR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreau, Louis; Bourque, Hugo; Ouellet, Réal; Prel, Florent; Roy, Claude; Vallieres, Christian; Thériault, Guillaume

    2011-11-01

    ABB Bomem has recently designed a field-deployable reflectometer. The Full Spectrum Reflectometer (FSR) measures the diffuse reflectance of surfaces in the 0.7 μm to 13.5 μm spectral range. The spectral resolution is adjustable from 32 to 4 cm-1. The instrument is portable, battery-operated and designed for field usage in a single, lightweight and ruggedized package. In its simplest mode, the instrument is automated and can be operated by non-specialist personnel with minimal training. The FSR has a laboratory mode to measure targets brought to the instrument in a sampling cup and a field mode with automated measurement sequence. To facilitate the measurement of various ground surfaces, the instrument is packaged in a three-point mount for easy target access and stability. One of the mount is the sampling port. The instrument has its own built-in NIR and LWIR infrared sources to illuminate the ground area to be measured. The instrument includes two built-in references for calibration: a Spectralon diffuser and an Infragold diffuser. The first units were commissioned to build a spectral database of surfaces in various conditions (humidity, temperature, texture, mixing, etc.) and in the presence of interfering chemicals (oils, solvents, etc.) but the instrument can also serve other purposes such as the identification of unknown materials.

  1. Portable Infrared Reflectometer Designed and Manufactured for Evaluating Emittance in the Laboratory or in the Field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaworske, Donald A.

    2000-01-01

    The optical properties of materials play a key role in spacecraft thermal control. In space, radiant heat transfer is the only mode of heat transfer that can reject heat from a spacecraft. One of the key properties for defining radiant heat transfer is emittance, a measure of how efficiently a surface can reject heat in comparison to a perfect black body emitter. Heat rejection occurs in the infrared region of the spectrum, nominally in the range of 2 to 25 mm. To calculate emittance, one obtains the reflectance over this spectral range, calculates spectral absorptance by difference, and then uses Kirchhoff s Law and the Stefan-Boltzmann equation to calculate emittance. A new portable infrared reflectometer, the SOC 400t, was designed and manufactured to evaluate the emittance of surfaces and coatings in the laboratory or in the field. It was developed by Surface Optics Corporation under a contract with the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field to replace the Center s aging Gier-Dunkle DB-100 infrared reflectometer. The specifications for the new instrument include a wavelength range of 2 to 25 mm; reflectance repeatability of +/-1 percent; self-calibrating, near-normal spectral reflectance measurements; a full scan measurement time of 3.5 min, a sample size of 1.27 cm (0.5 in.); a spectral resolution selectable from 4, 8, 16, or 32/cm; and optical property characterization utilizing an automatic integration to calculate total emittance in a selectable temperature range.

  2. Instrument resolution of the vertical-type cold-neutron reflectometer at HANARO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jeong Soo

    2016-05-01

    The characteristics of the instrument resolution of the vertical-type cold-neutron reflectometer installed at HANARO, a research reactor in Korea, are estimated. In order to ascertain differences in the instrument resolution according to two scan modes, i.e., the fixed-slit and the variable-slit scan modes, for the measurement of the neutron reflectivity profile, we estimated the beam status of the instrument. Moreover, because the footprint effect and the limitation of the neutron beam window arise during measurements of the neutron reflectivity profiles and affect the instrument resolution, the causes of their occurrence were determined and a correction method was devised. The neutron reflectivity profiles of a SiO2 standard thin-film sample were measured in a Q range up to 0.2 Å-1 by using the two scan modes, and the sample structure was analyzed with the weighted least-squares fitting program Parratt32. During the process of the least-squares fitting of the neutron reflectivity profiles for the structural analysis, the method used to correct for the footprint effect and the limitation of neutron beam window was found to be reasonable. Also, the modified instrument resolutions in the two scan modes for the vertical-type cold-neutron reflectometer were found to be suitable.

  3. Performance and data analysis aspects of the new DIII-D monostatic profile reflectometer system

    SciTech Connect

    Zeng, L. Peebles, W. A.; Doyle, E. J.; Rhodes, T. L.; Crocker, N.; Nguyen, X.; Wannberg, C. W.; Wang, G.

    2014-11-15

    A new frequency-modulated profile reflectometer system, featuring a monostatic antenna geometry (using one microwave antenna for both launch and receive), has been installed on the DIII-D tokamak, providing a first experimental test of this measurement approach for profile reflectometry. Significant features of the new system are briefly described in this paper, including the new monostatic arrangement, use of overmoded, broadband transmission waveguide, and dual-polarization combination/demultiplexing. Updated data processing and analysis, and in-service performance aspects of the new monostatic profile reflectometer system are also presented. By using a raytracing code (GENRAY) to determine the approximate trajectory of the probe beam, the electron density (n{sub e}) profile can be successfully reconstructed with L-mode plasmas vertically shifted by more than 10 cm off the vessel midplane. Specifically, it is demonstrated that the new system has a capability to measure n{sub e} profiles with plasma vertical offsets of up to ±17 cm. Examples are also presented of accurate, high time and spatial resolution density profile measurements made over a wide range of DIII-D conditions, e.g., the measured temporal evolution of the density profile across a L-H transition.

  4. GINA--A polarized neutron reflectometer at the Budapest Neutron Centre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bottyán, L.; Merkel, D. G.; Nagy, B.; Füzi, J.; Sajti, Sz.; Deák, L.; Endrőczi, G.; Petrenko, A. V.; Major, J.

    2013-01-01

    The setup, capabilities, and operation parameters of the neutron reflectometer GINA, the recently installed "Grazing Incidence Neutron Apparatus" at the Budapest Neutron Centre, are introduced. GINA, a dance-floor-type, constant-energy, angle-dispersive reflectometer is equipped with a 2D position-sensitive detector to study specular and off-specular scattering. Wavelength options between 3.2 and 5.7 Å are available for unpolarized and polarized neutrons. Spin polarization and analysis are achieved by magnetized transmission supermirrors and radio-frequency adiabatic spin flippers. As a result of vertical focusing by a five-element pyrolytic graphite monochromator, the reflected intensity from a 20 × 20 mm2 sample has been doubled. GINA is dedicated to studies of magnetic films and heterostructures, but unpolarized options for non-magnetic films, membranes, and other surfaces are also provided. Shortly after its startup, reflectivity values as low as 3 × 10-5 have been measured by the instrument. The instrument capabilities are demonstrated by a non-polarized and a polarized reflectivity experiment on a Si wafer and on a magnetic film of [62Ni/natNi]5 isotope-periodic layer composition. The facility is now open for the international user community. Its further development is underway establishing new sample environment options and spin analysis of off-specularly scattered radiation as well as further decreasing the background.

  5. Development of frequency modulation reflectometer for Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Seo, Seong-Heon; Wi, H. M.; Lee, W. R.; Kim, H. S.; Lee, T. G.; Kim, Y. S.; Park, Jinhyung; Kang, Jin-Seob; Bog, M. G.; Yokota, Y.; Mase, A.

    2013-08-15

    Frequency modulation reflectometer has been developed to measure the plasma density profile of the Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research tokamak. Three reflectometers are operating in extraordinary polarization mode in the frequency range of Q band (33.6–54 GHz), V band (48–72 GHz), and W band (72–108 GHz) to measure the density up to 7 × 10{sup 19} m{sup −3} when the toroidal magnetic field is 2 T on axis. The antenna is installed inside of the vacuum vessel. A new vacuum window is developed by using 50 μm thick mica film and 0.1 mm thick gold gasket. The filter bank of low pass filter, notch filter, and Faraday isolator is used to reject the electron cyclotron heating high power at attenuation of 60 dB. The full frequency band is swept in 20 μs. The mixer output is directly digitized with sampling rate of 100 MSamples/s. The phase is obtained by using wavelet transform. The whole hardware and software system is described in detail and the measured density profile is presented as a result.

  6. Performance and data analysis aspects of the new DIII-D monostatic profile reflectometer system.

    PubMed

    Zeng, L; Peebles, W A; Doyle, E J; Rhodes, T L; Crocker, N; Nguyen, X; Wannberg, C W; Wang, G

    2014-11-01

    A new frequency-modulated profile reflectometer system, featuring a monostatic antenna geometry (using one microwave antenna for both launch and receive), has been installed on the DIII-D tokamak, providing a first experimental test of this measurement approach for profile reflectometry. Significant features of the new system are briefly described in this paper, including the new monostatic arrangement, use of overmoded, broadband transmission waveguide, and dual-polarization combination/demultiplexing. Updated data processing and analysis, and in-service performance aspects of the new monostatic profile reflectometer system are also presented. By using a raytracing code (GENRAY) to determine the approximate trajectory of the probe beam, the electron density (ne) profile can be successfully reconstructed with L-mode plasmas vertically shifted by more than 10 cm off the vessel midplane. Specifically, it is demonstrated that the new system has a capability to measure ne profiles with plasma vertical offsets of up to ±17 cm. Examples are also presented of accurate, high time and spatial resolution density profile measurements made over a wide range of DIII-D conditions, e.g., the measured temporal evolution of the density profile across a L-H transition. PMID:25430256

  7. Methods And System Suppressing Clutter In A Gain-Block, Radar-Responsive Tag System

    DOEpatents

    Ormesher, Richard C.; Axline, Robert M.

    2006-04-18

    Methods and systems reduce clutter interference in a radar-responsive tag system. A radar transmits a series of linear-frequency-modulated pulses and receives echo pulses from nearby terrain and from radar-responsive tags that may be in the imaged scene. Tags in the vicinity of the radar are activated by the radar's pulses. The tags receive and remodulate the radar pulses. Tag processing reverses the direction, in time, of the received waveform's linear frequency modulation. The tag retransmits the remodulated pulses. The radar uses a reversed-chirp de-ramp pulse to process the tag's echo. The invention applies to radar systems compatible with coherent gain-block tags. The invention provides a marked reduction in the strength of residual clutter echoes on each and every echo pulse received by the radar. SAR receiver processing effectively whitens passive-clutter signatures across the range dimension. Clutter suppression of approximately 14 dB is achievable for a typical radar system.

  8. Range ambiguity clutter suppression for bistatic STAP radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Wenchong; Zhang, Baihua; Wang, Yongliang; Zhu, Yong; Duan, Keqing; Li, Rongfeng

    2013-12-01

    Bistatic pulse-Doppler airborne radar has desirable properties such as the low probability of detection by other radars relative to its monostatic counterpart. However, the clutter characteristics of bistatic airborne radar are more complex than those of monostatic airborne radar. The clutter spectra not only vary severely with range, but also vary with bistatic configuration. In this article, the geometry model of bistatic airborne radar is given, and the approximate estimation expressions for clutter degrees of freedom (DOFs) are presented. Then a novel clutter suppression method for bistatic airborne radar with range ambiguity is presented. The method completes registration-based range ambiguity clutter compensation based on non-uniform sampling and the estimated clutter DOFs. The simulation results illustrate the performance improvement achieved for bistatic airborne radar.

  9. The digital signal processor for the ALCOR millimeter wave radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ford, R. A.

    1980-11-01

    This report describes the use of an array processor for real time radar signal processing. Pulse compression, range marking, and monopulse error computation are some of the functions that will be performed in the array processor for the millimeter wave ALCOR radar augmentation. Real time software design, processor architecture, and system interfaces are discussed in the report.

  10. Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) project. VI - Spacecraft, scientific instruments, and launching rocket. Part 4 - TRMM rain radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meneghini, Robert; Atlas, David; Awaka, Jun; Okamoto, Ken'ichi; Ihara, Toshio; Nakamura, Kenji; Kozu, Toshiaki; Manabe, Takeshi

    1990-01-01

    The basic system parameters for the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) radar system are frequency, beamwidth, scan angle, resolution, number of independent samples, pulse repetition frequency, data rate, and so on. These parameters were chosen to satisfy NASA's mission requirements. Six candidates for the TRMM rain radar were studied. The study considered three major competitive items: (1) a pulse-compression radar vs. a conventional radar; (2) an active-array radar with a solid state power amplifier vs. a passive-array radar with a traveling-wave-tube amplifier; and (3) antenna types (planar-array antenna vs. cylindrical parabolic antenna). Basic system parameters such as radar sensitivities, power consumption, weight, and size of these six types are described. Trade-off studies of these cases show that the non-pulse-compression active-array radar with a planar array is considered to be the most suitable candidate for the TRMM rain radar at 13.8 GHz.

  11. Theory of CW lidar aerosol backscatter measurements and development of a 2.1 microns solid-state pulsed laser radar for aerosol backscatter profiling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kavaya, Michael J.; Henderson, Sammy W.; Frehlich, R. G.

    1991-01-01

    The performance and calibration of a focused, continuous wave, coherent detection CO2 lidar operated for the measurement of atmospheric backscatter coefficient, B(m), was examined. This instrument functions by transmitting infrared (10 micron) light into the atmosphere and collecting the light which is scattered in the rearward direction. Two distinct modes of operation were considered. In volume mode, the scattered light energy from many aerosols is detected simultaneously, whereas in the single particle mode (SPM), the scattered light energy from a single aerosol is detected. The analysis considered possible sources of error for each of these two cases, and also considered the conditions where each technique would have superior performance. The analysis showed that, within reasonable assumptions, the value of B(m) could be accurately measured by either the VM or the SPM method. The understanding of the theory developed during the analysis was also applied to a pulsed CO2 lidar. Preliminary results of field testing of a solid state 2 micron lidar using a CW oscillator is included.

  12. Radar and Lidar Radar DEM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liskovich, Diana; Simard, Marc

    2011-01-01

    Using radar and lidar data, the aim is to improve 3D rendering of terrain, including digital elevation models (DEM) and estimates of vegetation height and biomass in a variety of forest types and terrains. The 3D mapping of vegetation structure and the analysis are useful to determine the role of forest in climate change (carbon cycle), in providing habitat and as a provider of socio-economic services. This in turn will lead to potential for development of more effective land-use management. The first part of the project was to characterize the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission DEM error with respect to ICESat/GLAS point estimates of elevation. We investigated potential trends with latitude, canopy height, signal to noise ratio (SNR), number of LiDAR waveform peaks, and maximum peak width. Scatter plots were produced for each variable and were fitted with 1st and 2nd degree polynomials. Higher order trends were visually inspected through filtering with a mean and median filter. We also assessed trends in the DEM error variance. Finally, a map showing how DEM error was geographically distributed globally was created.

  13. Development of a cold-neutron reflectometer (CN REF-V) at the HANARO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jeong-Soo; Koo, Jaseung; So, Ji-Yong; Kim, Tae Ho; Park, Sungkyun

    2015-11-01

    A new neutron reflectometer, CN REF-V, has been installed in the cold-neutron laboratory building at the HANARO, a research reactor in Korea. The instrument has a vertical scattering plane and uses a constant wavelength of λ = 4.7535 Å, and it is monochromated by using pyrolytic graphite (PG) crystals. Its measurable minimum reflectivity and maximum momentum transfer for typical solid films are 10-8 and 0.3 Å-1, respectively. A liquid-nitrogen-cooled beryllium filter is used to remove λ/2 contamination due to the PG (002) crystals. With a gold wire activation analysis method, the neutron flux at its sample position was measured and found to be 5.67 × 105 neutrons/cm2 /s. Reflectivity measurements of thin films were successfully carried out with the instrument. A detailed characterization of the instrument and the results of the reflectivity measurements are described.

  14. Microwave Imaging Reflectometer System for Visualization of Fluctuations in the TEXTOR Tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munsat, T.; Mazzucato, E.; Park, H.; Deng, B. H.; Domier, C.; Luhmann, X.; Liang, Jr.; Wang, J.; Donne, A. J. H.; van de Pol, M. J.

    2001-10-01

    Visualization of turbulent fluctuations in magnetically confined plasmas is essential to the understanding of transport physics based on turbulence. To this end, a new imaging diagnostic is under development to perform simultaneous measurements of Te and ne fluctuations over an extended plasma region in the TEXTOR tokamak. Density fluctuation measurements based on 2-D imaging reflectometry are made possible by collecting an extended spectrum of reflected waves with large-aperture imaging optics (see MAZZUCATO, this meeting). Details of the imaging reflectometry concept, as well as technical details of the reflectometer subsystem of the TEXTOR diagnostic will be presented. Proof-of-principle experiments have been performed on TEXTOR using a fixed-frequency prototype of this system, confirming the feasibility of the imaging scheme. The combined diagnostic, including frequency and focal-plane scanning capability, is presently under construction and will be installed on TEXTOR in early 2002. Future versions will be installed on other tokamaks as access becomes available.

  15. Optical cable fault locating using Brillouin optical time domain reflectometer and cable localized heating method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Y. G.; Zhang, X. P.; Dong, Y. M.; Wang, F.; Liu, Y. H.

    2007-07-01

    A novel optical cable fault location method, which is based on Brillouin optical time domain reflectometer (BOTDR) and cable localized heating, is proposed and demonstrated. In the method, a BOTDR apparatus is used to measure the optical loss and strain distribution along the fiber in an optical cable, and a heating device is used to heat the cable at its certain local site. Actual experimental results make it clear that the proposed method works effectively without complicated calculation. By means of the new method, we have successfully located the optical cable fault in the 60 km optical fiber composite power cable from Shanghai to Shengshi, Zhejiang. A fault location accuracy of 1 meter was achieved. The fault location uncertainty of the new optical cable fault location method is at least one order of magnitude smaller than that of the traditional OTDR method.

  16. A Computer Aided Broad Band Impedance Matching Technique Using a Comparison Reflectometer. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordy, R. S.

    1972-01-01

    An improved broadband impedance matching technique was developed. The technique is capable of resolving points in the waveguide which generate reflected energy. A version of the comparison reflectometer was developed and fabricated to determine the mean amplitude of the reflection coefficient excited at points in the guide as a function of distance, and the complex reflection coefficient of a specific discontinuity in the guide as a function of frequency. An impedance matching computer program was developed which is capable of impedance matching the characteristics of each disturbance independent of other reflections in the guide. The characteristics of four standard matching elements were compiled, and their associated curves of reflection coefficient and shunt susceptance as a function of frequency are presented. It is concluded that an economical, fast, and reliable impedance matching technique has been established which can provide broadband impedance matches.

  17. Commissioning of the Microwave Imaging Reflectometer (MIR) on DIII-D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muscatello, C. M.; Domier, C. W.; Gamzina, D.; Hu, X.; Luhmann, N. C., Jr.; Ren, X.; Riemenschneider, P.; Spear, A.; Yu, L.; Munsat, T.; Zemedkun, S. E.; Tobias, B. J.

    2013-10-01

    A microwave imaging reflectometer (MIR), capable of simultaneously measuring the poloidal and radial structure of density fluctuations, has been developed for DIII-D and installed in May 2013. The MIR diagnostic concept has undergone numerous technological and system-level upgrades since earlier microwave imaging systems, thereby permitting a higher level of robustness and flexibility. Synthetic diagnostic simulations permit determination of the resolvable wavenumbers and density fluctuations levels. Laboratory qualification tests are performed to characterize the system performance compared to the designed parameters. First plasma results are presented in the form of a brief survey of MIR results collected during several select experiments from the 2013 DIII-D experimental campaign. Work supported by the US Department of Energy under DE-FG02-00ER54531, DE-FC02-04ER54698, DE-SC0003913 DE0FC02-05ER54816, and DE-AC02-09CH11466.

  18. Invited Article: Polarization ``Down Under'': The polarized time-of-flight neutron reflectometer PLATYPUS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saerbeck, T.; Klose, F.; Le Brun, A. P.; Füzi, J.; Brule, A.; Nelson, A.; Holt, S. A.; James, M.

    2012-08-01

    This review presents the implementation and full characterization of the polarization equipment of the time-of-flight neutron reflectometer PLATYPUS at the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO). The functionality and efficiency of individual components are evaluated and found to maintain a high neutron beam polarization with a maximum of 99.3% through polarizing Fe/Si supermirrors. Neutron spin-flippers with efficiencies of 99.7% give full control over the incident and scattered neutron spin direction over the whole wavelength spectrum available in the instrument. The first scientific experiments illustrate data correction mechanisms for finite polarizations and reveal an extraordinarily high reproducibility for measuring magnetic thin film samples. The setup is now fully commissioned and available for users through the neutron beam proposal system of the Bragg Institute at ANSTO.

  19. Phase-sensitive correlation optical time-domain reflectometer using quantum phase noise of laser light.

    PubMed

    Arias, A; Shlyagin, M G; Miridonov, S V; Manuel, Rodolfo Martinez

    2015-11-16

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate a simple approach to realize a phase-sensitive correlation optical time-domain reflectometer (OTDR) suitable for detection and localization of dynamic perturbations along a single-mode optical fiber. It is based on the quantum phase fluctuations of a coherent light emitted by a telecom DFB diode laser. Truly random probe signals are generated by an interferometer with the optical path difference exceeding the coherence length of the laser light. Speckle-like OTDR traces were obtained by calculating cross-correlation functions between the probe light and the light intensity signals returned back from the sensing fiber. Perturbations are detected and localized by monitoring time variations of correlation amplitude along the fiber length. Results of proof-of-concept experimental testing are presented using an array of ultra-low-reflectivity fiber Bragg gratings as weak reflectors. PMID:26698514

  20. Measurements of ICRF wave-induced density fluctuations in LHD by a microwave reflectometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ejiri, A.; Tokuzawa, T.; Tsujii, N.; Saito, K.; Seki, T.; Kasahara, H.; Kamio, S.; Seki, R.; Mutoh, T.; Yamada, I.; Takase, Y.

    2015-12-01

    An O-mode microwave reflectometer has been developed to measure ICRF wave induced electron density fluctuations in LHD plasmas. The system has two probing frequencies (28.8 and 30.1 GHz) to measure two spatial points simultaneously. The rms density fluctuation levels are typically 0.01%. The linearity between the measured density fluctuation amplitude and the square root of the RF power is discussed. The decay length of the RF field was estimated to be 1 to 7 m under the operational condition investigated. A typical spatial distance between the two measurement points corresponding to the two probing frequencies is a few centimeters, and the fluctuation amplitudes at the two points are similar in amplitude. The phase difference between the two fluctuations show in-phase relationship on average. Out-of phase relationships, which implies a standing wave structure, are often observed when the wave absorption is expected to be poor.

  1. Experiment Automation with a Robot Arm using the Liquids Reflectometer Instrument at the Spallation Neutron Source

    SciTech Connect

    Zolnierczuk, Piotr A; Vacaliuc, Bogdan; Sundaram, Madhan; Parizzi, Andre A; Halbert, Candice E; Hoffmann, Michael C; Greene, Gayle C; Browning, Jim; Ankner, John Francis

    2013-01-01

    The Liquids Reflectometer instrument installed at the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) enables observations of chemical kinetics, solid-state reactions and phase-transitions of thin film materials at both solid and liquid surfaces. Effective measurement of these behaviors requires each sample to be calibrated dynamically using the neutron beam and the data acquisition system in a feedback loop. Since the SNS is an intense neutron source, the time needed to perform the measurement can be the same as the alignment process, leading to a labor-intensive operation that is exhausting to users. An update to the instrument control system, completed in March 2013, implemented the key features of automated sample alignment and robot-driven sample management, allowing for unattended operation over extended periods, lasting as long as 20 hours. We present a case study of the effort, detailing the mechanical, electrical and software modifications that were made as well as the lessons learned during the integration, verification and testing process.

  2. Field Tests And Signature Analysis Of An Imaging CO2 Laser Radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J. Y.; Bartholomew, B. J.; Streiff, M. L.; Starr, E. F.; Pruitt, P. A.

    1983-12-01

    A coherent, imaging CO2 laser radar has been built and tested in the field. This laser radar uses a single-waveguide CO2 laser and heterodyne detection. Two acousto-optic frequency shifters generate the IF frequency. An acousto-optic standing-wave device provides the 15 MHz intensity modulation used for ranging. The sensor includes a two-axis, dual-aperture galvonometer scanner with selectable field of view and depression angles. The optical system fits on an easily transportable 3 ft by 4 ft optical bench. Both reflectance and range images are produced. The range imagery analysis shows a range resolution of approximately one foot. Statistical analysis of the reflectance data from a military truck, the dirt ground, and an asphalt road shows that they are Rayleigh distributed. The reflectivities of these objects are determined to be around two percent through comparison with laboratory reflectometer measurements.

  3. Ground radar detection of meteoroids in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kessler, D. J.; Landry, P. M.; Gabbard, J. R.; Moran, J. L. T.

    1980-01-01

    A special test to lower the detection threshold for satellite fragments potentially dangerous to spacecraft was carried out by NORAD for NASA, using modified radar software. The Perimeter Acquisition Radar Attack Characterization System, a large, planar face, phased radar, operates at a nominal 430 MHz and produces 120 pulses per second, 45 of which were dedicated to search. In a time period of 8.4 hours of observations over three days, over 6000 objects were detected and tracked of which 37 were determined to have velocities greater than escape velocity. Six of these were larger objects with radar cross sections greater than 0.1 sq m and were probably orbiting satellites. A table gives the flux of both observed groups.

  4. Survey of Ultra-wideband Radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mokole, Eric L.; Hansen, Pete

    The development of UWB radar over the last four decades is very briefly summarized. A discussion of the meaning of UWB is followed by a short history of UWB radar developments and discussions of key supporting technologies and current UWB radars. Selected UWB radars and the associated applications are highlighted. Applications include detecting and imaging buried mines, detecting and mapping underground utilities, detecting and imaging objects obscured by foliage, through-wall detection in urban areas, short-range detection of suicide bombs, and the characterization of the impulse responses of various artificial and naturally occurring scattering objects. In particular, the Naval Research Laboratory's experimental, low-power, dual-polarized, short-pulse, ultra-high resolution radar is used to discuss applications and issues of UWB radar. Some crucial issues that are problematic to UWB radar are spectral availability, electromagnetic interference and compatibility, difficulties with waveform control/shaping, hardware limitations in the transmission chain, and the unreliability of high-power sources for sustained use above 2 GHz.

  5. Cassini radar : system concept and simulation results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melacci, P. T.; Orosei, R.; Picardi, G.; Seu, R.

    1998-10-01

    The Cassini mission is an international venture, involving NASA, the European Space Agency (ESA) and the Italian Space Agency (ASI), for the investigation of the Saturn system and, in particular, Titan. The Cassini radar will be able to see through Titan's thick, optically opaque atmosphere, allowing us to better understand the composition and the morphology of its surface, but the interpretation of the results, due to the complex interplay of many different factors determining the radar echo, will not be possible without an extensive modellization of the radar system functioning and of the surface reflectivity. In this paper, a simulator of the multimode Cassini radar will be described, after a brief review of our current knowledge of Titan and a discussion of the contribution of the Cassini radar in answering to currently open questions. Finally, the results of the simulator will be discussed. The simulator has been implemented on a RISC 6000 computer by considering only the active modes of operation, that is altimeter and synthetic aperture radar. In the instrument simulation, strict reference has been made to the present planned sequence of observations and to the radar settings, including burst and single pulse duration, pulse bandwidth, pulse repetition frequency and all other parameters which may be changed, and possibly optimized, according to the operative mode. The observed surfaces are simulated by a facet model, allowing the generation of surfaces with Gaussian or non-Gaussian roughness statistic, together with the possibility of assigning to the surface an average behaviour which can represent, for instance, a flat surface or a crater. The results of the simulation will be discussed, in order to check the analytical evaluations of the models of the average received echoes and of the attainable performances. In conclusion, the simulation results should allow the validation of the theoretical evaluations of the capabilities of microwave instruments, when

  6. Detecting and mitigating wind turbine clutter for airspace radar systems.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wen-Qin

    2013-01-01

    It is well recognized that a wind turbine has a large radar cross-section (RCS) and, due to the movement of the blades, the wind turbine will generate a Doppler frequency shift. This scattering behavior may cause severe interferences on existing radar systems including static ground-based radars and spaceborne or airborne radars. To resolve this problem, efficient techniques or algorithms should be developed to mitigate the effects of wind farms on radars. Herein, one transponder-based mitigation technique is presented. The transponder is not a new concept, which has been proposed for calibrating high-resolution imaging radars. It modulates the radar signal in a manner that the retransmitted signals can be separated from the scene echoes. As wind farms often occupy only a small area, mitigation processing in the whole radar operation will be redundant and cost inefficient. Hence, this paper uses a transponder to determine whether the radar is impacted by the wind farms. If so, the effects of wind farms are then mitigated with subsequent Kalman filtering or plot target extraction algorithms. Taking airborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) and pulse Doppler radar as the examples, this paper provides the corresponding system configuration and processing algorithms. The effectiveness of the mitigation technique is validated by numerical simulation results. PMID:24385880

  7. Detecting and Mitigating Wind Turbine Clutter for Airspace Radar Systems

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    It is well recognized that a wind turbine has a large radar cross-section (RCS) and, due to the movement of the blades, the wind turbine will generate a Doppler frequency shift. This scattering behavior may cause severe interferences on existing radar systems including static ground-based radars and spaceborne or airborne radars. To resolve this problem, efficient techniques or algorithms should be developed to mitigate the effects of wind farms on radars. Herein, one transponder-based mitigation technique is presented. The transponder is not a new concept, which has been proposed for calibrating high-resolution imaging radars. It modulates the radar signal in a manner that the retransmitted signals can be separated from the scene echoes. As wind farms often occupy only a small area, mitigation processing in the whole radar operation will be redundant and cost inefficient. Hence, this paper uses a transponder to determine whether the radar is impacted by the wind farms. If so, the effects of wind farms are then mitigated with subsequent Kalman filtering or plot target extraction algorithms. Taking airborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) and pulse Doppler radar as the examples, this paper provides the corresponding system configuration and processing algorithms. The effectiveness of the mitigation technique is validated by numerical simulation results. PMID:24385880

  8. Airborne Differential Doppler Weather Radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meneghini, R.; Bidwell, S.; Liao, L.; Rincon, R.; Heymsfield, G.; Hildebrand, Peter H. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Precipitation Radar aboard the Tropical Rain Measuring Mission (TRMM) Satellite has shown the potential for spaceborne sensing of snow and rain by means of an incoherent pulsed radar operating at 13.8 GHz. The primary advantage of radar relative to passive instruments arises from the fact that the radar can image the 3-dimensional structure of storms. As a consequence, the radar data can be used to determine the vertical rain structure, rain type (convective/stratiform) effective storm height, and location of the melting layer. The radar, moreover, can be used to detect snow and improve the estimation of rain rate over land. To move toward spaceborne weather radars that can be deployed routinely as part of an instrument set consisting of passive and active sensors will require the development of less expensive, lighter-weight radars that consume less power. At the same time, the addition of a second frequency and an upgrade to Doppler capability are features that are needed to retrieve information on the characteristics of the drop size distribution, vertical air motion and storm dynamics. One approach to the problem is to use a single broad-band transmitter-receiver and antenna where two narrow-band frequencies are spaced apart by 5% to 10% of the center frequency. Use of Ka-band frequencies (26.5 GHz - 40 GHz) affords two advantages: adequate spatial resolution can be attained with a relatively small antenna and the differential reflectivity and mean Doppler signals are directly related to the median mass diameter of the snow and raindrop size distributions. The differential mean Doppler signal has the additional property that this quantity depends only on that part of the radial speed of the hydrometeors that is drop-size dependent. In principle, the mean and differential mean Doppler from a near-nadir viewing radar can be used to retrieve vertical air motion as well as the total mean radial velocity. In the paper, we present theoretical calculations for the

  9. Multiband radar for homeland security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tahim, Raghbir S.; Foshee, James; Chang, Kai

    2004-09-01

    Radar systems, which can operate in a variety of frequency bands, could provide significant flexibility in the operation of future Battle-space Management and Air Defense Systems (BMADS). Phased array antennas, which support high pulse rates and power, are well suited for surveillance, tracking and identifying the targets. These phased array antennas with the multiplicity of elements in phased array could provide accurate beam pointing, very rapid changes in beam location, and multiple beams, including algorithms for null steering for unwanted signals. No single radar band possesses characteristics that provide optimum performance. For example, L and S-bands are typically considered the best frequency ranges for acquisition and X-band is best for tracking. For many of the current phased array antennas the circuit components are narrow-band and therefore are not suitable for multi-band radar design. In addition, the cost, size, power dissipation, the weight, and, in general, the complexity has limited the development of multi-band phased array antenna systems. The system bandwidth of antenna array employing high loss phase shifters for beam steering also becomes limited due to the dispersion loss from the beam steering. As a result phased array radar design can result in a very large, complex, expensive, narrow band and less efficient system. This paper describes an alternative design approach in the design of wide-band phased array radar system based on multi-octave band antenna elements; and wide-band low loss phase shifters, switching circuits and T/R modules.

  10. Planetary landing-zone reconnaissance using ice-penetrating radar data: Concept validation in Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grima, Cyril; Schroeder, Dustin M.; Blankenship, Donald D.; Young, Duncan A.

    2014-11-01

    The potential for a nadir-looking radar sounder to retrieve significant surface roughness/permittivity information valuable for planetary landing site selection is demonstrated using data from an airborne survey of the Thwaites Glacier Catchment, West Antarctica using the High Capability Airborne Radar Sounder (HiCARS). The statistical method introduced by Grima et al. (2012. Icarus 220, 84-99. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11214-012-9916-y) for surface characterization is applied systematically along the survey flights. The coherent and incoherent components of the surface signal, along with an internally generated confidence factor, are extracted and mapped in order to show how a radar sounder can be used as both a reflectometer and a scatterometer to identify regions of low surface roughness compatible with a planetary lander. These signal components are used with a backscattering model to produce a landing risk assessment map by considering the following surface properties: Root mean square (RMS) heights, RMS slopes, roughness homogeneity/stationarity over the landing ellipse, and soil porosity. Comparing these radar-derived surface properties with simultaneously acquired nadir-looking imagery and laser-altimetry validates this method. The ability to assess all of these parameters with an ice penetrating radar expands the demonstrated capability of a principle instrument in icy planet satellite science to include statistical reconnaissance of the surface roughness to identify suitable sites for a follow-on lander mission.

  11. A reflectometer for the combined measurement of refractive index, microroughness, macroroughness and gloss of low-extinction surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elton, N. J.; Day, J. C. C.

    2009-02-01

    Roughness, porosity and gloss are important properties of many surfaces including coated and printed paper, paints and mineral-filled plastics. A visible light reflectometer is described for essentially simultaneous measurement of refractive index, gloss, microroughness (rms amplitude in the sub-wavelength region) and the two-dimensional forward scattering pattern (yielding the surface slope distribution and associated statistics) of glossy or semi-glossy low-extinction surfaces. The principal novelty is the ability to obtain this useful combination of data in a single measurement. In combination with an x-y stage, the reflectometer can readily produce surface maps of the various measurement parameters and it is expected that the data should offer improved insights into cause and effect in paper and other surfaces, for example to identify causes of gloss and print mottle. Illustrative experimental data are provided and some comparisons made between data obtained by reflectometry and by alternative techniques such as spectroscopic ellipsometry and atomic force microscopy.

  12. Spatiotemporal characterization of zonal flows with multi-channel correlation Doppler reflectometers in the HL-2A Tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, W. L.; Shi, Z. B.; Xu, Y.; Zou, X. L.; Duan, X. R.; Chen, W.; Jiang, M.; Yang, Z. C.; Zhang, B. Y.; Shi, P. W.; Liu, Z. T.; Xu, M.; Song, X. M.; Cheng, J.; Ke, R.; Nie, L.; Cui, Z. Y.; Fu, B. Z.; Ding, X. T.; Dong, J. Q.; Liu, Yi; Yan, L. W.; Yang, Q. W.; Liu, Y.; HL-2A Team

    2015-09-01

    The oscillations of poloidal plasma flows induced by radially sheared zonal flows are investigated by newly developed correlation Doppler reflectometers in the HL-2A tokamak. The non-disturbing diagnostic allows one to routinely measure the rotation velocity of turbulence, and hence the radial electric field fluctuations. With correlation Doppler reflectometers, a three-dimensional spatial structure of geodesic acoustic mode (GAM) is surveyed, including the symmetric feature of poloidal and toroidal Er fluctuations, the dependence of GAM frequency on radial temperature and the radial propagation of GAMs. The co-existence of low-frequency zonal flow and GAM is presented. The temporal behaviors of GAM during ramp-up experiments of plasma current and electron density are studied, which reveal the underlying damping mechanisms for the GAM oscillation level.

  13. Integrated laser/radar satellite ranging and tracking system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoge, F. E.

    1974-01-01

    A laser satellite ranging system that is mounted upon and integrated with a microwave tracking radar is reported. The 1-pulse/sec ruby laser transmitter is attached directly to the radar's elevation axis and radiates through a new opening in the radar's parabolic dish. The laser photomultiplier tube receiver utilizes the radar's existing 20-cm diam f/11 boresight telescope and observes through a similar symmetrically located opening in the dish. The laser system possesses separate ranging system electronics but shares the radar's timing, computer, and data handling/recording systems. The basic concept of the laser/radar is outlined together with a listing of the numerous advantages over present singular laser range-finding systems. The developmental laser hardware is described along with preliminary range-finding results and expectations.

  14. Radar systems for a polar mission, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, R. K.; Claassen, J. P.; Erickson, R. L.; Fong, R. K. T.; Komen, M. J.; Mccauley, J.; Mcmillan, S. B.; Parashar, S. K.

    1977-01-01

    The application of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) in monitoring and managing earth resources is examined. Synthetic aperture radars form a class of side-looking airborne radar, often referred to as coherent SLAR, which permits fine-resolution radar imagery to be generated at long operating ranges by the use of signal processing techniques. By orienting the antenna beam orthogonal to the motion of the spacecraft carrying the radar, a one-dimensional imagery ray system is converted into a two-dimensional or terrain imaging system. The radar's ability to distinguish - or resolve - closely spaced transverse objects is determined by the length of the pulse. The transmitter components receivers, and the mixer are described in details.

  15. In vitro validation of a hand-held optical reflectometer to measure clinically observed erosive tooth wear.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Thiago Saads; Assunção, Cristiane Meira; Jost, Fabian; Bürgin, Walter Bruno; Rodrigues, Jonas Almeida; Lussi, Adrian

    2016-08-01

    In this study, we analyzed a newly developed optical reflectometer for measuring erosive tooth wear (ETW) in vitro. Three examiners independently assessed the labial surface of 80 deciduous canines and 75 permanent incisors. One examiner performed visual examinations (BEWE), and the other two used the optical pen-size reflectometer to measure surface reflection intensity (SRI) on the same labial surfaces. The examinations were made in duplicate with at least 1 week interval. Intra- and inter-rater agreements were calculated using weighted kappa analysis for BEWE, and intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC) as well as Bland-Altman plots for SRI. The teeth were separated into without (BEWE 0) or with (BEWE 1-3) ETW, and SRI cut-off points were calculated. Intra-rater agreement for the visual examination was 0.46 and 0.82 for deciduous and permanent teeth, respectively. Inter-rater and intra-rater agreement for SRI were good (ICC > 0.7; p < 0.001). SRI measurements produced high specificity values for deciduous and permanent teeth (≥0.74 and ≥ 0.84, respectively), and lower sensitivity values (≥0.37 and ≥ 0.64, respectively), but permanent teeth had generally higher SRI values (p < 0.05). We observed a significant association between BEWE and SRI (p < 0.05). The optical pen-size reflectometer was able to adequately differentiate ETW on permanent teeth, with highly reliable and reproducible measurements, but ETW on deciduous teeth was less accurately differentiated. The reflectometer is a good candidate for clinical research. PMID:27184156

  16. The MST Radar Technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roettger, J.

    1984-01-01

    The coherent radar technique is reviewed with special emphasis to mesosphere-stratosphere-troposphere (MST) radars operating in the VHF band. Some basic introduction to Doppler radar measurements and the radar equation is followed by an outline of the characteristics of atmospheric turbulence, viewed from the scattering and reflection processes of radar signals. Radar signal acquisition and preprocessing, namely coherent detection, digital sampling, pre-integration and coding, is briefly discussed. The data analysis is represented in terms of the correlation and spectrum analysis, yielding the essential parameters: power, signal-to-noise ratio, average and fluctuating velocity and persistency. The techniques to measure wind velocities, viz. the different modes of the Doppler method as well as the space antenna method are surveyed and the feasibilities of the MST radar interferometer technique are elucidated. A general view on the criteria to design phased array antennas is given. An outline of the hardware of a typical MST radar system is presented.

  17. Upgrades to the NSTX SOL reflectometer to study plasma-antenna coupling and RF-edge interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lau, Cornwall; Wilgen, John B.; Caughman, John B.; Hanson, Greg R.; Hosea, Joel; Perkins, Rory; Ryan, Phil; Taylor, Gary

    2014-10-01

    The goal of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) scrape-off-layer (SOL) reflectometer is to measure the density profiles and fluctuations in front of the HHFW antenna on NSTX-U to help understand plasma-antenna coupling and RF-edge interactions, such as profile modifications due to field-aligned power losses and/or parametric decay instabilities. Originally designed for NSTX conditions, the reflectometer is being upgraded to operate at the increased magnetic fields of NSTX-U. General upgrades will be discussed. Most importantly, due to the doubling of the magnetic field for NSTX-U, the use of the current 6-27 GHz X-mode R cutoff on NSTX needs to be reconsidered. If only the X-mode R-cutoff is used, the operating frequencies will need to be modified, requiring significant hardware modifications to both the electronics and reflectometer launchers. It will be shown that the frequencies will not need to be modified for NSTX-U operation if both X-mode L and R cutoffs are measured. The measured SOL density profiles are intended to be used as inputs into RF simulation codes, and one such simulation using COMSOL multiphysics is being developed to understand the electric fields in front of the antenna for cold plasma conditions. Progress on the COMSOL simulation will be reported.

  18. Measurement of the ICRF wave propagation in the internal region of plasmas by using reflectometers on GAMMA10

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okada, T.; Ikezoe, R.; Ichimura, M.; Hirata, M.; Sakamoto, M.; Sumida, S.; Iwamoto, Y.; Jang, S.; Itagaki, J.; Onodera, Y.; Yoshikawa, M.; Kohagura, J.; Shima, Y.; Nakashima, Y.

    2015-11-01

    ICRF waves is one of valuable tools for producing and heating plasmas. On GAMMA10, ions are mainly heated by the ICRF waves with the absorption of the cyclotron resonance layers. ICRF waves of 6.36, 9.9 and 10.3 MHz are normally used to be compatible with the magnetic mirror configuration and damped at the resonance layers of the central cell, east and west anchor cells, respectively. These waves are usually excited by ICRF antennas installed in the central cell and propagate to each resonance layer. It is essential for the ongoing divertor simulation experiments on GAMMA 10 to investigate wave excitation, propagation and absorption. We observe the electron density fluctuations accompanied with the ICRF waves by using microwave reflectometer systems. It is confirmed that the wave of 6.36 MHz is further damped near the resonance layer in the internal region. The waves of 9.9 / 10.3 MHz excited in the east / west anchor cells interferes with the wave from the central cell. The interfered wave is controlled with antenna phasing by the phase difference between both antennas in the central and the anchor cell. The wave intensity measured by reflectometers depends clearly on the phase difference. In this talk, the availability of wave measurement with reflectometers is shown, and the wave propagation in the internal region of plasmas on GAMMA 10 is reported. This work is partly supported by JSPS, Japan (25400531, 15K17797) and by NIFS, Japan (NIFS15KUGM101).

  19. Doppler radar results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bracalente, Emedio M.

    1992-01-01

    The topics are covered in viewgraph form and include the following: (1) a summary of radar flight data collected; (2) a video of combined aft cockpit, nose camera, and radar hazard displays; (3) a comparison of airborne radar F-factor measurements with in situ and Terminal Doppler Weather Radar (TDWR) F-factors for some sample events; and (4) a summary of wind shear detection performance.

  20. Lunar radar backscatter studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, T. W.

    1979-01-01

    The lunar surface material in the Plato area is characterized using Earth based visual, infrared, and radar signatures. Radar scattering in the lunar regolith with an existing optical scattering computer program is modeled. Mapping with 1 to 2 km resolution of the Moon using a 70 cm Arecibo radar is presented.

  1. Radar: Human Safety Net

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritz, John M.

    2016-01-01

    Radar is a technology that can be used to detect distant objects not visible to the human eye. A predecessor of radar, called the telemobiloscope, was first used to detect ships in the fog in 1904 off the German coast. Many scientists have worked on the development and refinement of radar (Hertz with electromagnetic waves; Popov with determining…

  2. Radar cross calibration investigation TAMU radar polarimeter calibration measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanchard, A. J.; Newton, R. W.; Bong, S.; Kronke, C.; Warren, G. L.; Carey, D.

    1982-10-01

    A short pulse, 20 MHz bandwidth, three frequency radar polarimeter system (RPS) operates at center frequencies of 10.003 GHz, 4.75 GHz, and 1.6 GHz and utilizes dual polarized transmit and receive antennas for each frequency. The basic lay-out of the RPS is different from other truck mounted systems in that it uses a pulse compression IF section common to all three RF heads. Separate transmit and receive antennas are used to improve the cross-polarization isolation at each particular frequency. The receive is a digitally controlled gain modulated subsystem and is interfaced directly with a microprocesser computer for control and data manipulation. Antenna focusing distance, focusing each antenna pair, rf head stability, and polarization characteristics of RPS antennas are discussed. Platform and data acquisition procedures are described.

  3. Generating nonlinear FM chirp radar signals by multiple integrations

    DOEpatents

    Doerry, Armin W.

    2011-02-01

    A phase component of a nonlinear frequency modulated (NLFM) chirp radar pulse can be produced by performing digital integration operations over a time interval defined by the pulse width. Each digital integration operation includes applying to a respectively corresponding input parameter value a respectively corresponding number of instances of digital integration.

  4. Cloud Imaging Using the NRL WARLOC Radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fliflet, A. W.; Manheimer, W. M.; Germain, K. St.; Linde, G.; Cheung, W. J.; Gregers-Hansen, V.; Danly, B. G.; Ngo, M. T.

    2003-12-01

    The Naval Research Laboratory has recently developed a 3-10 kW average, 80 kW peak power 94 GHz radar with scanning capability, WARLOC. This radar is powered by a gyroklystron developed by a team led by NRL. One application has been to image clouds. New capabilities of WARLOC include imaging with greatly improved sensitivity and detail as well as the ability to detect much lower strength cloud returns. Here we show how pulse averaging enhances the sensitivity of WARLOC. Since the available power is so high, it can be used in moderate rain to both measure the rainfall rate and to image the cloud above the rain.

  5. Cloud and Precipitation Radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagen, Martin; Höller, Hartmut; Schmidt, Kersten

    Precipitation or weather radar is an essential tool for research, diagnosis, and nowcasting of precipitation events like fronts or thunderstorms. Only with weather radar is it possible to gain insights into the three-dimensional structure of thunderstorms and to investigate processes like hail formation or tornado genesis. A number of different radar products are available to analyze the structure, dynamics and microphysics of precipitation systems. Cloud radars use short wavelengths to enable detection of small ice particles or cloud droplets. Their applications differ from weather radar as they are mostly orientated vertically, where different retrieval techniques can be applied.

  6. A radar tour of Venus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beatty, J. K.

    1985-06-01

    The surface of Venus is briefly characterized in a summary of results obtained by the Soviet Venera 15 and 16 8-cm synthetic-aperture radars, IR radiometers, and radar altimeters. A series of radar images, mainly from Kotelnikov et al. (1984), are presented and discussed, and the descent vehicles to be released by the two Vega spacecraft as they pass Venus in June 1985 on their way to an encounter with Halley's comet are described. Plans for the missions Phobos (two spacecraft to orbit Mars, rendezvous with Phobos and Deimos, release small instrumented landers, and perform mass spectrometry of vapors released by laser pulses directed at the satellite surfaces, beginning in 1988), a lunar-orbiter mission for 1989-1990, and Vesta (a not-yet-approved 1991 mission comprising a French probe to the asteroid 4 Vesta and perhaps 53 Kalypso and 453 Tea and a Soviet spacecraft to release a kite-supported Venus-atmosphere probe before flying on to an unknown destination) are considered.

  7. Underwater probing with laser radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carswell, A. I.; Sizgoric, S.

    1975-01-01

    Recent advances in laser and electro optics technology have greatly enhanced the feasibility of active optical probing techniques aimed at the remote sensing of water parameters. This paper describes a LIDAR (laser radar) that has been designed and constructed for underwater probing. The influence of the optical properties of water on the general design parameters of a LIDAR system is considered. Discussion of the specific details in the choice of the constructed LIDAR is given. This system utilizes a cavity dumped argon ion laser transmitter capable of 50 watt peak powers, 10 nanosecond pulses and megahertz pulse repetition rates at 10 different wavelengths in the blue green region of the spectrum. The performance of the system, in proving various types of water, is demonstrated by summarizing the results of initial laboratory and field experiments.

  8. Spectral sharpening algorithm for a polychromatic reflectometer in the extreme ultraviolet.

    PubMed

    Banyay, M; Juschkin, L

    2010-04-01

    In this paper we present a practical approach to the analysis of spectra recorded from a table-top reflectometer operating in the extreme ultraviolet (UV) spectral range. Such in-lab tools, which utilize light from plasma based sources, are currently under investigation for a broad range of applications such as surface and thin-film analysis, near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) studies, or reflectivity measurements. In a polychromatic approach one is able to record surface-sensitive reflectometric spectra that are characteristic for each material or thin-film-layer stack. By monitoring the incident and emergent spectrum before and after the sample using two independent detectors, one can deduce its reflectivity. However, the analysis of the raw data, in terms of digitized spectrometric intensity values, can be difficult due to the nature of the quasi-continuous emission from such plasma sources, particularly with xenon, which is a good broad-band radiator in the 10-20 nm spectral range. The complexity of configurations involved in transitions of highly ionized xenon makes a line-by-line analysis very difficult as the real spectrum consists of thousands of unresolved transitions superimposed by distinctive lines. Additionally, sampling issues, detector geometry, and minor setup misalignments can distort the result. We propose a practical algorithm for spectral decomposition and sharpening of such data. Measurement results are presented that confirm the functionality of the algorithm. PMID:20412625

  9. The Southwest Research Institute ultraviolet reflectance chamber (SwURC): a far ultraviolet reflectometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winters, Gregory S.; Retherford, Kurt D.; Davis, Michael W.; Escobedo, Stephen M.; Bassett, Eric C.; Patrick, Edward L.; Nagengast, Maggie E.; Fairbanks, Matthew H.; Miles, Paul F.; Parker, Joel W.; Gladstone, G. Randall; Slater, David C.; Stern, S. Alan

    2012-10-01

    We designed and assembled a highly capable UV reflectometer chamber and data acquisition system to provide bidirectional scattering data of various surfaces and materials. This chamber was initially conceived to create laboratory-based UV reflectance measurements of water frost on lunar soil/regolith simulants, to support interpretation of UV reflectance data from the Lyman Alpha Mapping Project ("LAMP") instrument on-board the NASA Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft. A deuterium lamp illuminates surfaces and materials at a fixed 45° incident beam angle over the 115 to 200 nm range via a monochromator, while a photomultiplier tube detector is scanned to cover emission angles -85° to +85° (with a gap from -60° to -30°, due to the detector blocking the incident beam). Liquid nitrogen cools the material/sample mount when desired. The chamber can be configured to test a wide range of samples and materials using sample trays and holders. Test surfaces to date include aluminum mirrors, water ice, reflectance standards, and frozen mixtures of water and lunar soil/regolith stimulant. Future UV measurements planned include Apollo lunar samples, meteorite samples, other ices, minerals, and optical surfaces. Since this chamber may well be able to provide useful research data for groups outside Southwest Research Institute, we plan to take requests from and collaborate with others in the UV and surface reflection research community.

  10. Reflectometer Sensing of RF Waves in front of the HHFW antenna on NSTX

    SciTech Connect

    Wilgen, John B; Ryan, Philip Michael; Hanson, Gregory R; Swain, David W; Bernabei, Stefano; Greenough, Nevell; DePasquale, Steve; Phillips, Cynthia; Hosea, Joel; Wilson, Randy

    2006-01-01

    The ability to measure RF driven waves in the edge of the plasma can help to elucidate the role that surface waves and Parametric Decay Instabilities (PDI) play in RF power losses on NSTX. A microwave reflectometer has recently been modified to monitor RF plasma waves in the scrape-off layer in front of the 30 MHz High Harmonic Fast Wave (HHFW) antenna array on NSTX. In RF heated plasmas, the plasma-reflected microwave signal exhibits 30 MHz sidebands, due to the modulation of the cutoff layer by the electrostatic component of the heating wave. Similarly, electrostatic parametric decay waves (when present) are detected at frequencies below the heating frequency, near 28, 26, MHz, separated from the heating frequency by harmonics of the local ion cyclotron frequency of about 2 MHz. In addition, a corresponding frequency matched set of decay waves is also detected near the ion cyclotron harmonics, at 2, 4, MHz. The RF plasma-wave sensing capability is useful for determination of the PDI power threshold as a function of antenna array phasing (including toroidal wavelength), outer gap spacing, and various plasma parameters such as the magnetic field and the plasma current.

  11. Reflectometer sensing of rf waves in front of the high harmonic fast wave antenna on NSTX

    SciTech Connect

    Wilgen, J. B.; Ryan, P. M.; Hanson, G. R.; Swain, D. W.; Bernabei, S. I.; Greenough, N.; DePasquale, S.; Phillips, C. K.; Hosea, J. C.; Wilson, J. R.

    2006-10-15

    The ability to measure rf driven waves in the edge of the plasma can help to elucidate the role that surface waves and parametric decay instabilities (PDIs) play in rf power losses on NSTX. A microwave reflectometer has recently been modified to monitor rf plasma waves in the scrape-off layer in front of the 30 MHz high harmonic fast wave antenna array on NSTX. In rf heated plasmas, the plasma-reflected microwave signal exhibits 30 MHz sidebands, due primarily to the modulation of the cutoff layer by the electrostatic component of the heating wave. Similarly, electrostatic parametric decay waves (when present) are detected at frequencies below the heating frequency, near 28, 26,... MHz, separated from the heating frequency by harmonics of the local ion cyclotron frequency of about 2 MHz. In addition, a corresponding frequency matched set of decay waves is also detected near the ion cyclotron harmonics at 2, 4,... MHz. The rf plasma-wave sensing capability is useful for determination of the PDI power threshold as a function of antenna array phasing (including toroidal wavelength), outer gap spacing, and various plasma parameters such as the magnetic field and the plasma current.

  12. Developments of frequency comb microwave reflectometer for the interchange mode observations in LHD plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soga, R.; Tokuzawa, T.; Watanabe, K. Y.; Tanaka, K.; Yamada, I.; Inagaki, S.; Kasuya, N.

    2016-02-01

    We have upgraded the multi-channel microwave reflectometer system which uses a frequency comb as a source and measure the distribution of the density fluctuation caused by magneto-hydro dynamics instability. The previous multi-channel system was composed of the Ka-band, and the U-band system has been developed. Currently, the U-band system has eight frequency channels, which are 43.0, 45.0, 47.0, 49.0, 51.0, 53.0, 55.0, and 57.0 GHz, in U-band. Before the installation to the Large Helical Device (LHD), several tests for understanding the system characteristics, which are the phase responsibility, the linearity of output signal, and others, have been carried out. The in situ calibration in LHD has been done for the cross reference. In the neutral beam injected plasma experiments, we can observe the density fluctuation of the interchange mode and obtain the radial distribution of fluctuation amplitude.

  13. An all-NbN time domain reflectometer chip functional above 8K

    SciTech Connect

    Whiteley, S.R.; Kuo, F.; Radparvar, M.; Faris, S.M.

    1989-03-01

    The compound niobium nitride has a superconducting transition temperature nearly twice that of niobium. As this compound can be readily deposited in thin-film form at low temperatures, it shows promise in electronics applications, allowing circuits to operate within the temperature range of relatively inexpensive closed-cycle refrigerators. A 5 ps time domain reflectometer chip based on NbN technology has been designed, fabricated, and tested. The circuit is operable up to 9 K. The NbN process and limitations are discussed in the NbN Process section, pointing out present drawbacks in the junction fabrication method. Electrical properties are discussed in the following section. In the Circuit Description section, the circuit operation is described, and simulations are presented, based on model parameters extracted from device measurements. The actual output of the circuit is presented in the Measurements section as evidence of basic functionality. This is the first demonstration of a functional high-speed circuit based entirely on a compound superconductor technology and operable at temperatures above 8 K.

  14. Technical overview of the millimeter-wave imaging reflectometer on the DIII-D tokamak (invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muscatello, C. M.; Domier, C. W.; Hu, X.; Kramer, G. J.; Luhmann, N. C.; Ren, X.; Riemenschneider, P.; Spear, A.; Tobias, B. J.; Valeo, E.; Yu, L.

    2014-11-01

    The two-dimensional mm-wave imaging reflectometer (MIR) on DIII-D is a multi-faceted device for diagnosing electron density fluctuations in fusion plasmas. Its multi-channel, multi-frequency capabilities and high sensitivity permit visualization and quantitative diagnosis of density perturbations, including correlation length, wavenumber, mode propagation velocity, and dispersion. The two-dimensional capabilities of MIR are made possible with 12 vertically separated sightlines and four-frequency operation (corresponding to four radial channels). The 48-channel DIII-D MIR system has a tunable source that can be stepped in 500 μs increments over a range of 56 to 74 GHz. An innovative optical design keeps both on-axis and off-axis channels focused at the cutoff surface, permitting imaging over an extended poloidal region. The integrity of the MIR optical design is confirmed by comparing Gaussian beam calculations to laboratory measurements of the transmitter beam pattern and receiver antenna patterns. Measurements are presented during the density ramp of a plasma discharge to demonstrate unfocused and focused MIR signals.

  15. Technical overview of the millimeter-wave imaging reflectometer on the DIII-D tokamak (invited)

    SciTech Connect

    Muscatello, C. M. Domier, C. W.; Hu, X.; Luhmann, N. C.; Ren, X.; Riemenschneider, P.; Spear, A.; Valeo, E.; Yu, L.; Kramer, G. J.; Tobias, B. J.

    2014-11-15

    The two-dimensional mm-wave imaging reflectometer (MIR) on DIII-D is a multi-faceted device for diagnosing electron density fluctuations in fusion plasmas. Its multi-channel, multi-frequency capabilities and high sensitivity permit visualization and quantitative diagnosis of density perturbations, including correlation length, wavenumber, mode propagation velocity, and dispersion. The two-dimensional capabilities of MIR are made possible with 12 vertically separated sightlines and four-frequency operation (corresponding to four radial channels). The 48-channel DIII-D MIR system has a tunable source that can be stepped in 500 μs increments over a range of 56 to 74 GHz. An innovative optical design keeps both on-axis and off-axis channels focused at the cutoff surface, permitting imaging over an extended poloidal region. The integrity of the MIR optical design is confirmed by comparing Gaussian beam calculations to laboratory measurements of the transmitter beam pattern and receiver antenna patterns. Measurements are presented during the density ramp of a plasma discharge to demonstrate unfocused and focused MIR signals.

  16. In situ polarized 3He system for the Magnetism Reflectometer at the Spallation Neutron Source.

    PubMed

    Tong, X; Jiang, C Y; Lauter, V; Ambaye, H; Brown, D; Crow, L; Gentile, T R; Goyette, R; Lee, W T; Parizzi, A; Robertson, J L

    2012-07-01

    We report on the in situ polarized (3)He neutron polarization analyzer developed for the time-of-flight Magnetism Reflectometer at the Spallation Neutron Source at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Using the spin exchange optical pumping method, we achieved a (3)He polarization of 76% ± 1% and maintained it for the entire three-day duration of the test experiment. Based on transmission measurements with unpolarized neutrons, we show that the average analyzing efficiency of the (3)He system is 98% for the neutron wavelength band of 2-5 Å. Using a highly polarized incident neutron beam produced by a supermirror bender polarizer, we obtained a flipping ratio of >100 with a transmission of 25% for polarized neutrons, averaged over the wavelength band of 2-5 Å. After the cell was depolarized for transmission measurements, it was reproducibly polarized and this performance was maintained for three weeks. A high quality polarization analysis experiment was performed on a reference sample of Fe/Cr multilayer with strong spin-flip off-specular scattering. Using a combination of the position sensitive detector, time-of-flight method, and the excellent parameters of the (3)He cell, the polarization analysis of the two-dimensional maps of reflected, refracted, and off-specular scattered intensity above and below the horizon were obtained, simultaneously. PMID:22852718

  17. Technical overview of the millimeter-wave imaging reflectometer on the DIII-D tokamak (invited).

    PubMed

    Muscatello, C M; Domier, C W; Hu, X; Kramer, G J; Luhmann, N C; Ren, X; Riemenschneider, P; Spear, A; Tobias, B J; Valeo, E; Yu, L

    2014-11-01

    The two-dimensional mm-wave imaging reflectometer (MIR) on DIII-D is a multi-faceted device for diagnosing electron density fluctuations in fusion plasmas. Its multi-channel, multi-frequency capabilities and high sensitivity permit visualization and quantitative diagnosis of density perturbations, including correlation length, wavenumber, mode propagation velocity, and dispersion. The two-dimensional capabilities of MIR are made possible with 12 vertically separated sightlines and four-frequency operation (corresponding to four radial channels). The 48-channel DIII-D MIR system has a tunable source that can be stepped in 500 μs increments over a range of 56 to 74 GHz. An innovative optical design keeps both on-axis and off-axis channels focused at the cutoff surface, permitting imaging over an extended poloidal region. The integrity of the MIR optical design is confirmed by comparing Gaussian beam calculations to laboratory measurements of the transmitter beam pattern and receiver antenna patterns. Measurements are presented during the density ramp of a plasma discharge to demonstrate unfocused and focused MIR signals. PMID:25430212

  18. Amplitude modulated heterodyne reflectometer for density profile and density fluctuation profile measurements at W7-AS

    SciTech Connect

    Hirsch, M.; Hartfuss, H.; Geist, T.; de la Luna, E.

    1996-05-01

    A broadband heterodyne reflectometer operating in the frequency range 75{endash}110 GHz in extraordinary mode polarization is used at the W7-AS stellarator for both fast density profile determination and density fluctuation studies. The probing signal is amplitude modulated at a frequency 133 MHz using the envelope phase for profile evaluation and the carrier phase to determine the fluctuation information simultaneously. Separate Gaussian beam optics for final signal launch and detection permits a beam waist of about 2 cm at the reflecting layer in the plasma. Amplitude modulated detection is accomplished in the intermediate frequency part by synchronous detection after recovery of the carrier by narrow-band filtering. Voltage controlled solid state oscillators followed by active frequency multiplication allow to scan the full frequency band within less than 1 ms. For typical W7-AS operation the accessible density range is 1{times}10{sup 19} to 6{times}10{sup 19} m{sup {minus}3} for on axis magnetic field of 2.5 T and 4.5{times}10{sup 19} to 10{times}10{sup 19} m{sup {minus}3} for 1.25 T, respectively. The probed radial positions range between 0.2{lt}{ital r}/{ital a}{lt}1.1 depending on plasma conditions ({ital a}{approx_equal}17 cm). {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  19. Attenuation of front-end reflections in an impulse radar using high-speed switching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzaro, Gregory J.; Ressler, Marc A.; Smith, Gregory D.

    2011-06-01

    Pulse reflection between front-end components is a common problem for impulse radar systems. Such reflections arise because radio frequency components are rarely impedance-matched over an ultra-wide bandwidth. Any mismatch between components causes a portion of the impulse to reflect within the radar front-end. If the reflection couples into the transmit antenna, the radar emits an unintended, delayed and distorted replica of the intended radar transmission. These undesired transmissions reflect from the radar environment, produce echoes in the radar image, and generate false alarms in the vicinity of actual targets. The proposed solution for eliminating these echoes, without redesigning the transmit antenna, is to dissipate pulse reflections in a matched load before they are emitted. A high-speed switch directs the desired pulse to the antenna and redirects the undesired reflection from the antenna to a matched load. The Synchronous Impulse Reconstruction (SIRE) radar developed by the Army Research Laboratory (ARL) is the case-study. This paper reviews the current front-end design, provides a recent radar image which displays the aforementioned echoes, and describes the switch-cable-load circuit solution for eliminating the echoes. The consequences of inserting each portion of the new hardware into the radar front-end are explained. Measurements on the front-end with the high-speed switch show an attenuation of the undesired pulse transmissions of more than 18 dB and an attenuation in the desired pulse transmission of less than 3 dB.

  20. Method and Apparatus for Reading Two Dimensional Identification Symbols Using Radar Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schramm, Harry F., Jr. (Inventor); Roxby, Donald L. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A method and apparatus are provided for sensing two-dimensional identification marks provided on a substrate or embedded within a substrate below a surface of the substrate. Micropower impulse radar is used to transmit a high risetime, short duration pulse to a focussed radar target area of the substrate having the two dimensional identification marks. The method further includes the steps of listening for radar echoes returned from the identification marks during a short listening period window occurring a predetermined time after transmission of the radar pulse. If radar echoes are detected, an image processing step is carried out. If no radar echoes are detected, the method further includes sequentially transmitting further high risetime, short duration pulses, and listening for radar echoes from each of said further pulses after different elapsed times for each of the further pulses until radar echoes are detected. When radar echoes are detected, data based on the detected echoes is processed to produce an image of the identification marks.

  1. MIMO OFDM radar IRCI free range reconstruction with sufficient cyclic prefix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Xiang-gen; Zhang, Tianxian; Kong, Lingjiang

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, we propose MIMO OFDM radar with sufficient cyclic prefix (CP), where all OFDM pulses transmitted from different transmitters share the same frequency band and are orthogonal to each other for every subcarrier in the discrete frequency domain. The orthogonality is not affected by time delays from transmitters. Thus, our proposed MIMO OFDM radar has the same range resolution as single transmitter radar and achieves full spatial diversity. Orthogonal designs are used to achieve this orthogonality across the transmitters, with which it is only needed to design OFDM pulses for the first transmitter. We also propose a joint pulse compression and pulse coherent integration for range reconstruction. In order to achieve the optimal SNR for the range reconstruction, we apply the paraunitary filterbank theory to design the OFDM pulses. We then propose a modified iterative clipping and filtering (MICF) algorithm for the designs of OFDM pulses jointly, when other important factors, such as peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) in time domain, are also considered. With our proposed MIMO OFDM radar, there is no interference for the range reconstruction not only across the transmitters but also across the range cells in a swath called inter-range-cell interference (IRCI) free that is similar to our previously proposed CP based OFDM radar for single transmitter. Simulations are presented to illustrate our proposed theory and show that the CP based MIMO OFDM radar outperforms the existing frequency-band shared MIMO radar with polyphase codes and also frequency division MIMO radar.

  2. Signal Processing Techniques for a Planetary Subsurface Radar Onboard Satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yagitani, S.; Ishikawa, T.; Nagano, I.; Kojima, H.; Matsumoto, H.

    2001-12-01

    We are developing a satellite-borne HF ( ~ 10 MHz) radar system to be used to investigate planetary subsurface layered structures. Before deciding the design of a high-performance subsurface radar system, in this study we calculate the propagation and reflection characteristics of various HF radar pulses through subsurface layer models, in order to examine the wave forms and frequencies of the radar pulses suitable to discriminate and pick up weak subsurface echoes buried in stronger surface reflection and scattering echoes. In the numerical calculations the wave form of a transmitted radar pulse is first Fourier-transformed into a number of elementary plane waves having different frequencies, for each of which the propagation and reflection characteristics through subsurface layer models are calculated by a full wave analysis. Then the wave form of the reflected radar echo is constructed by synthesizing all of the elementary plane waves. As the transmitted pulses, we use several different types of wave form modulation to realize the radar pulse compression to improve the signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio and time resolution of the subsurface echoes: the linear FM chirp (conventional), the M (maximal-length) sequence and the complementary sequences. We will discuss the characteristics of these pulse compression techniques, such as the improvement in the S/N ratio and the time resolution to identify the subsurface echoes. We will also present the possibility of applying the Multiple Signal Classification (MUSIC) method to further improve both the S/N ratio and time resolution to extract the weaker subsurface echoes.

  3. 2. VIEW SOUTHWEST, prime search radar tower, height finder radar ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW SOUTHWEST, prime search radar tower, height finder radar towards, height finder radar towers, and radar tower (unknown function) - Fort Custer Military Reservation, P-67 Radar Station, .25 mile north of Dickman Road, east of Clark Road, Battle Creek, Calhoun County, MI

  4. Transponder-aided joint calibration and synchronization compensation for distributed radar systems.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wen-Qin

    2015-01-01

    High-precision radiometric calibration and synchronization compensation must be provided for distributed radar system due to separate transmitters and receivers. This paper proposes a transponder-aided joint radiometric calibration, motion compensation and synchronization for distributed radar remote sensing. As the transponder signal can be separated from the normal radar returns, it is used to calibrate the distributed radar for radiometry. Meanwhile, the distributed radar motion compensation and synchronization compensation algorithms are presented by utilizing the transponder signals. This method requires no hardware modifications to both the normal radar transmitter and receiver and no change to the operating pulse repetition frequency (PRF). The distributed radar radiometric calibration and synchronization compensation require only one transponder, but the motion compensation requires six transponders because there are six independent variables in the distributed radar geometry. Furthermore, a maximum likelihood method is used to estimate the transponder signal parameters. The proposed methods are verified by simulation results. PMID:25794158

  5. Transponder-Aided Joint Calibration and Synchronization Compensation for Distributed Radar Systems

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wen-Qin

    2015-01-01

    High-precision radiometric calibration and synchronization compensation must be provided for distributed radar system due to separate transmitters and receivers. This paper proposes a transponder-aided joint radiometric calibration, motion compensation and synchronization for distributed radar remote sensing. As the transponder signal can be separated from the normal radar returns, it is used to calibrate the distributed radar for radiometry. Meanwhile, the distributed radar motion compensation and synchronization compensation algorithms are presented by utilizing the transponder signals. This method requires no hardware modifications to both the normal radar transmitter and receiver and no change to the operating pulse repetition frequency (PRF). The distributed radar radiometric calibration and synchronization compensation require only one transponder, but the motion compensation requires six transponders because there are six independent variables in the distributed radar geometry. Furthermore, a maximum likelihood method is used to estimate the transponder signal parameters. The proposed methods are verified by simulation results. PMID:25794158

  6. Modern Radar Techniques for Geophysical Applications: Two Examples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arokiasamy, B. J.; Bianchi, C.; Sciacca, U.; Tutone, G.; Zirizzotti, A.; Zuccheretti, E.

    2005-01-01

    The last decade of the evolution of radar was heavily influenced by the rapid increase in the information processing capabilities. Advances in solid state radio HF devices, digital technology, computing architectures and software offered the designers to develop very efficient radars. In designing modern radars the emphasis goes towards the simplification of the system hardware, reduction of overall power, which is compensated by coding and real time signal processing techniques. Radars are commonly employed in geophysical radio soundings like probing the ionosphere; stratosphere-mesosphere measurement, weather forecast, GPR and radio-glaciology etc. In the laboratorio di Geofisica Ambientale of the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV), Rome, Italy, we developed two pulse compression radars. The first is a HF radar called AIS-INGV; Advanced Ionospheric Sounder designed both for the purpose of research and for routine service of the HF radio wave propagation forecast. The second is a VHF radar called GLACIORADAR, which will be substituting the high power envelope radar used by the Italian Glaciological group. This will be employed in studying the sub glacial structures of Antarctica, giving information about layering, the bed rock and sub glacial lakes if present. These are low power radars, which heavily rely on advanced hardware and powerful real time signal processing. Additional information is included in the original extended abstract.

  7. Laser radar in robotics

    SciTech Connect

    Carmer, D.C.; Peterson, L.M.

    1996-02-01

    In this paper the authors describe the basic operating principles of laser radar sensors and the typical algorithms used to process laser radar imagery for robotic applications. The authors review 12 laser radar sensors to illustrate the variety of systems that have been applied to robotic applications wherein information extracted from the laser radar data is used to automatically control a mechanism or process. Next, they describe selected robotic applications in seven areas: autonomous vehicle navigation, walking machine foot placement, automated service vehicles, manufacturing and inspection, automotive, military, and agriculture. They conclude with a discussion of the status of laser radar technology and suggest trends seen in the application of laser radar sensors to robotics. Many new applications are expected as the maturity level progresses and system costs are reduced.

  8. Planetary radar studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, T. W.; Cutts, J. A.

    1981-01-01

    A catalog of lunar and radar anomalies was generated to provide a base for comparison with Venusian radar signatures. The relationships between lunar radar anomalies and regolith processes were investigated, and a consortium was formed to compare lunar and Venusian radar images of craters. Time was scheduled at the Arecibo Observatory to use the 430 MHz radar to obtain high resolution radar maps of six areas of the lunar suface. Data from 1978 observations of Mare Serenitas and Plato are being analyzed on a PDP 11/70 computer to construct the computer program library necessary for the eventual reduction of the May 1981 and subsequent data acquisitions. Papers accepted for publication are presented.

  9. 3. VIEW NORTHWEST, height finder radar towers, and radar tower ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW NORTHWEST, height finder radar towers, and radar tower (unknown function) - Fort Custer Military Reservation, P-67 Radar Station, .25 mile north of Dickman Road, east of Clark Road, Battle Creek, Calhoun County, MI

  10. 30. Perimeter acquisition radar building room #318, showing radar control. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. Perimeter acquisition radar building room #318, showing radar control. Console and line printers - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Perimeter Acquisition Radar Building, Limited Access Area, between Limited Access Patrol Road & Service Road A, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  11. W-band ARM Cloud Radar (WACR) Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Widener, KB; Johnson, K

    2005-01-05

    The W-band Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Cloud Radar (WACR) systems are zenith pointing Doppler radars that probe the extent and composition of clouds at 95.04 GHz. The main purpose of this radar is to determine cloud boundaries (e.g., cloud bottoms and tops). This radar reports estimates for the first three spectra moments for each range gate up to 15 km. The 0th moment is reflectivity, the 1st moment is radial velocity, and the 2nd moment is spectral width. Also available are the raw spectra files. Unlike the millimeter wavelength cloud radar (MMCR), the WACR does not use pulse coding and operates in only copolarization and cross-polarization modes.

  12. Description and availability of airborne Doppler radar data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrah, S. D.; Bracalente, E. M.; Schaffner, P. R.; Baxa, E. G.

    1993-01-01

    An airborne, forward-looking, pulse, Doppler radar has been developed in conjunction with the joint FAA/NASA Wind Shear Program. This radar represents a first in an emerging technology. The radar was developed to assess the applicability of an airborne radar to detect low altitude hazardous wind shears for civil aviation applications. Such a radar must be capable of looking down into the ground clutter environment and extracting wind estimates from relatively low reflectivity weather targets. These weather targets often have reflectivities several orders of magnitude lower than the surrounding ground clutter. The NASA radar design incorporates numerous technological and engineering achievements in order to accomplish this task. The basic R/T unit evolved from a standard Collins 708 weather radar, which supports specific pulse widths of 1-7 microns and Pulse Repetition Frequencies (PRF) of less than 1-10 kHz. It was modified to allow for the output of the first IF signal, which fed a NASA developed receiver/detector subsystem. The NASA receiver incorporated a distributed, high-speed digital attenuator, producing a range bin to range bin automatic gain control system with 65 dB of dynamic range. Using group speed information supplied by the aircraft's navigation system, the radar signal is frequency demodulated back to base band (zero Doppler relative to stationary ground). The In-phase & Quadrature-phase (I/Q) components of the measured voltage signal are then digitized by a 12-bit A-D converter (producing an additional 36 dB of dynamic range). The raw I/Q signal for each range bin is then recorded (along with the current radar & aircraft state parameters) by a high-speed Kodak tape recorder.

  13. Eye-safe coherent laser radar system at 2.1 microns using Tm,Ho:YAG lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, Sammy W.; Hale, Charley P.; Magee, James R.; Kavaya, Michael J.; Huffaker, A. V.

    1991-01-01

    An eye-safe pulsed coherent laser radar has been developed by using single-frequency Tm,Ho:YAG lasers and heterodyne detection. Returns from a mountainside located 145 km from the laser radar system and the measurement of wind velocity to ranges exceeding 20 km have been demonstrated with transmitted pulse energies of 22 mJ.

  14. 1999 IEEE radar conference

    SciTech Connect

    1999-07-01

    This conference addresses the stringent radar technology demands facing the next century: target detection, tracking and identification; changing target environment; increased clutter mitigation techniques; air traffic control; transportation; drug smuggling; remote sensing, and other consumer oriented applications. A timely discussion covers how to minimize costs for these emerging areas. Advanced radar technology theory and applications are also presented. Topics covered include: signal processing; space time adaptive processing/antennas; surveillance technology; radar systems; dual use; and phenomenology.

  15. Radar signal categorization using a neural network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, James A.; Gately, Michael T.; Penz, P. Andrew; Collins, Dean R.

    1991-01-01

    Neural networks were used to analyze a complex simulated radar environment which contains noisy radar pulses generated by many different emitters. The neural network used is an energy minimizing network (the BSB model) which forms energy minima - attractors in the network dynamical system - based on learned input data. The system first determines how many emitters are present (the deinterleaving problem). Pulses from individual simulated emitters give rise to separate stable attractors in the network. Once individual emitters are characterized, it is possible to make tentative identifications of them based on their observed parameters. As a test of this idea, a neural network was used to form a small data base that potentially could make emitter identifications.

  16. Planetary radar astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostro, S. J.

    1983-03-01

    The present investigation is concerned with planetary radar research reported during the time from 1979 to 1982. A brief synopsis of radar definitions and technical terminology is also provided. In connection with the proximity of the moon to earth, lunar radar studies have been performed over a wider range of wavelengths than radar investigations of other planetary targets. The most recent study of lunar quasispecular scattering is due to Simpson and Tyler (1982). The latest efforts to interpret the lunar radar maps focus on maria-highlands regolith differences and models of crater ejecta evolution. The highly successful Pioneer Venus Radar Mapper experiment has provided a first look at Venus' global distributions of topography, lambda 17-cm radar reflectivity, and rms surface slopes. Attention is given to recent comparisons of Viking Orbiter images of Mars to groundbased radar altimetry of the planet, the icy Galilean satellites, radar observations of asteroids and comets, and lambda 4-cm and lambda 13-cm observations of Saturn's rings.

  17. New versions of instrument tuning program and visualization of spectra for reflectometers at the IBR-2 reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirilov, A. S.

    2016-01-01

    This article is devoted to the main features of the tuning program (ICE) and the spectra visualization program (SpectraViewer) used at reflectometers of the IBR-2, Frank Laboratory of Neutron Physics, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, (FLNP JINR). The ICE program is implemented as an add-on for the control of Sonix+ software and is designed to adjust the instrument before the main measurement. The SpectraViewer program is also used on other instruments. Programs have been written using the PyQt and the graphics library matplotlib. The work has been carried out at the FLNP JINR.

  18. Rendezvous radar for the orbital maneuvering vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Locke, John W.; Olds, Keith; Parks, Howard

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes the development of the Rendezvous Radar Set (RRS) for the Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV) for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The RRS was to be used to locate, and then provide vectoring information to, target satellites (or Shuttle or Space Station) to aid the OMV in making a minimum-fuel-consumption approach and rendezvous. The RRS design is that of an X-Band, all solid-state, monopulse tracking, frequency hopping, pulse-Doppler radar system. The development of the radar was terminated when the OMV prime contract to TRW was terminated by NASA. At the time of the termination, the development was in the circuit design stage. The system design was virtually completed, the PDR had been held. The RRS design was based on Motorola's experiences, both in the design and production of radar systems for the US Army and in the design and production of hi-rel communications systems for NASA space programs. Experience in these fields was combined with the latest digital signal processor and micro-processor technology to design a light-weight, low-power, spaceborne radar. The antenna and antenna positioner (gimbals) technology developed for the RRS is now being used in the satellite-to-satellite communication link design for Motorola's Iridium telecommunications system.

  19. Ultra-short pulse generator

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, T.E.

    1993-12-28

    An inexpensive pulse generating circuit is disclosed that generates ultra-short, 200 picosecond, and high voltage 100 kW, pulses suitable for wideband radar and other wideband applications. The circuit implements a nonlinear transmission line with series inductors and variable capacitors coupled to ground made from reverse biased diodes to sharpen and increase the amplitude of a high-voltage power MOSFET driver input pulse until it causes non-destructive transit time breakdown in a final avalanche shock wave diode, which increases and sharpens the pulse even more. 5 figures.

  20. Ultra-short pulse generator

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, Thomas E.

    1993-01-01

    An inexpensive pulse generating circuit is disclosed that generates ultra-short, 200 picosecond, and high voltage 100 kW, pulses suitable for wideband radar and other wideband applications. The circuit implements a nonlinear transmission line with series inductors and variable capacitors coupled to ground made from reverse biased diodes to sharpen and increase the amplitude of a high-voltage power MOSFET driver input pulse until it causes non-destructive transit time breakdown in a final avalanche shockwave diode, which increases and sharpens the pulse even more.

  1. Operation of a Radar Altimeter over the Greenland Ice Sheet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grund, Matthew D.

    1996-01-01

    This thesis presents documentation for the Advanced Application Flight Experiment (AAFE) pulse compression radar altimeter and its role in the NASA Multisensor Airborne Altimetry Experiment over Greenland in 1993. The AAFE Altimeter is a Ku-band microwave radar which has demonstrated 14 centimeter range precision in operation over arctic ice. Recent repairs and improvements were required to make the Greenland missions possible. Transmitter, receiver and software modifications, as well as the integration of a GPS receiver are thoroughly documented. Procedures for installation, and operation of the radar are described. Finally, suggestions are made for further system improvements.

  2. Signal Processing System for the CASA Integrated Project I Radars

    SciTech Connect

    Bharadwaj, Nitin; Chandrasekar, V.; Junyent, Francesc

    2010-09-01

    This paper describes the waveform design space and signal processing system for dual-polarization Doppler weather radar operating at X band. The performance of the waveforms is presented with ground clutter suppression capability and mitigation of range velocity ambiguity. The operational waveform is designed based on operational requirements and system/hardware requirements. A dual Pulse Repetition Frequency (PRF) waveform was developed and implemented for the first generation X-band radars deployed by the Center for Collaborative Adaptive Sensing of the Atmosphere (CASA). This paper presents an evaluation of the performance of the waveforms based on simulations and data collected by the first-generation CASA radars during operations.

  3. Bayesian detection of radar interference in radio astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeffs, Brian D.; Lazarte, Weizhen; Fisher, J. Richard

    2006-06-01

    L-Band observations at the Green Bank Telescope (GBT) and other radio observatories are often made in frequency bands allocated to aviation pulsed radar transmissions. It is possible to mitigate radar contamination of the astronomical signal by time blanking data containing these pulses. However, even when strong direct path pulses and nearby fixed clutter echoes are removed there are still undetected weaker aircraft echoes present which can corrupt the data. In a previous paper we presented an algorithm to improve real-time echo blanking by forming a Kalman filter tracker to follow the path of a sequence of echoes observed on successive radar antenna sweeps. The tracker builds a history which can be used to predict the location of upcoming echoes. We now present details of a new Bayesian detection algorithm which uses this prediction information to enable more sensitive weak pulse acquisition. The developed track information is used to form a spatial prior probability distribution for the presence of the next echoes. Regions with higher probability are processed with a lower detection threshold to pull out low level pulses without increasing the overall probability of false alarm detection. The ultimate result is more complete removal, by blanking the detected pulse, of radar corruption in astronomical observations.

  4. UAS-Based Radar Sounding of Ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hale, R. D.; Keshmiri, S.; Leuschen, C.; Ewing, M.; Yan, J. B.; Rodriguez-Morales, F.; Gogineni, S.

    2014-12-01

    The University of Kansas Center for Remote Sensing of Ice Sheets developed two Unmanned Aerial Systems (UASs) to support polar research. We developed a mid-range UAS, called the Meridian, for operating a radar depth sounder/imager at 195 MHz with an eight-element antenna array. The Meridian weighs 1,100 lbs, has a 26-foot wingspan, and a range of 950 nm at its full payload capacity of 120 lbs. Ice-penetrating radar performance drove the configuration design, though additional payloads and sensors were considered to ensure adaptation to multi-mission science payloads. We also developed a short range UAS called the G1X for operating a low-frequency radar sounder that operates at 14 and 35 MHz. The G1X weighs 85 lbs, has a 17-foot wingspan, and a range of about 60 nm per gallon of fuel. The dual-frequency HF/VHF radar depth sounder transmits at 100 W peak power at a pulse repetition frequency of 10 KHz and weighs approximately 4.5 lbs. We conducted flight tests of the G1X integrated with the radar at the Sub-glacial Lake Whillans ice stream and the WISSARD drill site. The tests included pilot-controlled and fully autonomous flights to collect data over closely-spaced lines to synthesize a 2-D aperture. We obtained clear bed echoes with a signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio of more than 50 dB at this location. These are the first-ever successful soundings of glacial ice with a UAS-based radar. Although ice attenuation losses in this location are low in comparison to more challenging targets, in-field performance improvements to the UAS and HF/VHF radar system enabled significant gains in the signal-to-noise ratio, such that the system can now be demonstrated on more challenging outlet glaciers. We are upgrading the G1X UAS and radar system for further tests and data collection in Greenland. We are reducing the weight and volume of the radar, which, when coupled with further reductions in airframe and avionics weight and a larger fuel bladder, will offer extended range. Finally

  5. Development of Surfaces Optically Suitable for Flat Solar Panels. [using a reflectometer which separately evaluates spectral and diffuse reflectivities of surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    A reflectometer which can separately evaluate the spectral and diffuse reflectivities of surfaces is described. A phase locked detection system for the reflectometer is also described. A selective coating on aluminum potentially useful for flat plate solar collector applications is presented. The coating is composed of strongly bound copper oxide (divalent) and is formed by an etching process performed on an aluminum alloy with high copper content. Fabrication costs are expected to be small due to the one stop fabrication process. A number of conclusions gathered from the literature as to the required optical properties of flat plate solar collectors are discussed.

  6. Wideband Waveform Design principles for Solid-state Weather Radars

    SciTech Connect

    Bharadwaj, Nitin; Chandrasekar, V.

    2012-01-01

    The use of solid-state transmitter is becoming a key part of the strategy to realize a network of low cost electronically steered radars. However, solid-state transmitters have low peak powers and this necessitates the use of pulse compression waveforms. In this paper a frequency diversity wideband waveforms design is proposed to mitigate low sensitivity of solid-state transmitters. In addition, the waveforms mitigate the range eclipsing problem associated with long pulse compression. An analysis of the performance of pulse compression using mismatched compression filters designed to minimize side lobe levels is presented. The impact of range side lobe level on the retrieval of Doppler moments are presented. Realistic simulations are performed based on CSU-CHILL radar data and Center for Collaborative Adaptive Sensing of the Atmosphere (CASA) Integrated Project I (IP1) radar data.

  7. IEEE National Radar Conference, 3rd, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, Apr. 20, 21, 1988, Proceedings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The present conference discusses topics in radar systems and subsystems, radar techniques, radar signal processing, and radar phenomenology. Attention is given to mm-wave radar system tradeoffs, polarimetric X/L/C-band SAR, a VHF radar for tropical jungle terrain elevation modeling, low probability of intercept techniques and implementations, target tracking in maneuver-centered coordinates, advanced techniques for extension of SAR depth-of-focus under arbitrary aircraft maneuvers, and iterative noncoherent angular superresolution. Also discussed are the effect of codebook size on the vector quantization of SAR data, the application of knowledge-based systems to surveillance, digital filters for SAR, novel radar pulse compression waveforms, the theory and application of SAR oceanography, autoregressive modeling of radar data with application to target identification, and a coherent model of radar weather clutter.

  8. The PROUST radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bertin, F.; Glass, M.; Ney, R.; Petitdidier, M.

    1986-01-01

    The Stratosphere-Troposphere (ST) radar called PROUST works at 935 MHz using the same klystron and antenna as the coherent-scatter radar. The use of this equipment for ST work has required some important modifications of the transmitting system and the development of receiving, data processing and acquisition (1984,1985) equipment. The modifications are discussed.

  9. Determination of radar MTF

    SciTech Connect

    Chambers, D.

    1994-11-15

    The ultimate goal of the Current Meter Array (CMA) is to be able to compare the current patterns detected with the array with radar images of the water surface. The internal wave current patterns modulate the waves on the water surface giving a detectable modulation of the radar cross-section (RCS). The function relating the RCS modulations to the current patterns is the Modulation Transfer Function (MTF). By comparing radar images directly with co-located CMA measurements the MTF can be determined. In this talk radar images and CMA measurements from a recent experiment at Loch Linnhe, Scotland, will be used to make the first direct determination of MTF for an X and S band radar at low grazing angles. The technical problems associated with comparing radar images to CMA data will be explained and the solution method discussed. The results suggest the both current and strain rate contribute equally to the radar modulation for X band. For S band, the strain rate contributes more than the current. The magnitude of the MTF and the RCS modulations are consistent with previous estimates when the wind is blowing perpendicular to the radar look direction.

  10. Java Radar Analysis Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaczek, Mariusz P.

    2005-01-01

    Java Radar Analysis Tool (JRAT) is a computer program for analyzing two-dimensional (2D) scatter plots derived from radar returns showing pieces of the disintegrating Space Shuttle Columbia. JRAT can also be applied to similar plots representing radar returns showing aviation accidents, and to scatter plots in general. The 2D scatter plots include overhead map views and side altitude views. The superposition of points in these views makes searching difficult. JRAT enables three-dimensional (3D) viewing: by use of a mouse and keyboard, the user can rotate to any desired viewing angle. The 3D view can include overlaid trajectories and search footprints to enhance situational awareness in searching for pieces. JRAT also enables playback: time-tagged radar-return data can be displayed in time order and an animated 3D model can be moved through the scene to show the locations of the Columbia (or other vehicle) at the times of the corresponding radar events. The combination of overlays and playback enables the user to correlate a radar return with a position of the vehicle to determine whether the return is valid. JRAT can optionally filter single radar returns, enabling the user to selectively hide or highlight a desired radar return.

  11. Decoders for MST radars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodman, R. F.

    1983-01-01

    Decoding techniques and equipment used by MST radars are described and some recommendations for new systems are presented. Decoding can be done either by software in special-purpose (array processors, etc.) or general-purpose computers or in specially designed digital decoders. Both software and hardware decoders are discussed and the special case of decoding for bistatic radars is examined.

  12. Radar illusion via metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Wei Xiang; Cui, Tie Jun

    2011-02-01

    An optical illusion is an image of a real target perceived by the eye that is deceptive or misleading due to a physiological illusion or a specific visual trick. The recently developed metamaterials provide efficient approaches to generate a perfect optical illusion. However, all existing research on metamaterial illusions has been limited to theory and numerical simulations. Here, we propose the concept of a radar illusion, which can make the electromagnetic (EM) image of a target gathered by radar look like a different target, and we realize a radar illusion device experimentally to change the radar image of a metallic target into a dielectric target with predesigned size and material parameters. It is well known that the radar signatures of metallic and dielectric objects are significantly different. However, when a metallic target is enclosed by the proposed illusion device, its EM scattering characteristics will be identical to that of a predesigned dielectric object under the illumination of radar waves. Such an illusion device will confuse the radar, and hence the real EM properties of the metallic target cannot be perceived. We designed and fabricated the radar illusion device using artificial metamaterials in the microwave frequency, and good illusion performances are observed in the experimental results. PMID:21405918

  13. Echo tracker/range finder for radars and sonars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Constantinides, N. J. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    An echo tracker/range finder or altimeter is described. The pulse repetition frequency (PFR) of a predetermined plurality of transmitted pulses is adjusted so that echo pulses received from a reflecting object are positioned between transmitted pulses and divided their interpulse time interval into two time intervals having a predetermined ratio with respect to each other. The invention described provides a means whereby the arrival time of a plurality of echo pulses is defined as the time at which a composite echo pulse formed of a sum of the individual echo pulses has the highest amplitude. The invention is applicable to radar systems, sonar systems, or any other kind of system in which pulses are transmitted and echoes received therefrom.

  14. Video Processor for Transponder Pulses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byrne, F.

    1986-01-01

    Circuit detects interrogation signals from air-traffic-control station and determines whether transponder of airplane should respond. Circuit examines relative magnitudes of first two pulses in three-pulse sequence of interrogation signal. On basis of relative magnitudes, circuit decides whether main lobe of interrogating radar beam is received (response should be generated) or only side lobe received (and interrogation ignored). Circuit simple and inexpensive.

  15. Equatorial MU Radar project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Mamoru; Hashiguchi, H.; Tsuda, Toshitaka; Yamamoto, Masayuki

    Research Institute for Sustainable Humanosphere, Kyoto University (RISH) has been studying the atmosphere by using radars. The first big facility was the MU (Middle and Upper atmosphere) radar installed in Shiga, Japan in 1984. This is one of the most powerful and multi-functional radar, and is successful of revealing importance of atmospheric waves for the dynamical vertical coupling processes. The next big radar was the Equatorial Atmosphere Radar (EAR) installed at Kototabang, West Sumatra, Indonesia in 2001. The EAR was operated under close collaboration with LAPAN (Indonesia National Institute for Aeronautics and Space), and conducted the long-term continuous observations of the equatorial atmosphere/ionosphere for more than 10 years. The MU radar and the EAR are both utilized for inter-university and international collaborative research program for long time. National Institute for Polar Research (NIPR) joined EISCAT Scientific Association together with Nagoya University, and developed the PANSY radar at Syowa base in Antarctica as a joint project with University of Tokyo. These are the efforts of radar study of the atmosphere/ionosphere in the polar region. Now we can find that Japan holds a global network of big atmospheric/ionospheric radars. The EAR has the limitation of lower sensitivity compared with the other big radars shown above. RISH now proposes a plan of Equatorial MU Radar (EMU) that is to establish the MU-radar class radar next to the EAR. The EMU will have an active phased array antenna with the 163m diameter and 1055 cross-element Yagis. Total output power of the EMU will be more than 500kW. The EMU can detect turbulent echoes from the mesosphere (60-80km). In the ionosphere incoherent-scatter observations of plasma density, drift, and temperature would be possible. Multi-channel receivers will realize radar-imaging observations. The EMU is one of the key facilities in the project "Study of coupling processes in the solar-terrestrial system

  16. Ultrawideband radar clutter measurements of forested terrain, 1991--1992

    SciTech Connect

    Sheen, D.M.; Severtsen, R.H.; Prince, J.M.; Davis, K.C.; Collins, H.D.

    1993-06-01

    The ultrawideband (UWB) radar clutter measurements project was conducted to provide radar clutter data for new ultrawideband radar systems which are currently under development. A particular goal of this project is to determine if conventional narrow band clutter data may be extrapolated to the UWB case. This report documents measurements conducted in 1991 and additional measurements conducted in 1992. The original project consisted of clutter measurements of forested terrain in the Olympic National Forest near Sequim, WA. The impulse radar system used a 30 kW peak impulse source with a 2 Gigasample/second digitizer to form a UHF (300--1000 MHz) ultrawideband impulse radar system. Additional measurements were conducted in parallel using a Systems Planning Corporation (SPC) step-chirp radar system. This system utilized pulse widths of 1330 nanoseconds over a bandwidth of 300--1000 MHz to obtain similar resolution to the impulse system. Due to the slow digitizer data throughput in the impulse radar system, data collection rates were significantly higher using the step-chirp system. Additional forest clutter measurements were undertaken in 1992 to increase the amount of data available, and especially to increase the amount of data from the impulse radar system.

  17. Laser radar improvements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jelalian, A. V.

    1981-11-01

    A short history of the uses of various laser radars is presented, and appropriate applications of laser and microwave radars are discussed. CO2 laser radar, operating at 10.6 microns, is considered for use in aircraft navigation systems, fire-control systems for armored vehicle and aircraft, missile guidance, severe storm research, line-of-sight command of missiles, wind turbine site surveys, clear-air turbulence monitors for aircraft, and satellite tracking. Microwave radar is all-weather, but is subject to multipath inaccuracies, countermeasures, and angular resolution limitations, so hybrid laser microwave systems look promising for microwave target acquisition and laser tracking. Advantages and disadvantages of the use of ruby, YAG, and CO2 lasers in varying atmospheric conditions are discussed. Development of a laser radar pod for obstacle detection, Doppler navigation, automatic terrain following, hover control, weapon delivery, and precision searching is noted.

  18. Intelligent radar data processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holzbaur, Ulrich D.

    The application of artificial intelligence principles to the processing of radar signals is considered theoretically. The main capabilities required are learning and adaptation in a changing environment, processing and modeling information (especially dynamics and uncertainty), and decision-making based on all available information (taking its reliability into account). For the application to combat-aircraft radar systems, the tasks include the combination of data from different types of sensors, reacting to electronic counter-countermeasures, evaluation of how much data should be acquired (energy and radiation management), control of the radar, tracking, and identification. Also discussed are related uses such as monitoring the avionics systems, supporting pilot decisions with respect to the radar system, and general applications in radar-system R&D.

  19. Micropower impulse radar imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, M.S.

    1995-11-01

    From designs developed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in radar and imaging technologies, there exists the potential for a variety of applications in both public and private sectors. Presently tests are being conducted for the detection of buried mines and the analysis of civil structures. These new systems use a patented ultra-wide band (impulse) radar technology known as Micropower Impulse Radar (GPR) imaging systems. LLNL has also developed signal processing software capable of producing 2-D and 3-D images of objects embedded in materials such as soil, wood and concrete. My assignment while at LLNL has focused on the testing of different radar configurations and applications, as well as assisting in the creation of computer algorithms which enable the radar to scan target areas of different geometeries.

  20. Spaceborne weather radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meneghini, Robert; Kozu, Toshiaki

    1990-01-01

    The present work on the development status of spaceborne weather radar systems and services discusses radar instrument complementarities, the current forms of equations for the characterization of such aspects of weather radar performance as surface and mirror-image returns, polarimetry, and Doppler considerations, and such essential factors in spaceborne weather radar design as frequency selection, scanning modes, and the application of SAR to rain detection. Attention is then given to radar signal absorption by the various atmospheric gases, rain drop size distribution and wind velocity determinations, and the characteristics of clouds, as well as the range of available estimation methods for backscattering, single- and dual-wavelength attenuation, and polarimetric and climatological characteristics.

  1. Aircraft and satellite measurement of ocean wave directional spectra using scanning-beam microwave radars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, F. C.; Walton, W. T.; Baker, P. L.

    1985-01-01

    A microwave radar technique for remotely measuring the vector wave number spectrum of the ocean surface is described. The technique which employs short-pulse, noncoherent radars in a conical scan mode near vertical incidence, is shown to be suitable for both aircraft and satellite application, the technique was validated at 10 km aircraft altitude, where we have found excellent agreement between buoy and radar-inferred absolute wave height spectra.

  2. Aircraft and satellite measurement of ocean wave directional spectra using scanning-beam microwave radars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, F. C.; Walton, W. T.; Baker, P. L.

    1982-01-01

    A microwave radar technique for remotely measuring the vector wave number spectrum of the ocean surface is described. The technique, which employs short-pulse, noncoherent radars in a conical scan mode near vertical incidence, is shown to be suitable for both aircraft and satellite application, the technique was validated at 10 km aircraft altitude, where we have found excellent agreement between buoy and radar-inferred absolute wave height spectra.

  3. 5. VIEW EAST, height finder radar towers, radar tower (unknown ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW EAST, height finder radar towers, radar tower (unknown function), prime search radar tower, operations building, and central heating plant - Fort Custer Military Reservation, P-67 Radar Station, .25 mile north of Dickman Road, east of Clark Road, Battle Creek, Calhoun County, MI

  4. 4. VIEW NORTHEAST, radar tower (unknown function), prime search radar ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW NORTHEAST, radar tower (unknown function), prime search radar tower, emergency power building, and height finder radar tower - Fort Custer Military Reservation, P-67 Radar Station, .25 mile north of Dickman Road, east of Clark Road, Battle Creek, Calhoun County, MI

  5. Micropower impulse radar technology and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Mast, J., LLNL

    1998-04-15

    The LLNL-developed Micropower Impulse Radar (MIR) technology has quickly gone from laboratory concept to embedded circuitry in numerous government and commercial systems in the last few years[l]. The main ideas behind MIR, invented by T. McEwan in the Laser Program, are the generation and detection systems for extremely low- power ultra-wideband pulses in the gigaHertz regime using low-cost components. These ideas, coupled with new antenna systems, timing and radio-frequency (RF) circuitry, computer interfaces, and signal processing, have provided the catalyst for a new generation of compact radar systems. Over the past several years we have concentrated on a number of applications of MIR which address a number of remote-sensing applications relevant to emerging programs in defense, transportation, medical, and environmental research. Some of the past commercial successes have been widely publicized [2] and are only now starting to become available for market. Over 30 patents have been filed and over 15 licenses have been signed on various aspects of the MIR technology. In addition, higher performance systems are under development for specific laboratory programs and government reimbursables. The MIR is an ultra- wideband, range-gated radar system that provides the enabling hardware technology used in the research areas mentioned above. It has numerous performance parameters that can be Selected by careful design to fit the requirements. We have improved the baseline, short- range, MIR system to demonstrate its effectiveness. The radar operates over the hand from approximately I to 4 GHz with pulse repetition frequencies up to 10 MHz. It provides a potential range resolution of I cm at ranges of greater than 20 m. We have developed a suite of algorithms for using MIR for image formation. These algorithms currently support Synthetic aperture and multistate array geometries. This baseline MIR radar imaging system has been used for several programmatic applications.

  6. Progress in coherent laser radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaughan, J. M.

    1986-01-01

    Considerable progress with coherent laser radar has been made over the last few years, most notably perhaps in the available range of high performance devices and components and the confidence with which systems may now be taken into the field for prolonged periods of operation. Some of this increasing maturity was evident at the 3rd Topical Meeting on Coherent Laser Radar: Technology and Applications. Topics included in discussions were: mesoscale wind fields, nocturnal valley drainage and clear air down bursts; airborne Doppler lidar studies and comparison of ground and airborne wind measurement; wind measurement over the sea for comparison with satellite borne microwave sensors; transport of wake vortices at airfield; coherent DIAL methods; a newly assembled Nd-YAG coherent lidar system; backscatter profiles in the atmosphere and wavelength dependence over the 9 to 11 micrometer region; beam propagation; rock and soil classification with an airborne 4-laser system; technology of a global wind profiling system; target calibration; ranging and imaging with coherent pulsed and CW system; signal fluctuations and speckle. Some of these activities are briefly reviewed.

  7. Planetary Radar Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ostro, Steven J.

    1993-01-01

    Radar is a powerful technique that has furnished otherwise unavailable information about solar system bodies for three decades. The advantages of radar in planetary astronomy result from: (1) the observer's control of all the attributes of the coherent signal used to illuminate the target, especially the wave form's time/frequency modulation and polarization; (2) the ability of radar to resolve objects spatially via measurements of the distribution of echo power in time delay and Doppler frequency; (3) the pronounced degree to which delay-Doppler measurements constrain orbits and spin vectors; and (4) centimeter-to-meter wavelengths, which easily penetrate optically opaque planetary clouds and cometary comae, permit investigation of near-surface macrostructure and bulk density, and are sensitive to high concentrations of metal or, in certain situations, ice. Planetary radar astronomy has primarily involved observations with Earth-based radar telescopes, but also includes some experiments with a spaceborne transmitter or receiver. In addition to providing a wealth of information about the geological and dynamical properties of asteroids, comets, the inner planets, and natural satellites, radar experiments have established the scale of the solar system, have contributed significantly to the accuracy of planetary ephemerides, and have helped to constrain theories of gravitation. This review outlines radar astronomical techniques and describes principal observational results.

  8. Compositing radar reflectivity observations with an inverse method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roca-Sancho, Jordi; Berenguer, Marc; Sempere-Torres, Daniel

    2013-04-01

    Quantitative Precipitation Estimation (QPE) has been one of the main applications of weather radars since its early stages. Nowadays, many advances have improved such estimates and radar networks have been deployed in many countries. In parallel, uncertainty in radar QPE has become a subject of interest by itself because of its significant role in the quality of estimates. When several radars cover the same area, some sources of uncertainty (e.g. path attenuation by intense precipitation, beam blockage or beam broadening), can be dealt using information from the least-affected radars instead of only reproducing a single radar approach in each one. So far, composites of radar observations are carried out through simple criteria (by picking the closest observation, the maximum value…) or quality indices -that need a priori definition of quality descriptors. This study proposes an alternative methodology to retrieve the 3-dimensional reflectivity field most compatible with the measurements from the different radars of the network. With this aim, the methodology uses a model that simulates the radar sampling of the atmosphere. The model settings consider the specific features of each radar such as the location, hardware parameters (frequency, beam width, pulse length…) and scanning strategy. The methodology follows the concept of an inverse method based on the minimization of a cost function that penalizes discrepancies between the simulated and actual observations for each radar of the network. It is worth noting that for radar at attenuating wavelengths, the proposed methodology implicitly corrects the effect of attenuation due to intense rainfall. The methodology has been applied on the network of C-band radars in the vicinity of Barcelona, Spain. The retrievals have been obtained for a 12 hours of rainfall with reflectivity observations of two radars; observations from a third independent radar have been used for verification at different heights. Conventional

  9. Improved Timing Scheme for Spaceborne Precipitation Radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berkun, Andrew; Fischman, Mark

    2004-01-01

    An improved timing scheme has been conceived for operation of a scanning satellite-borne rain-measuring radar system. The scheme allows a real-time-generated solution, which is required for auto targeting. The current timing scheme used in radar satellites involves pre-computing a solution that allows the instrument to catch all transmitted pulses without transmitting and receiving at the same time. Satellite altitude requires many pulses in flight at any time, and the timing solution to prevent transmit and receive operations from colliding is usually found iteratively. The proposed satellite has a large number of scanning beams each with a different range to target and few pulses per beam. Furthermore, the satellite will be self-targeting, so the selection of which beams are used will change from sweep to sweep. The proposed timing solution guarantees no echo collisions, can be generated using simple FPGA-based hardware in real time, and can be mathematically shown to deliver the maximum number of pulses per second, given the timing constraints. The timing solution is computed every sweep, and consists of three phases: (1) a build-up phase, (2) a feedback phase, and (3) a build-down phase. Before the build-up phase can begin, the beams to be transmitted are sorted in numerical order. The numerical order of the beams is also the order from shortest range to longest range. Sorting the list guarantees no pulse collisions. The build-up phase begins by transmitting the first pulse from the first beam on the list. Transmission of this pulse starts a delay counter, which stores the beam number and the time delay to the beginning of the receive window for that beam. The timing generator waits just long enough to complete the transmit pulse plus one receive window, then sends out the second pulse. The second pulse starts a second delay counter, which stores its beam number and time delay. This process continues until an output from the first timer indicates there is less

  10. Radar remote sensing in biology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, Richard K.; Simonett, David S.

    1967-01-01

    The present status of research on discrimination of natural and cultivated vegetation using radar imaging systems is sketched. The value of multiple polarization radar in improved discrimination of vegetation types over monoscopic radars is also documented. Possible future use of multi-frequency, multi-polarization radar systems for all weather agricultural survey is noted.

  11. Radar applications overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenspan, Marshall

    1996-06-01

    During the fifty years since its initial development as a means of providing early warning of airborne attacks against allied countries during World War II, radar systems have developed to the point of being highly mobile and versatile systems capable of supporting a wide variety of remote sensing applications. Instead of being tied to stationary land-based sites, radar systems have found their way into highly mobile land vehicles as well as into aircraft, missiles, and ships of all sizes. Of all these applications, however, the most exciting revolution has occurred in the airborne platform arena where advanced technology radars can be found in all shapes and sizes...ranging from the large AWACS and Joint STARS long range surveillance and targeting systems to small millimeter wave multi-spectral sensors on smart weapons that can detect and identify their targets through the use of highly sophisticated digital signal processing hardware and software. This paper presents an overview of these radar applications with the emphasis on modern airborne sensors that span the RF spectrum. It will identify and describe the factors that influence the parameters of low frequency and ultra wide band radars designed to penetrate ground and dense foliage environments and locate within them buried mines, enemy armor, and other concealed or camouflaged weapons of war. It will similarly examine the factors that lead to the development of airborne radar systems that support long range extended endurance airborne surveillance platforms designed to detect and precision-located both small high speed airborne threats as well as highly mobile time critical moving and stationary surface vehicles. The mission needs and associated radar design impacts will be contrasted with those of radar systems designed for high maneuverability rapid acquisition tactical strike warfare platforms, and shorter range cued air-to-surface weapons with integral smart radar sensors.

  12. Radar frequency radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malowicki, E.

    1981-11-01

    A method is presented for the determination of radar frequency radiation power densities that the PAVE PAWS radar system could produce in its air and ground environment. The effort was prompted by the concern of the people in the vicinity of OTIS AFB MA and BEALE AFB CA about the possible radar frequency radiation hazard of the PAVE PAWS radar. The method is based on the following main assumptions that: (a) the total field can be computed as the vector summation of the individual fields due to each antenna element; (b) the individual field can be calculated using distances for which the field point is in the far field of the antenna element. An RFR computer program was coded for the RADC HE 6180 digital computer and exercised to calculate the radiation levels in the air and ground space for the present baseline and the possible Six DB and 10 DB growth systems of the PAVE PAWS radar system at OTIS AFB MA. The average radiation levels due to the surveillance fence were computed for three regions: in the air space in front of the radar, at the radar hazard fence at OTIS AFB MA and at representative ground points in the OTIS AFB vicinity. It was concluded that the radar frequency radiation of PAVE PAWS does not present a hazard to personnel provided there is no entry to the air hazard zone or to the area within the hazard fence. The method developed offers a cost effective way to determine radiation levels from a phased array radar especially in the near field and transition regions.

  13. Asteroid radar astrometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ostro, S. J.; Jurgens, R. F.; Rosema, K. D.; Winkler, R.; Yeomans, D. K.; Campbell, D. B.; Chandler, J. F.; Shapiro, I. I.; Hine, A. A.; Velez, R.

    1991-01-01

    Measurements of time delay and Doppler frequency are reported for asteroid-radar echoes obtained at Arecibo and Goldstone during 1980-1990. Radar astrometry is presented for 23 near-earth asteroids and three mainbelt asteroids. These measurements, which are orthogonal to optical, angular-position measurements, and typically have a fractional precision between 10 to the -5th and 10 to the -8th, permit significant improvement in estimates of orbits and hence in the accuracy of prediction ephemerides. Estimates are also reported of radar cross-section and circular polarization ratio for all asteroids observed astrometrically during 1980-1990.

  14. EISCAT Svalbard radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehtinen, Markku; Kangas, Jorma

    1992-02-01

    The main fields of interest of the Finnish scientists in EISCAT research are listed. Finnish interests in the Polar Cap Radar (PMR) and areas where the Finnish contribution could be important are addressed: radar techniques; sporadic E layers in the polar cap; atmospheric models; auroral studies in the polar cap; nonthermal plasmas in the F region; coordinated measurements with the Cluster satellites; studies of the ionospheric traveling; convection vortices; polar cap absorption; studies of lower atmosphere; educational program. A report on the design specification of an ionospheric and atmospheric radar facility based on the archipelago of Svalbard (Norway) is summarized.

  15. A microprogrammable radar controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Law, D. C.

    1986-01-01

    The Wave Propagation Lab. has completed the design and construction of a microprogrammable radar controller for atmospheric wind profiling. Unlike some radar controllers using state machines or hardwired logic for radar timing, this design is a high speed programmable sequencer with signal processing resources. A block diagram of the device is shown. The device is a single 8 1/2 inch by 10 1/2 inch printed circuit board and consists of three main subsections: (1) the host computer interface; (2) the microprogram sequencer; and (3) the signal processing circuitry. Each of these subsections are described in detail.

  16. Fundamental radar properties: hidden variables in space-time.

    PubMed

    Gabriel, Andrew K

    2002-05-01

    A derivation of the properties of pulsed radiative imaging systems is presented with examples drawn from conventional, synthetic aperture, and interferometric radar. A geometric construction of the space and time components of a radar observation yields a simple underlying structural equivalence among many of the properties of radar, including resolution, range ambiguity, azimuth aliasing, signal strength, speckle, layover, Doppler shifts, obliquity and slant range resolution, finite antenna size, atmospheric delays, and beam- and pulse-limited configurations. The same simple structure is shown to account for many interferometric properties of radar: height resolution, image decorrelation, surface velocity detection, and surface deformation measurement. What emerges is a simple, unified description of the complex phenomena of radar observations. The formulation comes from fundamental physical concepts in relativistic field theory, of which the essential elements are presented. In the terminology of physics, radar properties are projections of hidden variables--curved worldlines from a broken symmetry in Minkowski space-time--onto a time-serial receiver. PMID:11999969

  17. Development of Radar Control system for Multi-mode Active Phased Array Radar for atmospheric probing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasodha, Polisetti; Jayaraman, Achuthan; Thriveni, A.

    2016-07-01

    TR modules, (ii) radar operation software which facilitates experimental parameter setting and operating the radar in different modes, (iii) beam steering software which computes the amplitude co-efficients and phases required for each TR module, for forming the beams selected for radar operation with the desired shape and (iv) Calibration software for calibrating the radar by measuring the differential insertion phase and amplitudes in all 1024 Transmit and Receive paths and correcting them. The TR module configuring software is a major task as it needs to control 1024 TR modules, which are located in the field about 150 m away from the RC system in the control room. Each TR module has a processor identified with a dedicated IP address, along with memory to store the instructions and parameters required for radar operation. A communication link is designed using Gigabit Ethernet (GbE) switches to realise 1 to 1024 way switching network. RC system computer communicates with the each processor using its IP address and establishes connection, via 1 to 1024 port GbE switching network. The experimental parameters data are pre-loaded parallely into all the TR modules along with the phase shifter data required for beam steering using this network. A reference timing pulse is sent to all the TR modules simultaneously, which indicates the start of radar operation. RC system also monitors the status parameters from the TR modules indicating their health during radar operation at regular intervals, via GbE switching network. Beam steering software generates the phase shift required for each TR module for the beams selected for operation. Radar operational software calls the phase shift data required for beam steering and adds it to the calibration phase obtained through calibration software and loads the resultant phase data into TR modules. Timed command/data transfer to/from subsystems and synchronisation of subsystems is essential for proper real-time operation of the

  18. Development of Radar Control system for Multi-mode Active Phased Array Radar for atmospheric probing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasodha, Polisetti; Jayaraman, Achuthan; Thriveni, A.

    2016-07-01

    TR modules, (ii) radar operation software which facilitates experimental parameter setting and operating the radar in different modes, (iii) beam steering software which computes the amplitude co-efficients and phases required for each TR module, for forming the beams selected for radar operation with the desired shape and (iv) Calibration software for calibrating the radar by measuring the differential insertion phase and amplitudes in all 1024 Transmit and Receive paths and correcting them. The TR module configuring software is a major task as it needs to control 1024 TR modules, which are located in the field about 150 m away from the RC system in the control room. Each TR module has a processor identified with a dedicated IP address, along with memory to store the instructions and parameters required for radar operation. A communication link is designed using Gigabit Ethernet (GbE) switches to realise 1 to 1024 way switching network. RC system computer communicates with the each processor using its IP address and establishes connection, via 1 to 1024 port GbE switching network. The experimental parameters data are pre-loaded parallely into all the TR modules along with the phase shifter data required for beam steering using this network. A reference timing pulse is sent to all the TR modules simultaneously, which indicates the start of radar operation. RC system also monitors the status parameters from the TR modules indicating their health during radar operation at regular intervals, via GbE switching network. Beam steering software generates the phase shift required for each TR module for the beams selected for operation. Radar operational software calls the phase shift data required for beam steering and adds it to the calibration phase obtained through calibration software and loads the resultant phase data into TR modules. Timed command/data transfer to/from subsystems and synchronisation of subsystems is essential for proper real-time operation of the

  19. Differential absorption radar techniques: water vapor retrievals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millán, Luis; Lebsock, Matthew; Livesey, Nathaniel; Tanelli, Simone

    2016-06-01

    Two radar pulses sent at different frequencies near the 183 GHz water vapor line can be used to determine total column water vapor and water vapor profiles (within clouds or precipitation) exploiting the differential absorption on and off the line. We assess these water vapor measurements by applying a radar instrument simulator to CloudSat pixels and then running end-to-end retrieval simulations. These end-to-end retrievals enable us to fully characterize not only the expected precision but also their potential biases, allowing us to select radar tones that maximize the water vapor signal minimizing potential errors due to spectral variations in the target extinction properties. A hypothetical CloudSat-like instrument with 500 m by ˜ 1 km vertical and horizontal resolution and a minimum detectable signal and radar precision of -30 and 0.16 dBZ, respectively, can estimate total column water vapor with an expected precision of around 0.03 cm, with potential biases smaller than 0.26 cm most of the time, even under rainy conditions. The expected precision for water vapor profiles was found to be around 89 % on average, with potential biases smaller than 77 % most of the time when the profile is being retrieved close to surface but smaller than 38 % above 3 km. By using either horizontal or vertical averaging, the precision will improve vastly, with the measurements still retaining a considerably high vertical and/or horizontal resolution.

  20. RADAR performance experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leroux, C.; Bertin, F.; Mounir, H.

    1991-01-01

    Theoretical studies and experimental results obtained at Coulommiers airport showed the capability of Proust radar to detect wind shears, in clear air condition as well as in presence of clouds or rain. Several examples are presented: in a blocking highs situation an atmospheric wave system at the Brunt-Vaisala frequency can be clearly distinguished; in a situation of clouds without rain the limit between clear air and clouds can be easily seen; and a windshear associated with a gust front in rainy conditions is shown. A comparison of 30 cm clear air radar Proust and 5 cm weather Doppler radar Ronsard will allow to select the best candidate for wind shear detection, taking into account the low sensibility to ground clutter of Ronsard radar.

  1. Laser Radar Animation

    NASA Video Gallery

    Laser and radar instruments aboard NASA aircraft provide measurements of the snow and ice surface and down to the bedrock under the ice. Lasers, with a shorter wavelength, measure the surface eleva...

  2. Distributed array radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heimiller, R. C.; Belyea, J. E.; Tomlinson, P. G.

    1983-11-01

    Distributed array radar (DAR) is a concept for efficiently accomplishing surveillance and tracking using coherently internetted mini-radars. They form a long baseline, very thinned array and are capable of very accurate location of targets. This paper describes the DAR concept. Factors involving two-way effective gain patterns for deterministic and random DAR arrays are analyzed and discussed. An analysis of factors affecting signal-to-noise ratio is presented and key technical and performance issues are briefly summarized.

  3. River discharge measurements by using helicopter-mounted radar

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Melcher, N.B.; Costa, J.E.; Haeni, F.P.; Cheng, R.T.; Thurman, E.M.; Buursink, M.; Spicer, K.R.; Hayes, E.; Plant, W.J.; Keller, W.C.; Hayes, K.

    2002-01-01

    The United States Geological Survey and the University of Washington collaborated on a series of initial experiments on the Lewis, Toutle, and Cowlitz Rivers during September 2000 and a detailed experiment on the Cowlitz River during May 2001 to determine the feasibility of using helicopter-mounted radar to measure river discharge. Surface velocities were measured using a pulsed Doppler radar, and river depth was measured using ground-penetrating radar. Surface velocities were converted to mean velocities, and horizontal registration of both velocity and depth measurements enabled the calculation of river discharge. The magnitude of the uncertainty in velocity and depth indicate that the method error is in the range of 5 percent. The results of this experiment indicate that helicopter-mounted radar can make the rapid, accurate discharge measurements that are needed in remote locations and during regional floods.

  4. On wave radar measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ewans, Kevin; Feld, Graham; Jonathan, Philip

    2014-09-01

    The SAAB REX WaveRadar sensor is widely used for platform-based wave measurement systems by the offshore oil and gas industry. It offers in situ surface elevation wave measurements at relatively low operational costs. Furthermore, there is adequate flexibility in sampling rates, allowing in principle sampling frequencies from 1 to 10 Hz, but with an angular microwave beam width of 10° and an implied ocean surface footprint in the order of metres, significant limitations on the spatial and temporal resolution might be expected. Indeed there are reports that the accuracy of the measurements from wave radars may not be as good as expected. We review the functionality of a WaveRadar using numerical simulations to better understand how WaveRadar estimates compare with known surface elevations. In addition, we review recent field measurements made with a WaveRadar set at the maximum sampling frequency, in the light of the expected functionality and the numerical simulations, and we include inter-comparisons between SAAB radars and buoy measurements for locations in the North Sea.

  5. Space radar image of New York City

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    This radar image of the New York city metropolitan area. The island of Manhattan appears in the center of the image. The green-colored rectangle on Manhattan is Central Park. This image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/ X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on October 10, 1994. North is toward the upper right. The area shown is 75.0 kilometers by 48.8 kilometers (46.5 miles by 30.2 miles). The image is centered at 40.7 degrees north latitude and 73.8 degrees west longitude. In general, light blue areas correspond to dense urban development, green areas to moderately vegetated zones and black areas to bodies of water. The Hudson River is the black strip that runs from the left edge to the upper right corner of the image. It separates New Jersey, in the upper left of the image, from New York. The Atlantic Ocean is at the bottom of the image where two barrier islands along the southern shore of Long Island are also visible. John F. Kennedy International Airport is visible above these islands. Long Island Sound, separating Long Island from Connecticut, is the dark area right of the center of the image. Many bridges are visible in the image, including the Verrazano Narrows, George Washington and Brooklyn bridges. The radar illumination is from the left of the image; this causes some urban zones to appear red because the streets are at a perpendicular angle to the radar pulse. The colors in this image were obtained using the following radar channels: red represents the L-band (horizontally transmitted and received); green represents the L-band (horizontally transmitted, vertically received); blue represents the C-band (horizontally transmitted, vertically received). Radar images like this one could be used as a tool for city planners and resource managers to map and monitor land use patterns. The radar imaging systems can clearly detect the variety of landscapes in the area, as well as the density of urban

  6. The time to independence for a scanning radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eccles, P. J.

    A computer model of a completely uniform reflectivity stationary storm containing stationary particles shows that the number of independent samples obtainable per pulse-volume by a scanning meteorological radar is a minimum of about 5.5. This is universal for such radars and is independent of any radar parameters, such as wavelength, PRF, scanning speed, beamwidth, or dish size. It is due to the total effect of two parts, (1) averaging which occurs when the main-lobe 'window' sweeps by a meteorological target, and (2) averaging which occurs when the pulse-window sweeps past the meteorological targets in range. The total effect provides an equivalent Doppler variance, to which the Doppler variance within the scanned volume may be added. This sum results in a smaller time-to-independence, and more independent samples per resolution volume than current theory predicts.

  7. Calculations of radar backscattering coefficient of vegetation-covered soils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mo, T.; Schmugge, T. J.; Jackson, T. J. (Principal Investigator)

    1983-01-01

    A model for simulating the measured backscattering coefficient of vegetation-covered soil surfaces includes both coherent and incoherent components of the backscattered radar pulses from a rough sil surface. The effect of vegetation canopy scattering is also incorporated into the model by making the radar pulse subject to two-way attenuation and volume scattering when it passes through the vegetation layer. Model results agree well with the measured angular distributions of the radar backscattering coefficient for HH polarization at the 1.6 GHz and 4.75 GHz frequencies over grass-covered fields. It was found that the coherent scattering component is very important at angles near nadir, while the vegetation volume scattering is dominant at incident angles 30 degrees.

  8. Concept for low-cost chaos radar using coherent reception

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blakely, Jonathan N.; Corron, Ned J.

    2011-06-01

    We describe a new approach to random-signal radar based on the recent discovery of analytically solvable chaotic oscillators. These surprising nonlinear systems generate random, aperiodic waveforms that offer an exact analytic representation, allowing the implementation of simple matched filters and coherent reception. Notably, this approach enables nearly optimal detection of noise-like waveforms without need for expensive variable delay lines to store wideband waveforms for correlation. Mathematically, the waveform is expressed as a linear convolution of a bit sequence with a fixed basis function. We realize a simple matched filter for the waveform using a linear filter whose impulse response function is the time reverse of the basis function. Importantly, linear filters matched to finite bit sequences can be defined, enabling pulse compression and spread spectrum radar. We present an example oscillator, its matched filter, and simulation results demonstrating the pulse compression radar concept.

  9. Study of ITER plasma position reflectometer using a two-dimensional full-wave finite-difference time domain code

    SciTech Connect

    Silva, F. da

    2008-10-15

    The EU will supply the plasma position reflectometer for ITER. The system will have channels located at different poloidal positions, some of them obliquely viewing a plasma which has a poloidal density divergence and curvature, both adverse conditions for profile measurements. To understand the impact of such topology in the reconstruction of density profiles a full-wave two-dimensional finite-difference time domain O-mode code with the capability for frequency sweep was used. Simulations show that the reconstructed density profiles still meet the ITER radial accuracy specifications for plasma position (1 cm), except for the highest densities. Other adverse effects such as multireflections induced by the blanket, density fluctuations, and MHD activity were considered and a first understanding on their impact obtained.

  10. Radar and infrared remote sensing of terrain, water resources, arctic sea ice, and agriculture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biggs, A. W.

    1983-01-01

    Radar range measurements, basic waveforms of radar systems, and radar displays are initially described. These are followed by backscatter from several types of terrain and vegetation as a function of frequency and grazing angle. Analytical models for this backscatter include the facet models of radar return, with range-angle, velocity-range, velocity-angle, range, velocity, and angular only discriminations. Several side-looking airborne radar geometries are presented. Radar images of Arctic sea ice, fresh water lake ice, cloud-covered terrain, and related areas are presented to identify applications of radar imagery. Volume scatter models are applied to radar imagery from alpine snowfields. Short pulse ice thickness radar for subsurface probes is discussed in fresh-water ice and sea ice detection. Infrared scanners, including multispectral, are described. Diffusion of cold water into a river, Arctic sea ice, power plant discharges, volcanic heat, and related areas are presented in thermal imagery. Multispectral radar and infrared imagery are discussed, with comparisons of photographic, infrared, and radar imagery of the same terrain or subjects.

  11. Radar system development for the next two decades, as seen by an European

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpentier, M. H.

    1983-10-01

    Current trends in radar developmet are projected over a 20-yr period in a general review. Topics examined include complex antenna patterns, electronic scanning (for both ground-based and airborne radars), flexibility in transmission modes (varying pulse length, repetition frequency, and phase or frequency modulation), signal processing (sidelobe cancellation, clutter protection, target recognition, and rapid A/D conversion and computation), programmed radar management, and the use of mm or micron wavelengths. Consideration is given to the organization of air-defense radars, where the need for more closely linked and coordinated networks is stressed.

  12. Study to investigate and evaluate means of optimizing the radar function for the space shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    A detailed analysis of the spiral scan was performed for antenna sizes ranging from 20 inches to 36 inches in diameter and for search angles characteristic of both the radar and the communication acquisition modes. The power budgets for passive target radar detection were calculated for antenna diameters ranging from 20 to 36 inches. Dwell times commensurate with spiral scan were used for these budget calculations. The signal design for the candidate pulse Doppler system is summarized. Ground return analysis carried out for the passive target radar mode is examined, and the details are presented. A concluding description of the proposed candidate radar/communication system configuration is given.

  13. DBF technique for the space synchronization of bistatic (multistatic) radars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Shujie; Geng, Fulu; Gao, Ruyun; Xie, Changrong; Ma, Xudong; Chen, Jianchun

    The space synchronization is one of the key techniques of bistatic(multistatic) radars. The concept and main parameters in implementing the space synchronization by pulse chasing with digital beam forming (DBF) technique are discussed. A implementation scheme as well as some of the test results of a prototype are also given in this paper.

  14. On-line data processing techniques for MST radars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farley, D. T.

    1985-01-01

    The various techniques which are or could be used in the processing of mesosphere-stratosphere-troposphere radar scattering data are outlined. The principles of pulse compression, frequency stepping, and coherent integration are reviewed in some detail. Coarse quantization and the calculation of spectral moments are treated very briefly.

  15. Radar interference blanking in radio astronomy using a Kalman tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, W.; Jeffs, B. D.; Fisher, J. R.

    2005-06-01

    Radio astronomical observations of highly Doppler shifted spectral lines of neutral hydrogen and the hydroxyl molecule must often be made at frequencies allocated to pulsed air surveillance radar in the 1215-1350 MHz frequency range. The Green Bank telescope (GBT) and many other observatories must deal with these terrestrial signals. Even when strong radar fixed clutter echoes are removed, there are still weaker aircraft echoes present which can corrupt the data. We present an algorithm which improves aircraft echo blanking using a Kalman filter tracker to follow the path of a sequence of echoes observed on successive radar antenna sweeps. Aircraft tracks can be used to predict regions (in bearing and range) for the next expected echoes, even before they are detected. These data can then be blanked in real time without waiting for the pulse peak to arrive. Additionally, we briefly suggest an approach for a new Bayesian algorithm which combines tracker and pulse detector operations to enable more sensitive weak pulse detection. Examples are presented for Kalman tracking and radar transmission blanking using real observations at the GBT.

  16. Radar Ionospheric Impact Mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bishop, G.; Decker, D.; Baker, C.

    2006-12-01

    New ionospheric modeling technology is being developed to improve correction of ionospheric impacts on the performance of ground-based space-surveillance radars (SSRs) in near-real-time. These radars, which detect and track space objects, can experience significant target location errors due to ionospheric delay and refraction of the radar signals. Since these radars must detect and track targets essentially to the radar horizon, it is necessary to accurately model the ionosphere as the radar would observe it, down to the local horizon. To correct for spatial and temporal changes in the ionosphere the model must be able to update in near-real-time using ionospheric sensor data. Since many radars are in isolated locations, or may have requirements to operate autonomously, an additional required capability is to provide accurate ionospheric mitigation by exploiting only sensor data from the radar site. However, the model must also be able to update using additional data from other types of sensors that may be available. The original radar ionospheric mitigation approach employed the Bent climatological model. This 35-year-old technology is still the means employed in the many DoD SSRs today. One more recent approach used capabilities from the PRISM model. PRISM technology has today been surpassed by `assimilative models' which employ better physics and Kalman filtering techniques. These models are not necessarily tailored for SSR application which needs to optimize modeling of very small regions using only data from a single sensor, or very few. The goal is to develop and validate the performance of innovative and efficient ionospheric modeling approaches that are optimized for the small regions applicable to ground-based radar coverage (radius of ~2000 km at ionospheric altitudes) and somewhat beyond. These approaches must adapt a continuous modeling scheme in near-real-time to be consistent with all observational data that may become available, and degrade

  17. The Radar Ocean-Wave Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Frederick C.

    1987-01-01

    The scanning-beam Radar Ocean-Wave Spectrometer (ROWS) technique is described. The derivation of a spectrum for the reflectivity modulation as a function of range is examined. The usefulness of the ROWS technique was initially validated using aircraft data obtained in 1978 with the GSFC Ku-band pulse-compression radar; additional examples of aircraft data which verify the effectiveness of the ROWS technique are presented. The development of a ROWS mode for Spectrasat is discussed. Consideration is given to the incidence angle, twin beam option for cross-section roll-off and wind vector determination, rotation rate, antenna and footprint dimensions, integration time, sphericity effects, and a processor configuration. A design for the ROWS-mode time-domain processor on Spectrasat is proposed. The performance of the system is evaluated, and it is determined that the system performs well.

  18. Design considerations for intrusion detection wide-area surveillance radars for perimeters and borders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, Walker

    2009-05-01

    Ground Surveillance Radars (GSRs) can build a virtual wall around facilities or on a border. They provide operators and agents with much more time to assess, prioritize and apprehend intruders than a traditional fence system. The extra response time is one of the important features of the wide area surveillance concept, along with added benefits for both the operators and the response teams. These are described in detail in the paper. But all GSRs are not alike. There are two primary GSR technologies - Frequency Modulated Continuous Wave (FMCW) and Pulse Doppler. Most pulse Doppler radars are derivatives of legacy military battlefield radar technology being applied for wide area surveillance, while a new generation of FMCW radar technology has been developed for this new type of surveillance, applied to high value site security, airports, military bases, ports and borders. The purpose of this paper is to explore the benefits of each type of radar for the wide area application.

  19. UAV-based Radar Sounding of Antarctic Ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leuschen, Carl; Yan, Jie-Bang; Mahmood, Ali; Rodriguez-Morales, Fernando; Hale, Rick; Camps-Raga, Bruno; Metz, Lynsey; Wang, Zongbo; Paden, John; Bowman, Alec; Keshmiri, Shahriar; Gogineni, Sivaprasad

    2014-05-01

    We developed a compact radar for use on a small UAV to conduct measurements over the ice sheets in Greenland and Antarctica. It operates at center frequencies of 14 and 35 MHz with bandwidths of 1 MHz and 4 MHz, respectively. The radar weighs about 2 kgs and is housed in a box with dimensions of 20.3 cm x 15.2 cm x 13.2 cm. It transmits a signal power of 100 W at a pulse repletion frequency of 10 kHz and requires average power of about 20 W. The antennas for operating the radar are integrated into the wings and airframe of a small UAV with a wingspan of 5.3 m. We selected the frequencies of 14 and 35 MHz based on previous successful soundings of temperate ice in Alaska with a 12.5 MHz impulse radar [Arcone, 2002] and temperate glaciers in Patagonia with a 30 MHz monocycle radar [Blindow et al., 2012]. We developed the radar-equipped UAV to perform surveys over a 2-D grid, which allows us to synthesize a large two-dimensional aperture and obtain fine resolution in both the along- and cross-track directions. Low-frequency, high-sensitivity radars with 2-D aperture synthesis capability are needed to overcome the surface and volume scatter that masks weak echoes from the ice-bed interface of fast-flowing glaciers. We collected data with the radar-equipped UAV on sub-glacial ice near Lake Whillans at both 14 and 35 MHz. We acquired data to evaluate the concept of 2-D aperture synthesis and successfully demonstrated the first successful sounding of ice with a radar on an UAV. We are planning to build multiple radar-equipped UAVs for collecting fine-resolution data near the grounding lines of fast-flowing glaciers. In this presentation we will provide a brief overview of the radar and UAV, as well as present results obtained at both 14 and 35 MHz. Arcone, S. 2002. Airborne-radar stratigraphy and electrical structure of temperate firn: Bagley Ice Field, Alaska, U.S.A. Journal of Glaciology, 48, 317-334. Blindow, N., C. Salat, and G. Casassa. 2012. Airborne GPR sounding of

  20. A barrier radar concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, J.; Ball, C.; Weissman, I.

    A description is given of a low power, light-weight radar that can be quickly set up and operated on batteries for extended periods of time to detect airborne intruders. With low equipment and operating costs, it becomes practical to employ a multiplicity of such radars to provide an unbroken intrusion fence over the desired perimeter. Each radar establishes a single transmitted fan beam extending vertically from horizon to horizon. The beam is generated by a two-face array antenna built in an A-frame configuration and is shaped, through phasing of the array elements, to concentrate the transmitter power in a manner consistent with the expected operating altitude ceiling of the targets of interest. The angular width of this beam in the dimension transverse to the fan depends on the radar transmission frequency and the antenna aperture dimension, but is typically wide enough so that a target at the maximum altitude or range will require tens of seconds to pass through the beam. A large number of independent samples of radar data will thus be available to provide many opportunities for target detection.

  1. High range precision laser radar system using a Pockels cell and a quadrant photodiode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jo, Sungeun; Kong, Hong Jin; Bang, Hyochoong; Kim, Jae-Wan; Jeon, Byoung Goo

    2016-05-01

    We have proposed and demonstrated a novel technique to measure distance with high range precision. To meet the stringent requirements of a variety of applications, range precision is an important specification for laser radar systems. Range precision in conventional laser radar systems is limited by several factors, namely laser pulse width, the bandwidth of a detector, the timing resolution of the time to digital converter, shot noise and timing jitters generated by electronics. The proposed laser radar system adopts a Pockels cell and a quadrant photodiode and only measures the energy of a laser pulse to obtain range so that the effect of those factors is reduced in comparison to conventional systems. In the proposed system, the measured range precision was 5.7 mm with 100 laser pulses. The proposed method is expected to be an alternative method for laser radar system requiring high range precision in many applications.

  2. MENTOR: Adding an outlying receiver to an ST radar for meteor-wind measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roper, R. G.

    1984-01-01

    Radar scattering from ionized meteor trails has been used for many years as a way to determine mesopause-level winds. Scattering occurs perpendicular to the trails, and since the ionizing efficiency of the incoming meteoroids depends on the cosine of the zenith angle of the radiant, echoes directly overhead are rare. Stratosphere-troposphere (ST) radars normally sample within 15 deg of the vertical, and thus receive few meteor echoes. Even the higher powdered mesosphere-stratosphere-troposphere (MST) radars are not good meteor radars, although they were used to successfully retrieved meteor winds from the Poker Flat, Alaska MST radar by averaging long data intervals. It has been suggested that a receiving station some distance from an ST radar could receive pulses being scattered from meteor trails, determine the particular ST beam in which the scattering occurred, measure the radial Doppler velocity, and thus determine the wind field. This concept has been named MENTOR (Meteor Echoes; No Transmitter, Only Receivers).

  3. Laser radar technology and applications; Proceedings of the Meeting, Quebec, Canada, June 3-5, 1986

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruickshank, James M.; Harney, Robert C.

    1986-01-01

    Various papers on laser radar technology and applications are presented. The topics considered include: eye-safe solid lasers for lidar applications, practical DF laser for ranging applications, ultrafast surface barrier photodetectors, performance analyses for peak-detecting laser radars, multiple scattering for laser beams propagating in a layered atmosphere, laser radar cross section of objects immersed in the earth's atmosphere, measurements of pulse coherence in mode-locked TEA-CO2 lasers, and single longitudinal mode operation of a continuously tunable high pressure TE-CO2. Also discussed are: amplitude-modulated laser system for distance and displacement measurement, minilaser rangefinder, laser docking system radar flight experiment, improved optical resonator for laser radars, design of frequency-stable TEA-CO2 lasers, HgCdTe photodiodes for heterodyne applications, acoustooptic spectrum analyzer for laser radar applications, laser cloud mapper and its applications, scanning lidar bathymeter for water depth measurement, and fluorescence lidar for land and sea remote sensing.

  4. 33. Perimeter acquisition radar building room #320, perimeter acquisition radar ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. Perimeter acquisition radar building room #320, perimeter acquisition radar operations center (PAROC), contains the tactical command and control group equipment required to control the par site. Showing spacetrack monitor console - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Perimeter Acquisition Radar Building, Limited Access Area, between Limited Access Patrol Road & Service Road A, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  5. Phase modulating the Urbana radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herrington, L. J., Jr.; Bowhill, S. A.

    1983-01-01

    The design and operation of a switched phase modulation system for the Urbana Radar System are discussed. The system is implemented and demonstrated using a simple procedure. The radar system and circuits are described and analyzed.

  6. Mercury radar speckle dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holin, Igor V.

    2010-06-01

    Current data reveal that Mercury is a dynamic system with a core which has not yet solidified completely and is at least partially decoupled from the mantle. Radar speckle displacement experiments have demonstrated that the accuracy in spin-dynamics determination for Earth-like planets can approach 10 -5. The extended analysis of space-time correlation properties of radar echoes shows that the behavior of speckles does not prevent estimation of Mercury's instantaneous spin-vector components to accuracy of a few parts in 10 7. This limit can be reached with more powerful radar facilities and leads to constraining the interior in more detail from effects of spin dynamics, e.g., from observation of the core-mantle interplay through high precision monitoring of the 88-day spin-variation of Mercury's crust.

  7. The MST Radar Technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balsley, B. B.

    1985-01-01

    The past ten year have witnessed the development of a new radar technique to examine the structure and dynamics of the atmosphere between roughly 1 to 100 km on a continuous basis. The technique is known as the MST (for Mesosphere-Stratosphere-Troposphere) technique and is usable in all weather conditions, being unaffected by precipitation or cloud cover. MST radars make use of scattering from small scale structure in the atmospheric refractive index, with scales of the order of one-half the radar wavelength. Pertinent scale sizes for middle atmospheric studies typically range between a fraction of a meter and a few meters. The structure itself arises primarily from atmospheric turbulence. The technique is briefly described along with the meteorological parameters it measures.

  8. Phase coded, micro-power impulse radar motion sensor

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, T.E.

    1996-05-21

    A motion sensing, micro-power impulse radar MIR impresses on the transmitted signal, or the received pulse timing signal, one or more frequencies lower than the pulse repetition frequency, that become intermediate frequencies in a ``IF homodyne`` receiver. Thus, many advantages of classical RF receivers can be thereby be realized with ultra-wide band radar. The sensor includes a transmitter which transmits a sequence of electromagnetic pulses in response to a transmit timing signal at a nominal pulse repetition frequency. A receiver samples echoes of the sequence of electromagnetic pulses from objects within the field with controlled timing, in response to a receive timing signal, and generates a sample signal in response to the samples. A timing circuit supplies the transmit timing signal to the transmitter and supplies the receive timing signal to the receiver. The relative timing of the transmit timing signal and the receive timing signal is modulated between a first relative delay and a second relative delay at an intermediate frequency, causing the receiver to sample the echoes such that the time between transmissions of pulses in the sequence and samples by the receiver is modulated at the intermediate frequency. Modulation may be executed by modulating the pulse repetition frequency which drives the transmitter, by modulating the delay circuitry which controls the relative timing of the sample strobe, or by modulating amplitude of the transmitted pulses. The electromagnetic pulses will have a nominal center frequency related to pulse width, and the first relative delay and the second relative delay between which the timing signals are modulated, differ by less than the nominal pulse width, and preferably by about one-quarter wavelength at the nominal center frequency of the transmitted pulses. 5 figs.

  9. Phase coded, micro-power impulse radar motion sensor

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, Thomas E.

    1996-01-01

    A motion sensing, micro-power impulse radar MIR impresses on the transmitted signal, or the received pulse timing signal, one or more frequencies lower than the pulse repetition frequency, that become intermediate frequencies in a "IF homodyne" receiver. Thus, many advantages of classical RF receivers can be thereby be realized with ultra-wide band radar. The sensor includes a transmitter which transmits a sequence of electromagnetic pulses in response to a transmit timing signal at a nominal pulse repetition frequency. A receiver samples echoes of the sequence of electromagnetic pulses from objects within the field with controlled timing, in response to a receive timing signal, and generates a sample signal in response to the samples. A timing circuit supplies the transmit timing signal to the transmitter and supplies the receive timing signal to the receiver. The relative timing of the transmit timing signal and the receive timing signal is modulated between a first relative delay and a second relative delay at an intermediate frequency, causing the receiver to sample the echoes such that the time between transmissions of pulses in the sequence and samples by the receiver is modulated at the intermediate frequency. Modulation may be executed by modulating the pulse repetition frequency which drives the transmitter, by modulating the delay circuitry which controls the relative timing of the sample strobe, or by modulating amplitude of the transmitted pulses. The electromagnetic pulses will have a nominal center frequency related to pulse width, and the first relative delay and the second relative delay between which the timing signals are modulated, differ by less than the nominal pulse width, and preferably by about one-quarter wavelength at the nominal center frequency of the transmitted pulses.

  10. Radar data smoothing filter study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, J. V.

    1984-01-01

    The accuracy of the current Wallops Flight Facility (WFF) data smoothing techniques for a variety of radars and payloads is examined. Alternative data reduction techniques are given and recommendations are made for improving radar data processing at WFF. A data adaptive algorithm, based on Kalman filtering and smoothing techniques, is also developed for estimating payload trajectories above the atmosphere from noisy time varying radar data. This algorithm is tested and verified using radar tracking data from WFF.

  11. Radar Investigations of Asteroids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ostro, S. J.

    1984-01-01

    Radar investigations of asteroids, including observations during 1984 to 1985 of at least 8 potential targets and continued analyses of radar data obtained during 1980 to 1984 for 30 other asteroids is proposed. The primary scientific objectives include estimation of echo strength, polarization, spectral shape, spectral bandwidth, and Doppler shift. These measurements yield estimates of target size, shape, and spin vector; place constraints on topography, morphology, density, and composition of the planetary surface; yield refined estimates of target orbital parameters; and reveals the presence of asteroidal satellites.

  12. Threat radar system simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, L.

    The capabilities, requirements, and goals of radar emitter simulators are discussed. Simulators are used to evaluate competing receiver designs, to quantify the performance envelope of a radar system, and to model the characteristics of a transmitted signal waveform. A database of candidate threat systems is developed and, in concert with intelligence data on a given weapons system, permits upgrading simulators to new projected threat capabilities. Four currently available simulation techniques are summarized, noting the usefulness of developing modular software for fast controlled-cost upgrades of simulation capabilities.

  13. Terminal Doppler weather radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michelson, M.; Shrader, W. W.; Wieler, J. G.

    1990-02-01

    The terminal Doppler weather radar (TDWR) system, now under development, will provide automatic detection of microbursts and low-level wind shear. This paper discusses the TDWR performance parameters and describes its structural elements, including the antenna subsystem, the transmitter, the receiver/exciter, the digital signal processor, and the radar product generator/remote monitoring subsystem. Attention is also given to the processes of the base data formation, point target removal, signal-to-noise thresholding, and velocity de-aliasing and to the TDWR algorithms and displays. A schematic diagram of the TDWR system is presented.

  14. Microwave radar oceanographic investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, F. C.

    1988-01-01

    The Radar Ocean Wave Spectrometer (ROWS) technique was developed and demonstrated for measuring ocean wave directional spectra from air and space platforms. The measurement technique was well demonstrated with data collected in a number of flight experiments involving wave spectral comparisons with wave buoys and the Surface Contour Radar (SCR). Recent missions include the SIR-B underflight experiment (1984), FASINEX (1986), and LEWEX (1987). ROWS related activity is presently concentrating on using the aircraft instrument for wave-processes investigations and obtaining the necessary support (consensus) for a satellite instrument development program. Prospective platforms include EOS and the Canadian RADARSAT.

  15. Spaceborne Imaging Radar Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elachi, C.

    1983-01-01

    An overview of the present state of the art in the different scientific and technological fields related to spaceborne imaging radars was presented. The data acquired with the SEASAT SAR (1978) and Shuttle Imaging Radar, SIR-A (1981) clearly demonstrated the important emphasis in the 80's is going to be on in-depth research investigations conducted with the more flexible and sophisticated SIR series instruments and on long term monitoring of geophysical phenomena conducted from free-flying platforms such as ERS-1 and RADARSAT.

  16. Systems and Methods for Radar Data Communication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bunch, Brian (Inventor); Szeto, Roland (Inventor); Miller, Brad (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A radar information processing system is operable to process high bandwidth radar information received from a radar system into low bandwidth radar information that may be communicated to a low bandwidth connection coupled to an electronic flight bag (EFB). An exemplary embodiment receives radar information from a radar system, the radar information communicated from the radar system at a first bandwidth; processes the received radar information into processed radar information, the processed radar information configured for communication over a connection operable at a second bandwidth, the second bandwidth lower than the first bandwidth; and communicates the radar information from a radar system, the radar information communicated from the radar system at a first bandwidth.

  17. SEASAT Synthetic Aperture Radar Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, F. M.

    1981-01-01

    The potential of radar imagery from space altitudes is discussed and the advantages of radar over passive sensor systems are outlined. Specific reference is made to the SEASAT synthetic aperture radar. Possible applications include oil spill monitoring, snow and ice reconnaissance, mineral exploration, and monitoring phenomena in the urban environment.

  18. Nonlinear synthetic aperture radar imaging using a harmonic radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallagher, Kyle A.; Mazzaro, Gregory J.; Ranney, Kenneth I.; Nguyen, Lam H.; Martone, Anthony F.; Sherbondy, Kelly D.; Narayanan, Ram M.

    2015-05-01

    This paper presents synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images of linear and nonlinear targets. Data are collected using a linear/nonlinear step frequency radar. We show that it is indeed possible to produce SAR images using a nonlinear radar. Furthermore, it is shown that the nonlinear radar is able to reduce linear clutter by at least 80 dB compared to a linear radar. The nonlinear SAR images also show the system's ability to detect small electronic devices in the presence of large linear clutter. The system presented here has the ability to completely ignore a 20-inch trihedral corner reflector while detecting a RF mixer with a dipole antenna attached.

  19. Gadanki Ionospheric Radar Interferometer (GIRI): System Description, Capabilities and Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durga rao, Meka; Jayaraman, Achuthan; Patra, Amit; Kamaraj, Pandian; Jayaraj, Katta; Raghavendra, J.; Yasodha, Polisetti

    2016-07-01

    A 30-MHz radar has been developed at National Atmospheric Research Laboratory for dedicated probing of ionosphere and to study the low latitude ionospheric plasma irregularities. The radar has the beam steering capability to scan a larger part of the sky up to ±45o in East-West direction, which will overcome the limitation of slit camera picture obtained by the fixed beam of the Gadanki MST radar on the ionospheric plasma irregularity/structures. The system is also configured for pulse-to-pulse beam steering, employs multi-channel receiving system to carryout Interferometry/Imaging experiments. The radar system employs 20x8 phased antenna array, Direct Digital Synthesizers to generate pulse coded excitation signals, high power solid-state Transmit-Receive modules to generate a peak power of 150 kW, low loss coaxial beam forming and feeder network and multi-channel direct IF digital receiver. Round-the-clock observations are being made with uninterrupted operations and high quality E-and F-Region Range-Time-Intensity and conical maps are obtained with the system. In this paper we present, the system design philosophy, realization, initial observations and also the capability of the system to augment for Meteor observations.

  20. A wing pod-based millimeter wavelength airborne cloud radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vivekanandan, J.; Ellis, S.; Tsai, P.; Loew, E.; Lee, W. C.; Emmett, J.; Dixon, M.; Burghart, C.; Rauenbuehler, S.

    2015-04-01

    This paper describes a novel, airborne pod-based millimeter wavelength radar. Its frequency of operation is 94 GHz (3 mm wavelength). The radar has been designed to fly on the NCAR Gulfstream V HIAPER aircraft; however, it could be deployed on other similarly equipped aircraft. The pod-based configuration occupies minimum cabin space and maximizes scan coverage. The radar system is capable of collecting observations in a staring mode between zenith and nadir or in a scanning mode. Standard pulse-pair estimates of moments and raw time series of backscattered signals are recorded. The radar system design and characteristics, as well as techniques for calibrating reflectivity and correcting Doppler velocity for aircraft attitude and motion are described. The radar can alternatively be deployed in a ground-based configuration, housed in the 20 ft shipping container it shares with the High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL). The radar was tested both on the ground and in flight. Preliminary measurements of Doppler and polarization measurements were collected and examples are presented.

  1. A wing pod-based millimeter wavelength airborne cloud radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vivekanandan, J.; Ellis, S.; Tsai, P.; Loew, E.; Lee, W.-C.; Emmett, J.; Dixon, M.; Burghart, C.; Rauenbuehler, S.

    2015-08-01

    This paper describes a novel, airborne pod-based millimeter (mm) wavelength radar. Its frequency of operation is 94 GHz (3 mm wavelength). The radar has been designed to fly on the NCAR Gulfstream V HIAPER aircraft; however, it could be deployed on other similarly equipped aircraft. The pod-based configuration occupies minimum cabin space and maximizes scan coverage. The radar system is capable of collecting observations in a staring mode between zenith and nadir or in a scanning mode. Standard pulse-pair estimates of moments and raw time series of backscattered signals are recorded. The radar system design and characteristics as well as techniques for calibrating reflectivity and correcting Doppler velocity for aircraft attitude and motion are described. The radar can alternatively be deployed in a ground-based configuration, housed in the 20 ft shipping container it shares with the High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL). The radar was tested both on the ground and in flight. Preliminary measurements of Doppler and polarization measurements were collected and examples are presented.

  2. Use of radars to monitor stream discharge by noncontact methods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Costa, J.E.; Cheng, R.T.; Haeni, F.P.; Melcher, N.; Spicer, K.R.; Hayes, E.; Plant, W.; Hayes, K.; Teague, C.; Barrick, D.

    2006-01-01

    Conventional measurements of river flows are costly, time-consuming, and frequently dangerous. This report evaluates the use of a continuous wave microwave radar, a monostatic UHF Doppler radar, a pulsed Doppler microwave radar, and a ground-penetrating radar to measure river flows continuously over long periods and without touching the water with any instruments. The experiments duplicate the flow records from conventional stream gauging stations on the San Joaquin River in California and the Cowlitz River in Washington. The purpose of the experiments was to directly measure the parameters necessary to compute flow: surface velocity (converted to mean velocity) and cross-sectional area, thereby avoiding the uncertainty, complexity, and cost of maintaining rating curves. River channel cross sections were measured by ground-penetrating radar suspended above the river. River surface water velocity was obtained by Bragg scattering of microwave and UHF Doppler radars, and the surface velocity data were converted to mean velocity on the basis of detailed velocity profiles measured by current meters and hydroacoustic instruments. Experiments using these radars to acquire a continuous record of flow were conducted for 4 weeks on the San Joaquin River and for 16 weeks on the Cowlitz River. At the San Joaquin River the radar noncontact measurements produced discharges more than 20% higher than the other independent measurements in the early part of the experiment. After the first 3 days, the noncontact radar discharge measurements were within 5% of the rating values. On the Cowlitz River at Castle Rock, correlation coefficients between the USGS stream gauging station rating curve discharge and discharge computed from three different Doppler radar systems and GPR data over the 16 week experiment were 0.883, 0.969, and 0.992. Noncontact radar results were within a few percent of discharge values obtained by gauging station, current meter, and hydroacoustic methods. Time

  3. Phase-coded pulse aperiodic transmitter coding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Virtanen, I. I.; Vierinen, J.; Lehtinen, M. S.

    2009-07-01

    Both ionospheric and weather radar communities have already adopted the method of transmitting radar pulses in an aperiodic manner when measuring moderately overspread targets. Among the users of the ionospheric radars, this method is called Aperiodic Transmitter Coding (ATC), whereas the weather radar users have adopted the term Simultaneous Multiple Pulse-Repetition Frequency (SMPRF). When probing the ionosphere at the carrier frequencies of the EISCAT Incoherent Scatter Radar facilities, the range extent of the detectable target is typically of the order of one thousand kilometers - about seven milliseconds - whereas the characteristic correlation time of the scattered signal varies from a few milliseconds in the D-region to only tens of microseconds in the F-region. If one is interested in estimating the scattering autocorrelation function (ACF) at time lags shorter than the F-region correlation time, the D-region must be considered as a moderately overspread target, whereas the F-region is a severely overspread one. Given the technical restrictions of the radar hardware, a combination of ATC and phase-coded long pulses is advantageous for this kind of target. We evaluate such an experiment under infinitely low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) conditions using lag profile inversion. In addition, a qualitative evaluation under high-SNR conditions is performed by analysing simulated data. The results show that an acceptable estimation accuracy and a very good lag resolution in the D-region can be achieved with a pulse length long enough for simultaneous E- and F-region measurements with a reasonable lag extent. The new experiment design is tested with the EISCAT Tromsø VHF (224 MHz) radar. An example of a full D/E/F-region ACF from the test run is shown at the end of the paper.

  4. The Newcastle meteor radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keay, Colin

    1987-01-01

    A brief history and development of the Newcastle Meteor Radar system is given. Also described are its geographical coordinates and its method of operation. The initial objective when the project was commenced was to develop an entirely digital analyzer capable of recognizing meteor echo signals and recording as many of their parameters as possible. This objective was achieved.

  5. Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosen, P. A.; Hensley, S.; Joughin, I. R.; Li, F.; Madsen, S. N.; Rodriguez, E.; Goldstein, R. M.

    1998-01-01

    Synthetic aperture radar interferometry is an imaging technique for measuring the topography of a surface, its changes over time, and other changes in the detailed characteristics of the surface. This paper reviews the techniques of interferometry, systems and limitations, and applications in a rapidly growing area of science and engineering.

  6. Passive bistatic radar analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Hagan, Daniel W.; Kuschel, H.; Schiller, Joachim

    2009-06-01

    Passive Bistatic Radar (PBR) research is at its zenith with several notable PBR systems currently operational, or available for deployment. Such PBRs include the Manastash Ridge Radar (MRR) developed for and by academia; Silent Sentry developed as a commercial concern by Lockheed Martin; and Homeland Alerter (HA100) also a commercial system developed by Thales. However at present, despite the existence of numerous PBR prototypes, take up of commercial passive radar technology remains slow. This is due in part to technology immaturity, in part to politics, and particularly due to the fact that monostatic radars perform so well. If PBRs are to enjoy longevity as a viable technology then it is imperative that they address certain niche application areas, with the aforementioned MRR being one prime example of this. The focus of this paper will be an analysis of a PBR system that utilised FM radio signals of opportunity to detect aircraft targets with an RCS generally not lower than 20 m2. The paper will demonstrate the theoretical detection coverage of an FM based PBR operating in a severe interference environment.

  7. Ultrawideband radar clutter measurements and analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuley, Michael T.; Sheen, David M.; Collins, H. D.; Sager, Earl V.; Schultheis, A. C.

    1993-05-01

    This paper reports the results of ultrawideband radar clutter measurements made by Battelle- Pacific Northwest Laboratories and the System Planning Corporation near Sequim, WA. The measurement area is a mountainous coniferous forest with occasional roads and clear-cut areas. Local grazing angles range from near zero to approximately 40 degree(s). Very limited data are also presented from measurements made in a desert-type terrain near Richland, WA. Two ultrawideband radar systems were employed in the data collection. An impulse system providing an approximate one nanosecond monocycle pulse (bandwidth of 300 MHz - 1000 MHz) acquired data over a 0.7 km2 area (121,000 resolution cells). A step chirp radar with the same total bandwidth as the impulse system collected data over a 6.2 km2 area (780,000 resolution cells), including the area sampled by the impulse system. Wideband TEM horn antennas (log-periodic antennas for the step chirp system) deployed on a 19 m horizontally scanned aperture were used for transmission and reception, providing a 1.5 degree(s) azimuth resolution at 300 MHz for both systems.

  8. Radar for Monitoring Hurricanes from Geostationary Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Im, Eastwood; Durden, Stephen; Huang, John; Lou, Michael; Smith, Eric; Rahmat-Samii, Yahya

    2004-01-01

    A document describes a scanning Doppler radar system to be placed in a geostationary orbit for monitoring the three-dimensional structures of hurricanes, cyclones, and severe storms in general. The system would operate at a frequency of 35 GHz. It would include a large deployable spherical antenna reflector, instead of conventional paraboloidal reflectors, that would allow the reflector to remain stationary while moving the antenna feed(s), and thus, create a set of scanning antenna beams without degradation of performance. The radar would have separate transmitting and receiving antenna feeds moving in spiral scans over an angular excursion of 4 from the boresight axis to providing one radar image per hour of a circular surface area of 5,300-km diameter. The system would utilize a real-time pulse-compression technique to obtain 300-m vertical resolution without sacrificing detection sensitivity and without need for a high-peakpower transmitter. An onboard data-processing subsystem would generate three-dimensional rainfall reflectivity and Doppler observations with 13-km horizontal resolution and line-of-sight Doppler velocity at a precision of 0.3 m/s.

  9. Waveform generation for ultra-wideband radar system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiang, Hsiao-Feng

    1993-12-01

    In the current literature, ultra-wideband (UWB) waveforms are said to possess several potential advantages such as penetration of foliage, walls and ground, as well as target identification and detection of stealth targets. Due to the potential advantages of UWB waveforms, UWB power sources are currently being developed. This thesis investigates the Fourier synthesis method of waveform generation which is to be used with ultra-wideband radar. The major advantages of this method over traditional methods are that accurate control of pulse shapes and pulse repetition intervals (PRI) can be generated. In this thesis, the Fourier method is extended to generation of binary coded waveforms for UWB systems. The generation of such codes is important as it allows for the use of longer coded pulses. These coded pulses contain more energy and improve signal to noise ratio (SNR) while still retaining the range resolution and other benefits of smaller pulse widths.

  10. Compact Radar Transceiver with Included Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McLinden, Matthew; Rincon, Rafael

    2013-01-01

    The Digital Beamforming Synthetic Aperture Radar (DBSAR) is an eight-channel phased array radar system that employs solid-state radar transceivers, a microstrip patch antenna, and a reconfigurable waveform generator and processor unit. The original DBSAR transceiver design utilizes connectorized electronic components that tend to be physically large and heavy. To achieve increased functionality in a smaller volume, PCB (printed circuit board) transceivers were designed to replace the large connectorized transceivers. One of the most challenging problems designing the transceivers in a PCB format was achieving proper performance in the calibration path. For a radar loop-back calibration path, a portion of the transmit signal is coupled out of the antenna feed and fed back into the receiver. This is achieved using passive components for stability and repeatability. Some signal also leaks through the receive path. As these two signal paths are correlated via an unpredictable phase, the leakage through the receive path during transmit must be 30 dB below the calibration path. For DBSAR s design, this requirement called for a 100-dB isolation in the receiver path during transmit. A total of 16 solid-state L-band transceivers on a PCB format were designed. The transceivers include frequency conversion stages, T/R switching, and a calibration path capable of measuring the transmit power-receiver gain product during transmit for pulse-by-pulse calibration or matched filtering. In particular, this calibration path achieves 100-dB isolation between the transmitted signal and the low-noise amplifier through the use of a switching network and a section of physical walls achieving attenuation of radiated leakage. The transceivers were designed in microstrip PCBs with lumped elements and individually packaged components for compactness. Each transceiver was designed on a single PCB with a custom enclosure providing interior walls and compartments to isolate transceiver

  11. Radar Stratigraphy of Ice on Earth and Mars: What are we Missing? An Evaluation of Multiple Radars and Processing Techniques.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holt, J. W.; Blankenship, D. D.; Corr, H. F.; Plaut, J. J.; Safaeinili, A.

    2007-12-01

    Radar sounding has been used for decades on Earth to map sub-ice topography, yet we are only beginning to fully make use of the information contained within the radar-detected, ice-internal layering. This internal layering serves as a guide to estimate accumulation rates and flow reorganization, to detect geothermal anomalies and to extrapolate ice core results over large regions. Radar layering in snow and ice on Earth is generally caused by variations in acidity due to deposits from volcanic eruptions, changes in ice crystal fabric, or variations in density (near the surface). Radar studies in Antarctica have been undertaken by a variety of means, most commonly airborne systems operating at 60 or 150 MHz, typically with 10 - 15 MHz bandwidths, but also sled-mounted systems generally operating in the 1 - 10 MHz range. The stratigraphy of icy deposits on Mars is also thought to hold important information about past climatic variations there and radar sounding has started to reveal new stratigraphic information to complement optical and spectral studies. Two orbital radar sounders are currently operating at Mars. MARSIS on Mars Express operates at 2 - 5 MHz, while SHARAD on Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter operates in the 15 - 25 MHz band. This is a tremendous advance over our ability to probe the subsurface of Mars just a few years ago; however, we don't know how much information we may be missing due to limited over-ice data at these frequencies on Earth. We therefore examine the impact of different wavelengths, bandwidths, and pulse types on the reconstruction of ice stratigraphy on both Earth and Mars by comparing data obtained from different radar systems over the same locations. Simulated results are also compared, as are the effects of data reduction schemes such as unfocused and focused synthetic aperture radar (SAR) processing.

  12. Development of a fast solid-state high-resolution density profile reflectometer system on the DIII-D tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, K. W.; Doyle, E. J.; Rhodes, T. L.; Peebles, W. A.; Rettig, C. L.; Luhmann, N. C., Jr.

    1997-01-01

    A new fast-sweep, broadband frequency-modulated reflectometer on the DIII-D tokamak has produced routine, reliable density profiles with high spatial (⩽1 cm) and temporal resolution (˜100 μs). The system utilizes a solid-state microwave source and an active quadrupler, covering the full Q-band (33-50 GHz) and providing high output power (20-60 mW). The rf source frequency is linearized using an arbitrary function generator and the temperature of the source is actively controlled to reduce rf frequency drifts. The system hardware allows the rf frequency to be swept fullband in 10 μs, but, due to digitization limits, the sweep time used currently is 75-100 μs. The reliability of the reconstructed profiles was improved by a combination of fast frequency sweep, which reduces density fluctuation effects on the measurements, and advanced signal analysis based on digital complex demodulation, which improves phase accuracy. The fast-sweep system has resolved fast-changing edge density profiles during edge localized modes with unprecedented resolution.

  13. BioRef: A versatile time-of-flight reflectometer for soft matter applications at Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin

    SciTech Connect

    Strobl, M.; Kreuzer, M.; Steitz, R.; Rose, M.; Herrlich, H.; Mezei, F.; Grunze, M.; Dahint, R.

    2011-05-15

    BioRef is a versatile novel time-of-flight reflectometer featuring a sample environment for in situ infrared spectroscopy at the reactor neutron source BER II of the Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin fuer Materialien und Energie (HZB). After two years of design and construction phase the instrument has recently undergone commissioning and is now available for specular and off-specular neutron reflectivity measurements. BioRef is especially dedicated to the investigation of soft matter systems and studies at the solid-liquid interface. Due to flexible resolution modes and variable addressable wavelength bands that allow for focusing onto a selected scattering vector range, BioRef enables a broad range of surface and interface investigations and even kinetic studies with subsecond time resolution. The instrumental settings can be tailored to the specific requirements of a wide range of applications. The performance is demonstrated by several reference measurements, and the unique option of in situ on-board infrared spectroscopy is illustrated by the example of a phase transition study in a lipid multilayer film.

  14. Distributed phase birefringence measurements based on polarization correlation in phase-sensitive optical time-domain reflectometers.

    PubMed

    Soto, Marcelo A; Lu, Xin; Martins, Hugo F; Gonzalez-Herraez, Miguel; Thévenaz, Luc

    2015-09-21

    In this paper a technique to measure the distributed birefringence profile along optical fibers is proposed and experimentally validated. The method is based on the spectral correlation between two sets of orthogonally-polarized measurements acquired using a phase-sensitive optical time-domain reflectometer (ϕOTDR). The correlation between the two measured spectra gives a resonance (correlation) peak at a frequency detuning that is proportional to the local refractive index difference between the two orthogonal polarization axes of the fiber. In this way the method enables local phase birefringence measurements at any position along optical fibers, so that any longitudinal fluctuation can be precisely evaluated with metric spatial resolution. The method has been experimentally validated by measuring fibers with low and high birefringence, such as standard single-mode fibers as well as conventional polarization-maintaining fibers. The technique has potential applications in the characterization of optical fibers for telecommunications as well as in distributed optical fiber sensing. PMID:26406692

  15. Radiometric calibration of the SwRI ultraviolet reflectance chamber (SwURC) far-ultraviolet reflectometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karnes, Preston L.; Retherford, Kurt D.; Winters, Gregory S.; Bassett, Eric C.; Escobedo, Stephen M.; Patrick, Edward L.; Richter, Amanda; Davis, Michael W.; Miles, Paul F.; Parker, Joel W.; Gladstone, G. Randall; Greathouse, Thomas K.; Schindhelm, Eric R.; Feaga, Lori M.; Stern, S. Alan

    2013-09-01

    The Southwest Research Institute Ultraviolet Reflectance Chamber (SwURC) is a highly capable UV reflectometer chamber and data acquisition system designed to provide bidirectional scattering data of various surfaces and materials. The chamber provides laboratory-based UV reflectance measurements of water frost/ice, lunar soils, simulants, and analogs to support interpretation of UV reflectance data from the Lyman Alpha Mapping Project (LAMP) Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO). A deuterium lamp illuminates a monochromator with a nominal wavelength range of 115 nm to 210 nm. The detector scans emission angles -85° to +85°in the principal plane. Liquid nitrogen passed through the sample mount enables constant refrigeration of tray temperatures down to 78 K to form water ice and other volatile samples. The SwURC can be configured to examine a wide range of samples and materials through the use of custom removable sample trays, connectors, and holders. Calibration reference standard measurements reported here include Al/MgF2 coated mirrors for specular reflection and Fluorilon for diffuse reflectances. This calibration work is a precursor to reports of experiments measuring the far-UV reflectance of water frost, lunar simulants, and Apollo soil sample 10084 in support of LRO-LAMP.

  16. Space-frequency analysis with parallel computing in a phase-sensitive optical time-domain reflectometer distributed sensor.

    PubMed

    Hui, Xiaonan; Ye, Taihang; Zheng, Shilie; Zhou, Jinhai; Chi, Hao; Jin, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Xianmin

    2014-10-01

    For a phase-sensitive optical time-domain reflectometer (ϕ-OTDR) distributed sensor system, space-frequency analysis can reduce the false alarm by analyzing the frequency distribution compared with the traditional difference value method. We propose a graphics processing unit (GPU)-based parallel computing method to perform multichannel fast Fourier transform (FFT) and realize the real-time space-frequency analysis. The experiment results show that the time taken by the multichannel FFT decreased considerably based on this GPU parallel computing. The method can be completed with a sensing fiber up to 16 km long and an entry-level GPU. Meanwhile, the GPU can reduce the computing load of the central processing unit from 70% down to less than 20%. We carried out an experiment on a two-point space-frequency analysis, and the results clearly and simultaneously show the vibration point locations and frequency components. The sensor system outputs the real-time space-frequency spectra continuously with a spatial resolution of 16.3 m and frequency resolution of 2.25 Hz. PMID:25322248

  17. Wideband Reception and Processing for Dual-Polarization Radars with Dual Transmitters

    SciTech Connect

    Choudhury, Sutanay; Chandrasekar, V.

    2007-01-01

    Improving the estimation accuracy and reducing the time required for measurement are governing goals for any radar design. Polarimetric weather radar measures the polarization covariance matrix of the signal returns from precipitation volumes in addition to the Doppler parameters. Increasing the equivalent number of independent samples in any estimation process results in decrease in the standard deviation of estimates. Oversampling pulsed Doppler radar returns at a rate larger than the pulse bandwidth, whitening the range samples and subsequent averaging have been pursued as a potential way to decrease the measured standard deviation of signal parameters estimates. It has been shown that the application of oversampling, whitening and subsequent averaging improves the quality of reflectivity and mean velocity estimates in agreement with theory; Oversampled data collected from CSU-CHILL radar are analyzed to evaluate the performance of dual-polarization parameter estimators such as differential reflectivity and differential phase. The reasons that may limit the improvement in estimation quality of polarimetric parameters are investigated. It is demonstrated that the observation of the variability of range signals within subpulses is important for obtaining maximum variance reduction through whitening. Accurate measurement of the amplitude and phase of the transmitted pulse is critically important for effective whitening of the received waveform. The differential phase pattern between the transmit pulses is found to be critical for obtaining unbiased and accurate estimates of polarimetric parameters through whitening. CSU-CHILL radar's transmit pulse sampling capability is used to evaluate the impact of waveforms on oversampling and estimation.

  18. Ground Penetrating Radar Technologies in Ukraine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pochanin, Gennadiy P.; Masalov, Sergey A.

    2014-05-01

    Transient electromagnetic fields are of great interest in Ukraine. The following topics are studied by research teams, with high-level achievements all over the world: (i) Ultra-Wide Band/Short-pulse radar techniques (IRE and LLC "Transient Technologies", for more information please visit http://applied.ire.kharkov.ua/radar%20systems_their%20components%20and%20relevant%20technologies_e.html and http://viy.ua); (ii) Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) with stepped frequency sounding signals (IRE); (iii) Continuous-Wave (CW) radar with phase-shift keying signals (IRE); and (iv) Radio-wave interference investigation (Scientific and Technical Centre of The Subsurface Investigation, http://geophysics.ua). GPR applications are mainly in search works, for example GPR is often used to search for treasures. It is also used to identify leaks and diffusion of petroleum in soil, in storage areas, as well as for fault location of pipelines. Furthermore, GPR is used for the localization of underground utilities and for diagnostics of the technical state of hydro dams. Deeper GPR probing was performed to identify landslides in Crimea. Rescue radar with CW signal was designed in IRE to search for living people trapped under the rubble of collapsed buildings. The fourth version of this radar has been recently created, showing higher stability and noise immunity. Radio-wave interference investigation allows studying the soil down to tens of meters. It is possible to identify areas with increased conductivity (moisture) of the soil. LLC "Transient Technologies" is currently working with Shevchenko Kyiv University on a cooperation program in which the construction of a test site is one of the planned tasks. In the framework of this program, a GPR with a 300 MHz antenna was handed to the geological Faculty of the University. Employees of "Transient Technologies" held introductory lectures with a practical demonstration for students majoring in geophysics. The authors participated to GPR

  19. Radar altimeter waveform modeled parameter recovery. [SEASAT-1 data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Satellite-borne radar altimeters include waveform sampling gates providing point samples of the transmitted radar pulse after its scattering from the ocean's surface. Averages of the waveform sampler data can be fitted by varying parameters in a model mean return waveform. The theoretical waveform model used is described as well as a general iterative nonlinear least squares procedures used to obtain estimates of parameters characterizing the modeled waveform for SEASAT-1 data. The six waveform parameters recovered by the fitting procedure are: (1) amplitude; (2) time origin, or track point; (3) ocean surface rms roughness; (4) noise baseline; (5) ocean surface skewness; and (6) altitude or off-nadir angle. Additional practical processing considerations are addressed and FORTRAN source listing for subroutines used in the waveform fitting are included. While the description is for the Seasat-1 altimeter waveform data analysis, the work can easily be generalized and extended to other radar altimeter systems.

  20. Floor-plan radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falconer, David G.; Ueberschaer, Ronald M.

    2000-07-01

    Urban-warfare specialists, law-enforcement officers, counter-drug agents, and counter-terrorism experts encounter operational situations where they must assault a target building and capture or rescue its occupants. To minimize potential casualties, the assault team needs a picture of the building's interior and a copy of its floor plan. With this need in mind, we constructed a scale model of a single- story house and imaged its interior using synthetic-aperture techniques. The interior and exterior walls nearest the radar set were imaged with good fidelity, but the distal ones appear poorly defined and surrounded by ghosts and artifacts. The latter defects are traceable to beam attenuation, wavefront distortion, multiple scattering, traveling waves, resonance phenomena, and other effects not accounted for in the traditional (noninteracting, isotropic point scatterer) model for radar imaging.

  1. New weather radar coming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maggs, William Ward

    What would you call the next generation of radar for severe weather prediction? NEXRAD, of course. A prototype for the new system was recently completed in Norman, Okla., and by the early 1990s up to 195 stations around the United States will be tracking dangerous weather and sending faster, more accurate, and more detailed warnings to the public.NEXRAD is being built for the Departments of Commerce, Transportation, and Defense by the Unisys Corporation under a $450 million contract signed in December 1987. Th e system will be used by the National Weather Service, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), and the U.S. Air Force and Navy. The NEXRAD radar tower in Norman is expected to be operational in October.

  2. RADAR Reveals Titan Topography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirk, R. L.; Callahan, P.; Seu, R.; Lorenz, R. D.; Paganelli, F.; Lopes, R.; Elachi, C.

    2005-01-01

    The Cassini Titan RADAR Mapper is a K(sub u)-band (13.78 GHz, lambda = 2.17 cm) linear polarized RADAR instrument capable of operating in synthetic aperture (SAR), scatterometer, altimeter and radiometer modes. During the first targeted flyby of Titan on 26 October, 2004 (referred to as Ta) observations were made in all modes. Evidence for topographic relief based on the Ta altimetry and SAR data are presented here. Additional SAR and altimetry observations are planned for the T3 encounter on 15 February, 2005, but have not been carried out at this writing. Results from the T3 encounter relevant to topography will be included in our presentation. Data obtained in the Ta encounter include a SAR image swath

  3. Kuiper Belt Mapping Radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freeman, A.; Nilsen, E.

    2001-01-01

    Since their initial discovery in 1992, to date only a relatively small number of Kuiper Belt Objects (KBO's) have been discovered. Current detection techniques rely on frame-to-frame comparisons of images collected by optical telescopes such as Hubble, to detect KBO's as they move against the background stellar field. Another technique involving studies of KBO's through occultation of known stars has been proposed. Such techniques are serendipitous, not systematic, and may lead to an inadequate understanding of the size, range, and distribution of KBO's. In this paper, a future Kuiper Belt Mapping Radar is proposed as a solution to the problem of mapping the size distribution, extent, and range of KBO's. This approach can also be used to recover radar albedo and object rotation rates. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  4. Radar cross-sectional study using noise radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freundorfer, A. P.; Siddiqui, J. Y.; Antar, Y. M. M.

    2015-05-01

    A noise radar system is proposed with capabilities to measure and acquire the radar cross-section (RCS) of targets. The proposed system can cover a noise bandwidth of near DC to 50 GHz. The noise radar RCS measurements were conducted for selective targets like spheres and carpenter squares with and without dielectric bodies for a noise band of 400MHz-5000MHz. The bandwidth of operation was limited by the multiplier and the antennae used.

  5. 41. Perimeter acquisition radar building radar element and coaxial display, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    41. Perimeter acquisition radar building radar element and coaxial display, with drawing of typical antenna section. Drawing, from left to right, shows element, aluminum ground plane, cable connectors and hardware, cable, and back-up ring. Grey area is the concrete wall - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Perimeter Acquisition Radar Building, Limited Access Area, between Limited Access Patrol Road & Service Road A, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  6. 51. View of upper radar scanner switch in radar scanner ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    51. View of upper radar scanner switch in radar scanner building 105 from upper catwalk level showing emanating waveguides from upper switch (upper one-fourth of photograph) and emanating waveguides from lower radar scanner switch in vertical runs. - Clear Air Force Station, Ballistic Missile Early Warning System Site II, One mile west of mile marker 293.5 on Parks Highway, 5 miles southwest of Anderson, Anderson, Denali Borough, AK

  7. Goldstone solar system radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jurgens, Raymond F.

    1991-01-01

    Caltech/Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) radar astronomers made use of the Very Large Array (VLA) at Socorro, NM, during February 1990, to receive radio echoes from the planet Venus. The transmitter was the 70 meter antenna at the Goldstone complex northwest of Barstow, CA. These observations contain new information about the roughness of Venus at cm to decimeter scales and are complementary to information being obtained by the Magellan spacecraft. Asteroid observations are also discussed.

  8. Servomechanism for Doppler shift compensation in optical correlator for synthetic aperture radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Constaninides, N. J.; Bicknell, T. J. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A method and apparatus for correcting Doppler shifts in synthetic aperture radar data is described. An optical correlator for synthetic aperture radar data has a means for directing a laser beam at a signal film having radar return pulse intensity information recorded on it. A resultant laser beam passes through a range telescope, an azimuth telescope, and a Fourier transform filter located between the range and azimuth telescopes, and forms an image for recording on an image film. A compensation means for Doppler shift in the radar return pulse intensity information includes a beam splitter for reflecting the modulated laser beam, after having passed through the Fourier transform filter, to a detection screen having two photodiodes mounted on it.

  9. The S-193 radar altimeter experiment. [onboard Skylab for earth surface profile measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgoogan, J. T.; Miller, L. S.; Brown, G. S.; Hayne, G. S.

    1974-01-01

    The Skylab S-193 altimeter experiment utilizes a 10- and 100-ns pulse length, 13.9-GHz earth-pointed radar system to obtain earth-surface backscatter measurements from the Skylab spacecraft. Objectives of the experiment are to obtain precision measurements of surface profile for uses in geodesy, oceanography, and earth physics, and to measure radar-signal characteristics from an earth-orbit geometry to provide design information for future radar remote-sensors. The technical approach is that of measuring the power impulse response of the scattering surface. The hardware is designed to operate in five modes: waveform or impulse-response measurement and altitude determination; radar cross-section experiment; signal correlation experiment; 10-nsec pulse-compression evaluation; and nadir-seeker experiment.

  10. A family of radars for advanced systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giaccari, Ennio; Penazzi, Carlo Alberto

    1989-04-01

    The military and air traffic control radars developed by Selenia are reviewed. The design, production, and testing aspects of the radar development process are discussed, focusing on shipborne, ground based, and air traffic control radars. An overview of radar subsystems is given, including the antenna, transmitter, receiver-exciter, signal processor, data processor, and radar controller subsystems.

  11. Spaceborne Imaging Radar Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herman, Neil

    1986-01-01

    In June of 1985 the Project Initiation Agreement was signed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and the NASA Office of Space Science and Applications for the Spaceborne Imaging Radar Project (SIR). The thrust of the Spaceborne Imaging Radar Project is to continue the evolution of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) science and technology developed during SEASAT, SIR-A and SIR-B missions to meet the needs of the Earth Observing System (EOS) in the mid 1990's. As originally formulated, the Project plans were for a reflight of the SIR-B in 1987, the development of a new SAR, SIR-C, for missions in mid 1989 and early 1990, and the upgrade of SIR-C to EOS configuration with a qualification flight aboard the shuttle in the 1993 time frame (SIR-D). However, the loss of the shuttle Challenger has delayed the first manifest for SIR to early 1990. This delay prompted the decision to drop SIR-B reflight plans and move ahead with SIR-C to more effectively utilize this first mission opportunity. The planning for this project is discussed.

  12. Radar gun hazards

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-20

    Radar guns - hand-held units used by the law to nail speeders - have been in use since the early '60s. Now they've been accused of causing cancer. Police officers in several states have so far filed eight suits against the manufacturer, claiming that they have contracted rare forms of cancer, such as of the eyelid and the testicle, from frequent proximity to the devices. Spurred by concerns expressed by police groups, researchers at the Rochester Institute of Technology are conducting what they believe to be the first research of its kind in the nation. Last month psychologist John Violanti, an expert in policy psychology and health, sent out a one-page survey to 6,000 active and retired police officers in New York State, asking them about their health and their use of radar guns. Violanti says melanoma, leukemia, and lymph node cancer may be linked to these as well as other electromagnetic devices. The Food and Drug Administration earlier this year issued a warning about radar guns, telling users not to operate them closer than 6 inches from the body. But this may not be a sufficient safeguard since the instruments can give off crisscrossing wave emissions within a police vehicle. The survey will be used to help determine if it would be safer to mount the guns, which are currently either hand-held or mounted on dashboards, outside troopers' cars.

  13. Cognitive processing for nonlinear radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martone, Anthony; Ranney, Kenneth; Hedden, Abigail; Mazzaro, Gregory; McNamara, David

    2013-05-01

    An increasingly cluttered electromagnetic environment (EME) is a growing problem for radar systems. This problem is becoming critical as the available frequency spectrum shrinks due to growing wireless communication device usage and changing regulations. A possible solution to these problems is cognitive radar, where the cognitive radar learns from the environment and intelligently modifies the transmit waveform. In this paper, a cognitive nonlinear radar processing framework is introduced where the main components of this framework consist of spectrum sensing processing, target detection and classification, and decision making. The emphasis of this paper is to introduce a spectrum sensing processing technique that identifies a transmit-receive frequency pair for nonlinear radar. It will be shown that the proposed technique successfully identifies a transmit-receive frequency pair for nonlinear radar from data collected from the EME.

  14. Robust Radar Emitter Recognition Based on the Three-Dimensional Distribution Feature and Transfer Learning

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Zhutian; Qiu, Wei; Sun, Hongjian; Nallanathan, Arumugam

    2016-01-01

    Due to the increasing complexity of electromagnetic signals, there exists a significant challenge for radar emitter signal recognition. To address this challenge, multi-component radar emitter recognition under a complicated noise environment is studied in this paper. A novel radar emitter recognition approach based on the three-dimensional distribution feature and transfer learning is proposed. The cubic feature for the time-frequency-energy distribution is proposed to describe the intra-pulse modulation information of radar emitters. Furthermore, the feature is reconstructed by using transfer learning in order to obtain the robust feature against signal noise rate (SNR) variation. Last, but not the least, the relevance vector machine is used to classify radar emitter signals. Simulations demonstrate that the approach proposed in this paper has better performances in accuracy and robustness than existing approaches. PMID:26927111

  15. Detection and discrimination of fauna in the aerosphere using Doppler weather surveillance radar.

    PubMed

    Gauthreaux, Sidney A; Livingston, John W; Belser, Carroll G

    2008-07-01

    Organisms in the aerosphere have been detected by radar since its development in the 1940s. The national network of Doppler weather radars (WSR-88D) in the United States can readily detect birds, bats, and insects aloft. Level-II data from the radar contain information on the reflectivity and radial velocity of targets and on width of the spectrum (SD of radial velocities in a radar pulse volume). Information on reflectivity can be used to quantify density of organisms aloft and radial velocity can be used to discriminate different types of targets based on their air speeds. Spectral width can also provide some useful information when organisms with very different air speeds are aloft. Recent work with dual-polarization radar suggests that it may be useful for discriminating birds from insects in the aerosphere, but more development and biological validation are required. PMID:21669769

  16. Robust Radar Emitter Recognition Based on the Three-Dimensional Distribution Feature and Transfer Learning.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhutian; Qiu, Wei; Sun, Hongjian; Nallanathan, Arumugam

    2016-01-01

    Due to the increasing complexity of electromagnetic signals, there exists a significant challenge for radar emitter signal recognition. To address this challenge, multi-component radar emitter recognition under a complicated noise environment is studied in this paper. A novel radar emitter recognition approach based on the three-dimensional distribution feature and transfer learning is proposed. The cubic feature for the time-frequency-energy distribution is proposed to describe the intra-pulse modulation information of radar emitters. Furthermore, the feature is reconstructed by using transfer learning in order to obtain the robust feature against signal noise rate (SNR) variation. Last, but not the least, the relevance vector machine is used to classify radar emitter signals. Simulations demonstrate that the approach proposed in this paper has better performances in accuracy and robustness than existing approaches. PMID:26927111

  17. Radar-aeolian roughness project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greeley, Ronald; Dobrovolskis, A.; Gaddis, L.; Iversen, J. D.; Lancaster, N.; Leach, Rodman N.; Rasnussen, K.; Saunders, S.; Vanzyl, J.; Wall, S.

    1991-01-01

    The objective is to establish an empirical relationship between measurements of radar, aeolian, and surface roughness on a variety of natural surfaces and to understand the underlying physical causes. This relationship will form the basis for developing a predictive equation to derive aeolian roughness from radar backscatter. Results are given from investigations carried out in 1989 on the principal elements of the project, with separate sections on field studies, radar data analysis, laboratory simulations, and development of theory for planetary applications.

  18. Radar studies of bird migration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, T. C.; Williams, J. M.

    1974-01-01

    Observations of bird migration with NASA radars were made at Wallops Island, Va. Simultaneous observations were made at a number of radar sites in the North Atlantic Ocean in an effort to discover what happened to those birds that were observed leaving the coast of North America headed toward Bermuda, the Caribbean and South America. Transatlantic migration, utilizing observations from a large number of radars is discussed. Detailed studies of bird movements at Wallops Island are presented.

  19. Ku band airborne radar altimeter observations of marginal sea ice during the 1984 Marginal Ice Zone Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drinkwater, Mark R.

    1991-01-01

    Pulse-limited, airborne radar data taken in June and July 1984 with a 13.8-GHz altimeter over the Fram Strait marginal ice zone are analyzed with the aid of large-format aerial photography, airborne synthetic aperture radar data, and surface observations. Variations in the radar return pulse waveforms are quantified and correlated with ice properties recorded during the Marginal Ice Zone Experiment. Results indicate that the wide-beam altimeter is a flexible instrument, capable of identifying the ice edge with a high degree of accuracy, calculating the ice concentration, and discriminating a number of different ice classes. This suggests that microwave radar altimeters have a sensitivity to sea ice which has not yet been fully exploited. When fused with SSM/I, AVHRR and ERS-1 synthetic aperture radar imagery, future ERS-1 altimeter data are expected to provide some missing pieces to the sea ice geophysics puzzle.

  20. Shuttle ku-band communications/radar technical concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffin, J. W.; Kelley, J. S.; Steiner, A. W.; Vang, H. A.; Zrubek, W. E.; Huth, G. K.

    1985-01-01

    Technical data on the Shuttle Orbiter K sub u-band communications/radar system are presented. The more challenging aspects of the system design and development are emphasized. The technical problems encountered and the advancements made in solving them are discussed. The radar functions are presented first. Requirements and design/implementation approaches are discussed. Advanced features are explained, including Doppler measurement, frequency diversity, multiple pulse repetition frequencies and pulse widths, and multiple modes. The communications functions that are presented include advances made because of the requirements for multiple communications modes. Spread spectrum, quadrature phase shift keying (QPSK), variable bit rates, and other advanced techniques are discussed. Performance results and conclusions reached are outlined.

  1. Radar data processing and analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ausherman, D.; Larson, R.; Liskow, C.

    1976-01-01

    Digitized four-channel radar images corresponding to particular areas from the Phoenix and Huntington test sites were generated in conjunction with prior experiments performed to collect X- and L-band synthetic aperture radar imagery of these two areas. The methods for generating this imagery are documented. A secondary objective was the investigation of digital processing techniques for extraction of information from the multiband radar image data. Following the digitization, the remaining resources permitted a preliminary machine analysis to be performed on portions of the radar image data. The results, although necessarily limited, are reported.

  2. Mars: Seasonally variable radar reflectivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roth, L. E.; Downs, G. S.; Saunders, R. S.; Schubert, G.

    1985-01-01

    The 1971/1973 Mars data set acquired by the Goldstone Solar System Radar was analyzed. It was established that the seasonal variations in radar reflectivity thought to occur in only one locality on the planet (the Solis Lacus radar anomaly) occur, in fact, over the entire subequatorial belt observed by the Goldstone radar. Since liquid water appears to be the most likely cause of the reflectivity excursions, a permanent, year-round presence of subsurface water (frozen or thawed) in the Martian tropics can be inferred.

  3. Reconfigurable L-Band Radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rincon, Rafael F.

    2008-01-01

    The reconfigurable L-Band radar is an ongoing development at NASA/GSFC that exploits the capability inherently in phased array radar systems with a state-of-the-art data acquisition and real-time processor in order to enable multi-mode measurement techniques in a single radar architecture. The development leverages on the L-Band Imaging Scatterometer, a radar system designed for the development and testing of new radar techniques; and the custom-built DBSAR processor, a highly reconfigurable, high speed data acquisition and processing system. The radar modes currently implemented include scatterometer, synthetic aperture radar, and altimetry; and plans to add new modes such as radiometry and bi-static GNSS signals are being formulated. This development is aimed at enhancing the radar remote sensing capabilities for airborne and spaceborne applications in support of Earth Science and planetary exploration This paper describes the design of the radar and processor systems, explains the operational modes, and discusses preliminary measurements and future plans.

  4. Python-ARM Radar Toolkit

    SciTech Connect

    Jonathan Helmus, Scott Collis

    2013-03-17

    The Python-ARM Radar Toolkit (Py-ART) is a collection of radar quality control and retrieval codes which all work on two unifying Python objects: the PyRadar and PyGrid objects. By building ingests to several popular radar formats and then abstracting the interface Py-ART greatly simplifies data processing over several other available utilities. In addition Py-ART makes use of Numpy arrays as its primary storage mechanism enabling use of existing and extensive community software tools.

  5. Mode S baseline radar tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mancus, E. F.; Baker, L. H.

    1982-11-01

    The baseline performance characteristics of the moving target detector (MTD) and radar data acquisition system (RDAS) as an integral part of the Mode S sensor, were determined. The MTD and RDAS were separately evaluated to determine their capability to provide radar data suitable for utilization by the Mode S sensor and automated radar terminal system (ARTS). The design modifications made to the Mode S sensor to provide the capability of interfacing to either an MTD or RDAS were evaluated to determine if they were in compliance with the Federal Aviation Administration engineering requirement, FAA-ER-240-26. Radar baseline technical performance data was provided to characterize the MTD, RDAS, Mode S, and ARTS. The minimum radar tracking requirements are studied to determine if they are adequate to provide reliable radar track data to an air traffic control facility. It was concluded that the Mode S sensor, when integrated with an MTD-2 radar digitizer, can provide reliable primary radar track data to the ARTS III system for automated radar track acquisition.

  6. Electrodynamic-tether time-domain reflectometer for analyzing tether faults and degradation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilén, Sven G.; Gilchrist, Brian E.

    2001-02-01

    We propose using time-domain-reflectometry (TDR) systems to locate and track faults along electrodynamic tether (EDT) systems. Inclusion of a TDR on long-duration EDT missions would facilitate tracking of the expected performance degradation due to faults caused by hazards such as micrometeors. The TDR technique has long been an effective tool for determining the location of loads and faults along common transmission lines (TLs) such as coaxial cables. Also sometimes known as pulse reflectometry, TDR works by sending an impulse down a TL and recording the reflected energy as a function of time. Measurement of the reflected TDR waveform provides insight into the physical structure of the TL and any loads, i.e., faults, along its length. In addition, the delay between launched and reflected signals determines the location of the load or fault. Hence, the TDR technique requires knowledge of the propagation characteristics of the TL under test. To examine the feasibility of extending the technique to EDTs we use a previously developed model for the tether transmission line. This model has temporal, and hence spatial, limitations, which may be overcome with enhancements to the tether TL model. We present some general parameters governing the development of such a tether TDR system as well as computer simulations of the TDR system's response. .

  7. A 449 MHz modular wind profiler radar system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindseth, Bradley James

    This thesis presents the design of a 449 MHz radar for wind profiling, with a focus on modularity, antenna sidelobe reduction, and solid-state transmitter design. It is one of the first wind profiler radars to use low-cost LDMOS power amplifiers combined with spaced antennas. The system is portable and designed for 2-3 month deployments. The transmitter power amplifier consists of multiple 1-kW peak power modules which feed 54 antenna elements arranged in a hexagonal array, scalable directly to 126 elements. The power amplifier is operated in pulsed mode with a 10% duty cycle at 63% drain efficiency. The antenna array is designed to have low sidelobes, confirmed by measurements. The radar was operated in Boulder, Colorado and Salt Lake City, Utah. Atmospheric wind vertical and horizontal components at altitudes between 200m and 4km were calculated from the collected atmospheric return signals. Sidelobe reduction of the antenna array pattern is explored to reduce the effects of ground or sea clutter. Simulations are performed for various shapes of compact clutter fences for the 915-MHz beam-steering Doppler radar and the 449-MHz spaced antenna interferometric radar. It is shown that minimal low-cost hardware modifications to existing compact ground planes of 915-MHz beam-steering radar allow for reduction of sidelobes of up to 5dB. The results obtained on a single beam-steering array are extended to the 449 MHz triple hexagonal array spaced antenna interferometric radar. Cross-correlation, transmit beamwidth, and sidelobe levels are evaluated for various clutter fence configurations and array spacings. The resulting sidelobes are as much as 10 dB below those without a clutter fence and can be incorporated into existing and future 915 and 449 MHz wind profiler systems with minimal hardware modifications.

  8. Coherent Doppler Laser Radar: Technology Development and Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kavaya, Michael J.; Arnold, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center has been investigating, developing, and applying coherent Doppler laser radar technology for over 30 years. These efforts have included the first wind measurement in 1967, the first airborne flights in 1972, the first airborne wind field mapping in 1981, and the first measurement of hurricane eyewall winds in 1998. A parallel effort at MSFC since 1982 has been the study, modeling and technology development for a space-based global wind measurement system. These endeavors to date have resulted in compact, robust, eyesafe lidars at 2 micron wavelength based on solid-state laser technology; in a factor of 6 volume reduction in near diffraction limited, space-qualifiable telescopes; in sophisticated airborne scanners with full platform motion subtraction; in local oscillator lasers capable of rapid tuning of 25 GHz for removal of relative laser radar to target velocities over a 25 km/s range; in performance prediction theory and simulations that have been validated experimentally; and in extensive field campaign experience. We have also begun efforts to dramatically improve the fundamental photon efficiency of the laser radar, to demonstrate advanced lower mass laser radar telescopes and scanners; to develop laser and laser radar system alignment maintenance technologies; and to greatly improve the electrical efficiency, cooling technique, and robustness of the pulsed laser. This coherent Doppler laser radar technology is suitable for high resolution, high accuracy wind mapping; for aerosol and cloud measurement; for Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) measurements of atmospheric and trace gases; for hard target range and velocity measurement; and for hard target vibration spectra measurement. It is also suitable for a number of aircraft operations applications such as clear air turbulence (CAT) detection; dangerous wind shear (microburst) detection; airspeed, angle of attack, and sideslip measurement; and fuel savings through

  9. A fully photonics-based coherent radar system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghelfi, Paolo; Laghezza, Francesco; Scotti, Filippo; Serafino, Giovanni; Capria, Amerigo; Pinna, Sergio; Onori, Daniel; Porzi, Claudio; Scaffardi, Mirco; Malacarne, Antonio; Vercesi, Valeria; Lazzeri, Emma; Berizzi, Fabrizio; Bogoni, Antonella

    2014-03-01

    The next generation of radar (radio detection and ranging) systems needs to be based on software-defined radio to adapt to variable environments, with higher carrier frequencies for smaller antennas and broadened bandwidth for increased resolution. Today's digital microwave components (synthesizers and analogue-to-digital converters) suffer from limited bandwidth with high noise at increasing frequencies, so that fully digital radar systems can work up to only a few gigahertz, and noisy analogue up- and downconversions are necessary for higher frequencies. In contrast, photonics provide high precision and ultrawide bandwidth, allowing both the flexible generation of extremely stable radio-frequency signals with arbitrary waveforms up to millimetre waves, and the detection of such signals and their precise direct digitization without downconversion. Until now, the photonics-based generation and detection of radio-frequency signals have been studied separately and have not been tested in a radar system. Here we present the development and the field trial results of a fully photonics-based coherent radar demonstrator carried out within the project PHODIR. The proposed architecture exploits a single pulsed laser for generating tunable radar signals and receiving their echoes, avoiding radio-frequency up- and downconversion and guaranteeing both the software-defined approach and high resolution. Its performance exceeds state-of-the-art electronics at carrier frequencies above two gigahertz, and the detection of non-cooperating aeroplanes confirms the effectiveness and expected precision of the system.

  10. A fully photonics-based coherent radar system.

    PubMed

    Ghelfi, Paolo; Laghezza, Francesco; Scotti, Filippo; Serafino, Giovanni; Capria, Amerigo; Pinna, Sergio; Onori, Daniel; Porzi, Claudio; Scaffardi, Mirco; Malacarne, Antonio; Vercesi, Valeria; Lazzeri, Emma; Berizzi, Fabrizio; Bogoni, Antonella

    2014-03-20

    The next generation of radar (radio detection and ranging) systems needs to be based on software-defined radio to adapt to variable environments, with higher carrier frequencies for smaller antennas and broadened bandwidth for increased resolution. Today's digital microwave components (synthesizers and analogue-to-digital converters) suffer from limited bandwidth with high noise at increasing frequencies, so that fully digital radar systems can work up to only a few gigahertz, and noisy analogue up- and downconversions are necessary for higher frequencies. In contrast, photonics provide high precision and ultrawide bandwidth, allowing both the flexible generation of extremely stable radio-frequency signals with arbitrary waveforms up to millimetre waves, and the detection of such signals and their precise direct digitization without downconversion. Until now, the photonics-based generation and detection of radio-frequency signals have been studied separately and have not been tested in a radar system. Here we present the development and the field trial results of a fully photonics-based coherent radar demonstrator carried out within the project PHODIR. The proposed architecture exploits a single pulsed laser for generating tunable radar signals and receiving their echoes, avoiding radio-frequency up- and downconversion and guaranteeing both the software-defined approach and high resolution. Its performance exceeds state-of-the-art electronics at carrier frequencies above two gigahertz, and the detection of non-cooperating aeroplanes confirms the effectiveness and expected precision of the system. PMID:24646997

  11. Ultra wideband ground penetrating radar imaging of heterogeneous solids

    DOEpatents

    Warhus, J.P.; Mast, J.E.

    1998-11-10

    A non-invasive imaging system for analyzing engineered structures comprises pairs of ultra wideband radar transmitters and receivers in a linear array that are connected to a timing mechanism that allows a radar echo sample to be taken at a variety of delay times for each radar pulse transmission. The radar transmitters and receivers are coupled to a position determining system that provides the x,y position on a surface for each group of samples measured for a volume from the surface. The radar transmitter and receivers are moved about the surface, e.g., attached to the bumper of a truck, to collect such groups of measurements from a variety of x,y positions. Return signal amplitudes represent the relative reflectivity of objects within the volume and the delay in receiving each signal echo represents the depth at which the object lays in the volume and the propagation speeds of the intervening material layers. Successively deeper z-planes are backward propagated from one layer to the next with an adjustment for variations in the expected propagation velocities of the material layers that lie between adjacent z-planes. 11 figs.

  12. Application of ground-penetrating-radar methods in hydrogeologic studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beres, Milan, Jr.; Haeni, F.P.

    1991-01-01

    A ground-penetrating-radar system was used to study selected stratified-drift deposits in Connecticut. Ground-penetrating radar is a surface-geophysical method that depends on the emission, transmission, reflection, and reception of an electromagnetic pulse and can produce continuous high-resolution profiles of the subsurface rapidly and efficiently. Traverse locations on land included a well field in the town of Mansfield, a sand and gravel pit and a farm overlying a potential aquifer in the town of Coventry, and Haddam Meadows State Park in the town of Haddam. Traverse locations on water included the Willimantic River in Coventry and Mansfield Hollow Lake in Mansfield. The penetration depth of the radar signal ranged from about 20 feet in fine-grained glaciolacustrine sediments to about 70 feet in coarse sand and gravel. Some land records in coarse-grained sediments show a distinct, continuous reflection from the water table about 5 to 11 feet below land surface. Parallel reflectors on the records are interpreted as fine-grained sediments. Hummocky or chaotic reflectors are interpreted as cross-bedded or coarse-grained sediments. Other features observed on some of the radar records include the till and bedrock surface. Records collected on water had distinct water-bottom multiples (more than one reflection) and diffraction patterns from boulders. The interpretation of the radar records, which required little or no processing, was verified by using lithologic logs from test holes located along some of the land traverses and near the water traverses.

  13. Ultra wideband ground penetrating radar imaging of heterogeneous solids

    DOEpatents

    Warhus, John P.; Mast, Jeffrey E.

    1998-01-01

    A non-invasive imaging system for analyzing engineered structures comprises pairs of ultra wideband radar transmitters and receivers in a linear array that are connected to a timing mechanism that allows a radar echo sample to be taken at a variety of delay times for each radar pulse transmission. The radar transmitters and receivers are coupled to a position determining system that provides the x,y position on a surface for each group of samples measured for a volume from the surface. The radar transmitter and receivers are moved about the surface, e.g., attached to the bumper of a truck, to collect such groups of measurements from a variety of x,y positions. Return signal amplitudes represent the relative reflectivity of objects within the volume and the delay in receiving each signal echo represents the depth at which the object lays in the volume and the propagation speeds of the intervening material layers. Successively deeper z-planes are backward propagated from one layer to the next with an adjustment for variations in the expected propagation velocities of the material layers that lie between adjacent z-planes.

  14. Data processing techniques used with MST radars: A review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rastogi, P. K.

    1983-01-01

    The data processing methods used in high power radar probing of the middle atmosphere are examined. The radar acts as a spatial filter on the small scale refractivity fluctuations in the medium. The characteristics of the received signals are related to the statistical properties of these fluctuations. A functional outline of the components of a radar system is given. Most computation intensive tasks are carried out by the processor. The processor computes a statistical function of the received signals, simultaneously for a large number of ranges. The slow fading of atmospheric signals is used to reduce the data input rate to the processor by coherent integration. The inherent range resolution of the radar experiments can be improved significant with the use of pseudonoise phase codes to modulate the transmitted pulses and a corresponding decoding operation on the received signals. Commutability of the decoding and coherent integration operations is used to obtain a significant reduction in computations. The limitations of the processors are outlined. At the next level of data reduction, the measured function is parameterized by a few spectral moments that can be related to physical processes in the medium. The problems encountered in estimating the spectral moments in the presence of strong ground clutter, external interference, and noise are discussed. The graphical and statistical analysis of the inferred parameters are outlined. The requirements for special purpose processors for MST radars are discussed.

  15. Microwave and Pulsed Power

    SciTech Connect

    Freytag, E.K.

    1993-03-01

    The goals of the Microwave and Pulsed Power thrust area are to identify realizable research and development efforts and to conduct high-quality research in those pulse power and microwave technologies that support existing and emerging programmatic requirements at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Our main objective is to work on nationally important problems while enhancing our basic understanding of enabling technologies such as component design and testing, compact systems packaging, exploratory physics experiments, and advanced systems integration and performance. During FY-92, we concentrated our research efforts on the six project areas described in this report. (1) We are investigating the superior electronic and thermal properties of diamond that may make it an ideal material for a high-power, solid-state switch. (2) We are studying the feasibility of using advanced Ground Penetrating Imaging Radar technology for reliable non-destructive evaluation of bridges and other high-value concrete structures. These studies include conceptual designs, modeling, experimental verifications, and image reconstruction of simulated radar data. (3) We are exploring the efficiency of pulsed plasma processing techniques used for the removal of NO{sub x} from various effluent sources. (4) We have finished the investigation of the properties of a magnetically delayed low-pressure gas switch, which was designed here at LLNL. (5) We are applying statistical electromagnetic theory techniques to help assess microwave effects on electronic subsystems, by using a mode stirred chamber as our measurement tool. (6) We are investigating the generation of perfluoroisobutylene (PFIB) in proposed CFC replacement fluids when they are subjected to high electrical stresses and breakdown environments.

  16. High Resolution Radar Detection of Individual Raindrops in Natural Cloud Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, J.; Flatau, P. J.; Harasti, P. R.; Yates, R. D.

    2014-12-01

    A high resolution C-band Doppler radar previously used to detect debris shed during space shuttle missions is shown to have the capability to determine the properties of individual raindrops in the free atmosphere. This is accomplished through a combination of the radar's narrow (0.22 degree) beamwidth, a range resolution as fine as 0.5m, and extremely high 3MW power. These attributes lead to exceptionally small radar pulse volumes (as low as 14m3 at the radar's minimum 2km range) and allow the radar to detect individual drops that exceed 0.5mm in diameter. As the radar transmits both a higher (0.5m) and lower (37m) range resolution waveform every other pulse, a unique opportunity arise to examine both the bulk radar reflectivity and individual particle properties at the same time. The larger individual drops detected by the radar appear in the radar data as bright, nearly linear, reflectivity "streaks" against the more uniform background reflectivity field generated by the population of smaller drops. These streaks can then be examined to infer the properties of the particles directly such as their size, fall velocity, concentration, and potentially other properties such as naturally occurring drop oscillations. Examples of the bulk and individual particle properties for several "streaks" associated with a deep convective system are examined. Additional high-resolution studies of the circulation fields associated with a shallow altocumulus layer and a long-lived radar reflectivity bright band associated with the melting layer within a meso-convective cloud system reveal new details of the internal circulation features associated with these phenomena.

  17. A survey of airborne radar systems for deployment on a High Altitude Powered Platform (HAPP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choudhury, B. J.; Leung, K. C.

    1979-01-01

    A survey was conducted to find out the system characteristics of commercially available and unclassified military radars suitable for deployment on a stationary platform. A total of ten domestic and eight foreign manufacturers of the radar systems were identified. Questionnaires were sent to manufacturers requesting information concerning the system characteristics: frequency, power used, weight, volume, power radiated, antenna pattern, resolution, display capabilities, pulse repetition frequency, and sensitivity. A literature search was also made to gather the system characteristics information. Results of the survey are documented and comparisons are made among available radar systems.

  18. Radar measurement of ionospheric scintillation in the polar region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knepp, Dennis L.

    2015-10-01

    This paper considers several estimators that use radar data to measure the S4 scintillation index that characterizes the severity of amplitude scintillation that may occur during RF propagation through ionospheric irregularities. S4 is defined to be the standard deviation of the fluctuations in received power normalized by division by the mean power. Estimates of S4 are based on radar returns obtained during track of targets which may themselves have intrinsic radar cross-section fluctuations. Key to this work is the consideration of thresholding, which is used in many radars to remove (from further processing) signals whose SNR is considered too low. We consider several estimators here. The "direct" estimator attempts to estimate S4 through the direct calculation of the mean and standard deviation of the SNR from a number of radar returns. The maximum likelihood (ML) estimator uses multiple hypothesis testing and the assumption of Nakagami-m statistics to estimate the scintillation index that best fits the radar returns from some number of pulses. The ML estimator has perfect knowledge of the number of radar returns that are below the threshold. The direct estimator is accurate for the case where there is no threshold and there are many returns or samples from which to estimate S4. However, the direct estimator is flawed (especially for strong scintillation) if deep fades that fall below the radar threshold are ignored. The modified ML estimator here is based on the ML technique but is useful if the count of missed returns is unavailable. We apply the modified ML estimator to several years of radar tracks of large calibration satellites to obtain the statistics of UHF scintillation as viewed from the early warning radar at Thule, Greenland. One-way S4 was measured from 5000 low Earth orbit tracks during the 3 year period after solar maximum in May 2000. The data are analyzed to quantify the exceedance or the level of scintillation experienced at various

  19. Sample interchange of MST radar data from the Urbana radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowhill, S. A.; Rennier, A.

    1984-01-01

    As a first step in interchange of data from the Urbana mesosphere-stratosphere-troposphere (MST) radar, a sample tape has been prepared in 9-track 1600-bpi IBM format. It includes all Urbana data for April 1978 (the first month of operation of the radar). The 300-ft tape contains 260 h of typical mesospheric power and line-of-sight velocity data.

  20. Millimeter Wave Cloud Radar (MMCR) Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    KB Widener; K Johnson

    2005-01-30

    The millimeter cloud radar (MMCR) systems probe the extent and composition of clouds at millimeter wavelengths. The MMCR is a zenith-pointing radar that operates at a frequency of 35 GHz. The main purpose of this radar is to determine cloud boundaries (e.g., cloud bottoms and tops). This radar will also report radar reflectivity (dBZ) of the atmosphere up to 20 km. The radar possesses a doppler capability that will allow the measurement of cloud constituent vertical velocities.

  1. Planetary radar studies. [radar mapping of the Moon and radar signatures of lunar and Venus craters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, T. W.; Cutts, J. A.

    1981-01-01

    Progress made in studying the evolution of Venusian craters and the evolution of infrared and radar signatures of lunar crater interiors is reported. Comparison of radar images of craters on Venus and the Moon present evidence for a steady state Venus crater population. Successful observations at the Arecibo Observatory yielded good data on five nights when data for a mix of inner and limb areas were acquired. Lunar craters with radar bright ejects are discussed. An overview of infrared radar crater catalogs in the data base is included.

  2. Broadview Radar Altimetry Toolbox

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escolà, Roger; Garcia-Mondejar, Albert; Moyano, Gorka; Roca, Mònica; Terra-Homem, Miguel; Friaças, Ana; Martinho, Fernando; Schrama, Ernst; Naeije, Marc; Ambrozio, Americo; Restano, Marco; Benveniste, Jérôme

    2016-04-01

    The universal altimetry toolbox, BRAT (Broadview Radar Altimetry Toolbox) which can read all previous and current altimetry missions' data, incorporates now the capability to read the upcoming Sentinel-3 L1 and L2 products. ESA endeavoured to develop and supply this capability to support the users of the future Sentinel-3 SAR Altimetry Mission. BRAT is a collection of tools and tutorial documents designed to facilitate the processing of radar altimetry data. This project started in 2005 from the joint efforts of ESA (European Space Agency) and CNES (Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales), and it is freely available at http://earth.esa.int/brat. The tools enable users to interact with the most common altimetry data formats. The BratGUI is the front-end for the powerful command line tools that are part of the BRAT suite. BRAT can also be used in conjunction with MATLAB/IDL (via reading routines) or in C/C++/Fortran via a programming API, allowing the user to obtain desired data, bypassing the data-formatting hassle. BRAT can be used simply to visualise data quickly, or to translate the data into other formats such as NetCDF, ASCII text files, KML (Google Earth) and raster images (JPEG, PNG, etc.). Several kinds of computations can be done within BRAT involving combinations of data fields that the user can save for posterior reuse or using the already embedded formulas that include the standard oceanographic altimetry formulas. The Radar Altimeter Tutorial, that contains a strong introduction to altimetry, shows its applications in different fields such as Oceanography, Cryosphere, Geodesy, Hydrology among others. Included are also "use cases", with step-by-step examples, on how to use the toolbox in the different contexts. The Sentinel-3 SAR Altimetry Toolbox shall benefit from the current BRAT version. While developing the toolbox we will revamp of the Graphical User Interface and provide, among other enhancements, support for reading the upcoming S3 datasets and

  3. Broadview Radar Altimetry Toolbox

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mondéjar, Albert; Benveniste, Jérôme; Naeije, Marc; Escolà, Roger; Moyano, Gorka; Roca, Mònica; Terra-Homem, Miguel; Friaças, Ana; Martinho, Fernando; Schrama, Ernst; Ambrózio, Américo; Restano, Marco

    2016-07-01

    The universal altimetry toolbox, BRAT (Broadview Radar Altimetry Toolbox) which can read all previous and current altimetry missions' data, incorporates now the capability to read the upcoming Sentinel-3 L1 and L2 products. ESA endeavoured to develop and supply this capability to support the users of the future Sentinel-3 SAR Altimetry Mission. BRAT is a collection of tools and tutorial documents designed to facilitate the processing of radar altimetry data. This project started in 2005 from the joint efforts of ESA (European Space Agency) and CNES (Centre National d'Études Spatiales), and it is freely available at http://earth.esa.int/brat. The tools enable users to interact with the most common altimetry data formats. The BratGUI is the front-end for the powerful command line tools that are part of the BRAT suite. BRAT can also be used in conjunction with MATLAB/IDL (via reading routines) or in C/C++/Fortran via a programming API, allowing the user to obtain desired data, bypassing the data-formatting hassle. BRAT can be used simply to visualise data quickly, or to translate the data into other formats such as NetCDF, ASCII text files, KML (Google Earth) and raster images (JPEG, PNG, etc.). Several kinds of computations can be done within BRAT involving combinations of data fields that the user can save for posterior reuse or using the already embedded formulas that include the standard oceanographic altimetry formulas. The Radar Altimeter Tutorial, that contains a strong introduction to altimetry, shows its applications in different fields such as Oceanography, Cryosphere, Geodesy, Hydrology among others. Included are also "use cases", with step-by-step examples, on how to use the toolbox in the different contexts. The Sentinel-3 SAR Altimetry Toolbox shall benefit from the current BRAT version. While developing the toolbox we will revamp of the Graphical User Interface and provide, among other enhancements, support for reading the upcoming S3 datasets and

  4. The evolutionary trend in airborne and satellite radar altimeters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fedor, L. S.; Walsh, E. J.

    1984-01-01

    The manner in which airborne and satellite radar altimeters developed and where the trend is leading was investigated. The airborne altimeters have progressed from a broad beamed, narrow pulsed, nadir looking instrument, to a pulse compressed system that is computer controlled, to a scanning pencil beamed system which produce a topographic map of the surface beneath the aircraft in real time. It is suggested that the airborne systems lie in the use of multiple frequencies. The satellite altimeters evolve towards multifrequency systems with narrower effective pulses and higher pulse compression ratios to reduce peak transmitted power while improving resolution. Applications indicate wide swath systems using interferometric techniques or beam limited systems using 100 m diameter antennas.

  5. Interferometric radar measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Ronald A.; Shipman, Mark; Holder, E. J.; Williams, James K.

    2002-08-01

    The United States Army Space and Missile Defense Command (USASMDC) has interest in a technology demonstration that capitalizes on investment in fire control and smart interceptor technologies that have matured beyond basic research. The concept SWORD (Short range missile defense With Optimized Radar Distribution) consists of a novel approach utilizing a missile interceptor and interferometric fire control radar. A hit-to-kill, closed-loop, command guidance scheme is planned that takes advantage of extremely accurate target and interceptor state vectors derived via the fire control radar. The fire control system has the capability to detect, track, and classify multiple threats in a tactical regime as well as simultaneously provide command guidance updates to multiple missile interceptors. The missile interceptor offers a cost reduction potential as well as an enhancement to the kinematics range and lethality over existing SHORAD systems. Additionally, the Radio Frequency (RF) guidance scheme offers increased battlefield weather performance. The Air Defense (AD) community, responding to current threat capabilities and trends, has identified an urgent need to have a capability to counter proliferated, low cost threats with a low cost-per-kill weapon system. The SWORD system will offer a solution that meets this need. The SWORD critical technologies will be identified including a detailed description of each. Validated test results and basic principles of operation will be presented to prove the merit of past investments. The Deputy Assistant Secretary of the Army for Research and Technology (DAS(R&T) has a three- year Science and Technology Program to evaluate the errors and proposed mitigation techniques associated with target spectral dispersion and range gate straddle. Preliminary bench-top experiment results will be presented in this paper.

  6. Pulse Oximetry

    MedlinePlus

    ... www.thoracic.org amount of gases (oxygen and carbon dioxide) that are in your blood. To get an ... Also, a pulse oximeter does not measure your carbon dioxide level. How accurate is the pulse oximeter? The ...

  7. CO2 laser radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, D.; Callan, R.; Constant, G.; Davies, P. H.; Foord, R.

    CO2 laser-based radars operating at 10 microns are both highly energy-efficient and eye-safe, as well as compact and rugged; they also furnish covertness-enhancing fine pointing accuracy, and are difficult to jam or otherwise confuse. Two modes of operation are generally employed: incoherent, in which the laser is simply used as a high power illumination source, and in the presently elaborated coherent or heterodyne mode. Applications encompass terrain-following and obstacle avoidance, Doppler discrimination of missile and aircraft targets, pollutant gas detection, wind measurement for weapons-aiming, and global wind field monitoring.

  8. Doppler radar flowmeter

    DOEpatents

    Petlevich, Walter J.; Sverdrup, Edward F.

    1978-01-01

    A Doppler radar flowmeter comprises a transceiver which produces an audio frequency output related to the Doppler shift in frequency between radio waves backscattered from particulate matter carried in a fluid and the radiated radio waves. A variable gain amplifier and low pass filter are provided for amplifying and filtering the transceiver output. A frequency counter having a variable triggering level is also provided to determine the magnitude of the Doppler shift. A calibration method is disclosed wherein the amplifier gain and frequency counter trigger level are adjusted to achieve plateaus in the output of the frequency counter and thereby allow calibration without the necessity of being able to visually observe the flow.

  9. Venus radar images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldstein, R. M.; Green, R. R.; Rumsey, H. C.

    1976-01-01

    The paper presents a set of seven radar brightness images and the corresponding altitude contours of small portions (circular regions of 1500-km diameter) of the Venus surface located at the center of the disk taken in the winter of 1973-1974. The regions imaged are arranged in an equatorial belt on the one face of Venus which is always seen on the occasions of closest approach to earth. A real resolution for the images is, typically, 100 x 10 km, while altitude resolution is 500 m.

  10. Time-of-Flight Bragg Scattering from Aligned Stacks of Lipid Bilayers using the Liquids Reflectometer at the Spallation Neutron Source

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, Jianjun; Heberle, Frederick A; Carmichael, Justin R; Ankner, John Francis; Katsaras, John

    2012-01-01

    Time-of-flight (TOF) neutron diffraction experiments on aligned stacks of lipid bilayers using the horizontal Liquids Reflectometer at the Spallation Neutron Source are reported. Specific details are given regarding the instrumental setup, data collection and reduction, phase determination of the structure factors, and reconstruction of the one-dimensional neutron scattering length density (NSLD) profile. The validity of using TOF measurements to determine the one-dimensional NSLD profile is demonstrated by reproducing the results of two well known lipid bilayer structures. The method is then applied to show how an antimicrobial peptide affects membranes with and without cholesterol.

  11. SMAP's Radar OBP Algorithm Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Le, Charles; Spencer, Michael W.; Veilleux, Louise; Chan, Samuel; He, Yutao; Zheng, Jason; Nguyen, Kayla

    2009-01-01

    An approach for algorithm specifications and development is described for SMAP's radar onboard processor with multi-stage demodulation and decimation bandpass digital filter. Point target simulation is used to verify and validate the filter design with the usual radar performance parameters. Preliminary FPGA implementation is also discussed.

  12. Equatorial MST radars: Further consideration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lagos, P.

    1983-01-01

    The results presented give additional support to the need of equatorial MST radars in order to obtain more information on the nature of equatorial waves in the MST region. Radar deduced winds such as obtained at Jicamarca for periods of months indicate that with these data the full range of equatorial waves, with time scales of seconds to years, can be studied.

  13. Ground penetrating radar characterization of a landfill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yochim, April Theresa

    Ground penetrating radar was investigated in an active landfill to determine if the in-situ water content could be measured. Water content is an important parameter in predicting the generation of landfill gas (LFG), an important renewable energy source. Unfortunately, predicting the quantity of LFG is difficult due to the heterogeneities present in a landfill and the lack of in-situ input parameters. GPR is a non-invasive, near-surface geophysical technique that provides high resolution images of dielectric properties in the earth's subsurface. A transmitter emits high frequency (10 - 1000 MHz) electromagnetic pulses through the subsurface, with the receiver recording the echo. Specialized software is then used to create images of the subsurface. The challenge with using GPR in landfills is the heterogeneity of the subsurface and the clay cap linear covering landfills, both affecting the transmission of the electromagnetic pulses. The use of GPR in a landfill was evaluated at the Region of Waterloo's Waste Management Centre. Measurements were completed using both the surface and the borehole approach. The results indicated that a borehole GPR can be used, with successful measurement of water content a function of borehole separation distance and frequency of the electromagnetic pulses. The developed approach was confirmed at the City of Hamilton's Glanbrook Landfill. The successful comparison of in-situ water content values to laboratory determined values at both landfills shows that GPR can be used to measure in-situ water content.

  14. Low-brightness quantum radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanzagorta, Marco

    2015-05-01

    One of the major scientific thrusts from recent years has been to try to harness quantum phenomena to dramatically increase the performance of a wide variety of classical information processing devices. These advances in quantum information science have had a considerable impact on the development of standoff sensors such as quantum radar. In this paper we analyze the theoretical performance of low-brightness quantum radar that uses entangled photon states. We use the detection error probability as a measure of sensing performance and the interception error probability as a measure of stealthiness. We compare the performance of quantum radar against a coherent light sensor (such as lidar) and classical radar. In particular, we restrict our analysis to the performance of low-brightness standoff sensors operating in a noisy environment. We show that, compared to the two classical standoff sensing devices, quantum radar is stealthier, more resilient to jamming, and more accurate for the detection of low reflectivity targets.

  15. Atmospheric radar sounding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crane, R. K.

    1972-01-01

    Monostatic and bistatic radar techniques for the measurement of the structure of volume targets in the troposphere and lower stratosphere are reviewed. The targets considered are thin turbulent layers in the lower stratosphere and rain in the troposphere. The measurements of scattering from thin turbulent layers show that layers are generally detected at or near the tropopause, and in 31 out of 34 sets of measurements, layers were detected above the tropopause in the lower 10 km of the stratosphere. The threshold for turbulent layer detection corresponds to an equivalent thickness product of ten to the minus 13th power times the cube root of m at a range of 100 km and for layers with less than 1000 m thickness. The measurement of scattering by rain shows that in the New England area both convective and widespread rain consists of a number of small cells. On average, the cells appear to have a half-intensity width of 3 to 4 km as measured with a radar system with a 1.8 km resolution cell size for cells at 100 km range.

  16. Bistatic radar using a spaceborne illuminator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitewood, Aric Pierre

    A bistatic radar has a physically separated transmitter and receiver. This research pro gramme investigates a bistatic radar system which uses a spaceborne synthetic aperture radar transmitter on board the European Space Agency's Envisat satellite and a station ary, ground based receiver. The advantages of this variant of the bistatic configuration includes the passive and therefore covert nature of the receiver, its relatively low cost, in addition to the possibility of using a non-cooperative transmitter. The theory behind bistatic SAR systems is covered, including the specific case investi gated. The design, construction and testing of the bistatic receiver, which uses two separate channels, for the direct signal from the satellite (for synchronisation purposes) and the re flected signals from the imaged scene is also described. A SAR processing scheme using an adapted chirp scaling algorithm is presented and demonstrated through simulations to produce focused images for the scenario. The results of several bistatic imaging experiments are analysed through comparisons with theoretical impulse responses, and comparisons with satellite photographs, the corresponding monostatic image produced by Envisat, and the bistatic ambiguity function. It is demonstrated that focused images may be produced with such a system, although the performance achievable is dependent upon the imaging geometry. Different look direc tions of the receiver produce widely differing resolution values. The optimum choice of look direction must be weighed against possible direct signal interference in the reflected signal channel. Other effects, such as azimuth ambiguities caused by the sampling of the mov ing transmitter beam by the pulse repetition frequency may also have an effect, depending upon the combined transmit/receive beam pattern. Aspects of the system that could be investigated in the future are identified, for example the addition of an extra channel to the receiver in order to

  17. A high-resolution C-band radar composite for urban hydrological modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandford, Caroline; Darlington, Tim; Georgiou, Selena; Sugier, Jacqueline; Norman, Katie

    2014-05-01

    The RainGain project, supported by Interreg IVB NWE, aims to improve understanding of flood processes in urban environments, refining flood forecasting and water management solutions to increase cities' resilience to localised flooding events. Given the small-scale variability of hydrological properties in these regions, accurate and effective flood prediction requires very high resolution observations of current rainfall. Four urban catchments, each part of a major European city, have been selected for pilot studies of high resolution radar techniques. Each of the catchments in Leuven, Paris and Rotterdam has available one or more X-band radars for rainfall monitoring. For the London catchments, however, it was decided to use the existing C-band network to generate a new, higher-resolution rainfall product. The London catchments of Cranbrook and Purley are covered by two C-band radars, at Chenies and Thurnham, each at distances of 50km or less. Both radars have a half-power beam width of one degree, and can operate at pulse lengths of 300m (long-pulse) or 75m (short-pulse). In order to drive the street-scale hydrological modelling that Rain Gain aims to provide, data from these radars should ideally be downscaled to a grid-length of 100m. In this work we describe and compare methods of constructing a 100m-gridded rainfall product from C-band radar observations. The effects of pulse length on output quality are discussed, as is the potential for independent information to be extracted from oversampled long-pulse data. We also consider additional processing steps needed to ensure accuracy at the 100m scale, including azimuth weighting to sharpen beam resolution, and a wind drift correction. The extent to which increasing spatial resolution can improve radar composites is limited by the temporal resolution of the observations, and by spatial offsets between the radar measurement and the surface. The assumption that hydrometeors fall vertically through a non

  18. Integrating a Microwave Radiometer into Radar Hardware for Simultaneous Data Collection Between the Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McLinden, Matthew; Piepmeier, Jeffrey

    2013-01-01

    The conventional method for integrating a radiometer into radar hardware is to share the RF front end between the instruments, and to have separate IF receivers that take data at separate times. Alternatively, the radar and radiometer could share the antenna through the use of a diplexer, but have completely independent receivers. This novel method shares the radar's RF electronics and digital receiver with the radiometer, while allowing for simultaneous operation of the radar and radiometer. Radars and radiometers, while often having near-identical RF receivers, generally have substantially different IF and baseband receivers. Operation of the two instruments simultaneously is difficult, since airborne radars will pulse at a rate of hundreds of microseconds. Radiometer integration time is typically 10s or 100s of milliseconds. The bandwidth of radar may be 1 to 25 MHz, while a radiometer will have an RF bandwidth of up to a GHz. As such, the conventional method of integrating radar and radiometer hardware is to share the highfrequency RF receiver, but to have separate IF subsystems and digitizers. To avoid corruption of the radiometer data, the radar is turned off during the radiometer dwell time. This method utilizes a modern radar digital receiver to allow simultaneous operation of a radiometer and radar with a shared RF front end and digital receiver. The radiometer signal is coupled out after the first down-conversion stage. From there, the radar transmit frequencies are heavily filtered, and the bands outside the transmit filter are amplified and passed to a detector diode. This diode produces a DC output proportional to the input power. For a conventional radiometer, this level would be digitized. By taking this DC output and mixing it with a system oscillator at 10 MHz, the signal can instead be digitized by a second channel on the radar digital receiver (which typically do not accept DC inputs), and can be down-converted to a DC level again digitally. This

  19. PULSE GENERATOR

    DOEpatents

    Roeschke, C.W.

    1957-09-24

    An improvement in pulse generators is described by which there are produced pulses of a duration from about 1 to 10 microseconds with a truly flat top and extremely rapid rise and fall. The pulses are produced by triggering from a separate input or by modifying the current to operate as a free-running pulse generator. In its broad aspect, the disclosed pulse generator comprises a first tube with an anode capacitor and grid circuit which controls the firing; a second tube series connected in the cathode circuit of the first tube such that discharge of the first tube places a voltage across it as the leading edge of the desired pulse; and an integrator circuit from the plate across the grid of the second tube to control the discharge time of the second tube, determining the pulse length.

  20. Digital Radar-Signal Processors Implemented in FPGAs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berkun, Andrew; Andraka, Ray

    2004-01-01

    High-performance digital electronic circuits for onboard processing of return signals in an airborne precipitation- measuring radar system have been implemented in commercially available field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs). Previously, it was standard practice to downlink the radar-return data to a ground station for postprocessing a costly practice that prevents the nearly-real-time use of the data for automated targeting. In principle, the onboard processing could be performed by a system of about 20 personal- computer-type microprocessors; relative to such a system, the present FPGA-based processor is much smaller and consumes much less power. Alternatively, the onboard processing could be performed by an application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC), but in comparison with an ASIC implementation, the present FPGA implementation offers the advantages of (1) greater flexibility for research applications like the present one and (2) lower cost in the small production volumes typical of research applications. The generation and processing of signals in the airborne precipitation measuring radar system in question involves the following especially notable steps: The system utilizes a total of four channels two carrier frequencies and two polarizations at each frequency. The system uses pulse compression: that is, the transmitted pulse is spread out in time and the received echo of the pulse is processed with a matched filter to despread it. The return signal is band-limited and digitally demodulated to a complex baseband signal that, for each pulse, comprises a large number of samples. Each complex pair of samples (denoted a range gate in radar terminology) is associated with a numerical index that corresponds to a specific time offset from the beginning of the radar pulse, so that each such pair represents the energy reflected from a specific range. This energy and the average echo power are computed. The phase of each range bin is compared to the previous echo

  1. Radar Imaging of Asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostro, S. J.

    1996-09-01

    Measurements of the distribution of echo power in time delay (range) and Doppler frequency (line-of-sight velocity) can synthesize images of near-Earth and main-belt asteroids (NEAs and MBAs) that traverse the detectability windows of groundbased radar telescopes. Under ideal circumstances, current radar waveforms can achieve decameter surface resolution. The number of useful pixels obtainable in an imaging data set is of the same order as the signal-to-noise ratio, SNR, of an optimally filtered, weighted sum of all the data. (SNR increases as the square root of the integration time.) The upgraded Arecibo telescope which is about to become operational, should be able to achieve single-date SNRs {\\underline>} (20,100) for an average of (35,5) MBAs per year and single-date SNRs {\\underline>} (20,100,1000) for an average of (10,6,2) of the currently catalogued NEAs per year; optical surveying of the NEA population could increase the frequency of opportunities by an order of magnitude. The strongest imaging opportunities predicted for Arecibo between now and the end of 1997 include (the peak SNR/date is in parentheses): 9 Metis (110), 27 Euterpe (170), 80 Sappho (100), 139 Juewa (140), 144 Vibilia (140), 253 Mathilde (100), 2102 Tantalus (570), 3671 Dionysus (170), 3908 1980PA (4400), 4179 Toutatis (16000), 4197 1982TA (1200), 1991VK (700), and 1994PC1 (7400). A delay-Doppler image projects the echo power distribution onto the target's apparent equatorial plane. One cannot know a priori whether one or two (or more) points on the asteroid contributed power to a given pixel, so accurate interpretation of delay-Doppler images requires modeling (Hudson, 1993, Remote Sensing Rev. 8, 195-203). Inversion of an imaging sequence with enough orientational coverage can remove "north/south" ambiguities and can provide estimates of the target's three-dimensional shape, spin state, radar scattering properties, and delay-Doppler trajectory (e.g., Ostro et al. 1995, Science 270, 80

  2. Large phased-array radars

    SciTech Connect

    Brookner, D.E.

    1988-12-15

    Large phased-array radars can play a very important part in arms control. They can be used to determine the number of RVs being deployed, the type of targeting of the RVs (the same or different targets), the shape of the deployed objects, and possibly the weight and yields of the deployed RVs. They can provide this information at night as well as during the day and during rain and cloud covered conditions. The radar can be on the ground, on a ship, in an airplane, or space-borne. Airborne and space-borne radars can provide high resolution map images of the ground for reconnaissance, of anti-ballistic missile (ABM) ground radar installations, missile launch sites, and tactical targets such as trucks and tanks. The large ground based radars can have microwave carrier frequencies or be at HF (high frequency). For a ground-based HF radar the signal is reflected off the ionosphere so as to provide over-the-horizon (OTH) viewing of targets. OTH radars can potentially be used to monitor stealth targets and missile traffic.

  3. Radar, Insect Population Ecology, and Pest Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaughn, C. R. (Editor); Wolf, W. (Editor); Klassen, W. (Editor)

    1979-01-01

    Discussions included: (1) the potential role of radar in insect ecology studies and pest management; (2) the potential role of radar in correlating atmospheric phenomena with insect movement; (3) the present and future radar systems; (4) program objectives required to adapt radar to insect ecology studies and pest management; and (5) the specific action items to achieve the objectives.

  4. Evaluation of meteorological airborne Doppler radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hildebrand, P. H.; Mueller, C. K.

    1984-01-01

    This paper will discuss the capabilities of airborne Doppler radar for atmospheric sciences research. The evaluation is based on airborne and ground based Doppler radar observations of convective storms. The capability of airborne Doppler radar to measure horizontal and vertical air motions is evaluated. Airborne Doppler radar is shown to be a viable tool for atmospheric sciences research.

  5. 47 CFR 80.273 - Radar standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Radar standards. 80.273 Section 80.273... MARITIME SERVICES Equipment Authorization for Compulsory Ships § 80.273 Radar standards. (a) Radar... with radar must comply with the following standards (all incorporated by reference, see § 80.7):...

  6. 47 CFR 80.273 - Radar standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Radar standards. 80.273 Section 80.273... MARITIME SERVICES Equipment Authorization for Compulsory Ships § 80.273 Radar standards. (a) Radar... with radar must comply with the following standards (all incorporated by reference, see § 80.7):...

  7. 46 CFR 121.404 - Radars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Radars. 121.404 Section 121.404 Shipping COAST GUARD... Navigation Equipment § 121.404 Radars. (a) Except as allowed by paragraph (b) of this section, all self... radar system for surface navigation with a radar screen mounted at the primary operating station....

  8. 46 CFR 121.404 - Radars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Radars. 121.404 Section 121.404 Shipping COAST GUARD... Navigation Equipment § 121.404 Radars. (a) Except as allowed by paragraph (b) of this section, all self... radar system for surface navigation with a radar screen mounted at the primary operating station....

  9. FIRE_CI2_ETL_RADAR

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2015-11-25

    FIRE_CI2_ETL_RADAR Project Title:  FIRE II CIRRUS Discipline:  ... Platform:  Ground Station Instrument:  Radar Spatial Coverage:  (37.06, -95.34) Spatial ... Search Guide Documents:  ETL_RADAR Guide Readme Files:  Readme ETL_RADAR (PS) ...

  10. 46 CFR 121.404 - Radars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Radars. 121.404 Section 121.404 Shipping COAST GUARD... Navigation Equipment § 121.404 Radars. (a) Except as allowed by paragraph (b) of this section, all self... radar system for surface navigation with a radar screen mounted at the primary operating station....

  11. 46 CFR 121.404 - Radars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Radars. 121.404 Section 121.404 Shipping COAST GUARD... Navigation Equipment § 121.404 Radars. (a) Except as allowed by paragraph (b) of this section, all self... radar system for surface navigation with a radar screen mounted at the primary operating station....

  12. 47 CFR 80.273 - Radar standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Radar standards. 80.273 Section 80.273... MARITIME SERVICES Equipment Authorization for Compulsory Ships § 80.273 Radar standards. (a) Radar... with radar must comply with the following standards (all incorporated by reference, see § 80.7):...

  13. 46 CFR 121.404 - Radars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Radars. 121.404 Section 121.404 Shipping COAST GUARD... Navigation Equipment § 121.404 Radars. (a) Except as allowed by paragraph (b) of this section, all self... radar system for surface navigation with a radar screen mounted at the primary operating station....

  14. Radar backscatter modelling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaber, G. G.; Kozak, R. C.; Gurule, R. L.

    1984-01-01

    The terrain analysis software package was restructured and documentation was added. A program was written to test Johnson Space Center's four band scatterometer data for spurious signals data. A catalog of terrain roughness statistics and calibrated four frequency multipolarization scatterometer data is being published to support the maintenance of Death Valley as a radar backscatter calibration test site for all future airborne and spacecraft missions. Test pits were dug through sand covered terrains in the Eastern Sahara to define the depth and character of subsurface interfaces responsible for either backscatter or specular response in SIR-A imagery. Blocky sandstone bedrock surfaces at about 1 m depth were responsible for the brightest SIR-A returns. Irregular very dense CaCO3 cemented sand interfaces were responsible for intermediate grey tones. Ancient river valleys had the weakest response. Reexamination of SEASAT l-band imagery of U.S. deserts continues.

  15. Radar investigation of asteroids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ostro, S. J.

    1982-01-01

    The dual polarization CW radar system which permits simultaneous reception in the same rotational sense of circular polarization as transmitted (i.e., the "SC" sense) and in the opposite ("OC") sense, was used to observe five previously unobserved asteroids: 2 Pallas, 8 Flora, 22 Kalliope, 132 Aethra, and 471 Papagena. Echoes from Pallas and Flora were easily detected in the OC sense on each of several nights. Weighted mean echo power spectra also show marginally significant responses in the SC sense. An approximately 4.5 standard deviation signal was obtained for Aethra. The Doppler shift of the peak is about 10 Hz higher than that predicted from the a priori trial ephemeris. Calculations are performed to determine whether this frequency offset can be reconciled dynamically with optical positions reported for Aethra.

  16. The Clementine Bistatic Radar Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nozette, S.; Lichtenberg, C. L.; Spudis, P.; Bonner, R.; Ort, W.; Malaret, E.; Robinson, M.; Shoemaker, E. M.

    1996-01-01

    During the Clementine 1 mission, a bistatic radar experiment measured the magnitude and polarization of the radar echo versus bistatic angle, beta, for selected lunar areas. Observations of the lunar south pole yield a same-sense polarization enhancement around beta = 0. Analysis shows that the observed enhancement is localized to the permanently shadowed regions of the lunar south pole. Radar observations of periodically solar-illuminated lunar surfaces, including the north pole, yielded no such enhancement. A probable explanation for these differences is the presence of low-loss volume scatterers, such as water ice, in the permanently shadowed region at the south pole.

  17. Gyroklystron-Powered WARLOC Radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danly, B. G.; Cheung, W. J.; Gregers-Hansen, V.; Linde, G.; Ngo, M.

    2003-12-01

    A high-power, coherent, W-band (94 GHz) millimeter-wave radar has been developed at the Naval Research Laboratory. This radar, named WARLOC, employs a 100 kW peak power, 10 kW average power gyro-klystron as the final power amplifier, an overmoded transmission line system, and a quasi-optical duplexer, together with a high gain antenna, four-channel receiver, and state-of-the-art signal processing. The gyro-amplifiers and the implementation in the WARLOC radar will be described.

  18. The Clementine bistatic radar experiment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nozette, S.; Lichtenberg, C.L.; Spudis, P.; Bonner, R.; Ort, W.; Malaret, E.; Robinson, M.; Shoemaker, E.M.

    1996-01-01

    During the Clementine 1 mission, a bistatic radar experiment measured the magnitude and polarization of the radar echo versus bistatic angle, ??, for selected lunar areas. Observations of the lunar south pole yield a same- sense polarization enhancement around ?? = 0. Analysis shows that the observed enhancement is localized to the permanently shadowed regions of the lunar south pole. Radar observations of periodically solar-illuminated lunar surfaces, including the north pole, yielded no such enhancement. A probable explanation for these differences is the presence of low-loss volume scatterers, such as water ice, in the permanently shadowed region at the south pole.

  19. Flight evaluation of a radar cursor technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez, J.

    1980-03-01

    Preliminary results are presented of a flight test evaluation of a radar cursor technique to be used as an aid in acquiring and tracking the desired ground track during airborne radar approaches. The test was performed using a Sikorsky CH-53A helicopter. The airborne radar system used was a BENDIX RDR-1400A modified to electronically produce a radar cursor display of course error. Airborne radar approaches were made to an offshore and an airport test environment. The specific purpose of the test was to evaluate the practical utility of the radar cursor as an aid to performing airborne radar approaches. The preliminary conclusion of this test is that the use of the radar cursor improved course acquisition and ground tracking significantly with pilotage errors and total system cross-track errors reduced by one-half or better. The radar cursor technique shows potential in reducing airspace requirements for airborne radar approaches.

  20. Signal processing for airborne doppler radar detection of hazardous wind shear as applied to NASA 1991 radar flight experiment data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baxa, Ernest G., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Radar data collected during the 1991 NASA flight tests have been selectively analyzed to support research directed at developing both improved as well as new algorithms for detecting hazardous low-altitude windshear. Analysis of aircraft attitude data from several flights indicated that platform stability bandwidths were small compared to the data rate bandwidths which should support an assumption that radar returns can be treated as short time stationary. Various approaches at detection of weather returns in the presence of ground clutter are being investigated. Non-coventional clutter rejection through spectrum mode tracking and classification algorithms is a subject of continuing research. Based upon autoregressive modeling of the radar return time sequence, this approach may offer an alternative to overcome errors in conventional pulse-pair estimates. Adaptive filtering is being evaluated as a means of rejecting clutter with emphasis on low signal-to-clutter ratio situations, particularly in the presence of discrete clutter interference. An analysis of out-of-range clutter returns is included to illustrate effects of ground clutter interference due to range aliasing for aircraft on final approach. Data are presented to indicate how aircraft groundspeed might be corrected from the radar data as well as point to an observed problem of groundspeed estimate bias variation with radar antenna scan angle. A description of how recorded clutter return data are mixed with simulated weather returns is included. This enables the researcher to run controlled experiments to test signal processing algorithms. In the summary research efforts involving improved modelling of radar ground clutter returns and a Bayesian approach at hazard factor estimation are mentioned.

  1. Pulse stretcher

    DOEpatents

    Horton, J.A.

    1994-05-03

    Apparatus for increasing the length of a laser pulse to reduce its peak power without substantial loss in the average power of the pulse is disclosed. The apparatus uses a White cell having a plurality of optical delay paths of successively increasing number of passes between the field mirror and the objective mirrors. A pulse from a laser travels through a multi-leg reflective path between a beam splitter and a totally reflective mirror to the laser output. The laser pulse is also simultaneously injected through the beam splitter to the input mirrors of the optical delay paths. The pulses from the output mirrors of the optical delay paths go simultaneously to the laser output and to the input mirrors of the longer optical delay paths. The beam splitter is 50% reflective and 50% transmissive to provide equal attenuation of all of the pulses at the laser output. 6 figures.

  2. All-optical central-frequency-programmable and bandwidth-tailorable radar

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Weiwen; Zhang, Hao; Long, Xin; Zhang, Siteng; Cui, Yuanjun; Chen, Jianping

    2016-01-01

    Radar has been widely used for military, security, and rescue purposes, and modern radar should be reconfigurable at multi-bands and have programmable central frequencies and considerable bandwidth agility. Microwave photonics or photonics-assisted radio-frequency technology is a unique solution to providing such capabilities. Here, we demonstrate an all-optical central-frequency-programmable and bandwidth-tailorable radar architecture that provides a coherent system and utilizes one mode-locked laser for both signal generation and reception. Heterodyning of two individually filtered optical pulses that are pre-chirped via wavelength-to-time mapping generates a wideband linearly chirped radar signal. The working bands can be flexibly tailored with the desired bandwidth at a user-preferred carrier frequency. Radar echoes are first modulated onto the pre-chirped optical pulse, which is also used for signal generation, and then stretched in time or compressed in frequency several fold based on the time-stretch principle. Thus, digitization is facilitated without loss of detection ability. We believe that our results demonstrate an innovative radar architecture with an ultra-high-range resolution. PMID:26795596

  3. All-optical central-frequency-programmable and bandwidth-tailorable radar.

    PubMed

    Zou, Weiwen; Zhang, Hao; Long, Xin; Zhang, Siteng; Cui, Yuanjun; Chen, Jianping

    2016-01-01

    Radar has been widely used for military, security, and rescue purposes, and modern radar should be reconfigurable at multi-bands and have programmable central frequencies and considerable bandwidth agility. Microwave photonics or photonics-assisted radio-frequency technology is a unique solution to providing such capabilities. Here, we demonstrate an all-optical central-frequency-programmable and bandwidth-tailorable radar architecture that provides a coherent system and utilizes one mode-locked laser for both signal generation and reception. Heterodyning of two individually filtered optical pulses that are pre-chirped via wavelength-to-time mapping generates a wideband linearly chirped radar signal. The working bands can be flexibly tailored with the desired bandwidth at a user-preferred carrier frequency. Radar echoes are first modulated onto the pre-chirped optical pulse, which is also used for signal generation, and then stretched in time or compressed in frequency several fold based on the time-stretch principle. Thus, digitization is facilitated without loss of detection ability. We believe that our results demonstrate an innovative radar architecture with an ultra-high-range resolution. PMID:26795596

  4. All-optical central-frequency-programmable and bandwidth-tailorable radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Weiwen; Zhang, Hao; Long, Xin; Zhang, Siteng; Cui, Yuanjun; Chen, Jianping

    2016-01-01

    Radar has been widely used for military, security, and rescue purposes, and modern radar should be reconfigurable at multi-bands and have programmable central frequencies and considerable bandwidth agility. Microwave photonics or photonics-assisted radio-frequency technology is a unique solution to providing such capabilities. Here, we demonstrate an all-optical central-frequency-programmable and bandwidth-tailorable radar architecture that provides a coherent system and utilizes one mode-locked laser for both signal generation and reception. Heterodyning of two individually filtered optical pulses that are pre-chirped via wavelength-to-time mapping generates a wideband linearly chirped radar signal. The working bands can be flexibly tailored with the desired bandwidth at a user-preferred carrier frequency. Radar echoes are first modulated onto the pre-chirped optical pulse, which is also used for signal generation, and then stretched in time or compressed in frequency several fold based on the time-stretch principle. Thus, digitization is facilitated without loss of detection ability. We believe that our results demonstrate an innovative radar architecture with an ultra-high-range resolution.

  5. Evaluation of multifrequency range imaging technique implemented on the Chung-Li VHF atmospheric radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jenn-Shyong; Tsai, Shih-Chiao; Su, Ching-Lun; Chu, Yen-Hsyang

    2016-05-01

    The multifrequency range imaging technique (RIM) has been implemented on the Chung-Li VHF array radar since 2008 after its renovation. This study made a more complete examination and evaluation of the RIM technique to facilitate the performance of the radar for atmospheric studies. RIM experiments with various radar parameters such as pulse length, pulse shape, receiver bandwidth, transmitter frequency set, and so on were conducted. The radar data employed for the study were collected from 2008 to 2013. It has been shown that two factors, the range/time delay of the signal traveling in the media and the standard deviation of Gaussian-shaped range-weighting function, play crucial roles in ameliorating the RIM-produced brightness (or power distribution); the two factors are associated with some radar parameters and system characteristics. The range/time delay of the signal was found to increase with time; moreover, it was slightly different for the echoes from the atmosphere with and without the presence of significant precipitation. A procedure of point-by-point correction of range/time delay was thus executed for the presence of precipitation to minimize the bogus brightness discontinuity at range gate boundaries. With the RIM technique, the Chung-Li VHF radar demonstrates its first successful observation of double-layer structures as well as their temporal and spatial variations with time.

  6. A Digital Bistatic Radar Instrument for High-Latitude Ionospheric E-region Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huyghebaert, D. R.; Hussey, G. C.; McWilliams, K. A.; St-Maurice, J. P.

    2015-12-01

    A new 50 MHz ionospheric E-region radar is currently being developed and will be operational for the summer of 2016. The radar group in the Institute of Space and Atmospheric Studies (ISAS) at the University of Saskatchewan is designing and building the radar which will be located near the university in Saskatoon, SK, Canada and will have a field of view over Wollaston Lake in northern Saskatchewan. This novel radar will simultaneously obtain high spatial and temporal resolution through the use of a bistatic setup and pulse modulation techniques. The bistatic setup allows the radar to transmit and receive continuously, while pulse modulation techniques allow for enhanced spatial resolution, only constrained by the radio bandwidth licensing available. A ten antenna array will be used on both the transmitter and receiver sides, with each antenna having an independent radio path. This enables complete digital control of the transmitted 1 kW signal at each antenna, allowing for digital beam steering and multimode broadcasting. On the receiver side the raw digitized signal will be recorded from each antenna, allowing for complete digital post-processing to be performed on the data. From the measurements provided using these modern digital radar capabilities, further insights into the physics of E-region phenomena, such as Alfvén waves propagating from the magnetosphere above and ionospheric irregularities, may be investigated.

  7. Doppler Radar Sounding of Volcanic Eruption Dynamics at Mount Etna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubosclard, G.; Donnadieu, F.; Allard, P.; Cordesses, R.; Hervier, C.; Kornprobst, J.; Lnat, J.; Coltelli, M.; Privitera, E.

    2001-12-01

    Based on the UHF wind profiler technique, a medium power (100 W) pulsed Doppler radar has been specifically developed for the sounding of explosive volcanic jets. Named Voldorad (Volcanological Doppler Radar), this radar can operate at medium distance ( ~0.5 - 4 km) from the active vent and is compact enough to be easily set up on a volcano. The last version of the radar is housed in one unit ( ~60x60x60 cm) and its total weight is ~50 kg. A PC is used for real-time monitoring and data storage. The radar antenna is a 2*2 array of 24 elements Yagi antenna (9° beamwidth) set up on a tripod which is steerable in azimuth and elevation. A pulsed signal (typical duration 0.75 μ s) is transmitted every 100 μ s with a wavelength of 23.5 cm. After amplification and filtering, the received signal is digitized. Each digitized sample corresponds to a received echo at a selected time (i.e. selected range), thus defining the so-called range gates. The Doppler spectrum is then computed for each gate. Three parameters characterizing the ejecta can be deduced from this spectrum: reflectivity, mean velocity and maximum velocity of the jet particles. We present results from experimental campains at Mount Etna during strombolian activity of the SE crater in October 1998 and July 2001. Quasi-continuous and powerful echoes were observed in the central gates, on either side of the jet axis, whereas echoes of side gates were weaker and more intermittent. The temporal variations of the radar signal were analyzed at two time scales. First, the time variations of reflectivity appear to be a good indicator of the long-term evolution of the eruption and also follow the overall trend of the tremor signal. Secondly, detailed analysis of the radar signal (typical integration time ~64 ms) reveals 5 s periodic outbursts during fountain activity. Moreover, the maximum velocity of the jet particles estimated from Doppler spectra might represent the velocity of the finest particles directly

  8. Coding schemes for improving MST radar performance, part 7.1A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowhill, S. A.

    1984-01-01

    The performance of an mesosphere-stratosphere-troposphere (MST) radar can be characterized by its system sensitivity and its range resolution. The former enables Doppler velocities to be determined even in the presence of very weak structures; the latter permits study of the fine structure within a turbulent region. Coding of transmitted signals has as its aim an increase in the effective radar sensitivity or range resolution without an increase in the peak transmitted power. This is accomplished by spreading the power in the frequency domain, giving better range resolution, without reducing the pulse width. Two basic techniques are used to accomplish this frequency dispersion: (1) using a type of pseudorandom code for the phase or amplitude within a single pulse, or within a finite sequence of pulses; (2) to code the frequency of the transmitted signal in some way. The various possibilities are discussed and are compared with the pulse-coding methods.

  9. Historical aspects of radar atmospheric dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kato, Susumu

    1989-01-01

    A review of the history of radar techniques which have been applied to atmospheric observation is given. The author starts with ionosphere observation with the ionosonde, symbolizing as it does the earliest history of radar observation, and proceeds to later developments in radar observation such as the use of partial reflection, meteor, and incoherent scatter radars. Mesosphere stratosphere troposphere (MST) radars are discussed in terms of lower atmosphere observation.

  10. Pulse Voltammetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stojek, Zbigniew

    The idea of imposing potential pulses and measuring the currents at the end of each pulse was proposed by Barker in a little-known journal as early as in 1958 [1]. However, the first reliable trouble-free and affordable polarographs offering voltammetric pulse techniques appeared on the market only in the 1970s. This delay was due to some limitations on the electronic side. In the 1990s, again substantial progress in electrochemical pulse instrumentation took place. This was related to the introduction of microprocessors, computers, and advanced software.

  11. Resolution enhancement in long pulse OTDR for application in structural health monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahrampour, Ali Reza; Maasoumi, Fatemeh

    2010-08-01

    To improve the range resolution in inexpensive conventional long pulse optical time domain reflectometer (OTDR) for application in structural health monitoring (SHM) and robotic neural network, the Fourier Wavelet Regularized Deconvolution (ForWaRD) based on the adaptive wavelet method is employed. Since Deconvolution is a noise sensitive process, employing the (ForWaRD) method enhances the signal to noise ratio. Simulation for long pulse OTDR system is done and ForWaRD method is employed to improve the resolution of the OTDR system to the order of several centimeters. In this method the resolution is limited by the bandwidth of detector, bandwidth of electronic circuit, and the sampling rate of analog to digital convertor.

  12. Time and wavelength domain algorithms for chemical analysis by laser radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosen, David L.; Gillespie, James B.

    1992-01-01

    Laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) is a promising technique for laser radar applications. Laser radar using LIF has already been applied to algae blooms and oil slicks. Laser radar using LIF has great potential for remote chemical analysis because LIF spectra are extremely sensitive to chemical composition. However, most samples in the real world contain mixtures of fluorescing components, not merely individual components. Multicomponent analysis of laser radar returns from mixtures is often difficult because LIF spectra from solids and liquids are very broad and devoid of line structure. Therefore, algorithms for interpreting LIF spectra from laser radar returns must be able to analyze spectra that overlap in multicomponent systems. This paper analyzes the possibility of using factor analysis-rank annihilation (FARA) to analyze emission-time matrices (ETM) from laser radar returns instead of excitation-emission matrices (EEM). The authors here define ETM as matrices where the rows (or columns) are emission spectra at fixed times and the columns (or rows) are temporal profiles for fixed emission wavelengths. Laser radar usually uses pulsed lasers for ranging purposes, which are suitable for measuring temporal profiles. Laser radar targets are hard instead of diffuse; that is, a definite surface emits the fluorescence instead of an extended volume. A hard target would not broaden the temporal profiles as would a diffuse target. Both fluorescence lifetimes and emission spectra are sensitive to chemical composition. Therefore, temporal profiles can be used instead of excitation spectra in FARA analysis of laser radar returns. The resulting laser radar returns would be ETM instead of EEM.

  13. Automated target recognition using passive radar and coordinated flight models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehrman, Lisa M.; Lanterman, Aaron D.

    2003-09-01

    Rather than emitting pulses, passive radar systems rely on illuminators of opportunity, such as TV and FM radio, to illuminate potential targets. These systems are particularly attractive since they allow receivers to operate without emitting energy, rendering them covert. Many existing passive radar systems estimate the locations and velocities of targets. This paper focuses on adding an automatic target recognition (ATR) component to such systems. Our approach to ATR compares the Radar Cross Section (RCS) of targets detected by a passive radar system to the simulated RCS of known targets. To make the comparison as accurate as possible, the received signal model accounts for aircraft position and orientation, propagation losses, and antenna gain patterns. The estimated positions become inputs for an algorithm that uses a coordinated flight model to compute probable aircraft orientation angles. The Fast Illinois Solver Code (FISC) simulates the RCS of several potential target classes as they execute the estimated maneuvers. The RCS is then scaled by the Advanced Refractive Effects Prediction System (AREPS) code to account for propagation losses that occur as functions of altitude and range. The Numerical Electromagnetic Code (NEC2) computes the antenna gain pattern, so that the RCS can be further scaled. The Rician model compares the RCS of the illuminated aircraft with those of the potential targets. This comparison results in target identification.

  14. NASA Radar Images Asteroid Toutatis

    NASA Video Gallery

    This 64-frame movie of asteroid Toutatis was generated from data by Goldstone's Solar System Radar on Dec. 12 and 13, 2012. In the movie clips, the rotation of the asteroid appears faster than it o...

  15. Ground Penetrating Radar, Barrow, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    John Peterson

    2015-03-06

    This is 500 MHz Ground Penetrating Radar collected along the AB Line in Intensive Site 1 beginning in October 2012 and collected along L2 in Intensive Site 0 beginning in September 2011. Both continue to the present.

  16. A Next Generation Radar Altimeter: The Proposed SWOT Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, L. L.

    2014-12-01

    Conventional nadir-looking radar altimeter is based on pulse-limited footprint approach. Near a coast the pulse limited footprint is contaminated by land within the much larger radar footprint, causing data quality to decay within 10 km from a coast. In the open ocean, the instrument noise limits the detection of dynamic ocean signals to wavelengths longer than 70 km. Using the technique of radar interferometry, the proposed Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) Mission would reduce instrument noise to resolve ocean signals to 15 km in wavelength over most of the open ocean without land contamination in the coastal zone. Sea surface height would be measured in two dimensions over a swath 120 km wide across the satellite's flight path. SWOT is under development as a joint mission of NASA and the French Space Agency, CNES, with contributions from the Canadian Space Agency and the UK Space Agency. The launch is baselined for 2020. An overview of the projected mission performance for oceanographic applications will be presented. SWOT would also measure the elevation of land surface water with hydrological applications.

  17. SMAP RADAR Calibration and Validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    West, R. D.; Jaruwatanadilok, S.; Chaubel, M. J.; Spencer, M.; Chan, S. F.; Chen, C. W.; Fore, A.

    2015-12-01

    The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission launched on Jan 31, 2015. The mission employs L-band radar and radiometer measurements to estimate soil moisture with 4% volumetric accuracy at a resolution of 10 km, and freeze-thaw state at a resolution of 1-3 km. Immediately following launch, there was a three month instrument checkout period, followed by six months of level 1 (L1) calibration and validation. In this presentation, we will discuss the calibration and validation activities and results for the L1 radar data. Early SMAP radar data were used to check commanded timing parameters, and to work out issues in the low- and high-resolution radar processors. From April 3-13 the radar collected receive only mode data to conduct a survey of RFI sources. Analysis of the RFI environment led to a preferred operating frequency. The RFI survey data were also used to validate noise subtraction and scaling operations in the radar processors. Normal radar operations resumed on April 13. All radar data were examined closely for image quality and calibration issues which led to improvements in the radar data products for the beta release at the end of July. Radar data were used to determine and correct for small biases in the reported spacecraft attitude. Geo-location was validated against coastline positions and the known positions of corner reflectors. Residual errors at the time of the beta release are about 350 m. Intra-swath biases in the high-resolution backscatter images are reduced to less than 0.3 dB for all polarizations. Radiometric cross-calibration with Aquarius was performed using areas of the Amazon rain forest. Cross-calibration was also examined using ocean data from the low-resolution processor and comparing with the Aquarius wind model function. Using all a-priori calibration constants provided good results with co-polarized measurements matching to better than 1 dB, and cross-polarized measurements matching to about 1 dB in the beta release. During the

  18. Solar Radar Astronomy with LOFAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, P.

    2003-04-01

    A new approach to the study of the Sun's corona and its dynamical processes is possible with radar investigations in the frequency range of about 10-50 MHz. The range of electron densities of the solar corona is such that radio waves at these frequencies can provide diagnostic radar echoes of large scale phenomena such as coronal mass ejections (CMEs). We expect that the frequency shift imposed on the echo signal by an earthward-moving CME will provide a direct measurement of the velocity, thereby providing a good estimate of the arrival time at Earth. It is known that CMEs are responsible for the largest geomagnetic storms at Earth, which are capable of causing power grid blackouts, satellite electronic upsets, and degradation of radio communications circuits. Thus, having accurate forecasts of potential CME-initiated geomagnetic storms is of practical space weather interest. New high power transmitting arrays are becoming available, along with proposed modifications to existing research facilities, that will allow the use of radio waves to study the solar corona by the radar echo technique. Of particular interest for such solar radar investigations is the bistatic configuration with the Low Frequency Array (LOFAR). The LOFAR facility will have an effective receiving area of about 1 square km at solar radar frequencies. Such large effective area will provide the receiving antenna gain needed for detailed investigations of solar coronal dynamics. Conservative estimates of the signal-to-noise ratio for solar radar echoes as a function of the integration time required to achieve a specified detection level (e.g., ~ 5 dB) indicate that time resolutions of 10s of seconds can be achieved. Thus, we are able to resolve variations in the solar radar cross section on time scales which will provide new information on the plasma dynamical processes associated with the solar corona, such as CMEs. It is the combination of high transmitted power and large effective receiving

  19. Advanced Borehole Radar for Hydrogeology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, M.

    2014-12-01

    Ground Penetrating Radar is a useful tool for monitoring the hydrogeological environment. We have developed GPR systems which can be applied to these purposes, and we will demonstrate examples borehole radar measurements. In order to have longer radar detection range, frequency lower than100MHz has been normally adopted in borehole radar. Typical subsurface fractures of our interests have a few mm aperture and radar resolution is much poorer than a few cm in this frequency range. We are proposing and demonstrating to use radar polarimetry to solve this problem. We have demonstrated that a full-polarimetry borehole radar can be used for characterization of subsurface fractures. Together with signal processing for antenna characteristic compensation to equalize the signal by a dipole antenna and slot antennas, we could demonstrate that polarimetric borehole radar can estimate the surface roughness of subsurface fractures, We believe the surface roughness is closely related to water permeability through the fractures. We then developed a directional borehole radar, which uses optical field sensor. A dipole antenna in a borehole has omni-directional radiation pattern, and we cannot get azimuthal information about the scatterers. We use multiple dipole antennas set around the borehole axis, and from the phase differences, we can estimate the 3-diemnational orientation of subsurface structures. We are using optical electric field sensor for receiver of borehole radar. This is a passive sensor and connected only with optical fibers and does not require any electric power supply to operate the receiver. It has two major advantages; the first one is that the receiver can be electrically isolated from other parts, and wave coupling to a logging cable is avoided. Then, secondary, it can operate for a long time, because it does not require battery installed inside the system. It makes it possible to set sensors in fixed positions to monitor the change of environmental

  20. Superresolution and Synthetic Aperture Radar

    SciTech Connect

    DICKEY,FRED M.; ROMERO,LOUIS; DOERRY,ARMIN W.

    2001-05-01

    Superresolution concepts offer the potential of resolution beyond the classical limit. This great promise has not generally been realized. In this study we investigate the potential application of superresolution concepts to synthetic aperture radar. The analytical basis for superresolution theory is discussed. The application of the concept to synthetic aperture radar is investigated as an operator inversion problem. Generally, the operator inversion problem is ill posed. A criterion for judging superresolution processing of an image is presented.

  1. The NASA Polarimetric Radar (NPOL)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petersen, Walter A.; Wolff, David B.

    2013-01-01

    Characteristics of the NASA NPOL S-band dual-polarimetric radar are presented including its operating characteristics, field configuration, scanning capabilities and calibration approaches. Examples of precipitation science data collections conducted using various scan types, and associated products, are presented for different convective system types and previous field campaign deployments. Finally, the NASA NPOL radar location is depicted in its home base configuration within the greater Wallops Flight Facility precipitation research array supporting NASA Global Precipitation Measurement Mission ground validation.

  2. A novel backpackable ice-penetrating radar system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuoka, Kenichi; Saito, Ryoji; Naruse, Renji

    We have developed a novel ice-penetrating radar system that can be carried on a backpack. Including batteries for a 3 hour continuous measurement, the total weight is 13 kg. In addition, it operates reliably down to -25°C, has a low power consumption of 24 W, and is semi-waterproof. The system has a built-in-one controller with a high-brightness display for reading data quickly, a receiver with 12-bit digitizing, and a 1 kV pulse transmitter in which the pulse amplitude varies by <0.2%. Optical communications between components provides low-noise data acquisition and allows synchronizing of the pulse transmission with sampling. Measurements with the system revealed the 300 m deep bed topography of a temperate valley glacier in the late ablation season.

  3. Users guide for an Airborne Windshear Doppler Radar Simulation (AWDRS) program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britt, Charles L.

    1990-01-01

    A description is provided of the Airborne Windshear Doppler Radar Simulation (AWDRS) program developed for NASA-Langley by the Research Triangle Institute. The radar simulation program is a comprehensive calculation of the signal characteristics and expected outputs of an airborne coherent pulsed Doppler radar system viewing a low level microburst along or near the approach path of the aircraft. The detailed nature of the simulation permits the quick evaluation of proposed trade-offs in radar system parameters and the evaluation of the performance of proposed configurations in various microburst/clutter environments. The simulation also provides a test bed for various proposed signal processing techniques for minimizing the effects of noise, phase jitter, and ground clutter and maximizing the useful information derived for avoidance of microburst windshear by aircraft.

  4. Ground-penetrating radar methods used in surface-water discharge measurements

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haeni, F.P.; Buursink, Marc L.; Costa, John E.; Melcher, Nick B.; Cheng, Ralph T.; Plant, William J.

    2000-01-01

    In 1999, an experiment was conducted to see if a combination of complementary radar methods could be used to calculate the discharge of a river without having any of the measuring equipment in the water. The cross-sectional area of the 183-meter wide Skagit River in Washington State was measured using a ground-penetrating radar (GPR) system with a single 100-MHz antenna. A van-mounted, side-looking pulsed-Doppler radar system was used to collect water-surface velocity data across the same section of the river. The combined radar data sets were used to calculate the river discharge and the results compared closely to the discharge measurement made by using the standard in-water measurement techniques.

  5. Pulse compression using binary phase codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farley, D. T.

    1983-01-01

    In most MST applications pulsed radars are peak power limited and have excess average power capacity. Short pulses are required for good range resolution, but the problem of range ambiguity (signals received simultaneously from more than one altitude) sets a minimum limit on the interpulse period (IPP). Pulse compression is a technique which allows more of the transmitter average power capacity to be used without sacrificing range resolution. As the name implies, a pulse of power P and duration T is in a certain sense converted into one of power nP and duration T/n. In the frequency domain, compression involves manipulating the phases of the different frequency components of the pulse. One way to compress a pulse is via phase coding, especially binary phase coding, a technique which is particularly amenable to digital processing techniques. This method, which is used extensively in radar probing of the atmosphere and ionosphere is discussed. Barker codes, complementary and quasi-complementary code sets, and cyclic codes are addressed.

  6. Hydrologic applications of weather radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Dong-Jun; Habib, Emad; Andrieu, Hervé; Morin, Efrat

    2015-12-01

    By providing high-resolution quantitative precipitation information (QPI), weather radars have revolutionized hydrology in the last two decades. With the aid of GIS technology, radar-based quantitative precipitation estimates (QPE) have enabled routine high-resolution hydrologic modeling in many parts of the world. Given the ever-increasing need for higher-resolution hydrologic and water resources information for a wide range of applications, one may expect that the use of weather radar will only grow. Despite the tremendous progress, a number of significant scientific, technological and engineering challenges remain to realize its potential. New challenges are also emerging as new areas of applications are discovered, explored and pursued. The purpose of this special issue is to provide the readership with some of the latest advances, lessons learned, experiences gained, and science issues and challenges related to hydrologic applications of weather radar. The special issue features 20 contributions on various topics which reflect the increasing diversity as well as the areas of focus in radar hydrology today. The contributions may be grouped as follows: Radar QPE (Kwon et al.; Hall et al.; Chen and Chandrasekar; Seo and Krajewski; Sandford).

  7. Effects of Tunable Data Compression on Geophysical Products Retrieved from Surface Radar Observations with Applications to Spaceborne Meteorological Radars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gabriel, Philip M.; Yeh, Penshu; Tsay, Si-Chee

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents results and analyses of applying an international space data compression standard to weather radar measurements that can easily span 8 orders of magnitude and typically require a large storage capacity as well as significant bandwidth for transmission. By varying the degree of the data compression, we analyzed the non-linear response of models that relate measured radar reflectivity and/or Doppler spectra to the moments and properties of the particle size distribution characterizing clouds and precipitation. Preliminary results for the meteorologically important phenomena of clouds and light rain indicate that for a 0.5 dB calibration uncertainty, typical for the ground-based pulsed-Doppler 94 GHz (or 3.2 mm, W-band) weather radar used as a proxy for spaceborne radar in this study, a lossless compression ratio of only 1.2 is achievable. However, further analyses of the non-linear response of various models of rainfall rate, liquid water content and median volume diameter show that a lossy data compression ratio exceeding 15 is realizable. The exploratory analyses presented are relevant to future satellite missions, where the transmission bandwidth is premium and storage requirements of vast volumes of data, potentially problematic.

  8. Program of the Antarctic Syowa MST/IS radar (PANSY)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Kaoru; Tsutsumi, Masaki; Sato, Toru; Nakamura, Takuji; Saito, Akinori; Tomikawa, Yoshihiro; Nishimura, Koji; Kohma, Masashi; Yamagishi, Hisao; Yamanouchi, Takashi

    2014-10-01

    The PANSY radar is the first Mesosphere-Stratosphere-Troposphere/Incoherent Scatter (MST/IS) radar in the Antarctic region. It is a large VHF monostatic pulse Doppler radar operating at 47 MHz, consisting of an active phased array of 1045 Yagi antennas and an equivalent number of transmit-receive (TR) modules with a total peak output power of 500 kW. The first stage of the radar was installed at Syowa Station (69°00‧S, 39°35‧E) in early 2011, and is currently operating with 228 antennas and modules. This paper reports the project's scientific objectives, technical descriptions, and the preliminary results of observations made to date. The radar is designed to clarify the role of atmospheric gravity waves at high latitudes in the momentum budget of the global circulation in the troposphere, stratosphere and mesosphere, and to explore the dynamical aspects of unique polar phenomena such as polar mesospheric clouds (PMC) and polar stratospheric clouds (PSC). The katabatic winds as a branch of Antarctic tropospheric circulation and as an important source of gravity waves are also of special interest. Moreover, strong and sporadic energy inputs from the magnetosphere by energetic particles and field-aligned currents can be quantitatively assessed by the broad height coverage of the radar which extends from the lower troposphere to the upper ionosphere. From engineering points of view, the radar had to overcome restrictions related to the severe environments of Antarctic research, such as very strong winds, limited power availability, short construction periods, and limited manpower availability. We resolved these problems through the adoption of specially designed class-E amplifiers, light weight and tough antenna elements, and versatile antenna arrangements. Although the radar is currently operating with only about a quarter of its full designed system components, we have already obtained interesting results on the Antarctic troposphere, stratosphere and

  9. Effient Supply-Modulated Transmitters for Variable Amplitude Radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zai, Andrew H.

    This thesis introduces an efficient radar transmitter with improved spectral confinement, enabled by a pulse waveform that contains both amplitude and frequency modulation. The theoretical behavior of the Class-B power amplifier (PA) under Gaussian envelope is compared to that of a Class-A PA. Experimental validation is performed on a 4-W 10-GHz GaN MMIC PA, biased in Class B with a power added efficiency (PAE) of 50%. When driven with a Gaussian-like pulse envelope with a 5 MHz linear frequency modulation (LFM), the PA demonstrates a 31% average efficiency over the pulse duration. To improve the efficiency, a simple resonant supply modulator with a peak efficiency of 92% is used for the pulse Gaussian amplitude modulation, while the LFM is provided only through the PA input. This case results in a 5-point improvement in system efficiency, with an average PAE=40% over the pulse duration for the PA alone, and with simultaneous 40-dB reduction in spectral emissions relative to a rectangular pulse with the same energy. A measurement bench, which was internally developed, and supply-modulation simulations with Applied Wave Research (AWR) Microwave Office and VSS are also presented. Supply modulation simulation is helpful for predicting the performance of a supply-modulated system while a well calibrated bench is essential for verification. Both tools are used to demonstrate resonant supply-modulated GaN MMIC PAs. Lastly, the design of an X-Band GaN Doherty MMIC PA for use in a variable power radar is presented. Simulations and preliminary measurement demonstrate power added efficiency of greater that 40% from 30 to 35 dBm of output power.

  10. PULSE AMPLIFIER

    DOEpatents

    Johnstone, C.W.

    1958-06-17

    The improvement of pulse amplifiers used with scintillation detectors is described. The pulse amplifier circuit has the advantage of reducing the harmful effects of overloading cause by large signal inputs. In general the pulse amplifier circuit comprises two amplifier tubes with the input pulses applied to one amplifier grid and coupled to the second amplifier tube through a common cathode load. The output of the second amplifier is coupled from the plate circuit to a cathode follower tube grid and a diode tube in connected from grid to cathode of the cathode follower tube. Degenerative feedback is provided in the second amplifier by coupling a signal from the cathode follower cathode to the second amplifier grid. The circuit proqides moderate gain stability, and overload protection for subsequent pulse circuits.

  11. Linear FM chirp filters in pulse compression radars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Shennawy, Khamies M.; Abdel Alim, Onsy; Ezz-El-Arab, Mohamed A.

    1987-09-01

    Using a complex Fresnel integral algorithm, this paper extends previous results of other authors from a time-bandwidth product of 50 up to the high value of 720. In particular, the present paper discusses the analysis of a rectangular linear FM filter having a 300-MHz center frequency, 120-MHz bandwidth B, and 6-microsec dispersion time T. Two different analyses of rectangular FM cosine square tapering are compared. In the first method, the tapering of length T/12 is inside the dispersion time T, while in the second, the tapering of length alpha T is added to the duration T(alpha = 0.05 and 0.1). The results show that the skirt steepness, the sidelobe rejection, and the Gibbs ripples of the wave spectrum, as well as the reduction of insertion loss and the suppression of Fresnel ripples are the best at alpha = 0.1.

  12. Multiparameter radar analysis using wavelets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tawfik, Ben Bella Sayed

    Multiparameter radars have been used in the interpretation of many meteorological phenomena. Rainfall estimates can be obtained from multiparameter radar measurements. Studying and analyzing spatial variability of different rainfall algorithms, namely R(ZH), the algorithm based on reflectivity, R(ZH, ZDR), the algorithm based on reflectivity and differential reflectivity, R(KDP), the algorithm based on specific differential phase, and R(KDP, Z DR), the algorithm based on specific differential phase and differential reflectivity, are important for radar applications. The data used in this research were collected using CSU-CHILL, CP-2, and S-POL radars. In this research multiple objectives are addressed using wavelet analysis namely, (1)space time variability of various rainfall algorithms, (2)separation of convective and stratiform storms based on reflectivity measurements, (3)and detection of features such as bright bands. The bright band is a multiscale edge detection problem. In this research, the technique of multiscale edge detection is applied on the radar data collected using CP-2 radar on August 23, 1991 to detect the melting layer. In the analysis of space/time variability of rainfall algorithms, wavelet variance introduces an idea about the statistics of the radar field. In addition, multiresolution analysis of different rainfall estimates based on four algorithms, namely R(ZH), R( ZH, ZDR), R(K DP), and R(KDP, Z DR), are analyzed. The flood data of July 29, 1997 collected by CSU-CHILL radar were used for this analysis. Another set of S-POL radar data collected on May 2, 1997 at Wichita, Kansas were used as well. At each level of approximation, the detail and the approximation components are analyzed. Based on this analysis, the rainfall algorithms can be judged. From this analysis, an important result was obtained. The Z-R algorithms that are widely used do not show the full spatial variability of rainfall. In addition another intuitively obvious result

  13. MST radar data management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nastrom, G. D.

    1984-01-01

    One atmospheric variable which can be deduced from stratosphere-troposphere (ST) radar data other than wind speed and direction is C sub n sup 2, related to the eddy dissipation rate. The computation of C sub n sup 2 makes use of the transmitted power (average, or peak plus duty cycle), the range of the echoes, and the returned power. The returned power can be calibrated only if a noise source of known strength is imposed; e.g., in the absence of absolute calibration, one can compare the diurnal noise signal with the galactic sky temperature. Thus to compute C sub n sup 2 one needs the transmitter power, the returned signal as a function of height, and the returned noise at an altitude so high that it is not contaminated by any signal. Now C sub n sup 2 relates with the amount of energy within the inertial subrange, and for many research studies it may be desirable to relate this with background flow as well as shears or irregularities on the size of the sample volume. The latter are quantified by the spectral width.

  14. Effects of volume averaging on the line spectra of vertical velocity from multiple-Doppler radar observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gal-Chen, T.; Wyngaard, J. C.

    1982-01-01

    Calculations of the ratio of the true one-dimensional spectrum of vertical velocity and that measured with multiple-Doppler radar beams are presented. It was assumed that the effects of pulse volume averaging and objective analysis routines is replacement of a point measurement with a volume integral. A u and v estimate was assumed to be feasible when orthogonal radars are not available. Also, the target fluid was configured as having an infinite vertical dimension, zero vertical velocity at the top and bottom, and having homogeneous and isotropic turbulence with a Kolmogorov energy spectrum. The ratio obtained indicated that equal resolutions among radars yields a monotonically decreasing, wavenumber-dependent response function. A gain of 0.95 was demonstrated in an experimental situation with 40 levels. Possible errors introduced when using unequal resolution radars were discussed. Finally, it was found that, for some flows, the extent of attenuation depends on the number of vertical levels resolvable by the radars.

  15. Radar RFI at Goldstone DSS 12 and DSS 16

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slobin, S. D.; Peng, T. K.

    1990-01-01

    Radio frequency interference (RFI) from the DSS 14 Goldstone Solar System Radar (GSSR) was investigated at DSS 12 and DSS 16 with the goal of assisting in the choice of the location of future DSN antennas. Total power measurements at both locations were made at the S-band carrier frequency of 2320 MHz. X-band measurements at the carrier frequency of 8495 MHz could not be made. Exciter-chain output spectrum and klystron output spectrum measurements were made at S- and X-bands using a probable worst-case modulation of the radar signal (short pseudorandom number (PN) code length and short pulse length). Based on these measurements, it is estimated that RFI levels in the DSN receiving bands at both sites (above 10-deg elevation) would be below -192 dBm for a 1-Hz bandwidth

  16. Non-contact displacement estimation using Doppler radar.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xiaomeng; Singh, Aditya; Yavari, Ehsan; Lubecke, Victor; Boric-Lubecke, Olga

    2012-01-01

    Non-contact Doppler radar has been used extensively for detection of physiological motion. Most of the results published to date have been focused on estimation of the physiological rates, such as respiratory rate and heart rate, with CW and modulated waveforms in various settings. Accurate assessment of chest displacement may take this type of monitoring to the new level, by enabling the estimation of associated cardiopulmonary volumes, and possibly pulse pressure. To obtain absolute chest displacement with highest precision, full nonlinear phase demodulation of the quadrature radar outputs must be performed. The accuracy of this type of demodulation is limited by the drifting received RF power, varying dc offset, and channel quadrature imbalance. In this paper we demonstrate that if relatively large motion is used to calibrate the system, smaller motion displacement may be acquired with the accuracy on the order of 30 µm. PMID:23366212

  17. Space Radar Image of Long Island Optical/Radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This pair of images of the Long Island, New York region is a comparison of an optical photograph (top) and a radar image (bottom), both taken in darkness in April 1994. The photograph at the top was taken by the Endeavour astronauts at about 3 a.m. Eastern time on April 20, 1994. The image at the bottom was acquired at about the same time four days earlier on April 16,1994 by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) system aboard the space shuttle Endeavour. Both images show an area approximately 100 kilometers by 40 kilometers (62 miles by 25 miles) that is centered at 40.7 degrees North latitude and 73.5 degrees West longitude. North is toward the upper right. The optical image is dominated by city lights, which are particularly bright in the densely developed urban areas of New York City located on the left half of the photo. The brightest white zones appear on the island of Manhattan in the left center, and Central Park can be seen as a darker area in the middle of Manhattan. To the northeast (right) of the city, suburban Long Island appears as a less densely illuminated area, with the brightest zones occurring along major transportation and development corridors. Since radar is an active sensing system that provides its own illumination, the radar image shows a great amount of surface detail, despite the night-time acquisition. The colors in the radar image were obtained using the following radar channels: red represents the L-band (horizontally transmitted and received); green represents the L-band (horizontally transmitted and vertically received); blue represents the C-band (horizontally transmitted and vertically received). In this image, the water surface - the Atlantic Ocean along the bottom edge and Long Island Sound shown at the top edge - appears red because small waves at the surface strongly reflect the horizontally transmitted and received L-band radar signal. Networks of highways and railroad lines are clearly

  18. SHORT-PULSE ELECTROMAGNETIC TRANSPONDER FOR HOLE-TO-HOLE USE.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wright, David L.; Watts, Raymond D.; Bramsoe, Erik

    1983-01-01

    Hole-to-hole observations were made through nearly 20 m of granite using an electromagnetic transponder (an active reflector) in one borehole and a single-hole short-pulse radar in another. The transponder is inexpensive, operationally simple, and effective in extending the capability of a short-pulse borehole radar system to allow hole-to-hole operation without requiring timing cables. A detector in the transponder senses the arrival of each pulse from the radar. Each pulse detection triggers a kilovolt-amplitude pulse for retransmission. The transponder 'echo' may be stronger than that of a passive reflector by a factor of as much as 120 db. The result is an increase in range capability by a factor which depends on attenuation in the medium and hole-to-hole wavepath geometry.

  19. All-digital radar architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molchanov, Pavlo A.

    2014-10-01

    All digital radar architecture requires exclude mechanical scan system. The phase antenna array is necessarily large because the array elements must be co-located with very precise dimensions and will need high accuracy phase processing system for aggregate and distribute T/R modules data to/from antenna elements. Even phase array cannot provide wide field of view. New nature inspired all digital radar architecture proposed. The fly's eye consists of multiple angularly spaced sensors giving the fly simultaneously thee wide-area visual coverage it needs to detect and avoid the threats around him. Fly eye radar antenna array consist multiple directional antennas loose distributed along perimeter of ground vehicle or aircraft and coupled with receiving/transmitting front end modules connected by digital interface to central processor. Non-steering antenna array allows creating all-digital radar with extreme flexible architecture. Fly eye radar architecture provides wide possibility of digital modulation and different waveform generation. Simultaneous correlation and integration of thousands signals per second from each point of surveillance area allows not only detecting of low level signals ((low profile targets), but help to recognize and classify signals (targets) by using diversity signals, polarization modulation and intelligent processing. Proposed all digital radar architecture with distributed directional antenna array can provide a 3D space vector to the jammer by verification direction of arrival for signals sources and as result jam/spoof protection not only for radar systems, but for communication systems and any navigation constellation system, for both encrypted or unencrypted signals, for not limited number or close positioned jammers.

  20. Using X-mode L, R and O-mode reflectometry cutoffs to measure scrape-off-layer density profiles for upgraded ORNL reflectometer on NSTX-U.

    PubMed

    Lau, C; Wilgen, J B; Caughman, J B; Hanson, G R; Hosea, J; Perkins, R; Ryan, P M; Taylor, G

    2014-11-01

    The pre-existing ORNL scrape-off-layer (SOL) reflectometer that operated with the X-mode R-cutoff at 6-27 GHz to measure SOL density profiles on NSTX is being upgraded to be functional at the increased magnetic fields on NSTX-U spherical tokamak. Rather than increasing the operating frequencies to measure the higher X-mode R-cutoff frequencies on NSTX-U, it will be shown that the combined use of the X-mode R, L and O-mode cutoffs at 6-27 GHz can obtain the desired SOL density profiles. The potential capabilities and obstacles of this technique to measure SOL density profiles and possibly SOL magnetic field profiles on NSTX-U will be discussed. PMID:25430228