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Sample records for pure magnetite crystals

  1. Thermal Decomposition of an Impure (Roxbury) Siderite: Relevance to the Presence of Chemically Pure Magnetite Crystals in ALH84001 Carbonate Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas-Keprta, K. L.; Clemett, S. J.; McKay, D. S.; Gibson, E. K.; Wentworth, S. J.

    2009-03-01

    Thermal decomposition of Roxbury siderite resulted in the formation of impure (Mg,Mn)-ferrites. These findings, which are supported by kinetic and thermodynamic equilibrium modeling studies, are in stark contrast to the chemically pure ALH 84001 magnetite.

  2. Thermal Decomposition of an Impure (Roxbury) Siderite: Relevance to the Presence of Chemically Pure Magnetite Crystals in ALH84001 Carbonate Disks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKay, D.S.; Gibson, E.K.; Thomas-Keprta, K.L.; Clemett, S.J.; Wentworth, S.J.

    2009-01-01

    The question of the origin of nanophase magnetite in Martian meteorite ALH84001 has been widely debated for nearly a decade. Golden et al. have reported producing nearly chemically pure magnetite from thermal decomposition of chemically impure siderite [(Fe, Mg, Mn)CO3]. This claim is significant for three reasons: first, it has been argued that chemically pure magnetite present in the carbonate disks in Martian meteorite ALH84001 could have formed by the thermal decomposition of the impure carbonate matrix in which they are embedded; second, the chemical purity of magnetite has been previously used to identify biogenic magnetite; and, third, previous studies of thermal decomposition of impure (Mg,Ca,Mn)-siderites, which have been investigated under a wide variety of conditions by numerous researchers, invariably yields a mixed metal oxide phase as the product and not chemically pure magnetite. The explanation for this observation is that these siderites all possess the same crystallographic structure (Calcite; R3c) so solid solutions between these carbonates are readily formed and can be viewed on an atomic scale as two chemically different but structurally similar lattices.

  3. Formation of "Chemically Pure" Magnetite from Mg-Fe-Carbonates Implications for the Exclusively Inorganic Origin of Magnetite and Sulfides in Martian Meteorite ALH84001

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golden, D. C.; Ming, Douglas W.; Lauer, H. V., Jr.; Morris, R. V.; Trieman, A. H.; McKay, G. A.

    2006-01-01

    Magnetite and sulfides in the black rims of carbonate globules in Martian meteorite ALH84001 have been studied extensively because of the claim by McKay et al. that they are biogenic in origin. However, exclusively inorganic (abiotic) processes are able to account for the occurrence of carbonate-sulfide-magnetite assemblages in the meteorite. We have previously precipitated chemically zoned and sulfide-bearing carbonate globules analogous to those in ALH84001 (at less than or equal to 150 C) from multiple fluxes of variable-composition Ca-Mg-Fe-CO2-S-H2O solutions. Brief heating of precipitated globules to approx. 470 C produced magnetite and pyrrhotite within the globules by thermal decomposition of siderite and pyrite, respectively. We have also shown that morphology of magnetite formed by inorganic thermal decomposition of Fe-rich carbonate is similar to the morphology of so-called biogenic magnetite in the carbonate globules of ALH84001. Magnetite crystals in the rims of carbonate globules in ALH84001 are chemically pure [Note: "Chemically pure" is defined here as magnetite with Mg at levels comparable or lower than Mg detected by [8] in ALH84001 magnetite]. A debate continues on whether or not chemically pure magnetite can form by the thermal decomposition of mixed Mg-Fe-carbonates that have formed under abiotic conditions. Thomas-Keprta et al. argue that it is not possible to form Mg-free magnetite from Mg-Fe-carbonate based on thermodynamic data. We previously suggested that chemically pure magnetite could form by the thermal decomposition of relatively pure siderite in the outer rims of the globules. Mg-Fe-carbonates may also thermally decompose under conditions conducive for formation of chemically pure magnetite. In this paper we show through laboratory experiments that chemically pure magnetite can form by an inorganic process from mixed Mg-Fe-carbonates.

  4. Non-chemically Pure Magnetites Produced from Thermal Decomposition of Ankerites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiménez López, C.; Romanek, C.; Rodríguez-Navarro, A.; Pérez-González, T.; Rodríguez Navarro, C.

    2008-12-01

    It has been claimed that chemically pure magnetites (Fe3O4) can be obtained from thermal decomposition of (Fe, Mg, Ca)CO3 (Golden et al., 2004). Such an observation is critical, since it opens the possibility of an inorganic way of formation of the magnetites found on Martian meteorite ALH84001. Such a chemical purity is one of the parameters used, so far, to recognize bacterial origin of natural magnetites (Thomas-Keptra et al., 2001), since it has been demonstrated that biologically-controlled magnetites are chemically pure (Bazylinski and Frankel, 2004) . However, while Golden et al. (2004) obtained pure magnetite from an almost pure precursor, the ankerite cores in ALH84001 in which magnetites are embedded are far from being chemically pure, since they contain considerable amounts of Ca and Mg (Kopp and Humayun, 2003). In this study we have performed several experiments to analyze the chemical purity of magnetites produced by thermal decomposition of four ankerite samples sinthetized in the laboratory, and containing different amounts of Ca, Fe and Mg. Such a thermal decomposition was achieved by two procedures: (1) by heating the samples at 470°C under CO2 pressure and (2) by decomposing the ankerite "in situ" under the TEM (Transmission electron Microscopy) electron beam. Magnetite produced by the first procedure was analyzed by XRD to determine whether or not the resulting solid was a mixture of oxides or rather a solid solution of (Ca, Fe and Mg)oxide. Magnetites formed by the two methods were studied by High Resolution TEM. The chemical composition of about 20 crystals of each experiment was analyzed by EDAX. Under our experimental conditions, ankerites decomposed in magnetite crystals of about 5 nanometers in size. Magentite crystals arranged to keep the morphology of the precursor. Our results confirm that any of these magnetites is chemically pure, but rather, each one of them is a solid solution of Ca and Mg. Therefore, chemically pure magnetites found in the meteorite ALH84001 cannot be obtained, as Golden et al. (2004) proposed, just by the thermal decomposition of the (Fe, Ca, Mg)CO3 precursor in which they were embedded.

  5. Hydrothermal synthesis of magnetite crystals: From sheet to pseudo-octahedron

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Ming; Ji, Rui-Ping; Jiang, Ji-Sen

    2010-12-15

    In this paper, we developed a hydrothermal method to fabricate sheet-like and pseudo-octahedral magnetite crystals. X-ray diffraction (XRD) confirmed the products were pure spinel-structured magnetite. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to investigate the morphology of the obtained crystals. By carefully regulating the initial NaOH concentrations, the morphology of the products could be changed from sheet-like crystals to pseudo-octahedral crystals. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis indicated the sheet-like crystals were the oriented aggregation of nanoparticles. Pseudo-octahedral magnetite crystals were single crystalline, and were obtained by dissolution-recrystallization of the sheet-like crystals. Vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM)) suggested the magnetic properties of the products were strongly related to the morphology. The coercivity of the sheet-like magnetite crystals was 100 Oe, larger than 30 Oe of the pseudo-octahedral crystals, but the saturation magnetization of the sheet-like magnetite crystals was 40 emu/g, smaller than 85 emu/g of the pseudo-octahedral crystals.

  6. Truncated hexa-octahedral magnetite crystals in ALH84001: Presumptive biosignatures

    PubMed Central

    Thomas-Keprta, Kathie L.; Clemett, Simon J.; Bazylinski, Dennis A.; Kirschvink, Joseph L.; McKay, David S.; Wentworth, Susan J.; Vali, Hojatollah; Gibson, Everett K.; McKay, Mary Fae; Romanek, Christopher S.

    2001-01-01

    McKay et al. [(1996) Science 273, 924930] suggested that carbonate globules in the meteorite ALH84001 contained the fossil remains of Martian microbes. We have characterized a subpopulation of magnetite (Fe3O4) crystals present in abundance within the Fe-rich rims of these carbonate globules. We find these Martian magnetites to be both chemically and physically identical to terrestrial, biogenically precipitated, intracellular magnetites produced by magnetotactic bacteria strain MV-1. Specifically, both magnetite populations are single-domain and chemically pure, and exhibit a unique crystal habit we describe as truncated hexa-octahedral. There are no known reports of inorganic processes to explain the observation of truncated hexa-octahedral magnetites in a terrestrial sample. In bacteria strain MV-1 their presence is therefore likely a product of Natural Selection. Unless there is an unknown and unexplained inorganic process on Mars that is conspicuously absent on the Earth and forms truncated hexa-octahedral magnetites, we suggest that these magnetite crystals in the Martian meteorite ALH84001 were likely produced by a biogenic process. As such, these crystals are interpreted as Martian magnetofossils and constitute evidence of the oldest life yet found. PMID:11226210

  7. Truncated hexa-octahedral magnetite crystals in ALH84001: presumptive biosignatures.

    PubMed

    Thomas-Keprta, K L; Clemett, S J; Bazylinski, D A; Kirschvink, J L; McKay, D S; Wentworth, S J; Vali, H; Gibson, E K; McKay, M F; Romanek, C S

    2001-02-27

    McKay et al. [(1996) Science 273, 924-930] suggested that carbonate globules in the meteorite ALH84001 contained the fossil remains of Martian microbes. We have characterized a subpopulation of magnetite (Fe(3)O(4)) crystals present in abundance within the Fe-rich rims of these carbonate globules. We find these Martian magnetites to be both chemically and physically identical to terrestrial, biogenically precipitated, intracellular magnetites produced by magnetotactic bacteria strain MV-1. Specifically, both magnetite populations are single-domain and chemically pure, and exhibit a unique crystal habit we describe as truncated hexa-octahedral. There are no known reports of inorganic processes to explain the observation of truncated hexa-octahedral magnetites in a terrestrial sample. In bacteria strain MV-1 their presence is therefore likely a product of Natural Selection. Unless there is an unknown and unexplained inorganic process on Mars that is conspicuously absent on the Earth and forms truncated hexa-octahedral magnetites, we suggest that these magnetite crystals in the Martian meteorite ALH84001 were likely produced by a biogenic process. As such, these crystals are interpreted as Martian magnetofossils and constitute evidence of the oldest life yet found. PMID:11226210

  8. Process for Making Single-Domain Magnetite Crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golden, D. C.; Ming, Douglas W.; Morris, Richard V.; Lofgren, Gary E.; McKay, Gordan A.; Schwandt, Craig S.; Lauer, Howard V., Jr.; Socki, Richard A.

    2004-01-01

    A process for making chemically pure, single-domain magnetite crystals substantially free of structural defects has been invented as a byproduct of research into the origin of globules in a meteorite found in Antarctica and believed to have originated on Mars. The globules in the meteorite comprise layers of mixed (Mg, Fe, and Ca) carbonates, magnetite, and iron sulfides. Since the discovery of the meteorite was announced in August 1996, scientists have debated whether the globules are of biological origin or were formed from inorganic materials by processes that could have taken place on Mars. While the research that led to the present invention has not provided a definitive conclusion concerning the origin of the globules, it has shown that globules of a different but related chemically layered structure can be grown from inorganic ingredients in a multistep precipitation process. As described in more detail below, the present invention comprises the multistep precipitation process plus a subsequent heat treatment. The multistep precipitation process was demonstrated in a laboratory experiment on the growth of submicron ankerite crystals, overgrown by submicron siderite and pyrite crystals, overgrown by submicron magnesite crystals, overgrown by submicron siderite and pyrite. In each step, chloride salts of appropriate cations (Ca, Fe, and Mg) were dissolved in deoxygenated, CO2- saturated water. NaHCO3 was added as a pH buffer while CO2 was passed continuously through the solution. A 15-mL aliquot of the resulting solution was transferred into each of several 20 mL, poly(tetrafluoroethylene)-lined hydrothermal pressure vessels. The vessels were closed in a CO2 atmosphere, then transferred into an oven at a temperature of 150 C. After a predetermined time, the hydrothermal vessels were removed from the oven and quenched in a freezer. Supernatant solutions were decanted, and carbonate precipitates were washed free of soluble salts by repeated decantations with deionized water.

  9. Formation of "Chemically Pure" Magnetite from Mg-Fe-Carbontes: Implications for Exclusively Inorganic Origin of Magnetite and Sulfides in Martian Meteorite ALH84001

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golden, D. C.; Ming, D. W.; Lauer, H. V., Jr.; Morris, R. V.; Treiman, A. H.; McKay, G. A.

    2006-03-01

    Pure (Mg-free) magnetite was synthesized by heating Mg-Fe-carbonate at 350C in the presence of pyrite in an evacuated sealed glass tube. The Mg-free magnetite in the black rims of ALH84001 may have formed by a similar inorganic abiotic process from Mg-Fe-carbonates.

  10. Elongated prismatic magnetite crystals in ALH84001 carbonate globules: potential Martian magnetofossils.

    PubMed

    Thomas-Keprta, K L; Bazylinski, D A; Kirschvink, J L; Clemett, S J; McKay, D S; Wentworth, S J; Vali, H; Gibson, E K; Romanek, C S

    2000-12-01

    Using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), we have analyzed magnetite (Fe3O4) crystals acid-extracted from carbonate globules in Martian meteorite ALH84001. We studied 594 magnetites from ALH84001 and grouped them into three populations on the basis of morphology: 389 were irregularly shaped, 164 were elongated prisms, and 41 were whisker-like. As a possible terrestrial analog for the ALH84001 elongated prisms, we compared these magnetites with those produced by the terrestrial magnetotactic bacteria strain MV-1. By TEM again, we examined 206 magnetites recovered from strain MV-1 cells. Natural (Darwinian) selection in terrestrial magnetotactic bacteria appears to have resulted in the formation of intracellular magnetite crystals having the physical and chemical properties that optimize their magnetic moment. In this study, we describe six properties of magnetite produced by biologically controlled mechanisms (e.g., magnetotactic bacteria), properties that, collectively, are not observed in any known population of inorganic magnetites. These criteria can be used to distinguish one of the modes of origin for magnetites from samples with complex or unknown histories. Of the ALH84001 magnetites that we have examined, the elongated prismatic magnetite particles (similar to 27% of the total) are indistinguishable from the MV-1 magnetites in five of these six characteristics observed for biogenically controlled mineralization of magnetite crystals. PMID:11543573

  11. Refractories Keep Silicon Crystals Pure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmid, F.; Khattak, C. P.

    1982-01-01

    Formation of carbon monoxide gas is prevented by a linear of refractory material free of elemental carbon. For pressures above about 4 torr, silicon carbide can be used as refractory liner. The problem of carbide contamination can arise in crystal growth of any material that forms a carbide more stable than carbon monoxide. Prevention in such cases is possible by using noncarbon refractories in place of graphite.

  12. Evaluations of pure zinc sulfide crystal scintillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanagida, Takayuki; Fujimoto, Yutaka

    2014-03-01

    Optical and scintillation properties of pure ZnS single crystal were examined. ZnS showed 70% optical transmittance in wavelength longer than 350 nm. In X- and ?-ray induced radioluminescence spectra, intense emission peaks at 440 and 520 nm were observed. The origin of the former and the latter emission peaks were ascribed to zinc vacancy and sulfur vacancy, respectively. The temperature dependence of X-ray radioluminescence was investigated and intensities of both emission peaks monotonically decreased in higher temperatures. Finally, the absolute scintillation light yield of pure ZnS turned out to be 500 photons/5.5 MeV-?.

  13. Ferromagnetic resonance of intact cells and isolated crystals from cultured and uncultured magnetite-producing magnetotactic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Abraçado, Leida G; Wajnberg, Eliane; Esquivel, Darci M S; Keim, Carolina N; Silva, Karen T; Moreira, Emílio T S; Lins, Ulysses; Farina, Marcos

    2014-06-01

    Most magnetotactic bacteria (MB) produce stable, single-domain magnetite nanocrystals with species-specific size, shape and chain arrangement. In addition, most crystals are elongated along the [111] direction, which is the easy axis of magnetization in magnetite, chemically pure and structurally perfect. These special characteristics allow magnetite crystal chains from MB to be recognized in environmental samples including old sedimentary rocks. Ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) has been proposed as a powerful and practical tool for screening large numbers of samples possibly containing magnetofossils. Indeed, several studies were recently published on FMR of cultured MB, mainly Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense. In this work, we examined both uncultured magnetotactic cocci and the cultured MB M. gryphiswaldense using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and FMR from 10 K to room temperature (RT). The TEM data supported the FMR spectral characteristics of our samples. The FMR spectra of both bacteria showed the intrinsic characteristics of magnetite produced by MB, such as extended absorption at the low field region of the spectra and a Verwey transition around 100 K. As previously observed, the spectra of M. gryphiswaldense isolated crystals were more symmetrical than the spectra obtained from whole cells, reflecting the loss of chain arrangement due to the small size and symmetrical shape of the crystals. However, the FMR spectra of magnetic crystals isolated from magnetotactic cocci were very similar to the FMR spectra of whole cells, because the chain arrangement was maintained due to the large size and prismatic shape of the crystals. Our data support the use of FMR spectra to detect magnetotactic bacteria and magnetofossils in samples of present and past environments. Furthermore, the spectra suggest the use of the temperature transition of spectral peak-to-peak intensity to obtain the Verwey temperature for these systems. PMID:24828297

  14. Ferromagnetic resonance of intact cells and isolated crystals from cultured and uncultured magnetite-producing magnetotactic bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abraado, Leida G.; Wajnberg, Eliane; Esquivel, Darci M. S.; Keim, Carolina N.; Silva, Karen T.; Moreira, Emlio T. S.; Lins, Ulysses; Farina, Marcos

    2014-06-01

    Most magnetotactic bacteria (MB) produce stable, single-domain magnetite nanocrystals with species-specific size, shape and chain arrangement. In addition, most crystals are elongated along the [111] direction, which is the easy axis of magnetization in magnetite, chemically pure and structurally perfect. These special characteristics allow magnetite crystal chains from MB to be recognized in environmental samples including old sedimentary rocks. Ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) has been proposed as a powerful and practical tool for screening large numbers of samples possibly containing magnetofossils. Indeed, several studies were recently published on FMR of cultured MB, mainly Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense. In this work, we examined both uncultured magnetotactic cocci and the cultured MB M. gryphiswaldense using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and FMR from 10 K to room temperature (RT). The TEM data supported the FMR spectral characteristics of our samples. The FMR spectra of both bacteria showed the intrinsic characteristics of magnetite produced by MB, such as extended absorption at the low field region of the spectra and a Verwey transition around 100 K. As previously observed, the spectra of M. gryphiswaldense isolated crystals were more symmetrical than the spectra obtained from whole cells, reflecting the loss of chain arrangement due to the small size and symmetrical shape of the crystals. However, the FMR spectra of magnetic crystals isolated from magnetotactic cocci were very similar to the FMR spectra of whole cells, because the chain arrangement was maintained due to the large size and prismatic shape of the crystals. Our data support the use of FMR spectra to detect magnetotactic bacteria and magnetofossils in samples of present and past environments. Furthermore, the spectra suggest the use of the temperature transition of spectral peak-to-peak intensity to obtain the Verwey temperature for these systems.

  15. Fabrication of specimens of metamorphic magnetite crystals for field ion microscopy and atom probe microanalysis.

    PubMed

    Kuhlman, K R; Martens, R L; Kelly, T F; Evans, N D; Miller, M K

    2001-10-01

    Field ion specimens have been successfully fabricated from samples of metamorphic magnetite crystals (Fe3O4) extracted from a polymetamorphosed, granulite-facies marble with the use of a focused ion beam. These magnetite crystals contain nanometer-scale, disk-shaped inclusions making this magnetite particularly attractive for investigating the capabilities of atom probe field ion microscopy (APFIM) for geological materials. Field ion microscope images of these magnetite crystals were obtained in which the observed size and morphology of the precipitates agree with previous results. Samples were analyzed in the energy compensated optical position-sensitive atom probe. Mass spectra were obtained in which peaks for singly ionized 16O, 56Fe and 56FeO and doubly ionized 54Fe, 56Fe and 57Fe peaks were fully resolved. Manganese and aluminum were observed in a limited analysis of a precipitate in an energy compensated position sensitive atom probe. PMID:11770743

  16. MMS6 protein regulates crystal morphology during nano-sized magnetite biomineralization in vivo.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Masayoshi; Mazuyama, Eri; Arakaki, Atsushi; Matsunaga, Tadashi

    2011-02-25

    Biomineralization, the process by which minerals are deposited by organisms, has attracted considerable attention because this mechanism has shown great potential to inspire bottom-up material syntheses. To understand the mechanism for morphological regulation that occurs during biomineralization, many regulatory proteins have been isolated from various biominerals. However, the molecular mechanisms that regulate the morphology of biominerals remain unclear because there is a lack of in vivo evidence. Magnetotactic bacteria synthesize intracellular magnetosomes that comprise membrane-enveloped single crystalline magnetite (Fe(3)O(4)). These nano-sized magnetite crystals (<100 nm) are bacterial species dependent in shape and size. Mms6 is a protein that is tightly associated with magnetite crystals. Based on in vitro experiments, this protein was first implicated in morphological regulation during nano-sized magnetite biomineralization. In this study, we analyzed the mms6 gene deletion mutant (?mms6) of Magnetospirillum magneticum (M. magneticum) AMB-1. Surprisingly, the ?mms6 strain was found to synthesize the smaller magnetite crystals with uncommon crystal faces, while the wild-type and complementation strains synthesized highly ordered cubo-octahedral crystals. Furthermore, deletion of mms6 gene led to drastic changes in the profiles of the proteins tightly bound to magnetite crystals. It was found that Mms6 plays a role in the in vivo regulation of the crystal structure to impart the cubo-octahedral morphology to the crystals during biomineralization in magnetotactic bacteria. Magnetotactic bacteria synthesize magnetite crystals under ambient conditions via a highly controlled morphological regulation system that uses biological molecules. PMID:21169637

  17. Analysis of magnetite crystals and inclusion bodies inside magnetotactic bacteria from different environmental locations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oestreicher, Z.; Lower, B.; Lower, S.; Bazylinski, D. A.

    2011-12-01

    Biomineralization occurs throughout the living world; a few common examples include iron oxide in chiton teeth, calcium carbonate in mollusk shells, calcium phosphate in animal bones and teeth, silica in diatom shells, and magnetite crystals inside the cells of magnetotactic bacteria. Biologically controlled mineralization is characterized by biominerals that have species-specific properties such as: preferential crystallographic orientation, consistent particle size, highly ordered spatial locations, and well-defined composition and structure. It is well known that magnetotactic bacteria synthesize crystals of magnetite inside of their cells, but how they mineralize the magnetite is poorly understood. Magnetosomes have a species-specific morphology that is due to specific proteins involved in the mineralization process. In addition to magnetite crystals, magnetotactic bacteria also produce inclusion bodies or granules that contain different elements, such as phosphorus, calcium, and sulfur. In this study we used the transmission electron microscope to analyze the structure of magnetite crystals and inclusion bodies from different species of magnetotactic bacteria in order to determine the composition of the inclusion bodies and to ascertain whether or not the magnetite crystals contain elements other than iron and oxygen. Using energy dispersive spectroscopy we found that different bacteria from different environments possess inclusion bodies that contain different elements such as phosphorus, calcium, barium, magnesium, and sulfur. These differences may reflect the conditions of the environment in which the bacteria inhabit.

  18. The Origin of Magnetite Crystals in ALH84001 Carbonate Disks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas-Keprta, K. L.; Clemett, S. J.; Wentworth, S. J.; McKay, D. S.; Gibson, E. K., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    Martian meteorite ALH84001 preserves evidence of interaction with aqueous fluids while on Mars in the form of microscopic carbonate disks believed to have formed approx 3.9 Ga ago at beginning of the Noachian epoch. Intimately associated within and throughout these carbonate disks are nanocrystal magnetites (Fe3O4) with unusual chemical and physical properties, whose origins have become the source of considerable debate. One group of hypotheses argues that these magnetites are the product of partial thermal decomposition of the host carbonate. Alternatively, the origins of magnetite and carbonate may be unrelated; that is, from the perspective of the carbonate the magnetite is allochthonous. We have sought to resolve between these hypotheses through the detailed characterized of the compositional and structural relationships between the carbonate disks, their associated magnetites and the orthopyroxene matrix in which they are embedded. Comparison of these results with experimental thermal decomposition studies of sideritic carbonates conducted under a range of heating scenarios suggests that the magnetite nanocrystals in the ALH84001 carbonate disks are not the products of thermal decomposition.

  19. Did an Impact Make the Mysterious Microscopic Magnetite Crystals in ALH 84001?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, G. J.

    2007-10-01

    Fervent debate swirls around microscopic crystals of magnetite (Fe3O4) in Martian meteorite ALH 84001. Some investigators suggest that the crystals are evidence of past life on Mars, citing magnetite crystals of similar chemical compositions and sizes made by magnetotactic bacteria on Earth. Others cite assorted experiments and observations to argue that the important little crystals formed entirely by non-biological processes, hence say nothing about life on Mars. One of those processes is the decomposition of iron carbonate (the mineral siderite), which occurs in ALH 84001. Researchers argue that heating this mineral causes it to decompose into magnetite and CO2 gas. Experiments showing this were done by heating siderite and observing that it decomposed and formed magnetite, but nobody had shock-heated siderite to see if magnetite crystals formed. (Shock is a rapid, strong rise and fall in pressure. It happens under many circumstances, including meteorite impacts.) The lack of shock experiments has been solved by Mary Sue Bell (University of Houston and Jacobs Engineering). She experimentally shocked samples of siderite at the Experimental Impact Laboratory at the Johnson Space Center. She shows that magnetite crystals of the right size and composition formed when samples were shocked to 49 GPa (about 500,000 times the pressure at the Earth's surface). This is more evidence for a non-biological origin for the magnetite crystals in ALH 84001 and is consistent with what we know about the impact history of the rock. There seems to be growing evidence against a biological origin, but don't expect these results to completely settle the debate!

  20. Crystal growth of bullet-shaped magnetite in magnetotactic bacteria of the Nitrospirae phylum

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jinhua; Menguy, Nicolas; Gatel, Christophe; Boureau, Victor; Snoeck, Etienne; Patriarche, Gilles; Leroy, Eric; Pan, Yongxin

    2015-01-01

    Magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) are known to produce single-domain magnetite or greigite crystals within intracellular membrane organelles and to navigate along the Earth's magnetic field lines. MTB have been suggested as being one of the most ancient biomineralizing metabolisms on the Earth and they represent a fundamental model of intracellular biomineralization. Moreover, the determination of their specific crystallographic signature (e.g. structure and morphology) is essential for palaeoenvironmental and ancient-life studies. Yet, the mechanisms of MTB biomineralization remain poorly understood, although this process has been extensively studied in several cultured MTB strains in the Proteobacteria phylum. Here, we show a comprehensive transmission electron microscopy (TEM) study of magnetic and structural properties down to atomic scales on bullet-shaped magnetites produced by the uncultured strain MYR-1 belonging to the Nitrospirae phylum, a deeply branching phylogenetic MTB group. We observed a multiple-step crystal growth of MYR-1 magnetite: initial isotropic growth forming cubo-octahedral particles (less than approx. 40 nm), subsequent anisotropic growth and a systematic final elongation along [001] direction. During the crystal growth, one major {111} face is well developed and preserved at the larger basal end of the crystal. The basal {111} face appears to be terminated by a tetrahedral–octahedral-mixed iron surface, suggesting dimensional advantages for binding protein(s), which may template the crystallization of magnetite. This study offers new insights for understanding magnetite biomineralization within the Nitrospirae phylum. PMID:25566884

  1. Dependence of magnetization on crystal fields and exchange interactions in magnetite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouaissa, Mohamed; Benyoussef, Abdelilah; Abo, Gavin S.; Ouaissa, Samia; Hafid, Mustapha; Belaiche, Mohammed

    2015-11-01

    In this work, we study the magnetization of magnetite (Fe3O4) with different exchange interactions and crystal fields using variational method based on the Bogoliubov inequality for the Gibbs free energy within the mean field theory. The magnetic behavior was investigated in the absence and presence of crystal fields. The investigations also revealed that the transition temperature depends on the crystal fields of the octahedral and tetrahedral sites. Magnetite exhibits ferrimagnetic phase with second order transition to paramagnetic phase at 850 K. This result is confirmed using the mean field theory within the Heisenberg model. Important factors that can affect the magnetic behavior of the system are exchange interactions and crystal field. Indeed, a new magnetic behavior was observed depending on these parameters. A first order phase transition from ferrimagnetic to ferromagnetic was found at low temperature, and a second order transition from ferromagnetic to paramagnetic was observed at high temperature.

  2. Microstructural characterization of metamorphic magnetite crystals with implications for oxygen isotope distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Sitzman, S.D.; Banfield, J.F.; Valley, J.W.

    2000-01-01

    The microstructures of magnetite crystals in three samples from a single outcrop of granulite-facies marble were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to determine how exsolution history can affect physical properties and mineral reactivity during retrograde metamorphism. The microstructure of sample 90LP9 consists of dislocation, dislocation arrays (with dislocation spacings of 100 to 500 nm), and linear channels filled with layer silicates. Acid etching and ion milling of polished 90LP9 magnetite grains show dislocation arrays clustered near grain boundaries with rheologically hard magnetite, diopside, and monticellite, but rarely near grain boundaries with softer calcite. Samples LP204-1 magnetite grains contain coherent {l{underscore}brace}100{r{underscore}brace} Al-Mn-Fe-spinel precipitates ({approximately}40 nm diameter, {approximately}1--3 nm thick, {approximately}10{sup 4} platelets/{micro}m{sup 3}) and very few dislocations. Larger, more widely spaced spinel precipitates are present in a third sample, 94AK3. Extremely low dislocation densities in powders of LP204-1 and intermediate dislocation densities in powders of 94AK3, compared with extremely high dislocation densities in powders of 90LP9, are related to strong dislocation pinning effects by precipitates. The different exsolution behavior of the three magnetite samples is attributed to small, but important, differences in Al content. Because dislocations can provide fast pathways for exchange that enhance diffusion, especially in very slowly cooled rocks, these microstructural results may explain previously reported subgrain-scale oxygen isotopic heterogeneity in 90LP9 magnetite compared with relative isotopic homogeneity in LP204-1 magnetite.

  3. Magnetic properties of magnetite nanoparticles crystallized in sodium-aluminoborosilicate glass matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgieva, M.; Tzankov, D.; Harizanova, R.; Avdeev, G.; Rüssel, C.

    2016-03-01

    Magnetite (Fe3O4) nanoparticles were crystallized from soda alumina borosilicate glasses with the composition (24- y)Na2O· yAl2O3·14B2O3·37SiO2·25Fe2O3, where y = 8, 12, 14, 16 mol%. All samples are phase separated into magnetite core, enriched in iron oxide, and a glass shell. The magnetic core phase consists of nanocrystallites with sizes ranging between 25 and 40 nm, depending on the respective glass composition. All samples show characteristic well-defined hysteresis loops at room temperature, indicating that the magnetite particles are ferrimagnetic. No evidence for the existence of superparamagnetic particles is found by measuring the ZFC and FC thermomagnetic curves.

  4. Dendritic crystal growth in pure materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glicksman, M. E.; Lupulescu, A. O.

    2004-03-01

    Dendritic growth is a fundamental crystal growth phenomenon accompanying most casting and solidification processes, and, occasionally, occurring during the growth of single crystals, where it is detrimental to crystalline quality. Dendrites are the ubiquitous crystal form in freezing alloys and supercooled melts, because their shapes are most suited for efficient heat and mass transfer at small scales. Dendritic scales are typically the smallest length scales of interest in ingots and castings, typically associated with: (1) chemical processes, such as microsegregation, (2) thermal processes, for example, latent heat release, and (3) mechanical processes, for instance, the volume change during phase transformation. All of these processes operate at the dendritic solid-melt interface. Understanding dendritic growth is therefore considered essential for controlling basic solidification and crystal growth processes. A brief history of dendrites will be sketched, showing how the subject of dendritic solidification evolved to its present status as a modern sub-field of general crystal growth. The comprehensive understanding of dendrites and developing a predictive capability of practical utility to the crystal grower, however, remain as works in progress. The subject of dendritic growth will be presented on the basis of heat and mass transfer, capillarity effects at the solid-melt interface, and interfacial dynamics, including morphological stability, and side-branching dynamics. Experimental verification of dendritic scaling laws using microgravity experimentation is included as a brief attempt to encapsulate this important subject within crystal growth science.

  5. Magnetite Crystal Chains: Most Promising Evidence of Past Microbial Life on Mars, Also Useful on Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedmann, E.; Wierzchos, J.; Ascaso, C.; Giannuzzi, L. A.

    2005-12-01

    It is not easy to identify "biosignatures", suitable targets in the search for traces of microbial life on early Mars: They need to have withstood billions of years of extreme conditions and to provide unambiguous evidence. Organic molecules were probably destroyed by the highly oxidative environment, at least near the surface. Mineral structures offer hardly more than strong indication, not unambiguous evidence, and no direct information about the organisms that may have produced them. The reason is that soft-bodied bacteria do not leave behind good fossil traces. The only known exception seems to be magnetotactic bacteria, widespread on Earth in most aquatic environments, that produce inside their body chains of magnetite crystals. Single crystals showing properties observed in terrestrial bacteria (definite size range, morphology, chemical purity, rarity of crystallographic defects) may indicate biological origin, but provide no absolute evidence: It is impossible to prove that such crystals can not be produced by non-biological processes on Mars. However, magnetite crystal chains of bacteria have properties that are the direct consequence of being produced by organisms. In the living cell, they are surrounded by a biological membrane or organic matrix. Even in terrestrial fossils, crystals of a single chain show high level of uniformity in size and shape (because the matrix functions as a template), gaps between crystals (organic substance between crystals) and remarkable bends (due to the elasticity of the organic matter between crystals, a property absent in the mineral world). Magnetite chains of bacteria are complex structures whose formation requires the interaction of a series of chemical and physical processes and feedback loops, as well as genetically stored information, the ultimate proof of life. Non-biogenous chains produced in the laboratory do not show such characteristics. Bacterial magnetite chains in terrestrial magnetofossils can be observed in situ by backscattered scanning electron microscopy. While this method permits to locate such chains in sediments, it yields rather fuzzy images. Single chains excised by focused ion beam (FIB) milling instrument can be used to produce images by more advanced methods such as HAADF electron tomography. We suggest that fossil lakebeds on Mars (e.g. Gusev Crater) would be promising targets to search for fossil chains of magnetotactic bacteria.

  6. Magnetite 3D colloidal crystals formed in the early solar system 4.6 billion years ago.

    PubMed

    Nozawa, Jun; Tsukamoto, Katsuo; van Enckevort, Willem; Nakamura, Tomoki; Kimura, Yuki; Miura, Hitoshi; Satoh, Hisao; Nagashima, Ken; Konoto, Makoto

    2011-06-15

    Three-dimensional colloidal crystals made of ferromagnetic particles, such as magnetite (Fe(3)O(4)), cannot be synthesized in principle because of the strong attractive magnetic interaction. However, we discovered colloidal crystals composed of polyhedral magnetite nanocrystallites of uniform size in the range of a few hundred nanometers in the Tagish Lake meteorite. Those colloidal crystals were formed 4.6 billion years ago and thus are much older than natural colloidal crystals on earth, such as opals, which formed about 100 million years ago. We found that the size of each individual magnetite particle determines its morphology, which in turn plays an important role in deciding the packing structure of the colloidal crystals. We also hypothesize that each particle has a flux-closed magnetic domain structure, which reduces the interparticle magnetic force significantly. PMID:21563777

  7. Truncated Hexa-Octahedral Magnetite Crystals in Martian Meteorite ALH84001: Evidence of Biogenic Activity on Early Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas-Keprta, K.; Clemett, S. J.; Schwartz, C.; McIntosh, J. R.; Bazylinski, D. A.; Kirschvink, J.; McKay, D. S.; Gibson, E. K.; Vali, H.; Romanek, C. S.

    2004-01-01

    The landmark paper by McKay et al. [1] cited four lines of evidence associated with the Martian meteorite ALH84001 to support the hypothesis that life existed on Mars approximately 4 Ga ago. Now, more than five years later, attention has focused on the ALH84001 magnetite grains embedded within carbonate globules in the ALH84001 meteorite. We have suggested that up to approx.25% of the ALH84001 magnetite crystals are products of biological activity [e.g., 2]. The remaining magnetites lack sufficient characteristics to constrain their origin. The papers of Thomas Keprta et al. were criticized arguing that the three dimensional structure of ALH84001 magnetite crystals can only be unambiguously determined using electron tomographic techniques. Clemett et al. [3] confirmed that magnetites produced by magnetotactic bacteria strain MV-I display a truncated hexa-octahedral geometry using electron tomography and validated the use of the multi-tilt classical transmission microscopy technique used by [2]. Recently the geometry of the purported martian biogenic magnetites was shown be identical to that for MV-1 magnetites using electron tomography [6].

  8. Intrinsic response of crystals to pure dilatation

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Jinghan; Yip, S. . Dept. of Nuclear Engineering); Phillpot, S.; Wolf, D. )

    1991-01-01

    The response of an f.c.c. lattice with Lennard-Jones interaction under symmetric lattice extension has been studied by Monte Carlo simulation at several temperatures. The critical strain at which the crystal undergoes a structural change is found to be well predicted by the mechanical stability limit expressed in terms of either the elastic constants or the bulk modulus. At low temperature (reduced temperature T = 0.125), lattice decohesion is observed in the form of cleavage fracture, whereas at higher temperature (T = 0.3) the strained system deforms by cavitation with some degree of local plasticity. At still higher temperature (T = 0.5) the lattice undergoes homogeneous disordering with all the attendant characteristics of melting.

  9. Intrinsic response of crystals to pure dilatation

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Jinghan; Yip, S.; Phillpot, S.; Wolf, D.

    1991-12-31

    The response of an f.c.c. lattice with Lennard-Jones interaction under symmetric lattice extension has been studied by Monte Carlo simulation at several temperatures. The critical strain at which the crystal undergoes a structural change is found to be well predicted by the mechanical stability limit expressed in terms of either the elastic constants or the bulk modulus. At low temperature (reduced temperature T = 0.125), lattice decohesion is observed in the form of cleavage fracture, whereas at higher temperature (T = 0.3) the strained system deforms by cavitation with some degree of local plasticity. At still higher temperature (T = 0.5) the lattice undergoes homogeneous disordering with all the attendant characteristics of melting.

  10. Chains of magnetite crystals in the meteorite ALH84001: evidence of biological origin.

    PubMed

    Friedmann, E I; Wierzchos, J; Ascaso, C; Winklhofer, M

    2001-02-27

    The presence of magnetite crystal chains, considered missing evidence for the biological origin of magnetite in ALH84001 [Thomas-Keprta, K. L., Bazylinski, D. A., Kirschvink, J. L., Clemett, S. J., McKay, D. S., Wentworth, S. J., Vali, H., Gibson, E. K., Jr., & Romanek, C. S. (2000) Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 64, 4049-4081], is demonstrated by high-power stereo backscattered scanning electron microscopy. Five characteristics of such chains (uniform crystal size and shape within chains, gaps between crystals, orientation of elongated crystals along the chain axis, flexibility of chains, and a halo that is a possible remnant of a membrane around chains), observed or inferred to be present in magnetotactic bacteria but incompatible with a nonbiological origin, are shown to be present. Although it is unlikely that magnetotactic bacteria were ever alive in ALH84001, decomposed remains of such organisms could have been deposited in cracks in the rock while it was still on the surface on Mars. PMID:11226212

  11. Chains of magnetite crystals in the meteorite ALH84001: Evidence of biological origin

    PubMed Central

    Friedmann, E. Imre; Wierzchos, Jacek; Ascaso, Carmen; Winklhofer, Michael

    2001-01-01

    The presence of magnetite crystal chains, considered missing evidence for the biological origin of magnetite in ALH84001 [Thomas-Keprta, K. L., Bazylinski, D. A., Kirschvink, J. L., Clemett, S. J., McKay, D. S., Wentworth, S. J., Vali, H., Gibson, E. K., Jr., & Romanek, C. S. (2000) Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 64, 40494081], is demonstrated by high-power stereo backscattered scanning electron microscopy. Five characteristics of such chains (uniform crystal size and shape within chains, gaps between crystals, orientation of elongated crystals along the chain axis, flexibility of chains, and a halo that is a possible remnant of a membrane around chains), observed or inferred to be present in magnetotactic bacteria but incompatible with a nonbiological origin, are shown to be present. Although it is unlikely that magnetotactic bacteria were ever alive in ALH84001, decomposed remains of such organisms could have been deposited in cracks in the rock while it was still on the surface on Mars. PMID:11226212

  12. Transmission Electron Microscopy of Magnetite Plaquettes in Orgueil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, Q. H. S.; Han, J.; Zolensky, M.

    2016-01-01

    Magnetite sometimes takes the form of a plaquette - barrel-shaped stack of magnetite disks - in carbonaceous chondrites (CC) that show evidence of aqueous alteration. The asymmetric nature of the plaquettes caused Pizzarello and Groy to propose magnetite plaquettes as a naturally asymmetric mineral that can indroduce symmetry-breaking in organic molecules. Our previous synchrotron X-ray computed microtomography (SXRCT) and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) analyses of the magnetite plaquettes in fifteen CCs indicate that magnetite plaquettes are composed of nearly parallel discs, and the crystallographic orientations of the discs change around a rotational axis normal to the discs surfaces. In order to further investigate the nanostructures of magnetite plaquettes, we made two focused ion beam (FIB) sections of nine magnetite plaquettes from a thin section of CI Orgueil for transmission electron microscope (TEM) analysis. The X-ray spectrum imaging shows that the magnetite discs are purely iron oxide Fe3O4 (42.9 at% Fe and 57.1 at% O), which suggest that the plaquettes are of aqueous origin as it is difficult to form pure magnetite as a nebular condensate. The selected area electron diffraction (SAED) patterns acquired across the plaquettes show that the magnetite discs are single crystals. SEM and EBSD analyses suggest that the planar surfaces of the magnetite discs belong to the {100} planes of the cubic inverse spinel structure, which are supported by our TEM observations. Kerridge et al. suggested that the epitaxial relationship between magnetite plaquette and carbonate determines the magnetite face. However, according to our TEM observation, the association of magnetite with porous networks of phyllosilicate indicates that the epitaxial relationship with carbonate is not essential to the formation of magnetite plaquettes. It was difficult to determine the preferred rotational orientation of the plaquettes due to the symmetry of the cubic structure, however, we are able to observe small but consistent rotational orientation across several discs within a plaquette.

  13. Optical and Scintillation Properties of Pure ZnS Crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanagida, Takayuki; Fujimoto, Yutaka; Yanagida, Satoko

    Optical and scintillation properties of pure ZnS single crystal were examined. ZnS showed 80% optical transmittance in wavelength longer than 350?nm. In X- and ?-ray induced radioluminescence spectra, intense emission peaks at 430 and 520?nm were observed. The origin of the former and the latter emission peaks were ascribed to zinc vacancy and sulfur vacancy, respectively. The temperature dependence of X-ray radioluminescence was investigated and intensities of both emission peaks monotonically decreased in higher temperatures. Finally, the absolute scintillation light yield of pure ZnS turned out to be 500 photons/5.5?MeV-?.

  14. Sub-Micrometer-Scale Mapping of Magnetite Crystals and Sulfur Globules in Magnetotactic Bacteria Using Confocal Raman Micro-Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Eder, Stephan H. K.; Gigler, Alexander M.; Hanzlik, Marianne; Winklhofer, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The ferrimagnetic mineral magnetite is biomineralized by magnetotactic microorganisms and a diverse range of animals. Here we demonstrate that confocal Raman microscopy can be used to visualize chains of magnetite crystals in magnetotactic bacteria, even though magnetite is a poor Raman scatterer and in bacteria occurs in typical grain sizes of only 35120 nm, well below the diffraction-limited optical resolution. When using long integration times together with low laser power (<0.25 mW) to prevent laser induced damage of magnetite, we can identify and map magnetite by its characteristic Raman spectrum (303, 535, 665 ) against a large autofluorescence background in our natural magnetotactic bacteria samples. While greigite (cubic ; Raman lines of 253 and 351 ) is often found in the Deltaproteobacteria class, it is not present in our samples. In intracellular sulfur globules of Candidatus Magnetobacterium bavaricum (Nitrospirae), we identified the sole presence of cyclo-octasulfur (: 151, 219, 467 ), using green (532 nm), red (638 nm) and near-infrared excitation (785 nm). The Raman-spectra of phosphorous-rich intracellular accumulations point to orthophosphate in magnetic vibrios and to polyphosphate in magnetic cocci. Under green excitation, the cell envelopes are dominated by the resonant Raman lines of the heme cofactor of the b or c-type cytochrome, which can be used as a strong marker for label-free live-cell imaging of bacterial cytoplasmic membranes, as well as an indicator for the redox state. PMID:25233081

  15. On Van Hove Singularities in Pure Cubic Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jovaini, Azita; Pientka, James; Fujita, Shigeji; Godoy, Salvador; Suzuki, Akira

    2012-02-01

    Pure elements form crystals of various lattices, cubic, tetragonal and others. At very low temperatures the lattice heat capacities in three dimensional crystals obey Debye's T^3-law, where T is the absolute temperature. X-ray scattering experiments and lattice dynamics calculations reveal van Hove singularities when the density of states is plotted as a function of the phonon frequency. A physical origin of the singularities, jumps in the derivative of the density of states, is clarified. The singularities occur in three and two dimensions when the constant-frequency plane touches the Brillouin zone boundary and undergoes a curvature inversion. The face-centered cubic lattice is composed of two simple cubic sublattices and one tetragonal sublattice. The first (second) major peaks in the observed density of states in aluminum (Al) are shown to arise from the transverse phonons associated with the cubic (tetragonal) sublattices. We predict that the density of states has one major peak with a shoulder (two peaks with shoulders) for a body-centered cubic (face-centered cubic) crystal.

  16. Structural, optical, mechanical and dielectric studies of pure and doped L-Prolinium Trichloroacetate single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renuka, N.; Ramesh Babu, R.; Vijayan, N.; Vasanthakumar, Geetha; Krishna, Anuj; Ramamurthi, K.

    2015-02-01

    In the present work, pure and metal substituted L-Prolinium trichloroacetate (LPTCA) single crystals were grown by slow evaporation method. The grown crystals were subjected to single crystal X-ray diffraction (XRD), powder X-ray diffraction, FTIR, UV-Visible-NIR, hardness, photoluminescence and dielectric studies. The dopant concentration in the crystals was measured by inductively coupled plasma (ICP) analysis. Single crystal X-ray diffraction studies of the pure and metal substituted LPTCA revealed that the grown crystals belong to the trigonal system. Ni2+ and Co2+ doping slightly altered the lattice parameters of LPTCA without affecting the basic structure of the crystal. FTIR spectral analysis confirms the presence of various functional groups in the grown crystals. The mechanical behavior of pure and doped crystals was analyzed by Vickers's microhardness test. The optical transmittance, dielectric and photoluminescence properties of the pure and doped crystals were analyzed.

  17. New Insights into the Origin of Magnetite Crystals in ALH84001 Carbonate Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas-Keprta, K. L.; Clemett, S. J.; Wentworth, S. J.; McKay, D. S.; Gibson, E. K.

    2010-04-01

    Comparison of new TEM results with decomposition studies of sideritic carbonates conducted under a range of heating scenarios suggests that the magnetite nanocrystals in ALH 84001 carbonate disks are not the products of thermal decomposition.

  18. New Insights into the Origin of Magnetite Crystals in ALH84001 Carbonate Disks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas-Keptra, Katie L.; Clemett, S. J.; Wentworth S. J.; Mckay, D. S.; Gibson, E. K., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    Martian meteorite ALH84001 preserves evidence of interaction with aqueous fluids while on Mars in the form of microscopic carbonate disks believed to have formed approx.3.9 Ga ago at beginning of the Noachian epoch. Intimately associated within and throughout these carbonate disks are nanocrystal magnetites (Fe3O4) with unusual chemical and physical properties, whose ori gins have become the source of considerable debate. One group of hypotheses argues that these magnetites are the product of partial thermal decomposition of the host carbonate. Alternatively, the origins of magnetite and carbonate may be unrelated: that is, from the perspective of the carbonate the magnetite is allochthonous. We have sought to resolve between these hypotheses through the detailed characterized of the compositional and structural relationships between the carbonate disks, their associated magnetites and the orthopyroxene matrix in which they are embedded [1]. Comparison of these results with experimental thermal decomposition studies of sideritic carbonates conducted under a range of heating scenarios suggests that the magnetite nanocrystals in the ALH84001 carbonate disks are not the products of thermal decomposition.

  19. Origin of magnetite crystals in Martian meteorite ALH84001 carbonate disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas-Keprta, Kathie; Clemett, Simon; McKay, David; Gibson, Everett; Wentworth, Susan

    The Martian meteorite ALH84001 preserves evidence of interaction with aqueous fluids while on Mars in the form of microscopic carbonate disks. These carbonate disks are believed to have precipitated 3.9 Ga ago at beginning of the Noachian epoch on Mars during which both the oldest extant Martian surfaces were formed, and perhaps the earliest global oceans. In-timately associated within and throughout these carbonate disks are nanocrystal magnetites (Fe3O4) with unusual chemical and physical properties, whose origins have become the source of considerable debate [1,2]. One group of hypotheses argues that these magnetites are the product of partial thermal decomposition of the host carbonate [3,4]. Alternatively, the origins of magnetite and carbonate may be unrelated; that is, from the perspective of the carbonate the magnetite is allochthonous. For example, the magnetites might have already been present in the aqueous fluids from which the carbonates were believed to have been deposited. We have sought to resolve between these hypotheses through the detailed characterization of the compositional and structural relationships of the carbonate disks and associated magnetites with the orthopyroxene matrix in which they are embedded. Extensive use of focused ion beam milling techniques has been utilized for sample preparation. We then compared our ob-servations with those from experimental thermal decomposition studies of sideritic carbonates under a range of plausible geological heating scenarios. We conclude that the vast majority of the nanocrystal magnetites present in the carbonate disks could not have formed by any of the currently proposed thermal decomposition scenarios. Instead, we find there is considerable evidence in support of an alternative allochthonous origin for the magnetite unrelated to any shock or thermal processing of the carbonates [5]. [1] McKay et al. (1996) Science 273, 924-930. [2] Thomas-Keprta et al. (2001) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 98, 2164-2169. [3] Treiman (2003) Astrobiology 3, 369-392. [4] Brearley A. J. (2003) Meteorit. Planet. Sci. 38, 849-870. [5] Thomas-Keprta et al. (2009) Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 73, 6631-6677.

  20. New insights into the origin of magnetite crystals in ALH84001 carbonate disks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas-Keprta, K. L.; Clemett, S. J.; Wentworth, S. J.; McKay, D. S.; Gibson, E. K.

    2009-01-01

    Martian meteorite ALH84001 preserves evidence of interaction with aqueous fluids while on Mars in the form of microscopic carbonate disks which are believed to have precipitated approximately 3.9 Ga ago at beginning of the Noachian epoch. Intimately associated within and throughout these carbonate disks are nanocrystal magnetites (Fe3O4) with unusual chemical and physical properties, whose origins have become the source of considerable debate. One group of hypotheses argues that these Fe3O4 are the product of partial thermal decomposition of the host carbonate. Alternatively, the origins of Fe3O4 and carbonate may be unrelated; that is, from the perspective of the carbonate the magnetite is allochthonous. We have sought to resolve between these hypotheses through the detailed characterized of the compositional and structural relationships of the carbonate disks and associated magnetites with the orthopyroxene matrix in which they are embedded. We focus this discussion on the composition of ALH84001 magnetites and then compare these observations with those from experimental thermal decomposition studies of sideritic carbonates under a range of plausible geological heating scenarios.

  1. Origin of Magnetite Crystals in Martian Meteorite ALH84001 Carbonate Disks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas-Keprta, K.L.; Clemett, S.J.; McKay, D.S.; Gibson, E. K.; Wentworth, S. J.

    2010-01-01

    Martian meteorite ALH84001 preserves evidence of interaction with aqueous fluids while on Mars in the form of microscopic carbonate disks which are believed to have precipitated approx.3.9 Ga ago at beginning of the Noachian epoch. Intimately associated within and throughout these carbonate disks are nanocrystal magnetites (Fe3O4) with unusual chemical and physical properties, whose origins have become the source of considerable debate. One group of hypotheses argues that these Fe3O4 are the product of partial thermal decomposition of the host carbonate. Alternatively, the origins of Fe3O4 and carbonate may be unrelated; that is, from the perspective of the carbonate the magnetite is allochthonous. We have sought to resolve between these hypotheses through the detailed characterized of the compositional and structural relationships of the carbonate disks and associated magnetites with the orthopyroxene matrix in which they are embedded [1]. We focus this discussion on the composition of ALH84001 magnetites and then compare these observations with those from our thermal decomposition studies of sideritic carbonates under a range of plausible geological heating scenarios.

  2. Field Ion Microscopy and Atom Probe Tomography of Metamorphic Magnetite Crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuhlman, K.; Martens, R. L.; Kelly, T. F.; Evans, N. D.; Miller, M. K.

    2001-01-01

    Magnetite has been analysed using Field Ion Microscopy (FIM) and Atom Probe Tomography (APT), highly attractive techniques for the nanoanalysis of geological materials despite the difficulties inherent in analyzing semiconducting and insulating materials. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  3. Cooling crystallization of aluminum sulfate in pure water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xiaoxue; Sun, Yuzhu; Yu, Jianguo

    2015-06-01

    This study investigated the cooling crystallization of aluminum sulfate to explore the basic data for the recovery of aluminum resources from coal spoil. First, the metastable zone width (MSZW) of aluminum sulfate was reported. A parallel synthesis platform (CrystalSCAN) was used to determine the solubility from 10 °C to 70 °C, and an automatic lab reactor (LabMax) equipped with focused beam reflectance measurement (FBRM) was adopted to determine the supersolubility. The effects of operating variables on MSZW were experimentally explored. Results show that the MSZW of aluminum sulfate decreases with increasing stirring speed, while it increases with increasing cooling rate. Second, the continuous crystallization kinetics of aluminum sulfate was investigated in a laboratory-scale mixed-suspension mixed-product removal (MSMPR) crystallizer at a steady state. Growth kinetics presented size-dependent growth rate, which was well fitted with the MJ3 model. Both the growth rate (G) and the total nucleation rate (BTOT) were correlated in the power law kinetic expressions with good correlation coefficients. Third, aluminum sulfate products were modified by sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate (SDBS). Crystals with large sizes and regular hexagonal plate morphologies were obtained. These crystals reveal that SDBS can inhibit crystal nucleation and promote crystal growth.

  4. Characterization and phylogenetic identification of a species of spherical multicellular magnetotactic prokaryotes that produces both magnetite and greigite crystals.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Rui; Chen, Yi-Ran; Du, Hai-Jian; Zhang, Wen-Yan; Pan, Hong-Miao; Xiao, Tian; Wu, Long-Fei

    2014-09-01

    Magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) are a group of Gram-negative bacteria synthesizing magnetic crystals that allow them aligning along magnetic field lines. They have diverse morphologies including cocci, rods, vibrio, spirilla, and multicellular magnetotactic prokaryotes (MMPs). MMPs are composed of 10-57cells with peritrichous flagella on their outer surfaces and swim as an entire unit. Here, we describe a species of spherical MMPs isolated from intertidal sediments of Lake Yuehu (Yellow Sea, China). They were mainly found in the subsurface layer of gray-black sediments. Microscopy revealed that these spherical MMPs were 5.60.9?m in diameter and composed of approximately 16-32 ovoid cells with a helical arrangement and peritrichous flagellation. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy showed that the MMPs contained both bullet-shaped magnetite and irregular greigite magnetosomes that were arranged in chains or clusters. These MMPs displayed typical escape motility and negative phototaxis. The 16S rRNA genes of micromanipulation-purified spherical MMPs were cloned and sequenced. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the MMP species was affiliated with Deltaproteobacteria and displayed >2.8% sequence divergence with respect to previously reported MMPs. This is the first phylogenetic identification of a spherical MMP that produces both magnetite and greigite magnetosomes. PMID:25086260

  5. Optical, thermal and electrical properties of pure and doped bis-thiourea cadmium formate (BTCF) crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shejwal, N. N.; Anis, Mohd; Hussaini, S. S.; Shirsat, M. D.

    2014-12-01

    A glycine doped bis-thiourea cadmium formate (BTCF) crystal has been grown by a slow solution evaporation technique. The shifts in vibrational frequencies of different functional groups of BTCF were identified by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectral analysis. UV-visible studies were employed to assess the optical transparency of pure and doped BTCF crystals. The optical band gap of doped BTCF is found to be 5.16 eV. The optical constants, refractive index, reflectance, and optical conductivity have been evaluated, using the transmission data. The dielectric characteristics of pure and doped BTCF were investigated by employing dielectric studies. The decomposition temperature of pure and doped BTCF crystals was determined by using thermogravimetric analysis. The encouraging third-order nonlinear optical properties of pure and doped BTCF crystals were examined by employing the Z-scan technique at 632.8 nm.

  6. Isolation of isoelectrically pure cholera toxin for crystallization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spangler, Brenda D.; Westbrook, Edwin M.

    1991-03-01

    We have determined that the failure of cholera toxin to crystallize well results from its isoelectric heterogeneity, which is probably due to a post-translational process such as deamidation of its B subunit. Every sample of cholera toxin we have examined from commercial or academic suppliers has been heterogeneous; heterogeneous cholera toxin does not crystallize satisfactorily. We have overcome this problem by using ion-exchange fast protein liquid chromatography (FPLC) to obtain an isoelectrically homogeneous species of cholera toxin. Homogeneous cholera toxin crystallizes readily, forming single, nonmosaic crystals suitable for X-ray diffraction studies. For this process, protein was applied to a MonoQ ion-exchange column, then eluted with an isocratic low salt buffer followed by a linear salt gradient (0-100 mM NaCl). Column fractions were analyzed on isoelectric focusing gels, and those fractions containing the desired homogeneous species were pooled and concentrated. Crystals formed within 24 to 48 h in a MOPS/PEG buffer, which made use of slow isoelectric precipitation to induce crystallization.

  7. Isolation of isoelectrically pure cholera toxin for crystallization

    SciTech Connect

    Spangler, B.D.; Westbrook, E.M.

    1989-01-01

    We have determined that the failure of cholera toxin to crystallize well results from its isoelectric heterogeneity, which is probably due to a post-translational process such as deamidation of its B subunit. Every sample of cholera toxin we have examined from commercial or academic suppliers has been heterogeneous; heterogeneous cholera toxin does not crystallize satisfactorily. We have overcome this problem by using ion-exchange fast protein liquid chromatography (FPLC) to obtain an isoelectrically homogeneous species of cholera toxin. Homogeneous cholera toxin crystallizes readily, forming single, nonmosaic crystals suitable for x-ray diffraction studies. For this process, protein was applied to a MonoQ ion-exchange column, then eluted with an isocratic low salt buffer followed by a linear salt gradient (0-100 mM NaCl). Column fractions were analyzed on isoelectric focusing gels, and those fractions containing the desired homogeneous species were pooled and concentrated. Crystals formed within 24 to 48 hours in a MOPS/PEG buffer, which made use of slow isoelectric precipitation to induce crystallization. 23 refs., 6 figs.

  8. Photorefractive nonlinearity in pure and doped liquid crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Kan

    Detailed theoretical analysis and experimental investigation of the photorefractive (PR) effect in liquid crystals (LC) are presented. The photorefractive nonlinearity arises from the formation of spatially modulated space charge field. Two main mechanisms contribute space charge field in liquid crystals. One comes from the formation and the subsequent dissociation of charge transfer complexes between the liquid crystal and the dopant, which produces mobile charge carriers. The generation and redistribution of charge carriers, induced by external dc voltage and inhomogeneous illumination, form the space charge field. Second source comes from the so-called Carr-Helfrich effect, which states that transverse space charge field can be induced by liquid crystal dielectric and conductivity anisotropy under external applied field. Assisted by the space charge field, large optical nonlinearity can be obtained in liquid crystals. Liquid crystal molecular reorientation occurs under the combined action of internal space charge field and external dc field. The subsequent birefringent grating accounts for photorefractive diffraction and beam coupling. Its orientational feature is investigated and evidenced by facts, such as, polarization anisotropy observed in probe diffraction, external threshold behavior, asymmetric two beam coupling, and geometrical dependence of diffraction efficiency. In parallel with the effort to understand basic mechanisms governing photorefractive effect in liquid crystals, we've also attempted to enhance PR performance, mainly by chemical doping. The doping effect, both organic (C60, single walled nanotubes (SWNT)), and inorganic doping (e.g., CdSe nanorodes), is studied. Substantial improvement of photorefractive response can be observed in our doping samples, in terms of larger diffraction efficiency and higher beam coupling gain. Although the underline mechanism is still intricate in molecular level, we believe the enhanced photo-charge generation and transport, and/or the enlarged conductivity anisotropy, may be the possible explanations for the better PR performance in doped LC system. While there is compelling evidence that liquid crystal reorientation under space charge field is responsible for photorefractive grating formation, much less understood, however, are the mechanisms involved in the formation of space charge fields that drive the orientation. The photorefractive effect in undoped LC samples is revisited, with our focus on the study of space charge field origin. Theoretical models were derived to identify the photorefractive threshold voltage. The PR threshold voltage can be substantially lowered with the increase of incident light intensity, which is mainly due to inhomogeneous interface ions distribution induced surface torque. The thickness dependence of threshold voltage lowing effect was also measured, which allows us to estimate the modulation depth of surface charge. Our result shows both bulk and surface optically induced charges and field modulation are responsible for the build up of space charge field. Based on our work, several potential further researches are proposed, which are all related to photorefractive effect, yet fall into three categories. First is to further study doping effect: increase SWNT doping concentration using functionalized nanotubes and try other novel doping materials such as nanometals. Second is to continue the investigation of surface effect in doped LC samples. We anticipate more interesting surface effect exists in doping system. The last one is to study PR effect in new LC composites, such as PSLC (polymer stablilized liquid crystal) and PDLC (polymer dispersed liquid crystal).

  9. Thermodynamic Analysis Of Pure And Impurity Doped Pentaerythritol Tetranitrate Crystals Grown At Room Temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Pitchimani, R; Zheng, W; Simon, S; Hope-Weeks, L; Burnham, A K; Weeks, B L

    2006-05-25

    Pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN) powders are used to initiate other explosives. During long-term storage, changes in powder properties can cause changes in the initiation performance. Changes in the morphology and surface area of aging powders are observed due to sublimation and growth of PETN crystals through coarsening mechanisms, (e.g. Ostwald ripening, sintering, etc.). In order to alleviate the sublimation of PETN crystals under service conditions, stabilization methods such as thermal cycling and doping with certain impurities during or after the crystallization of PETN have been proposed. In this report we present our work on the effect of impurities on the morphology and activation energy of the PETN crystals. The pure and impurity doped crystals of PETN were grown from supersaturated acetone solution by solvent evaporation technique at room temperature. The difference in the morphology of the impurity-doped PETN crystal compared to pure crystal was examined by optical microscopy. The changes in the activation energies and the evaporation rates are determined by thermogravimetric (TGA) analyses. Our activation energies of evaporation agree with earlier reported enthalpies of vaporization. The morphology and activation energy of PETN crystals doped with Ca, Na, and Fe cations are similar to that for pure PETN crystal, whereas the Zn-ion-doped PETN crystals have different morphology and decreased activation energy.

  10. Tuning the properties of colloidal magneto-photonic crystals by controlled infiltration with superparamagnetic magnetite nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demeyer, P. J.; Bloemen, M.; Verbiest, T.; Clays, K.

    2012-06-01

    The performance of magnetic-field sensors and optical isolators is largely determined by the efficiency of the active materials. This efficiency could be dramatically increased by integrating Faraday materials in photonic crystals. For this purpose, monodisperse nanospheres were self-assembled into a colloidal photonic crystal and magnetic functionality was introduced by dipping the photonic crystal in a suspension containing superparamagnetic nanoparticles. Reflection and absorbance measurements of these magneto-photonic crystals revealed clear relationships between the time spent in suspension and the position and strength of the photonic band gap. When additional magnetic material was introduced, the band gap was red shifted and the strength of the band gap was decreased. Using Bragg's law and the Maxwell-Garnet approximation for effective media, the filling fraction of the magneto-photonic crystals was calculated from the observed red shift. While superparamagnetic nanoparticles did confer magneto-optical properties to the photonic crystal, they also increased the absorption, which can be detrimental as the Faraday effect is measured in transmission. Therefore a trade-off exists in the optical regime between the amount of Faraday rotation and the absorption. By carefully controlling the filling fraction, this trade-off was investigated and optimized for photonic crystals with different band gaps. Both polystyrene and silica photonic crystals were filled with superparamagnetic nanoparticles. In case of the polystyrene photonic crystals, it was found that the maximum achievable filling fraction was influenced by the size of the polystyrene nanospheres. Smaller polystyrene nanospheres gave rise to smaller pore diameters and a faster onset of pore blocking when filled with superparamagnetic nanoparticles. As a result, the maximum achievable filling fraction was also lower. Pore blocking was found to be negligible in silica photonic crystals. Together with a higher mechanical strength, this makes silica photonic crystals more suited for the fabrication of colloidal magneto-photonic crystals. In this paper, a nanoscale engineering approach is described to carefully control the filling fraction of magneto-photonic crystals. This allows fine-tuning the absorption and the position and strength of the photonic band gap. By tailoring the properties of magneto-photonic crystals, the means for application-specific designs and a better description of Faraday effects in 3D magneto-photonic crystals are provided.

  11. Composite Magnetite and Protein Containing CaCO3 Crystals. External Manipulation and Vaterite ? Calcite Recrystallization-Mediated Release Performance.

    PubMed

    Sergeeva, Alena; Sergeev, Roman; Lengert, Ekaterina; Zakharevich, Andrey; Parakhonskiy, Bogdan; Gorin, Dmitry; Sergeev, Sergey; Volodkin, Dmitry

    2015-09-30

    Biocompatibility and high loading capacity of mesoporous CaCO3 vaterite crystals give an option to utilize the polycrystals for a wide range of (bio)applications. Formation and transformations of calcium carbonate polymorphs have been studied for decades, aimed at both basic and applied research interests. Here, composite multilayer-coated calcium carbonate polycrystals containing Fe3O4 magnetite nanoparticles and model protein lysozyme are fabricated. The structure of the composite polycrystals and vaterite ? calcite recrystallization kinetics are studied. The recrystallization results in release of both loaded protein and Fe3O4 nanoparticles (magnetic manipulation is thus lost). Fe3O4 nanoparticles enhance the recrystallization that can be induced by reduction of the local pH with citric acid and reduction of the polycrystal crystallinity. Oppositely, the layer-by-layer assembled poly(allylamine hydrochloride)/poly(sodium styrenesulfonate) polyelectrolyte coating significantly inhibits the vaterite ? calcite recrystallization (from hours to days) most likely due to suppression of the ion exchange giving an option to easily tune the release kinetics for a wide time scale, for example, for prolonged release. Moreover, the recrystallization of the coated crystals results in formulation of multilayer capsules keeping the feature of external manipulation. This study can help to design multifunctional microstructures with tailor-made characteristics for loading and controlled release as well as for external manipulation. PMID:26348458

  12. Pure Fayalite in the Kaba Carbonaceous Chondrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hua, X.; Buseck, P. R.

    1992-07-01

    We found pure fayalite in both matrix and chondrules in the Kaba carbonaceous chondrite. This fayalite is closer to the end-member composition than any previously reported from meteorites. In the matrix it occurs in well-developed euhedral crystals up to 85 micrometers across that appear diamond shaped in thin sections. They occur as (a) isolated crystals surrounded by matrix, (b) groups of crystals having a core of troilite, and (c) crystals adjacent to clusters of troilite and magnetite. The fayalite in chondrules and chondrule-like objects is more abundant than in the matrix, and it occurs in several modes. It is present (a) in a large area (100 micrometers across) wrapping around one side of an enstatite chondrule and also within a thin (10 micrometers) rim; both chondrule and rim contain high concentrations of fayalite, magnetite, troilite and pentlandite; (b) in the outer part of a barred forsterite chondrule; this assemblage consists of Ni-Fe-sulfides, magnetite and minor fayalite; (c) in a chondrule-like object partially embedded within a Mg-rich chondrule devoid of fayalite; (d) in a rim (65 micrometers wide) associated with magnetite and troilite that surrounds a 200- micrometer core consisting of magnetite and dispersed troilite. The fayalite grains are almost pure, containing 99.5 mol% Fa where they are associated with troilite and magnetite. The isolated fayalite crystals in the matrix are zoned; their FeO contents decrease gradually from 70.6 wt% in the core to 67.2 wt% at the rim. MgO increases from 0.15 wt% in the core to 1.86 wt% at the rim and show a positive correlation with MnO, which ranges from 0.65 to 0.85 wt%. The associated sulfides are troilite and two Ni-bearing sulfides that contain 14.1 wt%, and 25.5 wt% of Ni, respectively. The coexistence of almost pure fayalite and pure Mg-rich silicates; the mineral assemblage of pure fayalite, magnetite, troilite and pentlandite in both matrix and in chondrules; and the chemical zoning in the isolated fayalite crystals in the matrix, particularly the positive correlation between MgO and MnO in these crystals, all indicate a complicated and intriguing formation history, making Kaba an extremely interesting meteorite to study.

  13. Morphological Evidence for an Exclusively Inorganic Origin for Magnetite in Martian Meteorite ALH84001

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golden, D. C.; Ming, D. W.; Morris, R. V.; Brearley, A. J.; Lauer, H. V., Jr.; Treiman, A.; Zolensky, M. E.; Schwandt, C. S.; Lofgren, G. E.; McKay, G. A.

    2003-01-01

    The origin of magnetite crystals in Martian Meteorite ALH84001 is the focus of a debate about the possibility of past (and present) life on Mars. McKay et al. originally suggested that some of the magnetite crystals associated with carbonate globules in Martian Meteorite ALH84001 are biogenic in ori-gin, because they are single magnetic domain, free of crystalline defects, chemically pure, and coexist with other metastable phases in apparent disequilibrium. Thomas-Keprta et al. reported that a subpopulation of magnetite crystals (approx. 25%) associated with carbonate globules in ALH84001 and magnetite crystals produced by magnetotactic bacterial strain MV-1 have similar morphologies with crystal elongation along the [111] crystallographic axis that they describe as "truncated hexa-octahedral" ([111-THO]) magnetite. Along with several other properties, the [111]-THO morphology has been proposed to constitute a biomarker (i.e., formed only in biogenic processes), so that the presence of [111]-THO magnetite in ALH84001 may be evidence for past life on Mars.

  14. Atomistic simulation studies of magnetite surface structures and adsorption behavior in the presence of molecular and dissociated water and formic acid.

    PubMed

    Kundu, T K; Rao, K Hanumantha; Parker, S C

    2006-03-15

    Static energy minimization techniques have been used to elucidate the surface structures of magnetite crystals in pure and hydroxylated forms. Adsorption energy values in the presence of molecular water, dissociate water and simple carboxylic group molecule (formic acid) are calculated and we found that the carboxylic group do not adsorb strongly in most of the pure and hydroxylated surfaces in comparison to water. Since the associated calcium minerals are floated from magnetite using fatty acid collector, our calculations corroborate the flotation practice of removing these impurity minerals from magnetite. PMID:16198360

  15. Signatures in magnetites formed by (Ca,Mg,Fe)CO3 thermal decomposition: Terrestrial and extraterrestrial implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jimenez-Lopez, Concepcion; Rodriguez-Navarro, Carlos; Rodriguez-Navarro, Alejandro; Perez-Gonzalez, Teresa; Bazylinski, Dennis A.; Lauer, Howard V.; Romanek, Christopher S.

    2012-06-01

    It has never been demonstrated whether magnetite synthesized through the heat-dependent decomposition of carbonate precursors retains the chemical and structural features of the carbonates. In this study, synthetic (Ca,Mg,Fe)CO3 was thermally decomposed by heating from 25 to 700 C under 1 atm CO2, and by in situ exposure under vacuum to the electron beam of a transmission electron microscope. In both cases, the decomposition of the carbonate was topotactic and resulted in porous pseudomorphs composed of oriented aggregates of magnetite nanocrystals. Both calcium and magnesium were incorporated into nanophase magnetite, forming (Ca,Mg)-magnetites and (Ca,Mg)-ferrites when these elements were present in the parent material, thus preserving the chemical signature of the precursor. These results show that magnetites synthesized in this way acquire a chemical and structural inheritance from their carbonate precursor that indicates how they were produced. These results are not only important in the determination of the origin of chemically-impure, oriented nanophase magnetite crystals in general, but they also provide important insights into the origin of the large, euhedral, chemically-pure, [111]-elongated magnetites found within Ca-, Mg- and Fe-rich carbonates of the Martian meteorite ALH84001. Based on our experimental results, the chemically-pure magnetites within ALH84001 cannot be genetically related to the Ca-, Mg- and Fe-rich carbonate matrix within which they are embedded, and an alternative explanation for their occurrence is warranted.

  16. Growth and characterization studies of pure and tartaric acid doped benzilic acid crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilda, M. J. Jarald Brigit; Devarajan, Prem Anand

    2016-04-01

    The organic nonlinear optical crystals of pure benzilic acid (PBA) and tartaric acid doped benzilic acid (TADBA) single crystals were grown by using slow evaporation method utilizing dimethyl formamide (DMF) as a solvent. Transparent single crystals of PBA and TADBA of dimensions 9×4×1 mm3 and 7×5×2 mm3 were grown after thirty days. Lattice parameters and space groups of PBA and TADBA were evaluated using single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. Employing Fourier transform infrared spectral analysis, various functional groups in pure and doped crystals were ascertained. 1H and C13 nuclear magnetic resonance spectral analysis suggests the presence of hydrogen- and carbon-bonded network. Optical transparency of PBA and TADBA was investigated using ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectral analysis whereas thermal properties of the grown crystals were studied by thermogravimetric and differential scanning calorimetry analyses. Second harmonic generation efficiency of PBA and TADBA was found to be 2.2 and 2.7 times higher than that of potassium dihydrogen phosphate.

  17. Magnetite as a prokaryotic biomarker: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jimenez-Lopez, Concepcion; Romanek, Christopher S.; Bazylinski, Dennis A.

    2010-06-01

    Over the years, nanometer-sized magnetite (Fe3O4) crystals have been recovered from many modern and ancient environments including sediments and soils and even meteorites. In some cases these crystals have been used as "magnetofossils" for evidence of the past presence of specific microbes. Magnetite nanocrystals can be formed by a number of different biological and inorganic mechanisms resulting in crystals with different physical and magnetic characteristics. Prokaryotes (bacteria) biomineralize magnetite through two methods that differ mechanistically, including: biologically induced mineralization (BIM) and biologically controlled mineralization (BCM). Magnetite nanocrystals produced by BIM are known to be synthesized by the dissimilatory iron-reducing bacteria, are deposited external to the cell, and generally are physically indistinguishable from magnetite particles formed inorganically. BCM magnetites, in contrast, are synthesized by the magnetotactic bacteria and some higher organisms and are precipitated intracellularly as membrane-bounded structures called magnetosomes. These magnetites appear to have unique crystal morphologies and a narrow size range leading to their original use as magnetofossils. Because of the discovery of nanometer-sized crystals of magnetite in the Martian meteorite ALH84001, the use of these criteria for the determination of whether magnetite crystals could constitute a prokaryotic biomarker was questioned. Thus, there is currently great debate over what criteria to use in the determination of whether specific magnetite crystals are biogenic or not. In the last decade, additional criteria have been established (e.g., the Magnetite Assay for Biogenicity), and new tools and technologies have been developed to determine the origin of specific types of magnetite crystals.

  18. Growth and characterization of pure and doped KHP NLO single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thilagavathy, S. R.; Rajesh, P.; Ramasamy, P.; Ambujam, K.

    2014-06-01

    Single crystals of Potassium Hydrogen Phthalate doped with amino acid L-lysine were grown successfully by slow evaporation method. The concentration of dopant in the mother solution was 0.5 mol%, 1 mol% and 2 mol%. There is a drastic change in the morphology due to variation in doping rates which is also reflected in the X-ray diffraction data. The Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy study confirms the incorporation of L-lysine into Potassium Hydrogen Phthalate crystal. The thermal study indicates the dissociating nature of the crystal. The nonlinear optical property of the grown crystal has been confirmed by Kurtz-powder second harmonic generation test. The dopant of 0.5 mol% and 1 mol% shows higher second harmonic generation result than pure Potassium Hydrogen Phthalate. Results are discussed.

  19. Growth and characterization of pure and doped KHP NLO single crystals.

    PubMed

    Thilagavathy, S R; Rajesh, P; Ramasamy, P; Ambujam, K

    2014-06-01

    Single crystals of Potassium Hydrogen Phthalate doped with amino acid l-lysine were grown successfully by slow evaporation method. The concentration of dopant in the mother solution was 0.5mol%, 1mol% and 2mol%. There is a drastic change in the morphology due to variation in doping rates which is also reflected in the X-ray diffraction data. The Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy study confirms the incorporation of l-lysine into Potassium Hydrogen Phthalate crystal. The thermal study indicates the dissociating nature of the crystal. The nonlinear optical property of the grown crystal has been confirmed by Kurtz-powder second harmonic generation test. The dopant of 0.5mol% and 1mol% shows higher second harmonic generation result than pure Potassium Hydrogen Phthalate. Results are discussed. PMID:24632232

  20. Structure and morphology of magnetite anaerobically-produced by a marine magnetotactic bacterium and a dissimilatory iron-reducing bacterium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sparks, N.H.C.; Mann, S.; Bazylinski, D.A.; Lovley, D.R.; Jannasch, H.W.; Frankel, R.B.

    1990-01-01

    Intracellular crystals of magnetite synthesized by cells of the magnetotactic vibroid organism, MV-1, and extracellular crystals of magnetite produced by the non-magnetotactic dissimilatory iron-reducing bacterium strain GS-15, were examined using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, electron diffraction and 57Fe Mo??ssbauer spectroscopy. The magnetotactic bacterium contained a single chain of approximately 10 crystals aligned along the long axis of the cell. The crystals were essentially pure stoichiometric magnetite. When viewed along the crystal long axis the particles had a hexagonal cross-section whereas side-on they appeared as rectangules or truncated rectangles of average dimension, 53 ?? 35 nm. These findings are explained in terms of a three-dimensional morphology comprising a hexagonal prism of {110} faces which are capped and truncated by {111} end faces. Electron diffraction and lattice imaging studies indicated that the particles were structurally well-defined single crystals. In contrast, magnetite particles produced by the strain, GS-15 were irregular in shape and had smaller mean dimensions (14 nm). Single crystals were imaged but these were not of high structural perfection. These results highlight the influence of intracellular control on the crystallochemical specificity of bacterial magnetites. The characterization of these crystals is important in aiding the identification of biogenic magnetic materials in paleomagnetism and in studies of sediment magnetization. ?? 1990.

  1. Electrosynthesis of pure poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) in chitosan-based liquid crystal phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Xue; Wang, Zhen; Wang, Luyan; Pei, Meishan; Guo, Wenjuan; Tang, Xinde

    2013-09-01

    Ordered poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) was successfully prepared by electrochemical polymerization of 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene in lyotropic liquid crystal phase formed by chitosan in an acetic acid solution. The structure, performance, and morphology of PEDOT were characterized by infrared absorption spectra, cyclic voltammograms, polarizing optical microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. The ordered pure PEDOT film with good electrochemical behavior exhibited obvious birefringence.

  2. Submicron magnetite grains and carbon compounds in Martian meteorite ALH84001: inorganic, abiotic formation by shock and thermal metamorphism.

    PubMed

    Treiman, Allan H

    2003-01-01

    Purported biogenic features of the ALH84001 Martian meteorite (the carbonate globules, their submicron magnetite grains, and organic matter) have reasonable inorganic origins, and a comprehensive hypothesis is offered here. The carbonate globules were deposited from hydrothermal water, without biological mediation. Thereafter, ALH84001 was affected by an impact shock event, which raised its temperature nearly instantaneously to 500-700K, and induced iron-rich carbonate in the globules to decompose to magnetite and other minerals. The rapidity of the temperature increase caused magnetite grains to nucleate in abundance; hence individual crystals were very small. Nucleation and growth of magnetite crystals were fastest along edges and faces of the precursor carbonate grains, forcing the magnetite grains to be platy or elongated, including the "truncated hexa-octahedra" shape. ALH84001 had formed at some depth within Mars where the lithostatic pressure was significantly above that of Mars' surface. Also, because the rock was at depth, the impact heat dissipated slowly. During this interval, magnetite crystals approached chemical equilibria with surrounding minerals and gas. Their composition, nearly pure Fe(3)O(4), reflects those of equilibria; elements that substitute into magnetite are either absent from iron-rich carbonate (e.g., Ti, Al, Cr), or partitioned into other minerals during magnetite formation (Mg, Mn). Many microstructural imperfections in the magnetite grains would have annealed out as the rock cooled. In this post-shock thermal regime, carbon-bearing gas from the decomposition of iron carbonates reacted with water in the rock (or from its surroundings) to produce organic matter via Fischer-Tropschlike reactions. Formation of such organic compounds like polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons would have been catalyzed by the magnetite (formation of graphite, the thermochemically stable phase, would be kinetically hindered). PMID:14577885

  3. Electromagnetic waves in uniaxial crystals with metallized boundaries: Mode conversion, pure reflections, and bulk polaritons

    SciTech Connect

    Alshits, V. I. Lyubimov, V. N.; Radowicz, A.

    2007-02-15

    A theory is constructed for the reflection of plane electromagnetic waves in uniaxial crystals with a positive definite permittivity tensor and an arbitrarily oriented metallized boundary. The problem is solved both for general-position orientations corresponding to three-partial reflection and for special conditions allowing two-partial reflections: mode conversions when the incident and reflected waves belong to different sheets of the refraction surface and 'pure' reflections when both waves belong to the same sheet. The space of pure reflections is shown to be formed by two types of optical-axis orientations: arbitrary directions in the plane of the crystal surface and in the plane of incidence. The configurations of the conversion surface for optically positive and negative crystals are investigated. A subspace of pure reflections that transform into one-partial bulk polaritons with the energy flux parallel to the surface at grazing incidence has been found. The domain of existence of such bulk eigenmodes is bounded by two 'lines' of solutions. These are any directions along the boundary containing the optical axis for ordinary polaritons and the direction along the projection of the optical axis onto the surface at an arbitrary orientation of the axis with respect to the boundary for extraordinary polaritons.

  4. Growth and characterization of pure and 1, 10 phenanthraline doped potassium penta borate (KB5) single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prabha, K.; Babu, M. Ramesh; Sagayaraj, P.

    2013-05-01

    We concentrate on the low temperature slow solvent evaporation method and characterization of pure and 1, 10 phenanthraline doped KB5 and describe its potential as a non-linear optical material. The grown crystal has been subjected to single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis to identify the unit cell parameters and crystal system. The presence of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen content were confirmed by CHN analysis. The Kurtz's-Perry powder SHG efficiency was determined for both pure and 1,10 phenanthraline doped KB5 crystals as 1.6 and 2.2 times than that of pure KDP. Surface morphology of the pure and doped KB5 crystals has been found to be Scanning Electron Microscopic technique (SEM).

  5. Rheology of Pure Glasses and Crystal Bearing Melts: from the Newtonian Field to the Brittle Onset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cordonnier, B.; Caricchi, L.; Pistone, M.; Castro, J. M.; Hess, K.; Dingwell, D. B.

    2010-12-01

    The brittle-ductile transition remains a central question of modern geology. If rocks can be perceived as a granular flow on geological time-scale, their behavior is brittle in dynamic areas. Understanding rock failure conditions is the main parameter in mitigating geological risks, more specifically the eruptive style transitions from effusive to explosive. If numerical simulations are the only way to fully understanding the physical processes involved, we are in a strong need of an experimental validation of the proposed models. here we present results obtained under torsion and uni-axial compression on both pure glasses and crystal bearing melts. We characterized the brittle onset of two phases magmas from 0 to 65% crystals. The strain-rates span a 5 orders magnitude range, from the Newtonian flow to the Brittle field (10-5 - 100 s-1). We particularly emphasize the time dependency of the measured rheology. The materials tested are a borosilicate glass from the National Bureau of Standards, a natural sample from Mt Unzen volcano and a synthetic sample. The lattest is an HPG8 melt with 7% sodium mole excess. The particles are quasi-isometric corundum crystalschosen for their shape and integrity under the stress range investigated. The crystal fraction ranges from 0 to 0.65. Concerning pure magmas, we recently demonstrated that the material passes from a Newtonian to a non-Nemtonian behavior with increasing strain-rate. This onset can mostly be explained by viscous-heating effects. However, for even greater strain-rates, the material cracks and finally fail. The brittle onset is here explained with the visco-elastic theory and corresponds to a Deborah number greater than 10-2. Concerning crystal bearing melts the departure from the Newtonian state is characterized by two effects: a shear-thinning and a time weakening effect. The first one is instantaneous and loading-unloading cyclic tests suggest an elastic contribution of the crystal network. The second one reflects a structural modification of the material (e.g. crystal reorganization, crystal failure, micro-cracking). In the special case presented here, the time weakening effect is the translation of plagioclase breaking during the magma flow. About the ultimate failure of the sample, crystal bearing melts appear to follow the general visco -elastic theory. However a crystal contribution has been here detected and corelate with smaller Deborah numbers before failure. Our observation offer a new vision on volcanic transition and an implication on the 90-95 eruptive crisis of Mt Unzen volcano is presented here.

  6. Studies on gel-grown pure and strontium-modified lanthanum tartrate crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Firdous, A.; Quasim, I.; Ahmad, M. M.; Kotru, P. N.

    2009-07-01

    Crystals of pure and strontium-modified lanthanum tartrate bearing composition (La) 1-x(Sr) xC 4H 4O 6 nH 2O (where x=0, 0.04, 0.10, 0.15; n=5,5,6,8) were obtained using gel method. The materials were studied using CH analysis, X-ray powder diffraction, FTIR, EDAX and thermoanalytical techniques. X-ray powder diffraction results analyzed by using suitable software suggest that while unmodified lanthanum tartrate has a monoclinic structure with the space group P 21, the entry of strontium into its lattice changes the system to orthorhombic with the space group P 2121. The unit cell volume is observed to decrease with increase in the concentration of strontium in lanthanum tartrate. Thermal analysis suggests that pure lanthanum tartrate starts decomposing at 41.31 C whereas the strontium-modified lanthanum tartrate brings about better thermal stability which increases with an increase in strontium concentration. The percentage weight loss calculations from the thermogram supplemented by EDAX, CH analysis and FTIR spectroscopy suggest that both unmodified and strontium-modified lanthanum tartrate spherulitic crystals contain water of hydration; the amount of water of hydration being different for crystals with different content of strontium.

  7. Charge transport due to photoelectric interface activation in pure nematic liquid-crystal cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pagliusi, P.; Cipparrone, G.

    2002-11-01

    We report a study of the crucial role of liquid-crystal-polymer interface on photoinduced transport and redistribution of charges in pure nematic liquid-crystal cells that exhibit a photorefractivelike effect. A stationary photocurrent that is 30% of the dark current has been measured for very low power illumination (few mW) and low applied dc electric field (about 0.1 V/mum). The experimental results indicate a clear dependence of the effect on the light wavelength. The absence of photocurrent in cells with only one component, liquid-crystal, or polymer, suggests that both are not intrinsically photoconductive, rules out light-induced charge injection by the electrodes, and indicates the polymer-liquid-crystal interface as the photoactive element in the effect. The photocurrent dynamics indicate the presence of various mechanisms. We suppose that the effect is due to photoinduced carriers injection through the liquid-crystal-polymer interface and recombination process with the counterions present on the opposite side. Different hypotheses are made and discussed.

  8. Endcap calorimeter for SuperBelle based on pure CsI crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzmin, A.; Belle ECL Team

    2010-11-01

    The design of the Belle endcap calorimeter based on pure CsI is presented. The suggested calorimeter consists of pure CsI crystals with readout by vacuum photopentodes followed by the analysis of the shape of the output signal. The results of tests of the counters are presented. Photopentodes provide a gain factor about 150-200 without magnetic field. Tests with magnetic field show that the gain factor drops down about 3.5 times in axial magnetic field of 1.5 T. The preamplifier-shaper has been developed which provides electronics noise of 1000 photoelectrons. The beam test results showed the energy resolution about 2.2% for 100 MeV photons and time resolution better than 2 ns. Radiation hardness tests of the counters have been carried out.

  9. Spontaneous resolution in a new chiral purely organic crystal containing homochiral helical chains: Synthesis, crystal structure, and phosphorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Chen; Zhang, Yiman; Yong, Guoping; Zhao, Yumei

    2015-03-01

    A novel chiral purely organic crystal [(A)(HA+HSO4-)2]?2H2O (1) (A = 2-(imidazo [1,2-a]pyridin-2-yl)-2-oxoacetic acid) has been obtained through diffusion of acetone into sulfuric acid aqueous solution of A. This crystal was characterized by the elemental analysis, IR spectrum and the single crystal X-ray diffraction. Compound 1 crystallizes in the monoclinic system, chiral space group P21, with a = 10.092(2) , b = 15.641(3) , c = 10.551(2) , ? = 101.62(3), and Z = 2. Compound 1 reveals left-handed 21 helical chain assembled by hydrogen bond and hydrophobic (short atomic contact) interactions, in which spontaneous resolution occurs. The left-handed chirality of the original helical chain is transferred uniformly to adjacent chain in a homochiral manner, through interchain hydrogen bond and hydrophobic interactions, resulting in the formation of chiral layer. Compound 1 also exhibits green phosphorescence.

  10. Self-organized single crystal mixed magnetite/cobalt ferrite films grown by infrared pulsed-laser deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de la Figuera, Juan; Quesada, Adrián; Martín-García, Laura; Sanz, Mikel; Oujja, Mohamed; Rebollar, Esther; Castillejo, Marta; Prieto, Pilar; Muñoz-Martín, Ángel; Aballe, Lucía; Marco, José F.

    2015-12-01

    We have grown mixed magnetite/cobalt ferrite epitaxial films on SrTiO3 by infrared pulsed-laser deposition. Diffraction experiments indicate epitaxial growth with a relaxed lattice spacing. The films are flat with two distinct island types: nanometric rectangular mounds in two perpendicular orientations, and larger square islands, attributed to the two main components of the film as determined by Mössbauer spectroscopy. The origin of the segregation is suggested to be the oxygen-deficiency during growth.

  11. Magnetic microbes: Bacterial magnetite biomineralization

    SciTech Connect

    Prozorov, Tanya

    2015-09-14

    Magnetotactic bacteria are a diverse group of prokaryotes with the ability to orient and migrate along the magnetic field lines in search for a preferred oxygen concentration in chemically stratified water columns and sediments. These microorganisms produce magnetosomes, the intracellular nanometer-sized magnetic crystals surrounded by a phospholipid bilayer membrane, typically organized in chains. Magnetosomes have nearly perfect crystal structures with narrow size distribution and species-specific morphologies, leading to well-defined magnetic properties. As a result, the magnetite biomineralization in these organisms is of fundamental interest to diverse disciplines, from biotechnology to astrobiology. As a result, this article highlights recent advances in the understanding of the bacterial magnetite biomineralization.

  12. Magnetic microbes: Bacterial magnetite biomineralization.

    PubMed

    Prozorov, Tanya

    2015-10-01

    Magnetotactic bacteria are a diverse group of prokaryotes with the ability to orient and migrate along the magnetic field lines in search for a preferred oxygen concentration in chemically stratified water columns and sediments. These microorganisms produce magnetosomes, the intracellular nanometer-sized magnetic crystals surrounded by a phospholipid bilayer membrane, typically organized in chains. Magnetosomes have nearly perfect crystal structures with narrow size distribution and species-specific morphologies, leading to well-defined magnetic properties. As a result, the magnetite biomineralization in these organisms is of fundamental interest to diverse disciplines, from biotechnology to astrobiology. This article highlights recent advances in the understanding of the bacterial magnetite biomineralization. PMID:26382301

  13. Pure, single crystal Ge nanodots formed using a sandwich structure via pulsed UV excimer laser annealing.

    PubMed

    Liao, Ting-Wei; Chen, Hung-Ming; Shen, Kuan-Yuan; Kuan, Chieh-Hsiung

    2015-04-24

    In this paper, a sandwich structure comprising a SiO2 capping layer, amorphous Germanium (a-Ge) nanodots (NDs), and a pit-patterned Silicon (Si) substrate is developed, which is then annealed by utilizing a pulsed ultraviolet excimer laser in order to fabricate an array of pure, single crystal Ge NDs at room temperature. A wide bandgap SiO2 capping layer is used as a transparent thermally isolated layer to prevent thermal loss and Si-Ge intermixing. The two-dimensional pit-patterned Si substrate is designed to confine the absorbed laser energy, reduce the melting point, and block the surface migration of the Ge. After optimizing the laser radiation parameters such that the laser energy density is 200 mJ cm(-2), the laser annealing period is 10 s, and the number of laser shots is 10, pure, single crystal Ge NDs that have both a regular arrangement and a uniform size distribution are obtained in the pits of the Si substrates. The Raman spectrum shows a highly symmetric Ge transversal optical peak with a full width at half maximum of 4.2 cm(-1) at 300.7 cm(-1), which is close to that of the original Ge wafer. In addition, the high-resolution transmission electron microscopy image for the Ge NDs and the corresponding selected area electron diffraction pattern shows a clear single crystalline structure without any impurities. PMID:25815515

  14. Crystal growth of pure substances: Phase-field simulations in comparison with analytical and experimental results

    SciTech Connect

    Nestler, B. . E-mail: britta.nestler@fh-karlsruhe.de; Danilov, D. . E-mail: denis.danilov@fh-karlsruhe.de; Galenko, P. . E-mail: peter.galenko@dlr.de

    2005-07-20

    A phase-field model for non-isothermal solidification in multicomponent systems [SIAM J. Appl. Math. 64 (3) (2004) 775-799] consistent with the formalism of classic irreversible thermodynamics is used for numerical simulations of crystal growth in a pure material. The relation of this approach to the phase-field model by Bragard et al. [Interface Science 10 (2-3) (2002) 121-136] is discussed. 2D and 3D simulations of dendritic structures are compared with the analytical predictions of the Brener theory [Journal of Crystal Growth 99 (1990) 165-170] and with recent experimental measurements of solidification in pure nickel [Proceedings of the TMS Annual Meeting, March 14-18, 2004, pp. 277-288; European Physical Journal B, submitted for publication]. 3D morphology transitions are obtained for variations in surface energy and kinetic anisotropies at different undercoolings. In computations, we investigate the convergence behaviour of a standard phase-field model and of its thin interface extension at different undercoolings and at different ratios between the diffuse interface thickness and the atomistic capillary length. The influence of the grid anisotropy is accurately analyzed for a finite difference method and for an adaptive finite element method in comparison.

  15. Antimicrobial activity and second harmonic studies on organic non-centrosymmetric pure and doped ninhydrin single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasanyaa, T.; Jayaramakrishnan, V.; Haris, M.

    2013-03-01

    In this paper, we report the successful growth of pure, Cu2+ ions and Cd2+ ions doped on ninhydrin single crystals by slow solvent evaporation technique. The presence of Cu2+ and Cd2+ ions in the specimen of ninhydrin single crystal has been determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy. The powder X-ray diffraction analysis was done to calculate the lattice parameters of the pure and doped crystals. The percentage of transmittance of the crystal was recorded using the UV-Vis Spectrophotometer. Thermal behaviors of the grown crystals have been examined by the thermal gravimetric/differential thermal analysis. The hardness of the grown crystals was assessed and the results show the minor variation in the hardness value for the pure and doped ninhydrin samples. The value of the work hardening coefficient n was found to be 2.0, 1.0 and 1.06 for pure, copper and cadmium doped ninhydrin crystals respectively. The second harmonic generation efficiency of Cd2+ and Cu2+ doped ninhydrin is 8.3 and 6.3 times greater than well known nonlinear crystal of potassium dihydrogen phosphate respectively. The antibacterial and antifungal activities of the title compound were performed by disk diffusion method against the standard bacteria Escherichia coli, Xanthomonas oryzae and against the fungus Aspergillis niger and Aspergillus flavus.

  16. Magnetism in nanometer-thick magnetite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monti, Matteo; Santos, Benito; Mascaraque, Arantzazu; Rodrguez de La Fuente, Oscar; Nio, Miguel Angel; Mente?, Tevfik Onur; Locatelli, Andrea; McCarty, Kevin F.; Marco, Jos F.; de La Figuera, Juan

    2012-01-01

    The oldest known magnetic material, magnetite, is of current interest for use in spintronics as a thin film. An open question is how thin can magnetite films be and still retain the robust ferrimagnetism required for many applications. We have grown 1-nm-thick magnetite crystals and characterized them in situ by electron and photoelectron microscopies including selected-area x-ray circular dichroism. Well-defined magnetic patterns are observed in individual nanocrystals up to at least 520 K, establishing the retention of ferrimagnetism in magnetite two unit cells thick.

  17. Statistical Analyses Comparing Prismatic Magnetite Crystals in ALH84001 Carbonate Globules with those from the Terrestrial Magnetotactic Bacteria Strain MV-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas-Keprta, Kathie L.; Clemett, Simon J.; Bazylinski, Dennis A.; Kirschvink, Joseph L.; McKay, David S.; Wentworth, Susan J.; Vali, H.; Gibson, Everett K.

    2000-01-01

    Here we use rigorous mathematical modeling to compare ALH84001 prismatic magnetites with those produced by terrestrial magnetotactic bacteria, MV-1. We find that this subset of the Martian magnetites appears to be statistically indistinguishable from those of MV-1.

  18. Inscription of strong Bragg gratings in pure silica photonic crystal fibers using UV femtosecond laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saliminia, Ali; Proulx, Antoine; Valle, Ral

    2014-12-01

    We demonstrate our experimental results on inscription of strong first-order Bragg gratings in hydrogen-free and hydrogen-loaded pure silica photonic crystal fibers (PCFs) using high-intensity 160 femtosecond (fs) UV laser pulses at 266 nm and a two-beam Talbot interferometer. Bragg reflectivities up to 37 dB for the H2-loaded fiber as well as Bragg wavelength tuning over the telecom C-band using a single phase mask were achieved. The in-situ nonlinear filamentation of UV fs laser pulses, scattered by the fibers micro-structured cladding, is demonstrated by direct refractive index profile measurement across the cross section of a written fiber. The results of thermal annealing measurements for a H2-loaded PCF are also presented.

  19. Magnetic susceptibility measurements of pure and mixed gadolinium-terbium fumarate heptahydrate crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Want, B.; Shah, M. D.

    2016-03-01

    Magnetic moment and susceptibility measurements of single crystals of pure and mixed rare earth fumarates of gadolinium and terbium were carried out at room temperature. The experimental values of molar susceptibilities for Gd2 (C4H2O4)3·7H2O, Tb2(C4H2O4)3·7H2O and GdTb (C4H2O4)3·7H2O are 2.68×10-2, 3.89×10-2, and 3.18×10-2 (in emu mol-1 Oe-1), respectively. The calculated effective magnetic moments are in good agreement with the theoretical predictions on rare earth ions.

  20. Energetics of free pure metallic nanoclusters with different motifs by equivalent crystal theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Negreiros, F. R.; Soares, E. A.; de Carvalho, V. E.

    2007-11-01

    The energy of metallic (Ni, Cu, Pd, Ag, Pt, and Au) nanoparticles up to 5000 atoms are studied by equivalent crystal theory (ECT), a quantum approximate method (QAM) that describes the ground state structure and the surface properties of metals and semiconductors at zero temperature. ECT relies on the universal binding energy relation to predict with precision and speed the energy of a crystal in a specific configuration. For each pure metallic nanoparticle of each chosen motif (icosahedron, octahedron, and decahedron), the energy variation with the number of atoms Nat is studied. Crossover and minimum energy values are calculated and/or estimated and compared with the results obtained by molecular dynamics (MD). Our results confirm the qualitative behavior (i.e., icosahedron shapes are less energetic for small sizes, decahedron for medium sizes, and octahedron for bigger sizes) predicted by MD, but the calculated crossover and minimum energy values are, in general, larger for all metals and geometries examined. Also, we studied the trends in relaxation between layers and the behavior of the average radius Rav of each relaxed nanoparticle as Nat was increased. For each motif, the most stable structures (i.e., with the best truncation) follow a simple law of Rav in terms of Nat . This simple law is unchanged for the four different motifs and can be extended for all six metals after a simple parametrization is performed.

  1. Thermo-optical parameters and dispersion of pure and Yb3+-doped KY(WO4)2 laser crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filippov, Valery V.; Bodnar, Ivetta T.

    2007-09-01

    Dispersion of the principal refractive indices of pure and Yb3+ (20 at.%)-doped KY(WO4)2 crystal is obtained in the visible range of the spectrum. A comparatively strong increase of the refractive indices (0.005-0.007) was observed for the doped crystal. Temperature dependence of the principal refractive indices is measured in the temperature region of 290-690 K. Thermo-optical coefficients (TOCs) of the first dn/dt and the second (1/2)(d2n/dT2) order are determined. It is found that TOCs are negative for np and ng and positive for nm in both crystals. Doping increases dnp/dT almost two times more in comparison to that of the pure crystal, while for the other two indices TOC changes are insignificant.

  2. Thermoluminescence in pure LiF crystals: Glow peaks and their connection with color centers

    SciTech Connect

    Baldacchini, G.; Montereali, R. M.; Nichelatti, E.; Kalinov, V. S.; Voitovich, A. P.; Davidson, A. T.; Kozakiewicz, A. G.

    2008-09-15

    Nominally pure LiF crystals were irradiated with the same dose (0.85 10{sup 6} R) of gamma rays at ambient and low temperatures (-60 deg. C) and the resulting thermoluminescence (TL) is reported. Various optical and thermal treatments were applied in order to change the concentration of color centers (CCs). The effect of such treatments on the glow curves is observed. Knowing the coloration from optical transmission and photoluminescence measurements made on the same samples, we attribute many of the glow peaks (GPs) to the annealing of F center aggregates. For the present conditions of irradiation and dose, TL processes begin with decay of F{sub 3}{sup +} centers that display a GP at 164 deg. C. F{sub 3}(R) centers follow and are responsible for GPs at 193 and 228 deg. C. A GP at 263 deg. C is ascribed to F{sub 2} centers. Several peaks at temperatures in the range of 280-380 deg. C are associated with impurity perturbed F centers. A GP at 410 deg. C is associated with a complex of aggregated F and H centers. These attributions are accomplished by means of TL spectra, optical transmission spectra, and annealing procedures, and are critically discussed. The experimental data confirm the general trend of thermal stability of CCs, which decreases by moving from simple F centers to more complex ones, and the existence of exchange dynamics among CCs.

  3. Investigation of thermophysical characteristics of SrMoO4 crystals, nominally pure and doped with rare earth ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popov, P. A.; Skrobov, S. A.; Matovnikov, A. V.; Ivleva, L. I.; Dunaeva, E. E.; Shekhovtsov, A. N.; Kosmyna, M. B.

    2015-11-01

    Thermophysical characteristics of SrMoO4 crystals (grown by the Czochralski method from intrinsic melts), nominally pure and doped with rare earth ions, have been investigated. The temperature and concentration dependences of the thermal conductivity are obtained for SrMoO4 samples containing Nd3+ (0.28, 0.56, 0.84, and 1.33 at %), Pr3+ (0.01 and 0.41 at %), Ho3+ (0.01 and 0.06 at %), and Ho3+ (0.13 at %) + Tm3+ (0.13 at %) in a temperature range of 50-300 K. The thermal conductivities are measured in the directions parallel and/or perpendicular to the crystal optical axis. The thermal conductivity of nominally pure SrMoO4 at 300 K in the direction perpendicular to the c axis has been found to be 4.2 W/(m K). The introduction of impurities of rare earth metals reduces the thermal conductivity of SrMoO4 crystals. The anisotropy of the thermal conductivity is weak. The measured molar specific heat C P ( T) of a nominally pure SrMoO4 crystal is 116.2 J/(mol K) at 300 K. The temperature dependence of the phonon mean free path l( T) in a SrMoO4 crystal is calculated for the temperature range of 80-300 K based on experimental data.

  4. InxGa1-xAs nanowires with uniform composition, pure wurtzite crystal phase and taper-free morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ameruddin, Amira S.; Aruni Fonseka, H.; Caroff, Philippe; Wong-Leung, Jennifer; het Veld, Roy LM Op; Boland, Jessica L.; Johnston, Michael B.; Tan, Hark Hoe; Jagadish, Chennupati

    2015-05-01

    Obtaining compositional homogeneity without compromising morphological or structural quality is one of the biggest challenges in growing ternary alloy compound semiconductor nanowires. Here we report growth of Au-seeded InxGa1-xAs nanowires via metal-organic vapour phase epitaxy with uniform composition, morphology and pure wurtzite (WZ) crystal phase by carefully optimizing growth temperature and V/III ratio. We find that high growth temperatures allow the InxGa1-xAs composition to be more uniform by suppressing the formation of typically observed spontaneous In-rich shells. A low V/III ratio results in the growth of pure WZ phase InxGa1-xAs nanowires with uniform composition and morphology while a high V/III ratio allows pure zinc-blende (ZB) phase to form. Ga incorporation is found to be dependent on the crystal phase favouring higher Ga concentration in ZB phase compared to the WZ phase. Tapering is also found to be more prominent in defective nanowires hence it is critical to maintain the highest crystal structure purity in order to minimize tapering and inhomogeneity. The InP capped pure WZ In0.65Ga0.35As core-shell nanowire heterostructures show 1.54 μm photoluminescence, close to the technologically important optical fibre telecommunication wavelength, which is promising for application in photodetectors and nanoscale lasers.

  5. Magnetite and its production

    SciTech Connect

    Koebbe, E.R.

    1993-12-31

    The supply of high quality magnetite for the cleaning of coal using dense medium cyclones and vessels is of concern to all coal preparation operations. This paper describes the production of high purity magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}) from a domestic underground mining operation in Missouri, Pea Ridge Iron Ore Company. Emphasis will be placed on the mining and processing of the magnetite ore into the various magnetite products required by coal preparation plants.

  6. Magnetic microbes: Bacterial magnetite biomineralization

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Prozorov, Tanya

    2015-09-14

    Magnetotactic bacteria are a diverse group of prokaryotes with the ability to orient and migrate along the magnetic field lines in search for a preferred oxygen concentration in chemically stratified water columns and sediments. These microorganisms produce magnetosomes, the intracellular nanometer-sized magnetic crystals surrounded by a phospholipid bilayer membrane, typically organized in chains. Magnetosomes have nearly perfect crystal structures with narrow size distribution and species-specific morphologies, leading to well-defined magnetic properties. As a result, the magnetite biomineralization in these organisms is of fundamental interest to diverse disciplines, from biotechnology to astrobiology. As a result, this article highlights recent advances inmore » the understanding of the bacterial magnetite biomineralization.« less

  7. Biogenic Magnetite and EMF Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirschvink, Joseph L.

    1996-03-01

    Magnetite biomineralization is a genetically-controlled biochemical process through which organisms make perfect ferrimagnetic crystals, usually of single magnetic domain size. This process is an ancient one, having evolved about 2 billion years ago in the magnetotactic bacteria, and presumably was incorporated in the genome of higher organisms, including humans. During this time, DNA replication, protein synthesis, and many other biochemical processes have functioned in the presence of strong static fields of up to 400 mT adjacent to these magnetosomes without any obvious deleterious effects. Recent behavioral experiments using short but strong magnetic pulses in honeybees and birds demonstrates that ferromagnetic materials are involved in the sensory transduction of geomagnetic field information to the nervous system, and both behavioral and direct electrophysiological experiments indicate sensitivity thresholds to DC magnetic fields down to a few nT. However, far more biogenic magnetite is present in animal tissues than is needed for magnetoreception, and the biological function of this extra material is unknown. The presence of ferromagnetic materials in biological systems could provide physical transduction mechanisms for ELF magnetic fields, as well for microwave radiation in the .5 to 10 GHz band where magnetite has its peak ferromagnetic resonance. Elucidation of the cellular ultrastructure and biological function(s) of magnetite might help resolve the question of whether anthropogenic EMFs can cause deleterious biological effects. This work has been supported by grants from the NIH and EPRI.

  8. Pure & crystallized 2D Boron Nitride sheets synthesized via a novel process coupling both PDCs and SPS methods

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Sheng; Linas, Sébastien; Journet, Catherine; Steyer, Philippe; Garnier, Vincent; Bonnefont, Guillaume; Brioude, Arnaud; Toury, Bérangère

    2016-01-01

    Within the context of emergent researches linked to graphene, it is well known that h-BN nanosheets (BNNSs), also referred as 2D BN, are considered as the best candidate for replacing SiO2 as dielectric support or capping layers for graphene. As a consequence, the development of a novel alternative source for highly crystallized h-BN crystals, suitable for a further exfoliation, is a prime scientific issue. This paper proposes a promising approach to synthesize pure and well-crystallized h-BN flakes, which can be easily exfoliated into BNNSs. This new accessible production process represents a relevant alternative source of supply in response to the increasing need of high quality BNNSs. The synthesis strategy to prepare pure h-BN is based on a unique combination of the Polymer Derived Ceramics (PDCs) route with the Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS) process. Through a multi-scale chemical and structural investigation, it is clearly shown that obtained flakes are large (up to 30 μm), defect-free and well crystallized, which are key-characteristics for a subsequent exfoliation into relevant BNNSs. PMID:26843122

  9. Pure &crystallized 2D Boron Nitride sheets synthesized via a novel process coupling both PDCs and SPS methods.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Sheng; Linas, Sébastien; Journet, Catherine; Steyer, Philippe; Garnier, Vincent; Bonnefont, Guillaume; Brioude, Arnaud; Toury, Bérangère

    2016-01-01

    Within the context of emergent researches linked to graphene, it is well known that h-BN nanosheets (BNNSs), also referred as 2D BN, are considered as the best candidate for replacing SiO2 as dielectric support or capping layers for graphene. As a consequence, the development of a novel alternative source for highly crystallized h-BN crystals, suitable for a further exfoliation, is a prime scientific issue. This paper proposes a promising approach to synthesize pure and well-crystallized h-BN flakes, which can be easily exfoliated into BNNSs. This new accessible production process represents a relevant alternative source of supply in response to the increasing need of high quality BNNSs. The synthesis strategy to prepare pure h-BN is based on a unique combination of the Polymer Derived Ceramics (PDCs) route with the Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS) process. Through a multi-scale chemical and structural investigation, it is clearly shown that obtained flakes are large (up to 30 μm), defect-free and well crystallized, which are key-characteristics for a subsequent exfoliation into relevant BNNSs. PMID:26843122

  10. Pure & crystallized 2D Boron Nitride sheets synthesized via a novel process coupling both PDCs and SPS methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Sheng; Linas, Sébastien; Journet, Catherine; Steyer, Philippe; Garnier, Vincent; Bonnefont, Guillaume; Brioude, Arnaud; Toury, Bérangère

    2016-02-01

    Within the context of emergent researches linked to graphene, it is well known that h-BN nanosheets (BNNSs), also referred as 2D BN, are considered as the best candidate for replacing SiO2 as dielectric support or capping layers for graphene. As a consequence, the development of a novel alternative source for highly crystallized h-BN crystals, suitable for a further exfoliation, is a prime scientific issue. This paper proposes a promising approach to synthesize pure and well-crystallized h-BN flakes, which can be easily exfoliated into BNNSs. This new accessible production process represents a relevant alternative source of supply in response to the increasing need of high quality BNNSs. The synthesis strategy to prepare pure h-BN is based on a unique combination of the Polymer Derived Ceramics (PDCs) route with the Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS) process. Through a multi-scale chemical and structural investigation, it is clearly shown that obtained flakes are large (up to 30 μm), defect-free and well crystallized, which are key-characteristics for a subsequent exfoliation into relevant BNNSs.

  11. Magnetite in carbonaceous chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hua, Xin; Buseck, Peter R.

    1997-03-01

    Magnetite (Fe3O4) occurs in many carbonaceous chondrites (CCs) and has long attracted the attention of meteorite researchers. However, its origin is unresolved; suggestions range from condensates from the solar nebular to products from aqueous alteration on the meteorite parent body. The report of possible evidence of former life in ancient Martian meteorite ALH84001 suggested an additional and highly intriguing origin for certain meteoritic magnetite, namely as magnetosomes from bacteria. However, a recent publication reports TEM evidence of spiral defects running through some of the the magnetite in ALHA84001, interpreted as evidence for a high temperature origin. These studies provide special interest to the occurrence of magnetite in meteorites. Using SEM, we studied magnetite from the Orgueil, Murchison, and Kaba and Mokoia meteorites, and obtained images at a nm-scale. We also did EMPA measurements to determine the compositions of the magnetite and surrounding minerals.

  12. Growth of pure and RE 3+-doped Y 2O 3 single crystals by LHPG technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goutaudier, C.; Ermeneux, F. S.; Cohen-Adad, M. T.; Moncorge, R.

    2000-03-01

    High-quality and crack-free Y 2O 3 single crystals containing low concentrations of Tm 3+, Tb 3+ and Yb 3+ were obtained. The crystals were grown in the form of monocrystalline fibers by using a floating zone method with laser heating (laser-heated pedestal growth).

  13. Evaluation of Brillouin scattering intensities from rare gas crystals. Part 1: A pure dipole induced dipole theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzacurati, V.; Ruocco, G.

    1986-12-01

    A pure dipole induced dipole (DID) theory, which takes properly into account long range contributions to the effective atomic polarizability renormalization, is developed to evaluate the Brillouin scattering intensities for rare gas crystals (RGC). The DID effect is taken into account at all the orders by solving rigorously the self consistent equation for the effective atomic polarizability. To evaluate the contribution of the far away atoms, the dipole propagator and the driving field phase factor were used without short range approximations. Results for the elasto-optic coefficient are discussed. It is concluded that pure DID effects can reproduce experimental results for neon and argon, while discrepancies progressively appear for krypton and xenon. This suggests that the overlap contributions to the atomic polarizability fluctuations cannot be neglected in heavy RGC.

  14. Remanence in authigenic magnetite: Testing the hydrocarbon-magnetite hypothesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elmore, R. Douglas; Crawford, Lisa

    1990-04-01

    Paleomagnetic, rock magnetic, petrographic, and geochemical studies of hydrocarbon-saturated speleothems in southern Oklahoma indicate there is a relation between hydrocarbons and a chemical magnetization that resides in magnetite. The speleothems, which are composed of light and dark calcite bands, occur in caves of karst origin in the Ordovician Kindblade Formation. Vertebrate fossils interbedded with the deposits indicate they are Permian in age. The dark bands contain primary hydrocarbon-filled fluid inclusions. The dark calcites possess over an order of magnitude stronger natural remanent magnetization than the lighter bands which do not yield stable decay during demagnetization. Alternating field (AF) and thermal demagnetization of specimens of the dark bands reveal a Permian direction of magnetization (declination = 160, inclination = 3, k = 17, ?95 = 5, n = 56). The results of rock magnetic experiments, and the fact that most maximum unblocking temperatures are below 580C, suggest that the dominant component resides in magnetite. In some specimens stable decay to 640C suggests the presence of a weak component residing in hematite. The presence of authigenic magnetite spheres in magnetic extracts of the dark calcites supports a chemical origin for the magnetization. Shallow burial depths probably eliminate the possibility of a thermoviscous magnetization. The occurrence of primary hydrocarbon inclusions suggests that hydrocarbons seeped into the caves during precipitation of the speleothems and were trapped in the calcite crystals. The relationship between intensity of magnetization and hydrocarbon abundance leads us to propose that chemical conditions created by the hydrocarbons caused precipitation of authigenic magnetite and acquisition of the associated chemical remanence.

  15. An Alignment Medium for Measuring Residual Dipolar Couplings in Pure DMSO: Liquid Crystals from Graphene Oxide Grafted with Polymer Brushes.

    PubMed

    Zong, Wen; Li, Gao-Wei; Cao, Jiang-Ming; Lei, Xinxiang; Hu, Mao-Lin; Sun, Han; Griesinger, Christian; Tan, Ren Xiang

    2016-03-01

    Residual dipolar couplings (RDCs) have attracted attention in light of their great impact on the structural elucidation of organic molecules. However, the effectiveness of RDC measurements is limited by the shortage of alignment media compatible with widely used organic solvents, such as DMSO. Herein, we present the first liquid crystal (LC) based alignment medium that is compatible with pure DMSO, thus enabling RDC measurements of polar and intermediate polarity molecules. The liquid crystals were obtained by grafting polymer brushes onto graphene oxide (GO) using free radical polymerization. The resulting new medium offers several advantages, such as absence of background signals, narrow line shapes, and tunable alignment. Importantly, this medium is compatible with π-conjugated molecules. Moreover, sonication-induced fragmentation can reduce the size of GO sheets. The resulting anisotropic medium has moderate alignment strength, which is a prerequisite for an accurate RDC measurement. PMID:26890579

  16. Utilization of pure nuclear quadrupole resonance spectroscopy for the study of pharmaceutical crystal forms.

    PubMed

    Prez, S C; Cerioni, L; Wolfenson, A E; Faudone, S; Cuffini, S L

    2005-07-14

    Solid-state physical characterization of a pharmaceutical substance is necessary for successful development and approval of the final product. Different physical analytical techniques are available to do so: X-ray diffraction (XRD), IR, Raman, DSC, TG and NMR. Moreover, all of them detect the presence of excipients perturbing the analysis of the pure substance in low doses. In order to study polymorphism and pseudo polymorphism of drug, this paper introduces possible applications of pure nuclear quadrupole resonance, as a non-destructive technique in qualitative and quantitative approaches. Chlorpropamide and diclofenac sodium were used as examples. Unlike the mentioned techniques, the nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) signal of pharmaceutical compounds is not perturbed by the presence of solid excipient or other substances unless they possess resonance frequencies in the same frequency range of the compound studied. PMID:15913931

  17. Pure and Nd added NBT-BT single crystals - Growth and their characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundari, S. Shanmuga; Baskar, K.; Dhanasekaran, R.

    2014-04-01

    The lead free piezoelectric materials are secured an important place in the field of material science and engineering. In the present work single crystals of sodium bismuth titanate- barium titanate (0.94NBT-0.06BT) and 0.6 wt % of Nd added NBT-BT has been grown by flux method. The addition of 0.6 wt% of Nd shows the inhomogeneity in melt and the crystals collected from the top, middle and bottom portions of the crucible have been characterized for their structural and dielectric properties. The Nd concentration is found to be more in the crystals grown from the bottom portion of crucible and it was confirmed by optical and structural analysis. After the addition of Nd the color of the crystal changes form pale yellow to muddy green. The depolarization temperature (Td) and the temperature where the dielectric constant reaches its maximum (Tm) are increased from 442 K to 475 K and 595 K and 628 K respectively after the addition the of Nd in NBT-BT.

  18. Crystal nucleation in glass-forming alloy and pure metal melts under containerless and vibrationless conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spaepen, F.; Turnbull, D.

    1982-01-01

    The undercooling behavior of large spheroids of Pd40Ni40P40 was investigated. By surface etching, supporting the specimens on a fused silica substrate, and successive heating and cooling, crystallization can be eliminated, presumable due to the removal of surface heterogeneities. By this method samples up to 3.2g with a 0.53 mm minor diameter, were made entirely glassy, except for some superficial crystals comprising less than 0.5% of the volume. These experiments show that a cooling rate of approximately 1 K/sec is adequate to avoid copious homogeneous nucleation in the alloy, and that by eliminating or reducing the effectiveness of heterogeneous nucleation sites, it is possible to form bulk samples of this metallic glass with virtually unlimited dimensions.

  19. Scientific, Engineering and Metrological Problems in Producing Pure 28Si and Growing Single Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarbeyev, Yu V.; Kaliteyevsky, A. K.; Sergeyev, V. I.; Smirnov, R. D.; Godisov, O. N.

    1994-01-01

    The centrifugation method has advantages in producing silicon isotopes. The selection of appropriate working gas, development of gas centrifuges, their arrangement for effective separation of the isotopes and optimization of the production process are considered. The resulting mole fraction of 28Si is better than 0,999 9. The requirements for the production processes in growing single crystals and the related problems are analysed in detail and estimates of the uncertainties associated with the necessary tests are given.

  20. Formation of tabular single-domain magnetite induced by Geobacter metallireducens GS-15

    PubMed Central

    Vali, Hojatollah; Weiss, Benjamin; Li, Yi-Liang; Sears, S. Kelly; Kim, Soon Sam; Kirschvink, Joseph L.; Zhang, Chuanlun L.

    2004-01-01

    Distinct morphological characteristics of magnetite formed intracellularly by magnetic bacteria (magnetosome) are invoked as compelling evidence for biological activity on Earth and possibly on Mars. Crystals of magnetite produced extracellularly by a variety of bacteria including Geobacter metallireducens GS-15, thermophilic bacteria, and psychrotolerant bacteria are, however, traditionally not thought to have nearly as distinct morphologies. The size and shape of extracellular magnetite depend on the culture conditions and type of bacteria. Under typical CO2-rich culture conditions, GS-15 is known to produce superparamagnetic magnetite (crystal diameters of approximately <30 nm). In the current study, we were able to produce a unique form of tabular, single-domain magnetite under nontraditional (low-CO2) culture conditions. This magnetite has a distinct crystal habit and magnetic properties. This magnetite could be used as a biosignature to recognize ancient biological activities in terrestrial and extraterrestrial environments and also may be a major carrier of the magnetization in natural sediments. PMID:15525704

  1. Trace elements in magnetite from massive iron oxide-apatite deposits indicate a combined formation by igneous and magmatic-hydrothermal processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knipping, Jaayke L.; Bilenker, Laura D.; Simon, Adam C.; Reich, Martin; Barra, Fernando; Deditius, Artur P.; Wӓlle, Markus; Heinrich, Christoph A.; Holtz, François; Munizaga, Rodrigo

    2015-12-01

    Iron oxide-apatite (IOA) deposits are an important source of iron and other elements (e.g., REE, P, U, Ag and Co) vital to modern society. However, their formation, including the namesake Kiruna-type IOA deposit (Sweden), remains controversial. Working hypotheses include a purely magmatic origin involving separation of an Fe-, P-rich, volatile-rich oxide melt from a Si-rich silicate melt, and precipitation of magnetite from an aqueous ore fluid, which is either of magmatic-hydrothermal or non-magmatic surface or metamorphic origin. In this study, we focus on the geochemistry of magnetite from the Cretaceous Kiruna-type Los Colorados IOA deposit (∼350 Mt Fe) located in the northern Chilean Iron Belt. Los Colorados has experienced minimal hydrothermal alteration that commonly obscures primary features in IOA deposits. Laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy (LA-ICP-MS) transects and electron probe micro-analyzer (EPMA) wavelength-dispersive X-ray (WDX) spectrometry mapping demonstrate distinct chemical zoning in magnetite grains, wherein cores are enriched in Ti, Al, Mn and Mg. The concentrations of these trace elements in magnetite cores are consistent with igneous magnetite crystallized from a silicate melt, whereas magnetite rims show a pronounced depletion in these elements, consistent with magnetite grown from an Fe-rich magmatic-hydrothermal aqueous fluid. Further, magnetite grains contain polycrystalline inclusions that re-homogenize at magmatic temperatures (>850 °C). Smaller inclusions (<5 μm) contain halite crystals indicating a saline environment during magnetite growth. The combination of these observations are consistent with a formation model for IOA deposits in northern Chile that involves crystallization of magnetite microlites from a silicate melt, nucleation of aqueous fluid bubbles on magnetite surfaces, and formation and ascent of buoyant fluid bubble-magnetite aggregates. Decompression of the fluid-magnetite aggregate during ascent along regional-scale transcurrent faults promotes continued growth of the magmatic magnetite microlites from the Fe-rich magmatic-hydrothermal fluid, which manifests in magnetite rims that have trace element abundances consistent with growth from a magmatic-hydrothermal fluid. Mass balance calculations indicate that this process can leach and transport sufficient Fe from a magmatic source to form large IOA deposits such as Los Colorados. Furthermore, published experimental data demonstrate that a saline magmatic-hydrothermal ore fluid will scavenge significant quantities of metals such as Cu and Au from a silicate melt, and when combined with solubility data for Fe, Cu and Au, it is plausible that the magmatic-hydrothermal ore fluid that continues to ascend from the IOA depositional environment can retain sufficient concentrations of these metals to form iron oxide copper-gold (IOCG) deposits at lateral and/or stratigraphically higher levels in the crust. Notably, this study provides a new discrimination diagram to identify magnetite from Kiruna-type deposits and to distinguish them from IOCG, porphyry and Fe-Ti-V/P deposits, based on low Cr (<100 ppm) and high V (>500 ppm) concentrations.

  2. A comparative study on pure, L-arginine and glycine doped ammonium dihydrogen orthophosphate single crystals grown by slow solvent evaporation and temperature-gradient method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pattanaboonmee, N.; Ramasamy, P.; Yimnirun, R.; Manyum, P.

    2011-01-01

    Single crystals of pure, L-arginine and glycine doped ammonium dihydrogen orthophosphate (ADP) were grown by both the slow solvent evaporation method and the temperature-gradient method of Sankaranarayanan-Ramasamy (SR). The metastable zone width for different saturation temperatures of pure glycine and L-arginine added solutions were carried out. The grown crystals were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), optical transmission, dielectric constant, dielectric loss, and Vickers microhardness. The DSC and TG curves of the grown crystals indicated that they were stable up to 200 C. The XRD study confirmed the structure of the grown crystal. The optical transmission analysis revealed that the pure and doped ADP crystals had very high percentage of transmission in the entire visible region. The important optical parameters such as reflectance and extinction coefficients of the grown crystals were calculated. L-arginine and glycine were used as dopants to reduce dielectric constant of ADP. The a.c. resistivity and a.c. conductivity were calculated. Dielectric loss of the doped ADP crystals grown by the SR method is lower than the doped ADP crystals grown by the conventional method. Larger hardness value for the SR method grown crystals confirmed greater crystalline perfection.

  3. Structure and superparamagnetic behaviour of magnetite nanoparticles in cellulose beads

    SciTech Connect

    Correa, Jose R.; Bordallo, Eduardo; Canetti, Dora; Leon, Vivian; Otero-Diaz, Luis C.; Electron Microscopy Center, Complutense University of Madrid, Madrid 28040 ; Negro, Carlos; Gomez, Adrian; Saez-Puche, Regino

    2010-08-15

    Superparamagnetic magnetite nanoparticles were obtained starting from a mixture of iron(II) and iron(III) solutions in a preset total iron concentration from 0.04 to 0.8 mol l{sup -1} with ammonia at 25 and 70 {sup o}C. The regeneration of cellulose from viscose produces micrometrical spherical cellulose beads in which synthetic magnetite were embedded. The characterization of cellulose-magnetite beads by X-ray diffraction, Scanning and Transmission Electron Microscopy and magnetic measurement is reported. X-ray diffraction patterns indicate that the higher is the total iron concentration and temperature the higher is the crystal size of the magnetite obtained. Transmission Electron Microscopy studies of cellulose-magnetite beads revealed the distribution of magnetite nanoparticles inside pores of hundred nanometers. Magnetite as well as the cellulose-magnetite composites exhibit superparamagnetic characteristics. Field cooling and zero field cooling magnetic susceptibility measurements confirm the superparamagnetic behaviour and the blocking temperature for the magnetite with a mean size of 12.5 nm, which is 200 K.

  4. Magnetite-Pentlandite Chondrules in CK Chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubin, A. E.

    1992-07-01

    Opaque-mineral-rich chondrules are among the least common chondrule types and have received scant attention since their discovery by Gustav Rose in 1864. This category includes chondrules comprised principally of metallic Fe-Ni (Tschermak, 1885; Gooding and Keil, 1981) or chrome-spinel (Ramdohr, 1967; Krot et al., 1992). Here I report the occurrence of seven magnetite-pentlandite chondrules in Karoonda (CK4), PCA82500 (CK4/5) and EET90007 (CK5). The chondrules range in size from 225x255 micrometers to 440x570 micrometers and have ellipsoidal or spheroidal morphologies. All are concentrically layered: five of the chondrules have 20-60-micrometer-thick magnetite rims surrounding pentlandite-rich cores or mantles; two of the chondrules have thin pentlandite rims surrounding magnetite-rich cores and mantles. One chondrule from Karoonda has four distinct alternating layers of magnetite and pentlandite. Accessory phases, which occur in one or more of the chondrules, include pyrrhotite, chlorapatite, ilmenite, and chalcopyrite. The chondrules have finely to coarsely granular textures; in the center of one chondrule from PCA82500 there is a 25x100 micrometers subhedral crystal of pentlandite. All of the chondrules appear to be recrystallized, presumably due to metamorphism of their host rocks. The magnetite-pentlandite chondrules are very similar to the magnetite-pentlandite-rich nodules within mafic silicate chondrules in CK chondrites. I examined four nodules that range in size from 58x64 micrometers to 400x670 micrometers and have ellipsoidal or spheroidal morphologies. All but one are concentrically layered; one nodule from a Karoonda chondrule has four concentric layers of magnetite+-pentlandite. The nodules probably formed from immiscible sulfide-oxide droplets within their molten silicate chondrule hosts during chondrule formation. Upon cooling, magnetite and monosulfide solid solution (Mss) precipitated during cotectic crystallization; the Mss transformed into pentlandite after cooling below 610 degrees C. Dense immiscible liquid droplets tend to get expelled from the equators of their spinning molten spheroidal hosts if they do not happen to be located in the molten spheroids' centers where the centrifugal forces are minimal. This phenomenon also affected the four magnetite-pentlandite nodules: one nodule is near the margin and three are at the centers of their host silicate chondrules. The similarities in size, shape, mineralogy, and texture between the magnetite-pentlandite chondrules and nodules indicate that these chondrules constitute the set of immiscible nodule droplets that were lost to their mafic silicate chondrule hosts after melting. The occurrence of magnetite-pentlandite chondrules and nodules has important implications for the timing of CK chondrite oxidation. If oxidation had occurred after agglomeration and transformed metallic Fe-Ni into magnetite, the large (factor of 2) increase in molar volume would have disrupted the nodules and chondrules and destroyed the evidence for rhythmic layering. The intactness of the chondrules and nodules implies that the oxidation of fine-grained metallic Fe-Ni into magnetite probably occurred before agglomeration, either during chondrule formation in a region of high fo(sub)2 or within porous chondrule-precursor dust clumps after nebular temperatures cooled below ~130 degrees C. Hence, the pervasive silicate darkening of CK chondrites (Kallemeyn et al., 1991; Rubin, 1992) was caused by the shock mobilization of magnetite and pentlandite, not metallic Fe-Ni and troilite as in shock-darkened ordinary chondrites. References: Gooding J.L. and Keil K. (1981) Meteoritics 16, 17- 43; Kallemeyn G.W., Rubin A.E. and Wasson J.T. (1991) Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 55, 881-892; Krot A., Ivanova M.A. and Wasson J.T. (1992) Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., submitted; Ramdohr P. (1967) Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 31, 1961-1967; Rubin A.E. (1992) Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 56, 1705-1714; Tschermak G. (1885) Die Mikroskopische Beschaffenheit der Meteoriten. Schweizerbart'sche Verlagshandlung, Stuttgart.

  5. Crystallography of magnetite plaquettes and their significance as asymmetric catalysts for the synthesis of chiral organics in carbonaceous chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Q. H. S.; Zolensky, M. E.

    2015-10-01

    We have previously observed the magnetite plaquettes in carbonaceous chondrites using scanning electron microscope (SEM) imaging, examined the crystal orientation of the polished surfaces of magnetite plaquettes in CI Orgueil using electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) analysis, and concluded that these magnetite plaquettes are likely naturally asymmetric materials [1]. In this study, we expanded our EBSD observation to other magnetite plaquettes in Orgueil, and further examined the internal structure of these remarkable crystals with the use of X-ray computed microtomography.

  6. Crystallography of Magnetite Plaquettes and their Significance as Asymmetric Catalysts for the Synthesis of Chiral Organics in Carbonaceous Chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, Q. H. S.; Zolensky, M. E.

    2015-01-01

    We have previously observed the magnetite plaquettes in carbonaceous chondrites using scanning electron microscope (SEM) imaging, examined the crystal orientation of the polished surfaces of magnetite plaquettes in CI Orgueil using electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) analysis, and concluded that these magnetite plaquettes are likely naturally asymmetric materials. In this study, we expanded our EBSD observation to other magnetite plaquettes in Orgueil, and further examined the internal structure of these remarkable crystals with the use of X-ray computed microtomography.

  7. Atomic frequency comb memory in an isotopically pure 143Nd3+:Y7LiF4 crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhmedzhanov, R. A.; Gushchin, L. A.; Kalachev, A. A.; Korableva, S. L.; Sobgayda, D. A.; Zelensky, I. V.

    2016-01-01

    We implemented the atomic frequency comb protocol for optical quantum memory in an isotopically pure crystal of Y7LiF4 doped by 143Nd3+?ions. Echo signals were observed on the 4I9/2(1)4F3/2(1) transition, which had inhomogeneous broadening much smaller than the hyperfine splitting of the ground and excited states. We performed hole-burning spectroscopy measurements on several transitions, obtaining information about the hyperfine state lifetimes. An intrinsic hole structure was found on some of the transitions, which allowed us to prepare a comb structure with two clearly defined periods and to observe echo pulses with different time delays.

  8. Magnetostriction and magnetoacoustic measurements on pure and Zn-doped YBCO crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cura, Ch.; Pal, J.; Schubert, R.; Ewert, S.; Fuchs, G.; Krabbes, G.

    2003-05-01

    Magnetostriction hysteresis data reveal the presence of the fishtail effect in isothermal scans between 72 and 80 K. Thermal cycles in a constant magnetic field show the behaviour of pinning of flux lines in the different phases. Ultrasonic attenuation and the relative change of the sound velocity for various magnetic fields were measured. The aim is to examine the elastic behaviour of the flux line lattice. In the framework of the thermally assisted flux flow model the depinning temperature TD(B) and the activation energy U(B) were been deduced. The measurements on YBCO crystals are discussed and compared with investigations on YBCO/Zn + Ag composites. The magnetostrictive effects are verified by supplementary DC-magnetization measurements.

  9. Scaffold of Asymmetric Organic Compounds - Magnetite Plaquettes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, Q. H. S.; Zolensky, M. E.; Martinez, J.

    2015-01-01

    Life on Earth shows preference towards the set of organics with particular spatial configurations, this 'selectivity' is a crucial criterion for life. With only rare exceptions, life prefers the left- (L-) form over the right- (D-) form of amino acids, resulting in an L-enantiomeric excess (L-ee). Recent studies have shown Lee for alpha-methyl amino acids in some chondrites. Since these amino acids have limited terrestrial occurrence, the origin of their stereoselectivity is nonbiological, and it seems appropriate to conclude that chiral asymmetry, the molecular characteristic that is common to all terrestrial life form, has an abiotic origin. A possible abiotic mechanism that can produce chiral asymmetry in meteoritic amino acids is their formation with the presence of asymmetric catalysts, as mineral crystallization can produce spatially asymmetric structures. Magnetite is shown to be an effective catalyst for the formation of amino acids that are commonly found in chondrites. Magnetite 'plaquettes' (or 'platelets'), first described by Jedwab, show an interesting morphology of barrel-shaped stacks of magnetite disks with an apparent dislocation-induced spiral growth that seem to be connected at the center. A recent study by Singh et al. has shown that magnetites can self-assemble into helical superstructures. Such molecular asymmetry could be inherited by adsorbed organic molecules. In order to understand the distribution of 'spiral' magnetites in different meteorite classes, as well as to investigate their apparent spiral configurations and possible correlation to molecular asymmetry, we observed polished sections of carbonaceous chondrites (CC) using scanning electron microscope (SEM) imaging. The sections were also studied by electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) in order to reconstruct the crystal orientation along the stack of magnetite disks.

  10. Growth and scintillation properties of pure CsI crystals grown by micro-pulling-down method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Totsuka, Daisuke; Yanagida, Takayuki; Fujimoto, Yutaka; Pejchal, Jan; Yokota, Yuui; Yoshikawa, Akira

    2012-05-01

    Single crystals of pure cesium iodide (CsI) have been grown from the melt using micro-pulling-down (?-PD) method. Two kinds of crucible (graphite one and quartz one) were used for the growth and the grown crystals were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray rocking curve (XRC) analysis. The XRD analysis did not confirm any impurity phases and a sub-grain structure was observed for each sample in the rocking curve measurement. Under X-ray irradiation, strong STE emission peaks around 300 nm were observed together with some luminescence related to unintentionally present impurities. The STE emission peaks are characterized by fast decay times of several ns and about 20 ns which are interpreted as the on-center-type STE (VK + e) and off-center type STE (H + F) recombinations, respectively. The light yield of the STE-related emissions has been estimated to be 3000 ph/MeV. Other emission peaks were observed at 410 nm and 515 nm. The former one can be related to Br-contamination and it is characterized by a relatively slow decay time of 6 ?s. Concerning the latter one at 515 nm, similar luminescence was observed for the water-doped CsI grown by Bridgman method.

  11. Gd-DTPA Adsorption on Chitosan/Magnetite Nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Pylypchuk, Ie V; Kołodyńska, D; Kozioł, M; Gorbyk, P P

    2016-12-01

    The synthesis of the chitosan/magnetite nanocomposites is presented. Composites were prepared by co-precipitation of iron(II) and iron(III) salts by aqueous ammonia in the 0.1 % chitosan solution. It was shown that magnetite synthesis in the chitosan medium does not affect the magnetite crystal structure. The thermal analysis data showed 4.6 % of mass concentration of chitosan in the hybrid chitosan/magnetite composite. In the concentration range of initial Gd-DTPA solution up to 0.4 mmol/L, addition of chitosan to magnetite increases the adsorption capacity and affinity to Gd-DTPA complex. The Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption models were applied to describe adsorption processes. Nanocomposites were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), differential thermal analysis (DTA), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and specific surface area determination (ASAP) methods. PMID:27030468

  12. Nickel-iron alloy/magnetite composites: Synthesis and microstructure

    SciTech Connect

    Noubeyo, J.C.Y.; Bouakham, T.; Pourroy, G.; Werckmann, J.; Ehret, G.

    1998-02-01

    The authors describe the procedure to obtain composites made of a nickel-iron alloy and magnetite. A KOH concentration of 14 mol/liter is required. Metal diffraction lines are broad, due to heterogeneous composition and bad crystallization. Balls of metal 0.1--0.2 {mu}m wide stuck to magnetite octahedra are easily observed by SEM and TEM. Nickel hydroxide crystallizes for a nickel to iron ratio > 0.33 in addition to metal and spinel. HRTEM shows metal and spinel grains covered by a thin layer of NiO crystals of 20 nm recovered by an amorphous phase 2--3 nm wide. This latter crystallizes in NiO under the electron beam. Crystallographical relationships occur between NiO and the spinel phase. Well-crystallized and hydroxide-free nickel-iron alloy/magnetite composites are obtained in all cases after annealing at 800 C in an argon atmosphere.

  13. Magnetite biomineralization in the human brain.

    PubMed

    Kirschvink, J L; Kobayashi-Kirschvink, A; Woodford, B J

    1992-08-15

    Although the mineral magnetite (Fe3O4) is precipitated biochemically by bacteria, protists, and a variety of animals, it has not been documented previously in human tissue. Using an ultrasensitive superconducting magnetometer in a clean-lab environment, we have detected the presence of ferromagnetic material in a variety of tissues from the human brain. Magnetic particle extracts from solubilized brain tissues examined with high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, electron diffraction, and elemental analyses identify minerals in the magnetite-maghemite family, with many of the crystal morphologies and structures resembling strongly those precipitated by magnetotactic bacteria and fish. These magnetic and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy measurements imply the presence of a minimum of 5 million single-domain crystals per gram for most tissues in the brain and greater than 100 million crystals per gram for pia and dura. Magnetic property data indicate the crystals are in clumps of between 50 and 100 particles. Biogenic magnetite in the human brain may account for high-field saturation effects observed in the T1 and T2 values of magnetic resonance imaging and, perhaps, for a variety of biological effects of low-frequency magnetic fields. PMID:1502184

  14. Magnetite Biomineralization in the Human Brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirschvink, Joseph L.; Kobayashi-Kirschvink, Atsuko; Woodford, Barbara J.

    1992-08-01

    Although the mineral magnetite (Fe_3O_4) is precipitated biochemically by bacteria, protists, and a variety of animals, it has not been documented previously in human tissue. Using an ultrasensitive superconducting magnetometer in a clean-lab environment, we have detected the presence of ferromagnetic material in a variety of tissues from the human brain. Magnetic particle extracts from solubilized brain tissues examined with high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, electron diffraction, and elemental analyses identify minerals in the magnetite-maghemite family, with many of the crystal morphologies and structures resembling strongly those precipitated by magnetotactic bacteria and fish. These magnetic and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy measurements imply the presence of a minimum of 5 million single-domain crystals per gram for most tissues in the brain and >100 million crystals per gram for pia and dura. Magnetic property data indicate the crystals are in clumps of between 50 and 100 particles. Biogenic magnetite in the human brain may account for high-field saturation effects observed in the T1 and T2 values of magnetic resonance imaging and, perhaps, for a variety of biological effects of low-frequency magnetic fields.

  15. Raman Study of the Verwey Transition in Magnetite (Fe3O4) at High Pressure and Low Temperature: Effect of Aluminum Doping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirshikova, Zhanna; Gasparov, Lev; Struzhkin, V.; Gavriliuk, A.; Berger, H.

    2011-04-01

    Raman spectra of pure and doped magnetite provide a set of markers allowing one to study how the Verwey transition in magnetite changes with the change of pressure. At ambient pressure Verwey transition temperature, Tv, of the single crystals of magnetite, Fe3O4, is determined to be 123 K. High-pressure experiment indicates strong dependence of the change of pressure vs. change in the Verwey transition temperature on on the amount of impurities: for pure Fe3O4 the change is -0.2 GPa/K; for doped iron, Fe2.98 Al0.02O4, the change is -0.09 GPa/K. Aluminum-doped magnetite (Fe2.98 Al0.02O4) where Al substitutes Fe+2 and Fe+3 atoms, represents a 2% aluminum doping, which shifts the Verwey transition temperature to Tv = 118.5 K. The rate with which the Verwey temperature decreases with pressure is further discussed based on the molar specific heat measurements. This work was supported by the NSF DMR-0805073 award, Alexander von Humboldt Foundation, Research Corporation Cottrell College Science award No. CC 6130, Petroleum Research Fund award No. 40926-GB10 and ONR N00014-06-1-0133 award.

  16. In(x)Ga(1-x)As nanowires with uniform composition, pure wurtzite crystal phase and taper-free morphology.

    PubMed

    Ameruddin, Amira S; Fonseka, H Aruni; Caroff, Philippe; Wong-Leung, Jennifer; Op het Veld, Roy L M; Boland, Jessica L; Johnston, Michael B; Tan, Hark Hoe; Jagadish, Chennupati

    2015-05-22

    Obtaining compositional homogeneity without compromising morphological or structural quality is one of the biggest challenges in growing ternary alloy compound semiconductor nanowires. Here we report growth of Au-seeded InxGa1-xAs nanowires via metal-organic vapour phase epitaxy with uniform composition, morphology and pure wurtzite (WZ) crystal phase by carefully optimizing growth temperature and V/III ratio. We find that high growth temperatures allow the InxGa1-xAs composition to be more uniform by suppressing the formation of typically observed spontaneous In-rich shells. A low V/III ratio results in the growth of pure WZ phase InxGa1-xAs nanowires with uniform composition and morphology while a high V/III ratio allows pure zinc-blende (ZB) phase to form. Ga incorporation is found to be dependent on the crystal phase favouring higher Ga concentration in ZB phase compared to the WZ phase. Tapering is also found to be more prominent in defective nanowires hence it is critical to maintain the highest crystal structure purity in order to minimize tapering and inhomogeneity. The InP capped pure WZ In0.65Ga0.35As core-shell nanowire heterostructures show 1.54 ?m photoluminescence, close to the technologically important optical fibre telecommunication wavelength, which is promising for application in photodetectors and nanoscale lasers. PMID:25927420

  17. Synthesis, characterization and anti-microbial activity of pure, Cu2+ and Cd2+ doped organic NLO l-arginine trifluoroacetate single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasanyaa, T.; Haris, M.; Jayaramakrishnan, V.; Amgalan, M.; Mathivanan, V.

    2013-10-01

    Optically transparent Cu2+ and Cd2+ doped l-arginine trifluoroacetate (LATF) single crystals were grown from its aqueous solution using the slow solvent evaporation technique. The grown crystals were characterized by powder x-ray diffraction to confirm the monoclinic crystal structure. The percentage of transmittance measured using the ultraviolet-visible-near infrared spectrophotometer was found to be more than 80% for doped crystals. The functional group analysis of the grown crystals has been made by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Thermogravimetric/differential thermal analysis was performed for the grown crystals. An atomic absorption study was carried out to determine the presence of Cu2+ and Cd2+. The hardness of the grown crystals was assessed and the results show a significant variation in the hardness value between the pure and doped LATF crystals. The second harmonic generation measurements show that Cu2+ doped LATF is 2.8 times greater and Cd2+ doped is 2.6 times greater than KDP. The anti-bacterial and anti-fungal activities of the title compound were performed using the disc diffusion method against standard bacteria Escherichia coli, Xanthomonas oryzae and against the fungus Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus.

  18. Microbial synthesis and the characterization of metal-substituted magnetites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roh, Y.; Lauf, R. J.; McMillan, A. D.; Zhang, C.; Rawn, C. J.; Bai, J.; Phelps, T. J.

    2001-06-01

    The use of bacteria as a novel biotechnology to facilitate the production of nanoparticles is in its infancy. We describe a bacterially mediated electrochemical process in which metal (Co, Cr, or Ni)-substituted magnetite powders were synthesized by iron(III)-reducing bacteria under anaerobic conditions. Amorphous Fe(III) oxyhydroxides plus soluble metal species (Co, Cr, Ni) comprise the electron acceptor and hydrogen or simple organics comprise the electron donor. The microbial processes produced copious amount of nm-sized, metal-substituted magnetite crystals. Chemical analysis and X-ray powder diffraction analysis showed that metals such as Co, Cr, and Ni were substituted into biologically facilitated magnetites. These results suggest that the bacteria may be viewed as a nonspecific source of electrons at a potential that can be calculated or surmised based on the underlying thermodynamics. Microbially facilitated synthesis of the metal-substituted magnetites at near ambient temperatures may expand the possible use of the specialized ferromagnetic particles.

  19. Exsolution of Iron-Titanium Oxides in Magnetite in Miller Range (MIL) 03346 Nakhlite: Evidence for Post Crystallization Reduction in the Nakhlite Cumulate Pile

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Righter, Kevin; Keller, L. P.; Rahman, Z.; Christoffersen, R.

    2012-01-01

    MIL 03346 is one of the most mesostasis-rich nakhlites [1] and thought to have equilibrated at oxygen fugacities near the fayalite-magnetite-quartz oxygen (FMQ) buffer ([2,3]). Studies of FeTi oxides in nakhlites have led to additional constraints on their equilibration temperatures and fO2s [4,5,6,7]. Comparison of these results to fO2s calculated for shergottites indicates that nakhlites are among the most oxidized samples from the martian meteorite suite [2]. The mesostasis of MIL 03346 contains skeletal titanomagnetite. Several scientists noticed several years ago (e.g. [8]) that this titanomagnetite contains very fine oxidation-driven exsolution lamellae (Figure 1). However, the lamellae are so small that they cannot be characterized by electron microprobe analysis (EMPA). Here we select several areas for focused ion beam (FIB) extraction, prepare transmission electron microscopy (TEM) foils, and identify and analyze the lamellae using TEM at the Johnson Space Center (JSC). The resulting analyses are combined with previous work on nakhlites to interpret the thermal and oxidation history of this meteorite group.

  20. Comparative study of pure and alkaline earth metallic doped cadmium mercury thiocyanate single crystalsGel technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalainathan, S.; Kumari, P. Nisha Santha

    2009-07-01

    Growth aspects of Ba and Ca doped cadmium mercury thiocyanate (CMTC) single crystals from silica gel by the process of diffusion are discussed. The incorporation of dopants in the crystal has been confirmed by inductively coupled plasma (ICP) analysis. Single crystal X-ray diffraction studies reveal the structures of the doped crystals to be tetragonal implying that the incorporation of the dopants has not changed the structure of the parent crystal. The diffraction planes were identified and indexed by powder diffraction analysis. High-resolution X-ray diffraction analyses were carried out to investigate the crystalline perfection of the grown crystals. The grown crystals were characterized by Fourier transform infrared and transmission spectral analyses. Vickers microhardness studies on the grown crystals reveal that they belong to soft material category. Employing powder Kurtz method, their second harmonic generation efficiencies were measured in comparison with urea.

  1. Nanophase Magnetite and Pyrrhotite in ALH84001 Martian Meteorite: Evidence for an Abiotic Origin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golden, D. C.; Lauer, H. V., Jr. III; Ming, D. W.; Morris, R. V.

    2006-01-01

    The nanophase magnetite crystals in the black rims of pancake-shaped carbonate globules of the Martian meteorite ALH84001 have been studied extensively because of the claim by McKay et al.that they are biogenic in origin. A subpopulation of these magnetite crystals are reported to conform to a unique elongated shape called "truncated hexa-octahedral" or "THO" by Thomas-Keprta et al. They claim these THO magnetite crystals can only be produced by living bacteria thus forming a biomarker in the meteorite. In contrast, thermal decomposition of Fe-rich carbonate has been suggested as an alternate hypothesis for the elongated magnetite formation in ALH84001 carbonates. The experimental and observational evidence for the inorganic formation of nanophase magnetite and pyrrhotite in ALH84001 by decomposition of Fe-rich carbonate in the presence of pyrite are provided.

  2. Magnetite: What it reveals about the origin of the banded iron formations. [Abstract only

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwartz, D. E.; Mancinelli, R. L.; White, M. R.

    1994-01-01

    Magnetite, Fe3O4 is produced abiotically and biotically. Abiotically, magnetite is a late magmatic mineral and forms as a consequence of the cooling of iron rich magma. Biotically, magnetite is produced by several organisms, including magnetotactic bacteria. Hematite, Fe2O3, is also produced abiotically and biotically. Abiotically, hematite rarely occurs as a primary mineral in igneous rocks, but is common as an alteration product, fumarole deposit, and in some metamorphosed Fe-rich rocks. Biotically, hematite is produced by several types of microorganisms. Biologically-produced magnetite and hematite are formed under the control of the host organism, and consequently, have characteristics not found in abiotically produced magnetite and hematite crystals. To determine if the magnetite and hematite in the Banded Iron Formation was biologically or abiotically produced, the characteristics of biologically-produced magnetite and hematite (concentrated from Aquaspirillum magnetotacticum) and abiotically-produced magnetite and hematite obtained from Wards Scientific Supply Company, were compared with characteristics of magnetite and hematite concentrated from the Gunflint Banded Iron Formation (Ontario, Canada) using thermal and crystallographic analytical techniques. Whole rock analysis of the Gunflint Banded Iron Formation by x-ray diffraction (XRD) and differential thermal analysis (DTA) revealed the presence of quartz, hematite, siderite and dolomite as the major minerals, and magnetite, greenalite, pyrite, pyrrhotite and apatite as the minor minerals. Analysis of a crude magnetic fraction of the Gunflint showed the minerals quartz, hematite, siderite, dolomite, and magnetite. Analysis of the crude magnetic fraction from Aquaspirillum magnetotacticum revealed organic compounds plus hematite and magnetite. The mineral identification and particle size distribution data obtained from the DTA along with XRD data indicate that the magnetite and hematite from the Gunflint BIF share some similarities with biologically formed magnetite and hematite.

  3. Growth, optical and EPR properties of Li1.72Na0.28Ge4O9 single crystals pure and slightly doped with Cr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jasik, Anna; Berkowski, Marek; Kaczmarek, Slawomir; Suchocki, Andrzej; Kaminska, Agata; Leniec, Grzegorz; Nowakowski, Piotr; Domukhovski, Viktor

    2012-04-01

    Single crystals of lithium-sodium-tetragermanate, a member of the solid solution series Li2-xNaxGe4O9 with x=0.28, pure and slightly doped with Cr3+ ions (0.03 mol.% and 0.1 mol.%), were grown in ambient atmosphere by the Czochralski technique from stoichiometric melt. The crystals with dimensions up to 20 mm in diameter and 50 mm in length were obtained. The crystal structure has been determined by means of X-ray diffraction. Phase analysis and structural refinement of the Li1.72Na0.28Ge4O9 crystals were performed by X-ray powder diffraction using Ni-filtered Cu Kα radiation with a Siemens D5000 diffractometer. The absorption, excitation and photoluminescence spectra of the crystals were measured in the UV-VIS and IR range at low temperatures. EPR investigations were performed using a conventional X-band Bruker ELEXSYS E 500 CW-spectrometer operating at 9.5 GHz with 100 kHz magnetic field modulation. Temperature and angular dependences of the EPR spectra of the crystal samples were recorded in the 3-300 K temperature range.

  4. Growth, optical and EPR properties of Li1.72Na0.28Ge4O9 single crystals pure and slightly doped with Cr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jasik, Anna; Berkowski, Marek; Kaczmarek, Slawomir M.; Suchocki, Andrzej; Kaminska, Agata; Leniec, Grzegorz; Nowakowski, Piotr; Domukhovski, Viktor

    2012-04-01

    Single crystals of lithium-sodium-tetragermanate, a member of the solid solution series Li2-xNa x Ge4O9 with x=0.28, pure and slightly doped with Cr3+ ions (0.03 mol.% and 0.1 mol.%), were grown in ambient atmosphere by the Czochralski technique from stoichiometric melt. The crystals with dimensions up to 20 mm in diameter and 50 mm in length were obtained. The crystal structure has been determined by means of X-ray diffraction. Phase analysis and structural refinement of the Li1.72Na0.28Ge4O9 crystals were performed by X-ray powder diffraction using Ni-filtered Cu K α radiation with a Siemens D5000 diffractometer. The absorption, excitation and photoluminescence spectra of the crystals were measured in the UV-VIS and IR range at low temperatures. EPR investigations were performed using a conventional X-band Bruker ELEXSYS E 500 CW-spectrometer operating at 9.5 GHz with 100 kHz magnetic field modulation. Temperature and angular dependences of the EPR spectra of the crystal samples were recorded in the 3-300 K temperature range.

  5. Magnetic response of microbially synthesized transition metal- and lanthanide-substituted nano-sized magnetites

    SciTech Connect

    Moon, Ji Won; Yeary, Lucas W; Rondinone, Adam Justin; Rawn, Claudia J; Kirkham, Melanie J; Roh, Yul; Love, Lonnie J; Phelps, Tommy Joe

    2007-01-01

    The magnetic susceptibility (?T) and saturation magnetization (MS) of microbially synthesized magnetites were systematically examined. Transition metal (Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, and Zn)- and lanthanide (Nd, Gd, Tb, Ho, and Er)-substituted magnetites were microbially synthesized by the incubation of transition metal (TM)- and lanthanide (L)-mixed magnetite precursors with either thermophilic (TOR-39) or psychrotolerant (PV-4) metal-reducing bacteria (MRB). Zinc incorporated congruently into both the precursor and substituted magnetite, while Ni and Er predominantly did not. Microbially synthesized Mn- and Zn-substituted magnetites had higher ?T than pure biomagnetite depending on bacterial species and they exhibited a maximum ?T at 0.2 cationic mole fraction (CMF). Other TMs?substitution linearly decreased the ?T with increasing substitution amount. Based on the MS values of TM- and L-substituted magnetite at 0.1 and 0.02 CMF, respectively, Zn- (90.7 emu/g for TOR-39 and 93.2 emu/g for PV-4) and Mn- (88.3 emu/g by PV-4) substituted magnetite exhibited higher MS than standard chemical magnetite (84.7 emu/g) or pure biomagnetite without metal substitution (76.6 emu/g for TOR-39 and 80.3 emu/g for PV-4). Lanthanides tended to decrease MS, with Gd- and Hosubstituted magnetites having the highest magnetization. The higher magnetization of microbially synthesized TM-substituted magnetites by the psychrotroph, PV-4 may be explained by the magnetite formation taking place at low temperatures slowing mechanics, which may alter the magnetic properties compared to the thermophile, through suppression of the random distribution of substituted cations.

  6. Natural Magnetite: an efficient catalyst for the degradation of organic contaminant

    PubMed Central

    HE, Hongping; ZHONG, Yuanhong; LIANG, Xiaoliang; TAN, Wei; ZHU, Jianxi; Yan WANG, Christina

    2015-01-01

    Iron (hydr)oxides are ubiquitous earth materials that have high adsorption capacities for toxic elements and degradation ability towards organic contaminants. Many studies have investigated the reactivity of synthetic magnetite, while little is known about natural magnetite. Here, we first report the reactivity of natural magnetites with a variety of elemental impurities for catalyzing the decomposition of H2O2 to produce hydroxyl free radicals (•OH) and the consequent degradation of p-nitrophenol (p-NP). We observed that these natural magnetites show higher catalytic performance than that of the synthetic pure magnetite. The catalytic ability of natural magnetite with high phase purity depends on the surface site density while that for the magnetites with exsolutions relies on the mineralogical nature of the exsolved phases. The pleonaste exsolution can promote the generation of •OH and the consequent degradation of p-NP; the ilmenite exsolution has little effect on the decomposition of H2O2, but can increase the adsorption of p-NP on magnetite. Our results imply that natural magnetite is an efficient catalyst for the degradation of organic contaminants in nature. PMID:25958854

  7. Magnetite morphology and life on Mars

    PubMed Central

    Buseck, Peter R.; Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E.; Devouard, Bertrand; Frankel, Richard B.; McCartney, Martha R.; Midgley, Paul A.; Psfai, Mihly; Weyland, Matthew

    2001-01-01

    Nanocrystals of magnetite (Fe3O4) in a meteorite from Mars provide the strongest, albeit controversial, evidence for the former presence of extraterrestrial life. The morphological and size resemblance of the crystals from meteorite ALH84001 to crystals formed by certain terrestrial bacteria has been used in support of the biological origin of the extraterrestrial minerals. By using tomographic and holographic methods in a transmission electron microscope, we show that the three-dimensional shapes of such nanocrystals can be defined, that the detailed morphologies of individual crystals from three bacterial strains differ, and that none uniquely match those reported from the Martian meteorite. In contrast to previous accounts, we argue that the existing crystallographic and morphological evidence is inadequate to support the inference of former life on Mars. PMID:11717421

  8. Magnetite morphology and life on Mars.

    PubMed

    Buseck, P R; Dunin-Borkowski, R E; Devouard, B; Frankel, R B; McCartney, M R; Midgley, P A; Psfai, M; Weyland, M

    2001-11-20

    Nanocrystals of magnetite (Fe(3)O(4)) in a meteorite from Mars provide the strongest, albeit controversial, evidence for the former presence of extraterrestrial life. The morphological and size resemblance of the crystals from meteorite ALH84001 to crystals formed by certain terrestrial bacteria has been used in support of the biological origin of the extraterrestrial minerals. By using tomographic and holographic methods in a transmission electron microscope, we show that the three-dimensional shapes of such nanocrystals can be defined, that the detailed morphologies of individual crystals from three bacterial strains differ, and that none uniquely match those reported from the Martian meteorite. In contrast to previous accounts, we argue that the existing crystallographic and morphological evidence is inadequate to support the inference of former life on Mars. PMID:11717421

  9. Magnetic Characteristics of Metal-doped Magnetite Nanoparticles Produced by Thermoanaerobacter Ethanolicus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeary, L. W.; Phelps, T. J.; Love, L. J.; Moon, J.; Rondinone, A. J.; Rawn, C. J.; Thompson, J. R.; Madden, A. S.; Madden, M. E.

    2005-12-01

    This work examined the magnetic properties of pure and metal-doped magnetite powders which were synthesized by a bacterially mediated process under anaerobic conditions. The iron(III)-reducing bacterial strain Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus TOR-39, isolated from deep subsurface sediments, was incubated under anaerobic conditions at 65,aC for 2 weeks in aqueous medium containing amorphous iron(III) oxyhydroxides (akaganeite). The microbial process produced several grams per liter of culture volume of uniformly sized single domain nanometer sized magnetite particles outside of bacterial cells. Particle size was verified using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and dynamic light scattering. Average crystallite size from XRD using the Scherrer method was 45 nm for the pure magnetite which agreed well with results from dynamic light scattering. The magnetic properties were characterized using a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometer. Zinc doped magnetite exhibited a saturation magnetization (at 5 K) of 100 emu/g while a value of 77 emu/g was observed for pure magnetite particles of roughly the same size. The low temperature biologically mediated production of metal-doped magnetite is also highly scalable allowing the production of large quantities within days. The process has shown its capability to produce metal (Zn, Mn, Ni, Co)- doped magnetites that may potentially exhibit utility in biogeoscience, magnetorheological materials, nanotechnology, or biomedical applications.

  10. Laser heated pedestal growth of pure and Nd 3+-doped potassium lithium niobate single-crystal fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferriol, M.; Foulon, G.; Brenier, A.; Cohen-Adad, M. T.; Boulon, G.

    1997-03-01

    Due to their incongruent melting, potassium lithium niobate K 3Li 2- xNb 5+ xO 15+2 x (KLN, 0.15 < x < 0.5) crystals are difficult to grow by conventional methods such as Czochralski or TSSG. Using the laser heated pedestal growth technique, compositionally homogeneous a-axis oriented KLN single-crystal fibers free of macro-defects were successfully grown. The crystal length was between 10 and 40 mm for a diameter of about 500 ?m. After etching, the fibers appeared to be mostly single domain, allowing blue laser light by second harmonic generation from an infrared laser emission.

  11. Production of well defined chemically pure single crystals of rare-earth and actinide compounds for solid state reseach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogt, O.; Spirlet, J. C.

    1987-01-01

    Today the understanding of delicate problems such as phase transitions or very low temperature phenomena depend on measurements which are very sensitive to the quality of the sample. Since the magnetic moments of rare-earths and actinides are usually anisotropic all experiments on magnetic properties require single crystals. The usual choice for ultrapurification are physical methods such as sublimation, vacuum melting, zone refining and electrotransport. Work has to be done under UHV conditions. Crystal growth is hampered by the high reactivity. For actinides toxicity and radioactivity are a further important handicap. Methods for crystal growth are solution growth, mineralization, Czochralski or Bridgman technique and zone melting. Crucible free methods are always preferable.

  12. Iron isotopic fractionation factor between magnetite and hydrous silicic melt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, F.; Lundstrom, C. C.

    2006-12-01

    A "thermal migration" experiment was conducted in the piston cylinder to investigate the changes in composition of a wet andesitic bulk composition in a temperature gradient at 0.5 GPa. A homogeneous andesite powder (AGV-1 containing 4 wt.% H2O was sealed in a AuPd double capsule with the hot end at 950C and the bottom end 350C for 66 days. The charge changes from 100% melt at the top to the progressively more crystalline with the sequential appearance of apatite, magnetite, amphibole, biotite, plagioclase, quartz, and K-feldspar. We microdrilled 5 samples along the temperature gradient and analyzed these for Fe isotope ratios by double spike MC-ICP-MS at UIUC. Results show that the 100% melt area is depleted in heavy Fe isotopes relative to all more crystalline portions of the experiment (4 samples) with the offset in {?}^{56/54}FeIRMM of about 1.7. This does not appear to reflect Fe loss in the experiment as the Fe content and isotopes mass balance and no detectable Fe was found in the capsule after the experiment. Instead the offset is interpreted to reflect the combination of diffusive fractionation of Fe moving by diffusion and possible equilibrium fractionations between melt and magnetite that occurs throughout the crystalline portion of the experiment. However, both the isotopic fractionation factor between magnetite and melt and the effect of diffusion on Fe isotopes remains unknown. We are currently investigating Fe isotopic fractionation factor between magnetite and melt and effects of melt diffusion on Fe isotopes. To assess diffusion, we will microdrill and analyze melt-melt diffusion couples from Lundstrom(G-Cubed, 2003). To assess magnetite-melt fractionation, we have begun piston cylinder experiments at 0.5 GPa and 800C using a starting material synthesized based on the melt composition within the thermal migration experiment. Initial experiments produce a layer of 100% melt on top of a 2-phase mush of magnetite-melt. This will allow analysis of pure melt and the magnetite-melt mush with knowledge of the modes providing the ability to back out the fractionation factor. If we can prove attainment of equilibrium, this technique will bypass the difficulty of making pure separates of magnetite and melt. Fe isotopic composition of the melt and melt-magnetite layers will be measured by MC-ICP-MS.

  13. Evidence for exclusively inorganic formation of magnetite in Martian meteorite ALH84001

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golden, D. C.; Ming, D. W.; Morris, R. V.; Brearley, A. J.; Lauer, H. V., Jr.; Treiman, A. H.; Zolensky, M. E.; Schwandt, C. S.; Lofgren, G. E.

    2004-01-01

    Magnetite crystals produced by terrestrial magnetotactic bacterium MV-1 are elongated on a [111] crystallographic axis, in a so-called truncated hexa-Octahedral shape. This morphology has been proposed to constitute a biomarker (i.e., formed only in biogenic processes). A subpopulation of magnetite crystals associated with carbonate globules in Martian meteorite ALH84001 is reported to have this morphology, and the observation has been taken as evidence for biological activity on Mars. In this study, we present evidence for the exclusively inorganic origin of [111]-elongated magnetite crystals in ALH84001. We report three-dimensional(3-D) morphologies for approx.1000 magnetite crystals extracted from: (1) thermal decomposition products of Fe-rich carbonate produced by inorganic hydrothermal precipitation in laboratory experiments; (2) carbonate globules in Martian meteoriteeALH84001; and (3) cells of magnetotactic bacterial strain MV-1. The 3-D morphologies were derived by fitting 3-D shape models to two-dimensional bright-field transmission-electron microscope (TEAM) images obtained at a series of viewing angles. The view down the {110} axes closest to the [111] elongation axis of magnetite crystals ([111]x{110) not equal to 0) provides a 2-D projection that uniquely discriminates among the three [111]-elongated magnetite morphologies found in these samples: [111]-elongated truncated hexaoctahedron ([111]-THO), [111]-elongated cubo-octahedron ([111]-ECO), and [111]-elongated simple octahedron ([111]-ESO). All [111] -elongated morphologies are present in the three types of sample, but in different proportions. In the ALH84001 Martian meteorite and in our inorganic laboratory products, the most common [111]-elongated magnetite crystal morphology is [111]-ECO. In contrast, the most common morphology for magnetotactic bacterial strain MV-1 is [111]-THO. These results show that: (1) the morphology of [111]-elongated magnetite crystals associated with the carbonate globules in Martian meteorite ALH84001 is replicated by an inorganic process; and (2) the most common crystal morphology for biogenic (MV-1) magnetite is distinctly different from that in both ALH84001 and our inorganic laboratory products. Therefore, [111]-elongated magnetite crystals in ALH84001 do not constitute, as previously claimed, a robust biosignature and, in fact, an exclusively inorganic origin for the magnetite is fully consistent with our results. Furthermore, the inorganic synthesis method, i.e., the thermal decomposition of hydrothermally precipitated Fe-rich carbonate, is a process analogue for formation of the magnetite on Mars. Namely, precipitation of carbonate globules from carbonate-rich hydrothermal solutions followed at some later time by a thermal pulse, perhaps in association with meteoritic impact or volcanic processes on the Martian surface.

  14. Zero-dimensional magnetite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arredondo, Melissa Gayle

    Low-dimensional magnetic systems are of interest due to several new effects and modifications that occur at sizes below the average domain grain boundary within the bulk material. Molecule-like magnetite (Fe3O4) nanoparticles, with sizes ranging from one to two nm were synthesized and characterized in order to investigate new properties arising from quantum size effects. These small systems will provide opportunities to investigate magnetism of zero-dimension systems. A zero-dimensional object is usually called a quantum dot or artificial atom because its electronic states are few and sharply separated in energy, resembling those within an atom. Since the surface to volume ratio is the highest for zero-dimensional systems, most of the changes to magnetic behavior will be observed in ultra-fine magnetic particles. Chemically functional magnetic nanoparticles, comprised of a Fe 3O4 magnetite core encased in a thin aliphatic carboxylate, have been prepared by sequential high temperature decomposition of organometallic compounds in a coordinating solvent. In this work, aliphatic carboxylic acid chain length, reaction temperature and duration were varied to produce small core diameters. In order to correlate size effects with changes in particle formation, it is important to have a through understanding of the structural components. This includes studies of the core size, surface effects, decomposition, electronic properties and magnetic behavior. Quantum size effects were observed in the (Fe3O4)X(carboxylate)Y monolayer protected clusters (MPCs) when the average core diameter was ?2.0 nm, evidenced by a blue shifted absorbance band maxima, suggesting the onset of quantum confinement. These (Fe3O4)X(carboxylate) Y MPCs also posses a complex interplay between surface and finite size effects, which govern the magnetic properties of these zero-dimensional systems. These MPCs are all superparamagnetic above their blocking temperatures with total magnetic anisotropy values greater than the bulk value due to an increase in surface and magnetocrystalline anisotropy. A non-linear decrease in saturation magnetization (MS) (muB per cluster) as a function of the reciprocal of core radius have been attributed to surface effects such as a magnetically inactive layer or an increase in spin disorder as core diameter decreases. The reduced core dimensions of these MPCs make them ideal candidates for further investigation of quantum magnetic systems. Chapter 1 provides a brief introduction to magnetic properties on the quantum scale and methods to examine those properties. Chapter 2 is an introduction to nanostructured magnetic systems including metals and oxides. Specific instrumentation and methodologies needed to provide insight about nanoparticles are discussed. Chapter 3 is an investigation of zero-dimensional magnetite monolayer protected clusters. The aim of this research is the preparation, isolation, and characterization of sub-colloidal (diameter ?2.0 nm) magnetite (Fe3O4) nanocrystals. The synthetic procedures within are the first reports of 1.0--2.0 nm (Fe 3O4)x(carboxylate)y materials, approaching the scale of single-molecule magnets. Appendix A includes some of the common units and formulas used in magnetism while Appendix B summarizes the Langevin model of paramagnetism and how it relates to quantum effects, and Appendix C presents a table of values pertaining to photon energies in various units.

  15. Atmospheric ice crystals over complex terrain: Pure ice cloud conditions observed in CLACE2013 at Jungfraujoch, Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlenczek, Oliver; Fugal, Jacob P.; Bower, Keith N.; Crosier, Jonathan; Flynn, Michael J.; Henneberger, Jan; Krieger, Ulrich K.; Lloyd, Gary; Borrmann, Stephan

    2015-04-01

    The CLACE2013 field campaign took place in January and February 2013 at the High Alpine Research Station, Jungfraujoch, in Switzerland. During this field campaign some events of atmospheric ice crystals in the absence of supercooled water droplets were observed. These included precipitation events from a cloud above and also ice crystals which likely formed in-situ under ice supersaturated conditions similar to "diamond-dust" events. From each event, approx. 1 hour of holographic measurements has been analysed (~1800 images with a 36x24x350 mm3 or ~0.3 L sample volume each). Ice crystals are detected and classified according to their shape to distinguish between different particle habit classes (e.g. columns and needles, plates, irregular crystals) and with this method, drifting snow and ice particles formed in-situ can be distinguished to a certain degree. The major axis length of detected ice particles varied between some tens of microns up to a few millimetres. Size distributions will be shown partitioned by crystal habit. Preliminary results show these ice particles appear similar to diamond dust events observed in Antarctica. For clarification of the meteorological conditions, we use the meteorological parameters from several instruments measured at the site as well as data from additional cloud hydrometeor probes and a ceilometer.

  16. Epitaxial growth of nanophase magnetite in Martian meteorite Allan Hills 84001: implications for biogenic mineralization.

    PubMed

    Bradley, J P; McSween, H Y; Harvey, R P

    1998-07-01

    Crystallographic relationships between magnetite, sulfides, and carbonate rosettes in fracture zones of the Allan Hills (ALH) 84001 Martian meteorite have been studied using analytical electron microscopy. We have focused on those magnetite grains whose growth mechanisms can be rigorously established from their crystallographic properties. Individual magnetite nanocrystals on the surfaces of carbonates are epitaxially intergrown with one another in "stacks" of single-domain crystals. Other magnetite nanocrystals are epitaxially intergrown with the surfaces of the carbonate substrates. The observed magnetite/carbonate (hkl) Miller indices orientation relationships are (1, 1,3)m ¿¿ (1, 1 ,0)c and (1, 1 ,1)m ¿¿ (0,0, 3)c with lattice mismatches of approximately 13% and approximately 11%, respectively. Epitaxy is a common mode of vapor-phase growth of refractory oxides like magnetite, as is the spiral growth about axial screw dislocations previously observed in other magnetite nanocrystals in ALH 84001. Epitaxy rules out intracellular precipitation of these magnetites by (Martian) organisms, provides further evidence of the high-temperature (> 120 degrees C) inorganic origins of magnetite in ALH 84001, and indicates that the carbonates also have been exposed to elevated temperatures. PMID:11543075

  17. Surface charge screening and boundary conditions for high two-beam coupling gain in pure liquid crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyadyusha, Andriy; Kaczmarek, Malgosia; Gilchrist, Graham; D'Alessandro, Giampaolo; Parka, Janusz; Dabrowski, Roman S.

    2004-12-01

    We report on asymmetric two-beam coupling and the ways of controlling it in liquid crystals cells with photoconducting polymer layers. The cells had one of the substrates covered with a photoconductive polymer layer, namely PVK, photosensitised with C60 to respond to visible light. Efficient gain was measured in 30 micron thick cells with two incident beams having the same intensity. We present a model of two-beam coupling gain based on the build-up and discharge of surface charge screening layers, spatially modulated due to the photoconductivity of doped PVK. The simulation of electric field distribution inside a liquid crystal cell for different two-beam coupling grating spacing showed different penetration of field into the liquid crystal bulk. The characteristics of dynamics, magnitude of two-beam coupling and the efficiency of diffraction were determined for different values of applied DC field, cell configuration and liquid crystals. We found that the direction of energy flow was determined just by the cell tilt and not by the DC field bias.

  18. Hydrothermal Preparation of Apatite Composite with Magnetite or Anatase

    SciTech Connect

    Murakami, Setsuaki; Ishida, Emile H.; Ioku, Koji

    2006-05-15

    Microstructure designed porous hydroxyapatite (Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2) composites with magnetite (Fe3O4) particles or anatase (TiO2) dispersion were prepared by hydrothermal treatment. These composites had micro-pores of about 0.1-0.5 {mu}m in size. Magnetite / Hydroxyapatite composites should be suitable for medical treatment of cancer, especially in bones, because HA can bond to bones directly and magnetite can generate heat. They must be used for hyperthermia therapies of cancer in bones. Meanwhile, anatase / Hydroxyapatite composite should be suitable for environmental purification, because HA rod-shape particles expose the specific crystal face, which adsorbs organic contaminants and so on.

  19. Sonoelectrochemical synthesis of magnetite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabrera, L.; Gutirrez, S.; Herrasti, P.; Reyman, D.

    2010-01-01

    The effects of ultrasound (US) on the direct electrosynthesis of magnetite (Fe3O4) nanoparticles are investigated. The electrochemical system consists of two electrodes; anode and cathode, both of iron, and 99.5% purity. The anode is a sacrificial electrode, which when oxidized generates the desired Fe3O4. Cationic surfactants are used in the synthetic system as supporting electrolytes and as a protective layer which covers the obtained nanoparticles in order to avoid aggregation. In order to study the influence of ultrasound in the synthesis of Fe3O4, the experiments were compared to the same systems without the application of ultrasound. Physical properties of the reaction product, such as morphology and particle size, were characterized by means of X-ray diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy. Size distribution studies in function of the application and variation of the US parameters are shown. The effect of US on the magnetic properties of Fe3O4 was studied by means of hysteresis loops. The experimental results were compared to those obtained during the synthesis of Fe3O4 without the US presence.

  20. Gigantism in unique biogenic magnetite at the PaleoceneEocene Thermal Maximum

    PubMed Central

    Schumann, Dirk; Raub, Timothy D.; Kopp, Robert E.; Guerquin-Kern, Jean-Luc; Wu, Ting-Di; Rouiller, Isabelle; Smirnov, Aleksey V.; Sears, S. Kelly; Lcken, Uwe; Tikoo, Sonia M.; Hesse, Reinhard; Kirschvink, Joseph L.; Vali, Hojatollah

    2008-01-01

    We report the discovery of exceptionally large biogenic magnetite crystals in clay-rich sediments spanning the PaleoceneEocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) in a borehole at Ancora, NJ. Aside from previously described abundant bacterial magnetofossils, electron microscopy reveals novel spearhead-like and spindle-like magnetite up to 4 ?m long and hexaoctahedral prisms up to 1.4 ?m long. Similar to magnetite produced by magnetotactic bacteria, these single-crystal particles exhibit chemical composition, lattice perfection, and oxygen isotopes consistent with an aquatic origin. Electron holography indicates single-domain magnetization despite their large crystal size. We suggest that the development of a thick suboxic zone with high iron bioavailabilitya product of dramatic changes in weathering and sedimentation patterns driven by severe global warmingdrove diversification of magnetite-forming organisms, likely including eukaryotes. PMID:18936486

  1. Incorporation and retention of 99-Tc(IV) in magnetite under high pH conditions.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Timothy A; Morris, Katherine; Law, Gareth T W; Mosselmans, J Frederick W; Bots, Pieter; Parry, Stephen A; Shaw, Samuel

    2014-10-21

    Technetium incorporation into magnetite and its behavior during subsequent oxidation has been investigated at high pH to determine the technetium retention mechanism(s) on formation and oxidative perturbation of magnetite in systems relevant to radioactive waste disposal. Ferrihydrite was exposed to Tc(VII)(aq) containing cement leachates (pH 10.5-13.1), and crystallization of magnetite was induced via addition of Fe(II)aq. A combination of X-ray diffraction (XRD), chemical extraction, and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) techniques provided direct evidence that Tc(VII) was reduced and incorporated into the magnetite structure. Subsequent air oxidation of the magnetite particles for up to 152 days resulted in only limited remobilization of the incorporated Tc(IV). Analysis of both X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) data indicated that the Tc(IV) was predominantly incorporated into the magnetite octahedral site in all systems studied. On reoxidation in air, the incorporated Tc(IV) was recalcitrant to oxidative dissolution with less than 40% remobilization to solution despite significant oxidation of the magnetite to maghemite/goethite: All solid associated Tc remained as Tc(IV). The results of this study provide the first direct evidence for significant Tc(IV) incorporation into the magnetite structure and confirm that magnetite incorporated Tc(IV) is recalcitrant to oxidative dissolution. Immobilization of Tc(VII) by reduction and incorporation into magnetite at high pH and with significant stability upon reoxidation has clear and important implications for limiting technetium migration under conditions where magnetite is formed including in geological disposal of radioactive wastes. PMID:25236360

  2. Crystal Plasticity Analysis of Texture Evolution of Pure Aluminum During Processing by a New Severe Plastic Deformation Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khajezade, Ali; Parsa, Mohammad Habibi; Mirzadeh, Hamed

    2015-11-01

    Texture evolution in a newly developed severe plastic deformation technique, named multi-axial incremental forging and shearing (MAIFS), was studied applying the visco-plastic self-consistent crystal plasticity formulation by consideration of macroscopic deformation history. The simulated texture evolutions revealed that although shear-like texture had developed by the MAIFS process, texture components rotated around normal to mid-plane section. This could be ascribed to the complex deformation history that naturally develops during processing by the MAIFS process. The increased complexity of the deformation history in the MAIFS process, compared to the techniques that are solely based on the simple shear deformation, causes more activated slip planes, which in turn can result in an enhanced grain refinement ability of this processing technique.

  3. Crystal Plasticity Analysis of Texture Evolution of Pure Aluminum During Processing by a New Severe Plastic Deformation Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khajezade, Ali; Parsa, Mohammad Habibi; Mirzadeh, Hamed

    2016-02-01

    Texture evolution in a newly developed severe plastic deformation technique, named multi-axial incremental forging and shearing (MAIFS), was studied applying the visco-plastic self-consistent crystal plasticity formulation by consideration of macroscopic deformation history. The simulated texture evolutions revealed that although shear-like texture had developed by the MAIFS process, texture components rotated around normal to mid-plane section. This could be ascribed to the complex deformation history that naturally develops during processing by the MAIFS process. The increased complexity of the deformation history in the MAIFS process, compared to the techniques that are solely based on the simple shear deformation, causes more activated slip planes, which in turn can result in an enhanced grain refinement ability of this processing technique.

  4. Reflectance anisotropy spectroscopy of magnetite (110) surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleischer, K.; Verre, R.; Mauit, O.; Sofin, R. G. S.; Farrell, L.; Byrne, C.; Smith, C. M.; McGilp, J. F.; Shvets, I. V.

    2014-05-01

    Reflectance anisotropy spectroscopy (RAS) has been used to measure the optical anisotropies of bulk and thin-film Fe3O4(110) surfaces. The spectra indicate that small shifts in energy of the optical transitions, associated with anisotropic strain or electric field gradients caused by the (110) surface termination or a native oxide layer, are responsible for the strong signal observed. The RAS response was then measured as a function of temperature. A distinct change in the RAS line-shape amplitude was observed in the spectral range from 0.8 to 1.6 eV for temperatures below the Verwey transition of the crystal. Finally, thin-film magnetite was grown by molecular beam epitaxy on MgO(110) substrates. Changes in the RAS spectra were found for different film thickness, suggesting that RAS can be used to monitor the growth of magnetite (110) films in situ. The thickness dependence of the RAS is discussed in terms of various models for the origin of the RAS signal.

  5. Possible Eukaryotic Magnetite in the Paleocene-Eocene Boundary Clay, Ancora, New Jersey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schumann, D.; Raub, T. D.; Kopp, R. E.; Tikoo, S. M.; Sears, S. K.; Leucken, U.; Rouiller, I.; Smirnov, A. V.; Kirschvink, J. L.; Vali, H.

    2007-12-01

    We report the discovery of new forms of magnetic particles in the Paleocene-Eocene (P-E) boundary clay from the borehole at Ancora, New Jersey (Ocean Drilling Program Leg 174AX). The P-E boundary clay shows anomalous magnetic properties suggesting enrichment in single-domain (SD) magnetite. Transmission electron microscopy of the magnetic separates shows that the majority of the SD particles are magnetofossils of known crystal shape and size [1]. There are, however, larger magnetite particles having unusual morphology, including: (1) elongated prismatic magnetite of 100 nm width and up to 1 micron length, (2) leaflike magnetite particles up to 2 microns in length, and (3) elongated, conelike particles with an aspect ratio of 4:1. Lattice-fringe images and X-ray microanalysis of these particles show single-crystal structure and stochiometric magnetite composition, similar to magnetite crystals produced by magnetotactic bacteria. Although the dimensions of some of the type 2 and type 3 particles are outside that expected for single-domain behaviour as typically calculated for parallelepipeds and ellipsoids [2], electron holographic analysis reveals a SD signature. It is likely that these magnetic particles are of biogenic origin, as we were unable to find significant amounts of obviously detrital magnetite in the sediments. As these unusual magnetic particles are confined to the narrow P-E boundary layer, environmental changes along the eastern Atlantic margin of North America during the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) may have led to enhanced growth, and perhaps diversification, of magnetite-forming microorganisms. The dimensions of the observed magnetite particles, however, exceed the size of prokaryotes; if they were, indeed, biogenic, they were likely formed by an unknown eukaryotic organism. References: [1] R. E. Kopp et al., 2007. Paleoceanography (in press). [2] R. E. Kopp and J. L. Kirschvink, 2007. Earth Science Reviews. doi:10.1016/j.earscirev.2007.08.001.

  6. Pure- and mixed-crystal optical studies of the Jahn-Teller effect for the d/sup 6/ hexafluoroplatinate (IV) ion

    SciTech Connect

    Laurent, M.P.; Patterson, H.H.; Pike, H.; Engstrom, H.

    1981-02-01

    Measurements have been made of the low-temperature luminescence and Raman spectra of pure Cs/sub 2/PtF/sub 6/ crystals and Cs/sub 2/PtF/sub 6/-Cs/sub 2/GeF/sub 6/ crystals in which PtF/sub 6//sup 2 -/ is doped into the Cs/sub 2/SiF/sub 6/ lattice. In both environments, the Raman spectra at liquid-helium temperature show sharp lines assigned to the a/sub 1g/, e/sub g/, and t/sub 2g/ internal modes of the PtF/sub 6//sup 2 -/ ion. A comparison of the low-temperature Raman and sharp-line luminescence spectra indicates that in the luminescence spectra a Jahn-Teller e/sub g/-type progression occurs with a small degree of anharmonicity present. The luminescence can be assigned as a transition from the t/sub 2//sup 5/e/sub g/GAMMA/sub 3/(/sup 3/T/sub 1g/) twofold degenerate excited electronic state to the t/sub 2g//sup 6/GAMMA/sub 1/(/sup 1/A/sub 1g/) nondegenerate ground electronic state.

  7. Hydrogen-bond-dynamics-based switching of conductivity and magnetism: a phase transition caused by deuterium and electron transfer in a hydrogen-bonded purely organic conductor crystal.

    PubMed

    Ueda, Akira; Yamada, Shota; Isono, Takayuki; Kamo, Hiromichi; Nakao, Akiko; Kumai, Reiji; Nakao, Hironori; Murakami, Youichi; Yamamoto, Kaoru; Nishio, Yutaka; Mori, Hatsumi

    2014-08-27

    A hydrogen bond (H-bond) is one of the most fundamental and important noncovalent interactions in chemistry, biology, physics, and all other molecular sciences. Especially, the dynamics of a proton or a hydrogen atom in the H-bond has attracted increasing attention, because it plays a crucial role in (bio)chemical reactions and some physical properties, such as dielectricity and proton conductivity. Here we report unprecedented H-bond-dynamics-based switching of electrical conductivity and magnetism in a H-bonded purely organic conductor crystal, ?-D3(Cat-EDT-TTF)2 (abbreviated as ?-D). This novel crystal ?-D, a deuterated analogue of ?-H3(Cat-EDT-TTF)2 (abbreviated as ?-H), is composed only of a H-bonded molecular unit, in which two crystallographically equivalent catechol-fused ethylenedithiotetrathiafulvalene (Cat-EDT-TTF) skeletons with a +0.5 charge are linked by a symmetric anionic [ODO](-1)-type strong H-bond. Although the deuterated and parent hydrogen systems, ?-D and ?-H, are isostructural paramagnetic semiconductors with a dimer-Mott-type electronic structure at room temperature (space group: C2/c), only ?-D undergoes a phase transition at 185 K, to change to a nonmagnetic insulator with a charge-ordered electronic structure (space group: P1). The X-ray crystal structure analysis demonstrates that this dramatic switching of the electronic structure and physical properties originates from deuterium transfer or displacement within the H-bond accompanied by electron transfer between the Cat-EDT-TTF ?-systems, proving that the H-bonded deuterium dynamics and the conducting TTF ?-electron are cooperatively coupled. Furthermore, the reason why this unique phase transition occurs only in ?-D is qualitatively discussed in terms of the H/D isotope effect on the H-bond geometry and potential energy curve. PMID:25127315

  8. Site-specific magnetization reversal studies of magnetite

    SciTech Connect

    Cady, A.; Haskel, D.; Lang, J. C.; Islam, Z.; Srajer, G.; Ankudinov, A.; Subias, G.; Garcia, J.

    2006-04-01

    The mechanism of magnetization reversal in magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}) single crystals was studied using site-specific magnetic sensitive diffraction anomalous near-edge structure. By exploiting the angular dependence of the cross section, we are able to show that the mechanism of reversal involves a mixture of coherent rotation and domain formation. The results reveal additional details to that provided by XMCD measurements, which average over nonequivalent sites.

  9. Exchange bias in polycrystalline magnetite films made by ion-beam assisted deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Kaur, Maninder; Jiang, Weilin; Qiang, You; Burks, Edward; Liu, Kai; Namavar, Fereydoon; Mccloy, John S.

    2014-11-03

    Iron oxide films were deposited onto Si substrates using ion-beam-assisted deposition. The films were ~300 nm thick polycrystalline magnetite with an average crystallite size of ~6 nm. Additionally, incorporation of significant fractions of argon in the films from ion bombardment is evident from chemical analysis, and Fe/O ratios are lower than expected from pure magnetite. However, Raman spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction both indicate that the films are single-phase magnetite. Since no direct evidence of a second phase could be found, exchange bias likely arises due to defects at grain boundaries, possibly amorphous, creating frustrated spins. Since these samples have such small grains, a large fraction of the material consists of grain boundaries, where spins are highly disordered and reverse independently with external field. The high energy deposition process results in an oxygen-rich, argon-containing magnetite film with low temperature exchange bias due to defects at the high concentration of grain boundaries.

  10. Structural insight into magnetochrome-mediated magnetite biomineralization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siponen, Marina I.; Legrand, Pierre; Widdrat, Marc; Jones, Stephanie R.; Zhang, Wei-Jia; Chang, Michelle C. Y.; Faivre, Damien; Arnoux, Pascal; Pignol, David

    2013-10-01

    Magnetotactic bacteria align along the Earth's magnetic field using an organelle called the magnetosome, a biomineralized magnetite (Fe(II)Fe(III)2O4) or greigite (Fe(II)Fe(III)2S4) crystal embedded in a lipid vesicle. Although the need for both iron(II) and iron(III) is clear, little is known about the biological mechanisms controlling their ratio. Here we present the structure of the magnetosome-associated protein MamP and find that it is built on a unique arrangement of a self-plugged PDZ domain fused to two magnetochrome domains, defining a new class of c-type cytochrome exclusively found in magnetotactic bacteria. Mutational analysis, enzyme kinetics, co-crystallization with iron(II) and an in vitro MamP-assisted magnetite production assay establish MamP as an iron oxidase that contributes to the formation of iron(III) ferrihydrite eventually required for magnetite crystal growth in vivo. These results demonstrate the molecular mechanisms of iron management taking place inside the magnetosome and highlight the role of magnetochrome in iron biomineralization.

  11. Some Properties of Magnetite Nanoparticles Produced Under Different Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Umar Saeed; Khattak, Nazir Shah; Manan, Abdul; Rahman, Aminur; Khan, Faridullah; Rahim, Abdur

    2015-01-01

    Temperature, stirring rate, stirring time, reaction pH, and concentration of precursors during synthesis were found to be crucial in determining the size of the magnetite nanoparticles (NPs) obtained. The relationship between synthetic conditions and the crystal structure, particle size, and size distribution of the NPs was studied. Surface coating of iron oxide NPs was performed in two steps. Magnetite NPs were prepared by coprecipitation then coated with silica by use of a sol-gel process. Saturation magnetization of the magnetite NPs increased from 47.23 to 49.12 emu/g when their size was increased from 8.89 to 9.39 nm. Magnetite NPs in the size range 11-12 nm, coated with silica, are monodispersed and their corresponding saturation magnetization is 40.67 emu/g (11 nm) and 34.65 emu/g (12 nm). The decrease in the saturation magnetization of the coated samples is attributed to the increase in the amount of tetraethyl orthosilicate.

  12. Synthesis and characterization of magnetite nanoparticles from mineral magnetite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morel, Mauricio; Martínez, Francisco; Mosquera, Edgar

    2013-10-01

    We have synthesized magnetite nanoparticles with sizes that range from 20 to 30 nm from mineral magnetite roughly 45 μm in size. The procedure consists in the dissolution of the mineral in an acidic medium and subsequent precipitation in a basic medium in the presence of oleic acid. Two experiments were conducted in different gaseous environments. The first was carried out in an environment exposed to air (M1) and the second in an N2 (M2) environment. The x-ray diffraction results showed a slight difference, which corresponds to the surface oxidation of magnetite. The sizes of the modified nanoparticles were determined through the Scherrer equation and transmission electron microscopy. An organic material mass loss corresponding to 18% was observed through a thermogravimetric analysis. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic analysis provides information about the type of bond that is formed on the surface of the nanoparticle, which corresponds to a bidentate chelate. The vibrating sample magnetometer results show a superparamagnetic behavior for sample M1.

  13. Biophysics of Magnetic Orientation: Radical Pairs, Biogenic Magnetite, or both?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirschvink, Joe

    2011-03-01

    Two major biophysical mechanisms for magnetoreception in terrestrial animals, one based on biogenic magnetite and another on radical-pair biochemical reactions, have been the subject of experiment and debate for the past 30 years. The magnetite hypothesis has stood the test of time: biogenic magnetite is synthesized biochemically in Bacteria, Protists, and numerous Animal phyla, as well as in some plants. Chains of single-domain crystals have been detected by clean-lab based SQUID magnetometry in animal tissues in all major phyla, followed by high-resolution TEM in selected model organisms, as well as by electrophysiological studies demonstrating the role of the ophthalmic branch of the trigeminal nerve in the magnetoreceptive process. Pulse-remagnetization - configured to uniquely flip the polarity of single-domain ferromagnets - has dramatic effects on the behavior of many birds, honeybees, mole rats, turtles, and bats, to cite a growing list. Magnetite-containing cells in the vicinity of these neurons in fish are now the subject of intense study by our consortium. The existence of a specialized class of magnetite-containing magnetoreceptor cells in animal tissues is no longer controversial. In contrast, less success has been achieved in gaining experimental support across a range of taxa for the radical-pair hypothesis. Although this mechanism was proposed to explain an early observation that birds would not respond to complete inversion of the magnetic vector, many organisms (even some birds) do indeed respond to the field polarity. We also note that few, if any, of these critical experiments have been done using fully double-blind methods. This is joint work with: M. M. Walker (University of Auckland, New Zealand) and M. Winklhofer (LMU Munich, Germany).

  14. Dissolution and reduction of magnetite by bacteria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kostka, J. E.; Nealson, K. H.

    1995-01-01

    Magnetite (Fe3O4) is an iron oxide of mixed oxidation state [Fe(II), Fe(III)] that contributes largely to geomagnetism and plays a significant role in diagenesis in marine and freshwater sediments. Magnetic data are the primary evidence for ocean floor spreading and accurate interpretation of the sedimentary magnetic record depends on an understanding of the conditions under which magnetite is stable. Though chemical reduction of magnetite by dissolved sulfide is well known, biological reduction has not been considered likely based upon thermodynamic considerations. This study shows that marine and freshwater strains of the bacterium Shewanella putrefaciens are capable of the rapid dissolution and reduction of magnetite, converting millimolar amounts to soluble Fe(II)in a few days at room temperature. Conditions under which magnetite reduction is optimal (pH 5-6, 22-37 degrees C) are consistent with an enzymatic process and not with simple chemical reduction. Magnetite reduction requires viable cells and cell contact, and it appears to be coupled to electron transport and growth. In a minimal medium with formate or lactate as the electron donor, more than 10 times the amount of magnetite was reduced over no carbon controls. These data suggest that magnetite reduction is coupled to carbon metabolism in S. putrefaciens. Bacterial reduction rates of magnetite are of the same order of magnitude as those estimated for reduction by sulfide. If such remobilization of magnetite occurs in nature, it could have a major impact on sediment magnetism and diagenesis.

  15. Dissolution and reduction of magnetite by bacteria.

    PubMed

    Kostka, J E; Nealson, K H

    1995-10-01

    Magnetite (Fe3O4) is an iron oxide of mixed oxidation state [Fe(II), Fe(III)] that contributes largely to geomagnetism and plays a significant role in diagenesis in marine and freshwater sediments. Magnetic data are the primary evidence for ocean floor spreading and accurate interpretation of the sedimentary magnetic record depends on an understanding of the conditions under which magnetite is stable. Though chemical reduction of magnetite by dissolved sulfide is well known, biological reduction has not been considered likely based upon thermodynamic considerations. This study shows that marine and freshwater strains of the bacterium Shewanella putrefaciens are capable of the rapid dissolution and reduction of magnetite, converting millimolar amounts to soluble Fe(II)in a few days at room temperature. Conditions under which magnetite reduction is optimal (pH 5-6, 22-37 degrees C) are consistent with an enzymatic process and not with simple chemical reduction. Magnetite reduction requires viable cells and cell contact, and it appears to be coupled to electron transport and growth. In a minimal medium with formate or lactate as the electron donor, more than 10 times the amount of magnetite was reduced over no carbon controls. These data suggest that magnetite reduction is coupled to carbon metabolism in S. putrefaciens. Bacterial reduction rates of magnetite are of the same order of magnitude as those estimated for reduction by sulfide. If such remobilization of magnetite occurs in nature, it could have a major impact on sediment magnetism and diagenesis. PMID:11539843

  16. Thermal treatment of magnetite nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Wykowska, Urszula; Satula, Dariusz; Nordblad, Per

    2015-01-01

    Summary This paper presents the results of a thermal treatment process for magnetite nanoparticles in the temperature range of 50–500 °C. The tested magnetite nanoparticles were synthesized using three different methods that resulted in nanoparticles with different surface characteristics and crystallinity, which in turn, was reflected in their thermal durability. The particles were obtained by coprecipitation from Fe chlorides and decomposition of an Fe(acac)3 complex with and without a core–shell structure. Three types of ferrite nanoparticles were produced and their thermal stability properties were compared. In this study, two sets of unmodified magnetite nanoparticles were used where crystallinity was as determinant of the series. For the third type of particles, a Ag shell was added. By comparing the coated and uncoated particles, the influence of the metallic layer on the thermal stability of the nanoparticles was tested. Before and after heat treatment, the nanoparticles were examined using transmission electron microscopy, IR spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffraction and Mössbauer spectroscopy. Based on the obtained results, it was observed that the fabrication methods determine, to some extent, the sensitivity of the nanoparticles to external factors. PMID:26199842

  17. Magnetite-Based Magnetoreceptor Cells in the Olfactory Organ of Rainbow Trout and Zebrafish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirschvink, J. L.; Cadiou, H.; Dixson, A. D.; Eder, S.; Kobayashi, A.; McNaughton, P. A.; Muhamad, A. N.; Raub, T. D.; Walker, M. M.; Winklhofer, M.; Yuen, B. B.

    2011-12-01

    Many vertebrate and invertebrate animals have a geomagnetic sensory system, but the biophysics and anatomy of how magnetic stimuli are transduced to the nervous system is a challenging problem. Previous work in our laboratories identified single-domain magnetite chains in olfactory epithelium in cells proximal to the ros V nerve, which, in rainbow trout, responds to magnetic fields. Our objectives are to characterize these magnetite-containing cells and determine whether they form part of the mechanism of magnetic field transduction in teleost fishes, as a model for other Vertebrates. Using a combination of reflection mode confocal microscopy and a Prussian Blue technique modified to stain specifically for magnetite, our Auckland group estimated that both juvenile rainbow trout (ca. 7 cm total length) olfactory rosettes have ~200 magnetite-containing cells. The magnetite present in two types of cells within the olfactory epithelium appears to be arranged in intracellular chains. All of our groups (Munich, Auckland, Cambridge and Caltech) have obtained different types of structural evidence that magnetite chains closely associate with the plasma membrane in the cells, even in disaggregated tissues. In addition, our Cambridge group used Ca2+ imaging to demonstrate a clear response by individual magnetite-containing cells to a step change in the intensity of the external magnetic field and a slow change in Ca2+ activity when the external magnetic field was cancelled. In the teleost, zebrafish (Danio rerio), a small (~4 cm adult length in captivity) genetic and developmental biology model organism, our Caltech group detected ferromagnetic material throughout the body, but concentrated in the rostral trunk, using NRM and IRM scans of whole adults. Our analysis suggests greater than one million, 80-100 nm crystals, with Lowrie-Fuller curves strongly consistent with single-domain magnetite in 100-100,000 magnetocytes. Ferromagentic resonance (FMR) spectra show crystals with narrow particle size distribution concentrated in the trunk, similar to biogenic magnetofossils. In SQUID microscopy images numerous dipole spots are widely distributed throughout the flank, not correlated with skin pigments or the spinal cord and neural arches. We interpret this to indicate a lateral line location for trunk magnetite in zebrafish. In contrast to trout in which rock magnetic experiments and TEM suggest highly interacting bundled ropes of crystals, similar to those in the large magnetotactic bacterium, M. bavaricum, zebrafish magnetic aggregates apparently arrange in clumps or mixed chains and clumps. We report trout olfactory epithelium containing magnetite magnetoreceptors that transduce the external magnetic field, then encode and transmit it to the brain, while zebrafish contain magnetite in the lateral line region.

  18. Lightning-strike fusion of gabbro and formation of magnetite-bearing fulgurite, Cornone di Blumone, Adamello, Western Alps, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grapes, Rodney H.; Mller-Sigmund, Hiltrud

    2010-05-01

    The Adamello gabbro exposed on the summit of Cornone di Blumone, Western Alps, Italy, has been fused by lightning strikes to form magnetite-rich fulgurites produced by melting of magnetite, hornblende, calcic plagioclase and minor clinopyroxene. The composition of quench magnetite in the fulgurite is 44.4 Fe3O4; 27.5 MgFe2O4; 15.1 FeAl2O4; 7.9 Fe2TiO4; 2.5 Fe2SiO4; 1.9 CaFe2O4; 0.8 MnFe2O4 and is inferred to have crystallized from a low-Si, Fe-rich melt under high oxidation conditions of about 1 log unit below the log10O2 of hematite-magnetite. The low Si, Fe-rich melt is considered to have been produced from fusion of magnetite + hornblende-rich areas of the host gabbro and/or possible separation of an immiscible high Fe2O3/FeO Fe-rich, low-Si melt from a more siliceous glass during superheating. Skeletal-dendritic morphologies of magnetite in the fulgurite indicate crystallization under conditions of extreme supercooling. Juxtaposition of areas exhibiting different growth habits and crystal sizes of magnetite may reflect compositionally different local melt domains and/or small differences in the delicate balance between nucleation and growth in domains that had slightly different, although ultrafast, cooling rates.

  19. Magnetite fractionation of "chalcophile" elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mavrogenes, J. A.; Jenner, F. E.; Arculus, R. J.

    2008-12-01

    Submarine-quenched glasses provide the clearest record of magmatic evolution available, especially with respect to potentially volatile elements and compounds. A comprehensive suite of arc- and backarc glasses recovered during several research voyages in the SW Pacific are being analysed by a number of research teams in an effort to document genesis and fractionation processes involved in the evolution of subduction- related magma systems. As part of these studies, a suite of basalt to dacite composition glasses recovered from the arc-like Pacmanus Site in the Manus Backarc Basin have been examined in detail. Sun et al. (2004) found trends of increasing enrichments of Re, Cu, and Au with SiO2 in the range from 50 to 60 wt% SiO2. From this stage of magmatic evolution, marked depletions in all these elements are observed in glasses of higher SiO2 contents. The reasons for this trend have been unclear, although a mechanism involving the cessation of olivine and initiation of magnetite saturation was proposed by Sun et al. Our analysis of a larger suite of glasses from the Manus Basin has now confirmed these trends, and found the same behaviour for Zn and Mn. Similarly, analysis of a suite of basalt to dacite glasses recovered from the arc-like Valu Fa Ridge in the Lau Backarc Basin has produced trends for these elements very similar to those of the Pacmanus location. LA-ICP-MS analysis of microphenocrysts in these glasses has shown that magnetite is highly enriched in Re relative to the coexisting melt (Kd up to 7.8 for Re). Magnetite/melt partition coefficients for Re, Mn and Yb can be used to precisely model the liquid line of descent during magnetite (plus clinopyroxene and plagioclase) fractionation using Re vs. Mn/Yb. The variation of Pt abundances with SiO2 for both these suites contrasts with other nominally chalcophile trace elements in showing rapid early depletion from the most Mg-rich basalt through to more SiO2-rich compositions, with no maximum at 60 wt% SiO2. Silver on the other hand is essentially constant at 0.02 to 0.05ppm throughout the basalt to dacite compositional range. Several other compositional features of the Pacmanus and Valu Fa suites are also noteworthy. For example while S has an abundance maximum at 60wt% SiO2 (similar to Fe and Re), and then diminishes in concentration in more silica-rich magmas, Se is initially depleted at 60wt% SiO2 but then increases in abundance as SiO2 increases further. We suggest these features result from sulfide saturation coincidentally with (or shortly after) magnetite saturation. While Se is initially partitioned into the immiscible sulfide phase, moderate incompatibility remains between the overall fractionating assemblage of plagioclase-pyroxene- magnetite and minor sulfide. Pt on the other hand is likely being removed as a native element/alloy. Sun, W, Arculus, RJ, Kamenetsky, VS and Binns, RA, 2004, Release of gold-bearing fluids in convergent margin magmas prompted by magnetite crystallisation. Nature, v. 431, p. 975-978.

  20. Formation of Magnetite Nanoparticles at Low Temperature: From Superparamagnetic to Stable Single Domain Particles

    PubMed Central

    Baumgartner, Jens; Bertinetti, Luca; Widdrat, Marc; Hirt, Ann M.; Faivre, Damien

    2013-01-01

    The room temperature co-precipitation of ferrous and ferric iron under alkaline conditions typically yields superparamagnetic magnetite nanoparticles below a size of 20 nm. We show that at pH  =  9 this method can be tuned to grow larger particles with single stable domain magnetic (> 20–30 nm) or even multi-domain behavior (> 80 nm). The crystal growth kinetics resembles surprisingly observations of magnetite crystal formation in magnetotactic bacteria. The physicochemical parameters required for mineralization in these organisms are unknown, therefore this study provides insight into which conditions could possibly prevail in the biomineralizing vesicle compartments (magnetosomes) of these bacteria. PMID:23520462

  1. From iron(III) precursor to magnetite and vice versa

    SciTech Connect

    Gotic, M.; Jurkin, T.; Music, S.

    2009-10-15

    The syntheses of nanosize magnetite particles by wet-chemical oxidation of Fe{sup 2+} have been extensively investigated. In the present investigation the nanosize magnetite particles were synthesised without using the Fe(II) precursor. This was achieved by {gamma}-irradiation of water-in-oil microemulsion containing only the Fe(III) precursor. The corresponding phase transformations were monitored. Microemulsions (pH {approx} 12.5) were {gamma}-irradiated at a relatively high dose rate of {approx}22 kGy/h. Upon 1 h of {gamma}-irradiation the XRD pattern of the precipitate showed goethite and unidentified low-intensity peaks. Upon 6 h of {gamma}-irradiation, reductive conditions were achieved and substoichiometric magnetite ({approx}Fe{sub 2.71}O{sub 4}) particles with insignificant amount of goethite particles found in the precipitate. Hydrated electrons (e{sub aq}{sup -}), organic radicals and hydrogen gas as radiolytic products were responsible for the reductive dissolution of iron oxide in the microemulsion and the reduction Fe{sup 3+} {yields} Fe{sup 2+}. Upon 18 h of {gamma}-irradiation the precipitate exhibited dual behaviour, it was a more oxidised product than the precipitate obtained after 6 h of {gamma}-irradiation, but it contained magnetite particles in a more reduced form ({approx}Fe{sub 2.93}O{sub 4}). It was presumed that the reduction and oxidation processes existed as concurrent competitive processes in the microemulsion. After 18 h of {gamma}-irradiation the pH of the medium shifted from the alkaline to the acidic range. The high dose rate of {approx}22 kGy/h was directly responsible for this shift to the acidic range. At a slightly acidic pH a further reduction of Fe{sup 3+} {yields} Fe{sup 2+} resulted in the formation of more stoichiometric magnetite particles, whereas the oxidation conditions in the acidic medium permitted the oxidation Fe{sup 2+} {yields} Fe{sup 3+}. The Fe{sup 3+} was much less soluble in the acidic medium and it hydrolysed and recrystallised as goethite. The {gamma}-irradiation of the microemulsion for 25 h at a lower dose rate of 16 kGy/h produced pure substoichiometric nanosize magnetite particles of about 25 nm in size and with the stoichiometry of Fe{sub 2.83}O{sub 4}.

  2. Vortex magnetic structure in framboidal magnetite reveals existence of water droplets in an ancient asteroid.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Yuki; Sato, Takeshi; Nakamura, Norihiro; Nozawa, Jun; Nakamura, Tomoki; Tsukamoto, Katsuo; Yamamoto, Kazuo

    2013-01-01

    The majority of water has vanished from modern meteorites, yet there remain signatures of water on ancient asteroids. How and when water disappeared from the asteroids is important, because the final fluid-concentrated chemical species played critical roles in the early evolution of organics and in the final minerals in meteorites. Here we show evidence of vestigial traces of water based on a nanometre-scale palaeomagnetic method, applying electron holography to the framboids in the Tagish Lake meteorite. The framboids are colloidal crystals composed of three-dimensionally ordered magnetite nanoparticles and therefore are only able to form against the repulsive force induced by the surface charge of the magnetite as a water droplet parches in microgravity. We demonstrate that the magnetites have a flux closure vortex structure, a unique magnetic configuration in nature that permits the formation of colloidal crystals just before exhaustion of water from a local system within a hydrous asteroid. PMID:24149376

  3. Surface complexation modeling of Fe3O4-H+ and Mg(II) sorption onto maghemite and magnetite.

    PubMed

    Jolster, Rickard; Gunneriusson, Lars; Holmgren, Allan

    2012-11-15

    The surface acid/base properties of magnetite (Fe(3)O(4)) particles and the sorption of Mg(2+) onto magnetite and maghemite (?-Fe(2)O(3)) have been studied using high precision potentiometric titrations, batch experiments, and zeta potential measurements. The acid/base properties of magnetite were found to be very similar to maghemite except for the difference in surface site density, N(s) (sites nm(-2)), 1.500.08 for magnetite, and 0.990.05 for maghemite. The experimental proton exchange of the magnetite surface increased from pH 10 and above, indicating dissolution/transformation reactions of magnetite at alkaline conditions. Thus, magnetite with its Fe(II) content proved to be less stable toward dissolution in comparison with pure Fe(III) oxides also at high pH values. Three different ratios between surface sites and added Mg(2+) were used in the sorption experiments viz. 0.5, 1, and 2Mg(2+)site(-1). Surface complexation modeling of the Mg(2+) sorption onto maghemite and magnetite was restricted to pH conditions where the interference from Mg(OH)(2)(s) precipitation could be ruled out. The model calculations showed that Mg(2+) sorb onto the magnetite and maghemite surfaces as a mixture of mono- or bidentate surface complexes at 0.5Mg(2+)site(-1) and as monodentate complexes at 1 and 2Mg(2+)site(-1) conditions. Mg(2+) was also found to adsorb more readily at the maghemite surfaces in comparison with magnetite surfaces. For experiments with excess Mg(2+) relative to the number of surface sites, the calculations suggested the formation of polynuclear surface complexes on maghemite. PMID:22889624

  4. Composition of coarse-grained magnetite from pegmatite dikes related to plutons of quartz monzonite in the Jabal Lababa area, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Overstreet, William C.; Mousa, Hassan; Matzko, John J.

    1985-01-01

    Crystals of magnetite as large as 30 mm long and 7 mm thick are locally present in quartz-rich zones of interior and exterior pegmatite dikes related to plutons of quartz monzonite in the Jabal Lababa area. Niobium, tin, and yttrium are strongly enriched in six specimens of magnetite from interior pegmatite dikes in a small pluton where these elements form geochemical anomalies in nonmagnetic heavy-mineral concentrates from wadi sediment. Less abundant anomalous elements in the magnetite are molybdenum, lead, and zirconium, which also tend to be present in anomalous amounts in the nonmagnetic concentrates from the niobium-bearing pluton. The most anomalous trace element in the magnetite is zinc, which is at least 10 times as abundant as it is in the quartz monzonite plutons or in the nonmagnetic concentrates. The capacity of magnetite to scavenge molybdenum, zinc, niobium, lead, tin, yttrium, and zirconium suggests the possible utility of magnetite as a geochemical sample medium.

  5. Understanding the biological stabilization of ferrihydrite and its transformation to magnetite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, Lyle; Joester, Derk

    2013-03-01

    The biosynthesis of magnetite in the chiton tooth begins with the formation of ferrihydrite, which is transformed into magnetite. This strategy, which employs crystallization of a precursor into the desired polymorph, is generalized across a range of organisms. However, the specific biological factors that control the transformation are not known. Our results employing atom probe tomography of chiton tooth magnetite revealed the presence of acidic proteins binding sodium and magnesium ions associated with chitin nanofibers. Using a model system we are investigating the influence of organic and inorganic additives on the stabilization of ferrihydrite and the transformation to magnetite. I will discuss the influence of a range of organic and inorganic additives on the formation and transformation of ferrihydrite within the gel. We have found that acidic polymers stabilize ferrihydrite and prevent the formation of the crystalline polymorphs. Transformation of the ferrihydrite to magnetite upon addition of ferrous iron is observed as early as 30 minutes. Taken together, the contribution of these factors to magnetite biomineralization in the presence of an organic matrix will help to elucidate biological mechanisms for nucleation, stabilization, and transformation of iron oxides.

  6. Magnetite Particle Size Distribution and Pellet Oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Hyeon Jeong; Tang, Ming; Pistorius, Petrus Christiaan

    2014-08-01

    Oxidation of magnetite pellets is commonly performed to prepare strong pellets for ironmaking. This article presents a contribution to quantitative understanding of fundamental pellet oxidation kinetics, based on measured oxidation kinetics of magnetite particles and pellets. The commonly observed "plateau" oxidation behavior is confirmed to be consistent with the effect of very large differences in magnetite particle sizes in the concentrate from which pellets are produced. The magnetite particles range in size from less than a micron to several tens of a microns; changing the size distribution by inert sintering of pellets decreases both the plateau level of oxidation and the specific surface area, in ways that are compatible with an assumed Rosin-Rammler magnetite particle size distribution.

  7. Magnetite and magnetite/silver core/shell nanoparticles with diluted magnet-like behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Garza-Navarro, Marco; Gonzalez, Virgilio; Ortiz, Ubaldo; De la Rosa, Elder

    2010-01-15

    In the present work is reported the use of the biopolymer chitosan as template for the preparation of magnetite and magnetite/silver core/shell nanoparticles systems, following a two step procedure of magnetite nanoparticles in situ precipitation and subsequent silver ions reduction. The crystalline and morphological characteristics of both magnetite and magnetite/silver core/shell nanoparticles systems were analyzed by high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and nanobeam diffraction patterns (NBD). The results of these studies corroborate the core/shell morphology and the crystalline structure of the magnetite core and the silver shell. Moreover, magnetization temperature dependent, M(T), measurements show an unusual diluted magnetic behavior attributed to the dilution of the magnetic ordering in the magnetite and magnetite/silver core/shell nanoparticles systems. - Graphical abstract: Biopolymer chitosan was used as stabilization media to synthesize both magnetite and magnetite/silver core/shell nanoparticles. Results of HRTEM and NBD patterns confirm core/shell morphology of the obtained nanoparticles. It was found that the composites show diluted magnet-like behavior.

  8. Microstructures Resulting from Uniaxial Deformation of Magnetite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindquist, A. K.; Feinberg, J. M.

    2012-12-01

    Researchers rely on the magnetic record preserved in magnetite when investigating magnetic field reversals, reconstructing past tectonic plate locations, and studying changes in the strength of the earth's magnetic field. Despite the extensive use of magnetite in scientific studies, the effects of dislocations on magnetite's remanence and magnetic stability are poorly understood, yet are crucial to understanding how magnetite records and maintains past magnetic field directions and intensities. To begin to address this need, we have studied the dislocation and defect structures in magnetite that form after controlled deformation. We have also measured major hysteresis loops to investigate the changes in remanence and coercivity that result from each of these deformation events. A single magnetite octahedron was cut into roughly equal bar-shaped pieces, and each was deformed uniaxially along a <121> direction at one atmosphere using a variety of temperature and pressure conditions, each selected to fall within the dislocation glide regime. Slices were cut from each deformed bar after deformation and investigated using a transmission electron microscope to characterize the types of deformation structures resulting from each of the temperature-pressure combinations. A variety of deformation structures were observed, especially dislocations and deformation bands. Dislocations were more common in samples deformed below 875C. Hysteresis loops were measured for each sample with a field direction perpendicular to the deformation axis. Surprisingly, there is no significant difference in the bulk coercivity of a deformed and undeformed piece of magnetite.

  9. High Efficiency DNA Extraction by Graphite Oxide/Cellulose/Magnetite Composites Under Na+ Free System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akceoglu, Garbis Atam; Li, Oi Lun; Saito, Nagahiro

    2016-02-01

    DNA extraction is the key step at various research areas like biotechnology, diagnostic development, paternity determination, and forensic science . Solid support extraction is the most common method for DNA purification. In this method, Na+ ions have often been applied as binding buffers in order to obtain high extraction efficiency and high quality of DNA; however, the presence of Na+ ions might be interfering with the downstream DNA applications. In this study, we proposed graphite oxide (GO)/magnetite composite/cellulose as an innovative material for Na+-free DNA extraction. The total wt.% of GO was fixed at 4.15% in the GO/cellulose/magnetite composite . The concentration of magnetite within the composites were controlled at 0-3.98 wt.%. The extraction yield of DNA increased with increasing weight percentage of magnetite. The highest yield was achieved at 3.98 wt.% magnetite, where the extraction efficiency was reported to be 338.5 ng/µl. The absorbance ratios between 260 nm and 280 nm (A260/A280) of the DNA elution volume was demonstrated as 1.81, indicating the extracted DNA consisted of high purity. The mechanism of adsorption of DNA was provided by (1) π-π interaction between the aromatic ring in GO and nucleobases of DNA molecule, and (2) surface charge interaction between the positive charge magnetite and anions such as phosphates within the DNA molecules. The results proved that the GO/cellulose/magnetite composite provides a Na+-free method for selective DNA extraction with high extraction efficiency of pure DNA.

  10. Three-Dimensional Morphological Analysis of ALH84001 Magnetite Using Electron Tomography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas-Keprta, Kathie L.; Clemett, Simon J.; Shimmin, Joel; Morphew, Mary; McIntosh, J. Richard; Bazylinski, Dennis A.; Kirschvink, Joseph L.; Wentworth, Susan J.; McKay, David S.; Vali, Hojatollah

    2003-01-01

    We report here the crystal morphologies of MV-1 and ALH84001 magnetites as calculated by back-projection using electron tomography. In the present study, we used a 300 keV TEM with a field emission gun (Tecnai F-30 from FEI Inc.), equipped with a 2048 x 2048 pixel CCD camera from Gatan Inc. to image magnetite crystals over tilt ranges of approx. +/- 72 deg in 2 deg tilt intervals. The images were aligned for back-projection, either manually, or through the use of fiducial 5 nm Au spheres affixed to the specimen prior to microscopy. Three-dimensional (3-D) reconstructions were computed using weighted back-projection of the tilted views. The tomograms were viewed and analyzed as a series of slices 1.0 nm thick, taken parallel to the specimen-supporting grid, using the IMOD software package. The shape of each magnetite crystal was determined by defining the external contour of a given magnetite in each slice and assembling a stack of these contours in 3-D. To aid in visualization, the stacked contour array was reduced to an optimal mesh by Delaunay triangulation. The surface normal to each of the triangles in the mesh was calculated and the triangle faces colored according to the orientation of that surface normal relative to the principal crystallographic axis of magnetite. Green surfaces correspond to {111} orientations, blue surfaces to {100} orientations, and red surfaces to {110} orientations. Triangles whose surface normal did not correspond to one of the principal axes were colored gray. Within the experimental and numerical uncertainties of the deconvolution, the tomographic reconstruction of both MV-1 and ALH84001 magnetites are equivalent and correspond to a truncated hexa-octahedral morphology.

  11. Influence of cobalt doping on the hyperthermic efficiency of magnetite nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fantechi, Elvira; Innocenti, Claudia; Albino, Martin; Lottini, Elisabetta; Sangregorio, Claudio

    2015-04-01

    Magnetite nanoparticles (NPs) are extensively investigated for biomedical applications, particularly as contrast agents for Magnetic Resonance Imaging and as heat mediators in Magnetic Fluid Hyperthermia. For the latter, one of the goal of the research is to obtain materials with improved hyperthermic properties. A valuable strategy is the increase of the magnetic anisotropy of commonly employed magnetite through the total or partial substitution of Fe2+ ions with Co2+ ions. Here we present a study on a family of 8 nm Co-doped magnetite NPs (CoxFe3-xO4), with composition ranging from pure magnetite (x=0) to stoichiometric cobalt ferrite (x=1), aimed to investigate the evolution of the hyperthermic properties with the increase of Co content. We found that the addition of a small amount of Co is enough to sharply increase the Specific Absorption Rate (SAR). The SAR further increases with x but it reaches a maximum for an intermediate value (x=0.6). Such anomalous behavior is ascribed to the intrinsic magnetic properties of the material, and, in particular, to the magnetic anisotropy, which displays the same peculiar trend. The Co-doping thus may represent an effective strategy to improve the poor hyperthermic efficiency of very small magnetite NPs (<10 nm).

  12. Novel magnetite-producing magnetotactic bacteria belonging to the Gammaproteobacteria.

    PubMed

    Lefèvre, Christopher T; Viloria, Nathan; Schmidt, Marian L; Pósfai, Mihály; Frankel, Richard B; Bazylinski, Dennis A

    2012-02-01

    Two novel magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) were isolated from sediment and water collected from the Badwater Basin, Death Valley National Park and southeastern shore of the Salton Sea, respectively, and were designated as strains BW-2 and SS-5, respectively. Both organisms are rod-shaped, biomineralize magnetite, and are motile by means of flagella. The strains grow chemolithoautotrophically oxidizing thiosulfate and sulfide microaerobically as electron donors, with thiosulfate oxidized stoichiometrically to sulfate. They appear to utilize the Calvin-Benson-Bassham cycle for autotrophy based on ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RubisCO) activity and the presence of partial sequences of RubisCO genes. Strains BW-2 and SS-5 biomineralize chains of octahedral magnetite crystals, although the crystals of SS-5 are elongated. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequences, both strains are phylogenetically affiliated with the Gammaproteobacteria class. Strain SS-5 belongs to the order Chromatiales; the cultured bacterium with the highest 16S rRNA gene sequence identity to SS-5 is Thiohalocapsa marina (93.0%). Strain BW-2 clearly belongs to the Thiotrichales; interestingly, the organism with the highest 16S rRNA gene sequence identity to this strain is Thiohalospira alkaliphila (90.2%), which belongs to the Chromatiales. Each strain represents a new genus. This is the first report of magnetite-producing MTB phylogenetically associated with the Gammaproteobacteria. This finding is important in that it significantly expands the phylogenetic diversity of the MTB. Physiology of these strains is similar to other MTB and continues to demonstrate their potential in nitrogen, iron, carbon and sulfur cycling in natural environments. PMID:21776027

  13. Novel magnetite-producing magnetotactic bacteria belonging to the Gammaproteobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Lefèvre, Christopher T; Viloria, Nathan; Schmidt, Marian L; Pósfai, Mihály; Frankel, Richard B; Bazylinski, Dennis A

    2012-01-01

    Two novel magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) were isolated from sediment and water collected from the Badwater Basin, Death Valley National Park and southeastern shore of the Salton Sea, respectively, and were designated as strains BW-2 and SS-5, respectively. Both organisms are rod-shaped, biomineralize magnetite, and are motile by means of flagella. The strains grow chemolithoautotrophically oxidizing thiosulfate and sulfide microaerobically as electron donors, with thiosulfate oxidized stoichiometrically to sulfate. They appear to utilize the Calvin–Benson–Bassham cycle for autotrophy based on ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RubisCO) activity and the presence of partial sequences of RubisCO genes. Strains BW-2 and SS-5 biomineralize chains of octahedral magnetite crystals, although the crystals of SS-5 are elongated. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequences, both strains are phylogenetically affiliated with the Gammaproteobacteria class. Strain SS-5 belongs to the order Chromatiales; the cultured bacterium with the highest 16S rRNA gene sequence identity to SS-5 is Thiohalocapsa marina (93.0%). Strain BW-2 clearly belongs to the Thiotrichales; interestingly, the organism with the highest 16S rRNA gene sequence identity to this strain is Thiohalospira alkaliphila (90.2%), which belongs to the Chromatiales. Each strain represents a new genus. This is the first report of magnetite-producing MTB phylogenetically associated with the Gammaproteobacteria. This finding is important in that it significantly expands the phylogenetic diversity of the MTB. Physiology of these strains is similar to other MTB and continues to demonstrate their potential in nitrogen, iron, carbon and sulfur cycling in natural environments. PMID:21776027

  14. Rock magnetism of tiny exsolved magnetite in plagioclase from a Paleoarchean granitoid in the Pilbara craton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usui, Yoichi; Shibuya, Takazo; Sawaki, Yusuke; Komiya, Tsuyoshi

    2015-01-01

    are widespread in Precambrian terranes as well as the Phanerozoic orogenic belts, but they have garnered little attention in paleomagnetic studies, because granitoids often contain abundant coarse-grained, magnetically unstable oxides. In this study, the first example of tiny, needle-shaped, exsolved oxides in plagioclase in a Paleoarchean granitoid is reported. The magnetic properties of single plagioclase crystals with the exsolved oxide inclusions have been studied to determine their paleomagnetic recording fidelity. Demagnetization experiments and hysteresis parameters indicate that the oxide inclusions are near stoichiometric magnetite and magnetically very stable. First-order reversal curve (FORC) diagrams reveal negligible magnetostatic interactions. Minimal interactions are also reflected by very efficient acquisition of anhysteretic remanent magnetization. Single plagioclase crystals exhibit strong magnetic remanence anisotropies, which require corrections to their paleodirectional and paleointensity data. Nonetheless, quantitative consideration of anisotropy tensors of the single plagioclase crystals indicates that the bias can be mitigated by properly averaging data from a few tens of single crystals. From the nonlinear thermoremanence acquisition of the plagioclase crystals, we estimate that the plagioclase crystals can reconstruct paleointensity up to 50 ?T. Local metamorphic condition suggests that those magnetite may carry remanence of 3.2 to 3.3 Ga. We suggest that exsolved magnetite in granitoids is potentially a suitable target for the study of the early history of the geomagnetic field, and prompt detailed microscopic investigations as well as paleomagnetic tests to constrain the age of remanence.

  15. Magnetite nanoparticles for nonradionuclide brachytherapy1

    PubMed Central

    Safronov, Victor; Sozontov, Evgeny; Polikarpov, Mikhail

    2015-01-01

    Magnetite nanoparticles possess several properties that can make them useful for targeted delivery of radiation to tumors for the purpose of brachytherapy. Such particles are biodegradable and magnetic and can emit secondary radiation when irradiated by an external source. In this work, the dose distribution around a magnetite particle of 10?nm diameter being irradiated by monochromatic X-rays with energies in the range 460keV is calculated. PMID:26089761

  16. Structure and magnetic properties of nanosized magnetite obtained by glass recrystallization.

    PubMed

    Sandu, V; Nicolescu, M S; Kuncser, V; Popa, S; Pasuk, I; Ghica, C; Sandu, E

    2012-06-01

    We present the preparation, structural and magnetic properties of nanosized magnetite obtained by the crystallization of a series of Fe-containing borosilicate glasses. Several compositions with the ratio Fe2O3/SiO2 spanning from 0.37 to 0.67 were investigated as a function of two nucleators Cr2O3 and P2O5, respectively, and modifiers and intermediates (Al2O3 and MgO). Mssbauer spectroscopy revealed the degree, the type and the location of disorder induced by a specific composition and nucleators. In addition to magnetite, it was also revealed the presence of large amounts of Fe-rich paramagnetic phases. The magnetic response is analysed in relation with the amount of Fe ions which remain dispersed in the glassy matrix as noninteracting (paramagnetic) ions. We discuss the role of the nucleators on the disorder in both tetrahedral and octahedral sites of the magnetite. PMID:22905574

  17. Formation of single domain magnetite by green rust oxidation promoted by microbial anaerobic nitrate-dependent iron oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miot, Jennyfer; Li, Jinhua; Benzerara, Karim; Sougrati, Moulay Tahar; Ona-Nguema, Georges; Bernard, Sylvain; Jumas, Jean-Claude; Guyot, Franois

    2014-08-01

    Biomineralization of magnetite is a central geomicrobiological process that might have played a primordial role over Earths history, possibly leaving traces of life in the geological record or controlling trace metal(loid)s and organic pollutants mobility in modern environments. Magnetite biomineralization has been attributed to two main microbial pathways to date (namely magnetotactic bacteria and dissimilatory iron-reducing bacteria). Here, we uncover a new route of magnetite biomineralization involving the anaerobic nitrate-reducing iron(II) oxidizing bacterium Acidovorax sp. strain BoFeN1. Using transmission electron microscopy, scanning transmission X-ray microscopy, transmission Mssbauer spectroscopy and rock magnetic analyses, this strain is shown to promote the transformation of hydroxychloride green rust in equilibrium with dissolved Fe(II) to (1) periplasmic lepidocrocite (?-FeOOH) and (2) extracellular magnetite, thus leading to strong redox heterogeneities at the nanometer scale. On the one hand, lepidocrocite was associated with protein moieties and exhibited an anisotropic texture, with the elongated axis parallel to the cell wall. On the other hand, magnetite crystals exhibited grain sizes and magnetic properties consistent with stable single domain particles. By comparison, abiotic controls led to a very slow (4 months vs. 2 days in BoFeN1 cultures) and incomplete oxidation of hydroxychloride green rust towards magnetite. As this abiotic magnetite exhibited the same size and magnetic properties (stable single domain particles) as magnetite produced in BoFeN1 cultures, only the co-occurrence of textured Fe(III)-oxides and magnetite, associated with the persistence of organic carbon molecules, might constitute valuable biosignatures to be looked for in the geological record. Our results furthermore contribute to a more complex picture of Fe redox cycling in the environment, providing an additional process of Fe(II)-bearing phase biomineralization that is not specific of Fe bio-reduction, but can also result from Fe bio-oxidation.

  18. Intercalation crystallization of phase-pure α-HC(NH2)2PbI3 upon microstructurally engineered PbI2 thin films for planar perovskite solar cells.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yuanyuan; Yang, Mengjin; Kwun, Joonsuh; Game, Onkar S; Zhao, Yixin; Pang, Shuping; Padture, Nitin P; Zhu, Kai

    2016-03-17

    The microstructure of the solid-PbI2 precursor thin film plays an important role in the intercalation crystallization of the formamidinium lead triiodide perovskite (α-HC(NH2)2PbI3). It is shown that microstructurally engineered PbI2 thin films with porosity and low crystallinity are the most favorable for conversion into uniform-coverage, phase-pure α-HC(NH2)2PbI3 perovskite thin films. Planar perovskite solar cells fabricated using these thin films deliver power conversion efficiency (PCE) up to 13.8%. PMID:26549434

  19. Comparison of the inhibitory capacity of two groups of pure natural extract on the crystallization of two types of material compound urinary stones in vitro study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beghalia, Mohamed; Ghalem, Said; Allali, Hocine

    2015-10-01

    Urolithiasis is defined as the result of an abnormal precipitation within the urinary tract. This precipitation is most often from the normal constituents of the urine. This is a fairly common condition in the population. She is happy and recurrent etiology is often unknown if hypothetical. In Algeria, as in many countries, a large number of patients use herbal medicines in the treatment of their diseases including urolithiasis. Thus the aim of this study is the most widely used to evaluate the effectiveness of aqueous extracts of medicinal plants, in the treatment of calcium urolithiasis oxalo-and magnesium-amoniaco in vitro. The study also examines the effect of these extracts on the states of crystallization (nucleation, crystal growth, crystal aggregation), followed by photography on polarized light microscope.In this regard, we are devoted to studying the crystallization steps from oxalo-calcium and phospho-calcic prepared as artificial urine and supersaturated aqueous solutions, maintained at 37 °C to remain close to biological conditions. Extracts of the first group of herbs: Ammodaucus leucotrichus, Ajuga iva, Globularia alypum, Atriplex halimus are studied on the crystallization calcium oxalate, we cite the Ammodaucus leucotrichus which acts on the stages of nucleation, growth and the aggregation with a total inhibition. The second group of extracts plants tested on calcium phosphate crystallization : Acacia raddiana, Citrullus colocynthis, Rhus tripartita, Pistacia lentiscu, Warionia saharae, are able to significantly reduce phosphate crystallization in vitro. It is easily proved by FTIR and optical microscope. In conclusion the results of our work allows us to confirm the use of these plants as an aqueous decoction, in the field of urolithiasis. These activities may help to strengthen the body in depressed situations.

  20. The chemistry of hydrothermal magnetite: a review

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nadoll, Patrick; Angerer, Thomas; Mauk, Jeffrey L.; French, David; Walshe, John

    2014-01-01

    Magnetite (Fe3O4) is a well-recognized petrogenetic indicator and is a common accessory mineral in many ore deposits and their host rocks. Recent years have seen an increased interest in the use of hydrothermal magnetite for provenance studies and as a pathfinder for mineral exploration. A number of studies have investigated how specific formation conditions are reflected in the composition of the respective magnetite. Two fundamental questions underlie these efforts (i) How can the composition of igneous and, more importantly, hydrothermal magnetite be used to discriminate mineralized areas from barren host rocks, and (ii) how can this assist exploration geologists to target ore deposits at greater and greater distances from the main mineralization? Similar to igneous magnetite, the most important factors that govern compositional variations in hydrothermal magnetite are (A) temperature, (B) fluid composition element availability, (C) oxygen and sulfur fugacity, (D) silicate and sulfide activity, (E) host rock buffering, (F) re-equilibration processes, and (G) intrinsic crystallographic controls such as ionic radius and charge balance. We discuss how specific formation conditions are reflected in the composition of magnetite and review studies that investigate the chemistry of hydrothermal and igneous magnetite from various mineral deposits and their host rocks. Furthermore, we discuss the redox-related alteration of magnetite (martitization and mushketovitization) and mineral inclusions in magnetite and their effect on chemical analyses. Our database includes published and previously unpublished magnetite minor and trace element data for magnetite from (1) banded iron formations (BIF) and related high-grade iron ore deposits in Western Australia, India, and Brazil, (2) AgPbZn veins of the Coeur d'Alene district, United States, (3) porphyry Cu(Au)(Mo) deposits and associated (4) calcic and magnesian skarn deposits in the southwestern United States and Indonesia, and (5) plutonic igneous rocks from the Henderson Climax-type Mo deposit, United States, and the un-mineralized Inner Zone Batholith granodiorite, Japan. These five settings represent a diverse suite of geological settings and cover a wide range of formation conditions. The main discriminator elements for magnetite are Mg, Al, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Zn, and Ga. These elements are commonly present at detectable levels (10 to > 1000 ppm) and display systematic variations. We propose a combination of Ni/(Cr + Mn) vs. Ti + V, Al + Mn vs. Ti + V, Ti/V and Sn/Ga discriminant plots and upper threshold concentrations to discriminate hydrothermal from igneous magnetite and to fingerprint different hydrothermal ore deposits. The overall trends in upper threshold values for the different settings can be summarized as follows: (I) BIF (hydrothermal) low Al, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Zn, Ga and Sn; (II) AgPbZn veins (hydrothermal) high Mn and low Ga and Sn; (III) Mg-skarn (hydrothermal) high Mg and Mn and low Al, Ti, Cr, Co, Ni and Ga; (IV) skarn (hydrothermal) high Mg, Al, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni and Zn and low Sn; (V) porphyry (hydrothermal) high Ti and V and low Sn; (VI) porphyry (igneous) high Ti, V and Cr and low Mg; and (VII) Climax-Mo (igneous) high Al, Ga and Sn and low Mg and Cr.

  1. Mineralogical and microfabric characteristics of magnetite in the Wuyang Precambrian BIFs, southern North China Craton: Implications for genesis and depositional processes of the associated BIFs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hongzhong; Zhai, Mingguo; Zhang, Lianchang; Yang, Zhijun; Kapsiotis, Argyrios; Zhou, Yongzhang; He, Junguo; Wang, Changle; Liang, Jin

    2014-11-01

    Precambrian Banded Iron Formations (BIFs) are widely distributed in the North China Craton (NCC). Among them, the Wuyang BIFs located in the southern margin of NCC occur in the Late Archaean Tieshanmiao Formation and can be subdivided in two different sub-types: (i) quartz-magnetite BIFs (QMB), consisting of magnetite, fine-microcrystalline quartz and minor calcite and (ii) pyroxene-magnetite BIFs (PMB), composed of pyroxene, fine-microcrystalline quartz and subordinate feldspars. Both sub-types display apparent discrepancies in terms of petrography and mineral composition. As shown in Electron BackScattered Diffraction (EBSD) images and micrographs, magnetite grains from the QMB range in size from tens up to hundreds of μm, whereas magnetite crystals from the PMB can be up to a few tens of μm across. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) structural data indicate that magnetite from both BIF sub-types is equiaxed (cubic) and was generated by sedimentary metamorphic processes. The cell parameters of magnetite in the QMB are a = b = c = 8.396 Å and Z = 8, which deviate slightly from these of magnetite in the PMB: a = b = c = 8.394 Å and Z = 8. The analytical results of Raman spectroscopy analysis revealed micro-structural signatures of both magnetite (Raman shifts near 552 cm-1 and 673 cm-1) and hematite (Raman shifts near 227 cm-1, 295 cm-1 and 413 cm-1). In magnetite from both QMB and PMB, the crystallinity degree is similar for magnetite micro-structures but varies significantly for hematite micro-structures. Oxygen fugacity (fO2) conditions fluctuated during the recrystallization of magnetite in the QMB, whereas no evident variation of fO2 occurred during the formation of magnetite in the PMB. Analytical results of laser ablation inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) show that the Si, Al and Mg abundances are higher in magnetite from the QMB, whereas the Ti and Mn contents are more elevated in magnetite from the PMB. Magnetite composition also denotes that both BIF sub-types are sedimentary-metamorphic origin, whereas the deposition of PMB was also affected by volcanic activities. Overall data indicate that the differences in the depositional environment of each BIF sub-type are due to the involvement of volcanic eruption processes in the genesis of the PMB. Thus, this paper indicated that the QMB was deposited by chemical deposition at the long-term interval of volcanic eruptions, and the PMB were the product of chemical deposition affected by the volcanic eruption.

  2. Simultaneously Discrete Biomineralization of Magnetite and Tellurium Nanocrystals in Magnetotactic Bacteria?

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Masayoshi; Arakaki, Atsushi; Staniland, Sarah S.; Matsunaga, Tadashi

    2010-01-01

    Magnetotactic bacteria synthesize intracellular magnetosomes comprising membrane-enveloped magnetite crystals within the cell which can be manipulated by a magnetic field. Here, we report the first example of tellurium uptake and crystallization within a magnetotactic bacterial strain, Magnetospirillum magneticum AMB-1. These bacteria independently crystallize tellurium and magnetite within the cell. This is also highly significant as tellurite (TeO32?), an oxyanion of tellurium, is harmful to both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Additionally, due to its increasing use in high-technology products, tellurium is very precious and commercially desirable. The use of microorganisms to recover such molecules from polluted water has been considered as a promising bioremediation technique. However, cell recovery is a bottleneck in the development of this approach. Recently, using the magnetic property of magnetotactic bacteria and a cell surface modification technology, the magnetic recovery of Cd2+ adsorbed onto the cell surface was reported. Crystallization within the cell enables approximately 70 times more bioaccumulation of the pollutant per cell than cell surface adsorption, while utilizing successful recovery with a magnetic field. This fascinating dual crystallization of magnetite and tellurium by magnetotactic bacteria presents an ideal system for both bioremediation and magnetic recovery of tellurite. PMID:20581185

  3. Experimental Study on Mixtures of Superparamgnetic and Single-Domain Magnetite with Respect to Day-Dunlop Plots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirt, A. M.; Kumari, M.; Senn, N.; Uebe, R.; Schueler, D.

    2013-12-01

    Day-Dunlop plots are widely used as a diagnostic of domain state: superparamagnetic (SP), stable single-domain (SD), pseudo-single-domain (PSD), multi-domain (MD) and mixture of these. A n earlier experimental study on mixtures of SP and SD magnetite showed that ratios of saturation remanent magnetization to saturation magnetization and the coercivity of remanence to coercivity are lower than the expected theoretical mixing trend (Dunlop & Carter-Stiglitz, J. Geophys. Res., 111, B12S09). This study reexamines Day-Dunlop plots with experimentally determined mixtures of SD and SP magnetite grains. The starting materials that are used in this study are biogenic magnetite with SD and SP particle size, and a commercial ferrofluid. The SD-biogenic magnetite is from magnetotactic bacteria that are arranged in chains. The average magnetosome size is 45 mm; however, there is also a minor amount of SP material among the magnetosomes. The SP component consists either of: 1) SP-biogenic magnetite, which occurs as isolated particles within the bacteria with an average size of 18 nm, or 2) Chemicell ferrofluid, magnetite with 10 nm particle size and hydrodynamic diameter of 45 nm. The magnetic properties of the pure materials were first characterized by measurements of hysteresis, acquisition of an isothermal remanent magnetization, and first-order reversal curves. The magnetic properties of the SD magnetite are typical for magnetotactic bacteria. The SP samples show no remanence. Two samples were prepared from the SD-magnetite to serve as the starting material. The SP-component was then added incrementally to the SD samples. Experimental results from these tests show that the magnetization and coercivity ratios are lower than the theoretical prediction for both sample mixtures. The reasons for this discrepancy will be discussed.

  4. Geochemistry of magnetite from Proterozoic Fe-Cu deposits in the Kangdian metallogenic province, SW China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wei Terry; Zhou, Mei-Fu; Gao, Jian-Feng; Hu, Ruizhong

    2015-10-01

    Fe-Cu deposits in the Kangdian Fe-Cu metallogenic province, SW China, are hosted in Paleoproterozoic meta-volcanic-sedimentary sequences and are spatially associated with coeval mafic intrusions. Several well-known examples are the giant Lala, Dahongshan, and Yinachang deposits. They have a common paragenetic sequence of an early Fe-oxide stage associated with sodic alteration and a late Cu-sulfide stage associated with potassic-carbonate alteration. Magnetite dominates the Fe-oxide stage of these deposits but is also present in the Cu-sulfide stage of the Lala deposit. This study uses trace element compositions of magnetite to examine the nature and origin of the ore-forming fluids. The magnetite has variable concentrations of Ti, Al, Mg, Mn, Si, V, Cr, Ca, Co, Ni, Sc, Zn, Cu, Mo, Sn, and Ga, which are thought to have been controlled mainly by fluid compositions and/or intensive parameters (e.g., temperature and oxygen fugacity ( fO2)). Fluid-rock interaction and coprecipitating mineral phases appear to be less important in controlling the magnetite compositions. Magnetite grains in the Fe-oxide stage of the Lala and Dahongshan deposits have comparable trace element compositions and were likely precipitated from chemically similar fluids. High Ni contents of magnetite in both deposits, coupled with previous isotopic data and the fact that the two deposits are spatially associated with coeval mafic intrusions, strongly suggest that the ore-forming fluids were genetically related to the mafic magmas that formed the intrusions. Magnetite grains in the Fe-oxide stage of the Yinachang deposit have much lower V and Ni but higher Sn and Mo contents than those of the Lala and Dahongshan deposits and are thus thought to have precipitated from more oxidized and Mo-Sn-rich fluids that may have evolved from relatively felsic magmas. Magnetite grains from the Cu-sulfide and Fe-oxide stages of the Lala deposit are broadly similar in composition, but those in the Cu-sulfide stage have slightly higher Cu, Zn, and Mn and are thought to have crystallized from relatively low-temperature and Cu-Zn-Mn-rich fluids evolved from the fluids of the early Fe-oxide stage. Our results show that magnetite from the Fe-Cu deposits in the Kangdian Province, banded iron formation, Fe skarn deposits, diabase-hosted hydrothermal Fe deposits, and magmatic deposits has significantly different compositions. We propose that covariations of Co-Ni, Zn-Sn, and Co/Ni-Mn can be used to effectively discriminate different deposit types.

  5. Complete sets of elastic constants and photoelastic coefficients of pure and MgO-doped lithium niobate crystals at room temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Andrushchak, A. S.; Laba, H. P.; Yurkevych, O. V.; Mytsyk, B. G.; Solskii, I. M.; Kityk, A. V.; Sahraoui, B.

    2009-10-01

    This paper presents the results of ultrasonic measurements of LiNbO{sub 3} and LiNbO{sub 3}:MgO crystals. The tensors of piezoelectric coefficients, elastic stiffness constants, and elastic compliances are determined for both crystals at room temperature. Combining these data with the results of piezo-optical measurements, a complete set of photoelastic tensor coefficients is also calculated. Doping of LiNbO{sub 3} crystals by MgO does not lead to a considerable modification of their elastic and photoelastic properties. However, LiNbO{sub 3}:MgO is characterized by a considerably higher resistance with respect to powerful light radiation, making it promising for future application in acousto-optic devices that deal with superpowerful laser radiation. Presented here are the complete tensor sets of elastic constants and photoelastic coefficients of LiNbO{sub 3} and LiNbO{sub 3}:MgO crystals that may be used for a geometry optimization of acousto-optical interaction providing the best diffraction efficiency of acousto-optical cells made of these materials.

  6. Pond sediment magnetite grains show a distinctive microbial community.

    PubMed

    Song, H-K; Sonkaria, S; Khare, V; Dong, K; Lee, H-T; Ahn, S-H; Kim, H-K; Kang, H-J; Lee, S-H; Jung, S P; Adams, J M

    2015-07-01

    Formation of magnetite in anaerobic sediments is thought to be enhanced by the activities of iron-reducing bacteria. Geobacter has been implicated as playing a major role, as in culture its cells are often associated with extracellular magnetite grains. We studied the bacterial community associated with magnetite grains in sediment of a freshwater pond in South Korea. Magnetite was isolated from the sediment using a magnet. The magnetite-depleted fraction of sediment was also taken for comparison. DNA was extracted from each set of samples, followed by PCR for 16S bacterial ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene and HiSeq sequencing. The bacterial communities of the magnetite-enriched and magnetite-depleted fractions were significantly different. The enrichment of three abundant operational taxonomic units (OTUs) suggests that they may either be dependent upon the magnetite grain environment or may be playing a role in magnetite formation. The most abundant OTU in magnetite-enriched fractions was Geobacter, bolstering the case that this genus is important in magnetite formation in natural systems. Other major OTUs strongly associated with the magnetite-enriched fraction, rather than the magnetite-depleted fraction, include a Sulfuricella and a novel member of the Betaproteobacteria. The existence of distinct bacterial communities associated with particular mineral grain types may also be an example of niche separation and coexistence in sediments and soils, which cannot usually be detected due to difficulties in separating and concentrating minerals. PMID:25592636

  7. Oxidation of pyrite in coal to magnetite

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thorpe, A.N.; Senftle, F.E.; Alexander, C.C.; Dulong, F.T.

    1984-01-01

    When bituminous coal is heated in an inert atmosphere (He) containing small amounts of oxygen at 393-455 ??C, pyrite (FeS2) in coal is partially converted to magnetite (Fe304). The maximum amount of Fe304 formed during the time of heating corresponds to 5-20% of the total pyrite present, depending on the coal sample. The magnetite forms as an outer crust on the pyrite grains. The fact that the magnetic properties of the pyrite grains are substantially increased by the magnetite crust suggests that pyrite can be separated from coal by use of a low magnetic field. In a laboratory test, 75% removal is obtained by means of a 500 Oe magnet on three samples, and 60% on a fourth sample. ?? 1984.

  8. Crystallization of Enantiomerically Pure Proteins from Quasi-Racemic Mixtures: Structure Determination by X-Ray Diffraction of Isotope-Labeled Ester Insulin and Human Insulin.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Kalyaneswar; Dhayalan, Balamurugan; Avital-Shmilovici, Michal; Tokmakoff, Andrei; Kent, Stephen B H

    2016-03-01

    As a part of a program aimed towards the study of the dynamics of human insulin-protein dimer formation using two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy, we used total chemical synthesis to prepare stable isotope labeled [(1-(13) C=(18) O)Phe(B24) )] human insulin, via [(1-(13) C=(18) O)Phe(B24) )] ester insulin as a key intermediate product that facilitates folding of the synthetic protein molecule (see preceding article). Here, we describe the crystal structure of the synthetic isotope-labeled ester insulin intermediate and the product synthetic human insulin. Additionally, we present our observations on hexamer formation with these two proteins in the absence of phenol derivatives and/or Zn metal ions. We also describe and discuss the fractional crystallization of quasi-racemic protein mixtures containing each of these two synthetic proteins. PMID:26707939

  9. Rock magnetism linked to human brain magnetite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirschvink, Joseph L.

    Magnetite has a long and distinguished career as one of the most important minerals in geophysics, as it is responsible for most of the remanent magnetization in marine sediments and the oceanic crust. It may come as a surprise to discover that it also ranks as the third or fourth most diverse mineral product formed biochemically by living organisms, and forms naturally in a variety of human tissues [Kirschvink et al., 1992].Magnetite was discovered in teeth of the Polyplacophora mollusks over 30 years ago, in magnetotactic bacteria nearly 20 years ago, in honey bees and homing pigeons nearly 15 years ago, but only recently in human tissue.

  10. Immobilization of Peroxidase onto Magnetite Modified Polyaniline

    PubMed Central

    Barbosa, Eduardo Fernandes; Molina, Fernando Javier; Lopes, Flavio Marques; García-Ruíz, Pedro Antonio; Caramori, Samantha Salomão; Fernandes, Kátia Flávia

    2012-01-01

    The present study describes the immobilization of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) on magnetite-modified polyaniline (PANImG) activated with glutaraldehyde. After the optimization of the methodology, the immobilization of HRP on PANImG produced the same yield (25%) obtained for PANIG with an efficiency of 100% (active protein). The optimum pH for immobilization was displaced by the effect of the partition of protons produced in the microenvironment by the magnetite. The tests of repeated use have shown that PANImG-HRP can be used for 13 cycles with maintenance of 50% of the initial activity. PMID:22489198

  11. Testing the apatite-magnetite geochronometer: U-Pb and 40Ar/ 39Ar geochronology of plutonic rocks, massive magnetite-apatite tabular bodies, and IOCG mineralization in Northern Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gelcich, Sergio; Davis, Donald W.; Spooner, Edward T. C.

    2005-07-01

    Detailed zircon and apatite U-Pb dating and 40Ar/ 39Ar dating of actinolite have been carried out on the Carmen-Sierra Aspera Kiruna type magnetite-apatite and iron oxide Cu-Au (IOCG) district in the Coastal Cordillera of northern Chile (˜26°S). They define a precise succession of magmatic and hydrothermal events associated with early Cretaceous Andean magmatism. Apatite and magnetite from a magnetite-apatite tabular body with intergrowth texture in the Carmen deposit yield a total Pb-U isochron age of 131.0 ± 1.0 Ma. This result is the first direct dating of magnetite-apatite mineralization in an early Andean deposit, and the age coincides with zircon ages of a quartz diorite stock that partially hosts mineralization (130.6 ± 0.3 Ma). Magnetite from the studied tabular body contains only small amounts of radiogenic Pb and serves to constrain the initial common Pb isotopic composition. The high degree of correlation suggests that both minerals closed for Pb diffusion at essentially the same time and at a relatively high temperature (close to that of zircon), making the apatite-magnetite pair a reliable geochronometer for igneous or hydrothermal crystallization. Zircon from the Sierra Aspera composite pluton yields ages between 131.3 ± 0.3 Ma and 127.4 ± 0.1 Ma, clearly resolving the timing of intrusion of discrete intrusive phases. Actinolite 40Ar/ 39Ar ages partially overlap the ages of plutonic phases of the Sierra Aspera pluton, but are younger than the magnetite-apatite tabular body. The initial Pb isotopic composition of the melts and/or fluids from which the magnetite-apatite tabular bodies crystallized is very similar to the primitive Pb isotopic composition of granitic magmas associated with early Cretaceous plutons measured in K-feldspar. The Pb isotopic correspondence, combined with the temporal and spatial association between magnetite-apatite mineralization and the dioritic-quartz dioritic magmatism, strongly suggests a genetic relationship between early Cretaceous continental arc magmatism, massive magnetite-apatite deposits, and IOCG mineralization.

  12. Magnetite whiskers and platelets in the ALH84001 Martian meteorite: evidence of vapor phase growth.

    PubMed

    Bradley, J P; Harvey, R P; McSween, H Y

    1996-01-01

    Nanometer-sized magnetite crystals associated with carbonates in fracture zones within Martian meteorite ALH84001 have been examined using analytical transmission electron microscopy. Some of the crystals exhibit distinctive morphologies: filamentary rods and ribbon, and platelets. The rods and ribbons are elongated along the crystallographic [100] and [111] directions. Some of the rods contain microstructural defects indicating that they grew by spiral growth about screw dislocations. Platelets are flattened along the [100] and [110] directions. These unique morphologies and microstructures constrain the growth conditions of magnetite. The whiskers and platelets most likely formed in the temperature range 500-800 degrees C by direct condensation from a vapor or precipitation from a supercritical fluid, and their properties are inconsistent with a biogenic origin. PMID:11541129

  13. Biomimetic Magnetite Formation: From Biocombinatorial Approaches to Mineralization Effects

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Biological materials typically display complex morphologies and hierarchical architectures, properties that are hardly matched by synthetic materials. Understanding the biological control of mineral properties will enable the development of new synthetic approaches toward biomimetic functional materials. Here, we combine biocombinatorial approaches with a proteome homology search and in vitro mineralization assays to assess the role of biological determinants in biomimetic magnetite mineralization. Our results suggest that the identified proteins and biomimetic polypeptides influence nucleation in vitro. Even though the in vivo role cannot be directly determined from our experiments, we can rationalize the following design principles: proteins, larger complexes, or membrane components that promote nucleation in vivo are likely to expose positively charged residues to a negatively charged crystal surface. In turn, components with acidic (negatively charged) functionality are nucleation inhibitors, which stabilize an amorphous structure through the coordination of iron. PMID:24499323

  14. Short-Range Correlations in Magnetite above the Verwey Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosak, Alexey; Chernyshov, Dmitry; Hoesch, Moritz; Piekarz, Przemys?aw; Le Tacon, Mathieu; Krisch, Michael; Koz?owski, Andrzej; Ole?, Andrzej M.; Parlinski, Krzysztof

    2014-01-01

    Magnetite, Fe3O4, is the first magnetic material discovered and utilized by mankind in Ancient Greece, yet it still attracts attention due to its puzzling properties. This is largely due to the quest for a full and coherent understanding of the Verwey transition that occurs at TV=124 K and is associated with a drop of electric conductivity and a complex structural phase transition. A recent detailed analysis of the structure, based on single crystal diffraction, suggests that the electron localization pattern contains linear three-Fe-site units, the so-called trimerons. Here, we show that whatever the electron localization pattern is, it partially survives up to room temperature as short-range correlations in the high-temperature cubic phase, easily discernible by diffuse scattering. Additionally, ab initio electronic structure calculations reveal that characteristic features in these diffuse scattering patterns can be correlated with the Fermi surface topology.

  15. Banded sulfide-magnetite ores of Mauk copper massive sulfide deposit, Central Urals: Composition and genesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safina, N. P.; Maslennikov, V. V.; Maslennikova, S. P.; Kotlyarov, V. A.; Danyushevsky, L. V.; Large, R. R.; Blinov, I. A.

    2015-05-01

    The results of investigation of metamorphosed sulfide-magnetite ores from the Mauk deposit located within the Main Ural Fault at the junction of Tagil and Magnitogorsk massive sulfide zones are discussed. The ore-hosting sequence comprises metamorphic rocks formed from basalt, carbonaceous and carbonaceous-cherty siltstone, and lenticular serpentinized ultramafic bodies. The ores of the deposit are represented by banded varieties and less frequent breccia. The clastic origin of the banded ore is indicated by load casts at the bottom of sulfide beds, alternation of sulfide and barren beds, and the truncation of the growth zones of pyrite crystals. Pyrite, pyrrhotite, chalcopyrite, sphalerite, and magnetite are the major minerals of the banded ores. The internal structure of the listed minerals testifies to the deep metamorphic recrystallization of primary hydrothermal-sedimentary ores accompanied with deformation. Cubanite, pyrrhotite, mackinawite, greigite, and gold are enclosed in metacrysts of pyrite, magnetite, and chalcopyrite. The accessory minerals of the Pb-Bi-Te, Bi-Te, and Ag-Te systems as well as uraninite have been found at the Mauk deposit for the first time. Magnetite predominantly replaces pyrite and less frequently chalcopyrite, pyrrhotite, and gangue minerals. It was established that the major carriers of As and Co are crystals of metamorphic pyrite. Chalcopyrite is the major carrier of Zn, Sn, Te, Pb, Bi, and Ag. Admixture of Fe and Cu is typical of sphalerite, and Se and Ni are characteristic of pyrrhotite. Ti, V, Mn, Sb, As, Ba, and U are concentrated in magnetite. The banded ores of the Mauk deposit are suggested as having been transformed in several stages: diagenesis, anadiagenesis, epidiagenesis ( t < 300°C), and amphibolite facies metamorphism ( t > 500°C).

  16. In-depth investigation of EPR spectra of Mn(2+) ions in ZnS single crystals with purecubic structure.

    PubMed

    Nistor, S V; Stefan, M

    2009-04-01

    The X (9.8GHz)-band electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) properties of substitutional Mn(2+) ions in high quality cubic ZnS single crystals grown from PbCl(2) flux have been thoroughly investigated. Accurate spin Hamiltonian (SH) parameters: g = 2.002?25 0.000?06; a = (7.987 0.008) 10(-4)cm(-1) and A = -(63.88 0.02) 10(-4)cm(-1) were obtained by simulation and fitting to the experimentally allowed transitions recorded for the magnetic field aligned within 0.25 along the main crystal axes. The normally forbidden hyperfine [Formula: see text], ?m = 1 transitions were also observed. Their position was found to be in agreement, within the experimental accuracy of ?H = 0.01mT, with calculations using the same SH parameters. The angular variation of the ratios of the intensities of the central forbidden to the allowed transitions could be accounted for only by including an additional constant contribution. The observed line broadening of the [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] fine structure transitions and their line width variation in a (110) plane have been quantitatively described by considering a random distribution of lattice strains at the Mn(2+) impurity ions. The influence of the forbidden transitions and line broadening on the EPR spectra line shape of the Mn(2+) ions in cubic ZnS crystalline powders is also examined. PMID:21825339

  17. Charge ordering and ferroelectricity in magnetite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khomskii, Daniel

    2007-03-01

    Magnetite Fe3O4 is one of the most fascinating material in solid state physics. Besides being the first magnetic material known to the mankind, it is also the first example of an insulator-metal transition in transition metal oxides -- the famous Verwey transition [1]. One usually connects this transition with the charge ordering of Fe^2+ and Fe^3+. However the detailed pattern of CO in Fe3O4 is still a matter of debate. Another aspect, which is not so widely known and which did not yet receive sufficient attention, is that below TV, besides being completely spin polarised, magnetite apparently is also ferroelectric (FE) [2]. Thus it seems that magnetite, besides being the first magnetic material and the first transition metal oxide with an insulator-metal transition, is also the first multiferroic material. Using the idea of a coexistence of site-centred and bond-centred charge ordering [3], I suggest a novel type of ordering in magnetite which explains the observed FE in Fe3O4 and which agrees with the structural data. [1] Verwey E.J.W., Nature 144, 327 (1939) [2] Rado G.T. and Ferrari J.M., Phys.Rev.B 12, 5166 (1975); Kato K. and Iida S., J.Phys.Soc.Japan 50, 2844 (1981) [3] Efremov D.V., van den Brink J. and Khomskii D.I., Nature Mater. 3, 853 (2004)

  18. Magnetite in Black Sea Turtles (Chelonia agassizi)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuentes, A.; Urrutia-Fucugauchi, J.; Garduño, V.; Sanchez, J.; Rizzi, A.

    2004-12-01

    Previous studies have reported experimental evidence for magnetoreception in marine turtles. In order to increase our knowledge about magnetoreception and biogenic mineralization, we have isolated magnetite particles from the brain of specimens of black sea turtles Chelonia agassizi. Our samples come from natural deceased organisms collected the reserve area of Colola Maruata in southern Mexico. The occurrence of magnetite particles in brain tissue of black sea turtles offers the opportunity for further studies to investigate possible function of ferrimagnetic material, its mineralogical composition, grain size, texture and its location and structural arrangement within the host tissue. After sample preparation and microscopic examination, we localized and identified the ultrafine unidimensional particles of magnetite by scanning electron microscope (SEM). Particles present grain sizes between 10.0 to 40.0Mm. Our study provides, for the first time, evidence for biogenic formation of this material in the black sea turtles. The ultrafine particles are apparently superparamagnetic. Preliminary results from rock magnetic measurements are also reported and correlated to the SEM observations. The black turtle story on the Michoacan coast is an example of formerly abundant resource which was utilized as a subsistence level by Nahuatl indigenous group for centuries, but which is collapsing because of intensive illegal commercial exploitation. The most important nesting and breeding grounds for the black sea turtle on any mainland shore are the eastern Pacific coastal areas of Maruata and Colola, in Michoacan. These beaches are characterized by important amounts of magnetic mineral (magnetites and titanomagnetites) mixed in their sediments.

  19. Magnetite biomineralization and ancient life on Mars.

    PubMed

    Frankel, R B; Buseck, P R

    2000-04-01

    Certain chemical and mineral features of the Martian meteorite ALH84001 were reported in 1996 to be probable evidence of ancient life on Mars. In spite of new observations and interpretations, the question of ancient life on Mars remains unresolved. Putative biogenic, nanometer magnetite has now become a leading focus in the debate. PMID:10742183

  20. Bisphosphonate release profiles from magnetite microspheres.

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, Toshiki; Inoue, Tatsuya; Shirosaki, Yuki; Kawashita, Masakazu; Matsubara, Takao; Matsumine, Akihiko

    2014-10-01

    Hyperthermia has been suggested as a novel, minimally invasive cancer treatment method. After implantation of magnetic nano- or microparticles around a tumour through blood vessels, irradiation with alternating magnetic fields facilitates the efficient in situ hyperthermia even for deep-seated tumours. On the basis of this idea, if the microspheres are capable of delivering drugs, they could be promising multifunctional biomaterials effective for chemotherapy as well as hyperthermia. In the present study, magnetite microspheres were prepared by aggregation of the iron oxide colloid in water-in-oil (W/O) emulsion. The release behaviour of alendronate, a typical bisphosphonate, from the microspheres was examined invitro as a model of the bone tumour prevention and treatment system. The alendronate was successfully incorporated onto the porous magnetite microspheres in vacuum conditions. The drug-loaded microspheres maintained their original spherical shapes even after shaking in ultrapure water for 3 days, suggesting that they have sufficient mechanical integrity for clinical use. It was attributed to high aggregation capability of the magnetite nanoparticles through van der Waals and weak magnetic attractions. The microspheres showed slow release of the alendronate invitro, resulting from tight covalent or ionic interaction between the magnetite and the alendronate. The release rate was diffusion-controlled type and well controlled by the alendronate concentration in drug incorporation to the microspheres. PMID:24854985

  1. Magnetite Biomineralization: Fifty years of progress, from beach-combing to the SQUID microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirschvink, J. L.; Dixson, A. D.; Raub, T.

    2012-12-01

    Magnetite biomineralization was first discovered 50 years ago as a hardening agent in the teeth of the Polyplacophoran molluscs (chitons) by the late Prof. Heinz A. Lowenstam of Caltech, when he noticed unusual erosional effects produced by their grazing in the intertidal zones of Palau (Lowenstam, 1962). Since then, biogenic magnetite has been detected in a broad range of organisms, including magnetotactic bacteria, protists, insects, fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals including humans. In many species, the role of ferromagnetic material as a neurophysiological transducer is demonstrated clearly through the effects of pulse-remagnetization on behavior. A brief (1 uS), properly configured magnetic discharge from a rectified LC circuit, tailored to exceed the coercivity of the magnetite, will often abolish a magnetic behavioral response, or in some cases make the organism go the wrong way. This is a unique ferromagnetic effect. The genes controlling magnetite biomineralization are well characterized in several species of bacteria, and the ability of some of these bacterial genes to initiate magnetite precipitation in mammalian cell lines argues for a common descent, probably via a magnetotactic mitochondrial ancestor. Previous studies in fish reported the presence of single-domain magnetite crystals in cells near projections of the trigeminal nerve, co-located in the olfactory epithelium. Although the cells are rare, the recent development of a spinning magnetic field technique allows easy identification and isolation of these cells for individual study (Eder et al., 2012). The cells are surprisingly magnetic, with moments hundreds of times larger than typical magnetotactic bacteria. Subsequent efforts to identify the anatomical seat of magnetoreceptors have focused on the same locations in new organisms, excluding other areas. Using SQUID moment magnetometry and SQUID scanning microscopy, we report here the unexpected presence of biogenic magnetite in the lateral line region of the zebrafish, Danio rerio. We suspect that the magnetic field receptor cells of the trigeminal system in animals may be co-located within a variety of other sensory tissues (olfaction, lateral line, vision, hearing, taste, etc.) as a means of spatially dispersing cells with large magnetic moments to prevent magnetostatic interactions between them. References: Eder et al., Magnetic characterization of isolated candidate vertebrate magnetoreceptor cells. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 2012; 109:12022-12027. Lowenstam, H.A., 1962. Magnetite in denticle capping in recent chitons (Polyplacophora). Bulletin of the Geological Society of America 73, 435-438.

  2. Determination of the Three-Dimensional Morphology of ALH84001 and Biogenic MV-1 Magnetite: Comparison of Results from Electron Tomography and Classical Transmission Electron Microscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas-Keprta, Kathie L.; Clemett, Simon J.; Schwartz, Cindy; Morphew, Mary; McIntosh, J. Richard; Bazylinski, Dennis A.; Kirschvink, Joseph L.; Wentworth, Susan J.; McKay, David S.; Vali, Hojatollah

    2004-01-01

    Dated at approximately 3.9 billion years of age, carbonate disks, found within fractures of the host rock of Martian meteorite ALH84001, have been interpreted as secondary minerals that formed at low temperature in an aqueous medium. Heterogeneously distributed within these disks are magnetite nanocrystals that are of Martian origin. Approximately one quarter of these magnetites have morphological and chemical similarities to magnetite particles produced by magnetotactic bacteria strain MV-1, which are ubiquitous in aquatic habitats on Earth. Moreover, these types of magnetite particles are not known or expected to be produced by abiotic means either through geological processes or synthetically in the laboratory. The remaining three quarters of the ALH84001 magnetites are likely products of multiple processes including, but not limited to, precipitation from a hydrothermal fluid, thermal decomposition of the carbonate matrix in which they are embedded, and extracellular formation by dissimilatory Fe-reducing bacteria. We have proposed that the origins of magnetites in ALH84001 can be best explained as the products of multiple processes, one of which is biological. Recently the three-dimensional (3-D) external morphology of the purported biogenic fraction of the ALH84001 magnetites has been the subject of considerable debate. We report here the 3-D geometry of biogenic magnetite crystals extracted from MV-1 and of those extracted from ALH84001 carbonate disks using a combination of high resolution classical and tomographic transmission electron microscopy (TEM). We focus on answering the following questions: (1) which technique provides adequate information to deduce the 3-D external crystal morphology?; and, (2) what is the precise 3-D geometry of the ALH84001 and MV-1 magnetites?

  3. Quantification of Biogenic Magnetite by Synchrotron X-ray Microscopy During the PETM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, H.; Wang, J.; Kent, D. V.; Chen-Wiegart, Y. C. K.

    2014-12-01

    Exceptionally large biogenic magnetite crystals, including spearhead-like and spindle-like ones up to 4 microns, have been reported in clay-rich sediments recording the ~56 Ma Paleocene-Eocene thermal maximum (PETM) and carbon isotope excursion (CIE) in a borehole at Ancora, NJ and along with magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) chains, were suggested [Schumann et al. 2008 PNAS; Kopp et al. 2009 Paleoceanography] to account for the distinctive single domain (SD) rock magnetic properties of these sediments [Lanci et al. 2002 JGR]. However, because uncalibrated magnetic extraction techniques were used to provide material for TEM imaging of the biogenic magnetite, it is difficult to quantitatively analyze their concentration in the bulk clay. In this study, we use a synchrotron transmission X-ray microscope to image bulk CIE clay. We first take mosaic images of sub-millimeter-sized bulk clay samples, in which we can identify many of the various types of giant biogenic magnetite crystals, as well as several other types of iron minerals, such as pyrite framboids, siderite, and detrital magnetite. However, limited by the instrument resolution (~50 nm), we are not able to identify MTB chains let alone isolated magnetic nanoparticles that may be abundant the clay. To quantitatively estimate the concentration of the giant biogenic magnetite, we re-deposited the bulk clay sample in an alcohol solution on a silicon nitride membrane for 2D X-ray scans. After scanning a total area of 0.55 mm2 with average clay thickness of 4 ?m, we identified ~40 spearheads, ~5 spindles and a few elongated rods and estimated their total magnetization as SD particles to be less than about 10% of the mass normalized clay for the scanned area. This result suggests that the giant biogenic magnetite is not a major source of the SD signal for the clay and is in good agreement with rock magnetic analyses using high-resolution first-order reversal curves and thermal fluctuation tomography on bulk CIE clay showing that most of the magnetite occurs as isolated, near-equant SD particles [Wang et al. 2013 PNAS]. This would also exclude a significant contribution from MTB chains and points to a non-biogenic origin, such as a comet impact plume condensate, for the magnetic nanoparticles [Kent et al. 2003 EPSL] in the very rapidly deposited CIE clays [Wright & Schaller 2014 PNAS].

  4. In-depth investigation of EPR spectra of Mn2+ ions in ZnS single crystals with pure cubic structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nistor, S. V.; Stefan, M.

    2009-04-01

    The X (9.8 GHz)-band electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) properties of substitutional Mn2+ ions in high quality cubic ZnS single crystals grown from PbCl2 flux have been thoroughly investigated. Accurate spin Hamiltonian (SH) parameters: g = 2.002 25 0.000 06; a = (7.987 0.008) 10-4 cm-1 and A = -(63.88 0.02) 10-4 cm-1 were obtained by simulation and fitting to the experimentally allowed transitions recorded for the magnetic field aligned within 0.25 along the main crystal axes. The normally forbidden hyperfine M=+1/2 \\leftrightarrow-1/2 , ?m = 1 transitions were also observed. Their position was found to be in agreement, within the experimental accuracy of ?H = 0.01 mT, with calculations using the same SH parameters. The angular variation of the ratios of the intensities of the central forbidden to the allowed transitions could be accounted for only by including an additional constant contribution. The observed line broadening of the M=\\pm 1/2 \\leftrightarrow \\pm 3/2 and {\\pm } 3/2 \\leftrightarrow \\pm 5/2 fine structure transitions and their line width variation in a (110) plane have been quantitatively described by considering a random distribution of lattice strains at the Mn2+ impurity ions. The influence of the forbidden transitions and line broadening on the EPR spectra line shape of the Mn2+ ions in cubic ZnS crystalline powders is also examined.

  5. Partial oxidation as a rational approach to kinetic control in bioinspired magnetite synthesis.

    PubMed

    Altan, Cem L; Lenders, Jos J M; Bomans, Paul H H; de With, Gijsbertus; Friedrich, Heiner; Bucak, Seyda; Sommerdijk, Nico A J M

    2015-04-13

    Biological systems show impressive control over the shape, size and organization of mineral structures, which often leads to advanced physical properties that are tuned to the function of these materials. Such control is also found in magnetotactic bacteria, which produce-in aqueous medium and at room temperature-magnetite nanoparticles with precisely controlled morphologies and sizes that are generally only accessible in synthetic systems with the use of organic solvents and/or the use of high-temperature methods. The synthesis of magnetite under biomimetic conditions, that is, in water and at room temperature and using polymeric additives as control agents, is of interest as a green production method for magnetic nanoparticles. Inspired by the process of magnetite biomineralization, a rational approach is taken by the use of a solid precursor for the synthesis of magnetite nanoparticles. The conversion of a ferrous hydroxide precursor, which we demonstrate with cryo-TEM and low-dose electron diffraction, is used to achieve control over the solution supersaturation such that crystal growth can be regulated through the interaction with poly-(?,?)-dl-aspartic acid, a soluble, negatively charged polymer. In this way, stable suspensions of nanocrystals are achieved that show remanence and coercivity at the size limit of superparamagnetism, and which are able to align their magnetic moments forming strings in solution as is demonstrated by cryo-electron tomography. PMID:25740708

  6. Ferromagnetic resonance and low-temperature magnetic tests for biogenic magnetite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss, Benjamin P.; Sam Kim, Soon; Kirschvink, Joseph L.; Kopp, Robert E.; Sankaran, Mohan; Kobayashi, Atsuko; Komeili, Arash

    2004-07-01

    Magnetite is both a common inorganic rock-forming mineral and a biogenic product formed by a diversity of organisms. Magnetotactic bacteria produce intracellular magnetites of high purity and crystallinity (magnetosomes) arranged in linear chains of crystals. Magnetosomes and their fossils (magnetofossils) have been identified using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) in sediments dating back to 510-570 Ma, and possibly in 4 Ga carbonates in Martian meteorite ALH84001. We present the results from two rock magnetic analysesthe low-temperature Moskowitz test and ferromagnetic resonance (FMR)applied to dozens of samples of magnetite and other materials. The magnetites in these samples are of diverse composition, size, shape, and origin: biologically induced (extracellular), biologically controlled (magnetosomes and chiton teeth), magnetofossil, synthetic, and natural inorganic. We confirm that the Moskowitz test is a distinctive indicator for magnetotactic bacteria and provide the first direct experimental evidence that this is accomplished via sensitivity to the magnetosome chain structure. We also demonstrate that the FMR spectra of four different strains of magnetotactic bacteria and a magnetofossil-bearing carbonate have a form distinct from all other samples measured in this study. We suggest that this signature also results from the magnetosomes' unique arrangement in chains. Because FMR can rapidly identify samples with large fractions of intact, isolated magnetosome chains, it could be a powerful tool for identifying magnetofossils in sediments.

  7. Biogenic magnetite as a basis for magnetic field detection in animals.

    PubMed

    Kirschvink, J L; Gould, J L

    1981-01-01

    Bacteria, sharks, honey bees, and homing pigeons as well as other organisms seem to detect the direction of the earth's magnetic field. Indirect but reproducible evidence suggests that the bees and birds can also respond to very minute changes in its intensity. The mechanisms behind this sensitivity are not known. Naturally magnetic, biologically precipitated magnetite (Fe3O4) has been found in chitons, magnetotactic bacteria, honey bees, homing pigeons, and dolphins. Its mineralization in localized areas may be associated with the ability of these animals to respond to the direction and intensity of the earth's magnetic field. The presence of large numbers (approximately 10(8)) of superparamagnetic magnetite crystals in honey bees and similar numbers of single-domain magnetite grains in pigeons suggests that there may be at least two basic types of ferrimagnetic magnetoreceptive organelles. Theoretical calculations show that ferrimagnetic organs using either type of grain when integrated by the nervous system are capable of accounting for even the most extreme magnetic field sensitivities reported. Indirect evidence suggests that organic magnetite may be a common biological component, and may account for the results of numerous high field and electromagnetic experiments on animals. PMID:7213948

  8. Lanthanide-Substituted Magnetite Nanoparticles Using a New Mixed Precursor Method by Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, J.; Roh, Y.; Yeary, L. W.; Lauf, R. J.; Phelps, T. J.

    2006-12-01

    A metal reducing bacterium, Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus successfully converted the precursor of L (lanthanide)-mixed akaganeite (LxFe1-xOOH) phase to L-substituted magnetite (LyFe3-yO4) while avoiding the potentially toxic effects of soluble L-ions. Antibiotic elements, lanthanide (Nd, Gd, Tb, Ho, and Er)-substituted magnetites were produced by microbial fermentation using LxFe1-xOOH, where x was up to 0.02 which is equivalent to 0.72 mM. Combining lanthanides into the akaganeite precursor phase mitigated some of the toxicity when compared to the traditional method by using pure akaganeite and the dissolved L-salt form. This new technique showed that an upper limit of L-concentrations between 0.02 and 0.1 mM might suppress bacterial activity. At the equivalent L-cation mole fraction, the traditional method increased the concentration of soluble toxic L ions in the final media. The precursor method enabled production of microbially synthesized L- substituted magnetite with an L-concentration 36-fold greater than could be obtained when the lanthanides were added as soluble salts. These results were confirmed by protein assay. The increase of L-concentration in the magnetite evidently manipulates its physical properties such as decreasing Curie temperature and decreasing saturation magnetism of L-substituted magnetite. This mixed precursor method can therefore be used to extend the application for nanofermentation and other bacterial synthesis fields where there is a need for economically low-energy consumable microbial production of nanoscale materials that should involve toxic or inhibitory elements to bacterial growth.

  9. Exchange bias in polycrystalline magnetite films made by ion-beam assisted deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Kaur, Maninder; Qiang, You; Jiang, Weilin; Burks, Edward C.; Liu, Kai; Namavar, Fereydoon; McCloy, John S.

    2014-11-07

    Iron oxide films were produced using ion-beam-assisted deposition, and Raman spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction indicate single-phase magnetite. However, incorporation of significant fractions of argon in the films from ion bombardment is evident from chemical analysis, and Fe/O ratios are lower than expected from pure magnetite, suggesting greater than normal disorder. Low temperature magnetometry and first-order reversal curve measurements show strong exchange bias, which likely arises from defects at grain boundaries, possibly amorphous, creating frustrated spins. Since these samples contain grains ?6?nm, a large fraction of the material consists of grain boundaries, where spins are highly disordered and reverse independently with external field.

  10. Remanent and induced magnetic anomalies over a layered intrusion: Effects from crystal fractionation and magma recharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McEnroe, Suzanne A.; Brown, Laurie L.; Robinson, Peter

    2009-12-01

    The Bjerkreim-Sokndal (BKS) norite - quartz mangerite layered intrusion is part of the early Neoproterozoic Rogaland Anorthosite Province intruded into the Fennoscandian shield in south Norway at ~ 930 Ma. The BKS is exposed over an area of 230 km 2 with a thickness of ~ 7000 m and is of economic interest for ilmenite, magnetite and apatite deposits. From the point of view of magnetic minerals, in the course of fractional crystallization and magma evolution, the ilmenite becomes less Fe 3+-rich reflected by a change from ilmenite with hematite exsolution to nearly pure ilmenite. Magnetite starts to crystallize relatively late in the intrusive history, but its crystallization is interrupted by influxes of more primitive magma. The variations in aeromagnetic and ground-magnetic anomalies measured over the BKS can be explained in terms of the measured magnetic properties of NRM, susceptibility, and hysteresis presented here, and in terms of mineralogy. Early layers in the intrusion contain hemo-ilmenite. As the magma evolved and magnetite started to crystallize, this caused a distinct change over the layering from remanence-controlled negative anomalies to induced positive anomalies. When new, more primitive magma was injected into the system, hemo-ilmenite returned as the major oxide and the resulting magnetic anomalies are again negative. The most dramatic change in the magnetic signature is in the upper part of the intrusion in MCU IVe, where magnetite became a well established cumulate phase as indicated by susceptibility, but its induced magnetization is overcome by large NRMs associated either with hemo-ilmenite, or with hemo-ilmenite and magnetite exsolved from pyroxenes. The average natural remanent magnetizations change from ~ 3 A/m in MCU IVd, to 15 A/m in MCU IVe, and back to 2 A/m in the overlying MCU IVf, producing a strong negative remanent anomaly that has been followed along strike for at least 20 km by ground-magnetic measurements. The highly varied magnetic properties of this intrusion, caused by varied magmatic crystallization of combinations of opaque minerals, illustrate some of the possibilities to be considered in evaluating crustal magnetic anomalies.

  11. The magnetosome membrane protein, MmsF, is a major regulator of magnetite biomineralization in Magnetospirillum magneticum AMB-1

    PubMed Central

    Murat, Dorothe; Falahati, Veesta; Bertinetti, Luca; Csencsits, Roseann; Krnig, Andr; Downing, Kenneth; Faivre, Damien; Komeili, Arash

    2013-01-01

    Summary Magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) use magnetosomes, membrane bound crystals of magnetite or greigite, for navigation along geomagnetic fields. In Magnetospirillum magneticum sp. AMB-1, and other MTB, a magnetosome gene island (MAI) is essential for every step of magnetosome formation. An 8-gene region of the MAI encodes several factors implicated in control of crystal size and morphology in previous genetic and proteomic studies. We show that these factors play a minor role in magnetite biomineralization in vivo. In contrast, MmsF, a previously uncharacterized magnetosome membrane protein encoded within the same region plays a dominant role in defining crystal size and morphology and is sufficient for restoring magnetite synthesis in the absence of the other major biomineralization candidates. In addition, we show that the 18 genes of the mamAB gene cluster of the MAI are sufficient for the formation of an immature magnetosome organelle. Addition of MmsF to these 18 genes leads to a significant enhancement of magnetite biomineralization and an increase in the cellular magnetic response. These results define a new biomineralization protein and lay down the foundation for the design of autonomous gene cassettes for the transfer of the magnetic phenotype in other bacteria. PMID:22716969

  12. The magnetosome membrane protein, MmsF, is a major regulator of magnetite biomineralization in Magnetospirillum magneticum AMB-1.

    PubMed

    Murat, Dorothe; Falahati, Veesta; Bertinetti, Luca; Csencsits, Roseann; Krnig, Andr; Downing, Kenneth; Faivre, Damien; Komeili, Arash

    2012-08-01

    Magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) use magnetosomes, membrane-bound crystals of magnetite or greigite, for navigation along geomagnetic fields. In Magnetospirillum magneticum sp. AMB-1, and other MTB, a magnetosome gene island (MAI) is essential for every step of magnetosome formation. An 8-gene region of the MAI encodes several factors implicated in control of crystal size and morphology in previous genetic and proteomic studies. We show that these factors play a minor role in magnetite biomineralization in vivo. In contrast, MmsF, a previously uncharacterized magnetosome membrane protein encoded within the same region plays a dominant role in defining crystal size and morphology and is sufficient for restoring magnetite synthesis in the absence of the other major biomineralization candidates. In addition, we show that the 18 genes of the mamAB gene cluster of the MAI are sufficient for the formation of an immature magnetosome organelle. Addition of MmsF to these 18 genes leads to a significant enhancement of magnetite biomineralization and an increase in the cellular magnetic response. These results define a new biomineralization protein and lay down the foundation for the design of autonomous gene cassettes for the transfer of the magnetic phenotype in other bacteria. PMID:22716969

  13. EBSD analysis of electroplated magnetite thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koblischka-Veneva, A.; Koblischka, M. R.; Teng, C. L.; Ryan, M. P.; Hartmann, U.; Mcklich, F.

    2010-05-01

    By means of electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD), we analyse the crystallographic orientation of electroplated magnetite thin films on Si/copper substrates. Varying the voltage during the electroplating procedure, the resulting surface properties are differing considerably. While a high voltage produces larger but individual grains on the surface, the surfaces become smoother on decreasing voltage. Good quality Kikuchi patterns could be obtained from all samples; even on individual grains, where the surface and the edges could be measured. The spatial resolution of the EBSD measurement could be increased to about 10 nm; thus enabling a detailed analysis of single magnetite grains. The thin film samples are polycrystalline and do not exhibit a preferred orientation. EBSD reveals that the grain size changes depending on the processing conditions, while the detected misorientation angles stay similar.

  14. Origin of carbonate-magnetite-sulfide assemblages in Martian meteorite ALH84001.

    PubMed

    Scott, E R

    1999-02-25

    A review of the mineralogical, isotopic, and chemical properties of the carbonates and associated submicrometer iron oxides and sulfides in Martian meteorite ALH84001 provides minimal evidence for microbial activity. Some magnetites resemble those formed by magnetotactic microorganisms but cubic crystals <50 nm in size and elongated grains <25 nm long are too small to be single-domain magnets and are probably abiogenic. Magnetites with shapes that are clearly unique to magnetotactic bacteria appear to be absent in ALH84001. Magnetosomes have not been reported in plutonic rocks and are unlikely to have been transported in fluids through fractures and uniformly deposited where abiogenic magnetite was forming epitaxially on carbonate. Submicrometer sulfides and magnetites probably formed during shock heating. Carbonates have correlated variations in Ca, Mg, and 18O/16O, magnetite-rich rims, and they appear to be embedded in pyroxene and plagiociase glass. Carbonates with these features have not been identified in carbonaceous chondrites and terrestrial rocks, suggesting that the ALH84001 carbonates have a unique origin. Carbonates and hydrated minerals in ALH84001, like secondary phases in other Martian meteorites, have O and H isotopic ratios favoring formation from fluids that exchanged with the Martian atmosphere. I propose that carbonates originally formed in ALH84001 from aqueous fluids and were subsequently shock heated and vaporized. The original carbonates were probably dolomite-magnesite-siderite assemblages that formed in pores at interstitial sites with minor sulfate, chloride, and phyllosilicates. These phases, like many other volatile-rich phases in Martian meteorites, may have formed as evaporate deposits from intermittent floods. PMID:11542931

  15. Initial Test Determination of Cosmogenic Nuclides in Magnetite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumura, H.; Caffee, M. W.; Nagao, K.; Nishiizumi, K.

    2014-12-01

    Long-lived radionuclides, such as 10Be, 26Al, and 36Cl, are produced by cosmic rays in surficial materials on Earth, and used for determinations of cosmic-ray exposure ages and erosion rates. Quartz and limestone are routinely used as the target minerals for these geomorphological studies. Magnetite also contains target elements that produce abundant cosmogenic nuclides when exposed to the cosmic rays. Magnetite has several notable merits that enable the measurement of cosmogenic nuclides: (1) the target elements for production of cosmogenic nuclides in magnetite comprise the dominant mineral form of magnetite, Fe3O4; (2) magnetite can be easily isolated, using a magnet, after rock milling; (3) multiple cosmogenic nuclides are produced by exposure of magnetite to cosmic-ray secondaries; and (4) cosmogenic nuclides produced in the rock containing the magnetite, but not within the magnetite itself, can be separated using nitric acid and sodium hydroxide leaches. As part of this initial study, magnetite was separated from a basaltic sample collected from the Atacama Desert in Chili (2,995 m). Then Be, Al, Cl, Ca, and Mn were separated from ~2 g of the purified magnetite. We measured cosmogenic 10Be, 26Al, and 36Cl concentrations in the magnetite by accelerator mass spectrometry at PRIME Lab, Purdue University. Cosmogenic 3He and 21Ne concentrations of aliquot of the magnetite were measured by mass spectrometry at the University of Tokyo. We also measured the nuclide concentrations from magnetite collected from a mine at Ishpeming, Michigan as a blank. The 10Be and 36Cl concentrations as well as 3He concentration produce concordant cosmic ray exposure ages of ~0.4 Myr for the Atacama basalt. However, observed high 26Al and 21Ne concentrations attribute to those nuclides incorporation from silicate impurity.

  16. Experimental Shock Decomposition of Siderite to Magnetite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, M. S.; Golden, D. C.; Zolensky, M. E.

    2005-01-01

    The debate about fossil life on Mars includes the origin of magnetites of specific sizes and habits in the siderite-rich portions of the carbonate spheres in ALH 84001 [1,2]. Specifically [2] were able to demonstrate that inorganic synthesis of these compositionally zoned spheres from aqueous solutions of variable ion-concentrations is possible. They further demonstrated the formation of magnetite from siderite upon heating at 550 C under a Mars-like CO2-rich atmosphere according to 3FeCO3 = Fe3O4 + 2CO2 + CO [3] and they postulated that the carbonates in ALH 84001 were heated to these temperatures by some shock event. The average shock pressure for ALH 84001, substantially based on the refractive index of diaplectic feldspar glasses [3,4,5] is some 35-40 GPa and associated temperatures are some 300-400 C [4]. However, some of the feldspar is melted [5], requiring local deviations from this average as high as 45-50 GPa. Indeed, [5] observes the carbonates in ALH 84001 to be melted locally, requiring pressures in excess of 60 GPa and temperatures > 600 C. Combining these shock studies with the above inorganic synthesis of zoned carbonates it seems possible to produce the ALH 84001 magnetites by the shock-induced decomposition of siderite.

  17. The oxidation state and microstructural environment of transition metals (V, Co, and Ni) in magnetite: an XAFS study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Xiaoliang; He, Zisen; Tan, Wei; Liu, Peng; Zhu, Jianxi; Zhang, Jing; He, Hongping

    2015-05-01

    Transition metal-substituted magnetite minerals have attracted increasing attention for their wide application in industry and environmental protection. In this study, the valence and atomic environment of some substituting metals in magnetites (Fe3- x M x O4, M = V, Co, and Ni) were investigated using X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy. The results deduced from X-ray absorption near-edge structure spectroscopy indicated that the valences of V, Co, and Ni in Fe3- x M x O4 were +3, +2, and +2, respectively. The valences did not change as the substitution extent increased. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy suggested that the substituting cations occupied octahedral sites in the magnetite structure. The M-O and M-M/Fe distances were consistent with the Feoct-O and Feoct-Fe distances, respectively, in the magnetite (Fe3O4) structure. The occupancy of the substituting cations was assessed by crystal-field theory. We also considered the relationship between the chemical environment of substituting cations and their effects on the physicochemical properties of magnetite, including thermal stability, surface properties, and catalytic reactivity.

  18. Hexagonal Platelet-like Magnetite as a Biosignature of Thermophilic Iron-Reducing Bacteria and Its Applications to the Exploration of the Modern Deep, Hot Biosphere and the Emergence of Iron-Reducing Bacteria in Early Precambrian Oceans

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Dissimilatory iron-reducing bacteria are able to enzymatically reduce ferric iron and couple to the oxidation of organic carbon. This mechanism induces the mineralization of fine magnetite crystals characterized by a wide distribution in size and irregular morphologies that are indistinguishable from authigenic magnetite. Thermoanaerobacter are thermophilic iron-reducing bacteria that predominantly inhabit terrestrial hot springs or deep crusts and have the capacity to transform amorphous ferric iron into magnetite with a size up to 120?nm. In this study, I first characterize the formation of hexagonal platelet-like magnetite of a few hundred nanometers in cultures of Thermoanaerobacter spp. strain TOR39. Biogenic magnetite with such large crystal sizes and unique morphology has never been observed in abiotic or biotic processes and thus can be considered as a potential biosignature for thermophilic iron-reducing bacteria. The unique crystallographic features and strong ferrimagnetic properties of these crystals allow easy and rapid screening for the previous presence of iron-reducing bacteria in deep terrestrial crustal samples that are unsuitable for biological detection methods and, also, the search for biogenic magnetite in banded iron formations that deposited only in the first 2 billion years of Earth with evidence of life. Key Words: BiosignaturesMagnetiteIron-reducing bacteriaDeep subsurface biosphereBanded iron formation. Astrobiology 12, 11001108. PMID:23145573

  19. Estimation of Sintering Kinetics of Magnetite Pellet Using Optical Dilatometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandeep Kumar, T. K.; Viswanathan, Neelakantan Nurni; Ahmed, Hesham M.; Andersson, Charlotte; Björkman, B.

    2016-02-01

    During induration of magnetite pellets, oxidation of magnetite followed by sintering of the oxidized magnetite (hematite) is desirable. Sintering of magnetite which hampers the oxidation of magnetite is aimed to be kept as low as possible. In succession to our earlier study on sintering behavior of oxidized magnetite (hematite), this paper focusses on the sintering behavior of magnetite phase in isolation with an objective to estimate their kinetic parameters. The pellets prepared from the concentrate of LKAB's mine, which majorly contains (>95 pct) magnetite, are used for the sintering studies. Optical Dilatometer is used to capture the sintering behavior of the magnetite pellet and determine their isothermal kinetics by deducing the three parameters, namely—activation energy ( Q), pre-exponential factor ( K'), and time exponent ( n) with the help of power law and Arrhenius equation. It is interesting to find that the time exponent ( n) is decreasing with the increase in sintering temperature. It is also interesting to note that the activation energy for sintering of magnetite pellet shows no single value. From the present investigation, two activation energies—477 kJ/mole [1173 K to 1373 K (900 °C to 1100 °C)] and 148 kJ/mole [1373 K to 1623 K (1100 °C to 1350 °C)]—were deduced for sintering of magnetite, suggesting two different mechanisms operating at lower and other at higher temperatures. The estimated kinetic parameters were used to predict the non-isothermal sintering behavior of magnetite using the sintering kinetic model. Predicted results were validated using experimental data.

  20. Production of magnetite by electrolytic reduction of ferric oxyhydroxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manrique-Julio, J.; Machuca-Martinez, F.; Marriaga-Cabrales, N.; Pinzon-Cardenas, M.

    2016-03-01

    Magnetite (Fe3O4) particles were prepared by electrolytic synthesis without the use of a surfactant. Various techniques were used to evaluate the effect of two parameters, the current density and the separation between electrodes, in the formation process of ferrimagnetic magnetite particles. The crystallite sizes can be controlled by adjusting the current density. Particle formation was favored below a critical separation distance between the electrodes. Finally, a formation mechanism for magnetite was proposed based on the partial reduction of lepidocrocite.

  1. Estimation of Sintering Kinetics of Magnetite Pellet Using Optical Dilatometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandeep Kumar, T. K.; Viswanathan, Neelakantan Nurni; Ahmed, Hesham M.; Andersson, Charlotte; Bjrkman, B.

    2015-11-01

    During induration of magnetite pellets, oxidation of magnetite followed by sintering of the oxidized magnetite (hematite) is desirable. Sintering of magnetite which hampers the oxidation of magnetite is aimed to be kept as low as possible. In succession to our earlier study on sintering behavior of oxidized magnetite (hematite), this paper focusses on the sintering behavior of magnetite phase in isolation with an objective to estimate their kinetic parameters. The pellets prepared from the concentrate of LKAB's mine, which majorly contains (>95 pct) magnetite, are used for the sintering studies. Optical Dilatometer is used to capture the sintering behavior of the magnetite pellet and determine their isothermal kinetics by deducing the three parameters, namelyactivation energy (Q), pre-exponential factor (K'), and time exponent (n) with the help of power law and Arrhenius equation. It is interesting to find that the time exponent (n) is decreasing with the increase in sintering temperature. It is also interesting to note that the activation energy for sintering of magnetite pellet shows no single value. From the present investigation, two activation energies477 kJ/mole [1173 K to 1373 K (900 C to 1100 C)] and 148 kJ/mole [1373 K to 1623 K (1100 C to 1350 C)]were deduced for sintering of magnetite, suggesting two different mechanisms operating at lower and other at higher temperatures. The estimated kinetic parameters were used to predict the non-isothermal sintering behavior of magnetite using the sintering kinetic model. Predicted results were validated using experimental data.

  2. crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Fen; Wang, Qingpu; Tao, Xutang; Li, Ping; Zhang, Xingyu; Liu, Zhaojun; Shen, Hongbin; Lan, Weixia; Gao, Liang; Gao, Zeliang; Zhang, Junjie; Fang, Jiaxiong

    2014-08-01

    An eye-safe Raman laser is realized with BaTeMo2O9 (BTM) nonlinear crystal for the first time. By using a diode-end-pumped acousto-optically Q-switched Nd:YVO4 laser as the pumping source, the BTM crystal converts the fundamental laser at 1,342 nm to first-Stokes laser at 1,531 nm successfully. With an incident power of 10.8 W and a pulse repetition rate of 25 kHz, the average output power at 1,531 nm is obtained to be 0.83 W, corresponding to a diode-to-Stokes conversion efficiency of 7.7 %. The pulse width is 11 ns, and the peak power is 3.0 kW.

  3. Remanent and Induced Magnetic Anomalies over the Bjerkreim-Sokndal Layered Intrusion: Effects from Crystal Fractionation and Magma Recharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McEnroe, S. A.; Brown, L. L.; Robinson, P.

    2013-12-01

    The Bjerkreim-Sokndal (BKS) norite-quartz mangerite layered intrusion is part of the early Neoproterozoic Rogaland Anorthosite Province intruded into the Fennoscandian shield in south Norway at ~930 Ma. The BKS is exposed over an area of 230 km2 with a thickness of ~7000m and is of economic interest for hemo-ilmenite, magnetite and apatite deposits. From the point of view of magnetic minerals, in the course of fractional crystallization and magma evolution, the ilmenite becomes less Fe3+-rich reflected by a change from ilmenite with hematite exsolution to nearly pure ilmenite. Magnetite starts to crystallize relatively late in the intrusive history, but its crystallization is interrupted by influxes of more primitive magma containing hemo-ilmenite. The variations in aeromagnetic and ground-magnetic anomalies measured over the BKS can be explained in terms of the magnetic properties of NRM, susceptibility, and hysteresis. Magnetic properties are correlated with the oxide mineralogy and mineral chemistry. Early layers in the intrusion contain hemo-ilmenite. As the magma evolved and magnetite started to crystallize, this caused a distinct change over the layering from remanence-controlled negative anomalies to induced positive anomalies. When new, more primitive magma was injected into the system, hemo-ilmenite returned as the major oxide and the resulting magnetic anomalies are again negative. The most dramatic change in the magnetic signature is in the upper part of the intrusion in MCU IVe, where magnetite became a well established cumulate phase as indicated by susceptibility, but its induced magnetization is overcome by large NRM's associated either with hemo-ilmenite or with hemo-ilmenite and magnetite exsolved from pyroxenes. The average natural remanent magnetizations change from ~3 A/m in MCU IVd, to 15 A/m in MCU IVe, and back to 2 A/m in the overlying MCU IVf, producing a strong negative remanent anomaly that has been followed along strike for at least 20 km by ground-magnetic measurements. The highly varied magnetic properties of this intrusion, caused by varied magmatic crystallization of combinations of oxide minerals illustrate some of the possibilities to be considered in evaluating crustal magnetic anomalies.

  4. Study of the surface chemistry and morphology of single walled carbon nanotube-magnetite composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marquez-Linares, F.; Uwakweh, O. N. C.; Lopez, N.; Chavez, E.; Polanco, R.; Morant, C.; Sanz, J. M.; Elizalde, E.; Neira, C.; Nieto, S.; Roque-Malherbe, R.

    2011-03-01

    The study of the morphologies of the single walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT), magnetite nanoparticles (MNP), and the composite based on them was carried with combined X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy (RS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). These techniques together with thermogravimetric analyses (TGA) and diffuse reflectance infrared transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS) confirmed the production of pure single phases, and that the composite material consisted of MNP attached to the outer surface of the SWCNT. The Mössbauer spectroscopy (MS) research showed the presence of a large quantity of Lewis acid sites in the highly dispersed magnetite particles supported on the SWCNT outer surface. The DRIFTS carbon dioxide adsorption study of the composites revealed significant adsorption of carbon dioxide, fundamentally in the Lewis acid sites. Then, the Lewis acid sites were observed to be catalytically active. Further, the electron exchange between the Lewis acid sites and the basic or amphoteric adsorbed molecules could influence the magnetic properties of the magnetite. Consequently, together with this first ever use of MS in the study of Lewis acid sites, this investigation revealed the potential of the composites for catalytic and sensors applications.

  5. Synthesis of non-aggregated nicotinic acid coated magnetite nanorods via hydrothermal technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Attallah, Olivia A.; Girgis, E.; Abdel-Mottaleb, Mohamed M. S. A.

    2016-02-01

    Non-aggregated magnetite nanorods with average diameters of 20-30 nm and lengths of up to 350 nm were synthesized via in situ, template free hydrothermal technique. These nanorods capped with different concentrations (1, 1.5, 2 and 2.5 g) of nicotinic acid (vitamin B3); possessed good magnetic properties and easy dispersion in aqueous solutions. Our new synthesis technique maintained the uniform shape of the nanorods even with increasing the coating material concentration. The effect of nicotinic acid on the shape, particle size, chemical structure and magnetic properties of the prepared nanorods was evaluated using different characterization methods. The length of nanorods increased from 270 nm to 350 nm in nicotinic acid coated nanorods. Goethite and magnetite phases with different ratios were the dominant phases in the coated samples while a pure magnetite phase was observed in the uncoated one. Nicotinic acid coated magnetic nanorods showed a significant decrease in saturation magnetization than uncoated samples (55 emu/g) reaching 4 emu/g in 2.5 g nicotinic acid coated sample. The novel synthesis technique proved its potentiality to prepare coated metal oxides with one dimensional nanostructure which can function effectively in different biological applications.

  6. Production of substantially pure fructose

    SciTech Connect

    Hatcher, H.J.; Gallian, J.J.; Leeper, S.A.

    1990-05-22

    This patent describes a process for the production of a substantially pure product containing greater than 60% fructose. It comprises: combining a sucrose-containing substrate with effective amounts of a levansucrase enzyme preparation to form levan and glucose; purifying the levan by at least one of the following purification methods: ultrafiltration, diafiltration, hyperfiltration, reverse osmosis, liquid--liquid partition, solvent extraction, chromatography, and precipitation; hydrolyzing the levan to form fructose substantially free of glucose and sucrose; and recovering the fructose by at least one of the following recovery methods: hyperfiltration, reverse osmosis, evaporation, drying, crystallization, and chromatography.

  7. Magnetite in Desert Varnish and Applications to Rock Varnish on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mancinelli, R. L.; Bishop, J. L.; de, S.

    2002-03-01

    Magnetite in desert varnish is characterized here using DTA, IR and SEM. The presence of magnetite in desert varnish is significant because of the oxidizing environment. This situation is similar to that of Mars where magnetite may also be present.

  8. Study of the surface chemistry and morphology of single walled carbon nanotube-magnetite composites

    SciTech Connect

    Marquez-Linares, F.; Uwakweh, O.N.C.; Lopez, N.; Chavez, E.; Polanco, R.; Morant, C.; Sanz, J.M.; Elizalde, E.; Neira, C.; Nieto, S.; Roque-Malherbe, R.

    2011-03-15

    The study of the morphologies of the single walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT), magnetite nanoparticles (MNP), and the composite based on them was carried with combined X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy (RS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). These techniques together with thermogravimetric analyses (TGA) and diffuse reflectance infrared transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS) confirmed the production of pure single phases, and that the composite material consisted of MNP attached to the outer surface of the SWCNT. The Moessbauer spectroscopy (MS) research showed the presence of a large quantity of Lewis acid sites in the highly dispersed magnetite particles supported on the SWCNT outer surface. The DRIFTS carbon dioxide adsorption study of the composites revealed significant adsorption of carbon dioxide, fundamentally in the Lewis acid sites. Then, the Lewis acid sites were observed to be catalytically active. Further, the electron exchange between the Lewis acid sites and the basic or amphoteric adsorbed molecules could influence the magnetic properties of the magnetite. Consequently, together with this first ever use of MS in the study of Lewis acid sites, this investigation revealed the potential of the composites for catalytic and sensors applications. -- Graphical abstract: A large amount of Lewis acid sites were found in the highly dispersed magnetite which is supported on the SWCNT outer surface. Display Omitted Research highlights: {yields} The obtained materials were completely characterized with XRD, Raman and SEM-TEM. {yields} DRIFT, TGA and adsorption of the composites allowed understand the material formation. {yields} This is the first report of a study of Lewis sites by Moessbauer spectroscopy.

  9. Genes Necessary for Bacterial Magnetite Biomineralization Identified by Transposon Mutagenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nash, C. Z.; Komeili, A.; Newman, D. K.; Kirschvink, J. L.

    2004-12-01

    Magnetic bacteria synthesize nanoscale crystals of magnetite in intracellular, membrane-bounded organelles (magnetosomes). These crystals are preserved in the fossil record at least as far back as the late Neoproterozoic and have been tentatively identified in much older rocks (1). This fossil record may provide deep time calibration points for molecular evolution studies once the genes involved in biologically controlled magnetic mineralization (BCMM) are known. Further, a genetic and biochemical understanding of BCMM will give insight into the depositional environment and biogeochemical cycles in which magnetic bacteria play a role. The BCMM process is not well understood, though proteins have been identified from the magnetosome membrane and genetic manipulation and biochemical characterization of these proteins are underway. Most of the proteins currently thought to be involved are encoded within the mam cluster, a large cluster of genes whose products localize to the magnetosome membrane and are conserved among magnetic bacteria (2). In an effort to identify all of the genes necessary for bacterial BCMM, we undertook a transposon mutagenesis of Magnetospirillum magneticum AMB-1. Non-magnetic mutants (MNMs) were identified by growth in liquid culture followed by a magnetic assay. The insertion site of the transposon was identified two ways. First MNMs were screened with a PCR assay to determine if the transposon had inserted into the mam cluster. Second, the transposon was rescued from the mutant DNA and cloned for sequencing. The majority insertion sites are located within the mam cluster. Insertion sites also occur in operons which have not previously been suspected to be involved in magnetite biomineralization. None of the insertion sites have occurred within genes reported from previous transposon mutagenesis studies of AMB-1 (3, 4). Two of the non-mam cluster insertion sites occur in operons containing genes conserved particularly between MS-1 and MC-1. We are undertaking a complementation strategy to demonstrate the necessity of these novel genes in BCMM as well as characterizing the phenotypes of the mutants. 1. S. B. R. Chang, J. F. Stolz, J. L. Kirschvink, S. M. Awramik, Precambrian Res. 43, 305-315 (1989). 2. K. Grünberg, C. Wawer, B. M. Tebo, D. Schüler, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 67, 4573-4582 (2001). 3. A. T. Wahyudi, H. Takeyama, T. Matsunaga, Appl. Biochem. Biotechnol. 91-3, 147-154 (2001). 4. T. Matsunaga, C. Nakamura, J. G. Burgess, K. Sode, J. Bacteriol. 174, 2748-2753 (1992).

  10. Fe atom exchange between aqueous Fe2+ and magnetite.

    PubMed

    Gorski, Christopher A; Handler, Robert M; Beard, Brian L; Pasakarnis, Timothy; Johnson, Clark M; Scherer, Michelle M

    2012-11-20

    The reaction between magnetite and aqueous Fe(2+) has been extensively studied due to its role in contaminant reduction, trace-metal sequestration, and microbial respiration. Previous work has demonstrated that the reaction of Fe(2+) with magnetite (Fe(3)O(4)) results in the structural incorporation of Fe(2+) and an increase in the bulk Fe(2+) content of magnetite. It is unclear, however, whether significant Fe atom exchange occurs between magnetite and aqueous Fe(2+), as has been observed for other Fe oxides. Here, we measured the extent of Fe atom exchange between aqueous Fe(2+) and magnetite by reacting isotopically "normal" magnetite with (57)Fe-enriched aqueous Fe(2+). The extent of Fe atom exchange between magnetite and aqueous Fe(2+) was significant (54-71%), and went well beyond the amount of Fe atoms found at the near surface. Mössbauer spectroscopy of magnetite reacted with (56)Fe(2+) indicate that no preferential exchange of octahedral or tetrahedral sites occurred. Exchange experiments conducted with Co-ferrite (Co(2+)Fe(2)(3+)O(4)) showed little impact of Co substitution on the rate or extent of atom exchange. Bulk electron conduction, as previously invoked to explain Fe atom exchange in goethite, is a possible mechanism, but if it is occurring, conduction does not appear to be the rate-limiting step. The lack of significant impact of Co substitution on the kinetics of Fe atom exchange, and the relatively high diffusion coefficients reported for magnetite suggest that for magnetite, unlike goethite, Fe atom diffusion is a plausible mechanism to explain the rapid rates of Fe atom exchange in magnetite. PMID:22577839

  11. Origin of two Verwey transitions in different generations of magnetite from the Chesapeake Bay impact structure, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kontny, A. M.; Mang, C.

    2013-05-01

    We observed two different Verwey transition temperatures in fragments of crystalline basement and impact sediments (suevite and impact breccia) from the Chesapeake Bay impact structure (CBIS), USA. Using low-temperature SIRM, susceptibility and hysteresis properties along with mineralogical observations of magnetite our study aims to the question if this feature can be used as shock indicator in the CBIS rocks. Several studies indicated that the Verwey transition temperature (TV) is pressure sensitive (e.g. Carporzen and Gilder 2010). In the CBIS rocks we distinguished three generations of magnetite (Mang and Kontny submitted manuscript). (1) Primary magnetite in granite from allochthonous and autochthonous crystalline basement has average grain sizes up to some hundreds ?m, shows multidomain magnetic behavior and a regular TV at 120 K. It is assumed to be the precursor mineral for the shocked variety. (2) Shocked magnetite, which is strongly deformed and partially molten, occurs in fragments of crystalline rocks and as single grains in the suevite and impact breccia. These rocks show two Verwey transitions - a regular one and a "low-temperature Verwey transition" (LTV) at around 95 K. These two Verwey transition temperatures can be related to a bimodal grain size distribution of magnetite. While the LTV is related to an oxidized magnetite fraction with small grain sizes (some tens of ?m), the larger grain size fraction (some hundreds of ?m) causes the regular TV. The small grain size fraction contains a distinctly higher amount of oxidized material due to their high surface/volume ratio. Oxidation of magnetite introduces vacancies into the crystal structure, which causes a decrease of the Verwey transition temperature. (3) A secondary magnetite generation, which precipitated from post-impact hydrothermal fluids in the suevite, shows also two Verwey transition temperatures, one at 120 K and a LTV range between 90 and 100 K. This magnetite generation forms clusters consisting of numerous needle-shaped magnetite crystals, which range from few nm to about 10 ?m. Hysteresis properties and FORC confirm this large grain size variation and indicate secondary magnetite to show superparamagnetic to multidomain behavior. The LTV in this generation is linked to thin oxidized surface layers that progressively increase the percentage of the bulk volume, the smaller the grains are. Small variations in grain size thus result in a slightly different TV, whereas the bulk signal of TV appears often as a strongly broadened transition. This study shows that especially the Verwey transition temperature of small magnetite grains reacts very sensitive to surface oxidation. As the Verwey transition temperature of small grains is sensitive to this last overprint, they cannot be used as a reliable pressure indicator, if they occur in natural environments on Earth. References Carpozen, L., Gilder, S.A. (2010) J. Geophys. Res., 115, B05103, doi: 10.1029/2009JB006813. Mang, C., Kontny, A. (submitted manuscript) J. Geophys. Res.

  12. [Role of mexidol (2-ethyl-6-methyl-3-hydroxypyridine succinate) in the obtaining of stabilized magnetite nanoparticles for biomedical application].

    PubMed

    Vazhnichaya, Ye M; Mokliak, Ye V; Kurapov, Yu A; Zabozlaev, A A

    2015-01-01

    Magnetite nanoparticles (NPs) are studied as agents for magnetic resonance imaging, hyperthermia of malignant tumors, targeted drug delivery as well as anti-anemic action. One of the main problems of such NPs is their aggregation that requires creation of methods for magnetite NPs stabilization during preparation of liquid medicinal forms on their basis. The present work is devoted to the possibility of mexidol (2-ethyl-6-methyl-3-hydroxypyridine succinate) use for solubilization of magnetite NPs in hydrophilic medium. For this purpose, the condensate produced by electron-beam evaporation and condensation, with magnetite particles of size 5-8 nm deposited into the crystals of sodium chloride were used in conjunction with substance of mexidol (2-ethyl-6-methyl-3-hydroxypyridine succinate), and low molecular weight polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP). The NP condensate was dispersed in distilled water or PVP or mexidol solutions. NPs size distribution in the liquid phase of the systems was determined by photon correlation spectroscopy, iron (Fe) concentration was evaluated by atomic emission spectrometry. It is shown that in the dispersion prepared in distilled water, the major amount of NPs was of 13-120 nm in size, in mexidol solution - 270-1700 nm, in PVP solution - 30-900 nm. In the fluid containing magnetite NPs together with mexidol and PVP, the main fraction (99.9%) was characterized by the NPs size of 14-75 nm with maximum of 25 nm. This system had the highest iron concentration: it was similar to that in the sample with mexidol solution and 6.6-7.3 times higher than the concentration in the samples with distilled water or PVP. Thus, in the preparation of aqueous dispersions based on magnetite NPs condensate, mexidol provides a transition of Fe to the liquid phase in amount necessary to achieve its biological activity, and PVP stabilizes such modified NPs. PMID:26215417

  13. Magnetite as Possible Template for the Synthesis of Chiral Organics in Carbonaceous Chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, Q. H. S.; Zolensky, M. E.

    2014-01-01

    The main goal of the Japanese Aerospace Ex-ploration Agency (JAXA) Hayabusa-2 mission is to visit and return to Earth samples of a C-type asteroid (162173) 1999 JU3 in order to understand the origin and nature of organic materials in the Solar System. Life on Earth shows preference towards the set of organics with particular spatial arrangements, this 'selectivity' is a crucial criterion for life. With only rare exceptions, life 'determines' to use the left- (L-) form over the right- (D-) form of amino acids, resulting in a L-enantiomeric excess (ee). Recent studies have shown that L-ee is found within the alpha-methyl amino acids in meteorites [1, 2], which are amino acids with rare terrestrial occurrence, and thus point towards a plausible abiotic origin for ee. One of the proposed origins of chiral asymmetry of amino acids in meteorites is their formation with the presence of asymmetric catalysts [3]. The catalytic mineral grains acted as a surface at which nebular gases (CO, H2 and NH3) were allowed to condense and react through Fisher Tropsch type (FTT) syntheses to form the organics observed in meteorites [4]. Magnetite is shown to be an effective catalyst of the synthesis of amino acids that are commonly found in meteorites [5]. It has also taken the form as spiral magnetites (a.k.a. 'plaquettes'), which were found in various carbonaceous chondrites (CCs), including C2s Tagish Lake and Esseibi, CI Orgueil, and CR chondrites [e.g., 6, 7, 8]. In addition, L-ee for amino acids are common in the aqueously altered CCs, as opposed to the unaltered CCs [1]. It seems possible that the synthesis of amino acids with chiral preferences is correlated to the alteration process experienced by the asteroid parent body, and related to the configuration of spiral magnetite catalysts. Since C-type asteroids are considered to be enriched in organic matter, and the spectral data of 1999 JU3 indicates a certain de-gree of aqueous alteration [9], the Hayabusa-2 mission serves as a perfect chance to attest this argument. In order to understand the distribution of spiral magnetites among different meteorite classes, as well as to investigate their spiral configurations and correlation to molecular asymmetry, we observed polished thin sections of CCs using scanning electron microscope (SEM) imaging. Individual magnetite grains were picked, embedded in epoxy, thin-sectioned using an ultra-microtome, and studied with electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) in order to reconstruct the crystal orientation along the stack of magnetite disks.

  14. Magnetite-Magnesioferrite Phase Relations and Application to ALH84001

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koziol, A. M.

    2003-03-01

    Magnesioferrite (MgFe2O4) or magnetite + MgO may form from decarbonation of siderite-magnesite. This depends on temperature and fO2. For ALH84001, formation of magnetite MgO via decarbonation reactions would require low fO2 (near mt-w).

  15. Biogeochemical role of magnetite in urban soils (Review of publications)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vodyanitskii, Yu. N.

    2013-03-01

    The surface horizons of urban soils are enriched in technogenic magnetite Fe3O4 accumulated from emissions. Its content there reaches 3-4% and more, whereas it does not exceed 0.1% in the back-ground soils. In urban soils, large spherical magnetite particles of pseudo-single-domain and multidomain fabric predominate; the cavities in magnetic spherules decrease their chemical stability and increase their reactivity. Magnetite is most often destroyed in urban soils due to complexing; its destruction may be initiated by mineral salts entering the soil with deicing mixtures and by organic acids excreted by roots (e.g., by oxalic acid). The high solubility of magnetite with ammonium oxalate should be taken into account when using Tamm's reagent for the analysis of urban soils. Magnetite is a mineral carrier of some heavy metals. Therefore, its content (as determined from the magnetic susceptibility) serves as an indirect index of soil pollution. In addition, magnetite may affect many soil properties as a reducer and sorbent. It adsorbs phosphorus thus preventing the penetration of this nutrient into rivers and lakes. Magnetite also oxidizes Cl-containing aliphatic hydrocarbons and purifies the soil. Although magnetite enters urban soils as a pollutant, its influence on the soil properties cannot be unambiguously judged as only negative.

  16. MAGNETITE RECOVERY IN COAL WASHING BY HIGH GRADIENT MAGNETIC SEPARATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes a demonstration of the successful recovery of magnetite from mixtures of magnetite and coal, like those found in a coal-washing circuit, by High Gradient Magnetic Separation. The demonstration was part of a research program at Francis Bitter National Magnet L...

  17. Lymphatic mapping and sentinel node location with magnetite nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Chu W.; Rogers, James M.; Groman, Ernest V.

    1999-04-01

    Subcutaneously administered magnetite nanoparticles were used to locate sentinel lymph nodes in normal rats. Nanoparticles sequestered in brachial and axillary lymph nodes produced magnetic susceptibility artifacts in gradient recall echo magnetic resonance images. The artifact sizes enabled the determination of nanoparticle nodal uptake rates and lymphatic drainage patterns. These studies were confirmed by use of 59Fe labeled magnetite nanoparticles.

  18. Magnetic process for removing heavy metals from water employing magnetites

    DOEpatents

    Prenger, F. Coyne; Hill, Dallas D.

    2006-12-26

    A process for removing heavy metals from water is provided. The process includes the steps of introducing magnetite to a quantity of water containing heavy metal. The magnetite is mixed with the water such that at least a portion of, and preferably the majority of, the heavy metal in the water is bound to the magnetite. Once this occurs the magnetite and absorbed metal is removed from the water by application of a magnetic field. In most applications the process is achieved by flowing the water through a solid magnetized matrix, such as steel wool, such that the magnetite magnetically binds to the solid matrix. The magnetized matrix preferably has remnant magnetism, but may also be subject to an externally applied magnetic field. Once the magnetite and associated heavy metal is bound to the matrix, it can be removed and disposed of, such as by reverse water or air and water flow through the matrix. The magnetite may be formed in-situ by the addition of the necessary quantities of Fe(II) and Fe(III) ions, or pre-formed magnetite may be added, or a combination of seed and in-situ formation may be used. The invention also relates to an apparatus for performing the removal of heavy metals from water using the process outlined above.

  19. Magnetic process for removing heavy metals from water employing magnetites

    DOEpatents

    Prenger, F. Coyne; Hill, Dallas D.; Padilla, Dennis D.; Wingo, Robert M.; Worl, Laura A.; Johnson, Michael D.

    2003-07-22

    A process for removing heavy metals from water is provided. The process includes the steps of introducing magnetite to a quantity of water containing heavy metal. The magnetite is mixed with the water such that at least a portion of, and preferably the majority of, the heavy metal in the water is bound to the magnetite. Once this occurs the magnetite and absorbed metal is removed from the water by application of a magnetic field. In most applications the process is achieved by flowing the water through a solid magnetized matrix, such as steel wool, such that the magnetite magnetically binds to the solid matrix. The magnetized matrix preferably has remnant magnetism, but may also be subject to an externally applied magnetic field. Once the magnetite and associated heavy metal is bound to the matrix, it can be removed and disposed of, such as by reverse water or air and water flow through the matrix. The magnetite may be formed in-situ by the addition of the necessary quantities of Fe(II) and Fe(III) ions, or pre-formed magnetite may be added, or a combination of seed and in-situ formation may be used. The invention also relates to an apparatus for performing the removal of heavy metals from water using the process outlined above.

  20. Electronic phase transitions in ultrathin magnetite films.

    PubMed

    Bernal-Villamil, I; Gallego, S

    2015-07-29

    Magnetite (Fe3O4) shows singular electronic and magnetic properties, resulting from complex electron-electron and electron-phonon interactions that involve the interplay of charge, orbital and spin degrees of freedom. The Verwey transition is a manifestation of these interactions, with a puzzling connection between the low temperature charge ordered state and the dynamic charge fluctuations still present above the transition temperature. Here we explore how these rich physical phenomena are affected by thin film geometries, particularly focusing on the ultimate size limit defined by thicknesses below the minimum bulk unit cell. On one hand, we address the influence of extended defects, such as surfaces or antiphase domains, on the novel features exhibited by thin films. On the other, we try to isolate the effect of the reduced thickness on the electronic and magnetic properties. We will show that a distinct phase diagram and novel charge distributions emerge under reduced dimensions, while holding the local high magnetic moments. Altogether, thin film geometries offer unique possibilities to understand the complex interplay of short- and long-range orders in the Verwey transition. Furthermore, they arise as interesting candidates for the exploitation of the rich physics of magnetite in devices that demand nanoscale geometries, additionally offering novel functionalities based on their distinct properties with respect to the bulk form. PMID:26153727

  1. Coating agents affected toward magnetite nanoparticles properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petcharoen, Karat; Sirivat, Anuvat

    2012-02-01

    Magnetite nanoparticles --MNPs-- are innovative materials used in biological and medical applications. They respond to magnetic field through the superparamagnetic behavior at room temperature. In this study, the MNPs were synthesized via the chemical co-precipitation method using various coating agents. Fatty acids, found naturally in the animal fats, can be used as a coating agent. Oleic acid and hexanoic acid were chosen as the surface modification agents to study the improvement in the suspension of MNPs in water and the magnetite properties. Suspension stability, particle size, and electrical conductivity of MNPs are critically affected by the modification process. The well-dispersed MNPs in water can be improved by the surface modification and the oleic acid coated MNPs possess excellent suspension stability over 1 week. The particle size of MNPs increases up to 40 nm using oleic acid coated MNPs. The electrical conductivity of the smallest particle size is 1.3x10-3 S/cm, which is 5 times higher than that of the largest particle, suggesting potential applications as a biomedical material under both of the electrical and magnetic fields.

  2. Cryptic grain-scale heterogeneity of oxygen isotope ratios in metamorphic magnetite.

    PubMed

    Valley, J W; Graham, C M

    1993-03-19

    Oxygen isotope ratios measured by ion microprobe in magnetite from granulite-facies marble of the Adirondack Mountains, New York, range from +2 to +11 per mil (standard mean ocean water) across a single grain that measures 3 millimeters by 5 millimeters. Low values are concentrated in irregular domains near the grain boundary but also occur in the grain's interior. In contrast, grains 1 millimeter in diameter that are from a second nearby sample show no significant heterogeneity, except within 10 micrometers of the grain boundary. These data, including large gradients of up to 9 per mil per 10 micrometers, provide important new constraints on the nature and origins of intragrain isotopic heterogeneity and on oxygen isotope thermometry. The differences between these magnetite grains result from contrasting mechanisms of isotope exchange with fluids after the peak of regional metamorphism. Volume diffusion of oxygen through the crystal structure of magnetite contributed to isotope exchange in the rims of small grains, but larger grains are crosscut by healed cracks that are not readily detected and that short-circuited diffusion. PMID:17816891

  3. Silicon dioxide nanoporous structure with liquid crystal for optical sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sushynskyi, Orest; Vistak, Maria; Gotra, Zenon; Fechan, Andriy; Mikityuk, Zinoviy

    2013-05-01

    It has been studied the spectral characteristics of the porous silicon dioxide and cholesteric liquid crystal. It has been shown that doping of the EE1 cholesteric liquid crystal with Fe3O4 magnetite nanoparticles doesn't shift significantly the position of the transmittance minimum of the material. It has been found that the deformation of chiral pitch of cholesteric liquid crystal with magnetite is observed in case of doping of porous nanocomposite host with following shifting of minimum of transmittance into short wavelength direction. It has been shown that influence of carbon monoxide on optical characteristics of the cholesteric liquid crystal with magnetite can be explained by the interaction of CARBON MONOXIDE molecules with magnetite nanodopants.

  4. No evidence for intracellular magnetite in putative vertebrate magnetoreceptors identified by magnetic screening

    PubMed Central

    Edelman, Nathaniel B.; Fritz, Tanja; Nimpf, Simon; Pichler, Paul; Lauwers, Mattias; Hickman, Robert W.; Papadaki-Anastasopoulou, Artemis; Ushakova, Lyubov; Heuser, Thomas; Resch, Guenter P.; Saunders, Martin; Shaw, Jeremy A.; Keays, David A.

    2015-01-01

    The cellular basis of the magnetic sense remains an unsolved scientific mystery. One theory that aims to explain how animals detect the magnetic field is the magnetite hypothesis. It argues that intracellular crystals of the iron oxide magnetite (Fe3O4) are coupled to mechanosensitive channels that elicit neuronal activity in specialized sensory cells. Attempts to find these primary sensors have largely relied on the Prussian Blue stain that labels cells rich in ferric iron. This method has proved problematic as it has led investigators to conflate iron-rich macrophages with magnetoreceptors. An alternative approach developed by Eder et al. [Eder SH, et al. (2012) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 109(30):12022–12027] is to identify candidate magnetoreceptive cells based on their magnetic moment. Here, we explore the utility of this method by undertaking a screen for magnetic cells in the pigeon. We report the identification of a small number of cells (1 in 476,000) with large magnetic moments (8–106 fAm2) from various tissues. The development of single-cell correlative light and electron microscopy (CLEM) coupled with electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) and energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy (EFTEM) permitted subcellular analysis of magnetic cells. This revealed the presence of extracellular structures composed of iron, titanium, and chromium accounting for the magnetic properties of these cells. Application of single-cell CLEM to magnetic cells from the trout failed to identify any intracellular structures consistent with biogenically derived magnetite. Our work illustrates the need for new methods to test the magnetite hypothesis of magnetosensation. PMID:25535350

  5. No evidence for intracellular magnetite in putative vertebrate magnetoreceptors identified by magnetic screening.

    PubMed

    Edelman, Nathaniel B; Fritz, Tanja; Nimpf, Simon; Pichler, Paul; Lauwers, Mattias; Hickman, Robert W; Papadaki-Anastasopoulou, Artemis; Ushakova, Lyubov; Heuser, Thomas; Resch, Guenter P; Saunders, Martin; Shaw, Jeremy A; Keays, David A

    2015-01-01

    The cellular basis of the magnetic sense remains an unsolved scientific mystery. One theory that aims to explain how animals detect the magnetic field is the magnetite hypothesis. It argues that intracellular crystals of the iron oxide magnetite (Fe3O4) are coupled to mechanosensitive channels that elicit neuronal activity in specialized sensory cells. Attempts to find these primary sensors have largely relied on the Prussian Blue stain that labels cells rich in ferric iron. This method has proved problematic as it has led investigators to conflate iron-rich macrophages with magnetoreceptors. An alternative approach developed by Eder et al. [Eder SH, et al. (2012) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 109(30):12022-12027] is to identify candidate magnetoreceptive cells based on their magnetic moment. Here, we explore the utility of this method by undertaking a screen for magnetic cells in the pigeon. We report the identification of a small number of cells (1 in 476,000) with large magnetic moments (8-106 fAm(2)) from various tissues. The development of single-cell correlative light and electron microscopy (CLEM) coupled with electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) and energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy (EFTEM) permitted subcellular analysis of magnetic cells. This revealed the presence of extracellular structures composed of iron, titanium, and chromium accounting for the magnetic properties of these cells. Application of single-cell CLEM to magnetic cells from the trout failed to identify any intracellular structures consistent with biogenically derived magnetite. Our work illustrates the need for new methods to test the magnetite hypothesis of magnetosensation. PMID:25535350

  6. Purely lytic osteosarcoma

    SciTech Connect

    De Santos, L.A.; Eideken, B.

    1982-11-01

    The radiographic features of 42 purely lytic osteosarcomas are presented. Purely lytic osteosarcoma is identified as a lytic lesion of bone with no demonstrable osteoid matrix by conventional radiographic modalities. Purely lytic osteosarcoma represented 13.7% of a group of 305 osteosarcomas. The most common presentation was that of a lytic illdefined lesion with a moderate to large extraosseous mass component. Nine lesions presented with benign radiographic features. The differential diagnosis is outlined. The need for awareness of this type of presentation of osteosarcoma is stressed.

  7. Did the massive magnetite "lava flows" of El Laco (Chile) form by magmatic or hydrothermal processes? New constraints from magnetite composition by LA-ICP-MS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dare, Sarah A. S.; Barnes, Sarah-Jane; Beaudoin, Georges

    2015-06-01

    The El Laco magnetite deposits consist of more than 98 % magnetite but show field textures remarkably similar to mafic lava flows. Therefore, it has long been suggested that they represent a rare example of an effusive Fe oxide liquid. Field and petrographic evidence, however, suggest that the magnetite deposits represent replacement of andesite flows and that the textures are pseudomorphs. We determined the trace element content of magnetite by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) from various settings at El Laco and compared them with magnetite from both igneous and hydrothermal environments. This new technique allows us to place constraints on the conditions under which magnetite in these supposed magnetite "lava flows" formed. The trace element content of magnetite from the massive magnetite samples is different to any known magmatic magnetite, including primary magnetite phenocrysts from the unaltered andesite host rocks at El Laco. Instead, the El Laco magnetite is most similar in composition to hydrothermal magnetite from high-temperature environments (>500 C), such as iron oxide-copper-gold (IOCG) and porphyry-Cu deposits. The magnetite trace elements from massive magnetite are characterised by (1) depletion in elements considered relatively immobile in hydrothermal fluids (e.g. Ti, Al, Cr, Zr, Hf and Sc); (2) enrichment in elements that are highly incompatible with magmatic magnetite (rare earth elements (REE), Si, Ca, Na and P) and normally present in very low abundance in magmatic magnetite; (3) high Ni/Cr ratios which are typical of magnetite from hydrothermal environments; and (4) oscillatory zoning of Si, Ca, Mg, REE and most high field strength elements, and zoning truncations indicating dissolution, similar to that formed in hydrothermal Fe skarn deposits. In addition, secondary magnetite in altered, brecciated host rock, forming disseminations and veins, has the same composition as magnetite from the massive lenses. Euhedral magnetite lining both open-spaced veins in the brecciated host rock and along the walls of large, hollow chimneys in the massive magnetite lenses also displays oscillatory zoning and most likely formed by fluctuating composition and/or physio-chemical conditions of the fluid. Thus, the chemical fingerprint of magnetite from the supposed El Laco magnetite lava flows supports the hydrothermal model of metasomatic replacement of andesite lava flows, by dissolution and precipitation of magnetite from high-temperature fluids, rather than a magmatic origin from an effusive Fe oxide liquid.

  8. Hexagonal platelet-like magnetite as a biosignature of thermophilic iron-reducing bacteria and its applications to the exploration of the modern deep, hot biosphere and the emergence of iron-reducing bacteria in early precambrian oceans.

    PubMed

    Li, Yi-Liang

    2012-12-01

    Dissimilatory iron-reducing bacteria are able to enzymatically reduce ferric iron and couple to the oxidation of organic carbon. This mechanism induces the mineralization of fine magnetite crystals characterized by a wide distribution in size and irregular morphologies that are indistinguishable from authigenic magnetite. Thermoanaerobacter are thermophilic iron-reducing bacteria that predominantly inhabit terrestrial hot springs or deep crusts and have the capacity to transform amorphous ferric iron into magnetite with a size up to 120?nm. In this study, I first characterize the formation of hexagonal platelet-like magnetite of a few hundred nanometers in cultures of Thermoanaerobacter spp. strain TOR39. Biogenic magnetite with such large crystal sizes and unique morphology has never been observed in abiotic or biotic processes and thus can be considered as a potential biosignature for thermophilic iron-reducing bacteria. The unique crystallographic features and strong ferrimagnetic properties of these crystals allow easy and rapid screening for the previous presence of iron-reducing bacteria in deep terrestrial crustal samples that are unsuitable for biological detection methods and, also, the search for biogenic magnetite in banded iron formations that deposited only in the first 2 billion years of Earth with evidence of life. PMID:23145573

  9. Pure-quartic solitons.

    PubMed

    Blanco-Redondo, Andrea; Martijn, de Sterke C; Sipe, J E; Krauss, Thomas F; Eggleton, Benjamin J; Husko, Chad

    2016-01-01

    Temporal optical solitons have been the subject of intense research due to their intriguing physics and applications in ultrafast optics and supercontinuum generation. Conventional bright optical solitons result from the interaction of anomalous group-velocity dispersion and self-phase modulation. Here we experimentally demonstrate a class of bright soliton arising purely from the interaction of negative fourth-order dispersion and self-phase modulation, which can occur even for normal group-velocity dispersion. We provide experimental and numerical evidence of shape-preserving propagation and flat temporal phase for the fundamental pure-quartic soliton and periodically modulated propagation for the higher-order pure-quartic solitons. We derive the approximate shape of the fundamental pure-quartic soliton and discover that is surprisingly Gaussian, exhibiting excellent agreement with our experimental observations. Our discovery, enabled by precise dispersion engineering, could find applications in communications, frequency combs and ultrafast lasers. PMID:26822758

  10. Pure Autonomic Failure

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Families Recursos en Español Teaching Resources Medical and Science Glossaries More Quick Links Evaluating Health Information Financial ... Links About the National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences (NCATS) GARD Home Diseases Pure autonomic failure Diseases ...

  11. Pure-quartic solitons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanco-Redondo, Andrea; Martijn, De Sterke C.; Sipe, J. E.; Krauss, Thomas F.; Eggleton, Benjamin J.; Husko, Chad

    2016-01-01

    Temporal optical solitons have been the subject of intense research due to their intriguing physics and applications in ultrafast optics and supercontinuum generation. Conventional bright optical solitons result from the interaction of anomalous group-velocity dispersion and self-phase modulation. Here we experimentally demonstrate a class of bright soliton arising purely from the interaction of negative fourth-order dispersion and self-phase modulation, which can occur even for normal group-velocity dispersion. We provide experimental and numerical evidence of shape-preserving propagation and flat temporal phase for the fundamental pure-quartic soliton and periodically modulated propagation for the higher-order pure-quartic solitons. We derive the approximate shape of the fundamental pure-quartic soliton and discover that is surprisingly Gaussian, exhibiting excellent agreement with our experimental observations. Our discovery, enabled by precise dispersion engineering, could find applications in communications, frequency combs and ultrafast lasers.

  12. Pure-quartic solitons

    PubMed Central

    Blanco-Redondo, Andrea; Martijn, de Sterke C.; Sipe, J.E.; Krauss, Thomas F.; Eggleton, Benjamin J.; Husko, Chad

    2016-01-01

    Temporal optical solitons have been the subject of intense research due to their intriguing physics and applications in ultrafast optics and supercontinuum generation. Conventional bright optical solitons result from the interaction of anomalous group-velocity dispersion and self-phase modulation. Here we experimentally demonstrate a class of bright soliton arising purely from the interaction of negative fourth-order dispersion and self-phase modulation, which can occur even for normal group-velocity dispersion. We provide experimental and numerical evidence of shape-preserving propagation and flat temporal phase for the fundamental pure-quartic soliton and periodically modulated propagation for the higher-order pure-quartic solitons. We derive the approximate shape of the fundamental pure-quartic soliton and discover that is surprisingly Gaussian, exhibiting excellent agreement with our experimental observations. Our discovery, enabled by precise dispersion engineering, could find applications in communications, frequency combs and ultrafast lasers. PMID:26822758

  13. Geomorphology: Pure and applied

    SciTech Connect

    Hart, M.G.

    1986-01-01

    The book summarizes the history of intellectual debate in geomorphology and describes modern developments both ''pure'' and ''applied.'' The history begins well before W.M. Davis and follows through to such debates as those concerned with the Pleistocene. Modern developments in pure geomorphology are cast in terms of chapters on form, process, materials, and methods analysis. The applied chapters concentrate on environmental hazards and resources, and their management.

  14. Controlled cobalt doping in biogenic magnetite nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Byrne, J M; Coker, V S; Moise, S; Wincott, P L; Vaughan, D J; Tuna, F; Arenholz, E; van der Laan, G; Pattrick, R A D; Lloyd, J R; Telling, N D

    2013-06-01

    Cobalt-doped magnetite (CoxFe3 -xO4) nanoparticles have been produced through the microbial reduction of cobalt-iron oxyhydroxide by the bacterium Geobacter sulfurreducens. The materials produced, as measured by superconducting quantum interference device magnetometry, X-ray magnetic circular dichroism, Mssbauer spectroscopy, etc., show dramatic increases in coercivity with increasing cobalt content without a major decrease in overall saturation magnetization. Structural and magnetization analyses reveal a reduction in particle size to less than 4 nm at the highest Co content, combined with an increase in the effective anisotropy of the magnetic nanoparticles. The potential use of these biogenic nanoparticles in aqueous suspensions for magnetic hyperthermia applications is demonstrated. Further analysis of the distribution of cations within the ferrite spinel indicates that the cobalt is predominantly incorporated in octahedral coordination, achieved by the substitution of Fe(2+) site with Co(2+), with up to 17 per cent Co substituted into tetrahedral sites. PMID:23594814

  15. Stability of core-shell magnetite nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Kalska-Szostko, B; Wykowska, U; Satu?a, D; Zambrzycka, E

    2014-01-01

    In the paper, we present three different types of magnetite nanoparticles which were prepared from co-percipitation of iron (II) and (III) chlorides in aqueous solution with and without SiO2 and from thermal decomposition of iron (III) acetylacetonate in nonaqeous solutions. The obtained core-shell nanoparticles were tested in respect of their stability in distilled water, 10% acetic acid, 0.01 M citric acid, 0.9% NaCl and commercial white wine (12% of alcohol). Changes of the nanoparticles were examined by infrared spectroscopy, atomic absorption spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry methods. Modification of magnetic properties was measured by Mssbauer spectroscopy. PMID:24113333

  16. Controlled cobalt doping in biogenic magnetite nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Byrne, J. M.; Coker, V. S.; Moise, S.; Wincott, P. L.; Vaughan, D. J.; Tuna, F.; Arenholz, E.; van der Laan, G.; Pattrick, R. A. D.; Lloyd, J. R.; Telling, N. D.

    2013-01-01

    Cobalt-doped magnetite (CoxFe3 −xO4) nanoparticles have been produced through the microbial reduction of cobalt–iron oxyhydroxide by the bacterium Geobacter sulfurreducens. The materials produced, as measured by superconducting quantum interference device magnetometry, X-ray magnetic circular dichroism, Mössbauer spectroscopy, etc., show dramatic increases in coercivity with increasing cobalt content without a major decrease in overall saturation magnetization. Structural and magnetization analyses reveal a reduction in particle size to less than 4 nm at the highest Co content, combined with an increase in the effective anisotropy of the magnetic nanoparticles. The potential use of these biogenic nanoparticles in aqueous suspensions for magnetic hyperthermia applications is demonstrated. Further analysis of the distribution of cations within the ferrite spinel indicates that the cobalt is predominantly incorporated in octahedral coordination, achieved by the substitution of Fe2+ site with Co2+, with up to 17 per cent Co substituted into tetrahedral sites. PMID:23594814

  17. LA-ICP-MS of magnetite: Methods and reference materials

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nadoll, P.; Koenig, A.E.

    2011-01-01

    Magnetite (Fe3O4) is a common accessory mineral in many geologic settings. Its variable geochemistry makes it a powerful petrogenetic indicator. Electron microprobe (EMPA) analyses are commonly used to examine major and minor element contents in magnetite. Laser ablation ICP-MS (LA-ICP-MS) is applicable to trace element analyses of magnetite but has not been widely employed to examine compositional variations. We tested the applicability of the NIST SRM 610, the USGS GSE-1G, and the NIST SRM 2782 reference materials (RMs) as external standards and developed a reliable method for LA-ICP-MS analysis of magnetite. LA-ICP-MS analyses were carried out on well characterized magnetite samples with a 193 nm, Excimer, ArF LA system. Although matrix-matched RMs are sometimes important for calibration and normalization of LA-ICP-MS data, we demonstrate that glass RMs can produce accurate results for LA-ICP-MS analyses of magnetite. Cross-comparison between the NIST SRM 610 and USGS GSE-1G indicates good agreement for magnetite minor and trace element data calibrated with either of these RMs. Many elements show a sufficiently good match between the LA-ICP-MS and the EMPA data; for example, Ti and V show a close to linear relationship with correlation coefficients, R2 of 0.79 and 0.85 respectively. ?? 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  18. Magnetite reveals ambient field strength at low temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnov, Alexei V.; Tarduno, John A.

    Magnetite (Fe3O4) is the most important and oldest known magnetic mineral on Earth (Figure l). We have come a long way from the magnetite loadstone compasses of ancient China; magnetite and titanomagnetite have been established as the principal carriers of geologically important remanent magnetizations in rocks, the study of which led to the plate tectonic paradigm. We now recognize that magnetite plays an important role in the biosphere. Some organisms contain intra-cellular particles of Fe3O4 that they use for spatial orientation and navigation. When preserved in rocks, these particles—called "magnetofossils"— can provide important insight into the origin and development of life here, and perhaps, on other planets [e.g., Thomas-Keprta et al., 2000]. Magnetite is now used in the medical field and in nanotechnology research. Nanoparticles of magnetite are used as a contrasting agent in magnetic resonance imaging and are being developed to deliver site-specific drugs for the treatment of cancer [Alexiou et al., 2000]. Such applications add to a long list of industrial uses of magnetite that range from magnetic ink to magnetic recording media.

  19. Experimental evidence for non-redox transformations between magnetite and hematite under H 2-rich hydrothermal conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otake, Tsubasa; Wesolowski, David J.; Anovitz, Lawrence M.; Allard, Lawrence F.; Ohmoto, Hiroshi

    2007-05-01

    Transformations of magnetite (Fe IIFe 2IIIO 4) to hematite (Fe 2IIIO 3) (and vice versa) have been thought by many scientists and engineers to require molecular O 2 and/or H 2. Thus, the presence of magnetite and/or hematite in rocks has been linked to a specific oxidation environment. However, the availability of reductants or oxidants in many geologic and industrial environments appears to have been too low to account for the transformations of iron oxides through redox reactions. Here, we report the results of hydrothermal experiments in mildly acidic and H 2-rich aqueous solutions at 150 C, which demonstrate that transformations of magnetite to hematite, and hematite to magnetite, occur rapidly without involving molecular O 2 or H 2: Fe3O 4(Mt) + 2H (aq)+ ? Fe 2O 3(Hm) + Fe (aq)2+ + H 2O. The transformation products are chemically and structurally homogeneous, and typically occur as euhedral single crystals much larger than the precursor minerals. This suggests that, in addition to the expected release of aqueous ferrous species to solution, the transformations involve release of aqueous ferric species from the precursor oxides to the solution, which reprecipitate without being reduced by H 2. These redox-independent transformations may have been responsible for the formation of some iron oxides in natural systems, such as high-grade hematite ores that developed from Banded Iron Formations (BIFs), hematite-rich deposits formed on Mars, corrosion products in power plants and other industrial systems.

  20. Superparamagnetic magnetite nanocrystals-graphene oxide nanocomposites: facile synthesis and their enhanced electric double-layer capacitor performance.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qihua; Wang, Dewei; Li, Yuqi; Wang, Tingmei

    2012-06-01

    Superparamagnetic magnetite nanocrystals-graphene oxide (FGO) nanocomposites were successfully synthesized through a simple yet versatile one-step solution-processed approach at ambient conditions. Magnetite (Fe3O4) nanocrystals (NCs) with a size of 10-50 nm were uniformly deposited on the surfaces of graphene oxide (GO) sheets, which were confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high-angle annular dark field scanning transmission election microscopy (HAADF-STEM) studies. FGO with different Fe3O4 loadings could be controlled by simply manipulating the initial weight ratio of the precursors. The M-H measurements suggested that the as-prepared FGO nanocomposites have a large saturation magnetizations that made them can move regularly under an external magnetic field. Significantly, FGO nanocomposites also exhibit enhanced electric double-layer capacitor (EDLC) activity compared with pure Fe3O4 NCs and GO in terms of specific capacitance and high-rate charge-discharge. PMID:22905504

  1. Graphite-magnetite aggregates in ordinary chondritic meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, E. R. D.; Taylor, G. J.; Rubin, A. E.; Keil, K.; Okada, A.

    1981-01-01

    The graphite-magnetite component has been found (1) as abundant isolated inclusions in eight ordinary-chondritic, regolith breccias; (2) as the sole matrix in a new kind of unequilibrated chondrite that forms clasts in these regolith breccias; and (3) together with a Huss matrix in six unequilibrated ordinary chondrites. It is suggested that the component was formed by low-temperature, gas-solid reactions before the accretion of the meteorite, and that the isolated inclusions of graphite-magnetite in regolith breccias were derived from bodies composed of the new kind of chondrite that has graphite-magnetite as its sole matrix.

  2. Magnetite Plaquettes Provide an Extraterrestrial Source of Asymmetric Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, Q. H. S.; Zolensky, M. E.; Martinez, J. E.

    2015-01-01

    Molecular selectivity is a crucial criterion for life. A possible abiotic mechanism that can produce chiral asymmetry in meteoritic amino acids is their formation with the presence of asymmetric catalysts. Magnetite (Fe3O4), a common mineral in some carbonaceous chondrites (CCs), has been shown to be an effective catalyst for the formation of amino acids that are commonly found in these meteorites. Magnetite sometimes takes the form of plaquettes that consist of barrel-shaped stacks of magnetite disks that resemble a spiral. However, a widely accepted description of the internal morphology of this particular magnetite form is still lacking, which is necessary in order to confirm or disprove the spiral configuration.

  3. Comparative genomic analysis of magnetotactic bacteria from the Deltaproteobacteria provides new insights into magnetite and greigite magnetosome genes required for magnetotaxis.

    PubMed

    Lefvre, Christopher T; Trubitsyn, Denis; Abreu, Fernanda; Kolinko, Sebastian; Jogler, Christian; de Almeida, Luiz Gonzaga Paula; de Vasconcelos, Ana Tereza R; Kube, Michael; Reinhardt, Richard; Lins, Ulysses; Pignol, David; Schler, Dirk; Bazylinski, Dennis A; Ginet, Nicolas

    2013-10-01

    Magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) represent a group of diverse motile prokaryotes that biomineralize magnetosomes, the organelles responsible for magnetotaxis. Magnetosomes consist of intracellular, membrane-bounded, tens-of-nanometre-sized crystals of the magnetic minerals magnetite (Fe3O4) or greigite (Fe3S4) and are usually organized as a chain within the cell acting like a compass needle. Most information regarding the biomineralization processes involved in magnetosome formation comes from studies involving Alphaproteobacteria species which biomineralize cuboctahedral and elongated prismatic crystals of magnetite. Many magnetosome genes, the mam genes, identified in these organisms are conserved in all known MTB. Here we present a comparative genomic analysis of magnetotactic Deltaproteobacteria that synthesize bullet-shaped crystals of magnetite and/or greigite. We show that in addition to mam genes, there is a conserved set of genes, designated mad genes, specific to the magnetotactic Deltaproteobacteria, some also being present in Candidatus Magnetobacterium bavaricum of the Nitrospirae phylum, but absent in the magnetotactic Alphaproteobacteria. Our results suggest that the number of genes associated with magnetotaxis in magnetotactic Deltaproteobacteria is larger than previously thought. We also demonstrate that the minimum set of mam genes necessary for magnetosome formation in Magnetospirillum is also conserved in magnetite-producing, magnetotactic Deltaproteobacteria. Some putative novel functions of mad genes are discussed. PMID:23607663

  4. Occurrence of gigantic biogenic magnetite during the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schumann, D.; Raub, T. D.; Kopp, R. E.; Guerquin-Kern, J. L.; Wu, T. D.; Rouiller, I.; Smirnov, A. V.; Sears, S. K.; Lücken, U.; Tikoo, S. M.; Hesse, R.; Kirschvink, J. L.; Vali, H.

    2009-04-01

    The Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) is one of the most severe climatic events of the Cenozoic Era. A massive injection of light carbon into the oceans and atmosphere over a few thousand of years triggered drastic perturbation of Earth's climate resulting in abrupt global warming of ~5-9oC [Sluijs et al., 2007] that persisted for ~180,000 years. This episode is marked by the diversification and radiation of terrestrial plants and mammals while in the marine realm numerous deep-sea benthic foraminifera species disappeared and new forms evolved. Sediments deposited during the PETM are clay-rich and contain distinct evidence of these climatic changes. Kopp et al., (2007) and Lippert & Zachos (2007) report an extraordinary magnetofossil ‘Lagerstätte' in lowermost Eocene kaolinite-rich clay sediments deposited at subtropical paleolatitude in the Atlantic Coastal Plain of New Jersey, USA. Magnetofossils are magnetic particles produced most abundantly by magnetotactic bacteria. Kopp et al. (2007) and Lippert & Zachos (2007) used ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) spectroscopy, other rock magnetic methods, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of magnetic separates to characterize sediments from boreholes at Ancora (ODP Leg 174AX) and Wilson Lake, NJ, respectively. These sediments contain abundant ~40- to 300-nm cuboidal, elongate-prismatic and bullet-shaped magnetofossils, sometimes arranged in short chains, resembling crystals in living magnetotactic bacteria. Despite the scarcity of intact magnetofossil chains, the asymmetry ratios of the FMR spectra reflects a profusion of elongate single domain (SD) crystals and/or chains. Here we address both conundrums by reporting the discovery from these same sediments of exceptionally large and novel biogenic magnetite crystals unlike any previously reported from living organisms or from sediments. Aside from abundant bacterial magnetofossils, electron microscopy reveals novel spearhead-like and spindle-like magnetite crystals up to 4 μm long (eight times larger than magnetite produced by magnetotactic bacteria) and elongated hexaoctahedra up to 1.4 μm long. Similar to magnetite produced by magnetotactic bacteria, these single-crystal particles exhibit chemical composition and lattice perfection consistent with a biogenic origin. The oxygen isotopic composition of indiviual particles supports a low temperature aquatic origin. Electron holography indicates single-domain magnetization despite the large crystal size. In a few cases, we observed apparently intact, tip-outward spherical assemblages of spearhead-like particles that possibly represent the preserved original biological arrangement of these crystals in a hitherto unknown magnetite producing organism. The discovery of these exceptionally large biogenic magnetite crystals that possibly represent the remains of a new microorganism that appeared and disappeared with the PETM sheds some light upon the ecological response to biogeochemical changes that occurred during this warming event. The abundance of fossil magnetotactic bacteria on the Atlantic Coastal Plain during the PETM could be explained by enhanced production, enhanced preservation, or both. The presence of novel magnetofossils, however, argues that changes in growth conditions are a major part of the explanation. Considering that other bacterial magnetofossils are present (although less abundant) and well-preserved in sediments below and above the PETM clay, as well as in a sand lens within the PETM clay [Kopp et al., 2007], suggests that the new magnetofossils are unlikely to be a preservation artefact. We conclude, therefore, that the development of a thick suboxic zone with high iron bioavailability - a product of dramatic changes in weathering and sedimentation patterns driven by severe global warming - resulted in diversification of magnetite-forming organisms, likely including eukaryotes. In this study we extended the search for these new magnetofossils [Schumann et al. 2008] to other PETM locations of the Atlantic margin and to a possible modern analog environment. High surface productivity with low-organic carbon density sediments and meter-scale sedimentary suboxic zones are provided by tropical shelves fed by energetic river systems, such as the Amazon. We inverstigated several magnetic extracts of samples taken from the meter-scale suboxic zones of the Amazone delta system. Sluijs A, Brinkhuis H, Schouten S, Bohaty SM, John CM, Zachos JC, Reichart GJ, Damste JSS, Crouch EM, Dickens GR. 2007. Environmental precursors to rapid light carbon injection at the Palaeocene/Eocene boundary. Nature 450:1218-1221. Kopp RE, Raub TD, Schumann D, Vali H, Smirnov AV, Kirschvink JL 2007. Magnetofossil spike during the Paleocene-Eocene thermal maximum: Ferromagnetic resonance, rock magnetic, and electron microscopy evidence from Ancora, New Jersey, United States. Paleoceanography, doi:10.1029/2007pa001473. Lipper PC, Zachos JC 2007. A biogenic origin for anomalous fine-grained magnetic material at the Paleocone-Eocene booundary at Wilson Lake, New Jesery. Paleoceanography, doi:10.1029/2007pa001471. Schumann D, Raub TD, Kopp RE, Guerquin-Kern JL, Wu TD, Rouiller I, Smirnov AV, Sears K, Lücken U, Tikoo SM, Hesse R, Kirschvink JL, Vali H 2008. Gigantism in unique biogenic magnetite at the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum. PNAS, 105:17648-17653.

  5. Origins of magnetite nanocrystals in Martian meteorite ALH84001

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas-Keprta, K. L.; Clemett, S. J.; McKay, D. S.; Gibson, E. K.; Wentworth, S. J.

    2009-11-01

    The Martian meteorite ALH84001 preserves evidence of interaction with aqueous fluids while on Mars in the form of microscopic carbonate disks. These carbonate disks are believed to have precipitated 3.9 Ga ago at beginning of the Noachian epoch on Mars during which both the oldest extant Martian surfaces were formed, and perhaps the earliest global oceans. Intimately associated within and throughout these carbonate disks are nanocrystal magnetites (Fe 3O 4) with unusual chemical and physical properties, whose origins have become the source of considerable debate. One group of hypotheses argues that these magnetites are the product of partial thermal decomposition of the host carbonate. Alternatively, the origins of magnetite and carbonate may be unrelated; that is, from the perspective of the carbonate the magnetite is allochthonous. For example, the magnetites might have already been present in the aqueous fluids from which the carbonates were believed to have been deposited. We have sought to resolve between these hypotheses through the detailed characterization of the compositional and structural relationships of the carbonate disks and associated magnetites with the orthopyroxene matrix in which they are embedded. Extensive use of focused ion beam milling techniques has been utilized for sample preparation. We then compared our observations with those from experimental thermal decomposition studies of sideritic carbonates under a range of plausible geological heating scenarios. We conclude that the vast majority of the nanocrystal magnetites present in the carbonate disks could not have formed by any of the currently proposed thermal decomposition scenarios. Instead, we find there is considerable evidence in support of an alternative allochthonous origin for the magnetite unrelated to any shock or thermal processing of the carbonates.

  6. Electrophoretic mobility of magnetite particles in high temperature water

    SciTech Connect

    Vidojkovic, Sonja; Rodriguez-Santiago, V; Fedkin, Mark V.; Wesolowski, David J; Lvov, Serguei N.

    2011-01-01

    Magnetite(Fe3O4) isoneofthemostcommonoxidesformingdepositsandparticulatephasesin industrialhightemperaturewatercircuits.Itscolloidalcharacteristicsplayaprincipalroleinthe mechanismofdepositformationandcanbeusedascontrollingfactorstopreventorminimizedeposit formationanddamageofindustrialpipelinesduetounder-depositcorrosion.Inthisstudy,ahigh temperatureparticleelectrophoresistechniquewasemployedtomeasurethezetapotentialatthe magnetite/waterinterface the parameterthatcontrolscolloidalstabilityofparticles,theiraggrega- tion, anddeposition.Themeasurementsweremadeattemperaturesupto200 1C overawiderangeofpH. The isoelectricpointsofmagnetite,atwhichthedepositionofparticlesisincreased,weredeterminedatpH 6.35, 6.00,5.25,and5.05fortemperatures25,100,150,and200 1C, respectively.Theobserved temperaturedependenceofzetapotentialandtheisoelectricpHpointofmagnetitecanhelptoexplain the extentofinteractionsbetweenthecolloidalparticlesandthesteelwallsurfacesunderhydro- thermalconditions,andindicatemethodsforcontrollingandmitigatingoxidedepositioninhigh temperaturewatercycles.

  7. Hexagonal plate-like magnetite nanocrystals produced in komatiite-H2O-CO2 reaction system at 450C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Xi-Luo; Li, Yi-Liang

    2015-10-01

    Batch experiments of komatiite-H2O-CO2 system with temperatures from 200 to 450C were performed to simulate the interactions between the newly formed ultramafic crust and the proto-atmosphere on Earth before the formation of its earliest ocean. Particularly, magnetite nanocrystals were observed in the experiment carried out at 450C that are characterized by their hexagonal platelet-like morphology and porous structure. Exactly the same set of lattice fringes on the two opposite sides of one pore suggests post-crystallization erosion. The results demonstrate that magnetite could be produced by the direct interactions between the ultramafic rocky crust and the atmosphere before the formation of the ocean on the Hadean Earth. These magnetite nanoparticles could serve as a catalyst in the synthesis of simple organic molecules during the organochemical evolution towards life.

  8. In Situ Mineralization of Magnetite Nanoparticles in Chitosan Hydrogel.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yongliang; Li, Baoqiang; Zhou, Yu; Jia, Dechang

    2009-01-01

    Based on chelation effect between iron ions and amino groups of chitosan, in situ mineralization of magnetite nanoparticles in chitosan hydrogel under ambient conditions was proposed. The chelation effect between iron ions and amino groups in CS-Fe complex, which led to that chitosan hydrogel exerted a crucial control on the magnetite mineralization, was proved by X-ray photoelectron spectrum. The composition, morphology and size of the mineralized magnetite nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and thermal gravity. The mineralized nanoparticles were nonstoichiometric magnetite with a unit formula of Fe(2.85)O(4) and coated by a thin layer of chitosan. The mineralized magnetite nanoparticles with mean diameter of 13 nm dispersed in chitosan hydrogel uniformly. Magnetization measurement indicated that superparamagnetism behavior was exhibited. These magnetite nanoparticles mineralized in chitosan hydrogel have potential applications in the field of biotechnology. Moreover, this method can also be used to synthesize other kinds of inorganic nanoparticles, such as ZnO, Fe(2)O(3) and hydroxyapatite. PMID:20596346

  9. In Situ Mineralization of Magnetite Nanoparticles in Chitosan Hydrogel

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Based on chelation effect between iron ions and amino groups of chitosan, in situ mineralization of magnetite nanoparticles in chitosan hydrogel under ambient conditions was proposed. The chelation effect between iron ions and amino groups in CSFe complex, which led to that chitosan hydrogel exerted a crucial control on the magnetite mineralization, was proved by X-ray photoelectron spectrum. The composition, morphology and size of the mineralized magnetite nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and thermal gravity. The mineralized nanoparticles were nonstoichiometric magnetite with a unit formula of Fe2.85O4and coated by a thin layer of chitosan. The mineralized magnetite nanoparticles with mean diameter of 13 nm dispersed in chitosan hydrogel uniformly. Magnetization measurement indicated that superparamagnetism behavior was exhibited. These magnetite nanoparticles mineralized in chitosan hydrogel have potential applications in the field of biotechnology. Moreover, this method can also be used to synthesize other kinds of inorganic nanoparticles, such as ZnO, Fe2O3and hydroxyapatite. PMID:20596346

  10. In Situ Mineralization of Magnetite Nanoparticles in Chitosan Hydrogel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yongliang; Li, Baoqiang; Zhou, Yu; Jia, Dechang

    2009-09-01

    Based on chelation effect between iron ions and amino groups of chitosan, in situ mineralization of magnetite nanoparticles in chitosan hydrogel under ambient conditions was proposed. The chelation effect between iron ions and amino groups in CS-Fe complex, which led to that chitosan hydrogel exerted a crucial control on the magnetite mineralization, was proved by X-ray photoelectron spectrum. The composition, morphology and size of the mineralized magnetite nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and thermal gravity. The mineralized nanoparticles were nonstoichiometric magnetite with a unit formula of Fe2.85O4 and coated by a thin layer of chitosan. The mineralized magnetite nanoparticles with mean diameter of 13 nm dispersed in chitosan hydrogel uniformly. Magnetization measurement indicated that superparamagnetism behavior was exhibited. These magnetite nanoparticles mineralized in chitosan hydrogel have potential applications in the field of biotechnology. Moreover, this method can also be used to synthesize other kinds of inorganic nanoparticles, such as ZnO, Fe2O3 and hydroxyapatite.

  11. Magnetite induces oxidative stress and apoptosis in lung epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Ramesh, Vani; Ravichandran, Prabakaran; Copeland, Clinton L; Gopikrishnan, Ramya; Biradar, Santhoshkumar; Goornavar, Virupaxi; Ramesh, Govindarajan T; Hall, Joseph C

    2012-04-01

    There is an ongoing concern regarding the biocompatibility of nanoparticles with sizes less than 100 nm as compared to larger particles of the same nominal substance. In this study, we investigated the toxic properties of magnetite stabilized with polyacrylate sodium. The magnetite was characterized by X-ray powder diffraction analysis, and the mean particle diameter was calculated using the Scherrer formula and was found to be 9.3 nm. In this study, we treated lung epithelial cells with different concentrations of magnetite and investigated their effects on oxidative stress and cell proliferation. Our data showed an inhibition of cell proliferation in magnetite-treated cells with a significant dose-dependent activation and induction of reactive oxygen species. Also, we observed a depletion of antioxidants, glutathione, and superoxide dismutase, respectively, as compared with control cells. In addition, apoptotic-related protease/enzyme such as caspase-3 and -8 activities, were increased in a dose-dependent manner with corresponding increased levels of DNA fragmentation in magnetite-treated cells compared to than control cells. Together, the present study reveals that magnetite exposure induces oxidative stress and depletes antioxidant levels in the cells to stimulate apoptotic pathway for cell death. PMID:22147200

  12. Magnetite authigenesis and diagenetic paleotemperatures across the northern Appalachian basin

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, M.; McCabe, C.; Ballard, M.M.; Van der Voo, R.

    1988-07-01

    The concentration of magnetite in the Lower and Middle Devonian Helderberg and Onondaga carbonate formations varies in a distinct pattern along an east-west profile across New York State. Magnetite concentrations are uniformly low in the western half of the profile, increase sharply eastward to a peak value near Syracuse, and decrease farther east. The pattern strongly resembles previously reported variations in the extent of clay mineral diagenesis that reflect differences in paleotemperatures along the profile. Previous paleomagnetic studies have documented that the magnetite carries a well-defined magnetization of Pennsylvanian-Permian age, and magnetite authigenesis is therefore no younger than late Paleozoic. The authors attribute the correlation between high magnetite concentration and high illite content to temperature-dependent diagenesis triggered by orogenic fluids. The large proportion of secondary magnetite indicates that over most of the area, the mechanism of late Paleozoic remagnetization was principally chemical. Thermal effects played a less direct role in the remagnetization of the strata by controlling the extent of the chemical processes that resulted in overprinting of the original remanence.

  13. Production of pure metals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Philipp, W. H.; Marsik, S. J.; May, C. E. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A process for depositing elements by irradiating liquids is reported. Ultra pure elements are precipitated from aqueous solutions or suspensions of compounds. A solution of a salt of a metal to be prepared is irradiated, and the insoluble reaction product settles out. Some chemical compounds may also be prepared in this manner.

  14. The Periplasmic Nitrate Reductase Nap Is Required for Anaerobic Growth and Involved in Redox Control of Magnetite Biomineralization in Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yingjie; Katzmann, Emanuel; Borg, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    The magnetosomes of many magnetotactic bacteria consist of membrane-enveloped magnetite crystals, whose synthesis is favored by a low redox potential. However, the cellular redox processes governing the biomineralization of the mixed-valence iron oxide have remained unknown. Here, we show that in the alphaproteobacterium Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense, magnetite biomineralization is linked to dissimilatory nitrate reduction. A complete denitrification pathway, including gene functions for nitrate (nap), nitrite (nir), nitric oxide (nor), and nitrous oxide reduction (nos), was identified. Transcriptional gusA fusions as reporters revealed that except for nap, the highest expression of the denitrification genes coincided with conditions permitting maximum magnetite synthesis. Whereas microaerobic denitrification overlapped with oxygen respiration, nitrate was the only electron acceptor supporting growth in the entire absence of oxygen, and only the deletion of nap genes, encoding a periplasmic nitrate reductase, and not deletion of nor or nos genes, abolished anaerobic growth and also delayed aerobic growth in both nitrate and ammonium media. While loss of nosZ or norCB had no or relatively weak effects on magnetosome synthesis, deletion of nap severely impaired magnetite biomineralization and resulted in fewer, smaller, and irregular crystals during denitrification and also microaerobic respiration, probably by disturbing the proper redox balance required for magnetite synthesis. In contrast to the case for the wild type, biomineralization in ?nap cells was independent of the oxidation state of carbon substrates. Altogether, our data demonstrate that in addition to its essential role in anaerobic respiration, the periplasmic nitrate reductase Nap has a further key function by participating in redox reactions required for magnetite biomineralization. PMID:22730130

  15. Synthesis and characterization of magnetite/silver/antibiotic nanocomposites for targeted antimicrobial therapy.

    PubMed

    Ivashchenko, Olena; Lewandowski, Mikołaj; Peplińska, Barbara; Jarek, Marcin; Nowaczyk, Grzegorz; Wiesner, Maciej; Załęski, Karol; Babutina, Tetyana; Warowicka, Alicja; Jurga, Stefan

    2015-10-01

    The article is devoted to preparation and characterization of magnetite/silver/antibiotic nanocomposites for targeted antimicrobial therapy. Magnetite nanopowder was produced by thermochemical technique; silver was deposited on the magnetite nanoparticles in the form of silver clusters. Magnetite/silver nanocomposite was investigated by XRD, SEM, TEM, AFM, XPS, EDX techniques. Adsorptivity of magnetite/silver nanocomposite towards seven antibiotics from five different groups was investigated. It was shown that rifampicin, doxycycline, ceftriaxone, cefotaxime and doxycycline may be attached by physical adsorption to magnetite/silver nanocomposite. Electrostatic surfaces of antibiotics were modeled and possible mechanism of antibiotic attachment is considered in this article. Raman spectra of magnetite, magnetite/silver and magnetite/silver/antibiotic were collected. It was found that it is difficult to detect the bands related to antibiotics in the magnetite/silver/antibiotic nanocomposite spectra due to their overlap by the broad carbon bands of magnetite nanopowder. Magnetic measurements revealed that magnetic saturation of the magnetite/silver/antibiotic nanocomposites decreased on 6-19 % in comparison with initial magnetite nanopowder. Pilot study of antimicrobial properties of the magnetite/silver/antibiotic nanocomposites were performed towards Bacillus pumilus. PMID:26117765

  16. Origins of Magnetite Nanocrystals in Martian Meteorite ALH84001

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas-Keprta, Kathie L.; Clemett, Simon J.; Mckay, David S.; Gibson, Everett K.; Wentworth, Susan J.

    2009-01-01

    The Martian meteorite ALH84001 preserves evidence of interaction with aqueous fluids while on Mars in the form of microscopic carbonate disks. These carbonate disks are believed to have precipitated 3.9 Ga ago at beginning of the Noachian epoch on Mars during which both the oldest extant Martian surfaces were formed, and perhaps the earliest global oceans. Intimately associated within and throughout these carbonate disks are nanocrystal magnetites (Fe3O4) with unusual chemical and physical properties, whose origins have become the source of considerable debate. One group of hypotheses argues that these magnetites are the product of partial thermal decomposition of the host carbonate. Alternatively, the origins of mag- netite and carbonate may be unrelated; that is, from the perspective of the carbonate the magnetite is allochthonous. For example, the magnetites might have already been present in the aqueous fluids from which the carbonates were believed to have been deposited. We have sought to resolve between these hypotheses through the detailed characterized of the compo- sitional and structural relationships of the carbonate disks and associated magnetites with the orthopyroxene matrix in which they are embedded. Extensive use of focused ion beam milling techniques has been utilized for sample preparation. We then compared our observations with those from experimental thermal decomposition studies of sideritic carbonates under a range of plausible geological heating scenarios. We conclude that the vast majority of the nanocrystal magnetites present in the car- bonate disks could not have formed by any of the currently proposed thermal decomposition scenarios. Instead, we find there is considerable evidence in support of an alternative allochthonous origin for the magnetite unrelated to any shock or thermal processing of the carbonates.

  17. Pure Lovelock Kasner metrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camanho, Xián O.; Dadhich, Naresh; Molina, Alfred

    2015-09-01

    We study pure Lovelock vacuum and perfect fluid equations for Kasner-type metrics. These equations correspond to a single Nth order Lovelock term in the action in d=2N+1,2N+2 dimensions, and they capture the relevant gravitational dynamics when aproaching the big-bang singularity within the Lovelock family of theories. Pure Lovelock gravity also bears out the general feature that vacuum in the critical odd dimension, d=2N+1, is kinematic, i.e. we may define an analogue Lovelock-Riemann tensor that vanishes in vacuum for d=2N+1, yet the Riemann curvature is non-zero. We completely classify isotropic and vacuum Kasner metrics for this class of theories in several isotropy types. The different families can be characterized by means of certain higher order 4th rank tensors. We also analyze in detail the space of vacuum solutions for five- and six dimensional pure Gauss-Bonnet theory. It possesses an interesting and illuminating geometric structure and symmetries that carry over to the general case. We also comment on a closely related family of exponential solutions and on the possibility of solutions with complex Kasner exponents. We show that the latter imply the existence of closed timelike curves in the geometry.

  18. Microbial Synthesis and Characterization of Superparamagnetic Zn-Substituted Magnetite Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yumi; Roh, Yul

    2015-08-01

    The objective of this study is to examine microbial synthesis of magnetite and Zn-substituted magnetite nanoparticles by iron-reducing bacteria (Clostridium sp.) enriched from intertidal flat sediments. The magnetite nanoparticles were synthesized by the bacteria under anaerobic conditions at room temperature using akaganeite (?-FeOOH) or Zn-substituted akaganeite (?-ZnxFe1-xOOH) as a magnetite precursor during glucose fermentation. This research indicates that fermentation processes can establish the microbial synthesis of magnetite and Zn-substituted magnetite when conditions are at room temperature, ambient pressure, and pH values near neutral to slightly basic (pH < 8). PMID:26369212

  19. Electrochemistry and dissolution kinetics of magnetite and ilmenite

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, A.F.; Peterson, M.L.; Hochella, M.F., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    Natural samples of magnetite and ilmenite were experimentally weathered in pH 1-7 anoxic solutions at temperatures of 2-65 ??C. Reaction of magnetite is described as [Fe2+Fe23+]O4(magnetite) + 2H+ ??? ??[Fe23+]O3(maghemite) + Fe2+ + H2O. Dynamic polarization experiments using magnetite electrodes confirmed that this reaction is controlled by two electrochemical half cells, 3[Fe2+Fe23+]O4(magnetite) ??? 4??[Fe23+]O3(maghemite) + Fe2+ + 2e- and [Fe2+Fe23+]O4(magnetite) + 8 H+ + 2e- ??? 3Fe2+ + 4H2O, which result in solid state Fe3+ reduction, formation of an oxidized layer and release of Fe(II) to solution. XPS data revealed that iron is present in the ferric state in the surfaces of reacted magnetite and ilmenite and that the Ti Fe ratio increased with reaction pH for ilmenite. Short-term (<36 h) release rates of Fe(II) were linear with time. Between pH 1 and 7, rates varied between 0.3 and 13 ?? 10-14 mol ?? cm-2 ?? s-1 for magnetite and 0.05 and 12.3 ?? 10-14 mol ?? cm-2 ?? s-1 for ilmenite. These rates are two orders of magnitude slower than electrochemical rates determined by Tafel and polarization resistance measurements. Discrepancies are due to both differences in geometric and BET surface area estimates and in the oxidation state of the mineral surface. In long-term closed-system experiments (<120 days), Fe(II) release slowed with time due to the passivation of the surfaces by increasing thicknesses of oxide surface layers. A shrinking core model, coupling surface reaction and diffusion transport, predicted that at neutral pH, the mean residence time for sand-size grains of magnetite and ilmenite will exceed 107 years. This agrees with long-term stability of these oxides in the geologic record. ?? 1994.

  20. Production Rate of Cosmogenic 10Be in Magnetite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granger, D. E.; Rogers, H. E.; Riebe, C. S.; Lifton, N. A.

    2013-12-01

    Cosmogenic 10Be is widely used for determining exposure ages, soil production rates, and catchment-wide erosion rates. To date, measurements have been almost exclusively in the mineral quartz (SiO2), which is resistant to weathering and easily cleaned of meteoric 10Be contamination. However, this limits the method to quartz-bearing rocks and requires specialized laboratories due to the need for large quantities of hydrofluoric acid (HF). Here, we present initial results for 10Be production in the mineral magnetite (Fe3O4). Magnetite offers several advantages over quartz; it is (1) present in mafic rocks, (2) easily collected in the field, (3) quickly and easily separated in the lab, and (4) digested without HF. In addition, 10Be can be measured in both detrital quartz and magnetite from the same catchment to yield information about the intensity of chemical weathering (Rogers et al., this conference). The 10Be production rate in magnetite relative to quartz was determined for a granitic boulder from Mt. Evans, Colorado, USA. The boulder was crushed and homogenized to facilitate production rate comparisons among various minerals. We separated magnetite using a combination of hand magnets, froth flotation, and a variety of selective chemical dissolutions in dithionite-citrate-bicarbonate solution, 5% nitric acid (HNO3) and 1% HF/HNO3. Six aliquots of magnetite were analyzed for 10Be and compared to quartz. Three aliquots that were not exposed to 1% HF/HNO3 were contaminated with meteoric 10Be, probably associated with residual mica. Three aliquots that were exposed to 1% HF/HNO3 treatments agreed to within 2% measurement uncertainty. Our preliminary results indicate that the relative production rate by mass of 10Be in magnetite and quartz is 0.462 × 0.012. Our results are similar to theoretically predicted values. Recently updated excitation functions for neutron and proton spallation reactions allow us to partition 10Be production in quartz and magnetite among silicon, oxygen, and iron. While most of the production in both magnetite and quartz is from spallation of oxygen, our experimental results indicate that approximately (13 × 3)% of 10Be in the Mt. Evans quartz sample is produced from silicon.

  1. Electrochemistry and dissolution kinetics of magnetite and ilmenite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Art F.; Peterson, Maria L.; Hochella, Michael F., Jr.

    1994-04-01

    Natural samples of magnetite and ilmenite were experimentally weathered in pH 1-7 anoxic solutions at temperatures of 2-65 °C. Reaction of magnetite is described as [ Fe2+Fe23+] O4(magnetite) + 2 H+ → γ[ Fe23+] O3(maghemite) + Fe2+ + H2O. Dynamic polarization experiments using magnetite electrodes confirmed that this reaction is controlled by two electrochemical half cells, 3[ Fe2+Fe23+] O4(magnetite) → 4 γ[ Fe23+] O3(maghemite) + Fe2+ + 2 e- and [ Fe2+Fe23+] O4(magnetite) + 8 H+ + 2 e- → 3 Fe2+ + 4 H2O, which result in solid state Fe 3+ reduction, formation of an oxidized layer and release of Fe(II) to solution. XPS data revealed that iron is present in the ferric state in the surfaces of reacted magnetite and ilmenite and that the Ti/Fe ratio increased with reaction pH for ilmenite. Short-term (<36 h) release rates of Fe(II) were linear with time. Between pH 1 and 7, rates varied between 0.3 and 13 × 10 -14 mol · cm -2 · s -1 for magnetite and 0.05 and 12.3 × 10 -14 mol · cm -2 · s -1 for ilmenite. These rates are two orders of magnitude slower than electrochemical rates determined by Tafel and polarization resistance measurements. Discrepancies are due to both differences in geometric and BET surface area estimates and in the oxidation state of the mineral surface. In long-term closed-system experiments (<120 days), Fe(II) release slowed with time due to the passivation of the surfaces by increasing thicknesses of oxide surface layers. A shrinking core model, coupling surface reaction and diffusion transport, predicted that at neutral pH, the mean residence time for sand-size grains of magnetite and ilmenite will exceed 10 7 years. This agrees with long-term stability of these oxides in the geologic record.

  2. Variations of trace element concentration of magnetite and ilmenite from the Taihe layered intrusion, Emeishan large igneous province, SW China: Implications for magmatic fractionation and origin of Fe-Ti-V oxide ore deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    She, Yu-Wei; Song, Xie-Yan; Yu, Song-Yue; He, Hai-Long

    2015-12-01

    In situ LA-ICP-MS trace elemental analysis has been applied to magnetite and ilmenite of the Taihe layered intrusion, Emeishan large igneous province, SW China, in order to understand better fractionation processes of magma and origin of Fe-Ti-V oxide ore deposits. The periodic reversals in Mg, Ti, Mn in magnetite and Mg, Sc in ilmenite are found in the Middle Zone of the intrusion and agree with fractionation trends as recorded by olivine (Fo), plagioclase (An) and clinopyroxene (Mg#) compositions. These suggest the Taihe intrusion formed from open magma chamber processes in a magma conduit with multiple replenishments of more primitive magmas. The V and Cr of magnetite are well correlated with V and Cr of clinopyroxene indicating that they became liquidus phases almost simultaneously at an early stage of magma evolution. Ilmenite from the Middle and Upper Zones shows variable Cr, Ni, V, Mg, Nb, Ta and Sc contents indicating that ilmenite at some stratigraphic levels crystallized slightly earlier than magnetite and clinopyroxene. The early crystallization of magnetite and ilmenite is the result of the high FeOt and TiO2 contents in the parental magma. The ilmenite crystallization before magnetite in the Middle and Upper Zones can be attributed to higher TiO2 content of the magma due to the remelting of pre-existing ilmenite in a middle-level magma chamber. Compared to the coeval high-Ti basalts, the relatively low Zr, Hf, Nb and Ta contents in both magnetite and ilmenite throughout the Taihe intrusion indicate that they crystallized from Fe-Ti-(P)-rich silicate magmas. Positive correlations of Ti with Mg, Mn, Sc and Zr of magnetite, and Zr with Sc, Hf and Nb of ilmenite also suggest that magnetite and ilmenite crystallized continuously from the homogeneous silicate magma rather than an immiscible Fe-rich melt. Therefore, frequent replenishments of Fe-Ti-(P)-rich silicate magma and gravitational sorting and settling are crucial for the formation the massive and apatite-rich disseminated ores in the Lower and Middle Zones of the Taihe intrusion.

  3. Fabrication of chitosan-magnetite nanocomposite strip for chromium removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sureshkumar, Vaishnavi; Kiruba Daniel, S. C. G.; Ruckmani, K.; Sivakumar, M.

    2016-02-01

    Environmental pollution caused by heavy metals is a serious threat. In the present work, removal of chromium was carried out using chitosan-magnetite nanocomposite strip. Magnetite nanoparticles (Fe3O4) were synthesized using chemical co-precipitation method at 80 °C. The nanoparticles were characterized using UV-visible spectroscopy, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction spectrometer, atomic force microscope, dynamic light scattering and vibrating sample magnetometer, which confirm the size, shape, crystalline nature and magnetic behaviour of nanoparticles. Atomic force microscope revealed that the particle size was 15-30 nm and spherical in shape. The magnetite nanoparticles were mixed with chitosan solution to form hybrid nanocomposite. Chitosan strip was casted with and without nanoparticle. The affinity of hybrid nanocomposite for chromium was studied using K2Cr2O7 (potassium dichromate) solution as the heavy metal solution containing Cr(VI) ions. Adsorption tests were carried out using chitosan strip and hybrid nanocomposite strip at different time intervals. Amount of chromium adsorbed by chitosan strip and chitosan-magnetite nanocomposite strip from aqueous solution was evaluated using UV-visible spectroscopy. The results confirm that the heavy metal removal efficiency of chitosan-magnetite nanocomposite strip is 92.33 %, which is higher when compared to chitosan strip, which is 29.39 %.

  4. Magnetic Separations with Magnetite: Theory, Operation, and Limitations

    SciTech Connect

    G. B. Cotten

    2000-08-01

    This dissertation documents the theory development and experimental plan followed to describe how a magnetite-based column under the influence of an external magnetic field functions as a magnetic separator. Theoretical simulations predict that weekly paramagnetic particles in the sub-micron range can be magnetically separated while diamagnetic particles as large as 2 microns in diameter may pass. Magnetite-based columns were evaluated as magnetically-controllable enhanced filtration devices. There was no evidence of enhanced filtration for diamagnetic particles by the magnetite-based bed. Magnetite-based magnetic separators have proven to be effective in specific laboratory experiments, indicating a potential feasibility for scale-up operations. Column media-filter type filtration effects indicate a magnetite-based column would not be suitable for treatment of a waste stream with a high diamagnetic solids content or high volume throughput requirements. Specific applications requiring removal of sub-micron para- or ferromagnetic particles under batch or Stokes flow conditions would be most applicable.

  5. Functionalization of Magnetite Nanoparticles as Oil Spill Collector

    PubMed Central

    Atta, Ayman M.; Al-Lohedan, Hamad A.; Al-Hussain, Sami A.

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, a new magnetic powder based on magnetite can be used as a petroleum crude oil collector. Amidoximes based on rosin as a natural product can be prepared from a reaction between hydroxylamine and rosin/acrylonitrile adducts. The produced rosin amidoximes were used as capping agents for magnetite nanoparticles to prepare hydrophobic coated magnetic powders. A new class of monodisperse hydrophobic magnetite nanoparticles was prepared by a simple and inexpensive co-precipitation method. Iron ions and iodine were prepared by the reaction between ferric chloride and potassium iodide. The structure and morphology of magnetite capped with rosin amidoxime were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), zeta potential, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and dynamic light scattering (DLS). The magnetic properties were determined from vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) analyses. These prepared magnetite nanoparticles were tested as bioactive nanosystems and their antimicrobial effects were investigated. The prepared nanomaterials were examined as a crude oil collector using magnetic fields. The results show promising data for the separation of the petroleum crude oil from aqueous solution in environmental pollution cleanup. PMID:25822876

  6. Use of magnetite as anode for electrolysis of water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halley, J. W.; Schofield, A.; Berntson, B.

    2012-06-01

    We have studied the oxidation of magnetite to Fe2O3 in an electrolytic cell in which the anode is magnetite and the cathode is platinum. We report cyclic voltammagram data consistent with the hypothesis that magnetite, without oxygen gas production but with hydrogen gas production at the cathode, is occurring. The reaction occurs at a potential at the anode of about 0.3 V vs SCE in 1 M NaOH electrolyte, consistent with colloid experiments which also estimated the equilibrium potential of the hypothesized reaction. Electrode characterization results using BET, XEDS, and macroscopic volume and mass measurements are reported, as well as the measurements of the amount of hydrogen gas generated per unit current. The quantity of gas generated is also consistent with our hypothesis concerning the electrode chemistry. Some samples exhibit evidence of two oxidation reactions occurring at the anode and a possible interpretation of these is also discussed. These results suggest the use of magnetite as an anode in a cell electrolysing water to produce hydrogen gas and Fe2O3. In such an electrolyser, the electrical energy cost of producing hydrogen gas could be significantly lower than the cost in a standard electrolyser. The measured steady state currents, equivalent to about 400 mA/g of magnetite, are too low to make a practical electrolyser. We briefly discuss several ways in which the currents might be increased to the levels required.

  7. Abnormal elastic and vibrational behaviors of magnetite at high pressures.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jung-Fu; Wu, Junjie; Zhu, Jie; Mao, Zhu; Said, Ayman H; Leu, Bogdan M; Cheng, Jinguang; Uwatoko, Yoshiya; Jin, Changqing; Zhou, Jianshi

    2014-01-01

    Magnetite exhibits unique electronic, magnetic, and structural properties in extreme conditions that are of great research interest. Previous studies have suggested a number of transitional models, although the nature of magnetite at high pressure remains elusive. We have studied a highly stoichiometric magnetite using inelastic X-ray scattering, X-ray diffraction and emission, and Raman spectroscopies in diamond anvil cells up to ~20 GPa, while complementary electrical conductivity measurements were conducted in a cubic anvil cell up to 8.5 GPa. We have observed an elastic softening in the diagonal elastic constants (C11 and C44) and a hardening in the off-diagonal constant (C12) at ~8 GPa where significant elastic anisotropies in longitudinal and transverse acoustic waves occur, especially along the [110] direction. An additional vibrational Raman band between the A1g and T2g modes was also detected at the transition pressure. These abnormal elastic and vibrational behaviors of magnetite are attributed to the occurrence of the octahedrally-coordinated Fe(2+)-Fe(3+)-Fe(2+) ions charge-ordering along the [110] direction in the inverse spinel structure. We propose a new phase diagram of magnetite in which the temperature for the metal-insulator and distorted structural transitions decreases with increasing pressure while the charge-ordering transition occurs at ~8 GPa and room temperature. PMID:25186916

  8. Abnormal Elastic and Vibrational Behaviors of Magnetite at High Pressures

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jung-Fu; Wu, Junjie; Zhu, Jie; Mao, Zhu; Said, Ayman H.; Leu, Bogdan M.; Cheng, Jinguang; Uwatoko, Yoshiya; Jin, Changqing; Zhou, Jianshi

    2014-01-01

    Magnetite exhibits unique electronic, magnetic, and structural properties in extreme conditions that are of great research interest. Previous studies have suggested a number of transitional models, although the nature of magnetite at high pressure remains elusive. We have studied a highly stoichiometric magnetite using inelastic X-ray scattering, X-ray diffraction and emission, and Raman spectroscopies in diamond anvil cells up to ~20 GPa, while complementary electrical conductivity measurements were conducted in a cubic anvil cell up to 8.5 GPa. We have observed an elastic softening in the diagonal elastic constants (C11 and C44) and a hardening in the off-diagonal constant (C12) at ~8 GPa where significant elastic anisotropies in longitudinal and transverse acoustic waves occur, especially along the [110] direction. An additional vibrational Raman band between the A1g and T2g modes was also detected at the transition pressure. These abnormal elastic and vibrational behaviors of magnetite are attributed to the occurrence of the octahedrally-coordinated Fe2+-Fe3+-Fe2+ ions charge-ordering along the [110] direction in the inverse spinel structure. We propose a new phase diagram of magnetite in which the temperature for the metal-insulator and distorted structural transitions decreases with increasing pressure while the charge-ordering transition occurs at ~8 GPa and room temperature. PMID:25186916

  9. Functionalization of magnetite nanoparticles as oil spill collector.

    PubMed

    Atta, Ayman M; Al-Lohedan, Hamad A; Al-Hussain, Sami A

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, a new magnetic powder based on magnetite can be used as a petroleum crude oil collector. Amidoximes based on rosin as a natural product can be prepared from a reaction between hydroxylamine and rosin/acrylonitrile adducts. The produced rosin amidoximes were used as capping agents for magnetite nanoparticles to prepare hydrophobic coated magnetic powders. A new class of monodisperse hydrophobic magnetite nanoparticles was prepared by a simple and inexpensive co-precipitation method. Iron ions and iodine were prepared by the reaction between ferric chloride and potassium iodide. The structure and morphology of magnetite capped with rosin amidoxime were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), zeta potential, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and dynamic light scattering (DLS). The magnetic properties were determined from vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) analyses. These prepared magnetite nanoparticles were tested as bioactive nanosystems and their antimicrobial effects were investigated. The prepared nanomaterials were examined as a crude oil collector using magnetic fields. The results show promising data for the separation of the petroleum crude oil from aqueous solution in environmental pollution cleanup. PMID:25822876

  10. Pure de Sitter supergravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergshoeff, Eric A.; Freedman, Daniel Z.; Kallosh, Renata; Van Proeyen, Antoine

    2015-10-01

    Using superconformal methods we derive an explicit de Sitter supergravity action invariant under spontaneously broken local N =1 supersymmetry. The supergravity multiplet interacts with a nilpotent Goldstino multiplet. We present a complete locally supersymmetric action including the graviton and the fermionic fields, gravitino and Goldstino, no scalars. In the global limit when the supergravity multiplet decouples, our action reproduces the Volkov-Akulov theory. In the unitary gauge where the Goldstino vanishes we recover pure supergravity with the positive cosmological constant. The classical equations of motion, with all fermions vanishing, have a maximally symmetric solution: de Sitter space.

  11. 7 CFR 917.8 - Pure grower or pure producer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FRESH PEARS AND PEACHES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 917.8 Pure grower or pure producer. (a) For peaches,...

  12. 7 CFR 917.8 - Pure grower or pure producer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FRESH PEARS AND PEACHES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 917.8 Pure grower or pure producer. (a) For peaches,...

  13. Iron/Magnetite Nanoparticles as Magnetic Delivery Systems for Antitumor Drugs.

    PubMed

    Gmez-Sotomayor, Ricardo; Ahualli, S; Viota, Julin L; Rudzka, Katarzyna; Delgado, Angel V

    2015-05-01

    In this study we investigate on the possible use of a new kind of magnetic nanostructures as drug delivery systems for anticancer drugs. The starting particles are formed by an inner core of iron, coated by magnetite as a stabilizing, magnetic layer. These units are further coated by a poly(ethylenglycol) (PEG) layer to make them less prone to the attack by macrophages and to favour longer stays in the blood stream. The resulting particles consist of several magnetic cores encapsulated by a polymer layer around 5 nm thick. The crystal structure of the designed nanostructures, as determined by X-ray powder diffraction, is compatible with a crystalline magnetite component, whereas the magnetization hysteresis data indicate a superparamagnetic behavior. Both the initial susceptibility and the saturation magnetization are lower than for the bare magnetic cores, but still significant. Drug adsorption and release tests were performed on two anticancer drugs, namely 5-fluorouracil and doxorubicin. Both are found to adsorb on the particles, but only the latter appears to be released at a reasonable rate, which is found to be very slow for 5-fluorouracil. PMID:26504970

  14. Synthesis and characterization of magnetite/PLGA/chitosan nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibarra, Jaime; Melendres, Julio; Almada, Mario; Burboa, María G.; Taboada, Pablo; Juárez, Josué; Valdez, Miguel A.

    2015-09-01

    In this work, we report the synthesis and characterization of a new hybrid nanoparticles system performed by magnetite nanoparticles, loaded in a PLGA matrix, and stabilized by different concentrations of chitosan. Magnetite nanoparticles were hydrophobized with oleic acid and entrapped in a PLGA matrix by the emulsion solvent evaporation method, after that, magnetite/PLGA/chitosan nanoparticles were obtained by adding dropwise magnetite/PLGA nanoparticles in chitosan solutions. Magnetite/PLGA nanoparticles produced with different molar ratios did not show significant differences in size and the 3:1 molar ratio showed best spherical shapes as well as uniform particle size. Isothermal titration calorimetry studies demonstrated that the first stage of PLGA-chitosan interaction is mostly regulated by electrostatic forces. Based on a single set of identical sites model, we obtained for the average number of binding sites a value of 3.4, which can be considered as the number of chitosan chains per nanoparticle. This value was confirmed by using a model based on the DLVO theory and fitting zeta potential measurements of magnetite/PLGA/chitosan nanoparticles. From the adjusted parameters, we found that an average number of chitosan molecules of 3.6 per nanoparticle are attached onto the surface of the PLGA matrix. Finally, we evaluated the effect of surface charge of nanoparticles on a membrane model of endothelial cells performed by a mixture of three phospholipids at the air-water interface. Different isotherms and adsorption curves show that cationic surface of charged nanoparticles strongly interact with the phospholipids mixture and these results can be the basis of future experiments to understand the nanoparticles- cell membrane interaction.

  15. In situ hybridization to chitosan/magnetite nanocomposite induced by the magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Baoqiang; Jia, Dechang; Zhou, Yu; Hu, Qiaoling; Cai, Wei

    2006-11-01

    Chitosan/magnetite nanocomposite was synthesized induced by magnetic field via in situ hybridization in ambient condition. Results of XRD patterns and TEM micrographs indicated that magnetite particles with 10-20 nm were dispersed in chitosan homogeneously. An interesting result is that magnetite nanoparticles were assembled to form chain-like structures under the influence of the external magnetic field, which mimics the magnetite chains inside of magnetotatic bacteria. The saturated magnetization (Ms) of nano-magnetite in chitosan was 50.54 emu/g, which is as high as 54% of bulk magnetite. The remanence (Mr) and coercivity (Hc) were 4 emu/g and14.8 Oe, respectively, which indicated that magnetite nanoparticles were superparamagnetic. The key of route is that a pre-precipitated chitosan hydrogel membrane, used as chemical reactor, which controlled the precipitation of chitosan precipitation and in situ transformation of magnetite from the precursor simultaneously in the magnetic field environment.

  16. Simple and Rapid Synthesis of Magnetite/Hydroxyapatite Composites for Hyperthermia Treatments via a Mechanochemical Route

    PubMed Central

    Iwasaki, Tomohiro; Nakatsuka, Ryo; Murase, Kenya; Takata, Hiroshige; Nakamura, Hideya; Watano, Satoru

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a simple method for the rapid synthesis of magnetite/hydroxyapatite composite particles. In this method, superparamagnetic magnetite nanoparticles are first synthesized by coprecipitation using ferrous chloride and ferric chloride. Immediately following the synthesis, carbonate-substituted (B-type) hydroxyapatite particles are mechanochemically synthesized by wet milling dicalcium phosphate dihydrate and calcium carbonate in a dispersed suspension of magnetite nanoparticles, during which the magnetite nanoparticles are incorporated into the hydroxyapatite matrix. We observed that the resultant magnetite/hydroxyapatite composites possessed a homogeneous dispersion of magnetite nanoparticles, characterized by an absence of large aggregates. When this material was subjected to an alternating magnetic field, the heat generated increased with increasing magnetite concentration. For a magnetite concentration of 30 mass%, a temperature increase greater than 20 K was achieved in less than 50 s. These results suggest that our composites exhibit good hyperthermia properties and are promising candidates for hyperthermia treatments. PMID:23629669

  17. The Verwey transition in nanostructured magnetite produced by a combination of chimie douce and spark plasma sintering

    SciTech Connect

    Gaudisson, T.; Nowak, S.; Ammar, S.; Vázquez-Victorio, G.; Valenzuela, R.; Bañobre-López, M.; Rivas, J.; Mazaleyrat, F.

    2014-05-07

    Magnetite nanoparticles about 10 nm sized were synthesized by the polyol method. Zero-field-cooled (ZFC)-FC measurements showed a blocking temperature ∼170 K and the absence of the Verwey transition. They were subsequently consolidated by spark plasma sintering at 750 °C for 15 min, leading to a high density (92% of the theoretical density), solid body, with grains in the 150 nm range. X-ray diffraction patterns exhibited a spinel single phase with cell parameters corresponding to the magnetite structure. Magnetic measurements showed a decrease of coercivity from 685 Oe (54.5 kA/m) at 118 K to 90 Oe (7.2 kA/m) at 139 K. ZFC measurements at 25 Oe presented a three-fold magnetization increase as temperature increased; a small transition between 116 and 117.5 K, followed by a larger one from 117.6 to 124 K. The first transition can be associated with a complex crystallographic transition and delocalization of Fe{sup 2+}-Fe{sup 3+}, while the second one can be attributed to spin reorientation due to the magnetocrystalline anisotropy constant (K{sub 1}) change of sign as previously observed only in magnetite single crystals.

  18. Low-temperature oxidation of magnetite - a humidity sensitive process?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appel, Erwin; Fang, Xiaomin; Herb, Christian; Hu, Shouyun

    2015-04-01

    Extensive multi-parameter palaeoclimate records were obtained from two long-term lacustrine archives at the Tibetan Plateau: the Qaidam basin (2.69-0.08 Ma) and Heqing basin (0.90-0.03 Ma). At present the region of the Qaidam site has an arid climate (<100 mm mean annual precipitation) while the Heqing site is located in the sub-tropical region with monsoonal rainfall. Magnetic properties play a prominent role for palaeoclimate interpretation in both records. Several parameters show a 100 kyr eccentricity cyclicity; in the Qaidam record also the Mid-Pleistocene Transition is seen. Both magnetic records are controlled by different absolute and relative contributions of magnetite and its altered (maghemitized) phases as well as hematite. Weathering conditions likely cause a systematic variation of magnetic mineralogy due to low-temperature oxidation (LTO). Maghemitization is well recognized as an alteration process in submarine basalts but about its relevance for climate-induced weathering in continental environments little is known. Various factors i.e., humidity, temperature, seasonality, duration of specific weathering conditions, and bacterial activity could be responsible for maghemitization (LTO) and transformation to hematite (or goethite) when a critical degree of LTO is reached. These factors may lead to a complex interplay, but one has to note that water acts as an electrolyte for Fe(II) to Fe(III) oxidation at the crystal surface and due to maghemitization-induced lattice shrinking a larger internal particle surface area becomes exposed to oxidation. We suggest that humidity is the most crucial driver for the two studied archives - for the following reasons: (1) The overall parameter variations and catchment conditions are well in agreement with an LTO scenario. (2) In the Qaidam record we observe a direct relationship of a humidity sensitive pollen Ratio with magnetic susceptibility (reflecting the degree of alteration by LTO). (3) In the Heqing record carbonate erosion that reflects higher precipitation matches with stronger maghemitization. In the arid Qaidam region we interpret the humidity variation by regional water recycling related to glacial-interglacial periods. In the sub-tropical Heqing region humidity fluctuations may be caused by a changing relative influence of the Indian summer monsoon.

  19. Magnetite in Desert Varnish and Applications to Rock Varnish on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mancinelli, R. L.; Bishop, J. L.; De, S.

    2002-01-01

    Magnetite in desert varnish is characterized here using DTA, IR and SEM. The presence of magnetite in desert varnish is significant because of the oxidizing environment. This situation is similar to that of Mars where magnetite may also be present. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  20. Experimental Evidence for Non-Redox Transformation Between Magnetite and Hermatite Under H2-Rich Hydrothermal Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Otake, Tsubasa; Ohmoto, Hiroshi; Wesolowski, David J; Anovitz, Lawrence {Larry} M; Allard Jr, Lawrence Frederick

    2007-01-01

    Transformations of magnetite (Fe{sup II}Fe{sub 2}{sup III}O{sub 4}) to hematite (Fe{sub 2}{sup III}O{sub 3}) (and vice versa) have been thought by many scientists and engineers to require molecular O{sub 2} and/or H{sub 2}. Thus, the presence of magnetite and/or hematite in rocks has been linked to a specific oxidation environment. However, the availability of reductants or oxidants in many geologic and industrial environments appears to have been too low to account for the transformations of iron oxides through redox reactions. Here, we report the results of hydrothermal experiments in mildly acidic and H{sub 2}-rich aqueous solutions at 150 C, which demonstrate that transformations of magnetite to hematite, and hematite to magnetite, occur rapidly without involving molecular O{sub 2} or H{sub 2}: Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}(Mt) + 2H{sub (aq)}{sup +} {leftrightarrow} Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}(Hm) + Fe{sub (aq)}{sup 2+} + H{sub 2}O The transformation products are chemically and structurally homogeneous, and typically occur as euhedral single crystals much larger than the precursor minerals. This suggests that, in addition to the expected release of aqueous ferrous species to solution, the transformations involve release of aqueous ferric species from the precursor oxides to the solution, which reprecipitate without being reduced by H{sub 2}. These redox-independent transformations may have been responsible for the formation of some iron oxides in natural systems, such as high-grade hematite ores that developed from Banded Iron Formations (BIFs), hematite-rich deposits formed on Mars, corrosion products in power plants and other industrial systems.

  1. Experimental evidence for non-redox transformations between magnetite and hematite under H-2-rich hydrothermal conditions.

    SciTech Connect

    Otake, Tsubasa; Wesolowski, David J; Anovitz, Lawrence {Larry} M

    2007-05-01

    Transformations of magnetite (Fe{sup II}Fe{sub 2}{sup III}O{sub 4}) to hematite (Fe{sub 2}{sup III}O{sub 3}) (and vice versa) have been thought by many scientists and engineers to require molecular O{sub 2} and/or H{sub 2}. Thus, the presence of magnetite and/or hematite in rocks has been linked to a specific oxidation environment. However, the availability of reductants or oxidants in many geologic and industrial environments appears to have been too low to account for the transformations of iron oxides through redox reactions. Here, we report the results of hydrothermal experiments in mildly acidic and H{sub 2}-rich aqueous solutions at 150 C, which demonstrate that transformations of magnetite to hematite, and hematite to magnetite, occur rapidly without involving molecular O{sub 2} or H{sub 2}: Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}(Mt) + 2H{sub (aq)}{sup +} {leftrightarrow} Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}(Hm) + Fe{sub (aq)}{sup 2+} + H{sub 2}O. The transformation products are chemically and structurally homogeneous, and typically occur as euhedral single crystals much larger than the precursor minerals. This suggests that, in addition to the expected release of aqueous ferrous species to solution, the transformations involve release of aqueous ferric species from the precursor oxides to the solution, which reprecipitate without being reduced by H{sub 2}. These redox-independent transformations may have been responsible for the formation of some iron oxides in natural systems, such as high-grade hematite ores that developed from Banded Iron Formations (BIFs), hematite-rich deposits formed on Mars, corrosion products in power plants and other industrial systems.

  2. Synthesis, characterization and adsorption properties of magnetite/reduced graphene oxide nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Qi, Tingting; Huang, Chenchen; Yan, Shan; Li, Xiu-Juan; Pan, Si-Yi

    2015-11-01

    Three kinds of magnetite/reduced graphene oxide (MRGO) nanocomposites were prepared by solvothermal, hydrothermal and co-precipitation methods. The as-prepared nanocomposites were characterized and compared by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and zeta potential. The results showed that MRGO made by different methods differed in surface functional groups, crystal structure, particle sizes, surface morphology and surface charge. Due to their unlike features, these nanocomposites displayed dissimilar performances when they were used to adsorb drugs, dyes and metal ions. The MRGO prepared by the co-precipitation method showed special adsorption ability to negative ions, but those synthesized by the solvothermal method obtained the best extraction ability and reusability to the others and showed a good prospective in magnetic solid-phase extraction. Therefore, it is highly recommended to use the right preparation method before application in order to attain the best extraction performance. PMID:26452936

  3. Avian magnetite-based magnetoreception: a physiologist's perspective

    PubMed Central

    Cadiou, Herv; McNaughton, Peter A.

    2010-01-01

    It is now well established that animals use the Earth's magnetic field to perform long-distance migration and other navigational tasks. However, the transduction mechanisms that allow the conversion of magnetic field variations into an electric signal by specialized sensory cells remain largely unknown. Among the species that have been shown to sense Earth-strength magnetic fields, birds have been a model of choice since behavioural tests show that their direction-finding abilities are strongly influenced by magnetic fields. Magnetite, a ferromagnetic mineral, has been found in a wide range of organisms, from bacteria to vertebrates. In birds, both superparamagnetic (SPM) and single-domain magnetite have been found to be associated with the trigeminal nerve. Electrophysiological recordings from cells in the trigeminal ganglion have shown an increase in action potential firing in response to magnetic field changes. More recently, histological evidence has demonstrated the presence of SPM magnetite in the subcutis of the pigeon's upper beak. The aims of the present review are to review the evidence for a magnetite-based mechanism in birds and to introduce physiological concepts in order to refine the proposed models. PMID:20106875

  4. Benefaction studies on the Hasan Celebi magnetite deposit, Turkey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pressler, Jean W.; Akar, Ali

    1972-01-01

    Bench-scale and semicontinuous tests were performed on surface, trench, and diamond drill core samples from the Hasan Celebi low-grade magnetite deposit to determine the optimum benefication procedures utilizing wet magnetic separation techniques. Composite core samples typically contain about 27 percent recoverable magnetite and require crushing and grinding through 1 mm in size to insure satisfactory separation of the gangue from the magnetite. Regrinding and cleaning the magnetite concentrate to 80 percent minus 150-mesh is necessary to obtain an optimum of 66 percent iron. Semicontinuous pilot-plant testing with the wet magnetic drum using the recycled middling technique indicates that as much as 83 percent of the acid-soluble iron can be recovered into a concentrate containing 66 percent iron, with minimum deleterious elements. This represents 27 weight percent of the original ore. Further tests will continue when the Maden Tetkik ve Arama Enstitusu (MTA) receives 24 tons of bulk sample from an exploratory drift and cross-cut now being driven through a section of the major reserve area.

  5. Magnetite and Carbonate Textures in ALH84001: Experimental Insights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koziol, Andrea M.

    2001-01-01

    Synthetic siderite and synthetic siderite-magnesite carbonates were equilibrated with hematite, magnetite, and CO2 at elevated pressure and temperature. Comparisons are made to textures seen in the carbonate globules in ALH84001. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  6. Mechanochemically enhanced degradation of pyrene and phenanthrene loaded on magnetite.

    PubMed

    Joseph-Ezra, Hadas; Nasser, Ahmed; Ben-Ari, Julius; Mingelgrin, Uri

    2014-05-20

    The enhancement of the degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), exemplified by pyrene and phenanthrene, using mild grinding in the presence of common minerals was investigated. Magnetite, birnessite, and Na- and Cu-montmorillonite samples were loaded with pyrene or phenanthrene and ground manually or in a ball mill for short periods of time. The ground samples were analyzed for PAHs and for their metabolites, using high-performance liquid chromatography and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. No degradation of pyrene occurred when it was in contact with Na-montmorillonite or birnessite. Sorption of pyrene on Cu-montmorillonite enhanced its degradation, but grinding of the loaded clay actually inhibited pyrene's degradation. Phenanthrene hardly degraded on Cu-montmorillonite. Grinding magnetite loaded with either PAH resulted in a significant degradation of both (?50% after grinding for 5 min), while in the nonground samples, negligible degradation was detected. The extent of degradation increased with the duration of grinding. The degradation of either PAH loaded on magnetite yielded oxidized products. In soil samples contaminated with PAHs and mixed with magnetite, a similar grinding-induced degradation pattern was observed, but with a lower rate. A liquid phase was required to initiate degradation in the soil. The liquid phase apparently served as the medium through which the pollutants reached the surface of the degradation-enhancing mineral. PMID:24730613

  7. Surface reactions kinetics between nanocrystalline magnetite and uranyl.

    PubMed

    Missana, Tiziana; Maffiotte, Csar; Garca-Gutirrez, Miguel

    2003-05-01

    Magnetite is the most important end member of iron corrosion products under reducing environment, which is the condition expected in a deep geological high level radioactive waste disposal. Nanocrystalline magnetite was synthesized in the laboratory and its physicochemical properties were analyzed in detail. The kinetics of the adsorption of U(VI) and the kinetics of the actinide reduction to a lower oxidation state, in presence of the oxide, were studied by means of batch sorption techniques and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis. The results showed that the uranium sorption and reduction processes on the magnetite surface have very fast kinetics (hours), the reduction process being triggered by sorption. XPS measurements showed that the speciation of uranium at the surface does not show significant changes with time (from 1 day to 3 months), as well as the quantity of uranium detected at the surface. The surface speciation depended on the initial pH of the contact solution. Considering that the Eh of equilibrium between magnetite and the solution, under our experimental conditions, is slightly positive (50-100 mV), the uranium reduction would also be thermodynamically possible within the liquid phase. However, the kinetics of reduction in the liquid occur at a much slower rate which, in turn, has to depend on the attainment of the magnetite/solution equilibrium. The decrease of uranium in solution, observed after the uranyl adsorption stage, and particularly at acidic pH, is most probably due to the precipitation of U(IV) formed in the solution. PMID:12725835

  8. Magnetite Nanoparticles Stabilized Under Physiological Conditions for Biomedical Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hajdãº, A.; Tombácz, E.; Illés, E.; Bica, D.; Vékás, L.

    The biomedical application of water based magnetic fluids (MFs) is of great practical importance. Their colloidal stability under physiological conditions (blood pH ˜ 7.2-7.4 and salt concentration ˜0.15 M) and more in high magnetic field gradient is crucial. Magnetite or maghemite nanoparticles are used in general. In the present work, magnetite nanoparticles were stabilized with different compounds (citric acid (CA) and phosphate) and sodium oleate (NaO) as the most used surfactant in the stabilization of MFs. The adsorption and overcharging effect were quantified, and the enhancement in salt tolerance of stabilized systems was studied. Adsorption, electrophoretic mobility and dynamic light scattering (DLS) measurements were performed. The electrolyte tolerance was tested in coagulation kinetic measurements. Above the adsorption saturation, the nanoparticles are stabilized in a way of combined steric and electrostatic effects. The aim was to research these two important effects and demonstrate that none of them alone is enough. The phosphate was not able to stabilize the ferrofluid in spite of our expectation, but the other two additives proved to be effective stabilizing agents. The magnetite was well stabilized by the surface complexation of CA above pH ˜ 5, however, the salt tolerance of citrate stabilized MFs remained much below the concentration of physiological salt solution, and more the dissolution of magnetite nanocrystals was enhanced due to Fe-CA complexation in aqueous medium, which may cause problems in vivo. The oleate double layers were able to stabilize magnetite nanoparticles perfectly at pH ˜ 6 preventing particle aggregation effectively even in physiological salt solution.

  9. Intensified magneto-resistance by rapid thermal annealing in magnetite (Fe3O4) thin film on SiO2 glass substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobori, H.; Morii, K.; Yamasaki, A.; Sugimura, A.; Taniguchi, T.; Horie, T.; Naitoh, Y.; Shimizu, T.

    2012-12-01

    We have observed large magneto-resistance (MR) intensified by rapid thermal annealing (RTA) in magnetite (Fe3O4) thin film (MTF) on SiO2 glass (a-SiO2) substrate. The MTF was produced by the RF magnetron sputtering method by using a magnetite target. The electrical resistivity (ER) of as-grown MTF (AG-MTF) showed the Mott's variable range hopping behavior, which implies that the AG-MTF is amorphous-like. Although the magneto-resistance (MR) ratio of bulk single crystal is very small except around the Verwey transition temperature (VTT), that of the AG-MTF showed moderately large below room temperature. Due to RTA of the AG-MTF by use of an IR image furnace, the MR ratio of MTFs was intensified, and especially by the annealing around the Curie temperature (585°C) of magnetite. Furthermore the ER of the rapid thermally annealed MTF (RTA-MTF) showed a slight kink at around the VTT, which indicates that the crystallinity of the RTA-MTF is higher than that of the AG-MTF The MTF produced by the RF magnetron sputtering method are composed of magnetite fine particles (MFPs). We consider that the directions of magnetic moments of MFPs in the MTF were spatially randomized by the RTA and the strong spin scattering of itinerant electrons transferring between adjacent MFPs caused the intensification of the MR ratio.

  10. Magnetite Formation from Thermal Decomposition of Siderite: Implications for Inorganic Magnetite Formation in Martian Meteorite ALH84001

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, RIchard V.

    2002-01-01

    A biogenic mechanism for formation of a subpopulation magnetite in Martian meteorite ALH84001 has been suggested [McKay et al., 1996; Thomas-Keprta, et al., 2000]. We are developing experimental evidence for an alternating working hypothesis, that the subpopulation was produced inorganically by the thermal decomposition of siderite [Golden et al., 2000].

  11. Pure optical photoacoustic microscopy.

    PubMed

    Xie, Zhixing; Chen, Sung-Liang; Ling, Tao; Guo, L Jay; Carson, Paul L; Wang, Xueding

    2011-05-01

    The concept of pure optical photoacoustic microscopy(POPAM) was proposed based on optical rastering of a focused excitation beam and optically sensing the photoacoustic signal using a microring resonator fabricated by a nanoimprinting technique. After the refinements of the microring's working wavelength and in the resonator structure and mold fabrication, an ultrahigh Q factor of 3.010(5) was achieved which provided high sensitivity with a noise equivalent detectable pressure(NEDP) value of 29 Pa. This NEDP is much lower than the hundreds of Pascals achieved with existing optical resonant structures such as etalons, fiber gratings and dielectric multilayer interference filters available for acoustic measurement. The featured high sensitivity allowed the microring resonator to detect the weak photoacoustic signals from micro- or submicroscale objects. The inherent superbroad bandwidth of the optical microring resonator combined with an optically focused scanning beam provided POPAM with high resolution in the axial as well as both lateral directions while the axial resolution of conventional photoacoustic microscopy (PAM) suffers from the limited bandwidth of PZT detectors. Furthermore, the broadband microring resonator showed similar sensitivity to that of our most sensitive PZT detector. The current POPAM system provides a lateral resolution of 5 ?m and an axial resolution of 8 ?m, comparable to that achieved by optical microscopy while presenting the unique contrast of optical absorption and functional information complementing other optical modalities. The 3D structure of microvasculature, including capillary networks, and even individual red blood cells have been discerned successfully in the proof-of-concept experiments on mouse bladders ex vivo and mouse ears in vivo. The potential of approximately GHz bandwidth of the microring resonator also might allow much higher resolution than shown here in microscopy of optical absorption and acoustic propagation properties at depths in unfrozen tissue specimens or thicker tissue sections, which is not now imageable with current optical or acoustic microscopes of comparable resolution. PMID:21643156

  12. Dissolution of magnetite and redistribution of heavy metals in urban soils (model experiment)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vodyanitskii, Yu. N.

    2013-06-01

    Technogenic magnetite in urban soils is extremely various in properties. Its particles strongly differ in magnetic susceptibility and degree of association with heavy metals. In the city of Perm, particles of magnetite enriched with different heavy metals are precipitated, which indicates different sources of technogenic magnetite within the limits of the city. The dissolution of magnetite and the effect of this process on the behavior of heavy metals have been simulated by the magnetochemical method. In strongly magnetic soils, the dissolution of highly magnetic macrocrystalline magnetite is accompanied by the dissolution of heavy metals: Cr, Mn, Ni, Zn, Pb, and Cu. The secondary precipitates of hydroxides of iron and heavy metals (predominantly Pb, Cu, and Ni) are formed relatively rarely, mainly in weakly magnetic soils, where slightly magnetic and dispersed magnetite is present. In cities, the dissolution of magnetite is favored by the added salts and organic acids released by plants.

  13. Magnetite-based Magnetoreception in Animals: 25+ Years of Theory & Experimentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirschvink, J. L.; Walker, M. M.

    2005-12-01

    Living organisms ranging from bacteria through higher vertebrates rely on orientation, navigation, and homing to survive. Any sensory cue that enhances these behaviors will be subject to intense natural selection over geological time. Reproducible behavioral responses to earth-strength magnetic fields(1) have been documented in Bacteria, Protoctists, and in nearly every major group of animals, and are possibly also present in the Archaea. Several groups of animals, including birds and cetaceans, respond behaviorally to magnetic anomalies below 100 nT in magnitude, implying that their magnetoreception ability approaches the thermal noise limit. This approach to thermal noise is commonly observed in other sensory systems, including hearing, olfaction, and electroreception. The hypothesis of magnetite-based magnetoreception(2) is the only theory proposed so far that is capable of explaining all of the magnetic behavioral data. Tiny crystals of single-domain magnetite (or in some bacteria, greigite) rotate the cells of microorganisms passively like a simple compass needle. The initial detection of biogenic magnetite with rock magnetic techniques in birds and bees over 25 years ago has led progressively to the identification of a group of specialized cells in fish and birds which contain organized magnetite-containing structures. In these animals (and presumably all vertebrates) magnetic signals are transmitted to the brain via the ophthalmic branch of the trigeminal nerve(3, 4). Experiments with pulse-remagnetization, like those that convert North-seeking bacteria into South-seekers, have dramatic effects on animal behavior, confirming the role of magnetite in the sensory system. This is therefore a general mechanism for a highly sensitive magnetic sense, the origin of which probably dates to the ancestral metazoan, and perhaps earlier. The largest debate presently occurring in the field concerns the interpretation of magnetic compass responses that vary with intensity and color of light. Some biologists interpret the tendency of birds and amphibians to orient randomly under red lights, but not under shorter wavelengths, as evidence for the existence of a separate compass receptor involving light. However, even some magnetotactic bacteria change their behavior in red light,(5) and all such effects reported to date in animals can be explained simply as a visual influence on an animal's choice of behavior. Although the light-dependent mechanism might be physically plausible for a compass (but not for a high-resolution magnetic), natural selection cannot develop it without a separation from the visual system (exaptation), for which there is no evidence. 1. R. Wiltschko, W. Wiltschko, Magnetic orientation in animals, Zoophysiology (Springer, Berlin, 1995), pp. 297. 2. J. L. Kirschvink, Ph.D. Thesis, Princeton University (1979). 3. J. L. Kirschvink, M. M. Walker, C. Deibel, Current Opinion in Neurobiology 11, 462 (2001). 4. M. M. Walker, T. E. Dennis, J. L. Kirschvink, Current Opinion in Neurobiology 12, 735 (Dec, 2002). 5. R. B. Frankel, D. A. Bazylinski, M. S. Johnson, B. L. Taylor, Biophysical Journal 73, 994 (1997).

  14. Geochemistry of magnetite from porphyry Cu and skarn deposits in the southwestern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nadoll, Patrick; Mauk, Jeffrey L.; LeVeille, Richard A.; Koenig, Alan E.

    2015-01-01

    A combination of petrographic observations, laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS), and statistical data exploration was used in this study to determine compositional variations in hydrothermal and igneous magnetite from five porphyry CuMo and skarn deposits in the southwestern United States, and igneous magnetite from the unmineralized, granodioritic Inner Zone Batholith, Japan. The most important overall discriminators for the minor and trace element chemistry of magnetite from the investigated porphyry and skarn deposits are Mg, Al, Ti, V, Mn, Co, Zn, and Gaof these the elements with the highest variance for (I) igneous magnetite are Mg, Al, Ti, V, Mn, Zn, for (II) hydrothermal porphyry magnetite are Mg, Ti, V, Mn, Co, Zn, and for (III) hydrothermal skarn magnetite are Mg, Ti, Mn, Zn, and Ga. Nickel could only be detected at levels above the limit of reporting (LOR) in two igneous magnetites. Equally, Cr could only be detected in one igneous occurrence. Copper, As, Mo, Ag, Au, and Pb have been reported in magnetite by other authors but could not be detected at levels greater than their respective LORs in our samples. Comparison with the chemical signature of igneous magnetite from the barren Inner Zone Batholith, Japan, suggests that V, Mn, Co, and Ga concentrations are relatively depleted in magnetite from the porphyry and skarn deposits. Higher formation conditions in combination with distinct differences between melt and hydrothermal fluid compositions are reflected in Al, Ti, V, and Ga concentrations that are, on average, higher in igneous magnetite than in hydrothermal magnetite (including porphyry and skarn magnetite). Low Ti and V concentrations in combination with high Mn concentrations are characteristic features of magnetite from skarn deposits. High Mg concentrations (<1,000ppm) are characteristic for magnetite from magnesian skarn and likely reflect extensive fluid/rock interaction. In porphyry deposits, hydrothermal magnetite from different vein types can be distinguished by varying Ti, V, Mn, and Zn contents. Titanium and V concentrations are highly variable among hydrothermal and igneous magnetites, but Ti concentrations above 3,560ppm could only be detected in igneous magnetite, and V concentrations are on average lower in hydrothermal magnetite. The highest Ti concentrations are present in igneous magnetite from gabbro and monzonite. The lowest Ti concentrations were recorded in igneous magnetite from granodiorite and granodiorite breccia and largely overlap with Ti concentrations found in hydrothermal porphyry magnetite. Magnesium and Mn concentrations vary between magnetite from different skarn deposits but are generally greater than in hydrothermal magnetite from the porphyry deposits. High Mg, and low Ti and V concentrations characterize hydrothermal magnetite from magnesian skarn deposits and follow a trend that indicates that magnetite from skarn (calcic and magnesian) commonly has low Ti and V concentrations.

  15. Geochemistry of magnetite from porphyry Cu and skarn deposits in the southwestern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadoll, Patrick; Mauk, Jeffrey L.; Leveille, Richard A.; Koenig, Alan E.

    2015-04-01

    A combination of petrographic observations, laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS), and statistical data exploration was used in this study to determine compositional variations in hydrothermal and igneous magnetite from five porphyry Cu-Mo and skarn deposits in the southwestern United States, and igneous magnetite from the unmineralized, granodioritic Inner Zone Batholith, Japan. The most important overall discriminators for the minor and trace element chemistry of magnetite from the investigated porphyry and skarn deposits are Mg, Al, Ti, V, Mn, Co, Zn, and Ga—of these the elements with the highest variance for (I) igneous magnetite are Mg, Al, Ti, V, Mn, Zn, for (II) hydrothermal porphyry magnetite are Mg, Ti, V, Mn, Co, Zn, and for (III) hydrothermal skarn magnetite are Mg, Ti, Mn, Zn, and Ga. Nickel could only be detected at levels above the limit of reporting (LOR) in two igneous magnetites. Equally, Cr could only be detected in one igneous occurrence. Copper, As, Mo, Ag, Au, and Pb have been reported in magnetite by other authors but could not be detected at levels greater than their respective LORs in our samples. Comparison with the chemical signature of igneous magnetite from the barren Inner Zone Batholith, Japan, suggests that V, Mn, Co, and Ga concentrations are relatively depleted in magnetite from the porphyry and skarn deposits. Higher formation conditions in combination with distinct differences between melt and hydrothermal fluid compositions are reflected in Al, Ti, V, and Ga concentrations that are, on average, higher in igneous magnetite than in hydrothermal magnetite (including porphyry and skarn magnetite). Low Ti and V concentrations in combination with high Mn concentrations are characteristic features of magnetite from skarn deposits. High Mg concentrations (<1,000 ppm) are characteristic for magnetite from magnesian skarn and likely reflect extensive fluid/rock interaction. In porphyry deposits, hydrothermal magnetite from different vein types can be distinguished by varying Ti, V, Mn, and Zn contents. Titanium and V concentrations are highly variable among hydrothermal and igneous magnetites, but Ti concentrations above 3,560 ppm could only be detected in igneous magnetite, and V concentrations are on average lower in hydrothermal magnetite. The highest Ti concentrations are present in igneous magnetite from gabbro and monzonite. The lowest Ti concentrations were recorded in igneous magnetite from granodiorite and granodiorite breccia and largely overlap with Ti concentrations found in hydrothermal porphyry magnetite. Magnesium and Mn concentrations vary between magnetite from different skarn deposits but are generally greater than in hydrothermal magnetite from the porphyry deposits. High Mg, and low Ti and V concentrations characterize hydrothermal magnetite from magnesian skarn deposits and follow a trend that indicates that magnetite from skarn (calcic and magnesian) commonly has low Ti and V concentrations.

  16. Charge localization in the Verwey structure of magnetite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senn, Mark S.; Wright, Jon P.; Cumby, James; Attfield, J. Paul

    2015-07-01

    The thermal evolution of electronic order in the complex Verwey ground state of magnetite (F e3O4) has been determined through 22 high-accuracy synchrotron x-ray structure refinements using three 10 -40 ? m grains of stoichiometric magnetite. A robust fitting function is introduced to extract values of order parameterlike quantities at zero temperature and at the upper limit of the Verwey phase Tu=123.4 K . The low-temperature structural distortion is found to be almost frozen below the Verwey transition but small changes in lattice and local mode amplitudes and Fe-Fe distances reveal an increase in electron localization on cooling. These distortions confirm that electron localization within trimerons is the driving force behind the Verwey transition. Electron localization is also revealed by anomalous decreases in the largest principal thermal displacement factors of Fe cations as electron-phonon decoupling occurs on cooling.

  17. Magnetite-doped polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) for phosphopeptide enrichment.

    PubMed

    Sandison, Mairi E; Jensen, K Tveen; Gesellchen, F; Cooper, J M; Pitt, A R

    2014-10-01

    Reversible phosphorylation plays a key role in numerous biological processes. Mass spectrometry-based approaches are commonly used to analyze protein phosphorylation, but such analysis is challenging, largely due to the low phosphorylation stoichiometry. Hence, a number of phosphopeptide enrichment strategies have been developed, including metal oxide affinity chromatography (MOAC). Here, we describe a new material for performing MOAC that employs a magnetite-doped polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), that is suitable for the creation of microwell array and microfluidic systems to enable low volume, high throughput analysis. Incubation time and sample loading were explored and optimized and demonstrate that the embedded magnetite is able to enrich phosphopeptides. This substrate-based approach is rapid, straightforward and suitable for simultaneously performing multiple, low volume enrichments. PMID:25105173

  18. Synthesis and characterization of silica-coated nanoparticles of magnetite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, R. V.; Pereira, I. L. S.; Cavalcante, L. C. D.; Gamarra, L. F.; Carneiro, S. M.; Amaro, E.; Fabris, J. D.; Domingues, R. Z.; Andrade, A. L.

    2010-01-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles coated with silica have been subjected of extensive, and, in many aspects, also intensive investigations because of their potential application in different technological fields, particularly in biomedicine. This work was conceived and is being carried out in two main parts: (1) synthesis of the ferrimagnetic nanoparticles, specifically magnetite, and (2) coating these particles with tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS). The nanosized magnetite sample was prepared by the reduction-precipitation and the nanomagnetite particles were coated by the sol-gel method, based on the hydrolysis of tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS). The so obtained materials were characterized with powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), FTIR spectroscopy, saturation magnetization measurements, and 57Fe Mssbauer spectroscopy at room temperature.

  19. Low-temperature viscous magnetization of multidomain magnetite: evidence for disaccommodation contribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muxworthy, A. R.; Williams, W.

    2005-12-01

    There are large gaps in our understanding of multidomain (MD) viscous behavior and MD remanence theory in general. For example, Dunlop and Ozdemir (2000) have demonstrated that multidomain (MD) viscous remanent magnetization (VRM) acquired at 200 C in crushed and sized natural crystals of magnetite persists on thermal demagnetization up to the Curie temperature, that is, there is a MD VRM component which is metastable. This goes against the classic MD theory of Noel which predicts that domain walls which move at low-temperatures in the earth's field, are easily re-organized by small increases in temperatures. That is, theory predicts that any VRM acquired by domain walls at 200 C will not persist to the Curie temperature. Recent viscosity experiments at temperatures above room-temperature have revealed that MD viscosity has a complex dependency on the magnetization state, dislocation density, disaccommodation, stoichiometry and thermal history. In particular the contribution of disaccommodation to viscosity has been difficult to isolate. Below room-temperature, disaccommodation displays a large increase, therefore by measuring viscosity below room temperature, then its contribution can be more readily assessed. Low-temperature viscous acquisition and decay measurements above and below the Verwey transition have been measured for a selection of natural and synthetic multidomain magnetite samples. A strong correlation between the viscosity spectra and published disaccommodation spectra was found, where disaccommodation reflects electron mobility. Assuming the viscosity is controlled by identical mechanisms as disaccommodation, the reduction in electron mobility below the Verwey transition is found to significantly increase viscous acquisition and decay rates over the time scales measured (1-3000 seconds). Although strongly affecting the viscosity, disaccommodation processes do not appear to control the rate of change of viscosity with time, i.e., the viscosity curvature. It is suggested that the curvature is controlled by the shape of relaxation-time distributions, which is approximately the same for all the magnetite samples studied. In addition, the acquisition and decay curvature parameters mirror each other when plotted as a function of temperature, inferring that at any given temperature the acquisition and decay processes are identical.

  20. Direct observation of t2g orbital ordering in magnetite.

    PubMed

    Schlappa, J; Schssler-Langeheine, C; Chang, C F; Ott, H; Tanaka, A; Hu, Z; Haverkort, M W; Schierle, E; Weschke, E; Kaindl, G; Tjeng, L H

    2008-01-18

    Using soft-x-ray diffraction at the site-specific resonances in the Fe L2,3 edge, we find clear evidence for orbital and charge ordering in magnetite below the Verwey transition. The spectra show directly that the (001/2) diffraction peak (in cubic notation) is caused by t2g orbital ordering at octahedral Fe2+ sites and the (001) by a spatial modulation of the t2g occupation. PMID:18232896

  1. Hematite Versus Magnetite as the Signature for Planetary Magnetic Anomalies?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kletetshka, Gunther; Taylor, Patrick T.; Wasilewski, Peter J.

    1999-01-01

    Crustal magnetic anomalies are the result of adjacent geologic units having contrasting magnetization. This magnetization arises from induction and/or remanence. In a planetary context we now know that Mars has significant crustal magnetic anomalies due to remanent magnetization, while the Earth has some anomalies where remanence can be shown to be important. This picture, however, is less clear because of the nature and the magnitude of the geomagnetic field which is responsible for superimposed induced magnetization. Induced magnetization assumes a magnetite source, because of its much greater magnetic susceptibility when compared with other magnetic minerals. We investigated the TRM (thermoremanent magnetization) acquisition of hematite, in weak magnetic fields up to 1 mT, to determine if the remanent and induced magnetization of hematite could compete with magnetite. TRM acquisition curves of magnetite and hematite show that multi-domain hematite reaches TRM saturation (0.3 - 0.4 A sq m/kg) in fields as low as 100 microT. However, multi-domain magnetite reaches only a few percent of its TRM saturation in a field of 100 microT (0.02 - 0.06 A sq m/kg). These results suggest that a mineral such as hematite and, perhaps, other minerals with significant remanence and minor induced magnetization may play an important role in providing requisite magnetization contrast. Perhaps, and especially for the Mars case, we should reevaluate where hematite and other minerals, with efficient remanence acquisition, exist in significant concentration, allowing a more comprehensive explanation of Martian anomalies and better insight into the role of remanent magnetization in terrestrial crustal magnetic anomalies.

  2. Biologically controlled synthesis and assembly of magnetite nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Bennet, Mathieu; Bertinetti, Luca; Neely, Robert K; Schertel, Andreas; Krnig, Andr; Flors, Cristina; Mller, Frank D; Schler, Dirk; Klumpp, Stefan; Faivre, Damien

    2015-01-01

    Magnetite nanoparticles have size- and shape-dependent magnetic properties. In addition, assemblies of magnetite nanoparticles forming one-dimensional nanostructures have magnetic properties distinct from zero-dimensional or non-organized materials due to strong uniaxial shape anisotropy. However, assemblies of free-standing magnetic nanoparticles tend to collapse and form closed-ring structures rather than chains in order to minimize their energy. Magnetotactic bacteria, ubiquitous microorganisms, have the capability to mineralize magnetite nanoparticles, the so-called magnetosomes, and to direct their assembly in stable chains via biological macromolecules. In this contribution, the synthesis and assembly of biological magnetite to obtain functional magnetic dipoles in magnetotactic bacteria are presented, with a focus on the assembly. We present tomographic reconstructions based on cryo-FIB sectioning and SEM imaging of a magnetotactic bacterium to exemplify that the magnetosome chain is indeed a paradigm of a 1D magnetic nanostructure, based on the assembly of several individual particles. We show that the biological forces are a major player in the formation of the magnetosome chain. Finally, we demonstrate by super resolution fluorescence microscopy that MamK, a protein of the actin family necessary to form the chain backbone in the bacteria, forms a bundle of filaments that are not only found in the vicinity of the magnetosome chain but are widespread within the cytoplasm, illustrating the dynamic localization of the protein within the cells. These very simple microorganisms have thus much to teach us with regards to controlling the design of functional 1D magnetic nanoassembly. PMID:25932467

  3. Stable ferrofluids of magnetite nanoparticles in hydrophobic ionic liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mestrom, Luuk; Lenders, Jos J. M.; de Groot, Rick; Hooghoudt, Tonnis; Sommerdijk, Nico A. J. M.; Vilaplana Artigas, Marcel

    2015-07-01

    Ferrofluids (FFs) of metal oxide nanoparticles in ionic liquids (ILs) are a potentially useful class of magnetic materials for many applications because of their properties related to temperature/pressure stability, hydrophobicity, viscosity and recyclability. In this work, the screening of several designer surfactants for their stabilizing capabilities has resulted in the synthesis of stable FFs of superparamagnetic 7 ± 2 nm magnetite (Fe3O4) nanoparticles in the hydrophobic IL 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ([CRMIM][NTf2]). The designed and synthesized 1-butyl-3-(10-carboxydecyl)-1H-imidazol-3-ium bromide (ILC10-COOH) surfactant that combines the same imidazole moiety as the IL with a long alkyl chain ensured compatibility with the IL and increased the steric repulsion between the magnetite nanoparticles sufficiently such that stable dispersions of up to 50 wt% magnetite were obtained according to stability tests in the presence of a magnetic field (0.5-1 Tesla). Cryo-transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM) of the IL-based FFs allowed direct visualization of the surfactant-stabilized nanoparticles in the ILs and the native, hardly aggregated state of their dispersion.

  4. Lanthanide sorbent based on magnetite nanoparticles functionalized with organophosphorus extractants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basualto, Carlos; Gaete, José; Molina, Lorena; Valenzuela, Fernando; Yañez, Claudia; Marco, Jose F.

    2015-06-01

    In this work, an adsorbent was prepared based on the attachment of organophosphorus acid extractants, namely, D2EHPA, CYANEX 272, and CYANEX 301, to the surface of superparamagnetic magnetite (Fe3O4) nanoparticles. The synthesized nanoparticles were coated with oleic acid, first by a chemisorption mechanism and later by the respective extractant via physical adsorption. The obtained core-shell functionalized magnetite nanoparticle composites were characterized by dynamic light scattering, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, thermogravimetry, infrared absorption and vibrating sample magnetometry. All the prepared nanoparticles exhibited a high saturation magnetization capacity that varied between 72 and 46 emu g-1 and decreased as the magnetite nanoparticle was coated with oleic acid and functionalized. The scope of this study also included adsorption tests for lanthanum, cerium, praseodymium, and neodymium and the corresponding analysis of their results. Sorption tests indicated that the functionalized nanoparticles were able to extract the four studied lanthanide metal ions, although the best extraction performance was observed when the sorbent was functionalized with CYANEX 272, which resulted in a loading capacity of approximately 12-14 mgLa/gMNP. The magnetization of the synthesized nanoparticles was verified during the separation of the lanthanide-loaded sorbent from the raffinate by using a conventional magnet.

  5. Stable ferrofluids of magnetite nanoparticles in hydrophobic ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Mestrom, Luuk; Lenders, Jos J M; de Groot, Rick; Hooghoudt, Tonnis; Sommerdijk, Nico A J M; Artigas, Marcel Vilaplana

    2015-07-17

    Ferrofluids (FFs) of metal oxide nanoparticles in ionic liquids (ILs) are a potentially useful class of magnetic materials for many applications because of their properties related to temperature/pressure stability, hydrophobicity, viscosity and recyclability. In this work, the screening of several designer surfactants for their stabilizing capabilities has resulted in the synthesis of stable FFs of superparamagnetic 7 2 nm magnetite (Fe3O4) nanoparticles in the hydrophobic IL 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ([C(R)MIM][NTf2]). The designed and synthesized 1-butyl-3-(10-carboxydecyl)-1H-imidazol-3-ium bromide (ILC10-COOH) surfactant that combines the same imidazole moiety as the IL with a long alkyl chain ensured compatibility with the IL and increased the steric repulsion between the magnetite nanoparticles sufficiently such that stable dispersions of up to 50 wt% magnetite were obtained according to stability tests in the presence of a magnetic field (0.5-1 Tesla). Cryo-transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM) of the IL-based FFs allowed direct visualization of the surfactant-stabilized nanoparticles in the ILs and the native, hardly aggregated state of their dispersion. PMID:26118409

  6. Biogenic Magnetite in Humans and New Magnetic Resonance Hazard Questions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strbak, O.; Kopcansky, P.; Frollo, I.

    2011-01-01

    The widespread use of magnetic resonance (MR) techniques in clinical practice, and recent discovery of biogenic ferrimagnetic substances in human tissue, open new questions regarding health hazards and MR. Current studies are restricted just to the induction of Faraday currents and consequent thermal effects, or inoffensive interaction with static magnetic field. We outlined that magnetic energies associated with interaction of ferrimagnetic particles and MR magnetic fields can be dangerous for sensitive tissues like the human brain is. To simulate the interaction mechanism we use our. Cube model approach, which allows more realistic calculation of the particle's magnetic moments. Biogenic magnetite nanoparticles face during MR examination three principal fields: (i) main B0 field, (ii) gradient field, and (iii) B1 field. Interaction energy of biogenic magnetite nanoparticle with static magnetic field B0 exceeds the covalent bond energy 5 times for particles from 4 nm up to 150 nm. Translation energy in gradient field exceeds biochemical bond energy for particles bigger than 50 nm. Biochemical bond disruption and particle release to the tissue environment, in the presence of all MR fields, are the most critical points of this interaction. And together with relaxation processes after application of RF pulses, they make biogenic magnetite nanoparticles a potential MR health hazard issue.

  7. Achieving Persistent Room Temperature Phosphorescence and Remarkable Mechanochromism from Pure Organic Luminogens.

    PubMed

    Gong, Yongyang; Chen, Gan; Peng, Qian; Yuan, Wang Zhang; Xie, Yujun; Li, Shuhong; Zhang, Yongming; Tang, Ben Zhong

    2015-10-28

    Persistent room temperature phosphorescence (RTP) from pure organic luminogens can be rationally realized based on the crystallization-induced phosphorescence phenomenon and severe crystallization. A perfect crystal with dense molecular packing and effective inter-molecular interactions isolates the triplet excitons from quenching sites and significantly blocks the high-energy vibrational dissipation, thus yielding long-lasting RTP. PMID:26456393

  8. Bench-Scale Testing of the Micronized Magnetite Process

    SciTech Connect

    Edward R. Torak; Peter J. Suardini

    1997-11-01

    A recent emphasis of the Department of Energy's (DOE's), Coal Preparation Program has been the development of high-efficiency technologies that offer near-term, low-cost improvements in the ability of coal preparation plants to address problems associated with coal fines. In 1992, three cost-shared contracts were awarded to industry, under the first High-Efficiency Preparation (HEP I) solicitation. All three projects involved bench-scale testing of various emerging technologies, at the Federal Energy Technology Center*s (FETC*s), Process Research Facility (PRF). The first HEP I project, completed in mid-1993, was conducted by Process Technology, Inc., with the objective of developing a computerized, on-line system for monitoring and controlling the operation of a column flotation circuit. The second HEP I project, completed in mid-1994, was conducted by a team led by Virginia Polytechnic Institute to test the Mozely Multi-Gravity Separator in combination with the Microcel Flotation Column, for improved removal of mineral matter and pyritic sulfur from fine coal. The last HEP I project, of which the findings are contained in this report, was conducted by Custom Coals Corporation to evaluate and advance a micronized-magnetite-based, fine-coal cycloning technology. The micronized-magnetite coal cleaning technology, also know as the Micro-Mag process, is based on widely used conventional dense-medium cyclone applications, in that it utilizes a finely ground magnetite/water suspension as a separating medium for cleaning fine coal, by density, in a cyclone. However, the micronized-magnetite cleaning technology differs from conventional systems in several ways: ! It utilizes significantly finer magnetite (about 5 to 10 micron mean particle size), as compared to normal mean particle sizes of 20 microns. ! It can effectively beneficiate coal particles down to 500M in size, as compared to the most advanced, existing conventional systems that are limited to a particle bottom size of about 28M - 100 M. ! Smaller diameter cyclones, 4 to 10 inches, are used to provide the higher G-force required to separate the finer feed coal. ! Cyclone feed pressures up to 10 times greater than those used in conventional cleaning systems are employed to enhance the separating forces.

  9. Fourier transform infrared and Raman spectroscopy studies on magnetite/Ag/antibiotic nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivashchenko, Olena; Jurga-Stopa, Justyna; Coy, Emerson; Peplinska, Barbara; Pietralik, Zuzanna; Jurga, Stefan

    2016-02-01

    This article presents a study on the detection of antibiotics in magnetite/Ag/antibiotic nanocomposites using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and Raman spectroscopy. Antibiotics with different spectra of antimicrobial activities, including rifampicin, doxycycline, cefotaxime, and ceftriaxone, were studied. Mechanical mixtures of antibiotics and magnetite/Ag nanocomposites, as well as antibiotics and magnetite nanopowder, were investigated in order to identify the origin of FTIR bands. FTIR spectroscopy was found to be an appropriate technique for this task. The spectra of the magnetite/Ag/antibiotic nanocomposites exhibited very weak (for doxycycline, cefotaxime, and ceftriaxone) or even no (for rifampicin) antibiotic bands. This FTIR "invisibility" of antibiotics is ascribed to their adsorbed state. FTIR and Raman measurements show altered Csbnd O, Cdbnd O, and Csbnd S bonds, indicating adsorption of the antibiotic molecules on the magnetite/Ag nanocomposite structure. In addition, a potential mechanism through which antibiotic molecules interact with magnetite/Ag nanoparticle surfaces is proposed.

  10. Force interactions between magnetite, silica, and bentonite studied with atomic force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobryden, I.; Potapova, E.; Holmgren, A.; Weber, H.; Hedlund, J.; Almqvist, N.

    2015-04-01

    Iron ore pellets consist of variety of mineral particles and are an important refined product used in steel manufacturing. Production of high-quality pellets requires good understanding of interactions between different constituents, such as magnetite, gangue residues, bentonite, and additives. Much research has been reported on magnetite, silica, and bentonite surface properties and their effect on pellet strength but more scant with a focus on a fundamental particle-particle interaction. To probe such particle interaction, atomic force microscopy (AFM) using colloidal probe technique has proven to be a suitable tool. In this work, the measurements were performed between magnetite-magnetite, bentonite-magnetite, silica-bentonite, and silica-magnetite particles in 1 mM CaCl2 solution at various pH values. The interaction character, i.e., repulsion or attraction, was determined by measuring and analyzing AFM force curves. The observed quantitative changes in interaction forces were in good agreement with the measured zeta-potentials for the particles at the same experimental conditions. Particle aggregation was studied by measuring the adhesion force. Absolute values of adhesion forces for different systems could not be compared due to the difference in particle size and contact geometry. Therefore, the relative change of adhesion force between pH 6 and 10 was used for comparison. The adhesion force decreased for the magnetite-magnetite and bentonite-silica systems and slightly increased for the magnetite-bentonite system at pH 10 as compared to pH 6, whereas a pronounced decrease in adhesion force was observed in the magnetite-silica system. Thus, the presence of silica particles on the magnetite surface could have a negative impact on the interaction between magnetite and bentonite in balling due to the reduction of the adhesion force.

  11. Experimental Shock Decomposition of Siderite and the Origin of Magnetite in Martian Meteorite ALH84001

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, Mary Sue

    2007-01-01

    Shock recovery experiments to determine whether magnetite could be produced by the decomposition of iron-carbonate were initiated. Naturally occurring siderite was first characterized by electron microprobe (EMP), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Mossbauer spectroscopy, and magnetic susceptibility measurements to be sure that the starting material did not contain detectable magnetite. Samples were shocked in tungsten-alloy holders (W=90%, Ni=6%, Cu=4%) to further insure that any iron phases in the shock products were contributed by the siderite rather than the sample holder. Each sample was shocked to a specific pressure between 30 to 49 GPa. Previously reported results of TEM analyses on 49 GPa experiments indicated the presence of nano-phase spinel-structured iron oxide. Transformation of siderite to magnetite as characterized by TEM was found in the 49 GPa shock experiment. Compositions of most magnetites are greater than 50% Fe sup(+2) in the octahedral site of the inverse spinel structure. Magnetites produced in shock experiments display the same range of single-domain, superparamagnetic sizes (approx. 50 100 nm), compositions (100% magnetite to 80% magnetite-20% magnesioferrite), and morphologies (equant, elongated, euhedral to subhedral) as magnetites synthesized by Golden et al. (2001) or magnetites grown naturally by MV1 magnetotactic bacteria, and as the magnetites in Martian meteorite ALH84001. Fritz et al. (2005) previously concluded that ALH84001 experienced approx. 32 GPa pressure and a resultant thermal pulse of approx. 100 - 110 C. However, ALH84001 contains evidence of local temperature excursions high enough to 1 melt feldspar, pyroxene, and a silica-rich phase. This 49 GPa experiment demonstrates that magnetite can be produced by the shock decomposition of siderite as a result of local heating to greater than 470 C. Therefore, magnetite in the rims of carbonates in Martian meteorite ALH84001 could be a product of shock devolatilization of siderite as well.

  12. Reaction of U-VI with titanium-substituted magnetite: Influence of Ti on U-IV speciation

    SciTech Connect

    Latta, Drew; Pearce, Carolyn I.; Rosso, Kevin M.; Kemner, Kenneth M.; Boyanov, Maxim I.

    2013-07-01

    Reduction of hexavalent uranium (UVI) to less soluble tetravalent uranium (UIV) through enzymatic or abiotic redox reactions has the potential to alter U mobility in subsurface environments. As a ubiquitous natural mineral, magnetite (Fe3O4) is of interest because of its ability to act as a rechargeable reductant for UVI. Natural magnetites are often impure with titanium, and structural Fe3+ replacement by TiIV yields a proportional increase in the relative Fe2+ content in the metal sublattice to maintain bulk charge neutrality. In the absence of oxidation, the Ti content sets the initial bulk Fe2+/Fe3+ ratio (R). Here, we demonstrate that Ti-doped magnetites (Fe3 xTixO4) reduce UVI to UIV. The UVI-Fe2+ redox reactivity was found to be controlled directly by R, but was otherwise independent of Ti content (xTi). However, in contrast to previous studies with pure magnetite where UVI was reduced to nanocrystalline uraninite (UO2), the presence of structural Ti (xTi = 0.25 0.53) results in the formation of UIV species that lack the bidentate U-O2-U bridges of uraninite. Extended x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopic analysis indicated that the titanomagnetite-bound UIV phase has a novel UIV-Ti binding geometry, different from the coordination of UIV in the mineral brannerite (UIVTi2O6). The observed UIV-Ti coordination at a distance of 3.43 Å suggests a binuclear corner-sharing adsorption/incorporation UIV complex with the solid phase. Furthermore, we explored the effect of oxidation (decreasing R) and solids-to-solution ratio on the reduced UIV phase. The formation of the non-uraninite UIV-Ti phase appears to be controlled by availability of surface Ti sites, rather than R. Our work highlights a previously unrecognized role of Ti in the environmental chemistry of UIV and suggests that further work to characterize the long-term stability of UIV phases formed in the presence of Ti is warranted.

  13. Discrimination of biogenic and detrital magnetite through a double Verwey transition temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Liao; Heslop, David; Roberts, Andrew P.; Rey, Daniel; Mohamed, Kais J.

    2016-01-01

    Magnetite occurs widely in natural environments in both inorganic and biogenic forms. Discrimination of the origin of magnetite has important implications, from searching for past microbial activity to interpreting paleomagnetic and environmental magnetic records in a wide range of settings. In this study, we present rock magnetic and electron microscopic analyses of marine sediments from the continental margin of Oman. Low-temperature magnetic data reveal two distinct Verwey transition (Tv) temperatures that are associated with the presence of biogenic and inorganic magnetite. This interpretation is consistent with room temperature magnetic properties and is confirmed by electron microscopic analyses. Our study justifies the use of two distinct Tv temperatures as a diagnostic signature for discriminating inorganic and biogenic magnetite. Simple low-temperature magnetic measurements, therefore, provide a tool to recognize rapidly the origin of magnetite within natural samples. In addition, our analyses reveal progressive down-core dissolution of detrital and biogenic magnetite, but with preservation of significant amounts of fine-grained magnetite within sediments that have been subjected to severe diagenetic alteration. We demonstrate that preservation of magnetite in such environments is due to protection of fine-grained magnetite inclusions within silicate hosts. Our results, therefore, also provide new insights into diagenetic processes in marine sediments.

  14. Soft X-ray Spectroscopy Study of the Electronic Structure of Oxidized and Partially Oxidized Magnetite Nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Gilbert, Benjamin; Katz, Jordan E.; Denlinger, Jonathan D.; Yin, Yadong; Falcone, Roger; Waychunas, Glenn A.

    2010-10-24

    The crystal structure of magnetite nanoparticles may be transformed to maghemite by complete oxidation, but under many relevant conditions the oxidation is partial, creating a mixed-valence material with structural and electronic properties that are poorly characterized. We used X-ray diffraction, Fe K-edge extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy, and soft X-ray absorption and emission spectroscopy to characterize the products of oxidizing uncoated and oleic acid-coated magnetite nanoparticles in air. The oxidization of uncoated magnetite nanoparticles creates a material that is structurally and electronically indistinguishable from maghemite. By contrast, while oxidized oleic acid-coated nanoparticles are also structurally indistinguishable from maghemite, Fe L-edge spectroscopy revealed the presence of interior reduced iron sites even after a 2-year period. We used X-ray emission spectroscopy at the O K-edge to study the valence bands (VB) of the iron oxide nanoparticles, using resonant excitation to remove the contributions from oxygen atoms in the ligands and from low-energy excitations that obscured the VB edge. The bonding in all nanoparticles was typical of maghemite, with no detectable VB states introduced by the long-lived, reduced-iron sites in the oleic acid-coated sample. However, O K-edge absorption spectroscopy observed a 0.2 eV shift in the position of the lowest unoccupied states in the coated sample, indicating an increase in the semiconductor band gap relative to bulk stoichiometric maghemite that was also observed by optical absorption spectroscopy. The results show that the ferrous iron sites within ferric iron oxide nanoparticles coated by an organic ligand can persist under ambient conditions with no evidence of a distinct interior phase and can exert an effect on the global electronic and optical properties of the material. This phenomenon resembles the band gap enlargement caused by electron accumulation in the conduction band of TiO2.

  15. Rotating Flow of Magnetite-Water Nanofluid over a Stretching Surface Inspired by Non-Linear Thermal Radiation.

    PubMed

    Mustafa, M; Mushtaq, A; Hayat, T; Alsaedi, A

    2016-01-01

    Present study explores the MHD three-dimensional rotating flow and heat transfer of ferrofluid induced by a radiative surface. The base fluid is considered as water with magnetite-Fe3O4 nanoparticles. Novel concept of non-linear radiative heat flux is considered which produces a non-linear energy equation in temperature field. Conventional transformations are employed to obtain the self-similar form of the governing differential system. The arising system involves an interesting temperature ratio parameter which is an indicator of small/large temperature differences in the flow. Numerical simulations with high precision are determined by well-known shooting approach. Both uniform stretching and rotation have significant impact on the solutions. The variation in velocity components with the nanoparticle volume fraction is non-monotonic. Local Nusselt number in Fe3O4-water ferrofluid is larger in comparison to the pure fluid even at low particle concentration. PMID:26894690

  16. Rotating Flow of Magnetite-Water Nanofluid over a Stretching Surface Inspired by Non-Linear Thermal Radiation

    PubMed Central

    Mustafa, M.; Mushtaq, A.; Hayat, T.; Alsaedi, A.

    2016-01-01

    Present study explores the MHD three-dimensional rotating flow and heat transfer of ferrofluid induced by a radiative surface. The base fluid is considered as water with magnetite-Fe3O4 nanoparticles. Novel concept of non-linear radiative heat flux is considered which produces a non-linear energy equation in temperature field. Conventional transformations are employed to obtain the self-similar form of the governing differential system. The arising system involves an interesting temperature ratio parameter which is an indicator of small/large temperature differences in the flow. Numerical simulations with high precision are determined by well-known shooting approach. Both uniform stretching and rotation have significant impact on the solutions. The variation in velocity components with the nanoparticle volume fraction is non-monotonic. Local Nusselt number in Fe3O4–water ferrofluid is larger in comparison to the pure fluid even at low particle concentration. PMID:26894690

  17. Role of the substrate on the magnetic anisotropy of magnetite thin films grown by ion-assisted deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prieto, Pilar; Prieto, José Emilio; Gargallo-Caballero, Raquel; Marco, José Francisco; de la Figuera, Juan

    2015-12-01

    Magnetite (Fe3O4) thin films were deposited on MgO (0 0 1), SrTiO3 (0 0 1), LaAlO3 (0 0 1) single crystal substrates as well on as silicon and amorphous glass in order to study the effect of the substrate on their magnetic properties, mainly the magnetic anisotropy. We have performed a structural, morphological and compositional characterization by X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy and Rutherford backscattering ion channeling in oxygen resonance mode. The magnetic anisotropy has been investigated by vectorial magneto-optical Kerr effect. The results indicate that the magnetic anisotropy is especially influenced by the substrate-induced microstructure. In-plane isotropy and uniaxial anisotropy behavior have been observed on silicon and glass substrates, respectively. The transition between both behaviors depends on grain size. For LaAlO3 substrates, in which the lattice mismatch between the Fe3O4 films and the substrate is significant, a weak in-plane fourfold magnetic anisotropy is induced. However when magnetite is deposited on MgO (0 0 1) and SrTiO3 (0 0 1) substrates, a well-defined fourfold in-plane magnetic anisotropy is observed with easy axes along [1 0 0] and [0 1 0] directions. The magnetic properties on these two latter substrates are similar in terms of magnetic anisotropy and coercive fields.

  18. Manipulating nanoparticles via polymer crystallization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Christopher; Dong, Bin; Li, Bing; Chen, Xi; Wang, Wenda

    2011-03-01

    Directed nanoparticle (NP) assembly is of great interest in order to achieve desired NP structures for various application purposes. In this presentation, we will present our recent results on employing polymer single crystals (PSC) to direct NP assembly. First, tailor-made, free-standing NP frames and wires containing single or multiple types of NPs have been obtained by using an in-situ polymer crystallization method. End functionalized poly(ethylene oxide) single crystals were used as the templates. Gold and magnetite NPs were successfully patterned as evidenced by transmission electron microscopy experiments. Secondly, carbon nanotube induced PSCs were used to guide AuNPs to assemble into periodic pattern with controlled periodicity. Thirdly, polymer nanofibers decorated with block copolymer single crystals were used as templates to induce the formation of hydroxyapatite (HA) nanocrystals and the resultant nanofiber/HA hybrids mimic the structure of natural bones.

  19. Negativity of random pure states

    SciTech Connect

    Datta, Animesh

    2010-05-15

    This paper deals with the entanglement, as quantified by the negativity, of pure quantum states chosen at random from the invariant Haar measure. We show that it is a constant (0.72037) multiple of the maximum possible entanglement. In line with the results based on the concentration of measure, we find evidence that the convergence to the final value is exponentially fast. We compare the analytically calculated mean and standard deviation with those calculated numerically for pure states generated via pseudorandom unitary matrices proposed by Emerson et al. [Science 302, 2098 (2003)]. Finally, we draw some conclusions about the geometry of quantum states based on our result.

  20. Magnetite nanoparticles for biosensor model based on bacteria fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poita, A.; Creanga, D.-E.; Airinei, A.; Tupu, P.; Goiceanu, C.; Avadanei, O.

    2009-06-01

    Fluorescence emission of pyoverdine - the siderophore synthesized by iron scavenger bacteria - was studied using in vitro cultures of Pseudomonas aeruginosa with the aim to design a biosensor system for liquid sample iron loading. Diluted suspensions of colloidal magnetite nanoparticles were supplied in the culture medium (10 microl/l and 100 microl/l) to simulate magnetic loading with iron oxides of either environmental waters or human body fluids. The electromagnetic exposure to radiofrequency waves of bacterial samples grown in the presence of magnetic nanoparticles was also carried out. Cell density diminution but fluorescence stimulation following 10 microl/l ferrofluid addition and simultaneous exposure to radiofrequency waves was evidenced. The inhibitory influence of 100 microl/l ferrofluid combined with RF exposure was evidenced by fluorescence data. Mathematical model was proposed to approach quantitatively the dynamics of cell density and fluorescence emission in relation with the consumption of magnetite nanoparticle supplied medium. The biosensor scheme was shaped based on the response to iron loading of bacterial sample fluorescence.

  1. Biomimetic Control of Magnetite Shape and Morphology using Polyaminoacids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altan, Cem Levent; Bucak, Seyda; Sommerdijk, Nico

    2012-02-01

    Inspired by nature, this work explores the use of randomly sequenced poly(aminoacids)s to control the size, morphology and magnetic properties of magnetite via synthetic methods in a controlled manner as in the case of magnetotactic bacteria. Aqueous partial oxidation and chemical precipitation methods are employed for the synthesis of 7 - 50 nm iron oxide nanoparticles at room temperature. X -- ray diffraction (XRD) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) revealed formation of iron oxide nanoparticles both in the presence and absence of poly(amino acids). In the presence of random poly(amino acid)s with different compositions consisting of E, K and A amino acids the mean particle size for the chemical precipitation method is decreased regardless of amino acid composition. For partial oxidation method, mean particle size is also decreased and nanoparticle strings are observed while synthesized in the presence of poly(aspartic acid). Magnetic properties of particles obtained via different routes are also investigated. This provides a bio-inspired route for control over size, morphology and magnetic properties of magnetite nanoparticles.

  2. Phase separation in the nonequilibrium Verwey transition in magnetite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Randi, F.; Vergara, I.; Novelli, F.; Esposito, M.; Dell'Angela, M.; Brabers, V. A. M.; Metcalf, P.; Kukreja, R.; Dürr, H. A.; Fausti, D.; Grüninger, M.; Parmigiani, F.

    2016-02-01

    We present equilibrium and out-of-equilibrium studies of the Verwey transition in magnetite. In the equilibrium optical conductivity, we find a steplike change at the phase transition for photon energies below about 2 eV. The possibility of triggering a nonequilibrium transient metallic state in insulating magnetite by photo excitation was recently demonstrated by an x-ray study. Here we report a full characterization of the optical properties in the visible frequency range across the nonequilibrium phase transition. Our analysis of the spectral features is based on a detailed description of the equilibrium properties. The out-of-equilibrium optical data bear the initial electronic response associated to localized photoexcitation, the occurrence of phase separation, and the transition to a transient metallic phase for excitation density larger than a critical value. This allows us to identify the electronic nature of the transient state, to unveil the phase transition dynamics, and to study the consequences of phase separation on the reflectivity, suggesting a spectroscopic feature that may be generally linked to out-of-equilibrium phase separation.

  3. Synthesis and characterization of magnetite nanoparticles coated with lauric acid

    SciTech Connect

    Mamani, J.B.; Costa-Filho, A.J.; Cornejo, D.R.; Vieira, E.D.; Gamarra, L.F.

    2013-07-15

    Understanding the process of synthesis of magnetic nanoparticles is important for its implementation in in vitro and in vivo studies. In this work we report the synthesis of magnetic nanoparticles made from ferrous oxide through coprecipitation chemical process. The nanostructured material was coated with lauric acid and dispersed in aqueous medium containing surfactant that yielded a stable colloidal suspension. The characterization of magnetic nanoparticles with distinct physico-chemical configurations is fundamental for biomedical applications. Therefore magnetic nanoparticles were characterized in terms of their morphology by means of TEM and DLS, which showed a polydispersed set of spherical nanoparticles (average diameter of ca. 9 nm) as a result of the protocol. The structural properties were characterized by using X-ray diffraction (XRD). XRD pattern showed the presence of peaks corresponding to the spinel phase of magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}). The relaxivities r{sub 2} and r{sub 2}* values were determined from the transverse relaxation times T{sub 2} and T{sub 2}* at 3 T. Magnetic characterization was performed using SQUID and FMR, which evidenced the superparamagnetic properties of the nanoparticles. Thermal characterization using DSC showed exothermic events associated with the oxidation of magnetite to maghemite. - Highlights: • Synthesis of magnetic nanoparticles coated with lauric acid • Characterization of magnetic nanoparticles • Morphological, structural, magnetic, calorimetric and relaxometric characterization.

  4. Speed limit of the insulator-metal transition in magnetite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Jong, S.; Kukreja, R.; Trabant, C.; Pontius, N.; Chang, C. F.; Kachel, T.; Beye, M.; Sorgenfrei, F.; Back, C. H.; Bruer, B.; Schlotter, W. F.; Turner, J. J.; Krupin, O.; Doehler, M.; Zhu, D.; Hossain, M. A.; Scherz, A. O.; Fausti, D.; Novelli, F.; Esposito, M.; Lee, W. S.; Chuang, Y. D.; Lu, D. H.; Moore, R. G.; Yi, M.; Trigo, M.; Kirchmann, P.; Pathey, L.; Golden, M. S.; Buchholz, M.; Metcalf, P.; Parmigiani, F.; Wurth, W.; Fhlisch, A.; Schler-Langeheine, C.; Drr, H. A.

    2013-10-01

    As the oldest known magnetic material, magnetite (Fe3O4) has fascinated mankind for millennia. As the first oxide in which a relationship between electrical conductivity and fluctuating/localized electronic order was shown, magnetite represents a model system for understanding correlated oxides in general. Nevertheless, the exact mechanism of the insulator-metal, or Verwey, transition has long remained inaccessible. Recently, three-Fe-site lattice distortions called trimerons were identified as the characteristic building blocks of the low-temperature insulating electronically ordered phase. Here we investigate the Verwey transition with pump-probe X-ray diffraction and optical reflectivity techniques, and show how trimerons become mobile across the insulator-metal transition. We find this to be a two-step process. After an initial 300?fs destruction of individual trimerons, phase separation occurs on a 1.50.2?ps timescale to yield residual insulating and metallic regions. This work establishes the speed limit for switching in future oxide electronics.

  5. Low temperature oxidation mechanisms of nanocrystalline magnetite thin film

    SciTech Connect

    Bourgeois, F.; Gergaud, P.; Feuillet, G.; Renevier, H.; Leclere, C.

    2013-01-07

    A detailed investigation of the mechanisms related to the low temperature oxidation of nanocrystalline magnetite thin films into maghemite is presented. Despite strong differences in the functional properties of these two phases, structural similarities make it difficult to distinguish between them, and to quantify the oxidation process, particularly in the case of nanostructured polycrystalline layers. Contrary to the case of bulk materials or monocrystalline films and particles, the oxidation processes in nanocrystalline thin film have only scarcely been studied. In this work, structural and optical techniques, including X-ray diffraction (XRD), EXAFS/X-ray absorption near edge structure, FTIR, and Raman scattering, have been used to estimate the oxidation rate of magnetite. The overall oxidation reaction rates are discussed in the framework of two limiting cases corresponding to intra grain diffusion and to grain boundary diffusion. SIMS profiling and electrical measurements were also carried out to better assess the oxidation quantification in order to conclude on the predominant oxidation mechanisms in this heterogeneous material. We propose a qualitative model for the structure, in terms of insulating zone distribution, for partially oxidized films.

  6. Moessbauer Characterization of Magnetite/Polyaniline Magnetic Nanocomposite

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez, Anselmo F. R.; Faria, Fernando S. E. D. V.; Lopez, Jorge L.; Mesquita, Antonio G. G.; Coaquira, Jose A. H.; Oliveira, Aderbal C.; Morais, Paulo C.; Azevedo, Ricardo B.; Araujo, Ana C. V. de; Alves, Severino Jr.; Azevedo, Walter M. de

    2010-12-02

    Aniline surface coated Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles have been successfully synthesized by UV irradiation varying the time and the acid media (HCl, HNO{sub 3}, or H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}). The synthesized material represents a promising platform for application in nerve regeneration. XRD patterns are consistent with the crystalline structure of magnetite. Nevertheless, for UV irradiation times longer than 2 h, extra XRD lines reveal the presence of goethite. The mean crystallite size of uncoated particles is estimated to be 25.4 nm, meanwhile that size is reduced to 19.9 nm for the UV irradiated sample in HCl medium for 4 h. Moessbauer spectra of uncoated nanoparticles reveal the occurrence of thermal relaxation at room temperature, while the 77 K-Moessbauer spectrum suggests the occurrence of electron localization effects similar to that expected in bulk magnetite. The Mossbauer spectra of UV irradiated sample in HCl medium during 4 h, confirms the presence of the goethite phase. For this sample, the thermal relaxation is more evident, since the room temperature spectrum shows larger spectral area for the nonmagnetic component due to the smaller crystallite size. Meanwhile, the 77 K-Moessbauer spectrum suggests the absence of the electron localization effect above 77 K.

  7. Magnetic Core-Shell Morphology of Structurally Uniform Magnetite Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krycka, Kathryn

    2011-03-01

    Magnetic nanoscale structures are intriguing, in part, because of the exotic properties that emerge compared with bulk. The reduction of magnetic moment per atom in magnetite with decreasing nanoparticle size, for example, has been hypothesized to originate from surface disordering to anisotropy-induced radial canting, which are difficult to distinguish using conventional magnetometry. Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) is ideal for probing structure, both chemical and magnetic, from nm to microns across an ensemble of particles. Adding polarization analysis (PASANS) of the neutron spin orientation before and after interaction with the scattering particles allows the magnetic structure to be separated into its vector components. Application of this novel technique to 9 nm magnetite nanoparticles closed-packed into face-centered crystallites with order of a micron revealed that at nominal saturation the missing magnetic moments unexpectedly interacted to form well-ordered shells 1.0 to 1.5 nm thick canted perpendicular to their ferrimagnetic cores between 160 to 320 K. These shells additionally displayed intra-particle ``cross-talk'', selecting a common orientation over clusters of tens of nanoparticles. However, the shells disappeared when the external field was removed and interparticle magnetic interactions were negligible (300 K), confirming their magnetic origin. This work has been carried out in collaboration with Ryan Booth, Julie Borchers, Wangchun Chen, Liv Dedon, Thomas Gentile, Charles Hogg, Yumi Ijiri, Mark Laver, Sara Majetich, James Rhyne, and Shannon Watson.

  8. Trace-element fingerprints of chromite, magnetite and sulfides from the 3.1 Ga ultramafic-mafic rocks of the Nuggihalli greenstone belt, Western Dharwar craton (India)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, Ria; Mondal, Sisir K.; González-Jiménez, José M.; Griffin, William L.; Pearson, Norman J.; O'Reilly, Suzanne Y.

    2015-06-01

    The 3.1 Ga Nuggihalli greenstone belt in the Western Dharwar craton is comprised of chromitite-bearing sill-like ultramafic-mafic rocks that are surrounded by metavolcanic schists (compositionally komatiitic to komatiitic basalts) and a suite of tonalite-trondhjemite-granodiorite gneissic rocks. The sill-like plutonic unit consists of a succession of serpentinite (after dunite)-peridotite-pyroxenite and gabbro with bands of titaniferous magnetite ore. The chromitite ore-bodies (length ≈30-500 m; width ≈2-15 m) are hosted by the serpentinite-peridotite unit. Unaltered chromites from massive chromitites (>80 % modal chromite) of the Byrapur and Bhaktarhalli chromite mines in the greenstone belt are characterized by high Cr# (100Cr/(Cr + Al)) of 78-86 and moderate Mg# (100 Mg/(Mg + Fe2+)) of 45-55. In situ trace-element analysis (LA-ICPMS) of unaltered chromites indicates that the parental magma of the chromitite ore-bodies was a komatiite lacking nickel-sulfide mineralization. In the Ga/Fe3+# versus Ti/Fe3+# diagram, the Byrapur chromites plot in the field of suprasubduction zone (SSZ) chromites while those from Bhaktarhalli lie in the MOR field. The above results corroborate our previous results based on major-element characteristics of the chromites, where the calculated parental melt of the Byrapur chromites was komatiitic to komatiitic basalt, and the Bhaktarhalli chromite was derived from Archean high-Mg basalt. The major-element chromite data hinted at the possibility of a SSZ environment existing in the Archean. Altered and compositionally zoned chromite grains in our study show a decrease in Ga, V, Co, Zn, Mn and enrichments of Ni and Ti in the ferritchromit rims. Trace-element heterogeneity in the altered chromites is attributed to serpentinization. The trace-element patterns of magnetite from the massive magnetite bands in the greenstone belt are similar to those from magmatic Fe-Ti-V-rich magnetite bands in layered intrusions, and magnetites from andesitic melts, suggesting that magnetite crystallized from an evolved gabbroic melt. Enrichments of Ni, Co, Te, As and Bi in disseminated millerite and niccolite occurring within chromitites, and in disseminated bravoite within magnetites, reflect element mobility during serpentinization. Monosulfide solid solution inclusions within pyroxenes (altered to actinolite) in pyroxenite, and interstitial pyrites and chalcopyrites in magnetite, retain primary characteristics except for Fe-enrichment in chalcopyrite, probably due to sub-solidus re-equilibration with magnetite. Disseminated sulfides are depleted in platinum-group elements (PGE) due to late sulfide saturation and the PGE-depleted nature of the mantle source of the sill-like ultramafic-mafic plutonic rocks in the Nuggihalli greenstone belt.

  9. Dislocations in magnetite: Experimental observations of their structural, magnetic, and low-temperature effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindquist, Anna K.

    Magnetite (Fe3O4) is the most important mineral to the rock magnetic and paleomagnetic communities and is ubiquitous in igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic rocks. Larger multidomain (MD) magnetite grains are more common than single domain grains, so understanding how they record paleomagnetic fields would be a boon to paleomagnetists. MD magnetite grains are divided into multiple domains, regions with uniform magnetization, separated by domain walls. Domain walls sweep through magnetite grains easily, so slight changes in ambient magnetic fields can alter the magnetization of MD magnetite. Because of this, MD magnetite is not considered reliable for paleomagnetic studies, and the mechanisms by which MD grains may record past magnetic fields are not well understood. Dislocations, linear crystallographic defects, may increase magnetic coercivity by pinning domain walls in place. This study, for the first time, experimentally investigates this pinning behavior by using a transmission electron microscope (TEM) to simultaneously image magnetic domain walls, dislocations, and low-temperature twin structures. Magnetite grains were deformed in the dislocation glide regime, which is active in natural magnetite grains. Dislocations were not uniformly distributed throughout the sample, but regions with more and longer dislocations pinned domain walls more strongly. First-order reversal curve diagrams demonstrate the presence of regions with pinning strengths of over 125 mT. The strength of domain wall pinning at dislocations was found experimentally and theoretically to be proportional to dislocation length, with longer dislocations pinning more strongly. Average pinning fields were around 0.2 mT. Magnetite grains with more uniformly distributed dislocations would likely have coercivities that were high enough to enable MD magnetite to record geomagnetic fields over geologic timescales. Further, low-temperature TEM and magnetic studies demonstrated that dislocations can affect twin growth in magnetite below the Verwey transition. Deformed magnetite samples had more soft-shouldered Verwey transitions and were able to retain more remanence after low-temperature demagnetization (LTD). Therefore, MD magnetite grains may be able to retain relevant magnetizations, even after LTD. Dislocation length, density, and distribution are then all important considerations when investigating the ways in which MD magnetite may retain a stable record of paleomagnetic field characteristics, even after LTD.

  10. Canonical phase measurement is pure

    SciTech Connect

    Heinosaari, Teiko; Pellonpaeae, Juha-Pekka

    2009-10-15

    We show that the canonical phase measurement is pure in the sense that the corresponding positive operator valued measure (POVM) is extremal in the convex set of all POVMs. This means that the canonical phase measurement cannot be interpreted as a noisy measurement even if it is not a projection valued measure.

  11. Production of substantially pure fructose

    DOEpatents

    Hatcher, Herbert J.; Gallian, John J.; Leeper, Stephen A.

    1990-01-01

    A process is disclosed for the production of substantially pure fructose from sucrose-containing substrates. The process comprises converting the sucrose to levan and glucose, purifying the levan by membrane technology, hydrolyzing the levan to form fructose monomers, and recovering the fructose.

  12. Magnetite and Silicate Spherules from the GISP2 Core at the 536 A.D. Horizon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbott, D. H.; Biscaye, P.; Cole-Dai, J.; Breger, D.

    2008-12-01

    We examined the solid fraction of melt water from a depth of 361.45-361.55 meters in the GISP2 ice core. This subbottom depth covers the time from 536.15 to 536.66 A.D. roughly from February 24th to August 28th, 536 A.D.[1,2]. Earlier work measured a Cl value of 64 ppb from 535.9 to 536.2 A.D. roughly from November 24th, 535 A.D. to March 14th, 536 A.D. [3]. This is the highest nonvolcanic Cl value in the last 2000 years. The Cl value of 48 ppb from 536.2 to 536.5 A.D. or roughly from March 14th to July 1st, 536 A.D. is the third highest nonvolcanic Cl value in the last 2000 years. These high Cl values are at the same time as the beginning of an 18-month long period starting in March of 536 A.D. when ' the sun gave no more light than the moon' [4]. Because there is no evidence for a volcanic eruption during this 18-month time period, some authors have proposed a cosmogenic origin for the dust veil [5]. Our data supports the latter hypothesis. We have found 5 perfectly round, smooth spherules at the depth corresponding to early 536 A.D. Three of the spherules are pure iron oxide. They range in size from 0.3 to 1.3 micrometers in diameter. One spherule is mixed silicate plus iron oxide, with a diameter of 0.5 micrometers. One spherule is Na-K aluminum silicate, with a diameter of 2.6 micrometers. The spherules occur in association with crystals of titanium oxide and zircon, and partially crystalline Ca-Na feldspar. Associated K-Na feldspar and quartz grains have sharp edges. The largest grains in the sample are translucent C-O spheroids of volatile material that is sensitive to the electron beam. The translucent C-O spheroids often contain small amounts (0.2 to 2 percent) of Na and Cl. We also found some calcium carbonate precipitate. We interpret the perfectly round FeO and silicate spherules as impact spherules. The associated crystalline and sharp edged grains are also impact ejecta. The mixed chemistry of the spherules and the lack of Ni are inconsistent with their origin as ablation products from meteorites (i.e. cosmic spherules). Instead they must have originated from a terrestrial impact event. We have found an impact ejecta layer in the Gulf of Carpentaria, Australia that contains abundant magnetite spherules with quench textures and ablated surfaces. Using existing carbon-14 ages, the spherule horizon is from an impact that occurred prior to 900 A.D. and after 70 A.D [6]. The most likely source craters in the Gulf formed from an impactor that was about 640 meters in diameter, in line with the 600-meter estimate of [5] for the diameter of the impactor needed to produce the dust veil event of 536-537 A.D. Because the age and impactor size are both a good match within the errors of our data, the Carpentaria impact event is our best candidate for the source of the impact spherules in the GISP2 ice core. However, much more work remains before we can be certain that the impact into the Gulf of Carpentaria was the source of the dust veil event that began in March of 536 A.D. [1]. Meese et al., 1994. Science, 266:1680-1682. [2]. Sowers et al., 1993. Paleoceanography 8:737-766. [3]. Mayewski et al., 1997. J. Geophys. Res., 102:26345-26366. [4]. Stothers, 1984. Nature 307:344-345. [5] Rigby et al., 2004. Astron. Geophys. 45:1.23-1.26. [6] Abbott et al., submitted, Geophys. Res. Lett.

  13. Spontaneous Symmetry-Breaking Vortex Lattice Transitions in Pure Niobium

    SciTech Connect

    Laver, M.; Forgan, E.M.; Brown, S.P.; Bowell, C.; Ramos, S.; Lycett, R.J.; Charalambous, D.; Fort, D.; Christen, D.K.; Kohlbrecher, J.; Dewhurst, C.D.; Cubitt, R.

    2006-04-28

    We report an extensive investigation of magnetic vortex lattice (VL) structures in single crystals of pure niobium with the magnetic field applied parallel to a fourfold symmetry axis, so as to induce frustration between the cubic crystal symmetry and hexagonal VL coordination expected in an isotropic situation. We observe new VL structures and phase transitions; all the VL phases observed (including those with an exactly square unit cell) spontaneously break some crystal symmetry. One phase even has the lowest possible symmetry of a two-dimensional Bravais lattice. This is quite unlike the situation in high-T{sub c} or borocarbide superconductors, where VL structures orient along particular directions of high crystal symmetry. The causes of this behavior are discussed.

  14. Synthesis of magnetite nanoparticles for bio- and nanotechnology: genetic engineering and biomimetics of bacterial magnetosomes.

    PubMed

    Lang, Claus; Schler, Dirk; Faivre, Damien

    2007-02-12

    Magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) have the ability to navigate along the Earth's magnetic field. This so-called magnetotaxis is a result of the presence of magnetosomes, organelles which comprise nanometer-sized intracellular crystals of magnetite (Fe(3)O(4)) enveloped by a membrane. Because of their unique characteristics, magnetosomes have a high potential for nano- and biotechnological applications, which require a specifically designed particle surface. The functionalization of magnetosomes is possible either by chemical modification of purified particles or by genetic engineering of magnetosome membrane proteins. The second approach is potentially superior to chemical approaches as a large variety of biological functions such as protein tags, fluorophores, and enzymes may be directly incorporated in a site-specific manner during magnetosome biomineralization. An alternative to the bacterial production of magnetosomes are biomimetic approaches, which aim to mimic the bacterial biomineralization pathway in vitro. In MTB a number of magnetosome proteins with putative functions in the biomineralization of the nanoparticles have been identified by genetic and biochemical approaches. The initial results obtained by several groups indicate that some of these proteins have an impact on nanomagnetite properties in vitro. In this article the key features of magnetosomes are discussed, an overview of their potential applications are given, and different strategies are proposed for the functionalization of magnetosome particles and for the biomimetism of their biomineralization pathway. PMID:17295401

  15. Synthesis of magnetite particles by pulsed alexandrite laser processing of metallic glass precursors

    SciTech Connect

    Sorescu, M.; Schafer, S.A.; Knobbe, E.T.

    1996-12-31

    Samples of Fe{sub 78}B{sub 13}Si{sub 9} and Fe{sub 81}B{sub 13.5}Si{sub 3.5}C{sub 2} metallic glasses were irradiated with a pulsed alexandrite laser ({lambda} = 750 nm, {tau} = 60 {micro}s) using different laser fluences. Kinetics of laser-induced phase transformations and fluence dependence of magnetic properties were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Moessbauer spectroscopy. Low laser fluences were found to induce changes in magnetic texture and onset of crystallization. High laser fluences, however, correlated with additional oxidation effects and the formation of stoichiometric Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} particles in the irradiated alloy system. An activation energy of 11.9 eV was estimated for the laser-driven synthesis of magnetite nanoparticles. Pulsed alexandrite laser processing is an intriguing alternative technique for the controlled synthesis of iron oxide phases from ferromagnetic glass precursors.

  16. Cell-surface interactions involving immobilized magnetite nanoparticles on flat magnetic substrates.

    PubMed

    Loichen, Juliane; Hartmann, Uwe

    2009-09-01

    A new method to affect cells by cell-surface interaction is introduced. Biocompatible magnetic nanobeads are deposited onto a biocompatible magnetic thin layer. The particles are composed of small magnetite crystals embedded in a matrix which can be functionalized by different molecules, proteins or growth factors. The magnetic interaction between surface and beads prevents endocytosis if the setup is utilized for cell culturing. The force acting between particles and magnetic layer is calculated by a magnetostatic approach. Biocompatibility is ensured by using garnet layers which turned out to be nontoxic and stable under culturing conditions. The garnet thin films exhibit spatially and temporally variable magnetic domain configurations in changing external magnetic fields and depending on their thermal pretreatment. Several patterns and bead deposition methods as well as the cell-surface interactions were analyzed. In some cases the cells show directed growth. Theoretical considerations explaining particular cell behavior on this magnetic material involve calculations of cell growth on elastic substrates and bending of cell membranes. PMID:19488746

  17. Carbon nanotubes/magnetite hybrids prepared by a facile synthesis process and their magnetic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Li; Ni, Qing-Qing; Natsuki, Toshiaki; Fu, Yaqin

    2009-07-01

    In this paper, a facile synthesis process is proposed to prepare multiwalled carbon nanotubes/magnetite (MWCNTs/Fe 3O 4) hybrids. The process involves two steps: (1) water-soluble CNTs are synthesized by one-pot modification using potassium persulfate (KPS) as oxidant. (2) Fe 3O 4 is assembled along the treated CNTs by employing a facile hydrothermal process with the presence of hydrazine hydrate as the mineralizer. The treated CNTs can be easily dispersed in aqueous solvent. Moreover, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis reveals that several functional groups such as potassium carboxylate (-COOK), carbonyl (-C dbnd O) and hydroxyl (-C-OH) groups are formed on the nanotube surfaces. The MWCNTs/Fe 3O 4 hybrids are characterized with respect to crystal structure, morphology, element composition and magnetic property by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), XPS and superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometer. XRD and TEM results show that the Fe 3O 4 nanoparticles with diameter in the range of 20-60 nm were firmly assembled on the nanotube surface. The magnetic property investigation indicated that the CNTs/Fe 3O 4 hybrids exhibit a ferromagnetic behavior and possess a saturation magnetization of 32.2 emu/g. Further investigation indicates that the size of assembled Fe 3O 4 nanoparticles can be turned by varying experiment factors. Moreover, a probable growth mechanism for the preparation of CNTs/Fe 3O 4 hybrids was discussed.

  18. Synthesis and investigating the magnetic properties of magnetite nanocrystallites for drug delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ansar, Muhammad Zaka; Atiq, Shahid; Riaz, Saira; Naseem, Shahzad; Ramay, Shahid M.; Mahmood, Asif

    2015-07-01

    In recent years, use of magnetic nanoparticles in biomedical applications has increased tremendously. In particular, magnetite (Fe3O4) nanoparticles being highly biocompatible are rated very high due to their potential applications in biomedicines, for instance in anticancer drug delivery. In this work, the Fe3O4 nanoparticles have been synthesized using a novel sol-gel based autocombustion technique. The crystal structure of the Fe3O4 phase was confirmed by the data obtained from X-ray diffraction. Scherrer’s formula was employed to estimate the crystallite size of the Fe3O4 nanoparticles. The structural morphology, investigated by using a scanning electron microscopy (SEM), revealed well-dispersed and uniform sized grains in the sample prepared using enhanced fuel concentration. A vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) was employed to investigate the magnetic characteristics of the samples which confirmed the superparamagnetic nature of the Fe3O4 samples, essentially required for cancer treatment. These nanoparticles could further be modified and functionalized by suitable polymers to achieve better biocompatibility before being injected into the diseased cells.

  19. Electrical Characteristics of Mesoporous Pure-Silica-Zeolite Film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Toshiki; Yoshino, Takenobu; Cho, Yoshinori; Hata, Nobuhiro; Kikkawa, Takamaro

    2007-09-01

    The dependence of the electrical characteristics of hydrothermally crystallized pure-silica-zeolite films on the water concentration in the precursor was investigated. Zeolite was crystallized in a silica-zeolite composite film after spin-coating the precursor, which was composed of tetraethylorthosilicate, tetrabutylammonium hydroxide, ethylalcohol, and deionized (DI) water, followed by calcinations at 400 °C. The results of Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy indicated that the number of Si-OH and O-H bonds decreased with an increase in the water concentration in the precursor. The dielectric constant of the film decreased with an increase in water concentration, while the leakage current increased.

  20. Modelling parametric down-conversion yielding spectrally pure photon pairs.

    PubMed

    Laudenbach, Fabian; Hbel, Hannes; Hentschel, Michael; Walther, Philip; Poppe, Andreas

    2016-02-01

    Pair creation by spontaneous parametric down-conversion (SPDC) has become a reliable source for single-photon states, used in many kinds of quantum information experiments and applications. In order to be spectrally pure, the two photons within a generated pair should be as frequency-uncorrelated as possible. For this purpose most experiments use narrow bandpass filters, having to put up with a drastic decrease in count rates. This article elaborates (theoretically and by numerical evaluation) the alternative method to engineer a setup such that the SPDC-generated quantum states are intrinsically pure. Using pulsed pump lasers and periodically poled crystals this approach makes bandpass filtering obsolete and allows for significantly higher output intensities and therefore count rates in the detectors. After numerically scanning all common wavelength regimes, polarisation configurations and three different non-linear crystals, we present a broad variety of setups which allow for an implementation of this method. PMID:26906842

  1. Identification of Simultaneous U(VI) Sorption Complexes and U(IV) Nanoprecipitates on the Magnetite (111) Surface

    SciTech Connect

    Singer, David M.; Chatman, Shawn M.; Ilton, Eugene S.; Rosso, Kevin M.; Banfield, Jillian F.; Waychunas, Glenn A.

    2012-05-10

    Sequestration of uranium (U) by magnetite is a potentially important sink for U in natural and contaminated environments. However, molecular-scale controls that favor U(VI) uptake including both adsorption of U(VI) and reduction to U(IV) by magnetite remain poorly understood, in particular, the role of U(VI)-CO{sub 3}-Ca complexes in inhibiting U(VI) reduction. To investigate U uptake pathways on magnetite as a function of U(VI) aqueous speciation, we performed batch sorption experiments on (111) surfaces of natural single crystals under a range of solution conditions (pH 5 and 10; 0.1 mM U(VI); 1 mM NaNO{sub 3}; and with or without 0.5 mM CO{sub 3} and 0.1 mM Ca) and characterized surface-associated U using grazing incidence extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (GI-EXAFS), grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GI-XRD), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). In the absence of both carbonate ([CO{sub 3}]T, denoted here as CO{sub 3}) and calcium (Ca), or in the presence of CO{sub 3} only, coexisting adsorption of U(VI) surface species and reduction to U(IV) occurs at both pH 5 and 10. In the presence of both Ca and CO{sub 3}, only U(VI) adsorption (VI) occurs. When U reduction occurs, nanoparticulate UO{sub 2} forms only within and adjacent to surface microtopographic features such as crystal boundaries and cracks. This result suggests that U reduction is limited to defect-rich surface regions. Further, at both pH 5 and 10 in the presence of both CO{sub 3} and Ca, U(VI)-CO{sub 3}-Ca ternary surface species develop and U reduction is inhibited. These findings extend the range of conditions under which U(VI)-CO{sub 3}-Ca complexes inhibit U reduction.

  2. Crystal structures of carbonates up to Mbar pressures determined by single crystal synchrotron radiation diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merlini, M.

    2013-12-01

    The recent improvements at synchrotron beamlines, currently allow single crystal diffraction experiments at extreme pressures and temperatures [1,2] on very small single crystal domains. We successfully applied such technique to determine the crystal structure adopted by carbonates at mantle pressures. The knowledge of carbon-bearing phases is in fact fundamental for any quantitative modelling of global carbon cycle. The major technical difficulty arises after first order transitions or decomposition reactions, since original crystal (apx. 10x10x5 ?m3) is transformed in much smaller crystalline domains often with random orientation. The use of 3D reciprocal space visualization software and the improved resolution of new generation flat panel detectors, however, allow both identification and integration of each single crystal domain, with suitable accuracy for ab-initio structure solution, performed with direct and charge-flipping methods and successive structure refinements. The results obtained on carbonates, indicate two major crystal-chemistry trends established at high pressures. The CO32- units, planar and parallel in ambient pressure calcite and dolomite structures, becomes non parallel in calcite- and dolomite-II and III phases, allowing more flexibility in the structures with possibility to accommodate strain arising from different cation sizes (Ca and Mg in particular). Dolomite-III is therefore also observed to be thermodynamically stable at lower mantle pressures and temperatures, differently from dolomite, which undergoes decomposition into pure end-members in upper mantle. At higher pressure, towards Mbar (lowermost mantle and D'' region) in agreement with theoretical calculations [3,4] and other experimental results [5], carbon coordination transform into 4-fold CO4 units, with different polymerisation in the structure depending on carbonate composition. The second important crystal chemistry feature detected is related to Fe2+ in Fe-bearing magnesite, which spontaneously oxidises at HP/HT, forming Fe3+ carbonates, Fe3+ oxides and reduced carbon (diamonds). Single crystal diffraction approach allowed full structure determination of these phases, yielding to the discovery of few unpredicted structures, such as Mg2Fe2C4O13 and Fe13O19, which can be well reproduced in different experiments. Mg2Fe2C4O13 carbonate present truncated chain C4O13 groups, and Fe13O19 oxide, whose stoichiometry is intermediate between magnetite and hematite, is a one-layer structure, with features encountered in superconducting materials. The results fully support the ideas of unexpected complexities in the mineralogy of the lowermost mantle, and single crystal technique, once properly optimized in ad-hoc synchrotron beamlines, is fundamental for extracting accurate structural information, otherwise rarely accessible with other experimental techniques. References: [1] Merlini M., Hanfland M. (2013). Single crystal diffraction at Mbar conditions by synchrotron radiation. High Pressure Research, in press. [2] Dubrovinsky et al., (2010). High Pressure Research, 30, 620-633. [3] Arapan et al. (1997). Phys. Rev. Lett., 98, 268501. [4] Oganov et al. (2008) EPSL, 273, 38-47. [5] Boulard et al. (2011) PNAS, 108, 5184-5187.

  3. Pure H⁻ conduction in oxyhydrides.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Genki; Hinuma, Yoyo; Matsuoka, Shinji; Watanabe, Akihiro; Iqbal, Muhammad; Hirayama, Masaaki; Yonemura, Masao; Kamiyama, Takashi; Tanaka, Isao; Kanno, Ryoji

    2016-03-18

    A variety of proton (H(+))-conducting oxides are known, including those used in electrochemical devices such as fuel cells. In contrast, pure H(-) conduction, not mixed with electron conduction, has not been demonstrated for oxide-based materials. Considering that hydride ions have an ionic size appropriate for fast transport and also a strong reducing ability suitable for high-energy storage and conversion devices, we prepared a series of K2NiF4-type oxyhydrides, La(2-x-y)Sr(x + y)LiH(1-x + y)O(3-y), in the hope of observing such H(-) conductors. The performance of an all-solid-state TiH2/o-La2LiHO3 (x = y = 0, o: orthorhombic)/Ti cell provided conclusive evidence of pure H(-) conduction. PMID:26989251

  4. Hydrocolloid-Stabilized Magnetite for Efficient Removal of Radioactive Phosphates

    PubMed Central

    Vellora Thekkae Padil, Vinod; Rouha, Michael; Černík, Miroslav

    2014-01-01

    Liquid radioactive waste is a common by-product when using radioactive isotopes in research and medicine. Efficient remediation of such liquid waste is crucial for increasing safety during the necessary storage of the material. Herein, we present a novel Gum Karaya stabilized magnetite for the efficient removal of radioactive phosphorus 32P from liquid radioactive waste. This environmentally friendly material is well suited to be used as a nanohydrogel for the removal of liquid waste, which can then be stored in a smaller space and without the risk of the spills inherent to the initial liquid material. The maximum adsorption capacity of the GK/M in this study was found to be 15.68 GBq/g. We present a thorough morphological characterization of the synthesised GK/M, as well as a discussion of the possible phosphorus adsorption mechanisms. PMID:24696854

  5. Self-assembly of magnetite nanocubes into helical superstructures.

    PubMed

    Singh, Gurvinder; Chan, Henry; Baskin, Artem; Gelman, Elijah; Repnin, Nikita; Král, Petr; Klajn, Rafal

    2014-09-01

    Organizing inorganic nanocrystals into complex architectures is challenging and typically relies on preexisting templates, such as properly folded DNA or polypeptide chains. We found that under carefully controlled conditions, cubic nanocrystals of magnetite self-assemble into arrays of helical superstructures in a template-free manner with >99% yield. Computer simulations revealed that the formation of helices is determined by the interplay of van der Waals and magnetic dipole-dipole interactions, Zeeman coupling, and entropic forces and can be attributed to spontaneous formation of chiral nanocube clusters. Neighboring helices within their densely packed ensembles tended to adopt the same handedness in order to maximize packing, thus revealing a novel mechanism of symmetry breaking and chirality amplification. PMID:25061133

  6. Brownian rotational relaxation and power absorption in magnetite nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goya, G. F.; Fernandez-Pacheco, R.; Arruebo, M.; Cassinelli, N.; Ibarra, M. R.

    2007-09-01

    We present a study of the power absorption efficiency in several magnetite-based colloids, to asses their potential as magnetic inductive hyperthermia (MIH) agents. Relaxation times ? were measured through the imaginary susceptibility component ??(T), and analyzed within Debye's theory of dipolar fluid. The results indicated Brownian rotational relaxation and allowed to calculate the hydrodynamic radius close to the values obtained from photon correlation. The study of the colloid performances as power absorbers showed no detectable increase of temperature for dextran-coated Fe 3O 4 nanoparticles, whereas a second Fe 3O 4-based dispersion of similar concentration could be heated up to 12 K after 30 min under similar experimental conditions. The different power absorption efficiencies are discussed in terms of the magnetic structure of the nanoparticles.

  7. Biofunctionalized magnetic hydrogel nanospheres of magnetite and kappa-carrageenan.

    PubMed

    Daniel-da-Silva, Ana L; Fateixa, Sara; Guiomar, António J; Costa, Benilde F O; Silva, Nuno J O; Trindade, Tito; Goodfellow, Brian J; Gil, Ana M

    2009-09-01

    Magnetic hydrogel kappa-carrageenan nanospheres were successfully prepared via water-in-oil (w/o) microemulsions combined with thermally induced gelation of the polysaccharide. The size of the nanospheres (an average diameter of about 50 and 75 nm) was modulated by varying the concentration of surfactant. The nanospheres contained superparamagnetic magnetite nanoparticles (average diameter 8 nm), previously prepared by co-precipitation within the biopolymer. Carboxyl groups, at a concentration of about 4 mmol g(-1), were successfully grafted at the surface of these magnetic nanospheres via carboxymethylation of the kappa-carrageenan. The carboxylated nanospheres were shown to be thermo-sensitive in the 37-45 degrees C temperature range, indicating their potential as thermally controlled delivery systems for drugs and/or magnetic particles at physiological temperatures. Finally, preliminary results have been obtained for IgG antibody conjugation of the carboxylated nanospheres and the potential of these systems for bio-applications is discussed. PMID:19671980

  8. Biofunctionalized magnetic hydrogel nanospheres of magnetite and κ-carrageenan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniel-da-Silva, Ana L.; Fateixa, Sara; Guiomar, António J.; Costa, Benilde F. O.; Silva, Nuno J. O.; Trindade, Tito; Goodfellow, Brian J.; Gil, Ana M.

    2009-09-01

    Magnetic hydrogel κ-carrageenan nanospheres were successfully prepared via water-in-oil (w/o) microemulsions combined with thermally induced gelation of the polysaccharide. The size of the nanospheres (an average diameter (∅) of about 50 and 75 nm) was modulated by varying the concentration of surfactant. The nanospheres contained superparamagnetic magnetite nanoparticles (∅8 nm), previously prepared by co-precipitation within the biopolymer. Carboxyl groups, at a concentration of about 4 mmol g-1, were successfully grafted at the surface of these magnetic nanospheres via carboxymethylation of the κ-carrageenan. The carboxylated nanospheres were shown to be thermo-sensitive in the 37-45 °C temperature range, indicating their potential as thermally controlled delivery systems for drugs and/or magnetic particles at physiological temperatures. Finally, preliminary results have been obtained for IgG antibody conjugation of the carboxylated nanospheres and the potential of these systems for bio-applications is discussed.

  9. Cooling rate dependence of synthetic SD,PSD,MD magnetite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, S.; Ferk, A.; Hess, K.; Leonhardt, R.

    2010-12-01

    The influence of the cooling rate on the thermoremanent magnetization is investigated experimentally. Several remelted volcanic glass samples as well as six samples of synthetic magnetite with grain sizes ranging from below 1 ?m (single domain) to 12.1 ?m (multidomain) are treated. The aim of this study is to investigate the theoretical log-linear relationship of magnetization acquisition with cooling rate and its domain state dependency. Earlier investigations suggest that an assemblage of non interacting SD particles acquires a larger TRM during slower cooling. Negative and/or MD particles, however, lead to a lower TRM after slower cooling rates. To avoid chemical alteration the synthetic samples are sealed in evacuated quartz glass tubes and stabilized thermally. Additionally, a natural phonolitic glass from Tenerife was investigated which was tempered for 10h. The dominating magnetic remanence carriers of the remelted volcanic glass are low titanium titanomagnetites. All samples are heated and cooled in the Earth magnetic field (approx. 48.000 nT) using 5 different cooling rates between 1 K/min and 15 K/m in the unblocking spectrum. The acquired TRM of all samples is measured after the controlled heating/cooling process using a cryogenic magnetometer of type 3G. Additional rock magnetic measurements like hysteresis loops are conducted for the remelted glasses to obtain an independent measure of domain state. Remelted glass samples show single domain characteristics in all rock magnetic measurements. As expected they acquire larger TRMs during slower cooling. Synthetic magnetite samples are currently measured. Unfortunately, due to problems with the cryogenic magnetometer, results were not available by the time of abstract submission.

  10. Synthesis and magnetic characterization of magnetite obtained by monowavelength visible light irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Yulong; Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039; School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang 050017 ; Wei, Yu; Sun, Yuhan; Wang, Jing

    2012-03-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Magnetite was synthesized under monowavelength LED irradiation at room temperature. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Different wavelength irradiations led to distinctive characteristics of magnetite. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Particle sizes of magnetite were controlled by different irradiation wavelengths. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Wavelength affects the magnetic characteristics of magnetite. -- Abstract: Magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}) nanoparticles were controllably synthesized by aerial oxidation Fe{sup II}EDTA solution under different monowavelength light-emitting diode (LED) lamps irradiation at room temperature. The results of the X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectra show the formation of magnetite nanoparticle further confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscope (FTIR) and the difference in crystallinity of as-prepared samples. Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} particles are nearly spherical in shape based on transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Average crystallite sizes of magnetite can be controlled by different irradiation light wavelengths from XRD and TEM: 50.1, 41.2, and 20.3 nm for red, green, and blue light irradiation, respectively. The magnetic properties of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} samples were investigated. Saturation magnetization values of magnetic nanoparticles were 70.1 (sample M-625), 65.3 (sample M-525), and 58.2 (sample M-460) emu/g, respectively.

  11. Characterization and cytotoxicity studies on liposome-hydrophobic magnetite hybrid colloids.

    PubMed

    Floris, Alice; Sinico, Chiara; Fadda, Anna Maria; Lai, Francesco; Marongiu, Francesca; Scano, Alessandra; Pilloni, Martina; Angius, Fabrizio; Vázquez-Vázquez, Carlos; Ennas, Guido

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study was to highlight the main features of magnetoliposomes prepared by TLE, using hydrophobic magnetite, and stabilized with oleic acid, instead of using the usual hydrophilic magnetite surrounded by sodium citrate. These biocompatible magnetoliposomes (MLs) were prepared with the purpose of producing a magnetic carrier capable of loading either hydrophilic or lipophilic drugs. The effect of different liposome/magnetite weight ratios on the stability of magnetoliposomes was evaluated by monitoring the mean diameter of the particles, their polydispersity index, and zeta potential over time. The prepared magnetoliposomes showed a high liposome-magnetite association, with magnetoliposomes containing PEG (polyethylene glycol) showing the best magnetite loading values. To verify the position of magnetite nanoparticles in the vesicular structures, the morphological characteristics of the structures were studied using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). TEM studies showed a strong affinity between hydrophobic magnetite nanoparticles, the surrounding oleic acid molecules, and phospholipids. Furthermore, the concentration above which one would expect to find a cytotoxic effect on cells as well as morphological cell-nanoparticle interactions was studied in situ by using the trypan blue dye exclusion assay, and the Prussian Blue modified staining method. PMID:24776672

  12. Arsenic sorption by nanocrystalline magnetite: an example of environmentally promising interface with geosphere.

    PubMed

    Buj?kov, Z; Bal, P; Zorkovsk, A; Sayagus, M J; Kov?, J; Timko, M

    2013-11-15

    In this paper, the sorption of arsenic onto nanocrystalline magnetite mineral Fe3O4 was studied in a model system. Nanocrystalline magnetite was produced by mechanical activation in a planetary ball mill from natural microcrystalline magnetite. As a consequence of milling, the specific surface area increased from 0.1m(2)/g to 11.9 m(2)/g and the surface site concentration enhanced from 2.2 sites/nm(2) to 8.4 sites/nm(2). These changes in surface properties of magnetite lead to the enhancement of arsenic removal from model system. The best sorption ability was achieved with magnetite sample activated for 90 min. In this case the sample was able to absorb around 4 mg/g. The structural changes of magnetite were also observed and the new hematite phase was detected after 120 min of milling. A good correlation between the decreasing particle size, increasing specific surface area and reduction of saturation magnetization was found. In desorption study, KOH and NaOH were found as the best eluents where more than 70% of arsenic was released back into the solution. The principal novelty of the paper is that mineral magnetite, truly one nature's gift can be used after "smart" milling (mechanical activation) as an effective arsenic sorbent. PMID:23531452

  13. Transformation products of submicron-sized aluminum-substituted magnetite: Color and reductant solubility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golden, D. C.; Ming, D. W.; Lauer, H. V., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Magnetite, when present as fine particles, is soluble in acid ammonium oxalate (pH equals 3). However, the commonly used extractant for free iron oxides (i.e., citrate dithionite-bicarbonate (CDB) is not very effective in dissolving magnetite in soils and geologic materials. Upon oxidation, magnetite transforms to maghemite; at elevated temperatures, maghemite inverts to hematite. This transformation causes a change in color from black to red and may affect the reductant solubility as well. The objectives here were to examine the color and reflectance spectral characteristics of products during the transformation of magnetite to maghemite to hematite and to study the effect of Al-substitution in magnetite on the above process. Reductant solubility of Al-substituted magnetite, maghemite, and hematite was also studied. In summary, the transformation of magnetite to maghemite was accompanied by a change in color from black to red because of the oxidation of Fe2(+) to Fe3(+). The phase change maghemite to hematite had a relatively minor effect on the color and the reflectance spectra.

  14. Anaerobic production of magnetite by a dissimilatory iron-reducing microorganism

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lovley, D.R.; Stolz, J.F.; Nord, G.L., Jr.; Phillips, E.J.P.

    1987-01-01

    The potential contribution of microbial metabolism to the magnetization of sediments has only recently been recognized. In the presence of oxygen, magnetotactic bacteria can form intracellular chains of magnetite while using oxygen or nitrate as the terminal electron acceptor for metabolism1. The production of ultrafine-grained magnetite by magnetotactic bacteria in surficial aerobic sediments may contribute significantly to the natural remanent magnetism of sediments2-4. However, recent studies on iron reduction in anaerobic sediments suggested that bacteria can also generate magnetite in the absence of oxygen5. We report here on a sediment organism, designated GS-15, which produces copious quantities of ultrafine-grained magnetite under anaerobic conditions. GS-15 is not magnetotactic, but reduces amorphic ferric oxide to extracellular magnetite during the reduction of ferric iron as the terminal electron acceptor for organic matter oxidation. This novel metabolism may be the mechanism for the formation of ultrafine-grained magnetite in anaerobic sediments, and couldaccount for the accumulation of magnetite in ancient iron formations and hydrocarbon deposits. ?? 1987 Nature Publishing Group.

  15. Oxygen isotope ratios in authigenic magnetites from the Belden Formation, Colorado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ripperdan, Robert L.; Riciputi, Lee R.; Cole, David R.; Elmore, R. Douglas; Banerjee, Sanjay; Engel, M. H.

    1998-09-01

    Authigenic magnetites from the Belden Formation at Bassam Park, Colorado, were analyzed for their 18O/16O composition using secondary ion mass spectrometry. The ?18O values of magnetite-rimmed pyrite (MagPy) grains averaged -8.5 (versus VSMOW). Small (25-50 ?m) iron oxide grains had a range of ?18O values from -9.7 to -5.5, consistent with a variably hematized magnetite population having a ?18O value of around -9 for magnetite. The ?18O results suggest that the magnetite rims and grains formed in contact with a water having ?18O of near 0 or less, implying a meteoric or connate source rather than a highly evolved orogenic or basinal fluid. This supports paleomagnetic results that suggest the formation of authigenic magnetites under Mesozoic burial conditions at some Belden Formation localities, rather than in response to orogenic fluid migration driven by Early Tertiary tectonic uplift. The ?18O results also support the observation that chemical remanent magnetizations related to authigenic magnetite formation cannot be universally applied to the dating of fluid migration events associated with orogenic deformation.

  16. On Van Hove Singularities in Pure Cubic Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujita, Shigeji; Pientka, James; Suzuki, Akira

    2012-06-01

    Sharp peaks (van Hove singularities) occur when the density of states is plotted as a function of the phonon frequency. The singularities, jumps in the derivative of the density of states, occur in three and two dimensions when the constant-frequency plane touches the Brillouin zone boundary and undergoes a curvature inversion. The face-centered cubic lattice is composed of two simple cubic sablattices and one tetragonal sub-lattice. The first (second) major peaks in the observed density of states in aluminum (Al) are shown to arise from the transverse phonons associated with the cubic (tetragonal) sublattices.

  17. Arsenic(III) and arsenic(V) speciation during transformation of lepidocrocite to magnetite.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuheng; Morin, Guillaume; Ona-Nguema, Georges; Brown, Gordon E

    2014-12-16

    Bioreduction of As(V) and As-bearing iron oxides is considered to be one of the key processes leading to arsenic pollution in groundwaters in South and Southeast Asia. Recent laboratory studies with simple aqueous media showed that secondary Fe(II)-bearing phases (e.g., magnetite and green rust), which commonly precipitate during bioreduction of iron oxides, captured arsenic species. The aim of the present study was to follow arsenic speciation during the abiotic Fe(II)-induced transformation of As(III)- and As(V)-doped lepidocrocite to magnetite, and to evaluate the influence of arsenic on the transformation kinetics and pathway. We found green rust formation is an intermediate phase in the transformation. Both As(III) and As(V) slowed the transformation, with the effect being greater for As(III) than for As(V). Prior to the formation of magnetite, As(III) adsorbed on both lepidocrocite and green rust, whereas As(V) associated exclusively with green rust, When magnetite precipitated, As(III) formed surface complexes on magnetite nanoparticles and As(V) is thought to have been incorporated into the magnetite structure. These processes dramatically lowered the availability of As in the anoxic systems studied. These results provide insights into the behavior of arsenic during magnetite precipitation in reducing environments. We also found that As(V) removal from solution was higher than As(III) removal following magnetite formation, which suggests that conversion of As(III) to As(V) is preferred when using As-magnetite precipitation to treat As-contaminated groundwaters. PMID:25425339

  18. Growth of magnetite nanorods along its easy-magnetization axis of [1 1 0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jun; Peng, Zhenmeng; Huang, Yujie; Chen, Qianwang

    2004-03-01

    Magnetite nanorods were successfully synthesized from ferric chloride (FeCl3) and diamine hydrate (H4N2H2O) reagents via a simple, mild reduction-oxidization hydrothermal process in the presence of polyethylene glycol. The magnetite nanorods were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Mssbauer spectroscopy, and magnetization measurements. The nanorods exhibit a ferromagnetic behavior with a high saturation magnetization (90.5 emu/g), a little lower than that of the corresponding bulk material (92 emu/g). The mechanism for the improved magnetic properties of the magnetite nanorods is discussed based on the oriented growth of particles.

  19. pureS2HAT: S 2HAT-based Pure E/B Harmonic Transforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grain, J.; Stompor, R.; Tristram, M.

    2011-10-01

    The pS2HAT routines allow efficient, parallel calculation of the so-called 'pure' polarized multipoles. The computed multipole coefficients are equal to the standard pseudo-multipoles calculated for the apodized sky maps of the Stokes parameters Q and U subsequently corrected by so-called counterterms. If the applied apodizations fullfill certain boundary conditions, these multipoles correspond to the pure multipoles. Pure multipoles of one type, i.e., either E or B, are ensured not to contain contributions from the other one, at least to within numerical artifacts. They can be therefore further used in the estimation of the sky power spectra via the pseudo power spectrum technique, which has to however correctly account for the applied apodization on the one hand, and the presence of the counterterms, on the other. In addition, the package contains the routines permitting calculation of the spin-weighted apodizations, given an input scalar, i.e., spin-0 window. The former are needed to compute the counterterms. It also provides routines for maps and window manipulations. The routines are written in C and based on the S2HAT library, which is used to perform all required spherical harmonic transforms as well as all inter-processor communication. They are therefore parallelized using MPI and follow the distributed-memory computational model. The data distribution patterns, pixelization choices, conventions etc are all as those assumed/allowed by the S2HAT library.

  20. Rock-magnetic properties of single zircon crystals sampled from the Tanzawa tonalitic pluton, central Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Masahiko; Yamamoto, Shinji; Yamamoto, Yuhji; Okada, Yoshihiro; Ohno, Masao; Tsunakawa, Hideo; Maruyama, Shigenori

    2015-09-01

    This paper reports on the rock-magnetic properties of single zircon crystals, which are essential for future work establishing the reliable paleointensity method using single zircon crystals. Zircon crystals used in this study were sampled from the Nakagawa River, which crosses the Tanzawa tonalitic pluton in central Japan. Rock-magnetic measurements were conducted on 1037 grains of zircons, but many of these measurements are below the limits of the sensitivity of the magnetometers employed. Isothermal remanent magnetizations (IRMs) of 876 zircon crystal are below the practical resolution of this study; we infer that these crystals contain no or only minute quantities of ferromagnetic minerals. The other zircon crystals contain enough magnetic minerals to be measured in the DC SQUID magnetometer. For 81 zircon crystals, IRM intensities ( M IRM) are larger than 4 × 10-12 Am2, while natural remanent magnetization (NRM) intensities ( M NRM) are below 4 × 10-12 Am2, indicating that these crystals are inappropriate for the paleomagnetic study. For the samples that had values of M NRM ≥ 4 × 10-12 Am2 and M IRM ≥ 4 × 10-12 Am2 (80 zircons), combining the rock-magnetic parameter, we proposed the sample-selection criteria for future study of paleointensity experiments using single zircon crystals. In the case that the samples had high coercivity ( B c) values (>10 mT) or high M NRM/ M IRM values (>~0.1), main remanence carriers are probably pyrrhotite and these samples are inappropriate for the paleointensity study. In the case that the samples had low B c values (<10 mT) and low M NRM/ M IRM values (<~0.1), main remanence carriers seem to be nearly pure magnetite with pseudo-single-domain grain sizes, and these samples are expected to appropriate for the paleointensity study. Total thermoremanent magnetization (TRM) acquisition experiments were also carried out for 12 samples satisfying the above criteria. The TRM intensity was comparable with that of NRM, and a rough estimation of the paleointensity using NRM/TRM ratios shows field intensities consistent with the average geomagnetic field intensity at the Tanzawa tonalitic pluton for last 5 Myr.

  1. Lysozyme crystallization by vapor diffusion: characterization and modeling in the absence and presence of exogenous minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimble, W. L.; Rousseau, R. W.; Sambanis, A.

    1995-01-01

    A model accounting for water evaporation and crystal growth was synthesized to simulate protein concentration profiles in the crystallization wells of a vapor-diffusion apparatus. The model calculations were compared with experimental results obtained with chicken egg white lysozyme crystallized in the absence and presence of exogenous mineral particles. The model predicted the increase in protein concentration during water evaporation and the decrease during crystal growth. The effects of magnetite, galena and chalcopyrite on the time profile of dissolved lysozyme concentration appeared minimal, except for the occurrence of earlier nucleation in the presence of magnetite. Few of the lysozyme crystals formed were physically associated with these minerals. More protein crystals were associated with topaz, lepidolite and apophyllite, which exhibit a close match of their crystalline lattice to that of lysozyme.

  2. Multiple pure tone noise prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Fei; Sharma, Anupam; Paliath, Umesh; Shieh, Chingwei

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents a fully numerical method for predicting multiple pure tones, also known as “Buzzsaw” noise. It consists of three steps that account for noise source generation, nonlinear acoustic propagation with hard as well as lined walls inside the nacelle, and linear acoustic propagation outside the engine. Noise generation is modeled by steady, part-annulus computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations. A linear superposition algorithm is used to construct full-annulus shock/pressure pattern just upstream of the fan from part-annulus CFD results. Nonlinear wave propagation is carried out inside the duct using a pseudo-two-dimensional solution of Burgers' equation. Scattering from nacelle lip as well as radiation to farfield is performed using the commercial solver ACTRAN/TM. The proposed prediction process is verified by comparing against full-annulus CFD simulations as well as against static engine test data for a typical high bypass ratio aircraft engine with hardwall as well as lined inlets. Comparisons are drawn against nacelle unsteady pressure transducer measurements at two axial locations as well as against near- and far-field microphone array measurements outside the duct. This is the first fully numerical approach (no experimental or empirical input is required) to predict multiple pure tone noise generation, in-duct propagation and far-field radiation. It uses measured blade coordinates to calculate MPT noise.

  3. A unique type 3 ordinary chondrite containing graphite-magnetite aggregates - Allan Hills A77011

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckinley, S. G.; Scott, E. R. D.; Taylor, G. J.; Keil, K.

    1982-01-01

    ALHA 77011, which is the object of study in the present investigation, is a chondrite of the 1977 meteorite collection from Allan Hills, Antarctica. It contains an opaque and recrystallized silicate matrix (Huss matrix) and numerous aggregates consisting of micron- and submicron-sized graphite and magnetite. It is pointed out that no abundant graphite-magnetite aggregates could be observed in other type 3 ordinary chondrites, except for Sharps. Attention is given to the results of a modal analysis, relations between ALHA 77011 and other type 3 ordinary chondrites, and the association of graphite-magnetite and metallic Fe, Ni. The discovery of graphite-magnetite aggregates in type 3 ordinary chondrites is found to suggest that this material may have been an important component in the formation of ordinary chondrites.

  4. Magnetic and Structural Properties of Magnetite in Radular Teeth of Chiton Acanthochiton Rubrolinestus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Y. N.; Liu, C. L.; Yao, L. D.; Wang, Y.; Han, X. F.

    2008-03-01

    The major radular lateral teeth of Polyplacophora Chiton comprise a magnetite biomineral cap.We have investigated the structure and magnetic properties of the biomineralized magnetite crystallites in mature teeth of Chiton Acanthochiton Rubrolinestus. From the measurement of magnetic properties of tooth particles using SQUID magnetometry we find that the saturation magnetization and the Verwey transition temperature (Tv) are 78.4 emu/g and 105 K, respectively. An in situ examination of the structure of magnetite-bearing region within individual tooth using the high resolution TEM, together with electron diffraction (ED) pattern and energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) analyses indicates magnetite microcrystal form electron-dense polycrystalline sheets with typical length 800 nm and width 150 nm or so. These polycrystalline sheets are arranged regularly along the longitude direction of the tooth cutting surface. Furthermore, the microcrystallites in polycrystalline sheet take on the generally good crystallinity.

  5. Magnetite-supported sulfonic acid: a retrievable nanocatalyst for the Ritter reaction and multicomponent reactions

    EPA Science Inventory

    Magnetite-sulfonic acid (NanocatFe-OSO3H), prepared by wet-impregnation method, serves as a magnetically retrievable sustainable catalyst for the Ritter reaction which can be used in several reaction cycles without any loss of activity.

  6. In Situ Measurement of Oxygen Isotope Compositions of Magnetite in the Allende CV3 Chondrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, B.-G.; Coath, C. D.; Leshin, L.; Wang, J.; McKeegan, K. D.; Wasson, J. T.

    1995-09-01

    Magnetite is relatively abundant in the oxidized CV chondrites. This study was undertaken to examine possible origins in nebular or in parent-body processes. Magnetite in Allende has several distinct characteristics compared to that of the other CV chondrites. Unlike Mokoia and Vigarano, magnetite in Allende is almost exclusively found in chondrules, where it typically forms spherical nodules often associated with metal and/or sulfides. In addition, the Ni contents of metal in most CV chondrites seldom exceed 50 wt%, while in Allende nearly all of metal grains are Ni rich (64-71 wt% Ni [e.g., 1]), which we designate awaruite even though the Ni range is below that of awaruite. Rare kamacite grains are present in chondrules [2]. A few rare Allende nodules have euhedral to subhedral awaruite grains [e.g., 3]. Nodules of magnetite + sulfides, magnetite + metal, and metal + sulfide exhibit different textures implying that magnetite grains are not simply pseudomorphs of preexisting metal grains. Tiny magnetite grains (< 1 micrometer) are found in Ni-rich metal ; in turn, the host metal is surrounded by magnetite. The textural evidence is not sufficient to distinguish between a high temperature and a low temperature origin for the magnetite. Six magnetite nodules, which had relatively clean areas of ~ 25 micrometers diameter, from 4 Allende PO chondrules were selected for in situ oxygen isotope study using the UCLA Cameca ims 1270, a high resolution - high sensitivity ion microprobe. A ~0.3 nA primary Cs+ beam was defocused to a 20-25 micrometers spot and a field aperture inserted into the secondary ion beam to restrict the analyzed area to the central 10-12 micrometers of each nodule. Negative ions were collected at a mass resolving power of ~6500, sufficient to eliminate hydride interferences. A normal incidence electron gun was employed to compensate possible sample charging. To monitor the instrumental mass fractionation (-11.2+/-0.5 per mil/amu) analyses of terrestrial magnetite LP204a [4] were made interspersed amongst the chondrule analyses. Chondrule data corrected for mass fractionation and normalized to the SMOW scale are shown in Figure 1. Oxygen isotope ratios from inclusion and crack free regions in four magnetite nodules are tightly clustered below the terrestrial mass fractionation (TF) line and are distinct from oxygen isotope fields observed in magnetite from CI and Essebi chondrites [5] and from isolated grains in CI meteorites [6]. The data plot near the ^(16)O mixing line of refractory minerals in Allende (CCAM), but the spread in the ratios is too low relative to the precision of the measurements to define any linear trend for these samples. In 2 chondrules, magnetite nodules with cracks or Ni-Fe metal have very different oxygen compositions; they plot near the TF line at low delta^(18)O (-10 per mil). At this time, it is not clear if this difference could be due to a sputtering artifact, or if it reflects alteration or inclusion of another phase in these "magnetite" nodules. The question of the origin of CV magnetite has not yet been resolved. Data on additional samples including other CV chondrites will help clarify this point. References: [1] McSween H. Y. Jr. (1977) GCA, 41, 1777-1790. [2] Fuchs L. H. and Olsen E. (1973) EPSL, 18, 379-384. [3] Rubin A. E. (1991) Am. Mineral., 76, 1356-1362. [4] Valley J. W. and Graham G. M. (1991) Contrib. Mineral. Petrol., 109, 38-52. [5] Rowe M. W. et al. (1994) GCA, 58, 5341-5347. [6] Hyman M. et al. (1991) Meteoritics, 26, 350.

  7. Uranium reduction on magnetite: Probing for pentavalent uranium using electrochemical methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Ke; Renock, Devon; Ewing, Rodney C.; Becker, Udo

    2015-05-01

    Pentavalent uranium is generally treated as an unstable intermediate when uranyl, U(VI)O22+, is reduced to U4+. However, mineral surfaces have been shown to stabilize pentavalent uranium, thus hindering further reduction (Ilton et al., 2005, 2010). The subject of this study is to identify the kinetic pathways that lead to U(V)O2+ being a metastable species. Electrochemical methods provide an in situ approach for the investigation of the intermediate reaction of U(V)O2+ on the surfaces of magnetite. Redox reactions of uranyl ions on particulate (∼3 μm) and bulk magnetite surfaces were investigated using cyclic voltammetry and potential step chronoamperometry using cavity microelectrodes and bulk (planar) mineral electrodes. The estimated redox potentials are consistent with the standard redox potential of UO22+/UO2+, indicating UO22+ is first reduced to UO2+ on the surfaces of both powder and bulk magnetite. The one-electron reduction of UO22+ to UO2+ was further confirmed by directly measuring the number of electrons transferred during the reduction process on the bulk magnetite electrode. Based on the charge conservation analysis and the positive correlation between the pH and the peak current for the UO2+ transformation to UO22+, the peak corresponding to the oxidation of U4+ to UO22+ was assigned in the voltammograms of particulate magnetite. The presence of U4+ indicates that the disproportionation of UO2+ (2U(V) ↔ U(IV) + U(VI)) is occurring on the surface of particulate magnetite within the timeframe of the experiment. The lack of a peak for U4+ in voltammograms for bulk magnetite suggests that the rate of the UO2+ disproportionation reaction is slower on bulk magnetite than that on particulate magnetite. The catalytic property of particulate magnetite surfaces on the disproportionation reaction is explained by its ability to adsorb and desorb protons, which could facilitate the proton-coupled disproportionation reaction of UO2+. This increased catalytic activity and related adsorption and desorption kinetics of protons may be related to the increased number of under-coordinated surface sites near step edges on the magnetite powder.

  8. Introduction of biotin or folic acid into polypyrrole magnetite core-shell nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Nan, Alexandrina; Turcu, Rodica; Liebscher, Jrgen

    2013-11-13

    In order to contribute to the trend in contemporary research to develop magnetic core shell nanoparticles with better properties (reduced toxicity, high colloidal and chemical stability, wide scope of application) in straightforward and reproducible methods new core shell magnetic nanoparticles were developed based on polypyrrole shells functionalized with biotin and folic acid. Magnetite nanoparticles stabilized by sebacic acid were used as magnetic cores. The morphology of magnetite was determined by transmission electron microscopy TEM, while the chemical structure investigated by FT-IR.

  9. Non-stoichiometric magnetite and maghemite in the mature teeth of the chiton Acanthopleura hirtosa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    St. Pierre, T. G.; Evans, L. A.; Webb, J.

    1992-04-01

    Mature radula pieces from the chiton Acanthopleura hirtosa were studied using Mssbauer spectroscopy. The magnetite present in the radulae was found to have a distribution of Verwey transition temperatures in the range 85-100K. It was deduced that the magnetite was non-stoichiometric with an average formula Fe2.98O3. About 10% of the Fe in the radulae was in the form of maghemite and about 19% was in the form of paramagnetic or superparamagnetic phases.

  10. Lithologic control of magnetite contamination in the upper Trinity aquifer of north central Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Lueth, V.W. . Dept. of Physical Sciences)

    1993-02-01

    Very fine-grained (1 micron size) magnetite and maghemite (both confirmed by x-ray diffraction) are identified as a major cause of domestic water supply degradation in groundwater produced from the Hensel Sandstone. The small size of the particles prevents effective filtering. Oxidation of the particles when mixed with air causes a host of problems with symptoms similar to common contamination by iron bacteria. The physical characteristics of the magnetite and maghemite; fine-grain size, irregular shape as determined by SEM, and chemical purity of the material determined by SEM-EDS, suggest a biogenic origin for the material. Characteristics of the magnetite grains indicate microbially-assisted precipitation by dissimilatory iron-reducing bacteria. The occurrence of magnetite contamination shows a strong correlation to aquifer lithochemistry. Magnetite and maghemite contamination is found in water derived from the flood-basin facies. These rocks are high in oxidized iron and are recognized in well logs as red bed sandstones, siltstones, and shales. Magnetite is absent in water from units that produce from the meanderbelt sandstone facies in which red bed units are absent. Hydrochemical recognition of contamination is present in elevated Fe[sup 2+]/Fe[sup 3+] values. Eh/pH values based on iron species concentrations are radically different compared to actual Eh and pH field measurements in contaminated wells. The bacteria produce magnetite and maghemite as part of their metabolic process and the subsequent oxidation of this magnetite is responsible for the variations in Eh/pH values as well as observed water quality degradation. Iron-reducing bacteria are confined only to those units which can provide ready access to microbially-reducible iron, a source of organic matter, and sufficient nutrient (i.e. nitrogen and phosphorus) concentrations.

  11. Electrochemical laws of the cathodic reduction of a magnetite electrode in sulfuric and orthophosphoric acid solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzin, A. V.; Gorichev, I. G.; Batrakov, V. V.; Lainer, Yu. A.

    2014-01-01

    The electrochemical behavior of magnetite in the solutions of sulfuric and orthophosphoric acids during cathodic polarization is studied. The theory of proton exchange is used for the interpretation of the experimental data on the influence of pH, the concentration of anions , and potential E on the cathodic reduction rate of magnetite. One of the postulates of the theory of proton exchange assumes the rate-determining step of protons for the cathodic reduction of metal oxide phases.

  12. Introduction of biotin or folic acid into polypyrrole magnetite core-shell nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nan, Alexandrina; Turcu, Rodica; Liebscher, Jrgen

    2013-11-01

    In order to contribute to the trend in contemporary research to develop magnetic core shell nanoparticles with better properties (reduced toxicity, high colloidal and chemical stability, wide scope of application) in straightforward and reproducible methods new core shell magnetic nanoparticles were developed based on polypyrrole shells functionalized with biotin and folic acid. Magnetite nanoparticles stabilized by sebacic acid were used as magnetic cores. The morphology of magnetite was determined by transmission electron microscopy TEM, while the chemical structure investigated by FT-IR.

  13. Inhibition of nZVI reactivity by magnetite(Fe3O4)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bae, S.; Lee, W.

    2008-12-01

    Most studies of nano-sized zero-valent iron (nZVI) have been focused on the degradation of contaminants using mainly nZVI or modified nZVIs, which subsequently formed Fe(II)/Fe(III) oxide and hydroxide during the reaction. In this study, we demonstrated that the reactivity of nZVI can be inhibited by the iron oxide (magnetite) for the degradation of 1,1,1-trichloroethane (1,1,1-TCA). The reductive degradation of 1,1,1- TCA in nZVI and magnetite suspension was studied using a batch reactor under an anaerobic condition. No reductive degradation of 1,1,1-TCA in nZVI (0.01 g) + magnetite (0.5 g) suspension was observed, while a significant degradation (0.288 hr-1) was observed in nZVI (0.01 g) suspension. The inhibition effect on nZVI by magnetite occurred due mainly to the adsorption of nZVI onto magnetite surfaces by the strong magnetism. However, the nZVI and magnetite suspension showed the similar reactivity of nZVI (0.1g) suspension, as the amount of nZVI increased to 0.1 g. This is caused by the remnant nZVI unadsorbed on the magnetite surfaces after the full saturation of nZVI on the surfaces. TEM images showed the adsorption of nZVI onto the magnetite surfaces. The results obtained from this study could provide basic understanding to properly operate and apply nZVI to real contaminated sites containing high contents of iron-bearing soil minerals.

  14. Magnetite Nucleation in Mantle Xenoliths During Quasi-Adiabatic Ascent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, K. B., Jr.; Filiberto, J.; Friedman, S. A.; Knafelc, J.; Conder, J. A.; Ferre, E. C.; Khakhalova, E.; Feinberg, J. M.; Neal, C. R.; Ionov, D. A.; Hernandez, F. M.

    2014-12-01

    Can magnetite be a stable phase in the lithospheric mantle? Equilibrium-based thermodynamic calculations and petrologic models predict that it should not be stable. Studies of mantle xenoliths during the 1980s concluded that even though there were rare exceptions, mantle rocks do not host sufficient concentrations of ferromagnetic minerals and are too hot to allow any magnetic remanence. Thus, conventional wisdom dictates that the Moho constitutes a fundamental magnetic boundary. Yet, growing evidence from a more complete global mantle xenolith survey indicates the presence of ferromagnetic minerals in mantle materials. Examination of mantle xenoliths devoid of serpentinization and meteoric alteration show the presence of ferromagnetic minerals within primary silicate mineral phases, including olivine, pyroxene, and spinel. Nucleation of these magnetic minerals could occur at three different stages: in-situ in the mantle, upon ascent, and at the surface. This study reports the results of laboratory-based quasi-adiabatic decompression experiments that aim to simulate the ascent of mantle xenoliths through the lithosphere and test if magnetite growth is promoted during the process. The starting material for these experiments is San Carlos olivine, which holds a magnetic remanence of less than ~10-10 A/m2-1kg2 (the detection limit of the vibrating sample magnetometer). This low starting remanence will allow us to identify whether new magnetic minerals are formed during the decompression experiments using either vibrating sample magnetometry or SQUID-based rock magnetometers. All olivine grains in these experiments were hand-picked under a light microscope in an effort to avoid the inclusion of grains with spurious magnetic minerals. Olivine powders from these carefully selected grains will be used to represent average mantle olivine compositions (Fo90-Fo92). Experiments will start at 1 GPa and be decompressed to 0.3 GPa over 60 hrs at constant temperature (1200° C). These experiments will provide an assessment of the stability of magnetic mineral assemblages within the mantle, unfettered by the effects of serpentinization and surficial oxidation, which in turn will better inform our understanding of long wavelength magnetic anomalies in the Earth.

  15. Sorption of nalidixic acid onto micrometric and nanometric magnetites: Experimental study and modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usman, M.; Martin, S.; Cimetire, N.; Giraudet, S.; Chatain, V.; Hanna, K.

    2014-04-01

    The sorption of nalidixic acid (NA) was studied onto three kinds of magnetite characterized by different particle sizes (from micrometric to nanometric) and surface properties. Experiments were performed under static batch and dynamic flow conditions. Obtained results indicate that kinetics and extent of sorption was strongly affected by the particle size of tested magnetites. Ionic strength effect was less significant suggesting that aggregation state of the magnetite particles did not affect the sorption. During kinetic sorption experiments, apparent rate constant normalized to solid mass was faster for nanosized magnetite while an opposite trend was observed for the surface area-normalized rate constants. Infrared data suggested the possibility of similar surface interactions on both microsized and nanosized magnetites. Transport of NA in magnetite-packed column was found associated to the instantaneous sorption without any significant effect of kinetic limitation. Breakthrough curves (BC) and sorption extent in columns were calculated by using Thomas, Yan and Yoon-Nelson models. Sorption capacities predicted by Thomas or Yan model were in good agreement with that determined by integrating total area above BC. However, Thomas model failed particularly to predict an accurate concentration at lower and higher time points of the BC. These findings have strong implications in relation to the transport and removal of environmental pollutants in natural and engineered systems.

  16. Magnetic and structural properties of magnetite in radular teeth of chiton Acanthochiton rubrolinestus.

    PubMed

    Han, Yunan; Liu, Chuanlin; Zhou, Dong; Li, Fashen; Wang, Yong; Han, Xiufeng

    2011-04-01

    The teeth of the Polyplacophora Chiton Acanthochiton Rubrolinestus contain biomineralized magnetite crystallites whose biological functions in relation to structure and magnetic properties are not well understood. Here, using superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometry, we find that the saturation magnetization (?(s)) and the Verwey transition temperature (T(v)) of tooth particles are 78.4 emu/g and 105 K, respectively. These values are below those of the stoichiometric magnetite. An in situ examination of the structure of the magnetite-bearing region within an individual tooth using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy indicates magnetite microcrystals form electron dense polycrystalline sheets with typical lengths of about 800 nm and widths of about 150 nm. These polycrystalline sheets are arranged regularly along the longitudinal direction of the tooth cutting surface. In addition, the crystallites in polycrystalline sheets take on generally good crystallinity. The magnetic microstructures of in situ magnetic force microscopy demonstrate that the [111] easy direction of magnetite microcrystals are aligned along the length of the tooth, whereas the [111] direction is parallel to the thickness of the tooth. Both Mssbauer spectra and magnetization versus temperature measurements under field cooled and zero-field cooled conditions do not detect superparamagnetic magnetite crystallites in the mature major lateral tooth particles of this chiton. PMID:21365666

  17. Structural and morphological anomalies in magnetosomes: possible biogenic origin for magnetite in ALH84001.

    PubMed

    Taylor, A P; Barry, J C; Webb, R I

    2001-01-01

    We report biogenic magnetite whiskers, with axial ratios of 6 : 1, elongated in the [1 1 1], [1 1 2] and [1 0 0] directions, resembling the magnetite whiskers detected in the Martian meteorite ALH84001 by Bradley et al., and interpreted by those authors as evidence of vapour-phase (abiogenic) growth. Magnetosomal whiskers with extended defects consistent with screw dislocations and magnetosomes resembling flattened twinned platelets, as well as other twinning phenomena and other structural defects, are also reported here. Magnetosomes with teardrop-shaped, cuboidal, irregular and jagged structures similar to those detected in ALH84001 by McKay et al., coprecipitation of magnetite possibly with amorphous calcium carbonate, coprecipitation of magnetite possibly with amorphous silica, the incorporation of titanium in volutin inclusions and disoriented arrays of magnetosomes are also described. These observations demonstrate that the structures of the magnetite particles in ALH84001, their spatial arrangement and coprecipitation with carbonates and proximity to silicates are consistent with being biogenic. Electron-beam-induced flash-melting of magnetosomes produced numerous screw dislocations in the [1 1 1], [1 0 0], and [1 1 0] lattice planes and induced fusion of platelets. From this, the lack of screw dislocations reported in the magnetite particles in ALH84001 (McKay et al., and Bradley et al.) indicates that they have a low-temperature origin. PMID:11136443

  18. The effect of polymer adsorption on the wetting properties of partially hydrophobized magnetite.

    PubMed

    Potapova, E; Grahn, M; Holmgren, A; Hedlund, J

    2012-02-01

    Upon reverse flotation of iron ore, the surface of the iron ore concentrate may become partially hydrophobized due to adsorption of flotation collector, which is facilitated by the calcium ions present in the process water. Hydrophobic areas on the concentrate surface may introduce problems in subsequent pelletization of the concentrate. A possible way to restore the wettability of the surface could be by modifying the surface with a hydrophilic polymer. The effect of hydrophilic polymers of different types, viz. cationic, anionic, and non-ionic, on the wettability of the magnetite surface after adsorption of a surfactant was investigated. Although all the polymers could adsorb on magnetite at pH 8.5, the contact angle measurements revealed that only anionic ammonium polyacrylate could decrease the contact angle of synthetic magnetite after surfactant adsorption to a level close to that of as-synthesized magnetite. Such effect was probably achieved due to shielding of the hydrophobic surfactant chains from the aqueous phase by hydrophilic polyacrylate molecules. The fact that polyacrylate adsorption on magnetite occurred via calcium ions makes polyacrylate suitable for application in calcium-rich process water. The results presented in this work illustrate that ammonium polyacrylate could be successfully used to improve the wettability of magnetite after adsorption of surfactants. PMID:22047916

  19. Pure gauge QCD and holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trinchero, R. C.

    2014-09-01

    Holographic models for the pure gauge quantum chromodynamics (QCD) vacuum are explored. The holographic renormalization of these models is considered as required by a phenomenological approach that takes the ?-functions of the models as the only input. This approach is done taking the dilaton as the coordinate orthogonal to the border. This choice greatly simplifies the analysis and gives a geometrical interpretation for the fixed points of the renormalization group flow. Examples are constructed that present asymptotic freedom, confinement of static quarks, either with vanishing or nonvanishing gluon condensate G2. The latter models require an extension of the dilaton-gravity models already considered in the literature. This extension is also determined by the only input, i.e. the ?-function. In addition, the restrictions imposed by the trace anomaly equation (TAE) are studied. In doing so, a holographic derivation of this equation is presented.

  20. Pure optical dynamical color encryption.

    PubMed

    Mosso, Fabian; Tebaldi, Myrian; Barrera, John Fredy; Bolognini, Néstor; Torroba, Roberto

    2011-07-18

    We introduce a way to encrypt-decrypt a color dynamical phenomenon using a pure optical alternative. We split the three basic chromatic channels composing the input, and then each channel is processed through a 4f encoding method and a theta modulation applied to the each encrypted frame in every channel. All frames for a single channel are multiplexed. The same phase mask is used to encode all the information. Unlike the usual procedure we do not multiplex the three chromatic channels into a single encoding media, because we want to decrypt the information in real time. Then, we send to the decoding station the phase mask and the three packages each one containing the multiplexing of a single channel. The end user synchronizes and decodes the information contained in the separate channels. Finally, the decoding information is conveyed together to bring the decoded dynamical color phenomenon in real-time. We present material that supports our concepts. PMID:21934738

  1. Spatiotemporal masking in pure olfaction.

    PubMed

    Radil, T; Wysocki, C J

    1998-11-30

    In olfaction, it is not possible to determine which nostril is being stimulated, i.e., lateralize, when a pure olfactory substance, e.g., phenylethyl alcohol or vanillin, is administered into one nostril, and, simultaneously, an odorless, solvent blank into the contralateral nostril. We subjected volunteers to extensive training, with feedback on each trial, in an attempt to determine whether it was possible, in these well-trained subjects, to overcome this apparent impossibility. We failed to obtain any evidence to support the notion that a pure olfactory stimulus could be lateralized when the odorant and blank were presented simultaneously. The task, however, became simple when the odorant and the blank entered each nostril sequentially. We investigated, using a two-channel olfactometer, temporal parameters that enabled such discrimination. We controlled the duration of odorant and blank air puffs, as well as their mutual timing, to determine the threshold stimulus onset-disparity, i.e., the interval between stimulus onset and blank onset, that resulted in an inability to lateralize. Latencies shorter than the threshold interval would be perceived as simultaneous stimulation. We determined that the onset interval was between 200 and 400 ms, depending on the duration of the stimuli (a shorter interval was noted for stimuli of 150-ms duration relative to 300- and 450-ms stimuli). This was also true when two odorants were applied, rather than an odorant and a blank, and the subject was instructed to focus on the sequence of odorant delivery and side of stimulation. The temporal onset threshold was the same for lateralization and for order of stimulation. Whether the olfactory system per se mediates this discrimination or whether inputs from olfaction and chemesthesis, via trigeminal free nerve endings stimulated by air-stream onset, combine to allow this discrimination has yet to be determined. PMID:9929664

  2. Lipolytic biocatalyst based on recyclable magnetite-polysiloxane nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durdureanu-Angheluta, Anamaria; Ignat, Maurusa-Elena; Maier, Stelian Sergiu; Pricop, Lucia; Coroaba, Adina; Fifere, Adrian; Pinteala, Mariana; Chiriac, Anca

    2014-02-01

    This work presents a novel hydrophobic magnetizable nanosupport able to load and valorize the lipase derived from Candida cylindracea (CCL). Nude magnetite nanoparticles (MP) were coated by covalent binding with an ester-polysiloxane (PS). The chemical composition, dimensions, morphology and magnetic properties of the resulted core-shell nanoparticles (MP-PS-CCL) are analyzed. The amount of immobilized lipase increase when loaded from aqueous solutions of up to 12.8 mg/mL CCL, when a lipolytic activity of 74.76 U/g is achieved. For higher concentrations of the loading solution, the activity of immobilized lipase decreases, probably due to the enzyme steric hindrance. MP-PS-CCL exhibits a good lipolytic activity against 4-nitrophenyl laurate (4-NPL), which allows the kinetic study of lipolysis reaction by measuring the amount of released 4-nitrophenol (4-NP), when working at room temperature, in TRIS buffer (pH 8.2). Even after three months of storage, the product is able to sustain up to 4 reusing cycles.

  3. IDENTIFICATION OF MAGNETITE IN B-TYPE ASTEROIDS

    SciTech Connect

    Yang Bin; Jewitt, David E-mail: jewitt@ucla.ed

    2010-09-15

    Spectrally blue (B-type) asteroids are rare, with the second discovered asteroid, Pallas, being the largest and most famous example. We conducted a focused, infrared spectroscopic survey of B-type asteroids to search for water-related features in these objects. Our results show that the negative optical spectral slope of some B-type asteroids is due to the presence of a broad absorption band centered near 1.0 {mu}m. The 1 {mu}m band can be matched in position and shape using magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}), which is an important indicator of past aqueous alteration in the parent body. Furthermore, our observations of B-type asteroid (335) Roberta in the 3 {mu}m region reveal an absorption feature centered at 2.9 {mu}m, which is consistent with the absorption due to phyllosilicates (another hydration product) observed in CI chondrites. The new observations suggest that at least some B-type asteroids are likely to have incorporated significant amounts of water ice and to have experienced intensive aqueous alteration.

  4. Magnetization and susceptibility of ion-irradiated granular magnetite films

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, W.; McCloy, J. S.; Lea, A. S.; Sundararajan, J. A.; Yao, Q.; Qiang, Y.

    2011-04-01

    Porous granular films of magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}) with grains of {approx}3 nm in size were prepared using a state-of-the-art nanocluster deposition system. The films are initially superparamagnetic but become magnetized following Si{sup 2+} ion irradiation. A significant increase in the grain size and a dramatic change in the microstructure are observed. There are dipolar interactions between the nanoparticles in both the unirradiated and irradiated films. The in-phase alternating current magnetic susceptibility of the unirradiated film shows a blocking temperature of {approx}150 K, depending on frequency. A broadened Verwey transition for the irradiated film occurs at {approx}75 K, above which the susceptibility exhibits unusual behavior: a nearly linear decrease with decreasing temperature. There are irreversible domain rotations in the irradiated film during zero-field cooling and warming cycles between 10 and 300 K. The observed behavior of the irradiated granular films is quite distinct from that of metallic nanostructures after irradiation, and is due to the dramatic change in microstructures.

  5. Temperature-dependent structure of Tb-doped magnetite nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rice, Katherine P.; Russek, Stephen E.; Geiss, Roy H.; Shaw, Justin M.; Usselman, Robert J.; Evarts, Eric R.; Silva, Thomas J.; Nembach, Hans T.; Arenholz, Elke; Idzerda, Yves U.

    2015-02-01

    High quality 5 nm cubic Tb-doped magnetite nanoparticles have been synthesized by a wet-chemical method to investigate tailoring of magnetic properties for imaging and biomedical applications. We show that the Tb is incorporated into the octahedral 3+ sites. High-angle annular dark-field microscopy shows that the dopant is well-distributed throughout the particle, and x-ray diffraction measurements show a small lattice parameter shift with the inclusion of a rare-earth dopant. Magnetization and x-ray magnetic circular dichroism data indicate that the Tb spins are unpolarized and weakly coupled to the iron spin lattice at room temperature, and begin to polarize and couple to the iron oxide lattice at temperatures below 50 K. Broadband ferromagnetic resonance measurements show no increase in magnetic damping at room temperature for Tb-doped nanoparticles relative to undoped nanoparticles, further confirming weak coupling between Fe and Tb spins at room temperature. The Gilbert damping constant, ?, is remarkably low for the Tb-doped nanoparticles, with ? = 0.024 0.003. These nanoparticles, which have a large fixed moment, a large fluctuating moment and optically active rare-earth elements, are potential high-relaxivity T1 and T2 MRI agents with integrated optical signatures.

  6. PAC measurements of the Verwey transition in magnetite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inglot, Z.; Lieb, K. P.; Uhrmacher, M.; Wiarda, D.; Ziegeler, L.

    1999-09-01

    Perturbed angular correlation (PAC) experiments with implanted 111In tracers have recently been used to investigate magnetic phase transitions in metal oxides. Here we report on PAC measurements for 111Cd in polycrystalline Fe3O4 in the neighborhood of the Verwey phase transition (TV? 120 K). Perturbed angular correlation spectra were taken for implanted 111In probes at temperatures between 9 and 850 K. The two observed Larmor frequencies are attributed to the two possible cation sites in the cubic inverse spinel lattice. For T > 120 K, the temperature dependence of both Larmor frequencies follows a Curie Weiss power law ?L(T)/ ?L(0)=(1-T/TN)?, with the parameters TN=848(2) K and ?= 0.392(2). At the Verwey temperature we find a rapid change of both Larmor frequencies, with ?L1 increasing from 178(2) MHz at 120 K to 191(4) MHz at 100 K, and ?L2 decreasing from 173(4) MHz to 151(5) MHz. The Verwey transition also affects the widths of the frequency distributions, which more or less double below TV. This possibly indicates the presence of several components with Larmor frequencies similar to those found in the previous Mssbauer data, or for electronic after-effects correlated with the semiconductivity of magnetite below TV.

  7. Atomic layer deposition of superparamagnetic and ferrimagnetic magnetite thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yijun; Liu, Ming; Zhang, Yuepeng; Chen, Xing; Ren, Wei; Ye, Zuo-Guang

    2015-05-01

    One of the key challenges in realizing superparamagnetism in magnetic thin films lies in finding a low-energy growth way to create sufficiently small grains and magnetic domains which allow the magnetization to randomly and rapidly reverse. In this work, well-defined superparamagnetic and ferrimagnetic Fe3O4 thin films are successfully prepared using atomic layer deposition technique by finely controlling the growth condition and post-annealing process. As-grown Fe3O4 thin films exhibit a conformal surface and poly-crystalline nature with an average grain size of 7 nm, resulting in a superparamagnetic behavior with a blocking temperature of 210 K. After post-annealing in H2/Ar at 400 C, the as-grown ?-Fe2O3 sample is reduced to Fe3O4 phase, exhibiting a ferrimagnetic ordering and distinct magnetic shape anisotropy. Atomic layer deposition of magnetite thin films with well-controlled morphology and magnetic properties provides great opportunities for integrating with other order parameters to realize magnetic nano-devices with potential applications in spintronics, electronics, and bio-applications.

  8. Magnetite nanoparticles as reporters for microcarrier processing in cytoplasm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reibetanz, Uta; Jankuhn, Steffen

    2011-10-01

    The development and therapeutic application of drug delivery systems based on colloidal microcarriers layer-by-layer coated with biopolyelectrolytes requires the investigation of their processing inside the cell for the successful and efficient transport and release of the active agents. The present study is focused on the time-dependent multilayer decomposition and the subsequent release of active agents to the cytoplasm. Magnetite nanoparticles (MNP) were used as reporter agents integrated into the protamine sulfate/dextran sulfate basis multilayer on colloidal SiO2 cores. This functionalization allows the monitoring of the multilayer decomposition due to the detection of the MNP release, visualized by means of proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) by elemental distribution of Si and Fe. The direct correlation between the microcarrier localization in endolysosomes and cytoplasm of HEK293T/17 cells via confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and the elemental distribution (PIXE) allows tracing the fate of the MNP-coated microcarriers in cytoplasm, and thus the processing of the multilayer. Microcarrier/cell co-incubation experiments of 6 h, 24 h, 48 h, and 72 h show that a MNP release and a slight expansion into the cytoplasm occurs after a longer co-incubation of 72 h.

  9. Enhanced thermal stability of phosphate capped magnetite nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Muthukumaran, T.; Philip, John

    2014-06-14

    We have studied the effect of phosphate capping on the high temperature thermal stability and magnetic properties of magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}) nanoparticles synthesized through a single-step co-precipitation method. The prepared magnetic nanoparticles are characterized using various techniques. When annealed in air, the phosphate capped nanoparticle undergoes a magnetic to non-magnetic phase transition at a temperature of 689 °C as compared to 580 °C in the uncoated nanoparticle of similar size. The observed high temperature phase stability of phosphate capped nanoparticle is attributed to the formation of a phosphocarbonaceous shell over the nanoparticles, which acts as a covalently attached protective layer and improves the thermal stability of the core material by increasing the activation energy. The phosphocarbonaceous shell prevents the intrusion of heat, oxygen, volatiles, and mass into the magnetic core. At higher temperatures, the coalescence of nanoparticles occurs along with the restructuring of the phosphocarbonaceous shell into a vitreous semisolid layer on the nanoparticles, which is confirmed from the small angle X-ray scattering, Fourier transform infra red spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy measurements. The probable mechanism for the enhancement of thermal stability of phosphocarbonaceous capped nanoparticles is discussed.

  10. Temperature-dependent structure of Tb-doped magnetite nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Rice, Katherine P.; Russek, Stephen E. Shaw, Justin M.; Usselman, Robert J.; Evarts, Eric R.; Silva, Thomas J.; Nembach, Hans T.; Geiss, Roy H.; Arenholz, Elke; Idzerda, Yves U.

    2015-02-09

    High quality 5 nm cubic Tb-doped magnetite nanoparticles have been synthesized by a wet-chemical method to investigate tailoring of magnetic properties for imaging and biomedical applications. We show that the Tb is incorporated into the octahedral 3+ sites. High-angle annular dark-field microscopy shows that the dopant is well-distributed throughout the particle, and x-ray diffraction measurements show a small lattice parameter shift with the inclusion of a rare-earth dopant. Magnetization and x-ray magnetic circular dichroism data indicate that the Tb spins are unpolarized and weakly coupled to the iron spin lattice at room temperature, and begin to polarize and couple to the iron oxide lattice at temperatures below 50 K. Broadband ferromagnetic resonance measurements show no increase in magnetic damping at room temperature for Tb-doped nanoparticles relative to undoped nanoparticles, further confirming weak coupling between Fe and Tb spins at room temperature. The Gilbert damping constant, α, is remarkably low for the Tb-doped nanoparticles, with α = 0.024 ± 0.003. These nanoparticles, which have a large fixed moment, a large fluctuating moment and optically active rare-earth elements, are potential high-relaxivity T1 and T2 MRI agents with integrated optical signatures.

  11. Atomic layer deposition of superparamagnetic and ferrimagnetic magnetite thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yijun; Liu, Ming E-mail: wren@mail.xjtu.edu.cn Ren, Wei E-mail: wren@mail.xjtu.edu.cn; Zhang, Yuepeng; Chen, Xing; Ye, Zuo-Guang E-mail: wren@mail.xjtu.edu.cn

    2015-05-07

    One of the key challenges in realizing superparamagnetism in magnetic thin films lies in finding a low-energy growth way to create sufficiently small grains and magnetic domains which allow the magnetization to randomly and rapidly reverse. In this work, well-defined superparamagnetic and ferrimagnetic Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} thin films are successfully prepared using atomic layer deposition technique by finely controlling the growth condition and post-annealing process. As-grown Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} thin films exhibit a conformal surface and poly-crystalline nature with an average grain size of 7 nm, resulting in a superparamagnetic behavior with a blocking temperature of 210 K. After post-annealing in H{sub 2}/Ar at 400 °C, the as-grown α−Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} sample is reduced to Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} phase, exhibiting a ferrimagnetic ordering and distinct magnetic shape anisotropy. Atomic layer deposition of magnetite thin films with well-controlled morphology and magnetic properties provides great opportunities for integrating with other order parameters to realize magnetic nano-devices with potential applications in spintronics, electronics, and bio-applications.

  12. Evaluation of magnetic heating of asymmetric magnetite particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Xin; Sabyrov, Kairat; Klein, Todd; Lee Penn, R.; Wiedmann, Timothy S.

    2015-05-01

    Characterization and theoretical description of relatively large (>100 nm), asymmetric magnetic particles remain of interest particularly for applications to the mechanical damage of cells. In this work, we have examined the properties of three types of magnetite, Fe3O4, particles that were prepared by hydrogen reduction of hematite, ?-Fe2O3. Transmission electron microscopy was used to measure the size and aspect ratio (AR), which were 1.8, 3.4 and 6.6, and all displayed magnetic hysteresis with corresponding saturation magnetization values of 65, 47, and 26 emu/g, respectively. With application of an alternating magnetic field to low concentrations, the temperature increased linearly with time, and the specific loss power (SLP) increased with increasing aspect ratio with values of 11.8, 24, and 26.8 W/g. The SLP increased linearly with the square of the applied magnetic field at low concentrations, but deviations were noted for high concentrations of the 2.4 and 6.6 AR particles. SLP was also dependent on frequency, but the functional relationship was not reliably determined. In consideration of the possible heating mechanisms, none provided a satisfactorily explanation for all types of particles. While these particles are not satisfactory for magnetic hyperthermia, they may have promise for causing cell death by magnetically inducing the particles to physically rotate or vibrate.

  13. Enhanced thermal stability of phosphate capped magnetite nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muthukumaran, T.; Philip, John

    2014-06-01

    We have studied the effect of phosphate capping on the high temperature thermal stability and magnetic properties of magnetite (Fe3O4) nanoparticles synthesized through a single-step co-precipitation method. The prepared magnetic nanoparticles are characterized using various techniques. When annealed in air, the phosphate capped nanoparticle undergoes a magnetic to non-magnetic phase transition at a temperature of 689 °C as compared to 580 °C in the uncoated nanoparticle of similar size. The observed high temperature phase stability of phosphate capped nanoparticle is attributed to the formation of a phosphocarbonaceous shell over the nanoparticles, which acts as a covalently attached protective layer and improves the thermal stability of the core material by increasing the activation energy. The phosphocarbonaceous shell prevents the intrusion of heat, oxygen, volatiles, and mass into the magnetic core. At higher temperatures, the coalescence of nanoparticles occurs along with the restructuring of the phosphocarbonaceous shell into a vitreous semisolid layer on the nanoparticles, which is confirmed from the small angle X-ray scattering, Fourier transform infra red spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy measurements. The probable mechanism for the enhancement of thermal stability of phosphocarbonaceous capped nanoparticles is discussed.

  14. 76 FR 69284 - Pure Magnesium From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-08

    ... COMMISSION Pure Magnesium From China Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the subject... order on pure magnesium from China would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material... USITC Publication 4274 (October 2011), entitled Pure Magnesium from China: Investigation No....

  15. Thermal and dielectric properties of sweetpotato puree

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pureeing of sweetpotato (SP) is carried out to enhance the conversion of the roots into value-added products. During processing, production and home utilization, the puree is often heated (conventional cooking or microwaved), hence the need to measure these properties of SP puree. Thermal (specific ...

  16. Metastable growth of pure wurtzite InGaAs microstructures.

    PubMed

    Ng, Kar Wei; Ko, Wai Son; Lu, Fanglu; Chang-Hasnain, Connie J

    2014-08-13

    III-V compound semiconductors can exist in two major crystal phases, namely, zincblende (ZB) and wurtzite (WZ). While ZB is thermodynamically favorable in conventional III-V epitaxy, the pure WZ phase can be stable in nanowires with diameters smaller than certain critical values. However, thin nanowires are more vulnerable to surface recombination, and this can ultimately limit their performances as practical devices. In this work, we study a metastable growth mechanism that can yield purely WZ-phased InGaAs microstructures on silicon. InGaAs nucleates as sharp nanoneedles and expand along both axial and radial directions simultaneously in a core-shell fashion. While the base can scale from tens of nanometers to over a micron, the tip can remain sharp over the entire growth. The sharpness maintains a high local surface-to-volume ratio, favoring hexagonal lattice to grow axially. These unique features lead to the formation of microsized pure WZ InGaAs structures on silicon. To verify that the WZ microstructures are truly metastable, we demonstrate, for the first time, the in situ transformation from WZ to the energy-favorable ZB phase inside a transmission electron microscope. This unconventional core-shell growth mechanism can potentially be applied to other III-V materials systems, enabling the effective utilization of the extraordinary properties of the metastable wurtzite crystals. PMID:24988280

  17. Synthesis and Characterization of Magnetite/Zinc Oxide and Magnetite/Zinc Manganese Sulfide Core-Shell Heterostructured Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beltran Huarac, Juan Carlos

    Currently, core-shell heterostructured nanosystems are emerging as next-generation materials due to their potential multifunctionalities in contrast with the more limited single-component counterparts. Systematic investigation of core-shell nanostructures of ZnO and bare-and-doped-Mn2+ ZnS nanocrystals on the surface of magnetite nanoparticles (Fe3O 4) was performed. The magnetite cores were prepared via the co-precipitation method and were next treated with an appropriate surfactant. The Fe3 O4/(S) (S=ZnO and ZnMnS) core-shell nanoparticles were obtained by an aqueous solution method at room temperature. The structural tests were carried out using an x-ray diffractometer (XRD) which showed the development of crystalline phases of cubic Fe3O4, hexagonal ZnO wurtzite and cubic ZnS. These patterns also established the matching between bare and doped-Mn2+ ZnS diffraction peaks. Broadness of the diffraction peaks evidenced the formation of nanosize phases. The transmission electron microscopy (TEM) confirmed the deposition of a semiconductor shell on the surface of superparamagnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles. The UV-Vis spectra showed the presence of a strong absorption peak and photoluminescence (PL) spectra displayed the emission peak due to excitonic recombination and a very weak defect-related emission peak suggesting the rearrangement of electronic configuration in the core-shell structures when ZnO is surrounding the core. These spectra also displayed the strong emission peak attributed to paramagnetic ion Mn2+ when acted as dopant in the host ZnS structure. The study of the magnetic properties was carried out using a vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) which evidenced considerable drop in the saturation magnetization of the Fe3O4/ZnO nanoparticles in comparison to individual Fe3O4 ones. For the Fe3O4/ZnMnS system a slight ferromagnetic behavior at room temperature was observed. The chemical composition of these nanomaterials was performed by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). This elemental analysis demonstrated the presence of Zn on the surface of the magnetic seed at an appropriate shell thickness. These core-shell heterostructured nanoparticles are receiving great potential applications in biomedical areas such as photodynamic therapy.

  18. Spectral and other physicochemical properties of submicron powders of hematite (alpha-Fe2O3), maghemite (gamma-Fe2O3), magnetite (Fe3O4), goethite (alpha-FeOOH), and lepidocrocite (gamma-FeOOH).

    PubMed

    Morris, R V; Lauer, H V; Lawson, C A; Gibson, E K; Nace, G A; Stewart, C

    1985-03-10

    Spectral and other physicochemical properties were determined for a suite of submicron powders of hematite (alpha-Fe2O3), maghemite (gamma-Fe2O3), magnetite (Fe3O4), goethite (alpha-FeOOH), and lepidocrocite (gamma-FeOOH). The spectral reflectivity measurements were made between 0.35 and 2.20 micrograms over the temperature interval between about -110 degrees and 20 degrees C. Other physicochemical properties determined were mean particle diameter, particle shape, chemical composition, crystallographic phase, magnetic properties, and Mossbauer properties. Only the magnetite powders have significant departures from the stoichiometric phase; they are actually cation-deficient magnetites having down to about 18.0 wt % FeO as compared with 31.0 wt % FeO for stoichiometric magnetite. A structured absorption edge due to crystal field transitions and extending from weak absorption in the near-IR to intense absorption in the near-UV is characteristic of the ferric oxides and oxyhydroxides and is responsible for their intense color. Particularly for hematite, the number and position of the spectral features are consistent with significant splitting of the degenerate cubic levels by noncubic components of the crystal field. The position of the crystal-field band at lowest energy, assigned to the envelope of the components of the split cubic 4T1 level, is near 0.86, 0.91, 0.92, and 0.98 microgram at room temperature for hematite, goethite, maghemite, and lepidocrocite, respectively. Comparison with Mossbauer data suggests covalent character increases sequentially through the aforementioned series. The positions of the spectra features are relatively independent of temperature down to about -110 degrees C. The maximum shifts observed were on the order of about 0.02 microgram shortward for the ferric oxyhydroxides. Variations in the magnitude of the reflectivity of the hematite powders as a function of mean particle diameter are consistent with scattering theory. The absorption strength of the crystal-field bands increases with increasing mean particle diameter over the range 0.1-0.8 micrometer; visually this corresponds to a change in color from orange to deep purple. The position of the split cubic 4T1 band shifts longward by about 0.02 micrometer with decreasing mean particle diameter over the same range; this trend is consistent with wavelength-dependent scattering. The cation-deficient magnetite powders are very strong absorbers throughout the near-UV, visible and near-IR; their spectral properties are independent of temperature between about -110 and 20 degrees C. PMID:11542003

  19. The synthesis and characterization of poly(?-glutamic acid)-coated magnetite nanoparticles and their effects on antibacterial activity and cytotoxicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inbaraj, B. Stephen; Kao, T. H.; Tsai, T. Y.; Chiu, C. P.; Kumar, R.; Chen, B. H.

    2011-02-01

    Magnetite nanoparticles (MNPs) modified with sodium and calcium salts of poly(?-glutamic acid) (NaPGA and CaPGA) were synthesized by the coprecipitation method, followed by characterization and evaluation of their antibacterial and cytotoxic effects. Superparamagnetic MNPs are particularly attractive for magnetic driving as well as bacterial biofilm and cell targeting in in vivo applications. Characterization of synthesized MNPs by the Fourier transform infrared spectra and magnetization curves confirmed the PGA coating on MNPs. The mean diameter of NaPGA- and CaPGA-coated MNPs as determined by transmission electron microscopy was 11.8 and 14 nm, respectively, while the x-ray diffraction pattern revealed the as-synthesized MNPs to be pure magnetite. Based on agar dilution assay, both NaPGA- and CaPGA-coated MNPs showed a lower minimum inhibitory concentration in Salmonella enteritidis SE 01 than the commercial antibiotics linezolid and cefaclor, but the former was effective against Escherichia coli ATCC 8739 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 10832, whereas the latter was effective against Escherichia coli O157:H7 TWC 01. An in vitro cytotoxicity study in human skin fibroblast cells as measured by MTT assay implied the as-synthesized MNPs to be nontoxic. This outcome demonstrated that both ?-PGA-modified MNPs are cytocompatible and possess antibacterial activity in vitro, and thereby should be useful in in vivo studies for biomedical applications.

  20. Magnetite-sulfide chondrules and nodules in CK carbonaceous chondrites - Implications for the timing of CK oxidation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubin, Alan E.

    1993-01-01

    CK carbonaceous chondrites contain rare (about 0.1 vol pct) magnetite-sulfide chondrules that range from about 240 to 500 microns in apparent diameter and have ellipsoidal to spheroidal morphologies, granular textures, and concentric layering. They resemble the magnetite-sulfide nodules occurring inside mafic silicate chondrules in CK chondrites. It seems likely that the magnetite-sulfide chondrules constitute the subset of magnetite-sulfide nodules that escaped as immiscible droplets from their molten silicate chondrule hosts during chondrule formation. The intactness of the magnetite-sulfide chondrules and nodules implies that oxidation of CK metal occurred before agglomeration. Hence, the pervasive silicate darkening of CK chondrites was caused by the shock mobilization of magnetite and sulfide, not metallic Fe-Ni and sulfide as in shock-darkened ordinary chondrites.

  1. Platinum-group element geochemistry of the Zhuqing Fe-Ti-V oxide ore-bearing mafic intrusions in western Yangtze Block, SW China: control of platinum-group elements by magnetite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Hong-Peng; Zhu, Wei-Guang; Zhong, Hong; Bai, Zhong-Jie; He, De-Feng; Ye, Xian-Tao; Chen, Cai-Jie; Cao, Chong-Yong

    2014-06-01

    Platinum-group element (PGE) geochemistry combined with elemental geochemistry and magnetite compositions are reported for the Mesoproterozoic Zhuqing Fe-Ti-V oxide ore-bearing mafic intrusions in the western Yangtze Block, SW China. All the Zhuqing gabbros display extremely low concentrations of chalcophile elements and PGEs. The oxide-rich gabbros contain relatively higher contents of Cr, Ni, Ir, Ru, Rh, and lower contents of Pt and Pd than the oxide-poor gabbros. The abundances of whole-rock concentrations of Ni, Ir, Ru, and Rh correlate well with V contents in the Zhuqing gabbros, implying that the distributions of these elements are controlled by magnetite. The fractionation between Ir-Ru-Rh and Pt-Pd in the Zhuqing gabbros is mainly attributed to fractional crystallization of chromite and magnetite, whereas Ru anomalies are mainly due to variable degrees of compatibility of PGE in magnetite. The order of relative incompatibility of PGEs is calculated to be Pd < Pt < Rh < Ir < Ru. The very low PGE contents and Cu/Zr ratios and high Cu/Pd ratios suggest initially S-saturated magma parents that were highly depleted in PGE, which mainly formed due to low degrees of partial melting leaving sulfides concentrating PGEs behind in the mantle. Moreover, the low MgO, Ni, Ir and Ru contents and high Cu/Ni and Pd/Ir ratios for the gabbros suggest a highly evolved parental magma. Fe-Ti oxides fractionally crystallized from the highly evolved magma and subsequently settled in the lower sections of the magma chamber, where they concentrated and formed Fe-Ti-V oxide ore layers at the base of the lower and upper cycles. Multiple episodes of magma replenishment in the magma chamber may have been involved in the formation of the Zhuqing intrusions.

  2. Fayalite Oxidation Processes: Experimental Evidence for the Stability of Pure Ferric Fayalite?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, A. M.; Righter, K.; Keller, L. P.; Medard, E.; Devouard, B.; Rahman, Z.

    2011-01-01

    Olivine is one of the most important minerals in Earth and planetary sciences. Fayalite Fe2(2+)SiO4, the ferrous end-member of olivine, is present in some terrestrial rocks and primitive meteorites (CV3 chondrites). A ferric fayalite (or ferri-fayalite), Fe(2+) Fe2(3+)(SiO4)2 laihunite, has been reported in Earth samples (magnetite ore, metamorphic and volcanic rocks...) and in Martian meteorites (nakhlites). Laihunite was also synthesized at 1 atmosphere between 400 and 700 C. We show evidence for the stability of a pure ferrifayalite end-member and for potential minerals with XFe(3+) between 2/3 and 1.

  3. Oxygen-isotopes in magnetite and fayalite in CV chondrites Kaba and Mokoia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Byeon-Gak; Krot, Alexander N.; Wasson, John T.

    2000-11-01

    We report in situ measurements of oxygen-isotope compositions of magnetite and primary and secondary olivine in the highly unequilibrated oxidized CV chondrites Kaba and Mokoia. In both meteorites the magnetite and the secondary olivine (fayalite, Fa90-100) have O-isotope compositions near the terrestrial fractionation (TF) line; the mean 17O (=17O-0.5218O) value is -1% In contrast, the compositions of nearby primary (chondrule), low-FeO olivines (Fa1-2) are well below the TF line; 17O values range from -3% to -9% Krot et al. (1998) summarized evidence indicating that the secondary phases in these chondrites formed by aqueous alteration in an asteroidal setting. The compositions of magnetite and fayalite in Kaba and Mokoia imply that the oxygen isotopic composition of the oxidant was near or somewhat above the TF line. In Mokoia the fayalite and magnetite differ in 18O by 20% whereas these same materials in Kaba have virtually identical compositions. The difference between Mokoia magnetite and fayalite may indicate formation in isotopic equilibrium in a water-rich environment at low temperatures, ~300 K. In contrast, the similar compositions of these phases in Kaba may indicate formation of the fayalite by replacement of preexisting magnetite in dry environment, with the O coming entirely from the precursor magnetite and silica. The 17O of the oxidant incorporated into the CV parent body (as phyllosilicates or H2O) appears to have been much (7-8% lower than that in that incorporated into the LL parent body (Choi et al., 1998), suggesting that the O-isotopic composition of the nebular gas was spatially or temporally variable.

  4. Trichloroethylene degradation by persulphate with magnetite as a heterogeneous activator in aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Ruan, Xiaoxin; Gu, Xiaogang; Lu, Shuguang; Qiu, Zhaofu; Sui, Qian

    2015-01-01

    Iron oxide-magnetite (Fe3O4) as a heterogeneous activator to activate persulphate anions (S2O8(2-)) for trichloroethylene (TCE) degradation was investigated in this study. The experimental results showed that TCE could be completely oxidized within 5 h by using 5 g L(-1) magnetite and 63 mM S2O8(2-), indicating the effectiveness of the process for TCE removal. Various factors of the process, including. (S2O8(2-) and magnetite dosages, and initial solution pH, were evaluated, and TCE degradation fitted well to the pseudo-first-order kinetic model. The calculated kinetic rate constant was increased with increasing S2O8(2-) and magnetite dosages, but it was independent of solution pH. In addition, the changes of magnetite morphology examined by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray powder diffraction, respectively, confirmed the slight corrosion with α-Fe2O3 coated on the magnetite surface. The probe compounds tests clearly identified the generation of the reactive oxygen species in the system. While the free radical quenching studies further demonstrated that •SO4- and •OH were the major radicals responsible for TCE degradation, whereas •O2- contributed less in the system, and therefore the roles of reactive oxygen species on TCE degradation mechanisms were proposed accordingly. To our best knowledge, this is the first time the performance and mechanism of magnetite-activated persulphate oxidation for TCE degradation are reported. The findings of this study provided a new insight into the heterogeneous catalysis mechanism and showed a great potential for the practical application of this technique in in situ TCE-contaminated groundwater remediation. PMID:25496173

  5. Bringing Planctomycetes into pure culture

    PubMed Central

    Lage, Olga M.; Bondoso, Joana

    2012-01-01

    Planctomycetes have been known since the description of Planctomyces bekefii by Gimesi at the beginning of the twentieth century (1924), although the first axenic cultures were only obtained in the 1970s. Since then, 11 genera with 14 species have been validly named and five candidatus genera belonging to the anaerobic ammonium oxidation, anammox bacteria have also been discovered. However, Planctomycetes diversity is much broader than these numbers indicate, as shown by environmental molecular studies. In recent years, the authors have attempted to isolate and cultivate additional strains of Planctomycetes. This paper provides a summary of the isolation work that was carried out to obtain in pure culture Planctomycetes from several environmental sources. The following strains of planctomycetes have been successfully isolated: two freshwater strains from the sediments of an aquarium, which were described as a new genus and species, Aquisphaera giovannonii; several Rhodopirellula strains from the sediments of a water treatment recycling tank of a marine fish farm; and more than 140 planctomycetes from the biofilm community of macroalgae. This collection comprises several novel taxa that are being characterized and described. Improvements in the isolation methodology were made in order to optimize and enlarge the number of Planctomycetes isolated from the macroalgae. The existence of an intimate and an important relationship between planctomycetes and macroalgae reported before by molecular studies is therefore supported by culture-dependent methods. PMID:23335915

  6. Direct observations of field-induced assemblies in magnetite ferrofluids

    PubMed Central

    Mousavi, N. S. Susan

    2015-01-01

    Evolution of microstructures in magnetite-based ferrofluids with weak dipolar moments (particle size ≤ 10 nm) is studied with an emphasis on examining the effects of particle concentration (ϕ) and magnetic field strength (H) on the structures. Nanoparticles are dispersed in water at three different concentrations, ϕ = 0.15%, 0.48%, and 0.59% (w/v) [g/ml%] and exposed to uniform magnetic fields in the range of H = 0.05–0.42 T. Cryogenic transmission electron microscopy is employed to provide in-situ observations of the field-induced assemblies in such systems. As the magnetic field increases, the Brownian colloids are observed to form randomly distributed chains aligned in the field direction, followed by head-to-tail chain aggregation and then lateral aggregation of chains termed as zippering. By increasing the field in low concentration samples, the number of chains increases, though their length does not change dramatically. Increasing concentration increases the length of the linear particle assemblies in the presence of a fixed external magnetic field. Thickening of the chains due to zippering is observed at relatively high fields. Through a systematic variation of concentration and magnetic field strength, this study shows that both magnetic field strength and change in concentration can strongly influence formation of microstructures even in weak dipolar systems. Additionally, the results of two commonly used support films on electron microscopy grids, continuous carbon and holey carbon films, are compared. Holey carbon film allows us to create local regions of high concentrations that further assist the development of field-induced assemblies. The experimental observations provide a validation of the zippering effect and can be utilized in the development of models for thermophysical properties such as thermal conductivity. PMID:25829566

  7. One-step continuous synthesis of functionalized magnetite nanoflowers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, G.; Demoisson, F.; Chassagnon, R.; Popova, E.; Millot, N.

    2016-04-01

    For the first time, functionalized magnetite nanoparticles (Fe3O4 NPs) that form aggregates with a nanoflower morphology were synthesized using a rapid (11 s) one-step continuous hydrothermal process, which was recently modified, and their application as a T 2 magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agent was evaluated. The nanoparticles functionalized with 3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine (LDOPA) or 3,4-dihydroxyhydrocinnamic acid (DHCA) consisted of small crystallites of approximately 15 nm of diameter that assembled to form flower-shaped aggregate structures. The Fe3O4–LDOPA nanoflowers exhibited a high transverse relaxivity, r 2 of 418 ± 10 l mmolFe ‑1 s‑1 at 3 T owing to magnetic dipolar interactions, which is twice as that of the commercial Feridex®/Endorem®. The prepared nanostructures were compared with bare Fe3O4 NPs and citrated Fe3O4 NPs. DHCA, LDOPA, and citric acid (CA) were found to have an anti-oxidizing effect and to influence the crystallite size and the lattice parameter of the NPs. DHCA and LDOPA increased the crystallite size, whereas CA decreased it. Surface modification increased the colloidal stability of NPs as compared to bare NPs. Nanoflower suspensions of Fe3O4–LDOPA NPs were found to be stable in the phosphate-buffered saline, saline medium, and minimal essential medium and formed aggregates of sizes smaller than 120 nm. All samples were found to be superparamagnetic in nature and the highest saturation magnetization was obtained for the Fe3O4–LDOPA samples. These NPs can bind to polymers such as PEG, and to fluorescent and chelating agents owing to the presence of free –NH2 or –COOH groups on the surface of NPs, allowing their use in dual imaging applications.

  8. Direct observations of field-induced assemblies in magnetite ferrofluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mousavi, N. S. Susan; Khapli, Sachin D.; Kumar, Sunil

    2015-03-01

    Evolution of microstructures in magnetite-based ferrofluids with weak dipolar moments (particle size ? 10 nm) is studied with an emphasis on examining the effects of particle concentration (?) and magnetic field strength (H) on the structures. Nanoparticles are dispersed in water at three different concentrations, ? = 0.15%, 0.48%, and 0.59% (w/v) [g/ml%] and exposed to uniform magnetic fields in the range of H = 0.05-0.42 T. Cryogenic transmission electron microscopy is employed to provide in-situ observations of the field-induced assemblies in such systems. As the magnetic field increases, the Brownian colloids are observed to form randomly distributed chains aligned in the field direction, followed by head-to-tail chain aggregation and then lateral aggregation of chains termed as zippering. By increasing the field in low concentration samples, the number of chains increases, though their length does not change dramatically. Increasing concentration increases the length of the linear particle assemblies in the presence of a fixed external magnetic field. Thickening of the chains due to zippering is observed at relatively high fields. Through a systematic variation of concentration and magnetic field strength, this study shows that both magnetic field strength and change in concentration can strongly influence formation of microstructures even in weak dipolar systems. Additionally, the results of two commonly used support films on electron microscopy grids, continuous carbon and holey carbon films, are compared. Holey carbon film allows us to create local regions of high concentrations that further assist the development of field-induced assemblies. The experimental observations provide a validation of the zippering effect and can be utilized in the development of models for thermophysical properties such as thermal conductivity.

  9. One-step continuous synthesis of functionalized magnetite nanoflowers.

    PubMed

    Thomas, G; Demoisson, F; Chassagnon, R; Popova, E; Millot, N

    2016-04-01

    For the first time, functionalized magnetite nanoparticles (Fe3O4 NPs) that form aggregates with a nanoflower morphology were synthesized using a rapid (11 s) one-step continuous hydrothermal process, which was recently modified, and their application as a T 2 magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agent was evaluated. The nanoparticles functionalized with 3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine (LDOPA) or 3,4-dihydroxyhydrocinnamic acid (DHCA) consisted of small crystallites of approximately 15 nm of diameter that assembled to form flower-shaped aggregate structures. The Fe3O4-LDOPA nanoflowers exhibited a high transverse relaxivity, r 2 of 418 ± 10 l mmolFe (-1) s(-1) at 3 T owing to magnetic dipolar interactions, which is twice as that of the commercial Feridex®/Endorem®. The prepared nanostructures were compared with bare Fe3O4 NPs and citrated Fe3O4 NPs. DHCA, LDOPA, and citric acid (CA) were found to have an anti-oxidizing effect and to influence the crystallite size and the lattice parameter of the NPs. DHCA and LDOPA increased the crystallite size, whereas CA decreased it. Surface modification increased the colloidal stability of NPs as compared to bare NPs. Nanoflower suspensions of Fe3O4-LDOPA NPs were found to be stable in the phosphate-buffered saline, saline medium, and minimal essential medium and formed aggregates of sizes smaller than 120 nm. All samples were found to be superparamagnetic in nature and the highest saturation magnetization was obtained for the Fe3O4-LDOPA samples. These NPs can bind to polymers such as PEG, and to fluorescent and chelating agents owing to the presence of free -NH2 or -COOH groups on the surface of NPs, allowing their use in dual imaging applications. PMID:26900748

  10. Direct observations of field-induced assemblies in magnetite ferrofluids

    SciTech Connect

    Mousavi, N. S. Susan; Khapli, Sachin D.; Kumar, Sunil

    2015-03-14

    Evolution of microstructures in magnetite-based ferrofluids with weak dipolar moments (particle size ≤ 10 nm) is studied with an emphasis on examining the effects of particle concentration (ϕ) and magnetic field strength (H) on the structures. Nanoparticles are dispersed in water at three different concentrations, ϕ = 0.15%, 0.48%, and 0.59% (w/v) [g/ml%] and exposed to uniform magnetic fields in the range of H = 0.05–0.42 T. Cryogenic transmission electron microscopy is employed to provide in-situ observations of the field-induced assemblies in such systems. As the magnetic field increases, the Brownian colloids are observed to form randomly distributed chains aligned in the field direction, followed by head-to-tail chain aggregation and then lateral aggregation of chains termed as zippering. By increasing the field in low concentration samples, the number of chains increases, though their length does not change dramatically. Increasing concentration increases the length of the linear particle assemblies in the presence of a fixed external magnetic field. Thickening of the chains due to zippering is observed at relatively high fields. Through a systematic variation of concentration and magnetic field strength, this study shows that both magnetic field strength and change in concentration can strongly influence formation of microstructures even in weak dipolar systems. Additionally, the results of two commonly used support films on electron microscopy grids, continuous carbon and holey carbon films, are compared. Holey carbon film allows us to create local regions of high concentrations that further assist the development of field-induced assemblies. The experimental observations provide a validation of the zippering effect and can be utilized in the development of models for thermophysical properties such as thermal conductivity.

  11. Optimizing magnetite nanoparticles for mass sensitivity in magnetic particle imaging

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, R. Matthew; Minard, Kevin R.; Khandhar, Amit P.; Krishnan, Kannan M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Magnetic particle imaging (MPI), using magnetite nanoparticles (MNPs) as tracer material, shows great promise as a platform for fast tomographic imaging. To date, the magnetic properties of MNPs used in imaging have not been optimized. As nanoparticle magnetism shows strong size dependence, the authors explore how varying MNP size impacts imaging performance in order to determine optimal MNP characteristics for MPI at any driving field frequency f0. Methods: Monodisperse MNPs of varying size were synthesized and their magnetic properties characterized. Their MPI response was measured experimentally using a custom-built MPI transceiver designed to detect the third harmonic of MNP magnetization. The driving field amplitude H0=6 mT ?0?1 and frequency f0=250 kHz were chosen to be suitable for imaging small animals. Experimental results were interpreted using a model of dynamic MNP magnetization that is based on the Langevin theory of superparamagnetism and accounts for sample size distribution and size-dependent magnetic relaxation. Results: The experimental results show a clear variation in the MPI signal intensity as a function of MNP diameter that is in agreement with simulated results. A maximum in the plot of MPI signal vs MNP size indicates there is a particular size that is optimal for the chosen f0. Conclusions: The authors observed that MNPs 15 nm in diameter generate maximum signal amplitude in MPI experiments at 250 kHz. The authors expect the physical basis for this result, the change in magnetic relaxation with MNP size, will impact MPI under other experimental conditions. PMID:21520874

  12. Impedimetric sensor for toxigenic Penicillium sclerotigenum detection in yam based on magnetite-poly(allylamine hydrochloride) composite.

    PubMed

    Silva, Gilcelia J L; Andrade, Cesar A S; Oliveira, Idjane S; de Melo, Celso P; Oliveira, Maria D L

    2013-04-15

    We describe a new DNA biosensor for the detection of toxigenic Penicillium sclerotigenum in pure culture or infected yams. The P. sclerotigenum detection takes place on a self-assembled monolayer of a (magnetite)/(poly(allylamine hydrochloride)) (Fe3O4-PAH) composite that serves as an anchoring layer for the DNA hybridization interaction. Electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was used to evaluate and quantify the hybridization degree. The Fe3O4-PAH composite is a good platform for the immobilization of biomolecules, due to the presence of many possible binding sites for nucleotides and to its large surface-to-volume ratio and good biocompatibility. The biosensor was capable of not only qualitatively detecting the presence of the fungus genome at low concentrations, but also shown a good quantitative impedimetric response its electrical resistance was monitored along the time of exposure. A Fe3O4-PAH-probe biosensor would require only small volumes and low concentrations of the analyte when used, for instance, in detecting P. sclerotigenum contamination of food, besides presenting many comparative advantages, such as selectivity, specificity and reproducibility, relative to alternative techniques. PMID:23465186

  13. Microwave resonant and zero-field absorption study of doped magnetite prepared by a co-precipitation method.

    PubMed

    Aphesteguy, Juan Carlos; Jacobo, Silvia E; Lezama, Luis; Kurlyandskaya, Galina V; Schegoleva, Nina N

    2014-01-01

    Fe3O4 and ZnxFe3-xO4 pure and doped magnetite magnetic nanoparticles (NPs) were prepared in aqueous solution (Series A) or in a water-ethyl alcohol mixture (Series B) by the co-precipitation method. Only one ferromagnetic resonance line was observed in all cases under consideration indicating that the materials are magnetically uniform. The shortfall in the resonance fields from 3.27 kOe (for the frequency of 9.5 GHz) expected for spheres can be understood taking into account the dipolar forces, magnetoelasticity, or magnetocrystalline anisotropy. All samples show non-zero low field absorption. For Series A samples the grain size decreases with an increase of the Zn content. In this case zero field absorption does not correlate with the changes of the grain size. For Series B samples the grain size and zero field absorption behavior correlate with each other. The highest zero-field absorption corresponded to 0.2 zinc concentration in both A and B series. High zero-field absorption of Fe3O4 ferrite magnetic NPs can be interesting for biomedical applications. PMID:24950442

  14. Size dependent heat generation of magnetite nanoparticles under AC magnetic field for cancer therapy

    PubMed Central

    Motoyama, Jun; Hakata, Toshiyuki; Kato, Ryuji; Yamashita, Noriyuki; Morino, Tomio; Kobayashi, Takeshi; Honda, Hiroyuki

    2008-01-01

    Background We have developed magnetic cationic liposomes (MCLs) that contained magnetic nanoparticles as heating mediator for applying them to local hyperthermia. The heating performance of the MCLs is significantly affected by the property of the incorporated magnetite nanoparticles. We estimated heating capacity of magnetite nanoparticles by measuring its specific absorption rate (SAR) against irradiation of the alternating magnetic field (AMF). Method Magnetite nanoparticles which have various specific-surface-area (SSA) are dispersed in the sample tubes, subjected to various AMF and studied SAR. Result Heat generation of magnetite particles under variable AMF conditions was summarized by the SSA. There were two maximum SAR values locally between 12 m2/g to 190 m2/g of the SSA in all ranges of applied AMF frequency and those values increased followed by the intensity of AMF power. One of the maximum values was observed at approximately 90 m2/g of the SSA particles and the other was observed at approximately 120 m2/g of the SSA particles. A boundary value of the SAR for heat generation was observed around 110 m2/g of SSA particles and the effects of the AMF power were different on both hand. Smaller SSA particles showed strong correlation of the SAR value to the intensity of the AMF power though larger SSA particles showed weaker correlation. Conclusion Those results suggest that two maximum SAR value stand for the heating mechanism of magnetite nanoparticles represented by hysteresis loss and relaxation loss. PMID:18928573

  15. Control of nanoparticle size, reactivity and magnetic properties during the bioproduction of magnetite by Geobacter sulfurreducens

    SciTech Connect

    Byrne, J. M.; Telling, N. D.; Coker, V. S.; Pattrick, R. A. D.; Laan, G. van der; Arenholz, E.; Tuna, F.; Lloyd, J. R.

    2011-08-02

    The bioproduction of nano-scale magnetite by Fe(III)-reducing bacteria offers a potentially tunable, environmentally benign route to magnetic nanoparticle synthesis. Here, we demonstrate that it is possible to control the size of magnetite nanoparticles produced by Geobacter sulfurreducens, by adjusting the total biomass introduced at the start of the process. The particles have a narrow size distribution and can be controlled within the range of 10-50 nm. X-ray diffraction analysis indicates that controlled production of a number of different biominerals is possible via this method including goethite, magnetite and siderite, but their formation is strongly dependent upon the rate of Fe(III) reduction and total concentration and rate of Fe(II) produced by the bacteria during the reduction process. Relative cation distributions within the structure of the nanoparticles has been investigated by X-ray magnetic circular dichroism and indicates the presence of a highly reduced surface layer which is not observed when magnetite is produced through abiotic methods. The enhanced Fe(II)-rich surface, combined with small particle size, has important environmental applications such as in the reductive bioremediation of organics, radionuclides and metals. In the case of Cr(VI), as a model high-valence toxic metal, optimised biogenic magnetite is able to reduce and sequester the toxic hexavalent chromium very efficiently in the less harmful trivalent form.

  16. The Use of Magnetite as a Polarisable Anode in the Electrolysis of Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berntson, Bjorn; Woods Halley, J.; Schofield, Andy

    2012-02-01

    We have studied the oxidation of magnetite to Fe2O3 in an electrolytic cell in which the cathode is magnetite and the anode is platinum. We report cyclic voltammogram data consistent with the hypothesis that magnetite, without oxygen gas production but with hydrogen gas production at the anode, is occurring. The reaction occurs at a potential at the cathode of about 0.3V vs SCE in 1M NaOH electrolyte, consistent with colloid experiments which also estimated the equilibrium potential of the hypothesized reaction. We find currents on the order of a milliamp per gram of magnetite electrode with the pelletized magnetite powder electrodes which we are using. Electrode characterization results using BET, XDS and macroscopic volume and mass measurements are reported, as well measurements of the amount of hydrogen gas generated per unit current. The quantity of gas generated is also consistent with our hypothesis concerning the electrode chemistry. Some samples exhibit evidence of two oxidation reactions occurring at the cathode and a possible interpretation of these is also discussed.

  17. Kinetics of cadmium(II) uptake by mixed maghemite-magnetite nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Saidur Rahman; Yanful, Ernest K

    2013-11-15

    In the present study, batch adsorption experiments involving the adsorption of Cd(II) ions from aqueous solutions have been carried out using mixed maghemite-magnetite as adsorbent. The uptake capacity of Cd(II) ions by mixed maghemite-magnetite increased with an increase in the pH of the adsorbate solution. An increase in adsorbent dosage increased Cd(II) removal but decreased adsorption capacity and it was found to follow the pseudo-second-order model. Cd removal from a solution containing 1.5 mg/L initial concentration of Cd(II) decreased from 1.9 to 1.3 mg/g upon increasing the temperature from 10 to 50 °C. Cadmium adsorption may be partly diffusion controlled and partly due to electrostatic effect along with specific adsorption involving the adsorption of Cd(++) and CdOH(+) on mixed maghemite-magnetite nanoparticles in the alkaline pH range. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) surveys confirmed that Cd(2+) ions may undergo oxidation-reduction reactions upon exposure to mixed maghemite-magnetite, or may be fixed by complexation to oxygen atoms in the oxyhydroxy groups at the surface of the iron oxide nanoparticles. After Cd(II) adsorption by the maghemite-magnetite mixture, the percent maghemite decreased from 74.8 to 68.5%. PMID:24041626

  18. Magnetite biomineralization in Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense: time-resolved magnetic and structural studies.

    PubMed

    Fdez-Gubieda, M Luisa; Muela, Alicia; Alonso, Javier; García-Prieto, Ana; Olivi, Luca; Fernández-Pacheco, Rodrigo; Barandiarán, José Manuel

    2013-04-23

    Magnetotactic bacteria biosynthesize magnetite nanoparticles of high structural and chemical purity that allow them to orientate in the geomagnetic field. In this work we have followed the process of biomineralization of these magnetite nanoparticles. We have performed a time-resolved study on magnetotactic bacteria Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense strain MSR-1. From the combination of magnetic and structural studies by means of Fe K-edge X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy we have identified and quantified two phases of Fe (ferrihydrite and magnetite) involved in the biomineralization process, confirming the role of ferrihydrite as the source of Fe ions for magnetite biomineralization in M. gryphiswaldense. We have distinguished two steps in the biomineralization process: the first, in which Fe is accumulated in the form of ferrihydrite, and the second, in which the magnetite is rapidly biomineralized from ferrihydrite. Finally, the XANES analysis suggests that the origin of the ferrihydrite could be at bacterial ferritin cores, characterized by a poorly crystalline structure and high phosphorus content. PMID:23530668

  19. Detonation velocity of pure and mixed CHNO explosives at maximum nominal density.

    PubMed

    Keshavarz, Mohammad Hossein

    2007-03-22

    In this paper, a simple approach is introduced to predict detonation velocity of pure and mixed explosives at maximum nominal density. This technique may be applied to any pure or mixed explosives that contain elements of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen and oxygen. The new method requires only elemental composition and some specific structural parameters. The introduced correlation can easily be applied for determining maximum expected detonation velocity of any new CHNO explosive without using its crystal density. Calculated detonation velocities by this procedure for both pure and composite explosive formulations show good agreement with respect to measured detonation velocity at maximum nominal density. PMID:16959409

  20. Magnetite magnetosome and fragmental chain formation of Magnetospirillum magneticum AMB-1: transmission electron microscopy and magnetic observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jinhua; Pan, Yongxin; Chen, Guanjun; Liu, Qingsong; Tian, Lanxiang; Lin, Wei

    2009-04-01

    Stable single-domain (SD) magnetite formed intracellularly by magnetotactic bacteria is of fundamental interest in sedimentary and environmental magnetism. In this study, we studied the time course of magnetosome growth and magnetosome chain formation (0-96 hr) in Magnetospirillum magneticum AMB-1 by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observation and rock magnetism. The initial non-magnetic cells were microaerobically batch cultured at 26 C in a modified magnetic spirillum growth medium. TEM observations indicated that between 20 and 24 hr magnetosome crystals began to mineralize simultaneously at multiple sites within the cell body, followed by a phase of rapid growth lasting up to 48 hr cultivation. The synthesized magnetosomes were found to be assembled into 3-5 subchains, which were linearly aligned along the long axis of the cell, supporting the idea that magnetosome vesicles were linearly anchored to the inner membrane of cell. By 96 hr cultivation, 14 cubo-octahedral magnetosome crystals in average with a mean grain size of ~44.5 nm were formed in a cell. Low-temperature (10-300 K) thermal demagnetization, room-temperature hysteresis loops and first-order reversal curves (FORCs) were conducted on whole cell samples. Both coercivity (4.7-18.1 mT) and Verwey transition temperature (100-106 K) increase with increasing cultivation time length, which can be explained by increasing grain size and decreasing non-stoichiometry of magnetite, respectively. Shapes of hysteresis loops and FORCs indicated each subchain behaving as an `ideal' uniaxial SD particle and extremely weak magnetostatic interaction fields between subchains. Low-temperature thermal demagnetization of remanence demonstrated that the Moskowitz test is valid for such linear subchain configurations (e.g. ?FC/?ZFC > 2.0), implying that the test is applicable to ancient sediments where magnetosome chains might have been broken up into short chains due to disintegration of the organic scaffold structures after cell death. These findings provide new insights into magnetosome biomineralization of magnetotactic bacteria and contribute to better understanding the magnetism of magnetofossils in natural environments.

  1. Multi-stage freezing of HEUR polymer networks with magnetite nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Campanella, A; Holderer, O; Raftopoulos, K N; Papadakis, C M; Staropoli, M P; Appavou, M S; Müller-Buschbaum, P; Frielinghaus, H

    2016-04-01

    We observe a change in the segmental dynamics of hydrogels based on hydrophobically modified ethoxylated urethanes (HEUR) when hydrophobic magnetite nanoparticles (MNPs) are embedded in the hydrogels. The dynamics of the nanocomposite hydrogels is investigated using dielectric relaxation spectroscopy (DRS) and neutron spin echo (NSE) spectroscopy. The magnetic nanoparticles within the hydrophobic domains of the HEUR polymer network increase the size of these domains and their distance. The size increase leads to a dilution of the polymers close to the hydrophobic domain, allowing higher mobility of the smallest polymer blobs close to the "center". This is reflected in the decrease of the activation energy of the β-process detected in the DRS data. The increase in distance leads to an increase of the size of the largest hydrophilic polymer blobs. Therefore, the segmental dynamics of the largest blobs is slowed down. At short time scales, i.e. 10(-9) s < τ < 10(-3) s, the suppression of the segmental dynamics is reflected in the α-relaxation processes detected in the DRS data and in the decrease of the relaxation rate Γ of the segmental motion in the NSE data with increasing concentration of magnetic nanoparticles. The stepwise (multi-stage) freezing of the small blobs is only visible for the pure hydrogel at low temperatures. On the other hand, the glass transition temperature (Tg) decreases upon increasing the MNP loading, indicating an acceleration of the segmental dynamics at long time scales (τ∼ 100 s). Therefore, it would be possible to tune the Tg of the hydrogels by varying the MNP concentration. The contribution of the static inhomogeneities to the total scattering function Sst(q) is extracted from the NSE data, revealing a more ordered gel structure than the one giving rise to the total scattering function S(q), with a relaxed correlation length ξNSE = (43 ± 5) Å which is larger than the fluctuating correlation length from a static investigation ξSANS = (17.2 ± 0.3) Å. PMID:26924466

  2. Fe{sup II} induced mineralogical transformations of ferric oxyhydroxides into magnetite of variable stoichiometry and morphology

    SciTech Connect

    Usman, M.; CNRS, Laboratoire de Chimie Physique et Microbiologie pour l'Environnement, LCPME, UMR 7564, Institut Jean Barriol, CNRS-, 405 rue de Vandoeuvre, 54600 Villers-les-Nancy; Institute of Soil and Environmental Sciences, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad 38040 ; Abdelmoula, M.; CNRS, Laboratoire de Chimie Physique et Microbiologie pour l'Environnement, LCPME, UMR 7564, Institut Jean Barriol, CNRS-, 405 rue de Vandoeuvre, 54600 Villers-les-Nancy ; Hanna, K.; CNRS, Laboratoire de Chimie Physique et Microbiologie pour l'Environnement, LCPME, UMR 7564, Institut Jean Barriol, CNRS-, 405 rue de Vandoeuvre, 54600 Villers-les-Nancy; Ecole Nationale Superieure de Chimie de Rennes, UMR CNRS 6226 'Sciences Chimiques de Rennes', Avenue du General Leclerc, 35708 Rennes Cedex 7 ; and others

    2012-10-15

    The Moessbauer spectroscopy was used to monitor the mineralogical transformations of ferrihydrite (F), lepidocrocite (L) and goethite (G) into magnetite as a function of aging time. Ferric oxyhydroxides were reacted with soluble Fe{sup II} and OH{sup -} in stoichiometric amounts to form magnetite at an initial pH of {approx}9.7. Observed transformation extent into magnetite followed the order: F>L>G with almost 30% of untransformed G after 1 month. The departure from stoichiometry, {delta}, of magnetite (Fe{sub 3-{delta}}O{sub 4}) generated from F ({delta}{approx}0.04) and L ({delta}{approx}0.05) was relatively low as compared to that in magnetite from G ({delta}{approx}0.08). The analysis by transmission electron microscopy and BET revealed that generated magnetite was also different in terms of morphology, particle size and surface area depending on the nature of initial ferric oxyhydroxide. This method of preparation is a possible way to form nano-sized magnetite. - Graphical abstract: Moessbauer spectrum of the early stage of magnetite formation formed from the interaction of adsorbed Fe{sup II} species with goethite. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ferric oxides were reacted with hydroxylated Fe{sup II} to form magnetite. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Magnetite formation was quantified as a function of aging time. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Complete transformation of ferrihydrite and lepidocrocite was achieved. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Almost 70% of initial goethite was transformed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Resulting magnetites have differences in stoichiometry and morphological properties.

  3. In-Situ Study of Gaseous Reduction of Magnetite Doped with Alumina Using High-Temperature XRD Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapelyushin, Yury; Sasaki, Yasushi; Zhang, Jianqiang; Jeong, Sunkwang; Ostrovski, Oleg

    2015-12-01

    The reduction of magnetite of technical grade and magnetite doped with 3 mass pct Al2O3 was studied in situ using high-temperature XRD (HT-XRD) analysis. Magnetite was reduced by CO-CO2 gas (80 vol pct CO) at 1023 K (750 C). Reduction of magnetite doped with alumina occurred from the Fe3O4-FeAl2O4 solid solution which has a miscibility gap with critical temperature of 1133 K (860 C). The degree of reduction of magnetite was derived using Rietveld refinement of the HT-XRD spectra; the compositions of the Fe3O4-FeAl2O4 solid solution and the concentrations of carbon in ?-iron were determined from the lattice constants of the solutions. The reduction of magnetite progressed topochemically with the formation of a dense iron shell. The reduction of alumina-containing magnetite started along certain lattice planes with the formation of a network-like structure. Reduction of alumina-containing magnetite was faster than that of un-doped magnetite; this difference was attributed to the formation of the network-like structure. Hercynite content in the Fe3O4-FeAl2O4 solid solution in the process of reduction of magnetite doped with 3 mass pct Al2O3 increased from 5.11 to 20 mass pct, which is close to the miscibility gap at 1023 K (750 C). The concentration of carbon in ?-Fe (0.76 mass pct) formed in the reduced sample of magnetite doped with 3 mass pct Al2O3 was close to the equilibrium value with 80 vol pct CO to 20 vol pct CO2 gas used in the HT-XRD experiments.

  4. Relationship between altered pyroxene diorite and the magnetite mineralization in the Chilean Iron Belt, with emphasis on the El Algarrobo iron deposits (Atacama region, Chile)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mnard, J.-J.

    1995-06-01

    North of El Algarrobo (one of the four main deposits of the Chilean Iron Belt), the iron-mineralization (magnetite-etrmolite/actinolite-apatite) is related to clinoand orthopyroxene diorite intrusions which have crystallized at shallow depth (4km) under increasing oxygen fugacities. The supercritical fluid phase exsolved during cooling after the consolidation of the plutons (800 900C), results in a H+, Cl- and sodic enrichment, and in the sequential leaching of Fe (at less than 700C), then Ca and Mg (between 600 and 500C) from minerals of the primary magmatic diorite assemblage: titanomagnetite-ilmenite, plagioclase (An70 40), augite, hypersthene. As a consequence of the cationic leaching, the lower mobility of silica and aluminium and the enrichment in sodium, residual altered dioritic rocks present a retromorphic mineral assemblage evolving down to boundary conditions of the greenchist-amphibolite facies (450C). Fe, Mg and Ca are carried in cationic form associated with Cl- anions, toward cooler rocks where they are precipitated. The deposition (between 550 and 450C) of magnetite, followed iron-mineralization paragenesis, and occurred in fractured zones located both in altered diorites and contact andesites.

  5. Influence of synthesis experimental parameters on the formation of magnetite nanoparticles prepared by polyol method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vega-Chacón, Jaime; Picasso, Gino; Avilés-Félix, Luis; Jafelicci, Miguel, Jr.

    2016-03-01

    In this paper we present a modified polyol method for synthesizing magnetite nanoparticles using iron (III) nitrate, a low toxic and cheap precursor salt. The influence of the precursor salt nature and initial ferric concentration in the average particle size and magnetic properties of the obtained nanoparticles were investigated. Magnetite nanoparticles have received much attention due to the multiple uses in the biomedical field; for these purposes nanoparticles with monodisperse size distribution, superparamagnetic behavior and a combination between small average size and high saturation magnetization are required. The polyol conventional method allows synthesizing water-dispersible magnetite nanoparticles with these features employing iron (III) acetylacetonate as precursor salt. Although the particle sizes of samples synthesized from the conventional polyol method (denoted CM) are larger than those of samples synthesized from the modified method (denoted MM), they display similar saturation magnetization. The differences in the nanoparticles average sizes of samples CM and samples MM were explained though the known nanoparticle formation mechanism.

  6. Reordering between tetrahedral and octahedral sites in ultrathin magnetite films grown on MgO(001)

    SciTech Connect

    Bertram, F.; Deiter, C.; Schemme, T.; Jentsch, S.; Wollschlaeger, J.

    2013-05-14

    Magnetite ultrathin films were grown using different deposition rates and substrate temperatures. The structure of these films was studied using (grazing incidence) x-ray diffraction, while their surface structure was characterized by low energy electron diffraction. In addition to that, we performed x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and magneto optic Kerr effect measurements to probe the stoichiometry of the films as well as their magnetic properties. The diffraction peaks of the inverse spinel structure, which originate exclusively from Fe ions on tetrahedral sites are strongly affected by the preparation conditions, while the octahedral sites remain almost unchanged. With both decreasing deposition rate as well as decreasing substrate temperature, the integrated intensity of the diffraction peaks originating exclusively from Fe on tetrahedral sites is decreasing. We propose that the ions usually occupying tetrahedral sites in magnetite are relocated to octahedral vacancies. Ferrimagnetic behaviour is only observed for well ordered magnetite films.

  7. Large-scale exploratory tests of sodium/magnetite-concrete interactions. [LMFBR

    SciTech Connect

    Randich, E.; Acton, R.U.

    1983-04-01

    Two large-scale tests examining the interaction between molten sodium at 825 K and magnetite concrete were performed. In the first test, bare magnetite concrete was exposed to the sodium and in the second test the concrete was partially protected by a flawed steel liner and a layer of dense silica firebrick. The results demonstrated that energetic chemical reactions can occur between sodium and magnetite concrete. In the first test, reaction zone temperatures exceeded 1150 K and the maximum heat generation rate was approx. 1.3 x 10/sup 5/ J/m/sup 2/-s. The maximum observed penetration rate was 2.5 mm/min. In the second test, the silica firebrick provided little protection for the underlying concrete. The reaction debris that formed between the steel liner and the concrete caused gross deformation of the liner as well as extensive cracking of the reinforced concrete.

  8. Progress in the synthesis and characterization of magnetite nanoparticles with amino groups on the surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durdureanu-Angheluta, A.; Dascalu, A.; Fifere, A.; Coroaba, A.; Pricop, L.; Chiriac, H.; Tura, V.; Pinteala, M.; Simionescu, B. C.

    2012-05-01

    This manuscript deals with the synthesis of new hydrophilic magnetite particles by employing a two-step method: in the first step magnetite particles with hydrophobic shell formed in presence of oleic acid-oleylamine complex through a synthesis in mass, without solvent, in a mortar with pestle were obtained; while in the second step the hydrophobic shell was interchanged with an aminosilane monomer. The influence of the Fe2+/Fe3+ molar ratio on the dimension of the particles of high importance for their potential applications was carefully investigated. This paper, also presents an alternative method of synthesis of new core-shell magnetite particles and the complete study of their structure and morphology by FT-IR, XPS, TGA, ESEM and TEM techniques. The rheological properties and magnetization analysis of high importance for magnetic particles were also investigated.

  9. Magnetite nanoparticles coated glass wool for As(V) removal from drinking water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kango, Sarita; Kumar, Rajesh

    2015-08-01

    Arsenic (As) removal from contaminated groundwater is a key environmental concern worldwide. In this study, glass wool was coated with magnetite nanoparticles under argon gas flow and magnetite coated glass wool have been investigated for application as an adsorbent for As(V) removal from water. The adsorbent was characterized by using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and arsenic contaminated water treated with adsorbent was analyzed by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy (ICP-MS). The ICP-MS results showed that 10 g/L of adsorbent removed 99.4% of As(V) within 5 hours at pH-7 and initial arsenic concentration of 360g/L. Adsorption kinetics data fitted well in pseudo-first-order kinetics model with high correlation coefficient (R2 = 0.995). As magnetite nanoparticles coated glass wool showed favorable adsorption behavior for As(V), it can be a promising tool for water purification.

  10. Four decades of paleomagnetic studies of magnetite in carbonate rocks: a history of remagnetizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Der Voo, R.

    2011-12-01

    With the advent of cryogenic magnetometers in the early 1970's, paleomagnetic studies of carbonate rocks became possible and it was quickly established that magnetite generally was the carrier of an ancient remanence in non-red limestones. For about a decade, this magnetite was thought to be detrital, implying that the magnetizations were primary, i.e., dating back to the time of deposition of the strata. Gray Devonian limestones from Ohio, Arizona's Grand Canyon, Arkansas, and New York revealed directions similar to those of Permian rocks in North America, resulting in APWP loops and erroneous large-scale tectonic conclusions about an "Acadia" displaced terrane and Europe-Laurentia reconstructions. However, when syn-folding magnetizations became documented, the prevailing interpretations quickly changed. Remagnetizations became the rule rather than the exception. The carrier was no longer thought to be detrital, and abundant magnetite in the form of spherules and framboids imaged in scanning electron microscopy (SEM) seemed to be the answer to the quest for a growth mechanism of this mineral. In some cases, magnetite could be seen as oxidation rims to Fe-sulfide cores. Also, at about this time, hysteresis parameters of remagnetized carbonates, plotted in Day diagrams, revealed unique patterns, which did not match the parameters measured on individual spherules. Growth of the magnetite from a superparamagnetic size to single- and pseudo-single-domain size is currently the favored mode of occurrence of the magnetite, and some SEM images support this. Important unresolved questions remain, however. Notably, it remains puzzling why the remagnetizations most often appear to have been acquired at the time the nearest orogeny occurred, and what role fluids played in this process.

  11. High stable suspension of magnetite nanoparticles in ethanol by using sono-synthesized nanomagnetite in polyol medium

    SciTech Connect

    Bastami, Tahereh Rohani; Entezari, Mohammad H.

    2013-09-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The sonochemical synthesis of magnetite nanoparticles was carried out in EG without any surfactant. • The nanoparticles with sizes ∼24 nm were composed of small building blocks with sizes ∼2 nm. • The hydrophilic magnetite nanoparticles were stable in ethanol even after 8 months. • Ultrasonic intensity showed a crucial role on the obtained high stable magnetite nanoparticles in ethanol. - Abstract: The sonochemical synthesis of magnetite nanoparticles was carried out at relatively low temperature (80 °C) in ethylene glycol (EG) as a polyol solvent. The particle size was determined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The magnetite nanoparticles with an average size of 24 nm were composed of small building blocks with an average size of 2–3 nm and the particles exhibited nearly spherical shape. The surface characterization was investigated by using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The stability of magnetite nanoparticles was studied in ethanol as a polar solvent. The nanoparticles showed an enhanced stability in ethanol which is due to the hydrophilic surface of the particles. The colloidal stability of magnetite nanoparticles in ethanol was monitored by UV–visible spectrophotometer. According to the results, the nanoparticles synthesized in 30 min of sonication with intensity of 35 W/cm{sup 2} (50%) led to a maximum stability in ethanol as a polar solvent with respect to the other applied intensities. The obtained magnetite nanoparticles were stable for more than12 months.

  12. Magnetic and electronic properties of bimagnetic materials comprising cobalt particles within hollow silica decorated with magnetite nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okada, T.; Gonzlez-Alfaro, Y.; Espinosa, A.; Watanabe, N.; Haeiwa, T.; Sonehara, M.; Mishima, S.; Sato, T.; Muoz-Noval, A.; Aranda, P.; Garcia-Hernndez, M.; Ruiz-Hitzky, E.

    2013-09-01

    Bimagnetic materials were fabricated by decorating the external surface of rattle-type hollow silica microspheres (which themselves contain metallic cobalt nanoparticles) with magnetite nanoparticles; thus, each magnetic substance was spatially isolated by the silica shell. The amount of magnetite decoration on the co-occluded hollow silica was varied from 1 to 17 mass %. Magnetic and electronic properties of the resulting bimagnetic materials were characterized by superconducting quantum interference device measurements and X-ray absorption spectroscopy, respectively. The ferrous iron in the bimagnetic sample was slightly more oxidized than in the magnetite reference, probably from some charge-transfer because of the SiO2 surface contact, although the overall oxidation state of the samples is very similar to that of magnetite. The temperature dependence of the sample magnetization recorded with Zero Field Cooling and Field Cooling resulted in blocking temperatures for the bimagnetic materials that were close to that of magnetite nanoparticles (176 K) and were lower than that for the bare Co-occluded hollow silica (which was above room temperature). Values of coercive force and exchange bias at 300 K became quite small after decoration with only minimal amounts of magnetite nanoparticles (1-3 mass %) and were lower than those of magnetite. This is the first example of enhancing superparamagnetism by spatial separation of both Co and magnetite magnetic nanoparticles using a thin wall of diamagnetic silica.

  13. Arsenate and Arsenite Sorption on Magnetite: Relations to Groundwater Arsenic Treatment Using Zerovalent Iron and Natural Attenuation

    EPA Science Inventory

    Magnetite (Fe3O4) is a zerovalent iron corrosion product; it is also formed in natural soil and sediment. Sorption of arsenate (As(V)) and arsenite (As(III)) on magnetite is an important process of arsenic removal from groundwater using zerovalent iron-based permeable reactive ba...

  14. Domain wall pinning and dislocations: Investigating magnetite deformed under conditions analogous to nature using transmission electron microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindquist, A. K.; Feinberg, J. M.; Harrison, R. J.; Loudon, J. C.; Newell, A. J.

    2015-03-01

    In this study, we deformed samples cut from a single magnetite octahedron and used transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and magnetic measurements to experimentally verify earlier computational models of magnetic domain wall pinning by dislocations and to better understand the nature of dislocations in magnetite. Dislocations in magnetite have been of interest for many decades because they are often cited as a likely source of stable thermoremanent magnetizations in larger multidomain (MD) magnetite grains, so a better understanding of dislocation effects on coercivity in MD magnetite is crucial. TEM imaging shows, for the first time, domain walls sweeping through the magnetite sample and being pinned at dislocations. In agreement with theory, these findings demonstrate that domain walls are more strongly pinned at networks of dislocations than at single dislocations and that domain walls pinned at longer dislocations have higher microcoercivities than those pinned at shorter dislocations. This experimentally illustrates the ability of dislocations to increase the coercivity of larger multidomain magnetite grains. The observed values for microcoercivity and bulk coercivity are in reasonable agreement with theoretical calculations. Burgers vectors were determined for some dislocations to verify that they were in keeping with expected dislocation orientations. The dislocations were found to be primarily located on close-packed {111} planes within the magnetite. Deformation caused only a minor change in bulk coercivity, but first-order reversal curve diagrams show populations with increased coercivity not visible in hysteresis loops.

  15. Quenched magnetite in cretaceous-tertiary boundary microtekite-like spheroid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smit, J.; Kyte, F. T.; Wasson, J. T.

    1984-01-01

    The magnetite containing spheres collected from a kt boundary localities in Italy were analyzed. It was found that these spheres contain relatively high concentrations of Ir. The spheres were analyzed for siderophile elements Ir, Pt, Au, Pd, Os, and Re. Elements Ir, Pt, Pd, and Au were found in high concentrations in magnetic spheres and their concentrations are similar to those in most meteorites. It is suggested that the magnetite spheres do not contain a meteorite component which may be a relic of the kt event.

  16. Fabrication of magnetite-based core-shell coated nanoparticles with antibacterial properties.

    PubMed

    Grumezescu, A M; Cristescu, R; Chifiriuc, M C; Dorcioman, G; Socol, G; Mihailescu, I N; Mihaiescu, D E; Ficai, A; Vasile, O R; Enculescu, M; Chrisey, D B

    2015-01-01

    We report the fabrication of biofunctionalized magnetite core/sodium lauryl sulfate shell/antibiotic adsorption-shell nanoparticles assembled thin coatings by matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation for antibacterial drug-targeted delivery. Magnetite nanoparticles have been synthesized and subsequently characterized by transmission electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction. The obtained thin coatings have been investigated by FTIR and scanning electron microscope, and tested by in vitro biological assays, for their influence on in vitro bacterial biofilm development and cytotoxicity on human epidermoid carcinoma (HEp2) cells. PMID:25797361

  17. Novel protocol for the solid-state synthesis of magnetite for medical practices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paiva, D. L.; Andrade, A. L.; Pereira, M. C.; Fabris, J. D.; Domingues, R. Z.; Alvarenga, M. E.

    2015-06-01

    It is reported a novel approach to prepare nanoparticles of magnetite (Fe3O4) by heating a mixture of synthetic commercial maghemite ( γFe2O3) with sucrose. This solid-state reaction leads to the chemical reduction of part of the Fe3+ of the precursor oxide to render Fe2+ and Fe3+ in octahedral and Fe3+ in tetrahedral sites of the Fe-O coordination framework. Powder X-ray diffraction patterns, FTIR and 298 K Mössbauer spectra confirm the conversion of maghemite into magnetite. Based on these results, the optimal sucrose:maghemite rate was found to be 4.

  18. Magnetic and Mssbauer studies of fucan-coated magnetite nanoparticles for application on antitumoral activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, V. A. J.; Andrade, P. L.; Bustamante, Angel; de los Santos Valladares, L.; Mejia, M.; Souza, I. A.; Cavalcanti, K. P. S.; Silva, M. P. C.; Aguiar, J. Albino

    2014-01-01

    Fucan-coated magnetite (Fe3O4) nanoparticles were synthesized by the co-precipitation method and studied by Mssbauer spectroscopy and magnetic measurements. The sizes of the nanoparticles were 8-9 nm. Magnetization measurements and Mssbauer spectroscopy at 300 K revealed superparamagnetic behavior. The magnetic moment of the Fe3O4 is partly screened by the Fucan coating aggregation. When the magnetite nanoparticles are capped with oleic acid or fucan, reduced particle-particle interaction is observed by Mssbauer and TEM studies. The antitumoral activity of the fucan-coated nanoparticles were tested in Sarcoma 180, showing an effective reduction of the tumor size.

  19. Implicit Reading in Chinese Pure Alexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shan, Chunlei; Zhu, Renjing; Xu, Mingwei; Luo, Benyan; Weng, Xuchu

    2010-01-01

    A number of recent studies have shown that some patients with pure alexia display evidence of implicit access to lexical and semantic information about words that they cannot read explicitly. This phenomenon has not been investigated systematically in Chinese patients. We report here a case study of a Chinese patient who met the criteria for pure

  20. Spinodal decomposition in pure-gauge QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krein, G.

    2005-04-01

    Spinodal decomposition in a model of pure-gauge SU(2) theory that incorporates a deconfinement phase transition is investigated by means of real-time lattice simulations of the fully nonlinear Ginzburg-Landau equation. Results are compared with a Glauber dynamical evolution using Monte Carlo simulations of pure-gauge lattice QCD.

  1. Hybrids, pure cultures, and pure lines: from nineteenth-century biology to twentieth-century genetics.

    PubMed

    Müller-Wille, Staffan

    2007-12-01

    Prompted by recent recognitions of the omnipresence of horizontal gene transfer among microbial species and the associated emphasis on exchange, rather than isolation, as the driving force of evolution, this essay will reflect on hybridization as one of the central concerns of nineteenth-century biology. I will argue that an emphasis on horizontal exchange was already endorsed by 'biology' when it came into being around 1800 and was brought to full fruition with the emergence of genetics in 1900. The true revolution in nineteenth-century life sciences, I maintain, consisted in a fundamental shift in ontology, which eroded the boundaries between individual and species, and allowed biologists to move up and down the scale of organic complexity. Life became a property extending both 'downwards', to the parts that organisms were composed of, as well as 'upwards', to the collective entities constituted by the relations of exchange and interaction that organisms engage in to reproduce. This mode of thinking was crystallized by Gregor Mendel and consolidated in the late nineteenth-century conjunction of biochemistry, microbiology and breeding in agro-industrial settings. This conjunction and its implications are especially exemplified by Wilhelm Johannsen's and Martinus Beijerinck's work on pure lines and cultures. An understanding of the subsequent constraints imposed by the evolutionary synthesis of the twentieth century on models of genetic systems may require us to rethink the history of biology and displace Darwin's theory of natural selection from that history's centre. PMID:18053934

  2. Magnetotactic bacteria form magnetite from a phosphate-rich ferric hydroxide via nanometric ferric (oxyhydr)oxide intermediates

    PubMed Central

    Baumgartner, Jens; Morin, Guillaume; Menguy, Nicolas; Perez Gonzalez, Teresa; Widdrat, Marc; Cosmidis, Julie; Faivre, Damien

    2013-01-01

    The iron oxide mineral magnetite (Fe3O4) is produced by various organisms to exploit magnetic and mechanical properties. Magnetotactic bacteria have become one of the best model organisms for studying magnetite biomineralization, as their genomes are sequenced and tools are available for their genetic manipulation. However, the chemical route by which magnetite is formed intracellularly within the so-called magnetosomes has remained a matter of debate. Here we used X-ray absorption spectroscopy at cryogenic temperatures and transmission electron microscopic imaging techniques to chemically characterize and spatially resolve the mechanism of biomineralization in those microorganisms. We show that magnetite forms through phase transformation from a highly disordered phosphate-rich ferric hydroxide phase, consistent with prokaryotic ferritins, via transient nanometric ferric (oxyhydr)oxide intermediates within the magnetosome organelle. This pathway remarkably resembles recent results on synthetic magnetite formation and bears a high similarity to suggested mineralization mechanisms in higher organisms. PMID:23980143

  3. Current Status of Magnetite-Based Core@Shell Structures for Diagnosis and Therapy in Oncology Short running title: Biomedical Applications of Magnetite@Shell Structures.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Angela Leao; Fabris, Jose Domingos; Domingues, Rosana Zacarias; Pereira, Marcio C

    2015-01-01

    Superparamagnetic iron oxides, as magnetite (Fe3O4) or maghemite (?-Fe2O3), are primary materials with intrinsic properties that enable them, as single components or as special composites, to base advanced techniques in medical clinical practices, as a contrast agent in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), as magnetically-induced hyperthermic heat generator, and as a magnetic guide to locally deliver drugs to specific sites in the human body. An interesting approach to developing nanoplatforms for those applications consists in manufacturing core@shell nanostructures, in which the precursor magnetic iron oxide (usually, magnetite) acts as a core, and an organic, or inorganic compound is used as a shell in a multifunctional composite. In this review, we report the current advances in the use of magnetite-based core@shell nanostructures, including Fe3O4@SiO2 and Fe3O4@polymers, in MRI, magnetic hyperthermia and drug delivery systems for diagnosis and therapy of tumor cells. The development of nanoplatforms for combined therapy and diagnostic (theranostic) is also addressed. PMID:26377654

  4. Determination of the Three-Dimensional Morphology of ALH84001 and Biogenic MV-1 Magnetite: Comparison of Results from Electron Tomography and Classical Transmission Electron Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas-Keprta, K. L.; Clemett, S. J.; Schwartz, C.; Morphew, M.; McIntosh, J. R.; Bazylinski, D. A.; Kirschvink, J. L.; Wentworth, S. J.; McKay, D. S.; Vali, H.; Gibson, E. K., Jr.; Romanek, C. S.

    2004-03-01

    Up to ~25% of magnetites embedded in ALH84001 carbonate disks have morphological and chemical similarities to biogenic MV-1 magnetites. We have proposed that these Martian magnetites can be best explained as the diverse products of biogenic and inorganic processes that operated on early Mars.

  5. Nonuniform Growth of Composite Layer-by-Layer Assembled Coatings via Three-Dimensional Expansion of Hydrophobic Magnetite Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Voronin, Denis V; Grigoriev, Dmitry; Mhwald, Helmuth; Shchukin, Dmitry G; Gorin, Dmitry A

    2015-12-30

    Nanocomposite coatings are promising for a range of practical applications, and layer-by-layer assembly (LbL) is a versatile tool for nanocomposite formation. However, conventional LbL is a quite laborious procedure taking a lot of time to reach a sufficient thickness of the coatings required for practical applications. Herein, we proposed a novel variant of the LbL approach based on the deposition of hydrophilic polyelectrolyte molecules from a polar solvent and hydrophobic magnetite nanoparticles (NPs) from a nonpolar dispersion medium with an intermediate washing in the same polar solvent. The composite multilayers formed in this way exhibit exponential growth of the thickness and mass. On the basis of quartz crystal microbalance (QCM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and surface profile measurements, we propose a model describing the driving force of multilayer formation and the factors leading to nonlinear growth of their mass and thickness. The results allow one to expand the understanding of the mechanism of the LbL assembly in order to form multifunctional nanocomposites in a more efficient way. PMID:26647922

  6. MamO Is a Repurposed Serine Protease that Promotes Magnetite Biomineralization through Direct Transition Metal Binding in Magnetotactic Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Hershey, David M.; Ren, Xuefeng; Melnyk, Ryan A.; Browne, Patrick J.; Ozyamak, Ertan; Jones, Stephanie R.; Chang, Michelle C. Y.; Hurley, James H.; Komeili, Arash

    2016-01-01

    Many living organisms transform inorganic atoms into highly ordered crystalline materials. An elegant example of such biomineralization processes is the production of nano-scale magnetic crystals in magnetotactic bacteria. Previous studies implicated the involvement of two putative serine proteases, MamE and MamO, during the early stages of magnetite formation in Magnetospirillum magneticum AMB-1. Here, using genetic analysis and X-ray crystallography, we show that MamO has a degenerate active site, rendering it incapable of protease activity. Instead, MamO promotes magnetosome formation through two genetically distinct, noncatalytic activities: activation of MamE-dependent proteolysis of biomineralization factors and direct binding to transition metal ions. By solving the structure of the protease domain bound to a metal ion, we identify a surface-exposed di-histidine motif in MamO that contributes to metal binding and show that it is required to initiate biomineralization in vivo. Finally, we find that pseudoproteases are widespread in magnetotactic bacteria and that they have evolved independently in three separate taxa. Our results highlight the versatility of protein scaffolds in accommodating new biochemical activities and provide unprecedented insight into the earliest stages of biomineralization. PMID:26981620

  7. Methane production from hydrothermal transformation of siderite to magnetite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muratbayev, T.; Schroeder, C.; Kappler, A.; Haderlein, S.

    2012-12-01

    Mumma et al. (2009) observed a methane (CH4) plume above the Nili Fossae region on Mars, a region rich in carbonate minerals. Morris et al. (2010) suggest this to be (Mg,Fe)-carbonate. McCollom (2003) demonstrated that the hydrothermal transformation of siderite (FeCO3), to magnetite (Fe3O4) produces CH4. This reaction may thus contribute to the formation of methane on Mars, but is also relevant in the context of such diverse topics as diagenesis of Precambrian banded iron formations, sources of prebiotic organic compounds on early Earth, oil and gas accumulations in Earth's crust, or geological sequestration and storage of CO2. However, neither the thermodynamics of this reaction nor the conditions of maximum CH4 yield have been investigated to date. In order to estimate how pressure and temperature influence CH4 yield we derived a thermodynamic model with a numerical solution implemented in MATLAB. We used the equation 12FeCO3 + 2H2O → 4Fe3O4 + 11CO2 + CH4 (Frost et al. 2007) and thermodynamic calculations of the stability field of FeCO3 by Thoms-Keprta et al. (2009) as a template. At 1 bar pressure, the Gibbs energy turns negative (favorable reaction conditions) at a temperature of 200°C. Increasing pressure to 1000 bar changes that temperature to 250°C. An increase in temperature has a larger effect on shifting the Gibbs energy to more negative values. We therefore chose ambient pressure and temperatures of 300°C, 400°C, and 500°C as experimental conditions. We added 100 mg of either natural or synthetic FeCO3 and 25 μL of MilliQ water into long tip Pasteur pipettes inside an anoxic glove box to avoid contamination by free oxygen. The Pasteur pipettes were sealed with butyl stoppers and then melted shut outside of the glove box. The glass capsules were heated for 48 hours in a muffle furnace at 300°C, 400 0C or 5000C. The composition of the gas phase and the formation of methane in particular were analyzed using gas chromatography with a flame ionization detector. We used Mössbauer spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence, and scanning electron microscopy with Energy-Dispersive X-ray spectroscopy to investigate changes in the solid phase. Synthetic FeCO3 was completely transformed to Fe3O4 and sometimes the further oxidized phases maghemite (γ-Fe2O3) and hematite (α-Fe2O3). Natural FeCO3 was not completely transformed, which can be explained by its larger particle size and therefore reduced reactivity. Methane yield was consequently higher from synthetic siderite. Our results show that hydrothermal activity invoked by either impact or volcanic activity could have transformed siderite and thereby released at least some of the CH4 observed on Mars. On Earth, long-term underground storage of CO2 as carbonate minerals has to avoid hydrothermal conditions. Otherwise not only CO2 will be released again, but some of it will potentially be transformed into the more potent greenhouse gas methane. References Frost et al., Contrib. Mineral. Pet. 153 (2006) 211; McCollom, Geochim. Cosmochim. Ac. 67 (2003) 311; Morris et al., Science 329 (2010), 421; Mumma et al., Science 323 (2009) 1041; Thomas-Keprta et al., Geochim. Cosmochim. Ac. 73 (2009) 6631, EA-4

  8. Adsorption and kinetic studies of seven different organic dyes onto magnetite nanoparticles loaded tea waste and removal of them from wastewater samples.

    PubMed

    Madrakian, Tayyebeh; Afkhami, Abbas; Ahmadi, Mazaher

    2012-12-01

    Adsorption of seven different organic dyes from aqueous solutions onto magnetite nanoparticles loaded tea waste (MNLTW) was studied. MNLTW was prepared via a simple method and was fully characterized. The properties of this magnetic adsorbent were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Adsorption characteristics of the MNLTW adsorbent was examined using Janus green, methylene blue, thionine, crystal violet, Congo red, neutral red and reactive blue 19 as adsorbates. Dyes adsorption process was thoroughly studied from both kinetic and equilibrium points of view for all adsorbents. The experimental isotherm data were analyzed using Langmuir, Freundlich, Sips, Redlich-Peterson, Brouers-Sotolongo and Temkin isotherms. The results from Langmuir isotherm indicated that the capacity of MNLTW for the adsorption of cationic dyes was higher than that for anionic dyes. The adsorption kinetics was tested for the pseudo-first order and pseudo-second order kinetic models at different experimental conditions. PMID:23058993

  9. Adsorption and kinetic studies of seven different organic dyes onto magnetite nanoparticles loaded tea waste and removal of them from wastewater samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madrakian, Tayyebeh; Afkhami, Abbas; Ahmadi, Mazaher

    2012-12-01

    Adsorption of seven different organic dyes from aqueous solutions onto magnetite nanoparticles loaded tea waste (MNLTW) was studied. MNLTW was prepared via a simple method and was fully characterized. The properties of this magnetic adsorbent were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Adsorption characteristics of the MNLTW adsorbent was examined using Janus green, methylene blue, thionine, crystal violet, Congo red, neutral red and reactive blue 19 as adsorbates. Dyes adsorption process was thoroughly studied from both kinetic and equilibrium points of view for all adsorbents. The experimental isotherm data were analyzed using Langmuir, Freundlich, Sips, Redlich-Peterson, Brouers-Sotolongo and Temkin isotherms. The results from Langmuir isotherm indicated that the capacity of MNLTW for the adsorption of cationic dyes was higher than that for anionic dyes. The adsorption kinetics was tested for the pseudo-first order and pseudo-second order kinetic models at different experimental conditions.

  10. Magnetite nanoparticles facilitate methane production from ethanol via acting as electron acceptors

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Zhiman; Shi, Xiaoshuang; Wang, Chuanshui; Wang, Lin; Guo, Rongbo

    2015-01-01

    Potential for interspecies hydrogen transfer within paddy soil enrichments obtained via addition of magnetite nanoparticles and ethanol (named as PEM) was investigated. To do this, PEM derived from rice field of Hangzhou (named as PEM-HZ) was employed, because it offered the best methane production performance. Methane production and Fe (III) reduction proceeded in parallel in the presence of magnetite. Inhibition experiments with 2-bromoethane sulfonate (BES) or phosphate showed that interspecies hydrogen transfer and Fe (III) reduction also occurred in methane production from ethanol. 16S rRNA-based Illumina sequencing results showed that Dechloromonas, Thauera, Desulfovibrio and Clostridium were the dominant putative Fe (III) -reducers, and that hydrogenotrophic Methanobacterium accounted for about 88% of the total archaeal community. These results indicated that magnetite nanoparticles that acted as electron acceptor could facilitate rapid oxidation of ethanol by members of the Fe (III) -reducers in PEM-HZ and establishment of the syntrophic relationship of Fe (III) -reducers with Methanobacterium via interspecies hydrogen transfer. Our results could offer a model to understand the microbial interaction with magnetite from a novel angle during methanogenesis. PMID:26559132

  11. Synthesis of superparamagnetic silica-coated magnetite nanoparticles for biomedical applications

    SciTech Connect

    Kaur, Navjot Chudasama, Bhupendra

    2015-05-15

    Multifunctional superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) coated with silica are widely researched for biomedical applications such as magnetic resonance imaging, tissue repair, cell separation, hyperthermia, drug delivery, etc. In this article synthesis of magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}) nanoparticles and their coating with SiO{sub 2} is reported. Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles were synthesized by chemical co-precipitation and it was coated with silica by hydrolysis and condensation of tetraethylorthosilicate. XRD, FTIR, TEM and VSM techniques were used to characterize bare and coated nanoparticles. Results indicated that the average size of SPIONS was 8.4 nm. X-ray diffraction patterns of silica coated SPIONS were identical to that of SPIONS confirming the inner spinal structure of SPIONS. FTIR results confirmed the binding of silica with the magnetite and the formation of the silica shell around the magnetite core. Magnetic properties of SPIONS and silica coated SPIONS are determined by VSM. They are superparamagnetic. The major conclusion drawn from this study is that the synthesis route yields stable, non-aggregated magnetite-silica core-shell nanostructures with tailored morphology and excellent magnetic properties.

  12. Re-Examination of Anomalous I-Xe Ages: Orgueil and Murchison Magnetites and Allegan Feldspar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hohenberg, Charles M.; Pravdivtseva, Olga V.; Meshik, Alex P.

    2000-01-01

    Old I-Xe age for Orgueil (and Murchison) magnetite is not confirmed. New results show closure 2.8 Ma after Shallowater/Bjurbole standard, 10.3 Ma later than previously reported. The anomalously old I-Xe age of Allegan feldspar is attributed to shock.

  13. Sorptive uptake of selenium with magnetite and its supported materials onto activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Jae H; Wilson, Lee D; Sammynaiken, R

    2015-11-01

    Kinetic and equilibrium uptake studies of selenite in aqueous solution with synthetic magnetite (Mag-P), commercial magnetite (Mag-C), goethite, activated carbon (AC), and a composite material containing 19% magnetite supported on activated carbon (CM-19) were investigated. Kinetic uptake studies used a one-pot setup at pH 5.26 at variable temperature. Sampling of unbound selenite in-situ was achieved with analytical detection by atomic absorbance. The sorptive uptake at equilibrium and kinetic conditions are listed in descending order: goethite>Mag-P>Mag-C>CM-19. Kinetic uptake parameters reveal that Mag-P showed apparent negative values for the activation energy (E(a)) and the enthalpy of activation (?H()), in agreement with a multi-step process for the kinetic uptake of selenite. By contrast, Mag-C, CM-19, and goethite showed positive values for E(a) and ?H(). The uptake properties of the various sorbent materials with selenite are in accordance with the formation of inner- and out-sphere complexes. Leaching of iron from the composite material (CM-19) was attenuated due to the stabilizing effect of the magnetite within the pore sites and the surface of AC. Supported iron oxide nanomaterial composites represent a unique sorbent material with tunable uptake properties toward inorganic selenite in aqueous solution. PMID:26226648

  14. Uranium (VI) recovery from aqueous medium using novel floating macroporous alginate-agarose-magnetite cryobeads.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, Anuj; Melo, Jose Savio; D'Souza, Stanislaus Francis

    2013-02-15

    This study presents a novel development of a floating polymeric-magnetite cryobead for the recovery of hexavalent uranium from the aqueous sub-surfaces. The alginate-agarose-magnetite cryobeads were synthesized by the process of cryotropic-gelation at subzero-temperature. The physico-chemical properties of cryobeads showed high surface area and high interconnected porosity (≈ 90%). Low density of these cryobeads explains their floating property in the aqueous medium. The rheological analysis of cryobeads showed its stability and increased stiffness after uranium adsorption. The presence of magnetite nanoparticles in the porous cryobeads facilitates the recovery of these beads by applying an external magnetic field. Maximum uranium adsorption (97 ± 2%) was observed in the pH range of 4.5-5.5. The thermodynamic parameters suggest passive endothermic adsorption behaviour. HCl was found to be an efficient eluent for the uranium desorption. Five repeated cycles for the desorption of uranium from biosorbent showed 69 ± 3% of uranium recovery. These results suggest stability of these novel floating magnetite-cryobeads under environmental conditions with potential for the recovery of uranium from contaminated aqueous subsurfaces. PMID:23280054

  15. Magnetite nanoparticles facilitate methane production from ethanol via acting as electron acceptors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zhiman; Shi, Xiaoshuang; Wang, Chuanshui; Wang, Lin; Guo, Rongbo

    2015-11-01

    Potential for interspecies hydrogen transfer within paddy soil enrichments obtained via addition of magnetite nanoparticles and ethanol (named as PEM) was investigated. To do this, PEM derived from rice field of Hangzhou (named as PEM-HZ) was employed, because it offered the best methane production performance. Methane production and Fe (III) reduction proceeded in parallel in the presence of magnetite. Inhibition experiments with 2-bromoethane sulfonate (BES) or phosphate showed that interspecies hydrogen transfer and Fe (III) reduction also occurred in methane production from ethanol. 16S rRNA-based Illumina sequencing results showed that Dechloromonas, Thauera, Desulfovibrio and Clostridium were the dominant putative Fe (III) -reducers, and that hydrogenotrophic Methanobacterium accounted for about 88% of the total archaeal community. These results indicated that magnetite nanoparticles that acted as electron acceptor could facilitate rapid oxidation of ethanol by members of the Fe (III) -reducers in PEM-HZ and establishment of the syntrophic relationship of Fe (III) -reducers with Methanobacterium via interspecies hydrogen transfer. Our results could offer a model to understand the microbial interaction with magnetite from a novel angle during methanogenesis.

  16. Investigations on the interactions of proteins with polyampholyte-coated magnetite nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Tao; Chen, Kaimin; Gu, Hongchen

    2013-11-14

    Magnetite nanoparticles have been widely used in biomedical applications, especially as contrast agents in magnetic resonance imaging. In this work, the antifouling property of polyampholyte-coating (poly(acrylic acid) (PAA)-co-3-(diethylamino)-propylamine (DEAPA)) is systematically demonstrated. Polyampholyte-coated magnetite nanoparticles (NP1) and PAA-coated magnetite nanoparticles (NP2) were synthesized to investigate their interactions with BSA and lysozyme (LYZ) by high-resolution turbidimetric titration, dynamic light scattering (DLS), and isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) in phosphate buffer saline (PBS) buffer with pH 7.4. The abundant carboxyl groups of NP2 and polyampholyte coating of NP1 were well proven by TGA, ?-potential, and titration methods. Turbidity change shows that NP1 have no interaction with both proteins other than NP2 having adsorption with LYZ, which was further confirmed by DLS. Besides, ITC gives the exact enthalpy change and unveils the binding stoichiometry for each interaction. All characterizations demonstrate the antifouling property of NP1 to both negatively charged protein BSA and positively charged protein LYZ. The polyampholyte-coated magnetite nanoparticles were shown to be a promising material to eliminate the strong interaction with proteins in complex medium, for example, when it is applied for MRA contrast agents with long in vivo circulation time. PMID:24063374

  17. Synthesis of superparamagnetic silica-coated magnetite nanoparticles for biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaur, Navjot; Chudasama, Bhupendra

    2015-05-01

    Multifunctional superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) coated with silica are widely researched for biomedical applications such as magnetic resonance imaging, tissue repair, cell separation, hyperthermia, drug delivery, etc. In this article synthesis of magnetite (Fe3O4) nanoparticles and their coating with SiO2 is reported. Fe3O4 nanoparticles were synthesized by chemical co-precipitation and it was coated with silica by hydrolysis and condensation of tetraethylorthosilicate. XRD, FTIR, TEM and VSM techniques were used to characterize bare and coated nanoparticles. Results indicated that the average size of SPIONS was 8.4 nm. X-ray diffraction patterns of silica coated SPIONS were identical to that of SPIONS confirming the inner spinal structure of SPIONS. FTIR results confirmed the binding of silica with the magnetite and the formation of the silica shell around the magnetite core. Magnetic properties of SPIONS and silica coated SPIONS are determined by VSM. They are superparamagnetic. The major conclusion drawn from this study is that the synthesis route yields stable, non-aggregated magnetite-silica core-shell nanostructures with tailored morphology and excellent magnetic properties.